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Full text of "The National cyclopedia of the colored race;"



University of California Berkeley 



THE THOMAS J. READY JR. FAMILY FUND 





JOtattonal Cpclopebta 

of 

Coloretr 





Editor-in-Chief 

CLEMENT RICHARDSON 

President of Lincoln Institute 
Jefferson City, Mo. 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Dr. C. V. ROMAN, Nashville, Tenn. 

Professor of Meharry Medical College. 

W. T. B. WILLIAMS, Hampton Institute, Va. 

Field Agent of the Jeannes and Slater Funds. 

II. M. MINTON, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Board of Directors Mercy Hospital. 

SILAS X. FLOYD, Augusta, Ga. 
Principal of City Schools. 

DR. R. E. JONES, New Orleans, La. 

Editor of South Western Christian Advocate. 

DR. A. F. OWENS, Selma, Ala. 

Dean of Theological Dept. Selma University. 

FRED MOORE, New York City. 
Editor New York Age. 



ADVISORY BOARD 

EMMETT J. SCOTT, Chairman, 

Secretary of Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegce 

Institute, Ala. 

N. B. YOUNG, Tallahassee, Fla. 
President of A. and M. College. 

DR. J. W. E. BOWEN, Atlanta, Ga. 

Dean of Gammon Theological Seminary. 

J. R. E. LEE, Kansas City, Mo. 

Principal of Lincoln High School. 

J. S. CLARK, Baton Route, La. 

President of Southern University. 

DR. M. W. DOGAN, Marshall, Texas. 
President of Wiley University. 



Volume One 



NATIONAL PUBLISHING COMPANY, Inc. 

PUBLISHERS 

MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA 
1919 



COPYRIGHT 1919 

NATIONAL PUBLISHING CO., Inc. 

MONTGOMERY, ALA. 



i B a ( 



1 
1 



I 






1 




iiiia iii maiiiiBi'iiB 1 ^ 

BOOKER TALIAFERRO WASHINGTON, M. A. LL. D. 



Foreword 




OR the past 20 yearn Negroes have been coming to the front so 
rapidly that to list all whose names should appear in a work of 
this kind would, I know, be impossible. As it is true of names 
and biographies, so is it true of the general data concerning the Negro 
race. Almost daily something happens or some new development in 
the race records itself as monumental and historical. All of this, I 
know the Editors cannot record; yet I am thoroughly convinced, from 
what I have seen of the Cyclopedia of the Colored Race, that this 
book will be of inestimable good to both the white people and the black 
people of America. 

It will be of service to the white people because it is the one work 
which gives a comprehensive knowledge of the Negro race, past and 
present. 

It will be of great service to the Negro for two reasons. In the 
first place it will be an advocate pleading his cause by setting forth 
his achievements under the most trying circumstances. It will show 
to the world that the American Negro is worthy not only of what he 
has achieved, but of an open door to much greater achievements and 
much kindlier treatment. 

In the second place it will teach the Negro more about himself. 
No Race, white or black, can get very far as a race or as individuals 
without a goodly amount of self-respect and -race pride. Every 
biography, the story of every kind of property ownership, of a bank 
or store, owned and operated properly, will be a source of great inspi 
ration to Negroes old and young. Were there no other reason, this 
one of valuable racial inspiration would more than justify the hard 
labor and careful thought that the publishers and editors have put 
into this work. 

Finally the public can rely upon the honesty and integrity of the 
men whose names appear as editors of the Cyclopedia. Here and 
there these men may err in fact, but in principle I do not believe there 
is a man on the list who can be doubted. I know all of them per 
sonally, a good many of them intimately. The editor in chief, Mr. 
Clement Richardson, his chief advisor Mr. E. J. Scott, Mr. J. R. E. 
Lee, Mr. N. B. Young, are all men who have rendered years of most 
valuable services on the staff at Tuskegee Institute. 

I commend this book highly to all Americans, with the hope that 
a perusal of it will bring a better understanding and a warmer spirit 
of friendship and inspiration, to both races. 




Principal Tuskegee Institute 



PREFACE 




Cyclopedia of the Negro race 
should, it seems to me, have 
two purposes to inform and 
to inspire. The ordinary work 
of the kind has merely the task 
to inform. The inspiration 
story, the tale of struggle and achievement, is 
attended to by the daily paper, the magazine, 
the technical journal and the photographer. 
Hut the only sure hope that the black Ameri 
can can entertain for immediate notice comes 
through committing crime. The black man 
who assails a hen roost, one who perpetrates a 
blind tiger or commits even more revolting 
crimes is pretty certain of a big headline and 
several pages in the daily news, while he who 
pays his taxes, supports his family and lays 
away a few shekels or invests in land, houses 
or brain power, passes on unheralded. 

Let the task of this work be to inform of 
the good deeds. Rapidly the Negro himself is 
casting out the discriminating hook, with the 
label, "Who is he?" written in pretty bold let 
ters. Good deeds, a life of service, have come 
to be a passport required among groups of col 
ored Americans as well as among groups of 
other people. 

We have still also our weakness toward 
education. We like the diploma on the wall, 
the cap and gown, the enriching memories of 
college days. He, therefore, who would make 
his place in various groups must carry the 
stamp of merit in cultivation of intellect, in the 
acquisition of wealth, in deeds of good for the 
betterment of his people. 

Therein does the Clyclopedia hope to fill 
what assuredly appears to be a crying need. 
Negroes over the country do not know one an 
other, neither do the white Americans know 
what their darker countrymen are doing to 
make a stronger and nobler race and to make 
of all wholesome citizens. 

As a rule, however, we cannot accomplish 
the end of this undertaking by cataloging a 
few dry, abstract facts. Thus to set down 
"John Smith, born 1884, proprietor of a drug 
store, candidate for Grand Secretary of K. 
P." and so on, would not, though thoroughly 
informing, give all that we want the Negro 
school boy and the Negro school girl to find 



A\ hen they go to search for our names in the 
Cyclopedia. We want them to look there, 
both young and old, to find a brief succinct 
story, one that while it informs, gives some 
measure of the man, some measure of the char 
acter he developed while becoming the pro 
prietor of a drug store, or candidate for Grand 
Secretary. Here is the editor of a Negro pa 
per. How did he get his education in gen 
eral? How did he get his particular training 
for the craft? How many nights, as Horace 
Greely put it, did he "sleep on paper and eat 
ink" or support his family on unpaid sub 
scriptions? In other words, we want the Ne 
gro boy to feel inspired, to come away with a 
thrill: we want the older Negro to feel that 
he is among a great galaxy of black folk, great 
because of character, of education, of good 
ness. 

Thanks to the breaking of a new day, we 
now have a great many friends who are gen 
uinely interested in our progress. They want 
to see what the black folks have done; to see 
the fruit of their labor on the one hand and to 
uphold the black man's cause to those who still 
doubt, or who alas ! simply do not know. 

As we feel about the person so we feel about 
the organization, the institution. Here is a 
big Negro church whose night classes, rest 
rooms and the like owe their existence to the 
poor mothers who sweat over the wash tub: A 
Negro school whose first master likely as not 
taught in the rain, or waded through water 
and mud to reach his classes. Here again i c 
a Negro bank, whose first president begged 
deposits from door to door: A big Negro far 
mer and land owner, who once grubbed his 
soil or chopped wood by the light of a pine 
torch: a Negro publisher who once was class 
ed a little above a tramp: A Negro insurance 
man, who was once a cook: A big Negro physi 
cian who came from the farm or from the 
ranks of the hotel waiters. It is this we would 
chronicle, not of course that it may be known 
merely, but that there may be more and bet 
ter banks, holier churches, finer schools, big 
ger farmers, a larger number forging forward 
from the ranks typifying the best in the race. 

To have undertaken a task of this kind was, 
in the eyes of many, to pursue a course of rash- 



ness, if not madness. The territory, it was 
th.mght, was far too wide. The task of se 
lecting and rejecting was too nice and too haz 
ardous. To do even a reasonable amount of 
justice to all deserving persons was impossible. 
And so why risk so much? 

Now, the remarkable feature of all this is, 
that those who made these objections were cor 
rect. Indeed, each point in itself is sufficient 
to retard one from undertaking the task. Yet, 
there was, and is, at least an equal weight on 
the side that here is an opportunity to render 
good service, service of help on the one hand 
and of enlightenment on the other. To sit by 
and let slip so fair an occasion merely because 
of fear per se, or because of fear of failure 
seemed as criminal as to try and even fail. 

The men whose lives are here sketched, the 
Institutions and Organizations here represent 
ed, by no means exhaust the list. In fact, sume 
of the most thrilling tales of struggle and con 
quest of both men and Organizations are, for 
one reason or another, not here at all. It is 
doubtful, in many instances, if they can be se 
cured. Indifference to fame, a shrinking 
from publicity, intense engagement in one kind 
of work or another, all conspire to with-hold 
the desired information from the public. 

The Editor has drawn freely from the wj-it- 
ings of others. Just what particular work he 
is most indebted to, he is at a loss to say. He 
has consulted most printed matter on Negroes. 
He is therefore grateful to Negro Magazine 
Editors, Negro News Paper Editors, and to 
all Authors of books bearing on Negro people. 
If there has been any purloining, such has not 
been done through any wish to arrogate knowl 
edge or talent, but with the full desire, border 
ing, it is hoped, upon enthusiasm, to send 
abroad the good news and glad tidings that the 
people for whom so many good tempers have 



been spoiled, and for whom so much blood has 
been shed, are not being redeemed in vain. 

One of the happiest phases of the endeavor, 
both to the publishers and to the Editor, has 
been the quick and hearty response accorded 
by the leading Negroes and those White peo 
ple interested in Negroes throughout the 
country. This was particularly true of pro 
fessional and thinking men of the race; 
of the Ministers, of the Doctors, of the 
Editors, and of up-lift workers. So numerous 
are these that to name them is impossible. 
Again, the leading schools for Negroes, wheth 
er in the hands of Colored people or White, 
have given an encouragement, without which 
the work could hardly have progressed. Tus- 
kegee, Fisk, Spelman, and scores of other sach 
Institutions gave their backing in every sense 
un reservedly. 

Two men must be spoken of, else this Cy 
clopedia had not been Dr. R. R. Moton and 
Hon. Emett J. Scott. The former was com 
ing into the principalship of Tuskegee Insti 
tute at the inception of this work. Without 
question, without hesitation, he not only gave 
his endorsement, but took the occasion when 
ever approached to commend the undertaking, 
an act wholly in keeping with the known gen 
erous traits of Dr. Moton. Upon the latter 
should have devolved the editing of this work. 
While he occupies the place of Chairman of 
the Advisory Board, Mr. Scott is, as a matter 
of fact, in many ways the Cyclopedia's spon 
sor. His exceeding wide contact, his host of 
warm personal friends everywhere, made for 
the Editor and the Publishers a rose covered 
path, which might otherwise have been one 
strewn with gravel, if not with thorns. 
CLEMENT RICHARDSON, 

Lincoln Institute, 
Jefferson Citv, Mo., Nov. loth, 1918. 



Booker Taliaferro Washington, M. A. LL. D. 




OOKER T. WASHINGTON, a 
model of efficiency, was born 
a slave but he lived to absorb 
so much of the white man's 
civilization that he taught not 
only Negroes by a new method, 
but had his method adopted by white men 
as well. Dr. Washington attended Hampton 
Institute, earning his way as he went. In 
deed all that Dr. Washington had as a start for 
his most remarkable career, was a determination 
to better himself and his people. He lived to 
found and serve till it was fully established with 
no possible chance of failure, the largest institution 
for Negroes in the world Tuskegee Institute. 
This school has become a model for schools in all 
parts of the world. Dr. Washington also founded 
the National Negro Business League, The Inter 
national Race Congress, and was instrumental in 
the founding of the Southern Education Board. 

He was honored by Harvard University with the 
degree of Master of Arts and was given the degree 
of LL. D. by Dartmouth. In addition to these he 
was given honary degrees by a number of the 
leading Eastern and Southern Colleges. This was 
done as a recognition of his work. Dr. Washing 
ton never ceased to study, he studied at home, on 
the trains, on the long trips through the country. 
He was as close a student of books as he was of 
men. His judgments of men and things are brought 
out clearly in the many books and periodicals of 
which he is the author. 

Booker T. Washington who died at his home 
early Sunday morning, Nov. 14, 1915, was a big 
man out in the world ; he was a bigger man at 
home among his teachers. The world knew him for 
his eloquence, his homely wit, his tact, his shrewd 
diplomacy. We knew him at home for his broad 
sympathies, for his kindness, his attention to little 
things, his infinite power of planning and work 
ing. His two last acts, one abroad and one at 
home, are strikingly significant of his balanced 
life. His last act before the world was to make a 
journey to deliver an address. His last act at home 
was to repair an old board fence which he had un 
wittingly ordered torn down. 

At home or abroad he was never too big for even 
the humblest man to approach. Indeed he had a 
sort of craze for bringing together the rude illit 
erate and the more cultivated members of his race. 
He liked to assemble the rude black farmer, the 
school teacher, the lawyer and the business man. 
He had a fondness for stopping the half illiterate 
preacher, for getting such in his office and looking 
into their minds. An oldtime mamniv, or an old, old 



Negro farmer in his audiences seemed to inspire 
him more than the richest and most distinguished. 
He always rushed, as it were, into the arms of such 
at. the closing of his big meetings. Probably no 
single organization with which he ever had connec 
tion gave him quite the genuine satisfaction he got 
from the Annual Farmers' Conference. He de 
lighted to banter these old fellows, to listen to 
their rude speeches and homely sayings. Many of 
his own stories and anecdotes sprang out of these 
meetings. 

But he was no mere stag acquaintance. He wel 
comed all such to his fireside, to his office, his pre 
cious time, his helping hand, the mother protesting 
that her child did not make a class high enough, 
the student smarting under some misunderstanding 
with a teacher, the white banker or white farmer 
wishing to transact business all had free access 
to him. To be sure he kept a closed office, but this 
was to gain dispatch, not to exclude. It was no 
uncommon sight to find a vagrant Negro preacher, 
a distinguished visitor, a Negro farmer, a teacher 
or two, and a few students all waiting to see him. 
. Reports say that the doctors wondered how he 
lived so long. The more is the marvel when one 
thinks of the burdens he bore. Having to raise 
thousands of dollars to provide food, heat, com 
fortable lodgings for 1500 students, he neverthe 
less kept his finger on the smallest details. Now he 
was dictating a letter asking for funds, the next 
moment he would be summoning a workman or 
dictating a note about the weeds in a plot of 
ground, about a hedge, or a broken window pane. 
One moment he would be dictating a speech for 
some national occasion, the next he would be ad 
vising a means of disposing of "old Mollie," one 
of the cows of the dairy herd, or "old Phil," a lame 
mule. So it was with the eggs and chickens from 
the poultry yard, the sweU potatoes, the peaches, 
the corn, oats, pigs, the power plant, the lighting 
system, the way a new teacher was conducting a 
class in arithmetic or grammar. And this thing 
he kept up from day to day, whether he was in 
New York or Alabama. I myself have again and 
again, during the seven years in which I have had 
charge of the English work at Tuskegee Institute 
gotten notes making suggestions about a paragraph 
or a sentence in some student's talk or commence 
ment address. 

There was only one way under the sun he could 
do this. He regulated his life to the very second. 
He husbanded time most miserly, though he was 
prodigal with his energies. He had breakfasted 
and was out on horseback by 7:30 (he fancied the 
big iron gray pacer). His hour's ride was in a 



Sense recreative ; in another sense, it was work : 
for he inspected the farm, the orchard, the shops, 
the school's supplies, taking notes and giving di 
rection. If he rode out into the country, he usually 
returned with suggestions about a torn-off blind 
on a Negro church or the neglected garden of a 
Negro schoolhouse. All the time he was stopping 
teachers and workmen by the way, giving them 
new tasks, requesting them to come to his office 
at a certain hour. 

By half past eight he was in his office. For a 
certain time he read and dictated letters. In the 
meantime the office boys were flying over the 
grounds and ringing the telephone bells, summon 
ing Council members, the heads of departments, to 
a committee meeting, a meeting on the budget, on 
Commencement, on a new building, on the actions 
of a student or a teacher. Up to the last second 
he would keep his mind fixed on his reading or 
correspondence. He then took up the business in 
hand, dispensed with it and went back to an article 
on teaching or on Negro homes or Negro business. 
If he was slated to make a trip in a buggy or car 
he kept his work until the clock was on the second. 
Then he stepped into the conveyance and was gone. 
Woe unto him who brought a slow vehicle. Even 
so he would be at work. Between one stop and 
another on a speaking tour he would sketch a half 
dozen plans for articles, for grading a lawn, for 
remodeling a building, for rendering somebody a 
service. Always and everywhere his plans incul 
cated this to serve somebody, to make somebody 
happier. It might be by giving a body something ; 
it was most often by giving one something to do. 

This having things to hand, which to some minds, 
might appear at times extravagant was the very 
essence of his efficiency, as it is of any man's effi 
ciency. The change of clothing was usually ready 
to hand. He had push bells and telephones in his 
office, and push bells and telephones in his study 
at home. Wherever and whenever he went about 
the grounds an office boy, sometimes a stenograph 
er, followed at his elbow to summon a workman or 
to take down a note on some weak point in work 
manship. His pet diversion was hunting. In the 
fall he would frequently steal an hour and run out 
to the woods. To save time he kept a hunting out 
fit, gun cartridges, etc., at his home and one at 
the work place of the young man who usually ac 
companied him, so that whenever the hunting time 
came he would not loose an hour in getting ready. 
To some this would be extravagance. To one 
whose time is precious it is the highest economy. 

With this practice of having things to hand he 
coupled the habit of doing the thing then. His key 
word was "AT ONCE." Alas! how often Tus- 
kegee teachers have seen that notice: Mr - 
will see the Principal "at once." The enr;-igemen1 



might not last one third the time it required you 
to walk to the office ; but he attended to *he thing 
there. The errand boy gets the workman there. 
The stenographer took down the note on the spot. 
He went hunting then; he mr.de his address then; 
he signed his letters then. Each minute in i.he 
day seemed to have been for him an individual par 
ticle, to be dealt with and settled by the time the 
next one ticked around. For the last year or so 
he pushed this habit to the extreme, calling for 
teachers, workmen, council members, who were 
the advisory board, at midnight, at daybreak, at 
the meal hour. Several times Mrs. Washington 
protested, seeking to restrain him. With the genius 
of premonition he would exclaim, "Let me alone. 
Let me do it now. I don't know where I'll be to 
morrow." 

Some local joker tells this story which, though 
likely enough untrue, illustrates this habit of at 
tending to one thing at the moment. One after 
noon in the fall while stealing his hour's hunt he 
chanced to cross a part of the school's farm in order 
to reach the woods. The name of the Director of 
the farming industries is Bridgeforth, that of the 
young man who went hunting with Dr. Washing 
ton, Foster. Just as the Tuskegean and Foster en 
tered the woods, a squirrel leaped from the ground 
and went scrambling up a tree. Quick as a spark 
Dr. Washington leveled his gun. At the same mo 
ment some thought about improving the farm ev 
idently flashed across his mind. Relaxing his gun 
the slightest bit, he turned to the young man and 
said: 

"Foster, get me Mr. Bridgeforth at once." 

Probably few Americans, white or black, have 
had a higher sense of duty than Booker T. Wash 
ington. It mattered little who imposed the task 
or whether it was great or small, the thing was 
promised and must be done. Many of us here at 
Tuskegee feel that nothing but this sense of duty 
backed by a tremendous will, has kept him alive 
for the last few years. A year or so ago we were 
holding our Annual Armstrong Memorial exercises. 
Dr. Washington had said that he would speak at 
this exercise, as he always did when he was at 
home. Early in the afternoon of the appointed 
day he fell ill with a throbbing headache and his 
stomach in a turmoil. The doctor put him to bed 
and ordered him to remain there. At eight o'clock 
that night he appeared and made his address, 
though he collapsed in the ante-room immediately 
afterwards. 

Finally, just as he willed to do, to hold on, he 
could will to let go. 

He was great in big things and in little things; 
great in the world and at home ; but he was great 
est in the assertion of his tremendous will. 





FREDERICK DOUGLASS 

REDERICK DOUGLASS, Orator 
and Statesman, born a slave, rose 
to be one of the great men of his 
day. whose name will live in 
American history. He was born 
in Maryland, February 14. 1817. 
Mis name at first was Frederick Augustus Wash 
ington Baily ; he changed it, being hunted as a fu 
gitive slave, to Douglass. He chose Douglass be 
cause of his facination for this character as por 
trayed by Sir Walter Scott, a character which the 
ex-slave in his grand manner much resembled. 

In his childhood he saw little of his mother, noth 
ing of his father. The mother worked on a planta 
tion twelve miles from her son and could only see 
him by making the journey on foot and after work 
time. Whatever training the boy received up to 
the age of eight, he received it from his grand 
mother. 

At the age of eight years he was put under Aunt 
Katy, who was cruel, often depriving the little fel 
low of food. On one occasion he went to bed so 
hungry that when all the household were asleep 
he rose and began to parch and eat corn. In the 
midst of the corn-parching, his mother came in, 



bringing a ginger cake, which made him feel that 
he was "somebody's child." This was the last time 
he saw his mother. 

Douglass was sent to Baltimore, where after a 
time he learned to read, being taught by his new 
mistress, Mrs. Auld. When the master discovered 
what the mistress had done, he set a watch over 
Douglass lest he should escape. This he finally did, 
though he was long sought after and had one time 
to go to England to avoid capture. He was finally 
bought and set free. 

He gave his life as a freedman to liberating his 
brethren and to improving the ex-slave condition 
after freedom came. He served during his life 
time as United States Marshall in the District of 
Columbia, as Recorder of Deeds in the District of 
Columbia, and as Consul General to the Republic 
of Hayti. He was the first Negro to hold these 
offices. He was much traveled and was admired as 
an orator and as a man wherever he went. 

A few of the sayings of Douglass follow: 

"Emancipation has liberated the land as well as 
the people." 

"Neither the slave nor his master can abandon all 
at once the deeply entrenched errors and habits of 
centuries." 

"There is no work that men are required to do, 
which they cannot better and more economically 
do with education than without it." 

"Muscle is mighty but mind is mightier, and 
there is no field for the exercise of mind other than 
is found in the cultivation of the soul." 

"As a race we have suffered from two very op 
posite causes, disparagement on the one hand and 
undue praise on the other." 

"An important question to be answered by evi 
dence of our progress is: Whether the black man 
will prove a better master to himself than the white 
man was to him." 

"Accumulate property. This may sound to you 
like a new gospel. No people can ever make any 
social and mental improvement whose exertions are 
limited. Poverty is our greatest calamity On the 
other hand, property, money, if you please, will pro 
duce for us the only condition upon which any peo 
ple can rise to the dignity of genuine manhood." 

"Without property there can be no leisure. With 
out leisure there can be no invention, without in 
vention there can be no progress." 

"We can work and by this means we can retrieve 
all our losses." 

"Knowledge, wisdom, culture, refinement, man 
ners, are all founded on work and the wealth which 
work brings." 

"In nine cases out of ten a man's condition is 
worse by changing his location. You would better 
endeavor to remove the evil from your door than 
to move and leave it there." 



Alexander Dumas, Novelist and Play-wright 





HACKERY, the English Novelist, 
called Dumas "Alexander the 
Great." Like Alexander Pushkin 
of Russia, the great French ro 
mancer is the third descent from 
a Negro, only in this instance 
the line begins with the grandmother rather than 
the grandfather. Dumas' grandfather, who was a 
marquis, married a Creole of Haiti. The author's 
father was a dark giant of a man ; one of the heroic 
generals of the army of Napoleon. 

The general married the daughter of an inn 
keeper. From this union the novelist was born in 
1802. The father died while the son was four 
years old. Having but small means, Alexander 
soon found himself in Paris seeking his fortune. 
For a time he attached himself to the Duke of Or 
leans as clerk. Like Voltaire, Hugo and many 
other French men of letters, Dumas sought to make 
his way as a play-wright. In this he succeeded 
modestly, having presented successfully, Henry III, 
Tower of Nelse and several other plays. But Du 
mas' claim to fame, a claim which he holds undis- 
putably, rests upon his romances, "The three Mus- 
kateers," "The Count of Monte Cristo," "Twenty 
Years After," and scores of others. The critics call 
him, "Capriceius prolix, fertile puissant," as having 
a "rare mind, rare attention, subtle spirit, quick 
comprehension." 

The following is taken from his writings : 

FATALITY. 

Scarcely had D'Artagnan uttered these words 
than a ringing and sudden noise was heard resound 
ing through the felucca, which now became dim in 
the obscurity of the night. 

"That, you may be sure," said the Gascon, "means 
something." 

They then, at the same instant, perceived a 
large lantern carried on a pole appear on the deck, 
denning the forms of shadows behind it. 

Suddenly a terrible cry, a cry of dispair, was 
wafted through the space, and as if the shrieks of 
anguish had driven away the clouds, the veil which 
hid the moon was cleared away, and the gray sails 
and dark shrouds of the felucca were plainly visi 
ble beneath the silvery light. 

Shadows ran, as if bewildered, to and fro on the 
vessel, and mournful cries accompanied these delir 
ious walkers. In the midst of these screams they 
saw Mordaunt upon the poop, with a torch in 
hand. 

The agitated figures, apparently wild with terror, 



consisted of Groslow, who, at the hour fixed by 
Mordaunt, had collected his men, and the sailors. 
Groslow, after having listened at the door of the 
cabin to hear if the musketeers were still asleep, 
had gone down into the cellar, convinced by their 
silence that they were all in a deep slumber. Then 
Mordaunt had run to the train impetuous as a 
man who is excited by revenge and full of confi 
dence as are those whom God blinds he had set 
fire to the wick of niter. 

All this while, Groslow and his men were assem 
bled on the deck. 

"Haul up the cable, and draw the boat to us," 
said Groslow. 

One of the sailors got down the side of the ship, 
seized the cable, and drew it it came without the 
least resistance. 

"The cable is cut!" he cried, "no boat!" 

"How! no boat!" exclaimed Groslow; "it is im 
possible." 

" 'Tis true, however," answered the sailor ; 
"there's nothing in the wake of the ship, besides 
here's the end of the cable." 

"What's the matter?" cried Mordaunt, who is 
coming up out of the hatchway, rushed to the 
stern, waving his torch. 

"Only that our enemies have escaped they have 
cut the cord, and gone off with the boat." 

Mordaunt bounded with one step to the cabin, 
and kicked open the door. 

"Empty!" he exclaimed; "the infernal demons!" 

"We must pursue them," said Groslow ; "they 
can't be gone far, and we will sink them, passing 
over them." 

"Yes, but the fire," ejaculated Mordaunt; "I have 
lighted it." 

"Ten thousand devils !" cried Groslow, rushing to 
the hatchway ; "perhaps there is still time to save 
us." 

Mordaunt answered only by a terrible laugh, 
threw his torch into the sea, and plunged in after 
it. The instant Groslow put his foot upon the 
hatchway steps, the ship opened like the crater of 
a volcano. A burst of flames rose toward the skies 
with an explosion like that of a hundred cannon ; 
the air burned, ignited by flaming embers, then the 
frightful lightning disappeared, the brands sank, 
one after another, into the abyss, where they were 
extinguished, and, save for a slight vibration in the 
air, after a few minutes had lapsed, one would have 
thought that nothing had happened. 

Only the felucca had disappeared from the sur 
face of the sea. and Groslow and his three sailors 
were consumed. 



10 



Alexander Pushkin, Father of Russian Poetry 




LEXANDER PUSHKIN is called 
the "Russian Byron," "demigod 
of Russian Verse," "father of 
Russian poetry," "the laureate of 
Czar Nicholas." The Pushkins 
had long been about the rulers of 
Russia as cited by Alexander in "My Pedigree." 
The first of the line the grandfather of the poet 
was an Abyssinian, who was stolen as a slave from 
Constantinople. The grandsire was not only 
adopted by Peter the Great, but given a title of 
nobility and rank of General. 

The poet was proud of his African blood, which 
asserted itself unmistablv in the curl of his hair 



and the shape of his lips. He regarded himself as 
a drop of African blood on Arctic soil. He was 
born in 1799. During his childhood an old nurse be 
guiled him with many legends and fables of Rus 
sia. When he was twenty these legends brought 
forth fruit in his first great poem, "Ruslan and 
Liudmila." His democratic ideas, which encouched 
in an "Ode to Liberty," soon made him an exile 
from home and from Czar Nicholas I. However, 
the Czar loved the poet and speedily pardoned him. 
He died quite young, having written not only poet 
ry that survives, but many prose tales. It is said 
that every youth in Russia knows his poetry by 
heart. 



MY PEDEGREE. 
IV. 66. 



With scorning laughter at a fellow writer, 
In a chorus the Russian scribes 
With name of aristocrat me chide : 
Just look, if please you. . . nonsense what! 
Court Coachman not I, nor assessor, 
Nor am I nobleman by cross ; 
No academician, nor proffer, 
I'm simply of Russiana citizen. 



When treason conquered was and falsehood, 

And the rage of storms of war, 

When the Romanoffs upon the throne 

The nation called by its Chart 

We upon it laid our hands ; 

The martyr's son then favored us ; 

Time was, our race was prized, 

But I . . am but a citizen obscure. 



Well I know the times' corruption, 
And surely, not gain say it shall I : 
Our nobility but recent is : 
The more recent it, the more noble 
But of humble races a chip, 
And, God be thanked, not alone 
Of ancient Lords am scion I ; 
Citizen I am, a citizen ! 



'tis. 



Our stubborn spirit us tricks has played 

Most irrepressible of his race, 

With Peter my sire could not get on ; 

And for this was hung by him. 

Let his example a lesson be ; 

Not contradiction loves a ruler, 

Not all can be Prince Dolgorukys, 

Happy only is the simple citizen. 



Not in cakes my grandsire traded, 
Not a prince was newly-baked he ; 
Not at church sang he in choir, 
Nor polished he the boots of Tsar ; 
Was not escaped a soldier he 
From the German powdered ranks ; 
How then aristocrat am I to be? 
God be thanked, I am but a citizen. 



My grandfather, when the rebels rose 

In the palace of Peterhof, 

Like Munich, faithful he remained 

To the fallen Peter Third ; 

To honor came then the Orloffs, 

But my sire into fortress, prison, 

Quiet now was our stern race, 

And I was born merely citizen. 



My grandsire Radshaa in warlike service 
To Alexander Nefsky was attached, 
The Crowned Wrathful, Fourth Ivan, 
Mis descendents in his ire had spared. 
About the Tsars the Pushkins moved; 
And more than one acquired renoun, 
When against the poles battling was 
Of Nizhny Novgorod the citizen plain. 



Beneath my crested seal 
The roll of family charts I've kept ; 
Not running after magnates new, 
My pride of blood I have subdued ; 
I'm but an unknown singer 
Simply Pushkin, not Moussin, 
My strength is mine, not from court: 
I am a writer, a citizen. 



11 





PAUL LAWRENCE DUNBAR 

AUL LAWRENCE DUNBAR, 
Poet, is well known, as ought to 
be, to all Negroes. His songs in 
Jialect and in plain English are 
known and quoted by all English 
speaking people. Many of the 
pieces have been set to music and are sung with 
remarkable pathos. "Poor Li'l Lamb," and "Seen 
Mali Lady Home Las' Night," to quote two of the 
well known songs, are applauded by all grades of 
audiences throughout the land. 

Paul Lawrence Dunbar was born in Dayton, Ohio, 
in 1872. He was named Paul after the famous apos 
tle in the scripture and Lawrence after a friend of 
his parents. The poet is said to have written his 
first verse when he was seven years old. Paul was 
a very bashful boy, but he had courage enough to 
take his poems to his teacher, who encouraged him. 
His favorite studies were, grammar, spelling and 
literature. He edited the High School Times, a 
monthly school paper in the Steel High School of 
Dayton, where Dunbar was a pupil and from which 
he was graduated with honors in 1891. 

Dunbar went out from school to earn his bread 



as best he may. His father had died, the support of 
home therefore fell on the boy, who was none too 
sound in health. He had aided his mother with the 
washing and had done such odd jobs as he could 
find. All he could find as a graduate from the High 
School was the part as elevator boy in the Callahan 
Building of Dayton. But he made the best of it, 
using every spare moment to study or to write. 

He soon triumphed over his hardships, publishing 
his poems in the best magazines of the country, ap 
pearing before the most select audiences both in 
this country and in England and numbering among 
his friends such persons as James Whitcomb Riley, 
William Dean Howell, John Hay, William McKin- 
ley, Theodore Roosevelt, R. R. Moton, and Book 
er T. Washington. 

The following are favorite lines : 

LITTLE BROWN BABY 

Little brown baby wif spa'kliif eyes, 

Come to yo' pappy an' set on his knee 
What you been doin' suh makin' san.' pies? 

Look at dat bib you's ez du'ty ez me. 
Look at dat mouf dat's merlasses, I bet ; 

Come hyeah, Maria, an' wipe off his han's. 
Bees gwine to ketch you an' eat you up yit, 

Bein' so sticky an' sweet goodness lan's ! 

Little brown baby wif sparkin' eyes, 

Who's papyy's darlin' an' who's pappy's chile? 
Who is it all de day nevah once tries 

Fu' to be cross, er once looses dat smile? 
Whah did you git dem teef? My you's a scamp! 

Wah did dat dimple come f 'om in yo' chin ? 
Pappy do'n know yo' I b'lieves you's a tramp ; 

Mammy, dis hyeah's some ol' straggler got in ! 

Let's th'ow him outen de do' in de san', 

We don' want stragglers a-layin' 'round hyeah ; 
Let's gin him 'way to de big buggah-man ; 

I know he's hidin' erroun' hyeah right neah. 
Buggah-man, buggah-man, come in de do', 

Hyeah's a bad boy you kin have fu' to eat. 
Mammy an' pappy don' want him no mo', 

Swaller him down f'om his haid to his feet ! 

Dah, now, I t'ought dat you'd hug me up close, 

Go back, buggah, you shan't have dis boy. 
He ain't no tramp ner no straggler, of co'se ; 

He's pappy's pa'dner an' playmate an' joy. 
Come to yo' pallet now go to yo' res'; 

Wisht you could allus know ease and cleah skies ; 
VVisht you could stay jes' a chile on my breas' 

Little brown baby wif spa'klin eyes! 

Paul Lawrence Dunbar. 



12 



Sojbuner Truth, Emancipation Lecturer 





HE NEGRO RACE has developed 
some unique characters who stand 
out conspicuous in their line of 
endeavor. Not the least among 1 
these is Sojourner Truth a wo 
man -of considerable native ability 
though an illiterate. 

She was born a slave in Ulser County, N. Y., 
about the year 1775 and died in Battle Creek, Mich 
igan, Nov. 26th, 1883. She was held in slavery 
even after its abolition in the same State. In 1827 
she escaped from her owner and went to New York 
City and from thence to Northampton, Mass., and 
then to Rochester, N. Y. 

Like Joan of Arc, she claimed that she was call 
ed to her work through a vision. 

Her mother was brought from Africa, but her 
father was a mixture of Negro and Indian blood. 

The early training of her mother influenced her 
entire after life. She taught her the value of hon 
esty and truth and directed her mind to contem 
plate God as a Father and friend to whom she 
could go in confidence and trust. 

Naturally Isabella (her slave name) developed a 
very religious trait. 

She learned the true meaning of prayer and ap 
proached it in the spirit of a confident telling her 
troubles to God and invoking his aid. 

One day she thought that she met God face to 
face and it so startled her that she exclaimed : "O 
God, I did not know you as you was so big !" 

She changed her name from Isabella, the one 
given her by her master, to Sojourner, claiming 
that the Lord had bestowed it upon her in a vision 
and added the appellation "Truth" because that 
was the substance of the message she felt impell 
ed to declare to men. 

From the issue of her marriage Sojourner be 
came the mother of five children, the father dying 
when they were quite young, left their care and 
support to her. 

The following incident tends to show that the 
mother instinct was strong in her. 

One of her sons was sold into slavery in Ala 
bama and she was anxious to find him so she 
sought council of God. Now simple and child 
like her plea, "Now, God, help me get my son. If 
you were in trouble as I am, and I could help you, 
as you can help me, think I wouldn't do it? Yes, 
God, you know I would do it. I will never give 
you peace 'till you do, God !" and then taking it 
for granted that she would receive the required 
help, she continued, "Lord, what would them have 
me do?" the answer coming, "Go out of the city." 
Not knowing the direction she should take, she 



made further inquiry and received instruction to 
"Go East." 

Accordingly on the morning of the first day of 
June, 1845, with a few clothes in her bag, a few 
shillings and a basket of food, she left the city and 
turned her face towards the rising sun. 

It was on this morning that she gave herself, 
feeling divinely directed, her new name, saying 
that since she was to be a traveler, a sojourner, her 
name should be Sojourner. Being asked her sur 
name she exclaimed that she had not thought of 
that, but immediately went to God about it and in 
her characterictic way exclaimed, "Oh, God, give 
me a name with a handle to it," and then came the 
thought that God's name was truth and she at once 
adopted that as her sur-name, which so pleased her 
that she lifted up her eyes to God in thanks, saying, 
"Why, thank you God, that is a very good name." 

Sojourner was a woman of great shrewdness, 
wit and impressive voice which together with 
force of character made her an effective speaker. 

The great theme of her lectures and the object 
of her effort was the emancipation of her people, 
though she touched upon woman's rights, temper 
ance and political reforms. 

She traveled widely ijj the northern part of the 
United States, but during the Civil War she spent 
much of her time in Washington. 

Her power to electrify audiences was compared 
with that of the great French actress, Rachel. 

On one occasion Frederick Douglass was speak 
ing to a large audience and was painting a gloomy 
picture of the conditions of slavery and was up 
braiding the church and State. Just as he had got 
the audience under his sway, Sojourner suddenly 
arose in the rear of the room and cried : 

"Frederick! Frederick! is God dead?" It broke 
the spell of pessimism and for a time left the au 
dience and the speaker dumbfounded. 

She composed a battle hymn for a Negro regi 
ment of Michigan and sang it herself both at De 
troit and Washington : 

"We hear the proclamation Massa, hush it as you 

will; 
The birds will sing it to us, hopping on the cotton 

hill; 

The possum up the gum tree couldn't keep it still ; 
As we went climbing on." 

Her's was a life of service and though of hum 
ble origin and of meager ability other than that 
conferred upon her by nature, she died in her home 
in Battle Creek, Michigan, with the satisfaction 
that she had contributed her mite in the service of 
her people. 



13 



Benjamin Banneker, Mathematician-Astronomer 





HE first Banneker known of 
among Negroes in American his 
tory was an African Prince. This 
son of an African king was cap 
tured, brought to this country 
and sold to Molly Welsh of Mary 
land. Set free some years after his arrival, Banne 
ker, who was a man of fine bearing and contem 
plative habits, married his former owner. The 
African Prince died early leaving his wife four 
children. One of these, a daughter by the name 
of Mary, married a native African, who became 
converted, joined the church and took his wife's 
sur-name of Banneker. This couple in turn had 
four children of whom Benjamin was the oldest and 
only son. 

Benjamin Banneker was born Sept. 9th, 1731. 
The boy had a brilliant mind, was popular at school 
;jiid a great favorite with his grand-mother who 
used to give him of her small share of knowledge 
and have him read much from the Bible. 

His study under teachers was not at all extensive 
but he gained an early love for books and continued 
to "dive into books", as was said of him, all his 
life. Benjamin was twenty years old when his 
father died. The latter had bought one hundred 
acres of land when Benjamin was six years old, for 
which he paid 1700 pounds of tobacco. To the 
son and the widow the father left seventy- f .wo 
acres of land and the home, dividing the remaining 
twenty-eight acres among his daughters. Though 
very studious, Benjamin was an excellent farmer, 
having a good garden and a fine assortment of 
fruit trees. He kept two horses, several cows and 
was very skillful in handling bees. Thus situated, 
life was very busy for him, but he made all things 
a school. 

When he was twenty years o'd haVin? IT> too's 
but a jack knife and having seen nothing but a 
sundial and a watch, Benjamin made himself a time 
piece which struck the hours and which kept the 
t'me for more than twenty years. When he was 
fifty-eight years of age, Banneker, who all these 
years had made the study of Astronomy a passion, 
transferred his land to Ellicott and Company for an 
annuity of twelve pounds. He was now free to give 
his whole time to his favorite study. Night after 
night he lay upon the ground, wrapped in his great 
coat, watching the heavens. In the morning he 
retired to rest, but appeared to acquire but little 
sleep. He still hoed in the garden and trimmed 
fruit trees for exercise and played on the flute or 
the violin for diversion. 

He ventured from home but little. The only oc 
casion on which he spent much time from his farm 
was in the year 1790 and thereabout when he aided 

14 



in laying off or surveying the Federal Territory for 
the District of Columbia. He also aided in locating 
the spot for the capitol, the Presidents' House, 
Treasury and other public buildings. 

On his return from Washington, he published his 
first Almanac, 1792, a copy of which he sent Thom 
as Jefferson. The latter forwarded the manuscript 
to Condercet, Secretary of the Academy of Sciences 
at Paris. The publishers advertised it as "an ex 
traordinary effort o-f genius, calculated by a sable 
descendant of Africa." From this he became wide 
ly known as a writer and thinker and famous people 
frequently sought him out. He died October 9th. 
1806 at the age of seventy-five. 
Maryland, Baltimore County, Near Ellicott's Lower 

Mills, August 19, 1791. 
To Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State, 

Philadelphia. 
Sir: 

I have taken up my pen in order to direct to you. 
as a present, a copy of an Almanac which I have 
calculated for the ensuing year. 

This calculation, Sir, is the production of my ar 
duous study, in this my advanced stage of life ; for 
having long had unbounded desires to become ac 
quainted with the secrets of nature, I have had to 
gratify my curiosity herein, thro' my own assidu 
ous application to astronomical study, in which I 
need not recount to you the many difficulties and 
disadvantages I have had to encounter. 

And, altho' I had almost declined to make niv 
calculation for the ensuing year, in consequence of 
the time which I had allotted therefor being taken 
up at the Federal Territory, by the request of Mr. 
Andrew Ellicott ; yet finding myself under several 
engagements to printers of this State, to whom 
! had communicated my design, on my return to 
my place of residence, 1 industriously applied my 
self thereto, which I hope I have accomplished with 
correctness and accuracy, a copy of which 1 have 
taken the liberty to direct to you, and which 1 
humbly request you will favorably receive ; and, al 
tho' you may have the opportunity of perusing it 
,;fter its publication, yet I chose to send it to you in 
manuscript previous thereto, that thereby you 
might not only have an earlier inspection, but that 
you might also view it in my own handwriting. 

And, now, Sir, I shall conclude, and subscribe 
myself with the most profound respect. 

Your most obedient, humble ser -ant, 

B. BANNEKER. 

Mr. Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State. 
Philadelphia. 

N. B Any communication to me nmy be had 
by a direction to Mr. Elias Ellicott, Baltimore 
Town. 



Phillis Wheatley, Poetess 




HILLIS WHEATLEY was one of 
the .first literary women of Amer 
ica ; the first woman poet of the 
United States ; the first Negro au 
thor, the first, as far as has thus 
far been discovered, to speak of 
George Washington as the "first in peace." 

The first Negro poet was a slave brought over 
in a cargo of captives in 1781. The ship of human 
cargo landed at Boston. There among other slave 
buyers, were Mr. and Mrs. John Wheatley who 
came to select and purchase a girl for their home. 
Phillis came forth a frail creature of seven rr eight 
years of age. The Bostonians bought her and 
christened her Phillis Wheatley. Of course the 
slave child was unable to read or write. But the 
VVheatleys taught her. In less than sixteen months 
she had acquired a fair knowledge of English and 
was able to read the most difficult parts of the 
"Sacred Writings." From the Bible she began to 
read Latin, the Latin poets and mythology. Soon 
she began to write verses, which to the people of 
Boston were very good, indeed excellent for one 
v.-hh so little training. 

She was frail in health. To aid her in gaining 
strength her friends advised taking a trip to F.n- 
gl.'ind which she duly made. In England she was 
the guest of the Countess of Huntingdon, to whom 
she. later dedicated her book of poems published 



in 1773, and was entertained by Lord Dartmouth 
and other leading men and women of the Empire. 
She wrote so well that people doubted her author 
ship. Such men as Governor Thomas Hutchinson 
of Massachusetts, Andrew Oliver, and John Han 
cock, the first signers of the Declaration of In 
dependence, declared that they verily believed that 
the poems were her own composition. 

On her return to America, she found Mrs. Wheat- 
ley poor in health. Later the Mistress died, the 
Wheatley home was broken up and the poet left 
quite unprotected. Shortly after this she received 
an offer of marriage from one Samuel Peters who 
was a Negro grocer and a writer and speaker of 
high repute. The marriage turned out unhappily 
and the poet died deserted, December 5th, 1794. 

Benson J. Lossing, the Historian says of her, 
"Piety was the ruling sentiment in her character." 

The following are taken from Phillis Wheatley's : 

ON BEING BROUGHT FROM AFRICA 
TO AMERICA. 

'Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land, 
Taught my benighted soul to understand 
That there's a God, that there's a Savior, too ; 
Once I redemption neither sought nor knew. 
Some view our sable race with scornful eye, 
"Their color is a diabolic die." 
Remember, Christians, Negroes, black as Cain. 
May be refined, and join th' angelic train. 



A FAREWELL TO AMERICA (1773. 
To Mrs. Susannah W. Wheatley. 



Adieu, New England's smiling meads, 
Adieu, the flow'ry plain : 
I leave thine op'ning charms, O spring, 
And tempt the roaring main. 

In vain for me the flow'rets rise, 
And boast their gaudy pride, 
While here beneath the Northern skies 
J mourn for health deny'd. 

Collestial maid of rosy hvie, 

let me feel thy reign ! 

1 lavigllish till thy face I view 
Thy van sh'd joys regain. 

Susanna'" mourns, nor can I bear. 
To see the crystal shower. 
Or r.i;i-k the tender falling tear 
At sad departure's hour , 

Not unregarding can I see 
Her soul with grjef opprest 
Hut let no 5igh. nor groans for m 
Steal from het pensive breast. 

In vain the feather'd warblers sing, 
In va". th garden blooms, 
And on the bosom of the spring 
Breathes out her sweet perfumes. 

While for Britannia's distant shore 
We sweep the liquid plain. 




And with astonish'd eyes explore 
The wide-extended main. 

Lo ! Health appears ! celestial dame ! 
Complacent and serene, 
With Hebe's mantle o'er her Frame, 
With soul-delighted mien. 

To mark the vale where London lies 
With misty vapors crown'd 
Which cloud Aurora's thousand dyes, 
And veil her charms around. 

Why, Phoebus, moves thy car so slow ? 
So slow thy rising ray? 
Give us the famous town to view, 
Thou glorious king of day! 

l*o.- thee, Britannia, 1 resign 
New England's sniiliilg !^-'u!.-< ; 
To view again her charms devine, 
What joy the prospect yieii 

But thou ! Temptation hence away, 
With all thy fatal train 
Nor once seduce my soul away, 
By thine enchanting strain. 

Thrice happy they, whose heav'nly shield 
Secures their souls from harms 
And fell Temptation on the field 
Of all its pow'r disarms ! 




15 



Harriet Tubman, "The Moses of Her People' 




ARRIET TUBMAN was called the 
Moses of her people because dur 
ing the years of the Fugitive 



Law, she rescued some three or 
four hundred slaves and led them 
to freedom. She was born about 
1820 in Dorchester County, Maryland. She 
worked as a nurse, as a trapper; fiield hand 
and wood chopper while she was a slave. She 
is said to have begun her labors about 1845 and to 
have continued until 1860. She made 19 trips into 
slave States at exceedingly great risks. She went 
into her own native town more than once, bringing 
away her brothers and her old parents as well as 
many neighbors. 

John Brown nick-named her, General Tubman 
because of her shrewd management and great en 
durance. In her trips to and from the North she 
spent days and nights out of doors, in caves and 
often without food. She spent a whole night out 
of doors at one time in the beating snow with only 
a tree for protection. She waded creeks and riv 
ers, neck high, forcing those whom she was pilot 
ing to follow her. The babies she managed by 
drugging them with opium. No wonder a price of 
$40,000 was once put upon her head. 

She was an eloquent speaker, though she could 
neither read nor write. Her words are always 
forceful, her descriptions vivid. 

She was once sent with an exposition during the 
Civil War to bring away slaves. This is her de 
scription of the slaves as they flocked to the boats : 

"I nebber see such a sight." "Here you'd see 
a woman wid a pail on her head, rice a smokin' in 
it jus' as she'd taken it from de fire, young one 
hangin' on behind, one han roun' her forehead to 
hold on, 'tother han' digging' into de rice-pot, eatin' 
wid all its might ; hold of her dress two or three 
more ; down her back a bag wid a pig in it. One 
woman brought two pigs, a white one an' a black 
one; we took 'em all on board; named de white pig 
Beauregard, and de black pig Jeff Davis. Some 
times de women would come wid twins hanyin' 




IT necks; 'pear-; like I nebber see so maiiv 
\] 

wins in my. life; bags cm der shoulders, baskets 
on der heads, and young ones taggin' behin', all 
loaded ; pigs squealin', chickens screamin', young 
ones squallin'." 

Her story of an incident of her childhood days 
is told as only Harriet Tubman could relate ex 
periences. 

"I was only seven years old when I was sent 
away to take car' of a baby. I was so little dat 1 
had to sit down on do flo' and hev de baby put in 



my lap. An' dat baby was allus in my lap 'cept 
when it was asleep, or its mother was feedin' it. 

"One mornin' after breakfast she had de baby, 
and I stood by de table waitin' till I was to take it ; 
just by me was a bowl of lumps of white sugar. 
My Missus got into a great quarrel wid her hus 
band ; she had an awful temper, an' she would scole 
an' storm, an' call him all sorts of names. Now, 
you know I neyer had nothing good ; no sweet, no 
sugar, an' dat sugar, right by me, did look so nice, 
an' my Missus's back turned to me while she was 
fightin' wid her husband, so I jes' put my fingers 
in de sugar bowl to take one lump, an' maybe she 
heard me, an' she turned an' saw me. De nex' 
minute she had de raw hide down ; I give one jump 
out of de do', an' I saw dey came after me, but I 
jes' flew, an' dey didn't catch me. I run, an' I run, 
I passed many a house, but I didn't dare to stop, 
for dey all knew my Missus an' dey would send me 
back. By an' by, when I was clar tuckered out, I 
come to a great big pig-pen. Dar was an' ole sow 
dar, an' perhaps eight or ten pigs. I was too little 
to climb into it, but I tumbled ober de high board, 
an' fell in on de ground ; I was so beat out I couldn't 
stir. 

"An' dere, I stays from Friday till de next Chues- 
day, fightin' wid dose little pigs for de potato 
peelin's an' oder scraps dat come down in de 
trough. Do ole sow would push me away when 
I tried to git her chillen's food, an' I was awful a 
feard of her. By Chuesday I was so starved I 
knowed I'd got to go back to my Missus, I hadn't 
got no whar else to go, but I knowed what was 
comin'. So I went back." 

Frederick Douglas wrote her in 1868: "The dif 
ference between us is very marked. Most that I 
have done and suffered in the service of our cause 
has been in public, and I have received much en 
couragement at every step of the way. You, on 
the other hand, have labored in a private way. I 
have wrought in the day you in the night. 1 have 
had the applause ot the crowd and the satisfaction 
that r <it>4i}flfl>|iW being approved l>y the multitudes, 
whilfl tlnpnnppt'.that you have done has been wit 
nessed by n few trembling, scarred, .and foot-sore 
bondmen and women, whom you have led out of 
the house of bondage, and whose heartfelt "God 
bless you" has been your only reward. The mid 
night sky and the silent stars have been the wit 
nesses of your devotion to freedom and of your 
heroism." 

Harriet Tubman lived to a ripe old age and was 
always, even after freedom, the friend of the down 
trodden. Her house was always full of dependents, 
who were supported solely by Harriet's "Faith." 





OSCAR WILLIAM ADAMS 

MONG the enterprising young men 
who threw their weight into mak 
ing the Negro Birmingham a suc 
cess, none has fought harder or 
more creditably than Oscar W 
Adams. On graduating from 
Normal A. and M. College, Normal, Ala., Mr. 
Adams cast his lot with "The Birmingham Report 
er," now without question the leading Negro News 
paper of Alabama. For a number of years he liv 
ed out pretty faithfully the advice of Horace Gree- 
ley to the young aspirants to Journalism "to sleep 
on paper and eat ink." But in time the paper came 
into Mr. Adams' possession, and the struggle was 
even more bitter, if possible. Business did not 
hum in Brmingham then as now and so his sub 
scribers were few and his advertisers small, and 
uncertain, and payment for both subscriptions and 
advertisements very slow in coming in. 

To keep the paper alive, Mr. Adams gave up his 
lodgings and slept in the office on a lounge. He ate 
a full meal whenever he could afford to do so. 

"But, " says he, "I always paid my helpers. I 
didn't think it right to keep them waiting. It was 
none of their affair if the paper failed." However, 
the Reporter is on its feet today. It has passed 

17 



through the day of test for twelve years, and .- 
Negro paper that survives the test that length of 
time can be said to be fully established. 

Of course, Mr. Adams had been thoroughly 
schooled for the struggle with The Reporter, and 
from this schooling one would expect nothing but 
victory to the end. Mr. Adams was born in Gulf 
Crest, one time known as Beaver Meadow, a com 
munity about 25 miles out of Mobile. He attended 
the district school to the 8th grade and then made 
his way to Normal, Alabama, to the A. and M. Col 
lege. To make his way through school, both in 
public school and for the first year in College, Mr. 
Adams worked as a laborer on a turpentine farm. 
During his life in College he served now as agent in 
the Commissary, now as the assistant bookkeeper 
and finally as the Editor of the Normal Index, the 
official paper of the Normal College. Going through 
so many experiences and coming out of each suc 
cessful, Mr. Adams built the character which has 
stood him in such good stead as editor of The Re 
porter, as a business man, and a leader in the fra 
ternal orders. 

Mr. Adams is most loyal, even enthusiastic 
fraternity man. As has already been stated, his 
paper is the official organ of the Knights of Pyth 
ias, Odd Fellows, and Masonic Order of Alabama. 
He holds membership also in the Masonic Lodge, 
in the Elks, in the K. L. of H., and in the Mosaic 
Templars. He is Secretary of the United Brothers 
of Friendship, as well as its spokesman in his jour 
nal. 

Second only to his interest in his journal is Mr. 
Adams' interest in education. He is present at all 
educational gatherings he can reach and gives free 
ly space in his paper to the reports upon all schools 
and school work, both in the city and in the state. 
He is very loyal to Normal, not only because this 
is his Alma Mater, but because he really knows 
what it means for most of our boys and girls 
to secure even a fair education, an education ris 
ing but little above the three R's. 

Oscar W. Adams, though a young man, has filled 
some of the most important speaking engagements 
of any member of his race. He is a man of rare 
quality in this special line of work. He is a stu 
dent of history and his delivery is easy and pleas 
ant. At present he is Chairman of the Four Min 
ute Men Speakers of the State of Alabama, direct 
ed by the United States Government, and is a mem 
ber of the State Committee on War Savings Cer 
tificates. He has, no doubt, appeared before more 
audiences in the past five years than any man in 
the race of his age. 

Mr. Adams was married to Miss Mamie Tuggle 
in 1910. The happy union, happy in sympathy and 
co-operation as well as in affection, for both were 
very hard workers, lasted but five years, Mrs. 
Adams dying in 1915. He lives now for his paper, 
for his school, for his lodge and for Negro enter 
prise in every direction. 




BISHOP JOHN WESLEY ALSTORK, D. D., LL. D. 




ISHOP John Wesley Alstork was 
born in Talladega, Alabama, Sep 
tember 1st, 1852. From the date 
of his birth we gather that he was 
born early enough to see a little 
of Negro Slavery. But the Bish 
op was fortunate in the place of birth and in his 
parentage. Talladega is a conservative college 
town. It was one of the first places to be given 
colleges for the higher education of the Negro 
after the Civil War. Here in his own home town 
he had advantages of education that were denied 
to many men born in the same period. The advan 
tage in parentage is seen from the fact that his 
father was a minister and was willing and an 
xious to see his son have better educational advan 
tages than he himself had been able to enjoy. Bish 
op Alstork is the son of Rev. and Mrs. Frank Al 
stork, who were greatly loved and honored. 

Bishop Alstork did not confine his studying to 
the courses laid down at Talladega. Livingston 
College, Salisbury, North Carolina, conferred D. 
D. upon him in 1892. The Degree of LL. D. was 
conferred upon him by the Princeton College in 
Indiana in 1908. Though born a slave, Bishop Al 



stork persevered in acquiring an education till he 
had thoroughly prepared himself for the work he 
had to do in life. 

Bishop Alstork was married to Miss Mamie Law- 
son in 1872 when only twenty years of age. Mrs. 
Alstork has been a true helpmate to the Bishop 
and has helped in his development. Ten years after 
his marriage he was ordained in the A. M. E. Zion 
ministry. In 1884 he was elected Financial Secre 
tary of the Alabama Conference This position 
he held till 1892. In 1892 he was elected Financial 
Secretary for the A. M. E. Zion Connection. In this 
position he served till 1900. His excellent manage 
ment keeping the finances of the church in good 
condition. 

Bishop Alstork had the usual gradual ri<e from 
the ministry to the position of Tiisl op. He served 
as a regular pastor from the time of his o r dina- 
tion to 1889. In that year he was made Presiding 
Elder and he served in this capacity till 1900 when 
he was elected Bishop. Many of the honors within 
the gift of his church have come to Bishop Al 
stork. He was Delegate to the Ecumenial Confer 
ence, which met in London, England, in 1901. He 
was sent as a delegate to the Conference in To 
ronto, Canada, in 1911. 

Although Bishop Alstork is thoroughly interest 
ed in the church and in all the work of the church, 
he has still had time to show a great deal of interest 
in all the phases of education. He is a trustee of 
the Livingston College, of the Lomax-Hannon In 
dustrial College. Indeed Bishop Alstork was the 
founder of the last named institution which is lo 
cated at Greenville, Alabama. He is Trustee of 
Langridge Academy at Montgomery, Alabama and 
a Trustee of the Hale Infirmary also of Montgom 
ery. Bishop Alstork is a member of the Federa 
tion of Churches, a member of the Southern So 
ciological Congress, Director of Loan and Invest 
ment Company, Montgomery, Alabama, member of 
the Board of Control of the Good Shepherd So 
ciety, Inspector of the General G. G. A. Order of 
Love and Charity, National Grand Master of F. 
A. A. York Masons Colored of the United States, 
Lieutenant Commander of the Supreme Council 
33rd degree Masonry. In fact Bishop Alstork 
lives a very full and a very useful life. 

Bishop Alstork has traveled over the whole 
of this country and extensively in foreign lands. He 
is a loyal citizen of his country. During this war he 
has been a faithful worker in all the war activities. 
Jlis patriotism has been manifested in every war 
work campaign. He is a heavy purchaser of bonds, 
and a large contributor to Red Cross and Y. M. C. 
A. work. He owns a great deal of real estate and 
lives in his own beautiful home at 231 Cleveland 
Avenue, Montgomery, Alabama. 





BENJAMIN H. BARNES 

| OR fully a score of years Booker 
T. Washington thundered from 
the Tuskegee Institute platform 
the doctrine of service. "Go back 
to your homes, put a hinge on the 
gate, a latch on the door. Don't 
stand around and whine. Get into the church, in 
the school, into the shop and help. Own your own 
homes and become a tax-paying, respectable citi 
zen." 

Benjamin H. Barnes after graduating under his 
father's teaching, sat beneath the voice of the Tus- 
kegean and caught the vision that the great leader 
sought to impart. He did not pick out any one of 
of these suggestions but seemed to absorb them all. 
While at Tuskegee Mr. Barnes excelled not only in 
his studies both in trade and in books but also in 
music. He played the violin, the piano and sang. 
For part of three years he traveled as a Tuskegee 
singer. Returning to Tuscaloosa his native town, 
he accepted work as a teacher in the city public 
school and began to live to the full the life that 
Booker T. Washington had so ardently preached. 
Mr. Barnes immediately connected himself with 
the work of the town church, the First African 
Baptist Church. He had been in attendance here 



but a short time when he was elected superinten 
dent of the Sunday School, a post at which he 
served for twenty-five years. Not long after this 
Mr. Barnes was made church organist: and for 
twenty years the Baptists of Tuscaloosa have sung 
to his playing in the church. 

Some years ago this church set out to erect a 
new building. The cost of the house was to be 
$25,000.00. Mr. Barnes along with his church and 
Sunday School work had demonstrated that he was 
a business man. The church members placed him 
at the head of the Committee, rallied to his sup 
port and put up a splendid brick structure. Tho' 
ministers came and went, Barnes stayed by his post 
till the last brick was laid. He is now financial sec 
retary of the church, secretary of the board of trus 
tees and one of the strong active deacons. 

However, his biggest service as a Christian work 
er is being rendered among the young people of the 
state. Alabama is peppered with Negro Baptists. 
Blow your Baptist trumpet in the remotest hamlet 
and a regiment of loyal followers will come for 
ward to bear up the standard. Among their organ 
ization is a Baptist Young People's Union. Mr. 
Barnes has been the president of this organization 
for sixteen years. In recognition of his religious 
services and of his exemplary scholarship, Selma 
University some years ago conferred upon him the 
honorary degree of Master of Arts. 

All through his life Mr. Barnes has been a very 
intense student, both in books and in affairs. He 
spends many hours in home study, in a very excep 
tional home library. From time to time he has tak 
en home correspondence courses from the Univer 
sity of Chicago. In addition to this he keeps tho 
roughly abreast with all educational movements in 
the state. No convention or gathering of educators 
in the state is likely to assemble without finding 
Benjamin H. Barnes on hand ready to give advice, 
time or money to make things go. 

The home of Benjamin H. Barnes, all paid for, 
is one of the most handsome of the half dozen ex 
cellent Negro homes of Tuscaloosa. As one pur 
chase whets the appetite for another Mr. Barnes 
after paying for his home, bought other buildings 
and now owns property to rent. 

This is not the full business story of Prof. 
Barnes. The Union Central Life Relief company 
of Birmingham is one of the comparatively few 
Negro firms of the -kind to stem the tide of bus 
iness adversity. Casting about for a manager of a 
branch office in Tuscaloosa, the Union Central Re 
lief found the man they wanted in Prof. Barnes. 
In this office and in visiting patrons Mr. Barnes 
spends his summer and spare hours when not on 
duty in the school. 

One dominant trait is unmistakable in the Barnes 
family, that of holding fast to the duties in hand 
a father, school teacher in one place forty-two 
years: a son, school teacher for nearly twenty 
years, Sunday School superintendent twenty-five 
years, president of Young People's Baptist Union 
sixteen years. 

Mr. Barnes is married; his wife is his partner. 
She has rendered valuable service in all of his en 
deavors. They have celebrated their crystal wed 
ding with much pomp. 



19 





JEREMIAH BARNES 

HEN you go to Tuscaloosa, Ala 
bama, on school matters, the 
County Superintendent, the bank 
ers and other people will tell you 
to "see Jeremiah Barnes". Mr. 
Barnes is principal of the Negro 
Public Schools of Tuscaloosa, and is most likely the 
oldest Negro School man today engaged in active 
service. He began his career as a school teacher 
back in 1874, when a Negro school master was in 
deed a rare person. From that date scarcely a day 
has passed during the school session without find 
ing the veteran at his post. Indeed, he goes to 
school whether he teaches or not ; for he keeps the 
keys of the Tuscaloosa High School and almost 
daily, even in summer, you will find him about the 
school going over the grounds, attending the school 
garden, inspecting the rooms inside. 

The veteran school master of Tuscaloosa was 
reared a slave, on the farm of Judge Washington 
Wood, eight miles west of Tuscaloosa. Here he 
learned to read and write and found some opportu 
nity to improve himself generally. He was a brick 
mason back in the 60's. Ten years later he was 
running a variety store, at which time he became 
alderman of Tuscaloosa, grand juror of the county 



and a teacher in the public schools. In 1874 the 
same year that he began his school work, Mr. 
Barnes became a Master Mason and later was 
made Worshipful Grandmaster for three terms. 
Since that time he has been made Secretary of fore 
ign correspondence for his Grand Lodge, a posi 
tion which he held for fourteen years. He was one 
time grand patron of the Alabama Order Eastern 
Star and is a charter member of the Oak City 
Lodge No. 1785, Grand United Order of Odd Fel 
lows. He twice served his own district rgand 
lodge as deputy grand master. 

All this wealth of life experience along with con 
stant study of books Mr. Barnes brought to the 
school room. For years he was a teacher, being 
promoted step by step until he reached the highest 
post in the Negro schools of his native city. In his 
work as teacher he has taken rightful pride in the 
graduates he has turned out. Some have gone to 
college, some to industrial schools, some settled 
to trades, some to school teaching after leaving 
him. Wherever they have gone they have made 
their mark as very useful hightoned citizens. 

In his school curriculum Prof. Barnes balances 
his courses pretty well between class room work 
and industrial work. His courses run into studies 
in Algebra, Geometry and Latin; out under the 
window you will see a flourishing school garden, 
and a place for cooking in the basement. He teach 
es the children by deed as well as by word, that 
work is honorable and intellectual, just as solving 
a problem in Algebra or constructing a verb in En 
glish or Latin. 

To this, too, he adds a most needed phase of ed 
ucation, that of beautifying one's surroundings. 
The Negro High School building of Tuscaloosa 
happens to be in a rather unhappy section of the 
city. A railroad yard is nearby, so also is the city 
refuse pile and the city stables. Yet by setting out 
trees, constructing fences and laying out walks, the 
veteran educator has managed to shut out pretty 
nearly these obnoxious features of his school en 
vironment, thus showing the pupils that their own 
lives within need not be disturbed by the lives with 
out. 

Along with helping the students of his school, 
Prof. Barnes has reared and educated several child 
ren of his own. His son, Benjamin, is the strong 
assistant of his father in the Tuscaloosa school 
work, is the great Negro Baptist Young People's 
Union leader of Alabama, church organist, and bus 
iness man. The other son is the treasurer of the 
Snow Hill Normal and Industrial School of Snow 
Hill, Alabama. 

How long Prof. Barnes will remain in the school 
work none but a higher power can tell. So far he 
shows no signs of retreat. He is vigorous, active, 
both in body and in mind. Best of all as a school 
teacher he is very cheerful and very optimistic for 
himself and his people. 



20 




EDWARD AUSTIN RROWN 





HERE arc about 800 Negro law 
yers in the United States. Some 
of them have occupied positions 
of trust and prominence, political, 
judicial and diplomatic. Yet 
whenever a colored man thinks of 
entering the legal profession he is instructed to 
have well in mind Socrates' definition of courage. 
Said the sage, "He who rushes into battle without 
knowing all the consequences does not represent 
genuine courage but rashness." Thus it is with the 
law for the Negro. Of all the professions it is very 
probably the least hospitable to the black man. As 
a rule, he is not accorded a square deal in the courts 
of the South, while in the North he finds himself, 
for the most part, up against the most lively com 
petition. He, then, who enters here must weigh 
between courage and rashness ; and he who suc 
ceeds in compelling a fair measure of success is 
either a giant in intellect or a wizard in tact and 
diplomacy. 

That Edward A. Brown did not enter the law 
through rashness, through not knowing the at 
tendant dangers, can be fairly inferred from the 
fact that he was born in the South, where the sit 
uation is quite patent. Mr. Brown was born 



in 



Raleigh, N. C., forty odd years ago. After com 
pleting the public school course in his native town 
he had private tuition in order to prepare himself 
for college, and soon thereafter entered Lincoln 
University, in,Pennsylvania, where four years later 
he finished the collegiate course, graduating with 
honors. Just as Mr. Brown was about to enter a 
New England Law school he was offered an oppor 
tunity to study law in the office of Judge Henry 
McKinney, who was at the time one of the ablest 
lawyers at the Cleveland, Ohio, bar. This offer was 
accepted and in due time the young law student was 
admitted to the bar by the Supreme Court of Ohio. 
Incidentally, it may be mentioned that of the 108 
applicants for admission at the time, Mr. Brown 
offered the best examination. 

After practicing his profession for a while in 
Cleveland Mr. Brown came to Alabama, where 
again he made a record in his examination for ad 
mission, winning from the presiding judge the 
statement that this was the best examination he 
had ever witnessed. Ever since his admission to 
the Alabama bar Mr. Brown has pursued the active 
practice of his profession in Birmingham, where 
he resides, except for the period of eight months 
during which he was an army officer at the time 
of the Spanish-American War, serving under a 
commission of First Lieutenant in the 10th U. S. 
Volunteer Infantry. 

Mr. Brown enjoys a lucrative practice and, like 
thousands of the best lawyers of the country, is 
what is known as a "civil" lawyer, giving no at 
tention to criminal practice. He is regarded by the 
judges and members of the bar generally as an able 
lawyer and as a man of the highest personal char 
acter. His clients and friends believe in him, in his 
knowledge of the law, his integrity and his unfail 
ing sane judgment. To illustrate the unselfish 
public spirit of the man a single incident may be 
related: The commissioners of the city of Bir 
mingham, following the example of certain other 
municipalities, undertook to enact a law providing 
segregation of residences based upon race. Mr. 
Brown, without being employed or even requested, 
went before the commissioners with a strong pro 
test against the adoption of the proposed ordinance 
and made such a forceful argument against its con 
stitutionality as to defeat it then and there. Here 
was an example of his unselfish spirit, for although 
this was legal service of the highest order and deal 
ing with a matter of far-reaching importance to his 
race, not a dollar was charged by him or accepted. 

Mr. Brown has succeeded in accumulating a com 
petency, owning a residence valued at $5,000 and 
other real estate ; and besides, he has some money. 
For several years he has served as general attorney 
for the Knights of Pythias of Alabama, of which 
fraternal order he is a leading and influential mem 
ber. He is active in all movements touching the 
welfare of his people and is one of the really strong 
and substantial men of his community and state. 

The Brown family is small, consisting of Mrs. 
Brown and one son, Edward, Jr. Mrs. Brown, who 
was Miss Nettie Jones of Cleveland, Ohio, is active 
in club work and various charities. Edward, Jr., 
is a quiet, studious lad, having made first year 
high school at the age of thirteen. 




MISS CORNELIA BOWEN 




N a certain day in May if you are 
anywhere in Montgomery County, 
Alabama, you will see wagons 
from the country, cars and car 
riages from the city, crowding 
and jamming along the road, all 
going in one direction. On inquiry you will learn 
that they are making their way toward the Mt. 
Meigs Institute, to attend the commencement ex 
ercises. When you reach the school, there will 
break on you a sort of vision of a new city, sudden 
ly peopled. This is the work of Miss Cornelia 
Bowen of Mt. Meigs. 

Miss Bowen went to Mt. Meigs in 1888 to plant 
a school in the wilderness, as it were. To reach 
the rural man and woman as well as the small boy 
and small girl was a demand which both Miss Bow- 
en and the late Dr. Washington felt it a sacred duty 
to answer. To use Miss Bowen's own words in 
"Tuskegee and Its People" "a call reached Dr. 
Washington in 1888 for a teacher to begin work in 
the vicinity of Mt. Meigs, Alabama, similar to the 
work done at Tuskegee, but of course on a smaller 
scale. Mr. E. N. Pierce of Plainville, Connecticutt, 
had resolved to do something in the way of pro 
viding better school facilities for the colored people 
living on a large plantation, into the possession of 

22 



which he had come. Mr. Washington answered the 
call while in Boston, and telegraphed me that he 
thought me the proper person to take charge of 
and carry on the settlement work Mr. Pierce and 
his friend had in mind." 

The place itself is far away, out of contact. The 
people were weighted down with debt, mild peon 
age, morals were at a low ebb. Miss Bowen set 
out to improve the lives of the old people while 
building a school for the young. She taught Bible 
classes in the leaky country church and held meet 
ings and conferences for the mothers and fathers. 
In a little while the people began to know that there 
were ideals of health, of family, of property own 
ership. Thus it is that today they troop on horse 
back, in buggy, in wagon to Mt. Meigs Commence 
ment. Here along with the diversion offered they 
come upon the first impulse to do good. 

It has become quite common nowadays to speak 
of the pioneer, but the Mt. Meigs school was in a 
very real sense a pioneer in its own kind of work. 
To set up in the country a school which was a 
community center : a school which called in the 
country women to teach them cooking, sewing, 
and house-keeping, to teach them how to rear and 
treat their children ; to instruct them in finer man 
ners towards their husbands and towards their 
neighbors ; to persuade them to eliminate certain 
habits, like dipping snuff and smoking and chew 
ing tobacco, as unfeminine and un-womanly ; to 
have done all this in those early days of any kind of 
Negro school in Alabama was genuinely pioneer 
work. 

The same constructive program was adopted 
with the men and boys. Men were better farmers, 
better husbands, fathers, cleaner in their habits, 
more ambitious in their ideals because of Mt. 
Meigs. They formed more definite ideals of home, 
of family, of church, from this teaching and from 
their contact in the school. Where there was no 
farm ownership, they began to buy farms. Where 
there were no flowers, flowers began to grow : an 
air of refinement and of taste began to assert itself. 

There is nothing so new about this now, for we 
begin to see the very definite results of this train 
ing. Mt. Meigs opened a boarding department and 
rooms for the children and taught them new les 
sons of life. It fired them with zeal to go back to 
their village and teach what they themselves had 
learned. This situation now so prevalent was at 
first a most startling innovation when Mt. 
Meigs began. It was the first trumpet call to the 
man in the fields that somebody really cared for 
him, for the life he lived, whether or not he was 
really happy. 

W r hile thus laboring among the elders, Miss 
Bowen was founding a school. She bought her 
land, forty-odd acres, and began to put up buildings. 
She put on the curriculum, not only grammar, 
arithmetic and the like, but the study of practical 
industries, such trades as the boys and girls could 
use immediately in their homes. Thus she teaches 
her own school gardening, farming, poultry-rais 
ing, the care of live stock and bee-culture. 






VIEW MT. MEIGS INSTITUTE 



hi the meantime she was not forgetting her own 
education. She had attended school at Tuskegee 
Institute, where Dr. Washington was examiner, 
school teacher, principal, lecturer and a good many 
other things. Under him she sat, got her Tuske 
gee diploma, then spent some time as principal of 
the "Children's House", of Tuskegee Institute. To 
the education of experience, which her principal 
and friend, Dr. Washington, so ardently believed in, 
Miss Bowen added study in New York City and fur 
ther study in Queen Margaret's College, Glasgow, 
Scotland. 

Miss Bowen is through and through a product 
of Tuskegee Institute. She was born on what is 
now the Institute Campus. The little cottage in 
which she was born was the first building of Tus 
kegee Institute to be used for teaching girls' in 
dustries. "And never do I go to Tuskegee," says 
Miss Bowen, "that I do not search it out among the 
more imposing and pretentious buildings, which 
have come during the later years of the school's 
history." 

The cottage in which she was born stood on the 
plantation of Colonel William Bowen, to whom 
Miss Bowen's mother was a slave. Unlike most 
slave mothers, Miss Bowen's mother could read, 
having been taught by a former mistress in Balti 
more. She was therefore able to superintend her 
daughter's education to greater degree than 
most mothers of the time, hence arises, no doubt, 
the daughter's very strong grasp on people and af 
fairs. 

Miss Bowen was first taught by a southern white 



woman of the town of Tuskegee. : She then at 
tended the public school of Tuskegee until Booker 
T. Washington came and founded the Institute. 
Her school on "Zion Hill" was then closed and the 
children all flocked to the new school. Booker T. 
Washington was then an active teacher. He gave 
her the examination and placed her in the Junior 
class. He taught many of the subjects. Miss 
Bowen looks back with no end of pleasure to those 
days when Dr. Washington taught grammar, his 
tory and spelling. 

She was a member of the first class to graduate 
from Tuskegee Institute. This was in 1885, before 
the school had even conceived of the great indus 
trial idea. Miss Bowen was an honor student, re 
ceiving a first grade diploma and winning one of the 
three Peabody medals ; medals which were award 
ed for excellence in scholarship. 

With this foundation she went out to establish 
the Mt. Meigs Institute, full of confidence. Her 
work in the school has made a name for Miss Bow- 
en. She has several times held various offices in 
the National Association of Colored Women's 
Clubs, State Teachers' Association of Alabama, and 
in the Colored Women's Federation of the State, 
and its president for fourteen years. 

While a very excellent administrator, and a rare 
student of both men and books, Miss Bowen excels 
in the mind of many, through her gift of eloquent 
speech. Few persons on the platform today can 
bring so much power to bear, go so directly to the 
point and so eloquently as can Miss Bowen. 



23 




RICHARD ANDERSON BLOUNT 





T was Robert Browning, who ex 
pressing his fondness for Italy, 
said, "If you open my heart you 
will find the word 'Italy' written 
therein." If you made an incison 
in the heart of Richard Anderson 
Blount of Birmingham, Alabama, you would find 
"Knights of Pythias." For nearly twenty years 
now Mr. Blount has thought Knights of Pythias, 
talked Knights of Pythias, traveled for Knights of 
Pythias, and what the order of the Knights of Py 
thias in Alabama is today, is traceable very large 
ly to Richard Anderson Blount. 

Back in 1887 Mr. Blount came into Birmingham 
to seek his fortune, attracted by the prospects of 
the town. He found employment with the Lawe- 
son Carpet Company and spent some time in their 
service. He worked also for sixteen years for 
Ben M. Jacobs & Brothers. It was during his em 
ploy with the Jacobs Brothers that Mr. Blount be 
came engrossed in the work of the Knights of Py 
thias. His zeal for the order and his business acu- 
nen soon attracted attention, with the result that 
in 1898 he was elected Grand Keeper of Records 
and Seal. In three years he had given such good 
service and had established the records on such a 



sound business basis that the body of the state 
made him Grand Chancellor, a post at which he 
has served now for fifteen years. 

The records show that when Mr. Blount assum 
ed office there were in the state some sixty-five 
lodges, with a total membership of 16000 people. 
In fifteen years through the efforts of Mr. Blount 
the Knights of Pythias of Alabama have three hun 
dred and forty-five lodges with a total membership 
of ten thousand. The order of Knights of Pythias 
is much better known, more popular, enjoys a wider 
confidence of the people, both of those who are 
members and those who are not. 

Of course the Knights of Pythias of Alabama 
must have a building of their own. It just chances 
that the Alabama Penny Savings Bank is available. 
Mr. Blount and his helpers are pressing home plans 
to secure this building. To secure a splendid four 
story brick structure like the Alabama Penny Sav 
ings Bank Building, which has an office rent of 
several hundred, requires money, backing, appreci 
ation of values, and confidence. All this the Knights 
of Pythias have and they have it very largely 
through Richard Anderson Blount. 

Mr. Blount is not a native of Birmingham. He 
came from Montgomery where he was born in the 
early seventies. He attended the Swayne school in 
his native town. While he was going to school, Mr. 
Blount had to work. He somehow got into carpet 
laying; a trade which did him great service in the 
early years of his manhood. 

His affiliation with and leadership of the Knights 
of Pythias do not blind him to the merits of other 
fraternities and organizations. He is an active 
member of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, a 
staunch member of the Masonic Lodge of the 
Shriners, of the Odd Fellows and of the Elks. 

One of the most conspicuous things about Rich 
ard Anderson Blount is the beautiful home he has 
erected and paid for. In going up Seventh Avenue 
the passer-by turns round to look again and again 
as he passes this residence. This house is by no 
means the extent of Mr. Blount's ownership of 
property. He owns several rent houses and lots 
in and about town. 

But the home and the home life were a vision 
of long ago. He saw big and handsome homes and 
happy families about. Into his own spirit crept 
the vision of such a home with a happy family. 
Both he now has. He has been married for more 
than twenty years. His first wife who was Miss 
Lucy Massey, died some eight years ago. The 
daughter of this union is now a student at Spelman 
Seminary in Atlanta, Ga. He recently married 
Miss Mary Lue Crawford. Mr. Blount has travel 
ed much in the South and in the East and has to 
do so in the interest of and for the development of 
his lodge. 



24 




CLINTON J. GALLOWAY. A. B. 





RAVELING through the rural 
districts of Alabama, especially 
through Macon County, every 
where one sees new up-to-date 
school houses. These schools have 
three and four rooms or more. 
Some are used as Model schools in which the 
teacher lives and has around her all the animals 
and other things to be had on a farm. These model 
schools are to train the country boys and girls how 
to live happily amid their native surroundings. In 
some places the old half-decayed school buildings 
are still standing making a marked contrast with 
the new and up-to-date structures. The one man 
who is more largely responsible for this condition 
than any other is Clinton J. Galloway of Tuskegee 
Institute. 

Mr. Calloway was born April 18, 1869, in Cleve 
land, Tennesee. Here in his native town he at 
tended the public school, remaining to finish the 
Grammar grades. For his High School work he 
went to Chattanooga, Tennessee. As a young man 
he had the trait of sticking to a thing and so he 
remained in the school till he completed the course 
in 1889. He then matriculated at Fisk Uuniversity. 
All through his school career he was an earnest, 

25 



careful student, deserving and receiving the praise 
of his teachers. In 1895 he completed the classical 
course of Fisk and graduated with the degree of 
A. B. All through his years of study he gave close 
attention to practical ideas and ideals. 

After graduation Mr. Calloway accepted work in 
the Extension Department at Tuskegee Institute 
and here he has remained ever since. During the 
years spent in the Extension Department of Tuske 
gee, Mr. Calloway has done much to develop and 
make of service his department. In 1895 when Mr. 
Calloway took charge, the work was restricted to 
dealing with the farm and country folk in general. 
It was then in its rudimentary stage. Mr. Calloway 
saw the great need of better schools. It has been 
largely through the demonstrations of Mr. Callo 
way that Miss Jeannes of the Jeannes Fund was 
convinced of the value of outside aid in rural school 
work among Negroes. To this end there are now 
all through Alabama and other Southern States 
workers among the rural teachers who travel back 
and forth supervising the work of the country 
schools. These are the Jeannes supervisors. 

Another great advance in the Rural Schools of 
Alabama and now of other Southern states is due 
to the vision and thought of Mr. Calloway. It was 
he who suggested to Dr. Washington that Mr. 
Julius Rosenwald of Chicago would help in the 
erection of new and up-to-date schools for the rural 
districts of Alabama. Acting on this suggestion 
Mr. Rosenwald has invested the largest sum of 
money set aside for educational purposes. The 
schools built from the fund are known as the Ros 
enwald schools. The suggestion came from Mr. 
Calloway and he is the man who has had to work 
out the detail of the investment and he has also 
had to help the rural people raise their share of 
the money. All of them turn to Mr. Calloway 
when discouraged and expect to be shown the way 
out of difficulties. Never has he failed them. Mr. 
Calloway is now the head of the Extension De 
partment with a number of workers under him, in 
stead of being the whole of the Department as he 
was when he first took the work. 

Mr. Calloway was married to Miss Josie Eliza 
beth Schooler March 12th, 1901 at Kowaliga, Ala 
bama. To Mrs. Calloway her husband gives credit 
for his success in acquiring property. They own 
their own beautiful home and 1,000 acres of land 
and the implements, stock, etc., that are required 
for this sort of farming. Mr. Calloway is a Con- 
gregationalist in Religious belief. He is a practical 
Christian and commands the respect of all who 
know him. 

Mr. Calloway is through and through a man of 
business. Whatever he undertakes to do is seen 
through the amount of good done for the amount 
of money spent. He is President of Homeseekers 
Land Company, Capital Stock $10,000.00 and mana 
ger of the Tuskegee Farm and Improvement Com 
pany with a capitalization of $25,000.00. 

There are many better schools, better homes and 
better farms in Macon County and in fact all 
through Alabama because of the work of Mr. Cal 
loway in the Extension Department of Tuskegee. 





T. M. CAMPBELL 

ATCHING the spirit of his illust 
rious teacher, Booker T. Wash 
ington, Mr. Campbell, the pioneer 
Negro Farm Demonstrator is 
bringing to a realization the 
dreams of the late Dr. Seaman A. 
Knapp, the father of farm demonstration work I 
am thinking, said Dr. Knapp, "of the people of rose 
covered cottages in the country, of the strong glad 
father and his con-tented, cheerful wife, of the 
whistling boy an dthe dancing girl with school 
books under her arms so that knowledge may soak 
into them as they go ; I am thinking of the or 
chards and the vineyards, of the flocks and the 
herds, of the waving woodlands, of the hills car 
peted with luxuriant verdure, and the valleys in 
viting to the golden harvest." Mr. Campbell and 
his large corps of workers are doing all this for 
the colored people of Alabama and the South. 

Born February 11, 1883, just outside the corpor 
ate limits of the little town of Bowman, Elbert 
County, Ga., Mr. Campbell's life was typical of the 
average boy of that section, and at the age of fif 
teen, he found that he had attended school less than 
twelve months. Hearing of Tuskegee from an old- 

26 



er brother who had gone there, the lad determined 
to attend. His father failing to keep a promise to 
let him use the money earned working on a neigh 
boring plantation, the boy walked and worked his 
way to Tuskegee from which he was graduated 
eight years later in 1906. He speaks as follows of 
his Tuskegee experience: "My training was such 
that I was unable to make the lowest class when I 
came to Tuskegee, and I sometimes think that my 
only salvation was that I was large and strong and 
my services were needed on the farm. By constant 
study, both day and night, I was able to make a 
class the next year and every year after until my 
graduation. During my eight years stay here as a 
student, I received only $2.00 cash and one suit of 
clothes as assistance." 

When Dr. Knapp came to Tuskegee in 1906 seek 
ing his first Negro demonstrator, he found his man 
in the field following a two-horse plow. This man 
was T. M. Campbell, who had recently been gradu 
ated and was specializing in agriculture. 

"Young man", said Dr. Knapp, "I want you to 
travel over a given territory and show the Negroes 
how to prepare land just as you are doing now." 
This Mr. Campbell did, traveling in the Jesup Ag 
ricultural Wagon, an idea of the far seeing Dr. 
Washington who conceived the idea of taking ed 
ucation to the farmer. This work was later merged 
into the United States Farm Demonstration work 
and has taken Mr. Campbell into every part of Ala 
bama and other portions of the South. 

For the past twelve years, early and late, in sun 
shine and in rain, he has been going about Alabama 
and other Southern States making the waste places 
blossom. Mr. Campbell defining the term demon 
strator says : "A Demonstrator is a farmer chos 
en by the government Agent because of his ability 
to attract the people of his community to himself, 
he is commonly called a community leader." Mr. 
Campbell, who is now officially known as District 
Agent for Farm Demonstrate!) Work for the col 
ored people of Alabama, possesses these qualifica 
tions in a high degree. He has a very winning per 
sonality, and a rich musical voice which wins 
friends wherever he goes. 

Unlike most public men of the race, Mr. Camp 
bell is not a lodge man, due perhaps to the fact that 
he is so seldom at home; for his duties keep him 
ever on the road. He is a Methodist and zealous 
church worker. 

On June 1st, 1911, Mr. Campbell was married to 
Miss Annie M. Ayers of Virginia, who is also a Tus 
kegee graduate. Four children, Thomas Jr., Car 
ver, Virginia and William help to make the home a 
happy, cheery place. The two older boys are in 
school and promise to follow in years to come the 
lootsteps of their father. 





JAMES HENRY EASON, D. D. 

R. James Henry Eason, the pas 
tor of the very select congrega 
tion of the Jackson Street Baptist 
Church, Birmingham, Ala., is an 
ideal product of his state. He was 
horn October 24, 1866 to Channie 
Bingham Kason and Jesse Bigham. Born, reared 
and for the most part educated in Alabama, he has 
turned all his time and his talent has brought his 
vision to pass in the state of his birth. He was born 
in Sumpterville, Sumpter County. Gaining all he 
could in the Sumpterville public school he entered 
Selma University and after graduation from Selma 
Dr. Eason took his course in theological training at 
Virginia Union University, Richmond, Va., receiv 
ing the degree of D. D. On finishing his studies he 
immediately returned to Alabama to give account 
of his education. Although he earned his way, he 
felt that he owed a great debt to the people of his 
state. In 1884 he began teaching school in Gads- 
den. He taught one year in Garfield Academy at 
Auburn. Ala., and seven years in Selma University. 
In the meantime he had been appointed state Mis 
sionary for Alabama by the Home Missionary So 
ciety of New York. In this office, he served several 
years. 



The year 1891 saw the formal beginning of Dr. 
Eason's career as a pastor. In this year he accepted 
the v pastorate of the Union Baptist Church at Ma 
rion, Ala. Here he became moderator of the new 
Cahaba Association. From Marion Mr. Eason went 
to Anniston. Here he really began to assert him 
self as a minister and as a community builder. 
When he accepted the pastorate of the Eleventh 
Street Baptist Church in Anniston, there were 
eighty-five members of the congregation. This 
body was then known as the Galilee Church. 
Dr. Eason held his post here for fifteen 
years. In that time he increased the mem 
bership from eighty-five to seven hundred 
and put up a new building which cost $25,- 
000.00. While building this church in Anniston, 
he noticed that comparatively few colored people 
owned homes. To aid the people in securing 
homes, he organized the Mercantile Investment 
Company, whose efforts have resulted in hundreds 
of colored people owning their homes in this city. 

His name now spreads abroad as a worker and a 
man of exceptional gifts and rare industry. He was 
for ten years Editor of the Baptist Leader ; the 
official organ of 280,000 Alabama Baptists. He ed 
ited and published the Union Leader of Anniston 
Alabama for five years ; meanwhile he had written 
and published a book entitled, "Sanctification ver 
sus Fanaticism," which was the first book pub 
lished by the National Baptist Board, and had writ 
ten articles and historical sketches for the maga 
zines. 

Thus asserting himself, he became a candidate 
for many honors. Guadaloupe College, Texas, and 
Benedict College, S. C., each honored him with the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity. He was given the 
presidency of the Colored Baptist State Convention 
which he held ten years, resigning in 1916. For 
seven years he was vice president of the National 
Baptist Convention. Selma University elected him 
a member of the Board of Trustees and for one 
year he carried the presidency of the Anniston In 
dustrial College. June llth, 1917, Dr. Eason was 
elected president of Birmingham Baptist Col 
lege, Birmingham, Alabama. He was a dele 
gate to the World's Missionary Conference, 
which met a few years ago in Edinburgh, Scotland. 
He preached in Scotland and traveled extensive 
ly in Scotland, in England, in Belgium and in 
France. For several years now Dr. Eason has been 
pastor of the Jackson Street Baptist church in Bir 
mingham, where he has put in many improvements. 
He takes great interest in the business life of the 
Negro in Birmingham just as he did in Anniston. 
He was a director of the Alabama Penny Savings 
Bank in its early days and a depositor in it to the 
last. He is himself a property owner, owning his 
home and other real estate which are valued at 
$5.000. 

Dr. Eason was married in 1894 to Miss Phoebe 
A. Kigh of Selma, Ala. Of three children born into 
the Eason home, only one, Miss Gladys is living. 
She is married to Mr. Edward A. Trammel!. Little 
Phoebe Mae Trammell is Dr. Eason's only grand 
child. 



27 



- 




SCEXE IX GROVE 




ALHOUN Colored School is locat 
ed at Calhoun, in the agricultural 
County of Lowndes, southern Ala 
bama, 27 miles south of Montgom 
ery, on the main line of the Louis 
ville and Nashville Railroad. 
Eightyfive per cent of the peo 
ple of the County are Colored, 95 per cent of the 
precinct. 

The School was founded in 1892 by Miss Mabel 
W. Dillingham and Miss Charlotte R. Thorn, 
Northern white workers at Hampton Institute. 
Shortly before nearly forty Negroes of the vicinity 
had lost their lives in a race conflict. After this 
catastrophe the people held religious services for 
two weeks, praying for a school from the North. 

Among the original trustees were Booker T. 
Washington, who continued in that office until his 
death, John Bigelow, and Thomas Wentworth Hig- 
ginson, who was succeeded by Richard P. Hallo- 
well. General Armstrong, though in failing health, 
gave invaluable endorsement and counsel. 

Lowndes and the adjacent Counties south and 
west were of the most neglected regions of the 
South. There was almost no Negro ownership of 
land. The crop lien tenancy conditions were unusu 
ally repressive. The cabins lacked even the crudest 
sanitary equipment. The meager public school 
funds of Lowndes County were divided between 
White and Colored in the ratio of thirteen to one 
per child. 

Conditions at once shaped the work into the fol 
lowing departments: First, the school centre for 
a limited number of boarding pupils, with farm and 
industries ; second, instruction of pupils from the 
cabins ; third, community work ; fourth extension 
work into the County and gradually beyond. 

Miss Dillingham survived only two years of Cal- 
houn's early toils and hardships. Miss Thorn is still 
principal. 

In 1896, 3,283 acres adjoining the school were 



purchased for resale to Negroes for $21,565.00. 
The resale was virtually at cost price, with the legal 
rate of 8 per cent interest on notes. Lots aver 
aged 40 acres. Notwithstanding the purchasers' 
lack of capital, tools, and stock, and against a series 
of unfavorable seasons, all payments were com 
pleted within seven years. 

In 1907, 600 additional acres in the vicinity were 
brought under Negro ownership. There are now 
83 proprietors on a tract of about 4000 acres, of 
whom two-fifths have built cottages of from three 
to seven rooms. Nearly all these homes are paid 
for. 

The result of this land movement is a community 
which is described by standard books on the South 
as exceptionally moral, intelligent, and progres 
sive, with far-reaching influence, and intimately 
co-operative with all the work of the school. The 
enlargement of this Negro land ownership under 
Calhoun's direction is earnestly desired by the 
people and urged by educational authorities South 
and North. 

Calhoun had in the year 1916-17, 35 salaried work 
ers, White and Colored, in nearly equal numbers. 
405 pupils were enrolled, 32 in excess of any previ 
ous year. There are 92 boarding students, boys 
and girls. Over 150 additional applications were 
refused for lack of room. The graduating class 
numbered 18 

The endowment May 31, 1917, was $107,039.25. 
The value of land, 21 buildings, and equipment was 
$95,307.36. This includes a water system with com 
plete fire protection. The library numbers 3,853 
volumes, and is well supplied with daily papers and 
periodicals. The following buildings have been 
contracted for: new barn, silo, grist and saw mill 
with tractor engine, and a three-room school. The 
rapid and permanent increase of pupils demands 
an addition of three large buildings for assembly 
hall, class rooms, shops, and dormitory space for 
200 boarding pupils. 



28 




SEWING ROOM 

The property is vested in an independent board 
of trustees: H. B. Frissell, president, Hampton In 
stitute ; Paul Revere Frothingham, vice-president, 
Boston ; Charlotte R. Thorn, Treasurer, Calhoun ; 
Pitt Dillingham, Secretary, Boston; Henry W. Far- 
naw, chairman Investment Committee, New Ha 
ven ; N. Penrose Hallowell, member Investment 
Committee, Boston ; William Jay Schieffelin, mem 
ber Investment Committee, New York ; Henry 
Ware Sprague, Buffalo ; Joseph O. Thompson, Bir 
mingham. 

The support is mainly from contributions. There 
is no State aid. The total income of the last fiscal 
year was $73,236.26. Of this sum $31,803.07 was 
for endowment, buildings, permanent improvement, 
and equipment. 

The purpose of Calhoun is the progress of the 
agricultural region of southern Alabama. The first 
obligation is to its own neighborhood, then to the 
County, then to further sections as its work ex 
tends and develops. It is in intimate and uncom- 
petitive co-operation with the larger institutions 
which serve the Colored population of the South 
generally, and with schools of higher education. 

The academic course, originally limited to the 
six lowest grades, has gradually increased to ten 
with the progressive needs of the people. Thor 
ough drill is united with inspirational teaching, with 
training is given as far as the limits of the course 
outlooks into the world's life and thought. Normal 
will permit, as graduates are in great demand for 




public school teaching. Calhoun graduates teach 
more than 1400 public school children in Lowndes 
County alone. Teachers of Calhoun's higher aca 
demic grades have all been trained in Northern col- 
Iges and universities. Those in charge of the lower 
grades are graduates of colleges or standard normal 
schools. Moral and religious training is prominent, 
in which the school's undenominational character 
is an advantage under the conditions of the field. 
Agricultural training is of chief importance. The 
school farm has 388 acres under intensive cultiva 
tion; 300 acres of this are rented, from necessity. 
There are three expert farmers and teachers. A 
fourth directs the people's farming and business. 
The Colored farm demonstrator of the County is 
paid in part by the school. This department held 
last year a County Fair and eight farmers' confer 
ences. Its counsel is sought continually by farm 
ers of the region. Public conferences and exten 
sion lectures on farming are increasing through an 
enlarging number of communities. The response 
to President Wilson's appeal for more food produc 
tion to meet the needs of the world war was an 
swered by Calhoun with a doubling of farm acre- 




M1LKIXG TIME 



BLACKSMITH SHOP 

age, large increase in buildings, equipment, stock 
and summer force of working students. 

The trades taught are carpentry, house building, 
repairing and painting, blacksmithing, cobbling, 
with harness repairing, cooking, sewing, laundry, 
and domestic crafts. Certificates are given in 
blacksmithing, cobbling and domestic arts, also in 
agriculture. The addition of a year to the course 
ensures the equivalent of two years' trade school 
instruction in carpentry and building. 

Community and extension work is no less prom 
inent than the school work proper. Community 
clubs and classes are held. Medical assistance is 
given by the school nurses at a low cost. Commu 
nity sales held weekly through the term provide 
second-hand clothing from the North. The school's 
community and extension workers and others of 
the force are continually among the people, whose 
visits to the school are frequent for meetings, en 
tertainments, and private counsel. The life of 
home, farm, church, public school, and lodge is 
open to the school's directive influence through 
an ever widening area, in a way to develop initia 
tive. The County and extension work is largely 
done through approved persons, graduates and oth 
ers, who render enthusiastic and unintrusive serv 
ice. 



29 




GEORGE W. CHANDLER 




EORGE W. CHANDLER is a 
produce of Talladega College, 
though a farm lad by birth. He 
is a member of the Masonic, Mo 
saic Templars, Rising Sons and 
Daughters of Protection, and 
United Order of Good Shepherds. To these con 
nections add that he is Notary Public of Mont 
gomery County, a trustee and steward of the C. 
M. E. Church of Montgomery, Trustee of Miles 
Memorial College of Birmingham, and founder 
and trustee of the Good Shepherd's Home of Dal 
las County, Alabama, Editor Good Shepherd's 
Magazine, and you have the list of services a man 
in quiet life can perform. 

Mr. Chandler was born on a farm some six miles 
from the town of Talladega. He attended the 
country school until he was twelve years old, after 
which he entered the preparatory department in 
Talladega Coollege. Five years here fitted him in 
a measure to begin to earn a livelihood. 

At the age of nineteen he left Talladega and 
found employment in a grocery store. On spending 
three years at this he became inspector for an in 
surance company. This position he held for four 
years. From this date he began his life work, 



that in connection with the United Order of 
Good Shepherds. He is now Supreme Pres 
ident of this organization, which operates pretty 
generally in the South and which owns some 3100 
acres of land in Dallas County, Alabama, owns a 
Shepherd Home and does a great deal of useful 
work among its members. 

His great achievement is the establishment of 
this order. Mr. Chandler founded this order in 
the town of Eufaula, Alabama, the third Wed 
nesday in July, 1904. Those who stood by Mr. 
Chandler and were joint founders with him were 
Clark Richardson, Thomas Williams, Mary A. Jack 
son, Ellen Turner, J. A. Ward, P. H. Harmon, and 
John L. Thomas. The body at that time had one 
little book of eight pages and a financial card. Its 
largest membership was one hundred and fifty. 

Very clearly re-organization was urgent, if the 
order really hoped to take its place among the 
substantial orders of the race. With some misgiv 
ing but with ardent persistence Mr. Chandler set 
to work. Exactly one year later he called a meet 
ing in Montgomery, offered fifty-six resolutions, 
one of which let the organization be incorporated, 
the membership had increased, confidence had been 
gained. All that he asked was done. 

Year by year the order began now to gain more 
members and a wider usefulness. It established an 
endowment system one year; another year it rais 
ed its policy: a third year it established several 
additional Fountains, another year it passed reso 
lutions to buy and build a home for old and decrepit 
members, widows and orphans. With seven hun 
dred dollars in his pocket Mr. Chandler set forth 
to buy land for this home. Two thousand acres 
were bargained for in Dallas County, for which a 
first payment of $2000 was made. The order was 
now extending its arm into other States. It had 
Fountains in Georgia, in Florida, in Mississippi, in 
Oklahoma, as well as in Alabama. In 1910 the 
trustees added 1060 acres of land to that already 
purchased, making a tract of 3060 acres. 

Thus has the Order grown and fought its way to 
its feet. Its two farms have cost $36,000 with in 
terest at 8%. The home for the aged and decrepit 
has been under continual improvement and care. 
During the last five years more than $6.000 has 
been raised and expended on the Home. All this 
goes to show that the trustees and George W. 
Chandler have not been idle to the opportunities 
of the man on the land. About one thousanrl acres 
of the land is improved, the remainder is good tim 
ber land, land on which flourish white oak, pine, 
poplar, cedars, ash and red oak. Taken for all and 
all, this land which cost the Good Shepherds $34,000 
with interest, is now valued at $150.000. 

The Order has gained the confidence and good 
wishes of many of the leading citizens of Mont- 



30 




NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS OF THE UNITED ORDER OF GOOD SHEPHERDS 



gomery, its headquarters, both white and black. 
Everywhere, it has kept its obligations and made 
friends, and employed reliable people as its rep 
resentatives. A letter from Bishop J. W. Alstork 
will illustrate the good standing the Order of Good 
Shepherds has gained through the hard work of 
G. \V. Chandler. 

Bishop J. W. Alstork of the A. M. E. Zion Church 
says in part : 

If men are to be commended and rewarded for 
what they have done, you deserve a place in the 
first rank of those who have done something for 
the advancement and general uplift of the people. 
1 regard the project of purchasing the Good Shep 
herd Home as one of the most advanced steps ever 
taken for the race in this Country. When it comes 
to Agriculture and economics it stands far above 
any Negro Society for broadness in scope and 
comprehension in arrangements. 

Mr. Chandler believes in real estate as one of 
the best investments for anyone, especially for the 
colored people. He believes that such investments 
tend to raise a man in the esteem of his fellows 



in a community, and to make him feel on the other 
hand responsibility. Through very close economy 
which he learned to practice early in his career, 
Mr. Chandler has been able to make many very 
happy investments in the business of real estate. 
His investments and property holdings are rated 
at $20,000. 

For both business and pleasure he has been able 
to travel much, having covered practically all the 
Southern States and a few Northern States in his 
journeys. Mainly his trips have been in the in 
terest of the Order of the Good Shepherds which 
owes to him much credit for its success as an or 
ganization. 

Mr. Chandler's family is small, consisting of 
three, himself, Mrs. Chandler and daughter. He 
was married in 1904. Mrs. Chandler was Miss Liz 
zie Redding of Macon, Georgia. The daughter, 
Nettie Lena Chandler, is a pupil in school. 

Mr. Chandler has the confidence and the good 
wishes of the leading citizens of the State of 
Alabama. 



31 





S. N. DICKERSON 




PTIMISM and pessimism, are to 
be found in all the walks of life 
and are not confined to any race, 
class or profession. While this is 
true to find a business enthusiast 
among the colored race is a rarity. 
Such a one is Samuel Newton Dickerson of 
Talladega, Ala. A business rather than a profes 
sional life appealed to him and he has put into his 
business that energy, zeal and intelligence which 
wins success. 

Mr. Dickerson was born in Talladega, the city 
where he began his business career and which has 
been the field of his business activities. 

He was born at the close of the civil war and 
received his education at the Talladega College. 
He first entered the public school where he was 
prepared for the college course. Like most young 
colored men his way to an education was not a 
rosy path. 

The educational facilities of the town were am 
ple for his purposes but the question of a livelihood 
made it difficult for him to avail himself of them. 
In addition to his own support he had the care of 
his mother and sister to whose comforts he devot- 



ed his life. One of his outstanding traits is his de 
votion and loyalty to his family. 

Difficulties are not fatal to a strong man but act 
as a tonic to spur him on so it is not surprising 
that Mr. Dickerson succeeded in the face of diffi 
culties in securing an education. 

Mr. Dickerson's first business venture was that 
of a painter which he followed for fifteen years 
from 1890. He then entered the Drug business 
which he continued for ten years with marked suc 
cess. 

From this line of business he entered the gen 
eral mercantile business which now occupies his 
time and attention. 

While push is his watchword in business con 
servatism steadies his place and it is to these two 
characteristics that he has scored so great a suc 
cess. 

Concerning life as a poor man through thrift 
and good management he has accumulated a good 
property. Besides his home he owns a store, six 
rental houses, several city lots and one hundred and 
ten suburban lots. He also owns a share of stock 
in the Chinabar Cotton Mill. 

He is a great advocate of the Negro entering the 
marts of trade and encourages the establishment of 
individual firms but his ideals of business take a 
wider range than the individual and reaches out to 
the community life. He believes in co-operation 
and takes the position that the colored citizen has 
a part to play in the development of the civic life 
of the community and should take part in all en 
terprises of a public nature which has for its end 
the upbuilding of the community life. 

He sees in this way the best method to win re 
cognition and respect for the worthy colored citi 
zens. 

Mr. Dickerson's talent as a business man and 
promoter is recognized by his friends who con 
stantly come to him for advice, and they always 
find in him a friendly and sound adviser. 

Aside from his personal business connections he 
has headed a number of business associations. 

He has served as President of the Talladega 
Business League, President of the Farmers Invest 
ment and Benevolent Association, President of the 
Negro Merchant's Association, and Vice-President 
of the Alabama Negro Business League. He has 
given murh time and thought to these organiza 
tions and they have profited through his wise coun 
sel. 

In business matters'he is a leader, but in the do 
main of religion he prefers to follow. He is a 
member of the Baptist Church and does his part in 
keeping up the church enterprises. He is also a 
Mason and has served as Worshipful Master of the 
Mariah division. 

Mr. Dickerson's home life is happy though de 
prived of children. In 1890 he married Miss Alice 
Camp of his home city. Although they have no 
children of their own, childhood makes a strong ap 
peal to them and they spend much time and money 
in helping the children of others. They are the 
children's friends. 

He gave his sister, Mrs. T. B. Barnett, the best 
of educational advantages and fitted her for teach 
ing. She is now a teacher in the Swayne College. 
Montgomery, and ranks high in the profession. 



32 





JOHN WILLIAM BEVERLY. 

iFORE SLAVERY was abolished 
there was born in Hale County, 
Alabama, not far from Greens 
boro, a baby boy who was destin 
ed to play a large part in the edu 
cational advancement of the col- 

ored race of Alabama. That babe 

was John William Beverly. 

Nature endowed him with a bright mind which 
was largely developed through the agency of the 
Lincoln Normal College, then located at Greens 
boro, where he received his education. 

After reaching that period of life when he must 
decide upon a calling he chose the profession of 
teaching and his first work in the school room after 
his graduation was at a school near Demopolis, 
Alabama. Here he served during the years 1886 
and 1887. 

From 1887 to 1890 he taught in the Lincoln Nor 
mal College and from there he went to Brown 
University, Providence, R. I. 

lie returned to Alabama in 1894 and became the 
Assistant Principal of the State Normal School. 

This school was established as Lincoln Normal 
University at Marion, Perry County, by act of the 
Alabama Legislature in 1873. it was moved to 
Montgomery in 1889 and the name changed to its 
present title. 

When Professor William B. Patterson, a white 
man, who for forty years had presided over the 
school and contributed much to its development, 



died in the year 1915, Prof. Beverly was called to 
take his place and since that time he has devoted 
his time, energy and talents to its welfare. Under 
his leadership the school has not only maintained 
the high standard to which his predecessor had 
brought it but has advanced beyond it. 

Having a good foundation to build upon he has 
proved himself a master builder. 

While his main thought is concentrated upon the 
school room his interest in the welfare of his peo 
ple does not end there. His vision carries him 
beyond the domain of the college and he finds op 
portunities to serve his people on the outside 
through the medium of his pen, 

He possesses exceptional talent as a writer and 
it has served him well in the preparation of pamph 
lets for distribution among those who are denied 
educational advantages. In this way many who 
are denied privileges are kept in touch with the ed 
ucational progress of the day and are influenced to 
make sacrifice in the interest of the education of 
the children. 

He is the editor of "Practical Ethics for Children" 
and "Guide to the English Oration." 

His writings have taken a broad range but pos 
sibly the work which has brought him into greater 
prominence as a writer is his History of Alabama. 
This work has been adopted by the State Board as 
a supplementary study of Alabama History, Prof- 
fessor Beverly is a man of deep thought and con 
siders well his plans before executing them. 

He is a farmer and owns and cultivates farms in 
Elmore and Montgomery Counties. He has studi 
ed closely the advanced theories of farming and 
has watched their practical test and has adopted 
those which appealed to his judgment. In this 
way he has brought his farming operations to a 
higher standard of success. 

He owns his home which is located at 105 Tatum 
Street, Montgomery, the refined elegance of which 
is the reflection of the refined taste of the occu 
pant. 

Associated with Professor Beverly in the opera 
tion of the State Normal Institute are a corps of 
teachers, gifted in their particular branches and 
who render valuable assistance to the Principle in 
promoting the welfare of the college. 

Through the splendid system of operation put 
into effect by the Principle and forcibly carried out 
by the faculty, the pupils are thoroughly equipped 
to fill their places in life in their chosen fields of 
endeavor. 

The faculty of the State Normal College is as 
follows: J. W. Beverly, Principal; Annie W. 
Doak, Secretary; Mary L. Strong. Literature; 
Rev. E. E. Scott, History; Miss Mary F. Mon 
roe. Mathematics; J. L. Kilpatrick, Science; Venus 
H. Lewis, Supervisor Study room ; Albert H. Bev 
erly, English ; Christine L. Graves, English ; Rosa 
L. Shaw, Drawing; Gertrude L. Watkins, Domestic 
Science; Josie Murray, Domestic Art; E. M. Lewis, 
Carpentry ; Annie L. Brown, Music ; Bertha L. 
Smith, Supervisor of Model School and Peda 
gogics; 11. S. Murphy, Agriculture; Camille High- 
tower, Sewing and Physical Culture; Minnie J. 
Lewis, first grade; josie Govan, second grade; 
Bertha West, third grade; Merillo T. Garner, 
fourth grade; Dora D. Beverly, fifth grade; Bessie 
L. Nelms, sixth grade ; Mary F. Terrell, seventh 
grade ; M. J. Moore, eighth grade. 









LINCOLN LACONIA BURWELL, M. D. 

INCOLN LACONIA BURWELL, 
of Selma, AlaDama, is, like the 
other professional men in these 
pages, an answer to the query : 
"We give money to educate Ne 
groes, but what becomes of them 
afterwards?" 

As a boy in Marengo County, Alabama, where 
he was born, he was all but destitute. He was 
given away to rear when eight years old, to his 
brother, Charles A. Burwell. While working on 
the farm in the usual way of a country boy, he 
showed ability to grasp more than the rural school 
had to offer. 

Accordingly, in 1883, he went to the Alabama 
Baptist Normal and Theological School, now Sel 
ma University. By 1886 he finished the college 
preparatory course as valedictorian of the class. In 
the same year he entered the Leonard Medical Col 
lege, Shaw University, Raleigh. North Carolina, 
completed in three years the course in medicine 
which usually covers four years. Here, again, he 
was valedictorian. 

With no money and no backing Dr. Burwell re 
turned to Selma. At first he worked as a pharma 
cist. Having an opportunity to buy a business, he 



entered into a partnership to. ...purchase... .a drug 
store equipment and stock. He borrowed one hun 
dred dollars, which each partner was to pay in 
cash, from his brother-in-law, and gave notes for 
the balance. In a little while, however, he sold his 
share, and devoted all his attention to the practice 
of medicine. Four months after this step, the 
business failed. But Dr. Burwell felt that the col 
ored people ought to have a place to have their 
prescriptions filled and to get soda water without 
embarrassment, and therefore set up a business 
for himself. The store was a room, twelve feet by 
fourteen, which he built near his home. Perfume 
bottles took the place of regular stock bottles, and 
the tinctures were made in spare hours. 

As the business grew Dr. Burwell moved, always 
getting larger quarters and nearer the center of 
town. On April 20, 1895, when steady develop 
ment had brought much increased volume, the drug 
store was destroyed by fire. In two months, how 
ever, the store was open again, notwithstanding 
the small insurance. In 1904 he put up a splendid 
brick structure opposite the City Buildings in the 
business section of Selma. Here are all the attrac 
tions and accommodations that the best drug 
stores anywhere offer, with four persons regularly 
employed. There is a large soda fountain, chairs 
and tables in the center of the room, telephone 
booth, offices for medical consultation and treat 
ment. Everything is so well arranged and kept 
that it makes a Negro a little proud of himself 
just to enter here. 

Dr. Burwell has constantly kept in view his duty 
of service to his fellows. Educated under Christian 
auspices, he felt, indeed he knew, that accomplish 
ment, talent, knowledge, and wealth were but 
loans to be repaid in helping others. So, he taught 
pharmacy to Drs. G. W. Clark. T. L. A. Tomlinson 
and C. W. Reid. These young men were thus able 
to pass the Alabama Pharmacy Board without the 
expense of attending the schools. Several others, 
now doctors, were able to shorten their course in 
college because of help from him. 

In the late nineties, yellow fever invaded the 
lower South, and, of course struck Selma. The rich 
and well-to-do fled northward, leaving their homes 
and property to the mercy of those who remained. 
The white citizens organized a protective league to 
see that no vandalism was practised in the citv. 
Dr. Burwell organized a similar league among the 
colored people, which detailed seven men to patrol 
the colored sections and any other district assign 
ed to them. No vandalism was practiced, and both 
races to this day point to the incident with pride. 
Another evidence of the public spirit of our sub 
ject is the fact that he raised a group of thirty 
three men who enlisted in Company C. Third Ala 
bama Volunteers, for service in the Spanish- 
American War. 



34 




BURWELL'S INFIRMARY 

Notwithstanding the heavy burden of business 
activities, Dr. Burwell does not neglect his 
religious duties. He is a devout Christian work 
er. During the twenty-seven years of his life in 
Selma his interest has constantly followed both 
church and school. For thirteen years he was Sec 
retary of the Board of Trustees of Selma Uni 
versity, of which he is still a member, giving to his 
Alma Mater time and service and often carrying 
financial responsibilities with no thought of re 
turn. 

The city of Selma is one of the few in which 
Negroes have an infirmary. The average colored 
patient must stav at home, however inconvenient it 
may be for him, and expose his family. Dr. Bur- 
well it was who founded the infirmary in Selma 
in 1907, providing competent trained nurses to give 
the colored people the same chance at health and 
recovery that others may have. At present, be 
sides the founder, nine white physicians take their 
colored patients here for operation and treatment. 
Incidentally, this is no inconsiderable haven for the 
Negro nurses. 

When Dr. Burwell announced the opening of 
the Infirmary, an announcement which gave him 
no little pleasure, as it voiced the consummation 
of a noble achievement, he took occasion to speak 




of another of his enterprises in the following sig 
nificant words : 

"With a big store erected and paid for, where the 
Negro can come and does come, without any timi 
dity or fear, with such business as gives employ 
ment to four Negroes daily, and with six young 
men inspired and prepared to do life's work as they 
may choose, the fondest hope of what I wanted to 
do for my race is realized." 

These words evince a commendable pride for 
achievements in the interest of his race. 

Dr. Burwell possessed of a zeal in the interest 
of his people and devoting much of his time and 
talent to their advancement was not unmindful of 
his life calling and the steady development of his 
practice bears testimony to his popularity as a 
physician. 

With all these big things. Dr. Burwell is a rather 
intense family man. You will not talk with him 
long before you are informed that to Mrs. Burwell, 
who was Miss Lavinia Richardson, is due the great 
est credit for his success. His two daughters were 
educated in Oberlin, Ohio. Miss Almedia L. Bur- 
well was graduated from the College, having taken 
also extensive work in the Conservatory of Music 
of the same institution. She is now "teacher of 
music in the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical 
College, Tallahassee, Florida. The other daughter, 
Miss Elezora L. Burwell, is interested in business 




DR. BURWELL'S RESIDENCE 



DR. BURWELL'S LIBRARY 

She was graduated from the Oberlin Business Col 
lege in 1915, and is now Secretary to the President 
df Selma Univeristy. 

Thus it appears that this man, starting rather 
destitute in Marengo County, has given a good 
account of his stewardship. Being a member of 
the Baptist State Convention of the Order of 
Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, trustee of 
Selma University, builder of a big drug store busi 
ness, helper of the poor student and the poor peo 
ple, founder and promoter of a Negro infirmary, he 
has certainly earned the title of big and public- 
spirited citizen. Add to this the splendid education 
of his children and his erection of one of the finest 
homes in Selma, and you will see why Dr. Burwell 
is pointed to with pride by members of the race, 
and you will also read the answer to the query 
with which we began. 



35 





WILLIAM HENRY COLEMAN, M. D. 

R. WILLIAM HENRY COLEMAN 
of Bessemer, Alabama, follow 
ed in the wake of many of our 
leading men in getting his educa 
tion, only he used a greater varie 
ty of occupations perhaps than 

most of those who have made 

their way from the bottom. Born in Montgomery, 
Alabama, January 9th 1877 he attended school for 
a while in his native city. 

Finishing such training as he could get here at 
that time he became a student in Payne University, 
Selma, Alabama. From Payne he finally made his 
way into Meharry Medical College at Nashville, 
where he was graduated in 1900. 

His ambition to fit himself for the medical pro 
fession did not lead him along a smooth path but 
he won the victory when he formed the purpose to 
succeed and his subsequent efforts were more inci 
dents in his plan. 

In order to complete the courses both in college 
and medicine he found it necessary to put his hand 
to a variety of tasks. One session he taught school 
but the revenue from this source was inadequate to 
meet his expenses so he gave up this employment 
and sought another. His next employment was 
that of Bell boy in a hotel and while not so digni 
fied a position as teaching school it added to his in 
come and served his purposes better. 

From Hotel bellman he became a Pullman porter, 



covering in his journeys the greater part of the 
United States and going into Canada and into Mex 
ico. 

From this latter work he was enabled to save 
sufficient money to pursue and finish his medical 
studies, though he had to practice the greatest 
economy and added to his fund by working as jan 
itor of the college and filling other posts that would 
yield him a penny to carry forward his education. 
Having to work hard for an education lie learned to 
appreciate its value more and the very sacrifices he 
made to secure it added to its impelling forces 
in his after life. Graduating from Meharry in 1900, 
he first began practice in Crawfordsville. Arkan 
sas. While the life of a country physician brought 
a rich reward in health and strength he felt 
the call of a larger field and so after one years re 
sidence in Crawfordsville he removed to Bessemer, 
Alabama, where he opened an office in 1901 and 
where he has continued to reside until now. 

His practice has grown wonderfully during his 
eighteen years residence in Bessemer as lias his 
popularity as a man and physician. He is inured 
to hard work and notwithstanding his large prac 
tice he finds time to devote to his social, civic and 
religious duties. 

He is an active churchman and makes his per 
sonality felt in the religious body to which he be 
longs, Allen Temple A. M. K. Church. 

He is also actively identified with a number of 
secret orders, the Masons, Knights of Pythias, Mo 
saic Templers and others. 

While giving close attention to his patients and 
not neglecting the manifold duties crowding into 
the life of busy men he still continues his studies 
and often the product of his pen finds its way to 
the medical journals. 

He made it a rule to consider the problems of life 
with calmness and wisdom and never to yield to the 
suggestions of worry. He realized that all action 
is followed by equal reaction and so he fortified 
himself against all depressive influences. 

The reason why he is enabled to accomplish so 
much is that he carefully plans his work and works 
to a definite point. 

One of his theories is, that the margin between 
success and failure is very small and that success is 
not so much due to great ability as the use you 
make of the ability you have, whether it be great 
or small. 

He loves his profession and has given to it the 
best that is in him. 

The domestic life of Dr. Coleman is very happy 
and it is an abiding joy to care for his aged mother, 
who makes her home with him. 

He was married in 1914 to Miss Mattie Kirk- 
patrick of Nashville, Tennessee, who is a help meet 
in every sense of the word. 

They live in a modern home worth about $5000.00 
and have investments in both residence and busi 
ness property. 

The atmosphere of hospitality and good will per 
vades their home. 



36 





ARTHUR WILLIS DAVIS, B. S., M. D. 

N the year 1875, in Marion Ala 
bama, Dr. Arthur Willis Davis 
was born. At that time for a 
black man to aspire to the study 
of medicine was to approach a 
field shrouded in awe and mys 
tery. Hut notwithstanding' the veil of mystery 
covering the profession, Dr. Davis decided to enter 
its domain. 

The facilities offered to the colored youth in this 
line of endeavor in his section of the country was 
much beclouded, the teachers few and not espe 
cially competent, which made the road that young 
Davis had to travel to reach his aspiration full of 
difficulties. 

Difficulties discourage the weak but brace the 
strong so Dr. Davis made his way through them 
to a gratifying success. 

Marion, the birth place of Dr. Davis and where 
he received a public school education, was an edu 
cational center, the very atmosphere of the place 
breathing the spirit of education, which no doubt 
contributed to his aspirations. He had seen many 
young men and women leave the educational insti 
tutions located there achieve success in life and 



naturally he attributed their success to the prepa 
ration they had received in college. He formed the 
determination to secure a good education himself 
and having come to that decision he left home in 
search of his goal. 

He first attended the Talladega College at Tal- 
ladega, Alabama, where he received his B. S. de 
gree. 

He specialized in the sciences for the good it 
would serve him in his life work. 

After completing his course at Talladega Col 
lege he next entered Meharry Medical College and 
completed his course of study there in 1903. 

He was now ready to hang out his shingle and in 
casting about for a place to begin his life work 
his eyes turned towards his native State, ambi 
tious alike to serve his own people as well as him 
self. 

Tuscumbia won his favor and it was in this town 
that he began the practice of his profession which 
extended to the near-by City of Sheffield. 

It proved to be a wise choice. In the section he 
had selected as a field of labor the colored man liv 
ed in great numbers and stood together in all 
efforts towards advancement. It is hardly neces 
sary to add that he soon had a number of patients. 

When he opened his office in Tuscumbia his sole 
wealth was $25. This nest egg has multiplied 
many times. 

After fourteen years of practice his list of assets 
show that he owns a comfortable home, a drug 
store and stock, two farms and a residence in Shef 
field which he rents. To have accumulated such a 
property in so short a time shows business ability 
as well as professional skill. He had learned the 
art of saving which is the first lesson in permanent 
success. 

His term at the Talladega College left a religious 
impress upon his life which remained with him. In 
his religious belief he is a Corigregationalist though 
in sympathy with all religious bodies. 

In Fraternal matters Dr. Davis is a Mason and 
a member of the Mosaic Templars. 

He is the State medical examiner for the Mosaic 
Templars and is also the medical examiner for the 
Conservative Life Insurance Company of West 
Virginia, the Standard Life Insurance Company of 
Atlanta, Georgia, and for the Lincoln Reserve 
Company of Birmingham, Alabama. 

Dr. Davis was married December 26th, 1905, to 
Miss Hattie Lee Jackson of Nashville, Tennessee, 
a Christmas gift, which has always appealed to his 
heart. They have one child, a daughter, who 
makes sunshine in their home. 

Miss Sadie May Davis is still a young Miss in 
school, seeking like her father to fit herself for a 
life of service. No doubt under his guiding hand 
she will find her place and (ill it with the same 
credit that he has filled his. 




JAMES OLIVER DIFFAY. 




NE of the quietest, most courteous 
and most humble men of Birming 
ham, Alabama is J. O. Diffay. Mr. 
Diffay has the habit, more com 
mon in the country than in town, 

of seeing strangers. In a quiet, 

easy way he soon manages to get them by the hand 
to find out what they are looking for and to help 
them secure the object of their search, whether this 
be a lodging house, a good meal, a business prop 
osition or a railway station. 

Of course there is more or less reason for this 
on the part of Mr. Diffay. He is one of the oldest 
citizens of the giant Southern city. He knew Bir 
mingham when the town was near rural, when 
there were few if any street lights, no cars or tax- 
icabs, and no street signs to guide the stranger. 

How rural it was is brought out by a few facts 
of Mr. Diffay's early childhood. Mr. Diffay was 
born back in the early sixties in what is now Bir 
mingham. He attended the county school up to 
the fifth grade, attending about 4 months in the 
year. While going to school Mr. Diffay worked on 
the farm. Thus the setting hereabout was closely 
akin to rural in Mr. Diffay's early days. 



At the age of twenty-four Mr. Diffay entered 
the business of selling produce. Finding this not 
so much to his liking he next set up a barber shop 
for colored people and set out to grow with the 
town. Mr. Diffay always felt that the colored peo 
ple should have just as attractive shop, just as com 
petent and polite service as any other people. Thus 
as Birmingham grew he improved his shop. Here 
is a $10,000 emporium with some twelve odd revolv 
ing chairs, large mirrors, hot and cold water, 
baths, electric fans, pool room parlors, social club, 
indeed all that makes a barber shop pleasant to look 
upon and a refreshing place to visit. Twelve bar 
bers, neat and alert, are employed steadily here to 
wait on the colored customers. Probably taken 
all in all there is nowhere a better shop for col 
ored people than this of Mr. Diffay's in Birming 
ham. 

For years Mr. Diffay labored here, working be 
hind the chair himself superintending his helpers, 
acting as cashier and watching for and putting in 
improvements. His big shop in recent years has 
become well known, his business secure." He has 
therefore for a good while been free to look about 
the city, to watch the progress of the people and to 
play a formidable part in the growth of Negro bus 
iness. Finding himself comparatively free, Mr. 
Diffay turned much attention to real estate, with 
the result that before the hard times came on his 
business in real estate almost rivaled that in the 
barber shop. 

When the late Dr. Pettiford, sometimes spoken 
of as the "Nestor of Negro Bankers," started the 
Penny Savings Bank, Mr. Diffay was among the 
first whose good will and cooperation were sought. 
He seconded Dr. Pettiford in all his actions, was 
for years the vice-president of the bank. When Dr. 
Pettiford died, Mr. Diffay succeeded him, becoming 
president of the Alabama Penny Savings Bank and 
the Prudential Bank which had combined their in 
terests. 

Though his education was not far advanced dur 
ing his youth, Mr. Diffay, besides the advantages 
of very good local contact, has embraced every 
chance of self-improvement. He is especially zeal 
ous of race education, of knowing what colored 
people are really doing. Then, you will find him in 
a teachers convention, a farmers' conference, a Y. 
M. C. A. cabinet meeting, a doctor's gathering, lis 
tening and quietly questioning. In this way he 
keeps himself young, well informed and surrounded 
by a host of warm friends. 

These meetings are not on Mr. Diffay's required 
list. His Grand Lodge meetings, his church meet 
ings are. Few men are seen oftener in their pews 
of the famous 16th Street Baptist Church than Mr. 
Diffay. Few are more liberal towards it with sup 
port, time and counsel than he. 

Mr. Diffay owns and lives in a beautiful new 
home near the rush of the city, yet removed from 
the noise of traffic and cars. Here Mrs. Diffay, for 
merly Miss Soselle Bradford, makes stranger or 
friend feel perfectly at case. Indeed, the Diffays 
have a cordial way of turning you loose, to go when 
you please and where you please and to come back 
when you please. Very likely there is no colored 
man in Birmingham who has made as many friends 
for the city as has J. O. Diffay. 





DARIUS H. HENRY, D. D. 

R. Darius H. Henry is a type of 
that Emersonian American who 
does a great many things pretty 
well. He has taught school, been 
a farm demonstrator, an editor 
and a pastor. Of these he still 
holds one or two pastorates and he still farms. 

Dr. Henry was born in 1866 in Coy, Alabama. 
At a tender age he was given to his grandparents 
who spared no pains in trying to train him up in 
the fear of God and educate him to become a useful 
citizen. To them he owes all his education and all 
the inspiration that he received in his youth. The 
lad was first sent to the public school of Coy, Ala 
bama where he remained till he needed more ad 
vanced work and he was then sent to the public 
school at Camden, Alabama. From Camden he en 
tered Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute 
and was graduated from the Normal department 
in 1890. 

On leaving Tuskegee. Dr. Henry returned to his 
native town, Coy, and for two years taught the 
public school there. Thinking to enlarge his use 
fulness and better himself at the same time, he left 
Coy and went to Avenger. Texas. Here for five 
years he taught the public school and, with Mr. J. 
W. Friday edited a school Medical Journal. He was 



later editor-in-chief of the Watchman, a paper pub 
lished in Texarkana. 

Giving up his work as editor and teacher in Tex 
as, Dr. Henry returned to Alabama, to Coy, and 
began to farm. Dr. Henry owns his own farm of 
1240 acres, and valued at $25.00 per acre and runs it 
himself. His average cotton yield is seventy-five 
bales a year. He runs on his plantation a saw mill, 
a ginnery and a grist mill. In the ginnery alone he 
does a great business, for there passes through his 
mill from 250 to 300 bales of cotton a year. Mr. 
Henry has not neglected to put around himself and 
family all the comforts of country life. The fam 
ily lives in their own home which is valued at $1800 
and they have around them all those comforts of 
fruit trees, vines, garden and stock that make life 
in the rural districts content. Indeed so successful 
has Dr. Henry been as a farmer that the late Dr. 
Washington once sent him to a Governor of Ala 
bama as an example of Negro progress in agricul 
ture. For two years he served the Government of 
his country as United States Demonstration Agent 
in Wilcox County. 

Dr. Henry's work as pastor is not eclipsed by his 
labors as a farmer. He was introduced to the 
Baptist State Convention by the Rev. L. S. Stein- 
bach. And he has proven worthy of the trust put 
in him. He is a member of and pastor of the Little 
Zion Baptist Church, at Coy, Alabama, his native 
home. Dr. Henry divides his time as pastor with 
the Magnolia Baptist Church at Camden, where as 
a boy he attended school. Nor is the labor of Dr. 
Henry confined solely to his locality. He is Mod 
erator of the Star Hope Association of his section 
and he was for eighteen years clerk of this asso 
ciation. He has served on boards for the asocia- 
tion and for the convention as well. Indeed so 
freely has Dr. Henry given himself to the cause 
of the Baptists of the state and so great has been 
his development along these lines that Selma Uni 
versity conferred upon him the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity in recognition of his growth and of his 
service. 

In fraternal membership Dr. Henry belongs to 
the Masonic Lodge 195 of Coy, Alabama, and to the 
Eastern Star 75. He is Master of the former and 
Worthy Patron of the latter. Dr. Henry was 
married in 1897 to Miss Julia A. Brewer. There 
are no children in the Henry family. 

When it was known that I. T. Vernon was to re 
sign his post as Register of the United States 
Treasury, Dr. Henry's friends highly recommend 
ed him for the vacancy. This application was en 
dorsed by both Democrats and Republicans as well 
as the leading colored men of Alabama. His cre 
dentials arrived too late but the effort served to 
show him the high esteem in which he was held 
bv his fellow citizens. 



39 





WILLIAM J. EDWARDS 

MONG the men who sat under 
Booker T. Washington and 
caught his vision of service in the 
uplift of the unfortunate in out- 
of-the-way places, William J. 
Edwards is a brilliant example. 
Born in Snow Hill, Wilcox County, Alabama, in 
the year 1870, his career has been marked with pri 
vation and difficulties almost impassable. Diffi 
culties either make or break a man and in the case 
of Professor Edwards they proved his making. 

His mother died when he was only twelve months 
old and his father left Snow Hill when he was 
about six years of age and in a short while the 
message came that he too was dead. Left an or 
phan at the early age of six he was placed in the 
care of his old grand-mother who did her best to 
meet the responsibility and provide for the devel 
opment of his mind as well as his body. 

She sent him to the neighboring school but often 
with only bread for his lunch. The lack of food, 
however, did not quench the thirst for knowledge 
and he applied himself to his books with great 
energy and determination. 

When he reached the age of twelve this friend 
and protector was also taken from him and he was 



left to shift for himself. Perplexed and almost 
bewildered he consulted a minister in the com 
munity and through him learned of the Tuskegee 
Institute. He at once determined to attend this 
school and in order to provide the means for his 
tuition he rented two acres of land, cultivated it 
and in the fall when his crop was gathered he en 
tered the Institution. He not only entered the 
school but finished his course and finally stood out 
side of its walls to face the problem which con 
fronts most young men who graduate and are 
ready to take up the active duties of life. "What 
next?" Law and the Ministry both made a strong 
appeal to him and he gave them the closest con 
sideration but the vision of service to the unfor 
tunate which Booker T. Washington had placed 
before his mind had gotten too strong a hold upon 
him to be easily cast off so it decided his life work. 
The outcome of this plan was the founding of the 
Snow Hill Normal and Industrial Institute. 

When his purpose was formed his mind instinc 
tively turned towards Snow Hill, the place of his 
boyhood struggles. He moved cautiously, how 
ever, not wishing to make a mistake at the incep 
tion of his plans. He wanted to be sure of his 
ground. To this end he canvassed several of the 
Black belt centers, noting the condition of the peo 
ple, the relation of the races and the educational 
advantages enjoyed by them. 

When he first went to the Tuskegee Institute he 
made most of the journey on foot and the initial 
journey through the counties of the black belt in 
the interest of his proposed enterprise was made in 
a like manner. It was best to travel in this way 
from two standpoints. It was cheaper, and money 
was a consideration with him at that time, and by 
this method of travel it gave him an opportunity to 
meet more of the people among whom he hoped to 
labor. 

The result of this journey decided him where to 
locate his school and also determined its character. 

He found that there was a colored population in 
the Snow Hill district of more than 200,000 and a 
school population of 85.499. The people he found 
to be ignorant and superstitious and that strictly 
speaking there were no public schools and but one 
private one. That they were being taught by min 
isters and teachers not far above them in intelli 
gence. 

Visions are given us to inspire to noble effort 
so Professor Edwards immediately set to work to 
translate his vision into reality and the Snow Hill 
Normal and Industrial Institute is the monument 
to his labors. To this institution he has given his 
life. He has expanded it, developed its courses, 
added many buildings and best of all has realized 
his dream of a school for the people. 

The founder of this school must have kept before 
his mind the line "Tall oaks from little acorns 
grow" and had learned well the lesson "not to de 
spise the day of small things." When his school 
started in the year 1894 its housing was an old log 
cabin, its teaching force one and the number of 



40 




SNOW HILL NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE 



pupils three. This equipment backed by a capital 
of fifty cents marked its modest beginning. 

By the way of contrast we quote from the Gov 
ernment Bulletin No. 39 issued in 1916: 

"Total attendance 293; male 145 and female 148. 
Total teaching forces 29; all colored; male 15, and 
female 14; academic 14, boys' industries 5, girls in 
dustries 2, matron 1, executive and office workers 
6, agriculture 1. 

The acorn has become a tree and proudly stands 
as a monument to faith, energy and an abiding pur 
pose to serve the people among whom the founder 
was born and reared. 

As stated above the school was founded in the 
year 1894 and is the outgrowth of a vision which 
came to the principal, Professor William J. Ed 
wards, while a student at the Tuskegee Institute. 
The school is owned and controlled by a board of 
capable Northern and Southern men. 

Its material growth has been very rapid and 
while it has contributed to the pride of the insti 
tute its chief glory lies in the educational advant 
ages it has given the community and the prepara 
tion it has given its pupils for their life work. 

It has given them especial training in the literary 
branches but in addition has given them the choice 
of thirteen trades. 

Being located near the center of a rich agricul 
tural belt it has laid emphasis upon the Agricul 
tural Department. 

Farming is the chief industry of the people and 
it was realized that a very large per cent of the 
graduates would turn to the soil, so it was deter 
mined to teach them the science of farming so that 
they would make better farmers and win from the 
land larger and more diversified crops. It has 
been slow work to teach the pupils the advantage 
of scientific farming over the old methods but the 



leaven is beginning to work and ere long the whole 
community will see the advantage of the Scientific 
method. 

The school has a large acreage of land (about 
2000 acres and considerable industrial equipment. 
It hs twenty-one buildings and a property valua 
tion of about $90,000. Its organization com 
prises Elementary, Industrial and Agriculture. The 
elementary work covers eight years, divided into 
primary school of six years, and the preparatory 
and junior classes of one year each. There are 
four upper classes which include some elementary 
subjects, called "B middle," "A middle," "Senior 
preparatory" and "Senior." 

The secondary subjects are english, chemistry, 
physics, biology, agriculture, geometry, algebra, 
civil government, moral philosophy, school man 
agement and psychology. 

In the Industrial department is taught carpentry, 
blacksmithing, printing, leather work, masonry, 
tailoring and commercial. 

In the agricultural department the chief thing 
taught is agriculture. 

To this school its founder and principal has given 
his entire time, his best thought and his physical 
strength. In its development he has not spared 
himself. He has traveled far and wide in its inter 
est and has often been heard on the platform in its 
behalf. Possessing oratorical powers he has been 
much in demand as a speaker which has given him 
many opportunities to keep his school before the 
public. His theory is that a teacher should ever 
be a student and acting upon this theory he at 
tends the summer school at Chicago, Harvard and 
other places. 

Snow Hill Institute has been conducted in such 
a manner as to win the confidence and respect of 
the entire community, white and black alike. 



41 





RICHARD BYRON HUDSON, A. B. 

OR a score or more of years few 
activities in any kind of up-lift 
work have existed either in Ala 
bama or elsewhere among color 
ed people without the enthusiastic 
support of R. B. Hudson, of Sel- 
ma, Alabama. He has been prominent in Sunday 
School work, in Baptist Church work, in Masonic 
Lodge, and in the State and National Association 
for Colored Teachers, holding at one time or an 
other prominent and responsible offices in all of 
these bodies. 

In working in Alabama. Mr. Hudson is on his na 
tive heath. He was born in Uniontown, Alabama, 
Feb. 7. 1866. He received his first education in 
the Uniontown District Academy. From here he 
entered Selma University, whence he received the 
Degree of Bachelor of Arts. He has taken Post 
Graduate courses in the College of Liberal Arts in 
Chatauqua, N. Y. 

Like most men of the earlier days, Mr. Hudson 
had to work his way through school. In Selma 
University he paid for a great deal of his education 
by working at the printer's trade, and by tutoring 
mathematics. This tutoring led him to choose a 
life career. From tutoring he went to teaching in 



Selma University, where he taught mathematics 
from 1889 to 1890. 

Of course Prof. Hudson is best known in the 
State of Alabama and in the educational world 
through the Clark School of Selma. This is known 
throughout the State as one of the best kept build 
ings and one in which some of the most thorough 
teaching is done anywhere in the South. Inspec 
tors, State Supervisors, and State Superintendents 
all point to Clark School as a model public school. 

As has been already stated, Prof. Hudson has 
been a leader in many Secret Orders, in the Church 
and Sunday School throughout his career. He is 
a member of the Knights of Pythias, a Woodman, 
a Mason, and an Odd Fellow. He has been both 
President and Secretary of the Alabama State 
Teachers Association and County Chairman of the 
Alabama Colored Teachers' Association. He is Sec 
retary of the State Baptist Convention and of the 
National Baptist Convention. He is President of 
. the District Sunday School Convention, and a mem 
ber of the Executive Board of the Federal Council 
of Churches of America. He was delegate to the 
World's Missionary Conference which met in Ed 
inburgh, Scotland, in 1910. He is Endowment 
Treasurer of the Endowment Department of the 
Masonic Grand Lodge of Alabama. 

During the recent war troubles Mr. Hudson has 
been Chairman of the Food Conservation Commit 
tee of Dallas County, and Chairman of the Red 
Cross for Colored people of Dallas County. 

For many years he was the close personal friend 
of the late great leader of the race, Dr. Booker T. 
Washington. It seemed a great pleasure to Dr. 
Washington for him to speak of the high esteem 
in which he held Prof. Hudson. On one occasion 
Dr. Washington writing the "Colored Alabamian," 
a paper then published at Montgomery, said : "I 
want to thank you most earnestly and heartily for 
your publishing the picture and sketch of the life 
of Prof. R. B. Hudson, of Selma, Ala. I am afraid 
that the people of Alabama do not appreciate the 
real worth and ability of Prof. Hudson in the way 
they should. He has shown himself to be a leader 
of rare ability and especially a clear-headed sys 
tematic thinker and worker. 

The main purpose of this letter is to impress 
upon the people of our State the fact that we have 
a man in our midst, a man of such rare ability, and 
I repeat that you are to be congratulated for pre 
senting him before the public through the medium 
of your paper." 

Prof. Hudson was married in 1890 to Miss Lula 
C. Richardson who died in 1898. He was married 
in 1900 to Miss Irene M. Thompson. Mr. Hudson 
has two children. Misses E. Leola and Bernice 
Hudson, the former is a graduate of Spellman Sem 
inary, Atlanta, Ga., and Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. She is at present a teacher in the Florida 
A. & M. College at Tallahassee, Fla. The latter is 
still a student. 



42 




REV. JOHN WASHINGTON GOODGAME. 




N Birmingham, Alabama, out on 
Avenue F., stands a monumental 
Baptist Church. The engravings 
on the corner stones outside re 
cord the names of laborers, busi 
ness and professional men who 
joined hands to make this building 
the splendid edifice that it is. It 
has its big pipe organ, its animated well trained 
choir, its pastor's study, its spacious galleries as 
well as its big audience room. It cost $50,000 when 
it was built, now valued at $80,000. Its organization, 
its distribution of workers, is exceptional. It has of 
course its auxiliary clubs among the women, its 
young people's societies, its deacons' board and the 
like. But above all it has a regular man, in ad 
dition to the pastor, whose business it is to visit 
the sick and the needy and to collect funds and 
minister to their relief. The man behind all this 
work, who raised the funds, very largely from 
working people ; who in person superintended the 
construction of the building is Rev. John Washing 
ton Goodgame. 

Rev. Goodgame was born in the country, some 
years after the civil war, and while performing his 
farm duties he had time for calm meditation, lie 
was a poor lad with no very inspiring environ 
ments ; he was without money, and to boys with 
out grit and ambition, his situation would have ap 
peared hopeless. Not so with Rev. Goodgame. 



He was ambitious to learn and he determined to 
secure an education and he turned difficulties in to 
propellers to bring him to his goal. 

God had raised him up for leadership and whom 
God calls to service He prepares for the work to 
be done. 

Without money but with a consciousness that 
he would succeed, he entered Talladega College in 
1885 and spent his first year in college in the work 
department. He finally completed his Grammar 
and Normal courses and entered the Theological 
department. While pursuing the theological 
course he served the country churches in and 
around Talladega as pastor, later accepting a call 
to his home church in Talladega. 

He was next called to pastor the leading Baptist 
church of Anniston for a few years and then came 
to Birmingham, his present home. 

Members of the Baptist church felt that a school 
should be started around Birmingham. Who was 
there so fit to blaze the way as J. W. Goodgame, 
the man who never failed in business as well as in 
religion. Thus Birmingham Baptist College was 
launched with Rev. Goodgame at the head of the 
board of trustees, as the real sponsor for the insti 
tution. 

The Alabama Baptist State Convention elected 
him treasurer, and the Mosaic Templars placed up 
on him the task of carrying the money for its or 
ganization. This then is the load he carries the 
personal interest of two Baptist institutions the 
exchequer of the iMosaic Templars and of the Ala 
bama State Baptist Convention and the charge of a 
big city church. To this have been added many 
other responsibilities. He was stock holder and 
one of the directors of the Alabama Penny Savings 
Bank and one time secretary of the Atlanta, Bir 
mingham Mutual Aid Association, the latter an in 
surance company which flourished under his ad 
ministration and which was recently merged with 
another company. 

Unlike many ministers, Rev. Goodgame has 
changed pastorates but seldom, preferring to build 
substantially in one place. Growing as Birming 
ham grew he has had opportunity to judge prop 
erty and to invest wisely. He owns, thanks to his 
business acumen, nine rent houses, and eight va 
cant lots in this city of high priced property. 

All this time Rev. Goodgame has been rearing and 
educating a large family. He was married to Miss 
Mollie Bledsoe in 1890. Five children, now all 
practically grown and well educated form the 
Goodgame family. Miss Fannie B. is a graduate 
of the Talladega Normal course and of Selma Uni 
versity ; Miss Minnie of the Barber Seminary, An 
niston, Alabama; Miss Jennie of Cheney Institute, 
Penn. ; Miss Lucile, a senior, 1917. at Normal, Ala 
bama ; Mr. John Washington, Jr., a student at the 
State Normal School in Montgomery, Alabama. 
Miss Fannie B. who is now Fannie B. Kastland was 
teacher for several years, having taught in the 
Birmingham C'itv Schools a number of terms. 

To protect himself and his family, as well as to 
further good causes, Rev. Goodgame is a Mason, a 
Knight of Pythias, and a Mosaic Templar. Few 
men are harder workers and more optimistic in 
both religion and race progress than is Rev. John 
W. Goodgame of Birmingham, Alabama. 




REV. PRICE S. LENTON HUTCHINS. 





HE REV. PRICE S. LENTON 
HUTCHINS, of Mobile, Alabama, 
is the seventh child of Reuben and 
Sylvia Hutchins. He was born in 
Cowikee, Barbour County, Ala 
bama, October 13th. 1862.. At 
_ . . ^ ^. an early age he was given to his 
grandparents who sent him to school and did every 
thing to encourage his intellectual growth. But 
his grandparents died and he was returned to his 
parents. They were poor and unable to send him 
to school. Accordingly he was put on the farm 
where he worked with his body but. his mind was in 
the school room he had left. His thirst for know 
ledge was satisfied to a small extent by a white 
playmate and co-laborer, Mr. Walter T. Harwell, 
but he soon passed beyond the information that his 
teacher could impart and he was again facing the 
problem of where to turn for an education . This 
young man's development was not one sided for 
along with the development of the mind and body 
he was not neglectful of the spirit. At an early age 
he was converted and was baptized into the fellow 
ship of the Pleasant Grove Baptist church, Eu- 
faula, Alabama, by the Rev. Jerry Short. Re 
ligion became the dominant factor in his life which 
finally led him into the ministry. 

June 12th. 1882 he was licensed by his church to 
preach, but dissatisfied with his preparation for 
his work he entered the Selma University Febru 



ary 3rd. 1884 where he finished a two years Eng 
lish course and received his certificate for same 
from Rev. E. M. Brawley D. D., President. 

Four years later, 1890, he graduated with honors 
from the Collegiate Course under C. L. Puree, D. D. 
having taken at the same time a partial course in 
Theology under C. S. Dinkins, D. D., and C'. I.. Fish 
er, receiving the equivalent of a year's Seminary 
work in Church History, Theology, New Testa 
ment, Greek and Old Testament Hebrew. He con 
tinued his study of Hebrew under Rabbi E. M. B. 
Brown, Columbus, Ga., who speaks of his work in 
the highest terms. Among his pastorates was the 
Bethlehem Church, Gallion and the First Baptist 
Church of Newberne, Alabama. He served both 
churches seven years and built a house of worship 
for each costing more than $2000.00. 

The recorded number of his baptisms during 
these pastorates was over five hundred. Septem 
ber 28th, 1891, he baptized into the fellowship of 
the First Baptist Church, Newberne, one hundred 
and twenty-eight persons in one hour and thirty 
minutes. 

June 3rd. 1897 he became Pastor of one of the 
largest churches in Columbus, Ga., and during his 
period of service he added to its membership 185 
members and reduced a debt upon the church sev 
eral thousand dollars. He also served the Taber 
nacle Baptist Church of Eufaula and the First Bap 
tist Church of Hurtsboro, Alabama, as pastor and 
was serving these churches when called to Franklin 
Street Baptist Church, Mobile, which church he is 
now serving. His call to the Franklin Street Bap 
tist Church was extended August 2nd, 1917, and 
was unanimous. This church is one of the leading 
Baptist Churches in the State and he enters upon 
his work under the most favorable conditions. He 
has already endeared himself to the members of 
the church and is held in high esteem by the entire 
community. 

It has been his good fortune to retain the con 
fidence and love of the people he served, an evi 
dence of work well done. In addition to his Pas 
torates, Rev. Hutchins, has held a number of of 
ficial positions in his denomination. He is a life 
member of the National Baptist Convention and a 
strong supporter of all its interests ; a Trustee of 
the Selma University, Selma, Alabama, and of Cen 
tral City College, Macon, Ga. 

He served as Sunday School State Missionary 
under joint appointment of the National Baptist 
Publication Board and the State Sunday School 
Board, and as State Organizer for Georgia under 
joint appointment of National B. Y. P. U.,- and 
State B. Y. P. U. Boards. 

Rev. Hutchins is a man of family and is blessed 
with a wife devoted to his interests and the proud 
mother of eight children. These bring joy and sun 
shine to his home and has inspired that economy 
in the conduct of his affairs that has enabled him to 
accumulate a nice property. 

His possessions are scattered from Alabama to 
New York and consist of improved and vacant city 
lots and farm property. Rev. Hutchins is yet com 
paratively young. His zenith may not be reach 
ed for years ; many more such startling strides as 
he has made in the past thirteen years, will lift him 
easily to the rank of ministerial wonders. 



44 





JOHN A. KENNEY, M. D. 

OHN A. KENNEY, M. D., was 
born June 11, 1874, in Albemarle 
County, Virginia. Here he lived 
on the farm and did the work of 
a farm lad, enjoying at the same 
time the pleasures that come to 
those who live in the country, till he was sixteen 
years of age. During the last two years of that 
time he was practically the head of the family, run 
ning the farm which his father left to his care and 
also the grocery store which his father had kq)t 
during his life time. Although born on the farm and 
although he remained for such a number of years 
in the country, his mother had other plans for him. 
She inspired him with the ambition to live his life 
away from the narrowing effect of the farm life, 
away out in the world where he could make him 
self felt. 

After spending a great deal of time in the pub 
lic schools of Albemarle County and Charlottsville 
he went to Hampton Institute, Virginia and later 
to Shaw University, North Carolina. In order to 
attend school he had also to work. Nothing that 
would turn an honest penny was turned down by 
this ambitious young man. He worked as a waiter, 
he worked in the family of one of the professors 
of the University or Virginia, and he kept grocery 



store. After leaving Shaw University Dr. Kenney 
went to Leonard Medical College from which he 
was graduated with the degree M. D. in 1901. 

This was the beginning of Dr. Kenney's real 
career. He served the first year as interne at 
Freedmen's Hospital, Washington, District of Col 
umbia and then came to Tuskegee Institute. At 
Tuskegee he is Medical Director of the Tuskegee 
Institute Hospital and Nurse Training School. For 
the past sixteen years Dr. Kenney has labored in 
this field and the work has grown steadily under 
his management. When he took the work there 
was a frame hospital, not very well equipped and 
not large enough to accommodate the number of 
patients that come to Tuskegee. During his stay 
the John A. Andrew Memorial Hospital has been 
built, and the Nurse Training Course strengthened. 
The hospital is well equipped and the nurses turn 
ed out are efficient. 

While developing the material side of the work 
at Tuskegee, Dr. Kenney has himself developed 
in skill. He is now looked upon as one of the lead 
ing surgeons of the race and people from all over 
the south come to Tuskegee to John A. Andrew 
Memorial Hospital in order to have Dr. Kenney op 
erate on them. This is true fame that speads from 
one patient to another and brings more work, 
which in turn means added skill. 

The profession will probably know Dr. Kenney 
best as Secretary of the National Medical Asso 
ciation. In this position he served for eight years 
in succession. He then gave up the work because 
he was over worked. Contrary to his expreseed 
wishes he was unanimously elected in 1912 as pres 
ident of -the National Medical Association 
Dr. Kenney with Dr. C. V. Roman of Nashville 
Tennessee founded the Journal of the National 
Medical Association. This is today one of the most 
important publications among the Colored People 
and it takes high rank as a professional journal. 
What tliis periodical is today and in fact very large 
ly what the National Medical Association is today 
is due to the energies and unbounded faith of Dr. 
Kenney. At the last meeting of the N. M. A. in 
Richmond, Va., 1918, Dr. Kenney by action of the 
Executive Board was made editor-in-chief and 
manager of the Journal. 

Since entering the medical profession he has done 
constructive work. 

Dr. Kenney had direct charge of the health of Dr. 
Booker T. Washington during all the years he was 
in Tuskegee. During the last years of Dr. Wash 
ington's life Dr. Kenney spent a great deal of time 
with him, accompanying him on the various trips 
made over the South'. It is a source of great pride 
to Dr. Kenney that when Dr. Washington, ill in 
the hospital in New York was examined by famous 
specialists they said that Dr. Kenney had done all 
that any one could have done for the great educa 
tor. 

Dr. Kenney was married to Miss Alice Talbot of 
Bedford County, Virginia in Dec- 27. 1902- Dr. 
Kenney was married a second time to Miss Frieda 
V. Armstrong of Boston, Massachusetts, in 1913. 
There are three small sons, John A. Kenney, Jr., 
Oscar Armstrong Kenney and Howard Washington 
Kenney. 



45 




GEORGE W. LEWIS, A. M., D. D. 



E who is inclined to grow doubtful 
of rare strength, scholarship, 
force, personality should look up 
on a company of Methodist Minis 
ters and Bishops. Gathered in 
convention they make a grand 

substitute for an assembly of 

statesmen. They are grave and scholarly, stal- 
warth of physique, pictures of health and prosperi 
ty. They are analysts and orators and logicians 
with splendid touches of the visionary. Dr. George 
W. Lewis A. M., D. D. is one of these Methodist 
Episcopal peers. There are few riper scholars, few 
er better orators than he. 

Dr. Lewis is a thorough going Georgian. He 
was born in Burke County shortly after slavery. 
He was born during the reconstruction period after 
the war when the efforts of the South were direct 
ed mainly in caring for the body and but little at 
tention was given to the development of the mind. 
It was a day of poor schools, unprepared teachers 
and short school terms. The opportunities for the 
negroes to obtain an education were but meager 
but the very difficulties in their way acted as a spur 
to the ambitious and developed a number of strong 
men intellectually. 

Dr. Lewis was among this number. When a 
mere boy Dr. Lewis started life as a farm laborer 
which he followed for sixteen years but during this 
period he attended school two or three months each 
year. 



The activity of the mind would not permit him to 
remain on the farm so he left the farm and attend 
ed the Haven Normal School at Waynesborough, 
Ga. Here his real development began. Here the 
leading of his mind and heart decided his future. 
Here he was converted and here he responded to 
the call to the ministry. 

From Haven Norman school at Waynesborough 
he went to Clark University at Atlanta and after 
finishing his course of study there he turned to the 
study of theology in Gammon Seminary in the 
same University. 

After completing his theological course he took 
up the active duties of Pastor and served a num 
ber -of churches in his active native State. He join 
ed the Savannah Conference at Augusta, Ga., and 
was sent to Mt. Vernon church. From Mt. Vernon 
he went to Readsville, from Readsville to Valdosta, 
thence to Atlanta and from Atlanta to Rome. 

In 1895 Dr. Lewis was transferred to the Ala 
bama Conference and served churches in Mont 
gomery, Mobile and in Pensacola. Fla. 

It was during his residence in Florida that Dr. 
Lewis branched out. in educational work. 

Seeing a grave need for a school in Pensacola 
he set his mind to work to supply it and in 1901 he 
founded the Pensacola Normal, Industrial and Agri 
cultural school. For nine years he was the Prin 
cipal of this school, shaping' its policies and giving 
it the benefit of his rare gifts as an orator. He 
possessed in a remarkable degree the powers of 
oratory which greatly aided him in raising monev 
for his enterprises, a work in which he succeeded 
to a most satisfactory degree. 

His talent as an orator and writer brought him 
into great prominence and his services were sought 
from all over the country. For stirring and search 
ing addresses, such as are required on memorial 
and emancipation occasions, he probably has no 
equal on the platform of today. He has delivered 
addresses of this character at Montgomery, at Mo 
bile, at Evergreen, at Tampa and at Pensacola, 
many of which at the request of his hearers were 
printed and distributed. 

Dr. Lewis was frequent!}' elected to represent the 
M. E. Conference at the General Conference. He 
was a delegate to the Omaha General Conference 
in 1894 and to the conference at Saratoga in 1916. 
For years he has been the Secretary of his Annual 
Conference and chairman of the Old Ministers 
fund. His brethren were not slow to recognize in 
him a wise leader a man of sound judgment and 
one whose devotion to religion and education and 
unexcelled oratory gave him unbounded influence 
among them. He won their confidence early in his 
ministerial life and still holds it in a most flatter 
ing degree. 

Dr. Lewis family consists of a wife and one child, 
a daughter who has inherited his mental vigor. 

He married in 1889 Miss Lucy Griffin, of Tusca- 
lonsa, Ala. Their daughter, Miss Emma C. Lewis, 
received her B. A. degree from Clark University, 
Atlanta, Ga.. and wears it with as much ease and 
grace as the average man. At present she is teach 
ing in New Orleans University. 

While the church is his chief consideration Dr. 
Lewis is also interested in the benevolent orders of 
his people and has membership in the Masons and 
Knights of Phythias. 



46 





HENRY ALLEN LOVELESS. 

MONG the foremost colored citi 
zens of Alabama is Henry Allen 
Loveless of Montgomery who 
has proved to his people that they 
can make a marked success in 
their business ventures and still 



preserve the respect and esteem of the entire com 
munity, both white and black. 

Mr. Loveless was born in Bullock County, Ala 
bama in the year 1854 near the town of Union 



] le had no educational advantages until he reach 
ed his eighteenth year. Spending the day in man 
ual labor he attended a night school which gave 
him the foundation upon which he built to a limit 
ed extent. 

Some years after his first marraige he attended 
the Selma University but for only two terms. At 
the end of the second term he returned home to 
arrange his business matters so that he could com 
plete his course but found that the requirements of 
his business were such that he had to forego his 
plans for a finished education. 

His first business was that of a butcher which 
he plied for several years but gave up to enter the 
Undertaking business. Here he had to meet strong 
competition from a long established business 



controlled by a member of his race who had much 
influence "with' the colored people. 

He saw the difficulties in his way but instead of 
deterring him they nerved him to push forward. 

Meeting competition upon fair grounds he forged 
to the front and not only built up the large busi 
ness over which he now presides but finally pur 
chased the business of his competitor. 

He has been in this business for twenty-five years 
which together with its adjuncts is easily valued 
at $25,000.00. In connection with his undertaking 
business he runs a transfer and hack line and has 
among his patrons a number of white citizens. 

His business has brought him a comfortable liv 
ing and enabled him to secure a home worth ten 
thousand dollars. In addition it has enabled him 
to give employment to a great many of his people. 

Mr. Loveless is a deeply religious man and takes 
an active part in his church life. 

He has been connected with the Dexter Avenue 
Baptist church from its organization and is its lead 
ing deacon. He is also the Church Treasurer and 
a member of the Board of Trustees. The minis 
ters who have served the church have always 
found in him a friend and helper. 

Mr. Loveless' activities do not end with his 
church and his business. He has countless affilia 
tions with various other bodies and is interested in 
the educational interests of his people. 

He is a King Solomon Mason, Knights of Py 
thias, member of Wm. J. Simmons Lodge, No. 34, 
the Eastern Star, Knights of Tabor, Eureka Lodge 
of the Mosaic Templars, Sisters and Brothers of 
Tabor, Daughters and Sons of Zera, and the United 
Order of Good Shepherds. He has held office in a 
number of these orders. 

He is a member of the Negro business men's 
league, Treasurer of the Alabama Realty Company 
and a Trustee of the Swayne school of Montgom 
ery. 

Mr. Loveless has been married three times. He 
married his first wife, Miss Lucy Arrington of 
Montgomery, in 1885. She died after bearing him 
five children, three of whom are living. His son 
John H. Loveless and daughters, Miss Mary G. 
and Bertha L. Loveless, are associated with him in 
his business and have contributed no little to his 
success. 

In 1913 he married Mrs. Emma A. Anderson, 
who lived but a short while with him when death 
claimed her. 

His present wife, formerly Mrs. Dora Evelyn, 
was married to him in 1916. She was a resident of 
Eufaula, Ala. 

Mr. Loveless is a successful man and in sum 
ming up his traits of character which con 
tributed to his success we would mention first his 
quiet, courteous but positive demeanor. He never 
gets unduly excited but is not slow to take in a 
situation and to face it with a calm determination 
which impresses others that he means business. 
He is a just man and honest which gives him a 
good standing in the business world. Then he is 
sympathetic, helpful and dependable and above all 
is recognized as an humble Christian. 



47 




REVEREND WILLIAM MADISON. 




HEN asked for matter for a bio 
graphical sketch, Rev. Wm. Madi 
son sent in such scant material 
that the required length for a 
page was 'lot to be gotten. When 
asked for matter for his church, 
the matter came in so freely that it had to be con 
densed. Such is the modesty of the man that he 
takes to himself very little of the credit for the 
very splendid church which he built and which 
under his administration has grown by leaps and 
bounds. But the church is a reflection of his 
boundless energy and great business ability. 

Rev. Madison was born in Marion, Dallas County, 
Alabama, in 1873. As a small boy and as a young 
man, he toiled in the cotton and corn fields on a 
Dallas County plantation. Here he received his 
early training in the public schools. Whatever the 
schools of the country may have failed to give him 
in accurate book knowledge was more than made 
up by the ambition which filled him because of this 
contact with books and thoughts. He felt most 
keenly the preparation that he needed to make him 
self happy, and at the same time render those about 
him glad. He entered Selma University in 1905, 



and was graduated in the class of 1910 at the head 
of the class in the Theological Department. This 
gave him the place of valedictorian. This and other 
honors bestowed upon him by his Alma Mater be 
speak his life and conduct as a school boy and his 
efficiency as a student. 

Rev. Wm. Madison has climbed all the way from 
the bottom to the top of his profession. He is at 
present and has been for some time pastor of the 
Day Street Baptist Church, Montgomery, Alabama. 
This church represents the capstone in his career 
as the builder of splendid houses of worship. Be 
ginning his ministry back in his home village of 
Marion, Alabama, he has raised and put into 
churches $45,000.00. He has built churches at Un- 
-iontown, Sawyerville, Grove Hill and Montgomery. 

In the meantime he has pastored, held evangelis 
tic services, baptized thousands, held conspicuous 
offices in his church and denominational bodies, 
been orator and Commencement speaker at many 
important school celebrations and gatherings and 
traveled extensively over the country as preacher 
and worker. 

Rev. Madison did not get his fame as a speaker 
and able builder without a struggle. Leaving Sel 
ma University, he followed the profession of school 
teaching in both Dallas and Hale counties. Later 
he studied bookkeeping and was a bookkeeper for 
five years. In filling these two posts he got for 
himself experiences that were destined to be of 
untold good to him in his pastoral work later. His 
five years spent in bookkeeping cannot be underes 
timated as to the good effect they have had on the 
building and organizing of churches. At the age of 
twenty-two, Rev. Madison was ordained and he 
has held a most constructive career in his church 
ever since. He has followed the circuit of his na 
tive state, having occupied pulpits at Marion, Un- 
iontown, Sawyerville, Lanesville, Newberne, Jack 
son, Grove Hill, Birmingham and his present post 
in Montgomery. 

The great work that Rev. Madison is doing in 
Montgomery is recorded elsewhere under the 
sketch of Day Street Baptist Church. He is well 
known as a leader, for his executive skill and also 
for his ability to follow details. Rev. Madison has 
for years occupied high places in his church and in 
secular and fraternal bodies, lie is a member of 
the Allen Temple Lodge, of the Knights of Py- 
thians and of the Good Shepherds. In his church, 
which is missionary Baptist he has served as 
Treasurer of the Publishing Board; chairman of 
the State Mission Board; Treasurer of the Selma 
Alumni Association; President of the Baptist Min 
isters Conference of Montgomery and Member of 
the National Baptist Convention. 

Rev. Madison was married in 1899 to Miss Mary 
Soloman of Saffold. Alabama. There are six chil 
dren in the Madison family, all of whom are at 
tending school. 




DAY STKKKT I'.AITIST CHURCH. 




KK1XG what they considered a 
great need of another church in 
the City of Montgomery, in 1884, 
Mr. T. 1-1. Garner and Mr. Ed- 
ward I'atterson secured the ser 
vices of Rev. J. C. Casby, organiz 
ed a church and erected a frame building in which 
to serve God. Thus we have Day Street Baptist 
Church, one of the best managed institutions of 
its kind in the South. Among the ministers who 
administered to the needs of the people from the 
pulpit of Day Street Baptist Church, who deserve 
special mention in these pages is Rev. T. C. ("room. 
who took charge of the church in 1894 and pastor- 
ed it till his death in 1906. During his administra 
tion the membership was greatly increased and the 
church building remedied and enlarged. Succeed 
ing Rev. Croom. Rev. T. J. Flood gave the rest of 
liis life to the development of the Day Street Bap 
tist Church. Mis pastorate was a short one, last- 
ting but one year and four months. During this 
short time he raised $1200 for the new church. At 
the death of Rev. Flood, Rev. Win. Madison was 
chosen leader of this flock.. 

The church business is administered by the Pas 
tor and Board of Trustees, composed of T. II. Gar 
ner, M. I). Easterly, C. Posey, J. J. Ncal, C. Lewis, 
Morris Smith, F. S. Starks, Mathew Wallace and 
J. S. Gregory. 

The present structure was completed in 1910. 
The Pastor supervised the building of it and rais 
ed the money for its erection. It cost $36,000. but 



with the lot is valued at $50.000. The church also 
owns a parsonage valued at $3,000. 

Rev. Madison has changed the entire system of 
running the affairs of the church. This was done 
in 19C9. It has been put on a business basis. He 
incorporated the church holdings on a capitaliza 
tion of $25,000. 

While directing the finances of the church the 
Rev. Madison has not eebn unmindful of its activi 
ties. He believes in a division of work and respon 
sibilities and has divided up the work so as to get 
the highest results. The Sunday School with an 
excellent teaching force is placed in the hands of 
J. J. Neal, the superintendent. The Baptist Young 
People's Union is in charge of Miss Lula Mattox, 
the President. The Woman's Missionary Society 
is presided over by Mrs. A. Easterly, while the Ju 
nior Missionary Society is committed to Miss Al- 
metta Goldsmith. 

In addition to these there is a Dorcas Sewing 
Circle for girls from four to twelve years of age. 
This circle makes garments for poor children 
Then there is a Cadet Department for boys from 
four to sixteen years of age. 

The Sun Beam Band is under the direction of 
Mrs. Mary Taylor and is composed of children 
from four to eight years of age. Fnally there is 
the Cooks, Washerwomen and Porters Club, under 
direction of Mrs. Laura Hollis. President, the ob 
ject of which is to promote efficiency along these 
lines. In connection therewith an employment bu 
reau is operated with great success. 



49 



Robert Lee Mabry 




OBERT LEE MABRY was born in 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama October 1st 
1874, and at an early age moved 
with his parents to Birmingham, 
Alabama. Here in Birmingham, 
he received the foundation for his 
education through the excellent 
school system of the city. After finishing his course 
in the city public schools of Birmingham he entered 
the Tuskegee Institute for the final touches. While 
taking the Academic work he specialized in the 
Tailoring division of the Institute. Having to de 
pend upon his own efforts for paying his tuition 
he learned to take advantage of his opportunity and 
applied himself diligently to his studies and con 
sequently left the Institute thorough 1 )- equipped for 
his life work. 

He spent his first year after graduating at the 
Tuskegee Institute in teaching but his inclination 
and gift did not lead him into that profession so he 
seized upon the first opening to enter a business of 
his liking. 

He was offered a position with the People's Tail 
oring Company which he promptly accepted and 
which was the beginning of a career which has 
brought him reputation and financial success. 

While in College he took orders for clothing 
from his fellow students and in his new position the 
experience he thus gained stood him well in hand 
and made his work comparatively easy. 

While the connection with the People's Tailoring 
Company was pleasant he decided to sever his con 
nection for purposes of his own. He aspired to 
head a business himself so in 1898 he formed a par 
tnership with four other salesmen and opened a 
cleaning and pressing shop at No. 103 North 19th 
Street. This partnership continued for only a 
short time when Mr. J. W. Taylor and Mr. Mabry 
purchased the other's interest and became the sole 
proprietors of the business. Even this arrange 
ment was unsatisfactory to Mr. Mabry who was 
ambitious to have absolute control of the business 
which he finally acquired, and associated with him 
his brother. Since that time the business has been 
known as the "Mabry Brothers." 

In the conduct of his business Mr. Mabry has 
proved a most excellent executive and by close at 
tention and honest service has built up a trade 
which enables him to live and lay up in store 
against the day of adversity. 

His investments are mostly in real estate and 
real estate mortgages and here as in the conduct 
of his business his good judgment directed him 
unerringly. Mr. Mabry is fortunate in having a 
help meet who is in sympathy with his purposes 

50 



and plans and whose wise economy has aided in his 
effort to accumulate an independence. 

His wife was Miss Nettie Faith of Mobile and 
they were married in Birmingham August 23rd. 
1899. 

The issue of this marriage is an only son who is 
now attending the Public Schools of Birmingham. 
It is the ambition of Mr. Mabry to give this boy a 
fine education and fit him for some useful occupa 
tion in life. Like most men who have struggled 
for an education he knows its value and has learn 
ed that it is necessary to any marked degree of 
success along any endeavor. 

Mr. Mabry is something of a traveler and his 
travels have carried him over a large portion of the 
United States. He has visited practica'ly all of the 
Southern States, the Middle Atlantic States and in 
New England and has lived in Alabama, Tennessee 
and New Jersey. 

Mr. Mabry is a religious man and in affiliation a 
Baptist. He became a member of the church in 
1906 and in his church life as in his business life he 
was not content to be a passive member. 

His membership is in the 16th Street Baptist 
church where he is actively engaged in religious 
work. 

Mr. Mabry is greatly interested in the welfare 
of his people as is evidenced by the fact that he is 
connected with a number of orders which seek 
their uplift. 

He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, An 
cient Free and Accepted Masons, Knights and 
Ladies of Honor of America, the Eastern Star, 
United Order of Odd Fellows and of the I. B. P. 
O. E. 

His worth as an executive has been recognized 
by these different orders in which he has advanced, 
to official distinction from time to time. 

At this time he is Most Worshipful Master of the 
Free and Accepted Masons, Past Exalted Ruler of 
the 1. B. P. O. E. and Past Grand Director of the 
Knights and Ladies of Honor of America. He is 
also the Grand Master of, the Exchequer of the 
Knights of Pythias. 

Possibly Mr. Mabry's chief characteristic is his 
love of his fellow man and he never tires in his en 
deavors in their behalf. He gives of himself and 
his means to their service and it is this which ac 
counts for his great influence and popularity. 

"Forget thyself; console the sadness near thee, 

Thine own shall then depart, 
And songs of joy, like heavenly birds, shall 
cheer thee, 

And dwell within thv heart." 




GEORGE E. NEWSTELL. 





HE only Negro dry goods mer 
chant in Montgomery, Ala. wor 
thy of the name is George E. 
Newstell. Mr. Newstell keeps his 
store on Monroe Street, in the 
Newstell building, meaning that 
the building is owned by the merchant. Here one 
sees clothing for men and women as attractively 
displayed as they are in the big stores up town. 

Mr. Newstell is out and out a product of the city 
in which he does business. He was born here, at 
tended the Swayne school here, and has made all 
his ventures in business here. Graduating from the 
Swayne school in 1886. Mr. Newstell began his 
career as a porter in a store working for $2.50 per 
week. On completing three years as a porter he 
was promoted to manager at a salary of $15 per 
week. From this post he went to another at a larg 
er salary. By this time he had accumulated money 
and bought property. As he rose in the business 
world and gained insight into the workings of bus 
iness he decided to launch out for himself. This 
he finally did, buying out his former employers. 

He continued in this business for some years and 
by giving it his personal and close attention he not 



only added to his wealth but gained additional bus 
iness knowledge which enabled him to score a 
marked success in his last and present business 
venture. 

Mr. Newstell has very decided convictions re 
garding business ventures. He holds that one 
should engage in a business which appeals first to 
his inclination and for which he has an aptitude, 
and even then he should give the matter close 
consideration before he comes to a decision. 

Following this rule he considered various 
branches of trade and decided in favor of the dry 
goods business. It had been his rule to study from 
the ground up every business into which he enter 
ed but in the selection of the dry goods business he 
entered a field entirely new to him, but to which 
he brought his general knowledge of business and 
ripe, experience in other lines. 

The rapid development of the Newstell Dry 
Goods Store is a tribute to his business sagacity 
no less than to his great popularity. 

In addition to his dry goods business, Mr. New 
stell carries on a Real Estate business under the 
firm name of Newstell and Beverly. Here again 
he showed his business sense. Before venturing 
this field of operations he studied the business for 
two and a half years under two competent and 
practical teachers and even then he moved slowly 
until he had mastered it. 

Few men have been wiser and more fortunate 
in their investment. Thirty years in business have 
yielded him, besides a comfortable living for him 
self and family, and besides his dry goods and fur 
nishing store, ownership of property valued at ap 
proximately $10,000. His income from rents is 
about $250 per month. This he attributes to two 
main sources; first, a loyal and very helpful wife; 
second, the careful study of a business before mak 
ing investments. 

Success in business has brought to Mr. Newstell 
honors in many other walks of life. For fifteen 
years he has been an Executive officer in the order 
of the Knights and Daughters of Tabor. He is a 
Mason, Odd Fellow, a Knight of Pythias. He has 
been a member of Endowment Board of the 
Knights of Pythias, and is at present treasurer of 
the Odd Fellows of Alabama. He is chairman of 
the Board of Trustees of Mt. Zion A. M. E. Church, 
a trustee of the Lomax-Hannon Industrial School 
of Greenville, Ala., a trustee of the Swayne school 
of Montgomery, and chairman of the Republican 
county Executive committee of Montgomery 
County. 

Mr. Newstell was married in 1894 to Miss Belle 
Saunders of Montgomery County. It is worth re 
peating, as Mr. Newstell never tires of repeating, 
that much of this man's success is due to her. 



51 





ALBERT FRANKLIN OWENS, D. D. 

EASURED from the depths whence 
he came and the heights he has at 
tained Dr. A. F. Owens is one of 
the most remarkable men of the 
race- Born a slave fifty-six years 
ago in Wilcox county, Alabama, 
and left an orphan at six years of 
age, he has steadily climbed from 
the position of a boy porter in a book store in New 
Orleans, Louisiana, to the post of Dean of the Theo 
logical Department of Selma University, Selma 
Alabama. 

Dr. Owens early education was picked up in night 
schools while he worked for a living during the 
day. Soon he began to teach and preach in St. 
Landry Parish, Lousiana. Realizing the need of 
better preparation for the work of the ministry, 
he entered Leland University, New Orleans, in 
1873. and finished in 1877. 

From the first of his career Dr. Owens has been 
interested in newspaper work. While attending 
the University, he edited the "Baptist Messenger," 
the organ of the State Convention in Missionary 
work in Louisiana. In 1885 he was editor of the 
"Baptist Pioneer," the official organ of the Alabama 
Baptist State Convention. Because of his exper 
ience as a journalist he is now a special corres 
pondent for the great white dailies published in 
Mobile, Montgomery, and Birmingham. 

Dr. Owens has pastored in such cities as Mobile, 
and Montgomery. He is no less an educator, hav 



ing served as a Trustee and teacher of Selma Uni 
versity. After resigning his pastorate in Mobile 
in 1906, he accepted the position of Dean of the 
Theological Department of Selma University 
where he remained until 1908, when he accepted a 
similar post in the Phelps Hall Bible Training 
School, of Tuskegee Institute. In 1913 Dr. Owens 
returned to his former work at Selma University 
where he is now located. 

During the year 1911, Dr. Owens representing 
the State Federation of Colored Women's clubs, 
went before the Alabama Legislature and secured 
an appropriation of $8,000 for the Mt. Meigs Re 
formatory for colored boys and induced the legisla 
ture to incorporate that reform school as a state in 
stitution. Up to this time it had been supported 
wholly by the colored women of the state by whom 
it was organized. The following letter will show 
something of the labors and the esteem in which 
Dr. Owens is held by the white people of Mobile, 
The Mobile Register. 

GOVERNOR O'NEAL'S TRIBUTE TO DR. 
A. F. OWENS. 
Birmingham, Ala., June, 1918. 

During my administration as Governor I be 
came acquainted with Dr. A. F. Owens, lie ren 
dered me very active and efficient service in se 
curing the passage of the bill establishing the 
Mount Meigs School for the Reformatory of Ju 
venile Negro Delinquents. After the establishment 
of this institution, I appointed Dr. Owens as one 
of the trustees, and came in contact with him very 
frequently in many matters affecting the interest 
of both races. 1 was deeply impressed with his 
broad and liberal culture, his high ideals and his 
sincere devotion to the cause of education and the 
betterment of both races. 

I soon learned to rank him with the lamented 
Booker T. Washington and W. H. Council, as a 
man who had a clear and comprehensive concep 
tion of those measures which would best promote 
the most amicable and friendly relation between 
the races. I early learned to recognize him as a 
man whose councils and teachings if followed, 
would create the very cordial and friendly relation 
between the races so essential to the interest of 
both. 

As a public speaker. Dr. Owens has rare gifts 
of oratory, is polished and forceful and by his 
clear and intelligent conception of public questions 
never fails to make an impress upon his auditors. 
He is unquestionably a worthy successor of 
Washington and Council, and I earnestly believe 
his influence will only redound to the benefit of his 
own race and to the creation of that cordial rela 
tion and the removal of that friction between the 
races which is too often the result of ignorance 
and prejudice; 

Verv respectfully, 

EMMET O'NEAL. 

When the Spanish-American War broke out. 
Dr. Owen rendered valuable service in organizing 
the Third Alabama Colored Regiment in Mobile. 

Dr. Owens has been twice married. His first 
wife, Mrs. Mary Minis Taylor of Mobile, Alabama, 
died in 1900. His present wife is Miss Sallie Mae 
Pruitt of Leighton, Alabama. 



52 






1 




LAWRENCE L. POWELL 




L. POWELL, State Grand Mas 
ter Mosaic Templars of America, 
was born near Conycrs, Ga., Oct. 
1876 and educated in the city of 
Atlanta. After spending- his boy 
hood days in Atlanta, he decided 
to travel. His first stop was in the State of Ala 
bama. After some interesting investigation of 
many places as to their future worth, Mr. Powell 
decided to locate in the Northern part of the state 
in the little city of Sheffield, which at this time 
seemed the most prominent industrial city. There 
he entered the mercantile business and was a suc 
cess from the start. He was successful in making 
a number of friends not only in Sheffield but in all 
the adjacent towns, many of whom he remembers 
with gratitude, and many of whom tc> this dav are 
his strongest indorsers and supporters in his work 
as Grand Master. 

He owns some very valuable property in Mont 
gomery and Birmingham and is regarded as one 
among the Negores who have made good in Ala 
bama in the face of many disappointments and 
difficulties. 



Mr. Powell is identified with many leading 
Lodges, the one in which he is most promi 
nent being the National Order of the Mosaic Temp 
lars. He has been identified with it now for 
twenty years and has filled many places of honor 
and trust. Slowly he has climbed to the top of this 
organization in his state, and today is State Grand 
Master of the Alabama Jurisdiction, master over 
600 Lodges with a membership of quite 15000. 

As to honorary positions few men of his race 
have received so many pleasant returns. For eight 
years he has represented his state as a delegate at 
large in the National Assembly of his order, and 
for eight years has been a fraternal delegate to 
visit all the Grand Lodges in the National Juris 
diction. 

In the fall of 1911 he was married to Mrs. Willie 
R. Lee, a widow of many splendid qualities, and a 
mother of two children, a boy and a girl, both of 
whom are making a place for themselves. The 
young man Clarence W. Lee has reached his ma 
jority and is filling a very important position in the 
Mosaic Templars of Alabama. The young woman, 
Miss Annie Helen Lee is a student at the State 
Normal. 

L. L. Powell, State Grand Master of the Na 
tional Order of Mosaic Templare of Alabama has 
in eight years built from 45 lodges and 900 mem 
bers, quite 600 Lodges and 1500 members. This 
organization has added many features for the bet 
terment of the members : Namely the burial de 
partment. When Powell was made State Grand 
Master Wm. Alexander (deceased) was the Na 
tional Grand Master. Having Wm. Alexander's 
friendship and confidence he was able to get Alex 
ander's co-operation in many ways. It was pre 
dicted by no few that this department would never 
be able to sustain itself, but its success the past 
several years has proven by careful management a 
"Great Boon" to unfortunate members, and today 
this department alone receives between nine and 
ten thousand dollars annually and is self-sustaining. 
This burial department is exclusive of endowment. 
It is said that the Mosaics is the only lodge of its 
kind that makes the last resting place of its dead. 

The Mosaic Lodge was organized in Little Rock 
in 1882 by the Hon. J. E. Bush and Hon. C. W. 
Keatts. Since date of organization it has entered 
thirty-one states and has grand Lodge in South 
Africa, Central America and Panama Zone. It has 
a total membership of between 80,000 and 100,000. 
It has stood every crisis and is said to have more 
cash money in hand than any colored organization 
of its kind in the world, with no outstanding in 
debtedness, having to its credit over a quarter of 
a million dollars. 





I. T. SIMPSON, B. D., D. D. 

R. I. T. SIMPSON is present pas 
tor of the African Baptist Church 
at Tuscaloosa. Alabama. Dr 
Simpson was born in troublous 
times, troublous historically and 
troublous for Dr. Simpson per 
sonally. He was born in the late 50's in Conecuh 
County, Alabama. 

Even in this enlightened day Conecuh County is 
not wholly peppered with school houses. In the 
50's, 60's and 70's chances for a black boy to learn 
the mere rudiments were exceedingly rare. They 
were worse for the Tuscaloosa pastor. Dr. Simp 
son was an orphan. Very early in his childhood he 
was "bound out", as the phrase used to run. He 
was given a sort of stint; namely he had to milk 
twelves cows a day and chop an acre of cotton. 
When this was done he could go to school as the 
case might be. When going to school was not pos 
sible he prevailed upon the sons of the man he 
was "bound to" to teach him. 

Arriving at young manhood, Dr. Simpson set 
out for himself. His first real training was received 
at the State Normal School in Montgomery, Ala 
bama. From Montgomery he entered Selma Uni- 

54 



versity, finishing from each department in the 
school, the last being the Department of Theology 
and was later made a trustee of Selma University. 
Equipped now for life work, he set out to find 
a field. His first charge, as the clergymen speak of 
it, was found at Evergreen, the First Baptist 
Church near the town. This, while it was the be 
ginning of his life work as pastor marked also the 
beginning of a round of charges, some very long, 
some of comparative short duration. From Ever 
green he went to Mt. Arrirat, thence to Selma, 
thence to Friendship at Marion. Leaving that sec 
tion of the country, he next accepted the pastorate 
of the First Baptist Church of Opelika and of the 
Rbenezer Baptist Church, of Auburn, Alabama. 
Over both of these churches he presided at the 
same time, holding Opelika fourteen years and Au 
burn ten years. 

During the four years of his pastorate at Tus 
caloosa, Alabama, where he now presides, Dr. 
Simpson has been engaged mainly in raising funds 
to complete a handsome brick church. He has been 
able to assemble the aid of the white people and 
colored people to the extent of raising $17,000 in 
four years. 

During his pastorate and career, Dr. Simpson 
has held many important offices in his denomina 
tion in the state. As has been stated he is a trus 
tee of Selma University, a place he has held for 
twenty years. He was at one time a state mission 
ary, and was the state treasurer of the Missionary 
Baptist Convention for twelve years. He lifted -a 
debt of $2,800 from the Chattanooga Baptist church 
in a short pastorate of fifteen months. At present 
he is treasurer of the N. \V. Baptist state conven 
tion. In his life as a preacher he has baptized 
6000 souls. 

The Tuscaloosa pastor has tried to make himself 
secure for the day when he will no longer be vigor 
ous and full of health. He owns a lot in Birming 
ham, three lots in Tuscaloosa, where he is now pas- 
toring and one lot in Steel City, St. Clair County. 

Dr. Simpson has been married more than a quar 
ter of a century. His wife was Miss Julia A. Cun 
ningham of Bellville, Conecuh County. The fam 
ily group is happiest when Dr. F. R. Simpson of 
Ensley, the son, runs down to Tuscaloosa for a 
short stay with his parents. 

To quote Dr. C. O. Boothe in his Alabama Bap 
tists, "He (Dr. Simpson) is peculiarly himself and 
not another clear headed, comprehensive, reason 
able, self-reliant, genial in his home as well as in 
the public harness." 





ELIJAH STRONG SMITH. 

EGRO insurance is still in its in 
fancy. Though the first company 
is said to have been established 
in 1810, the genuine Negro insur 
ance business could not have tak- 

: 

then, there were vascilations, timidity, mistrust. 
The Negro had to be converted to his own. More 
over, he had to be educated to the point to be in 
sured and he had to develop earning power to pay 
the premium. Finally, the aspirant to insurance 
business had to be educated to conduct and man 
age such an undertaking an education which one 
is inclined to admit the black man came, by clan 
destinely, peeping out of the corner of one eye 
while dusting the counters or adjusting the ele 
vator. , 

Elijah Strong Smith of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 
seems, however, to have been to the manor born, in 
insurance as well as in other forms of business. 
While yet a boy in his home town, 1 lenderson, Ken 
tucky, Mr. Smith was paying his expenses in school 
by selling books, and he who can sell books has 
already made his business career secure. Finishing 
the public school in Henderson, he entered the 
State University in Louisville. Again the selling 



of books and merchandise furnished the money to 
defray the expenses of his education. 

Finishing College, Mr. Smith went to Alabama 
and joined the Mutual Aid Association of Mobile, 
the company over which C. F. Johnson presides. 
Finding Mr. Smith already seasoned in business, 
much unlike the average school graduate who had 
entered the service of the company, Mr. Johnson 
sent Mr. Smith to Pratt City to be district agent. 
In one year's time the young man had risen from 
district agent to district manager. Seven years 
later he was made district auditor. In 1911, the 
company having developed a large business in Tus 
caloosa, appointed Mr. Smith manager of the dis 
trict. 

Though a stranger in Tuscaloosa, a town in 
which Negroes are keenly alert in business, Mr. 
Smith took immediately a leading place among the 
business men. He had been in the city but one 
year when he was chosen President of the Negro 
Business Men's League of the city- From this time 
on he has represented Tuscaloosa in all the Negro 
business gatherings of Alabama. He was delegate 
to the National Negro Business League in 1912 and 
was chosen Secretary of his State League in 1916. 
Useful in business circles, Mr. Smith is also a 
vital force in the church and in the big organiza 
tions of Alabama. He is an active member and 
worker of the First Baptist Church. For four 
years he has been President of the Tuscaloosa Bap 
tist Young People's Union, and for two years As 
sistant Superintendent of the. Sunday School. In 
1914 and 1915 he was President of the District Bap 
tist Young People's Union. He is a member of the 
Advisory Board of the Federation of Colored Wo 
men of Alabama. 

To be sure Mr. Smith came to business and to ev 
ery day life well equipped. He had enjoyed ex 
ceptional advantages of travel and contact, having 
traveled all over the United States as an advance 
representative for the Eckstein Norton University 
of Cane Springs, Kentucky. The officials of the 
government striving to select leading men in differ 
ent localities to lead in war activities, eagerly 
sought for and selected Mr. Smith to assume the 
office of Chairman of the Food Conservation cam 
paign in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. 

The whole county of Tuscaloosa fell in behind his 
leadership and the result was that the war depart 
ment realized that it had made no mistake in se 
lecting him and the result of his activities along 
this line will always be a bright spot in his work 
for his country. 

He was also selected as one of the four minute 
speakers for his county and he was everywhere in 
the city of Tuscaloosa and Tuscaloosa County 
where any gathering was being held to impress 
i^on the people their full duty in whatever mo 
mentous work was being pushed by the govern 
ment at that time. In fact he was always a lead 
ing factor in all war work activities. 

In all his endeavors, Mr. Smith relies much on 
Mrs. Smith, his wife, to whom he was married in 
1896, before taking residence in Alabama. Mrs. 
Smith was Miss Nellie Montgomery, of Starksville, 
Mississippi. 



Soloman Sharp Sykes 




F course I don't look at the books 
every day, but I keep pretty good 
track of things both outside and 
in the court house here. As far 
as I know, Sykes owns all this 
property without one cent of 
mortgage." 

These were the words of an officer of the court 
of Decatur, Alabama, in speaking of Soloman 
Sharp Sykes, self-made, self-educated. 

Even these details are not germain. The essen 
tial question is what this exslave, almost illiterate 
man, accomplished during these 50 years of his 
freedom. Of course Mr. Sykes is the most modest 
of men. You have to wrest facts from him about 
himself. Even then he gives only fragments. To 
know about him you have to go to his neighbors. 
These neighbors tell you that Sharp Sykes is al 
ways doing something for his people, helping some 
body through school Contributing to buy a church, 
to help a school, to give somebody a start. They 
tell you further, white or black, that Mr. Sykes 
carries a thousand or two of dollars in each of 
the several banks of the town. Then you go to the 
records and along the streets and find his proper 
ty holdings about as follows : His neighbors and 
the books all confirm this. He owns his home, a 
real residence. He owns his undertaking estab 
lishment. He owns his seven stores, eighteen rent 
houses, one farm and a seven acre cemetery. This 
is the property of which the officer of the court 
said, "As far as I know there is not one cent of 
mortgage on it." 

He gives without ceasing. Moreover, he has 
reared and has educated an unusually large family. 
And Mr. Sykes lives for, and in a sense, in, these 
children. The man does not grow old. He has been 
able to grow with his children, to get much of their 
education, to absorb from contact with them an 
abundance of the culture which he in his youth 
and later struggle had to miss. 

Mrs. Sykes has had more education to start with, 
having had a pretty good common school educa 
tion. They are both religious people, being 
members of the First Baptist Church, where Mr. 
Sykes is a deacon. Mr. Sykes is a lodge member, 
holding membership in the Masonic Lodge and in 
the Eastern Star. His real life interest, however, is 
centered in the church, in his family and in mak 
ing people about him happy and content. 

Mr. Sykes was born in Lawrence County, Ala 
bama, about ten years before emancipation and 
lived at a time when it was hard to get an educa 
tion. He made the best of his opportunities, how 



ever, and managed to secure one or two months of 
schooling each year. The balance of his time was 
devoted to manual labor. 

Tn 1878, while still a young man in his early 
twenties, he saw an opportunity to enter business, 
which he was quick to seize, and started upon his 
business career with only a strong body, a quick 
mind and a large endowment of common sense. 
This trio of gifts was sure to win success and the 
sequence of his life shows that in his case they did 
make a successful score. It is unnecessary to fol 
low his rise step by step. Sufficient to say that 
he won out and that today, after twenty years of 
business life, he is the proprietor of a number of 
business enterprises. Among his business ventures 
is that of Undertaker and Embalmer, a large busi 
ness in which his son is associated. 

Mr. Sykes is not only a money getter, but a lib 
eral spender. He does not spend his money fool 
ishly, but in a way to help others. He has learn 
ed the joy of service and to him money has open 
ed up a wider avenue to this blessed state. Money 
is a good servant but a hard master and Mr. Sykes 
has relegated money to its proper place of ser 
vant. Mr. Sykes also appreciates the uncertainty 
of riches and instead of hoarding them to leave to 
his children when he is gone he employs his money 
in giving his children the best advantages of edu 
cation and to fit them for useful lives, knowing 
that what he gives them in this respect cannot be 
taken from them. 

Mr. Sykes was married to Miss Ada Garth of 
Morgan Coounty, Alabama, in 1880. and for forty 
years they have labored side by side for the good 
of their community and the welfare of their chil 
dren. God has blessed them with a large family 
of children, eight in number, who constitute their 
pride of life and in whose interest their lives are 
devoted. They have grown with their children and 
the reflex influence of the educational advantages 
they have given their children are seen in their 
own mental advancement. 

Several of his children have entered the profes 
sions and the others are being fitted to fill well 
any position in life that they may elect. 

Miss Rebecca is a graduate of Fisk University; 
Miss Mamie Estelle is a graduate of Spellman 
Seminar}', Atlanta, Georgia ; his son, Newman M., 
is a graduate of Fisk University and is now pursu 
ing graduate studies for a medical degree in the 
University of Illinois. Another son, Leo M. Sykes, 
is now a student at Howard University and is tak 
ing a course in Dentistry. Carl M. is a student at 
Moorehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia, while Mel- 
vin and Eunice are pursuing their studies in the 
public schools of their home city. When their 
foundation is laid they will no doubt receive a col 
lege training also. Children with such advantages 
and springing from such a sire ar, sure to make 
their impress upon the world, and will be pointed 
to as a monument to the wisdom of the parents 
who trained them for service. 



56 




JOHN LEVY THOMAS. 




N Union Springs, Alabama, the 
county seat of Bullock County, 
lives a colored man who for a 
quarter of a century has been 
judge, jury and court regarding 
all matters pertaining to the pub 
lic good of the Negro. Step by step from a poor 
and unlettered farmer, he has made his way to the 
post. At every stage he has had to stop and de 
monstrate. It was doubted in that section if a 
colored man could own and operate a farm suc 
cessfully. J. L. Thomas bought a farm and de 
monstrated. It was thought that a Negro could 
not ovv'ii and operate a city business successfully, 
the prophecy being that business equipment, Ne 
gro and all would in a short time be back in the 
hands of the white people. Thomas bought a block 
and set up a grocery and provision store and prov 
ed the fallacy of this notion. 

Some years ago advanced thought and democ 
racy poked their heads far enough in some sec 
tions of the South to declare that a Negro County 
]*air would be a very helpful, indeed an inspiring 
thing. In and around the home of Mr. Thomas 
timidity and inexperience asserted that such a no 
tion was little short of preposterous. Taking his 



own hard earned money from the bank, Mr. 
Thomas financed the Negro Fair, showing that the 
thing could be done. Last year the white citi 
zens of Union Springs gave one hundred dollars 
for prizes for fairs between two small Negro com 
munities. Today Mr. Thomas is preaching veg 
etable, poultry and stock raising. Once more he 
demonstrates with his own products, and once 
more his doctrine is being heeded by the masses 
around him. 

Mr. Thomas was born in Pike County, Alabama, 
March 5th, 1863. A farm lad, he had but a slight 
chance to gain even the rudiments of education. 
What education he got was gained by night study 
after plowing all day. The following is told by Dr. 
Washington regarding Mr. Thomas' getting a foot 
hold: 

"Thompson contracted to pay Thomas five dol 
lars per month, with the privilege of coming to 
town very other Saturday afternoon to see his 
mother. He was allowed to stay over Sunday, but 
was obliged to be on hand at sunrise Monday 
morning to catch his mules and go to plowing. He 
was always on time early Monday morning. 

"The colored farmer took such a liking to the 
boy that the gave him a little patch of land to cul 
tivate himself. This land was planted in peanuts, 
and yielded between ten and fifteen bushels, which 
were carefully dried and housed. 

"At that time it was the custom among the col 
ored people to give corn shuckings and suppers 
were attended by people from ten miles around. 
Whenever Mr. Thomas heard of one of these 
events he would parch about one-half bushel of his 
peanuts and carry them to the gathering to sell. 
By offering them at five cents a pint he was able 
to make as much as three dollars per bushel. He 
often walked as far as eight miles with his peanuts 
to a big supper or dance, after plowing hard all day, 
and with another hard day before him. He parch 
ed them during dinner hour, when other hands 
were resting, and was often up as late as three 
o'clock in the morning to sell them, although he 
had to go to work at daybreak." 

Although his education was small in book learn 
ing he had a fund of practical knowledge which 
backed by a wealth of common sense has enabled 
him to do things of great worth and to be a help 
and blessing to his race. After all this is the se 
cret of a successful life and measured by this 
standard he has not lived in vain. 

Mr. Thomas is a large real estate owner; his 
possessions comprise about two hundred city lots 
and several farms. While interested in the city the 
farm is his first love. He lives on his farm and 
takes great delight in his cattle, poultry and gar 
den and from the waving corn and snowy cotton 
field he finds his chief joy. 

Mi. Ihomas is ambitious to see his people ad 
vance i long all right lines and he never tires in 
giving them the word of encouragement and in ex 
tending the helping hand. 

"A friend in need is a friend indeed," and Mr. 
Thomas tries to be that friend and has learned as 
so many have that a life of service is the only life 
worth living. 



57 





MISS GEORGIA WASHINGTON. 

ISS Georgia Washington, the 
founder and Principal of the 
Peoples' Village School, Mt. 
Meigs, Alabama, was born a Vir 
ginia slave, and with her mother 
and brother, was sold away from 
her father when she was a mere child. 

After their emancipation the problem of a live 
lihood confronted her mother, for the new condi 
tions imposed new and untried responsibilities. 
Following the course pursued by man}- ex-slaves, 
the mother worked out with her old master and 
left her daughter to care for the other children in 
the family and look after the household duties. 
This was a grave responsibility to place upon 
young shoulders but the struggle for existence left 
no other alternative. Who can say that the hand 
of Providence was not in this early direction of 
her life. The discipline she received through du 
ties thus early placed upon her no doubt played an 
important part in her selection of a life work. 
Home cares stood as a barrier to school privileges 
and often she stood at the window of her home and 
watched the children pass too and fro from school 
and longed to i e vith them. The thirst for knowl 
edge was born in her and would not be quenched 
because of difficulties. She felt that the time 
would come when she, too, could attend school and 



she made the most of the little instruction that 
her mother gave her. 

Her mother had somewhere learned the alpha 
bet and some few words, mostly from the Bible, 
and these she taught her daughter. 

It was a proud day for Miss Georgia when she 
could read the Bible and this daily companion not 
only served to in part satisfy the cravings of an 
active mind but its principles became so instilled 
into her being that her after life was moulded by 
them. 

Miss Georgia's ambition to learn could not be 
satisfied with what she had attained. The knowl 
edge she possessed gave her a keen appetite for 
more. She applied to a white lady to further her 
instructions who gladly complied with her request 
and who took pride in her eager and successful 
pupil. 

Ihe expense of city life became too great for 
the meager income of the family and it was neces 
sary to make a change in order to reduce the ex 
pense of living. With this end in view her mother 
moved to the country. 

This move brightened the hope of Miss Georgia 
for an education, for there was a good school in 
the vicinity of their new home. 

However, disappointment again met her. Grim 
necessity of earning bread thrust her back to all 
of those myriad duties attendant upon keeping 
house. 

Her mother noting her daughter's disappoint 
ment and recognizing the activity of her mind, was 
as eager as she for her to have a chance for its de 
velopment, and determined at the first opportunity 
to give her this chance. The opportunity came be 
fore her mother felt herself in a position to act. 

It chanced that the school teacher here was a 
Hampton graduate. By hard persuasion the moth 
er was prevailed upon to let the daughter go to 
school for a few months. Thus in October, 1876. 
she entered the country school. By Christmas 
time, necessity in the home caused the mother to 
declare against further attendance. Again the 
mother was prevailed upon and allowed the 
daughter to go on until Spring. However, Miss 
Washington had scored another triumph in her 
career. She had learned to write with pen and 
ink, a feat of magic to her, one which she had de 
spaired of accomplishing. 

Then came other scenes of persuasion and of 
triumph in the Washington cabin. The teacher 
wished Miss Washington to go to Hampton. Once 
more necessity stood in the way. She went, not 
withstanding, but it was agreed that she would 
have to return in a little while, as funds would soon 
run out. But she did no such thing. She entered in 
1877; saw the Indians come to the school in 1878; 
saw new buildings go up and old ones torn down ; 
was graduated in 1882; joined the teachers' staff 
and taught and helped the Indian girls in what is 
known as "Winona Lodge" for ten years after 
graduation. 

Proud as Miss Washington was of her detention 
at Hampton, yet such an engagement did not 
square with her ideals. She had dreamed of form 
ing a school in some out-of-the-way place. This 
she found finally in Alabama. At the end of her 
ten years service at Hampton, she was asked to go 
to Calhoun, Alabama, to aid Miss Mabel Dilling- 



'/= 
*?&*& if 

'*^9* 




CAMPUS SCENE PEOPLE'S VILLAGE SCHOOL 



ham and Miss Charlotte Thorn, two Hampton 
teachers, to found a school. Remaining here a year 
Miss Washington set out to realize her own vis 
ion, to establish a school. 

Dr. Washington knowing her desire chose her 
a spot near the village of Mt. Meigs, Alabama a 
spot forty miles from the Calhoun Institute, and 
twenty-five miles from Tuskegee Institute. Hith 
er in 1893 Miss Washington went. Miss Washing 
ton came to the village in cotton picking time, 
thus she found that no place had been provided for 
either herself or the school and that very few peo 
ple were interested in either her or the school. The 
pastor of the colored church gave her lodging for 
the first month. By October, 1893, she had been 
able to rent a cabin, 12 by 13, and to open the pub- 
Vic village school at Mt. Meigs. Four small boys 
completed the enrollment for the first month. 
Shortly after this they were crowded out of the 
cabin and went into the Negro church. 

A quarter of a mile from the school cabin, she 
rented another cabin for herself. Here during the 
first vear she lived alone, cooking and keeping 
house for herself and paying four dollars a month 
for rent and laundry. On Saturdays, her holidays, 
she taught sewing classes and wrote to the North 
seeking to interest friends in the school. She had 
mothers' meetings Sunday afternoons. 

By February the people had bought and partly 
paid for two acres of land and built a small school 
house, 18 by 36. The enrollment the first year was 
one hundred, representing thirty-five families. As 
the children had to pay 50c or 75c according to age. 
a great many failed to enroll. Indeed, the one 
hundred represented scarcely a third. After the 
first year, however, the school grew rapidly. Out 



side aid came, new buildings were added. Two 
Hampton teachers joined Miss Washington, who 
was now able to distribute the work and to teach 
more industries. A Board of trustees was incor 
porated, two white men of the community being on 
the board. 

Miss Washington has fully realized the vision 
of her school days at Hampton. She has planted a 
school in the wilderness. From an enrollment of 4 
small boys and one teacher in 1893, the school en 
rolled in 1916, 225 students and had five teachers. 
From no place at all in which to assemble the pu 
pils. Miss Washington has put up a two-story 
school house with three recitation rooms, an as 
sembly hall, and rooms for teaching industries to 
both boys and girls. Twenty-seven acres of land 
are now owned and cultivated by the school, fur 
nishing a means of teaching the boys and girls how 
to farm and live a farm life and at the same time 
supply food for students and teachers. All and all 
the school has a property valuation of $9,000.00. It 
has touched and lifted old and young in many ways 
during these twenty-four years of its existence. 
It has taught mothers better house keeping and 
fathers to buy land and to put their farms on a bus 
iness basis. Among the young people, it has turned 
out 85 graduates, many of whom have gone to 
Hampton, Tuskegee, Normal, Meharry Medical 
College, Talladega College, Spelman Seminary, 
Howard University and many other schools. These 
are now filling places of leadership where they are 
living. Those who did not elect to study further 
have gone back home and are applying their 
knowledge gained at the Village School in living 
clean, useful lives. 



59 




VICTOR HUGO TULANE. 





RAVELLING around on the south 
side of Montgomery, Ala., you 
come all at once upon a two-story 
brick building' which you feel 
ought to be down town. It is 
clean, wholesome, spacious, up-to- 

date in all appointments. This is 

the Tulane Grocery on the corner of South Ripley 
and High Sts. The building and business alike are 
owned by Victor H. Tulane, who in many ways is 
the foremost colored citizen of Montgomery. 

Mr. Tulane is a farm lad by birth, coming from 
Wetumpka, Ala. When a lad of fifteen having 
amassed the sum of $13.60 from picking cotton, he 
left his native heath and walked into Montgom 
ery in his bare feet. It took but a little while to 
find employment. In a year's time he with the as 
sistance of a hard working mother, had saved 
$100.00. With this sum he resolved to enter busi 
ness for himself. 

Now this was back in the late eighties 1888, to 
be explicit, when a Negro grocer, indeed a Negro 
anything worth while in business was a very rare 
creature. However, investing his savings in a rust- 
eaten set of scales, a broken meat knife, a lam]), a 
peck measure, and a few grocery remnants, lie set 
forth on his business career. 

Being a pioneer he proceeded upon anything but 
a pretentious basis. His first purchase of new 
stock consisted of one five pound bucket of lard 
and ten cents worth of salt. As can be readily 
.^een his fifteen feet by twenty feet store was far 



too large for his merchandise. To meet a local de 
mand he turned one side of the store into a char 
coal bin and sold charcoal along with, or perhaps 
in excess of his groceries. 

There were other embarrassments for the pion 
eer. Mr. Tulane had not been in business long be 
fore he decided that plowing and picking cotton 
taught one very little about dealing in weights 
and measures. Nor were there skilled Negroes in 
business as there are now who could give instruc 
tions. Mr. Tulane found out, however, a lad who 
had worked around a grocery store. This boy 
taught his employer the use of scales and man}' 
other points about the grocery business. It was in 
this early business that he went from house to 
house to solicit trade that crediting people well 
nigh closed out his then petty business, that he 
closed his store to deliver orders, carrying on his 
back bags of meal, half barrels of flour, and the 
like. 

In four years the light began to break. He had 
gotten some education in grocery keeping; his 
business had grown. A Texas pony hauled around 
the goods. A fifteen by twenty feet building was 
growing too small, but the store now leaked pain 
fully. The young grocer had by this time saved 
three hundred dollars. He resolved since the 
landlord would not repair to buy a place of his 
own. Thus began the spacious business quarters 
on the coroner of South Ripley and High Sts. Here, 
after twenty odd years he keeps stock worth sev 
eral thousand dollars, employs regularly seven as 
sistants, not counting himself and wife, both of 
whom give their time to the store, runs several 
grocery wagons in a word, does from twenty- 
five thousand to forty thousand dollars worth of 
business a year. Besides this, Mr. Tulane has 
branched out into other businesses and in public 
service work. He is the owner of many pieces of 
real estate in Montgomery. For some years he 
was the Cashier of the Montgomery Penny Sav 
ings Bank, which of course had to close when the 
parent bank failed in Birmingham. That Mr. Tu- 
lane's books were above question is shown by the 
fact that both the leading white banks and the big 
stores of Montgomery came forward immediately 
to proffer their assistance. Throughout his ca 
reer he has been interested in uplift work of his 
community. He is Chairman of the Board of Trus 
tees of Old Ship A. M. E. Church, the oldest col 
ored church in Montgomery. For years he has 
been a member of the Swaync School Board and 
is one of the chief promoters of a new building 
and better surroundings for this school. He is an 
honorary member of the Montgomery Chamber of 
Commerce, the only NegTO enjoying such an honor, 
a member of the Executive Committee of the Na 
tional Negro Business League, and a member of 
the Board of Trustees of Tuskegee Institute, as 
well as of other smaller schools. 

Mr. Tulane bases his business success around 
which all other distinctions hover upon straightfor 
ward dealings, giving full measure for value re 
ceived, meeting all obligations promptly, avoiding 
cheap goods, studying needs of customers, keeping 
his surroundings clean, in letting his business ad 
vertise itself. Far above all this are, two, Mrs. Tu- 
lanes to whom this business man expresses lasting 
gratitude for all that he has achieved, his own 
mother and also his wife. Mrs. V. II. Tulane. 



60 




CHARLES WINTER WOOD, A. 13., B. D., M. A. 




E is a reader, an orator, an educa 
tor and a Gentleman." It is with 
these words that the Chicago De- 
'l ^yy 4j k) fender characterizes Charles Win- 
J ^\ ^^ J> 1 ^r Wood. So far as they_ go they 
J P*y&i!M t* do well enough. But the man 
whom all call "Charlie," who is known for his 
generosity to friend and foe, whose unselfishness 
runs to the point of abnegation, who works with 
out regard to hours and with indifference to remun 
eration, who speaks no ill and thinks no ill. who 
never abuses even those who abuse him, can stand 
a good deal heavier coat of felicitation than is laid 
on him in these few words from his good friend 
the Defender. 

Professionally Mr- Wood could till several posts 
with distinction. So long as all these posts run to 
one tenor; namely the tenor of oratory. Charles 
Winter Wood could come away with great eclat, 
lie commenced his course as an actor; but a Ne 
gro actor of the days when Mr. Wood made his 
debut, was as positive of starvation as was the early 
founder of a new religion. Stranded on the road 
and smitten with hunger the young Shakespearean. 
and Shakespearean he was and is, shook the sack 
and bieskin and besought the muses for some hum 



bler calling where applause was perhaps not so vo 
ciferous but, bread and broth much more regular. 
Wood's greatest Dramatic achievement was Al- 
clepus Rex of Sophacles which was produced by 
Beloit College at Auditorium of Chicago. This was 
in Greek. 

Then, too, even if the stage had been more lur 
ing, Mr. Wood had in him a virile streak of the 
missionary. Somebody had put him on his feet, 
had shown him the way, Charlie Wood burned with 
the desire to do some sort of thing for another. 
Booker Washington was looking for a man with 
just Mr. Wood's zeal and ability. Thither to Tus- 
kegee, in those early days when men got water by 
allowance and had to get credit for a postage stamp 
Mr. Wood went and began to teach English and 
Public Speaking. Much of the dramatic industrial 
work, which later made Tuskegee Institute famous 
was begun and developed under Mr. Wood- 
But Mr. Washington was too shrewd an observ 
er and interpreter of men to keep Mr. Wood chain 
ed very long to the class room. His talent as an 
orator and as an entertainer was far too marked 
to allow his remaining in the school room. And 
so Mr. Wood went on the road. -He trained stu 
dents to speak, he drilled quartets ; he took the in 
terests of Tuskegee Institute to bankers and mil 
lionaires, making friends for the institution and for 
Dr. Washington everywhere. 

This man who has done so much to help make 
Tuskegee Institute of today possible was born in 
Tennessee December 17. 1870. He got what he 
could from the public schools of his native town, 
went to Chicago a poor boy and blacked boots to 
buy his bread and learned and recited Shakespeare 
for extras. One day Gaumsarlens, a preacher 
of great renown, was having his boots blacked. 
Shakespeare was as usual thrown in. The great 
divine saw the worth of the boy at once. Charles 
Winter Wood was soon in school. He was graduat 
ed from the Grammar Schools of Chicago, matricu 
lated in Beloit and came forth a Bachelor of Arts- 
He was also graduated from the Saper School of 
Oratory, was graduated from Chicago University 
Divinity School as B. D., as Master of Arts from 
Columbia University in New York. All these de 
grees he earned by hard work of body and brain 
for he had to pay his own way. 

Today he is a preacher who could fill any pulpit 
with much credit to himself and great delight to 
the congregation. He is one of the best enter 
tainers on the road. He is an orator of great talent. 
Secretary of War Baker and his assistant Emmett 
Jay Scott saw in Wood a power as a special war 
speaker and Wood was called on to do his bit dur 
ing the great war. 

All these he has subordinated to serving Tuskegee 
Institute. All these he uses to be sure, but he uses 
them to win friends and money for the school Book 
er T. Washington gave his life to build. On the 
faculty list he is manager of the Publicity Cam 
paign,' and Field Work, but at the school and else 
where in the country he is one of the big men whom 
Tuskegee has made and who has made Tuskegee. 



61 




MRS. MARGARET WASHINGTON. 



Mrs. Margaret Washington 





O have been the wife of Booker 
T. Washington, to have stood by 
him in those trying years of star 
vation at Tuskegee, to have been 
of tremendous aid in making Tus 
kegee Institute and making in a 
very literal way its founder would, it appears, be 
distinction enough for any lady of the land. Yet 
apart from anything that Tuskegee Institute could 
have meant to her save a place giving opportunity 
to expand, Mrs. Washington will go down in Negro 
history as one of the greatest women of her cen 
tury. 

Further, her distinction, though marked, will not 
be a distinction of press clippings and applause. 
Hers will be a personal one. handed on from neigh 
bor to neighbor, from father and mother to child. 
Her real service in the world will be estimated, not 
upon the fact that she was once President of the 
Alabama State Federation of Colored Women's 
Clubs or of the National Federation of Colored 
Women's Clubs, not that she spoke to crowded au 
diences or dined with distinguished men and wo 
men- Rather it will be reckoned upon the lost and 
half-wayward girls whom she shielded, encouraged 
and brought to paths of rectitude, upon the kind, 
sympathetic training she gave to young girls who 
knew no wrong and who because of her teaching 
remained always the pure, clean minded persons 
they were in childhood, upon the comfort and sus 
tenance she has taken into the destitute country 
homes around Tuskegee ; upon the country schools 
she has founded ; upon the rest room which she 
founded and keeps open for the Negro country wo 
men in the town of Tuskegee ; upon the actual 
teaching she has given these women on how to live 
and attend to their homes ; upon the disease eaten 
men and women whom she has had clothed, housed, 
fed and doctored; upon the out-cast children she 
has reared and educated and placed in good posi 
tions. These are the people who will forever place 
her name along side of her lamented husband, not 
because she was partner in all his struggles, but be 
cause she was also a servant to the poor and the 
neglected. 

Mrs. Washington is. like Dr. Washington, bone 
and fibre a Southerner. She loves the South, knows 
Southern people, white and black and prefers to 
live and work in the South. She was born in Macon 
Mississippi, March 9, 1865. She was one of a large 
family, there being in the Murray home ten child 
ren. A frail girl from her youth, she set out early 
to master her physical weakness and secure a thor 
ough education. On completing such courses as 
she could get in the town in which she was living 



she matriculated at Fisk University. Entering here 
in 1889 she spent nine years preparing for and com 
pleting her college course. Though poor in health 
during her school career, she nevertheless made an 
enviable record as a student, took leading parts in 
debates and in all forms of school activities .and was 
the student most relied upon to see that good order 
and good behavior prevailed everywhere. On fin 
ishing her work at Fisk she became teacher of En 
glish at Tuskegee Institute. She had not been at 
Tuskegee long before she became lady principal 
It was in this position even in carlv days at Tus 
kegee that Mrs. Washington began to show her 
real worth as a leader .and helper. She soon tonk 
over all the problems of the girls and women, not 
only in the school but in a radius of at least five 
miles around the school. When therefore she be 
came Mrs. Booker T. Washington, which was in 
1892. she had grasped the who'e range of problems 
which would confront the wife of the principal of 
Tuskegee Institute. From that day she has been 
one of the greatest forces at Tuskegee Institute, 
and among the Negro leaders and thinkers of the 
country. Practically nothing pertaining to Negro 
home life, is undertaken without a conference with 
Mrs. Washington. 

Mrs. Washington is a prodigious worker. She 
reads much, both popular matter and classic litera 
ture. She sees people by hundreds. From the time 
she goes to her office in Dorothy Hall in the morn 
ing until she literally makes herself leave, she is 
seeing peop'e and helping solve their problems. 
Here is a score of student girls, a dozen country 
women, a half dozen teachers, all in line to confer 
with her about some matter vital to themselves. 

For all this she finds time for the cu'.tivat'on of 
all those delicate family and friendly relations, per 
sonal touches, a thing which has endeared the 
Washingtons to thousands of people. Dr. Wash 
ington's two sons, Booker Jr. and E. Davidson and 
his daughter Portia, she has always cared for as 
if they were her own. Though they are now all 
married and have families of their own she still 
cares for them with that deftness of family touch 
peculiar to a few master mothers. Day after day 
you will see her leave her office and go after Book 
er T. Ill, who is the image of his grandfather, and 
take him walking or driving. She is as interested 
in health and manners and education of child and 
grandchild as if they were all but one young" fam 
ily just starting in life. Tuskegee owes her more 
than it can ever pay, more perhaps than it will ever 
even know ; for she has wrought directly much that 
will never die ; and indirectly she performed won 
ders by the side of him who blazed legions of new 
tracks in education, in labor, in economics and in 
society for the American Negro. 



63 





JOHN WESLEY WILLIAMS. 

OHN Wesley Williams was born 
July 10, 1881, in Quitman, Ga. He 
received his early education in the 
public schools of Quitman and 
other points in the state of Geor 
gia. His father being a Methodist 
Minister he changed his home frequently and of 
course changed schools at the same time. He went 
to Dorchester Academy, Mclntosh, Georgia, after 
getting what he could from the public schools and 
later did some work in Oberlin College, Oberlin, 
Ohio. 

When Mr. Williams went to Dorchester Academy 
he had twelve dollars in his pocket and two suits 
of clothes. He remained seven years at this insti 
tution of learning and during that time did not re 
ceive one cent in help. He worked his way with 
an idea of making the most of his time and of him 
self. After the first year he was put in charge of 
the buildings and grounds. In this way he earned 
his way through the institution. Although a great 
portion of his time was taken up with his work 
he never neglected his lessons. He is in fact a 
proof of the old saying that "Those who labor 
hardest, appreciate most what th.ey get." He ap 
preciated every opportunity that came his way that 



was for his betterment. He came out of that in 
stitution at the head of the class, graduating with 
highest honors. 

From the age of twelve Mr. Williams had looked 
out for himself. In this early start he learned the 
value of the dollar, and once he had the money, he 
knew how to take care of it. His first business ven 
ture was in Oberlin, Ohio. Here he opened his es 
tablishment with forty dollars as capital. He built 
up a business worth $20,000.00 in five years. lie 
did this through attending strictly to the matter 
in hand and letting no opportunity pass him bv. 

In 1912 he left Oberlin and went to Birmingham. 
Here he opened a Cleaning and Dyeing Business 
with a capital of $500.00. His business here is 
now worth $15,000.00. Besides what he lias put 
back into his business he has invested in real es 
tate and personal property. In all his property 
holdings are valued at $35,000.00. The business of 
Mr. Williams is reputed to be the largest cleaning 
and dyeing plant of any colored man in the world. 
This is very gratifying to him when he remembers 
that he has done it all unaided, that even in his 
childhood he had to be self supporting. 

Mr. Williams is an active member of the A. M. 
K. Church. Here he gives his money freely to the 
support of the gospel and lends his aid in every 
way possible for the advancement of the cause. In 
fraternal matters he is a member of the Knights 
of Pythias. 

Mr. Williams is President and Treasurer of the 
O. K. French Dye and Cleaning Company, incorpor 
ated, Chairman of the Industrial Committee of the 
United States Four Minute men of Birmingham. 
Alabama, Manager of a Land Improvement Com 
pany, in Cleveland, Ohio. In fact most of the time 
and energy of Mr. John Wesley Williams is spent 
in business. And in this field he is a success. 

On business and for pleasure Mr. Williams has 
traveled through most of the middle western States 
and through all of the Southern. He has also spent 
some time in various cities of Canada. In his trav 
els from one place to another, and from one sec 
tion of the country to another section, he has been 
able to compare his business with that of others 
following his line. In every instance he has found 
that he was doing the greater amount of work and 
running the larger establishment. There is nothing 
of the braggart in this estimation he has made of 
his work. Merely a stating of facts. Indeed, wher 
ever Mr. Williams has found a new suggestion he 
has accepted it gladly, eagerly. This is in fact one 
of the reasons for his success. 

Mr. Williams was married to Miss Alice L. Neely 
of Bolivar, Tennessee, October 19, 1915. Two beau 
tiful babies have come to share the home of Mr. 
and Mrs. Williams. Frances is two years of age 
and Baby Alice only six months old. 



64 





ARTHUR McKIMMON BROWN, A. B., M. D. 

RTHUR McKimmon Brown, phy 
sician, surgeon, was born in Ra 
leigh, North Carolina, Novem 
ber 9, 1867. He came from an 
educated family. He was the son 
of Winfiekl Scott, and Jane M. 
Brown. His grandmother was one of the first pub 
lic school teachers in Raleigh, North Carolina. 
Both of his parents being educated and moderately 
prosperous they saw that their son got the best 
preparation that the schools of his day could offer. 
His first school days were spent in the public- 
schools, at Raleigh. From the public schools he 
entered Shaw University, taking preparatory work. 
He was but twelve years of age, when he first reg 
istered at Shaw. After spending two years he 
returned to the city and pursued advanced study 
in the public schools. It was during the second 
course in the public schools that be began to show 
himself as a brilliant and promising student. By 
competition he won the four years scholarship at 
Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. Entering 
Lincoln University in 1884 he soon became con- 
spicious as a student and talented singer. His ex 
ceptional ability as a musician gained for him mem 
bership in the Silver Leaf Glee Club. 

In 1888 he was graduated from the Lincoln Uni- 

65 



versity with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. In 
ihe same year he matriculated in the University 
of Michigan for the study of medicine. At Mich 
igan University he applied himself even harder than 
he had done at Lincoln, and became before the close 
of his career there assistant in the office of one 
of the professors. Dr. Brown was graduated as 
doctor of medicine from Michigan University, in 
1I-N1. Of all the men who came out that year he 
\ ?s the only one who dared face the rigid exami 
nation of the medical board of Alabama. As is 
well known among the physicians that the exami 
nations of this board are exceedingly rigid, Dr. 
Brown, however, took the examination and passed. 
For two years he practiced in the mining town of 
Bessemer. Subsequently he practiced in Chicago, 
and in Cleveland but returned to Birmingham in 
1894. Here he remained until the beginning of the 
Spanish-American War. Wishing to serve his 
country and his people he enlisted in the United 
States Army, as a surgeon. He was the first Ne 
gro surgeon to secure a commission in the regular 
army of the United States. In 1899 he received 
an honorable dismissal and returned to Birming 
ham. Here he has since pursued a successful 
practice and has become one of the leading citi 
zens in many activities. 

While serving iti the army he accumulated 
enough material to join in writing a very fascinat 
ing and informing book, entitled "Under Fire with 
the Tenth United States Cavalry." This is one 
of the most authentic documents, as well as faci- 
nating reading on the service of the famous Tenth. 
Dr. Brown enjoys an enviable reputation as 
a Surgeon and stands high among the Negro phy 
sicians. 

Throughout his career, Dr. Brown has taken in 
tensive interest in his profession and in many en 
terprises, both social and business, about the city 
of Birmingham. He was interested in the Peo 
ples' Drug Store, of Birmingham, in 1895. He 
was at one time also chairman of the Prison Im 
provement Board ; director of the Alabama Penny 
Saving Bank ; at another time he served as surgeon 
in the Provident and John C. Hall hospitals, in 
Birmingham. He is at present surgeon to the 
Home Hospital, Birmingham, and is a member of 
the Surgical Staff of M. O. A., Andrew Memorial 
Hospital, Tuskegee, Alabama. He is one of the 
leading Baptists of the city. He is a member of 
the Masonic Lodge, Odd Fellows, Elks, and Knights 
of Honor. In his profession, he has been presi 
dent of the National Medical Association ; presi 
dent Tri-state Medical, Dental and Pharmaceuti 
cal Association ; the Tri-States being Alabama, 
Georgia, and Florida. Socially he holds active 
membership in the Owl, Whist and Advance clubs. 
He is a frequent contributor to the National Med 
ical Journal. 

Dr. Brown has been married t\,ice. His first 
wife was Miss Mamie Lou Coleman, of Atlanta, 
Georgia. They were married June 5, 1895. The 
present Mrs. Brown was Miss Mamie Nellie Ad 
ams, of Birmingham. He married her September 
27th, 1905. They have four children, Arthur, Her 
ald, Walter and Majorie. Dr. and Mrs. Brown live 
in their beautiful home on Fifth Avenue, where 
their generous hospitality is dispensed to friends. 





NATHANIEL JOSEPH BROUGHTON, M. D. 

F all the sections in Alabama to 
produce Negro leaders and men 
and women who have given am 
ple account of their stewardship, 
the locality in and around Marion 
and Selma would no doubt carry 
the palm. These sections are probably just fer 
tile enough to produce men physically strong 
and fit for life's wagers and yet barren enough to 
make them rise and go forth. Dr. Nathaniel Jo 
seph Broughton was born in Selma. He came 
along in a better day than most men who have 
made their mark. He was born in the latter sev 
enties, when Selma University, Payne University 
as well as a great many Negro institutions both 
in and out of the State were no longer a ques 
tion, but schools fairly well established with cours 
es and policies rather definitely shaped. 

Dr. Broughton was first a student at Payne In 
stitute when his educational foundation was laid. 
From this institute he entered the Selma Univer 
sity, a few blocks away. Here he received addi 
tional training which prepared him for his next 
move. He next enrolled in Walden University, 
Nashville, Tennessee. 

Up to this time Dr. Broughton had but one 



though to secure a good education and to this 
end he bent all of his energies and applied him 
self with untiring effort. 

As he approached the goal of his ambition the 
question of a career forced itself upon his mind. 
After considering the various vocations he finally 
chose that of medicine, seeing in this profession 
not only honorable calling, but a field of great use 
fulness. 

This decision was no doubt influenced by his 
work in and around a drug store and where he 
had an opportunity to study pharmacy. He labor 
ed in this store as a means to help pay his way 
through college. Thus it often happens that Prov 
idence interposes to lead us to our life work. 

However, there is much distinction between de 
cision and action. It is much easier to plan than 
to execute. To determine upon a course is the 
first and important step and then follows the 
hours, days and often months of patient toil and 
effort to carry out your plans. This was the case 
with Dr. Broughton. He had for years driven 
himself, as he thought, to his limit in securing his 
college training. 

In the summer he was working hard in Pullman 
service and during the school year was putting in 
spare hours in the drug store or anywhere else he 
could find employment. He had elected to be a 
physician and in order to fit himself for his profes 
sion he must assume additional burden and he 
went to his task with a zeal and determination 
which won him the fight. 

In Meharry Medical College, not far from Wald 
en, indeed the two schools are run under the same 
auspices, though with different executives and 
teachers, Mr. Daniel Williams, the celebrated Ne 
gro Surgeon of Chicago, was delivering lectures. 
Dr. Williams often wished to show how plaster of 
Paris was put on and how plaster of Paris and the 
patient behaved. Thus they needed what the artist 
might call a model, somebody who would allow 
himself in part or in toto to be shut up in Plaster 
of Paris. Dr. Broughton secured this rather unde 
sirable post, undesirable for some but most desir 
able for him. The job served him most lucratively 
in two ways. It increased his fund considerably 
to pay his college bills. Far more valuable still 
it gave the doctor his first real lasting incentive 
for medicine. He learned to love the profession ; 
he saw its opportunities ; he got very helpful in 
struction both from the experience and from the 
lectures. He is one of the comparatively few doc 
tors in the profession who "know how it feels" to 
be cased up in plaster of Paris, a sympathy well 
worth while and one which brings more business 
than can be readily appreciated. 

Though Dr. Broughton is still young, and young 
er yet in his profession, he is well established in all 
that the world terms properous. He began practice 
in Woodlawn. Alabama, one of the suburbs of Bir 
mingham, in 1906. In ten years he has thoroughly 
equipped himself and his office to render the best 
of service in the professon. He owns his home and 
three vacant lots in this town of his adoption. 

A happy head, the family surrounds him. He was 
married in 1906 to Miss Beatrice L. Statton of 
Chattanooga, Tenn. They have two daughters, 
Misses Genevieve and Mary George, both of whom 
are students in Normal School. 



66 





ORION LAWRENCE CAMPBELL. 

R. Orion Lawrence Campbell was 
born in Montgomery County, 
Alabama, December 13th, 1875. 
When quite a small boy it was 
his delight to visit a barber shop 
and watch the barbers at their 
work. Then and there he formed the ambi 
tion to be a barber, but he reached the goal of his 
ambition in later life, and after he had given sev 
eral other lines of business his attention. 

He received his preparatory education at the 
County School, but finished at Tuskegee Institute. 
An incident at the Tuskegee Institute revived his 
ambition to be a barber and no doubt contributed 
largely in the final determination to follow this line 
of work. He had a difficulty with another student 
in which he proved an expert in the use of a razor. 
His room mate joked him about his ability to use 
a razor and suggested that he open a tonsorial shop. 
Acting upon the suggestion of the joker he began 
business and while at the Institute he not only shav 
ed the students but numbered among his custo 
mers, many of the Professors and as he expressed 
it, felt himself a full fledged barber, when Dr. 
Booker T. Washington sat in the chair. 



After leaving the Tuskegee Institute he engag 
ed in the Upholstering business, but soon gave that 
up for the Printer's trade. Like a great number 
of young men, he was posessed with the false no 
tion that one business was more honorable that an 
other, and lost sight of the fact that all legitimate 
businesses are honorable, and that the honor lies 
in doing well what you undertake. Under the spell 
of this idea he took advantage of an opening to take 
charge of the type stand, and press at the State 
Normal School, Montgomery, at a salary of $12.00 
per week. He essayed to be a printer but the call 
of the barber shop had become too strongly in 
trenched in his mind to be effaced, and so his good 
common sense came to his rescue, and he gave up 
the press and type for the barber's tools. He en 
tered a barber shop on the per centage basis, and 
his earnings the first week only amounted to $1.55, 
but he was not to be discouraged. Other barbers 
were earning from $15. to $20. per week, and of 
they could earn it he could. He more than doub 
led his earnings the second week and at the end of 
six weeks he was earning as much as any barber 
in the shop. By his courteous manner and fidelity 
to his business he soon won the confidence of the 
Proprietor of the shop, who left him in charge when 
absent. After twelve years service in this shop he 
acquired a half interest in the business, but only 
continued partnership one year. After disposing of 
his interest he opened up a shop of his own. He 
opened his shop in 1908, and still operates it. It 
is well equipped with all the modern conveniences 
and is well patronized. His motto is, "Courteous 
and Efficient Service," and living up to his motto 
has secured for him the best of trade. 

His gross receipts for the year 1918, amounted to 
$14,000.00 Mr. Campbell has made a success of 
his business by following the bent of his inclina 
tion and giving his talent fullplay, and by strict 
and honest attention to his affairs. 

It is a matter of honest pride with him that his 
barber shop ranks with the first class colored shops 
throughout the country, both in management and 
equipment. 

He has accumulated quite a nice property. He 
owns a home of about $4000 value and six addi 
tional houses worth about $800 each, which brings 
him in a good income. 

While giving close attention to his business, Mr. 
Campbell finds time to interest himself in all enter 
prises which have for their object the betterment 
of his race. He belongs to the A. M. E. Church, 
and is a member of the Board of Trustees; he is a 
member of the Board of Trustees of Swayne Col 
lege ; He is a member of the K. of P. Lodge and 
was a member of the Masons and Odd Fellows. As 
a Pythian he ranks as Past Chancellor. 

Mr. Campbell has been quite a traveler and has 
visited the leadng cities of America. 

January 4th, 1911 he was married to Beatrice 
Gorham, of Montgomery, who is still his beloved 
companion. They have no children. He occupies 
a high position of respect both among the white 
and colored citizens. 



67 




ROBERT RUSSA MOTON. 



Robert Russa Moton LL. D. 




R. Robert Russa Moton, who is 
now the distinguished Principal 
of the Tuskegee Institute in Ala 
bama, takes pride in tracing his 
ancestry to pure African lineage. 
He is a direct descendant of a 
young African Prince, who was 
brought over to this country and 
was purchased by a Virginia planter. 

Born on August 26, on a Virginia plantation ,and 
inheriting some of the taste for knowledge from his 
mother, who had under difficulty learned to read 
and write, Robert Moton early developed a desire 
to broaden and obtain more of the world's know 
ledge. Accordingly, he set out for Hampton Insti 
tute with a definite goal in view and reached the 
Institute a few years after Booker T. Washington 
had graduated. 

Dr. Moton was early endowed with a generous 
supply of common sense and wise judgment. His 
fellow comrades often sought his advice and were 
wisely and sanely directed. He graduated from 
Hampton Institute in 1890 and soon after was em 
ployed by his Alma Mater as Commandant of Ca 
dets, which position he filled creditably for over 
twenty years. 

In 1905 he was married to Elizabeth Hunt Har 
ris, of Williamsburg, Virginia, who died the follow 
ing year, 1906. In 1908, he married Jennie Dee 
Booth, of Glocester County, Virginia. As a result 
of this marriage, four children are living ; Cather 
ine, Charlotte, Robert and Allen. 

During his term of service at Hampton Institute 
he became closely allied with Dr. Booker T. Wash 
ington, in their dual efforts to secure funds for the 
maintenance of the Institutions which each re 
presented. In one of his books, Dr. Washington 
said of him, "Major Moton knows by intuition 
Northern white people and Southern white people. 
I have often heard the remark made that the 
Southern white man knows more about the Negro 
in the South than anybody else. I will not stop 
here to debate that question, but I will add that 
colored men like Major Moton, know more about 
the Southern White man than anybody else on 
earth. 

"At the Hampton Institute, for example, they 
have white teachers and colored teachers ; they 
have Southern white people and Northern white 
people ; besides, they have colored students and 
Indian students. Major Moton knows how to 
keep his hands on all of these different elements, 
to see to it that friction is kept down and that 
each works in harmony with the other. It is a 
difficult job, but Major Moton knows how to nego 
tiate it." 

"This thorough understanding of both races 
which Major Moton possesses has enabled him to 
give his students just the sort of practical and 
helpful advice and counsel that no White man who 
has not himself faced perculiar conditions of the 
Negro could be able to give." 

Because of their intimate relationship and the 
mutual ideas of education and human develop 
ment which they entertained, when Dr. Washing 
ton passed away, the name of this friend of his, 



about whom he had expressed himself so beauti 
fully, came into the minds of hundreds of people, 
and almost unanimously, he was chosen to be the 
successor of this illustrious Colored American. 
The following extract taken from Major Moton's 
inaugural address at Tuskegee, shows in what spir 
it he assumed the "mantle" of his illustrious pre 
decessor. 

"No greater or more serious responsibility was 
ever placed upon the Negro than is left us here at 
Tuskegee. The importance of the work and the 
gravity of the duties that have been assigned the 
principal, the officers and the teachers in the for 
warding of this work cannot be over-estimated. 
But along with the responsibility and difficulties we 
have a rare opportunity ; one almost to be envied, 
an opportunity to help in the solution of a great 
problem The Human Race problem, not merely 
changing the modes of life and the ideals of a race, 
but of almost equal importance, the changing of 
ideas of other races regarding that race." 

Going beyond his regular duties, at Hampton, 
Dr. Moon formed what is known as the Negro Or 
ganization Society, in Virginia. Through its in 
fluence, 350,000 Negroes are being helped in the 
fundamentals of life, health, education, agriculture, 
home making. Dr. Moton is the founder and pres 
ent honorary president. He is also the chairman 
of the Executive Committee of the National Ne 
gro Business League and the Chairman of the Ex 
ecutive Committee of the Anna T. Jeanes Foun 
dation. 

During the period of the war, Dr. Moton was 
instrumental in negotiating a loan of five million 
dollars from the United States government for use 
in Liberia. He also was very active in speaking 
to the people on many tours in the interest of War 
Savings Stamps, Liberty Loan Drives and the con 
servation of food. He has recently been appoint 
ed the Negro representatives on the Permanent 
Roosevelt Memorial National Committee. 

Early in December, 1918, at the sacrifice of a 
great many matters of his own which needed im 
mediate attention, Dr. Moton left his own import 
ant work to go to France at the special request of 
President Wilson and Secretary Baker, to do spe 
cial morale work among the colored soldiers, who 
had made such a fine record for valor and courage. 
He spoke to thousands of these soldiers, black and 
white, urging them to return to their homes in a 
spirit of service and firm in their efforts to help 
uplift humanity and establish a real democracy in 
America. 

The degree of L. L. D. has been conferred upon 
him by Oberlin College and Virginia Union Univer 
sity in Richmond, Virginia. 

To show in what degree Dr. Moton is keeping 
alive the spirit of Tuskegee Institute, and of Dr. 
Washington, the following quotation is taken from 
one of the leading Southern White papers, in Char 
lotte, North Carolina : 

"So long as the Booker T. Washington ideals pre 
vail at Tuskegee, that institution will continue to 
perform a valuable service to the Negroes of the 
South, and under the management of Dr. Moton, 
these ideals have been lived up to in an admirable 
manner.' 



69 




CADETS ON PARADE AT TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE. 





HE school was established by an 
an act of Alabama Legislature 
session of 1880, as the Tuskegee 
State Normal School. Two thou 
sand dolars was appropriated to 
pay salaries. The first session, 

July 4, 1881, opened in a rented 

shanty church, with 30 pupils, 
and one teacher. The first prncipal of the institu 
tion, Booker T. Washington, brought to the work 
his own creative ability and the educational ideals 
of his friend and teacher, Samuel Chapman Arm- 
Strong, the founder of Hamptdn Institute. He 
continued as principal until his death, in November, 
1915. Through his tact and energy the plant and 
.endowment have been increased to an aggregate 
value of almost 4,000,000. In 1893 the institution 
was incorporated under its present name. In 1899 
the United States Congress gave the school 25,000 
acres of mineral land. Of this, 5,100 acres have 
been sold and the proceeds applied to the endow 
ment fund. The remaining 19,900 acres are valued 
at $250,000. The ownership and control of the in 
stitution are vested in a board of trustees compos 
ed of influential white and colored men from the 
North and from the South. 

Since the foundation of the school over ten 
thousand men and women have finished a full or 
partial course. They have gone out and are do 
ing good work, mainly as industrial workers. 

The total enrollment in the normal and industrial 
departments in 1918-1919 was 1,620. This included 
representatives from thirty-five states and eighteen 
foreign countries. This did not, however, include 
242 pupils in the training school or Children's 
House ; and 572 in the Summer School. The total 
number of those who had the benefit of the schools 
training was 2,432. 

There are forty trades or professions taught. The 
industries are grouped under three departments : 



The school of agriculture, the department of me 
chanical industries and the industries for girls. 
There is also a hospital and nurse training school. 
Each of these departments has a separate building 
or group of buildings in which its work is carried 
on. The agricultural school, in addition to its la 
boratories, has the farm and experiment station 
where practical and experimental work is done. 
The farm includes over 2,000 acres. The work of 
the farm is carried on by 200 students and 14 in 
structors. 

The mechanical industries include auto-mechan 
ics, carpentry, brickmasonry, wood working, print 
ing, tailoring, blacksmithing, shoemaking, found 
ing, wheelwrighting, harness making, carriage 
trimming, plumbing, steam fitting, electrical en 
gineering, architectual and mechanical drawing, 
tin-smithing, painting and brick making. 

The girls' industries include laundering, domestic 
science, plain sewing, dressmaking, millinery, and 
home crafts, under which are included bead work, 
broom making, rug making, chair seating and home 
decorations basketry. 

There is a systematic effort to correlate the aca 
demic studies with the industrial training and prac 
tical interests of the pupils. By this means, the in 
dustrial work of the students is lifted above the le 
vel of mere drudgery and becomes a demonstra 
tion. On the other hand, the principals acquired 
in the academic studies gain in definiteness, preci 
sion and interest by application to actual situa 
tions and real objects. The academic department 
is divided into a night and a day school. The night 
school is designed for those who are too poor to 
pay the small charges made to the day school. The 
night school pupils spend five evenings each week 
in academic work; the day school pupils, three 
days each week. Teaching in the academic depart 
ment is carried on by a faculty of forty-four 
teachers. They are expected to visit every week 




WHITE HALL, ONE OF THE DORMITORIES FOR YOUNG WOMEN AT TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE. 



some one division of the shops or farm and report 
upon it in order to find the illustrative material for 
their class room work. Pupils in their rhetoricals, 
read papers on and give demonstrations of the 
work they have done in the shops. 

The Phelps Hall Bible Training School was es 
tablished in 1892 to assist in improving the Negro 
ministry. It aims to give its students a compre 
hensive knowledge of the English Bible and such 
training as will fit them to work as preachers and 
missionaries under the conditions existing among 
their people. 

The hospital and nurse training school was start 
ed in 1892. Over one hundred nurses have graduat 
ed and are doing good work in different parts of 
the country. 

EXTENSION: The extension department pro 
vides a large number of activities for the improve 
ment of educational, agricultural, business, home 
health and religious life of the colored people of the 
United States. These activities vary from those 
limited to the needs of the institute community to 
those of national significance. The local organi 
zations include the building and loan associations, 
home building society, women's clubs, health and 
religious organizations. Country-wide movements 
include the supervision and building of rural 
schools, farm demonstration work, and health 
campaigns. The State-wide and national activities 
are largely the result of Dr. Washington's influ 
ence over the colored people and the esteem with 
which he was regarded by white people, North and 
South. The most important of these are the Na 
tional Business League, with its State and local 
organizations, and the State educational tours 
which Dr. Washington conducted in almost every 
Southern State. 

Probably the most influential of the extension ef 
forts is the Negro Farmers' Conference, held an 
nually at the institute. The conference brings to 
gether thousands of colored farmers from neigh 
boring counties and hundreds from other parts of 
the State and neighboring States. In 'addition, 



many influential white and colored people from 
every part of the country have gone to Tuskegee 
to see the assembly guided by Dr. Washington. 
On the day following the large meeting a "Work 
ers' conference" is held. This is composed of per 
sons who are directing all forms of endeavor for 
the improvement of the Negro race. Closely con 
nected with the farmers' conference is the short 
course in agriculture consisting of two weeks of 
study and observation at the institute. It is wide 
ly attended by farmers of surrounding countries. 

The experiment farm established at Tuskegee 
in 1896 by the State legislature is conducting ex 
periments in soil cultivation for the benefit of the 
colored farmers of the State. 

The school publications include two regular pa 
pers and many valuable pamphlets. The Tuskegee 
Student is a bimonthly devoted to the interests of 
the pupils, teachers and graduates. The Southern 
Letter, a record of the graduates and former stu 
dents is issued monthly and sent to persons inter 
ested in Tuskegee. The Negro Year Book is a 
compendium of valuable facts concerning the Ne 
gro in the United States. 

TEACHER TRAINING: The teacher - training 
course includes psychology, history of education, 
methods, management, school administration, re 
views, and methods in elementary subjects, draw 
ing, physical training, nature study, and 10 weeks 
of practice teaching at the Children's House. The 
Children's House is a large seven-grade school 
maintained co-operatively by Tuskegee and the 
country. It has facilities for manual work, house 
hold arts, and school garden. It is an excellent labo 
ratory for observation and practice teaching. Ar 
rangements have also been made with the county 
superintendents whereby a limited number of sen 
iors in the course teach six weeks in the country 
schools. Some pay is received for this teaching. The 
work outlined covers two years for graduate stu 
dents. If, however, the teacher-training hamama 
last two undergraduate years are elected the course 
may be completed in one year of graduate work. 



71 




GIRLS OF THE SENIOR CLASS AT TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE LEARNING MANUAL TRAINING. 



MUSIC: All pupils receive some training in vocal 
music. Special attention is given to the plantation 
melodies, which are taught not only for their mus 
ical value, but as an expression of the spiritual life 
and moral .struggles of the Negroes in America. 
Instruction on the piano is provided for those who 
are able to pay the special fee. 

DISCIPLINE AND PHYSICAL TRAINING : The mil 
itary system is maintained among the young men 
to cultivate habits or order, neatness and obedience. 
The rooms are inspected and the grounds are poli 
ced through the military system. Physical train 
ing is provided for the young women under the di 
rection of a woman trained in gymnastics. The 



young women's rooms are inspected by the ma 
trons in charge of the dormitories. 

Religious training: Considerable provision is 
made for religious services. The activities include 
Sunday school classes and daily chapel services, 
which are attended by all pupils. The voluntary 
religious organizations are the Young Men's Chris 
tian Association, the Young Women's Christian 
Association, Christian Endeavor Society, Tempe 
rance Union, and Missionary Society. 

LIBRARY: The Carnegie Library contains a 
stock room, reading room, librarian's office, and 
two rooms for magazines and newspapers. Three 
workers have charge of the library department. 




THE SUMMER SCHOOL AT TUSKEGEE INSTITUTE. 

72 




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Photo by Q. V. Buck. 



HON EMMETT JAY SCOTT 



Emmett Jay Scott 




ROM "Who's Who in America," 
we learn that Mr. Scott was born 
February 13th, 1873, at Houston, 
Texas, the son of Mr. and Mrs. 
Horace L. Scott. At an early age, 
after he completed the course of 
instruction in the Colored High 
School. 

He was influenced by Bishop J. B. Scott and Rev. 
W. H. Logan, D. D., to enter Wiley University. In 
order to help provide funds for his education young 
"Emmett" carried the mail from the post-office at 
Marshall, to the school, a distance of a mile and a 
half. 

For his services he received Five Dollars per 
month. This was during the years of 1887-1888. 

Having to divide his summer earnings with the 
younger children of the family, he did not return 
to Wiley, during the 1889 term until late, for the 
lack of funds, and in consequence lost his position 
of mail carrier. Nothing daunted, he chopped wood 
and fed the school's hogs ; later on, however during 
the same year, he became bookkeeper in the Pres 
ident's office, which "job" he held until the end of 
the school year. The following summer young 
Scott was employed as janitor in the Pillot Build 
ing, and it was here that he first had a real oppor 
tunity to demonstrate his natural aptitude for of 
fice work. He attracted the attention of a good- 
hearted Yankee, who was President of the War 
ren Lumber Company and publisher of the "Tex 
as Trade Journal." During odd hours of the 
day when he was around in the building he 
was give"n an opportunity to make a little ex 
tra money addressing wrappers and envelopes 
for this company and a little later on, through the 
kindness of a Southern White man, he was per 
mitted to do similar work for the Houston Com 
mercial Club, and finally became one of their reg 
ular workers until the club was disbanded. For 
several months after this he was unable to find 
any work to do until a colored man, Mr. Gibbs 
McDonald, who was generally known in Houston 
as "Old Man Gibbs," secured for him a position as 
assistant janitor and messenger in the office of the 
"Houston Daily Post." 

Mr. J. L. Watson, Secretary and Treasurer 
of the Post Publishing Company, very soon 
noticed his good penmanship, and on one oc 
casion, on a very busy day, put him to addressing 
envelopes. Later, as they found his willing and 
ambitious, other responsibilities were given him, 
to all of which he measured up with surprising sat 
isfaction. 

Even at that time the "Houston Post" was the 
leading paper of the Southwest and under Mr. 
Watson's management became a strong and pow 
erful influence in the political and business devel 
opment of the South, a place which it still holds. 

Mr. Scott himself did not know how well-devel 
oped were his powers of observation and expres 
sion until on one occasion, when the commence 
ment exercises- at Prairie View Normal School 
were being held and "The Post" could not spare a 
reporter to go to attend, Mr. Johnson suggest- 

75 



ed that he go to Prairie View and secure the story 
for "The Post." The story which he brought back 
from Prairieview, and which was published in 
"The Post" was prepared with all the detail and 
finesse of a veteran reporter. When he left 
the employ of the "Houston Post" he had 
reached that stage of his growth where he needed 
a further outlet for his natural talents. About 
that time the "Texas Freeman" was launched at 
Houston with J. S. Tibbitt as Editor; Emmett J. 
Scott, Associate Editor, and Charles N. Love as 
Business Manager. Later Mr. Scott and Mr. Love 
acquired Mr. Tibbitt's interest and for three years 
"The Freeman," under their management, was the 
most powerful and influential organ of the colored 
people of Texas. Mr. Love continues the publi 
cation. 

It was one of the most significant occurances in 
Mr. Scott's career as Editor of "The Freeman" 
that he was one of the first colored men with suf 
ficient vision and interpretation of the signs of 
tinies to see that Booker T. Washington was des 
tined to be the leader of thought among his race. 
This is best told in the recent book, entitled "Book 
er T. Washington Builder of a Civilization," of 
which Mr. Scott and Mr. Lyman Beecher Stowe, 
grandson of the late Harriet Beecher Stowe, are 
co-authors. Concerning Dr. Washington's famous 
Atlanta address in 1895 the book says : 

"One of the first colored men so to acclaim him 
was Emmett J. Scott, who was then editing a Ne 
gro newspaper in Houston, Texas, and little realiz 
ed that he was to become the most intimate asso 
ciate of the new leader. In an editorial Mr. Scott 
said of this, the famous Atlanta address: 'Without 
resort to exaggeration, it is but simple justice to 
call the address great. Great in the absolute mod 
esty, self-respect and dignity with which the 
speaker presented a platform upon which, as Clark 
Howell, of the "Atlanta Constitution" says, "both 
races, blacks and whites, can stand with full jus 
tice to each." 

Since he went to Tuskegee in 1897 as Mr. Wash 
ington's secretary, the part which he has played in 
the, development of .Tuskegee Institute and its 
varied activities is well known to those of our 
race who are conversant with current activities. 
In 1901, he was elected Secretary of the National 
Negro Business League, which position he has held 
regularly ever since, and no one in touch with the 
work of the Business League can think of this 
splendid organization without associating with it 
the name of Emmett J. Scott. In 1909, Mr. 
Scott was a member of the American Commis 
sion to Liberia, appointed by President William 
H. Taft. His study of Liberian conditions has 
been put in pamphlet form, under the title "Is 
Liberia Worth Saving?" and is recognized as an 
authoritative treatise on Liberia and its possibil 
ities. In 1912 he was Secretary of the Internation 
al Conference on the Negro, which met at Tuske 
gee Institute. 

Mr. Scott's larger activities, other than these 
here outlined, have been his co-authorship with Dr. 
Washington in writing the book "Tuskegee and Its 



People," published in 1910, and with Lyman Beech- 
er Stowe in writing the book "Booker T. Washing 
ton," published in 1916. 

When America entered the war in 1917, there 
was considerable uneasiness as to what would be 
the status of the Negro in the war and quite nat 
urally Tuskegee Institute was one of the centers 
which helped in adjusting these conditions. Dr. 
Moton, Principal, and Mr. Scott, made frequent 
visits to New York and Washington, and were con 
stantly in consultation with the authorities at 
Washington. Out of these discussions and toge 
ther with the activities of other agencies working 
towards the same end, the Officer's Training Camp 
for Negro Officers was established at Des Moines, 
Iowa, and later, following a conversation between 
Dr. Moton and Mr. Scott, Dr. Moton interviewed 
President Wilson and suggested that a colored 
man be designated as an Assistant or Advisor in 
the War Department to pass upon various matters 
affecting the Negro soldiers who were then being 
inducted into the service and as the result, Mr. 
Scott went to Washington on October 1st, 1917, 
and from then until July 1st, 1919, served as Spec 
ial Assistant to the Secretary of War. 

Among the things that the record of Mr. Scott's 
work in the War Department will show are the fol 
lowing: 

1. The formation of a Speakers' Bureau, or 
"Committee of One Hundred," to enlighten the 
Colored Americans on the war aims of the gov 
ernment. 

2. Aiding in the breaking up of discrimination, 
based on color, in the great ship-building plant at 
Hog Island. 

3. Establishing morale officers and agents at 
the Industrial plants, North and South where large 
numbers of colored workmen were employed. 

4. He was largely instrumental in the enroll 
ment of Colored Red Cross Nurses and securing 
authorization for the utilization of their services in 
base hospitals at six army camps, in which colored 
soldiers were located Funston, Dix, Taylor, Sher 
man, Grant and Dodge. 

5. The continuance of the training camps for 
colored officers and the increase in their number 
and an enlargement of their scope of training. 

6. Betterment of the general conditions in the 
camps where Negroes are stationed in large num 
bers, and positive steps taken to reduce race fric 
tion to a minimum wherever soldiers or opposite 
races are brought into contact. 

7. The extension to young colored men the op 
portunity for special training in technical, mechan 
ical, and military science in the various schools and 
colleges of the country, provision having been made 
for the training of twenty thousand through the 
Students' Army Training Corps, and other practi 
cal agencies of instruction. 

8. An increase from four to sixty in the num 
ber of colored chaplains for the army service. 

9. The recall of Colonel Charles Young to ac 
tive service in the United States Army. 

10. The establishment of a Woman's Branch 
under the Council of National Defense, with a col 
ored field agent, Mrs. Alice Dunbar Nelson, to or 
ganize the colored women of the country for sys 
tematic war work. 

76 



11. The appointment of the first colored regu 
larly-commissioned war correspondent, to report 
military operations on the western front in France. 

12. The opening of every branch of the military 
service to colored men, on equal terms with all 
others, and the commissioning of many colored 
men as officers in the Medical Corps. 

13. Large increase in the number of colored 
line officers the total increasing from less than 
a dozen at the beginning of the war to more than 
1,200. 

14. Direct aid and material encouragement in 
the "drives" for the Liberty Loans, the Red Cross, 
the Y. M. C. A., Y. W. C. A., and United War 
Work Relief Agencies in general. 

15. The calling and successful direction of a 
Conference of Colored Editors and Leaders, which 
went far to promote the morale of the 12,000,000 
colored Americans, and led to a declaration of the 
Government's sympathetic attitude toward the de 
sires and aspirations of its colored citizenry. No 
conference held for the consideration of Negro 
problems has been so fruitful of big results as this. 

Dr. Moton, in making his annual report to the 
Trustees of Tuskegee Institute in 1918, said of Mr. 
Scott : 

"Our Secretary, Mr. Emmett J. Scott, who lab 
ored so faithfully with Dr. Washington during his 
lifetime, and who is standing by the present Prin 
cipal with equal loyalty, was loaned to the Gov 
ernment to become Special Assistant to the Secre 
tary of War. Mr. Scott is fitted, as perhaps no 
other man in the country, to do this work with 
rare tact and good judgment. Added to his splen 
did native ability, he has had a peculiar experience 
here at Tuskegee, which has gven him as broad 
a conception of and insight into the problems of 
race relationship as any man I know. 

"I wish I could put into this report some of his 
real accomplishments which are having a far- 
reaching effect in making lighter the burdens of 
our wise, patient and courageous President, and 
the Secretary of War, in meeting many of the 
problems which have grown out of the enlistment 
of thousands of colored soldiers, and at the same 
time making it easier for approximately 400.000 
colored soldiers now in the service to adjust them 
selves to the many trying and difficult situations 
which must necessarily arise in the new life into 
which they have been so suddenly entered." 

Late in June, 1919, it was announced through the 
press that Mr. Scott had been elected Secretary- 
Treasurer of Howard University, thus bringing to 
a close twenty-two years of successful, faithful, 
service to Tuskegee Institute, and upon July firs* 
he entered upon his new duties. 

Perhaps the most beautiful estimate of Mr. Scott 
is the following comment from Dr. Booker T. 
Washington, which appeared in his book entitled, 
"Tuskegee and Its People." 

"For many years now, Mr. Scott has served the 
school with rare fidelity and zeal, and has been to 
the Principal not only a loyal assistant in every 
phase of his manifold, and frequently trying duties, 
but has proved a valuable personal friend and coun 
selor in matters of the most delicate nature, ex 
hibiting in emergencies a quality of judgment and 
diplomatic calmness seldom found in men of even 
riper maturity and more extended experience." 




ULYSSES. GRANT MASON, M. D. 





HIE good book tells us that men 
have varying talents and that 
man is not limited to one talent. 
It is often noted in men of re 
nown that they possess a number 
of talents with one or more very 
conspicuous. 

This is illustrated in the case of Dr. Mason. He 
is prominent in his profession as a physician and 
no less prominent as a business man and withal he 
is a man of marked initiative ability. 

Dr. Mason is the son of Isaac and Mary Mason, 
and was born in Birmingham, Alabama, Novem 
ber 20th, 1872. 

He received his preparatory education at Hunts- 
ville College (now A. & M. College, Normal, Ala 
bama.) Having chosen the medical profession he 
next entered the Meharry Medical College, (Wai- 
den University,) at Nashville, Tennessee. Grad 
uating from this college he sought additional pre 
paration in Europe and took a special course in 
surgery, at the University of Edinburgh, Scot 
land. Returning to this country, he entered up 
on his medical career in Birmingham, Alabama. 
the city of his birth He at once won recognition 
as a physician and soon had an extended practice. 



His ability as a physician was recognized by the 
City authorities, who appointed him assistant city 
physician, which position he held for about eight 
years. 

Dr. Mason was sympathetic with all movements 
which looked to the elevation and advancement of 
his people and himself initiated several institu 
tions which sought their good. 

He was the organizer and founder of the Home 
and George, C. M. Hall Hospital ; Founder and 
Surgeon to the Northside Infirmary, located at 
1508 Seventh Avenue, Birmingham, Alabama. In 
1910 he organized the Prudential Savings Bank, 
and has been its President since the organization. 

These organizations indicate the trend of his 
mind to ameliorate the sufferings of his people, 
and encourage them in habits of thrift. 

From 1897 to 1908, he had been the Vice Presi 
dent of the Alabama Penny Saving Bank. 

He is regarded as a man of remarkable business 
ability and his reputation is well sustained in the 
creditable manner in which he handles all matters 
confided to him. He has filled many honorable 
positions, both as a citizen and in a professional 
way. 

He was Delegate at large to the Republican Na 
tional Conventions, 1908-1912. Member Clinical 
Congress of Surgeons of North America ; member 
of the Medical Society of the United States of 
America ; member John A. Andrew Clinical So 
ciety ; member National Medical Association ; 
member of the State Medical, Dental and Phar 
maceutical Association, and of the Birmingham 
District Medical, Dental and Pharmacy Association. 
He is the Endowment Treasurer of Knights of Py 
thias ; Trustee of the Central Alabama Institute, 
and Trustee of the 16th. Street Baptist Church, of 
Birmingham. He has always taken a prominent 
part in public affairs. Secretary Baker appointed 
him on a committee of one hundred to represent 
the Government on War Aims ; he was chairman 
of the War Saving Stamps Committee ; Member 
of the State National Council Defense and member 
of Volunteer Medical Service Corps, Council of 
National Defense. 

Dr. Mason has been twice married. His first 
wife, Miss Alice Nelson, of Greensboro, Alabama, 
died September 19th, 1910, leaving him four chil 
dren, Vivian. Ellariz, Ulysses G. Jr.. and Alice F. 
June 17th. 1916 he married Mrs. Elsie Downs Bak 
er, of Columbus Ohio, who has borne him one 
child. Dorothy Downs. Dr. Mason finds great 
pleasure and pride in his family and home life. 

Dr. Mason has accumulated considerable pro 
perty .and is among the wealthiest negroes of the 
South. 

Regarded from every standpoint he is a success. 



77 




DAVID HENRY CLAY SCOTT, M. D. 




ICKNESS and disease is to be 
found in all races of men and in 
all stations of life and the mar 
velous advance mftde by science 
in combating its ravages has at 
tracted to the profession of med 
icine a great many young men. Aside from its re 
munerative attraction they see in the medical pro 
fession a field of unlimited usefulness. A doctor's 
life is not one of ease but the faithful physician 
who spends himself in the interest of humanity 
feels that he has given his life to a good cause. 
Among the young men who were attracted to this 
profession was Dr. David Henry Clay Scott. 

Dr. Scott was born in Hollywood, Alabama, No 
vember 21st, 1871. Like quite a large number of 
colored youths he aspired to rise above the lot of 
a day laborer and realized that in order to do so he 
must have an education and fit himself for some 
useful and remunerative occupations. His choice of 
a life work was that of medicine so he set that 
profesion as his goal and bent all of his energies to 
attain a doctor's certificate. 

He received his first educational training at the 
Huntsville State Normal School where he acquir 



ed a good foundation upon which he continued to 
build until his education was complete. 

He entered the Meharry Medical College, to 
prepare for his life work, from which instituition 
he received his M. D. Finishing his course 
he was ready for business and selected Selma as 
the city in which to hang out his shingle. How 
ever, he remained in this city only from March to 
November, when he moved to Montgomery. His 
career in Montgomery is the best testimony as to 
the wisdom of this change. His practice contin 
ued to grow from the beginning which is evidence 
of his ability as a physician. 

While Dr. Scott's large practice keeps him busy 
he manages to find time to devote to civic matters 
and is interested in all matters which look to city 
developement. 

He was appointed chairman for the colored citi 
zens in the 4th. Liberty Loan Drive, the success of 
which demonstrated his ability as a leader. 

The following extracts from a statement issued 
by him in one of the local papers tells the spirit in 
which he entered upon this work. 

"As chairman of the colored people's Fourth Li 
berty Loan drive, I am extremely anxious that we 
do not falter in the last hours of this all important 
effort to put Montgomery 'over the top," and again 
"There is no special honor coming to any one be 
cause of this effort. Selfish be he who buys bonds 
for the sake of any honor that may come to him in 
so doing." Dr. Scott has marked executive ability 
as well a liberal endowment of business sagacity 
which he has used to great advantage. 

Recognizing the need for a better class of build 
ings for the colored business man, he purchased a 
lot at the corner of Monroe and Lawrence Streets, 
and erected thereon a handsome three-story struc 
ture. The first floor is occupied as a drug store, 
which is run in first class style, having a fine soda- 
fount and other modern attractions. The second 
and third floors are used for offices and are all oc 
cupied by live, wide-awake business men. When 
you enter this biulding you are at once impressed 
with its business atmosphere. Dr. Scott also owns 
and occupies his residence and owns several other 
pieces of property. 

Dr. Scott was married December 28th, 1897, to 
Miss Viola Watkins, daughter of a prominent Con 
tractor of the city of Montgomery, who erected 
his store building. They have no living children. 

While Dr. Scott is interested in all enterprises 
which seek the good of his people he is especially 
interested in that institution, which in addition to 
its humanitarian appeal, interests him from the 
standpoint of his profession as a physician and 
surgeon The Hale Infirmary. He is officially 
connected with this institution and gives to it his 
best thought and skill and much of his time- 



78 



I 
I 







KAWALIGA ACADEMIC AND INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE 





HE Kowaliga School was founded 
in 1898, by William E. Benson, a 
native of the community in which 
it is located. It is located in Tal- 
lapoosa County, Alabama, in the 
center of a community of colored 
people comprising about one thousand inhabitants. 
It was a part of a general enerprise which includes 
besides the school, the Dixie Industrial Company. 
It is owned by a board of trustees of prominent 
Northern men and women and local colored men. 
Represented upon the board is John J. Benson, 
father of the founder, a man known far and wide 
for his marvelous success as a farmer and a man 
who commands the highest respect from both the 
white and black citizens. 

The need for better educational facilities for the 
colored youth of the community had long been 
felt and it was to meet this need that suggested 
the enterprise which resulted in the building of 
the school. 

Primarily it was not the aim of the school to 
train teachers, but to give to the boys and girls of 
the community an elementary education. While 
thorough instruction is given to the grammar 
grades, the scholars are also given instruction in 
manual, domestic and agricultural training. Man 
ual training in wood and iron is taught the boys, 
along with training in agriculture, while the girls 
are taught cooking, sewing, millinery and basketry. 
The school is non-sectarian but kept under a strong 
religious influence. Although the Bible is not 
taught in the day school, devotional exercises are 
held each morning before the school work begins. 
The teachers and students visit all the churches 
in the community and quite often the ministers of 
the churches visit the school. The first Saturday 
afternoon of each month is known as Mother's 
day, when the mothers meet and receive instruc 
tion in bread making, house cleaning, laundering, 
care of children, etc. They are given samples of 
yeast and baking-powder with instructions how 
to use them. In addition to their school duties, 
the teachers give as much time as is possible in 
doing extensive work. They make a house to 
house canvass in order to ascertain just the needs 



of the patrons and show them the advantage of 
sending their children to school. This extension 
work is making the school many friends. The 
school has a boy's brass band, which arouses much 
interest, both in the school and community. The 
school has a library of 900 volumes which are used 
by the students. The Library needs replenishing 
and a better selection of books to stimulate a new 
interest in it. Mr. Benson, the founder, died Oc 
tober 14th, 1915, and was succeeded by James An 
drew Dingus, who took charge of the school De 
cember 2nd., 1915. 

Professor Dingus was born in Tiles County, Vir 
ginia, March 3rd, 1877, and received his education 
in Marietta, Ohio, where he graduated from the 
High School and received the finishing touches at 
the Hampton Institute, in Virginia. He was es 
pecially fitted for agricultural instruction and for 
three years was placed in charge of the Dairy and 
Poultry departments at Hampton Institute, and for 
three years had charge of the Agricultural depart 
ment at Langston, Oklahoma. 

When he took charge of Kawaliga school he 
found evidence of excellent construction work 
along the line of buildings, but the patrons some 
what disorganized owing to the death of Mr. Ben 
son- His first work was to meet the local mem 
bers of the Board of Trustees and learn the needs 
and condition of the school. He realized that three 
things were necessary to guarantee success in his 
efforts children to instruct, teachers to teach 
them and money to pay the teachers. Having sat 
isfied himself upon these points he put his life and 
energy into the work with the most gratifying re 
sults. The enrollment 1917-18 was 196, with an 
average attendance of 115. 

The land upon which the school is located com 
prises 249 acres, about fifty of which is under cul 
tivation. It is the purpose of Professor Dingus to 
make this farm not only self-sustaining but a source 
of profit to the school. Thus it will serve the 
double purpose of a model farm for instruction and 
a source of income. Kowaliga is an Indian name, 
the name of a little river in the uplands of Alabama, 
along whose borders was once an Indian Reser 
vation. Here is now to be found a thickly settled 
farming community, inhabited by a comparatively 
thrifty and industrious class of colored people. In 
the center of this community is the Kowaliga 
school, exerting an influence over the inhabitants 
elevating, refining, and inspiring to a nobler life. 



79 




REVEREND JOHN BONHAM McDUFFEE 




E.V. John Bonham McDuffee was 
born in Montgomery County, Ala 
bama, May 1st, 1868, and has re 
sided in the county of his birth al 
most his entire life. The call of 
the farm had a fascination for 
him, and a tan early age he began his farming 
operations. At the age of sixteen he began work 
on his own account. His farm was located in Beat 
10, Montgomery County, where he has almost con 
tinuously since tilled the soil. 

Like a great many colored men, his thirst for 
knowledge kept pace with his manual efforts so he 
gave a fourth of his time to the cultivation of his 
mind. He gave three-fourths of his time to the 
farm and attended the district school in the winter. 
In 1895 he joined the Baptist church at Hope Ala 
bama and was by that church ordained to the min 
istry and called to be the Pastor of the church at 
Letohatchie. He served his church for twelve 
years before accepting work elsewhere. The re 
sult of his ministerial work has been the serving 
of seven churches, two of which he founded and 
built from the ground up. 

In 1897 he was elected President of the Alabama 



Middle district Sunday School Convention, and 
held the office continuously for nine years. 

In the year 1915 he was elected Secretary of the 
same convention, which position he now fills. 

Rev. McDuffee believes in taking time by the 
foreclock, so when he read that the Boll Weevil 
was headed for Alabama, he immediately began to 
plan to give him a warm reception, not in the" sense 
of a cordial reception but such a welcome as would 
prompt him to seek a more congenial clime. The 
outcome of his tests and experiments was the "Mc 
Duffee Boll Weevil Remedy," a remedy that has 
brought him into notice throughout the cotton pro 
ducing states. 

His name has become a by-word in the homes of 
many farmers in the cotton belts. 

The cotton production has had to face many dif 
ficulties and -has met and overcome many formida 
ble enemies, the great enemy it now faces being 
the boll weevil. In finding a remedy for this peai 
the Rev. McDuffee will save to the cotton produc 
ing states much wealth. 

No other remedy has accomplished the good in 
the destruction of the boll weevil that McDuffee's 
preparation has clone and hundreds of farmers have 
voiced their praise of the remedy in letters of com 
mendation. It came at a time when the farmers 
were blue and it seemed that the death knell to 
cotton culture had been sounded and like the morn 
ing sun it dispelled the mists of doubt and uncer 
tainty which hung over the farmer and gave him a 
new hope. 

Thus it often happens that our brightest visions 
come in the midst of our hardest trials. For every 
evil there is a remedy and it fell to the lot of Rev 
erend HcDuffee to find the remedy for the Boll 
Weevil. 

Before giving his remedy to the public, Rev. Mc 
Duffee partook freely of his own medicine. He 
reasoned that if it did not keep his own fields free 
of the pest it would be of no practical use to others. 
His experiments were so successful that he imme 
diately told others of the blessing he had found. 
Others have tried it, much to the discomfort of the 
Boll Weevil, and the reputation of the McDuffee 
Boll Weevil Remedy was assured. 

The home life of Rev. McDuffee has been a 
mingling of joy and sorrow. He has been married 
three times and twice has he stood at the open 
grave and watched the bodies of his companions 
lowered into mother earth. 

His first wife was Miss Elizia Normon, who he 
married in 1886. She died leaving him four chil 
dren. He next married Miss Susia Woodley, who 
gave him nine children. She died August llth. 
1913. His present wife was Miss Arlean Johnson, 
and from this union has been born two children. 



80 





GEORGE AUGUSTUS WEAVER, M .D. 

R. George Augustus Weaver, the 
subject of this sketch was born m 
Tuscaloosa, Alabama, November 
1st, 1870, where the very atmos 
phere breathed the spirit of edu- 

cation. Here the Alabama State 

University is located, and it is quite natural that a 
colored youth who was born and raised in such a 
community should have aspirations for learning 
and position. 

With the fires of ambition kindled he formed the 
purpose to secure an education and the fact that the 
way seemed hard did not deter him nor change his 
purpose. He persevered until his course was com 
pleted and he was enabled to hang out his shingle 
as an M. D. With the exception of five dollars a 
month given him by his father he paid his own way 
through school and college. He served as porter 
with the Wagner Palace Car Company and the Pull 
man Company, and spent such time as not engaged 
in the school, upon the road. 

This work while it gave him the funds to contin 
ue his studies also added to the developement of his 
mind. His travels carried him all over the United 
States and to many of the cities of Canada, thus 



broadening his outlook and giving him a greater 
knowledge of men. He commenced his studies in 
the city school, of Tuscaloos, his native city, where 
a good foundation was laid and prepared him for 
the advanced course in other institutions. After 
finishing the Tuscaloosa schools he entered the Tal- 
ladega College where he graduated in 1892. From 
Talladega College he went to Howard University, 
at Washington, D. C, and took the medical course, 
graduating in 1897. The Howard University was 
founded in 1867 by an act of Congress and in varie 
ty and quality of profesional training stands first 
among educational institutions for colored people. 
Thus by his indomitable spirit, energy, patience 
and perseverence he secured an education, and com 
pleted his medical course in one of the strongest in 
stitutions in the land. When he left the University 
he was well equipped for his profession so far as 
knowledge goes, but without the means to rent and 
furnish an office, so he turned again to the road, 
and for several months, from May to January, 
donned the uniform of a pullman porter. He open 
ed his office and began the practice of medicine and 
surgery, in March, 1898, in the city of Tuscaloosa, 
where he has continuously practiced since. 

Dr. Weaver is a member of the First African 
Baptist Church and takes an active part in church 
life. In recognition of his ability and consecrated 
life the church made him Chairman of the Board of 
Trustees. He is a member of the Masonic Lodge 
and has served as Senior Grand Warden. He is a 
Knight of Pythias, and an Odd Fellow, being Grand 
Medical Director of the latter. He is also a mem 
ber of the volunteer Medical Service Corp. Ex-Pres 
ident of Alabama Dental and Pharmaceutical Asso 
ciation. 

Dr. Weaver was selected as Chairman of the 
Fourth Loan drive, and under his management it 
went far "over the top." He was one of the "Four 
minute-Speakers," in the speaking force to push 
the War Saving Stamp campaign, and organized a 
class of Red Cross First Aid. 

In this time of his country's need his soul burned 
with the firts of patriotism, and in this way he 
gave expression to his loyalty and relieved the pent 
up fires of patriotism which urged him to action. 

In 1900 Dr. Weaver was united in marriage to 
Miss Mattie A. Wallace, of Wilsonville, Ala., who 
together, with two children born of this union, con 
stitutes his family. One, a boy eight years of age, 
bears his father's name, and the other a daughter, 
two and a half years of age, they named Marie Eli 
zabeth, and an adopted boy, Everard Weaver, now 
a student at Ttiskegee Institute. 

Dr. Weaver owns his home, which is a pretty 
structure, worth $4000, and in addition he owns real 
estate to the value of approximately $13,500. 



81 




STONE HALL, SELMA UNIVERSITY 




R. Robert Thomas Pollard, A. B., 
D. D., was born in Gainesville, 
Alabama, October 4th, 1860. He 
received his early education in 
the common schools after which 
he entered the Selma University. 
an institution to which he gave 
many of his active and useful 
years. After graduating from the collegiate 
course he began his work as a minister. His first 
labors were that of a missionary in the state of Ala 
bama. In this work, he traveled for a number of 
years all over the state. He next became an agent 
of the American Baptist Publication Society, of 
Philadelphia, in advancing the Sunday School 
work. He gave up this work to enter the service 
of the American Baptist Home Mission Society. 
Again he became a missionary for the Southern 
Baptist Convention and for the Society of Alabama 
Baptists. In this service he traveled from church 
to church, and from convention to convention, of 
the colored people of Alabama. 

Having served for a long period as a missionary 
he gave up his field of labor for the pastorate and 
in this capacity he served a number of the leading 
churches in Alabama. He was pastor of the church 
es in Montgomery, Marion, Selma, Union Springs 
and Eufaula. The next step in his career was that 
of an educator, being called to the Presidency of 
his alma mater, the Selma University. He con 
tinued in this position for nine years, from 1902 to 
1911. While holding this office he found frequent 
opportunities to preach, presenting the claims of 
the University and raising funds to finance the in 
stitution. His arduous duties in connection with 
this institution impaired his health and caused him 
to resign his office as president. He re-entered 
the pastorate for a short period, when he was elect 
ed President of Florida Memorial College, Live Oak 
Florida. 

In 1916, his successor, as president of the Selma 



l/niversity. Dr. M. W. Gilbert resigned on account 
of failing health, and Dr. Pollard was again called 
to fill the post. Although he had just been re-elec 
ted to the presidency of the Florida Memorial Col 
lege, he felt it his duty to respond to the call to 
again head the Selma University, which position 
he now holds. 

The Selma University was born of deep seated 
conviction that the great need of the colored race 
was an educated ministry. This conviction deep 
ened from year to year and was earnestly discuss 
ed at the Alabama Colored Baptist State conven 
tions. It finally took shape at the convention held 
in Tuscaloosa in 1873, by adopting the following 
resolution offered by Rev. W. II. McAlpine: 

"Resolved ; That we plant in the State of Ala 
bama, a Theological school to educate our young 
men." This gave to the movement a definite aim 
and purpose and inspired it with great activity. 
The fight was on and although the battle for suc 
cess was hard and long, it was finally won and the 
institution is now the pride of the C'olored Baptists 
of the state. 

Starting the enterprise forty-five years ago with 
out funds and only a resolution to incite enthusiasm 
and energy, the founders persevered in their work 
until their dream of a great university became a 
reality. 

The University is located at Selma, Alabama, 
upon a thirty-two acre tract. It has three brick 
dormitories and a home for the President. Its pro 
perty is valued at $175,000.00, and is free of debt. 

Both Montgomery and Marion wanted the Uni 
versity, but Selma won over thorn and secured the 
prize. 

The first president of the institution was the 
Rev. Harris Woodsmall, who was elected Decem 
ber 20th, 1877, and directed to open the school the 
following January, which he did, with only four 
pupils. He had an assistant, the Rev. W. R. Petti- 
ford. The session was held in the St. Phillips 



82 




SUSIE FOSTER HALL, SELMA UNIVERSITY 

Street Baptist church, now the First Baptist 
church. 

May 30th, 1878, five months after the opening 
of the school, the Trustees held a meeting in Sel- 
ma, and authorized the Executive Committee to 
negotiate for the purchase of the "Old Fair 
Grounds," which is its present location. The large 
amphitheatre upon the grounds was repaired at a 
cost of about $700.00, and used for school purposes. 
In 1880 the school was adopted by the American 
Baptist Home Mission Society, which has since 
contributed to its support. 

March 1st, 1881, the school was incorporated as 
the Alabama 'Baptist Normal and Theological 
School, and in 1885 the name was changed to Sel- 
nia University. 

In 1895 the name was again changed to Alabama 
Baptist Colored University, but in 1908. its former 
name, Selma University, was restored. 

Overcoming difficulties, facing many vicissitud 
es, and through great sacrifice, the founders of the 
institution, like all great men, these pioneers of 
Alabama Colored Baptist, built better than they 
knew. The two towering figures among the Col 
ored Baptist of Alabama in those days of struggle 
and pioneer work were ^. H. Alpine, and C. C. 
Boothe. They were both self-made men but men 
of great natural ability and force and their influence 
was great among the colored Baptists of Alabama, 
and they held the confidence and respect of their 
white brethren. It was under their leadership that 
the school had its inception and through their 
effort it was brought to a successful issue, aided of 
course by their brethren, who put their souls, their 
strength and their means into the enterprise. Dr. 
McAlpine has gone to his reward, but Dr. Boothe 
is still using his great powers for the uplift of his 
people. 

The following officers of the Board of Trustees 
are men of culture and rare gifts : 

P. S., L. Lutchins, D. D., is chairman, R. B. Hud 
son, A. M., is Secretary and L. German, A. B., is 
Treasurer. 



83 



It is a divine principle that "By their fruits ye 
shall know them." Measured by this standard the 
Selma University occupies a high place in the esti 
mation of those who have watched its course from 
the beginning. Beginning with two teachers and 
four pupils, the school now has twenty-three in 
structors in charge of about five hundred pupils. 
It enrolled one year 782 pupils. It opened with 
Normal and Theological courses, but now has a col 
lege course. Bachelor of Theology, Bachelor of 
Divinity Course, a Pastor's course, a Missionary 
course, manual art, Agriculture, Domestic Science, 
Sewing and Dress making. Stenography, Type 
writing, etc. It has turned out more than six 
hundred graduates, who have taken high places in 
the various avocations of life. The Institution has 
been careful in the selection of its teaching force, 
who have come from the noted colleges of the 
country. Brown University, Chicago University, 
Leland University, Virginia Union University, Har 
vard. Yale, Johns Hopkins, Vassar, Columbia Col 
lege, Cornell University, Meharry Medical Col 
lege, Tuskegee Institute. Oberlin Business Col 
lege, etc.. have all made their contributoin. 
The University has had eight presidents; Rev. Har 
rison Wooclsmall, Dr. W. H. McAlpine, Dr. E. M. 
Bra,wley, Dr. Charles L. Purse, Dr. Charles S. Din- 
kins, Dr. C. O. Boothe. Dr. M. W. Gilbert and the 
present president, Dr. Robert Thomas Pollard. 

Dr. Pollard was married in 1887 to Miss Eliza 
beth J. Washington, also a graduate of Selma Uni 
versity, who has been a great help to him in his ed 
ucational work. They have one son who is a pros 
perous dentist at Florence, Alabama. Mrs. Pollard 
was for ten years President of the Woman's State 
Convention, Editress of the "Woman's Era," au 
thor of "Guide," one to four and matron of the 
Florida Memorial College. 

Dr. Pollard has devoted most of his life to the 
cause of Baptist education, both in the churches 
and the schools, and the greater part of his activi 
ties have been confined to the State of Alabama. 




MANUAL TRAINING SHOP, SELMA UNIVERSITY 





ANDREW JACKSON STOKES, D. D. 

OST of those who fill the sacred 
office are called to the ministry 
after reaching man's estate, but 
occasionally one is born to the 
cloth. Among these is the Rev. 
Andrew Jackson Stokes, who 
commenced his pulpit work when a boy only ten 
years of age. 

Dr. Stokes was born in Orangeburg County, S. 
C, July 25th, 1859, and began his ministerial work 
in Orangeburg County in the year 1870. From the 
first he showed an aptitude for church building and 
during his ministry he has built and remodeled a 
number of church edifices. His first work was 
to build the Mt. Zion and Pisgah churches in Or 
angeburg County, and Black Jack Church, in 
Winnsboro County. From 1884 to 1886 his field 
of labor was Clarksville, Tenn., and here again his 
talent for church building was called into play. Be 
fore he completed his labors in this city he had 
erected a church building costing twenty thousand 
dollars. From Clarksville he went to Fernan- 
dina, Florida, where he added largely to the nume 
rical strength of the church and remodeled its 
building. 



It was in Montgomery, Alabama, however, where 
he reached the zenith of his active and useful life. 
Upon the death of the Rev. James Foster, Pastor 
of the Columbus Street Baptist Church, Dr. Stokes 
was called to succeed him. Coming to Montgomery 
in 1891, he has continuously served the church and 
is today its beloved Pastor. When he took charge 
of the church its membership numbered 500, which 
has increased to over 5000. The church, during 
his administration has had many seasons of revi 
val and he bears the distinction of having baptised 
1001 candidates in one day. The growing mem 
bership required greater housing, and the old 
frame building in which the church worshipped, 
was enlarged and remodeled. The requirements 
of the congregation soon called for a more mod 
ern structure and the Pastor with his natural gift 
for church building proved to be the successful 
leader in the enterprise. Like a wise leader he 
first perfected his plans and then made his people 
see the vision which had come to him and enthus 
ed them with the spirit of the enterprise. 

After months of patient waiting, unbounding 
sacrifices, unquenchable zeal and determined effort, 
the new edifice was completed and dedicated- And 
today is pointed to with commendable pride, not 
alone by the congregation but by the colored cit 
izens of the Capital City. 

While his main thought and effort was the de 
velopment of the church life of his people. Dr. 
Stokes was not unmindful of their educational 
needs, and to meet these, he established in 1891, 
the Montgomery Academy, the success of which, 
has met his fondest expectations. Starting in a 
small way, with two teachers and fifty pupils, it 
has steadily grown until today it has six teachers 
and two hundred pupils and is housed in a well ap 
portioned school building. From its birth, Dr. 
Stokes has been the President of the Academy. 
The object of the founder was to give to the child 
ren a Normal school education and to fit them for 
some useful occupaion in life. The range of Dr. 
Stokes' active life extends for beyond his home 
field. He is a Trustee of the Selma University; 
Treasurer of the National Baptist Convention, an 
office he has held for the past twenty years, and 
Moderator of the Spring Hill Association. By ac 
clamation he was elected by the Congress for the 
advancement of Colored People, as one of a com 
mittee to go to France and study conditions of en 
listed men of the United States Army. 

Dr. Stokes has been a great traveler, his travels 
covering the United States and Mexico, the coun 
tries of Europe, Egypt and the Holy Land. 

He has accumulated quite a nice property, own 
ing about 2000 acreas of land, besides an elegant 
home, which adjoins the handsome church building 
of which mention has been made. His family con 
sists of a wife and two children, Lou Rosa Stokes, 
and Hugo Benton Stokes. His son is an M. D. 
graduate of Meharry and served as First Lieuten- 
in the U. S. Army. Dr. Stokes received his degree 
from Princeton in 1914. He is author of a book 
called "Select Sermons." 



84 




FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, COLORED, 
MONTGOMERY, ALA. 




RIOR to the Civil War and for 
several years after its close, the 
Colored Baptists of Montgomery 
worshipped with the white Bap 
tists, in their brick church build 
ing, situated at the intersection of 
Court, Coosa and Bibb Streets. For their accom 
modation a gallery was built on both the east and 
west side of the auditorium and their spiritual in 
terests were looked after by the Pastor of the 
church and the white members. They received 
baptism at the hands of the Pastor and in the bap 
tistry of the church. 

Several years after the war the colored mem 
bers decided that it would be best to withdraw 
their membership from the white church and form 
a church of their own, to be ministered to by a 
member of their own race. Accordingly in 1867 
letters were granted to about forty of the colored 
members who organized the Columbus Street Bap 
tist church, and called the Reverend Nathan Ashby 
to be their Pastor. He served them until the year 
1877 when he resigned and the Reverend James 
Foster was elected as his successor. During his 
pastorate the membership of the church was in 
creased to five hundred, like the illustrious William 
Carey, the Rev. Foster was a shoe-maker before 
he entered the ministry. He served the church 
until 1891, when he entered into his long rest. He 



was greatly beloved by his people and was highly 
respected and esteemed by the citizens of Mont 
gomery in general, both white and black. Succeed 
ing him as Pastor of the church, was the Reverend 
Andrew Jackson Stokes, who came to Montgomery 
from Fernandena, Florida. It was under his ad 
ministration that the church began that marvelous 
growth which has placed it near, if not at the head 
of the list of churches in point of membership. 
From five hundred members it has grown to five 
thousand members, requiring the enlarging of the 
old frame building, in which the church worshipped 
to accomodate the congregation. 

The church saw the need for better equipment, 
and were planning, under the leadership of their 
Pastor, for a new building and while assembling 
material for the new structure, the frame building 
was destroyed by fire. This hastened their plans 
and gave them new zeal for their work. After 
months of untiring effort, generous giving and 
willing sacrifices, the building was completed, and 
the congregation is now worshipping in one of the 
handsomest church edifices to be found among the 
colored citizens of the South. The building has a 
large auditorium, a commodious Sunday school 
room, and the necessary smaller rooms for the ac- 
comodation of the church societies, class rooms, 
etc. It is well located on a corner lot facing the 
Cemetary Park, with nothing to obstruct its front 
view for a long distance. 

After serving so large a congregation for twen 
ty-eight years, the Pastor, Dr. Stokes, is still a man 
of great energy, and vigor, and full of zeal for the 
welfare of his people. His people stand by him and 
it is only necessary for him to lay before them his 
plans of work to inlist their cooperation and sup 
port. They have found in him a wise and active 
leader and they gladly follow him when he points 
out the way. 

The church will soon have a pipe organ to aid 
its splendid choir, which will add no little to the 
Sunday services. 

The pastor is ably assisted by the following of 
ficers : Deacons Wm. Clayton, Chairman, Russell 
Johnson, Treas ; Kiltis Singleton, Henry Spear, 
Wallace Johnson, Robert Carlton, Wm. Bruher, 
Ned Casby, Professor, Henry Ray, Levy Coates, 
Sol Wallace, Champ Williams, and Isaac Croom. 

The Sunday School is divided into two divisions 
A and B. Prof Henry Ray is head of Division A. 
and Division B. is presided over by Willie Beasley 
and Pat Johnson. Fred Thomas is at the head 
of the Board of Ushers. 

Missionary Board: Mrs. Fannie Gable is Presi 
dent, assisted by Eliza Jones, Mary Miles, Hardy 
Martin, Lucy Prichard, Mary Ward. Willie Hall, 
and Jeanette McAlpin- 



85 





MONROE N. WORK, PH. B., M. A. 

C'NROE N. Work, Sociologist and 
Writer, Head of the Division 
of Records and Research of the 
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial 
Institute, Editor of the Negro 
Year Book. The subject of his 
sketch was born in Iredell Coun 
ty, North Carolina. He was rear 
ed in Illinois and Kansas. His education has been 
as follows : 

Graduated from high school, Arkansas City, Kan 
sas, 1892; in 1895, he entered the Chicago Theolo 
gical Seminary, graduating in 1898. While here he 
became interested in the subject of sociology, and 
decided to enter the University of Chicago, and 
prepare himself for work in this field. He remain 
ed in this institution five years. In 1902 received 
the degree of Bachelor of Philosophy, in 1903 the 
degree of Master of Arts, with sociology as a ma 
jor subject and experimental psychology as a min 
or- His thesis for the masters degree was "Negro 
Real Estate Holding in Chicago." This attracted 
widespread attention and brought forth many com 
ments from the press throughout the country. He 
showed that the first owner of property on the site 
of what is now Chicago was a San Domingo Negro, 
Baptist Point De Saible, who settled here as an In 
dian trader, about 1790. 

The first position, Mr. Work held after gradua 
tion from the University of Chicage was with the 



Georgia State Industrial College, as professor of 
History and Education. This position he held for 
five years. In 1908 he came to Tviskegee Institute 
and established the Department of Records and Re 
search. The results of the work of this department 
are embodied in the Negro Year Book, the first ed 
ition of which appeared in 1912. This publication 
has become a standard authority on matters per 
taining to the race. It circulates widely, not only 
in this country, but throughout the world. Wher 
ever there are persons interested in the Negro and 
wish to secure reliable comprehensive facts con 
cerning him, they consult the Negro Year Book. 
The following are examples of the comments of the 
press concerning this publication : 

"Interesting and important is the array of facts 
relating to the Negro contained in the Negro Year 
Book. The book is a perfect encyclopedia of ach 
ievements by Negroes in all ranks of life, of the 
history of the race in the United States, of legis 
lative enactments relating to them, of activity in all 
branches, particularly education. The book is in 
dispensable to all who have to deal with any phase 
of the Negro question." New York Sun. 

"No better prepared or more comprehensive an 
nual comes to hand than the Negro Year Book. It 
covers every phase of Negro activity in the United 
States, reviews progress in all lines, discusses grie 
vances, outlines the economic condition of the race, 
presents religious and social problems, educational 
statistics and political questions as they relate to 
the race. The book is a valuable and authoritative 
book of reference." Indianapolis Star. 

Mr. Work is a member of the following learned 
societies : The American Negro Academy, The 
Association for the Study of Negro Life, and His 
tory, The American Sociological Society, The Ame 
rican Economic Association, The National Econo 
mic League, The National Geographical Society, 
and the Southern Sociological Congress. 

Mr. Work is also the compiler of statistics on 
lynching. His annual reports of lynchings are the 
recognized authority on this subject. 

The subjects of important articles which Mr. 
Work has published in magizines and periodicals, 
are: "Geechee Folklore," Southern Workman, No 
vember and December, 1905; "Some Parallelism in 
the Development of Africans and other Races," 
Southern Workman, November, 1906 and January, 
February, March, 1907 ; "The African Family as an 
Institution," Southern Workman, June, July, Aug 
ust, 1909; "The African Medicine Man," Southern 
Workman, October, 1907; "African Agriculture," 
Southern Workman, November, December, 1910, 
and January, February, 1911; "An African System 
of Writing," Southern Workman, October, 1908 ; 
"The Negro and Crime in Chicago," American Jour 
nal of Sociology, September, 1900; "Negro Crimin 
ality in the South," Annals of American Academy 
of Political and Social Science, September, 1913; 
"The Negro Church and the Community," South 
ern Workman, August, 1908; "How to Fit the 
School to the Needs of the Community," Southern 
Workman, September, 1908; and many other arti 
cles of like nature and importance. "The Negroes 
Industrial Problem," Southern Workman, August, 
1914 ; "Self Help Among Negroes," Survey, August 
7, 1909. 



86 




REVEREND ALFRED C. WILLIAMS. A. R.. A M. 




EV. Alfred C. Williams, the son of 
>j i*p,i ,jyj Hampton A. and Chanly Williams, 
n t^r^^\^ vvas ' )orn at Monticello, Florida, 
U K?V ^^\ May 28th. 1883. He developed 
great mental vigor in his youth 
and graduated from the Howard 
Academy, of his own town at fourteen years of 
age. 

He vvas converted and joined the church at the 
age of fifteen. During the fall of the same year 
he entered the Florida Memorial College, at Live 
Oak, Florida, from which he was graduated at the 
age of nineteen. In his nineteenth year he was or 
dained to the ministry and elected as supply pas 
tor of his home church. In June of his twentieth 
vear he was called to the pastorate of the First 
Baptist Church, of Green Cove Springs, Florida, 
which pastorate he filled until he was twenty-two, 
at which time lie resigned to enter Morehouse 
College, Atlanta, Georgia. During the first year 
of his student life, at Morehouse, he was called 
to the pastorate of the Antioch Baptist Church, of 
Atlanta, Georgia, which pastorate he filled until 
June 1912. In May 1912. he received the Bachelor 
of Arts degree from Morehouse College. In June 
he was married to Miss Louise N. Maxwell, thf 



oldest daughter of the late Dr. L. B. Maxwell. Hav 
ing received a call to the Mt. Tabor Baptist 
Church, of Pulaska, Florida, he resigned the pas 
torate of the Antioch Baptist Church, Atlanta, to 
accept this the second largest church in his home 
state. In one year and three months he led this 
church from under debt of more than Five Thous 
and Dollars, ($5000,) and the membership was in 
creased more than three hundred. On account of 
the illness of his wife, he accepted a call to the Mt. 
Zion Baptist Church, of Los Angeles, California, 
where he remained for three years and at which 
time he studied at the University of Southern Cal 
ifornia, at which school he completed work for the 
degree of Master of Arts. In May, 1916, he was 
called o the pastorate of Sixteenth Street Bap 
tist Church, Birmingham, Alabama, which he now 
fills. The Sixteenth Street Baptist Church was 
organized in 1873, by Reverend James Readen and 
Reverend Warner Reed. Succeeding pastors were 
Reverend J. S. Jackson, Dr. W. R. Pettiford, Rev 
erend T. L. Jordan, Dr. C. L. Fisher, Dr. J. A. 
Whitted, and its present Pastor, Reverend A. C. 
Williams. All of these men wrought well and are 
credited with having done a great work. The 
church has always stood as a monument to the Ne 
gro race, especially the Negro Baptists, of Alabama 
who have felt a commendable pride in its work and 
achievements. It has had much to do with the 
shaping of the religious thought, and molding sen 
timent for the race. The Church clings to the 
"Old time" religious principles of its faith, but em 
ploys modern methods of bringing the Gospel mes 
sage to the hearts and minds of the people. It re 
cognized the power and uplifting influence of music 
and organized a choir whose famous high class 
musicals attract hundreds of white people of all 
classes throughout the city and district who come 
to listen to the old plantation melodies, and jubilees 
as well as their high class solos, quartettes and 
anthems. All races and creeds in Birmingham 
have high regard for this church's attitude in mat 
ters affecting the social and moral uplift of the 
community. The church has a membership of 
more than one thousand. It worships in a most 
beautiful structure, an edifice built of brick and 
stone, which together with the Interior furnish 
ings cost about Eighty thousand Dollars, ($80,000,) 
It also owns the Pastor's home which is a good 
substantial building. The entire church property 
is valued at more than $125,000.00. The interior 
is beautifully adorned by expensive art glass, win 
dows and other architectural designs calculated to 
give tone, grace and beauty and is highly attrac 
tive and pleasing to the most discriminating eye. 
A church of this character with a choir holding an 
enviable place in the estimation of music loving 
people of course has a pipe organ in keeping with 
it. The organ is large and expensive and an or 
nament as well as an instrument of use. 

Since becoming its Pastor, Reverend Williams 
has received into its membership more than 700 
accessions, and has raised over $23,000 for current 
expenses and debts. 



87 





JOHN G. WRIGHT. 
EW Negroes there are in the 
South who can conduct their bus 
iness in the largest building of 
the city in which they live. Mr. 
Wright's barber shop has a first 
floor location in the largest busi 
ness building in Tuscaloosa, adjoining the leading 
city drug store and under the rooms of the city 
Board of Trade. His shop is patronized by the 
leading white men of the city and is looked upon 
as the most up-to-date business of the kind in Tus 
caloosa. 

Mr. Wright was a self-made man, who had no 
very great early advantages, either of school, of 
parentage, money or environment. He was born in 
Hanover, Hale County, in the late sixties. A white 
lady taught him the fundamentals of education. 
Of general education, such as our children get, he 
appears to have had very little. 

In 1892 Mr. Wright made his way into Bir 
mingham, a town at he time, and began his 
apprenticeship as a barber. For eight years he 
served in the shops of others in the city of Bir 
mingham, first as an apprentice and then as a reg 
ular workman. 

His ambitions led him to establish a business of 



his own. In casting about for a location he de 
cided in favor of Tuscaloosa. Here was located 
the State University, which offered a good field for 
patronage aside from the local trade. 

Tuscaloosa has since been the scene of his active 
life. Here he established a barber's business, 
which is today one of the best in the State. 

Courteous in demeanor, attentive to his business 
and maintaining a strict integrity, he has won the 
confidence and respect of the entire community 
and occupies the proud position of being one of the 
leading colored citizens of the city. 

In thinking of Mr. Wright you do not regard 
him simply as a barber but as a business men with 
an unusual aptitude for large business enterprises. 
He is the proprietor of two shops and they occupy 
the best locations in Tuscaloosa, one in the lead 
ing hotel of the city and one in its largest business 
building. 

He does not confine himself exclusively to his 
barber shops. He is a dealer in real estate which 
has brought him much profit and in a sense is a 
promoter of Negro enterprises. 

He owns his home a residence to which his 
neighbors point with pride. It is beautifully lo 
cated and is built on a quarter of a block. Since 
the building for himself he has bought and now 
rents thirteen other houses. 

From beng strictly in business for himself he has 
become a promoter and backer of Negro undertak 
ings generally. He is president of the Alabama 
Protection and Aid Association, Stockholder and 
promoter of the People's Drug Company of Tus 
caloosa, Trustee and Treasurer of the A. M. E. 
Zion Church of his town and was Grand Master of 
the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows of Ala 
bama for four years, and resigned this office in 
August, 1917, on account of his business requiring 
all of his time. 

Tuscaloosa is one of the best towns of the South. 
One does not here feel the stricture of race pre 
judice or opposition. In few if any other towns 
in the South can a colored man find such happy 
accommodations, handsome homes, educated peo 
ple, good restaurants, clean surroundings and the 
best of cooking. It needed only the up-to-date 
Drug store to round out the comforts of the col 
ored people. This was provided mainly by Mr. 
Wright, who is both president and treasurer of 
the company. 

Mr. Wright is a Mason, Knight of Pythias and 
Odd Fellow. In his work as Grand Master of the 
Odd Fellows of Alabama he has traveled over the 
whole country. 

Mr. Wright has no children, but he will tell you 
that much of his success in business and in life is 
due to Mrs. Wright, who was Miss Ophelia Ed 
monds of Tuscaloosa. 




ARKANSAS BAPTIST COLLEGE. 





HE college is a creature of the Ar 
kansas Negro Baptist State Con 
vention and came into existence 
'at the Convention held at Hot 
Springs, in August, 1884. After 
an experiment of one year it was 
incorporated under the name of the Arkansas Bap 
tist College. For the first several year of its exist 
ence it had no permanent abiding place, but moved 
from church to church. It finally located upon its 
own property, some distance beyond the city limits 
of Little Rock where it has continued until the pre 
sent time. Its equipment is not in keeping with 
the growth and importance of the institution. The 
Administration building is its only structure of 
real and permanent value. While the college has 
grown the City of Little Rock has far outstripped 
it and while encroaching upon it has added greatly 
to the value of the real estate holdings. The Trus 
tees have already considered the question of a new 
location and have secured and paid for one hundred 
acres of land, some four miles distant. The land 
purchased has a good elevation, is dry and well 
drained and excellent for farming operations. 

When the present location is sold it should sup 
ply sufficient funds to erect a number of modern 
structures to meet its requirements. Even with 
this advantage it will require outside aid to make 
the move and place the institution upon a sure 
foundation. 

The President, Dr. Joseph A. Booker, who has 
been the President since 1887, is now maturing a 



plan to secure help from the wealthy friends of the 
college. 

Its original purpose was to train preachers and 
teachers,, but the scope has been enlarged to reach 
all clases of the Negro race, and prepare them for 
some useful occupation in life. 

Special training is given to the developement of 
the mind while industrial and farming is a marked 
feature of the institution. The training is thor 
oughly practical, the students being required to 
put to a practical test the theories they are taught. 

The attendance of pupils has gone beyond the 
three hundred mark, while the teachers number 
eighteen. All of the teachers are colored ; male, 
eight, and female, ten; divided as follows: grades, 
four ; academic, seven ; girls' industries, two ; theo 
logy, one ; music, one ; and Matron, one. It is or 
ganized as follows : Elementary The elementary 
work covers the usual eight grades. Secondary : 
The secondary, or preparatory course, includes La 
tin, four years ; English, four ; Mathematics, four ; 
Greek or German, two ; Elementary Scinece 
two and one half; History, one; Psychology, one; 
Bible, three and one half. Emphasis is placed on 
ancient languages. Industrial: The girls are in 
structed in cooking and sewing. 
The industrial instruction for boys is chiefly man 
ual training; good work in making brackets, tie 
racks, and chairs is done. A few pupils work on 
the farm, which is located seven miles from the 
school. Gardening has recently been added to the 
course of study, with practice on the school grounds. 
While it is yet in the nature of an experiment, it 
is hoped and expected to be a valuable addition to 
the course. 



89 





JOSEPH HERCULES BARABIN, A. B., M. D. 

HE prince of good fellows, the 
king of diagnosticians, this is 
what they tell you out in Arkan 
sas about Dr. Joseph Hercules 
Barabin of Mariana. And then 
you are regaled with all the hon 
ors that colored Arkansas has been only too pleased 
to bestow upon its leading physician ; a distinguish 
ed Mason, a leading Odd Fellow, a prominent 
Knight of Pythias, a substantial Mosiac Templar, 
a foremost member of the Royal Circle of Friends 
and of the Supreme Council of Good Shepherds, 
the local examiner for all the secret orders in the 
State, a former athlete, the patron of all athletics. 
Moreover, he is a big business man, being pres 
ident of the Colored Commercial Club of Mariana, 
and owning in addition to his residence, a brick 
store, seven rent houses, 286 acres of farm land, all 
improved, all free from debt. 

Dr. Barabin's rise to a prominent place makes 
one of those romantic biographical tales so inter 
esting in all democracies, so dear to the heart of all 
Americans. Dr. Barabin was born in Jeanerette, 
Louisiana, March 19th, 1874. An ex-union soldier, 
left over from the war, and none too advanced in 
education, gave the young lad his first lessons in 



books. When he was sixteen years of age, he made 
his way into Gilbert Academy, at Baldwin, Louisi 
ana. Five years of study and work, of work and 
study, for he was in and out of his classes, having to 
pay his own way, completed his studies at Gilbert 
Academy. The adage of the ancients, that a little 
learning is a dangerous thing impressed him ; and 
so the young man sought a higher institution in 
which to pursue his studies. 

Fisk University was then, as it still is, the star 
of hope for a great many Negroes with college as 
pirations. Here in 1895, Dr. Barabin matriculated. 
In a while he was a leader in all the big things of 
college life. He was a brilliant man in the col 
lege and city societies (and who knows how much 
this social success has counted in his professional 
career?) he was a formidable adversary in the 
debates and in the oratory of the college, and he 
was a ferocious plunger on the football field. 

Graduating as a Bachelor of Arts in 1900, Dr. 
Barabin resolved that he would study medicine. 
Business careers for young Negroes were not com 
mon then. The young college graduate had es 
sayed school teaching at odd times, and decided that 
he did not especially care for life in the school 
room. 

Casting about for a medical college of high stand 
ing, moderate expense and congenial to colored 
people, he finally selected the Illinois Medical Col 
lege of Chicago. Moreover, he felt that Chicago 
would offer the best opportunity for clinical prac 
tice and also work in odd times for a student who 
was earning his own way. All happily came out 
as he had planned, or even better. He was able 
along with working in the Pullman service during 
summer, to pay two years expenses by playing foot 
ball, and to pay the other two years by embalming 
the bodies in the medical school. Indeed it was not 
long before the embalming department was put in 
his charge. Despite his having to work, the voung 
doctor was one of the two men in his class to re 
ceive a special honor diploma for excellence in 
scholarship, and up to that time, the only colored 
man to receive this honorary diploma. 

In 1905, having finished his medical course, Dr. 
Barabin, after casting about for a while, hung out 
his sign in Mariana, where it has hung these thir 
teen years, and where instead of being forty dollars 
in debt, the sum borrowed to start business on, -he 
is worth thirty thousand dollars. He is a physi 
cian and surgeon, practicing within a radius of fifty 
miles, going into the country as well as in the town. 
He is frequently called in consultation in Little 
Rock, in Memphis, Oklahoma and in many smaller 
places. 

Dr. Barabin was married on December 28th, 1905. 
to Miss Lulu Margaret Benson of Kowaliga. Ala 
bama. Their four children, Jennie Maudeline ; Jos 
eph Benson; William Strickland and Harold Croc 
kett are all little folks getting their first days in 
school. 



90 





WALLACE LEON PURIFOY. 

AVE you ever heard of the United 
Order of Jugamos? It i| one of 
those secret and useful bodies, 
whose secrets are no secrets at 
all. It has head and several sub 
heads in various capacities- 
The head and subordinate officers make up 
the Imperial Council of the Jugamos. These are 
responsible for insurance relief funds, burial and 
the like, of members of the Jugamos. Its present 
habitat is Arkansas, the head quarters being in For 
est City. However, it is to have state headquar 
ters in Tennessee, in Illinois, in Mississsippi, in 
Louisiana, in Oklahoma. It has a membership of 
7,500 and an annual income of $35.000. The or 
ganization has grown at the rate of more than a 
thousand members per year, being founded in 1910 
and having now a membership of 7,500. 

The founder of this order is Mr. Wallace Leon 
Purifoy. Mr. Purifoy was born near Perry, Geor 
gia, in Houston County, February, ninth, 1869. 
Born on the farm, lie put in much time with tin- 
plow and hoe. 

While still young, Mr. Purifoy left Georgia, and 
took up residence in Arkansas, in Forest City. 



Here he began his education, attending the public 
schools of that city, and Philander Smith College, 
in Little Rock. All this seeking and studying to 
complete his training was accompanied by hard 
work and privation, on his own part and on the 
part of a sacrificing mother. The mother did 
washing and ironing to aid him through school. He 
helped here, however, in the actual work of bund 
ling the clothes. Mr. Purifoy did many other 
jobs to gain his education. For a while he worked 
as a laborer on big buildings ; then he drove drays ; 
then he taught school. 

When he reached the point in his career where 
he could command a school, the burden on both his 
shoulders and his mother's began to lighten. Be 
ginning to teach school at the age of sixteen, he 
devoted many years to the class room both for pu 
pils and for teachers before he founded the Juga 
mos. 

During his early years at the work, he taught 
many schools in St. Francis County. He was for 
twenty-five years Deputy County Examiner. He 
conducted a summer Normal School for teachers, 
taught for two years in Texas, and for a while as 
principal in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. His real sub 
stantial school work, however, was done in Forest 
City, his home. Here, for twenty-three years he 
has been principal of the Colored High School, reg 
ulating the courses until the students from the 
Forest City High School are admitted without ex 
aminations to any college in the state. 

As regular and as steady as has been Mr. Puri- 
foy's courses in education, it has been just as 
steady and persistent in business. Looking about 
him, he saw the city growing and his people need 
ing homes. Investing his earnings wisely, he soon 
became the owner of several pieces of valuable pro 
perty. He built homes to rent and bought lots. 
He also built a beautiful residence for himself. 
His property holdings, in rent houses, vacant lots, 
and his own residence now amounts to $20,000. 

Mr. Purifoy has also been Grand Keeper of the 
Record and Seals of the Knights of Pythias, of the 
state of Arkansas. He is a member and Deacon of 
the First Baptist Church of Forest City. He has 
traveled extensively in the eastern and Western 
parts of the United States. 

Mr. Purifoy was married to Miss Fannie J. Wat- 
erford, of Edmonston, Arkansas, in 1895. They 
were married at Forest City, where they now re 
side. There are several children in the Purifoy 
family, all of whom, except Harold, a deceased 
son, are pursuing their work in school. Wallace 
Leon, Jr., is studying pharmacy at North Western 
University; Mayme Marie is attending Knoxville 
COllege, in Tennessee ; Minnie Edna, Roosevelt, and 
Middlebrooks are students in the Forest City High 
School. 



91 




SCOTT BOND. 



Scott Bond 




N the Southwest they call him 
"Unc Scott" and number him 
among the sages. They quote 
Socrates, Cicero, and Benj. Frank 
lin : And then they will quote 
_____ "Unc Scott" Bond of Madison. 
Arkansas. 

Born a slave in Mississippi in 1852, Mr. Bond 
migrated as chattel to Tennessee, thence to Arkan 
sas. In grapic language such as few others can 
employ Mr. Bond told of his coming into the vil 
lage of Madison, with all his personal belongings 
done up in a red bandana handkerchief thrust on 
the end of a stick and swung over his shoulder. 

During slavery days and in migrating from State 
to State Mr. Bond had learned to judge the soil. 
When his eyes fell on the rich loam land of Madi 
son, which is really in the valley of the Mississippi, 
he flung down his load and exclaimed, "Lord, this 
is the place for me." 

Like most ex-slaves, who struck out for them 
selves, Mr. Bond rented land on which to farm. 
You should hear him tell the story of those rentals. 
The rent ran up into the hundreds. He used to 
sell his cotton to a local merchant who was a sort 
of banker, the merchant would credit Bond with 
the cotton and then pay the farm rents and other 
bills, balancing from time to time. But the bank 
er and the landlord got at logger-heads. Thus it 
turned out that Mr. Bond had to get the money 
and take it to the landlord. The sum demanded 
was $500 which he counted out to "Unc Scott" in 
crisp bills. Mr. Bond says he looked at the money, 
then looked again and again before he would 
touch it. Finally he put it away down in his in 
side pocket and "sort a hugged it." On his way to 
the landlord's he was beseiged with a desire to 
look at the money. Fearing robbery he rode into 
the deep wood, tied his horse and spread the money 
out on a log and went around the log gazing, 
Then he said: 

"Lord, if I live, I'm goin' to have somebody pay 
me rents just this way." 

From this hour his struggle began. He married 
poor, having little else but a bed and a broken 
skillet. He began to work from "Can't to cant"- 
can't see in the morning until can't see at night. 

He worked in season and out of season, bright 
days and rainy days, the weather never stopping 
him in the accomplishment of his set purpose. On 
cold, rainy days he chopped or hauled or sold 
wood. He had caught his vision and had formed 
his purpose and no work was too hard for him 
nor no obstacles could stand in his way until he 
had accumulated a large rent roll. 



The way to his goal was extremely hard until by 
chance he invested in a small tract of land. Part 
of it was a wash out in a creek bottom and offer 
ed but little prospect for farm purposes. His neigh 
bors thought he was a fool and told him so for 
they use plain language out in Arkansas. 

Mr. Bond's eye keen for judging the soil no 
doubt failed to see in the tract he purchased much 
encouragement for growing a crop, but he saw 
value in the gravel and sand found in the creek 
bottom. The sequel to his purchase showed the 
wisdom of his venture. 

The Rock Island Railroad was greatly in need 
of sand and gravel and just such a deposit as was 
found on Mr. Bond's land. 

They investigated his gravel pit and immediately 
saw they had found what they had been looking 
for for many months. They entered into negotia 
tions with him which resulted in the signing of a 
contract which brought about the development of 
one if not the best gravel pit in the state. With 
the signing of this contract with the Rock Island 
Railroad the stream of money began to flow his 
way and it was not long before he realized his 
dream and made good his vow. Money was no 
longer a marvel to him. 

Mr. Bond saw the possibilities of his contract 
with the Rock Island Railroad and to meet it would 
call for large and modern facilities for handling the 
output of his pit. With his characteristic energy 
and push he addressed himself to this task and now 
has an equipment which meets all demands and 
enables him to meet his part of the contract. 

As fast as money came in he began to buy more 
land to rent out. Today he owns more than four 
thousand acres of .rich fertile land and has these 
acres peopled with tenants. He owns and operates 
one of the largest cotton gins of that section. A- 
long with farm land Bond bought timber land. 
Finding a big demand for timber Mr. Bond estab 
lished a saw mill, now he ships lumber to Chicago, 
Pittsburg, and other large cities. 

The spot on which he chopped wood for 30 cents 
a day when he first came to Madison now holds 
his large co-operative store. He owns and lives in 
the house of the man who first hired him to plow. 
In all, the property and holdings of this ex-slave 
are valued at $280,000. 

Finer than all this is the fact that this "black 
Rockefeller," as some call him, has given his child 
ren college education. 

He was married in 1877, and his wife has borne 
him eleven children, four of which are living. She 
has been not only a great help in his affairs but an 
inspiration to his life. 



93 





J. H. BLOUNT. 

CHOOLM ASTER and a business 
man, Professor J. H. Blount, of 
Forest City, Arkansas, has been 
fortunate enough to attain and 
hold distinction in both his voca 
tion and avocation for more 
than a quarter of a century. He was born in Clin 
ton, Jones County, Georgia, September 17, 1860. 
Madison Blount, the father was a slave belonging 
to the Blount family of Jones County : the mother 
belonged to another family by the name of Ander 
son. During the refugeeing of the two white own 
ers of the parents, the mother and father were sep 
arated. 

The parents were thus so widely separated that 
they lost track of each other for many years, and 
when they learned of each other's whereabouts, 
both had married again. The son remained with 
his mother all the time, except when he went to live 
with his father for the purpose of going to school 
in Macon, Georgia. 

During the great exodus from Georgia, which 
took place in 1873, Rev. I. H. Anderson took many 
immigrants to Arkansas as tenants. Among this 
number was William Clark, the stepfather of Mr. 
J. H. Blount. After spending a few years in the 

94 



public schools in Arkansas, Mr. Blount yearned for 
more and better learning than he could get at that 
time in Arkansas. At this time Dr. R. F. Boyd 
came to his home town lecturing and soliciting stu 
dents for Central Tennessee College and Meharry 
Medical College. He induced the young Georgian 
to go to Nashville, Tennessee, instead of attending 
Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia, as he and his 
parents had planned. He entered Central Tennes 
see College in 1884 and continued in school there 
until 1890. During his vacation he taught summer 
school in the town of Forest City, Arkansas. As 
the summer school of this town gradually grew un 
der his tutorship, from a summer school to an 
eight months graded school, he finally concluded to 
satisfy his thirst for an education by spending his 
vacation in the Universty of Chicago, where he 
worked very hard for four summers. 

He is still a diligent student, and thinks more of 
his library than anything, except his children. For 
the past twenty-eight years, he has served as prin 
cipal of the following named schools : Forest City 
Public School, Langston High School, Hot Springs 
Arkansas ; Orr High School, Texarkana, Arkansas 
and Peabody High School. Helena, Arkansas. 

He was deputy County Examiner of St. Francis 
County for ten years, and his prominence in educa 
tional affairs, made him without his seeking, take 
a leading part in politics- His people soon required 
that he should take an active part in the affairs of 
his county and state. His education and abundance 
of general information, coupled with his skill to 
manage public affairs, made him a favorite in his 
community and county. From state politics, he be 
came active in national affairs. He was an alter 
nate delgate at large, to the Republican National 
Convention, that gave the Nation Roosevelt and 
Fairbanks for president and vice-president respect 
ively. 

Being a teacher in education and in politics, did 
not cause Mr. Blount to neglect his church and the 
fraternal orders of which he was a member. He is 
one of the few thirty-third degree masons of the 
state of Arkansas, and has served in nearly every 
official position in the Masonic Grand Lodge of Ar 
kansas. He has held the position of Secretary- 
Treasurer for four terms and that of Deputy Grand 
Master for five terms ; he is chairman of the com 
mittee on Foreign Correspondence at the present 
time. 

Mr. Blount is an active member of other frater 
nal orders such as the Odd Fellows, Knights of 
Pythias, Royal Circle of Friends of the World, 
Knights and Daughters of Tabor, and the United 
Brothers of Friendship. He is also a leading mem 
ber of the Missionary Baptist Church and a Sun 
day School worker. 

Professor Blount owns hundreds of acres of land, 
both farm and forest ; and city property in three 
Arkansas towns. His property will readily bring 
$50,000.00, which is a conservative valuation, lie al 
so carries $20.000.00 in life insurance, not includ 
ing his fraternal insurance. 

He was married in August 1906 to Miss Almira 
Justina E. Payne of Holly Springs, Mississippi, who 
was to him a real helpmate till her death in January 
1917. In the Blount home there are three children 
J. H. Blount, Jr., Scott Bond, and E. Louise, all 
of whom are pupils in their father's school. 





BISHOP JAMES M. CONNER, S. T. B., B. D., 
D. D., LL. D., PH. D. 

ORN in Winston County, in Mis 
sissippi, in 1863, Bishop James 
M. Conner fought hard for even 
a rudimentary education. Against 
all kinds of poor school facilities. 
which facilities include the teach 
er, he managed to secure his foundation in Mis 
sissippi and Alabama. While still a young man 
and but mid-way his education he had thought and 
planned out for himself his career. 

lie felt called to the ministry and like Paul, 
yielding to the divine call, he immediately set to 
work to prepare himself for his heavenly mission. 
Without waiting to complete his education he 
took up his life work and went forth holding aloft 
the banner of the cross, to an unselfish and de 
voted service which he has steadily pursued dur 
ing his long and useful career. 

Converted in 1881 he at once joined the A. M. 
K. (. hurch and was licensed to preach one year 
later. 

He was given his first appointment in 1883 and 
placed in charge of the Aberdeen Mission, Aber 
deen, Mississippi. He entered upon his work with 
enthusiasm and soon converted his mission into a 



live church, erecting a new building for them and 
building up a fine congregation. Recognizing his 
ability and special endowment for such work 
Bishop T. W. D. Ward, the following year, 1884, 
made him a Deacon and an Elder. 

From this time on his reputation was establish 
ed and his co-operation eagerly sought. He was 
recognized as a man who did things and it was 
generally accepted that when he undertook a ser 
vice it would be satisfactorily rendered. 

Thenceforth for a number of years he became 
known as a church builder and a champion "Dol 
lar" money raiser. He built a church at Forrest 
City, Arkansas, in 1885. Then a new church at 
Oceola and a church at Newport, Arkansas. To 
quote Mr. R. R. Wright, Jr.: "At all these places 
he gave the connection good churches and added 
many new members to the church and carried ex 
cellent conference reports, excelling all previous 
records." 

However vigorously he waged campaigns for 
money, erected churches, and converted souls, 
Bishop Conner never forgot personal growth. Like 
the dying German poet he was always crying 
"More Light." To satisfy his longing he went 
from time to time to some large institution to 
pursue such courses as he needed for his work. In 
1891 he received from the National University of 
Chicago the degree of Bachelor of Sacred The- 
olngy. He later finished courses gaining the de 
gree of B. D. from the American Institute in the 
University of Chicago, in 1897, and from Shorter 
College in 1905. Campbell College conferred 
upon him the degree of LL. D. He became 
President of the Board of Trustees of Shor 
ter College and chancellor of Campbell College and 
Lampton College at Alexandria, Louisiana. Mor 
ris Brown University conferred upon him the de 
gree of Doctor of Divinity, and Paul Quinin Col 
lege at Waco, Texas, made him Doctor of Philoso 
phy. 

That he has richly earned these honors is made 
clear from his advancements. He is the author of 
several books. Among these being his "Outlines 
of Christian Theology," "Doctrines of Christ" and 
"The Elements of Success." He has been a dele 
gate to every General Conference since 1896. He 
was a member of the financial board for eight 
years. 

Bishop Conner was married to Miss Glovenia L. 
Stewart, of Kentucky, in 1886. They had three 
children, two of which died- Zola X, their only liv 
ing child was a student of Shorter College. James 
and Qu!ntella died young. 

Bishop Conner is an extensive property holder, 
owning his home and other valuable pieces of real 
estate. At present he is Bishop of Arkansas and 
Oklahoma. 



95 




S. W. HARRISON, M. D. 





HAT no man is a hero to his valet, 
or to his neighbor, is somtimes 
disapproved. This is true in the 
case of Dr. S. W. Harrison of Fort 
Smith, Arkansas. He was born in 
Fort Smith ; was educated as far 
as possible there and returned there to practice his 
profession. Yet, so useful has been his career that 
his neighbors speak of him in their papers as fol 
lows : 

"Dr. S. W. Harrison, President of the Negro 
Business League and Colored Fair Association, is 
one of the best known leading Negroes of this sec 
tion. 

"He is one of the greatest exponents of the pro 
gressive side of his race, and delights to furnish 
others with examples of race progress. He ranks 
with the foremost physicians of the state ; is one 
the most astute of business men and wields an 
influence in the city among both races that is 
equaled by few." 

As his life story will show, not always has Dr. 
Harrison's name been a symbol of progress and 
emulation. Born in Fort Smith, September 22nd, 
1879, he began at a very early age to taste the 



fruits of combat sometimes bitter, but nevertheless 
stimulating. He attended Lincoln High School of 
his native city and was graduated in 1895. He was 
graduated from Meharry Medical College in 1900. 

Both in medical school and in high school his 
education cost him dearly. In his early school days 
he made himself a sort of grocery delivery wagon, 
carrying goods to so many customers for a stipu 
lated sum. However, this latter proved a most 
profitable investment ; for the people he once served 
with groceries are now among his best patrons. 

Dr. Harrison's choice of a life work was medi 
cine and surgery, but how to secure the necessary 
preparation for his work was a problem which re 
quired great nerve and determination on his part 
to solve. Nothing daunted he left for Nashville 
and arrived there with only ten cents in his pocket. 
He did not have the money to purchase his neces 
sary books but overcame this difficulty by bor 
rowing books until he had earned sufficient money 
to buy his own. 

During the summer he taught school but at one 
time this post failed him, and he was again con 
fronted with the problem of how to continue his 
course. However, he was determined to do so and 
while brightening his wits to find a way to secure 
his end, he gave up the school master's rod and 
books for the boot black's brush and box and went 
forth to shine shoes. 

Graduating in 1900 Dr. Harrison first opened 
office in Smithville, Texas. After remaining here 
four years he decided to return to his native city. 
Here he has worked, as a physician, a business 
man, a man of public service. He is a member of 
the A. M. E. Church, a Mason, an Odd Fellow, a 
Knight of Pythias, a Mosaic, a member of the U. 
B. F. of Tabor and of all local societes. As has 
been quoted he is president of the Negro Business 
League ; he is ex-president of the state Medical 
Association ; he is a trustee of Shorter College ; 
Grand Trustee of the Knights of Pythias, medical 
inspector of the Negro Public Schools of Fort 
Smith and a high ranking candidate for the Grand 
Chancellorship of the Knights of Pythias. 

His business ventures have been as successful as 
his practice in medicine and his public service. He 
owns his home, an elegant two story residence on 
Ninth Street in Fort Smith. He owns eight rent 
houses and six unimproved lots. He is a stock 
holder in the Standard Life Insurance Company of 
Atlanta. Georgia. He has traveled extensively in 
this country on business and for pleasure. 

Dr. Harrison was married to Miss Margie Ka- 
tona Gordon, December 31, 1902. Their two child 
ren, Margie Edith, who is fourteen, and Gordon 
Henry, who is twelve, are in school. 



96 




FERDINAND HAVIS. 





HERE are few men of any race 
who carry so much of the bone 
and fibre of American history in 
their personal experience as does 
Ferdinand Havis, of Pine Bluff, 
Arkansas. He is one of those 
typical Americans, almost impossible in other 
countries, who from the bottom of the scale, suc 
ceeds by hard work in reaching the top. 

Mr. Havis was born in Shay County, Arkansas, 
November 15th, 1847. He attended for a little 
while the public school. But at an early age he 
had to leave school to work. A very novel plan 
was then hit upon as a means of getting an educa 
tion for the young man. His mother went to the 
school each day, mastered the lessons and then at 
night taught them to the ambitious boy who was 
so eagerly waiting for them. A boy with the am 
bition makes a man of mark. 

By the time Mr. Havis was twenty-one he had 
run the gauntlet as a laborer. He had learned the 
barber's trade and opened a ship in Pine Bluff. 
Three years later he was elected alderman from the 
third ward. Year after year for the space of twen 
ty-four years, Mr. Havis was elected and served in 
this capacity. In 1873 he was elected to the state 



Legislature, but he resigned this post to serve as 
assessor. This post of assessor was offered him 
by Governor Baxter, and he served in it for two 
years. In 1882 he was elected Circuit Clerk, a 
post which he held for ten years. He was Re 
publican Nominee for United States Senator from 
Arkansas, in 1886. Mr. Havis has served his 
party as a delegate to the National Republican 
Convention every year since 1880 with the ex 
ception of two years. These exceptions were in 
1912 and 1916, when Taft and Hughes were nomi 
nated. He was a colonel on the staff of General 
H. King in the Brooks and Baxter War, and was 
one of the 306 who stood by General Grant in his 
endeavor to become president of the United States. 
He is on record as having voted for General Grant 
thirty-six times. He was chairman of the Repub 
lican County Control Committee of Arkansas for 
twelve years. This shows in brief the political life 
of Mr. Ferdinand Havis. 

Having made good in his political career by ap 
plying himself to the task in hand, Mr. Havis, when 
he decided to retire to private life, used the same 
method of self applicaton in the work he began. 
The same acumen which kept him in office and on 
boards of importance soon asserted itself in dealing 
in real estate and in farming. Mr. Havis has inves 
ted heavily in farm lands. He owns about 3000 
acres. Of this amount, 1000 acres are under culti 
vation. The rest is in pasture land and timber. In 
addition to this country property, Mr. Havis has 
large interests in the city. One of the buildings 
which he owns, a building on Main Street, rents for 
$200 per month. He also has half interest in four 
stores which bring in rent. Then to private fam 
ilies he is able to rent twenty-five homes. 

Mr. Havis owns his own home. This is a beaut 
iful place on one of the principal residence streets 
of Pine Bluff. Here he lives with his family. Mr. 
Havis has been married three times. 
There are two sons and one daughter. 
In his church and loge affiliations, Mr. Havis is a 
member of the A. M. E. church, of the Masons, a 
member of the United Brothers of Friendship, of 
the Odd Fellows and of the Knights of Pythias. He 
is the Grand Master of the United Brotherhood of 
Friendship of America and of the world. He is 
president of the Board of Trustees, of the Lucy 
Memorial Hospital. Mr. Havis is referred to by 
all Pine Bluff as their Colored Millionaire. 



Since the above was written, Mr. Ferdinand Ha 
vis has passed away. After about a month's illness 
he died at his home on Baraque Street, August 25, 
1918. Pine Bluff feels that it has lost a very sub 
stantial citizen. 



97 





NAPOLEON BONAPARTE HOUSER, M. D. 

OMING from a family of workers, 
Dr. N. B. Houser, M. D., of Hel 
ena, Arkansas, has found it sec 
ond nature to make work his di 
version as well as his occupation 
When he was nine years old he 
began working with his father. It was not an 
easy trade that he put his hands to, being that of 
making brick. However he acquired and worked 
with a diligence and patience that astonished and 
pleased his parents. From the age of nine to the 
age of sixteen during spare hours and school holi 
days and vacations, he labored away, making brick, 
learning the ins and outs of the trade. 

At the age of sixteen, the father's business hav 
ing greatly multiplied, the son became private sec 
retary and bookkeeper. This post he held for six 
teen years, estimating contracts, and figuring out 
margins, pertaining to his father's interest as if 
he were really joint partner of the firm. It was 
really through him that the father was able to 
gain fair profits and to maintain his contracting 
business on a systematic scale. Though engross 
ed in keeping accounts, the young man did not for 
get, however, that he had a duty to himself and to 
his people, the duty of educating himself and of 



serving. Born near Castoria, in Gaston County, 
North Carolina, February 14, 1869, he attended the 
schools round about, until he was sufficiently ad 
vanced in years and books to enroll at Biddle Un 
iversity at Charlotte, N. C. Completing this work 
at Biddle and becoming convinced that his calling 
in life was that of a doctor, though a good position 
was awaiting him back there with his father, he 
became a student in Leonard College of Medicine 
at Shaw University in 1887, won the prize "tor su 
perior knowledge in Obstetrics", did the four year's 
work in a little less than three years, graduating 
in 1891. 

Returning to Charlotte, the seat of his alma 
mater, Biddle University, he hung out his sign and 
began life's bsuiness. He soon became what is 
known as a "successful practicing physician." With 
his general practice he became the consulting phy 
sician for Biddle University. Paying a visit to his 
brother in Arkansas in 1900, Dr. Houser was so 
favorably impressed with the possibility for a good 
doctor and drug business that though having well 
established himself in his ten year's practice at 
Charlotte, he decided to go west and build anew 
his practice and to contribute his mite in building 
up the country; and so he left North Carolina, 
where he was most popular with the men of his 
profession, having served as president and secre 
tary of the North Carolina Colored Medical Asso 
ciation, and having been physician in charge of the 
Samaritan Hospital at Charlotte for three years. 
In Helena, Arkansas, where he began his new 
career, progress in his profession surpassed even 
that of North Carolina. Beginning practice here 
in 1901, he had by 1908 gained sufficient footing 
and confidence to open the Black Diamond Drug 
Store, a business which prospered from the out 
set, which, because of expanse, he had to move 
three times, until now he has it on one of the main 
streets and in one of the most desirable spots in 
Helena. 

Had Dr. Houser not been a brilliant success as a 
physician and a man of business, he would still no 
doubt have been a very poular man ; for he is a 
musician of rare talent, playing on many different 
instruments, an engaging companion, a fervent 
church worker, being a Baptist in his religious 
choice, and a member of nearly every lodge extant 
in the state of Arkansas a Mason, an Odd Fellow, 
a Knight of Pythias and a Mosaic Templar. 

In all of these orders he made his personality 
felt and contributed no little to their work and 
development. He was not content to be a mem 
ber only but brought to their aid his great fund of 
intelligent executive ability. 

Dr. Houser was married to Miss Amie A. Alston 
of Louisburg, North Carolina, January 18th, 1902. 
One daughter, Weillie Henry, graces their home. 





MRS. MAME STEWART JOSENBERGER, A. B. 

RS. Maine Stewart Josenberger, 
one of the really remarkable wo 
men of the age, was born in Os- 
wega, New York. In her youth 
she attended the grammar schools, 
the high school and the Free 
Academy of Oswega. From the Free Academy of 
Oswega she went to the Fisk University, Ten 
nessee, where she graduated with the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts. 

After her graduation at Fisk she entered the pro 
fession of school teaching and began a long career 
as a school teacher. This covered a period from 
1888 to 1903. 

During her first year as teacher she gave in 
struction at the State Normal School, at Holly 
Springs, Mississippi. This was in 1888 and 1889. 
In 1890 she taught in the graded schools of Fort 
Smith, Arkansas, and from 1891 to 1901 she was 
a teacher in the Fort Smith High School. 

While in the school room Mrs. Josenberger was 
the model teacher, her whole thought and atten 
tion given to her work, but after school hours her 
mind had time to take in other interests and she 
was soon identified with those institutions seek 
ing the uplift of the Negro race. It was contrary 



to her disposition to be a passive member in the 
orders to which she belonged and her activity and 
thorough equipment for service was soon recog 
nized by them and led to her rapid promotion 
among them. 

These duties finally took so much of her time 
that it became necessary for her to choose be 
tween them and her profession of teacher. Be 
lieving that she could serve her people best along 
the lines of public service she yielded to the point 
ing of Providence and gave up the school room for 
a larger sphere of usefulness. 

Thus in 1903 she left the school room to take 
the position of Grand Register of Deeds in the Or 
der of Calanthe, a position she has held continu 
ously for fifteen years. 

Mrs. Josenberger lost her husband in 1909. From 
then until she became Register of Deeds for Calan 
the she conducted the undertaking business left by 
him. Her public duties and engagments now be 
came so pressing that she gave up altogether the 
business of her husband and devoted her energies 
to work for the public good. She had joined the 
Episcopal Church in 1909, being confirmed by Rev. 
Father McClure, who was at that time archdeacon 
of Arkansas. She joined also the Royal Circle, the 
Eastern Star, the American Woodmen, and several 
other fraternal orders. In all these bodies she be 
came an adviser and a leading worker. 

It would seem that these were enough member 
ships for any one person to hold, especially where 
one is a worker as is Mrs. Josenberger. But Mrs. 
Josenberger was soon enlisted outside the state. 
She became a member of the Standard Life Insu 
rance Company and was forthwith put on the Ad 
visory Board. She joined the National Negro Bus 
iness League, soon becoming a life member. She 
is a member of the N. A. A. C. P., Past Supreme 
Conductress of the Order of Calanthe ; President of 
the Phyllis Wheatlely Club, which is the first local 
Federation Club of Fort Smith, is vice president of 
the State Federation and chairman of the peace 
committee among the N. A. colored women. 

Serving in so many positions Mrs. Josenberger 
has traveled extensively and has had wide and help 
ful contact. 

Mrs. Josenberger was married in 1892 to Mr. 
William Ernest Josenberger, who was a postman in 
Fort Smith, then an undertaker. She is as suc 
cessful in business affairs as she is in doing uplift 
work. She is worth about $30,000 which includes 
a two-story cement store building and a two-story 
brick building, which has five stores on the first 
floor and a large auditorium on the second. 

Mrs. Josenberger has one daughter, William Er 
nest Josenberger now Mrs. Joseph L. Stevens, a 
musician. 



99 



Scipio Africanus Jordan 




CIPIO Africanus Jordan, is one 
of the old and leading citizens of 
Little Rock, Arkansas. He has 
grown with the city and each is a 
sort of mutual contributor to the 
growth of the year. He was 
born in Montgomery County, Arkansas, January 
1st, 1860. Mr. Jordan, when a lad, attended the 
public schools of Little Rock and later the colored 
High School. He was a member of the first grad 
uating class of the Little Rock Colored High School 
which awarded its first diploma in 1880. 

After graduating from the Little Rock Colored 
High School, Mr. Jordan cast about for work and 
entered the service of the United States Govern 
ment, becoming a janitor of the post office build 
ing. This position he held for twelve months when 
he received the appointment of letter carrier. As 
letter carrier he went his daily rounds over mi 
streats of Little Rock for more than thirty-six 
years delivering mail. By his courteous and oblig 
ing manner he made many friends among all 
classes. He was possibly the best known man in 
Little Rock men, women and children knowing 
him by name and watching for his daily visits. 

In 1896 he was appointed chairman of the Board 
of Civil Service Examiners for the Post Office of 
Little Rock. 

While Mr. Jordan gave his first thought and at 
tention to his business and won favor with the 
Government, as his promotions give evidence, he 
always found time to serve his people and became 
interested in all agencies looking to their good. In 
and help and his fellow citizens found in him a 
all matters pertaining to the betterment of the 
colored race he gave the benefit of his wise counsel 
and help and his fellow citizens found in him a 
willing helper. 

He joined most of the secret orders of his state 
and became very active in their work and soon 
was a recognized leader among them, taking a 
prominent part in all their gatherings and in the 
working out of their plans. 

His fine executive ability advanced him to posts 
of honor and responsibility. In 1889 he was elect 
ed Chief Grand Mentor for the Knights of Tabor 
and then ten years later in 1899 he succeeded 
Father Moses Dickson as International Chief 
Grand Mentor. Both of these positions he is still 
holding which is a glowing tribute to his worth 
and popularity. 

However, these posts did not tend to lighten his 
responsibilities, but rather to increase them. He 
has long been a member of the Bethel A. M. E. 
Church of his city, for twenty years he has been 



a trustee. He is a Mason, and an Odd Fellow as 
well as a Knight of Tabor. He became a mem 
ber of the Lincoln Farm Association in 1907. He 
has been colonel, acting on the staff of the major 
of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows for a 
number of years. Working in so many positions 
Mr. Jordan has traveled in all of the United States 
combining business and pleasure. 

Mr. Jordan has accumulated a goodly amount of 
real estate and personal property in Little Rock. 
He owns his home, one of the best residences of 
Colored Little Rock. He owns eleven vacant lots 
and eleven rent houses. 

Mr. Jordan was married in 1884 to Miss Pinkie 
E. Venable of Little Rock. Mr. and Mrs. Jordan 
have a large family, there being born to them 9 
children, seven of whom are living. Toney C. Jor- 
don, who is deceased, was a graduate of Howard 
University ; Miss Mabel E., who is now married, 
is a graduate of the public schools of Little Rock ; 
Dr. J. V. Jordan is a dentist, being a graduate from 
the school of denistry, of Howard University, and 
of Northwestern ; Miss Scipio is a graduate of the 
public schools of Little Rocok and of Philander 
Smith Commercial department ; Yancy B. is a grad 
uate of the pupils schools, mechanical course, and 
is now in the Virginia shipyards; Miss Myrtle is 
pursuing a commercial and high school course at 
the Arkansas Baptist College; Valmer H. is a 
school boy and Olga is still enjoying the freedom of 
childhood. 

Had Mr. Jordan done nothing but rear and edu 
cate this large family he would still have deserved 
a place of honor among those of his race or any 
race for contributing so largely to the welfare of 
the race and state. His children stand as monu 
ments to the earnest endeavors of this man. Not 
one of the large family, but was sent through at 
least one school and most of them secured two 
diplomas. Mr. Jordan himself, though born at a 
time when it was easy for the colored lad to miss 
getting an education, was a graduate. Having ed 
ucated himself at a sacrifice, he was willing to do 
all in his power for the development of his chil 
dren. But as is the law of things, while doing for 
his children, he continued to advance himself. We 
find Mr. Jordan developed into one of the leading 
citizens of his city and state. He is a real asset 
to the community of which he is a member. His 
work in the various organizations of which he has 
been for a great number of years one of the leaders 
has been one of the things that has made of Little 
Rock a good community for our people. Mr. Scri- 
pio A. Jordan can well be pointed out to the young 
as one worthy of emulation. 



100 





ELIAS CAMP MORRIS, D. D., PH. D. 

EAR Spring Place in Georgia, 
born a slave, May 7, 1855, Dr. E. 
C. Morris of Helena, Arkansas, 
was fortunate enough to have a 
father who could read and write. 
The father, a tradesman from 
North Carolina, was permitted to 
visit his children on the planta 
tion twice a week. At such times he taught his 
children to read and write. 

In 1864-65 Dr. E. C. Morris attended school at 
Dalton. He also studied in the public schools of 
Chattanooga, Tennessee and at the Stevenson In 
stitute in Alabama. In 1874-75, he was a student 
at the Nashville Institute, now Roger Williams 
University. 

Going into life Dr. Morris essayed many things. 
For a time he taught school in North Alabama. 
While serving as a minister in Alabama, he 
worked at his trade as a shoemaker. In 1877 
he set his face westward, intending to go to 
Kansas. Stopping over in Arkansas he decided to 
remain in Helena. Here in 1879, he was ordained ; 
here he was given his first church, the only church 
over which he has presided and he is the only pas 
tor the church has had for nearly forty years. This 
church, the Centennial Baptist, over which he be 
came pastor, was at that time composed of a group 
of twenty-two members, homeless and without 
property of any kind. Today it has a membership 
of seven hundred, a stately edifice, which is valued 

101 



at $40,000, an active Sunday School of 399 children. 
While toiling for the growth of his church, Dr. 
Morris launched forth every kind of movement to 
promote the religious growth of the whole state. 
In 1879, the same year he became pastor of Cen 
tennial Church, he organized the Phillips Lee and 
Monroe County District Association, and was sec 
retary for two years. In 1880 he was elected sec 
retary of the Arkansas Baptist State Convention 
and served in this capacity for two years. In 1882 
he was chosen president of the Arkansas Baptist 
State Convention, a position he has held for thirty 
six years. He founded the Baptist Vanguard, a 
Baptist weekly newspaper, and was its editor for 
two years. He helped to found Arkansas Baptist 
College in 1884, and was chairman of the board of 
trustees for twenty-four years . For eighteen years 
he has been chairman of the Arkansas State Mis 
sion Board, an organization which works in con 
junction with the National Baptist Convention and 
with the Southern White Baptist Convention. In 
1891 he was made vice president of the National 
Baptist Convention, and president in 1894. 

Under his administration many plans for expan 
sion have been effected. At his recommendation, 
the National Publishing Board of Nashville, the 
Baptist Young People's Union of Nashville, the 
National Baptist Woman's Auxiliary of Washing 
ton, D. C., the National Benefit Association, and the 
Baptist Home Mission Board of Little Rock, have 
all been organized and advanced until they are now 
among the perfect bodies of their kind. 

Outside of his special sphere Dr. Morris began 
to win many honors both in the church and in pub 
lic affairs. He aided in organizing the General Con 
vention of North America, which is made up of all 
Baptists of both races, and is the only Negro mem 
ber of the executive committee of this body. He 
aided in organizing the American executive com 
mittee of this body. In public life he represented 
the First Arkansas Congressional District at the 
Republican National Convention three times at 
the nomination of James G. Elaine in 1884, of Benj. 
Harrison in 1892; of Theodore Roosevelt in 1904. 
He was alternate delegate at large in 1908 to nom 
inate William H. Taft. He has been a delegate to 
every Arkansas State Republican Convention for 
nearly forty years. 

Active in the church and in the state Dr. Morris 
has not forgotten the business interest of colored 
people. He organized the State Business League ; 
he took great interest in the Mound Bayou Oil Mill 
project, becoming one of the directors ; he is di 
rector of the Phillips County Land and Investment 
Company. He himself owns mining stock, has a 
seventy-five acre farm, owns unimproved property, 
has a home and four pieces of improved property, 
valued at $10,000. 

Dr. Morris was married in 1884 to Miss Fannie 
E. Austin of Faekler, Alabama. Their five children, 
Elias Austin, Frederick Douglass, Mattie M. Mar 
quess, Sarah Hope and John Spurgeon, are all giv 
ing good account of themselves. Mr. Elias Austin 
is First Lieutenant in Company M. 366 Infantry U. 
S. A. ; Frederick Douglass is Grand Keeper of Rec 
ords and Seal of Knights of Pythias Grand Lodge, 
of the Arkansas jurisdiction. Mrs. Marquess and 
Miss Morris are teaching school. John Spurgeon 
is a student in the Arkansas Baptist College. 




JOHN EDWARD BUSH. 



John Edward Bush 




VER since J. E. Bush departed 
this life he has been the subject 
of eulogy. And yet it is very 
doubtful if any assembling of 
words, no matter how frought 
with poetic figures, will prove so 
eleoquent, as the plain simple recitation of the facts 
of that heroic struggle of his from poverty and 
neglect to a place of the highest esteem in the 
hearts of all American Negroes. Mr. Bush was 
born a slave. He was born in Moscow, Tennes 
see, in 1858. Shortly after slavery he was brought 
to Little Rock, Arkansas, by his mother. In a lit 
tle while the mother died, and the ex-slave lad was 
left in the streets of Little Rock an orphan. 

Merely to live now became to him a very serious 
problem. He slept in houses when he could find 
a man or woman so kind as to extend to him that 
privilege, a privilege which was some times ac 
corded for such small services as the little boy 
could render. Most commonly however he slept 
under bridges, in the livery stables and in deserted 
houses. He earned his bread by doing chores, run 
ning errands, watering stock, and washing dishes. 
Moreover, J. E. Bush was classed as a bad boy, 
which did not help him to get a night's 
lodging or an extra crust of bread. However, some 
good soul forced him off the streets into a school 
house. In a little while the boy of mischief was 
lost in the study of books. Though he could not 
afford regular attendance, yet he tasted enough to 
pronounce the food of the right kind and whole 
some. Henceforth John E. Bush was a student. 
He made such good out of his spare time in the 
midnight hours that he soon became a school teach 
er. This post he held in Little Rock for a number 
of years. However, it appears that he overstepped 
the bounds circumscribed for one of his station, by 
marrying out of his class. He lost his position im 
mediately. He secured the principalship of a school 
in Hot Springs and taught here for two years. In 
1875 he entered the railway mail service. For sev 
enteen years he followed this calling, but finally 
resigned to start a newspaper. 

All the time Mr. Bush was an active Republican. 
In 1884 he ran for the county clerkship of Rosalie 
County, Arkansas, on the Greenback Ticket. In 
1898 he was appointed United States Land Office 
Receiver by President McKinley. He was reap- 
pointed by Theodore Roosevelt and again by Presi 
dent Taft. He even survived the Republican Black 
Broom, which swept Negroes so very clean from 
Federal Offices, under the kind Mr. Taft. This ap 
pointment had come and was the result of a long 



series of hard fights and small victories in the pol 
itics of Arkansas. 

In 1882 Mr. Bush founded the Mosaic Templars 
of America. How he came to found this order, and 
what the order means to the Negroes of America 
has been briefly told elsewhere for the few who 
may not know tHe whole history already. Suffice 
it to say here that the need of a poor woman, beg 
ging for help to bury her husband, the contempt of 
a white man and the chagrin of Mr. Bush at the 
whole situation started this organization. The 
body grew rapidly, and with it grew also J. E. 
Bush. He learned not only more about the intri 
cacies of business but he learned a great deal about 
men. Most important of all, the organization 
brought J. E. Bush the deserved place he had won 
by hard work. 

In a few years he became known the country ov 
er as a strong business man and a public benefac 
tor. He was introduced to Booker T. Washington, 
and almost immediately these two giants, both with 
the experience of sleeping under bridges, behind 
them, became fast friends. When Booker T. Wash 
ington, who was himself a great political adviser, 
sought political advice, it was to J. E. Bush he turn 
ed. When the wizard of Tuskegee was touring the 
states of the south and bewitching the great crowds 
with his anecdotes and shrewd common sense, he 
frequently called into service the founder of the 
Mosaic Templars of America, and when Dr. Wash 
ington saw the need of laying the task of carrying 
forward the work of the Negro National Business 
League upon the shoulders of a group of strong 
men, J. E. Bush was one of the first looked to . He 
was for years one of the Vice-presidents and a 
member of the executive committee of this body. 

Though an extremely busy man J. E. Bush found 
time to do many deeds of uplift in schools, church 
es and the like. He was a strong supporter of the 
Arkansas Baptist College and a trustee of the First 
Baptist Church of Little Rock. In secret orders, 
he was a Mason, an Odd Fellow, and of course the 
founder and promoter of The Mosaic Templars of 
America. 

Mr. Bush was married in 1879, to Miss Winfry of 
Little Rock. Mr. and Mrs. Bush had three children, 
all three of whom survive their father: Miss Stella 
E. Bush, Mr. Chester E. Bush, who succeeds his 
father as the National Grand Secretary and Treas 
urer of the Mosaic Templars and Alridge E. Bush, 
who is the Secretary and Treasurer of the Mon 
ument Department of the Mosaic Templars. 

John E. Bush left a fair name, a business in per 
fect order, and worldly possessions amounting to 
$500,000. 



103 




MOSAIC TEMPLARS' OFFICE BUILDING, LITTLE ROCK, ARKANSAS. 




ENTION the Mosaic Templars of 
America and you think of John 
E. Bush. Mention John E. Bush 
and you think of the Mosaic Tem 
plars. The Mosaic Templars ot 
America was founded by J. E. 



Bush in 1883. Its two sponsors were John E. Bush 



and C. W. Keats. As stated by Hamilton McConi- 
co, the organization had its beginning from a three 
fold source : The scorn of a white man, "a Negro 
woman's poverty and a Negro man's shame." All 
this arose out of J. E. Bush standing on the street 
talking to a white man when a colored woman 
came by begging for alms to bury her dead hus 
band. The white man like Mr. Bush, gave, but he 
afterwards cast aspersions on the Negro people for 
their improvidence. From this John E. Bush re 
solved to found an order which should protect the 
poor of his race. 

The organization was started as a benevolent 
society, with no intention of operation outside of 
Little Rock. But in a few years the demands for 
its services drew it into other states. It began with 
one lodge and fifteen members. It now has 2,000 
lodges and a membership of more than 80.000. It 
began in one city. It now operates in twenty-six 

104 



states, in Central America, Panama and the West 
Indies. It opened without sufficient funds to in 
corporate. It now has assets exceeding $300,000. 
It started without shelter, the two founders work 
ing out their plans on the doorsteps of an old build 
ing. Today upon the site of the old building it has 
one of the finest brick, steel and stone structures 
of any Negro lodge in America, a building which 
has offices, stores, and all kinds of rooms to ac 
commodate the business and professional men of 
Little Rock. Thus has it brought pride and self- 
respect to all the Negroes of Little Rock and in 
deed to the Negro everywhere. 

When the two founders of the Mosaic Templars 
sat on the steps of that old building in Little Rock, 
their only thought was to provide a means of safe 
guarding the pennies of the poor and needy. They 
had no dream of departments, sections and various 
ramifications of a great order. As the body grew 
and gained the unlimited confidence of the people 
everywhere, however, they with the helpers it was 
necessary to call in, found that many departments 
and divisions had to be formed to meet the more 
complex needs of the public. Thus one after anoth 
er departments were organized, until now there are 
in the body six main divisions or departments, each 



with its head, yet all workng under the central 
head of the Mosaic Templars. These are the En 
dowment Department, The Juvenile Department, 
the Temple Department, the Uniform Rank De 
partment, the Monument Department, the Arkan 
sas Charity Fund, Recapitulation, Analysis, Rec 
ommendations. Each Department is a unit in it 
self; yet each is a part of the great whole. For 
example, though each Department is a memher of 
the whole, yet each must be responsible for all 
the business coming under its head. If the given 
Department runs behind in its accounts, or gets 
entangled in its bookkeeping that Department and 
not the whole organization, becomes sponsor. 
Thus, while all move under a general head, yet 
there is ample departmental responsibility to keep 
the whole body on the qui vive. Each head of a 
Department and each worker in the department 
feels a personal responsibility and a personal and 
departmental pride in keeping his work to the fore. 
For in every instance, if the department fails the 
head and all his co-workers also fail. 

It therefore turns out that while J. E. Bush 
founded a most helpful organization he also estab 
lished a body which is a splendid object lesson of 
what the Negro can do when working together, a 
body which is helpful in promoting the respect of 
the white for the black man and in inspiring self- 
respect in the black man. 

Of equal service perhaps is this order, in that it 
furnishes dignified employment to hundreds of our 
educated men and women. 

When we consider that all these people would be 
living on half pay from the school room, or whole 
pay from the Pullman or steam boat services, some 
adequate notion can be formed as to the real serv 
ice of this organization, outside of its direct pur 
pose. Every such organization is a great milestone 
in a race's progress, and he who establishes such is 
building a school and a business at the same time. 
For in no other way could our men and women 
become accustomed to handling the intricacies of 
bookkeeping and the question of high finance. 

Finally, The Mosaic Templars have found men. 
In its own state it began very early to teach the 
people of Arkansas who their great thinkers and 
leaders were. Then it reached out its hand into 
this, then into that, until in every state of the 
south and in many in the north, there are scores 
more of solid leaders than would otherwise have 
been known. The organization has been left in the 
hands largely of the sons of the founder, C. E. 
Bush, National Grand Secretary and A. E. Bush, 
Secretary-Treasurer. This again follows the line 
of a great service, affording a big lesson for the 
men of the race. Young Morgan is running his 
father's bank; young Hill is carrying forward the 
great railroad interests of James J. Hill. And the 

105 



sons of J. E. Bush are holding and increasing the 
heritage left to them and to the Negro people of 
America. 

The following is an extract from report to the 
National Grand Lodge,, meeting at Little Rock, 
Ark., July 10-13, 1917, by the National Grand 
Scribe ; "From comparative insignificance we have 
now forged to the front and have attracted nation 
wide attention. We have set a pace in the Frater 
nal World that up to this writing has not been 
out-distanced. Our growth being steady, having 
increased membership about 25 per cent since our 
Tuskegee meeting and our assets have increased 
approximately more than one hundred thousand 
dollars above what they were at Tuskegee. 

"The same plan of economy inauguarted at the 
birth of the organization has been steadfastly ad 
hered to. The main object in view is to properly 
safeguard and handle the money that the people in 
trust to our keeping. If we have achieved any 
success it is due more to this principle than any 
other element. Examiners from various insurance i 
departments have marveled at the low expense 
budget maintained to operate our organization. 

"That our Organization is well organized is evi 
denced by the minimum amount of friction in the 
management. All of our officials and leaders, with 
few exceptions, are men and women of level heads 
and well balanced minds. The discordant element 
is so little encouraged in our Organization that it 
soon seeks other quarters of its own volition. A 
big business like the Mosiac Templars of America 
can only have successful management by having 
harmony in all of its working departments. Many 
people in dealing with the Mosiac Templars are 
very much surprised when they learn that the Na 
tional Grand Master's office, the National Grand 
Scribe's office, the Attorney General's office, the 
Auditor's office, the Monument office all operate 
without one interfering with the other. Each de 
partment head is held responsible for success in 
his or her department. If he fails, then no blame 
can be placed upon any other department and the 
report must be made to you, the final judges." 

The Mosaic Templars stand for the unification 
of one common brotherhood, of every man or wo 
man with Negro blood coursing through his or her 
veins, of good moral character, into a common 
brotherhood of helpfulness and usefulness. It be 
lieves that whatever agencies or forces that are 
conducive to the uplift of the white race will have 
a corresponding effect on the Negro. 

It stands for a symmetrical development of the 
Negro on moral, religious, educational and indus 
trial lines. It believes that whatever safeguards 
that are thrown around one race to enoble it, and 
prepare it for beter citizenship, the same ought 
to be extended the Negro. 




RICHARD ARNETT WILLIAMS, M. D. 





HE unthinking world is too apt to 
discredit men of visions, and yet, 
without the visionary men this 
world would be poor indeed, and 
would still be in a chaotic state. 
Men must see things before they 
can be accomplished and to the credit of the men 
of visions, be it said, that they paved the way for 
all great achievements. Such a man is Dr. R. A. 
Williams. 

Dr. Williams was born September 13th, 1879, in 
Forest City, Arkansas. Although his parents were 
not rich, they possessed sufficient means to enable 
them to aid their son to secure an education. They 
saw the advantages of a good education and de 
termined that they could do no better part for their 
children than to do what they could in the devel 
opment of their minds. They early placed the 
Doctor in the public schools of his native city, 
where he graduated at the tender age of twelve. 
His appetite for knowledge was whetted by his 
course in the public school, and he determined to 
pursue his studies further. This he did at the 
Danville Industrial High school, of Danville Vir 
ginia. After a course at this school he continued 
his literary studies in the Arkansas Baptist College, 



Little Rock, Arkansas, and graduated from the 
Academic Department of this institution, in 1896. 
He bears the distinction and honor of being the 
first graduate of this department which has since 
sent out so many well prepared young men and 
women. At an early age, Dr. Williams gave much 
thought to the question of his life work, and decid 
ed upon the medical profession. This decision re 
mained with him through all of his college life, and 
all of his preparation looked to this end. It was 
in 1898, that he began to see the fruition of his 
hope and the consummation of his dream. It was 
this year that he matriculated at Meharry Medi 
cal College. He finished his course of study in 
this well known school and not only won honors 
but also the confidence and esteem of his fellow 
students. His career as a student was not without 
its trials and difficulties and he found it necessary 
to engage in business ventures from time to time 
in order to raise the money necessary to pay his 
way. 

At the early age of fourteen he assumed the du 
ties of the school master and governed himself, ev 
en, at this early age, with the dignity befitting one 
in that profession. His next venture was that of 
a merchant and under the firm name of Williams 
and Brown he conducted for two years a grocery 
business. This venture was successful but could 
not tempt him to give up the purpose to become a 
physician. It enabled him, however, to carry out 
his well-formed plan for a medical education. 

After graduating at the Meharry College, he 
went to Knoxville, Tenn., and commenced his pro 
fessional career. Here he remained for three 
years and won the confidence of the people, and 
established a good practice. He could not re 
main satisfied at Knoxville, for the lure of his na 
tive state was upon him. He could not turn a 
deaf ear to its call, so in 1905, he left Knoxville, and 
turned his face toward Arkansas. Helena was the 
city of his choice and here he located and here he 
has remained, building up for himself a good prac 
tice and an enviable reputation. Being a man of 
sympathetic nature, he was not slow to put him 
self in touch with the needs of his people, and to 
interest himself in their behalf. His work as a 
physician enabled him to see the great need of 
money in times of sickness and when the death an 
gel spread its wings over the home and it was this 
that gave him this vision of a society that would 
supply this need. He put his mind to work and 
as a result of his thinking he brought into exis 
tence the "Royal Circle of Friends of the World." 
To this organization he has given his time and ex 
ecutive skill and in its interest he has had to travel 
extensively. Seeing in it such great possibilities, 
he has given it so much of his time that he has had 
to curtail his general practice and confine himself 
to an office practice and to a specialty. 



106 



The Royal Circle of Friends is one of the most 
modern organizations calling upon the public for 
its support. It bases its claims for support alone 
upon merit. It has found favor from the start, 
and continues to hold its friends. Its growth is 
phenominal and has exceeded the hopes of its foun 
der. Its first lodge was organized in 1909 and the 
number has increased to about three hundred lod 
ges, and about nine thousand members. The lod 
ges are scattered over five states, Arkansas, Miss 
issippi, Alabama, Kentucky and Oklahoma. The 
order has several main features. It has an en 
dowment feature by which the beneficiary of a de 
ceased member gets Three Hundred Dollars at 
his or her death. This endowment is paid prompt 
ly within a week after the death of a member and 
if the family is in great need it is paid immediately. 
Another feature rewards the member for a ten 
year connection therewith. It is a one hundred 
dollar endowment. It also provides for a sick and 
accident benefit. This feature alone, has done in 
calculable good. The order is noted for its prompt 
ness in settlement of its claims and is multiplying 
its strength in the accumulation of a surplus. The 
founder recognizes the importance of keeping in 
touch with its members and to this end he has es 
tablished a paper, known as the Royal Messenger. 

Much of the success of the Royal Circle of 
Friends is due to the popularity of its founder and 
his rare business judgment. 

The aim of the founder of the Royal Circle of 
Friends was to give to his people the largest bene 
fits at the least cost and to insure the prompt pay 
ment of all claims. To make it possible for all to 
share in its benefits the initiation fee was placed at 
Two Dollars and Fifty Cents, and a quarterly en 
dowment fee of One Dollar. When the substan 
tial benefits derived from this organization are con 
sidered its fee's are more reasonable than any oth 
er order. 

The great majority of the men and women who 
come into the organization are young. This 
gave the order an advantage. To meet conditions 
which will naturally arise as the members grow 
older a surplus has been created which is being 
added to annually. 

Dr. Williams, the founder and President, has the 
handling of funds of the order and has already de 
monstrated his ability to handle them with consu- 
mate business skill. His intregrity is above ques 
tion and the members feel safe, so long as the af 
fairs of the order remain in his hands. An order 
of this character has to get out much printed mat 
ter and in keeping with its economical manage 
ment a printing press was purchased and by 
means of this outfit much money has been saved 
the Order in the item of printing alone. Dr. Wil 
liams is constantly in receipt of letters commending 
the order and acknowledging the good it has done 
for the colored race. It has been especially gra- 

107 



tifying to him to receive so many letters of per 
sonal commendation and to know that he is held in 
such high personal esteem by his friends. To feel 
that you have done something worth while always 
brings pleasing reflections but to know that you 
have started a movement which will continue long 
after you have passed away, to bless the people 
whom you love and wish to serve is thrilling in its 
contemplation. Such is the joy that has come to 
Dr. Williams in establishing the order of the Royal 
Circle of Friends. He has lived to see it a success 
and to see the great good it has already accomplish 
ed. If he should cease from his labors now he has 
done enough to hand down his name to posterity 
and in a way to brnig only pleasant memories of 
him. 

He has built his monument which will be more 
enduring than granite, or stone, and as long as the 
Royal Circle of Friends exists, Dr. Williams will 
be held in fond remembrance. 

"Fading away like the stars of the morning, 
Losing their light in the glorious sun 
Thus would we pass from earth and its toil 
ing, 
Only remembered by what we have done." 

August 25th., 1903 Dr. Williams was married to 
Miss Cora E. Morgan of Memphis, Tennessee. She 
is a daughter of one of the wealthiest planters of 
Shelby County, Tennessee, and is a woman of cul 
ture, refinement and great ability. 

Mrs. Williams was graduated from the LeMoyne 
Institute of Memphis and for several years was 
one of the leading teachers in her native county. 

A daughter, Vera Louise Williams, makes the 
Williams' home one of happiness. 

She is a very bright young person and makes 
life interesting for the father and mother. 

At the time of his marriage Dr. Williams was 
a man of small means and only attained to his pres 
ent standing in the financial world by the practice 
of the strictest economy. He is now housed in his 
own home and lives in a style that is befitting 
a high class professional man. 

Dr. Williams gives much of the credit for their 
financial success to his wife. She it was who 
helped him to rise in life and who was an in 
spiration to him in the dark hours that come to all 
who struggle upward. 

It is not often that a man accomplishes so much 
in so short a period of his life and it must be a 
matter of supreme satisfaction to Dr. Williams to 
see the seed of his planting blossom into so frag 
rant and beautiful a flower, whose aroma of 
friendship will bless the coming generations. The 
man who confers a benefit upon his race is blessed 
in his work for others and the reflex influence upon 
his own life brings to him a personal blessing. 

A life of service is a successful life and brings its 
own sure and blessed reward. 





E. O. TRENT. 

OR a man to hold the same posi 
tion for considerably over a quar 
ter of a century, and still keep 
thoroughly abreast with the 
times, shows a great strength of 
character. One of the easiest 
things for a man who serves the public to do, is 
to get in a rut. Then his days of usefulness are 
numbered. But when a man can serve the public 
year in and year out, giving something new to each 
set of people who come directly under his care, 
when a man can do this, he is a success. 

For thirty-three years E. O. Trent has served as 
principal of the High and Industrial School, at Fort 
Smith, Arkansas. During all these years he has 
kept his school up to the standard in every particu 
lar. His teachers have caught something of his 
spirit of service and give freely of their time and 
energies during off hours. 

Professor Trent was born in Columbus, Ohio, 
February 24, 1859. Fortunate for him he was in a 
section, where even in those days a boy of color 
could have some chance at an education. So from 
the age of six to twenty-three he attended school 
in his native state. He graduated from the Ger 



man High School of Columbus and then entered the 
Ohio State University. From this institution he 
was graduated in 1882. In seeking for a place 
where he could best serve his people in the capacity 
of school master, he left his native state and went 
to Missouri. Here for one year he taught and then 
having received the opening at Fort Smith, Arkan 
sas, he gave up his work in Missouri and went to 
Arkansas. Here he has remained, teaching in the 
school room and out of it both young and old, 
some of the lessons from books and many of the 
fundamental lessons of life. 

Professor Trent did not confine his work to the 
town of Fort Smith. He saw the need of a State 
Teachers Association for the colored teachers of 
Arkansas, and became one of the prime movers in 
organizing this body. That through this act alone 
Professor Trent has served the entire State of Ar 
kansas, can not well be disputed. All the teachers 
through this organization have been brought up to 
a higher standard of teaching. All of them know 
more fully just what they are trying to do for the 
boys and girls, who come directly under their care. 
In this way has the influence of Professor Trent 
been broadened. 

In religious affiliation the subject of this sketch 
is a stanch Baptist. He is an active member 
of the Missionary Baptist Church in Fort Smith. 
In this church he has held many responsible posi 
tions. He has served as deacon, as clerk, as a lead 
er of the young people's organization and as Su 
perintendent of the Sunday School. Through the 
Sunday School, Professor Trent has been able to 
touch the lives of his pupils from the standpoint of 
religion, and because of this he has been able to 
help develop well rounded young men and women. 

In fraternal Orders he is also a man of promi- 
.nence. He was for seventeen years Secretary of 
the Odd Fellows Benefit Association. He is C. C. 
of the Knights of Pythias, he is a member of the 
Masonic Order, he is H. H. R., of the Eastern Star, 
a member of the Mosiac Templars and of the Roy 
al Arch Masons. Through these organizations, 
Professor Trent has come more directly in contact 
with the men and women of his adopted town. And 
so we see that his life has touched the lives of the 
people of Fort Smith, from many different points. 
In return for all the things he has done for the peo 
ple of Fort Smith, they have given him honor in 
many particulars. He has held positions of honor 
and trust in the churches, fraternal orders and 
in the Sociological Congress. 

Professor Trent was married to Miss Hattie S. 
Smith, August 25, 1886, in Columbus, Ohio. There 
are two children in the Trent family. E. E. Trent 
is in business for himself in Fort Smith. He is a 
very successful merchant. Alphonso Trent is still 
a student. He is in the Lincoln High School at 
Fort Smith. 

During all the years that he has been out working 
for himself, Professor Trent has managed to accu 
mulate considerable of this worlds goods. He 
owns thirty-two rent houses and a truck farm. A 
conservative estimate of the value of his holdings 
is placed at $50.000.00. 



108 




BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF ATLANTA UNIVERSITY 




TLANTA University is one of the 
pioneer institutions for the Chris 
tian education of Negro youth. 
It possesses excellent equipment 
for the work of high school, 
normal school and college classes, 
and has accommodations for one 
hundred and sixty boarding stu 
dents. It is the first institution in the State of 
Georgia to undertake work of college grade for 
Negroes, and steadily emphasizes the importance 
of genuine scholarship. It enjoys the cumulative 
advantage which results fro mforty-nine years of 
continuous effective work. It has been unusually 
fortunate in the continuity of its administration. 
It was founded in 1865 under the auspices of the 
American Missionary Association, by Edmund Asa 
Ware. It was presided over by him until his 
death, in 1885. President Ware was a graduate 
of Yale University of the class of 1863. In 1875 
his Yale classmate Horace Bumstead, succeeded 
to the presidency and held the position until 1907, 
when he resigned, and became the recipient of a 
Carnegie penson. His successor is Edward Twichell 
Ware, son of the founder and first president, a 
graduate of Yale University of the class of 1897. 
On the teaching force, there have always been, as 
there are now, men and women who have received 
the best education that this country affords. 
Among the colleges represented by the teachers 
are Harvard, Dartmouth, Chicago, Smith, and 
Wellesley. 

The University is beautifully situated upon the 
summit of a hill in the Western part of the City of 
Atlanta, and is surrounded by a campus of sixty 
acres. There are seven substantial brick buildings, 
three of them covered with Boston Ivy. The value 
of the property, all told, is $300.000. The invested 
funds amount to about $125,000. For the proper 
maintenance of the work, about $39,000 is required 
each year in addition to the amount reasonably to 
be expected from payments of students and income 
from funds. For this extra amount the Institution 
depends upon the endowment of friends who give 
from year to year. 

Instruction in domestic science and manual train 
ing is required of all the high school students and 
there are opportunities for pursuing this work 
further in the college course of mechanic arts and 



in the Furber Cottage for the normal students. 
The normal course comprises two years following 
the high school course. 

During the Senior year the girls live in the Fur 
ber Cottage in groups of fifteen and under the su 
pervision of the matron, do all the work of the 
home. 

The Institution also possesses a well equipped 
printing office, from which is issued the catalogue, 
the school and alumni papers. Here, there is an 
opportunity to learn the art of printing. It is the 
purpose of Atlanta University to make the home 
life in the school strong and wholesome. 

There is probably no school for the Negroes in 
the South better equipped with facilities for home 
training, for library work, or for the preparation 
of teachers. This institution has also been long 
prominent for the excellence of its work in sociol 
ogy. Its annual publications on the Negro prob 
lem have received wide recognition from scholars 
and may be found in the best libraries in this coun 
try and abroad. 

Opportunities for Post Graduate Study leading 
to the degree of A. M. are offered to a limited ex 
tent , 

There are enrolled over five hundred students. 
About two-thirds of them come up the hill every 
day from the City of Atlanta. The rest are in the 
boarding department and represent sixteen states, 
and thirty-nine counties in the State of Georgia. 
These young people are many of them children of 
the graduates of Atlanta University and most of 
them have received their training in schools over 
which the graduates preside. 

This Institution is an outgrowth of the Christian 
spirit which brought so many earnest and devoted 
teachers South, in the educational crusade of the 
sixties and seventies. The work is essentially 
Christian. It is undenominational and strong in 
religious motive. Students attend church and 
Sunday school. They also have their voluntary 
: eligious organizations, the Y. M. C. A., and Y. W. 
C A. Participation in the religious exercises and 
in the home life of the school has often been in 
strumental in molding the character of the student 
for the most efficient service among their people. 

The chief source of encouragement for the work 
rests in the almost uniform success of the grad 
uates of Atlanta University. 



109 




MRS. ROSA LULA BARNES. 





N recent years the Negro woman 
has begun to find herself. Time 
was when both by herself and in 
the minds of the general public it 
was decided, yea determined, that 

her place was in the home, in the 

school room and in the Sunday School. Gradually 
she got into founding institutions, schools, so 
cial settlements and the like. She went on the lec 
ture platform. She traveled in America and in Eu 
rope as a singer. In all these places she found her 
self a complete success. 

Then a few ventured into unheard of fields into 
politics and in business. Again success is crowning 
their endeavors. Why should they not enter any 
and all branches of work? 

One of the leading Negro women in business, in 
^odge, and general social work is Mrs. Lula Barnes 
of Savannah, Georgia. Though an Alabamian by 
birth and education Mrs. Barnes is a Georgian by 
adoption and achievement. She was born in Hunts- 
ville, Alabama, near the scene of the labors of the 
late Dr. Council. Born August 22nd, 1868, she had 
many difficulties in getting an early education. 
However, Huntsville Normal and Industrial Insti 



tute was near at hand; and so after several years 
she entered here and gained her life training. 

Soon after her school days she was married and 
set about to make a happy home and to aid her 
husband in every possible way. Providence deem 
ed it otherwise. Spurred by adversity, she now be 
gan to cast about for a livelihood. Living in Sa 
vannah, she thought she saw an opening for a Ne 
gro grocery. She thought also that a Negro wo 
man should just as well conduct this business as 
could a man. Hence she launched forth into the 
business. She opened a store on Price Street, and 
by courtesy, fair dealing and shrewd business tact 
made her store one to be reckoned with in the 
business world. For ten years she was a grocer, 
and gave up, or sold out, only to enter other fields. 

The grocery business proving very confining, and 
an opportunity opening for her services in lodge 
work, she closed her grocery books in 1893, and ac 
cepted work with the Court of Calanthe. She be 
came Grand Worthy Counsellor of the Court of 
Calanthe and of the Knights of Pythias. The post 
with the latter she still hollds. 

During her ten years in business Mrs. Barnes 
had practiced economy. She now made several 
paying investments. She bought a handsome resi 
dence, which is her home, on East Henry Street. 
She bought twelve rent houses, which in them 
selves provide her with a pretty comfortable in 
come. She owns five vacant lots in Savannah. 

Having made these investments, which were safe 
and which would protect her in case of inability, 
she felt safe in placing money in several worthy 
enterprises. She owns stock and is a director in 
the Wage Earner's Bank of Savannah, in the 
Standard Life Insurance Company, in the Afro- 
American Company and in the Union Development 
Company. 

Mrs. Barnes now gives her life very largely to 
service in lodges and in the church. She is a mem 
ber of the A. M. E. Church, of the Court of Calan 
the, of the Household of Ruth, of the Eastern Star, 
of the Good Samaritan. She has been honored 
with the post of Grand Worthy Chancellor of the 
Court of Calanthe of Georgia ; Supreme Worthy 
Inspector of the National Court of Calanthe ; Past 
District Most Noble Governor of Georgia : Past 
Grand Worthy Superior of the Household of Ruth ; 
and Past Grand Matron of the Eastern Star. 

With these honorary positions, with the duties 
and responsibilities entailed, Mrs. Barnes has 
traveled in all parts of the United States. There 
are few people and places in the country, about 
which she cannot give a very intimate account. 

Mrs. Barnes was married to Mr. Richard Barnes 
at Savannah, Aug. 16th, 1884. Mr. Barnes died in 
Sept. 2nd, 1911. Left alone Mrs. Barnes has de 
voted her life to making bright the every day lives 
of others. 



110 




HENRY RUTHERFORD BUTLER, M. D. 




NE of the conspicuous figures in 
colored Georgia during this last 
quarter century has been Dr. H. 
R. Butler. He has been the ex 
ponent in business enterprises and 
in uplift work and has been :>. sort 
of sponsor for the good name of Atlanta to the 
world. To him, being a physician is but an item 
in his career. He is a strong church man, being a 
member of the African Methodist Episcopal Church 
and a steward in the Bethel Church of Atlanta. 

In membership and activity in secret orders as 
well as in national bodies, few men anywhere are 
his peers. He is a thirty-third degree Mason. More 
than this he is the Grand Master of the Maso*is of 
Georgia, a post he has held for fifteen years. Hi; is 
also a Royal Arch Mason and Past Eminent Grand 
Commander of Georgia. He is an Odd Fellow, a 
Knight of Pythias, being a Brigadier General of 
the Uniform Department and Supreme representa 
tive of this body. He is a member of the Eastern 
Star and Court of Calanthe. He belongs to the 
Red Cross Society and to the National Georgraph- 
ical Society. He was surgeon, with rank of first 
lieutenant in the Second Battalion of Georgia Vol 



unteers until that battalion was mustered out in 
1896. 

He organized the colored Medical Association of 
Georgia in 1891 and was its first president. He was 
for four years, physician to Spelman Seminary, the 
largest school in the world for Negro girls. He 
was one of the organizers of the Atlanta State Sav 
ings Bank and is now one of its directors. He was 
the first regular Negro contributor to the Atlanta 
Constitution. He is manager of the Fair Haven In 
firmary of the M. B. U. 

Amazing as all this work may appear, it becomes 
more so when it is known that Dr. Butler gained 
his education by the hardest of struggle. He was 
born in the country in a log cabin, in Cumberland 
County, North Carolina, April 11, 1861. The spot of 
his birth place is some four miles from Fayette- 
ville, on the Willington Road. The first few years 
of his life, he worked on the farm as a laborer. 
Then he moved to Wilmington and became a wharf 
hand, then a stevedore. From here he went into 
the lumber yard as a workman, thence to the Wil 
mington Compress Company, for whom he finally 
became a cotton buyer. 

All this time he was carrying a burning desire to 
be educated, to become a man and hold positions 
of trust and responsibility. To be sure he had but 
little to book on or build on. Back there in Cum 
berland he had enjoyed three months schooling in 
a log cabin school house. His parents could give 
him no more. To pay his way he worked as bell 
boy, waiter, side waiter and finally head waiter in 
the Northern Hotels. His mother sent him one 
green back dollar, while he was in school. The 
rest, for both his elementary, college and profes 
sional education, he raised himself. 

Completing his course in the study of medicine, 
Dr. Butler went to Atlanta in 1890 and began to 
practice medicine and to become a part of the life 
in Atlanta and in Georgia. In his profession he 
ranks foremost and enjoys a very wide practice in 
Atlanta and surroundings. In company with Dr. 
T. H. Slater, he was owner of the flourishing Drug 
Store under the name of Butler, Slater and Com 
pany. Dr. Butler is one of the leading property 
owners in Atlanta. He owns a very handsome 
home, owns other property in Atlanta, in Southern 
Georgia, and in Lincoln, property and buildings 
which amount in value to twenty-five thousand 
dollars. 

Dr. Butler was married May 2nd, 1893, to Miss 
Selana May Sloan. They have one son, Henry 
Rutherford, Junior, who is at present a student in 
Atlanta University, but who is to attend and be 
graduated from the Harvard Divinity School in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

The Butler family of three has traveled much. 
Dr. Butler himself has crossed the American Con 
tinent, indeed is a registered physician in Califor 
nia, and in Los Angeles. He and his family have 
traveled through Canada and Europe, where he 
spent much time in study in the hospitals of London 
and Paris. 



Ill 





BISHOP RANDALL ALBERT CARTER 
A. B., A. M., D. D. 

ISHOP Randall A. Carter of the C. 
M. E. Church, in his early years, 
planned to enter the law, but 
thanks to an early conversion and 
a deep interest in religious mat 
ters growing out of this, he 
changed his plans, and became a minister instead. 
Bishop Carter was born in Fort Valley, Georgia, 
January 1, 1867; but while still a small child he 
moved with his parents to Columbia, South Caro 
lina. Here in Columbia he attended the public 
schools, applying himself to all the tasks that were 
set for him. He completed the common schools of 
his home and was ready for higher training, at the 
time of the founding of the Allen University, in 
Columbia, S. C. So, instead of going away to col 
lege he was fortunate enough to have the college 
come to him. Bishop Carter was among the first 
students to matriculate in the University. He re 
mained in Allen University long enough to com 
plete the Freshman Class. 

While studying in this school he was converted 
during a great revival. It was not long after this 
that he felt a call to the ministry and so he joined 
the South Carolina Conference of the C. M. E. 



Church. Bishop Wm. H. Willis, of Louisville, Ken 
tucky, was the presiding officer at the Conference 
at the time Bishop Carter joined. 

Bishop Carter, as a minister, served many im 
portant charges both in South Carolina, and in 
Georgia. While working in Georgia, Bishop Car 
ter completed his full college course at Payne Col 
lege. He graduated with the degree of A. B., with 
the highest honors. For a number of years the 
subject of this sketch served as presiding Elder in 
the Georgia Conference. He was the confidential 
advisor of Bishop Holsey for many years and was 
the recognized leader of the Georgia Conference, 
of the C. M. E. Church. He was elected chairman 
of the delegation from his conference to the gen 
eral conference for twenty years in succession. He 
was the first Epworth League Secretary of that 
department of his church. He was the fraternal 
delegate from his church to the general conference 
of the M. E. Church, held in Chicago, Illinois. He 
was a member of the delegation from his church 
to the Ecumenical Conference of Methodism, heM 
in London, England. While abroad, Bishop Carter 
took advantage of the opportunity and visited 
many of the countries of Europe. 

In 1914 in St. Louis, Mo., he was elected a Bishop 
of his church. At this time Bishop Carter received 
the highest vote ever given any aspirant for that 
position. Thus Bishop Carter has come from the 
ranks to the highest position in the gift of his 
church. Starting as a school teacher, who wanted 
to be a preacher, joining the conference and serv 
ing first small and then larger charges, he has 
developed wonderfully in this time. In recognition 
of his growth and development he was given the 
degree of A. M. in 1900 and of D. D. in 1901. Both 
of these came from his Alma Mater. 

Bishop Carter is recognized as one of the fore 
most orators and most scholarly preachers in his 
church. He is a member of the National Geogra 
phic Society, the National Association for the Ad 
vancement of the Colored People. A member of 
the committee on Church and Country Life of the 
Federal Council of Churches, and a member of the 
Association for the Study of Negro Life and His 
tory. Bishop Carter has held and served in many 
other positions which are honorary and which work 
for the public good. Among those in which he 
is still actively engaged we might mention that he 
is President of the Board of Missions of the C. M. 
V.. Church, President of the Board of Trustees, of 
the Texas College of Hagood, Arkansas, and of the 
Indiana College, of Pine Bluff, Arkansas. 

Bishop Carter has traveled extensively in this 
country and abroad. He has covered this country 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific. He owns pro 
perty, in the District of Columbia, in Columbia, 
South Carolina, and in Atlanta, Georgia. 

In 1891, on the 22nd of April, Bishop Carter was 
married to Miss Janie S. Hooks, of Macon, Georgia. 
There is one child in the family, Miss Carrie Car 
ter, who is a freshman in Atlanta University. 

Born of poor parents, we might say born in real 
poverty, Randall Albert Carter has made a good 
record for himself during his half century. His 
is a life that will lend inspiration. 



112 




SILAS X. FLOYD, A. M., D. D. 




D 



ILAS X. Floyd was born Octo 
ber 2nd, 1869, in the City of Au 
gusta, Georgia, and here he has 
lived tor the greater part of his 
life. During his childhood period 
it was hard tor a colored youth to 
secure a thorough education, but Dr. Floyd was an 
exception. He secured a good education but 
through close application to his studies and a de 
termination to succeed. When a lad he attended 
the schools of his native city and then entered At 
lanta University. He graduated at this institution 
in 1891, and in 1894 received his M. A. degree from 
his Alma Mater. Finishing his course he returned 
to Augusta, Georgia, where he immediately began 
and has continued a marvelously active life. An 
enumeration of his activities seems almost in 
credible that one man could accomplish so much 
and retain his health and strength. But Dr. Floyd 
is an unusual man. Dr. Floyd is first a preacher 
and from 1899 to 1900 he was the Pastor of the 
Augusta Tabernacle Baptist Church. Prior to 
this, from 1891 to 1896, he was principal of the 
Public School and editor of the Augusta Sentinel. 
From 1896 to 1899 he was field representative of 
the International Sunday School Association, and 

113 



from 1900 to February, 1903, he was field worker 
for Georgia and Alabama for the American Bap 
tist Publication Society. Since that time he has 
served continuously as Principal of the Public 
School of his native city. 

Dr. Floyd has many gifts but the two which are 
preeminent are those of teacher and author. By 
means of these he has left an impress upon the 
colored citizens of Augusta, and in fact the entire 
country, which will tell for the good of the race 
for ages to come. 

For many years he has conducted every Sunday 
morning a colored people's page in each of the two 
white daily newspapers published in Augusta. He 
has also held the unique position of being a paid 
reporter on two Southern white papers in the same 
city. This has given him a great local power to 
help his people. But Dr. Floyd has not confined his 
work to the school room, nor to the pen. His great 
heart embraces the whole colored race and he is 
interested in all efforts for their uplift. To this 
end he has served as Secretary of the National As 
sociation of Teachers in Colored schools ; he was 
the President of the first Negro State Press Asso 
ciation, in the United States, for Colored Newspa 
pers ; he was the originator of a system of syndica 
ting the news among colored newspapers ; he is a 
member of the Walker Baptist Institute, Augusta ; 
he is a member of the American Historical Asso 
ciation, and a member of the American Social 
Science Association. In these various organiza 
tions he has come face to face with many of the 
problems of the race and has done his share towards 
the adjustment of them. 

Dr. Floyd's writings have been voluminous and 
have been extensively read. He has made contri 
butions to such well known periodicals as the New 
York Independent. Youth's Companion, Lippin- 
cctts, Judge, and Leslie's Weekly. He is the au 
thor of "Floyd's Flowers," a booko of stories for 
colored children, the first book of its kind ever 
published in the history of the race in the United 
States. He has also written the "life of C. T. Wal-^ 
ker," the "Gospel of Service and other Sermons," 
and a number of stories and verses which have ap 
peared from time to time in the leading papers and 
magazines of the country. 

Dr. Floyd has made his contribution to the civic 
life of Augusta, and has rendered valuable service 
to the commonwealth on many occasions. In re 
cognition of his invaluable aid in relief work, fol 
lowing the great fire which swept Augusta, the 
Chairman of the White Relief Committee publicly 
presented him with a beautiful gold watch and fob. 
During the war which has happily come to a close, 
Dr. Floyd was conspicious for his patriotic service 
and was placed at the head of many of the commit 
tees which this service called into existence. 

Space alone prevents further record of his ach 
ievements. A fitting end is to speak of his happy 
home life. His family consists of a wife, (for 
merly Mrs. Ella Jam'es,) and a daughter, Miss 
Marietta James, who are in perfect accord and 
sympathy with him and in their own home they 
present the ideal family circle. 




BENJAMIN JEFFERSON DAVIS. 



Benjamin Jefferson Davis 




R. Benjamin Jefferson Davis, the 
subject of this sketch, was born 
in Dawson, Georgia, in 1870. He 
passed his childhood under the 
usual disadvantages of the Negro 
child in those days. He was 
born with an insatiable thirst for knowledge, and 
with an ambition and will to do whatever his hands 
found to do better than anybody else could do it. 
His longing to render service for his race and man 
kind ripened, and accordingly he resolved to acquire 
an education that would fit him for life's work ; and 
he entered Atlanta University and availed himself 
of every opportunity to better his condition. As 
a student he was brilliant and showed unmistaka 
bly the elements of leadership, which has made him 
a leader of men. As success marked his efforts, he 
never forgot to appreciate the friends who encour 
aged and helped him to prepare himself for the 
task which he had mapped out. 

After spending several terms in Atlanta Univer 
sity, he decided to teach school to aid him in his 
preparation and to secure the amount of money 
necessary to carry out what he had undertaken and 
planned for the future. Meanwhile, he was ten 
dered a government position which he accepted ; 
but it was not long before he felt that he could bet 
ter serve his race and generation by giving up the 
government service and taking up work more in 
keeping with his Life's ambition. But he had the 
foresight to see that there were great possibilities 
for racial development in the G. U. O. O. F., in 
America. He joined the Order at seventeen. His 
mother, Mrs. Katherine Davis, who was very much 
devoted to her boy, partly kept up his dues during 
the time he was attending school. He rose rapidly 
in the Order and became a Past officer in 1891, and 
a member of the District Grand Lodge in 1892; 
he was elected District Grand Treasurer in 1900; 
was elected Grand Director of the National Branch 
of the Order, in Columbus, Ohio, in 1904, and serv 
ed two years. He was elected Grand Treasurer of 
the National Branch in 1906 at Richmond, Va., 
which position he filled four years. He was elected 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Order in 
Baltimore in 1910, and served four year. In 1917, 
at the Macon District Grand Lodge, he was again 
re-elected District Grand Secretary for the Eighth 
Biennial term, making sixteen years ; and he was 
elected General Manager of the Corporation of the 
G. U. O. O. F. of America, Jurisdiction of Geor 
gia. In 1916, when the Order was placed in the 
hands of a Receiver by the courts, he, on account 
of his signal ability, and intricate knowledge of the 



affairs of the Order was appointed by the court as 
Assistant Receiver. 

He is a member of the K. of P., Supreme Circle, 
Knights of Tabor, a Director of the Standard Life 
Insurance Company, Stockholder of the Atlanta 
State Savings Bank and President of the Atlanta 
Independent Publishing Company publishers of 
the Atlanta Independent. 

In politics, he is a Republican, and is usually one 
of the Big Four Delegates from the State-at-large 
to the Republican National Convention every four 
years. At the 19th Republican National Conven 
tion he was a member of the Committee on Plat 
form and Resolutions of which Senator Henry Ca 
bot Lodge of Massachusetts, was the Chairman. 

The strongest institution in which Mr. Davis is 
interested, and the one which wields a world of 
good for both races, is the Atlanta Independent. As 
owner and editor of this widely read and circulated 
journal, he shapes ks policy and is considered one 
of the ablest journalists and writers of his day. 

It is impossible to discuss the Negro progress in 
America without mentioning "Ben Davis" and the 
Odd Fellows Block in Atlanta, which stands as a 
monument to his vision, perseverance and organ 
izing genius. He is essentially an organizer and 
leader of men. Twenty years ago when he be 
came officially identified with the G. U. O. O. F. 
in Georgia, it represented a membership of less 
than 10,000 and as a state organization, it was 
struggling and gasping for breath, so to speak. To 
day the membership is more than fifty thousand, 
including the Household of Ruth, Juveniles, Divis 
ion Meeting and Deputy and Supervisor's Institute. 

When Mr. Davis took charge of the office of 
District Grand Secretary, he addressed himself to 
the task of re-constructing the Order and placing 
it upon a substantial basis. His first efforts were 
to systematize the business of the office and build 
up confidence in the Order in the minds of the 
people. This having been accomplished, he felt 
that the time was propitious to have a strong or 
gan in the State of Georgia with which to give 
publicity to the work and the benefit of the Or 
der, and widen the circle of the Race's influence. 
Out of this idea sprang the Atlanta Independent, 
which, from the beginning, was a popular and fear 
less sheet and exerted a powerful influence for 
good not only in Georgia, but throughout the coun 
try and today the Independent is the most wide 
ly read Negro paper in America and is read by 
white and black people alike. 

In his struggles for the erection of the present 
Odd Fellow Block on Auburn Avenue in the City 
of Atlanta in the year 1912, the story will never be 



115 



known in its entirety ; for only God and Mr. Davis 
alone know in the broadest sense the fiery ordeals 
through which he passed. Even those who were 
most intimately associated with him do not know 
as he did, for in many respects, "He trod the wine 
press alone." Mr. Davis conceived the idea in the 
erection of the Odd Fellow Block that every mem 
ber of the Order in Georgia give $1.00 as a Free- 
Will offering on Thanksgiving Day, May 14, 1911. 
As a result of this idea over $50,000 was raised in 
one day. The Block was completed at a cost of 
more than $300,000 without a dollar of incum- 
brance upon it. 

When you think of Benjamin Jefferson Davis, 
you think of three things The Atlanta Indepen 
dent, The growth of the Odd Fellows and the Odd 
Fellows' Block in Atlanta, Ga. The paper speaks 
for itself it is the most aggressive and influen 
tial paper published in the country for Negro peo 
ple. No paper is more eagerly sought-for and 
more widely read than the Atlanta Independent. Of 
his work among the Odd Fellows, his chief distinc 
tion arises from putting the organization on a 
business basis and extending the membership in a 
little more than ten years in the State of Georgia, 
from 10,000 to 50,000; from a depleted treasury to 
an accumulated wealth of $600,000, carrying a cash 
balance of $50,000. 

But, perhaps, his crowning achievement in con 
nection with his great work with the G. U. O. O. F., 
is the establishment of the Bureau of Endowment 
for widows and orphans, who, until this time had 
been left destitute at the death of their husbands 
and fathers. He, therefore, put through an amend 
ment whereby every member must carry a death 
benefit of not less than $200.00 and not more than 
$500.00. The effect of this act has been far-reach 
ing and has laid a broad foundation upon which the 
Race can build for all time to come. It has been 
the forerunner for many other institutions of the 
Race such as banks, insurance companies, first- 
class professional offices and hundreds of business 
places for young men and women of the Race. 

He was happily married August, 1898, to Miss 
Jimme W. Porter of Dawson, Ga., and their home 
has been blessed with two children a boy, B. J. 
Davis, Jr., and a girl, Johnnie Katherine. 

Mr. Davis is less than fifty years old and is in 
the very prime of his intellectual and physical pow 
ers. He is ambitious, gifted and determined. He 
knows no such thing as "can't" and never ceases 
until the thing undertaken is put "Over the top." 
It is not too much to say that he is one of the 
Race's greatest leaders. He is today the greatest 
exponent of the principles of Odd Fellowship in 
America. He is a National character and a born 
leader. 
The race's greatest constructive and economic 



contribution to the national growth is Odd Fellow 
Block, 200 Auburn Ave., between Bell and Butler 
Streets, Atlanta, Georgia. 

Odd Fellow Block, which consists of two large 
buildings, is the largest and the most up-to-date of 
fice building owned by the Race in America. These 
vast properties were erected in 1912 and 1913 by 
District Grand Lodge No. 18, G. U. O. O. F., of Am 
erica, Jurisdiction of Georgia, a corporation. The 
corporation consists of fifty thousand male and fe 
male members of G. U. O. O. F., of America, Jur 
isdiction of Georgia. The main building is known 
as Odd Fellow Building and is located on the 
northeast corner of Auburn Avenue and Bell 
Street, and is seven stories high above the ground. 
The building consists of six stores, fifty-six offices, 
three lodge rooms and the roof garden. The roof 
garden will seat and accommodate one thousand 
people. It is the largest and the most modern roof 
garden in the country, adapted to use all seasons 
of the year sanitary, ventilated and heated by the 
most modern systems. The lodge rooms are oc 
cupied by many of the different secret Orders in 
the city. The offices are used by such substantial 
concerns as the Standard Life Insurance Company, 
Atlanta Mutual Insurance Company, Chatham Mu 
tual Insurance Company, Atlanta State Savings 
Bank, District Grand Lodge No. 18, G. U. O. O. F., 
of America, Jurisdiction of Georgia, The N. C. Mu 
tual & Provident Association and the Masonic Re 
lief Association. The main building fronts Auburn 
Avenue 60 feet, and runs north on Bell Street one 
hundred feet. 

The Odd Fellow Auditorium and Office Build 
ing is situated on the corner of Auburn Avenue 
and Butler Street, facing Auburn Avenue 138 
feet front, and consists of eight stores, eighteen 
offices and the Odd Fellow Auditorium Theatre. 
The building is two stories high, and the offices 
on the second floor are occupied almost entirely by 
the leading colored physicians of the city. The 
stores are always rented ; the Gate City Drug Store 
occupies the corner. This great property of the 
Order was erected at a cost to the Corporation, in 
cluding the land, quite $400,000 and is today valued 
at a half million dollars. The Order contributes to 
the State of Georgia and the City of Atlanta $5,000 
in taxes each year on its holdings. 

More than two hundred and fifty young men and 
women are engaged in the various enterprises, do 
ing business in the Odd Fellow Block. This invest 
ment is a paying proposition, netting to the Or 
der above operating expenses each year $10,000 
which is credited to the Endowment Fund, guar 
anteeing the payment of the Death Benefit Certifi 
cates held by the members of the Order throughout 
the Jurisdiction. This, the greatest contribution of 
the Race to the National growth, argues most 
largely its possibilities and is due entirely to the 
leadership of the District Grand Secretary, Benja 
min Jefferson Davis, and stands as a monument to 
hi.-; energy, push and pluck. 



116 




ODD FELLOWS BLOCK, MAI M BUILDING, ATLANTA, GA. 




CHARLES HENRY DOUGLASS. 




N Macon, Georgia, there is an up- 
to date negro theatre, one of the 
few negro theatres of any kind to 
be owned and managed by a Ne 
gro. It was built in 1911, with 
modern appliances. It has a seat 
ing capacity of 330 and is sanitary throughout. 
It has both oscilating and exhaust fans to keep 
the air within pure and the building sanitary. 
This enterprise is the work of Charles Henry 
Douglass, who in this way has made provision 
for the recreation and pleasure of his people. Here 
every afternoon and evening the tired housewife, 
servant or laborer can drop in and enjoy a pleas 
ant hour without embarrassment or discrimina 
tion. Seeing an opportunity for a Negro amuse 
ment house in Macon, he leased in 1904, the Oc- 
mulgee Park Theatre, which he operated for two 
years, when he sold his lease and purchased a lot 
on Broadway and erected the Colonial Hotel, a 
three story brick building, which stands on this 
business thoroughfare in the midst of the big bus 
iness of the city. The building cost eighteen 
thousand dollars ($18,000), and is the only piece 
of property on Broadway to be owned by a Ne- 

118 



gro. While operating his hotel, Mr. Douglass or 
ganized a theatrical company of about thirty-five 
of forty colored people and traveled with his com 
pany through fourteen states, giving performances 
in many cities, winning favorable patronage which 
established his reputation and earned him much 
money. Selling out his interest in the Theatrical 
Company he added the proceeds to other funds and 
erected the "Douglas Theatre." This theatre he 
operates entirely with Negro help. He has the 
only Negro picture operator permitted to operate 
a machine in the State of Georgia. In contemplat 
ing a successful man it is interesting to note the 
steps by which he climbed the ladder of success. 
We will go back now and trace the history of Mr. 
Douglass from his childhood days. 

Mr. Douglass was born in Macon, Georgia, in 
1870 and reared in comparative poverty, his parents 
being very poor. Necessity laid upon him the bur 
den of money making from early life, in fact from 
the time that he could earn a penny. His first job 
was to peddle light wood and vegetables. To this 
work he devoted his mornings but attended the 
public school in the afternoon. He chopped cotton 
when he was so small that he had to saw off the 
hoe handle so that he might wield the hoe. When 
fourteen years of age he left the cotton patch and 
went to the city. Here he secured a position as 
buggy boy for a physician, and received as wages, 
Six Dollars, ($6.00) per month. 

This position he held until the death of his fa 
ther. When his father died the support of his 
mother and two sisters fell upon his shoulders. 
Without flinching he assumed the responsibility 
and set himself to the task. 

He realized that he could not meet the demands 
of the family upon the small wages that he was 
receiving, so he gave up his position of buggy boy 
and sought employment in other lines. He se 
cured work as a day laborer, finding employment 
in a saw mill, where he received seventy-seven 
(77) cents per day. Here he labored until he 
found an opening where the wages were larger. 
From the saw mill he returned to Macon, where 
he entered a box factory, earning wages of from 
$1.75 to $2.00 per day. It cost him five dollars to 
get this job. 

While working as a laborer with his hands his 
mind was working upon a plan to start a business 
of his own, and to this end he began to save his 
money. When he had saved twenty-four dollars 
($24), he was ready for his venture. With this 
small capital he opened a bicycle repair shop, which 
continued to grow until the auto made its appear 
ance. This was the beginning of his business ca 
reer, but very far from being its end. 

When the automobile bid for popular favor the 




COLONIAL HOTEL AND DOUGLASS THEATRE 

bicycle had to take a back seat so he took time by 
the forelock and disposed of his repair shop and 
entered another line of endeavor. 

He next entered the Real Estate business which 
he conducted with marked success. 

Ne never shirked the responsibility which his 
father's death placed upon him, but cared for his 
mother and sisters with devotion and loyalty which 
made their paths smooth and pleasant. 

When his mother died he remained the devoted 
brother and supported and looked after the inter 
ests of his two sisters until they married and made 
homes for themselves. He not only supported 
them but gave them the advantages of education 
which contributed to their pleasure and usefulness 
in life. 

When he worked at the saw mill he often saw 
the porters and waiters in the Pullman car ser 
vice and was -deeply impressed at the smug and 
satisfied air they exhibited, and the spirit of con 
tentment that seemed to possess them. He also 
noted that they were well dressed. Thus uncon 
sciously they inspired in him the desire to have 
good clothes and to enjoy their seemingly spirit 
of contentment. 

This desire he has realized far beyond his fond 
est hopes and aspirations. With him to desire is 
the determination to attain and determination and 
energy usually brought -him the coveted reward. 

His personal appearance while not gaudy was 
always attractive and he is what may be termed a 
well dressed man. Mr. Douglass has always de 
pended upon himself and all his moves originated 
with himself and he paid for any and all assistance 
he received. He never put himself in the attitude 
of a beggar. When he secured the position in the 
box factory he paid one of the laborers therein to 
recommend him and he has followed that policy 



through all his business career. He attributes his 
success in a large measure to this principle. 

Another element in his character which helped 
in his successful career was his power to discern 
a need and the grit to venture. If he saw a need it 
was to him an opportunity and opportunity found 
in him a willing follower. 

Air. Douglass has acquired considerable proper 
ty. In addition to his hotel and theatre he owns 
thirty tenement houses, which contain from three 
to eight rooms, two pressed brick stores with flats 
in second story ; these are in the Broadway block 
and the flats rent for $140 per month. He has a 
thirty acre farm just outside of Macon where he 
raises Duroc and Berkshire hogs , truck, fruit and 
game chickens. 

Mr. Douglass was married in 1902 to Miss Fan 
nie Appling of Macon, Georgia. Six children make 
up the Douglass family, Winna, Marsenia, Charles 
Henry, Jr., Peter, Carro and Lilly. His close atten 
tion to business matters did not lessen his interest 
in his family life and he endeavored to make his 
home attractive and comfortable. Recently he 
built an attractive bungalow for his family. Here 
he finds his greatest relaxation from business cares. 
It is not surprising that a man who was such a 
good son and brother should make an ideal hus 
band and father. The importance he felt for the 
education of his sisters, which he accomplished, 
under the stress of poverty, he now feels for his 
children and being in a financial condition to give 
them a good education he plans to fit them for use 
ful and honorable positions in life. He is a living 
illustration of what a man with a vision and a 
strong will can do in brushing aside difficulties to 
reach his goal. 




RESIDENCE OF C. H. DOUGLASS. 



119 




IUSHOP JOSEPH SIMEON FLIPPER, D. D., LL. D. 



Bishop Joseph Simeon Flipper 




OR nearly forty years Bishop Jo 
seph Simeon Flipper, of the A. M. 
E. Church, has been a leader in 
the South ; a leader in education, 
in religion, and in organizations 
ot uplift for the American Negro. 
Born Feb. 22, 1859, in the days 
of slavery, and educated amidst 
the confusion of reconstruction, he has risen from 
school teacher to pastor, from pastor to dean, then 
college president, and finally to Bishop. 

In 1867, when the Northern Missionaries came 
South, he attended school in Bethel A. M. E. 
Church. From here he went to the Storrs School 
on Houston street. In October, 1869, he enrolled 
among the first students to enter the Atlanta Uni 
versity, where he remained until 1876. In the sum 
mer of this year he began teaching school at 
Thomaston, Georgia. He was converted in March 
1877, and joined St. Thomas, A. M. E. Church. In 
1877 and 1878 he taught school in Thomas County 
In 1879 he was commissioned by his Excellency, 
Governor Alford H. Colquitt, Captain of the Thom- 
asville Independants, a colored company forming 
a part of the State Militia. In the same year he 
taught school at Groverville, now Key, Brooks 
County, Georgia. Here he was licensed both as 
an exhorter and local preacher, and recommended 
by the local church for admission into the Georgia 
Annual Conference of the African Methodist Epis 
copal Church. In January, 1880, he was received 
into the itinerant ministry of the Georgia Confer 
ence at Americus, Georgia, by Bishop J. P. Camp 
bell, and assigned to the Groverville Circuit. He 
was ordained Deacon in January, 1882, in St. Tho 
mas A. .M E. Church, Thomasville, the same 
church in which he was converted and which he 
joined in 1877. Here he was elected Secretary of 
the Georgia Conference, and a Trustee of Morris 
Brown College. He was appointed to Darien, 
Georgia, in 1882. The next year he taught school 
at Cairo and Whigham, Georgia. In 1884, he was 
ordained Elder at Valdosta, and appointed to Quit- 
man. Remaining here until January, 1886, he was 
transferred from the Georgia Conference to the 
North Georgia Conference, and appointed to Be 
thel A. M. E. Church, on Wheat Street, Atlanta. 
This was the largest church in the State and he 
was the youngest man that had ever been appoint 
ed to such an important charge in the State. His 
mother had been a member of this church, he had 
attended its Sunday School when a boy, and had 
first learned his alphabet here. He remained here 
four years, the full limit of the law, and raised 
more Dollar Money than had ever been raised, not 
only in the history of this church, but of the entire 
State. It was here in 1886, he became one of the 
Dollar Money Kings of the entire connection, for 
which he was honored with a gold badge, making 
a record which stood for a quarter of a century be 
fore any other pastor exceeded it. From Bethel he 
was appointed pastor of Pierce Chapel A. M. E. 
Church, Athens. 

In 1891, he was elected delegate to the Gen 
eral Conference which met in Philadelphia ,Pa., 
in May, 1892. It was in this same year that he 

121 



was appointed by Bishop A. Grant, Presiding El 
der of the Athens district. Two years later Allen 
University, Columbia, S. C. conferred upon him the 
title of Doctor of Divinity. Remaining in the Ath 
ens District three years, he was appointed pastor 
of Allen Temple, Atlanta. This was in 1895, the 
same year he was elected delegate to the General 
Conference, which met in Wilmington, N. C., May 
1896. In 1899 he was elected leader of the delega 
tion of the North Georgia Conference, to the Gen 
eral Conference which met in Columbus, Ohio, May 
1900. It was at this conference that he was elec 
ted Chairman of the Episcopal Committee, the 
most important committee of the General Confer 
ence. At this General Conference, also, he was 
appointed a member of the Financial Board, which 
has the oversight of all money raised by the church. 
In 1899 he was appointed pastor of St. Paul, A. M. 
E. Church, Atlanta, serving four years. In 1903 
he was elected by the Trustee Board of Morris 
Brown College, Dean of the Theological Depart 
ment, where he served one year. The year, 1903. 
saw him elected leader of the delegation of the At 
lanta, Georgia Conference to the General Confer 
ence, which met at Chicago, 111., May 1904. Here 
again he was elected Chairman of the Episcopal 
Committee, which committee for his faithful ser 
vice, presented him with a large silver loving cup. 
He was again appointed a member of the Financial 
Board. Upon his return home he was elected by 
the Trustee Board, President of Morris Brown Col 
lege, and enrolled the largest number of students 
in the school's history. This position he held for 
four years. In 1906, Wilberforce University, Ohio, 
conferred on him the title of Doctor of Laws. 

In 1908, at the General Conference held in Nor 
folk, Virginia, he was elected one of the Bishops 
of the African Methodist Episcopal Church and 
assigned to the Ninth Episcopal District, consisting 
of Arkansas and Oklahoma. In 1912, when the 
General Conference met in Kansas City, Missouri, 
the delegation from Georgia, his native state, re 
quested that he be sent to preside over Georgia, 
which request was granted. On coming to Geor 
gia, he erected the Flipper Hall, the boys dormitory 
at Morris Brown College, the Central Normal and 
Industrial Institute, at Savannah, bought ten acres 
of land for Payne College, at Cuthbert, Georgia, 
and united all the schools into one system, known 
as Morris Brown University. 

Bishop Flipper owns his home and three rent 
houses, in Atlanta, two vacant lots in Waycross, 
five in Savannah, and one in Lincoln, Md. He is a 
stockholder of the Standard Life Insurance Com 
pany. He is a stockholder and Director of the 
Atlanta State Savings Bank, and a stockholder 
in the Independant, of New York City. He is 
a member of the Southern Sociological Congress ; 
of the National Geographic Society, Washington, 
D. C., a Trustee of the World's Christian Endeavor 
president of the Sunday School Union Board of 
the A. M. E. Church. 

Bishop Flipper was married in Thomasville, Geor 
gia, in 1880, to Miss Amanda Isabella Slater. There 
are three children in the Flipper family: Josephine 
G., Nathan and Carl. 





WILLIAM ALFRED FOUNTAIN, A. B , M. A.. 
S. T. B., B. D., Ph. D. 

R. William A. Fountain, now Pres 
ident of Morris Brown Univer 
sity, is the son of Reverend Rich 
ard and Virginia Fountain, both 
of whom were devoted members 
of the African Methodist Episco 
pal Church. 

He was born October 29, 1870, at Elberton, Geor 
gia, and was one of seventeen children. He en 
tered school at the age of six and attended about 
sixteen years. Passing through the public school 
at Elberton, he graduated successively from Morris 
Brown University, Allen University, Turner Theo 
logical Seminary, and took a post-graduate course 
at Chicago University, and non-resident courses in 
Central University. He has the following degrees : 
Bachelor of Arts, from Morris Brown University, 
in 1901 ; Master of Arts from Allen University ; S. 
T. B., from Turner Seminary; B. D. and Ph. D., 
from Central University. He was also a student 
at Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, 111., in 1916. 
He was converted April 1888, at the age of eigh 
teen and joined Allen Temple A. M. E. Church, At 
lanta, Georgia, the same year. He became very 



active in the church work and has held almost ev 
ery office in the body. 

He was licensed to preach at Elberton, Georgia, 
in 1893, by Rev. (now Bishop,) J. S. Flipper. He 
joined the annual conference at Marietta, Georgia, 
under Bishop Grant; was ordained deacon at Ath 
ens, Georgia, by Bishop A. Grant; ordained elder 
at Cedartown, Georgia, by Bishop Turner. He has 
held the following appointments: Pendergrass 
Mission; Athens-Bethel; Washington-Jackson Cha 
pel and Pope's Chapel, Marietta, Georgia; Turner 
Chapel, Atlanta, Georgia; Allen Temple, Wilming 
ton, North Carolina ; St. Stephens, Macon Georgia ; 
Steward Chapel; Presiding Elder of Athens dis 
trict. Each change carried him to an enlarged 
field of work. 

His accomplishment's as a church builder and 
debt liquidator show a decided ability in those lines. 
He built Pope's Chapel, at Washington, Georgia, 
at a cost of $20,000; repaired the Parsonage at Ma 
rietta, Georgia, at a cost of $2,000; bought lot and 
beautified church, paid church out of debt, at Atlan 
ta, at cost of $5,000; left $500 to build a Sunday 
School room for St. Stephens at Wilmington, N. C. ; 
established an Old Folk's Home and built a Par 
sonage at a cost of $4,000, for Steward Chapel, Ma- 
con, Georgia. He has lifted mortgages at Athens, 
Marietta, Allen Temple and Steward Chapel. 

Dr. Fountain has been a delegate to the follow 
ing General Conferences : Columbus, Ohio, in 
1900; Chicago, in 1904; Norfolk, in 1908; Kansas 
City, in 1912, and the Centennial General Confer 
ence at Philadelphia, in 1916. 

Before becoming active as a minister, Dr. Foun 
tain gave part of his time to the school room, so 
when he was called to succeed the lamented Dr. 
E. W. Lee, as president of Morris Brown University 
he was not without experience as a teacher. 

Dr. Fountain holds membership in many organi 
zations and has an active interest in them. He is 
an Odd Fellow, a Mason, and a Knight of Pythias. 
He has been twice married. He was first married 
to Miss Jessie M. Williams, of Sumter, S. C, in 
1893. She died in 1898. In 1899 he married Miss 
Julia T. Allen. His first wife gave him two chil 
dren, W. A. Fountain, Jr., and Jessie Mamie and 
his second wife gave him four children, Louise 
Virginia, Sue Jette, Julia Bell and Allen McNeal, 
deceased. Dr. Fountain has a high ambition for 
his children which he is trying to realize by train 
ing their heart and mind as he was himself trained. 
He finds great satisfaction and pleasure in his home 
life. He has another great ambition also to 
make the Morris Brown University a great Insti 
tution, taking high rank among the Negro schools 
of the land. He is fast advancing it towards his 
goal and has received much encouragement to per 
severe in his efforts. 



122 





JOHN WESLEY GILBERT, Ph. D. 

OME years ago the public was 
startled to know that Brown Uni 
versity had sent a Negro scholar 
to Athens, Greece. There were 
many causes for this surprise. In 
the first place it had been wide 
ly exploited that the Negro could not learn Greek. 
In the second place the Negro had been chosen 
as a representative of a New England college. This 
was how it all came about. Brown University, at 
Providence, Rhode Island, holds what is known as 
an Athens scholarship. This scholarship is award 
ed to the best Greek scholar in the University. 
John Wesley Gilbert won this scholarship over the 
sons of Anne Hutchinson, of Roger Williams, and 
over many other lads of distinguished ancestry. 
Thus it came about that the American Negro in a 
quarter of a century after slavery had sent a 
scholar abroad. 

John Wesley Gilbert was born in Hepsibah, 
Georgia, July 6, 1865. His first years of training 
were spent in the public schools of Augusta. Geor 
gia. From the public schools of Augusta, he reg 
istered in the Atlanta Baptist Seminary, now the 
theological department of Morehouse College, At 
lanta, Georgia. Going up from the South. Mr. 

123 



Gilbert made his way into Brown University, and 
soon made his mark as a scholar of the classics. 
He especially excelled in Greek; so that when the 
award was made for the representative from Brown 
University, the Negro scholar was chosen to go to 
the American school of classics in the city of So 
crates and Plato, of Pericles and Demosthenes. It 
was here he won his Master's degree. 

However, one must live in Athens, and scholar 
ships do not always defray all expenses. To pay 
h'.s way the Greek scholar served as a guide to 
American tourists, who came to visit this ancient 
citadel of culture and war. In those days exca 
vations in Greece were exceedingly popular. Be 
fore long, Mr. Gilbert was numbered among those 
who sought to exhume the old walls, pillars and 
gates, made famous in ancient Greek stories. He 
conducted excavations not only in Greece, but on 
the Mediterranean Islands. Few men have been 
thus favored to use their classical scholarship. 

Mr. Gilbert has been an extensive traveler. He 
has traveled practically over the whole of the 
United States and visited most places of note and 
interest and has visited many countries in Europe. 

The trip to Athens only whetted the young scho 
lar's taste for more travel. He made two more 
trips abroad, when he visited many countries in 
Africa and most of the countries in Europe. He 
was not only traveling, he was working. While 
in the Belgian Congo, he, with Bishop W. R. Lam- 
buth, founded the mission at Wimbo, Miami, a 
mission which is still in full operation. His work 
of investigation and research won him a member 
ship in the Archaeological Institute and in the 
Philological Association of America. 

Mr. Gilbert has been engaged for years in teach 
ing and preaching. He began his course as a 
teacher in Paine Coollege, Augusta, Georgia, in 
1889. He was Dean of Theology in Paine for three 
years. Mr. Gilbert entered the ministry in 1895, in 
the C. M. E. 'Church. In 1901 he was a member of 
the Ecumenical Congress, which assembled in Lon 
don, England. He is at present commissioner for 
and professor of Greek, in Paine College. 

He has kept his membership alive in many of the 
organizations at home. His membership in the A. 
M. E. Church has been one of much activity. He 
has held the office of superintendent of African 
missions for many years. He is a Mason, a Knight 
of Pythias and an Odd Fellow. In the Knight of 
Pythias he is Grand Auditor. 

He was married in 1889 to Miss Oceola Pleasant, 
a native of Augusta, Georgia. Four children have 
been born to them, of whom three are living. 

His real estate holdings are valued at $15,000 and 
he is a holder of several shares in a realty company 
of Augusta. 





KEMPER HARRELD. 

EM PER Harreld, known the coun 
try over as a concert violinist, 
popular also as a teacher of violin 
and as a chorus director, was born 
and reared in Muncie, Indiana. 
From his youth he was a musical 
prodigy. His special talent first 
manifested itself in song ; so much so that under 
the tutelage of Miss Nannie C. Love, who was in 
charge of the public school music, he soon became 
known as the boy singer. However, the violin had 
early fallen into his hands, and while singing, he 
was also after his boy fashion making rich tones on 
the violin, becoming in a short time, at least a 
fiddler. 

Following his bent Mr. Harreld took special stu 
dies in his home town and then in Indianapolis. 
From Indianapolis he entered the Chicago Musical 
College and studied violin under Chiheiser, theory 
under Maryott and Falk, and composition under 
Borowski. Mr. Harreld's next studies were pur 
sued under Frederick Frederiksen, a celebrated 
violinist from the Royal College of Music in Lon 
don. Three years of hard work with Frederiksen 
gave Mr. Harreld a much finer touch, higher tech 
nique and greater confidence in himself. 

Meantime he had become well known in Amer 
ica as one of the leading violinists. To the laity 
he was already perfect in technique, harmony, and 
those points of excellence for which musicians so 
eagerly and so sedulously strive. 



Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, was 
among the institutions to invite Mr. Harreld to be 
come a member of their teaching staff. Atlanta 
being a field of rare possibility, due to the high in 
tellectual standard, Mr. Harreld became a teacher 
of music at Morehouse, and established a studio 
on Chestnut Street in the city. 

Here in Atlanta Mr. Harreld lives an exceeding 
ly busy life. As a teacher of private pupils he takes 
every minute of his spare time. As a chorus direc 
tor he with his chorus is constantly in demand. He 
has developed an orchestra for Morehouse, an or 
chestra of from eighteen to twenty-three members, 
picked from a student body of not more than four 
hundred and fifty students. Biggest of all, Mr. 
Harreld has a choir chorus of three hundred voices, 
a chorus which is made up of choirs from twenty- 
eight churches. When Billy Sunday preached in 
Atlanta his chorus was increased to fifteen hun 
dred voices, who sang to an audience of seventeen 
thousand. 

Dear as these honors are, Mr. Harreld has not 
decided to rest on what he already knows and can 
do. Busy as he is with his regular music at More- 
house, with private pupils, chorus work and violin 
recital, he nevertheless steals time here and there 
for intense study and observation. The year 1914, 
for example, found him stealing away to spend his 
vacation to study in Berlin. Unhappily, the war 
broke forth during his stay in Berlin, and he and 
Mrs. Harreld were held by the German Govern 
ment for twenty-five days, before they were al 
lowed to leave for America. 

Since that time owing to disturbances every 
where Mr. Harreld has not returned to Europe to 
study. He has traveled, however, in England, Hol 
land and Germany in recital engagements, and in 
nearly every part of the United States. His studies 
have during his work at Morehouse taken a prac 
tical turn, going into Negro music and its possi 
bilities. 

It is difficult to determine what branch of music 
Mr. Harreld excels in, as a music master, a chorus 
director, or as a concert violinist. In the first two 
Atlanta gives him the leading place. In the last 
named the papers of various cities in which he has 
appeared vie with one another in singing his praise. 
This from the College Bulletin of Birmingham is 
typical, and at the same time expresses the great 
esteem in which he is held. 

"Plays in most finished and artistic style with 
brilliancy and very beautiful tone. Has no equal in 
temperament and expression." 

What Mr. Harreld himself considers his best ef 
fort was a benefit concert given in the Auditorium- 
Armory in Atlanta. For this he organized the cho 
ral and orchestral forces of the six higher institu 
tions for Negro education in Atlanta Atlanta Uni 
versity, Morris Brown University, Clark Univer 
sity, Morehouse College, Spelman Seminary and 
Gammon Theological Seminary. There were five 
hundred in the chorus and a large orchestra. This 
program was rendered before 5000 persons. 

Mr. Harreld was married on June 11, 1913, to 
Miss Claudia White, daughter of the famous Dr. 
W. J. White, of Augusta. They have one child, a 
daughter, Josephine Eleanor, who is three years 
of age. 



124 





JOHN HOPE, A. B., A. M. 

OHN Hope, President of More- 
house College, was born in Au 
gusta, Georgia, June, 1868, the 
son of James and Mary Francis 
Hope. After some years of ele 
mentary education, secured large 
ly by his own efforts, he entered Worcester 
Academy, (Mass.,) in the fall of 1886. He was 
prominent in the activities of the school, becoming 
editor-in-chief of the Academy, the Student Month 
ly ; and at graduation he was class historian and 
a commencement speaker. Entering Brown Uni 
versity in 1890, he received the A. B. Degree in 
1894, with the distinction of being class orator. In 
1907 his Alma Mater conferred on him the A. M. 
degree. In October 1894, Mr. Hope entered the 
service of the American Baptist Home Mission 
Society as a teacher in Roger Williams University, 
Nashville, Tenn. In 1898 he was transferred to At 
lanta Baptist College. On the resignation of pres 
ident Sale he was promoted to the presidency, ser 
ving for the first year as Acting President. In 
1897 he was married to Miss Lugenia D. Burns, of 
Chicago, 111., He is the father of two boys, Ed 
ward Swain and John, Jr. President Hope is one 



of the leading figures in the education of the negro 
in the South, and his time is largely drawn upon 
by many activities for social or educational service. 
In 1915-16 he was President of the National Asso 
ciation of Teachers in Colored Schools ; he is a 
member of the Board of Managers of the Y. M. C. 
A., of Atlanta, of the Advisory Board of the Na 
tional Association for the advancement of the Col 
ored People, of the Executive Committee of the 
Urban League of New York, of the committees on 
the Spingarn Medal, of the Anti-Tuberculosis 
Association, of Atlanta, and of various boards of 
the State Baptist Convention. President Hope's 
chief interest, however, remains, the education of 
men and boys ; and the fact that he has given him 
self to his work in such wholehearted fashion lar 
gely accounts for the rapid advancement that 
Morehouse College has made within the last ten 
years. 

In the summer of 1918, President Hope was giv 
en a leave of absence by the American Baptist 
Home Mission Society and was appointed by the 
Young Men's Christian Association as a Special 
Secretary for the oversight of the Negro soldiers 
of America in France. In this capacity he has ren 
dered such distinguished service for the improve 
ment of the morale of the army that he has been 
requested to continue in this work until the sum 
mer of 1919. He has complied with this request, 
and is still at his work that covers over fifty cities. 

The following estimate of the administration of 
President Hope has been taken from the "History 
of Morehouse College," written by the Dean. 
"One of the outstanding features of the adminis-- 
tration of President Hope has been the excellent 
understanding between the head of the college and 
the student body. In the era of "Atlanta Baptist 
College" the aggressive spirit that caused the in 
stitution to be widely known first received real 
impetus. In more recent years it has developed 
into a devotion with which the youngest student 
becomes acquainted as soon as he is enrolled. 
Whatever question may arise, the students know 
that presiding over the college is one looking out 
for their best interests, in vacation as well as term 
time, and one with whom there may be the frank 
est conference. The response comes in a loyalty 
that has never failed when anything involving the 
highest welfare of the college was at stake." 

President Hope lived the life he endeavored to 
impress upon the young men coming under his 
influence and stands out before them as an example 
worthy of their imitation. 

To impress oneself upon the rising generation 
in such a way as to incite them to a high ideal of 
life is worthy the effort of any man. This pleas 
ure and satisfaction is President Hope's. 



125 




GRAVES HALL, MOREHOUS E COLLEGE, ATLANTA, GA. 





hlE Morehouse College in the city 
of Atlanta, Georgia, is operated 
by the American Baptist Home 
Mission Society, of New York, 
for the education of Negro young 
men, with special reference to the 
preparation of ministers and teachers. 

HISTORY 

The College was organized in the year 1867, in 
the city of Augusta, Georgia, under the name of 
"The Augusta Institute." In 1879, under the pres 
idency of Rev. Joseph T. Robert, LL. D. (1871- 
1884), it was removed to Atlanta and incorporated 
under the name "Atlanta Baptist Seminary." At 
this stage of its growth the institution owned only 
one building, that a comparatively small three- 
story structure, located near what is now the Ter 
minal Station. President Robert was succeeded 
by President Samuel Graves, D. D., in 1885. Dr. 
Graves served as president until 1890. continuing 
as Professor of Theology for four years longer. 
In 1889, as the surroundings of the old location in 
Atlanta had become unfavorable, a new site was 
secured, and in the spring of 1890 the school 
was removed to its present location. In the au 
tumn of this year President George Sale, (1890- 
1906- entered upon his duties. In 1897 amend 
ments to the charter were secured, granting full 
college powers and changing the name of the in 
stitution to "Atlanta Baptist College." In 1906 
President Sale resigned to become Superintendent 
of Education of the American Baptist Home Mis 



sion Society, and was succeeded by President 
John Hope, who had been a professor on the 
faculty since 1898. By a vote in 1912 of the Board 
of Trustees, concurred in by the American Bap 
tist Home Mission Society, and by a change in 
1913, of the charter granted by the State of Geor 
gia, the name of the institution became "More- 
house College," in honor of Rev. Henry L. More- 
house, D. D., Corresponding Secretary of the Am 
erican Baptist Home Mission Society and the con 
stant friend and benefactor of the Negro race. 
CAMPUS 

The campus is thirteen acres in extent. It oc 
cupies one of the highest points of land in the city, 
1,100 feet above sea-level, and commands a fine 
view of the city and surrounding country. For 
beauty and healthfulness, the situation could not 
be surpassed. The property is on West Fair 
Street, at the junction of Chestnut Street, with 
in half an hour's walk from the post-office and 
railroad stations. 

The following is taken from the Department of 
Interior bureau of education Bulletin, 1916, No. 
39: 

"It is a young men's school of secondary and col 
lege grade with classes in theology and an ele 
mentary department. It is the leading Baptist 
school of Georgia, and holds high rank among the 
schools of the South. 

The institution is owned by the American Bap 
tist Home Mission Society. A self-perpetuating 
board of trustees acts in an advisory capacity. 



126 



t 

* -. 




MOREHOUSE REPRESENTATIVES AT CAMP DODGE, DES MOINES, IOWA. 



It has an attendance of 277, of which number 150 
are boarders ; the teaching force consists of 14 
males and five females, two of which are white and 
the remainder colored. The teachers are devoted 
to the welfare of thir pupils and command the con 
fidence of the student body. Besides the element 
ary and secondary grades ,there is a short course 
in music, Bible and manual training. This prepara 
tory course is required of all students. There are 
no elective courses. All pupils entering the col 
lege are required to complete the foreign lan 
guages of the secondary course. 

The simple theological courses offered serve a 
useful end, in training ministerial students. 

Graves Hall, erected in 1889, at a cost of twenty 
eight thousand dollars, and named in honor of 
President Graves is the chief college dormitory. 
Quarles Hall, erected in 1898, at a cost of Fourteen 
thousand dollars, and named in honor of Reverend 
Frank Quarles, for many years pastor of Friend 
ship Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia, and presi 
dent of the Georgia State Baptist Convention, con 
tains the class rooms in which the work of the 
English Preparatory Department is done with a 
floor for science work in Chemistry and Physics. 
Sale Hall, erected at a cost of forty thousand dol 
lars, in 1910, and named in honor of President Sale, 
has recitation rooms and a chapel with seating ca 
pacity of seven hundred. Robert Hall, erected in 
1917, at a total cost of thirty thousand dollars, has 
a basement that is used as a dining room and three 
floors devoted to dormitory purposes. 



This is emphatically a Christian school. The 
faculty keeps constantly in mind the fact that 
it was founded by a missionary organization, and 
is sustained by the contributions of Christian peo 
ple for the Christian education of young men. The 
Bible has a place in the regular course of study. 
Generally, Morehouse College encourages all acti 
vities religious, literary, athletic which make 
for the development of Christian Ideals and for 
the culture of a sound mind, in a sound body. 

The College has taken a prominent part in the 
war. Already recently from the student body two 
hundred men have be'en furnished for active ser 
vice. As many as fourteen were commissioned at 
the Officers' Training Camp, at Camp Dodge, Iowa. 
Twenty-four volunteered for service in the Signal 
Corps at Camp Sherman, Ohio. In the fall of 
known to be either preaching or teaching, while 
Government for the formation of a unit of the 
Student Army Training Corps, and a broad plan 
was launched whereby the total resources of the 
institution were made available for war uses. 

In the summer of 1918 President Hope, was 
summoned to France for special Y. M. C. A. work 
among Negro soldiers. 

The large idea of the alumni of the college is that 
of service. No less than three fifths of the living 
graduates of Morehouse College are definitely 
known to be either preaching or teaching, while 
at least another fifth are engaged in the work of 
the medical profession, the Y .M. C. A. or other 
lines of definite service. 



127 





ALEXANDER D. HAMILTON. 

R. Alexander D. Hamilton of At 
lanta, Georgia, is the father of a 
large family, the owner of a sub 
stantial business, and of consid 
erable property and has invest 
ments in many Negro enterprises 
in and around Atlanta. 

Mr. Hamilton was born in Eufaula, Alabama, in 
the year 1870. When but six years of age, his fa 
ther moved to Atlanta, Georgia, where he was im 
mediately enrolled as a pupil in the public school, 
thus beginning his preparation for life at an early 
age. His parents were not only concerned about 
his mental developement, but had regard for his 
spiritual training and saw that he was placed under 
the uplifting influence of the church. These two 
agencies, the church and the school, developed him 
rapidly. He completed his course in the public 
school when only thirteen years old and was re 
ceived into the membership of the church at the 
age of eleven. 

After passing through the public schools Mr. 

Hamilton entered the Atlanta University, where he 

remained until he had completed the preparatory 

course. 

Atlanta University has long been noted for its 



thorough course in manual training. It was at 
Atlanta University in this course that Mr. Ham 
ilton learned the further use of the carpenters' 
tools, for which he cultivated so great a liking. 

This disposition to the carpenter trade was 
instilled in him from childhood. His father pur 
sued this trade and had become a contractor of 
some note. The youthful Hamilton, quick to learn 
and of an observant tendency, soon learned the 
use of the tools, which greatly aided him in his 
studies in the industrial department of the Atlanta 
University. Now ready for his life work he en 
tered the employment of his father and applied 
himself energetically to his task. Fidelity to the 
interest of his fathers' business brought its reward 
and after five years of service he was admitted to 
the membership of the firm. From that date until 
the death of his father the name of the firm was 
A. Hamilton and Son. His father died in 1911, 
since which time the son has continued the business 
alone. His conduct of the business keeps it up to 
the high standard for which the firm is noted. 

As a young man, Mr. Hamilton worked hard to 
gain a footing. The fact that he was in the em 
ploy of his father seemed to spur him on rather 
than to make him take his ease. Struggling hard 
to make his place as a carpenter, he wished also to 
establish a certain financial competence. To this 
end he saved as regularly and as systematically as 
he worked. Thirty years of working and saving 
have brought encouraging returns. He owns a 
$7,000 home, has pieces of rent property valued at 
$5,500, carries $17,000 Life insurance, the payment 
of whose policies requires a pretty large income, 
and has some $3,000 invested in various Negro en 
terprises. 

He appraised money, however, not as a means 
of luxury, and show, but as a means of usefulness, 
an avenue to larger service. This too, has come 
to him. He is a member of the board of directors 
of the Standard Life Insurance Company, of Atlan 
ta, and secretary and treasurer of Georgia Real 
Estate and Loan Company. He is a member of the 
First Congregational Church, of St. James Mason 
ic Lodge, and of the Century Odd Fellows. He 
has been able to travel and to make friends in the 
East, in the West and in the South. 

With his savings and investments and with his 
other responsibilities. Mr. Hamilton has been rear 
ing a big family. He was married in 1892, to Miss 
Nellie M. Cooke, of Atlanta. Seven children grace 
the Hamilton home. The oldest, Alexander D. Jr., 
is 23 years of age, is associated with his father in 
the business of contracting and building. The sec 
ond oldest child. Miss Eunice Evlyn. is a teacher in 
the Atlanta Public Schools. T. Bertram, Henry 
Cooke, Marion Murphy, Nellie Marie, and Joseph 
Thomas, who is only seven are all students in the 
^chool. 



128 




THE HALE INFIRMARY, MONTGOMERY, ALA. 





HIS Institution was born in the 
mind of one of Montgomery's 
most respected colored citizens, 
the late James Hale, who for 
many years was one of the city's 
leading contractors. He was 
known for the high character of his work and his 
reliability as a man. As he drew near the sun-set 
of life his mind centered upon his people and upon 
his two children who had passed into the great 
beyond. 

The Hale Infirmary is the outcome of his med 
itations and is an expression of his deep interest 
in the welfare of his people and at the same time 
a memorial to his children. It was incorporated 
as the James Hale Infirmary Society, Montgom 
ery, Alabama, in 1889. 

The original plant cost about seven thousand, 
($7,000). It consisted of a two story frame struc 
ture with capacity to care for sixty patients. 

It is modern in its equipment, having sanitary 
plumbing throughout and with bath rooms for both 
male and females. It is supplied with hot and 
cold water, and has modern operating room with 
the necessary modern equipments. In addition to 
the main building there is a laundry, and small 
buildings for isolating patients who could not be 
admitted to the main building. The maintenance 



of the Institution is dependant upon a nominal 
charge for services and revenue derived from the 
nurses. It has no endowment. The nurses are 
trained in a three year course and during their 
training are frequently called upon to render ser 
vice outside of the infirmary and the revenue de 
rived from their services is a valuable asset to the 
Institution. The experience gained by the nurses 
in the operating room becomes invaluable to them 
in their course of training. The head nurse of the 
Infirmary is the superintendent of the training 
school and she has the assistance of two graduate 
nurses who teach them the theory of nursing with 
practical illustrations. Lectures are also given be 
fore the class by the large corps of physicians who 
daily visit the infirmary and contribute to its up 
build. Dr. David Henry Scott is the head of the 
Institution and is keenly alive to its interests and 
never tires in his efforts in its behalf. 

The control and government of the infirmary is 
vested in a Board of Trustees, composed of nine 
members. 

The Board of Trustees is as follows : 
Bishop J. W. Alstork, Chairman ; J. M. C. Logan, 
Geo. W. Doak, H. A. Loveless, Belton Murphree, 
Dr. D. H. C. Scott, V. H. Tulane, Jas. H. Fagain, 
and Jas. Alexander. 



129 





BISHOP LUCIUS H. HOLSEY. 

ISHOP L. H. Holsey was born 
near Columbus, Georgia, in 1845, 
and therefore saw more slavery 
than most men now living. He 
was even traded in. having had 
three masters before the Emanci 
pation Proclamation set him free. 

Educational facilities for the colored race at the 
date of his birth were very meager in the place 
where he was born, so he had but little opporun- 
ity to learn but he was a man to make the most 
of his opportunities and ride them to a successful 
career. 

When but seven years of age he was deprived 
of a mother's loving and tender care, which added 
to the struggle of his early days. 

Bishop Holsey is a man of strong initia 
tive ability and when emancipation gave him 
the opportunity to exercise his gift he immediately 
brought it into active play. 

Coming in a period when men of initiative were 
in crying need he helped meet the demands of the 
day and the wonderful manner in which he filled 
his place is shown in the many honors and distinc 
tions carried by him in his old age. 

He is the oldest ordained Bishop of his church, 



and one of the oldest men to be in active service 
of any kind. He is the first Negro to petition for 
a C. M. E. Church, and first to establish a church 
after the civil war. He was delegate to the first 
general conference of his church and first delegate 
to the Ecumenical church Conference and the first 
delegate to the conference of the Methodist Epis 
copal Church South. 

His initiative first manifesting itself in church 
work has by no means been confined to that branch 
of activities, but has been almost eclipsed by his 
labors for education. He is an ardent avocate of 
education and was quick to realize that next to re 
ligion education would be the great uplifting pow 
er to help elevate his people. 

He founded the Paine College, in Augusta, 
Georgia, took steps for the founding of Lane Col 
lege, in Jackson, Tenn. ; founded Holsey Industrial 
Institute at Cordell, Georgia ; Helen B. Cobb In 
stitute for girls at Barnesville, Georgia. He still 
is a trustee and patron of all of these institutions. 
He was agent of the Paine College for 25 years. 

With these honors from his labors and many oth 
er good judgment, he served as the Secretary for 
the College of Bishops for quarter of a century, 
and was for many years, General Corresponding 
Secretary for the connection. He has compiled 
for his church, a Hymnal and a Manual for disci 
pline. He once edited a church paper, the "Gospel 
Trumpet," and held the post as church Commis 
sioner of education. Surely if one were bedecked 
for uplift deeds of this sort Bishop Holsey would 
be literally covered. 

All through his youth and early manhood, Bishop 
Holsey felt the call for a larger service. Picking 
up knowledge when and where he could he secured 
his first church as pastor in 1868. on the Hancock 
Circuit in Georgia. Five years later at the close 
of a two years pastorate in Savannah, he was or 
dained Bishop of his church. This makes him push 
close to a half century of service as Bishop of his 
church. 

Bishop Holsey was married at Sunshine, near 
Sparta, Georgia., in 1862, to Miss Harriet Turner. 
Nine children have been born to the Holsey family ; 
of these, three are deceased among those deceas 
ed was Miss Ruth M. Holsey, whose talent as a 
musician was already becoming widely known. 
She had won distinction in this country and had 
studied two years in Paris. Of the children living; 
James Henry is a graduate of Howard University 
and a Dentist in Atlanta, Georgia.; Miss Katie M., 
a graduate of Paine College, lives with her father ; 
Miss Ella B. and Claud Lucia are living in Boston. 
The former is a matron, the latter married and re 
sides there. Sumner L., who is a printer, also 
lives in Boston. Rev. C. Wesley is a Presiding El 
der and Missionary in and around Atlanta. 



130 





MISS CLARA A. HOWARD. 

1SS Clara A. Howard was born 
in Greenville, Merriwether Coun 
ty, Georgia. It has been in 
Georgia that she has spent the 
greatest number of years in ser 
vice. She was one of the first 
students to enter Spelman Seminary, when it was 
founded in 1881. Miss Howard says of this fact 
that she feels almost as though she was one of the 
founders. From Spelman she was graduated in 
1887. After her graduation, Miss Howard taught 
in the public schools of Atlanta. But she did not 
feel that this was her place for life work. Always 
before her were the needs of the people of Africa : 
and so May 3, 1890, she sailed for Africa. For five 
years Miss Howard remained in Africa. She was 
stationed at Lukungu, Congo, South West Africa. 
Here she tried in her very effective manner to 
reach the people and to teach them how to live, as 
well as how to be Christians. At the same time, 
Miss Howard had to fight the African fever. Af 
ter five years of work she had to come back to 
America to rest. Her health was very slow in 
returning, and after a time she had to give up all 
hope of ever returning to Africa. 
In 1899, Miss Howard became a member of the 



faculty of Spelman Seminary. At first she served as 
assistant matron in the Student Boarding Depart 
ment, but in 1909 she became the only matron in 
that department. Of her work here, Miss Howard 
says, "As Matron in the Student Boarding Depart 
ment, I come to know every boarding student each 
year, and I assure you the field for usefulness is 
about as wide as the one in Africa." Any one 
hearing a group of Spelman girls discussing their 
teachers either before or after graduation will soon 
hear them come to Miss Howard. By her quiet, 
kindly treatment, she has won all of them and, in 
winning them as friends, she has helped each one 
to a higher plane of thinking and living. 

Of the work that Miss Howard is doing in Spel 
man, Miss Tapley, the president of the Institution 
says, "She is invaluable to us. She fills a large place 
and fills it as well as any person we ever had or can 
ever expect to have. Very few women could carry 
her work so well as she does. No matter what 
our difficulties, we can count on Miss Howard be 
ing brave, co-operative and helpful." 

Besides the oversight in a general way of all the 
girls and in particular in the Dining room. Miss 
Howard has had direct charge of a number of small 
children, who have entered Spelman. Among these 
was one little African girl, Flora Zeto, whom she 
brought with her from Africa. To Flora, Miss 
Howard was everything that a mother could be. 
No one talking with Flora after a few years under 
the direct influence of this good woman, would 
have imagined her origin. Her voice and manner 
took on the culture of her friend. Miss Howard 
has played the part of mother to a number of other 
small girls. During all the years she has been 
working in this Institution she has been able to 
keep up the habit of treating girls as individuals. 
She never thinks of them in mass. All over the 
South there are girls and women who remember 
the times when Miss Howard stood for them as a 
guardian angel. As a part of her work in the 
school, Miss Howard has monthly meeting with 
the girls in which various subjects of a very per 
sonal nature are discussed. Miss Howard handles 
these as only a few persons know how to handle 
delicate subjects. From her the girls will take any 
suggestions for their betterment. Surely her's 
has been a life of usefulness. Her five years in 
Africa, in Lukungu, alone, represents great good 
done, but back in her native country, her native 
state and her Alma Mata, she has done a work that 
few are permitted to accomplish in a lifetime. 

The influence of her useful and consecrated life 
will make itself felt throughout the land, as the 
girls go forth from this institution, and will re 
main to bless her people long after she has gone 
to her reward. 



131 



David Tobias Howard 




R. David Howard of Atlanta, Geor 
gia, is one of the pioneers among 
Negro undertakers. Born in 
Crawford County, Ga., in 1849, he 
saw much of slavery, of the Civil 
War and of the reconstruction pe 
riod. A lad of 15 years when the Civil War came, 
he was placed in charge of a train load of colored 
people, who were being shipped from Atlanta to 
Barnesville. Like most of the ex-slaves he found 
himself poor, uneducated, deserted when freedom 
was declared. 

His first steady job was that of a porter in a rail 
road office. Here in 1869, he began work for $5.00 
per month, boarding and lodging himself out of this 
sum. Here he worked for fourteen years. Dur 
ing this period, his salary, rather his wages, had 
risen from $5.00 to $45.00 per month. By this time 
he had managed to save a pretty snug sum of 
money and had made up his mind to venture into 
business for himself. 

He was led to his business venture through ob 
serving the business of a firm to whom he had 
loaned money from time to time. It was an un 
dertaking firm and he observed that they could 
afford to pay interest on money borrowed and 
make a good profit out of it. 

He had no knowledge of the business further 
than his visit to the establishment in collecting his 
interest, but he had the good sense to see the pos 
sibilities in it, so when he decided to enter a busi 
ness career for himself he had also decided the 
character of business he would pursue. In those 
days very few of the colored race, whether teach 
ers, preachers or even physicians had specialized 
very highly in their chosen occupations. 

Mr. Howard saw an opening for the business 
and an inviting field and he trusted to his own 
energy and business ability to win success. 

Like many a man who started out with bright 
hopes he soon learned that the path to success is 
not a rosy path but rather a rugged way. 

He invested his earnings in the Undertaking 
business after he had married and had begun to 
raise a family, hoping and expecting large profits, 
but the profits fell below his expectation and he 
realized that the business must be of slow and 
gradual growth. 

This made it necessary for him to supplement 
the business with some other line of work in or 
der to support his family while his business grew. 
He drove a hack which was really in line with the 
undertaking business so that he could give atten 
tion to both without neglecting either. 



Mr. Howard is not easily discouraged and is a 
man of great determination so the difficulties in 
his way did not deter him but rather acted as a 
spur to awaken his energy. He went forward and 
in the course of time won his fight and established 
the large undertaking establishment over which 
he now presides. 

He not only established a large business, but 
also a reputation as a business man who commands 
the respect of the citizens of Atlanta, Georgia, and 
of the entire state. 

Mr. Howard has not confined his business ope 
rations to the city. As his undertaking business 
developed and he made a surplus money for in 
vestment he turned his attention to the country 
and invested in farm lands and the raising of cat 
tle. He has several farms outside of Atlanta 
where he cultivated gardens, planted orchards and 
raised cattle. His country places serve to rest his 
mind from the exactions of his undertaking busi 
ness and the stress of city life. The country air 
and diversions of the farm no doubt account for 
his own fine health and that of his family and con 
tributes to the optimistic spirit which character 
izes him. 

Incidentally this ex-slave who started working 
for $5.00 a month nearly half a century ago is now 
worth $175,000. Most of this he has invested in 
real estate and farms, the way he thinks most col 
ored people should invest their money, especially in 
farm lands. Though he has amassed so large a sum 
Mr. Howard is by no means a stingy man. Indeed, 
he is quite the opposite, having an open purse for 
any uplift work of his city. A recent instance of 
this kind is his being the first among the few to 
subscribe $1000 for the Negro Y. M. C. A. building 
of Atlanta. 

Much of his income, too, he has spent in educat 
ing his children. Mr. Howard was married in 1870 
to Miss Ella Buanner of Summerville, Georgia. 
Nine children have been born into the Howard fam 
ily. These Mr. Howard has given the best educa 
tion available. Some have been graduated from 
Atlanta University, some from the Oberlin Conse- 
vatory of Music, some have attended Morehouse 
and other colleges. The children are Frank David, 
Willie Gladstone, Paul, Thomas Edward, Misses 
Eleanor B., Lottie Lee, Julia and Henry Gladstone. 
His son, Henry Gladstone is associated with his 
father in business. 

Mr. Howard is a member of the A. M. E. Church. 
He is also a member of fraternal organizations, be 
longing to the St. John's Masonic Lodge, to the 
Good Samaritan, to the Knights of Pythias, and to 
the Knights of Tabor. 



132 





GEORGE RUBIN HUTTO. 

LL who read the history of the 
steady advance that has been made 
by the colored Knights- of Py 
thias, of Georgia will know that 
back of the organization is a 
strong man. A man who is fear 
less in his endeavor to do the right 
things for his people, a man who 
has the courage, of his convictions, a man who is 
a born leader of men is the only sort of man who 
could get in behind an order and see it develop so 
steadily. The Colored Knights of Pythias of Geor 
gia are fortunate indeed to have at its head such 
a man in the person of George R. Hutto. 

Mr. Hutto was born n Barnelwell, South Caro 
lina in 1870. His training in the school room be 
gan at an early age and so at the age of twenty we 
find him graduating from Claflin University, 
Orangeburg, South Carolina. He was a member 
of the class of 1890. The following year he was 
married to Miss Addie E. Dillard. Miss Dillard 
was a graduate of Benedict College which is loca 
ted at Columbia, South Carolina. To the Hutto's, 
two children were born. One, Marcus Hutto, is 
a senior in the Meharry Medical school. The oth 
er is a daughter, Miss Callie Hutto. 

In church affiliation, Mr. Hutto is a Baptist. 
This is another point on which Mr. Hutto, early 
made his decision. In fact Mr. Hutto is a man 
of prompt action. He was early at school, early 
out of school, early married and early settled down 

133 



to the development of his life along the line he had 
chosen. In the year 1895 Mr. Hutto was elected 
Principal of the Public School, at Bainbridge, Geor 
gia. The same year he joined the Masonic order. 
Thus at an early age we find Mr. Hutto starting 
out in fraternal orders. In 1897 there was organi 
zed in Bainbridge, Georgia, a court of the Order 
of the Knights of Pythias, known as the Lucullus 
Lodge, No 45. Mr. Hutto joined the order at the 
organization of this new lodge. From the first, 
his great interest and ability as a leader, won for 
Mr. Hutto distinction in the ranks of Pythians. In 
1900 in the City of Valdosta, he was elected Grand 
Lecturer of the Knights of Pythias of Georgia. For 
four consecutive times he was re-elected to this 
position. In 1905 he was elected Vice-Chancellor 
of the organization for his State. At that time ser 
ving as Chancellor was Mr. C. D. Creswell. At the 
death of the Chancellor in 1910, Mr. Hutto filled out 
the unexpired term and at the next session, which 
was held in the city of Macon, he was elected to 
the position of Grand Chancellor. To this position 
he has been re-elected each year since. The figur 
es of the order show the marvelous growth of 
the organization, Mr. Hutto's influence in the de 
velopment of the body did not begin with his elec 
tion to the position of Grand Chancellor. It be 
gan rather witTi his admission as a member when 
the court was formed in Bainbridge. Through all 
the following years his influence for the develop 
ment of the Knights of the State of Georgia was 
secured. As a lecturer he served and served well. 
In this position he had ample opportunity to bring 
before the people the merits of the order and the 
benefits to be derived therefrom. His next step 
upward in this body was that position of Vice- 
Chancellor. Here he learned all the workings and 
rulings of the order and when the death of Mr. 
Creswell put upon Mr. Hutto the work of head 
man for the State of Georgia, he was ready. The 
order has developed steadily under his leadership. 
Of the State of Georgia has been said, "This is our 
Banner State." For the truth of this statement 
much of the credit is due Mr. Hutto. 

The first Court organized in this State was the 
Opal Court, No. 41, by Sir J. C. Ross, at Savannah, 
1889, with Sir J. C. Ross, W. C. 

The Grand Court was organized at Atlanta, Ga., 
July, 1892, by Rev Israel Derricks, Supreme Wor 
thy Counsellor, with the following Grand Officers : 
Mrs. W. L. Catledge (Hill,) G. W. C; Mrs. R. L. 
Barnes, G. W. Ix. ; Sir C. A. Catledge, G. R.. of 
Deeds ; Sir F. M. Cohen, G. R., of Deps. ; with Sir 
J. C. Ross and Dr. T. James Davis, P. G. W. C, 
Mrs. Catledge (Hill,) served one year, 1902-3, as 
G. W. C. Mrs. R. L. Barnes was elected 1893. and 
has served continuously until 1917. 

In 1900 there were 21 Courts, 450 members, with 
$92.75 Endowment on hand. 

1910, 218 Courts, 8,000 members, 94 deaths, $11,- 
318.60 collected for Endowment, $10,140.00 paid on 
claims, $20,353.73 balance on hand, 36 Juvenile 
Courts, 1150 members. 

1915, 350 Courts, 12,500 members, 268 deaths, 
$26,408.10 Endowment collected, $24,380.00 paid on 
claims, $29,450.80 balance on hand. Grand Court 
fund balance on hand, $2,250. Georgia is the 
Banner Grand Court of the order. 




REVEREND EDWIN POSEY JOHNSON, A. B. 





HE subject of this sketch was 
born Feb. 22, 1849, in Columbus, 
Georgia. His father, William 
Warren Johnson, was brought to 
Georgia from Maryland, where he 
received considerable education 
and was taught the Stage-build 
ing trade. His mother, Caroline 
Posey came from Virginia to Georgia, with her 
owners, in whose family her people had been rear 
ed for generations. Her master, Major Nelson, be 
lieved that colored people, as well as white should 
be taught to read so as to study the Bible for them 
selves. Hence his mother was a constant reader 
of the Bible and other good books. 

Freedom came to him when at the age of sixteen. 
The first opportunity for learning to read and 
write was in a little dirt-floor school house in an 
alley. Here with many others he tackled a Blue 
Back Spelling Book. The next year he hired him 
self to work on a farm and walked a mile and a 
half to a night school, taught by Mrs. Lucy E. Case 
and others. When Mrs. Case became matron at 
Atlanta University, she persuaded him to attend 
school there. In the fall of 1873, having saved up 
$150, he matriculated at Atlanta University. By 
working as an engineer at school and teaching 
during the summers, he was enabled to remain in 
school. In 1874 he was converted under the min 
istry of Rev. Geo. W. Walker, one of the instruc 



tors.. With an unfailing courage he continued his 
studies until he graduated in 1879, with the degree 
of A. B. On July of that year he was ordained as 
a minister of the Gospel by his pastor, Rev. Frank 
Quarles, and others in Friendship Baptist Church, 
Atlanta, Georgia. He served his denomination one 
year as a missionary, then taught six years in Haw- 
kinsville, during which time he built the two-story 
school house at the cost of $1,600.00. From his 
arduous labors at Hawkinsville, he has had the 
pleasure of seeing many of his pupils occupying 
places of usefulness. Leaving Hawkinsville, he 
served as principal of the Mitchell Street School, 
Atlanta, Georgia, for two terms. 

On December 26, 1882, he was married by Rev. 
Henry Way, to Miss E. S. Key. In 1888 he was 
called to the pastorate of Calvary Baptist Church, 
Madison, Georgia. During the eleven years of his 
stay there, he made many improvements on the 
church property and added to the church more than 
five hundred precious souls. While at Madison, 
he was elected by the board of Education as the 
first principal of the city school for colored people, 
which he organized and directed till a suitable man 
could be found. 

In 1899 he was elected as general manager of the 
New Era Institute Work, under the joint auspices 
of the Home Mission Society of New York, The 
Southern Baptist Convention and the General Mis 
sionary and Educational Convention of Georgia. 
This position, for three years took him to all parts 
of the state. 

For several years he was instructor at Phelps 
Hall Bible Training School, vTuskegee Institute, 
Alabama. Here he filled the position with satis 
faction to all concerned. 

In 1901 Rev. Johnson was called to pastor the 
Reed Street Baptist Church, Atlanta, Georgia. 
Here he has been, laboring for sixteen years, or 
ganizing, building, giving to the church the ripe 
fruits of all his experiences in the school room and 
country and town churches. As a result, the 
church is now organized into practical and useful 
committees and anxiliaries. Also a new stone 
church edifice, situated on the corner of Frasier 
and Crumley Streets, which when finished will cost 
$25,000, is now almost completed and more than 
400 members have been added. When the new 
building was begun, the pastor reduced his own 
salary $15 per month, thereby setting an example 
of economy. He sets a further example by living 
in his own home, keeping his credit up to such a 
high standard that he and the church of which he 
is pastor can secure money and commodities on 
his name. 

Rev. Johnson is treasurer of the Atlanta Baptist 
Minister's Union; Secretary of the Board of Trus 
tees of Spelman Seminary; Secretary of the Refor 
matory Board ; Treasurer of the General Mission 
ary Educational Board ; Treasurer of the State B. 
Y. P. U. Convention ; Chairman of the Reid Orphan 
Home, at Covington, Georgia; Member of the Exe 
cutive Board of the Madison Association ; Geor 
gia's Foreign representative of the National Bap 
tist Convention and Instructor in the Divinity De 
partment of Morehouse College. 




ROBERT EDWARD PHARROW. 




LT HOUGH there are a great num 
ber of Negro carpenters and 
builders tbere are comparatively 
few who might be termed con 
tractors, taking that term in its 
larger sense of erecting large 
buildings, dormitories, school houses, temples for 
the fraternities, hotels and office buildings. This 
is due in a large measure to the fact that such 
contracts call for a large outlay of money and very 
few Negroes have the capital to back up such con 
tracts nor the influence and ability to secure it. 
Another reason why so few Negroes undertake 
the erection of large buildings is that it requires 
a special training and equipment for such work. It 
involves confidence, bookkeeping, managing big 
squads of men, time-keeping, dealing in large 
freight orders, running engines and so marshalling 
it all that the structure will be reliable and satis 
factory and the profits ample. 

Mr. Pharrow is among the few Negro contrac 
tors who have risen to prominence in the con 
tracting business. He did not rise to this distinc 
tion at a bound, but reached it after years of pa 
tient toil and strict application to his work. 

He began his career as a brick mason, when a 



lad of only sixteen years of age, working under 
the old system of apprenticeship. He was quick 
to learn and made the best of the opportunity 
offered him while serving his apprenticeship and 
in seventeen years' time had not only learned the 
trade of Masonry, but all that one could learn of 
the intricacies of the business without being in it. 

At the age of thirty-three he began the con 
tracting business upon his own account. 

Mr. Pharrow exhibited the virtue of patience 
during his long apprenticeship and was so well 
fitted for his work when he started business on his 
own account that he rose rapidly in the confidence 
of the public and received a goodly share of its 
patronage. 

His reputation as a builder was not confined to 
his home town of Macon, Georgia, but he entered 
and won, in competing for contracts throughout 
the States of Georgia and Alabama. He erected 
the new Recitation Hall at Morehouse College, At 
lanta, and has built structures in most of the large 
cities of Alabama and Georgia. 

Mr. Pharrow figures close and does good work 
and consequently has made money out of his con 
tracts. 

Besides the capital invested in a well establish 
ed business he owns a good home and twelve addi 
tional houses which brings him in a monthly rental 
of pleasing amount. 

Mr. Pharrow has sought health and pleasure in 
travel, his travels having carried him over the 
greater part of United States, Canada and Cuba. 

Mr. Pharrow was born in Washington, Georgia, 
in 1868. As he went to work at his trade when 
very young the amount of his schooling was real 
ly very small. But he has always made haste slowly 
and has thereby atoned for much that he might 
possibly have gained from further schooling. 

He has, further, kept himself intellectually and 
socially fit by membership in the church and in 
many of the leading organizations of his State. 
Mr. Pharrow is a member of the A. M. E. Church 
of the Masons, of the Odd Fellows, of the Elks, 
of the Knights of Pythias. He is Past Grand 
Master of the Patriarchs, Past Chancellor of the 
Pythians and Senior Warden of the Masons, An 
cient Free and Accepted Masons. 

Mr. Pharrow bases much of his success upon the 
sympathy, advice and cooperation of his helpmates 
at home. He has been twice married. He was 
married to Miss Martha L. Harris, of Atlanta, in 
1892. She it was who stood by him so faithfully 
in his first ventures as a contractor. Mrs. Phar 
row died in 1911. The present Mrs. Pharrow was 
Miss R. V. Garly, of Savannah, Georgia. Mr. 
Pharrow has one child, Miss Estelle, who is a 
graduate of Atlanta University, and who teaches 
in the Atlanta public schools. 



135 





HENRY HUGH PROCTOR, A. B., D. D. 

NE of the best known Congrega 
tional ministers of the Colored 
Race is Dr. Henry Hugh Proctor 
born in Fayetteville, Tennessee, 
December 8, 1868, and it was a. 
very fortunate date, because he 
was among the first to enjoy the 
fruits of freedom. 

As a boy he attended the public school of his 
town. This school was not among the best, judg 
ed even by the standard of that time, but the 
young man applied himself most diligently and ac 
quired at least the habit of organized studying 
aside from some real knowledge. He worked hard 
here and when he had gotten all that he could from 
his town school, he entered Fisk University. Here, 
where the standard was high and the method of 
instruction good, the young student developed 
very rapidly, distinguishing himself both by con 
duct and scholarship. Before finishing his college 
course one ideal so took possession of him as to 
dominate his being service through the Christian 
Ministry. Thus when he graduated from the Col 
lege Department of Fisk, he went to New Eng 
land, the cradle of American culture, and entered 
Yale Divinity School in New Haven, Connecticut. 
Here he lived and worked, studying hard while he 
laid the foundation for his great life work. His 
scholarship rewarded his efforts and when he com 
pleted the prescribed course, his was truly a com- 



mencement a commencement of work in a field 
toward which he had so eagerly looked. 

His first regular charge was Pastor of the First 
Congregational Church at Atlanta, Georgia. Of 
this church Dr. Proctor is still the beloved pas 
tor. To the year of his taking charge of the work, 
1894, Dr. Proctor looks back as the beginning of 
his vital career. One would be justified in saying 
that the church was really established by Rev. 
Proctor. 

Here in Atlanta, for twenty-four years Dr. 
Proctor has labored, developing his church and of 
necessity growing himself. With wonderful fore 
sight as to the needs of our people not necessar 
ily the needs of the people of his congregation, but 
the needs of the Colored people of Atlanta Dr. 
Proctor developed his church, adding to it one line 
of work after another until today it is one of our 
foremost institutional churches. 

Aside from the regular church with its Services, 
Bible School, Y. P. S. C. E. and Prayer Meetings, 
there are the Employment Bureau, Free Public 
Library, consisting of 3000 volumes and the only 
Public Library accessible to Negroes in Atlanta ; a 
gymnasium open afternoons and evenings ; the 
Avery Congregational Home for Working Girls ; 
the Conally Water Fountain, whereby through a 
unique device ice water is furnished the passerby 
in summer; the Prison Mission, whose object is to 
help those held in prison through religious ser 
vices, literature distribution, and visits giving pas 
toral comfort : a Trouble Department whose ob 
ject is to render any service possible to those in 
trouble ; an Auditorium with a seating capacity of 
1000, provided with grand pipe organ, heated by 
steam, lighted by electricity and opened for any 
beneficial gathering for the community ; and the 
Georgia Music Association, which gives the city 
an opportunity to hear the best musical talent of 
the race. The Annual Musical Festival held by the 
colored people in the Auditorium Armory is due 
largely to the Musical Association. 

For all this Dr. Proctor is directly responsible. 
He has been able to obtain aid for his work from 
both the white and the colored people of Atlanta 
because they could see the benefit of the organiza 
tion. 

Though the Institution and his church demand a 
large share of his time. Dr. Proctor has still found 
time to serve in other ways. He is President of 
the Carrie Steel Orphanage in Atlanta ; Assistant 
Moderator of the National Council of the Congre 
gational Church ; Vice-President of the American 
Missionary Association of New York ; and Secre 
tary of the Congregational Workers among Col 
ored People. 

One year before he came to Atlanta, Rev. Proc 
tor married Miss Adeline Davis of Nashville, Ten 
nessee. Their home has been blessed by the com 
ing of six children, Henry Hugh, Jr., a graduate 
of Fisk University, and at present serving as a 
First Lieutenant in France : Richard Davis, deceas 
ed ; Muriel Morgan and Lillian Steele, students at 
Atlanta University; Roy and Vashti, public school 
children. 

Dr. Proctor is beloved by all. He is acknowl 
edged a Reformer and an Educator. He is doing 
much good in bringing about a better understand 
ing between the races. 



136 



Thomas Heath Slater, A. B., M. D. 




N the South there are at least two 
cities in which there is a splendid 
galaxy of educated, prosperous, 
refined Negroes. These are Nash 
ville, Tennessee, and Atlanta, 
Georgia, which could claim super 
iority is a grave question. Both have a Negro Col 
lege or University on nearly every hill in the city. 
Both are full of business men, professional men and 
tradesmen. Competition among the colored men in 
nearly all pursuits is close. Therefore, he who 
gains his place and holds it, does so largely by dint 
of excellence. 

In Atlanta one could count on all the fingers of 
his hands physicians with conspicious careers, 
with reputations and practices well established. 
Very prominent among these is Dr. Thomas H. 
Slater. Dr. Slater is a North Carolinian by birth, 
having been born in Salisbury, December 25, 1865. 
He attended the schools of Salisbury, his birth 
place, and then went to college at Lincoln Univer 
sity, Pennslyvania, where he received his Bachel 
or's Degree in 1887, and was graduated with first 
honors. He then entered Meharry Medical College 
in Nashville, Tennessee, completing his course early 
in 1890, here he also won first honors. 

In March of the same year, Dr. Slater went to 
Atlanta, Georgia and began the practice of his pro 
fession. Here in the same city in nearly the same 
spot, he has continued for this quarter of a century. 
Dr. Slater, (with Dr. H. R. Butler) was the real 
pioneer of the Negro Medical profession in Atlanta. 

Up to this period the Negroes were attended al 
most exclusively by the white physicians, in whom 
they had the utmost confidence, and it was not an 
easy matter to turn them to the colored physicians 
who were then beginning to establish themselves 
in the South. 

It was Dr. Slaters mission to win the confidence 
of his people and turn them to the physicians of 
their own race, and it was largely due to the fact 
that Dr. Slater's unusual ability and qualifications 
as a diagnostician and practitioneer were recognized 
by Dr. J. S. Todd, at that time Atlanta's leading 
practitioner of internal medicine, enabled him to so 
rapidly gain this confidence. Dr. Slater has always 
been grateful to Dr. J. S. Todd for his recommend 
ations and kind assistance in those early days. 

In the midst of sharp competition, the constant 
injection of new blood and the rapid advancement 
of the profession, he has held his place both in At 
lanta and in the state of Georgia as one of the 
leading and best equipped physicians. 

This has not been done through idleness or a sat 
isfied state of mind. He has studied continually, 

137 



both in theory and in practice. His eye is ever alert 
for the latest and best in medicine and in the equip 
ment of service. His office equipment is among 
the best and most modern in the city. It has every 
modern convenience and appliance, including an 
equipment for Chemical and Blood tests. There is 
possibly no physician who realized more forcibly 
the importance of hard, continuous study in keep- 
ng up with the latest and most successful methods 
of diagnosis and treatment of all internal diseases. 
He has viewed with keen interest the rapid yet pos 
itive changes in the therapy of his profession. 
From the excessive use of drugs in the general 
treatment of diseases he has watched and followed 
the successful advancement of the practice to spe 
cific treatment through the use of specific agents, 
vaccines, bacterins, phylacogens and organic ex 
tracts. His work as a physician early won for him 
distinction, both among the men of his profession 
and in other bodies. He is President of the Atlanta 
Meharry Alumni Association and has served among 
the doctors of the state as President and as Sec 
retary of the Georgia State Medical Association of 
Negro Physicians, Dentists and Pharmacists. 

Dr. Slater was reared and educated a Presbyter 
ian, and has always found time to faithfully dis 
charge has religious duties toward his church. He 
has learned that the opportunities for service 
comes to the Christian physician in a larger meas 
ure than from any other line of endeavor outside 
of the Christian ministry. He believes that a strong 
moral and religious character is the best asset that 
any physician can have, and at this period of racial 
development and progress he deems it absolutely 
essential. 

Dr. Slater is interested in the various orders of 
the Colored race, and takes an active part in them. 
He is a member of the Masonic Fraternity, the Odd 
Fellows and is a Knight of Pythias. He is a Mas 
ter of the Local Lodge of Masons. 

Dr. Slater has been twice married. His- first 
wife, Mrs. Marie A. Taylor, of Austin, Texas, and 
a graduate of Wilberforce University, he married 
in June, 1903, but lost her by death in February, 
1905. In July, 1907 he married Mrs. Celestine 
Bass Phillips, of Michigan, a graduate of Bay City 
High School. He had only one child, a son, Thomas 
Heathe, Jr., who was born February 21st, 1905, and 
died November 5th, 1906. 

Dr. Slater's home on Piedmont Avenue is among 
the colored residences that Atlantans point to for 
proofs of their prosperity and good taste. His 
home life is a source of pride, pleasure and comfort, 
and he attributes his success to domestic peace and 
happiness. 




PANORAMIC VIEW OF SPELMAN SEMINARY. 




PKLMAN Seminary, of Atlanta, 
Georgia, the largest school in the 
world for Negro girls, carries in 
the story of its growth many a 
thrilling romance the romance 
of faith, of prayer, of struggle, of 
successful rendering of service. For fifteen years 
Father Quarles, ex-slave and pastor of the Friend 
ship Baptist Church, laid the Spelman foundation 
in prayer, beseeching that God would send some 
means of elevatiing the Negro women of Georgia. 
In the fifteenth year while he tarried in supplica 
tion, the answer came. Two ladies, Miss Sophie 
Packard and Miss Harriet F. Giles, of Massachu 
setts, were the evangels. They came to seek out 
Faather Quarles and actually knocked on his study 
door while the good man still lingered in prayer. 
With the coming of the two ladies began the ro 
mance of struggle. Here were the workers, the 
pupils were legion ; but there was no school room. 
Combining faith and work as best he could. Father 
Quarles surrendered to the workers the basement 
of his church. This was the setting for the strug 
gle. To begin with the school was sneered at by 
white and black, being stigmatized as the "Out 
Hill." The basement was cold and damp, admit 
ting water when it would rain. There were no 
desks, no seats. The flooring was rotting away. 
A rickety, smoking flue, held up by wire ; darkness, 
approaching gloom ! the increase of enrollment 
causing them even to hold a class in the coal bin ; 
no salary, no definite assurance of support all this 
confronted two women far from home, on soil still 
hostile ; women who had taught in buildings com 
fortably heated and properly ventilated, who had 
drawn their salary regularly and lived amidst hap 
py relatives and cordial friends. However, prayer 



again entered the struggle. The school had for 
mally opened its doors, April 11, 1881. It had elev 
en pupils, some old and some young; some were 
single, some married. Among the older students 
was a grown woman, who day by day looked up 
the hill which was then occupied by the Barracks, 
and prayed that one day Spelman, (then Atlanta 
Baptist Female Seminary,) might occupy this spot. 
Each day they gathered, prayed, toiled in the base 
ment. The enrollment increased from eleven to 
eighty in three months and to one hundred seventy 
five by the end of the year. The next year. 1882, saw 
the prayers answered. The American Baptist 
Home Missionary Society bought a part of the 
Barracks, nine acres, which had on the grounds, 
five frame buildings. Here Spelman has remained 
expanding in territory, in number of buildings and 
in useful service to the people. 

Grappling every day with want of buildings, of 
equipment, of food, clothes and comforts for their 
students, the founders nevertheless began early to 
shape the courses of study to suit the need of the 
people among whom their students had to labor. 
To this end they started the Spelman Nurse Train 
ing Course in 1886, the Missionary Department in 

1891, the Teachers' Professional Department in 

1892, the College Department in 1897. In doing 
this Spelman was not only serving its graduates 
and those among whom they would work, but was 
serving as pioneer to a host of Negro schools in 
the South, which only in recent years have adop 
ted similar courses in their curriculums. Later, 
Spelman further expanded its courses. To Nurse 
Training, Teaching, Missionary Courses, have 
been added courses in music, in Domestic Science, 
in Laundering, Sewing, Dressmaking, Millinery, 
Basketry, Gardening, Printing. There are, too, 
courses in High School and College Departments, 
which comprehend the study of Latin and German. 
Higher Mathematics and the Sciences, looking to 
careers of thought and scholarship. 



138 




PANORAMIC VIEW OF SPELMAN SEMINARY. 



The school is under the direct control of a strong 
hoard of trustees and affiliated with the American 
Baptist Home Mission Society. It has had 
three presidents, its two founders, Miss Sophia 
Packard and Miss Harriet E. Giles, Miss Giles suc 
ceeding Miss Packard in 1891. The present en- 
cumbent is Miss Lucy Hale Tapley, who came all 
the way from the ranks of the teachers and who 
has grown with the school. Spelman has a faculty 
of fifty teachers. Each teacher receives her com 
mission direct from the Women's Baptist Home 
Mission Board. It registers an average attend 
ance of 750 students a year. In all the departments 
the school is thoroughly and intensely religions. 
Whatever courses a student may pursue, prayer 
and Bible study, required and volunteer, and the 
doctrine of service play a major part in shaping 
the lives of those who come within her walls. 

The usefulness of an institution is judged by the 
amount of good work done by the graduates and 
former students turned out. Judged from this 
point of view, Spelman ranks among the highest 
institutions in the country. Teaching has been and 
continues to be the leading occupation of Spelman 
graduates. They are found to be in nearly every 
State of the South in city graded schools, in in 
dustrial schools and in ungraded schools in rural 
districts, and a number have served on the faculty 
of their Alma Mater, Morehouse College, Selma 
University, and Similar schools. One tribute to 
the ability of these Spelman girls as teachers came 
from a former State School Commissioner of Geor 
gia. He said that if he had fifty teachers from 
Spelman's Normal department, he would revolu 
tionize teaching in Georgia. 

A large and important class of the graduates are 
bright examples of Christian wives and mothers. 
Of these many are helpful wives of ministers-; oth 
ers are assisting their husbands in their work as 
teachers; all are exerting a helpful influence on 
the lives of the next generation. Then there are 
graduates in a number of other callings there is 
an editor, bookkeepers, stenographers, several 
doctors. There are workers in Orphan Homes, 



kindergartens, charity work, Y. W. C. A. work, 
home and foreign mission work. All of these young 
women go out as representatives of the school that 
has done so much for them and they are proud to 
hold up her banner. 

Spelman graduates do not confine their teaching 
to books. They undertake to teach their pupils 
both old and young, how to live. One encouraging 
thing about the work of these young women is the 
fact that, as a rule, women and girls, living in com 
munities where Spelman students have labored, 
have a higher ideal of life, which manifests itself 
in the care and the training of the children. 

The grounds of Spelman are an expression of 
well-organized orderly life within. Th campus it 
self has a good effect on the pupils who attend the 
school. Going out from Spelman, each girl is op 
posed to dirt and trash. Each girl feels that she 
must make her surroundings attractive. Then 
there is about Spelman an air of having time to 
think, to feel, to commune with one's self and with 
ones God. The value of this time cannot be over 
estimated. 

Another feature of the life of the students at 
Spelman Seminary is the manner in which they 
are cared for while students there. The system 
is unique. The boarders are divided into groups of 
about fifty, and placed in the care not of a ma 
tron, not in the care of a preceptress, but in the 
care of a "Hall Mother." Each girl is at home with 
the "Hall Mother," and a "Hall Mother" feels 
just as responsible for the girls in her care as 
though they were really her own. Here in the pri 
vacy of their own halls the girls of any given 
group, have their prayers, their study hours, their 
little concerts and Christmas entertainments, etc. ; 
and then go out and enjoy the more public ones 
which take in the whole school. In this manner, 
the atmosphere of home is thrown around the girls 
and they have the feeling of being really loved 
and protected. 

Spelman Seminary is one of the best, if not the 
best, organized institution among our people. Its 
training is thorough. 



139 




GEORGE WASHINGTON HILL, PRESIDENT 
WALKER BAPTIST INSTITUTE. 





HE Walker Baptist Institute is lo 
cated in Augusta, Georgia, where 
it was moved eleven years after 
it was founded, from Waynes- 
boro, Ga. It was founded in the 
year 1881 by Father Nathan Wal 
ker. Since its removal it has grown in popularity 
and efficiency until it has become known as one 
of the most substantial secondary schools in the 
State of Georgia. 

It is owned and partly supported by a board of 
seventy-eight trustees selected by the Walker Bap 
tist Association. 

While the property of the Institute belongs to 
the Walker Baptist Association it has been foster 
ed by the Negro Baptists of the entire state of 
Georgia, and in a considerable measure of late 
years, by the General Education Board of New 
York. 

In recent years the general public has also con 
tributed to its support. In addition to this it has 
had many srong Baptists as sponsors. 

The founder, Nathan Walker, was followed by 
T. J. Hornsby who in turn was succeeded by the 
Reverand C. T. Walker. 



Under the care of C. T. Walker, popularly known 
as the "Black Spurgeon", Walker Baptist Institute 
has gained its widest publicity, expanded most, and 
done its best service. 

The Walker Baptist Institute is a secondary 
school with large elementary enrollment. It has 
three departments : Grammar School, a College 
Course, and a Department of Theology. 

The Grammar School covers a course of eight 
years. This department is under the direction of 
Professor G. W. Hill, who is the principle and who 
is assisted by Dr. James M. Mabritt, Dr. L. C. Wal 
ker, Mrs. Rubena Newson, Mrs. U. L. Golden, 
Misses Labara Kech, Naomi Wright, and Mrs.An- 
nie E. Wheelston. 

This organization under the management of 
Professor Hill, has done much for the young Bap 
tist pupils for whom it was especially organized. 

While it is a denominational school no student is 
kept from receiving its instruction because of his 
religious beliefs. 

After passing through this departmer.t the 
scholars are prepared for their college course and 
for the study of Theology. 

The aim of the school is to prepare its students 
for entrance into life where they must further ad 
vance through the school of experience. 

The foundation laid for them here will enable 
them to gain from the school of experience addi 
tional knowledge and strength to ensure a noble 
and useful life. 

The courses in the college and theological de 
partments cover Latin, Greek, Mathematics, The 
ology, Psychology, English, Pedagogy, Domestic 
Science, and where there are young lady students, 
music and studies relating to the Bible as well as 
the Bible itself. 

The Institution is now nearly forty years old. It 
has grown slowly but steadily, both in size and 
efficiency. It has rendered a large service to the 
students coming under its influence and to the de 
nomination which brought it into existence. 

Its property valuation is thirty-five thousand 
dollars and includes three large buildings, one of 
which is a four story brick building containing 
thirty-two rooms, used for a girl's dormitory, 
chapel and dining room. 

The Institution has never been satisfied with its 
attainment, though pleasing, but is continuously 
striving to advance. Its president has caught a 
vision of a great and influential school and he is 
bending his energies to translate his vision into an 
accomplished fact. The Institution has a bright 
outlook for an enlarged and more efficient service. 

In this effort he is ably assisted by the Baptists 
of the Walker Baptist Association, and especially 
by the Reverend C. T. Walker and the members of 
his congregation. 



140 





CHARLES T. WALKER, D. D., LL. D. 

R. Charles T. Walker is among the 
leading colored men of the world 
today. Few are better known. 
By common consent , he is the 
ablest Negro preacher in the 
world without regard to denomi 
nation. He is pastor of the Ta 
bernacle Baptist Institutional 
Church of Augusta, Georgia, where he has been 
laboring for nearly thirty-five years continuously, 
excepting two or three years when he was pastor 
of the Mount Olivet Baptist Church, in New York 
City. 

His church in Augusta is frequented on each Sun 
day morning during the winter or tourist season by 
scores and scores of the wealthiest and most in 
fluential American people, both men and women. 
John D. Rockfellow was for years among his re 
gular attendants. The same is true of former 
President, William Howard Taft, who declares that 
Dr. Walker is the most eloquent man he ever 
heard. The late Booker T. Washington said: "I 
do not know of any man, white or black, who is a 
more fascinating speaker either in private conver 
sation or on the public platform." 

Dr. Walker was born in the little town of Hep- 
zibah, Georgia, a few miles South of Augusta, in 
the county of Richmond, on February 5, 1858. His 
father was a deacon of the Baptist church and was 
also the coachman of the family that owned him. 
Dr. Walker comes of a race of preachers. One of his 



uncles was pastor of the little church which was 
organized in 1848, and of which Dr. Walker's father 
was a deacon. The freedom of this uncle Rev. 
Joseph T. Walker, was purchased by the slaves in 
order that he might devote his entire time to 
preaching the gospel. It is after this same uncle 
that the Walker Baptist Association is named. 
This association founded and maintains the Wal 
ker Baptist Institute at Augusta. 

The Johnson's the Hornsby's the Youngs, the 
Whitehead's and, of course, the Walker's are all 
related to the family of the older Walker's. 
These men are the foremost ministers, and have 
been for many years the leading ministers and 
pastors in Eastern Georgia. Quite recently the 
Walker Baptist Association, of which Dr. Walker 
has been the moderator for the past eighteen years, 
raised for educational purposes, $22,000 in cash 
the largest amount ever raised by any Baptist As 
sociation or State or national convenion in the his 
tory of the United States. 

Dr. Walker's work has not been confined to the 
]-astorate. He has been interested in the puMica- 
t.'.m of two weekly newspapers the "Augusta 
Sentinel," of which he was business manager for 
several years, and the "Georgia Baptist," founded 
at Augusta, by Dr. W. J. White, and at whose 
death Dr. C. T. Walker became editor-in-chief of 
the paper in which position he served for many 
successful years. His accounts of travel in the 
Holy Land, originally published in the Sentinel, 
were afterwards published in book form and receiv 
ed a very wide circulation. He was founder and 
for many years president of the Negro Fair Asso 
ciation, at Augusta. He founded the colored 
men's branch Y. M. C. A., on 53rd Street, in 
New York City, and also founded the colored Y. M. 
C. A., at Augusta. 

As an evangelist, Dr. Walker has no superior 
among the colored preachers and pastors of this 
country. He has been holding meetings in all 
parts of this country from Maine to California, 
for the past thirty years, and always with success. 
No colored preacher in this country draws larger 
crowds anywhere . 

He has also taken a prominent and active part 
in the business and political developement of his 
race. He is a director in the Penny Bank, Augus 
ta's only colored savings bank ; he is director in 
the Pilgrim Health and Life Insurance Company, 
the biggest corporation of any kind in the city of 
Augusta, owned and operated by colored people ; 
he is a member of the Augusta Realty Corpora 
tion a band of seven men owning and controlling 
some of the best city property ; and he has long 
been a member of the Republican State Central 
Committee and he has twice been elected by the. 
people of his district to represent them in Repub 
lican National Conventions. 

In all this work, and in all his many activities, 
Dr. Walker has not been an agitator. He has done 
more than any other colored citizen of his home 
town to bring about pleasant relations between the 
two races, and Booker T. Washington says that he 
did more than any man he knew to bring about 
peace and good will between the two sections of 
our country and the white and colored races. 

It is a benediction to have lived in the same age 
and in the same country with Dr. C. T. Walker. 



141 




JAMES RUFUS WEBB. 




OR some years the city of Macon, 
Georgia, has been making bids to 
have the state headquarters re 
moved from Atlanta to her soil. 
Macon's arguments have not al 
ways been convincing, but some 
how they have more than worried the thinkers and 
writers of Atlanta. If wide awake progress of the 
Negro means anything Macon certainly cannot be 
dismissed with a wave of the hand. Atlanta has 
her Odd Fellows building, but Macon has her Pyth 
ian Temple, not so pretentious, but very useful nev 
ertheless. Her Negroes have not the complicated 
interests, due to the multiplicity of big schools and 
strong religious denominations, that Atlanta has. 
Her black people move more in unison. 

Conspicuous among the big Negro business men 
who would aid in weighing down the scales for 
Macon, is James Rufus Webb, grocer, real estate 
dealer, farmer, barber shop proprietor, holder of 
big shares in and promoter of undertaking and 
broom manufacturing establishments. Indeed they 
look upon him in Macon, as a sort of Cotton Ave 
nue King. 

Mr. Webb was born in 1863, in Crawford county, 
Ga. He got his education in Bibb County, in the 

142 



city schools and in Ballard High School. Much of 
his way he earned, the other his father paid. Fin 
ishing his school career, Mr. Webb was none too 
certain just what he was to do to earn a livelihood 
and to make his place in the world. However he 
thought he saw an opening. 

The Negro business man was making his way, 
but feebly, with a rare exception, in Macon in those 
days. There was no Douglass Hotel on Broad 
Street, ITO Pythian building, little Negro real estate. 
However, in 1889 Mr. Webb courageously set forth 
as a grocer on Cotton Avenue. Prosperity came 
quicker and more abundantly than he had dared 
hope. His business flourished without a failure for 
thirteen years, when he thought he would change. 

Selling out the grocery business he took up that 
of dealing in Realty. He had some money and had 
learned some of the tricks of business and of invest 
ments. Situated in his office in the Pythian build 
ing where he could think and plan, he not only made 
profitable investments for himself but became a 
thinker, a planner, and a promoter for Negro bus 
iness in general. He saw that there was a big op 
portunity as well as a chance to render improved 
service in the business of undertaking. Hence two 
undertaking establishments were soon under way, 
backed by his name, influence and capital. The 
Central City Undertaking Company of Macon is his 
own business and he carries a controlling interest 
in the Webb and Hartley Undertaking establish 
ment. 

Just as he saw the chance for the Negro under 
taker to render bigger and better service, so he 
saw it in several other callings. He thought there 
was much room for the improved barber shop in his 
town, and he started the Union Barber shop. He 
thought there was a chance for the Negro to suc 
ceed as a broom maker and he established the O. R. 
Broom factory. 

Planning and working incessantly, working not 
only to succeed himself, but also to give the colored 
people employment, it is no wonder that Mr. Webb 
has prospered. He does not hoard money, rather he 
keeps money moving, investing it, making it in 
crease itself. He owns thirty houses, three stores, 
and a 165 acre farm in addition to his other busi 
ness interests. The farm which has its houses, 
barns and the like, he takes pride in looking after 
himself. 

Thus engrossed in business Mr. Webb has devot 
ed but little time to organizations of any other kind. 
He and his wife, Mrs. Clara B. Webb, are members 
of the A. M. E. Church. He is a Mason, a St. Lukes 
Knight of Pythias. He has been treasurer of the 
Macon Lodge of Masons and past Chancellor of the 
Knights of Pythias. 

All his business career, running over a quarter 
of a century, Mr. Webb has spent on Cotton Ave 
nue. Here are the scenes of most of his invest 
ments. Here are all the business establishments 
of the King of Cotton Avenue. Thus it is that 
through Webb, through Douglass and others, that 
if Macon were bidding for the capital on the basis 
of Negro business, she could not be dismissed with 
a mere gesture. 




MADAM MARTHA BROADUS ANDERSON B. M. 




HICHEVER city of America may 
claim to be the Negro money cen 
ter, social and intellectual center 
and the like, it is certain that Chi 
cago alone carries the palm as the 
center of Negro music. There are 

but a few of our best musicians 

before the public today, whatev 
er be their specialty, but have come by the way of 
Chicago. Their talent may have been discovered 
elsewhere, but the finish and the courage to 
mount stages of the country and sometimes of the 
entire globe, come from Chicago. Such among the 
many are the Williams', Singers, Kemper Harreld, 
Morehouse and Madame Martha Broadus An 
derson. Mrs. Anderson is among those whose talent 
was discovered and in goodly measure developed 
elsewhere. Born in Richmond, Virginia, she gained 
her early literary education in the public schools 
of Washington, D. C. It was in the public schools 
of the District of Columbia that she first discover 
ed her talent on the one hand, and learned the ele 
mentary technique on the other, under the tutelage 
of the late Professor John T. Layton. She soon be 
came the leading singer in all public school sing 
ing. 

At the age of fifteen she was chosen official cho 
rus director of the Second Baptist Lyceum, a ly- 
ceum which at that time was regarded as one of 
the best literary societies in the country. 

On finishing her studies in the public schools of 



Washington, Mrs. Anderson took the civil service 
examination and was appointed to a position in the 
Government Printing service, where she worked 
for many years. In the meantime, however; she 
did not wholly neglect her talent. She studied and 
practiced regularly, and appeared in public when 
ever time and opportunity permitted. 

In 1898 Mrs. Anderson was married to Mr. Henry 
S. Anderson and took up residence in Chicago. 
Here she made her home, launched out into musi 
cal studies and into the musical life of Chicago. To 
quote George L. Williams of the Williams Jubilee 
Singers "Madam Anderson is in the first division 
of the men and women of the race who are doing 
things musical. For ten years she has been active 
in the musical life of Chicago, having built up and 
directed a great choir at Quinn Chapel, A. M. E. 
Church, which, during the time of her direction, 
was acknowledged to be the best organization of 
its kind in the great city of Chicago. She is now a 
director of an excellent choir at Bethesda Baptist 
Church and maintains a beautiful and well appoint 
ed studio at 3518-22 South State Street, Chicago, 
to which a large number of students go to study 
vocal and instrumental music." 

She was graduated from the Chicago Musical 
College in 1908, with the degree of Bachelor of 
Music. This is one of the oldest colleges of music 
in the West, and Mrs. Anderson is one of the few 
colored people to have studied there and the only 
Negro to obtain a degree there. Her voice 
is described as lyric soprano, very flexible, 
tapable of wonderful range. ~ She numbers 
among teachers, in addition to those at the Chi 
cago Musical College, Herbert Miller, Pedro T. Tin- 
sley, both well known in the musical world, Her 
bert Miller says of her: 

"She has had a protracted course of study with 
me, covering a period of years and understands the 
principles which underly and govern the art of 
singing. I also know her to be an accomplished 
musician, her studies of composition, history, sight- 
reading and piano giving her education a breadth 
unusual among vocalists." 

Mrs. Anderson spends her time teaching pri 
vate pupils, directing chorusus and appearing in 
recitals. She appears before the public not only 
in lighter solo singing but in prolonged and heroic 
roles. For example, some of the best work on the 
stage, that by which audiences best remember her 
are the "Rose Maidens." "Esther the Beautiful 
Queen," and "The Messiah." In these she is a great 
favorite before the general public and before audi 
ences of college students. She has sung, among 
many institutions, at Howard and at Fisk. At Fisk, 
where music is in the foundation stones of the Uni 
versity and throbs in everybody's pulse, she won 
words like this from the Nashville Globe : 

"The entirely new feature on the program was 
the appearance of the soprano soloist, Mrs. Martha 
Broadus Anderson, of Chicago, Illinois. To say 
that she won a place in the hearts of her audience 
is to state it mildly. Her stage manners were sim 
ply perfect, and her perfection lay in her simplicity. 
To be received as she was by such a gathering as 
greeted her was an enviable compliment. She was 
to sing four solos, but the audience compelled her 
to sing seven, and clamored for more, but the 
length of the program forbade her singing longer." 



143 




GEORGE WASHINGTON ELLIS, 



George Washington Ellis, K. C, F. R. G. S., LL. D. 





HOSE who marvel at the versatil 
ity of Mr. George W. Ellis, of 
Chicago, will be even more amaz 
ed to know of the wide range of 
his education. Mr. Ellis was 
born in Platte County, at Wes 
ton, Missouri, May 4th, 1876. His parents were 
also Missourians, his father being of Lexington, 
Missouri. His mother was Miss Amanda Drace 
of Clinton, County, Missouri. Mr. Ellis began 
his education in his native city, of Weston, where 
he attended public schools. From Weston he en 
tered Atchison High School, Atchison, Kansas. 
Graduating from here, he spent the next two 
years in the Law Department of the University of 
Kansas. Then he began the practice of law to as 
sist in paying his way for four years in the College 
of Arts in the University of Kansas. Next he 
spent two years in the Gunton's Institute of Econ 
omics and Sociology, in New York. From New 
York he enrolled in the Department of Philosophy, 
and Psychology, in Howard University, Washing 
ton, D. C. He has a diploma from Gunton's Insti 
tute (of Economics and Sociology), a diploma from 
Gray's School of Stenography and Typewriting, 
and the degree of LL. B., from the University of 
Kansas. In 1918 Wilberforce conferred upon him 
the degree of LL. D., in appreciation of his exten 
sive work. 

Set "over against this long list of achievements 
in education are his many successes in life. Mr. 
Ellis began the practice of law in Lawrence, Kan 
sas, in 1893. In 1899 he passed the Census Board 
of Examiners, and was appointed a clerk in the In 
terior Department at Washington. Transferred 
in 1902, he was appointed by President Roosevelt 
and confirmed by the Senate as Secretary of the 
Legation to the Republic of Liberia. The next eight 
years, Mr. Ellis spent in Africa. He made no end of 
excursions into the hinterland, studying the lives 
and manners of the African people. Retiring in 1910 
Mr. Ellis began the practice of law in Chicago, un 
der the firm name of Ellis and Ward. This name 
was changed in 1912 to Ellis and Westbrooks, as 
it now stands. In addition to a large general prac 
tice, Mr. Ellis was elected in 1917 as assistant Cor 
poration Counsel, a position which he still holds. 
Throughout his career, Mr. Ellis has been a 
strong and active Republican. He has been much 
in demand as a campaign speaker and advisor. He 
is very active in all political movements in Chicago, 
taking a conspicious part in their direction and 
giving voice to their outcome in various magazines 
and newspapers. Active and useful as he is 



in National and city politics, Mr. Ellis will 
no doubt be the longest remembered, as he is pro 
bably best known by his writings. A mere list of 
his writings will illustrate how very prolific he has 
been with his pen and what service he has been 
able to render all black peoples through the press. 
His three books are "Negro Culture in West Af 
rica," "The Leopard's Claw," and "Negro Achieve 
ments in Social Progress." Among his contribu 
tions to various publications are "Education in 
Liberia," (National Bureau of Education ;) "Justice 
in the West African Jungle," (New York Indepen 
dent ;) "Liberia in the Political Psycology of West 
Africa," (African Journal ;) "The Mission of Dun- 
bar," (The Champion;) "Negro Morality in West 
Africa," (The Light ;) "Negro Morality in the Af 
rican Black Belt," (The Light;) "The Outlook of 
the Negro in Literature," (The Champion;) "The 
Chicago Negro in Law and Politics," (The Cham 
pion ;) "Dynamic Factors in the Liberian Situa 
tion ;" "Islam as a Factor in West African Culture ;" 

To enter into the merits of these publications is 
far beyond the limits of space alloted here. Suffice 
it to say that most of the leading daily papers of 
the country along with many of the best magazines 
have given most wholesome praise to both his 
books and articles. Fully as substantial, if not 
more so, is the endorsement given him by many 
of the leading intellectual societies of the world. 
In recognition of his contributions in ethnoligical 
studies, Mr. Ellis upon the recommendation of Sir 
Harry Johnston, and Dr. J. Scott Keltic, has been 
elected Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society 
of Great Britian. Upon the merits of the same 
writings he has been made a member of the Af 
rican Society, London, of the American Sociologi 
cal Society, of the American Political Association, 
of the American Society of International Law. He 
has been decorated a Knight Commander of the 
Order of African Redemption, and has been chosen 
an honorary member of the Luther Burbank So 
ciety. 

Mr.Ellis was married to Miss Clavender Sher 
man, in 1906. Mrs. Ellis died in 1916. 

He is as has been indicated a strong Re 
publican, a Methodist in his religious belief, 
and was last delegate to the General Con 
ference, 1912-1916. He was given a place in Who's 
Who in America, in 1912, and in The Book of Chi- 
cagoans, in 1917. He has just been selected for a 
place in the National Encyclopedia, of American 
Biography, volume XVIII, now in the press. 

July 1, 1918, at the Coliseum, in a convention of 
15,000 people, Mr. Ellis was nominated for judge of 
the Municipal Court, of Chicago, for the Repub 
lican primaries, September 11, 1918, 



145 





RICHARD EDWARD MOORE. 

EBRUARY 7, 1850, Richard Ed 
ward Moore was born in Browns 
ville, Pennsylvania He moved 
with his parents to Chicago in 
1858 

In 1871 when he was thirty-one 
years old ,he joined Bethel A. M. 
E. Church, where he has labored 
for the past forty-six years, filling almost every 
position a layman can fill in a church. 

He is Superintendent of the Sunday School 
which is now a splendid working force. Having 
all the advanced ideas of Sunday School work, 
taught. At the present time the membership is 
740 pupils. 

In 1868, at the age of eighteen, Mr. Moore organ 
ized a military company of boys, ranging from 
fourteen to twenty years. They were called the 
"Hannibal Zouaves," fashioned in dress after the 
famous French Zouaves, of France. The com 
pany adopted the lightning quick Zouave tactcis 
and soon became the pride of Chicago, and when 
ever they appeared in public parades, they were 
given rousing applause by the citizens, white and 
colored, who saw them. 

And a few years later this company entered the 
State Militia of Illinois and was enrolled in com 
pany "A," 16th Battalion, Illinois State Guards 
under Governor Tanner. Mr. Moore received the 
first Captain's commission ever issued to a colored 
man in the State of Illinois. It was the military 
spirit of Captain Moore and good service rendered 
by the "Hannibal Guards," in the railroad riots and 
the 16th Battalion in the services of the State, that 
paved the way for the admission into the State of 
the now famous 8th. regiment, Illinois Infantry, 
now doing service in the regular army of the Un 
ited States, This company is now in France, 
known as the 370 Regt., U. S. Infantry, and which 



is the only regiment of Colored men in military 
service in the world that is commanded by Negro 
officers from corporal to colonel. 

When a boy sixteen years of age, Mr. Moore's 
mother had Richard to join, with his mother, the 
Good Samaritans. With the coming years he 
became a member of the Odd Fellows, Masons, 
Knights of Pythias, True Reformers, and several 
Social and Business organizations. Finding it im 
possible to render his full duty to all of these fra 
ternal organizations, he confined his efforts to the 
Masonic Order. From October 1878, to October, 
1913, he served as R. W. Grand Secretary of the 
Most Worshipful Grand Lodge of the State of Ill 
inois, for 35 years. During the same time for 5 years 
he filled with credit to himself and the Masonic 
Order, the offices of Secretary of the Grand 
Chapter of the Royal Arch Masons, Grand Recor 
der of the Grand Commandery Knights Templar, 
and later on, the Supreme Council Scottish Rite 
Masons 33, of the Northwestern jurisdiction ; and 
Imperial Recorder of the Imperial Council of No 
bles of the Mystic Shrine of the United States. 

In 1890 he organized the Grand Chapter of the 
Eastern Star, and served as Grand Patron for four 
years. In 1892, he began a three year's term in the 
office of Grand Joshua Heroines of Jericho. In 
1913, he organized the Arabic Court, Daughters of 
Isis, auxiliary to the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine. 
In 1916 he organized the Chicago Assembly Loyal 
Ladies of the Golden Circle, auxiliary to the Su 
preme Council Scottish Rite Masons. At the 
present time he is serving in the office of Lieut 
enant Commander of the Supreme Council Scottish 
Rite, of the Northern jurisdiction and Chief Rab- 
ban of the Imperial Council A. E. A. O. Nobles of 
the Mystic Shrine of the United States and Can 
ada. 

On April 1, 1871, Mr. Moore was employed as 
porter in the office of the American Express Com 
pany. He gradually worked his way up to pri 
vate messenger to Mr. Charles Fargo, Vice-Presi- 
dent and General Manager of the Company. He 
remained in this position until the death of Mr. 
Fargo, in 1902. He was then transferred as filing 
clerk to the new Foreign Department of the com 
pany, and had charge of more than fifty thousand 
files which covered the transactions of that very 
important branch of the company's business from 
the date of its introduction, 1900 to April 30, 1913. 

The world's war caused a general reduc 
tion in the employee's rank of all express compan 
ies and the company generously placed Mr. Moore 
on the Pension Roll, after having served for forty- 
six years and six months without ever losing a 
day's pay or causing a demerit to be placed against 
his record. 

At the present time Mr. Moore is actively engag 
ed in Y. M. C. A., Church, Sunday School, and So 
cial uplift work . 

On December 5, 1874, Mr. Moore was united in 
marriage to Miss Rosa E. Hawkins, who was a 
charming young Chicago belle, of that period. They 
lived happily together until the time of her death, 
April 15, 1912. Mr. Moore is now pleasantly loca 
ted with his daughters, Mrs. Alberta Moore-Smith, 
and Mrs. Etta M. Shoecraft, and their husbands, 
and his son, Richard Moore, Jr., all forming one 
happy household group. 



146 



High Degree Masonry in Illinois 





HE three high branches of the 
Masonic Order of the State of 
Illinois, are the M. E. Grand 
Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, 
the Occidental Consistory, A. A. 
Scottish Rite Masons, Valley of 
Chicago, and Arabic Temple No. 
44, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, 
of Chicago. 

The Grand Chapter of the Royal Arch Masons 
was organized in the city of Chicago, October 9, 
1879, with four chapters, Saint Mark's, Chicago; 
Saint John's, Springfield; Eureka, Chicago, and 
Mount Moriah, Cairo. These chapters were chart 
ed by the most excellent Grand Chapter Royal 
Arch Masons, of the State of Pennsylvania, which 
was organized about twenty-two years, prior to 
the organization of the Grand Chapter of Illinois, 
by Royal Masons, who were regularly made Mas 
ons in lodges established by Prince Hall, Grand 
Lodge F. and A. M., and successors, in the State of 
Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, the members of 
which afterwards received the Royal Arch degrees 
in regular constituted chapters in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, and Boston, Massachusetts, said 
chapters organized the Grand Chapter of Pennsyl 
vania. The four chapters, composing the Grand 
Chapter of Illinois, at the time of organization, 
numbered only one hundred and sixty companions 
Royal Arch Masons. At this time there were 
thirty subordinate lodges of Master Masons with 
a membership of eight hundred and thirty. The 
higher one goes into the higher degrees of the 
Masonic fraternity, the number of eligibles to draw 
from in order to increase the membership de 
creases ; this accounts for the small membership 
composing the four Chapters which formed the 
Grand Chapter. 

Joseph Washington Moore, was elected the first 
M. E. Grand High Priest. He was a Mason of ex 
ceptional executive ability and integrity. 

Companion, William D. Berry, was elected the 
first M. E. Grand Secretary. At the present 
time, there are fifty-four subordinate Chapters 
in the State, with the membership of 2370. The 
present M. E. Grand High Priest Companion, Al 
bert R. Lee, of Champaign, a man of extraor 
dinary ability, is the youngest Companion who has 
occupied the exalted position of Grand High Priest. 
Occidental Consistory, No. 28, Valley of Chica 
go, was organized in the year 1889, by the conso 
lidation of Prince Hall Consistory, holding a chap 
ter issued by the Supreme Council of Illustrious 
Inspectors Generals of the thirty-third and last 
degree of the Southern jurisdiction ; whose Grand 
East is at the city of Washington, D. C.. Illus 
trious Thornton A. Jackson, is Sov-Grand Corn- 
mender, and Excelsior Consistory, holding a char 
ter issued by the Supreme Council of Illustrious 
Inspectors General of the thirty-third and last de 
gree of the United States, whose Grand East is at 
the City of New York, N. Y., Illustrious Brother, 
Peter W. Ray, Sov-Grand Commander. The illus 
trious brethren of the thirty-third degree of the 
two Consistories were consolidated under the name 

147 



of Occidental Consistory, which was granted a 
patent issued by the Supreme Council of Inspec 
tors Generals of the Northern jurisdiction in the 
year of 1913. Their Grand East is at the city of 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Illustrious Brother J. 
Francis Rickards is Sov-Grand Commander. The 
two Consistories held concurrent jurisdiction in the 
Valley of Chicago, for a period of eighteen years, 
before a consolidation was effected, owing to the 
long dispute, as to the legality of the five existing 
Supreme Councils, which was finally settled by re 
cognizing one for the Southern jurisdiction and 
one for the Northern jurisdiction, which by the 
two Supreme Councils was consummated d'uring 
the administration of Illustrious Brother James E. 
Bish, Commander-in-Chief of Occidental Consis 
tory. 

Occidental is the largest consistory among Col 
ored men in the United States, having a member 
ship of three hundred and five Sublime Princes. 
The present commander of Occidental Consitory, 
Illustrious Brother, Charles T. Scott, is consider 
ed to be one of the best ritualists and thorough 
Masonic workers in the Northern Jurisdiction, and 
to him, is due the credit of having brought the 
Consistory up to its present high standard among 
Scottish Rite Masons in America.. 

Arabic Temple, No. 44, of the Oasis of Chicago, 
Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, was organized in 
the month of June, 1893, by Noble Milton F. Fields, 
a duly accredited representative of the Imperial 
Council Nobles of the Mystic Shriners of the Unit 
ed States of North America. There existed at the 
time of organization, another Imperial Council, 
called "The Ancient Arabic Order Nobles of the 
Mystic Shrine of the United States and Canada." 
The right to the supreme control of work of the 
Order was a serious contention between the two 
Imperial Councils for twenty years, but was finally 
settled by all the Temples of the two factions in 
1913, by agreeing to amalgamate. In order to pre 
vent future trouble and to obtain incorporation 
papers, the title of the order was changed to be 
known in the future as the "Ancient Egyptian Ara 
bic Order of Nobles of the Mystic Shrine." 

When Arabic Temple was organized in 1913, No 
ble Henry Graham was elected the first illustrious 
potentate and Noble R. E. Moore, the first illus 
trious Recorder, with an enrollment membership 
of twenty-six Nobles. By careful management, by 
these two officers, with the undivided support of 
the charter members, the Temple was built upon 
a strong foundation and succeeded in increasing 
the membership until 1913. when the Temple took 
out a charter under the amalgamated Imperial 
Council, Noble Robert I. Hodge being the Illus 
trious Protentate, and Noble Richard E. Moore, 
Illustrious Recorder. The present Illustrious Po 
tentate Noble Marcellus F. Coley has no equal in 
the country as a live, wide-awake, soul-stirring, 
potenate, always presenting something new for the 
edification of the members. The Temple now has 
a membership of 345, which makes it the largest 
temple of Colored Shriners in the United States. 




WILLIAMS FAMOUS SINGERS, 



Williams Famous Singers 




HICAGO is their post office ad 
dress : the world is their home. 
From Canada to Mexico, from 
Maine to California, from London 
to Berlin, they journey with all 
the ease of the cosmopolite. The 
impassable snow banks of Montana, the washouts 
in Florida, the heatless theatres in Alabama, none 
of these can suppress the rich melody, the good 
cheer, the masterly rendition of these singers 
gathered and blended from many parts of America. 
For fifteen years this troup of William Colored 
Singers has had an unparalleled vogue before the 
international public. It had its origin back in 1904, 
being organized by Mr. Charles P. Willams, from 
whom the company takes its name. The personnel 
of the troup has been practically the same from the 
beginning; no wonder they can blend their voices 
with equal fascination in "Who Built de Ark?" and 
in the sextet by Lucia 

These are no picked-up 'harmonizers," but edu 
cated, refined people, to begin with ; and intense 
students of music besides. Mr. Charles P. Wil 
liams, the organizer, was formerly a student in 
Rust University, Holly Springs, Mississippi. His 
father, D. A. Williams, Presiding Elder of the Me 
thodist Episcopal Church, of Mississippi, was one 
of the leading men of his race, but died when 
Charles was eighteen years of age. When his fa 
ther died Charles was left with the care of a mo 
ther and five sisters. Prior to this time he had 
been a student of Rust University, and had known 
no responsibility greater than that of study and 
college athletics. However, he went to Chicago, 
and working in various capacities managed to take 
care of the family and home. He was not con 
tented with the nature of his occupation, and final 
ly secured a position with a traveling Male Quar 
tette, which in time was abandoned by its leader 
and which was ultimately taken over by Mr. Wil 
liams. With the remaining members of that quar 
tette, he, with the assistance of Dr. Frank L. Love- 
land, of the M. E. Church, of Iowa, organized 
the Dixie Singers. In the Spring of 1904, Mr. and 
Mrs. Williams, and J. H. Johnson resigned from 
the last named company to organize what is at 
present the famous "Williams' Singers." 

Mr. J. H. Johnson, who is Mr. Williams business 
partner and Musical Director of the company, was 
born in Coal Creek, Tennessee. He and his bro 
ther, G. L. Johnson, the first tenor singer of the 
company, are sons of a Methodist minister, but 
they were in early life sent to Knoxville College, 
a United Presbyterian School, Knoxville, Tennes 
see, where they each received their literary and 

149 



musical education. Each of them afterwards trav 
eled with the Knoxville College Glee Club, until J. 
H. Johnson located in Chicago, and G. L. Johnson 
accepted a call to one of the mission schools of the 
United Presbyterian Church. Mr. Williams was 
attracted to J. H. Johnson when he was directing 
a choir in one of the large Chicago churches and 
induced him to fill a vacancy with the Dixies, and 
to ultimately join Mr. Williams in organizing the 
present "Williams' Singers," G. L. Johnson was 
then called to this new company. Mr. J. S. Crabbe, 
the basso, was formerly manager for the Mutual 
Lyceum Bureau. Mrs. Chas. P. Williams was for 
merly Miss Clara Kindle of Oberlin College and of 
the Maggie Porter-Cole Fisk Singers. The prima 
donna, Mrs. Virginia Greene, studied under Profes 
sors Perkins and Tinsley of Chicago. Mrs. Hattie 
Franklin Johnson was trained at Fisk University, at 
Walden and in Chicago under Professor Tinsley. 
Mrs. Marie Peeke Johnson was born in Madison, 
Wis., and reared in the city of Chicago. She was 
sent at early age to Fisk University at Nashville, 
Tennessee, where she had eight years in literary 
branches combined with piano and vocal music un 
der Miss Grass and Miss Robinson, respectively. 
Later Mrs. Johnson studied under Mr. Kurt Don- 
ath and Mr. A. Ray Carpenter, Chicago, and in the 
meantime filled professional engagements with 
Fisk Jubilee Singers. 

Miss Inez L. McAllister was born at Pueblo, 
Colo., and is a graduate from the High School of 
that city, is a contralto singer and is Mr. Williams' 
private secretary. She substitutes for Mrs. Wil 
liams as contralto singer of the company. 

To years of constant devotion to their life's work 
in the United States and Canada, they have added 
a year of travel and study in England, Scotland, 
Wales. Holland, Belgium, Germany and France. 
They were eighteen weeks in London, where they 
gave 130 performances, singing in many of its best 
known theatres, among which was the World-fam 
ous Coliseum. While in London the entire company 
was under the instruction of one of the world's 
greatest vocal teachers Miss Ira Aldridge, who is 
a scholar of the London Royal Conservatory of 
Music, and whose early teacher was the famous 
Jennie Lind. This experience added to natural tal 
ent and former years of faithful application en 
hances the ability of each individual singer, and has 
produced in their case a remarkable musical com 
bination. 

The V.orld war has brought changes among these 
singers, as it has among all kinds of groups the 
world over. But their popularity is unchanged; 
their enthusiasm is unabated, their talent seems to 
grow richer and richer as the days pass by. 





A. WILBERFORCE WILLIAMS, M. D. 

ANUARY, 1864, Dr. A. Wilber- 
force was born to Baptice and 
Flora Williams. For thirteen 
years young Williams lived on the 
plantation, toiling happily with 
out the knowledge of his A. B. 
C's. Then, in 1876, he came to 
Springfield, Missouri, and for the 
first time had a chance to attend school. In 1881, 
he obtained a license to teach common school in 
Mount Vernon County, Mo. 

He alternated teaching and studying until he 
was graduated from the Normal Department at 
Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City, Mo. He then 
taught in the summer school, Kansas City, Mo., 
and at the same time continued to study. He pur 
sued private studies, took a course at the Y. M. C. 
A., attended evening school and the Summer Nor 
mal. 

Young Williams had some difficulty in choosing 
his Mir work. He was a most excellent teacher, 
but he felt that he would not like to make it his 
life work. He was advised to become a minister. 
The } oung man decided that he was not fitted for 
such, a calling. Then for a time he felt that his 
future happiness depended upon his becoming a 
lawyer and a member of the bar. There had been 
a cyclone and young Williams had watched the 
skill of Dr. Taft, an ex-army surgeon care for 
the wounded. He admired that skill as a boy. and 
he could not forget it as a young man. And so in 



the choice of his profession, Dr. Williams, one of 
our foremost surgeons, went back to his childhood 
for the inspiration that made him choose the pro 
fession for which he was best fitted. And having 
definitely decided on his profession, Dr. A. Wilber- 
force Williams set his heart on becoming one of 
the best, with the ability to saw bones and bind 
up wounds as he had seen Dr. Taft do. 

Thus it was that in 1890, he left Kansas City, 
Mo., and went to New York to attend Bellevue 
College but, they refused him admittance and he 
returned to his school room for another year. 
When next he started out to get admittance in a 
medical school, he applied for the place before 
leaving his home. And so, we find him a student 
of medicine in Northwestern University, Chicago, 
111., where he received the same credit as that of 
any other student. He was graduated in 1894, and 
then served for two years as resident physician in 
Provident Hospital in Chicago. 

Dr. A. Wilberforce Williams is Professor of In 
ternal Medicine; head of the Medical Department 
of the Post Graduate School of Provident Hos 
pital ; Secretary of the Medical Staff and Attend 
ing Physician of Provident Hospital and lecturer 
on Hygiene, Sanitation and Medicine in its Train 
ing School for Nurses. Attending Physician for 
six years at the South Side Municipal Tuberculo 
sis Dispensary .Supervisor of the Municipal Tu 
berculosis Sanitation Survey; he is an authority on 
all forms of tuberculous diseases, a well recogniz 
ed Heart and Lung Specialist and Health Editor of 
the Chicago Defender. He is an active member of 
the A. M. A., Illinois State and Chicago Medical 
Societies, Mississippi Valley Tuberculosis Confer 
ence, Robert Koch Society for the Prevention and 
Study of Tuberculosis, the National Society for the 
Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis and a mem 
ber of the Executive Board of the National Med 
ical Association and also a member of a committee 
of that Association, to wait on Secretary Baker 
for the purpose of having colored professional men 
(physicians and dentists) commissioned in the U. 
S. Army or to give them deferred classification and 
not be forced to enlist as privates on account of 
racial relations. He is President of the Physicians, 
Dentists and Pharmacists Association of Chicago. 

The U .S. Government selected him to act as a 
member of the Advisory Board in the supervision 
of the work of Local Exemption Boards in the ex 
aminations of registrants. He was Chairman of the 
Second Ward Committee of the Fourth Liberty 
Loan, Chairman of the Committee of Physicians 
of the Red Cross Home Service Medical Section in 
the medical care of dependents of relatives now 
fighting at the front ; and aside from these purely 
medical organizations, he is a member of the 
Knights of Pythias, Odd Fellows, Y. M. C. A., 
Court General Robt. Elliott, A .O. F., Urban 
League and Social Service Club. 

In connection with his profession he has traveled 
extensively over the United States, Mexico and 
Canada. 

He was married June 1902, to Miss Marry Eliza 
beth Tibbs, of Danville, Ky., who enjoys with him 
the comforts of their attractive modern home. 

Forty years ago he stood before his cabin door 
an unlettered boy of thirteen. Now he has found 
his place in life and fills it with credit and honor. 



150 




ed States Army and served until the close of the 



war. 




WILLIAM H. ANDERSON, D. D. 

ORN in Vigo County, Indiana, May 
8th, 1843, the Reverend Wil 
liam H. Anderson has seen innum 
erable changes in the history of 
the country, has been party to 
many of them, and has enjoyed 
with delight approaching ecstasy the strides for 
ward by his own people. 

From his youth until the outbreak of the Civil 
War, his life was much like that of the ordinary boy 
of the northwest. The school being four miles 
from his home, he got his first teaching from an 
older sister. As soon as he was large enough to 
walk the distance to school in Vigo County, he be 
gan to attend the public schools. As a pupil he be 
came very brilliant, usually standing at the head 
of his class. 

He was just coming into young manhood when 
the Civil War broke forth. His first appearance as 
a speaker before the public was due to conditions 
surrounding the enlistment of Negroes. As is com 
mon knowledge now Massachusetts was forming 
two Negro regiments, the Fifty Fourth and the 
Fifty Fifth. The recruiting officers were seek 
ing to draft the Negroes of Indiana into the Massa 
chusetts regiments. This Mr. Anderson opposed, 
taking the position that the Indiana Negroes should 
be enlisted for Indiana and not for another state. 

That he was sincere in his protest and not seek 
ing to evade, was made clear by later action. When 
the time came for the Indiana Negro to take up 
arms and bear his share of the burden of war, all 
four of the Anderson sons, he and three others, 
shouldered arms and went to the front in the Unit- 



The war over, he began immediately on his life 
as a public servant, and later as a minister. In 1865 
he was sent by his regiment as a delegate to the 
Negro Convention, which met in Nashville in Au 
gust, 1865. In 1870 he began his pastorate. His 
first pastorial work was in Rockville, Indiana, 
which church he served one year. From Rock 
ville he went to Terre Haute, Indiana, where he 
was pastor of the Baptist church there for ten 
years. From Terre Haute he went to the Mc- 
Farland Chapel, in Evansville, Indiana, where for 
thirty-five years he has served this church with 
untiring zeal and fidelity. This long pastorate 
places Dr. Anderson at the head of the Indiana Col 
ored pastors in point of continuous service to one 
church, and but very few if any can claim a like 
distinction in the United States. Another mark of 
distinction in his long life of service as a pastor, 
(forty seven years) is that he has only served three 
churches the one at Rockville, one at Terre 
Haute and the McFarland Chapel at Evansville. 
The fact of a preacher serving a church as pastor 
for thirty five years is itself evidence of wise lead 
ership but to cover this period with only two un 
pleasant meetings of the church, is a remarkable 
showing. Such has been the record of Dr. Ander 
son. 

Dr. Anderson has not been an extensive traveler, 
but his mind has visited almost the entire globe. He 
spends much of his time in his library where he has 
access to books of travel and history. He can con 
verse intelligently with those who have visited this 
and other countries. 

He has held many posts of honor in the In 
diana Baptist Association and in secret orders. He 
has been a Mason for forty years, and is at present 
Grand Chaplain of the Masons of Indiana, a posi 
tion which he hrs held continuously for twenty-sev 
en years. He is said to be the first preacher of his 
denomination in Indiana to receive the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity, this was conferred upon him 
by the State University of Kentucky, in 1889. The 
Kentucky Colored people chose him to fight the Jim 
Crow Coach Law in the Blue Grass State. This 
law was declared unconstitutional by Judge Barr 
of Louisville. 

He owns his home in Evansville and has interest 
in other property. He is the author of a booklet, 
"Negro Criminality", which is pronounced one of 
the best publications on that subject, Indiana 
knows him as the young preacher's friend. 

Reverend Anderson has been twice married: 
He was married to Miss Sarah Jane Stewart of 
Terre Haute, May 31st, 1866. He was married to 
Mrs. Mattie D. Griggsby of Indianapolis, Novem 
ber 8th, 1017. 



151 





MOSES A. DAVIS. 

IRECTOR of Manual Training and 
of Vocational Education, in the 
colored schools of Evansville, In 
diana, Moses A. Davis was born 
in Savannah, Georgia, February 
3rd, 1870. In his early years he 
attended the public schools and then Knox 
Institute of Athens, Georgia. His study in Athens 
brought to the surface an almost insatiable desire 
for learning of all kinds, but especially of the me 
chanical and technical branches. 

These he sought as the old scholars pursued 
learning in the various centers of Europe. He en 
tered Hampton Institute, was graduated there in 
1891, then did post graduate work there. During 
summer sessions he went to the Stout Institute at 
Menomine, Wisconsin ; then to the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology at Boston ; then to Chicago 
University ; and Greer's Automobile College of Chi 
cago. He has also in his spare time pursued tech 
nical courses in the International Correspondence 
School of Scranton, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Davis was among the last to receive a com 
mission from General Armstrong. One of his first 
positions as a teacher was given him through Gen 
eral Armstrong, v/ho sent Mr.Davis to Frankfort. 



Kentucky, to take charge of the technical course 
and manual training work in the Kentucky State 
Normal School at Frankfort. Here, being among 
the first colored men to teach these subjects suc 
cessfully, and knowing his work from a practical 
as well as from a theoretical angle, Mr. Davis be 
came very popular both as a teacher and as a prac 
tical builder. Many of the buildings of Frankfort 
were both designed and constructed by him during 
his thirteen years as a teacher in the State Normal 
School. From Frankfort he went to the State Col 
lege in Savannah, his native city, where he taught 
for one year. 

From 1905 to 1918 he has held his present posi 
tion as director of Manual and Vocational training 
in Evansville. All along the line Mr. Davis has 
been a pioneer in his work, as a manual training 
teacher, directing knowledge into useful channels 
and convertng prejudice and information into en 
thusiasm and devotion. 

Great indeed has been his joy in his work. Dur 
ing the twenty-seven years of his teaching he has 
seen his favorite subjects shake off the ashes of re 
jection and become a main feature in nearly every 
curriculum in the country. He has put up many 
buildings along with giving class instruction. He 
is at present erecting with the students of the 
Clark High School of Evansville an Industrial Art 
Building, which is to be the largest of its kind north 
of the Ohio River. Most agreeable to him how 
ever, of all his constructive endeavors, is the fact 
that while he was a post graduate at Hampton, 
he designed the school residence of Dr. Booker T. 
Washington. 

As busy as he is professionally, Mr. Davis finds 
time to do many useful things as a citizen and as an 
organization worker. Though a Christian Scientist 
in his beliefs, he has affiliated himself with the A. 
M. E. Church as a Sunday School teacher and 
worker in this body in Evansville. He is a Mason 
and a Knight Templar, and is a Past Deputy Grand 
Master of Masons of Kentucky. He organized the 
present Colored Y. M. C. A., of Evansville, and 
was for many years chairman of the committee of 
management. 

Mr. Davis is very fond of one kind of travel, he 
likes to attend the National Exposition. He num 
bers on his list the Atlanta Exposition, 1895 ; the 
St. Louis Exposition, 1904; Jamestown Exposition, 
1907; and the Panama Exposition, 1915. 

Mr. Davis was married in 1895 in Atlanta, Ga., to 
Miss Beulah Thompson, Mrs. Davis is a graduate 
of Hampton Institute, of the class of 1889. She 
was trained in the famous Whittier School at 
Hampton, and was later a teacher at Tuskegee 
Institute. Mrs. Davis is, like her husband, devoted 
to practical arts. She is director of the Domestic 
Science work of Evansville. 

Mr. and Mrs. Davis live in their own home, a very 
well equipped and modern residence in Evansville. 
They own property valued at about $10,000. 

On March 13th, 1918, Mr. Davis gave up his work 
in Evansville with an indefinite leave of absence 
from the Board of Education, to go to New York 
City, from whence he sailed March 30th, for Y. M. 
C. A. War work with the men in France under 
General Pershing. 



152 




JOHN WALTER HODGE. 





for themselves 
it has done. 



N the establishment of the Nation 
al Negro Men's Business League, 
the founder, Booker T. Washing 
ton, had as one of the objects 
the lending of inspiration and in 
centive to men of color to venture 
out in the realm of business. This 
It has been the cause of do- 



cause 

ing more and better business among those who 
were already out for themselves, and it has caused 
many who were timid to cut loose from the jobs 
that held them, and take the final plunge for 
themselves. Mr. John Walter Hodge belongs to 
this latter class. When this organization met in 
Boston, at its first meeting he was present. He was 
at that time a Pullman Porter. He had served in 
this work for six years, and like many another 
young man was content with the easy money to be 
made in this work. But when Mr. Hodge heard 
of the work in the business world, done by other 
men in his race, when he heard them tell of how 
they had built up their business from very meager 
beginnings, he became inspired with the idea of 
venturing out for himself. 

Mr. Hodge was born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, 



September 29th, 1878. Here he spent his child 
hood and young manhood. He entered the Pub 
lic Schools of his native city and remained to get 
all that was offered in that line. As a boy he 
worked at odd jobs, in and around places of busi 
ness in Chattanooga. In 1899 he obtained a place 
in the Pullman service and remained in this until 
1905. In 1905 he left the service of the Pullman 
Company and went to Indianapolis, Indiana, where 
he opened a Real Estate office. His office does 
General Sales business, rental and Commission bus 
iness. Among the big deals that have been made 
by Mr. Hodge might be mentioned the sale of the 
present site for the Y. M. C. A. Building, and the 
site for the Knights of Pythias Building. 

After adopting Indianapolis for his home town, 
Mr. Hodge decided to inclentify himself with all 
the worthy institutions there. So we find him a 
very active member of the Y. M. C. A., of this city. 
This branch is one of the most prosperous and 
most beautiful among colored people. Mr. Hodge 
serves the organization in the capacity of Secre 
tary of the Board of Managers. He is Past Chan 
cellor of the Knights of Pythias and Secretary of 
the Local Negro Business League. He is a Mason 
and a member of the Baptist church. In fact, 
wherever we find colored men gathered together 
working for the betterment of the race there we 
will find J. Walter Hodge. He is interested in all 
movements for the advancement of the race, and 
is one of the most popular leaders out in Indiana 
polis. 

In the interest of his business and for pleasure 
the subject of this sketch has traveled all over the 
United States. This has served to broaden him 
and to make him easy of approach to all men. Aug 
ust 15, 1910, Mr. Hodge was married to Miss Janie 
Parrish, of Boston, Massachusetts. Mrs. Hodge 
has as great an interest in the uplift of the race 
as has her husband. In fact they are one in their ef 
forts to improve the people around them. Mrs. 
Hodge is an active worker in the Y. W. C. A., of 
Indianapolis and stood by the organization through 
all the struggles when it was getting its footing. 
All of the city love and respect this very unselfish 
couple. They live in their own home at 924 Fa- 
yette Street. 

This is a record of a man who, when he heard the 
call of a bigger chance, even though he could not 
see his way to the end of it, did not hesitate to ac 
cept the challenge. And having accepted the chance 
offered him, be has used every opportunity to bet 
ter others while he was helping himself. For this 
unselfishness, he has gotten a reward in the esteem 
in which he is held. All of Indianapolis look up 
on him as one of her most useful and most prospe 
rous business men. 



15,; 





F. B. RANSOM, LL. D. 

R. F. B. Ransom of Indianapolis, 
Indiana, is a southerner by birth, 
having been born in Grenada, 
Mississippi, July 13, 1882. He 
spent his early days in Grenada, 
working on the farm and attend 
ing the public schools. 

Completing his course in the public schools he 
went to Walden University, Nashville, Tennessee, 
where he finished his literary training, and where 
he also gained the degree of L. L. D. His L. L. D. 
he won in 1908. He studied Theology in the same 
university. Later he read law in Columbia Univer 
sity in New York. In 1910 he began to practice 
law in Indianapolis. 

In Indianapolis he began not only his career as a 
lawyer, but a career of usefulness. Walden had 
taught him that no matter what his chosen career, 
a man counted in a community or state only in so 
far as he made himself a genuine asset to his com 
munity. This general teaching had been very large 
ly supplemented by his study and application of 
Theology. 

Going into Indianapolis he immediately allied 
himself with the Bethel A. M .E. Church and began 



to take hold and give practical help in all deliber 
ations and undertakings of the church. Here again 
both his training in Theology and his education and 
practice in law made him a most decided asset to 
the Indianapolis Church. 

He joined the Masons and Knights of Pyhthias 
and, once more put his shoulder to the wheel to 
make those organizations greater lights to their 
members and to the world. 

It was not long before both the church and the 
city saw his worth. When therefore there was an 
honor to bestow or a responsibility to be assumed 
Mr. Ransom was forthwith thought of. Bethel 
Church soon elected him to the Board of Trustees. 
The Good Citizens' League made him president of 
their organization. He had been in the city but a 
few years when Mr. Julius Rosenwald, the Chicago 
philanthropist, sent abroad his offer to give twenty 
five thousand dollars towards building Negro 
Young Men's Christian Associations. Indianapolis 
had a great many young men. She had been strug 
gling to keep their feet in good and circumspect 
paths, especially during evening hours of leisure. 
The colored citizens saw here the opportunity of a 
life time, to build an attractive building, to equip 
it with such appointments as the young men would 
find in the pool rooms and in the parks without 
the liability of vice. A committee was formed to 
devise plans for raising funds to put up and equip 
such a building. Who but F. B. Ransom, skilled 
in law, in theology, in the affairs of life, should con 
stitute the bone and sinew of such committee? The 
Y. M. C. A. was built and equipped. It was one 
of the first to embrace Mr. Rosenwald's offer and 
one of the best Negro Y. M. C. A. buildings of the 
country, of the world. Much of the credit of all 
this is due to F. B. Ransom, to his skill, to his will 
ingness to serve. 

One by one other honors came to him. If the 
church and Y. M. C. A. relied upon him, why not 
the world? The Advisory Committee of the Col 
ored Alpha Home for the aged colored people need 
ed an attending attorney, who was concerned not 
so much with fees, but with the general welfare of 
the Home and of the people. Mr. Ransom was 
called upon to fill this post. The Knights of Py 
thias chose him to serve for a number of years as 
its Grand Lecturer. Thus today in church, in 
civic work as well as in the courts of law, Mr. 
Ransom is numbered among the best citizens of 
Indianapolis. For the last seven years he has been 
acting attorney for the Mme. C. J. Walker Manu 
facturing Company and for the last year he has 
acted solely in that capacity, having had to give up 
all other clients, and perhaps Mr. Ransom receives 
the highest annual retainer of any colored attor 
ney practicing law. 

Mr. Ransom has traveled much both on business 
and for pleasure, his trips having taken him over 
the whole country. He was married on July 31, 
1912, to Miss Nettie L. Cox, of Jackson, Mississippi. 
Three little lads brighten the home of the Ransom 
family ; Frank, Frederick, and Willard, aged four, 
three and two, respectively. 



154 




REVEREND DIXIE CICERO CARTER 




NVIABLE indeed is the attain- 
iiiL-nt of Reverend D. C. Carter of 
Frankfort, Kentucky. He is both 
a minister and a physician. Stand 
ing on the vantage point of these 
two professions, he commands 
the secrets of the body and of the spirit. His ap 
proach must be one of large sympathy ; for look 
ing into the Mechanism of men's bodies he can un 
derstand wherein the spjrit has free play in some 
and is debarred or suppressed in others. In him 
science and religion unite and clasp hands instead 
of crossing swords as they often do in other in 
stances. 

Reverend Carter, who follows the ministerial 
career, was born in Giles County, Tennessee, Nov. 
25, 1866. A poor lad, he garnered bits of learning 
wherever he could, laboring in the meantime for 
bread. Having accumulated sufficient knowledge 
he finally entered Walden University in Nashville, 
Tenn. He later studied medicine in the Louisville 
National College, in Louisville, Kentucky. Coin 
ing in a time when education for his people was 
unpopular and when the few who wished well had 
only wishes to offer, he had to labor at all kinds 



of tasks to pay his way. Now he toiled in the 
bristling August sun, picking cotton, now on the 
railroad, in the hotels, wherever he could turn an 
honest and honorable penny, here he was found. 

He entered the ministry under the impulse of an 
inner suggestion or as it is often called, a divine 
call to service, but the inspiration to study medi 
cine came from quite another source it was the 
suggestion of the son of his employer. The young 
man had just graduated in medicine and was at 
home on a visit before beginning his practice. 
While at home he urged the young colored lad to 
study for the career of doctor of medicine. So 
deeply was he impressed with the suggestion that 
he decided to act upon his advice and in due time 
entered the Louisville National College to prepare 
for this line of work. 

However, the call to preach took a much 
stronger hold upon him than the desire to enter 
the medical profession and to the service of the 
ministry he has in the main devoted his life. His 
knowledge of medicine gives added strength to his 
work and influence as a minister. 

Reverend Carter is blessed with a good, vigorous 
mind which he is using to the best advantage and 
being a man of unusual energy it is not surprising 
that he was soon equipped mentally for his profes 
sion of a minister. His first charge as a minister 
was at Elkton Tennessee which he assumed in 1885 
at the age of nineteen years. In accordance with 
the policy of the A. M. E. church, he was moved 
from place to place at stated intervals but always 
gave up a charge with the best of feeling between 
him and his people. He never left a community 
without leaving some imprint of his work for the 
betterment of both the church and community, 
which caused him to be held in grateful remem 
brance by his people and won the gratitude of his 
successor. 

When he was pastor in Brandenburg, Ky. he built 
a church there. He bought a parsonage during his 
sojourn at Elizabethtown, Kentucky ; another dur 
ing his stay at Shelbyville and built still another 
church at Pleasureville, Kentucky. He was the 
pastor of the A. M. E. Church in Frankfort for 
five years, but is now pastor of the A. M. E. 
Church at Ashland, Kentucky. 

Reverend Carter has four times been represen 
tative to the General Conference of his church ; is 
a life Trustee of Wilberforce Univrsity and a Trus 
tee of Wayman Institute of Kentucky. 

He is a member of the National Medical Asso 
ciation and a member of the Mosiac Templars of 
America. 

He was married in Jefferson, Indiana, in Decem 
ber, 1902, to Miss Jennie Williams, and they have 
one child, Geneva Ossin, six years of age. 



155 




JAMES NEWTON SHELTON. 




HEN you go to Indianapolis, In 
diana, on business, and wish to 
talk business with the colored 
men who not only know business, 
but do business, it will not be 
long before some one will intro 
duce you to James Newton Shelton. Mr. Shel- 
ton is working in his native state. He was born 
in Charlestown, Indiana, June 12, 1872. He had 
from his earliest youth, good educational advan 
tages. His mother and father moved to Indiana 
polis when he was one year of age. He attended 
the public schools of Indianapolis, Marion county, 
till he was ready for the High school and then he 
entered The Indiana High School. Here he made 
a record for himself not only in scholarship, but in 
deportment. While still in High school, Mr. Shel 
ton decided to be a business man. No other busi 
ness to his mind offered the opportunities to the col 
ored man that are offered in the undertaking bus 
iness. Colored people die at a rapid rate, if not at 
a greater rate than do the people of other races, 
and of course they require a burial. This, to the 
mind of Mr. Shelton, was work for a colored man. 
So on leaving high school he entered Chicago 
University. Here, along with other subjects taken 
up he took up the embalming. In this sub 



ject he did all the work offered by the Univer 
sity and on leaving received a diploma in Embalm 
ing. Mr. Shelton had as much foresight in choos 
ing the place to establish his business, as he had 
in choosing the kind of business. And so instead 
of returning to his native town to open his shop, 
he stayed in Indianapolis. Here colored people 
live in large numbers and here he felt sure that he 
could get a great deal of the colored undertaking 
business. Starting out on a small scale, Mr. Shel 
ton has steadily developed his business, putting 
back into the business the profits received from it, 
till today his is one of the choice business houses 
operated by colored people in the city of Indiana 
polis. For his work he now uses Auto Hearses 
entirely. And because of the good equipment of 
his establishment and because of the courtesy with 
which all persons are received he gets a very large 
share of the work in this line. 

Mr. Shelton, while he has in no way neglected 
his business, has, nevertheless taken time to serve 
his people and his city in other capacities. He has 
served as delegate to the last three Republican Na 
tional Conventions. This shows the esteem in 
which he is held by his people in the matters of 
political issue, not only is he a good organizer, but 
an orator of ability also. He has for the past twelve 
years served as Deputy of the Department of As 
sessor of Center Township, Indianapolis. Mr. 
Shelton is the Past Grand Chancellor of the Knights 
of Pythias for the state of Indiana, and has served 
the order as supreme delegate for the past ten 
years. He is equally as active, though not in so 
prominent a post, in other orders. He is a Mason, 
Shriner, an Odd Fellow, a member of the United 
Brothers of Friendship, and a prominent member 
of the Negro Men's Business League. In all of 
these organizations, Mr. Shelton lends his weight 
for the betterment of the majority. Not only has 
this man loaned his business ability to the develop 
ment of secular orders that look for the betterment 
of the race, but he gives freely of his means and of 
his advice to the church of which he is an active 
member. Although a member of the Baptist 
church, he helps all the Colored churches. 

November 25, 1894, Mr. Shelton was married to 
Miss Mamie E. Pettiford, of Franklin, Indiana. 
Mrs. Shelton has been of great help in the business 
of her husband, helping not only with her advice, 
but with actual work, whenever the occasion de 
manded this. There is one daughter born to them, 
and who is the joy of their life. This is Miss Ze- 
ralda Marion Shelton. She attended Fisk Univer 
sity, Nashville. Tennessee, and for a time was a 
student of music in the Chicago School of Music. 
She is now Mrs. Scott, her husband being a sol 
dier in Company A, 92 Brigade, now stationed in 
France. 



156 




LOGAN H. STEWART, LL. B. 





HE son of Wesley and Victoria 
Stewart, Logan H. Stewart, news 
boy, reporter, real estate dealer, 
was born in Union Town, Ken 
tucky, July 22, 1879. Shortly af 
ter his birth he was taken to In 
diana. When Mr. Stewart was three years old 
his father died, leaving the mother and three small 
children. When he was ten years old his mother 
took him with the other children to Evansville, 
where they lived for a time in want, but at least 
one son achieved victory over want, and success in 
life. 

Mr. Stewart began his career in Evansville by 
selling papers. He sold the Evansville News, now 
the Evansville Journal-News. Here the young man 
of fourteen proved his worth. In a short time he 
had built up one of the best routes of the city. In 
return the Evansville News made him manager of 
a district. He was also given the post of reporter 
for the colored people, being responsible for all 
local news about Negroes. 

However, the young man with all this success 
was not merely working for the newspaper. He 
was also going to school. In 1899 he was graduat 
ed from the Latin course in Evansville High School. 

157 



Having decided to enter business he took a com 
mercial course in the High School in 1900. 

Mr. Stewart thanks all newspapers for his busi 
ness career. He gained his first experience in bus 
iness by handling newspapers. Moreover, while 
he was attending school, he was able to save three 
hundred dollars. In the year of his graduation he 
invested a part of this sum in real estate. The ven 
ture proved so profitable that he immediately re 
solved to enter the business of buying and selling 
land and lots. 

In this business, Mr. Stewart has been both a pi 
oneer and a benefactor in Evansville. Before he 
entered the business of real estate, the 10,000 Ne 
gro population of Evansville was thought of mere 
ly as workers and church goers, not as dealers in 
finance. Their realty holdings were less than $10,- 

000. They had no bank credit, and woefully little 
business recognition. Thus matters stood when 
Mr. Stewart opened his office in 1900. By January 

1, 1917, the Negroes of Evansville had $500,000 
invested in real estate, substantial bank credit, and 
a wider general credit and recognition throughout 
the city. Mr. Stewart himself, beginning in pov 
erty back in 1889, now owns his home, which is 
valued at $7,000; one quarter block of stores and 
shops in a business section, valued at $15,000; a fac 
tory for the manufacture of concrete stone and 
building material, worth $3,500; and other real es 
tate values amounting to $15,000. 

Absorbed in business Mr. Stewart has, however, 
missed no opportunity to grow and to serve. While 
joining no special church he has worked with the 
Methodist in his town and with any denomination 
that set out to serve the people. He was one of 
the early members of the National Negro Business 
League, joining that body in 1905. He was charter 
member of the Negro Y. M. C. A. of Evansville and 
very instrumental in securing funds for the Negro 
Association when it was in its infancy. In 1915 he 
organzed Health and Clean-Up Week in Evansville 
causing five thousand colored people to clean up 
and beautify their homes and surroundings, and 
two hundred and thirty-five gardens to be planted. 
He was president of the Evansville Negro Busi 
ness League for more than ten years and a member 
of the Executive Committee of the National Negro 
Business League. He is on the Board of Manage 
ment of the Negro Y. M. C. A. of Evansville. He 
is a member of the Evansville Chamber of Com 
merce, the only colored man to have this honor. He 
has traveled extensive!}' in the East, in the West, 
and in the South. He has spent much time and en 
ergy in putting on their feet struggling Negro bus 
iness men, who needed recognition at the banks 
and instruction in handling business matters. In 
honor of his good services to his fellow men and 
in appreciation of his continued education, Lin 
coln-Jefferson University of Hammond, Ind., con 
ferred upon him the degree of Bachelor of Laws, 
in 1913. 

Mr. Stewart was married on November 30, 1911, 
to Miss Sallie L. Wyatt of Evansville. Mrs. Ste 
wart was formerly a teacher of Domestic Science in 
the Evansville High School. 





GEORGE WILLIAM WARD, D. D. 

R. George William Ward, pas 
tor of the Mount Zion Baptist 
Church of Indianapolis, Indiana, 
was born in Port Gibson, Mississ 
ippi, July 2, 1869. His early days 
were spent on the farm, where he 
found his first inspiration to labor and wait; where 
he learned to dream in big terms and to execute 
patiently and persistently. This by the way, this 
quiet country life, in a warm and fertile country, 
was his first school. 

He had two more early schools. He attended the 
district schools of Clayborne County, learning from 
books what knowledge he and his teacher could dig 
out. Neither of them at that time was over adept 
at this task, the times being considerably out of 
joint, by reason of Reconstruction and general rest 
lessness, and by reason of the scarcity and very 
limited preparation of the Negro teachers. How 
ever, a third means of learning supplemented the 
efforts of the struggling young lad and his district 
teacher. He was fortunate enough to be thrown 
into a private white family, and was given five 
years schooling by a white teacher. Here he got 
environment, which did in actuality what he had 
been taught in books. Hence Dr. Ward learned to 

158 



speak, to think, to act, by example as well as by 
precept. 

These three were his preparatory schools, nature, 
the district school, the private white family, in the 
last named speaking and acting education were a 
habit and not a theory. These prepared him for 
college. He chose Roger Williams University, of 
Nashville, entered Corresponding department The 
ology, under Dr. Geurnsey, having already become 
a thorough going Baptist. Theology and a higher 
literary training completed his studies and he went 
forth ready to preach and to work among his peo 
ple. 

In his pastorates he has been unusually fortunate, 
as Baptist pastorates go. He has been pastoring 
now for a quarter of a century, and yet he has had 
but four charges in all this time. His first two 
charges were in Mississippi, at Duncan, Mississip 
pi and at Gumunion, Mississippi ; at the latter 
named he worked for five years, developing here 
the habit of staying at one post long enough to 
make his work count. In 1899 he was called to 
Chattanooga, Tennessee. I-n Chattanooga he built 
the Monumental Baptist Church, and so made for 
himself a name in this section of the country, and 
alson got in the habit of church building. 

From Chattanooga he was called to his 
present charge in Indianapolis, Indiana, 1907. Here 
he again applied his old practice of getting congre 
gations into new and spacious church homes. In 
1908 he built the Mount Zion Baptist Church 
on Twelfth and Fayette Streets, a handsome brick 
structure, modern in all of its appointments and 
conveniences. 

From building churches and giving his services in 
other directions, honors have come to him. He is 
a Past Master Mason and a moderator of the Union 
Baptist Association of Indiana. State University 
at Louisville, Kentucky, has conferred upon him 
the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity. 

Dr. Ward has evidently made up his mind to set 
tle down in the West, or at any rate he is remaining 
true to the old habit formed back there in Gumun 
ion, Mississippi, of becoming part and parcel of 
the place and section he works in. Moreover, as a 
minister he feels that he must teach by example as 
well as by precept. Therefore he has invested his 
savings and his influence in homes and enterprises 
in and around Indianapolis. He owns his home on 
West Street in Indianapolis and one rent house, and 
he is stockholder in the Studebaker Auto Tire Cor 
poration of South Bend and in the Irvington Sick 
and Accident Insurance Company of Indiana. 

Dr. Ward was married at Cartersville, Georgia, 
in 1904. Mrs. Ward was formerly Miss Emma 
Robinson. What Dr. Ward is by example to the 
men of his congregation, Mrs. Ward has in great 
measure been to the women. She has been a great 
helper in church organization and in church build 
ing. 



William Henry Ballard 




EARED in Kentucky where he 
seems to have found the Elixir 
of youth as well as business suc 
cess, Dr. William H. Ballard, 
though approaching close upon 
three scole years, carries upon 
him no mark of age, either in his actions or in his 
mind. To be sure, his profession may be respon 
sible for this as he is a pharmacist. Or it may be 
the full life of achievement for himself and of help 
fulness to others which he has led. 

Among the picturesqe scenes of Franklin County, 
Kentucky, with its rugged cliffs overhanging the 
placid waters of the Kentucky River, was born to 
Down and Matilda Ballard, October 31, 1862, a son, 
whom they named William Henry. His parents 
being industrious and energetic people, and seeing 
that a liberal education was essential to success, 
moved to Louisville in 1870. Here their son was 
placed under a private tutor and remained under 
his instruction until the opening of the public 
schools in 1873, when he entered the public schools 
and continued his course of studies in them. His 
progress was rapid ; he took advantage of every 
opportunity to improve himself. After seven years 
of faithful application to his studies he was gradua 
ted from the Louisville High School. His thirst 
for knowledge was far from being quenched when 
he completed his course in the high school. What 
he had attained only whetted his appetite for 
greater knowledge, and made him dissatisfied with 
the preparation he had received, which was far 
above that of many youths. Dr. Ballard entered 
Roger Williams University, where he pursued a 
special course in science and languages, complet 
ing it in 1884. While at Roger Williams Univer 
sity, Dr. Ballard began the work of teaching. He, 
like many others who were striving to be a credit 
to their race and ancestry, taught in the common 
school districts of Tennessee and Kentucky during 
the summer and pursued his studies at the Univer 
sity during the winter. 

The next step in the upward progress of Dr. Bal 
lard was his election to the principalship of the 
Mayfield, Graves County, Kentucky, where he 
served with satisfaction for some time. His suc 
cess as a teacher is shown by the great number of 
ambitious young men and women now employed in 
the schools of Southwestern Kentucky, many of 
whom were under his immediate charge. This also 
shows that the fourteen years spent in the school 
room were characterized by conscientious and pain 
staking study. 

In 1890 he entered Northwestern University at 
Chicago, 111., for the purpose of studying phar 
macy. He was graduated from this course in 1892 
receiving honorable mention. Shortly after gradu 
ating from Northwestern University, Dr. Ballard 



was married to Miss Bessie H. Brady, one of the 
most estimable young women of Nashville, Tenn 
essee, a teacher in Meig's High School, a woman 
respected and beloved by all who knew her. 

He has an interesting family, consisiing of a wife 
and four children three sons and a daughter. Up 
on these he bestows his most devoted care and af 
fection and seeks their highest good. The chil 
dren have listened to the counsel of their father, 
and like him are making something of their lives. 
William Henry Ballard, Jr., is studying Pharmacy 
at Howard University, Washington, D. C. ; Orville 
L. Ballard is studying medicine at the same Insti 
tution ; Edward H. Ballard is a student in the Lex 
ington High School, and Miss Vivian Elizabeth 
Ballard is studying in the Chandler Normal School. 

Dr. Ballard began business in Lexington, Ken 
tucky, February, 1893, opening the first Pharmacy 
owned and controlled by Negroes in the State. He 
has the confidence of all his acquaintances and has 
been highly honored by many fraternal orders to 
which he belongs. He is Past Chancellor of the 
Knights of Pythias ; ex-State Grand Master of the 
United Brothers of Friendship ; Commander in 
Chief of Blue Consistory Scottish Rite Masons ; and 
has the distinction of being a polished, capable and 
conservative business man. 

Dr. Ballard is a Methodist in church affiliation, 
and is a member of St. Paul African Methodist 
Episcopal Church. He is also a Trustee of the St. 
Paul A. M. E. Church. His interest in the welfare 
of the colored race enlists him in all enterprises 
looking to their development. The Colored Agri 
cultural and Mechanical Fair Association was or 
ganized to encourage the colored citizen to take 
more active interest in agriculture and mechanical 
pursuits. Dr. Ballard not only connected himself 
with this enterprise but served as Assistant Secre 
tary, thus giving it the benefit of his organizing 
ability. 

While he has not visited foreign countries, Dr. 
Ballard has seen much of the United States. 

Dr. Ballard exemplifies what a man of strong 
character and indomitable courage may do. He is 
worthy of emulation, not only for what he has 
achieved for himself, but for the service he has ren 
dered in putting others on their feet. The clerks 
who worked in his store have been inspired to 
launch out for themselves. Four of the drug stores 
of the state are run by men who were one time 
clerks in the Ballard Pharmacy. One doctor, Doc 
tor White of Owensboro, also served time as clerk 
in this same store. Indeed so high is the business 
in the esteem of both races that Dr. Ballard has 
been for years a member of the State Pharmaceut 
ical Association. Thus Dr. Ballard has lived a long 
life of usefulness, helping to better all whom he 
touched. 

The man who makes the most of his opportuni 
ties both for fitting himself for a useful life and in 
serving others gets the most out of life, and learns 
from experience that a life of service is a life of 
joy. 

"What we are is God's gift to us, 

What we make ourselves is our gift to God." 



159 





THOMAS L. BROOKS. 

R. T. L. Brooks, the subject of 
this sketch, was born in Char- 
lottesville, Albemarle County, Vir 
ginia, in 1862, being the fourth 
child of Thomas and Mildred 
Brooks. His father was a carpen 
ter by trade and was employed at the University of 
Virginia to help in keeping up the repairs around 
the College and it was here that young Brooks 
learned the trade of his father. 

Commencing at the early age of ten he continued 
to work with his father until 1883 when he came 
to Frankfort, Ky., secured employment with Rod 
man and Sneed, Contractors, and later with Wake- 
field & Choate. He remained with the latter firm 
eight years serving the last half as Foreman. 

On October 18, 1892, he was married to Miss 
Mary L. Hocker of Frankfort, Ky., one of the 
Public School teachers of Franklin County. From 
this union one child was born, which died in infancy. 
Both being very fond of children the home has nev 
er been without a child, having adopted one daugh 
ter who remained with them until her marriage and 
at present they are rearing two of his Sister's child 
ren. 

In the same year Mr. Brooks decided to go into 

160 



the contracting business for himself. Although he 
has contracted and built throughout Eastern Ken 
tucky, it has been in Frankfort that he has made 
his chief mark. Some of the most beautiful and 
costly edifices erected all over the Capitol City and 
wth values ranging in the thousands are the pro 
duct of his brain and skill. It can be truthfully 
stated that fully ninety percent of his work has 
been for white people and against the sharp oppo 
sition of white competitors. Over one-half of the 
residences of the celebrated "Watson Court" the 
most exclusive and handsome section (white) of 
Frankfort was built by him. The Columbia Thea 
tre, a $15,000 structure and the leading and 
most attractive moving picture theatre of the city 
is also his work. 

The Auditorium and the Trades Buildings of the 
Kentucky Normal & Industrial Institute which 
were erecter at a cost of thirty thousand dollars 
were also contracted for and built by him and it is 
an object of pride that both these handsome stone 
buildings were built exclusively by Negro labor. 
The ten thousand-dollar Colored Odd Fellows build 
ing and the twenty-five thousand-dollar Colored 
Baptist Church were also erected under his imme 
diate supervision. 

Mr. Brooks has a high standing among the banks 
and business men of Frankfort and has accumu 
lated much valuable property, and his word is ac 
cepted as readily as most men's bond. He is held 
in the very highest esteem by both races, and is 
one of the most popular men in the Capitol City. 
He also takes high rank as a Churchman, being one 
of the most widely known Baptist laymen in Ken 
tucky. He has been a Sunday School Superintend 
ent for twenty years, a Trustee for sixteen years, 
Deacon for six years and was Church Clerk for ov 
er four years. 

He is also a prominent Secret Society man, hav 
ing been Secretary of the Capitol City Lodge of 
Odd Fellows for twenty-seven years, frequently 
a delegate to the B. M. C. and has served his state 
as Secretary-Treasurer of the Insurance Bureau 
and State Grand Master, at present being State 
Grand Treasurer. He was the pioneer of the Ne 
gro Fraternal Insurance in Kentucky Grand Lodge 
of Odd Fellows over twenty-six years ago. He also 
holds high official positions in the Masons, Knights 
of Pythias and the United Brothers of Frendship. 
At this time he holds position as Secretary of Meri 
dian Sun Lodge which he has held for sixteen years. 
He is Past Grand Chancellor and Treasurer of the 
Knights of Pythias which office he has held for 
twelve years and has held the office of Secretary of 
Charity Lodge, United Brothers of Friendship for 
five years and is also a member of the Union Benev 
olent Society and of the Mosaic Templars of Amer 
ica. 

Mr. Brooks is of an affable temperament, up 
right life and a high Christian character with an in 
tense interest in the welfare and advancement of 
his people. 




JOHN BKNJAMIN COOPER. 




OHN Benjamin Cooper, Funeral 
Director, Embalmer, a business 
man of many interests, and a 
member of all the secret orders 
of his state, was born in Mobile, 
Alabama, in April, 1872. He is 
the son of Benjamin and Elizabeth Aga Cooper. 
In early childhood he was possessed of an am 
bition to make something of his life and follow 
ing his career from childhood to man's estate it 
will be seen that he kept his eye upon his goal and 
followed his course unwaveringly. He received 
his early education in the public schools of Mobile 
and in the Emerson Institute, and A. M. E. School, 
alsb of Mobile. 

With this foundation, Mr. Cooper left Mobile 
and continued his education in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
where he entered the City High School. Finishing 
his course here he felt himself sufficiently equipped 
for a business career, but like numerous other 
young men he found it necessary to earn some 
money before branching out for himself. 

With this aim in view he entered the service of 
the Pullman Company and was soon rated among 
their best employees. While in the employ of the 

161 



Pullman Company he carne to a decision as to the 
character of business he would embark in and en 
tered the Barnes School of Embalming in Chicago 
to study the Undertaking business. Completing 
his studies here he went to Louisville in 1907 and 
took charge of the Watson and Est which he now 
owns and controls, conducting a very successful 
business. 

However, the business of funeral director ap 
pears to be but a convenient peg upon which Mr. 
Cooper hangs an excuse for being in business. 
From this, to change the figure, he radiates into 
every sort of Negro enterprise national or local, 
that one finds on the calendar. One wonders where 
he finds time and thought for it all. He is a mem 
ber of the National Negro Business League, a 
member of the Kentucky Funeral Directors' As 
sociation, and of the Falls-Cities Undertaking As 
sociation. In each of these he is a live member, 
keeping track of the workings of the organiza 
tions and keeping abreast of and bringing before 
these bodies all the latest inventions and devices 
in handling and embalming the dead. 

In business he is director of the Falls City Realty 
Company of Louisville, a director of the Louis 
ville Cemetery Association and Treasurer of the 
Colored Funeral Directors' Association of Louis 
ville. 

These obligations together with the demands of 
a large business would seem to be more than the 
average mortal could bear, but Mr. Cooper is equal 
to the task and does his work well. But Mr. Cooper 
is especially more than the average mortal. He 
has united himself with fully a score or more other 
organizations, all of which require time, thought, 
and in many instances, a good deal of study and 
travel. He is a member of the Methodist Church 
and is a Republican in politics. He is a Mason, 
having reached the thirty-second degree. He is a 
member of the Odd Fellows, of the Pythians, of 
the United Brothers of Friendship, of the Sons 
and Daughters of Moses, of Cooper's Union, 
of the Son's and Daughters of M o r n i ng , of 
the Brilliant Comet Tabernacle, Sisters and Broth 
ers of Friendship, Maces Lodge, Union Star Lodge, 
Lampton Street Aid Society, Grand Star Court, 
and active member of Y. M. C. A. In none of these 
is he merely a member but is active in all the mat 
ters of business transactions and in all that per 
tains to disposing of and handling the dead mem 
bers of these orders. 

Mr. Cooper was married to Mrs. Lavinia Brady 
Watson of Louisville, August 19th. 1907. Mr. and 
Mrs. Cooper live in their own home on West 
Chestnut Street, and are both looked upon as lead 
ers in social uplift work, as well as in business and 
in secret orders. 




THOMAS MADISON DORAM, M. D. V. 





HE Negro has yet in any consider 
able numbers to make his way in 
to the field of Veterinary practice. 
For this there appears to be sev 
eral causes. In many cases the 
calling appears not to have been 
attractive. Again to practice it, has been rather ex 
pensive ; and finally many of the Veterinary schools 
have been hard for the black man to enter and still 
harder for him to leave with a diploma. 

Thus it is that Dr. T. M. Doram, M. D. V., of 
Danville, Kentucky, will have an added attraction 
for the average reader beyond that of mere per 
sonal achievement. Dr. Doram is on record as the 
first and only Negro in the state of Kentucky to re 
ceive a diploma from a Veterinary College and one 
of the first two colored men in the United States 
to win such a diploma at all. 

Dr. Doram was born in Danville, Ky., in 1871." He 
comes of a hardy stock of farmers and tradesmen, 
who loved to handle animals and wield tools. Dr. 
Doram's father, though a Carpenter by trade, own 
ed valuable land and kept good horses. It was here 
that the young man discovered and cultivated fur 
ther his love for the horse. It is a Kentucky in 



stinct to love a good horse and from this state has 
come some of the best blooded stock of the world. 
Young Doram was born and bread in the Kentucky 
atmosphere and it only needed that he should be 
brought into a personal contact with the horse to 
develop a strong attachment for this noble animal. 
While attending public schood at Danville, and 
during vacation, the young man worked with his 
father at the trade of carpentry. Finishing the pub 
lic school, Dr. Doram entered the Eckstein Norton 
University at Cane Springs, Ky., the institution re 
ferred to in the story of Dr. C. H. Parrish in this 
volume. It was here, that the young man had his 
skill acquired at carpentry under his father stand 
him in good stead. During his course here, one of 
the University buildings burned. Young Doram 
now turned to and lent great aid in rebuilding the 
University. 

in 1896 he matriculated in the McKillip Veter 
inary College at Chicago, 111. As a matter of course 
the rest of the students were white, but to show 
what one can do with an opportunity, at the close 
of the first year, Doram led his class in Materia 
Medica ; the second year he was at the head of his 
class in Pharmacy, and during his last or senior 
year he was appointed senior assistant instructor 
in Pharmacology of his class, an honor of which 
he may be justly proud. 

After graduating, in 1899, he opened an office in 
Evanston, Illinois, a beautiful suburb of Chicago, 
with a population of thirty thousand, where he 
commenced the practice of his profession. 

While his practice here was successful and grow 
ing, numbering among his patrons many of the 
wealthy people of that aristocratic community, he 
gave it up after three years residence there and 
moved to his old home in Danville, Kentucky. 
His practice has continuously grown and Dr. 
Doram is now fully satisfied that he made no mis 
take when he entered the Veterinary profession. 

In October of same year, at Danville, Kentucky, 
he was married to Miss Bertha James Hancock, a 
native of Austin. Texas. She received her educa 
tion at Mary Allen Seminary, Crockett, Tex. They 
are now the parents v>f eight children, three girls 
and five boys. Dr. Doram very much hopes that 
at least one or more of his boys may be inspired 
to take up the profession of Veterinary Medicine 
and Surgery, as well as many other young men of 
his race; for he is confident that many could suc 
ceed in many parts of the country. Notwithstand 
ing that we are in the day of the Automobile, and 
that so many of them are in use. Dr. Doram is 
thoroughly convinced that the horse is not a back 
issue and that this noble animal will always be 
in demand, which will call for expert men of his 
profession. 



162 






S. H. GEORGE, M. D. 

H 1C story of the small boy left 
alone, either by desertion of his 
relatives, by robbery or by the 
death of his parents used to be a 
favorite subject of the writers of 
fiction. The subject was one that 
always elicited eager perusal and often sobs. Then, 
however, the matter was very remote. No one 
thought of such a thing as happening in real life. 
I he rise of modern biography and autobiography. 
the willingness of our great men to talk about 
themselves in magazine articles and to be inter 
viewed by the reporters, have turned the light on 
quite a different aspect of the growth of our youths 
into manhood. No longer is this matter of priva 
tion, of sleeping out in the open, of tattered clothes 
and blistered feet a fiction. It is all a very every 
day reality. Booker T. Washington, Jacob Kiis, 
Henry W. Grady, with the numberless capitalists 
who have risen from hunger to opulence, have 
made early hardships a sort of premium in the life 
of the American. So much is this so that it is 
counted a sort of blessing to start off handicapped 
with hunger, lack of antecedents and with nobody 
to appeal to but your own strong arms. 

Such was the early beginning of Dr. S. H. George 



of Paducah, Kentucky. Dr. George lays no partic 
ular claim to distinction, is rather stingy with the 
data of his boyhood and early life, indeed is rather 
inclined to withdraw within his shell when he is 
pressed for the story of his career. Yet the distinc- 
ton of his career lies in a most desirable direction. 
Jt is this: It is all normal. It is just what the 
average boy with pluck and hard work could do. 
The story of Douglass or Washington might be dis 
heartening to some ; because those men seemed 
to accomplish so very much out of so little. That 
of Dr. George comes quite within the reach of us 
all. 

Dr. George was born in Kentucky. His mother 
having died when he was three years old, the lad 
soon found it necessary to go forth and earn a pen 
ny wherever he could. He attended the public 
schools of his native state, whenever he could af- 
ord to do so. The farm, the restaurant, the rail 
road all held out chances for him to earn his way. 
Many of these opportunities he embraced, now 
dropping out of school, now returning, when he 
had earned enough to sustain him for a whole or 
part of a term. When he had been sufficiently- 
trained to do school work, he became a teacher, and 
for seven years labored in the school room. With 
school teaching and other work he finally became 
able to push his education to the desired end. He 
entered Walden University in Nashville, Tennessee, 
and after a good long struggle was graduated. 
Daunting nothing because of the cost of the col 
lege course he next registered in the Meharry Med 
ical College. Again he had to fight a lone battle, 
having few to whom he could look in the time of 
need. p:xpenses here were higher, the hours of 
work were much longer, because of experiments, 
lectures and outside reading. Yet Dr. George was 
not to be halted. A doctor he wanted to be and a 
doctor he became ; and he used only those means 
which any aspiring youth with good strong arms 
and lusty will can use to attain the goal. 

Completing his course in Meharry Medical Col 
lege, he returned to his native state and began to 
practice. In a few years he felt more than rewarded 
for all the hardships he had suffered ; for he had 
hung out his sign at Paducah, had made many 
friends and had built up a very sucessful practice. 
He joined forces with all the progressive organiza 
tions of his state and community. He allied himself 
with the church and with many of the secret so 
cieties of Kentucky. He is a Mason, an Odd Fel 
low, a Pythian, and a member of the Court of 
Calanthe. As a professional man and a leader Dr. 
George felt that he must both teach and show the 
people of his section the ideal way to live. He, 
therefore, joined the several business organiza 
tions. He joined the Pythian Mutual Industrial 
Association of the State and soon became its Vice- 
President. In a little while the leading Negroes of 
Kentucky saw a wider need for reliable insurance 
for colored people. They founded the Mamouth 
Life and Accident Insurance Company. Dr. George 
was one of these founders and promoters, and has 
been one of the staunch supporters of the company. 
'Dr. George was married to Miss Nettie N. Mc- 
Claine. Dr. George owns his home in Paducah. 



163 




JAMES H. HATHAWAY. 




ENTUCKY has long taken a lead 
ing place as a prosperous state. 
She has made a happy adjustment 
of the so-called race question, by 
giving all her citizens a fair meas- 
sure of privileges, yet holding to 
the social restriction. Apparently this is all her 
darker sons have wanted, indeed all that black folk 
want any where. The Kentucky men of color have 
gone far beyond their brothers in farming, in busi 
ness and in many instances in education. Thus her 
sons, like the one here mentioned, have an open 
road to essay their talents. 

Among the big business men in Louisville." Ken 
tucky. James H. Hathaway looms large and impor- 
ant. He is not only a business success in one direc 
tion, but in several. Indeed Mr. Hathaway appears 
to have acquired the Midas' touch ; only unlike the 
king of old, Mr. Hathaway worked for his touch in 
stead of gaining it through any special favor of the 
Gods. 

Of the business he has developed, Mr. Hathaway 
can hardly tell which, had he to make a choice, he 
would select above all the rest. He tried his hand 
at running a grocery. He succeeded at that. He 
tried Undertaking, and again he was a success. He 



essayed farming, both tilling the soil and raising 
stock ; again he received abundant yield. He put 
his hands to the transfer business and once more 
the gods of fortune smiled upon him. 

Born in Montgomery, Kentucky, Mr. Hathaway 
did not spend much time in gaining an education. 
He is educated, but his is an education of things ; 
an education from intimate contact and combat, 
rather than the brand gained from schools and 
books. He began his business experiences in 
Mount Stirling, Kentucky, where he set up and 
ran for a good many years a grocery store. 

Selling out his grocery, he made his way to Lou 
isville, Kentucky, and secured a wagon or two and 
started in the transfer business. Thus for fourteen 
years he plied his trade and continually increased 
and multiplied. When Mr. Hathaway entered 
business, there was a transfer firm in Louisville, 
known as Smith and Nixon. Seeing the business 
acumen and dispatch of their colored rival, they 
sold him their wagons arid horses for a mere song 
and got him to handle their business by contract. 

In 1902, Mr. Hathaway saw an opportunity to buy 
an Undertaking business. He secured this and is 
now one of Louisville's most successful colored 
Undertakers. 

As he increased his income from transfer work 
and from Undertaking, Mr- Hathaway looked out 
upon the farmers and saw what a happy invest 
ment could be made in farms and in stock raising, 
especially in Kentucky, where the grass is luxuriant 
and the temperature is congenial to raising nearly 
every breed of useful animals. Thus he has an 
nexed to his holdings a 118 acre farm, which is now 
well stocked with thorough-bred horses, sheep, 
hogs, and cattle. After entering the transfer bus 
iness it was an easy glide into the other branches 
of business he took on. As a transfer men his ve 
hicles was called into constant demand for funeral 
occasions and this brought to his attention the un 
dertaker's business. It did not take him long to 
see that this business and the transfer business 
could be worked together and with the large stock 
of horses such a business demanded it was easy 
for him to determine that farming would be a val 
uable adjunct to his business. So the three work 
ed together to his profit. Mr. Hathaway 's other 
property holdings are his own house and the build 
ing in which he runs his undertaking business. 

He divides his energies between his family and 
his business. Other than his membership in the 
Christian church, he has few affiliations. He was 
married in 1892 to Miss Columbia Gray of Louis 
ville, Ky. There are six children in the Hathaway 
family : Miss Ethel Louise, a graduate of the 
Louisville High School, is her father's secretary. 
James Harris, Warner Mason, Columbia S. and 
Ruth are still of school age. 



164 




ROBERT HORACE HOGAN. 





HE words of the song, "Inch by 
Inch" find apt significance in the 
life of Mr. Robert H. Hogan, con 
tractor and builder, of Lexington, 
Kentucky. Mr. Hogan was born 
on a farm near Macon, Ga., Feb. 
12, 1881. The Hogans were a very large family who 
lived the earlier years of their history in the coun 
try, but who later moved into Macon. Mr. Hogan 
was born on the farm near Macon before the fam 
ily had migrated to the city. 

Born of a large family the young man had no 
time for school, but had to earn money to aid in 
supporting the family. One of his first jobs was 
that of elevator boy in the Wesleyan Female Col 
lege at Macon, Georgia. As good fortune would 
have it, the president's wife, Mrs. John D. Ham 
mond, passed up and down on that elevator. She 
saw that young Hogan had no learning and set out 
to teach him. Mrs. Hammond not only taught him 
herself but made arrangement for several of the 
teachers to give him help. She went furtner. She 
wrote Dr. Washington about the boy and later had 
him enter Tuskegee Institute. 

While Mr. Hogan liked Tuskegee well enough, 



the call of the large family once more threw him 
out into the world. He worked a while in Macon, 
Ga., then in Jacksonville, Florida, as a Government 
brick-layer. In the meantime he was doing private 
studying with the International Correspondence 
school. For five years he worked about in Florida, 
Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee as a brick-layer, 
studying and working at the same time. In 1905, 
leaving Alabama, where he had been assisting in 
the building of a steel mill, he went to Lexington, 
Kentucky, and accepted work as foreman for H. A. 
Tandy, an old and successful contractor of that 
city. By this time his studies began to bear fruit. 
On completing his studies with the International 
Correspondence School, he was offered a position 
with the Combs Lumber Company, as superintend 
ent of their brick construction work. This was 
one of the largest firms of the kind in the state 
and gave Mr. Hogan opportunity to app.y his the 
ories, to learn new ones, and to practice on big 
undertakings. For the past seven years he has 
superintended the construction of all the largest 
buildings of Lexington. Continuing to study in 
private, and now having completed a course in 
Building Superintendence, Contracting and Estim 
ating, with the American School of Correspondence, 
Mr. Hogan thought it was time for him to launch 
into business for himself. This step he took, Jan. 
1, 1916. Since that time he has built a mansion for 
C. B. Shafer, which cost $40,000; constructed the 
brick work in the Physicians' Office Building at a 
cost of $20,000; put up the Bamby Flat for $10,- 
000 and erected and superintended many residences 
and smaller buildings and including his own two- 
story brick residence. At present he is doing the 
brick work on the new Senior High School Build 
ing, a $60,000 building. 

One feature in connection with Mr. Hogan's new 
line of work is that upon the guarantee to Combs 
Lumber Co. that he would take care of a certain 
amount of their work as well as the fact that he 
has an excellent standing with them, he has been 
able to secure financial backing from that strong 
company. 

Mr. Hogan in all his rush of study and work has 
maintained his connection with the church and 
many other bodies. He is a member of the First 
Baptist Church of his city, chairman of the Board 
of Deacons and Superintendent of the Sunday 
School. In Lodge affiliation he is a Mason of the 
32nd degree. 

Mr. Hogan was married in 1903 to Miss Letetia 
Hunter Jones of Macon, Ga. Of the three child 
ren born in the household, two are living. Robert 
H., Jr., died in infancy. Horace Wesley, 10 years 
of age, is in the sixth grade of the public school; 
Marion Letetia is five years old. 



165 




MARSHALL BELL LANIER, A. B., B. I). 




EVEREND Lanier was born in 
North Carolina, at Mocksville, in 
1869. He first attended the pub 
lic schools of Salem, North Car 
olina, but did not remain there a 
great while, but went to Wash 
ington, D. C., where he enrolled in Wayland Semi 
nary. Here he studied for two years, when he 
made another change. He had become deeply im 
pressed that he was called to preach and with a 
view of preparing himself for his ministerial work 
he left Wayland and entered the Lincoln Univer 
sity, located near Philadelphia. He was then a 
young man, barely eighteen years of age, but very 
ambitious. 

He graduated from the Lincoln University in 
1892, and received from that Institution his degree 
of Bachelor of Arts. Wishing to specialize further 
in Theological studies he took a course in Western 
Theological Seminary, in Fittsburg, Penn., and 
was graduated as Bachelor of Divinity in 1896. 
This was the eventful year in the life of Reverend 
Lanier, for he not only completed his studies and 
received his degree, but it was the year in which 
he was ordained to the ininistrv and installed in his 



first pastorate. His first pastorate was that of 
Grace church, Pittsburg, Penn. He was soon re 
garded as an eloquent preacher and a sound theolo 
gian and his progress in his new field of labor was 
rapid. 

His reputation as a preacher soon spread and be 
fore he had served his church very long he rceived 
a call to be the Dean of the Theological Depart 
ment of the State University. At the same time 
he was called to be Dean of the University at 
Louisville, Kentucky. He accepted the latter call 
and for eight years has served the institution. The 
holding of this office has not prevented him from 
continuing his work as a minister. He has not ne 
glected his duties in connection with the Univer 
sity, but has at the same time acceptably served 
the following churches as Pastor : First Baptist 
Church of Irvington, Kentucky, and the Corin 
thian Baptist Church, of Frankfort, Kentucky. He 
is still the Pastor of the latter church. 

Reverend Lanier is especially interested in 
young men and boys and never tires in working in 
their interest. He sees in them great possibilities 
for the advancement of the race, and is exceeding 
ly ambitious to place before them high ideas of life. 
Along with his duties as Pastor and Dean, he is 
trustee of the Home for Colored boys. This office 
gives him a fine opportunity to get in close touch 
with the boys and lead them to improve their 
minds and hearts. 

While a minister, he does not forget his duties 
to his country and State, and in politics he very 
naturally sides with the Republicans. He is also 
a member of .he Masonic fraternity and makes his 
personality felt in that order. 

He was married in 1901, to Miss Maud E. Bryce, 
of Pittsburg, Penn., in whose companionship he 
finds great delight. They live in their own home 
on West Chestnut Street, in Louisville, Kentucky. 
Reviewing the life and work of Reverend Lanier 
it is probable that in no other way could he have 
served his people better than in the manner chosen 
by him. First his years of preparation gave him 
a fund of information which not only fitted him for 
his work, but enabled him to scatter with a lavish 
hand to the youth growing up about him. 

As Dean of the Theological Department of the 
State University at Louisville, Kentucky, he has 
had the privilege of touching with his life a large 
number of young men who are preparing to enter 
the ministry. He has impressed them with his 
high ideals and has sent them forth to influence 
other lives in like manner. 

All over the State of Kentucky, you will find 
men, young and old, who have been helped to a 
better life because at some point, the life of Rev 
erend Lanier touched their's. 



166 




JOHN A. C. LATTIMORE, M. D. 




i 



O man is a hero to his valet, some 
one has said. This was not the 
case with Dr. John A. C. Latti- 
more, of Louisville, Kentucky. 
Dr. Lattimore was not a valet, but 
he fulfilled the real spirit of the 
saying in that he was very close to the man who 
influenced him to enter the medical profession. 
Dr. Lattimore when a lad was a buggy boy for 
a physician, Dr. Bullock of Greensboro, North 
Carolina. He was a very observant boy and was 
quick to note, as he went with the Doctor in 
making his daily calls, the cordial greeting he re 
ceived and the high esteem in which he was held. 
He also made a note of the handsome income 
which came from a large practice. Thus uncon 
sciously. Dr. Bullock influenced his buggy boy to 
become a physician. Seeing the interest magni 
fied by his buggy boy in bis work the good Doctor 
suggested to him that he study medicine, a sug 
gestion which he was quick to adopt. I laving 
formed the purpose he held to bis course until 
be received his diploma and hung out bis shingle. 
Dr. Lattimore was born in Lawndale, North Car 
olina, where be received his early training in the 



Lawndale Public Schools. After passing through 
the public schools he entered Bennett College, 
Greensboro, North Carolina, and was graduated 
from this Institution in the fall of 1897. His next 
enrollment was in Meharry Medical College in 
Nashville, Tennessee, from which institution he 
received his doctors degree and the same year, 
1901, be began practicing in Louisville, Kentucky. 

The goal was a magnet to draw him through 
meshes of difficulties before the end was obtained. 

However, his way through school was not one 
fraction so easy as it is to relate. The young med 
ical student was far from rich and had to toil at 
many things to defray his expenses. In vacation 
time, like many other students, he worked in the 
hotels of Atlantic City, N. J., and New York as bell 
boy and waiter. Throughout Dr. Lattimore's life 
of hardship as a student be remembers with great 
tenderness the kindness of the president of Ben 
nett College, who took the young man into his 
home and cared for him as a father would do for 
his son. This side of his training brought into the 
life of the young man a new phase, that side which 
neither the text-books nor the laboratory can dis 
cover; that is, the spirit of helpfulness. This, Dr. 
Lattimore exercises in his relation to the individual, 
but more so in his public spirited attitude toward 
life and needs in his community. He is always 
willing and eager to lend a band to any progressive 
enterprise of his city or state. With money, with 
counsel or with time, he has helped all movements 
for the betterment of his race in his city, state, or 
country. He is found holding many responsible po 
sitions of his city : A member of the executive board 
of National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People, an ex-member of the board of man 
agers of the Y. M. C. A., a trustee of his church. 
He is a member of the K. of P., of the Masons, of 
the. U. B. F. and of the Court of Calanthe. He is 
ex-Grand Medical Register of the Knights of Py 
thias of the state, a postion which he held until he 
resigned to become Treasurer of the Pythian Mu 
tual Industrial Association of Grand Lodge of the 
State, a position he holds until today. In all these 
bodies he is looked upon as a wise leader, a gen 
erous helper, and a man with initiative. He also 
belongs to all the leading Natonal organizations 
of his race : the National Medical Association, and 
National Negro Business League, etc. Dr. Latti 
more is a member of the African Methodist Epis 
copal Church. 

Dr. Lattimore has been fairly successful finan 
cially. He owns a beautiful home and ether prop 
erty to the value of ten thousand dollars. He is 
also interested in several business enterprises in 
Louisville. 



167 





ALBERT ERNEST MEYZEEK, A. M. 

ROFESSOR Albert E. Meyzeek, 
Principal of the Normal and East 
ern School of Louisville, Ken 
tucky, is the proverbial human 
dynamo in the school teaching 
world of Louisville. He was once 
pictured as one who is first to fight for the rights of 
his fellow countrymen. Serious to the point of se 
verity, business like to a fault, a friend to be sought 
after, a foe to be feared, a champion for the rights 
of the black man, but with all a jolly good fellow. 
In business life a mighty factor in the struggle to 
mould the characters of our future men and women 
in the private life, a model husband, a property 
owner and a Christian gentleman. 

The original of the above drawn picture was born 
in Toledo, Ohio. Completing the course in the pub 
lic schools of his native city, he pursued further 
study in Terre Haute, Indiana. Finishing in Terre 
Haute, having planned definitely to make school 
teaching his life work, he entered Indiana State 
Normal College and later studied at the state Uni 
versity. Ready now for the business of life, he 
went to Louisville, Kentucky, and began to work 

> ' cJ 

in his chosen field. 



Inch by inch he rose in the scale as a school 
teacher, becoming prim ipal of the Grammar, then 
of the Normal and Eastern Schools of Louisville 
and then of the Kentucky State Normal and In 
dustrial School. 

In his school work, Prof. Meyzeek always leaned 
towards the practical, the useful. He put discipline 
and order into the Eastern schools of Louisville, 
because he looked upon discipline as a fundamental 
item in education. He established courses in domes 
tic science even when the city could not provide 
funds for it, because he felt that such was needed 
in the every day lives of his pupils. He organized 
clubs for parents because he saw a means of bring- 
nig parent and child to a better understanding with 
each other and both in a relation to the school. He 
established the Normal training school on a busi 
ness basis, employing teachers specially trained to 
teach teachers, and he organized his courses so that 
those who studied the theory could later secure 
the practice. 

To him was intrusted the establishment of the 
Normal courses and the organization and equip 
ment of same was left entirely to his discretion 
and supervision. Students are appointed to posi 
tions in the public schools according to a list fur 
nished by him and clone upon merit and no influ 
ence can change the plan adopted by him. 

Thoroughly alive in all the details of school work. 
Professor Meyzeek nevertheless connected his 
school life with the life of a citizen. Noticing that 
the advertisements in the papers stated "white pre 
ferred" in asking for cooks, he opened courses for 
domestic science that he might improve the effi 
ciency of the colored cooks already in service. He 
entered the campaign for a new Y. M. C. A., was 
the means of securing a pledge of $6,500 from the 
white citizens. He entered in the fight against the 
separate street car law in Louisville and broke the 
back of that measure. He fought the Louisville 
Segregation ordinance tooth and nail, pointing out 
that the white people drove the best colored people 
out of colored sections of the city by planting there 
the white "palaces of sin." 

It is no wonder that the Kentucky people loved 
Prof. Meyzeek and that various organizations hon 
or him. For more than seventeen years he has been 
a member of the Y. M. C. A. board of directors and 
for ten years, president. The state University re 
cently honored him with the degree of Master of 
Arts. He is a pioneer Juvenile Court worker, a 
promoter of libraries and an all round citizen of 
whom Louisville is exceedingly proud. 

Prof. Meyzeek owns his own home and three 
rent houses in Terre Haute. In 1896 Prof. Mey 
zeek was married to Miss Pearl Hill, who was a 
teacher in the Louisville Public School. 



168 





ROBERT MITCHELL, A. M., D. D. 

EW big undertakings have occur 
red among the Negroes of Ken 
tucky, or indeed among the color 
ed people of the Nation during the 
past quarter of a century without 
enlisting the services of Reverend 
Robert Mitchell, A. M. D. D. of Lexington, Ken 
tucky. He has been in constant demand on the lec 
ture platform, at Chautauquas, at temperance gath 
erings and at revivals. In his denomination and 
out he has worked incessantly. For two years he 
was president of the Kentucky State Teachers As r 
sociation. For four years he was moderator of the 
General Association of Kentucky Baptists. He was 
for fourteen years Auditor of the National Baptist 
Convention and is now its vice president. For 
twenty-five years he has been a Trustee of State 
University at Louisville and still holds his place 
there. He was a member of the committee which 
appeared before the state legislature in 1891against 
the separate car law. Reverend Mitchell was chos 
en by his committee to address the legislature of 
Kentucky on that occasion. Two years later in 
1893, he was a member of the committee from the 
National Baptist Convention to appear before 

169 



President Cleveland on matters pertaining to the 
Negro race. 

In spite of all these extra duties, Dr. Mitchell has 
been a constant and hard worker at a special post. 
He was born in Fulton County, Kentucky, March 
1, 1864. When a mere infant he was taken to Mis 
sissippi where he attended the public schools and 
studied also in private schools. From Mississippi he 
attended the State University in Kentucky, where 
he gained the degree of Master of Arts. From 
Louisville he entered Gaudaloupe, Seguin, Texas, 
where he won the degree of D. D. He is one of 
the many to get his education by waiting on the 
tables mornings and evenings. He preached in odd 
times when he could get a hearing. 

Finishing his course he immediately entered the 
ministry. His first charge was at Paducah, Ky., 
over the Seventh Street Baptist Church. Here he 
was pastor four years. From Paducah he went to 
Bowling Green, where he served eighteen years, 
two periods of nine years each. He was pastor of 
the Main Street Baptist Church, Lexington, for two 
years : of the First Baptist church of Frankfort five 
and a half years; of the First Baptist church of 
Kansas City, Kansas, three years and of the First 
Baptist Church of Lexington, his present charge, 
two years. He was president of Simmons Memor 
ial College at Bowling Green for eight years. He 
has built one church, completed and paid for the 
State Street Baptist Church of Bowling Green at a 
cost of $7,500, purchased and paid for the present 
site of the First Baptist Church of Frankfort at a 
cost of more than five thousand dollars. 

While he has given himself untiringly to the de 
velopment of his work among his churches, he has 
not been altogether unmindful of his obligations 
to his family and has accumulated a property, per 
sonal and real, valued at eight or ten thousand dol 
lars. 

Dr. Mitchell was married in 1885 to Miss Virginia 
Leech of Paducah. One daughter, Miss Emma B. 
Mitchell has been their only child. She died in 
1911. She was a young woman of rare attainments, 
having been graduated from the Frankfort High 
School and from the Kansas City High School and 
having done special work in both Chicago Univer 
sity and Miami University. 

Dr. Mitchell was appointed also by the National 
Baptist Convention as a member of the delegation 
to the World's Baptist Alliance, that convened in 
London, England, July 1905, but owing to pressing 
home obligations it was not possible for him to at 
tend. 

He is a splendid specimen of what honesty, 
sturdy pluck, and persistency will do for one, al 
though born and reared under unfavorable circum 
stances. 




REVEREND JAMES JODY McCUTCHEN. 




N November 9th, 1868, in Logan 
County, Kentucky, was born Rev 
erend James J. McCutchen, of 
Lexington, Kentucky, who began 
his career in public by winning 
honors, and throughout his long 
and serviceable career he has continued to carry 
laurels won on fields of labor. Attending the pub 
lic schools of his native county he was awarded the 
gold medal for excellence in scholarship and was 
Valedictorian of his class, in 1891, at Simmons Me 
morial College, Bowling Green, Kentucky. 

His habit of study acquired in Logan County led 
him into several institutions and into courses, of 
study in various ways. He took a post graduate 
correspondence course in the scientific studies from 
Danville, New York ; gained an honorary degree 
from Eckstein Norton Institute at Cane Spring, 
Kentucky, finished a teacher's training course with 
the American Baptist Publication Society, and com 
pleted a course of study in stenography. 

The early age at which he finished his education 
al courses gives evidence of an ususually vigorous 
mind, which his after career enlarged and develop 
ed. These courses he finished at the early age of 



sixteen and for some years thereafter he taught 
school. He taught nine years in Logan County, 
where he was born, and two years in Bowling 
Green Kentucky. From Bowling Green he enter 
ed the Theological College of Glascow, Kentucky, 
where he served as Principal for one year. 

Rev. McCutchen is a Missionary Baptist and 
was ordained to the ministry of that church in the 
year 1893. He took up his work as a minister at 
once after his ordination and found his first field 
of labor in the pastorate of the Bristow Baptist 
Church, of Bristow, Kentucky. Here he labored 
for one year, but gave up the work for a larger 
field, to which he was called. From 1905 to 1913, 
he served as State Missionary for the Western dis 
trict of Kentucky, in which capacity he rendered 
his denomination a great service. The National 
Baptist Home Mission Board and the Southern 
Baptist Board co-operated with the State Board in 
this work. 

He built the church at Daniel Boone, Kentucky ; 
remodeled the church at Adairville, Ky., remodeled 
the church at Townsends Grove, Ky., built the 
church at Auburn, Ky., and two school houses in 
Logan County. He also assisted in establishing 
the "Baptist Voice," a Baptist paper which is pub 
lished at Princeton, Ky., and is at present the offi 
cial organ of the Baptists of Western Kentucky. 

His good work was of a character to stand, for 
he built upon a good foundation 

When he accepted the Main Street Baptist 
Church, Lexington, Kentucky., that body was heav 
ily in debt and much discouraged, and there was 
a great falling off in membership. 

Reverend McCutchen in less than two years rais 
ed over nine thousand dollars ($9,000), re-united the 
forces of the church, lifted the mortgage, put in 
a two thousand dollar ($2,000) pipe organ, put in 
modern equipment and appliances, and added 275 
members, which gave the church a total member 
ship of 1200. In his career as minister, he has bap 
tized some 1400 souls. 

The great denomination to which he belongs re 
cognized his ability as a leader and has placed him 
in many positions of honor and responsibility. He 
is First Assistant Moderator for the State, and 
holds the position of Secretary of the Minister's 
and Deacons' meeting of Lexington and vicinity. 
Reverend McCutchen has been twice married ; 
the first time to Miss Katy Morrow, of Mortimer, 
Kentucky, in 1892. She died in 1897, leaving a son, 
Walter L., who died at the age of sixteen, having 
graduated from the preparatory department of M. 
and F. College, Hopkinsville, Ky. The second Mrs. 
McCutchen was Mrs. Lucy Morse, of Mayfield, 
Kentucky. They were married at Mayfield in 1900. 



170 





REVEREND ELMORE THEVALL OFFUTT. 

MONG the Baptist of Kentucky, 
Reverend Elmore Thevall Offutt, 
Lexington, Kentucky, is one of 
the peers. His preparation has 
been ample and thorough: his 
knowledge or education from con 
tact and experience has been fully as broad and in 
timate as his studies in books. 

lie is out and out a Kentuckian. He was born 
in Logan County March 17th, 1871. For several 
years he attended common school but because of a 
lack of finance he was forced to stop school and to 
"remain on the farm where he worked in the tobac- 
to fields to aid in the support of the family. At the 
age of eighteen by the consent of his father he went 
to Louisville to find work with the idea of finish 
ing his education. It was there In- learned the 
tanner's trade, working during the day and study 
ing at night. At noon hours or whenever oppor 
tunity permitted he used the blacked side of a tan 
ned cow hide as a substitute for a black board upon 
which he solved problems in mathematics and dia 
gramed sentences which he had not been able to 
solve the preceding- night. 

He was married in Louisville in 1893 to Miss |o- 

171 



anna Kemble, whose faithful cooperation and Chris 
tian life has made his success possible. There are 
nine children in the Offutt family: Miss Elnora B. 
who is teaching in the public school, Elmore T. Jr., 
Harriett, James Arthur, Olivia, Queenie, Garland 
and William, who are students and pupils in school 
and Joanna Kimble Offutt who is yet a baby. 

He was converted and baptized into the fellow 
ship of the Portland Baptist Church in 1894 and 
was ordained to the gospel ministry in 1896. In 
connection with his school work he has sucessfully 
pastored the following churches each of which 
protested his resignation: Harrods Creek, Jeffer 
son County; Elk Creek, Spencer County; Indiana 
Ave. Baptist Church, Jeffersonville, Ind. ; La 
Grange, Oldham County, Ky. ; Eminence, Henry 
County; Portland Baptist Church, Louisville, which 
he resigned to accept his present charge, the Pleas 
ant Green Baptist Church, Lexington, Ky. He has 
recently written a short history of this church 
which is of great value to those who are interested 
in the early history of Baptists in this country. This 
is the oldest Colored Baptist church west of the Al- 
leghanies and one of the oldest in the United States. 
It was organized in 1790, has a membership of 
twelve hundred and a property valuation of thirty 
thousand dollars. The prosperity of the church 
was never greater than at present. 

Jn 1901, he entered State University, Louisville, 
an opportunity he recognized as answer to prayer. 
Here, he was not long in making his presence felt, 
becoming a brilliant student in most of the branches 
he inn-sued. After his graduation from the Colleg 
iate and Theological departments, he became a 
teacher in the University, a position he filled with 
credit for several years. While teaching at the 
University he continued his pastoral duties and 
studied medicine in the Louisville National Medi 
cal College. He has also taken a course in law 
from the American Correspondence School of Law, 
Chicago. 

Rev. Offutt is active in both the state and nation 
al work of his denomination. Eor several years he 
served as moderator of Central District Association 
of Kentucky Baptist. Because of his modesty and 
Christian piety combined with his general knowl 
edge, especially of the Bible, he is held in high es 
teem by the ministry and has been honored for the 
past three years by the minister's meeting of his 
city as lecturer on the Sunday School lesson, one of 
which is delivered each Monday morning. In his 
church he conducts a class twice a week for the 
benefit of all ministers who have not had the ad 
vantage of theological training. He is interested 
in the Sunday School work of the State and con 
ducts institutes in his own district convention. He 
is a contributor to the Sunday School Teacher pub 
lisher by the National Baptist Publishing Board, 
Nashville, Tenn. From time to time he has served 
on the various boards of the National Baptist Con 
vention and is now a member and treasurer of the 
(educational Board of that body. 




CHARLES HENRY PARRISH, A. B., A. M., 
D. D., LL. D., F. R. G. S. 





T was the late Mark Twain who 
insisted that mere facts contained 
by far more mystery and more 
thrills than fiction. Such certain 
ly are the facts of the iife of Dr. 
C. H. Parrish, D. D., F. R. G. S., 
President of the Eckstein Norton University, 
Cane Springs, Ky., and thirty years pastor of the 
Calvary Baptist Church, Louisville, Ky. Dr. Par 
rish was born a slave on the Beverly A. Hicks plan 
tation in Lexington, Ky. At ten years of age he 
was converted and baptized, by Reverend James 
Monroe, Pastor First Baptist Church, Lexington, 
Ky. Shortly after this he began a life that has 
been crowned with rare distinctions, unusual and 
out-of-the-way honors and happenings. 

Dr. Parrish began to win laurels in school. One 
of the early students in the State University, he was 
the first valedictorian from the college department 
of that insitution. This was in 1886. The Univer 
sity thought so well of its first valedictorian that it 
afterwards engaged him as a Professor of Greek 
and secretary and treasurer of Eckstein University. 
Jointly with the Reverend Wm. J. Simmons, he 
founded the Eckstein Institute, in 1890, where he 
remained as its President for twenty two years, at 



which time Eckstein Institute was connected with 
Lincoln Institute. Dr Parrish is Secretary of the 
Board of Trustees of Lincoln Institute. 

During this period, so full of responsible labors, 
he remained the Pastor of the Calvary Baptist 
Church, of Louisville Kentucky, never once halting 
in his active duties in connection therewith. His 
time was fully occupied in teaching, preaching, vis 
iting and the other multiform duties of a city pas 
torate. He won the degree of A. B. and A. M. and 
D. D. from the Kentucky State University, LL. D. 
from the Central Law School and Fellow of the 
Royal Geographical Society from London. 

He went to the world's Baptist Congress, which 
met in Jerusalem in 1894; was messenger to the 
World's Sunday School Convention the same year ; 
under the direction of Karl Maschar inspector of 
German Baptist Missions, he traveled through Ger 
many and preached in seventeen German towns, 
winning six hundred converts ; he was a messen 
ger to the Baptists of Jamaica in 1915; he has trav 
eled through the Holy Land and has stood waist 
deep in the waters of the river Jordan ; he has 
baptised believers in the Carribean Sea, and in the 
Gulf of Mexico. 

Traveling thus abroad and extensively in this 
country, Dr. Parrish has nevertheless held no end 
of important posts at home. As has been stated, 
he has been the pastor of the Calvary Baptist 
Church of Louisville for thirty years. He is Sup 
erintendent of the Kentucky Home for Colored 
Children ; president of the citizens National Hospi 
tal and Vice President of the Mammoth Life and 
Accident Insurance Company; Ex-Moderator of 
the General Association of Kentucky Baptists. Yet 
these side duties appear only to have multiplied Dr. 
Parrish's offices in the church. He has baptised 
1500 persons, united 160 couples in marriage, 
preached 548 funerals, preached 3000 sermons and 
delivered even more lectures. Probably his great 
est effort as a pulpit orator came at the Nashville 
Convention a few years ago, known as the fiftieth 
Jubilee sermon. Dr. J. M. Frost of Nashville, said 
of the sermon : "It was a most fitting crown of the 
fifty years of remarkable progress of the colored 
people." 

Many of his sermons and tracts have appeared in 
print. Aside from these he has published several 
books entitled : "What Baptists Believe," "God and 
His People," "The Gospel in the Adjustment of 
Race Differences," "Orient Light or Travels in the 
Holy Land," "The Golden Jubilee of Kentucky Bap 
tists." 

Dr. Parrish was married in 1898 to Miss Mary V. 
Cook, of Bowling Green, Kentucky. One son, 
Charles Henry, Jr., has been born into the Parrish 
Home. The young man is now in school in How 
ard University, Washington, D. C. 



172 





OTHO DANDRITH PORTER, A. B.. M. D. 

R. O. D. Porter, A. B. and M. D. 
is one of those to contradict the 
saying that the prophet is without 
honor in his own country. Born in 
Bowling Green, Kentucky, he has 
spent most of his life there. As a 
boy he attended the public schools there. As a 
young man struggling to find the light he worked 
in and around his native city. 

On finishing the public schools of Bowling Green, 
Dr. Porter went out as a school teacher and for 
years gave instruction in the country schools. Two 
factors contributed to his stay in the school room : 
one was that he was not yet fully persuaded of his 
calling: the other, persuasion or not, he had to 
earn a livelihood and also pay his way if he de 
cided to study further. 

His experience with the people in the country 
soon pointed to a decision. The people's ways of 
eating, of sleeping, of wearing clothes convinced 
him that no need was so crying as that for a phy 
sician and a social worker, one who not only admin 
istered drugs, but spread everywhere and at all 
times common knowledge of health and sanitation. 
So persuaded, he entered Fisk University prepar 
atory department in 1884. He was not seeking 

173 



short cuts but thorough preparaton. From the pre 
paratory department, he entered the college from 
which he obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree in 
1891. During this time he taught school in Ken 
tucky, Tennessee, Texas, and many other places to 
earn money to make his way. However, though he 
had to work his way, he stood as one of the best 
scholars of his class and one of the institution's 
strongest men. 

From Fisk, Mr. Porter enrolled as a medical stu 
dent in Meharry Medical College. From here he 
received his doctor's degree in three years. Back 
to his native home he. went, passed the state ex 
amination and set out to right the wrongs of health 
such as he had seen during his boyhood days and 
during his school teaching in the country. Know 
ing his community and state, Dr. Porter was able 
to go to the heart of his work at once. He has 
been practicng a little more than 20 years. During 
this period, though he came out of school all but 
penniless, he has equipped himself with the best 
books and tools his profession affords, has his auto 
mobile, owns some of the choicest real estate in 
Bowling Green and owns and lives in a two-tory 
brick resdence. His two-story office building faces 
main street and joins the costly lot on which is 
built the $150,000.00 Custom House. 

During the few years of his practice, Dr. Porter 
has been president of the National Medical Asso 
ciation of Colored Physicians and Surgeons, a post 
to which he was elected in 1899. One of the best 
facts about his election to this post is the fact that 
it came unsought. He is one of the founders of the 
State Medical Association and is a member of the 
State Association of both white and colored doc 
tors. 

Doctor Porter was married in April, 1895, to Miss 
Carry Bridges of Macon, Miss. Mrs. Porter was 
educated at Fisk Universty. To her Dr. Porter 
gives most of the praise for his success. 

From his own town comes this tribute : 

"The public takes keen interest in Dr. Porter's 
work. The white physicians have no hesitancy in 
sitting in consultation with him because they know 
his worth and ability as a physician, and therefore 
value highly his opinion in cases which require 
rare skill and experience. He is thoroughly inter 
ested in all business, social or benevolent move 
ments for the advancement of the race in this city 
a -id vicinity, and n^ver refuses to give encourage 
ment to the struggling young men and women of 
the race. As busy as Dr. Porter is with matters 
as above indicated, he devotes time to religious 
work in his church in an official capacity. 

Dr. Porter believes in race co-operation along all 
lines, anJ h:c willingness to he'.p hir, p-o;:!e by serv 
ing at the head of many organized bodies for uplift 
in this city is an evidence of his sincerity." 




WILLIAM HENRY STEWARD. 



William Henry Steward 




Y virtue of devoted services as well 
as by dint of years, William H. 
Steward of Louisville, Kentucky, 
is known throughout the country 
as the "Dean of Colored Editors." 
He began the publication of the 
American Baptist in 1879. For thirty eight years 
therefore he has molded the sentiments of his peo 
ple both in his state and wherever Baptists are 
found. But the American Baptist has merely serv 
ed as a sort of peg for him to hang on while he 
labored here and advised there. For fourteen years 
he was secretary of the National Baptist Conven 
tion. For forty years he has been secretary of the 
Kentucky Baptist Association, and for forty years 
chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Kentucky 
State University. 

Mr. Steward was born on July 26, 1847, at a time 
when neither the advantages of education nor op 
portunities knocked very energetically on the black 
boy's cabin door, but his ear was keen to hear even 
the slight knocking of opportunity and to seize it 
by the forelocks while it was passing. 

He received the ground work of his education 
through private instruction and when he had ad 
vanced to a certain point he was sent to Louisville 
where he entered private schools. He proved an 
apt pupil and became very proficient as a scholar 
so that when emancipation came he was ready to 
take his place as an efficient worker and leader 
among his people. 

His preparation during the period of slavery was 
a God send to both himself and his people for his 
services came at a time when the demand for edu 
cated leadership among the Negroes was great and 
the supply exceedingly small. 

Mr. Steward was quick to recognize the situa 
tion and quick to respond to the cry of help and 
to devote his life to the uplift of his race. 

Like most persons who at that time chanced to 
have an education, Mr. Steward entered the pro 
fession of school teaching. He began at Krank- 
fort, Kentucky, where he taught for three years. 
From Frankfort, he returned to his native heath. 
Louisville, continuing in the same profession. 

The teaching profession did not offer the moder 
ate income and fair opportunities for service and 
advancement as it does now. Mr. Steward there 
fore left the schoolrooms. He entered the employ 
of the railroad and for a number of years served 
as messenger for the Louisville and Nashville Rail 
road Company. From Railroad messenger he be 
came letter carrier, being the first colored mail car 
rier ever appointed in the city of Louisville. This 



post he held for sixteen years. By this time he had 
established himself as a thinker and writer. His 
paper had become known along with him. He could 
now give his time to the publishing of the American 
Baptist and to the uplift work with which he had 
aligned himself from the beginning of his career. 

He had begun his career by joining the church. 
In 1867, when he launched out as a school teacher, 
he became a member of the Fifth Street Baptist 
Church in Louisville. Subsequently he taught a 
Sunday School class, the largest in his church, be 
came secretary of the choir and Sunday School 
Superintendent. He was elected secretary of the 
Board of Directors of the Louisville Colored Public 
Schools from which place he was later advanced to 
chairman of the board. He joined the Masonic 
Lodge and was soon made Grand Master. In 1905 
he was chosen one of the lay delegates to the 
World's Congress which was held in London, Eng 
land. 

Mr. Steward has traveled much, mainly as a 
newspaper man and as an active servant of his 
people. Few Negro organizations assemble with 
out him. The late Dr. Washington was won't to 
say, speaking at the annual Farmers Conference, 
"This conference would be very incomplete without 
the presence of Mr. W. H. Steward, he has come 
here regularly with his sympathy and words of 
cheer for years." 

Mr. Steward lives in his own home, a brick res 
idence in Louisville, surrounded by a happy and well 
educated family. He was married to Miss Mamie 
E. Lee, in Lexington, in 1878. Mrs. Steward is well 
known herself as an educator and a woman of tal 
ent. She was for years a teacher of music at the 
State University, a native Baptist worker among 
women and a lecturer in continual demand. There 
are three daughters and one son in the Steward 
family Misses Lucy B. and Jennette L. are gradu 
ates of the Louisville High School; Miss Carolyna 
is not only a graduate from the High School, but 
from the State University. All three have been 
successful school teachers. Willim H. Jr., is a Me 
chanical Engineer, being a graduate of the Armour 
School of Technology of Chicago. He was for two 
years a teacher in Tuskegee Institute, having 
charge of the school's heating plant and lending 
great aid in the construction of the larger Tuske 
gee heating and lighting plant. He is drafting en 
gineer. 

The veteran editor and worker, though seventy 
years of age, is still in the heyday of service, active 
in mind and in body, editing, lending aid, giving ad 
vice, attending organizations just as if he were ne 
ver to grow old. 



175 




EDWARD E. UNDERWOOD, M. D. 





HE black man of the North and of 
the West is rapidly coming into 
his own. Time was when the man 
of the South boasted that the 
"Doers" all came from their ranks. 
Not so in these days. Dr. E. E. 
Underwood is a conspicious ex 
ample of the plucky boy born and 
reared in the West. Dr. Underwood was born in 
Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, in 1864. As a lad he attended 
the Mt. Pleasant High School, where he was grad 
uated in 1881. Ten years later he was graduated 
from the medical department of the Western Re 
serve College of Cleveland, Ohio. For a time he 
studied theology under the direction of a private 
tutor. 

On graduating from the Medical College, Dr. 
Underwood began to practice medicine, hanging 
out his sign in Frankfort, Kentucky. For twen 
ty-five years, now he has practiced medicine in 
Frankfort. In that time he has carried honor: 
and responsibilities enough to stagger the average 
man. He was for seven years a school teacher, 
teaching in the Enerson Colored School, of Ohio. 
In 1891 he began the editorship of th e "Blue 
Grass Fugle," the colored weekly of Frankfort, 
which was edited by him for ten years. He was 
for four years assistant city physician of Frank- 
f^rt ; for fourteen years secrctaiy of the U. S. 
Board of Pension Examining Surgeons. In 1910 
he established the People's Pharmacy and was its 

176 



first president. He has been its secretary since 
1911. He is Educational Editor of the Lexington 
News ; is author of the "History of Colored Church 
es of Frankfort," and of several poems. 

Besides all 6f these duties and honors, Dr. U..- 
derwood has been a "Daniel Boone" among and 
for the Negroes of his section. The numbers of 
first times for a colored man to do things in his 
section seems to fall upon him. He was the first 
colored student to enter and graduate from the 
Mt. Pleasant, (Ohio) High School ; first colored 
member of the Jefferson County (Ohio) Republican 
Committee ; first Negro member of the Mt. Pleas 
ant, City Council, being elected over four whit? 
aspirants for the office. He is the first colored 
member of the Board of Regents of Kentucky Nor 
mal and Industrial Institute, having been appoint 
ed by Governor Bradley in 1898, and appointed 
again by Governor Wilson, in 1907. 

Large as the number of first things that Dr. Un 
derwood has done, they utterly pale before the num 
ber of organizations with which he is actively affi 
liated. 

Dr. Underwood is a Mason, a Knight Templar, 
a Knight of Pythias, an Odd Fellow, United Bro 
ther of Friendship, member of the Union Benevo 
lent Society, and of the Mosiac Templars. He ij 
not merely a member of good standing in these 
bodies, but has held offices in all of them. He is 
at present Supreme Keeper of Records and Seals, 
of the Knights of Pythias, N. A. S. A. E. A. and A., 
and member of the Kentucky State Board of Man 
agers of the United Brothers of Friendship. 

Having so wide and intimate contact with his 
people. Dr. Underwood became extremely sensi 
tive to their needs and to the wrongs they have 
suffered. Thus he is found undertaking many ser 
vices in their defense and for their uplift. From 
1891 to 1893, he was Executive Secretary of the 
Anti-Separate Coach State Executive Committee, 
which tested the constitutionality of the "Jim 
Crow" law. In 1895, he was the Kentucky Commis 
sioner to the Cotton States Exposition, which was 
held in Atlanta, and at which Booker T. Wash 
ington leaped into fame as an orator. Two years 
later he was commissioner from his State to the 
Tennessee Centennial Exposition, held in Nash 
ville. In 1898, he organized and was first presi 
dent of the State League of Colored Republican 
Clubs of Kentucky. He is a member of the Frank 
lin County Republican Committee in his State and 
has been a delegate to every Republican State 
Convention since 1892. He was delegate at large 
to the Republican National Convention of 1904 and 
was strongly endorsed in his State for Register 
of the United States Treasury in 1909. He is 
president of the Franklin County Colored Ag 
ricultural and Industrial Association, member of 
the National Medical Association, of the Nation 
al Association of Pension Examining Surgeons, of 
the National Negro Business League, of the Na 
tional Association for the Advancement of Thrift 
among Colored people and of the Kentucky State 
Medical Association. 

Dr. Underwood married Miss Sarah J. W'alker, 
There are two sons: Ellworth W. and Robert M., 
the former is a student in the Dept. of Pharmacy, 
Western Reserve University of Cleveland, the lat 
ter a Senior in the Frankfort Colored High School. 




DR. RANDOLPH FRANKLIN WHITE. 




H1LE he is really filling the place 
of a modest business and profes 
sional man. Dr. Randolph Frank 
lin White, the Negro Pharmacist. 
of Owensboro, Kentucky, has so 
so happily mixed business, educa 
tion, work and travel, that he may be almost called 
a globe trotter. His travels, which all the time 
had in them the purpose of business, have taken 
him into the leading cities of America, into Can 
ada, into Hawaii, into Japan, and into the Philip 
pine Islands. Few men have made the profession 
of pharmacy serve them such triple service pro 
vide travel, gain experience and supply a livelihood. 
Dr. White was born in Warrentown, Florida, 
June 25th., 1870. He spent his early school days 
in his native State, and early made up his mind to 
become a pharmacist. To this end he entered Ho 
ward University, from which he graduated in 1897. 
But Dr. White cannot be said to have begun or to 
have completed his course at any one time. As he 
mixed travel with business, so he mixed school ed 
ucation and practical education. Thus while he 
was attending Howard University, pursuing a 
course in Pharmacy, he was at the same time gain- 

177 



ing practical experience in Pharmacy, working for 
the Plumnur Pharmacy, in Washington, D. C. 

His graduation in 1897 was therefore more at 
taining freedom and license for he was already ripe 
in his calling, ready to take charge and manage ra- 
ther than serve the usual apprenticeship. He found 
no trouble under the circumstances with securing 
good responsible posts at the very outset. His 
first position was in Louisville, Kentucky. Here 
he took charge of the Peoples' Drug Store, and 
ran it, giving satisfaction to its stockholders. From 
Louisville he went to Lexington and for a time 
joined forces with Dr. Ballard. He was already 
well known as a pharmacist. The United States 
Government, needing a Hospital Steward, Dr. 
White was appointed to the post, and commission 
ed to serve in the Philippines. Here he worked for 
two years, from 1899 to 1901. Hence it was that 
he got his trip to the Orient, and other countries 
while he was away from the United States. 

Having completed his travels and finished his 
services with the Government, he returned to Ken 
tucky, to begin business for himself. In 1901 he 
opened a drug store in Owensboro. Dr. White had 
some difficulty in securing a place to begin busi 
ness. He therefore bought the store which he 
was to use and which he still uses. His business 
prospered from the outset, as he had had wide ex 
perience in handling drugs and in handling people. 
He owns his home and his store in Owensboro and 
owns three rent houses in Lexington. 

Dr. White is a good churchman and a member 
of several fraternal bodies. He is an Episcopalian, 
a Mason, an Odd Fellow, U. B. F., and a Knight of 
Pythias. In the Masonic order he is Deputy Grand 
Master of the State. 

Dr. White was married in Lexington, July 23. 
1901, to Miss Fannie Hathaway. 

Almost every city has some one individual or 
business which holds a unique position because of 
some marked and distinctive feature or characte 
ristic. 

Thus in Owensboro. Kentucky. Dr. Randolph 
Franklin White is known as the Pharmacist. 

lie has won this distinction from his remarkable 
success in business, which is universally recog 
nized, but not from this alone, his valued services 
to the Government during his travels abroad make 
their contribution to the enviable reputation he- 
enjoys. 

His thorough knowledge of his business is evi 
denced in the great success he has achieved in it 
and this with his courteous manner and elevated 
bearing commands the respect of all who deal with 
him. 




WILLIAM MILLIARD WRIGHT. 





HERE was a time when the Negro 
.lawyer was the jest of his own 
and of .the white race. He was 
not allowed to practice in the 
courts ; or if accorded the techni 
cal privilege, he was denied the 
genuine right. He was a lawyer in name and often 
well prepared for his work, but prejudice stepped 
between him and the practice of his profession and 
embarrassed him in his efforts to win recognition. 
His earnings were therefore next to nothing. 
His clothes were thread-bare; his home depleted; 
he and his family, were he so rash as to marry, 
went hungry. 

Yet with the true spirit of the pioneer, the black 
lawyer has endured the whips and scorns of the 
courts and of the public until lie is no longer the 
mark of open rebuke. Patiently winning his way 
he has faced and overcome opposition, met ridi 
cule with intellectual force, and dignity, and with 
a kind though determined spirit, has finally won 
recognition from both the Court and the Bar. 
He now even boasts a home of his own ; good 
clothes, and a happy family. He enters the courts, 
especially in the West and handles his cases on his 
merit. 



Slowly the men of his profession have devel 
oped sufficient esprit d'corps to accord him at 
least common courtesy. To win this recognition 
he has had to study hard, endure and persevere. 
All the time, he like all men of professional careers 
among black folk, has had to serve as missionary 
to his people on the one hand and batter down by 
every sort of means their prejudices on the other. 
Surely no men deserve more gratitude from their 
people, for whatever has been their endeavor, the 
first impulse of the public was that the lawyer 
was really "something out for a suit" and not real 
ly seeking the public good. 

While Mr. Wright's large and ever-growing law 
practice requires most of his time, and attention, 
he is not unmindful of civic matters and the devel 
opment of his people. He is always on the alert 
to seize upon every suggestion that will conduce 
to their uplift and is foremost in all plans looking 
to that end. 

In Louisville, for example, the white citizens have 
what is known as the "Million Dollar Foundation 
Fund. Mr. Wright was much impressed with the 
idea resulting in the organization and reasoned 
that a like organization would be helpful to tin- 
colored race. Co-operating with the colored bus 
iness and professional men of the city, a club sim 
ilar in purpose is in process of forming. The Negro 
Club is to be a $100,000 Mercantle Foundation 
Fund. 

The prime mover in this endeavor among the col 
ored people is William H. Wright of Louisville. Mr. 
Wright has been before the public of his state for 
many years, both as a professional man and as a 
man of business. As a student, a professional and 
business man, Mr. Wright is amply equipped for 
the great undertaking. Born in Livingston, Ala 
bama, he was educated in Selnia University, Selma, 
Alabama, in the State University, Louisville, Ken 
tucky, and in the department of law, Howard Uni 
versity, Washington, D C For the most part he 
worked his way through all these schools. He be 
gan the practice of law in Louisville, in 1904. He 
organized the first Negro Insurance Company of 
Kentucky and thus educated many colored people 
up to the idea of insurance and to entrusting their 
money to Negro enterprises, Since 1904 lie has 
been able to amass considerable property holdings, 
as he owns his office building on Sixth Street in 
Louisville, and several rent houses. 

Mr. Wright is a Baptist in religious affiliation, 
and is a member of the Fifth Street Baptist Church, 
a Mason, Odd Fellow, K. of P. and Mosaic Templar. 

lie has traveled extensively both in the United 
States and Canada, his travels giving him an en 
larged view of life. He has not yet traveled upon 
the sea of matrimony, and so the pleasure of that 
voyage still awaits him. 



178 




HOMER MILTON CHARLES. 





HIS successful business man, of 
Chalmette, Louisiana St. Bernard 
Parish, has one of the most pros 
perous businesses in Louisiana. 
His reputation is not only state 
wide, but generally national. He 
is a life member of the National Negro Business 
Men's League, is an attendant at all meetings of 
this body, and an enthusiastic supporter of the Ne 
gro Business ideas. Mr. Charles has not always 
moved with men of larger finance among Negroes. 
He has know the pinch of need and has vivid recol 
lections of hard struggles to gain a footing. 

Mr. Charles was born in St. Martin Parish, La., 
July 4, 1861. Two years later his parents moved 
to St. Bernard Parish. His schooling consisted of 
what he gained in the public school of said Parish 
and of a private tutor, at home. However, he 
was one of the family of thirteen children, which 
usually means that as soon as the boys are able to 
earn a penny they must be up and away to their 
post. Being very industrious, he was employed 
on a sugar farm, where he filled many positions. 
Later on he began truck farming with his father. 

In 1887, feeling that he must still make the de- 

179 



termined start, he launched forth in business. His 
undertaking was modest enough ; consisting of a 
fruit stand on the river bank in a store nine by nine 
feet. There were three conspicious features to the 
whole setting; first, that he was determined to sell 
as cheap as his competitors ; second, that with the 
assistance of his wife, he was satisfied to be as ec 
onomical as any one else ; third, that as he had that 
ambition to push forward, was determined to be 
as polite to his customers as his competitors. This 
spot was near Chalmette National Cemetary, on the 
historic spot where the "Battle of New Orleans" 
was fought. It was one of the rather few instances 
in which a Negro dared to become a fruit dealer. 
Inch by inch, as the song goes, he developed his 
business. Taking his basket on his shoulder, he 
peddled his fruits from house to house, until he 
had built up confidence, gained patronage and the 
respect of the entire community. Then he purchas 
ed a one-horse wagon ; then followed two horses 
and wagon to meet the demand for deliveries. 

He was already married to Miss Hester Anderson 
of St. Bernard in the year 1885. She was the si 
lent but effective partner during these stages of 
uncertainty. She did work in private families, 
helping to provide food for the family and some 
times capital for the business. Four daughters 
sprang from this union, three of whom are living. 
Miss Sadie died while preparing for graduation at 
New Orleans University. The others are: Misses 
Augusta, Mary and Clara. Miss Clara, the young 
est, is still in school. 

Today Mr. and Mrs. Charles are among the lead 
ing property owners of Louisiana. Besides own 
ing their home, they have stock in the Friscoville 
Realty Company, of St. Bernard and have several 
houses for rent. 

Mr. Charles is what is often called an organiza 
tion man, believing as he does in organization of 
men into bodies as means of promoting race wel 
fare. He is Catholic in his religion ; a member of 
Felicity Lodge K. P. No. 199, Daughters of Cres 
cent Tab. No. 27, Progressive Aid Mutual Benefit 
Association. In the business and educational 
world, he is a life member of the National Negro 
Business Men's League, an honorary member of 
the Bergemont Educational Association, a member 
of the Fazendville Educational Association, a stock 
holder in the Bank of St. Bernard, a stock holder 
in the World Bottling Company, New Orleans. He 
has traveled over the United States on business, and 
for pleasure and relaxation. 

During his residence in St. Bernard Parish, Mr. 
Charles has built up such a reputation of integrity 
and honesty as to be considered the most respon 
sible Negro Citizen in his community by both his 
people and the White authorities. 



Walter L Cohen 




N New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 
uary 22, 1860, was born Walter 
L. Cohen ; and the place of his 
birth has been the scene of most 
of his active life. Here he has 
lived and made a place for himself 
in the business world, in the fraternal world, and 
in the political world, as well as one of prominence 
in the social world. As a young lad, he attended 
the public schools of New Orleans, and then spent 
two years in Straight University, of New Orleans, 
and one year in the St. Louis Catholic School. 
While his opportunity for attending school lasted 
we find the young man applying himself diligently 
to the work in hand. Indeed this has been the key 
note of his whole life applying himself to the 
work then in hand. 

While still a boy he started out to learn to be a 
cigar maker, but because he was not a smoker, he 
was. made ill by this work and had to give it up. 
His next work was in a saloon. Here he remained 
for about four years. In 1889 he gave up his work 
in the saloon to take up the work of United States 
Inspector. Later he was promoted to the position 
of Lieutenant of the United States Inspectors. In 
this capacity he served until the democrats took 
charge, when he resigned the position. In 1899 he 
was appointed Register of the United States Land 
Office at New Orleans. This appointment came 
from President McKinley and he was re-appointed 
by President Roosevelt. He served in this office 
until 1911. We find that Mr. Cohen has been very 
active in politics for a great number of years. He 
was a delegate to the National Republican Con 
vention, in 1892, 1898, 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912 and in 
1916. He is the recognized leader of the fight 
against the "Lily White Republicans of Louisiana." 
So active has Mr. Cohen been in the interest of his 
people in his native city that the Mayor of the city 
appointed him as a chairman of the colored citi 
zens committee. This committee has charge of all 
matters concerning the education and general wel 
fare of the colored people of New Orleans. In this 
capacity Mr. Cohen has had a great opportunity 
to help his race, an opportunity which he was quick 
to seize and which he used to their best advantage. 
In another line of work, he has done equally as 
much for the betterment of his people. He is 
President of the People's Industrial Life Insurance 
Company.. Mr. Cohen owns three-fifths of the 
stock of this company. To do the work of the 
company there are employed nearly one hundred 
colored agents. In all they collect over $100,000.00 
in premiums yearly. The organization of this com- 

180 



pany furnishes work work where our young peo 
ple can earn a livelihood and still keep their self 
respect. Mr. Cohen has also one third interest in 
two drug stores. In addition to the money inves 
ted in these concerns he owns his beautiful resi 
dence in the city and a summer home in Bay St. 
Louis, Mississippi. 

Mr. Cohen leads a full, active life and it would 
seem that his private interests would command his 
entire time, nevertheless, he is found upon the mem 
bership roll of a number of organizations. 

He is a member of Mt. Olive Lodge, No 21, Ma 
sons ; Zenith Lodge No. 175, Knights of Pythias ; 
1'ride of Louisiana, No. 1324, Grand Linked Order 
of Odd Fellows. He has been president of the Ec 
onomy Benefit Association for twenty-four years. 
This last named organization is composed of the 
old Creole citizens in New Orleans, they first or 
ganized themselves in 1836.Mr. Cohen is also Pres 
ident of the Iroquois Social Club, and Vice-Presi 
dent of Providence Hospital Board of Administra 
tors. 

In these times of war our country has not fail 
ed to recognize the need of strong men to help back 
her in all her efforts to conquer Germany. It is 
not surprising that Mr. Cohen was early called upon 
to take a part and he did his share of the work 
well. He was a member of the Speakers Bureau, 
whose duty was to speak in the interest of Liberty 
Bonds, Red Cross and other war measures. He was 
also the representative of the colored people on the 
Executive Committee for War Saving Stamps for 
New Orleans. 

In religious belief, Mr. Cohen is a Catholic. He 
is active in the affairs of his church. He serves 
as a member of the board of Directors of the St. 
Louis Catholic School. In the St Joseph Catholic 
Church, New Orleans. Louisiana, Mr. Cohen was 
married, to Miss Wilhelmina M. Seldon, March 19, 
1882. There is a family of four children, two boys 
and two girls. W'alter L. Cohen, Jr., and Benjamin 
B. Cohen, work with their father in the Insurance 
Company and are following in his footsteps, and 
are being trained to carry on this business, when 
their father retires. Miss Margret R. Cohen is a 
school teacher and Miss Camille is now Mrs. Bell 
and is a cashier in one of her father's drug stores. 
As is seen from this, Mr. Cohen has provided pay 
ing positions for his own children in developing his 
business ability, as well as providing places for 
the children of others. What he is doing for his 
children in a material way will not compare with 
what he has done to fit them for life. 




PAUL H. V. DEJOIE, M. D. 




| ORN and educated in New Orleans, 
La.. Dr. Paul H. V- Dejoie enter 
ed upon and successfully pursued 
his practice in his native city. 
Born July 2nd. 1872, he was the 
first child of Artistide Dejoie and 
Ellen Chambers. Because of the fact that his 
father held many responsible positions during his 
life time, the young lad did not have all the strug 
gle for an education that some of our prominent 
men have had. So we find that Mr. Dejoie as 
a buy was a constant pupil in the New Orleans 
Public Schools. Having gotten from the public 
course of instruction all that they li d to offer. Dr. 
Dejoie entered Southern University. Here he was 
one of the best known and most popular students 
of his day. He won the Peabody Scholarship Me 
dal. After graduation from Southern he decided 
to take up the study of medicine. To this end he 
matriculated at the New Orleans University, and 
completed the course in 1895. He went before 
the Louisiana State Board of Medical Examiners 
and passed. This fact is striking because he was 
the first colored man to pass that board. 

Having secured his privilege to practice medicine 
he settled down to that work in his own native 



city, New Orleans. Here he remained for the past 
t \venty-three years. During this time he has been 
successful as a practitioner, having built up quite 
a practice. Seeing the need of the colored people 
for a Drug Store, he busied himself in opening one. 
In this drug store he owns half interest. It was 
from the first a very successful undertaking. The 
store bears his name Dejoie Cut Rate Pharmacy, 
being the name of the Drug Store. 

In the work as a physician, he had an abundant 
chance to see the needs of the colored people when 
they were sick, and the needs of the bereaved fam 
ilies. To in a measure alleviate the suffering from 
these two sources, he has interested himself in the 
Unity Industrial Life Insurance and Sick Benefit 
Association. For two years he served the organi 
zation in the capacity of Secretary, and since that 
time he has been president of the organization. 
Under his management he has seen the association 
grow rapidly. It has gone to the front and now 
is ahead of all companies doing similar insurance 
in the State. This company is conducted on broad 
and liberal principles by conservative and well- 
qualified persons. The company paid over $350,- 
000.00 to members in Louisiana for sickness, ac 
cident and death. It gives profitable employment 
to over two hundred colored people. In this way. 
Dr. Dejoie has been able to serve his race from 
two entirely different points. He has made work 
for a number, and he has made it possible for many 
sick to have some of the comforts of life. 

Dr. Dejoie has made it a point to come in contact 
with the better men of the race. In order to do 
this he had connected himself with several frater 
nal orders. He is a thirty-second degree Mason, 
an Odd Fellow, and a Knight of Pythias. To these 
organizations he has brought his good business 
judgment, his strong sense of right and wrong and 
his pleasing personality. 

During the twenty-three years, Dr. Dejoie has 
been out in the world for himself, he has formed 
the habit of saving. So among his worldly poss 
essions we might note his beautiful home, a dou 
ble cottage and his stock in various banks, oil wells 
and gold mines. 

Although born, partly educated and established in 
business in the same city, Dr. Dejoie has, never-the 
less taken time to travel about a great deal in his 
own country. He has traveled extensively in the 
Kast, and through most of the Southern States. 
He also spent some time in Jaures, Mexico. Dr. 
Dejoie has served his Alma Mater as president of 
the Alumni Association. 

On June 16th, 1900, he was married to Miss El 
la Brown, of New Orleans. There are two sons in 
the Dejoie family, P. H. V. Jr., and Pradhomme, 
who are now attending school in New Orleans. 



181 




SMITH WENDELL GREEN. 




W. GREEN became a member of 
the order of K. of P. on July 17, 
1883 when the Order was in its 
infancy, being a charter member 
of Pride of Tensas Lodge No. 21, 
St. Joseph, La. He was elected to 
the station of V. C. of the lodge, but served as C. C. 
from the time of the organization of the lodge until 
June 30, 1886. He was the Grand Representative 
from this lodge, and immediately upon entering the 
Grand Lodge, his ability to handle finances com 
menced to show itself, and in May, 1884, he was 
elected to the position of G. M. of F., and served 
for one year ; the office has since been abolished. 

In April, 1886, he was elected to the position of 
G. K. of R. and S. and served in that station until 
1891. He was elected to the position of G. C. in 
May, 1892, served until 1897, and declined re-elec 
tion. In April, 1899, he was again elected to the 
position of G. C. Upon assuming that station he 
found the finances of the Grand Lodge in an insol 
vent condition. The general fund had no assets, 
while its liabilities amounted to $105.62. The En 
dowment Fund showed the small amount of assets 
as $196.40, while its liabilities showed death claims 



due and unpaid, aggregating $3,424.25. The mem 
bership at that time was only 897. 

He found that it was necessary to increase the 
endowment dues if the Grand Lodge of the State 
of Louisiana was to be resurrected. The recom 
mendation he made was adopted and became a part 
of the laws of the Grand Lodge with the result 
that a sufficient sum was soon accumulated to pay 
off all outstanding claims for endowment. When 
the Grand Lodge met in April, 1902, they found 
themselves entirely out of debt, with a small sur 
plus on hand to the credit of the endowment de 
partment. The Grand Lodge was then paying an 
endowment of $300.00, ninety days after filing the 
claim. 

In April, 1905, he recommended that the endow 
ment policies be raised to $500, and the claims be 
paid within thirty days after they were filed. In 
the year of 1906, the surplus in the Endowment 
Fund had reached such a large sum, and was grow 
ing all the time, that the question arose, "What 
shall we do with this money?" It was then nec 
essary for S. W. Green to study out a way of in 
vesting it. Accordingly, in 1906, at the Grand 
Lodge Session in Alexandria, La., he recommended 
that the Grand Lodge State of Louisiana erect a 
Pythian Temple, and accordingly an appropriation 
of $12,000 was made by the Grand Lodge for the 
purchase of a site. 

This appropriation was found to be insufficient 
to purchase a site in the desired locality, and an ad 
ditional $3,000 was therefore appropriated to pay 
for same. This appropriation resulted in the pur 
chase of a desirable site in the city of New Drleans, 
La., to be used at later date for a Pythian Temple. 
The original appropriation for the temple was only 
$60,000 but realizing that a $60,000 building in a city 
like New Orleans would not serve the purpose for 
which it was intended, he allied his forces, and car 
ried them to the Grand Lodge, which convened in 
the city of New Orleans in 1908. Here the Grand 
Lodge approved his action in reference to building 
a magnificent structure, which is now completed 
and cost in the neighborhood of $200,000. Today we 
see that from the crippled conditions of affairs 
when Mr. Green assumed control of the office, the 
Grand Lodge of the State of Louisiana has 180 
lodges in the state, with a membership of 9,000 and 
with the total resources of $123,354.07, endowment 
claims being paid within thirty days after filing. 

Mr. Green attended the first Supreme Lodge ses 
sion in August, 1893 as Supreme Representative 
for the State of Louisiana, in August, 1895, at St. 
Louis, Mo., and has attended every Supreme Lodge 
session as a representative since that date. 

At the Supreme Lodge session at Pittsburg, Pa., 
in 1905, he was elected to the position of Supreme 
Vice Chancellor and ex-officio, Supreme Worthy 
Counsellor. At the Supreme Lodge session in 
Louisville, Ky., in 1907, he was re-elected to the 
position and held that position until April 3, 1908, 
when he assumed the duties of Supreme Chancellor 
the place made vacant by the death of the late S. 
W. Starks. 



182 




HENRY CLAUDE HUDSON, D. D. S. 




LL those doubting the efficacy of 
a young man's acquiring a trade 
in his early years should know 
the story of Dr. Henry Claude 
Hudson, D. D. S. of Shreveport, 
Louisiana. A trade not only pro 
vided him his daily bread, even when he was very 
young, but it was the agency whereby he gained 
funds to pursue his education and whereby he was 
able on at least one occasion to render almost price 
less service to himself and to his people. 

Born in Marksville, Avoyles Parish, Louisiana, 
April 19th, 1886, his parents moved to Alexandria, 
La., when he was a five-year-old where he passed 
his early school days. Having aspiration for higher 
education he entered the eighth District Academy 
at Alexandria, where he prepared to enter college. 
However there was no means in sight to defray 
his expenses through school and so dropping out of 
school he went forth and became apprentice at 
brickmasonry. Having mastered this trade he re- 
entered school and once more pursued his studies. 
From the academy in Alexandria, he went to Wiley 
University in Marshall, Texas. It was here that his 
trade served him in such good stead and did such 
excellent service for his people. When Dr. Hudson 
entered Wiley, in 1910, that institution was about 
to erect a Carnegie Library. All was ready except 
the labor. This was under the control of the 



unions. A dead lock insued. In this situation the 
young man came forward, stated that he was a 
brickmason and that he would take charge of the 
work and complete it, if the University would pro 
vide students to help. This was agreed to, and the 
library was built, much to the satisfaction of the 
university and the glory and profit of the young 
man. 

Finding him a thoroughly reliable builder and 
that it saved money by his taking the contract, Wi 
ley University soon had him on other buildings. 
Several dormitories for boys were to be erected. It 
engaged his services as superintendent, and thus 
erected its buildings with a considerable saving to 
itself and with no further trouble from the labor 
unions. 

Having now decided to become a dentist, and 
having solved pretty well the difficulty of financing 
himself, Dr. Hudson entered Howard University 
in Washington, D. C. Several times, however, he 
found during his course in dentistry that he could 
not turn his trade to immediate account. Compe 
tition was a good deal sharper in the North, he 
found, than it was in the South. Thus in his short 
vacations when time was exceedingly precious he 
turned his energies to whatever task his hands 
could find. He found the Pennsylvania Dining Car 
service the most immediate employment and the 
largest remuneration for a short space of time. 
Engaging in this service he was able to continue 
his education. Incidently he traveled all over the 
eastern states while he was in this work. 

Graduating from the Howard University Dental 
course in June, 1913, he immediately returned to 
his home land and prepared for the state examin 
ations. To make assurance doubly sure he took 
the examinations in two states, Louisiana and Ark- 
kansas. In both states he passed. Louisiana was 
his home, and in his home he preferred to try first. 
Hanging out his sign in Shreveport, he began his 
career as a dentist. His success has far exceeded 
even his ambition. In a short time he found that 
one chair was not sufficient to accommodate his 
patrons. He found also that he could not meet all 
the demands made upon him. He therefore set up 
a second chair and employed an assistant, a young 
lady who is giving most efficient service. 

That he has been unusually successful as a pro 
fessional man is shown from the amount he has 
been able to accumulate during the few years of 
his practice. Dr. Hudson owns his home, a very at 
tractive residence on Jordan Street in Alexandria. 
He has equipped his office with the most up-to-date 
dental appliances available. All these he owns, 
having paid for them $3000. 

Though genuinely interested in the life of 
Shreveport, Dr. Hudson has but little time to -ive 
to lodge or social engagements. Only his Sabbaths 
are free, and frequently only a part of these. He 
is a member of the St. James Methodist Episcopal 
Church of Shreveport, where he attends services, 
and takes such active part in church work as his 
time will allow. He was elected a member of the 
Board of trustees of Wiley University in May, 1918. 

Dr. Hudson was married to Miss Thomey B. 
Thomas of Shreveport, September 14, 1914. Dr. 
and Mrs. Hudson have two children, Henry Claude, 
Jr., who was born January 5th, 1916; and Gloria T., 
who was born April 11, 1917. 



183 





MASON ALBERT HAWKINS, A. B., A. M. 

ASON Albert Hawkins, of Balti 
more, Maryland, is a Virginian by 
birth. On October 21, 1874, he 
was born in Charlottsville, Al- 
hermarle County. At an early 
age he went from Virginia to 
Maryland where he attended the Elementary 
schools, of Baltimore. Completing the work of 
the graded schools he prepared for college at 
Morgan College, also in Baltimore. From Mor 
gan College Mr. Hawkins went to Harvard Univer 
sity. Here he spent four years in the classical 
course of this great institution, graduating in 1901. 
with the degree A. B. He received the degree of 
A. M., from Columbia University in 1910. 

Upon finishing the course at Harvard, Mr. Haw 
kins became a teacher of Latin, German, and Ec 
onomics, in the Colored High School, of Baltimore. 
In this position he worked for five years, when he 
became head of Department of Foreign Languag 
es in 1906. In 1909 he was made Vice-Principal of 
this school and Principal the latter part of the same 
year. Here Mr. Hawkins still labors. Most of 
his life has been spent in the school rooms of Bal 
timore. 



Since Mr. Hawkins took charge of the Colored 
High School it has had a great growth. He has 
modified the course of study to meet in a large de 
gree the needs of the community which it serves. 
He emphasizes the obligations of the teacher to the 
parents. He also lays great stress upon the need 
of broad vision and sympathy and the requirement 
of high professional skill. With these views it is 
but natural that Mr. Hawkins himself should go 
out of the school room to touch the lives of all in 
the community. So we find him an active member 
of the Union Baptist Church, a member of the 
American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 
and a Fellow of American Geographical Society. 
But his interests in the people of his immediate 
community is shown more in the fact that he 
serves as a member of the Board of Provident 
Hospital; President of the Maryland Colored Pub 
lic Health Association; Treasurer of the Maryland 
Colored Blind Association ; Member of the Com 
mission on Preparedness and Defense for the Col 
ored People of Maryland. 

He was appointed to the Commission on Pre- 
pardness by Governor Harrington. This alone goes 
to show that his. efforts in the behalf of the Race 
has attracted the attention of the whole State. So 
numerous and so varied are these bodies which he 
serves, that it is readily seen that it is no one 
phase of the development of the Race which Mr. 
Hawkins has at heart, but the advancement of the 
entire people. 

Along with all the interests which are ever be 
fore Principal Hawkins, he has an interest in cer 
tain inventions. On this he spends considerable 
time. It to him is a recreation from the other kind 
of work which is ever with him. He has been 
awarded patents on a cabinet for player music rolls 
and he has patents pending on a number of various 
devices. 

On October 14, 1905, Mr. Hawkins was married 
to Miss Margaret B. Gregory. Mrs. Hawkins is 
the daughter of the late Professor James M. Gre 
gory, of Bordentown Industrial School, Borden- 
town, New Jersey. Mr. Hawkins has two sons, 
Gregory Hawkins, and Mason A. Hawkins. These 
two lads are in the schools of Baltimore and give 
promise ;of great intellectual development. Mr. 
Hawkins ambition is to prepare them for an hon 
orable and useful life. 

Mr. Hawkins has set the example of thrift for 
those who take him as a pattern. He pays taxes 
on both real-estate and personal property. In this 
man we see one well rounded. He is a sound 
scholar, a progressive educator, and an excellent 
administrator. At the same time he touches the 
lives of all the people about him, even the most 
lowly in a helpful manner. 



184 





WILLIAM PICKENS, A. B.. A. M., LIT. D., LL. D. 

S a very young man in school, 
William 1'ickens won for himself 
honors and the name ot a close 
student and a good speaker. What 
the young man gave promise of 
being William 1'ickens, the man, 
is. He was born in South Carolina, 
Jan. 15, 1881. His public school 
training was received in Arkansas. In 1899 he 
graduated from the High School in Little Rock, as 
Valedictorian of the class. Not only had young 
Pickens led his particular class, but he had higher 
marks than any student had ever made in the 
school. After leaving High School, Mr. Pickens 
entered Talledega College, Talledega, Alabama, and 
graduated with the degree of- A .B., again valedic 
torian of his class. Not yet satisfied with his train 
ing the subject of this sketch next entered Yale Un 
iversity. After two years stay he graduated in the 
highest grade, "Philosophical Oration Grade" in 
class of over three hundred. One of the rewards 
of his high scholarship was receiving Phi Beta 
Kappa. During his first year at Yale Mr. Pickens 
won the highest of ten different prizes for Oratory 
in the James Teneyck Oratorical Contest. Thous 
ands of people complimented him on this achieve 
ment among them being ex-President Cleveland. 
President Roosevelt's family. 

Having completed the work at Yale, Professor 
Pickens first worked in his old school. Talladega 



College. Here for ten years he was Professor of 
Language. While in Talladega, he took a very 
special interest in the students. At all times he 
was willing and ready to see their side of any ques 
tion and to see that they were given their rights. 
While teaching in Talladega, Fisk University, Nash 
ville, Tennessee gave him the degree of Master of 
Arts, for a Latin thesis. After ten years of work 
at Talladega, Professor Pickens gave up the work 
there and accepted the position as Professor of 
Greek and Sociology in Wiley University, Mar 
shall, Texas, 1914-15, and then the post of Dean of 
Morgan College, Baltimore, Md. This position he 
held till 1917, when the Trustees of Morgan made 
him Vice-President. Selma University honored him 
with the degree Lit. D., in 1915, and Wiley with 
L. L. D., in 1918. 

Mr.. Pickens did not leap suddenly into fame as 
a speaker. From his earliest young manhood he 
led his mates in this particular line. While in the 
Sophomore year at Talladega, he began lecturing 
in the North. At this time he was only nineteen 
years of age. And so well were his hearers pleased 
with the words of wisdom uttered by one so young, 
that they requested the publication of these address 
es. 

Since this beginning as a public speaker, Mr. 
Pickens has made for himself a great name in this 
particular line. He appeared on the American 
Missionary Association program at Springfield, 
Massachusetts, in 1900, in the Court Square Thea 
tre. At the same time Booker T. Washington, the 
great race leader, and Newell Dwight Hillis, fa 
mous New York preacher, were speakers. Many 
times since that day Mr. Pickens has appeared in 
similar meetings. He is in constant demand in 
both the North and the South for the lecture plat 
form. 

At the same time that he was making a name for 
himself in this line of speaking, he was making 
known his powers as a writer. He has written 
many articles for magizines and many phamplets. 
He has out now a book, "The New Negro." It is 
a book of merit and one that has met with ready 
appreciation. 

That Mr. Pickens is no dreamer but can handle 
practical problems very well is evidenced by the 
manner in which he is serving his country during 
this war. He, with Mr. Spingarn are reputed to be 
the first to make a move for an officers' Training 
Camp for Negroes. At the time many were hostile 
to the idea, especially is this true of the attitude of 
the Negro press. But today we are proud of that 
cam]) and its results. Mr. Pickens has taken his 
time to busy himself with the different canton 
ments, visiting and speaking to the men. As a 
member of the Maryland Council of Defense, he 
is doing many sorts of war work. 

Mr. Pickens was married in 1905, to Miss Min 
nie McAlpine of Meridian Mississippi. To them 
have been born three children, William, Jr., Har 
riet Ida, Ruby Annie. They are all pupils in school 
and are showing that they have inherited from 
their father some of his ability. 

Mr. Pickens has traveled extensively. He has 
covered the greater part of this country and has 
traveled in Europe. He is a fine example of "The 
New Negro" himself. 



18S 




WILLIAM STANLEY RRAITHWAITE. 




N Boston, Massachusetts, in the 
year 1868, there was born a child 
who was destined to take a lead 
ing place as an authority on 
American Verse. This child was 
William Stanley Braithwaite. At 
the age of twelve years he had to leave school in 
order that he might help provide for his mother. 
This was due to the fact that he had lost his father. 
Up to the time he left school the lad had been a 
close student and had mastered all the tasks that 
were set for him. And even though lie was out 
of school, young Braithwaite did not cease to study 
but continued to be thoughtful and to absorb all 
the culture that surrounded him. 

Mr. Braithwaite says of himself: "At the age 
of fifteen like a revealation, there broke out in me 
a great passion for poetry, an intense love for lit 
erature, and a yearning for the ideal life which fos 
ters the creation of things that come out of dreams 
and visions and symbols. J dedicated my future to 
literature, though the altar upon which I was to 
lay my sacrificial life seemed beyond all likelihood 
of opportunity and strength and equipment to 
reach. I set about it, however, with fortitude, 
hope and patience." 

What the exercise of these three virtues brought 
r.bout in the life of this young man may be readily 



seen from the results that he has been able to 
achieve. In America and abroad as well he is re 
cognized as the leading authority .on American 
Poetry. This high place- did not conic to him be 
cause of his love for this work, but because of tin- 
time and effort he put into the study of the sub 
ject. For the past twelve years he has devoted 
most of his time to the study of American poetry. 
F.ach year he has published in the Boston Tran 
script a review of poetry for the vear and each 
year he has published an Anthology of American 
Poems. In this work Mr. Braithwaite includes all 
of the poems written during the year that arc, in 
his opinion worth while. In such high regard is 
the opinion of this man held that not to be in his 
book for the vear, is not to be known as a poet. 
In fact in the opinion of literary folk in F.ngland 
Mr. Braithwaite is not only an authority on Amer 
ican Poetry, but The Authority on the subject. 

Mr. Braithwaite stands to the colored boy and 
the colored girl as an example of the man who has 
gone to the top in spite of his color. So many hold 
that the best place is never given to a person of 
color. Mr. Braithwaite is a positive denial of this 
saying. In fact with him, and with a few others 
who have dared to go ahead, starts the saying 
a man can be just what he wants to be in spite 
of his color. 

The works of Braithwaite include "Lyrics of 
Life and Love," "The Book of Klizabethian 
Verse," "The House of Falling Leaves," "The 
Book of Georgian Verse," "The Book of Restora 
tion Verse," and "The Book of Victorian Verse." 
The publishers for the works of Braithwaite say 
of his Poetic Year for 1916: "Here is a book that 
is actually 'Something new tinder the sun,' and 
furthermore, 'fills a long felt want.' " Any lover 
of poetry, any student of contemporary literature, 
who desires to form an intelligent estimate of 
recent poetry, or to make an acquaintance with any 
individual poet of our time sufficiently definite to 
give him the requisite knowledge for an intelligent 
discussion, will find the book indispensable. 

"The method of the book is not the least of its 
virtues. A friendly discussion takes place among a 
group of four friends, including Mr. Braithwaite 
himself, who provides the guiding hand." 

"Bv this lively treatment, so surprisingly differ 
ent from the usual method of critical writing, tin- 
reader forms a personal impression, as human as 
it is well founded of the poetry" of all contempo 
rary poets who are really deserving of that title. 

William Stanley Braithwaite has made a place 
for himself at the top in his chosen work, lie is 
held up here as an ideal along his line to all young- 
persons of color, lie is an example of what con 
centrated endeavor will do for a person of deter 
mination. 



186 




WILLIAM NELSON DeBERRY, D. D. 




HEN Fisk University wishes to 
point to her useful and scholarly 
graduates, she usually comes very 
soon to the name of William N 
DeBerry. As it is with Fisk, so 
it is with the whole of Nashville. 
He is especially a source of pride to Nashville, not 
because she is lacking in conspicious men among 
her colored citizens, but because of the theory that 
the men living nearest institutions of learning fre 
quently make the least use of them. This saying is 
far from true in the case of the subject of this 
sketch. 

Mr. DeBerry was born in Nashville, Tennessee, 
August 29, 1870. He was fortunate enough to be 
able to attend school from early childhood. So we 
find him as a lad attending the public schools of his 
native city. Here he applied himself very diligent 
ly to the work in hand. Always he had before 
him the chance of attending the University which 
was open for him at his very door. So we find 
him while still a young man entering Fisk. Here 
he remained to complete the course of study and 
graduate. He finished with the class of 1896. While 
in Fisk University young DeBerry was always 

187 



ready to receive with an open mind the instruc 
tion of his teachers. Hence we have him as a shin 
ing example of the good scholars that arc turned 
out by Fisk University. 

Leaving Fisk, Mr. DeBerry matriculated at Ober- 
lin College in Ohio. Here he was a student in the 
theological Department. From the full course of 
that department he was graduated in 189 C ). Mr. 
DeBerry is a Congregationalist in church affilia 
tion. Leaving Oberlin he went to Springfield, 
Massachusetts to pastor the St. John's Congrega 
tional Church there. Here he has remained since 
that time, having had but the one charge in all 
these years. This is remarkable for a pastor of 
any denomination. 

Working hard and steadily at his post, studying 
to keep abreast of the times, Dr. Ue Berry is much 
in demand as a public speaker and lecturer and 
freely welcomed into many organizations for his 
usefulness. His has been a life spent in develop 
ing the younger people with whom he came in 
contact. He has endeavored to make them better 
men and women better mentally, morally and 
spiritually. 

The St. John's Congregational Church has what 
is perhaps the most modern and best equipped 
plant of all the colored churches in New England. 
The present edifice which was erected in 1911 is 
valued, together with its equipment, at $30,000. It 
io free from debt. 

Ihe Church is unique in its plan of organization 
and in the method of its varied activities. It seeks 
to adapt its work in all its phases to the religious 
and social needs of the people whom it serves. It 
is known throughout the country for the well or 
ganized and very efficient institutional work which 
it carries on. The institutional activities include 
a parish home for working girls, a night school of 
Domestic Science, a social center for women and 
girls, a club house for young men and boys, a free 
employment bureau and a department of family 
housing. The institutional staff includes six paid 
workers in addition to the pastor. The real estate 
and equipment of the institutional department are 
valued conservatively at $50,000 making the total 
valuation of the property owned by the church at 
about $80,000. 

Among the many organizations which are proud 
to claim Dr. DeBerry a member are the American 
Missionary Association, and the American Board 
of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Of both 
these organizations he is a life member. 

In 1914 Fisk University elected him a member 
of her board of trustees. In this capacity he still 
serves the school that gave him his inspiration for 
his life of usefulness. 

Recognizing the excellent work of this man, 
Lincoln University conferred upon him the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity, in 1915. In 1917 he was el 
ected to honorary membership in the fraternity of 
Alpha Phi Alpha. In this way some of the honor 
due Dr. DeBerry is being received by him now. 

Dr. DeBerry was married in 1899 to Miss Aman 
da McKissack, of 1'ulaski, Tennessee. Mrs. De- 
Berry is a graduate of Fisk University. Two 
children have been born to brighten and gladen the 
home of the DeBerry's Charlotte Pearl and Anna 
Mae. They are both young misses in school. 





DAVID EUGENE CRAWFORD. 

ROM a date somewhere near the 
clays of Plymouth Rock and the 
first Pilgrims, Boston, Massachu 
setts, has had its famous Negroes. 
Phillis Wheatley was the first fa 
mous Negro of Massachusetts, as 
she was the first woman poet of the state and the 
first, and perhaps the only Negro woman poet 
of the ages. Crispus Attucks and Peter Salem were 
the famous black men of the Revolutionary times, 
then came the Ruffins, the Trotters, but history 
becomes confused. She cannot distinguish between 
the real Bostonian and the man and woman who 
went to Boston to become famous, or who be 
came famous because they went to Boston. 

Hem-ever, from Phillis Wheatley to this day Bos 
ton has never lacked for genuinely strong and use 
ful colored people. Among the modern leaders of 
the practical, modest yet very powerful and useful 
type is numbered David Eugene Crawford. 

Mr. Crawford was born in Lynchburg, Virginia, 
December 26th, 1869. He attended the public 
schools of Lynchburg, and then attended Hampton 
Institute. Getting the Hampton stamp upon him 
he went to Boston and began work. All along he 

188 



has linked work and education ; because he could 
not pursue his studies without working and he 
would not work without studying. When he was 
sixteen he began dealing in produce in the Virginia 
markets. In Boston, at the age of twenty, he be 
came a caterer, pursuing his studies in the mean 
time in the Boston Y. M| C. A.. This business of 
caterer and student he followed until 1907 when 
he was admitted to the Bar to practice law. Thus 
he became after a struggle of a quarter of a century 
to realize his dream of a professional life. 

But Mr. Crawford found entrance into the pro 
fession of law by no means marked his entrance in 
to public life. It rather marked a public recogni 
tion of what he had done and been in Massachu 
setts for more than a score of years. He has been 
closely allied with the New England Suffrage 
League, with civic movements, with meetings and 
petitions for justice to the black man throughout 
the country. Indeed there has scarcely been a step 
taken among the colored people of Boston during 
these years but Mr. Crawford has been a conspic 
uous figure. 

What the leading citizens of Massachusetts think 
of him is shown by the many prominent offices he 
holds and by the cooperation he has been able to 
gain in his undertakings. He is treasurer of the 
Ebenezer Baptist Church, of which he has for years 
been a member. He has been a Mason for twenty- 
five years. He is a thirty-third degree Mason and 
Past Master of the Eureka Lodge, a member of all 
masonic branches and Deputy of the Valley of 
Massachusetts. In 1915 the Governor of Massachu 
setts appointed him master in Chancery, and in 1916 
the citizens of Boston elected him as a delegate to 
the National Republican Convention, which met at 
Chicago. The crowning mark of public confidence, 
however, came to Mr. Crawford, in 1910, when he 
opened the Eureka Co-Operative Bank, the only 
Negro Bank in the Bay State. That it has run 
successfully ever since in a city and in a state 
where banks are common and competition for 
money very sharp, is highly expressive of the pub 
lic in Mr. Crawford. 

Through studying and serving Mr. Crawford 
managed all along to accumulate property and to 
educate a growing family. He has traveled in the 
North, Middle West, and in some parts of the 
South and in Canada. His property holdings of 
apartments, stores and commercial properties are 
valued in all at $150,000. 

Mr. Crawford was married to Miss Almira G. 
Lewis of Boston in 1894. Their four children are 
all making careers worthy of their father, who has 
set such a high standard of attainment. J. William 
Crawford, who is twenty-two years of age is a 
senior in the Boston University Law School ; Miss 
Mildred L., age twenty-one, is a bookkeeper and 
stenographer, Miss Helen F is a sophomore in Rad- 
cliff College, and Miss M. Virginia is a senior in the 
Girl's High School of Boston. 




ROLAND WILTSE HAYES. 




OLAND W. Hayes, easily the 
leading tenor of the Colored Race 
was born June 5, 1887, at Curry- 
ville, Georgia. Here in Georgia 
he lived on the farm, working, at 
tending school when it was in 
session, till he was fourteen years 
of age. His father died, leaving 
seven children, and Roland was among the older 
ones. On him therefore fell some of the responsi 
bility. His mother moved, when he was fourteen, 
to Chattanooga, Tennessee. The problem of edu 
cating the children was a serious one. Mrs. Hayes 
finally hit upon the plan of letting the two older 
boys, Robert and Roland, take turns at attending 
school. One went to school one year, while the 
other worked to help in the support of the family 
and the next year this turned it about. In this 
manner Roland W. Hayes had a chance ti attend 
school. He made the most of his opportunity dur 
ing the four years they were thus taking their 
turns at school. 

Arthur W. Calhoun, (Colored), a graduate of the 
Oberlin Conservatory of Music, heard young Hay 
es sing one day and persuaded him to take lessons 
and urged him to adopt singing as a profession. 
His first public appearance aroused enthusiastic 
comment and a sum of money was raised to per 
mit the boy to continue his studies at the musical 
college. With this help and by his own labors he 



spent four years in Fisk University. Here his voice 
was under the care of the Vocal teacher, Miss 
Jennie A. Robinson, head of the music department. 

In the summer of 1910 Mr. Hayes went to Louis 
ville, Kentucky, where he worked for eight 
months. His object in working in Louisville was 
to save money enough to go North for further 
training. Combining work and education, Mr. 
Hayes took a job as a waiter in Pendennis club. 
Some of the members learned that he could sing, 
through the head waiter, Mr. Henry T. Bain. 
Through them he had many opportunities to fill 
engagements as a singer. It was through this 
club that he met a theatrical manager, who hired 
him at five dollars a day for a month. At the con 
clusion of this engagement, through one of the 
members of the Pendennis club, in which he was 
a waiter, made arrangements for him to sing in 
Louisville at the National Fire Insurance Agent's 
Banquet. A few weeks after this engagement he 
was asked to sing in the missionary meeting "The 
World in Boston." Here he appeared with the 
Fisk Jubilee Singers, where the engagement lasted 
for six weeks. 

In the Fall of 1911, Mr. Henry H. Putnian. of 
Boston, arranged for Mr. Hayes to begin his mus 
ical training in Boston, under Maestro Arthur 1. 
Hubbard, where he has continued his studies until 
the present. Under the teaching of the great 
Maestro Hubbard, for the last seven years, the na 
turally sweet voice of Mr. Hayes has been devel 
oped and straightened until now, he as an artist, 
ranks among the best artists of the land. In No 
vember of 1917, he made his first appearance in 
the great Symphony Hall, of .Boston. 

He is the first Colored Artist to have a recital in 
this Hall. To quote from the Guardian we can see 
how Mr. Hayes was received. 

"Doff the hat to Roland W. Hayes, the singer ! 
He essayed the difficult and succeeded. He made 
the fight and won. In size of audience, in finan 
cial profit, in auditorium and in his own musical 
performance Hayes scored a triumph. 

"The great Symphony Hall was packed, even the 
platform was filled with seats and persons stood 
thick along both hall aisles. It was a mixed aud 
ience with no segregation and thoroughly repres 
entative of both rates, as big an audience as world- 
famous white artists have there. No Colored Ar 
tist ever had a recital in Symphony Hall. 

"In this respect and in the talent displayed by 
Mr. Hayes, as well as in the size and character of 
the audience the recital made musical history for 
Colored Bostonians. Mr. Hayes rendered a wide 
variety of songs. After Mr. Hayes' singing Thurs 
day night. Colored Boston can claim to have the 
leading tenor of the day. His voice was full and 
robust with a long range- It was resonant and 
flexible. 

Mr. Hayes has traveled over the United States 
as a Concert Artist. His time has been given 
wholly to the development of his voice and in ear 
ning means for that purpose. He is a member of 
the Baptist Church, of Boston, but has connected 
himself with no other organizations. His is the life 
of the true artist, one of continual application of 
self for continued artistic development, for the 
sake of art and for the inspiration of the members 
(musical), of his race. 



189 





ALEXANDER HUGHES. 

ORN a slave in Richmond, Virginia 
January 17, 1857, growing to 
manhood without even the rudi 
ments of an education, Alexander 
Hughes of Springfield, Massachu 
setts, has won his way into the 
hearts of his fellow townsmen, until he is one of 
the most respected and best loved men of his sec 
tion of Massachusetts. The respect of his fellow 
citizens he gained through careful attention to his 
work and to his business relation, paying his debts 
and meeting obligations promptly, a thing that 
pleases a New Englander. Their affections he won 
through flowers; through growing flowers and 
giving away flowers.. For three successive years 
he lias won a pri/.e offered by the Springfield Re 
publican for the prettiest flowers in back and front 
yards. He even went further. He rented, or bor 
rowed, vacant lots and planted flowers in these. 
Then, when the flowers grew, he would give them 
in handsome bouqets to the sick, to invalids, to the 
members of old people's homes. 

Mr. Hughes was nine years old when his master 
returned from the war. The master gave Mr. 
Hughes' father five days to leave the plantation. 



The father departed, but left Mr. Hughes with one 
brother and two sisters to aid the master. From 
nine to twelve Mr. Hughes tended cows and did 
chores about the plantation. From twelve to eight 
een he worked in a tobacco factory of Richmond ; 
from eighteen to twenty he drove a grocery wagon 
from twenty to twenty-four he carried brick and 
mortar. From twenty-four to twenty-seven, he 
drove a wholesale grocery wagon in Spring 
field. Then he cared for furnaces for t w o 
years, and was a janitor for two years. In Oct 
ober, 1888, he became shipping clerk for the Massa 
chusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company. 

Here he has remained, winning distinction in 
many directions. In 1889 he added night catering 
to his list, his patrons being of social exclusiveness ; 
and won distinction and made money. He became 
a member of the Springfield Chamber of Com 
merce; of the St. John's Congregational Church, 
also deacon, church treasurer, Sunday School teach 
er and member of the Standing Committee, mem 
ber of the Y. M. C. A., member of the Golden Chain 
Lodge of Odd Fellows: treasurer of the Household 
of Ruth; member of the Negro Civic League of the 
Springfield Improvement Association ; of the Un 
ion Relief Association; of the Home Guards, a war 
defense organization. He is treasurer and trustee 
of the Mutual Housing Company, a company which 
keeps homes for colored people. 

All these posts he fills with honor. Yet Mr. 
Hughes began life a slave and rose to maturity il 
literate. Indeed his education in books is very lim 
ited. Back in 1881, when he was twenty-four years 
old, he attended for a while the Springfield Night 
Schools, where he learned some reading, writing 
and arithmetic. 

Mr. Hughes has been twice married. In 1882 he 
was married to Miss Bettie A. White ; she died in 
1892. The second Mrs. Hughes was Miss Pauline 
Simms. Both came from Virginia, his native home. 

Mr. Hughes' story has been a source of much in 
spiration even in Massachusetts. The following 
from New England Character, edited by Thomas 
Dreier, will show how highly Mr. Hughes is es 
teemed and how widely he is written of in the Old 
Bay State. 

"Recently I wrote for a magazine a little squib, 
about Alexander Hughes of Springfield, Massachu 
setts. I told how this negro, born in slavery, has 
for two years won the prize offered by this city 
for the best-kept lawn and garden, how it 
is his habit to appropriate the vacant ground be 
longing to his neighbors and plant flowers on it, 
h'^w he carries flowers to the hospitals to make 
brighter the days of those forced to lie in their 
beds taking especial care to provide flowers for 
strangers and those who have no friends at hand, 
how he works all day in the shipping de 
partment of the Massachusetts Mutual, and at 
nights serves as a caterer where rich folks want 
service plus, how he stands as a leader in re 
ligious work among his people, and how each year 
he sends part of his salary to southern educational 
institutions. All these things and more I told, and 
what I wrote was reprinted with editorial backing 
in the Springfield "Republican." 



190 




WILLIAM H. LEWIS, A. B., LL. B., LL. D. 




N November 28, in Berkley, Vir 
ginia, William Jrl. Lewis was 
born. Berkley is now a part 
of Norfolk. At an early age he 
went to Portsmouth, Virginia, 
where he was a student in the 
public schools of that city. Leaving the schools 
of Portsmouth he next entered the State Normal 
School at Petersburg. He next matriculated at 
Ainherst, from whence he was graduated in 1892. 
Having decided upon the practice of law as a pro 
fession he then entered the Harvard Law School 
and was graduated in 1895. In 1918 Hon. Lewis 
once more received a degree. This time is was the 
degree of Doctor of Law and it came from Wil- 
berforce University. 

During his school days Mr. Lewis was noted for 
his foot ball. He was one of the best centers that 
they have ever had in Harvard. He was Captain 
of the foot ball team of Amherst and was al,so the 
Class Orator of his class. When he entered Har 
vard he once more had a place with the foot ball 
team, h'or two years he played on the team and 
then for ten years he served as the coach for the 
foot ball eleven. His knowledge of college men 
and liis interest in them has extended over a 
greater period of years than is given most men 
in liis profession. 

Having finished law at the Harvard School of 

191 



Law in 1895, Mr. Lewis was promptly admitted 
to the practice of law in Boston. Since that time 
many positions of honor have been filled by him. 
He was member of the City Council, Cambridge. 
Massachusetts, in 1899, 1900, 1901. He was mem 
ber of Massachusetts Legislature, 1902. President 
Roosevelt appointed him Assistant United States 
District Attorney in 1903. He was made a member 
of the Public Library Trustees of the City of Cam 
bridge. From 1908 to 1909 he was the Attorney in 
charge of Naturalization for the New England 
States. President Taft appointed him Assistant 
Attorney General of the United States in 1911. 

Mr. Lewis has been fearless in standing for the 
rights of the colored people of the United States. 
He was invited to join the American Bar Associa 
tion. Later he had an invitation to resign, but in 
his characteristic manner he refused to comply 
with the invitation. Mr. Lewis has had many hon 
ors from the government. He has done good for 
the entire race by the manner in which he has filled 
the various posts that have been given him. 

In religious belief Mr. Lewis is a Congregation- 
alist. He has traveled extensively through the 
United States and in 1912 he visited England and 
France. September 26, 1896, Mr. Lewis was mar 
ried to Miss Elizabeth Baker of Cambridge, Mas 
sachusetts. Three children have been born to 
brighten this home. Miss Dorothy Lewis is a stu 
dent of Wellesley. Here Miss Lewis gives a good 
account of herself among her fellows. Miss Eliza 
beth Lewis is a student at High School, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, and Mr. William H. Lewis, Jr., is 
also a High School student. In the point of edu 
cation the young people of this family bid fair to 
follow in the footsteps of their father. 

Mr. Lewis has made a success of his life. In 
school besides being a good student he was a good 
orator and a first class athlete. Out in life he has 
carried the same idea of success in everything un 
dertaken. The many duties that have been show 
ered upon him have been filled to his credit. In 
his profession he is a good lawyer. If the case 
involves some things in the medical world, Mr. 
Lewis is not satisfied till he has mastered all the 
knowledge on the subject. If it is a matter of 
boundaries he studies equally as hard. To him the 
thing desired is a complete knowledge of all the 
things that touch the case even remotely, tie has 
been quoted on some of his famous cases through 
out the United States. Of course the fact that he 
was colored was not known. But the color of his 
skin could not change the facts that were gathered 
in his brain. Nothing short of perfect understand 
ing of the matter in hand satisfied Mr. Lewis. Be 
cause of this he is one of our most prominent men. 





HORACK G. McKERROW, M. D., C. M. 




R. Horace G. Mackerrow, of 
Worcester, Massachusetts, in 
vested many years in education, 
in attending various institutions 
of learning. He appears to have 
set over against each year and 
each institution, all itemized, 
some definite service to men and 
to the state. He was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
October thirteenth, 1879. As a lad he attended the 
public schools of Halifax. From 1893 to 1897 he- 
was a student in Halifax Academy. The next year 
1898, he spent in the Teachers' Training Class of 
Dollwise College. From this institution he enrolled 
in the Montreal Business College. Still forging to 
the front he taught school in Halifax for two years. 
Finding this none too much to his liking he came to 
the "states." For a while he oscilated between the 
Montreal postal service and hotel work at Atlantic 
City. He spent some time also in Pullman service. 
Running on the Grand Trunk Rail Road in dining 
car service. 

By this time he had fully made up his mind as 
to the career he wished to follow. In October 1900 
he enrolled in the Leonard Medical College at Shaw 
University, Raleigh, North Carolina. Completing 
his medical course in 1904, he entered Bishop's Uni 
versity. Here he was graduated with the degree of 
M. D. C. M. in 1905. Returing to Canada, he was 
for six months resident house surgeon for the Wo- 

192 



man's Hospital. In September, 1905, he took the 
medical examination in Massachusetts. Passing, 
he opened office in Worcester of the same year. 

It is in Worcester that he has translated all his 
former experiences, all his years of study into use 
ful action. Here he is a member of the John Street 
Baptist Church, and superintendent of the Sunday 
School. He is Past Master of Masonic Lodge of 
King David. He is a member of the St. John Chap 
ter of R. A. M. and Zion Commandery, K. T. C. P., 
of the Holy Shepherds Consistory, Lizra Temple 
A. K. O. N. M. S., and Past Examiner of this body ; 
he is Grand Commander of the Knight Templars 
of Rhode Island and Massachusetts; he is Past 
Grand Master of the Council of the Odd Fellows, 
North Star Lodge, G. U. O. O. and P. N. F. To 
his activities in the various lodges. Dr. Mackerrow 
add many activities in civil and social life. He is 
a member of the Executive Board of the Citizens 
League of Worcester, of the Massachusetts State 
Guards. 19th regiment of Worcester, of the Wor 
cester Military Training School, of the Pistol and 
Rife Club, of Worcester, of the Anglo-Saxon Club, 
of Worcester, of the Gun and Rod Club of Cam 
bridge and Boston. Not forgetting his profession 
Dr. Mackerrow has allied himself to all medical 
associations of his section of the country. He is a 
member of the Worcester District Medical Associ 
ation, of the Massachusetts Medical Association, of 
the American Medical Association and of the Na 
tional Association of Physicians, Doctors and Phar 
macists. He has traveled extensively in the United 
States and Canada. 

Dr. Mackerrow comes from a substantial line of 
Europeans. His father was a Canadian fur dealer, 
having dealt in furs for forty three years. The pa 
ternal grandfather was a Scotchman, coming from 
Aberdeen, Scotland. The maternal grandfather 
was of Welch origin. Both ancestors had landed 
in Canada and had made themselves substantial and 
loyal subjects of their Government. Their off 
spring was true to their example ; for Dr. Mack 
errow not only set forth to make for himself 
a most enviable career, but even in his early years 
in Canada, he joined the battalion of the Halifax 
Academy and became before he left that institution 
a major in his company. In his early years as well 
as later Dr. Mackerrow has also shown himself a 
substantial citizen, by owning and paying taxes on 
property, both in his native country and in his 
adopted land. He is a property owner in his na 
tive city, Halifax, in the state of New York, and 
in Worcester. More than this, by his conversation 
with his patients as he goes about, he has encour 
aged many to buy property, to pay taxes, to clean up 
to join with all the forces of civic improvment in 
making Worcester one of the best cities in the land 
for colored people. To him, and this is often his 
text, thorough participation with all the myrid ac 
tivities of the city and of the state is the very bone 
and fibre of citizenship. This explains his almost 
countless membership in lodges, in civic clubs, in 
recreation clubs and in various military organiza 
tions. 

Dr. Mackerrow was married in 1916, to Miss Ef- 
fie S. Wolf of Allston, Massachusetts. Mrs. Mack 
errow is the daughter of the famous James H. Wolf 
G. A. R. Commander. Mr. and Mrs. Mackerrow are 
parents of one child, a son, Horace Gilford Mack 
errow, Jr., who is now two years old. 




GEORGE BUNDY, M. D. 




R. George Bundy, M. D. was born 
May 4th, 1868, at Mt. Pleasant, 
Jefferson County, Ohio. Like so 
many people, born in Ohio , he 
made his way to Michigan to 
work, but this was not done until 
after he had spent a number of years in the schools 
and colleges of his native State. He spent the usual 
years in the common schools and then went to 
Widberforce University, to Wittenberg College. 
Springfield, Ohio and to Payne Divinity School, 
Petersburg, Virginia, and later to Detroit College 
of Medicine and Surgery. 

When but fifteen years of age, Dr. Bundy had 
his first lesson in the Medical science under a no 
ted, wealthy, white physician in Ohio. Under this 
kind of physician, Dr. J. E. Finley, he got a taste of 
the healing art that he could never quite get out of 
his system. So we find Dr. Bundy at the age of 
forty-four, graduating from the full medical course 
in the Detroit College of Medicine and Surgery. 
He graduated with honors in a class of fifty and he 
had the distinction of being the only colored man 
in his class. Since graduating from the medical 
college, he has enjoyed a very lucrative practice in 
the city of Detroit. 



During the years, between college days and 
the taking up of medicine, Dr. Bundy spent 
in church work. He was first ordained for 
the ministry in the A. M. E. Church. He after 
wards studied for the Priesthood of the Protes 
tant Episcopal Church. He was made priest in St. 
Paul's Cathedral, Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1900. He was 
recommended by the Episcopal Church for chap 
laincy in the United States Army, and was receiv 
ed by President Roosevelt at Washington concern 
ing the appointment. He was offered the Arch dea- 
conry of Colored Work in Diocease of Lexington, 
Kentucky, but the study of medicine that he had 
done when a lad could never be really forgotten, 
and so although rather late for one to change pro 
fessions, Dr. Bundy entered the medical college, 
and gave up the ministry. 

In the residence district of Detroit, Dr. Bundy 
has a home worth $5,500.00 this as a showing for 
the savings during the years of his practice of med 
icine. Presiding over this beautiful home is Mrs. 
Bundy, who was Miss Evelyn Tardif, of Columbia, 
South Carolina. They were married April 26th, 
1905, in Springfield, Ohio. Mrs. Bundy has been 
to Dr. Bundy a great help in carrying out his am 
bition to become a physician. In it all and through 
it all, she has been an inspiration. Now she helps 
make life pleasant for their many friends at their 
home. 

It is difficult to estimate the value of a good 
wife who enters sympathetically and actively into 
the plans of her husband and helps him bear the 
burdens when heavy and rejoice with him when 
success crowns his efforts. 

Dr. Bundy has, along with all other whole heart 
ed Americans, done his part in helping win this 
world war. Besides contributing freely of his 
means in the cause of the various charities, the 
Red Cross, Y. M. C. A., and other relief funds, he 
served for six months on the Draft Board for the 
United States Army. 

Dr. Bundy has become a part of the community 
life there in Detroit. He is still active in the church 
of his profession and through the church he is able 
to reach many. He is a member of the Paul Law 
rence Dunbar Memorial and Scholarship Fund, as 
he was a personal friend of Mr. Dunbar. Through 
this organization he has helped not only in honor 
ing the most noted of our Negro poets, but in aiding 
many students. 

Dr. Bundy should be a source of inspiration to 
the many men who are now engaged in work that 
is not altogether to their liking. Reading of his 
success when he had the courage to give up a work 
in which he had made good, but which could never 
have his whole heart, one should take courage and 
try, even if late in life, for the one thing that is his 
heart's ambition. 



193 




KENTUCKY PYTHIAN TEMPLE BUILDING LOUIS 
VILLE, KENTUCKY AND THE MEN LARGELY 
RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS ERECTION. 



Kentucky Pythian Temple 





HE Kentucky Pythian Temple is 
the outgrowth and an outward 
expression of a deep seated idea 
which had taken a strong hold of 
the Pythians of Kentucky and 

which was born of the conviction 

that fraternal organizations could and should make 
wider use of their strength and authority. Once 
the idea had been presented to the Pythian Grand 
lodge, jurisdiction of Kentucky, it would not down 
but session after session it was kept to the front 
until the idea took concrete form. A number of 
prominent knights championed it and fought for 
it until the temple was built. Sir Knight, J. L. V. 
Washington raised his voice in its behalf and Sir 
Knight, J. H. Garvin, at Mt. Sterling, fanned the 
coals into a blazing fire by a beautiful, eloquent 
and practical speech which he delivered. The 
movement took form in the appointment of a 
commission whose duty was to formulate and sub 
mit a plan for securing the building. It was sty 
led the "Kentucky Pythian Temple Commission. 
Sir Knight, H. Francis Jones, was made President 
of the commission. He was a man of fine parts, 
of propelling energy and unselfishly devoted to the 
task assigned him. Under the leadership of Sir 
Knight Jones, the commission set to work and 
after a season of patient toil they worked out a 
plan which made their dream of a temple a living 
led the "Kentucky Pythian Temple Commission." 
was presented to the Grand Lodge at its meeting 
at Winchester. It so happened that the Supreme 
Chancellor, Sir Knight S. W. Starks, visited the 
Kentucky jurisdiction at this session of the Grand 
Lodge and was present when the plan was sub 
mitted. He was first impressed with the enthu 
siasm with which the plan was received, but after 
a careful consideration of it he caught the fever 
himself, and returned to his home in Charleston, 
West Virginia, a strong convert to the plan and 
fired by the Kentucky spirit. He procured a copy 
of the plans and immediately started a similar 
movement in his home jurisdiction and within a 
year had organized his forces and erected the first 
Pythian Temple of the colored race. The temple 
idea carried with it not accommodations for the 
lodge alone, but suitable quarters for the colored 
men to carry on their business enterprises. Fra 
ternity is the spirit of the order and its policy is 
to encourage the negro to make the best of his ta 
lents and opportunities and in the erection of their 
temple this idea was kept in mind. So much for 
the spirit which gave vision to the enterprise and 

195 



inspired the erection of the temple. Now for a 
description of it : 

It is a beautiful seven-story structure, built of 
reinforced concrete and brick crowned with a roof 
garden. It is situated in the heart of a Negro set 
tlement the gateway of the Metropolis of the 
South. The building contains five business rooms ; 
a theatre, operated by a colored man ; twelve offi 
ces ; fifty-two sleeping apartments, and a commo 
dious amusement hall, 40x97 feet which cares for 
the needs of a pleasure-seeking public. Besides 
these it has a kitchen, dining room, pool room, 
barber shop, buffet and cabaret. It is lighted with 
electricity and is steam heated, has elevator ser 
vice, and has bath arrangements for the use of ten 
ants. The building cost approximately $150,000.00. 
This sketch could not be properly closed without 
mentioning a few of the men who have brought 
the enterprise to a successful issue. 

Sir Knight Jones and Grand Chancellor Garvin 
and their assistants have been the moving spirits 
but they have been ably assisted by the following 
Knights: J. H. Garvin, J. L. V. Washington, W. 
W. Wilson, Rev. J. M. Mundy, B. E. Smith, S. H. 
George, M D., F. C. Dillon, W. H. Wright, Attor^ 
ney, J. A. C. Lattimore, M. D. French Thompson. 
Directors and Van J. Davis, M. D., G. G. Young, 
T. T. Wendell, M. D., Owen Robinson. Dr. E. E. 
Underwood, M. D., William and John B. Caulder, 
Grand Lodge Officers. 

The vision inspired these men and held them 
to their task was not. as has been stated, simply 
a Pythian Temple, although that in itself was a 
strong incentive, but a wider outlook which took 
in the interests of their race in all departments of 
their life. In addition to the accommodations pro 
vided for the business enterprises of their people 
and for their social pleasures, they kept in mind 
possibilities not yet developed. Among the things 
they hope for at an early date is a Negro bank, to 
stimulate their people to lives of thrift and to en 
courage them to buy their homes. Another, being 
the establishment of a Negro newspaper, whose 
aim and purpose will be to influence their people 
to higher ideals of living and to inform the world 
of the progress being made by the Negro race. 
When this portion of their dream is realized the 
mission of the Pythian Temple will very nearly 
have filled its place. 

Thus a building has been erected in which the 
Colored Pythians take a commendable pride, and 
which forms a center of influence for the colored 
race which will work for their good for many years 
to come. 




ALBERT H. JOHNSON, M. D. 




LBERT H. Johnson, is a Can 
adian by birth. He was born 
in Windsor, Ontario, June 23, 
1870. His early schooling was 
had in the public school system of 
Canada. After leaving Canada, 
the young man attended school in Detroit, Michi 
gan. From the Detroit High School he was grad 
uated in 1889. From the Detroit High School he 
entered the Detroit College of medicine and sur 
gery, and was graduated with the degree of M. D. 
in 1893. 

This recital of the school training gotten by Dr. 
Johnson seems simple enough, and so it is for the 
young man with ample means for support. But 
this was not the fact in the case of Dr. Johnson. In 
order to get his education he had to work his way. 
He started his career as a newsboy. In this he 
had the usual life of the newsboy. He learned to 
give and take, he learned human nature as only a 
newsboy or one in a similar line can learn it. From 
newsboy he next became a news agent. In this oc 
cupation he continued throughout his High School 
career. Dr. Johnson made the sale of news items 
purchase for him, in a large measure his life work. 

196 



After receiving his M. D. from the Detroit Col 
lege of Medicine and Surgery Dr. Johnson hung 
out his shingle in the City of Detroit. At first he 
took up the general practice of medicine; but in 
19C9 he was appointed Medical Inspector for 
schools. This caused the interest of Dr. Johnson 
to center on children and their ailments. For the 
past ten years he has given most of his time to the 
study and practice of this branch of his work. This 
is a field that is wide and is not as yet overcrowd 
ed. In this line Dr. Johnson has made a marked 
success. 

The subject of this sketch is also a member of 
the firm of W. E. & A. H. Johnson, Pharmacists. 
This firm is doing a very good retail drug business. 
They own the building in which the business is 
housed and get a good trade. To this business ven 
ture as to his practice, Dr. Johnson has applied 
himself and made good. The wealth of experience 
that falls to the lot of the physician doing a good 
practice is enjoyed by the subject of this sketch. 

Dr. Johnson has taken a part in the life of the 
city of his choice. He is a member of the St. Mat 
thews Protestant Episcopal Church. Of this Church 
he is vestryman and Senior Warden. He is a mem 
ber of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows and 
of the Masonic Order. Dr. Johnson also serves as 
trustee and physician to the Phillis Wheatley 
Home for Aged Women of Detroit, Michigan. The 
positions held by him show the breadth of the in 
terest of Dr. Johnson. He is very active in the 
National Association for the Advancement of Col 
ored People. Of this organization he is the treas 
urer of the Detroit Branch. He is a member of the 
Executive Committee of the Detroit League on 
Urban Conditions among Negroes. Dr. Johnson 
also has the honor of having served as the first 
president of the Allied Medical Association, an or 
ganization consisting of doctors, dentists, pharma 
cists of the city of Detroit. 

During the years he has been out of school, Dr. 
Johnson has saved his money and invested it wis 
ely. He owns besides half interest in the drug 
business and its business block mentioned earlier 
in this sketch, a six family apartment house and a 
two family apartment house. The home in which 
his own family lives is also his property. 

For business and for pleasure Dr. Johnson has 
traveled extensively in the United States and in 
Canada, lie was married to Miss Lucile Russell, 
of Oberlin, Ohio, September 26th, 1900. Dr. and 
Mrs. Johnson are the proud parents of one beauti 
ful young daughter, Phyllis Mary Johnson. Little 
Miss Johnson is ten years of age and is devoting 
her time time to the duties and pleasures of child 
hood. 





EDWARD WATSON 

DWARD Watson, was born July 
31. 1890, in Detroit, Michigan. He 
was educated in thejniblic schools 
of his native city. . Mr. Watson's 
father died before he had 
an opportunity for college work 
and he had to leave school in order to help his mo 
ther with the business. At the time of his death 
his step-father was engaged in the undertaking 
business, which his mother decided to continue 
and undertook its management. This she found 
difficult to do without the aid of her son, but with 
his assistance the business was continued with 
great success. He managed the business jointly 
with his mother until he reached the age of twenty- 
four, when he took sole charge of it and ran it suc 
cessfully for one year. At the end of that period, 
Mr. Watson joined Mr. Gabriel Davis, as a partner 
in the undertaking business. The firm is known as 
Davis and Watson. Together they have done a 
prosperous business and have very good prospects 
for the future. 

Mr. Watson is an active member of the St. 
Matthews Episcopal Church. For seven years he 
served as Altar and C'ross Bearer. He is a mem 
ber of the Masonic Hiram, Lodge No. 1. He has 
been a member of the lodge for eight years. 

Mr. Watson is not married and has only twenty- 
eight years behind him. For one so young he is 
doing an enviable business. 



GABRIEL DAVIS 

Gabriel Davis was born in Uniontown, Kentucky. 
May 22, 1872. He lived on a farm till thirteen 
years of age when his parents moved to Detroit, 
Michigan. He worked for his father till 1887, and 
then he entered the employ of the Detroit Street 
Railway. He worked with this company till 1897, 
and then took up the duties of motorman, till 1912. 

It was in the year 1912, that Mr. Davis decided 
to start in business for himself. He chose for this 
the Undertaking Business and has remained true 
to the business of his choice. From the time he 
established his business he has made it earn for 
him a good living. By combining with the Under 
taking business of Edward Watson a joint interest 
of decided proportions and lucrative nature was es 
tablished. He owns his place of business and three 
other pieces of property. 

In religious belief, Mr. Davis is a Baptist. He 
is liberal when it comes to the support of his de 
nomination and he also gives freely of his time in 
the interest of the work of the church. He is a 
member of the Masonic Lodge, and the Flks. Mr. 
Davis has lived in Kentucky, the State of his birth, 
in Ontario, the State in which he got his education, 
and in Michigan, the State in which he has become 
a successful business man. 

It is his success in business that earns for Mr. 
Davis mention in these pages. In education he 
was able to go only through the Grammar school. 
But he is one of the many who demonstrate the fact 
that business ability is not dependant wholly on 
education, in the regular school courses. 



197 




WILLIAM PAUL KEMP 




ATE in life some men find their 
talent, some in middle age, and a 
few glide into their life work, 
almost unconsciously, in their 
youth. Thus its was with Will 
iam Paul Kemp. He was a born 
editor, and he commenced his, career as a writer at 
the early age of seventeen years. 

Mr. Kemp was born in Plattsmouth, Nebraska, 
March 13th., 1881, but moved to Lincoln, Nebraska 
when a child and there received his early educa 
tional training. He attended the Public schools of 
Lincoln, and for two years studied in the High 
school. He also attended the University of Neb- 
braska School of Music, and the night school of 
the Young Men's Christian Association. 

At the age of seventeen, he left school to take a 
position on Omaha Bee (White) as assistant 
Capital correspondent. This was in 1898. From 
the money saved during his connection with this 
paper he purchased and established, April 29th, 
1899, The Lincoln Leader. He gave up this enter 
prise for a time to become assistant correspondent 
for the Nebraska State Journal (White), at Wash 
ington, D. C, but returned to Lincoln the latter 



part of 1900, where he resumed the publication of 
the Lincoln Leader. While engaged in this work 
he became active in politics, affiliating with the Re 
publican party. For six campaigns he was connec 
ted with the Nebraska Republican State Central 
Committee, rising from messenger to manager of 
the Literature Department. 

October 8th., 1907, he moved to Detroit, Michi 
gan, and December 7th, of the same year, he start 
ed the Detroit Leader. It had a short life and 
passed out February 13th., 1908. He entered the 
Mayor's office as clerk after the failure of his pa 
per, and while still holding his position as clerk, he 
started in January, 1909, the present Detroit Lead 
er. November 1st., 1909, he resigned his position 
in the Mayor's office and devoted his entire time 
to his business venture. 

He purchased the Owl Printing Co. plant 
August 13th., 1912, which he consolidated with the 
Howitt Printing Co., September 26th, 1913, con 
ducting all under the name of The Detroit Leader, 
of which he is the sole owner. 

In addition to his literary attainments Mr. Kemp 
is an accomplished musician and vocalist, he is also 
an athlete. For the season of 1902 he coached the 
Lincoln Business College Football team. He is a 
member of St. Mathew's Episcopal church, De 
troit, and five times has been a delegate to the Dio 
cesan Convention. He is Past Master in Masonic 
Lodge and Ex-Officer of Masonic Grand Lodge, 
which position he held from 1905 to 1907; Past 
Grand Master Council of G. U. O. O. F., Grand Di 
rector of Michigan D. G. L., Delegate to 1918 B. 
M. C; Elk; Deputy Supreme Chancellor of Knights 
of Pythias of Michigan and Western Canada 1917- 
1918; Major in Uniform Rank Knights of Pythias 
At the age of nineteen years he was President of 
Abraham Lincoln Political Club. He was First 
Vice-President of the Republican League Clubs 
(White) of Nebraska; only Colored member of 
Delegation from Michigan to First Good Road 
Convention of United States. He was a Director 
of Kemp Military Band of Lincoln Nebraska, and 
Palestine Commandry Band, of Windsor, Ontario. 
He polled the largest vote of any colored man ever 
received in Detroit, when a candidate for Board of 
Estimators. He was President of the District 
Business League ; President Soldier's Welfare Lea 
gue of Detroit ; Chairman of Publicity, N. A. A. C. 
P., of Detroit ; First Chairman of Detroit Urban 
League ; Chairman of Negro Committee to coope 
rate with National League of Women's service. 
These are but a few of the honors conferred upon 
him. To mention all would make this sketch too 
lengthy for the space alloted to it. 

Mr. Kemp was married December 24th, 1900, to 
Miss Mary Delia Elder. They have no children. 



198 




REVEREND AUGER AUGUSTUS COSEY 




EV. A. A. Cosey, born in Newellton 
County, Louisiana, July 2nd, 187 d 
has spent a long and useful ca- 
reer as pastor on the one hand 
u DL(\^?^ al1 ^ as ' )U "'der an< l promoter on 
the other. His early days were 
spent on the farm engaged in performing such 
tasks as one of his age was capable of performing 
and attending school, when such was possible. 

When he was sixteen years of age, Rev. Cosey 
leaving both the farm and his native state, en 
rolled in Natchez College, Natchez, Mississippi. 
Following the example of the vast majority who 
sought education in the nineties Rev. Cosey, as the 
phrase goes, had to work his way. Happily he had 
so well mastered his subjects that he could teach. 
Thus he spent his summer vacations in the school 
room earning money to return to his college. Fin 
ishing the Natchez College Academic course in 1896 
he again went out to teach, teaching for six years 
in the State of Mssissippi before engaging exclus 
ively in his chosen profession. While attending 
Natchez College, Rev. Cosey devoted much time to 
the study of Theology, having decided long before 
to enter the Baptist ministry. In 1896, the year of 
his graduation, he was ordained and united his 



work as school teacher and minister. One year af 
ter ordination, he was chosen pastor of the Metro 
politan Baptist Church, Clarksdale, Mississippi, a 
post he filled until 1905. He held pastorates also at 
Greenville and at Shelby. For the last ten years, 
Rev. Cosey has been pastor of the Green Grove 
Baptist Church, at Mound Bayou, the famous Ne 
gro town, where he has not only been perfoming 
duties as pastor, but has been lending a hand in 
many ways to the growth and development of the 
town. 

From the beginnig of his career Rev. Cosey 
proved to be an organizer and a builder as well as a 
pastor. He was really the organizer of the Metro 
politan Church at Clarksdale, the Church in which 
he first preached as pastor. His pastorate of the 
First Baptist Church of Mound Bayou over which 
he still presides took on again the form of builder. 
This church he also started, giving it all the mod 
ern equipment, for Sunday School, social uplift and 
communty work. Twelve thousand dollars have 
already been put into this building, having four 
thousand more to be raised. 

As a church man and as a man of affairs, Rev. 
Cosey has been a leader not only in Mound Bayou 
but in Mississippi for many years. He has been 
Corresponding Secretary of the General Misionary 
Baptist Convention of the state, has been for many 
years one of the leaders of the National Baptist 
Convention and served for a number of years as 
the Corresponding Secretary of the National Bap 
tist Association. 

Powerful as well as useful in the church, Rev. 
Cosey is also a conspicuous leader in fraternal or 
ders. He is a Mason, a Knight of Pythias and a 
Knight of Tabor. He is International Chief Grand 
Orator of the Knights of Tabor and special enlist 
ment Master for Mississippi. 

When the people of Mound Bayou organized a 
bank, he became vice-president and stock holder. 
He took an active part in organizing and promot 
ing the Mound Bayou Oil Mill Enterprise and lent 
his influence to the establishment of schools and 
small businesses throughout the town. 

He owns a splendid two-story residence in 
Mound Bayou and seven rent houses, six lots and 
forty acres of delta farm land. 

Rev. Cosey was married in 1901 to Miss Ida Hope 
Carter, of Helena, Arkansas. Mrs. Cosey is a grad 
uate of A. & M. College, Normal, Ala. She was 
for years a teacher both in Alabama and in Arkan 
sas. Throughout Rev. Cosey's work, she has been 
the power behind the throne. Both in company 
with Mrs. Cosey and on behalf of his church and 
fraternities, Rev. Cosey has traveled over the 
whole of the United States. 



199 





CHARLES PRICE JONES, D. D. 

ORN in Rome, Georgia, educated 
in the public schools of his na 
tive state and in Arkansas Baptist 
College, Dr. Charles Price Jones 
is celebrated as a writer of hymns 
and as a. founder of a religion 
But he disclaims the latter title. He claims only to 
give emphasis to an old neglected doctrine. He 
was converted in 1884, and baptized in 1885 by Rev. 
J. D. Petty. Two years later he was licensed to 
preach, and in 1888 was ordained by Rev. Chas. L. 
Fisher However, he felt that a higher literary 
training was essential to one who has visions of a 
useful career in the church. It was with this in 
view that he entered Arkansas Baptist College, and 
was graduated from the academic Department in 
1891. 

Dr. Jones began to ponder more deeply the words 
of the scripture. To him all things seemed possible 
in Christ. He began to take the Bible literally. 
Hence arose his belief in holiness. He says, "I pas- 
tored in Arkansas until 1892. During this time I 
was corresponding secretary of the convention, a 
trustee of the Arkansas Baptist College and editor 
of the Baptist Vangard. 

In 1892 I accepted a call fro mBethlehem Church, 



Searcy, Arkansas, where I had pastored 18 months, 
to the Tabernacle Baptist Church, Selma, Alabama. 
Here I was called after a time, to the life and 
ministry of holiness, but had no idea that it would 
result in a disruption with the Baptists ; for I be 
lieved that the more faithful a man was to Christ 
in his daily living the more he would and ought to 
be prized by the people of God. But I was mistak 
en. Yet I, myself was partly to blame. Like all 
who get an important vision, I was extreme in my 
views and endeavors. I understood it to mean, 
the standing of every believer in Christ in the pres 
ence of God. 2nd, the condition of heart that the 
Holy Ghost imparts to make us delight in God's 
will, the daily effort of the believer's faith to con 
form to that will; the inevitable result of living in 
Christ by faith. Indeed, I merely conceived it to be 
a trust in God that obtained grace to walk before 
Him in all pleasing, trusting the blood of Christ 
to deal with the sin of our nature. I do not teach the 
impossibility of our sinning, but the necessity of 
having grace to live Godly, that "the wages of sin 
is death," (Romans). 

"In Feberuary, 1895, I accepted a call to Mount 
Helm Baptist Church, Jackson, Miss. In 1897 I 
called the first Holiness Convention to meet at 
Jackson, June 6th and study the Bible two weeks. 
There were present at this convention such men 
as Dr. J. A. Jeter of Little Rock, Arkansas, Pastor 
W. S. Pleasant, of Hazelhurst, Miss., and many 
others. 

"In 1898 the convention was more largely at 
tended and the opposition had gathered power ; and 
in 1898 at the convention at Winona steps were tak 
en to fight our extreme attitude, then we built the 
present commodious building. We have a school at 
Jackson incorporated as Christ's Missionary and 
Industrial College. Through the efforts of Elders 
W. S. Pleasant, J. A. Jeter, L. W. Lee, Thomas 
Sanders, F. S. Sheriff, G. H. Punches, Deacon Hen 
ry Moore, Clarke Kendricks and others, this work 
was established. It has carried in prosperous years 
200 students and 12 instructors. It has turned a 
number of graduates from the 12th grade who are 
making good. The value of the property (encum 
bered) is $15,000." 

He was for twenty-one years editor of the 
"Truth." He is author of several hymn books, 
which are used widely by ministers and members 
of both races. In 1915 Arkansas Baptist College 
conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Divin 
ity. However, in his own words, "I attended strict 
ly to my own business, no time for worldly honors." 

He was married in 1892 to Miss Fannie A. Brown 
of Little Rock, Arkansas. Mrs. Jones died in 1916. 
Their one child is also deceased. 

He is now pastor of Christ Tabernacle, a new 
church at Los Angeles, Calif., and is General Over 
seer of the Holiness work. Jan. 4, 1918, he was 
married to Miss Pearl Reed of that city. 

The school at Jackson is now under the Presi 
dency of Dr. J. L. Conic. 



2CO 




EPHRIAM H. McKISSACK. A. B., A. M. 




OR many years Kphriam H. Mc- 
Kissack has been a leader in the 
state of Mississippi. This lead- 
ershiu has radiated in many direc 
tions. It first asserted itself in his 
work as a school man. Well edu 
cated and possessing an easy adaptation he soon 
became a leader in business, in politics, in church 
and secret orders. 

Professor McKissack was born in Memphis, Ten 
nessee, November 22, 1860. His parents were 
William and Katie Mitchell, both of whom died 
when he was four years old. The young lad was 
adopted and reared by his aunt, Fannie McKissack, 
from whom he took his name. 

As an adopted son he fared well in the home of 
his aunt. He had ample care, was provided gen 
erously with clothing, books, indeed everything to 
encourage him to achieve. To all this he readily 
responded.. After attending the public schools he 
entered Rust University. From this institution he 
gained the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Master 
of Arts; the former in 1895, the latter in 1898. 

Long before he completed his course Professor 
McKissack had become active in the affairs of his 



state. He had joined the Methodist Church and 
had become one of its leading directors and work 
ers. He was a trustee, a steward and a Sunday 
School teacher in Asbury Church ; was a member 
of the upper Mississippi Conference and president 
of the Conference Board of Church Extensions. In 
1896 he was a member of the Church General Con 
ference, then again in 1900-1904, 1908-1912-1916. 
He served one year, the year following his at 
tainment of Master of Arts, as principal of the 
Holly Springs City Schools. Then his alma mater 
called him to a chair within her walls. From 1890 
to 1911 he was a member of the Rust University 
faculty. In 1911 he resigned his post in Rust and 
became manager of the Union Guaranty and In 
surance Company of Holly Springs. 

His departure from the schoolroom did not sever 
his connections with the school, it did signal how 
ever, a wider activity in his business and in other 
practical matters. He entered politics and became 
an active and aggressive Republican; so effective 
was his work that he was made chairman of the 
seventh Congressional District of his State, and in 
1908-1912, he was made delegate to the Republican 
National Convention. For twenty years Professor 
McKissack has been secretary and treasurer of the 
Odd Fellows Benefit Association. He has so care 
fully handled his accounts and adjusted claims that 
little friction has ever arisen, a thing rare indeed 
in any sort of benefit or insurance organization 

I romment in the Odd Fellows Association he is a 
conspicuous worker in practically all Negro lodges, 
in the state of Mississippi, a state thoroughly in 
fested with secret orders. He is a Mason, a Knight 
of Pythias, a member of the United Sons and 
Daughters of Jacob, of the Fastern Star, of the Im- 
maculates, of the Reformers. He is still, as in form 
er days, a pillar in the church and in the school. He 
keeps up his connection with conferences and with 
the Sunday School and has added to those his mem 
bership in the Federated Commission of Colored 
Churches. Although he has long since left the 
school room he still keeps in close touch with the 
schools of the State, with the schools in the city, 
and of course with every twist and turn of the af- 
Rust University. In Rust he has reached a most 
honored post, he has not only been elected a mem- 
be of the Board of Trustees, he is vice-president of 
the Board of Trustees. Professor McKissack has 
done what to some seems the incredible thing. He 
has the refusal of the presidency of the institution, 
He had served Rust as head of the Commercial de 
partment, as professor of mathematics, professor 
of natural science and as secretary of the faculty, 
when, therefore, Rust needed a president in 1909, 
the office was tendered Professor McKissack but 
he declined, preferring business and a more general 
public career. 

Professor McKissack was married to Miss Mary 
A. Fxtim of Yazoo City. Mr. and Mrs. McKissack 
have one son. Dr. Autrey C. McKissack, M. D. who 
is a successful physician of Memphis, Tennessee: 
Professor and Mrs. McKissack live in their own 
home in Holly Springs, a residence second to but 
few in the town. 



201 




WILLIAM CLAUD GORDON 




OMETIME ago, a business census 
of St. Louis, Missiouri, revealed 
the fact that Mr. W. C. Gordon, a 
colored undertaker of that city, 
had handled the largest number 
of bodies of any undertaker, re 
gardless of color, in the city of St. Louis. For this 
remarkable fact, those who knew him well account 
ed in several ways ; first, they say that he is a good 
man, and they give great stress to this first point ; 
then the}' say he is fair in his business dealings, 
especially in his dealings with the widows and or 
phans ; and the third point on which they lay stress 
in that his equipment and his headquarters are such 
as to make any customer proud to employ his ser 
vices. 

Risen from poverty to that envious stage of com 
petence, if not wealth, Mr. Gordon has kept an op 
en hand for aspiring young men and women, and 
has maintained a ready sheckle for church, orphan 
age, school indeed he has been ready and willing 
to help all worthy undertakings for the advance 
ment of the colored people. 

Unlike many who have climbed successfully, he 
did not kick the ladder down, once he gained the 
ascent but remembering his own early struggles he 



has been always ready to help another over the 
first rough stretch. Mr. Gordon was born in Colum 
bia, Tennessee, March 15, 1862. From this date, 
we can gather that Mr. Gordon as a very small 
lad saw a little of the last bitter days of slavery 
and all of the struggles for freedom and readjust 
ment. There is therefore nothing surprising in the 
fact that the young man had no opportunity to de 
velop his mind in the school room. While still a 
young man, Mr. Gordon went to St. Louis. Here 
he found himself in a very unfortunate position 
he was without means, without education and with 
out friends. To earn a living for himself he first 
entered the employ of the Pullman service, where 
for several years he served as a porter. But Mr. 
Gordon was an ambitious man, and so was not sat 
isfied with being a porter for life. When he had 
saved a small sum of money, he quit the service and 
went into the undertaking business for himself. 
His first business was on a very small scale, and as 
a venture it was feeble, very feeble. But putting 
all his mind and thought on his work, it began to 
develop and Mr. Gordon himself, was among those 
who was surprised at the very great rapidity of the 
growth of the venture. From his very feeble be 
ginning his business has developed until today his 
is among the best equipped and largest firms of 
Negro undertakers. Indeed west of the Mississippi, 
he is one of the leading men in the undertaking 
business, regardless of race. He gives regular em 
ployment to eight persons. 

His natural habit of saving did not leave him, 
when he began to make money in larger sums, and 
so after a time, Mr. Gordon had enough money 
saved to invest in some other line of work. Cast 
ing about for a profitable investment for this sur 
plus, and investment which would be yielded fair 
interest and at the same time give employment to 
a large number of colored people Mr. Gordon open 
ed a steam laundry. This he has been running for 
the last seven years, The laundry is equipped with 
all modern appliances, washers, mangles, driers, 
and the like. In St. Louis it is well known and 
is liberally patronized for its prompt and efficient 
work. In the operation of this laundry with its 
great number of patrons, Mr. Gordon employs 
thirty-five persons. This entails -a. payroll of 
$335.00 per week. 

A conservative valuation of the two businesses 
is placed at $30,000.00. Besides this, Mr. Gordon 
owns his home, much real estate and has interest 
in motor hacks and vehicles. In all Mr. Gordon is 
worth about $70.000.00 Mr. Gordon is a member 
of the National Negro Business Men's League, an 
organization in which he has taken a great deal of 
interest. In his religious belief he is African Me 
thodist Episcopal. He is an active member of the 
St. Paul Church, of St. Louis. 

In 1908, Mr. Gordon was married to Miss Mary 
Hunton, of Detroit, Michigan. Two little children 
have come to help make the home of the Gordon's 
a happy one. They are Charity, age six years, and 
Claud, age eight. The two little pupils are in the 
public school of St. Louis. 



202 




JOHN EDWARD PERRY, M. D. 




R. J. Edward Perry, of Kansas 
City, Missiouri, born in Clarks- 
ville, Texas, Red River- County, 
April 2nd, 1870. His parents were 
ex-slaves and refugeed from Mis 
souri and Arkansas. They were 
remarkable characters, noted for their integrity, 
industry, courtesy, generosity and honesty. Their 
ambition was to provide a home for their children 
and educate them. Johnny had no opportunity to 
go to school until he was nine years of age. He 
was then sent to a log cabin, which was on a small 
plot of ground given by his father. 

His early days were spent in the cotton fields of 
Texas, going to school about three months in a 
year until he was over thirteen years of age. When 
he entered Bishop College he earned a greater por 
tion of his expenses by doing daily services for the 
teachers of the schools. This service consisted of 
duties such as milking the cows, scrubbing floors, 
cutting wood, and building fires. He then taught a 
country school from 1891 until 1894, making and 
saving sufficient funds to graduate from Meharry 
Medical College, in 1895, and began his practice 
February 15, 1895, and made a competency from 
the first week of his practice. This was begun in 

203 



Mexico, Missouri, where he remained six months, 
then moved to Columbia, Missouri where the great 
University of the State of Missouri is located. Giv 
ing up practice in 1898, he served his Country as 
1st Lieutenant in 7th U. S. Vol. Infantry. After 
the close of the war he returned to Columbia, re 
suming his practice. 

By his suave nature, genial disposition and effec 
tive work, he pushed his way into the State Hos 
pital at Columbia, Missouri, where he enjoyed the 
professional association of the best talent that 
money of this State would employ. There is as 
much prejudice in Missouri, as in any other South 
ern State, and when those in authority were brought 
to task about the consideration given Dr. Perry 
they denied the fact that he was a Negro though 
he is extremely dark and no one would ever think 
of calling him even a mulatto. 

He has spent considerable time working for pro 
fessional uplift, built a private Hospital in 1910, 
loaned the hospital to the community three years 
later, and through that medium created sentiment 
sufficient to raise quite an ample sum for the erec 
tion of an Institution for the people. He has work 
ed in the Y. M. C. A., was its first president of this 
city and he works in every avenue for racial uplift. 
He has been interested in a number of business 
enterprises, always trying to provide a place for 
young men and women. He is Secretary and 
Treasurer of the S. P. L. Mercantile and Invest 
ment Company, a firm growing out of the People's 
Drug Store, a very successful enterprise. 

He married Miss Fredericka D. Sprague, July 3, 
1912. Mrs. Perry is the granddaughter of Frede 
rick Douglass. 

Dr. Perry is considered the leading colored phy 
sician in Kansas City, both as a practititioneer and 
as a surgeon. In these later years he has given 
most of his time to surgery, both in connection 
with the General Hospital and his private Sanita 
rium. As evidence of his skill in surgery, he is 
frequently called to operate, as far south as Texas 
and to various points in Missouri, including St. 
Louis. He is regarded the leading Negro surgeon 
west of Chicago. After Dr. Perry had practiced a 
few years, he sought further preparation speciali 
zing in surgery by attending the Post Graduate 
Hospital of Chicago, Illinois. 

As a physician, Dr. Perry is progressive. In all 
matters he is conservative and especially frank. He 
can be depended upon at all times to be fair in deal 
ings with his patients, both in information and 
treatment and in his business dealings with them. 
The new hospital which has just been acquired bv 
the colored people of Kansas City is largely the 
result of Dr. Perry's untiring labors and is indeed 
a fitting reward for his unselfish devotion to the 
people of Kansas City. 





ANDERSON RUSSELL 

R. Anderson Russell was born in 
Smith County, Mississippi, April 
1st., 1864, and died in St. Louis 
Missouri, September 2nd., 1917, 
after spending- a useful and suc 
cessful life. His education was 
confined to the Rural Schools of 
his neighborhood, which were 
greatly inferior to such schools of the present day, 
which even now are far from being what they 
should be. 

If the schools failed to give him a high standard 
of learning they still served him a good turn for 
his contact with books set his active mind to work 
and caused him to form the habit of thinking clear- 
ly. 

When he was twenty years of age his parents 
left Mississippi, and moved to Alton, Illinois. 

In his new home he entered the service of a num 
ber of private families. Here he labored until 1890, 
when he left Alton, and went to St. Louis, to enter 
the service of the Pullman Palace Car Co. His con 
nection with this company continued for four years 
At the end of this term he had saved sufficient 
funds from his wages to enter a business of his 
own. 

He formed a co-partnership under the firm name 
of Russell and Gordon, and conducted an undertak 
ing business. They remained together and did 
business under the original firm name until in 
1902, when they separated and each opened a busi 
ness of his own. 

Mr. Russell's business continued to prosper and 
he soon was enabled to take from the business 
funds to purchase real estate. His investments 
were wisely chosen and became a source of reve- 

204 



nue to him- He purchased the building in which 
his business was located and adjusted it to meet 
his wants. He also purchased a double flat and 
four rent houses. 

Mr. Russell was a religious man, and took an 
active part in the work of the church. He was a 
member of the Union Memorial Church, which he 
joined in 1908. 

At the time of his death he was serving as a 
member of the Board of Trustees of the church. 

Mr. Russell's business brought him into inti 
mate contact with the home life of many families 
and he soon formed the habit of thinking and plan 
ning for their betterment. He saw the value of 
many of the societies organized for their benefit 
and became actively identified with them. He 
might be termed a Society man for his name was 
on the roster of most of them. 

He was a member of the Masons, Knights of 
Pythias, Odd Fellows, and United Brothers of 
Friendship. 

His service in the Pullman Palace Car Company 
gave him the opportunity for travel and enabled 
him to visit all parts of the United States and parts 
of Mexico. 

He met his life companion, Miss Priscilla Prim- 
gle, in St. Louis, where he was married to her June 
28, 1906. Although their married life was without 
issue it was thoroughly congenial and happy. 

Mr. Russell's health began to fail him in 1916, 
and he soon got too ill to give attention to his busi 
ness. He grew weaker continuously and was 
never again able to look after his affairs, lie lin 
gered until September 2nd, 1917, when he passed 
into the other State. 

The business which he had so carefully built up 
and to which he had given so much of his time and 
thought did not die with him. It was incorporated 
into a company, known as the "A. Russell Under 
taking Company. Incorporated." His sister, An 
nie K. Russell, was elected President of the Com 
pany, and carries on the business along the same 
business principles employed by her brother, work 
ing out the plans outlined by him. 

Under the new management the business still 
continues to prosper. 




HOME OF A. RUSSELL UNDERTAKING CO. 





CHARLES HYMEN TURPIN 

JrlARLES Hymen Turpin, is a suc 
cessful business man of St. Louis, 
Missouri. Mr. Turpin belongs to 
the class of men who do things. 
He is a man who will meet an op 
portunity squarely and use it ad 
vantageously. He has a natural ability, is indus 
trious and persistent. He is practical and never en 
ters a project without first weighing that keen 
competition which always besets every venture 
worth while. He is not the type of man who will 
shrink from the arrows of opposition, but is spur 
red on by them to the accomplishment of his aims. 
Once started, his resolute determination and in 
domitable courage, backed by explicit confidence 
in himself, visually carries him through all difficul 
ties to the goal of his ambitions. 

That these qualities are natural, is best illustrat 
ed by a few incidents in his boyhood life. At the 
age of ten, when he was a boot-black, he attempt 
ed to organize a union, in order to raise the price 
of "shines". Failing to interest the other boys, he 
aggressively declared the "Union" in effect with 
himself as the only member, and elected him 
self president, secretary and treasurer, raised the 
price of "shines" and proceeded to monopolize the 

205 



industry to the detriment of his faint-hearted com 
petitors. One day at the old St. Louis Fairgrounds, 
he noticed that the paddock was not being used. 
He immediately appointed himself, "Paddock 
manager", hired a few boys and earned $18.00 f 
himself that day. His first real salary was $1.00 
per week as a house servant and since drawing his 
first week's pay he declares he has never been 
"broke." 

Mr. Turpin was born in Columbus, Georgia and 
came to St. Louis, with his parents, when a small 
boy. He was educated in the public schools and 
holds two diplomas from business colleges. At 
the age of 21 he was appointed to a position in the 
Assessor's office and later in the office of Record 
er of Deeds. At one time he accepted an appoint 
ment as clerk in the St. Louis Post Office, having 
been second on a list of 89 eligibles. His progres 
sive ambition, however, would not permit him to 
remain long, being always haunted with the feeling 
the service meant, "Abandon hope all ye who en 
ter here." 

In the year 1910 Mr. Turpin was elected Con 
stable of the Fourth District, by the Republican 
Party, St. Louis. His election was an agreeable 
surprise to even his dearest friends and when he 
took the office he had the distinction of being the 
only Negro ever elected to a State office in Mis 
souri. He served a four year term with efficiency 
and credit; raised the dignity of the office, increas 
ed the revenue and was instrumental in establish 
ing new rules more favorable to the poorer classes. 
Mixed juries, of white and colored, were also es 
tablished during this time. 

He was again re-nominated and re-elected in 
1914, was counted out, and although, after a con 
test in which the ballot boxes were opened, the Su 
preme Court sustained the decision of the Circuit 
Court, that he was duly elected and was entitled 
to the office, that tribunal, failed to hand down the 
final mandamus that would permit him to take his 
seat. He has announced that he will be a candidate 
again in 1918. 

Mr. Turpin is owner and manager of the Book 
er Washington Theatre, in St. Louis. This modern 
fire-proof vaudevlle and picture house, with a seat 
ing capacity of a thousand, is the first in the coun 
try, to be built by a Negro and operated by and for 
Negroes. Mr. Turpin is also interested in the mo 
tion picture business. His "Salambo," now show 
ing throughout the country, is one of the most 
magnificent spectacles ever filmed. He has also 
personally supervised the filming of many notable 
events of the race, the latest being complete re 
production of the Pythian Parade and Encampment 
in St. Louis, in Aug.. 1917. Also he shows the color 
ed drafted men at Camp Funston, Kan., part of the 
92nd Division. This is the only moving picture of 
colored troops made up to this time since war has 
been declared between the U. S. and Germany. This 
industrious business man also finds time and is en- 
tergetic in helping to stimulate and develop interest 
in race pride, co-operation and loyalty; and is al 
ways conspicuously identified with every move 
ment for the advancement of colored people. 




FORTUNE J. WEAVER 





HE business instinct seems born in 
some men and it only needs a 
favorable opportunity to bring it 
into the light. The fire may burn 
low for a while, but the instinct 
will show itself when only a very 
small breeze of prosperity fans the embers into a 
flame. It was so with Fortune J. Weaver, the 
subject of this sketch. He was the son of Fortune 
and Millie Weaver, and was born in Council Grove, 
Morris County, Kansas, May the e ighth, 1874. 
When a child only eight years of age his father 
died and left a widow and eight children. The bur 
den of their support made it necessary to send For 
tune to a neighboring farm to live. He found a 
home with Alfred and Emma Smith, who owned a 
small farm near Council Grove. This proved a 
great blessing to Fortune, for his foster parents 
treated him with every consideration and gave him 
every advantage of educaion that their means 
would admit. Speaking of his foster parents, he 
gives them the credit for his life inspiration and 
success in attaining his goal. He lived with his fos 
ter parents on the farm until he was seventeen 
years of age, when he went out in the world to hus 
tle for himself. The common school education he 



had received while working on the farm and a de 
termined spirit was his full equipment. This may 
appear to many a small asset with which to begin 
life but in the case of Mr. Weaver it proved an 
ample start. With it he went forth to work out 
his destiny, and with it he carved his way to sue. 
cess. 

Kansas City, Missouri was the city of his choice, 
and to reach it he had to ride on a freight train. 
When he arrived in Kansas City it was with an 
empty pocket book, but nothing daunted he sought 
employment which partially supplied his needs. 
For two weeks he worked without a daily square 
meals, frequently feeling the pangs of hunger and 
consequently the lowering of his vitality for lack 
of sufficient and nourishing food. While it was 
hard at the time he now regards the experience as 
a blissing for it taught him the value of a dollar 
and inculcated the principle of economy, a principle 
which has stood him well throughout his business 
career. While it was hard at the time he now re- 
througout his business career, causing him to save 
the dimes and accumulate a nice fortune. 

Passing over the period of his development as a 
business man and the steps by which he has reach 
ed his present high position, it is only necessary to 
point out the value of his possessions, which 
amount to $50.000.00, and which consist of residen 
ces and apartment buildings in Kansas City, and 
turn to the institutions which he heads and to 
which he has given his best thought and business 
talents. He is the President and founder of the 
Afro-American Investment and Employment Com 
pany, Inc. Through this Company, he has made a 
connecting link between the White property own 
ers and business firms, and the Negro citizens of 
greater Kansas City. He has made it possible for 
them to buy modern homes, in desirable sections of 
the city, on the easy payment plan, and employ 
ment furnished them while they were paying their 
installments. 

He is the President and Founder of the Kansas 
City branch of the National Negro Business Lea 
gue, which position he has held for nine years. This 
institution has encouraged hundreds of Negro men 
and women to embark in business enterprises of 
various kinds. 

Seeking the co-operation of the late Booker T. 
Washington, he succeeded in having the National 
Negro Business League hold its annual session in 
Kansas City in 1916. At this meeting he was el 
ected as a member of the Executive Committee. 

Mr. Weaver has been married three times first 
to Miss Lizzie Stewart in 1890. then to Miss Stran- 
ella Hoyl, in 1895, and to Miss Bessie Henderson, 
in 1901. He has but two children, a boy and a girl, 
Fortune Weaver, Jr., and Cornaleta Odessa Weav 



er. 



206 





LEE S. WILLIAMS 

HEN asked to write of his life so 
that the facts of his rise to a place 
of importance in the world of Ne 
gro business in St. Louis might be 
an inspiration to Negro youth ev- 

erywhere. Mr. Williams, after 

some hesitation, sent this report of his life work. 
In this report he goes into detail about the steps 
that marked his steady growth. Even the very 
young lad who reads this will be led to aspire to 
a place in the business world. 

"I was born at Jonesburg, Montgomery Co., 
Missouri, on May 11, 1868. My mother brought 
me to St. Louis, Mo., in December, 1873, and I en 
tered the public school in 1875 ; at the age of eight 
years I was errand boy for the neighborhood, and 
did chores for the neighbors such as cutting kind 
ling and carrying coal before and after school. Dur 
ing vacation I helped my mother do laundry work 
and continued doing chores for the neighbors. 

At the age of ten years, during my vacation. I 
secured a job at a brick-yard brushing brick at a 
salary of forty cents per day ; worked at that one 
month and then was promoted to driving a cart 
at a salary of fifty cents per day. and worked at 
that until school opened again. I again started at 

207 



my old job of doing chores for the neighbors be 
fore and after school hours. 

The next vacation, I secured a position in a rope- 
walk and made rope at a salary of two dollars and 
fifty cents per week, but being the only Negro boy 
there, and not getting the same salary for the same 
work as done by the white boys, I left there and 
secured a position in a Nursery at a salary of three 
dollars per week, and held this position until the 
fall term of school, when I again started doing 
chores as before. 

The following summer I began driving a one- 
horse coal wagon at a salary of three dollars and 
fifty cents per week, and stayed at that work un 
til school opened again when I secured a position 
in a repair shop and learned to repair shoes and 
cane chairs by working before and after school 
hours, and I sold papers on Sunday mornings. I 
stayed at this place about eighteen months, then 
secured a place in a tobacco factory, at a salary of 
four dollars per week and after being there six 
months was promoted to foreman over eight boys, 
who had been there about two or three years. 

On account of a strike the factory closed and I 
was forced to find other employment so I started 
as a delivery boy in a butcher-shop, and continued 
at this work for two years, attending school at 
night. I then started working as a Pullman por 
ter, and worked at that for three years, then start 
ed teaming for myself ; business became dull, so I 
returned to the Pullman service and stayed there 
another year. I then started as a huckster in bus 
iness for myself and controlled the first huckster 
business owned by a Negro in St. Louis. I con 
tinued working for the Pullman Company during 
the winter season, and followed my huckster busi 
ness during the summer months. I leased twenty- 
one acres of land and worked it for three years, 
to keep up the huckster business, and still worked 
for the R. R. Company. From that I went to work 
at the undertaking establishment of A. Russel, and 
stayed at this position four years, and then start 
ed the undertaking business for myself, at 2317 
Market Street. I stayed at that location about 
six years and then bought the property and built 
the establishment that is my present location 3232- 
34, Pine Street. The first to peddle coal in St. 
Louis ; the first Negro Huckster in St. Louis ; the 
first Negro to own and operate the Monument 
business in St. Louis ; The first Negro to hold the 
position of City Undertaker ; the first Negro to 
run an automobile funeral in St Louis ; .'First in 
Everything." 

In this story of his life, showing its tips and 
downs, Mr. Williams reveals a wonderful wealth 
of energy, patience and perseverance, traits which 
almost invariably lead to success and prosperity, 
and accounts for his being listed as a successful 
man. 




CLEMENT RICHARDSON 





HE Editor of this Volume, Clem 
ent Richardson, is a Virginian by 
birth. He was born in Halifax 
County, in 1878, where for a num 
ber of years he tilled tobacco and 
attended the White Oak Grove 
country school. While still a lad he went to Mass 
achusetts to seek work, and to further his educa 
tion. After spending some years in Winchester, 
Mass., where he worked as a tanner and a farmer, 
Mr. Richardson entered Mt. Hermon, the Boy's 
school of Dwight L. Moody. "I was prep of Preps" 
says Professor Richardson, "for what little book 
knowledge I had picked up back there in Virginia 
had been lost or supplanted by the rapid change of 
surroundings." 

From Mt. Hermon Mr. Richardson entered 
Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, but 
changed to Harvard after three years. He was 
graduated from Harvard in 1907. 

Throughout his career Professor Richardson 
leaned toward English studies. He recalls for you 
with a genial smile, one or two thrilling debates he 
took part in back there in the boyhood days in 
Halifax, where he argued that women should not 
vote and that the wheelbarrow was more essential 
to the farmer than the ox. He was one of the ed- 

208 



itors of his preparatory school paper, the reader 
for the Mt. Hermon Glee Club, president of the 
Pit-Hen Literary Society of that institution and 
f; tqiient winner of prizes in both oratory and dec 
lamation throughout his school course. The same 
kind of work was kept up at college, where he pre 
ferred to pursue extra courses in literature to tak 
ing extensive part in college activities. 

On finishing college Mr. Richardson did some 
work for the Boston Daily Globe and corresponded 
for several colored papers. In the fall of 1907 he 
filled the temporary vacancy made in Morehouse 
college, Atlanta, Ga., by the absence of Prof. Braw- 
Icy. In 1908 Professor Richardson accepted work 
as teacher of English in Tuskegee Institute, where 
for the last nine years he has been head of the En 
glish Department. 

At'.; Tuskegee Institute, Professor Richardson 
was kept in close touch with all the students and 
teachers. He is a man of action, as well as one 
who likes to dally with his pen. He was respon 
sible for all the public speaking at the famous 
Booker T. Washington school. During the year he 
staged in dramatic form a Halloween exercise and 
a Thanksgiving exercise for the senior class, a 
drama for the teachers and one for the senior class. 
One year he put on the Merchant of Venice for 
the teachers as actors and Mid-Summer Night 
Dream for the students. He staged once a year an 
exercise by the African students to raise funds to 
support a Tuskegee chapel in Liberia. Christmas 
1916, Mr. Richardson established at Tuskegee the 
Community Christmas tree, bringing joy to some 
three or four hundred students who otherwise 
would have had no pleasant reminder of the season. 

For the last few years Mr. Richardson has taken 
enthusiastic interest in rural education. He makes 
many trips into the country with the agent of the 
Tuskegee Entension Department, making addresses 
to the people and writing about them for the pa 
pers and magazines on his return. 

During all these years, Mr. Richardson has been 
a frequent contributor to magazines and daily pa 
pers, having written the Country Gentleman, Amer 
ican magazine, Independant, Survey, Southern 
Workman and in daily and weekly papers. He was 
often with Dr. Booker T. Washington on the lat- 
ter's tours, as a writer for papers and magazines. 
He is the author of several booklets and phamplets. 

In June, 1918, Mr. Richardson was chosen by the 
Board of Regents of Missouri as President of 
Lincoln Institute, and he assumed office at once. 
If there is anything in the expression "First im- 
presson the lasting one," Mr. Richardson will hold 
the good will of his new teachers and the citizens 
of the town, for they have given him a hearty wel 
come during his few months of Presidency. 

Prof. Richardson was married Sept. 1st. 1908, to 
Miss Ida J. Rivers of Meridian. Mississippi. There 
are four daughters in the Richardson home: Louise 
Elizabeth, Ida Mae, Clementine and Evelyn Adele. 
All except the last named are in school. 




WALTER G. ALEXANDER, A. B. M. D. 




ALTER G. Alexander, M. D., of 
Orange, New Jersey, prominent 
in civil and business progress of 
Orange and a conspicuous leader 
in politics and in his profession, 
was born in Lynchburg, Virginia, 
December 3, 1880. His father, Royal Alexander, 
had seven children and a regular income of $15 
a month, and so could do little to help his son 
through school. Young Alexander attended the 
public schools of Lynchburg until he was 14 years 
of age. 

From the public schools he entered Lincoln Un 
iversity, Pennsylvania, at the rare age of fourteen. 
At Lincoln he became distinguished for excellence 
in scholarhsip from the outset, and remained so 
throughout his four years stay there. From Lin 
coln where he gained the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts he enrolled in the Boston College of Physi 
cians and Surgeons. Against even a keener compe 
tition than he had met at Lincoln, he once more 
carried away honors in scholarship. He had been 
first honor man throughout his course at Lincoln ; 
had won the Bradley Medal in Natural Science and 
had been made Latin Salutatorian. At the Boston 



College of Physicians and Surgeons, he carried off 
first prize for his thesis on "Cerebral Localization" 
and second prize on an essay entitled, "The Social 
Aspects of Tuberculosis." 

Obtaining his doctor's degree in 1903, he served 
time as an interne in the Boston North End Hos 
pital and Dispensary. Completing his work here 
he began his career in West Virginia. After spend 
ing a year in West Virginia, he located in Orange. 

However, the doctor has by no means ceased to 
win honors. Almost from the day he began, he 
took the leading part as a citizen as well as a phy 
sician in this New Jersey City. He joined the Elks, 
>the Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias, the Sam 
aritans and Court of Calanthe. He allied himself 
as an active member of the Essex County, Jersey 
State and American Medical Associations; with 
the William Pierson Medical Library Association, 
of Orange; with the North Jersey Medical Society; 
with the National Medical Association ; for 6 years 
Secretary of National Medical Association ; with 
the Orange Civic Society ; with the Orange 
Board of Trade ; with the Orange Colored 
Citizens Union ; with the Federation of Colo 
red Organizations of New Jersey. He soon be 
came director of the Progressive Building and 
Loan Association, director of the Douglass Film 
Company, President of the Home Benefit Associa- 
tionfi and a member of the Essex County Repub 
lican Committee. 

In all these organizations, marvelous to relate, 
he became the dominating factor, an unquestioned 
leader. He became Past Noble Father of the Inde 
pendent Order of Odd Fellows, past chancellor of 
the Knights of Pythias, past exalted ruler of the 
Elks. In the affairs of State he has been just as 
conspicuous, just as formidable. In 1912 he ran for 
the state legislature on the Progressive Ticket, re 
ceiving more than 22.000 votes, running fourth in a 
group of twelve. In 1913, he was "high man" in 
the Progressive Primary for the state Legislature, 
receiving three hundred more votes than the can 
didate for governor. 

He is the Alumni member of the Lincoln Univer 
sity Athlete Association and spends and gives much 
enthusiasm to Lincoln sports. 

H'e was married in 1914, to Miss Elizabeth Hem- 
mings of Boston. Dr. and Mrs. Alexander live in 
their own residence in Webster Place, a residence 
which is among the best in the city and from which 
pulsates much of the social and civic life of Orange. 

In a word. Dr. Alexander's marvelous mind, 
which he has continuously developed, his social dis 
position which has enabled him to influence men 
for their good, and a noble ambition for his race, 
causing him to persistently seek their uplift, has 
made him a great and useful man. 



209 





GEORGE E. CANNON. M. D.. LL. D. 

ULY 7, 1869 Dr. George E. Cannon 
son of Barnett G. and Mary Can 
non, was born in Carlisle, South 
Carolina. He received his early 
education in the public schools of 
Carlisle and in the Brainard In 
stitute at Chester, South Carolina. On completing 
his work in the Brainard Institute, he returned to 
his native town and taught schools for two years. 
The revenue derived from this source enabled 
him to take up his studies again, which he did in 
Lincoln University, in Pennsylvania Here he ap 
plied himself with great diligence and graduated 
with honors in 1893. Again he was forced to give 
up his studies because the care of his family called 
for his aid and support, but it was only for a time. 
The fires of ambition having once been kindled 
would not go out and the thirst for knowledge in 
tensified rather than diminished by his forced ab 
sence from school. In 1896 the way opened again 
for him to continue his studies and as he had de 
termined upon the profession he would adopt he 
entered a college which would prepare him for his 
work. He enrolled in the New York Homeopathic 
College, from which Institution he graduated in 
1900, with the degree of M. D. 



After graduating from the New York Homeopa 
thic College he moved to Jersey City, New Jersey 
where he immediately took up the practice of med 
icine. Here he has since remained and pursued his 
practice and has built up a large and lucrative busi 
ness. His reputation as a physician is not confin 
ed to the community in which he lives, but he also 
stands high in the professional circles of the State. 
He has achieved much distinction as a physician, 
and is widely known throughout the country. He 
is ex-President of the North Jersey Medical Asso 
ciation ; a member of the Academy of Medicine of 
Northern New Jersey; President of the North 
eastern Medical Association; and for eight years, 
chairman of the Executive Board of the National 
Medical Association. 

During the past five years, he has been president 
of the Lincoln University Alumni Association. Un 
der his administraton, a handsome bronze tablet 
has been erected to the memory of the beloved 
President, Isaac N. Randall ; a scholarship has been 
endowed ($2500) the first to be endowed by colored 
men ; and funds have been raised to erect a magni 
ficent archway over the main entrance to the Uni 
versity. 

He is an extensive writer on medical and civic 
subjects; and is much in demand as a public speak 
er. His best known medical article, is the "Health 
Problems of the New Jersey Negro." 

He takes a strong and controlling part in public 
affairs as well as in medical matters. He stands 
for the highest type of leadership in all that per 
tains to a good citizen. As president of the fa 
mous Committee of One Hundred of Houston 
County, he has been successful in advancing the 
civic interest of his race throughout the state of 
New Jersey. He is recognized as one of the fore 
most, if not the foremost, man of his race in the 
State of New Jersey. 

He is president of the John Brown Building and 
Loan Association ; treasurer of the Fredrick Dou 
glass Film Company (which produces high class 
Negro motion pictures) ; treasurer of the Home 
Benefit Asociation ; and of the Negro Welfare 
League of New Jersey. He is a devout church 
member and elder in the Lafayette Presbyterian 
Church. In 1914, Lincoln University, his alma ma 
ter, conferred on him the honorary degree of LL. D. 
On October 2, 1917, Governor Walter E. Edge 
commissioned him a captain in the New Jersey 
State Militia. 

In 1901, Dr. Cannon was married to Miss Gene- 
vive Wilkinson, of Washington, D. C. Unto them 
two children have been born, George and Gladys. 

Dr. Cannon is one of the few men of the race to 
enjoy a wide patronage from both races. His in 
come from his practice is far above the average. 
His investments are large and varied. 



210 



Norman Therkield Cotton, A. B., M. D. 





HERE are those who hold that the 
Negro should be educated in his 
own schools located in the South, 
and there only. They further con 
tend that having received his ed 
ucation in the South that he 
should give the benefit of his training to his peo 
ple located in that section. If such people would 
read the story of Dr. Norman Therkield Cotton, of 
Patterson, New Jersey, they would no doubt 
change their minds upon this subject. 

His is an instance of what hundreds of colored 
men have done all over the country, and what they 
can do by finishing their training in the Northern 
schools. These Northern schools are well equip 
ped and give facilities for education along certain 
lines not possessed by those located in the South 
though many of the Southern schools deservedly 
stand high. 

Dr. Cotton won his degrees of Bachelor of Arts 
and Doctor of Medicine. 

He was born in Greensboro, North Carolina, 
August 25th, 1885. His first schooling was in the 
public schools of his native city. After passing 
through the different grades and completing his 
course in the public schools he next became a stu 
dent in the A. and M. College, which is also located 
at Greensboro. Completing his work in the A. and 
M. College, he decided to finish his education in the 
North and accordingly began his pilgrimage to the 
Northern clime. He first went to the Lincoln Uni 
versity, in Pennsylvania, completing his course and 
received his degree of Bachelor of Arts. Up to 
this time he had not definitely decided upon his 
life work, but his mind was now made up and he 
chose medicine and surgery. After giving the mat 
ter due thought, he was convinced that Boston of 
fered the best schools and environment for the 
training he desired, so he enrolled at the Boston 
College of Physicians and Surgeons. Here he ap 
plied himself with diligence and completed his 
course. After the completion of his course he- 
served an internship and extended training in the 
City Hospital of Boston, and the North End Dis 
pensary and Hospital, Boston, Mass. It was while 
he was attending the medical school in Boston that 
his ambition was fired and be began to taste the 

211 



fruits of place and honor. Because of his excel 
lent and enviable record in scholarship and good 
standing with his fellows he was chosen orator of 
his class. He acquitted himself well and the well 
deserved praise showered upon- him gave him a 
keen relish for such distinctions and since then he 
has captured one post of honor after another. 
While sojourning in the Hub he was chosen a 
member of the Boston Gamma Psi Zeta Society of 
Boston. 

Beginning his work in Patterson, he soon estab 
lished himself as a physician and surgeon, and 
started immediately to add many other honors to 
his list. He is President of the North Jersey Med 
ical Society, of New Jersey ; member of the Society 
of the State ; of the Passaic County Medical So 
ciety; of the National Association, and of the 
American Medical Association. Dr. Cotton's unu 
sual skill as a physician and surgeon soon put him 
in the front ranks along with the leading physi 
cians of New Jersey. Though still a very young 
man. he has built up a splendid practice, and a re 
putation to be envied. Dr. Cotton enjoys as large, 
if not the largest practice of any physician in 
North Jersey. White patients constitute the bulk 
of his practice.. 

Along with his professional work, he has joined 
hands with the church and with secret orders. He 
is a member of the Saint Augustine Presbyterian 
Church of Patterson ; he is Past Master of the En- 
tegrity No. 51, F. A. M. of Patterson; of Oceanic 
4559 G. U. O. O. F. of Atlantic City, and of the 
Good Samaritans. 

Though intensely engaged in social and profes 
sional life, and having traveled very extensively, 
Dr. Cotton has nevertheless accumulated property 
and made himself comfortable surroundings. He 
owns two houses on Graham Avenue in Patterson, 
the one his own home ; the other, a rent house. His 
home is valued at $9,000; his rent house at $2,900. 
He has much other property both in Patterson and 
in Greensboro, North Carolina, his native home. 

Dr. Cotton was married to Miss Bertha May 
Doyle Lee of Boston in 1911. Their home is a sort 
of proud citadel among the colored people of Pat 
terson, being the spot from which radiates good 
service, genial fellowship and prosperity. 





Dr. J. WILLIAM FORD 

EXT to the Negro doctor, or rath 
er along with the Negro physi 
cian, the dentist is doing some of 
the most helpful service to the 
Negro race. He himself and his 
office with its equipment are 
sources of courage, ease and freedom ; for here one 
enters without misgiving, without fear of slight 
or discrimination ; realizing that all the equipment, 
the dentist's best skill and courtesy are all his. To 
this very valuable service the dentist adds that of 
a teacher. He gives lessons to the patient sitting 
in the chair ; lessons on the care of the teeth, on 
when to fill instead of pulling, on the use of the 
teeth ; all of which are most essential and none, or 
very few, of which the average Negro patient 
would get under other circumstances. 

Perhaps this cold business method of handling 
the patient is no where more common than in the 
North, where competition is sharp, sympathy none 
too common. Happily our dentists are taking their 
places here and are rendering the Negro people 
good service. 

Dr. J. William Ford, of Newark, New Jersey, is 
one of the dentists of the North to fill just such a 
post as has been outlined. His high grade prompt 

212 



service, his office equipment, whch after a time the 
public described as "ideal," soon drew to him an 
exceedingly large practice. So much so that though 
he left college in 1907 in debt to the instructors and 
to his friends, he was able to invest $500 in the 
First Liberty Loan and $500 in the Second Liberty 
Loan, also $2,000 in the Third Liberty Loan in ad 
dition to having accumulated valuable property 

holdings. 

Dr. Ford was born in Williamsport, Pennsyl 
vania, September, 1877. On finishing the public 
schools of Williamsport, he entered Howard Uni 
versity, and was graduated from the preparatory 
department. He spent two years in the College 
Department of Howard and then made dentistry a 
specialty. He completed his course in Dentistry in 
1907. His life through college, however had 
been one of struggle and of want and hard work. 
He left the University in debt, for which his diplo 
ma was withheld- He owed his friends, he had a 
mother to support. There was therefore no money 
to buy this "ideal" equipment and furnish this ideal 
office, of which his patrons now boast. The pro 
verbial starvation period of the professional man 
was not to be gone through, it was already upon 
him. And so for six years he worked on the rail 
roads to pay off his debts and work had its happy 
side. Working on the railroads both in the East 
and in California, gave him entensive travel, and 
contact, two invaluable assets for a professional 
man ; for often his success hangs as much on his 
good conversation as it does on his excellent work. 

It was only in 1913 that Dr. Ford was able to 
leave the railroads and begin to try his fortune at 
his profession. In spite of the fact he had been out 
of school six years, he succeeded in passing the 
State examinations, and at one trial, something un 
usual for New Jersey, and was able to enter on his 
professional career. 

Two years after beginning his practice Dr. Ford 
was married to Miss Edith Anna Braxton, of New 
York City. They were married in their own 
church, St. Phillips Episcopal Church, of New 
York. Mrs- Ford was formerly a public school 
teacher of New York. Dr. and Mrs. Ford live in 
Newark, but they own a very handsome Brown 
stone front residence in Brooklyn. 




DR. FORD'S OPERATING ROOM. 



George A. Kyle, D. D. S. 




EORGE A. Kyle, D. D. S., of Pat 
terson, New Jersey, was a born 
athlete and early began to devel 
op his powers as such. His career 
as a college athlete brought him 
into prominent notice and gave 
him a wonderful influence with the students. His 
reputation was not confined to his college but 
went beyond the bounds of the campus and made 
him known throughout the country. He became 
very popular, especially in the athletic world. He 
was both popular for his personal excellence and 
for the variety of athletics in which he excelled. 
He was a track man and through unquestioned 
merit rose to be captain of the track team. He 
brought his team up to a state of marked excel 
lence. Football and basket ball were games in 
which he also excelled and in which he took an ac 
tive interest. He was elected manager of the foot 
ball squad. 

In Howard University, where he was educated, 
there were few activities in which he did not play 
a conspicious part. 

But his prowess was not limited to the gridiron, 
to the track and to the gymnasium, it was recog 
nized in other fields of endeavor. As a rule ath 
letes are not given to literature and the cultivation 
of the mind, for in the development of the physical 
the mind is neglected and it is hard for them to 
concentrate the mind upon literary matters. Dr. 
Kyle is a notable exception to the rule and was re 
garded at college as much for his literary attain 
ments as for his athletic renown. His counsel and 
aid was sought in staging college plays and exer 
cises of that character, and his interest in them 
was active and not of a passive nature. In a num 
ber of the college plays he took leading parts 
throughout his career at Howard. 

Dr. Kyle was born and lived and worked wholly 
above the Mason and Dixon Line. None of his suc 
cess can he check up to the hardships of oppression 
which sometimes rush in to claim the glory of 
achievement of those southern Negroes who have 
conquered in spite of oppression. He was born in 
Mainesville, Ohio, July 20, 1881. Much of his early 
education was gained in the public schools of Cin 
cinnati, Ohio, which is not a southern city, geo 
graphically speaking at any rate. However, Dr. 

213 



Kyle may be very truly set down as educated at 
Howard University. Leaving the public schools of 
Cincinnati, he entered the Howard College Prepar 
atory Department. Being graduated from this De 
partment he entered the college. Completing the 
college course, he enrolled in the Dental School. 
Thus completing his years in school and in school 
activities. Dr. Kyle will go down in a literal sense 
as being educated at Howard. 

On graduating from the Howard Dental School, 
Dr. Kyle gave himself to serious thought as to 
where he would locate. It was not an easy ques 
tion to settle, and not wishing to make a mistake 
he did not act in the matter hastily. Not wishing 
to remain idle while determining a question of so 
great importance to him he entered the service of a 
dental firm in Buffalo, New York. He remained 
with this firm several years, but the time was not 
lost for he gained from them a practical experience, 
confidence in his own ability and money to open 
an office when he ventured for himself. 

He had selected Patterson, New Jersey, as a de 
sirable post, and here he began. He had already 
many friends in various parts of the country, many 
of them Howard graduates, many friends whom 
he gained in his travels as an athlete. His activities 
at Howard had made him so popular that he be 
came a welcome member of Patterson circles, and 
the circles round about Patterson, reaching New 
York. 

He is a member of many medical organizations 
and of those bodies which keep alive the fraternal 
spirit and connection which meant so much in his 
college days. He is a member of the Alpha Phi 
Alpha Fraternity and of the College Men's Round 
Table of New York City. He belongs to the North 
Jersey Medical Association, and to the National 
Medical Association. He is secretary of the North 
Jersey Medical Association. 

Dr. Kyle was married July 16, 1916, to Miss 
Charlotte McCracken of New York City. Between 
his profession on the one hand and his many social 
and fraternal connections on the other, Dr. Kyle, 
with Mrs. Kyle leads an exceedingly busy life. 





PETER F. GHEE, M. D. 

R. Ghee belongs to the younger 
generation of Negro physicians, 
or rather to the physicians of the 
transition period. In the olden 
days the idea was to get to prac 
tice and gain a competence. The 
modern school, with its glaring 
exceptions, says rather, "Get Ed 
ucation." This takes time and patience. It goes 
to one school for one kind of training and to an 
other for another, so that when the medical stu 
dent comes forth with his diploma, he comes not 
only a technically educated doctor, but as an edu 
cated and cultivated man, fit to practice medicine, 
to teach his patience, to write readable articles on 
various topics of his profession, to take his place 
as a citizen as well as a physician. 

Dr. Ghee was born in Luxenburg County, Vir 
ginia, May 5, 1871, and is the son of Peter Ghee, a 
farmer. He had as a lad the training on the farm 
that makes in so many instances for strong man 
hood. He knew the use of the axe, the hoe and 
the plow. He also learned to appreciate the great 
out-of-doors the trees, birds, flowers and above 
all the great distances in the wide open country. 
His preliminary education was obtained in the pub 
lic schools of his native country, where he laid the 
foundation for his later success in the literary line. 
He was a graduate from Boyaton Institute in the 
class of 1391. He thence matriculated at Shaw Un 
iversity, from which having taken an elective 

214 



course instead of the regular one, he could not ob 
tain his Bachelor of Arts Degree when he graduat 
ed in 1894. Dr. Ghee next entered Leonard Medical 
College, from which he was graduated in 1898 with 
the degree of Doctor of Medicine. During his sen 
ior year at this institution he was engaged in prac 
tical work in the hospital, and after graduation 
he served an internship. Upon the conclusion of this 
period he established himself in active practice in 
Jersey City, New Jersey, which has since that time 
been the seat of his professional activity. His prac 
tice is a large and widely extended one, and he has 
the affection as well as the confidence of his pa 
tients. This is true because of the warm hearted 
sympathy always apparent in his ministrations, and 
his unselfish manner of serving. 

Although Dr. Ghee has a very wide practice he 
has still taken time to associate with and work for 
various organizations in Jersey City and the state. 
He is a member of the North New Jersey Medical 
Association; the National Medical Association; 
Hudson Lodge, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 
Progressive Lodge, Benevolent and Protective Or 
der of Elks of Jersey City. In all of these he is 
held in high esteem for his wise counsel. 

Dr. Ghee was married to Miss Lucy Boyd of 
Washington, D. C. Two children have come to 
bless their home ; Euclid and Irven Ghee. The 
father is fond of all out-door sports and finds his 
chief recreation in automobiling. He is a member 
of the New Jersey Automobile and Motor Club. 

In political matters he is affiliated with the Pro 
gressive Party of Hudson County and keeps well 
in touch with the trend of public events. 

The greater part of his spare time is devoted to 
study and research work along the lines of his pro 
fession, which appears to be of ever increasing in 
terest to him as the years advance. 

Dr. Ghee is a tireless worker. His office hours 
seem to know no limit. Although Dr. Ghee is a 
very busy man, he is extremely modest and it 
was only with the greatest persuasion he could be 
prevailed upon to give even a meagre account of 
his life and career. 




RESIDENCE OF DR. PETER F. GHEE 




REVEREND FLORENCE RANDOLPH 




O full of experience, service, and 
promotion has been the life of 
Rev. Florence Randolph that 
nothing more than a catalogue of 
her career can be offered here. 
She was born in Charleston, 
South Carolina, and was educated 
at Avery Normal Institute, after 
completing the course in the public schools of 
Charleston. Rev. Randolph was converted when 
she was about thirteen years of age. She joined 
the Methodist Episcopal church, and engaged im 
mediately in active service. 

On finishing her studies in the South she went to 
Jersey City, where she allied herself with the A- 
M. E. Zion Church of that city. Though she was 
following dress making as an occupation, she early 
began to exhort and do very active church work. 

In 1897 she was granted license to preach. She 
began immediately to preach, addressing crowded 
houses, supplying pulpits, and doing evangelistical 
work wherever she received a call. For fourteen 
years she served Jersey City as a voluntary and 
tin-salaried missionary, and for two years was the 
superintendent of the Negro work for the Chris 
tian Endeavor Society of the State. 

On the recommendation of the late Hi.-,hnp .Alex 
ander Walters, she was admitted to the Conference 
and became Conference Evangelist. In the mean 
time she was chosen pastor of several churches 
the A. M. E. Zion Church, of Newark, N- J.. Little 

215 



Zion A. M. E. Church, of New York City, and the 
A. M. E. Zion Church, of Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Bish 
op Walters ordained her a Deacon in 1901, and an 
Elder in 1903- In 1901 Rev. Randolph was chosen 
to attend the Ecumenical Conference, which met in 
London. 

While in London, Rev. Randolph preached in the 
Primitive Methodist Church, of Mattison ,Road, 
where she won the highest praise from the congre 
gation and from the public press. Completing -her 
Conference duties in London, R^v. Randolph made 
several visits on the continent. She traveled 
through the remainder of England, through Scot 
land, Belgium and France. 

In America Rev. Randolph's work falls into sev 
eral groups. She is a well known social and club 
worker, a Christian Endeavor Worker, a Temper 
ance Lecturer. She is president of the New Jersey 
State Federation of Women's Clubs, and is a mem 
ber of the Executive Board of the New Jersey State 
Suffrage Association. She is chaplain of the North 
Eastern Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, and 
is head of the Religious Department of the National 
Association of Colored Women's Clubs. She works 
almost constantly in the prisons of her city, as 
well as in the prisons of New York and in other 
cities and towns where she chances to have a mo 
ment to spare. Rev. Randolph is one of the offi 
cial lecturers of the Women's Christian Temper 
ance Union of New Jersey. In this capacity she 
has won great distinction for herself and for the 
cause of Temperance. Indeed the papers in and 
around New Jersey, where she is best known vie 
with one another in singing her praise both as a 
worker and a speaker. 

Of equal weight with Rev. Randolph in the cause 
of foreign missions. All through her course as a 
church and social worker she has kept the cause of 
Africa steadily before herself and before the pub 
lic. Her church and the Conference were not slow 
in recognizing her as a most valuable asset in this 
branch of service. Seventeen years the Women's 
Foreign Society of the state of New Jersey has 
kept her as its president, and in 1916 the general 
Conference, which asembled at Louisville, Ky., 
made her president of the Woman's Home and 
Foreign Missionary Society of the A. M. E. Zion 
Connection. 

Rev. Randolph comes from an old Charleston 
family, her father being John Spearing of that city. 
She was married to Hugh Randolph, of Richmond, 
Va., May 5, 1886. Mr. and Mrs. Randolph had one 
daughter, Miss Leah Viola. She is now Mrs. J. 
Francis Johnson, wife of Dr. J. F. Johnson of Jer 
sey City. Mr. Randolph died February 13, 1913. 

In Jersey City Rev. Randolph still makes her 
home. She is one of the few prophets to reap honor 
in her own country. White and black alike seek 
her presence whenever she is in the city. A wel 
come speaker and advisor, she is nevertheless 
sought for her conversation, experience and her 
personal charm. On many occasions she has been 
feasted, tendered gifts and testimonials by her 
fellow citizens of both races. 

TO quote the Zion Star, "Truly Rev. Randolph 
by her life, character and work gives substantial 
proof against the pessimistic views of those who 
hold the Negro race incapable of higher develop 
ment. 



Isaac Henry Nutter, LL. B., LL. D. 




NE of Atlantic City's busiest and acquitted. In the County Court of Mays Landing, 



most successful lawyers is Isaac 
Henry Nutter. Although New 
Jersey proudly proclaims him her 
own, he was born August 20, 1878. 
at Princess Anne, Maryland. 



His parents were William and Emma Nutter, ex- 
slaves, who were highly respected for their 
strength of character and industry. While unedu 
cated themselves, they were great lovers of educa 
tion and made many sacrifices in order to give their 
children an education. 

Their sacrifices in behalf of their children have 
been amply rewarded. Two of their boys, the 
subject of this sketch, and his brother, T. Gillis 
Nutter, have risen to high places at the bar and are 
occupying honored positions in other spheres of 
life. Other children have also reached places of 
honor and trust. 

While his father was a great believer in educa 
tion he did not believe in bringing up his children 
in idleness. le had a monopoly of the saw wood 
business of his community and the boys were re 
quired to help him in his work. 

As a youth Isaac H. Nutter made remarkable 
progress in both his Preparatory and College 
Courses. While he was attending the Law De 
partment of Howard University, he convinced all 
who had dealings with him of the fact that he had 
chosen the right profession. 

He was even at this early age both a 
student and a scholar, showing a remarkable 
knowledge and appreciation of History, Civil Gov 
ernment and Economics. He was naturally en 
dowed with a most powerful faculty of logical 
reasoning and he used every opportunity to devel 
op this power. Since then many a legal battle has 
been won by his exercising this power. June, 1901 
he was graduated with the degree of LL. B., later 
in the year, 1913, Wilberforce University conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of LL. D. 

Three years after his graduation, that is in 
1905, Mr. Nutter went before the Board of Exam 
iners of New Jersey, and passed a very successful 
examination. Since that time he has practiced in 
Atlantic City. For some time he was associated 
in his practice with ex-Judge John J. Crandall. 
This helped to establish his place in the legal cir 
cle but his own power has held him there. 

His court practice averages about twenty civil 
and criminal cases a month. Thus far Lawyer 
Nutter has defended in all thirty murder cases, 
one of which was convicted in the second degree, 
four sentenced for manslaughter, and twenty-five 

216 



New Jersey, in less than four days he secured ac 
quittal in two cases and in the middle of the trial 
of a third client, had a "Not- Guilty" of murder plea 
changed to "guilty" of manslaughter with impris 
onment for one year. 

Mr. Nutter handles all cases with a great deal of 
earnest enthusiasm. His is not a play on words 
nor perplexing ambiguity, but it is the ultimate 
truth, clean cut justice and overwhelming logic 
clothed in a most fascinating and attractive rhetr 
orical eloquence. 

Aside from his legal business, Mr. Nutter finds 
time to devote himself to other worthy causes. He 
is solicitor and General Advisor of the New Jersey 
State Republican League ; Solicitor of Atlantic 
County Republican League, and President of Nut 
ter's Real Estate Company, which is one of the 
most active companies of the State. 

His fraternal spirit is also felt in the State of 
New Jersey. He is a member of the Masons, the 
Odd Fellows, the Knights of Pythias, and of the 
Elks. Then Mr. Nutter was one of the first to 
catch the real spirit of the migration of the Negro 
to the North, and with a keen understanding of the 
situation he became Director of the Bureau for 
Welfare and Employment of Negroes migrating 
from the South. This Bureau was organized in 
1917, and has done a most commendable work. 

Lawyer Nutter is a member of the Governor's 
Cabinet, which is a most worthy post. Through 
his influence he has secured the following ap 
pointments for Negroes ; one assistant Supreme 
Court Clerk, one Medical examiner, six Inspectors 
in Labor Department, one Secretary of Bureau, 
and one chief clerk and stenographer. 

One year before beginning his legal practice, 
April 26, 1904, Isaac Henry Nutter was married 
to Miss Mary Alice E. Reed, of Coatville, Pa., who 
died June 18th., 1915. In a most beautiful home 
on Washington Avenue, Douglass Park, Pleasant- 
ville, New Jersey, he lives free from many of the 
petty cares of this world, secure in the respect and 
esteem of his neighbors and friends. Mr. Nutter 
attends the Methodist church and takes an active 
part in its activities. 

Lawyer Nutter's office is 200-209, Sheen Build 
ing, Atlantic City, New Jersey. Here he works 
late and early, thinking, pondering, weighing his 
words. On these thoughts often the life of a man 
hangs. He is cool, deliberate and when a client 
enters his office, he is made to feel that on the 
walls of Lawyer Nutter's office is written in big 
letters one word justice. 





WILLIAM H. SUTHERLAND, D. D. S. 

R. William H. Sutherland, one of 
the leading and most prominent 
dentists in the State of New Jer 
sey, was born August 9th, 1880, 
in Camden, South Carolina. As 
a lad he attended the Public 
School of Camden and later the 
Presbyterian Parochial School. 
He had small means to pay for an education, but 
a great ambition to learn. So he learned the bar 
ber's trade while still in his native town. In this 
new field of work he earned only twenty-five 
cents per week at first. But nothing daunted, he 
kept at this trade till he was able to do better 
work and therefore earn more money. With 
his trade for his bank account, he entered the Av- 
ery Normal Institute in Charleston, South Carolina 
and worked at off hours at his trade. In this way 
he earned enough money to complete the course 
there. With the same trade as his banker he en 
tered Howard University, Washington, D. C., and 
earned his way there. Dr. Sutherland had by that 
time fully made up his mind what he wished to do 
in life and so he entered the Dental Department. 
From Howard he was graduated with the degree 
of Doctor of Dental Surgery, in 1905. 

Since that time Dr. Sutherland has practiced his 
profession in Providence, R. I., Newark, and Or 
ange, New Jersey. He makes his home in Orange, 
where he owns his home at 75 Oakwood Avenue. 

217 



In his home he has offices with operating room 
equipped with the largest modern electrical Den 
tal appliances. Dr. Sutherland also maintains an 
office at 301, Glenwood Avenue, Bloomfield, New 
Jersey. He enjoys a lucrative practice which is 
not confined wholly to his own people, but he 
numbers among his patrons many prominent busi 
ness people of the white race in the Oranges and 
adjoining , towns. To keep both his offices open 
and to fill all his engagements with his patrons 
causes Dr. Sutherland to lead a very busy life. 

But in spite of the very stenuous life which he 
leads during office hours, Dr. Sutherland still has 
time to devote to the social and religious life of the 
community. He is a member of the 13th. Avenue 
Presbyterian Church, of Newark. In this church 
he is Elder and also President of the Brotherhood. 
He is chairman of the board of management of the 
Orange Branch of the Y. M. C. A., a member of 
the National Medical Association and of the North 
Jersey Medical Association. Of the last named 
he is a chairman of the Dental Section. 

And still Dr. Sutherland finds time to really en 
joy his home. He was married to Miss Reiter L. 
Thomas, of Washington, D. C., December 27, 1906. 
Their home life is most ideal. Mrs. Sutherland 
presides over the home in a truly charming manner. 
She is a graduate of the Armstrong Manual Train 
ing School of Washington and is a lady of an op 
timistic and amiable character. To her Dr. Suth 
erland attributes much of his success. The family 
is blessed with two beautiful children. Reiter L. 
Sutherland is ten years old and is in the public- 
school. Muriel S. Sutherland is still a baby only 
twenty-two months old. The two little ones add 
grace and charm to the wedded life of Dr. and 
Mrs. Sutherland. 

Every summer for about four weeks this ideal 
family leaves home for their vacation. With his 
own car, Dr. Sutherland can go where he wills and 
when he pleases. Indeed this is one of the chief 
delights in the life of this very busy servant of the 
people. On one of these trips he took his family 
to Atlantic City, Baltimore, Philadelphia and Wash 
ington, D. C., and parts of Virginia. 

To quote Dr. Sutherland's own words "My 
pleasure is touring with my car, accompanied with 
my family. In this way we get much needed rest." 

In no profession can a thoroughly consecrated 
man better his people than in denistry. Many of 
the ills of the body come from the lack of proper 
care of the teeth. Of course only one thing lies 
at the root of this lack of care ; and that one thing 
is ignorance. The Negro dentist has a wide field 
before him. He not only has to correct the faults 
already caused through this lack of knowledge, 
but he has the still greater field, teaching the pro 
per care of the mouth and in this way doing pre 
ventive dentistry. This Dr. Sutherland does. As 
chairman of the Dental Section of the Medical As 
sociation of New Jersey, he has an opportunity to 
reach, indirectly, a great number of people. Add 
his work as a dentist to the great number of things 
done for the public in the capacity of Elder and 
President of the Brotherhood in his church and 
chairman of Y. M. C. A., we are compelled to num 
ber Dr. Sutherland among those who are shining 
examples of the best type of public men. 




WILLIAM ROBERT VALENTINE, A. B., 

PRESIDENT OF THE MANUAL TRAINING INDUS 
TRIAL SCHOOL FOR COLORED YOUTHS 
BORDENTOWN, N. J. 



ORTUNATE indeed was the sub 
ject of this sketch in the state of 
his birth and his station as well. 




working in Indianapolis we have just the man we 
want." 

Mr. Valentine finished the High School of Mont- 
clair, New Jersey, in June, 1900, and entered Har 
vard University the following September, graduat 
ing with A. B. degree in 1904. The following Sep 
tember he went to Indianapolis, where he was 
made principal of a three-room Public school build 
ing; two years later of a five-room building, and 
the following year appointed Supervising Princi 
pal of a group of buildings having about fifty 
teachers under his supervision. His office building 
or main building was Public School No. 26. It was 
there that the experiment was tried of making the 
school the educational, social, and economic cen 
ter of all the people in the community. The exten 
sive community work was made possible by reason 
of the fact that the School Board upon the advice 
of Superintendent C. N. Kendall, bought the frame 
tenement buildings surrounding the main brick 
structure, which were remodelled by the students 
as a part of their industrial training, the money 
furnished largely by the community itself. The 
men of the community also donated labor. It was, 
therefore the flexibility of the plant which gave 
the school its opportunity and "advantage over the 
usual stereotype elaborate brick city Public School 
building. One tenement building on the grounds 
was converted into a boys' club house, which was 



Mr. Valentine was born in New remodeled and equipped by the contributions of 



Jersey, where the colored youth 
are given equal advantages with 
the youth of any race. This, however, was not the 
sole reason for his acquiring his thorough training. 
Indeed many young people who have every advan 
tage take no thought of them. But Mr. Valentine 
came of stock that saw clearly just what standing 
a good classical education would give to him. His 
later record in the educational world has fully 
shown that they were not wrong in their estima 
tion. When the State of New Jersey wanted a 



money and labor by the people of the community 
itself. The .club house was directed and supervised 
by teachers after school hours. Another large ten 
ement was converted into an industrial building, 
and included all of the industries such as wood 
work, sewing, tailoring, printing, and shoe-mak 
ing. Another building was used wholly for Do 
mestic Science and included dining room, sitting 
room and bed rooms for demonstration purposes 
and use. This house was helpful in carrying on 
the social activities of the school. The play ground. 



head for the school at Bordentown, it was decided covcr jng about one-half acre of land, was part of 

that they would like to use a native of the State if t ] le equipment of this school. About three-fourths 

possible. Immediately Mr. W. R. Valentine was of an acre of land, consisting of vacant lots within 

mentioned for the place. "In Valentine, who is easy reach of the buildings, were available for gar- 

218 



den purposes. The school was as active at night ample, the fertility of the soil has been greatly in- 
as it was in the day time, for the teaching of the creased, land has been cleared and fenced off, roads 
adults in the community, of all the branches of in- repaired, and hedges removed in order that the 
dustry taught in the day. The school aimed to plant may present a well kept appearance. New- 
reach out into all phases of the life of the commun- buildings have been constructed, including four 
ity as an intensive dynamic force for its uplift, and teachers' residences, costing altogether about 
improvement. Dr. John Dewey, of Columbia, has $25,000.00. The new trade building was added last 
devoted a whole chapter to the work of this school. year, costing $28,000.00, including equipment The 
No. 26, in his "Schools of Tomorrow." addition to the girls' dormitory costing $39,00000 

He came to the Manual Training and Industrial ls about completed. A new sewage disposal sys- 
School in the summer of 1915. This school was tem has been installed, a domestic water supply 
started as a private school by its founder, the Rev. system is under way. The Legislature has appro- 
W. A. Rice, in the town of Bordentown, New Jer- pnated for permanent improvements alone within 
sey, in the year 1886. It was supported entirely the la t three years $110,000.00. Whereas four 
by such voluntary subscriptions as he could collect, years ago there were about 100 students in attend- 
But in 1894 the school passed under the control of ance ' ther e are now about 170. The demand is for 
the State and later in 1900 was placed under the twice that number if the housing facilities were 
supervision of the Sate Board of Education, form- a Iequate. Whereas the State appropriated four 
ing a part of the State educational system. This y ears ago only $28,000.00 for maintenance- it now 
was the year that Professor James M. Gregory, of appropriates $60,000.00. 

Washington, D. C, took charge of the school and The industrial work has been able to meet the re- 
gave it its first impetus forward after its founding. f l uir ements of the Feclaral Board of Vocational 
This was the year also that the State purchased Trade and as a result benefits from the Smith- 
the Old Parnell estate which constitutes its pres- H ghes bill. It is hoped to enlarge the extension 
ent site. It is one of the most beautiful sites in work of the school as fast as possible that it may 
the country ; on a high bluff overlooking the bend reach out into the State. Farmer's conferences 
of the Delaware River, consisting of about 250 ac- are now held in certain communities of the State 
res of land. Professor Gregory resigned in May, monthly. Teachers in the public schools in the 
1915, the date on which Mr. Valentine took charge. neighboring cities and towns hold a Study Center 

The property at Bordentown is valued at about me eting at the school once a month and the State 

$250,000.00. The main buildings are of brick, with r a nization meets once a year. It is hoped finally 

hot and cold water, gas and electric lights. One to make tne Bordentown School do for the people 

hundred fifteen (115) acres of land are now in a of the Nor th what Hampton and Tuskegee have 

high state of actual cultivation. The gross re- done for the people of the South. Hand in hand 

ceipts from the farm for the year 1917-1918 were WIth the inl P r vement and extension of the indus- 

$14,000.00. We are able to produce sufficient sta- trial work wil1 also follow th e improvements and 

ble products to sell to other State institutions. extenslon of the academic work. Such colleges as 

These cash sales amounted during this same year Radcliff - Col mbia, Harvard and Oherlin are re- 

to about $1200.00. There is a herd of about twen- presented " the faculty. 

ty-five (25) Holstein cows, nine (9) horses, one The encouraging feature of the work is the 

hundred (100) head of hogs and seven hundred Bowing interest which the State officials are man- 

(700) chickens. Much labor has been placed on ifesting towards the school, and the confidence in 

the grounds and buildings by way of permanent the future of the school as shown by the colored 

improvements within the last four years. For ex- people themselves. 

219 



William Henry Washington, A. B., M. D. 





HE Negro race, in its march up 
ward, has developed, as has the 
other races, different types of 
men. That race has even de 
veloped that rare type of men, 
known throughout the world as 
"college men." 

Dr. William Henry Washington, of Newark New 
Jersey, is one of the finest of the type of the young 
colored college man, out in life's busy world that 
one can meet. He has the bearing, the attitude, 
the appearance, the culture, the stature of a mod 
ern college man. And what is more, Dr. Washing 
ton is, in the truest sense of the word, a college 
man, and. just such a college man as to reflect cre 
dit on any college from which he might have grad 
uated. 

Dr. Washington was born in Portsmouth, Vir 
ginia, August 23, 1878. He began his education in 
the County School, Virginia, and attended two 
years the Normal and Collegiate Institute, at Pet 
ersburg, Virginia. From there he went to Wash 
ington, and entered the preparatory school of 
Howard University, from which he graduated in 
1900. He next took a four year Collegiate Course 
in Howard University, and followed that with a 
four year Medical course in the same institution. 
There he received his degree of Bachelor of Arts 
and his M. D. degree. 

He has the same interest in Howard University, 
his Alma Mater, that he had while attending 
that famous institution. Ten years after his grad 
uation from the Medical School of Howard Uni 
versity, in 1908, he is found President of the Al 
umni of that school, for the State of New Jersey. 
He keeps as closely in touch with the interests 
and activities of that school today as he did in 
those days when, as captain of the Howard foot 
ball eleven, he led the team to victory after vic 
tory and became the most popular foot-ball cap 
tain that Howard has ever had. 

A leader in school life, he has, without appar 
ent effort, gained a fine place of vantage in the 
Medical world. This young man who was for 
three years captain of Howard's foot-ball team, 
(the most highly conveted athletic honor in a 
college,) who was manager of the varsity base 
ball nine, who was business manager of the college 
newspaper, and president of the exclusive organi 
zation known as the Council of Upper Classmen, 
is, as if those college activities prepared him for 
larger activities, now actively identified with pro 
fessional and civic organizations, of city, state and 
nation. The New Jersey State Medical Society 

220 



the Essex County Medical Association, the Am 
erican Medical Association, the North Jersey Med 
ical Society, the last of which organizations he 
served as secretary and treasurer for several 
years, are among the many professional organiza 
tions in which he holds membership. 

Coming to Newark, New Jersey nine years ago, 
Dr. Washington, who is a native of Virginia, has 
built up a splendid practice. His medical ability 
is recognized and appreciated not only by his many 
patients, but also is conceded by his professional 
brethren. 

While Dr. Washington is now well advanced 
on the road of prosperity, yet it has not al 
ways been thus with him. He, like most men who 
have amounted to anything, has also encountered 
the vicissitudes of life. He worked his way through 
college, through the medical school, and, at the 
same time, and even yet, gave financial assistance 
to dependent relatives who aided him when aid 
was most needed. His mother and father died 
while he was yet in infancy, but loving relatives 
carefully looked after him. These relatives have, 
since he came to manhood, been the object of his 
solicitude and beneficence. 

The home life of Dr. Washington is sweetened 
and made happy by his cultured and attractive help 
meet, who was, before their marriage, Miss Ardele 
Smith. Mrs. Washington was principal of a pub 
lic school in Roanoke, Virginia, at the time of her 
marriage. She too is a Virginian by birth and is 
also a graduate of Howard University. In their 
home they have collected a beautiful and expen 
sive library, the doctor being a connoiseur of the 
best literature and a lover of fine editions in mag 
nificent bindings. One perusing the volumes in Dr. 
Washington's library will see some of the rarest 
and most expensively bound books that have come 
from the binders. 

Dr. Washington is said by some to be the most 
widely known Alumnus of Howard University, 
among the former students of that school. He is 
the same congenial fellow that he was when he- 
was known on "Howard Hill," as "Cap," (football 
captain). And his rise should be an inspiration to 
the aspiring youth. 

When quite a small boy his aspiration was to be 
a soldier; while watching the drills of sailors at 
Portsmouth, it almost decided him to be a sailor ; 
and then attracted by the work of the exponents 
of the law he thought he would be a lawyer, but 
no doubt chose wisely in entering the Medical pro 
fession. 





HARRY RICHARDSON 

NOWN as the friend of all colored 
people who seek pleasant lodging 
and wholesome food at Cape May, 
New Jersey, Harry Richardson, 
proprietor of the New Cape May 
Hotel, and one of the leading 
Cape May Opera houses has served many an ap 
prenticeship in life's great factory. Mr. Richardson 
was horn in Philadelphia, November 3, 1867. Al 
though horn in a locality where the black boy had a 
great chance to educate himself, young Richardson 
was able to attend school but a limited time. This 
was due to the fact that very early in life he had to 
support himself. So we find the young lad after 
a few years spent in Birds Public School, leaving 
the school room and working for his maintanence. 
The first work that was tried by Mr. Richardson 
Was really very hard labor. This was in a brick 
yard. He was still but a boy, and the work was 
so hard that when an opportunity came for a dif 
ferent work, he was very glad to make the change. 
Thus at the early age of thirteen he left the brick 
yard and began an apprenticeship at electroplating 
and stereotyping. For thirteen and a half years he 
worked at this trade and from the position of an 

221 



apprentice he rose step by step to the position of 
foreman of the shop of Hanson Brothers, Phila 
delphia. He changed his place of work but not 
the kind of work in his next move. He went to 
Boston and served as foreman in the electroplate 
room of the Boston Globe. 

Leaving Boston, Mr. Richardson returned to his 
native city, and went in business for himself. In 
this his first venture he chose tobacco as the com 
modity to handle. Mr. Richardson succeeded with 
his tobacco business and was soon able to ven 
ture in a larger business concern. He then opened 
a hotel for the colored traveling public. And for 
the past seventeen years he has been the owner and 
manager of a hotel in Cape May, New Jersey. In 
this line of work, Mr. Richardson has been very 
farseeing. He saw that the best class of colored 
people had no place of amusement, and so he added 
an Opera House to his list of business ventures. 
He saw the crying need of a good hotel for the Col 
ored Man, he attempted to supply that need in his 
locality. In doing this he has served his race while 
helping himself. Again he saw the need of a place 
where the best people could go to get clean amuse 
ment and again he attempted to supply that need. 
In this he has succeeded. Both his places of busi 
ness are very heartily supported by his patrons. 
His hotel is celebrated in the east for comforto- 
ble rooms, prompt and polite service, the best class 
of guests, and the most congenial surroundings. 
What Mr. Richardson has not in his hotel, he mak 
es it a point to get even though he sustains a loss 
in doing so. 

While Mr. Richardson was living in Philadelphia 
he became interested in politics. He was presi 
dent of the seventh ward, Executive Committee, 
for several years, was appointed delegate to many 
conventions, and was one of the State commiss 
ioners to the St. Louis World's Fair. Mr. Richard 
son served also as an employee at the State Senate 
House in Harrisburg for several terms. 

All through his life the proprietor of the Cape 
May Hotel has allied himself with the leading or 
ganizations of his community. While in Phila 
delphia he was President of the Philadelphia Turf 
Club, and was nine years a member of the Mathew 
Stanley Quay Club. Mr. Richardson is a member 
of the Friday Night Banquet Association, of Phil 
adelphia, a member of the Citizen's Republican 
Club, of Philadelphia, and a member of the Masonic 
Olive No. 8. 

In religious belief, Mr. Richardson is a Baptist. 
In connection with his business and for pleasure 
Mr. Richardson has traveled all over the eastern 
part of the United States. Mrs. Richardson, like 
Mr. Richardson himself is a native of Philadelphia. 
They both show their love of their native city by 
the number of times they return to its hospitable 
gates. But Cape May, and the traveling public 
that passes through Cape May, know Mr. Richard 
son, and think of him and talk of him as the pro 
prietor of the Cape May Hotel and Opera House. 




INTERIOR VIEW OF ST. PHILLIPS CHURCH 





N 1818, St. Phillips Church was or 
ganized under the leadership of 
Mr. Peter A. Williams, who after 
being admitted to the order of 
Deacons and advanced to the 
Priesthood was made its first rec 
tor. From its very beginning the 
parish has endeavored to do two 
things : 

(a) To demonstrate the capacity of the Colored 
man for leadership and group action, and : 

(b) To foster his sense of manly independence, 
The first of these endeavors has been abundantly 
justified in the marvelous work which has been 
accomplished during these one hundred years. 
From a very modest beginning in an upper room 
on Cliff Street seeking recognition from the eccles 
iastical authorities, the parish has developed into 
one whose position commands the approval of the 
diocesan authorities- The upper room in Cliff 
Street is today the magnificent Gothic structure in 
West One Hundred and Thirty Fourth Street, with 
a seating capacity of over nine hundred ; a well 
planned Parish House of four floors and basement, 
which houses all the parochial activities adminis 
trative, clerical, recreational an3 communal ; a 
Home for Aged Women and a Rectory. To this 
must be added the endowment painfully accumula 
ted but wisely managed, which consists of a block 
of ten apartment houses in West One Hundred and 
Thirty-Fifth Street, which shelters upward of two 
hundred families. This achievement in some 
measure demonstrates the capacity of the colored 
man, for leadership and harmonious group action, 
for it has all been wrought under the management 

222 



of Colored men. 

(b) In the working out of the second endeavor 
the Parish has been equally successful. Bishop 
Hobart in his Convention address of 1819, says, 
"I consecrated the new church of St. Phillip's in 
Collect Street, designed for the use of the Colored 
people of our Church in that city. To its creation 
they contributed largely in proportion to their 
means and the trustees were unwearied in their ex 
ertions to obtain the contributions of others, and 
in their attention to the building while it was erect 
ing, in which their own mechanics principally were 
employed and which they finished with judgement 
and taste." 

The present church of the perpendicular Gothic 
type was designed by a firm of Colored architects. 
Tandy and Foster. It is cruciform in shape and is 
built of artificial stone, closely resembling lime 
stone and yellow pressed brick. To the west of 
the chancel and sanctuary are the vestry room and 
sacristy ; while on the east are two choir rooms, 
with lockers for men and boys an ambulatory 
connects these east and west rooms. 

In the basement is a large and well appointed 
room used for the Sunday School, a neat attractiv 
ely equipped chapel, choir, rehearsal room, work 
rooms and lavatories- The church consists in part 
of an exquisite altar of marble, with chastely carv 
ed grape vines and panels of four of the apostles, 
and in the centre the Paschal Lamb ; surmounting 
the altar is a reredos of caen stone, and a back 
ground of blue mosiacs tinted with gold in the 
midst of which and looking down upon the altar 
are figures of adoring cherubim and seraphim ; a 
three manual pipe-organ and eagle lectern and pul 
pit of brass. 

To meet the needs of a changed environment 
there are many institutional activities connected 
with the church, but all the club and guild work 
which is done has for its sole purpose the building 
of permanent Christian character. For the boys 
and young men there are the following organiza 
tions : The Knights of King Arthur ; St. Christo 
pher, Juniors ; St. Christopher, Intermediates ; St. 
Christopher, Seniors; St. Phillip's Men's Giuld ; 
Brotherhood of St. Andrew ; Men's Bible Class. 

The activities among the girls and women are : 
St. Mary's Guild ; St. Agnes, Juniors ; St. Agnes. In 
termediates ; St Agnes, Seniors ; Alter Guild ; Wo 
man's Auxiliary to Board of Missions ; Dorcas So 
ciety ; Woman's Auxiliary to the Parish Home ; 
Women's Bible Class. 

Reverend Hutchens Chew Bishop, D. D., went 
to St. Phillips Church January 1st, 1886. where he 
has rendered great and effective work and for 
thirty-two years has been the directing genius of 
the Parish. He graduated from General Theologi 
cal Seminary, N. Y. City in 1881. At that time- there 
were divisions in the church in America and the 
parties constituting the division were at times hos 
tile to each other. Mr. Bishop, as he then was, be 
longed to the High Church party, then hopelessly 
in the minority. Mt. Calvary Church, of which he 
was a member, was of the same party. Owing to 
an unusual ill-feeling on the part of the diocesan 
authorities towards Mt. Cavalry, Mr. Bishop was 
denied the grace of orders in the Diocese of Mary 
land. He was afterwards made Deacon and Priest 
by the Diocese of Albany. 




WILLIAM HENRY BROOKS, D. D. 




ILLIAM Henry Brooks, was 
born in Calvert County, 
Maryland, September 6, 1859. Al 
though this date was just before 
the Emancipation Proclamation, 
for the Negro with ambitious pa 
rents or guardians or an inborn 
ambition for himself, no better 
date could have been decided upon for his entrance 
upon the stage of life. The pendulum swung a long 
way in favor of the education of the blacks, and in 
some sections where the prejudice was not quite so 
great, their educational advantages were equal or 
nearly equal to those offered the white boys. Thus 
we see Rev. Brooks with a chance to educate him 
self. 

To begin his training he entered the Public 
schools of the county. From the Public Schools 
h& entered Morgan College, Baltimore. Here he 
applied himself to his books in a most scholarly 
manner and when an opportunity came to him he 
entered Howard University, at Washington, D. C. 
Leaving Howard he studied in turn in Union Sem 
inary, New York, and in New York University and 
later in University-Dijon, France. Had not Rev. 
Brooks been a close student of books, he would still 
have been benefitted by his sojourn in these insti 
tutions of learning. But being of a scholarly turn 
of mind, and at the same time a student of men and 
events, he saw a great opportunity for educating 
himself. 



At the age of twenty-one he joined the Wash 
ington Annual Conference. Then he 'began his 
round of charges. His first three charges were 
all in West Virginia ; Spring Creek, Summers Cir 
cuit, and Harpers Ferry. He then served two char 
ges in Maryland ; Hartford Circuit, and Frederick, 
in Maryland. He then served Central Church in 
Washington D. C.. and Wheeling, West Va. Hav 
ing served all these minor charges and served them 
well he was next made a Presiding Elder in the 
Washington District. He was transferred to St. 
Marks, New York. In the last named, he has been 
actively engaged since 1897. 

Because of the length and kind of the work done 
by Rev. Brooks, he has been shown many honors 
by the Denomination. In 1896 he was a Delegate 
to the General Conference. He was Fraternal Del 
egate to the General Conference of C. M. E. Church 
at Nashville, Tennessee, in 1902. Again he was 
honored by his church in 1910 when he was sent as 
a Delegate to the World's Conference at Endin- 
burg, Scotland. He is a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Here the competition for the 
Bishopric is keener because of the many men with 
generations of training and culture behind them. 

Not all the honors which have come to him have 
come from his church. This is due no doubt to 
the fact, that he has not confined all his efforts to 
the workings of the church. So we find him on 
the Board of Control of the White Rose Mission, 
Friendly Shelter, and of the National Urban Leag 
ue. In this last named he has been able with his 
associates to do considerable good. He is on the 
Board of Managers of the Y. M. C. A., he is an ac 
tive worker in the Musical Settlement and is Chap 
lain in the 15th Regiment. This represents a very 
active life and a life of great usefulness. 

In connection with his church work, while get 
ting his education and for pleasure it has been the 
privilege of Rev. Brooks to travel quite extensively 
in this country. In fact he has traveled through 
out the United States, in England, in Scotland, 
France, Belgium, Canada, Switzerland, Germany, 
and Mexico. This has helped to develope the man 
almost as much as did his years spent in the var 
ious institutions of learning. 

The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred 
on him by Wiley University, Marshall Texas, in 
1897, and also by Morgan College, Baltimore, Md., 
in 1917. 

He was married to Miss Sarah Catherine Car 
roll, Nov. 2, 1882. Mrs. Brooks is the daughter 
of Rev. N. M. Carroll, D. D. Rev. and Mrs. Brooks 
were married in Asbuy Church, Washington, D. C., 
where her father was at that time pastoring. Five 
children have been born to them to share their 
home and help make it a bright, happy one. Ma 
mie V., is married to Rev. A. A. Brown, of Phila 
delphia ; Arthur E. is a physician in New York ; A. 
Clinton is a clerk in Philadelphia ; Estelle Beartrice 
is a nurse in New York ; and N. Cannon is a ser 
geant in the 15th Regiment. All of these children 
have been to their parents a great blessing 

Rev. Brooks has accumulated some of this 
world's goods while pastoring. He has real estate 
valued at about $5,000.00. In all that he has un 
dertaken, Rev. Brooks has been a success. His 
life should be an inspiration to any young man who 
intends to be a preacher of the Gospel. 



223 



Rev. James Walter Brown Mother A. M.E. Zfon Church 





HE Reverend Mr. James Walter 
Brown, pastor of the famous 
Mother Zion Church of New York 
City, was born in Elizabeth City, 
North Carolina, July 19, 1872. He 
numbers among his Alma Maters 
both Shaw University of his native state and Lin 
coln University in Chester County, Pennsylvania. 
However, he did not go from one to the other so 
rapidly or quickly as it takes to tell. Having fin 
ished his public school, he entered Shaw Univer 
sity. On completing his career here he became a 
school teacher, or schoolman for several years. 
From 1893 to 1899 he was the assistant principal 
of the State Normal School of Elizabeth City. In 
September of 1900 he became a student at Lincoln 
in the theological Seminary. 

He graduated from this department in 1903 and 
began immediately his career as a pastor. His 
first charge was the African Methodist Episcopal 
Zion Church of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. He 
served this church as. pastor from 1903 to 1905. 
From Bethlehem he went to Rochester, New York, 
and became the Pastor of the African Methodist 
Episcopal Zion Church of that city, and served 
them from 1903 to 1913. His two years experience 
at Bethlehem not only gave him practical training 
he needed for pastoral work, but also kindled his 
enthusiasm as a worker and won for him conside 
rable reputation as a pulpit orator. He first sur 
veyed the field and made a note of its needs and 
possibilities, then began his work with zeal and 
soon imparted to his congregation much of his en 
thusiasm. 

He pointed out to them the need of a new and 
more commodious house of worship and influenced 
them to undertake the enterprise. Under his direc 
tion they commenced the work and soon had a 
building of which they were proud. They did not 
stop with the erection of the church building, but 
while the spirit of enterprise was upon them they 
built a parsonage also. The Value of their church 
property now amounts to thirty-five thousand dol 
lars, ($35,000.00). 

Reverend Brown learned from experience that 
the divinely taught principle of fidelity in small 
things leads to larger service is a true principle. 

The fact that he had a comparatively small field 
did not deter him from doing his best and his suc 
cess in Rochester brought him into prominent no 
tice and into a larger field of work. The large 
churches began to take note of him and he was 
soon occupying their pulpits. Among the churches 
which was attracted to him was the old Mother 



African Methodist Episcopal Zion church of New 
York City. This church called him in 1913, and 
since that period he has been its pastor. This 
church, which has a fame co-extensive with Meth 
odism in this country made no mistake in its esti 
mate of the young preacher. He has not only sus 
tained the reputation of the church, but has raised 
it to a higher plane of usefulness and honor. 

He has introduced modern ideas into the church 
life and has inspired them with a new vision of en 
deavor. The old Gospel message is the same in all 
ages but the method of presenting and disseminat 
ing the truth changes with each generation. 

The Reverend Brown recognized this fact, and 
organized in his church committees and clubs 
which would bring the members into closer rela 
tions and cooperation with each other. Already 
the effect of his innovations have been felt in the 
church life, and it is advancing to larger achieve 
ments. 

With him the church comes first and even 
the outside enterprises which engage his in 
terest fall largely within religious and uplift chan 
nels. He is President of the Board of Control of 
the Varicle Christian Endeavor Society of the 
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, a mem 
ber of the Board of Management of the Young 
Men's Christian Association of New York; Distric*- 
Superintendent of the Sunday Schorls of New 
York City for the African Methodist Episcopal 
Ziun Conference. 

To these and to activities of his church he de 
votes the major part of his time and thought 
When he has given attention to his duties connect 
ed with these he has but little time left to devote to 
other interests, yet he is a man among men and 
finds pleasure in mingling with them outside of his 
church life, when he can do so without neglecting 
his work. 

This social proclivity has carried him into a num 
ber of fraternal orders. He is a member of the 
Masonic fraternity, an Odd Fellow, and a member 
of the Southern Beneficial League. 

Reverend Brown has not been unmindful of his 
material interests, believing that it is a man's duty 
to make provision for his family. His savings he 
has invested in property in Elizabeth City, North 
Carolina, in Rochester and in New York City. 

Mr. Brown was married in 1903 to Miss Martha 
Hill, of Philadelphia. In all his endeavors Mrs. 
Brown takes a helpful and leading part, relieving 
him whenever possible, sharing the burden and re 
sponsibility when it is not possible wholly to re 
lieve him. 



224 




EUGENE P. ROBERTS, A. B ., M. A., M. D. 




UGENE P. Roberts, of New 
York City was born in Louisburg, 
North Carolina, October 5, 1868. 
He got his elementary and pre 
paratory training in Louisburg, 
and then entered Lincoln Univer 
sity, Pennsylvania. From this institution he re 
ceived the degree of A. B. in 1891, and later the 
degree of M. A. Leaving Lincoln he matriculated 
at the New York Homeopathic Medical Associa 
tion, and Flower Hospital. Here he received the 
Degree of M. D, in 1894. 

Dr. Roberts began his career as a physician when 
but twenty-four years of age, and he has enjoyed 
a long and very useful career in his profession. He 
is a member of the National Medical Association, 
New York County Medical Society, New York Ma- 
teria Medical Society, Medico-Chirugical Society, 
Academy Pathological Science, Durham Medical 
Club, Med'cal Society of Inspectors of greater New 
York. He is inspector of the Department of 
Health, lecturer on Care of Babies in Public Schools 
of New York City, physician in charge of St. Cy 
prian's Babies Clinic, chairman of Colored Men's 



Branch of Y. M. C. A., member of the Executive 
Board of National League on Urban Conditions 
Among Colored People, committee for Improving 
the Industrial Condition of Negroes in New York, 
and the National League for the protecion of Col- 
ered Women. 

To meet all the demands made on his time by 
these various duties and to attend to his practice, 
Dr. Roberts leads a very busy life. Yet he takes 
time to meet his fellows from another angle. He 
is an active member of the St. James Presbyterian 
Church, a member of the Southern Beneficial and 
Hotel Bellmen's Beneficial Association. Dr. Rob 
erts served one term on the Board of Education for 
New York City. This was an honor well deserved 
because of the many things done by this very busy 
physician for his people in the city of New York. 

Dr. Roberts has made a special study of the di 
seases of children. New York furnishes a good 
field for extensive study along this line. Because 
of the special skill and knowledge along this line, 
Dr. Roberts has been frequently asked to address 
the National Medical Association on this subject. 

Dr. Roberts has traveled very extensively. He 
has covered the greater part of his own country 
in his journeyings and has been three times abroad. 
He visited Spain, Germany, Austria, France, Italy, 
Switzerland and England. The time spent in these 
travels was well spent. In fact, Dr. Roberts has 
made all the events of his life help him along in 
his profession. 

Dr. Roberts has been twice married. He was 
married to Miss MolUe Beatty, New York City, 
June 6, 1900. He was married a second time to Miss 
Ruth M. Logan, of Tuskegee Institute, Alabama, 
December 4th, 1917. The present Mrs. Roberts is 
the daughter of Warren Logan, Treasurer of Tus 
kegee Institute, and for a number of years advisor 
and friend of Dr. Booker T. Washington. Dr. and 
Mrs. Roberts live in their beautiful brown stone 
dwelling in one of the best sections of New York 
City. Here they make life pleasant for their many 
friends. Besides owning the home in which he 
lives, Dr. Roberts has other valuable property in 
the city of New York. 

Dr. Roberts is a man worthy of emulation. He 
is a competent physician, an untiring worker for 
the good of his people and his country, a conserva 
tive Christian gentleman. 

In every department of life he seeks the highest 
good of those he serves, and is a glowing example 
of what a man can accomplish who has before him 
a high ideal of life. When God called Moses out 
of Ur of Chaldee he called him to be a blessing to 
IT'S race, and when God led Dr. Roberts to be a 
Christian physician, he made h'm a channel of 
blessing. 



225 



Fred R. Moore 




RED R. MOORE, publisher and 
editor of the New York Age, is 
generally conceded to be the most 
fearless as well as the most in 
fluential newspaper man in Am 
erica. "Fred Moore," as every 
body speaks of him, never hesitates to take a 
strong stand either pro or con on any public ques 
tion, and there is never any doubt as to his posi 
tion ; for he either is for or against you. He may 
be found at any time on the firing line, and noth 
ing seems to please him better than to be in what 
he terms "a fight for principle." 

Owing to the high literary value of The Age ed 
itorials and the independence of thought at all 
times expressed on questions involving the rights 
and progress of the Negro, be it in America, Haiti, 
the West Indies or in Africa, The New York Age 
is quoted by more white and colored papers than 
any other publication. The recognition paid so 
widely-known a journal naturally helps to keep its 
editor in the limelight, and the public quite often 
reads in the daily press of what the editor of the 
Age has to say on this or that subject. 

Fred R. Moore is a self-made man, one who has 
made his way to the top and become a national 
figure mainly through dogged determination and 
an unfailing spirit of optimism. One's success in 
life largely depends on himself-upon the amount 
of effort put forth in spite of obtacles, he believes 
and on this theory Mr. Moore has reached his pre 
sent important status among his people. 

Receiving only a common school education in the 
District of Columbia, where he spent his childhood 
days, as well as the most romantic period of his 
life-courtship-Fred R. Moore began to take advan 
tage of close contact with men of high character 
and prominence when in his teens. While living 
in Washington, D. C, he spent many years in the 
Treasury Department, serving as confidential mes 
senger to five Secretaries of the Treasury during 
the Grant, Hayes, Arthur and Cleveland adminis 
trations. Secretary Daniel Manning, who was a 
member of Grover Cleveland's Cabinet during the 
first administration, was very much attached to 
Mr. Moore and had the latter accompany him to 
England, treating the colored man as a companion 
and friend in every particular. 

In 1887, Fred R. Moore accepted a position with 
the Western National Bank, where he worked in 
all of the various departments and had charge of 
the vault. He also served as delivery clerk in the 
Clearing House. The Western National Bank af 
terwards merged with the National Bank of Com 



merce. While with the bank, Mr. Moore purchas 
ed the Colored American Magazine, and in 1905, 
left the banking institution to become deputy col 
lector of the Internal Revenue for the Second Dis 
trict of New York. A few months later he resign 
ed to become National organizer of the National 
Negro Business League. 

Fred R. Moore acquired the controlling interest 
in The New York Age, of T. Thomas Fortune, and 
Jerome B. Peterson, in 1907. and under his manage 
ment the paper has steadily grown in influence 
and circulation. Mr. Moore was known as a 
staunch and devoted friend of Booker T. Wash 
ington, and the renowned Tuskegeean placed im 
plicit confidence in his New York friend, who 
showed a disposition to go to the front for the 
Negro leader at any and all times. No one was 
more profoundly touched by Booker T. Washing 
ton's death than Fred R. Moore. 

Just at the close of the Taft administration Fred 
R. Moore, was confirmed by the Senate as United 
States Minister to Liberia, the appointment having 
been made some months before, but the Democrat 
ic Senators had shown a disposition to hold up 
many of President Taft's last appointments. Al 
though given the proper credentials by the State 
Department, and the duly accredited representa 
tive of the United States Government to the black 
republic, Mr. Moore never went to Africa. His 
resignation was accepted by William Jennings Bry 
an about three months later. Minister Moore re 
ceived the emoluments due this country's diplo 
matic representative to Liberia for the three 
months. 

Mr. Moore has been active in politics and in 1902 
was nominated by his district in Brooklyn for the 
State Legislature, receiving 2,156 votes. There 
were 150 colored voters in the district. He was 
an alternate delegate to the Republican National 
Convention in 1908, and a member of the Advisory 
Committee of the National Republican Committee 
in 1912 and 1916. Mr. Moore is deeply interested 
in civic affairs and is a member of the National Ne 
gro Business League ; Member of the Executive 
Committee National League on Urban Conditions 
Among Negroes ; Empire Friendly Shelter ; Aux 
iliary Member Committee of Fourteen, and other 
organizations for the betterment of race condi 
tions. In his church affiliation, Mr. Moore is an 
Episcopalian. 

In 1879, Fred R. Moore and Ida Lawrence were 
married in Washington, D. C., and eighteen chil 
dren have been born of the marriage. Mr. Moore 
was born Jun 16, 1857. 

226 




REVEREND A. CLAYTON POWELL, D .D. 




LAYTON Powell, son of An 
thony and Sallie Dunning Powell, 
was horn in a one-room log cabin 
in Franklin County, Va., May 5, 
1865, near the spot where Booker 
T. Washington first saw the light. 
In his tenth year he moved with his father and 
mother to Knawha County, West Virginia, and 
later to Ohio. He received his early training in the 
public schools of West Virginia and Ohio. On 
March 8, 1885, he was converted and baptised into 
the fellowship of the First Baptist Church, of Ren- 
dville, Ohio. A year later he went, to Washington, 
D. C, with the intention of studying law, but be 
cause of a deep religious experience his mind was 
turned to theology. He holds two diplomas from 
Virginia Union University, Richmond Virginia, 
and spent two years, 1895-96, at Yale University, 
New Haven, Conn. 

His first call was to the First Baptist Church, 
San Diego, California, but he finally accepted the 
Ebenezer Baptist Church, of Philadelphia, where 
he served for one year and was then called to the 
pastorate of the Emanuel Baptist Church, New 
Haven, Connetticutt. Here he had one of the 



most successful pastorates of the country for fif 
teen and a half years. The membership was in 
creased from 135 to 625 ; the church building was 
remodeled at a cost of $10,000 and every cent paid 
within two years, and a splendid piece of property 
adjoining the church purchased. In 1908 he re 
signed this charge to accept a call to the Abyssin 
ian Baptist Church, New York City, where he still 
serves. During his nine years pastorate, 2200 
persons have been added to the membership. This 
is considered the wealthiest Negro Baptist church 
in America, having under its control about $350,000 
worth of property, with a membership of 3300. 

Rev. Powell uses his pulpit every Sunday, not 
only to preach the gospel but to secure good posi 
tions for the members of his congregation and to 
urge them to support Negro business enterprises. 
He is especially interested in educational and so 
cial service work. He is a trustee of Virginia Se 
minary and College, the National Training School 
for Women and Girls, Downingtown Industrial and 
Agricultural College, a member of the Board of 
Directors of the White Rose Industrial Home, the 
Young Men's Christian Association, the National 
League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes, 
member of the National Association for the Ad 
vancement of Colored People, P .N. F., of the 
Grand United Order of Odd Fellows, 32nd degree 
Mason, and Knights of Pythias. He received the 
title of Doctor of Divinity from Virginia Union 
University, May 1904, and from Virginia Seminary 
and College ,the same month. In 1900 he was del 
egate to the World's Christian Endeavor Conven 
tion, in London, and spent two months abroad vis 
iting many places in Great Britian, France and 
Ireland. He has also travelled through Canada. 
Bermuda, and Mexico. Very few public speakers 
are in greater demand than Rev. Powell. He has 
crossed the American continent four times in an 
swer to invitations to lecture and preach in Cali 
fornia and other western states. He has spoken 
on the platform with such men as Ex-President 
Taft and Governor Charles S. Whitman, of New 
York. He has been invited to lecture and deliver 
commencement addresses at several of the leading 
universities and schools. He is an honorary mem 
ber of the Garnett Society of Lincoln University. 
Extracts from his sermons and addresses often 
appear in papers like the New York Times, Sun, 
Brooklyn Eagle, and the leading dailies of New 
England. 

He is author of the following pamphlets : Eman 
uel Baptist Church, Pastor and Members ; Some 
Rights Not Denied the Negro Race ; A Plea for 
Strong Manhood : A Three Fold Cord ; Valley of 
Dry Bones ; Power of the Spirit the Need of the 
Church; Significance of the Hour; Broken, But 
Not Off; Watch Your Step. The pamphlets are 
widely read. Some of them have run into the sev 
en thousandth edition. Proceeds of these are used 
to educate young men to the ministry. 

He was Chairman of the Booker T. Washington 
Memorial Committee of New York State. 

Rev. Powell was married to Miss Mattie F. Scha- 
fer, of Pratt, West Virginia. Two children, 
Blanche F. and Adam Clayton, Jr., were born to 
bless the home of this couple. 



227 



Lester A. Walton 




ESTER A. Walton, journalist and 
theatrical promoter, was born 
at St. Louis, Mo., April 20, 1881, 
and is the son of Benjamin A. 
Walton and Ollie May Walton ; 
old and highly respected residents 
of St. Louis, Mo. Mr. Walton is a product of the 
public schools of his native city and is a graduate 
of Summer High School. 

After completing a business course in a local bus 
iness college, Mr. Walton decided to take up jour 
nalism as a profession and his first work was on 
the St. Louis Globe-Democrat. At the time R. A. 
Hudlin, a boyhood friend of Mr. W r alton's parents, 
was postmaster of Clayton, Mo., and had for years 
been the St. Louis County reporter for the Globe- 
Democrat with headquarters at the county seat, 
Clayton. Taking notice that young Walton poss 
essed the earmarks of a newspaper man, Mr. Hud 
lin made him his assistant as reporter on the St. 
Louis Globe Democrat, which position Lester A. 
Walton filled until he become "county man" for the 
St. Louis Post-Despatch. The city editor of that 
paper and the young reporter did not get along very 
well and Mr. Walton resigned after a short time 
and became "county man" for the St. Louis Star 
Sayings, another evening paper, now known as 
the St. Louis Star. The "county men" from the 
St. Louis evening papers used to write their arti 
cles and then dictate their articles over the long 
distance telephone to stenographers in the local 
room. It was not until the young colored reporter 
was summoned one Saturday afternoon to report 
at the Star Sayings' office and write a detailed ac 
count of a big elopement to Clayton of prominent 
'St. Louisians that his racial identity was made 
known. Clayton was known as the "rural Gret- 
na Green" That Saturday evening Lester A.Walton 
walked into the local room of the Star Sayings, 
going up to John W. Kearney, the city editor, ex 
claimed : "I am Walton." "You are Walton?" ask 
ed Mr. Kearney in surprise. "Well," continued the 
city editor, "if you are game enough to report for 
us and continue to make good I am game enough 
to keep you on the staff." From that day the 
two became fast friends. 

After serving for nearly a year as "county man" 
Lester A. Walton was brought into St. Louis and 
made a member of the local Staff. He was assign 
ed to the courthouse as Court Reporter. Together 
with the eight divisions of the Circuit Court, the 
Circuit Clerk's Office, Sheriff's Office, Court of 
Appeals, Probate Court, Probate Clerk's Office, 
he for five years "covered" the Second District 



Police Court in the morning where he was a famil 
iar figure. No matter whether the judge or city at 
torney was Republican or Democrat, Lester A. 
Walton was known to be on the most friendly 
terms with them. The spectacle of a police court 
judge, known to many in the neighborhood, leav 
ing the Walton home on Sunday afternoon, was 
a mild sensation in the immediate vicinity. 

After six years on the St. Louis Star Sayings, 
serving both as court reporter and general assign 
ment man, Lester A. Walton went to New York 
during the theatrical season of 1906-7, to write 
the lyrics for the Rufus Rastus Company, of which 
Ernest Hogan was the star. In St. Louis the com 
edian and newspaper man had formed an acquaint 
anceship and the former delegated his St. Louis 
friend to write the lyrics for his show. When the 
company went on the road, Mr. Walton served as 
personal representative for Mr. Hogan, looking 
after his business interests. 

The following season, Lester A. Walton put out 
a big act of ten people with Thomas Johnson, of 
Klaw and Erlanger, and in February, 1908, became 
dramatic editor of the New York Age, which had 
been taken over by Fred R. Moore, some months 
previous. The dramatic department was an in 
stantaneous hit with both public and performer, 
and was regarded by many as a feature of the pa 
per. A few months later, Mr. Walton was also 
made managing editor, and has filled the respective 
position ever since. He is regarded as an author 
ity on colored theatricals. 

On June 29th, 1912, Lester A. Walton and Miss 
Gladys F. Moore, daughter of Fred R. Moore, were 
joined in wedlock and two fine children help to 
make the Walton household a happy one. 

For nearly two years Mr. Walton and associate 
was lessee and manager of the Lafayette Theatre, 
located in Harlem. The undertaking was a large 
one, as the original rent asked for the house was 
$25,000 yearly. Although the theatre originally 
planned primarily for white people, had been a 
rank failure ; it was a success under the Walton 
management. 

In December, 1917, Mr. Walton was appointed 
a member of the Military Entertainment Service 
by Mr. Marc Klaw, of the big theatrical firm of 
Klaw and Erlanger, to supervise theatricals among 
the colored draftees at all cantonments, working 
under the direction of the War Department Com 
mission on Training Camp Activities. He is also 
connected with the Walton Publishing Company, 
organized to publish songs and instrumental num 
bers of talented and ambitious colored writers, en 
countering difficulty in getting their compositions 
published and put on the market. 



228 





WILLIAM P. HAYES, JR., D. D. 

NE thing that is being pressed 
home to us in this the crisis of 
the world, is that so many men 
have had no chance for educating 
themselves. Or worse still, hav- 

ing had the chance neglected it. 

This fact is brought out by the government records 
in all the different phases of life's activities. They 
want men trained in every branch and in every 
walk of life. The greater portion of the ministry 
would be turned down if examined by Uncle Sam 
for work in his department. This is a sad state 
of affairs, and yet, not such a surprising one. For 
the life of the race as a free people is not yet the 
length of the life of a man who considers himself 
middleaged. Maybe the greater surprise should 
be shown because of the great number of men, who 
in spite of hardships, poverty, back sets of all 
kinds still persevered and are today thinkers ed 
ucators persons of note and of weight. Then 
there is the class of young men, born to parents 
who had gotten just a taste of slavery, just enough 
slavery to make them appreciate the privilege of 
educating their children and themselves at the 
same time. Of such parents, Rev. William P. 
Hayes, D. D., was born. 



January 18, 1881, in Bullocks, North Carolina, 
there was born in the family of Rev. Hayes, a prom 
inent Methodist minister, a young son. From the 
first the father determined that the young lad 
should have every advantage which he had enjoyed 
and more. So at an early age we find young 
William in school, where he made for himself an 
enviable record. The first school of his own 
choosing was Bennett College, Greensboro, North 
Carolina. Leaving Bennett he went to Richmond, 
Virginia, where he matriculated in the Virginia 
Union University. 

As he studied and worked to prepare him 
self for life out in the world, Rev. Hayes spent 
much time planning and deciding just what work 
to follow. Medicine was alluring as was also 
the ' remuneration that usually goes with one thor 
oughly prepared in this profession. So he defin 
itely decided to become a physician. But while he 
was still very young the call of the ministry was so 
strong that he had to give up his idea of medicine 
and take up the study of theology instead. To the 
mind of Rev. Hayes this is the principal episode of 
his life. 

After leaving school, Rev. Hayes taught in 
Boydton Institute, Boydton, Virginia. Leaving 
Boydton he went to the Keysville Industrial 
School, and taught there for a short while. Still 
using teaching as his point of contract with people 
and their development, he went back to his Alma 
Mater and taught for a while in Virgnia Union Un 
iversity. He then branched out into his real life 
work that of preaching. For six years he served 
as pastor of churches in Virginia. He then accept 
ed the call from the Mount Olivet Baptsit Church, 
New York City. Here he has remained for the 
past seven years, preaching and leading his people 
to a higher plane of thinking and of living. 

He has not confined his work to the church. He 
is a member of the Odd Fellows, of the Banquet 
Beneficial League, of New York, and of the South 
ern Beneficial League, of New York, and the In 
dependent Order of St. Luke. He serves on the 
committee of Management of the Y. M. C .A., of 
New York City ; Music School Settlement for Col 
ored People ; Howard Orphanage and Industrial 
Institute ; Liberty Loan Committee, New York, Se 
cretary of the Trustee Board, Northern Baptist 
University. In all these organizations he is not 
just a member but is active in the development 
of each. 

On November 16, 1910, Rev. Hayes was married 
to Miss Carolyne Amee, of New York City. There 
are no children in the family. Mrs. Hayes is ac 
tive in all the affairs of her husband's church. She 
has his interest at heart and lends her aid in every 
place where she can. She, with her husband work 
together for the social uplift of all who are around 
them. 



229 





ANDREW N. JOHNSON 

NDREW N. Johnson, of Nashville, 
is a business man from tip to toe. 
As such he has his own notions as 
to the way of conducting business 
enterprises and one's personal af 
fairs. He believes and asserts very 
emphatically that no customer should be asked to 
spend his money from a motive of sympathy or 
race loyalty, but that rather the Negro merchant 
should bring his wares up to the standard of com 
petition with the best in the market. Another set 
policy of Mr. Johnson's is that he never goes in 
debt, does not believe in credit, refuses to sign 
notes and. enter into any of that form of pay-to 
morrow, so common in all practices of business. He 
pays cash or refuses to buy. 

Mr. Johnson was born in Marion, Alabama, in 
1866. He attended the public schools in Marion 
and then the Marion State Normal School. From 
the State Normal Institution, Mr. Johnson entered 
Talladega College. On leaving Talladega, he took 
Civil Service Examination and served as Postal 
Clerk for three years, being retired for political 
activity, then he went to Mobile, Alabama and be 
gan the business of Undertaking, and publishing 



"The Mobile Press." After fourteen years of re 
markable success here he moved to Nashville, 
Tenn., and established there once more his Under 
taking house. 

Mr. Johnson's is not a shop, but a house with its 
waiting rooms, offices, its departments containing 
all classes of caskets and funeral equipment ; with 
its gallant span of horses and some half score of 
limousines backed by Winton, McFarlan, Hudson, 
and other high grade makes of cars, lined before 
the door all owned, paid for in cash. The estab 
lishment rises, yes, soars far above the level even 
of the better class of Undertaking businesses. In 
deed, Mr. Johnson is reported by reliable author 
ities to own the finest Undertaking equipment in 
the South ; white or colored. 

The late Dr. Booker T. Washington was exceed 
ingly fond of preaching from the text, "To him 
that hath,,' etc., which appears to be both a natural 
and spiritual law. Mr. Johnson is a conspicuous 
instance of the truth of this law. With all of this 
establishment on his hands he does not cry, "hold, 
enough", but rather reaches out for more kinds of 
business to master. He was a member of the 
Republican National Convention, which nominated 
McKinley, Roosevelt and Hughes. He was also 
the last Negro nominated for Congress by the Re 
publican party of Alabama. He is President of 
the Nashville Board of Trade, which organzation 
was instrumental in building a Negro Library, 
creating blocks and playgrounds and civic im 
provements in Nashville especially caring for the 
thousands made homeless in the conflagration in 
Nashville in the spring of 1918. 

Mr. Johnson is the owner of the Johnson 
Block, consisting of the Lincoln Theatre and a half 
dozen business houses in the centre of the business 
district of Nashville, one block from the State Cap 
itol Bukling and on the same street. He is also 
chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Grand 
Lodge Knights of Pythias, and a member of the Y. 
M. C. A. managing committee. He is president of 
the Johnson- Allen Undertaking Co., of Mobile, Ala. 

With all this responsibility on his shoulders, and 
he attends to most of it personally, Mr. Johnson 
finds time and money to join in most local and nat 
ional enterprises for progress, such as entertaining 
visitors, giving banquets, aiding in handling con 
ventions, attending sessions of business leagues, 
and of Undertakers, holding and playing a strong 
hand in local political and projecting quite into 
national politics. In all situations, he is ready to 
be energetic, patient, pugnacious, hospitable and 
generous as the situation may demand. 

Mr. Johnson was married in 1886 to Miss Lillie 
A. Jones, of Marion. Mrs. Jonhson is a graduate of 
Talladega college. The two sons of the family are 
already grown and in business. Mr. L. E. Johnson 
is Secretary of the Johnson-Allen Undertakng 
Company of Mobile, and Ur. A. N. Johnson. Jr., is 
a practicing physician of Nashville, Tenn. 



230 




LEO FRITZ NEARON, M. D. 





N recent years Colored men of for 
eign birth have taken on many of 
the traits and ambitions of the 
American. This is especially true 
in regard to gaining an education 
and making a career. Time was 
when people of any caste whatsoever in the foreign 
countries regarded work as a calamity. They 
were satisfied with their training, with their own 
environment, preferring to stay at home and hus 
band out their fortunes, small or large, to getting 
out in the open and combating for a place in the 
sun. 

Among those to come forth and out-American, 
the Yankee himself for education and career is Dr. 
Leo Fitz Nearon, of New York City. Dr. Nearon 
was born at St. George, Bermuda, July 17, 1881. 
His early days were spent at home, where he at 
tended the public schools and St. George Academy. 
His academy days over, he began his struggle for 
education and for a livelihood. For a time he 
worked in the Bermuda shipyards, serving an ap 
prenticeship. From shipyard apprentice he be 
came a school teacher, teaching in the Bermuda 
public schools 6 months, when he was but seven 



teen years of age. School teaching failing to prove 
the "Open Seasame" to him, as it has to many 
others on their way forward, he took up work with 
the St. George Bicycle Company, of Bermuda. 
Again wages were too small. 

Working here and there he finally made his way 
to America. Here he set out to complete his 
education and to become master of a profession. 
Working summers and odd times during his school 
days, he managed to enter, and to complete the 
college course of Lincoln University in Pennsyl 
vania, from which he was graduated in 1903. 

What he had done to defray his expenses in col 
lege he must now repeat for his course in the 
study of medicine. Only, he had to redouble his 
efforts, as his expenses were much heavier. Going 
into New York, he registered in the New York 
Medical College. He completed his course here in 
1898. His internship was the next step forward. 
He was fortunate enough to become an interne in 
New York, where he had been graduated. He did 
his time in the Flower Hospital, and then did post 
graduate work in the Lying-in Hospital, in the 
Flower and Metropolitan Hospitals. 

New York, though rife with competition, ap 
pealed to him as a desirable place in whch to be 
gin practice. He hung out his sign as a physician 
and surgeon and began his work. In ten years he 
has built up a very extensive practice and made 
many friends in Gotham. He owns a three-story 
residence, a residence with a brown stone front, 
and one which cost $12,500. 

While Dr. Nearon has not yet taken on the re 
sponsibilities of domestic life, he has allied himself 
with many available organizations for personal up 
lift and professional service. He is a member of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church. He holds mem 
bership in many lodges and medical organizations. 
He is Past Deputy Grand Master of the I. O. U. of 
M. A., a member of the B. K. Bruce 8171, G. U. O. 
of O. F., of the Juanita Household of Ruth 4091; 
of the Lincoln Tabernacle 6024, G. U. O. of F. G., 
and Past Grand Master of Council 403, of New 
York Patriarchs Number 2 ; Past Exalted Ruler of 
Elks. Professionally he is a physician to the Day 
Nursery, to the B. K. Bruce Lodge, to the Imperial 
Lodge of Elks, to the St. Manual Lodge, to Eureka 
Temple, Invincible Temple, and to Excelsior Lodge. 

In addition to his affiliation in these bodies he 
carries membership in seven medical bodies. He 
belongs to the County Medical Socety of New 
York, to the State Medical Society, to the Aescolo- 
pian Medical Society, the National Medical Society, 
to the Manhattan Medical Society, to the Medical 
Clinical Society. In all these organizations he takes 
an active part, bringing in his experiences, throw 
ing light upon many of the vexing problems in the 
practice of both medicine and surgery. 



231 




THE CLEF CLUB GRAND ORCHESTRA, N. Y. CITY 




ROBABLY the most written of 
and deservedly popular Negro or 
ganization of New York City to 
day is the Clef Club. Its name 
is a synonoym for all that is ex 
cellent, original, and aristocrat 
ic in music and in musical and 
lighter drama. Whether its sig 
nature stands back of an individual, a quartet, a 
troup, or an orchestra of one hundred pieces, it 
means finished eclat. 

This talented body was incorporated in the City 
of New York, in May, 1910. Considering the ma 
terial out of which it was formed, it stands as a 
modern miracle. About the date named, a number 
of aspirants to musical honors met with James 
Reese Europe, to learn and practice note reading. 
They made their debut at the Manhattan Casino, 
under the direction of the founder and president, 
James Reese Europe, who now, by the way is 
leading a band "Somewhere in France," was assis 
ted by William H. Tyler. In a few years they were 
in Carnegie Hall and in about any other Hall, pri 
vate or public, they wanted in New York. 

To original song and music, meaning thereby 
that a great many instrumental and vocal selec 
tion numbers were the work of the members of the 
company, were interspersed with very entertain 
ing and original dramatic parts. Confidence and 
ambition growing, they ventured out of New York. 
They went down to Pi i'adelphia, Washington, and 
Richmond, were banqueted and applauded to their 
heart's content, and returned to New York in a 
halo of glory and inspiration, the organization in 
tact ; the railroad fares and other expenses more 
than generously cared for. Perhaps no other 
summary can be made of their success than is giv 
en in the "Richmond Times Dispatch." 



"In many respects the most remarkable concert 
ever given in Richmond was offered at the City 
Auditorium last night by the Clef Club, an organi 
zation of Negro singers and instrumentalists, un 
der the direction of the well known James Reese 
Europe, assisted by William H. Tyler." 

"An orchestra of sixty men, playing and sing 
ing fortissimo remarkable indeed ; and theirs are 
not the rusty, unused voices of musicians who are 
instumentalists alone, but those of strong, vigorous 
young Negro men, to whom singing conies as na 
turally as breathing. Nor did they attempt to sing 
difficult, elaborate music, though, for a matter, 
Europe is abundantly able to teach them anything 
he might select, but confined their choral singing 
to rousing, melodious, full-voiced pieces that lent 
themselves admirably to their natural style. 

"Practically every number on the program was 
the composition of a Negro, from Coleridge-Tay 
lor, who was an international figure in the world 
of music, to lesser but competent men. Several 
of the pieces were written by Europe himself, and 
excellently written, while the work of the assis 
tant conductor, Tyler, was also represented." 

To the roles of leaders in music the Clef Club 
has added another feature that is varying with its 
musical reputation ; that is the social feature. New 
York society makes it as a gala day when the Clef 
Club entertains. Then one can gain a glimpse 
of the elite en masse, among the colored people. 
Their balls at the Manhattan Casino have become 
famous throughout the country. Mr. Daniel Kil- 
gore succeeded Mr. Europe as President of the 
Club and was in turn succeeded by Deacon John 
son, its present head. 

Its policies, though undergoing refinements, re 
mains the same to produce original Negro music 
and to place deserving talent before the public. 



232 






BERRY O'KELLY 

O see a man of prominence and of 
comparative wealth who has 
climbed from the bottom of the 
ladder unaided a man who does 
not even know the date of his 
birth is one of the anomalies of 
the Negro race. No where else in the world in this 
privilege given so freely to the common man. Mr. 
Berry O'Kelly, of Method, North Carolina, is one 
of the many Negroes in America who has seized 
upon this opportunity and made the most of it. 

Mr. O'Kelly was born in Chapel Hill, Orange 
County, North Carolina. The date of his birth he 
does not know. He never saw his mother or his 
father to know them, his mother having died when 
he was still an infant. As a lad he attended the pub 
lic schools of Orange and Wake Counties, getting 
from his meager chances for schooling all that he 
could, in fact getting more from this chance than 
many young boy of his day got from much better 
Opportunities. So we find Mr. O'Kelly as a man 
with a foundation laid in childhood and in young 
manhood upon which he has builded a superstruc 
ture of culture and refinement. This has been done 
through the medium of contact and travel. 

At the early age of sixteen, Mr. O'Kelly started 
out in the mercantile business. Tie has never 



changed his business. He has only added to it. 
So today we find Mr. O'Kelly in the mercantile bus- 
siness and dealing in Real Estate. When we look 
at all that this man stands for, all that he owns in 
his own name, it is hard for us to look back and 
see the start he had. He worked for $5.00 to 
$12.00 a month until he had saved $100.00. He 
never had but two employers. This took time and 
the very strictest economy. To Mr. O'Kelly this 
was no real hardship for he had his goal before 
him. Having gotten trie $100.00 he went into bus 
iness with Mr. C. H. Woods. The business was 
known as Wood and O'Kelly. After a short time 
Mr. Wood wished to go west and sold out. So Mr. 
O'Kelly came into the possession of the whole bus 
iness. Starting with the small capital of $100.00, 
the business has grown to the the extent that two 
railroad warehouses are used constantly for the 
accomodation of it. 

In addition to owning his business and business 
interests, the subject of this sketch has accumulat 
ed considerable real estate. He owns over 1,000 
acres of farm land, and a lot of city property, bank 
stock and other stock of value. Mr. O'Kelly has 
continued with the habit formed while he was still 
very young, the habit of saving and investing wis 
ely. 

In religious belief, Mr. O'Kelly is a member of 
the African Episcopal Church, and a helper in all 
denominations. He is a Mason and an Odd Fellow. 
For more than twenty-five years he served his 
town in the capacity of Post-Master. He is now 
the Chairman of the School Committee of the 
Berry O'Kelly County Teachers Training School. 
This is an institution which because of the very li 
beral way in which Mr. O'Kelly gave to its support 
bears his name. The Governors of North Caro 
lina have given him many appointments. In all 
the duties thus thrust upon him he has measured 
up to the expectations of the people. On several 
occassions he has been elected a delegate to Na 
tional Bodies, and he is a life member of the Na 
tional Negro Business League. 

One of the things that has made the culture of 
this man is the travels it has been his opportunity 
to enjoy. He has traveled all over this country 
and over Europe, Asia, and over parts of Africa. 
The effect of these days spent in travel are appar 
ent in the talks and actions of Mr. O'Kelly. It is 
this that has made the superstructure of culture 
and refinement upon the foundation laid in the 
little country school back in Orange and Wake 
County, North Carolina. 

About twenty years ago, Mr. O'Kelly was mar 
ried to Miss Chanie Ligon. For twelve years she 
was to him a helpmate in the truest sense of the 
word. About eight years ago she died. There 
were no children and so once more Berry O'Kelly 
was left alone in the world. But the conditions 
are so different from the other time when both his 
father and mother left him to the mercies of the 
world. The man himself, has been the sole 
cause of the change in these conditions then there 
was nothing. Today he is a man of means, of bus 
iness ability, of social prominence, of culture and 
refinement. 



233 



Isaac A. Lawrence, M. D. 




ARCH 3rd, 1870, there was born at 
Morg Neck, Maryland, a baby 
boy, whose destiny carried him 
along a rocky path in his early 
life, but which led him finally to 
a goal which any one might envy. 
This boy was Dr. I. A. Lawr-ence of Elizabeth, New 
Jersey. His father died when he, an only child, 
was only two years of age, leaving his mother in 
abject proverty. This entailed upon young Isaac 
the extreme hardships which follow in the wake of 
poverty. His early days were marked with great 
privations and suffering. Frequently during se 
vere winters he went without an overcoat and with 
but meager garments of any kind to protect him 
tVom the cold. The dump heap became his friend, 
and he often resorted to it to fish out the old and 
discarded shoes of other boys, for his mother was 
unable to buy him covering for his feet. His feet 
would present an odd appearance for it was not of 
ten that he could secure mates of the same kind of 
shoes. Frequently he would be seen with a lace 
shoe on one foot and a button shoe on the other. 
Necessity knew no fashion as well as no law with 
h'm, and so long as his feet were fairly well pro 
tected he did not mind the smiles of the passers by. 
Adversity did another thing for him it early 
developed in him those qualities which go to make 
up the man. He began doing his part in sustaining 
the family at the early age of six years. His first 
(work was to turn bricks, which earned him five 
cents per thousand. He was an industrious boy, 
and very frugal, habits which aided him in all of 
his life struggles. 

It is not surprising that a boy exhibiting such 
grit and determination should elect to educate him 
self and he worked and saved to this end. His 
progress through school was marked by the same 
hardships that characterized his early boyhood. To 
add to his difficulties him money was frequently 
stolen from him at the most inopportune times. At 
one time after working all summer and saving his 
money earned as waiter at a seashore resort, the 
whole sum was stolen the day before the hotel 
closed for the season. 

He was the first colored pupil admitted to the 
South Chester High School, from which he gradua 
ted in 1888. To do this he was compelled to work- 
in a mill, from six in the evening, until six in the 
morning, attending school during the day, the ses 
sion being from 9 A. M. to 2 P. M. In this way 
working at night and studying during the day, he 
not only graduated from the South Chester High 
School, but saved enough money to enter the Lin 



coln University. He entered the University in 1888, 
and graduated therefrom in 1892. His first idea 
was to practice law and on leaving college he took 
up the study of law, but owing to the death of his 
preceptor, and his change of mind regarding the 
profession, he gave up this study and turned his 
mind towards medicine. In order to take a med 
ical course the money question again came to the 
front so he was compelled to teach for a while be 
fore entering college. 

He matriculated at Howard University in 1893, 
and remained there one year, when he went to 
Shaw University and finshed the medical course. 

Pluck, energy, integrity and patience are sure to 
bring a rich reward, not only in the development 
of character, but in material blessings, and so it 
was with Dr. Lawrence. The day of his prosper 
ity dawned when he completed his medical course 
at Shaw University. From that day his star of 
hope and prosperity began to rise. 

O" completing his medical course at Shaw he 
began the practice of his profession in Elizabeth, 
N. J. From this time fortune began to smile upon 
him and has ever since. 

He was married to Miss Ardelia Matthews, of 
Hawkinsville, Georgia, in 1902. They have one 
daughter, who is nine years old, Hattie Christine, 
a musical prodigy. 

Aside from the practice of his profession, Dr. 
Lawrence has been very active along all lines that 
tend to uplift his people. He was for several years 
the Superintendent of Mt. Teman A. M. E. Sunday 
School, which prospered greatly under his adminis 
tration. He was the first president of the North 
Jersey Medical Association. This is perhaps the 
best and most widely known local colored medical 
society in the United States. He helped to organ 
ize and was first and the only president of the Al 
pha Hen Association which for thirteen years has 
been the leading insurance company among the 
colored people of the North. He was organizer 
of the Alpha Investment Company and its only 
president. This is the leading investment company 
among colored people in the United States, and has 
been in existence since 1905. 

In fraternal organizations he has taken a promi 
nent part, being Past Chancellor Commander of 
Knights of Pyhias, a member of the Elks, and Odd 
Fellows, and at present Grand Master of Masons 
of New Jersey. His real estate holdings are ex 
tensive. Indeed, whenever Dr. Lawrence casts up 
his accounts and estimates his holdings he smiles 
and says that they are worth far more than all the 
boys whose cast off shoes he wore back there in 
his day of want and poverty. 

234 





SAMUEL H. VICK 

CHOOL man and public servant, 
Samuel H. Vick of Wilson, North 
Carolina worked his way from the 
ground, as it were, to a place of 
eminence in both school work and 
in the service of his government. 

born in Castalia, North Carolina, 
As a boy he attended the public 



Mr. Vick was 
April 1st, 1863. 
schools of Wilson, the town to which he was to re 
turn and in which he was to make for himself an 
enviable career. Completing his work in the pub 
lic schools of Wilson, he matriculated in Lincoln 
University, in Pennsylvana. He was graduated 
from Lincoln in 1884. 

His course through school and college was by no 
means one of ease or opulence. Even when he was 
very young he must needs work, not only to go to 
school, but for his own sustenance. When he was 
but thirteen years of age he found employment in 
a grocery store. Here he worked in spare hours 
and went to school during school session. His va 
cations were also spent in working in this grocery 
store. Thus as a grocery clerk he made his way 
through the public schools and through Lincoln 
University. 

Graduating from Lincoln in 1884 he returned to 



Wilson and secured a post as an assistant teacher 
in the city graded schools. This position he held 
for one year. At the end of the school year he was 
promoted to a principalship in Wilson. For the 
next five years he was principal of the Negro pub 
lic school of his native town. It was at that time 
common to appoint respectable and deserving col 
ored men to political office especially when the Re 
publican Party was in power. When Benjamin Har 
rison came into office several of these more de 
serving positions were given to leading Negroes. 
Among those to fall heir to one of these posts was 
Mr. Vick, who was made postmaster of Wilson. In 
many sections of the south the loud complaints 
were made about putting Negroes in public office at 
all, and especially in office where they would be 
over white people, and would be brought more or 
less in social contact with white people. But Mr. 
Vick managed to escape most of this protest, and 
to conduct the post office with such efficiency that 
whatever complaint might have come forth at first 
was soo stifled. Indeed, so thoroughly had he 
administered his office that when the administra 
tion changed there were not a few of the leading 
citizens of Wilson who eagerly desired his reten 
tion. 

However, he went out of office, and sought other 
fields for his talents. The Presbyterian church, 
which had given Lincoln University, and which was 
working among the churches as well as among the 
schools soon enlisted his services. This body put 
Mr. Vick in the field to labor among the Sunday 
Schools, working as a Sunday School Missionary. 
His own home town had not however forgot his 
services either as a school man or as a postmaster. 
He had not therefore been out of the post office 
many years before they appointed him to another 
post of public service. He was made a member of 
the County Board of Education of Wilson County, 
and served his county with the same credit to him 
self that he had served in the Wilson Post Office. 

Then came further evidence that the people of 
Wilson, white as well as black, were well pleased 
with the service he had given them as postmaster. 
When McKinley was elected Mr. Vick was once 
more made post master of his native city. Here he 
served a second time for a period of five years. He 
was now ready to retire from active service which 
he did, devoting his time to public service and to 
looking after his personal interests. 

During his early days in Wilson he had made 
some investments in real estate and in land im 
provement. This work with his various secret 
order obligations he now retired to superintend. 
Mr. Vick is a member of the Presbyterian church, 
a Mason, an Odd Fellow and a Pythian. In the first 
named secret body he is First Colonel of the North 
Carolina Patriarchy, and has been twice Grand 
Master of the Odd Fellows of North Carolina. He 
has traveled very extensively in America, having 
toured the east, and much of the west and south. 

Mr. Vick was married to Miss Annie M. Wash 
ington of Wilson, in May 1892. Mr. and Mrs. Vick 
have seven children. 



235 




WILLIAM GASTON PEARSON, B. S., A. M., PH. D. 




ILLIAM G. Pearson, school teach 
er, business man and educator, is 
one of those stalwart men of Dur 
ham, North Carolina. He was born 
in the days of slavery, in 1859, in 
the place which is now known as 
Durham, but unknown then as anything save a 
semi-rural settlement. Of course early education 
with him was out of the question, except that se 
vere brand which many of the young slaves tasted 
on the plantations. 

When public schools for Negroes were establish 
ed in Durham, Mr. Pearson enrolled and began his 
education in books. However, these schools ran 
but six months in the year and had teachers with 
only meagre preparation. The young exslave need 
ed merely to get a start. After this he taught him 
self until after the age of twenty-one when he 
entered Shaw University. 

Graduating from Shaw in 1886, with the degree 
of Bachelor of Science, Mr. Pearson began his ca 
reer as a teacher in public schools. From that time 
on he was a teacher, principal, worker in the graded 
school of Durham for twenty years. However, he 
did not cease to study. He did not only continue to 



labor with his books during spare hours at home 
but pursued courses in Cornell University and in 
other institutions in the summer. In recognition of 
his continuous growth and of service to education, 
Shaw University conferred upon him the degree of 
Master of Arts, in 1890, and in 1915, Kittrel College 
made him Doctor of Philosophy. 

Professor Pearson as he came to be known, has 
widened his influence and his activities, from year 
to year, both in school work and in business. He 
soon became a trustee of Kittrell College, Secre 
tary of the Board of Trustees of the National 
Training School, of Durham, and a director of the 
Mechanics and Farmers' Bank of Durham, trustee 
of Lincoln Hospital, and one of the prime movers 
in practically every uplift undertaking of Durham, 
indeed of North Carolina. In this respect he be 
came not only a worker, but a giver as well. The 
most celebrated donation he has made, though he 
has an open hand for all good causes, was the giv 
ing to Kittrell College, a model school building. 

Distinguished as are Mr. Pearson's services as 
teacher and Educator, probably his most lasting 
and most helpful contribution is the organization 
known as the Royal Knights of King David. This 
body, which is, strictly speaking, an insurance or 
der, operates in several states, and has deposits 
with insurance Commissioners in these states to 
protect its patrons. Its fees are small ; it insures 
men, women and children ; but its dividends and 
benefits are sure and prompt. It ranks as one of 
the best Negro Insurance companies in America. 
In his office of six clerks, graduates from the best 
institutions, Mr. Pearson keeps in intimate touch 
with all the branch houses and orders both in 
North Carolina and in other states. 

Mr. Pearson was married in 1893 to Mrs. Minnie 
S. Summer of Charlotte, North Carolina. Mrs. 
Pearson is a graduate of Livingston College, at 
Salisbury, and a woman of rare talent. She has 
done, much as Dr. Pearson will very frequently tell 
you, in shaping the career of her distinguished hus 
band. 

Mr. Pearson is an ardent church worker, being 
one of the pillars of the A. M. E. Church. His high 
standing in the church, coupled with his clean re 
putation in business and in school work make his 
word his bond and a guide to all who know him. 
The records show that Mr. Pearson's wealth is val 
ued at $75,000. 

William G. Pearson is a many sided man and 
every aspect of his attainments and service shine 
forth with a resplendance so great that it has at 
tracted attention to him near and far. He is a 
schools teacher, an educator of marked ability and 
a business man and in all of these lines he is recog 
nized as a man of great intelligence and power. 
He is a most influencial citizen of North Carolina. 



236 





ALBERT WITHERSPOON PEGUES, A. B., B. D. 

ORN Nov. 25, 1859, Albert W. Pe- 
gues, had a little taste of slav 
ery, but not enough to effect in 
any way his ambitions as a young 
man. He was born in Raleigh, 
North Carolina, and he set for 
himself the attainment of learning and a distinct 
position in the world as an educator. To this end 
he sat under many men of learning and made in 
timate acquaintance with a very large number of 
American Colleges and Universities. 

Mr. Pegues is a Baptist in his faith, and so it 
was that in choosing his first school he made one 
of the Baptist schools his choice. Thus we find 
him first as student at Benedict College, Columbia, 
S. C., where he stayed for a time and then changed 
to Richmond Institute now Union University. 
We next find the young student enrolled in Buck- 
nell University, in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, where 
he remained till he received his Bachelor Degree. 
Mr. Pegues, when he had opportunity to pursue 
his studies further, went to Chicago and attended 
lecture courses at the University of Chicago, Illi 
nois. 

By the time he was twenty-seven years of age, 



Dr. Pegues was ready to undertake his career as 
an educator. His first post of responsibility in 
school was that of Principal of the Summer High 
School, of Parkersburg, West Virginia. This po 
sition he accepted in 1886 and held for one year. 
Then he got an appointment to a larger institu 
tion, left Parkersburg, and took up the work in the 
new field which was in Shaw University, in Ra 
leigh, North Carolina. Thus we have the young 
man in a very responsible position in his native 
town, a sight which is altogether too rare. In 
Shaw he labored for sixteen years. Owing to his 
very thorough preparation he was able to serve 
in the capacity of Dean of the College Department 
and in that of Dean of the Theological Depart 
ment. For six years he held the former and for 
ten years he held the latter position. 

At the end of sixteen years of service for Shaw 
University, Dr. Pegues resigned to accept the 
Principalship of the Colored Department of the 
North Carolina State School for the Blind and 
Deaf, the position which he now holds. 

Along with his duties as an educator. Dr. Pe 
gues has found time to do considerable writing. 
About twenty-five years ago he published a book 
"Our Ministers and Schools." This book was very 
widely read and it did a great deal toward making 
a name for Dr. Pegues. He has also been a very 
liberal contributor to papers. Then Dr. Pegues 
has spent much time and thought in the prepara 
tion of speeches, for in connection with his school 
work he has been in constant demand as a speak 
er. For some years he was statistical Secretary 
of the National Baptist Convention. In North 
Carolina he has had the honor of serving his de 
nomination in every capacity. He is Secre 
tary of the Lott Carey Baptist Foreign Mission 
Convention, a position he had held since its organi 
zation. For eighteen years he has been Corres 
ponding Secrtary of the Baptist State Sunday 
School Convention, a position of trust and one in 
which Dr. Pegues has had opportunity to do great 
good. 

Severing his connection with Shaw University as 
Dean did not really sever his connections with 
the school, for Dr. Pegues still serves this insti 
tution, where for so many years he labored, in the 
capacity of Trustee. He is also a Trustee of Girl's 
Training School, of Franklinton, North Carolina. 
Dr. Pegues has given of his energy and strength 
in still one other direction. He has taken consi 
derable interest in business. During the years, he 
has been out of school and at work for himself he 
has been able to accumulate considerable property. 
Dr. Pegues is an Odd Fellow and Mason. In 1890. 
Dr. Pegues was married to Miss Ella Christian, of 
Richmond, Virginia. They have two children. 

237 





BISHOP ALEXANDER P. CAMPHOR, A. B., B. D. 

ISHOP Alexander P. Camphor. 
Bishop of the African Methodist 
Episcopal Church, was born in a 
cabin that comprised one of a 
group of shacks known as "Negro 
Quarters," in Jefferson Parish, 
Louisiana, on a large sugar plan 
tation twelve miles east of New 
Orleans. The Bishop has told his own story so 
well that we shall read as he has written: 

"Both my parents," says he, "had been slaves, the 
Emancipation Proclamation having gone into ef 
fect two years previous to my birth. My mother 
is still living but my father died when I was an 
infant. My father had secured knowledge enough 
to read the Bible and to write his mother's name. 
"Mother made a solemn pledge to father before 
he died, that she would spare no pains in giving me 
an education. Being unlearned and without means 
she decided that the only way to do this was to 
give me away to one whom she believed could 
more easily educate me than herself. Accordingly 
when eight years of age I left the plantation to live 
in the city, of New Orleans, with Stephen Priestley. 
"It seems providential that I should have fallen 
into such hands as those of Stephen Priestley, for 
in my foster father I had both rigid school-master 
and a rugged old fashioned Methodist preacher to 
direct my feet aright. 

I attended public school in Carrolton, and after 
completing the work there entered New Orleans 



University, where I graduated in 1889, receiving 
the Bachelor of Arts Degree. During the greatest 
revival in the history of the University, conducted 
by the Rev. Wm. R. Webster, D. D., of Massachu 
setts ,1 was converted and later licensed to preach. 
I was then 16 years of age. After graduation I 
taught four years as Professor of Mathematics in 
my Alma Mater. Completing the full course 
there and securing the Bachelor of Divinity degree, 
I entered the ministry and was appointed pastor 
of James M. E. Church, Germantown, Pa. My next 
appointment was to Orange, N. J., while there I 
received an invitation from Bishop Hartzell to go 
as missionary to Africa, and I was ready to go. 

"My wife and I were the first regularly appointed 
colored missionaries under the Prent Board to the 
"Dark Continent." As president of the college of 
West Africa and superintendent of the Methodist 
Schools in Liberia from 1896 to 1907. I had the 
pleasure of contributing to the advancement of the 
work. 

"While in Liberia I gathered original material 
for two volumes "Missionary Story Sketches and 
Folklore from Africa" and "Liberia, the Afro- 
American Republic." Returning to America in 1907 
I was persuaded that I could better serve Africa by 
helping to educate the youth of my race in Amer 
ica. For this reason I accepted the presidency of 
the Central Alabama Institute located at Birming 
ham, Ala., where I have labored for the past eight 
years. 

"I was three times elected delegate to the Gen 
eral Conference and once a delegate to the World's 
Missionary Conference at Edinburgh, Scotland. At 
the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church that met at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., by an 
almost unanimous vote of that body I was elected 
Bishop of Africa. In this office I succeeded Bishop 
I. B. Scott and will be associated with Bishop E. S. 
Johnson. These evidences of confidence on the part 
of the church have only served to intensify and in 
flame my zeal for unselfish service, that the cause 
of education and Religion might be all the more 
speedily advanced." 

Bishop Camphor is an illustration of the law of 
service as laid down by the master whom he serves 
the Lord Jesus Christ who said that the road 
to greatness is through service. "When God wants 
a worker He calls a worker. When He has work 
to be done, he goes to those who are already at 
work. When God wants a great servant, He calls 
a busy man." 

Bishop Camphor is not only a busy man but a 
very busy man, just such a man as God can use, 
and his remarkable accomplishments attest to the 
divine guidance and help. The secret of his suc 
cess lies in his great love of humanity and his love 
of service. It is this spirit that makes him a man 
beloved by all who come in personal contact with 
him and who fall under the spell of his influence. 

Bishop Camphor could say with Thomas H. Gill : 

"The more I triumph in thy gifts, 

The more I wait on thee ; 
The grace that mightily uplifts 

Most sweetly humbleth me." 

Bishop Camphor was married to Miss Mamie 
Anna Rebecca Weathers in 1893, at Atlanta, Ga. 
They have no children. 



238 





LEWIS GARNETT JORDAN, 1). I) 

R. Lewis Garnett Jordan in one 
of those who has climbed all 
the way from the abject ignor 
ance of slavery to a manhood of 
travel and culture, from being 
the property of his master to 
owning property in his own name 
and acquiring great property for 
his church. He was born a slave in 1853. near Me 
ridian, Mississippi. His father was Jack Gaddis, 
and his mother Mariah Carey, but when be be 
came a free man he chose a name for himself and 
so we have Dr. Jordan. Although born when it 
was impossible to get an education and hard to 
get one even after he was freed, we find Dr. Jor 
dan as a lad getting all that he could in the way of 
book knowledge in the public schools of both Me 
ridian and Natchez . Mississippi. He also spent 
some time as a student in Roger Williams Univer 
sity, at Nashville, Tennessee. Here in Roger Wil 
liams, one of the largest and oldest institutions of 
the Baptist Church, Dr. Jordan got an insight into 
things and an inspiration that has never left him. 
His degree of Doctor of Divinity was received 
from Natchez College in 1880, and from Gauda- 
loupe in 1903. 

Merely the bare facts of the very active life lead 
by Dr. Jordan can be recorded here. He was or 
dained to the Baptist Ministry in 1875. He built 
churches while pastoring at Yazoo City, Mississ 
ippi, in 1878 ; in San Antonio, Texas, in 1883 ; in 



Waco, Texas, in 1886, in Hearne, Texas, in 1888; 
in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1893. This is a 
great service for any man to render to his church. 
Since 1896, Dr. Jordan has served his denomina 
tion in the capacity of Corresponding Secretary of 
the Foreign Mission Board, of the National Bap 
tist Convention, and he still holds this position. 
He is the Senior Secretary of the National Bap 
tist Convention and is regarded as one of its most 
influential members. 

During his incumbency in office more than for 
ty missionaries have been sent into its field in 
South America, the West Indies, the western, 
southern and central parts of Africa. During this 
time they have received several bequests, the lat 
est of importance exceeding $30,000.00. Under 
his administration of the affairs of this branch 
ci" the work the board has acquired property in 
its fields valued at about $47,000.00.,This includes 
the land, churches, stations, schools and homes. 
Dr. Jordan has had other honor's showered upon 
him by his denomination. He was delegate to the 
World's Baptist Alliance, England, in 1904, and to 
t^he World's Missionary Conference, Edinburgh. 

Dr. Jordan has not confined his work to the 
church. He is an active member of the Y. M. C. 
A., and active in the Equal Rights of League Socie 
ty for the Advancement of Colored People. He 13 

..sident of the Douglass Improvement Company 
and trustee of the National Baptist Training 
School for Women and Girls in Washington, D. C. 
I : has also taken an active interest in the political 
life of his country. He is a Prohibitionist and has 
had the honor of being delegate to nearly every 
National Convention of his party since 1888. At 
one time he was candidate for Congresman-at- 
large for Pennsylvania. He is a life member of the 
National Negro Business Men's League, a Mason, 
a member of the Independent Order of St. Luke 
and a member of the American Woodmen of the 
world. 

Dr. Jordan has traveled all over this country and 
has visited England and Scotland, has been to the 
West Indies twice, to Africa three times, to South 
America once. During his trip to Africa, in 1917 
the President of Liberia conferred upon him the 
Knighthood of the Republic "Knight Commander 
of the Liberian Humane Order of African Redemp 
tion." The effect of this extensive travel is seen 
in the writings and the lectures of this public spi 
rited man. He is the founder and Editor of the 
Mission Herald, outhor of "Up the Ladder in Mis 
sions," 1908; "Prince of Africa," 1911; "In Our 
Stead," 1913; "Pebbles from an African Beach," 
1917. This represents a great deal of work on the 
part of Dr. Jordan and has added immeasurably 
to his usefulness in the denomination. 

Dr. Jordan, while not a man of means, the bulk 
of his earnings having been contributed to further 
Religious and Civil enterprises for national and 
racial uplift, may, however, easily be rated at 
$10,000.00 realty holdings, besides several thous 
and dollars interest in a number of undeveloped 
enterprises. 

Dr. Jordan has been twice married. His first 
wife was Mrs. Fannie Armstrong. They were 
married in 1880, and they lived together till her 
death, thirty years later. He was married, May 
29, 1913, to Mrs. M. J. Marquess, of Helena, Ark. 



239 




BISHOP WILLIAM HENRY HEARD 





HAT the life of Bishop William 
Henry Heard, Bishop for Louis 
iana and Mississippi has been one 
of steady climbing is seen by 
a simple recital of the main facts 
in his life. He was born in El- 
bert County, Georgia, June 25, 
1850. From the date we may ga 
ther the facts of his early life. Although too young 
to know many of the horrors of slavery, he still 
knew enough of that period to appreciate his per 
sonal freedom. 

One of the blessings that came to him was that 
he lived with people who had ambition for his bet 
terment. So the young man had plenty of oppor 
tunities to attend school. He was a student in the 
South Carolina University, Atlanta University, 
Clark University, Atlanta, Georgia, and in the Re 
form Divinity School, in West Philadelphia, Penn 
sylvania. In all of these institutions he distin 
guished himself both by his good scholarship and 
by his manly conduct. 

It was not a sudden jump to the Bishopric for 
Bishop Heard. He traveled the long road that 
has to be taken by all who achieve success. He 
has served in political offices of various kinds. He 
was at one time a Railway Postal Clerk, he was a 
member of the South Carolina Legislature from 
Abbeville County, he was United States Minis 
ter Resident and Council General to the Court of 



Liberia, Africa. In this manner he has been able 
to serve his government. 

At the age of thirty, in 1880 Bishop Heard join 
ed the A. M. E. Conference of North Georgia. 
Thus began the round of charges that fall to the 
lot of the minister of any denomination and espec 
ially to the lot of the Methodist Minister. He 
served Johnston Mission, Athens, Georgia ; Mark- 
ham Street Mission, Atlanta, Georgia ; Aiken Sta 
tion, Aiken, South Carolina ; Mt. Zion Station, 
Charleston, South Carolina ; and Allen Chapel, Phi 
ladelphia, Pennsylvania. At this time, having ser 
ved his charges so very well, Bishop Heard was 
promoted to the position of Presiding Elder. He 
was at this time working in the Philadelphia Con 
ference. His first district was the Lancaster Dis 
trict. He pastored the Bethel Church at Phila 
delphia, Pennsylvania, and the Mother Church of 
the Connection. He then had the two charges of 
Wilmington Station and Harrisburg. At this time 
he gave up the work in this country and served 
as superintendent of Missions in West Africa, but 
returned to the work of his own land to take the 
Zion Chapel, at Philadelphia, and Presiding Elder 
of Long Island District, New York Conference. 
He next served Phoenixville. Pennsylvania and 
Allen Temple, Atlanta, Georgia. This represents 
working with a great number of people. A great 
many souls were by this time saved through the 
ministration of this man. 

While still serving in the capacity of pastor, 
Bishop Heard realized the need of the Preachers' 
Aid Society. To help this organization along he 
served as its Secretary for four years. This ser 
vice was given freely without any remuneration 
whatever. As a culmination of the long years of 
service in the various places he was elected Bishop 
of his church. No more worthy man could have 
been found to fill the place. May 20, 1908, at Nor 
folk, Virginia, he was ordained. This was not the 
end of his very active career, but merely a broad 
ening of his field of labor. So well had he served 
in the small fields given him that his denomina 
tion had the confidence in him to believe that he 
would do the work of the greater fields. 

His first charge in the capacity of Bishop was in 
Africa. Here he remained for eight years. The 
Church there grew under his ministration. He 
added materially to the cause while serving in this 
post. At the same time he served his govern 
ment in an official capacity. So we see that the 
name of Heard is well known in West Africa. Re 
turning to this country, Bishop Heard was made 
Bishop of Mississippi and Louisiana. In this po 
sition he is still serving. 

The life of this man should be an inspiration to 
any young man who has for his aim in life the 
preaching of the Gospel. In Bishop Heard we 
have an excellent example of a man who has done 
what he set out to do. Helping him all along 
the way in every step of the journey we find Mrs. 
Heard. She was Miss Josephine D. Henderson, 
daughter of Lafayette and Anna Henderson. The 
Heard's were married in 1882, in their Georgia 
home. Both Bishop and Mrs. Heard have the love 
and the esteem of all who know them. 



240 




BIRDS-EYE VIEW OF LINCOLN UNIVERSITY, PENNSYLVANIA 




[NCOLN University is the oldest 
Institution for the Higher Educa 
tion of the Negro. It was pledged 
to God in an ordination service in 
1849. The General Assembly of 
the Presbyterian Church gave its 
sanction in 1853. The Legislature of Pennsylvania 
granted a Charter to Ashmun Institute in 1854. A 
modest building was erected and the doors were 
opened to four students in 1857. The Legislature 
changed the name to Lincoln University in 1866. 
The Reverend Mr. John Pym Carter, and Reverend 
Mr. John Wynn Martin, D D ., were the two suc 
cessive Presidents and the whole Faculty in them 
selves from 1857 to 1865. The Reverend Mr. Isaac 
Norton Rendall, D. D., was President from 1865 to 
1906 and the Reverend Mr. John B. Rendall. D. D., 
has been President since 1906. 

The University owns equipment, buildings and 
grounds, costing $350,000, and productive endow 
ment to the amount of $650.000. Its annaul current 
expenditures approximate $50,000. It has two De 
partments, a College, and a Theological Seminary. 
In its 60 years of history, Lincoln University has 
had 1638 students in its College, and 628 in its Sem 
inary. 

The Alumni statistics show 656 ministers of all 
denonmations ; 263 doctors including dentists and 
druggists ; 255 teachers ; 227 in business ; and 86 
lawyers. The students have come from almost ev 
ery state of the Union, and the Alumni have gone 



to virtually every state of the Union, as well as to 
Africa, South America, and the Isles of the Sea, 

At the close of the Civil War most of the stu 
dents had been soldiers in the United States Army ; 
and in the world war, the student body in large 
number again wore the American uniform The 
University is proud to give its choicest sons in this 
holiest of all wars. A full proportion of them were 
commissioned officers, some serving in France. 

The general control is vested in a Board of 21 
Trustees. The College has full recognition and 
membership in the Association of the Colleges of 
the State of Pennsylvania, and the Theological 
Seminary is under the full control of the Presby 
terian General Assembly. 

White Institutions have since taken the name 
of Lincoln, but this Institute for the Higher Chris 
tian Education of the Negro was the first to bear 
the name of the Immortal President. This Christ 
ian school was also the first to establish a chair of 
the English Bible and make it a required course for 
every student in every class. 

Mrs. Susan Dod Brown endowed this chair and 
also gave the chapel in which each day the work is 
opened with 15 minutes of Devotional Exercises, 
and in which regular preaching services are held 
each Sabbath. 

Lincoln Unversity is not a rival of other schools 
in this field. She never advertises for students, and 
cannot receive a fourth of those who apply. She 
has nothing but a good will and a God speed to all. 



241 



Edwin J. Turner, M. D. 





HE following tribute to Dr. Tur 
ner, taken from the Columbus, 
(Georgia) Ledger, is a most ap 
propriate introduction to the 
sketch of his life prepared for the 
Negro Cyclopedia : 

"What Daniel Boone and other pioneers, who 
labored, toiled and endured hardships which would 
have chilled the hearts and swerved the purpose of 
less earnest and able men, did toward peopling the 
West, and toward opening up a hitherto unknown 
country, Dr. Edwin J. Turner, who is well and fav 
orably known by all but a very few of the people 
of Columbus, both White and Colored, has done 
for the colored race in this section of the State, and 
the United States. And the influence of his life. 
and possibly the measure of success which he has 
wrought has inspired, who knows how many of 
his countrymen and members of his race, to go and 
do likewise. For Dr. Turner has the heart and the 
ability of a pioneer, and such, literally he was in 
the field of education, and in the line of progress 
to the people of his race in Columbus, and the sur 
rounding country who can say how far his influ 
ence has spread abroad throughout the land." 

Dr. Ttfrner was born in Meridian, Mississippi, in 
1876, and until he reached the age of fifteen he at 
tended the public schools of his native city. 

After his course in the public schools he entered 
the Clark University, of Atlanta, Georgia, where 
he took up the study of Pharmacy. He graduated 
from this Institution and then entered the New Or 
leans University, where he graduated in the school 
of medicine in 1912. 

Having prepared himself for his life work he 
chose Columbus, Georgia, as the field of his en 
deavors. Here he soon built up a large practice 
and has the distinction of being the first colored 
physician to locate in Muscogee County. He soon 
established himself high in the esteem of his com 
munity among all classes, white and black, and 
holds an enviable position in the ranks of his col 
leagues in other counties and other states. 

Without neglecting his practice, which always 
commands his closest attention, he has actively 
identified himself with the public interest, keep 
ing always in mind the good of his community and 
especially the elevation of his race. 

When the Young Men's Christian Association 
was tottering and almost ready to fall under the 
burden of debt and in-ability to keep up its current 
expenses, he was called to the rescue. He prompt 
ly accepted the Presidency, went thoroughly into 
the investigation of its condition and intelligently 



addressed himself to relieving its distressing situa 
tion. The Association under his direction has wea 
thered the financial storms, been raised to a paying 
basis and is now in a flourishing condition. His 
ambition is to have his people so live as to com 
mand the respect and esteem of all citizens and by 
his own exemplary life he has set them the exam 
ple. He has possibly done more to raise them to 
this high place in the public estimation than any 
other man in the State. 

A mere list of accomplishments of Dr. Turner 
would be indeed a bare record without taking into 
consideration the conditions under which they 
were accomplished. When convinced that a course 
was right no difficulties could prevent him from 
going forward in the accomplishments of the ob 
ject set before him. He was not reckless in meet 
ing difficulties, but faced them patiently and firm 
ly with a courage born of a deep conviction. 

The honors which have been conferred upon him 
are insufficient to show how they were earned, and 
how worthy he is to bear them. 

Dr. Turner's interest in his people has led him 
into the field of politics and there as elsewhere he 
is an active factor. He is not constituted to be 
passive in any field of endeavor he enters. 

He is a member of the Republican party and a 
member of the State Republican Executive Com 
mittee, representing Muscogee County. He was 
a National Delegate to the Republican Conven 
tion which nominated Mr. Taft for President, and 
his influence and vote went for Mr. Taft at that 
time. He was the first colored man that was ever 
appointed Notary Public in Muscogee County, and 
throughout his term of office he has demonstrated 
his reliability and worth in that capacity, and has 
fulfilled his duties to the entire satisfaction of 
those whom he serves. 

Dr. Turner is a member of the Presbyterian 
Church where his disposition for work is also man 
ifested and where his counsel and help is in con 
stant demand. 

He is also a member of the Masonic Fraternity, 
a Knight of Pythias and a member of the Knights 
of Tabor. He is the Grand Medical Director of the 
Colored Knights of Pythias of Georgia, and Grand 
Chief Mentor of the Knights and Daughters of Ta 
bor of Georgia. 

He is proprietor of the 10th Street Drug Store, 
which carries a stock valued at $5000. 

In _904 he married Miss Lela Benner, of Macon, 
Georgia, and they have but one child, a son, ten 
years of age, Benner C. Turner. 



242 





NORVAL COBB VAUGHAN, A. B, M. D. 

MONG the Negro physicians who 
have won laurels in the West and 
who has risen to a high place in 
the profession, Dr. Norval Cobb 
Vaughan, of Cincinnatti, Ohio, 
stands as a brilliant instance. He 
exemplifies the very spirit of loyalty and is true to 
his fraternity throughout the country and especial 
ly so to the Negro fraternity. Although engaged 
in active practice he remains the hard and close 
student. He realizes that there is always some 
thing to learn in his profession and he keeps abreast 
of the times and for this reason gives all the time 
that he can spare from his work as a physician to 
reading and studying. 

Hacing the interest of his race at heart his life 
has been given in unselfish service to them in every 
way where he could lend a helping hand. It is the 
exhibition of these traits and spirit that has won 
him distinction and praise. 

Dr. Vaughn is a native of Virgina. He was born 
in Farmvile, Virgina, August, 1867. He received 
his early school training in another State but re 
turned to "Old Virginia" for finishing touches. He 
secured his elementary training in East Orange, 
New Jersey, attending and passing through the 

243 



public schools there. After his course in the pub 
lic schools of Orange, he returned to his native 
State, Virgina, and entered the Richmond Insti 
tute, taking the Academic course. Completing his 
course at the Richmond Institute, he enrolled at 
the Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, at 
Petersburg, Virginia, where he was graduated as 
a Bachelor of Arts. 

He was now ready to give thought to a career 
and after due consideration of the various calls 
held out to men he decided upon medicine, and 
having determined to be a physician he entered the 
Medical Department of Howard University, to get 
the necessary preparation for his work. He grad 
uated from this Institution in 1897. 

Dr. Vaughan is a man of cool calculation, rather 
than one given to impulse so in deciding the ques 
tion of a location he surveyed the field before 
coming to a decision. He made note of the fact 
that Cincinnati, Ohio was not only a large and 
growing city, but that it had a large Negro popu 
lation and that this class of its population was con 
stantly growing. He decided that this was a most 
promising field so in this city he pitched his tent, 
and hung out his shingle, and here he has labored 
for twenty-two years. He has demonstrated the 
wisdom of his choice for with patience, energy and 
loyalty to his profession he has built up a large and 
lucrative practice. 

Without neglecting his special work he his inter 
ested himself in welfare work. 

His spare moments have been devoted to uplift 
work and study in many directions. He is holder of 
many valuable pieces of real estate, to which he < 
gives some thought and study. He is also greatly 
interested in inventions and patents. He has in 
vented and had patented a bullet proof breast 
shield. He is a member of the Academy of Medi 
cine of Cincinnati, wherein much time and study 
are devoted to modern and local problems in medi 
cine. He is also a member of the Medical Council of 
Pensylvania ; member of the Council of Social 
Agencies of Cincinnati ; and Staff Physician of the 
Evangeline Home and Hospital of Cincinnati. Be 
sides this he is a member of and in close contact 
with every local organization which has for its pur 
pose Negro uplift or advance in any direction. 

On entering his professional career. Dr. Vaughan 
took the advice of those modern philosophers, who 
say that the first step in a successful career of a 
young man is marriage. In 1899, the same year he 
opened office in Cincinnati, he was married to Miss 
Victoria Powell of Richmond, Virginia. Two 
children have been born to Dr. and Mrs. Vaughan 
but both are deceased. One died when it was a 
month old; the other at the age of five and a half 
years. 





HON. JOHN P. GREEN 

R. John P. Green was born in 
Newbern, North Carolina, April 
2nd, 1845. His parents John R. 
Green and Temperance Green 
were both free and honorable. Mr. 
Green was educated in Common, 
High and Law Schools, of Cleveland, Ohio. But 
this education came to him through his own ef 
forts. Between the ages of fourteen and twenty 
two, Mr. Green worked in all sorts of menial em 
ployments, buying a home for his widowed mother. 
After that, he followed the same pursuits in striv 
ing for an education for himself. 

He began his professional career in 1870, when 
he was admitted to the South Carolina Bar. and. 
in 1872, he returned to Ohio and began the practice 
of law, in Cleveland. His has been a very active 
life, since being admitted to the bar. He was el 
ected justice of the .peace of the city of Cleveland, 
in 1873, and served for three terms, (nine years). 
During this time, he disposed of about twelve 
thousand cases. In 1882 he was elected to the low 
er branch of the Ohio General Assembly, and re- 
elected in 1890. In 1892, he was elected to the 
Senate of Ohio. He is the first and only colored 



man, as yet, elected to the Senate. When he was 
in the Senate, he presided over that body, and was 
for that space of time, defacto Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of Ohio. When he was in the Lower House 
of the Ohio General Assembly, Mr. Green wrote 
and secured the passage of the bill creating Labor 
Day in Ohio. This was subsequently, made a nat 
ional Holiday, by Congress. In 1897, President 
McKinley appointed him United States Postage 
Stamp agent. For nine years, he manufactured 
and distributed all the postage stamps for the gov 
ernment. For eighteen months, he was defacto 
Superintendent of Finance, of Post Office Depart 
ment ; during which time he signed many thousand 
warrants for money due to mail contractors. 

Mr. Green has traveled extensively. He has 
been to Europe four times. In 1809 he was re 
ceived, with his wife, by Pope Leo; he was also re 
ceived by the Lord Bishop, of London, and the 
Dean of West Minister Abbey. He sat with his 
family in the Choir of the Abbey, and also of Saint 
Pauls during divine services. Mr. Green visited 
France, Italy, Austria, also the Midera Islands, Gi- 
bralter and Scotland. While in Scotland he lectur 
ed eleven times to large audiences. Another 
pleasant memory of Mr. Green if the fact that, 
while in Ireland, he visited Blarney Castle, and, by 
the courtesy of fellow tourists, was enabled to 
kiss the Blarney Stone. 

Mr. Green has been active in the affairs of the 
nation as well as in those of the State of Ohio. He 
has been Alternate Delegate at large to National 
Republican Conventions. He has also associated 
with a number of the most prominent Republican 
statesmen. 

Mr. Green is Junior Warden and Lay-reader in 
St. Andrews Episcopal Church, and, in eighteen 
years, he has not missed attendance at church in 
the morning or been late, when in town.. 

At the age of seventy-four he is still engaged in 
practice of law. In thirty-one murder cases, he 
has lost but one client. All the others have been 
either acquitted or let off with reduced sentences. 
From the practice of his profession, Mr. Green has 
been enabled to earn not only a, very good living 
for himself, and family, but to invest in Teal estate. 

Mr. Green was married to Miss Annie Walker, 
in Cleveland, in 1869. He was married a second 
time to Mrs. Lottie Mitchell Richardson, in 1912, 
with whom he is now happily living. Four chil 
dren were born to Mr. Green to help brighten his 
home. Captain William R. Green, lawyer; Mr. 
Theodore B. Green, lawyer; Mr. Jesse B. Green, 
Chef; and Mrs. C. C. Johnson, who was Miss Clara 
Annie Green. 

Mr. Green has for his hobbies the reading and 
reviewing of his classical school studies, with the 
addition of French, which he reads almost without 
effort. During the two years just passed, he has 
read the four Gospels in Greek twice. In this 
way he. at his ripe age, keeps his mind in good 

i i * j .. J 1 ,-,.-, -, Kl^s-1 f.-i ti-i ti co r"t tlif 



working condition, and is enabled to transact the 
large amount of business which confronts him. 



244 





JACOB E. REED 

ACOB E. Reed, of Cleveland, 
Ohio, was born in Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania, Dauphin County, 
November 30th, 1852. His educa 
tion was limited to that of the 
Grammar School. For the first 
twenty one years of his life he lived on a farm, 
where he acquired a strong body that has been one 
of his chief assets during his long business life. 

Because of his mother's interests, Mr. Reed mov 
ed into the town of Harrisburg, when he was 
twenty-one years of age. Here he worked first 
in the Harrisburg Car Works. Then for a number 
of years he worked at Wheatland, Pennsylvania, 
in the Weeds Brothers Iron Works. He was 
maimed while engaged with the firm and had to 
give up his work. He went to Youngstown, Ohio, 
and went into the Barber business with his brother- 
in-law. At this trade he worked for four years, 
when he moved once more, this time to Cleveland. 
Here he has remained building up for himself a 
business that is very creditable. 

When he first went to Cleveland, Mr. Reed took 
a position as a waiter for a year. This was merely 
used as a stepping stone. His next step was to the 
position of conductor and motorman for the East 



Cleveland Street Railway Company. Colonel Louis 
Block, one of the regular passengers on the car on 
which Mr. Reed was conductor, opened a new mar 
ket and gave to Mr. Reed the position as special 
police and janitor. The new undertaking was not 
a success, and so Mr. Block, who felt himself re 
sponsible for getting Mr. Reed out of a job, offer 
ed him the chance to install a fish market in the 
building, rent free for the first six months. Mr. 
Reed recognized the fact that he was ignorant of 
the fish business and so took a partner in the ubsi- 
ness with him. The partner was a Mr. Reitz, a 
white man. Together they in nineteen years built 
up a very successful business. 

At the death of Mr. Reitz the interest which 
was his was purchased from his widow by Mr. 
Reed. So after a number of years in various call 
ings, Mr. Reed found himself in one in which 
he was very successful. Among his customers, Ill- 
numbers a number of the best families in the city 
of Cleveland. Besides he sells to some of the lead 
ing hotels and restaurants. The Hollenden Hotel 
alone runs a monthly account of about $700.00 
with Mr. Reed. His annual business is from 
$15,000.00 to $18,000.00. This is no small achieve 
ment for one who started with almost no capital. 
One of the secrets of Mr. Reed's success is the fact 
that he never lets his bills run any time. He makes 
it a habit to pay all his bills weekly. 

Mr. Reed has saved considerable from his bus 
iness. He owns his own home which represents 
an investment of $10,000.00 and two pieces of ren 
tal property that represents the investment of 
$10,000.00. 

Mr. Reed has been twice married. His first 
wife was Miss Rebecca Jackson, of Foxburg, 
I'ennysylvania. They were married June, 1874. 
She died October 20th, 1915. He was married a 
second time to Mrs. Emma Clayge, of Chatta 
nooga, Tennessee, on June 25th, 1918. Mr. Reed 
had one son, Addison D. Reed, who died at the age 
of seven years. There is one adopted daughter in 
the family, Miss Byrdie L. Reed. Miss Byrdie is 
now eighteen years of age and she was adopted 
at the age of nine years. 

The fish business does not take up all of Mr. 
Reed's time. He is an active member of the Epis 
copal Church, of the Odd Fellows, Masons, Elks, 
33 degree Mason and Shriner. For eight years he 
served as treasurer of the Odd Fellows. He has 
been appointed delegate to both national State con 
ventions of the Elks, Odd Fellows and Masons. 

It took Mr. Reed more than thirty years to find 
the business of which he was to make such a suc 
cess, but having found it, he has not changed, but 
has continued 26 years, in the same line and built 
up for himself a very lucrative enterprise. 



245 





JOHN WILLIS HUGHES 

R. J. W. Hughes, of Tulsa, is one 
of the comparatively few colored 
men of this country, who has left 
his native State and gone to seek 
his fortune at a distance without 
doing it of his own free will. This 
in the mind of Mr. Hughes is the principal episode 
in his life. And well may all consider it, as we 
shall see. 

Mr. Hughes was born in Rutherford County, 
Tennessee, April 30, 1865. Here he spent his early 
childhood on the farms of his native county, work 
ing hard during the greater part of the year and 
attending school during the short winter session. 
In this way he lived till he was eighteen years of 
age. At that time he left the farm for the more 
lucrative employment of the railroad. While work 
ing on the road he managed to save enough mon 
ey to enter school at Fisk University. At Fisk he 
was one of the steady, studious boys, and when he 
went out, he left the class room as a student to 
enter it as a teacher. He entered the public 
schools of his State and served as principal of the 
city school at Springfield, and later at Orlinda for 
thirteen years. During this time, Mr. Hughes had 
been careful of the money he earned and had quite 



a bit invested in farm, stock and all the things that 
go to make up country property. 

His farming operations proved unusually pro 
ductive and brought to him much prosperity, so 
much so, that it caused his neighbors to be envious 
of him. The enmity between him and his neigh 
bors, finally reached such a stage that he decided 
to sell his farm and change his location. This he 
did, leaving his native town and State and went out 
to begin all over onte more. 

Having made up his mind to sell his farm and 
equipment, he acted with his usual promptness, 
and disposed of same at a loss to him of between 
three and four thousand dollars. 

Leaving Tennessee with its "Night Riders" Mr. 
Hughes went to Oklahoma. For two years he had 
a partnership in a store and then he accepted the 
principalship of the Dunbar School. This was in 
1911. This position he still holds, working for the 
education of the young people in that part of the 
country and helping uplift all about him. In his 
endeavor to help in this work of uplift, Mr. Hughes 
has not confined himself to work in the class room. 
He is a deacon of the First Baptist Church, and a 
teacher in the Sunday School. Here every Sunday 
we will find him teaching the advanced Bible 
Class in the Sunday School. 

In fraternal matters, Mr. Hughes is also a prom 
inent man in his section of the country. He is 
Worthy Master of Coal Creek Lodge No. 88, of the 
Free Masons, he is Grand High Priest in the Ro 
yal Arch Chapter, and in the Consistory he is 
Grand Master of Ceremonies. So again we find 
Mr. Hughes taking a leading part in matters that 
certainly work for the betterment of the people. 
Although Mr. Hughes had to make a new start 
when he was forty-three years of age, and make 
this start at a disadvantage, he has been able to ac 
cumulate a goodly share of the choice property in 
and around Tulsa. He owns four different pieces 
of property in the business district of the town, 
his own home and three rent houses, all of which 
is in a good section of the town. 

Mr. Hughes has traveled extensively in this 
country and in the southern part of Canada. This 
has served to broaden him. While still in Tennes 
see, in 1886, he was married to Miss Sarah Eliza 
beth Owens, at Eglesville. They lived very hap 
pily together till the time of her death, Nov. 24, 
1907. Three children were born of this union 
Miss Annie C. Hughes has gone back to her fath 
er's old state of Tennessee, where she is an excel 
lent teacher. Talmage Cravath Hughes is with the 
United States Army in France, and Johnnie Vista 
Hughes died while still very young. Mr. Hughes 
was married a second time, May 30, 1914, to Miss 
Nettie A. Ledsinger of Dyersburg, Tennessee. A 
graduate of Fisk University, Mrs. Hughes was at 
the time of her marriage, principal of the Primary 
Department of the City school of Okmulgee, Okla 
homa. In his community Mr. Hughes is an ex 
ample in all matters to the younger people. His 
work in the school room, in the church, in the 
lodges and in all points where his life touches the 
lives of others, is all for the uplift of mankind. He 
is an example in thrift as well as in religious mat 
ters. He and his family like to help make the so 
cial life in Tulsa pleasant. 

246 




FRENCH WILSON BRUNER 




NCE the Seminole Nation of In 
dians occupied the beautiful land 
of Florida. Many years ago, 
they moved to Oklahoma, the 
land of the Fair Gods. The Se- 
minoles held slaves in Florida be 
fore the Civil war. It is an interesting bit of his 
tory to know that the Bruners not only were free 
men and women all of their lives, but are descend 
ants of a Seminole chief. Today they can trace 
their ancestors seven generations to the good old 
days when Seminoles lived happily on the extreme 
peninsular of the southland. 

Yesterday in the old Indian Territory, were large 
ranches, and cornfields, and meadows where Na 
tives and Indian-wards of the Federal Government 
stood together like free men. Nor were they one 
whit behind civilization in lodges and other fra 
ternal organizations for free Masonary was known 
and practiced by all upright free inhabitants. And 
where the Federal Government failed to establish 
any institution for the betterment of society, the 
Baptist Missionaries and the Presbyterian Mission 
aries, and the representatives of other churches es 
tablished churches, school houses and academies. 
French Wilson Bruner, was born January 13, 18- 
83. He cast his first vote in Seminole County, 
Oklahoma. In his early days he attended the Me- 



kusukey Academy, an institution which belonged 
to the Seminole Nation, Indian territory, now Sem 
inole County, Oklahoma. 

And later, finishing his course at Hampton, he 
did work in the Summer Schools of Chicago Uni 
versity. In 1908, he taught a common school on 
the Bruner estate in Oklahoma. The next year he 
took charge of the Manual Training Department 
of Douglas High School, Oklahoma City, Okla. 
For ten years Mr. F. W. Bruner has been in charge 
of this work with great success and marvelous ad 
vancement from a small uncouth manual training 
room in 1909, to a $10,000.00 structure, in 1915, 
where he has prepared students for Pratt Univer 
sity, New York, and other institutions of learning. 

Mr. Bruner is more of a business man than other 
wise. In Oklahoma City ,in 1909, he invested with 
a partner in the drug business. Later, he interest 
ed himself in the oil industry, and later still he sold 
his drug interest to his partner and turned all of 
his attention to the development of oils. He joined 
the Springvale Oil and Gas Company, and is now 
the company's Secretary. Inheriting some money, 
he become very well off. He owns lands in Sem 
inole County, land in Garvin County, a residence in 
Oklahoma City, a stock farm in Oklahoma, and 
carries investments in various oil companies. 

Again, true, to the Bruner instinct, French Wil 
son Bruner takes an interest in all form of life 
work about him. He is an active member of the 
Baptist Church, a member of Knights of Pythias, 
CC and past CC of star Chamber No. 23, Past 
Master of Keystone Lodge No. 2, A. F. & A. M., 
and a Shriner, and a member of the Great Western 
Consistory, Oklahoma Jurisdiction. Too, he is 
a chairman of the teachers divisional and High 
School faculty, of the Oklahoma Negro Teachers 
Association. Moreover he has been Vice Presi 
dent and secretary of the said association. 

The number and diversity of such connections, 
all of them highly honorable and useful, indicates 
the regard that has fixed for this prominent man so 
high a measure of Civic service, and he has nobly 
responded to the call in every phaze of the duty 
that this draft on his fidelity and capacities has im 
posed. In no relation has the worth of Mr. Bruner 
been more strikingly demonstrated than in the 
manner in which he has responded to these high 
demands which lie so completely out of the narrow 
realms of self. 

Mr. Bruner was married to Miss Bloosie Bell of 
Muskogee, Oklahoma, Sept. 1914. They live in 
their beautiful residence in Oklahoma City; a 
residence which is valued at ten thousand dollars. 
The one thing lacking to make their home life ideal 
is the absence of children. 



247 





WILLIAM HARRISON 

EW men at the bar have attained 
the distinction of Mr. William 
Harrison of Oklahoma City, Ok 
lahoma. A southern man by birth, 
rearing and education, he has 
so conducted himself on the one 
hand, and has been so thorough a master in his 
profession on the other, that many a door that has 
been shut to others has freely opened to him. 
This does not mean that others do not deserve all 
the courtesies of the courts, without any special 
consideration, save the stamp of merit, but we 
are discussing things as they are rather than 
things as they ought to be. 

Mr. Harrison's prestige in the courts has been 
truly remarkable, not only for a Negro of the 
South, but for a man of any section. Admitted 
to the bar in 1902, he was first permitted step by 
step to practice in all the state courts of Okla 
homa. Gaining a footing here he steadily made his 
way to the front until today he practices in all the 
Federal courts, and in the Supreme Court of the 
United .States . 

As has already been pointed out, Mr. Harri 
son is out and out a southern man. He was born 



in Mississippi, in Clay County, in 1874. His fa 
ther, devoting most of his energies to the raising 
of cotton, raising starch and grain as supplement. 
For a number of years the son served an appren 
ticeship with the father. But somehow the quiet 
humdrum of the farmers' life did not appeal to 
him. A life of sharp competition, of give and 
take, began very early to lure him from behind 
the plow, from the hoe and the wagon, and attract 
him to the city. 

In spare months, that is in months when the 
crops were "laid by," and in winter when there 
was no farm labor to be performed the future law 
yer attended the public schools. When he grew 
older he saw that he would never reach his goal 
by attending school one fourth or one third of the 
year. And so the day came when he took leave 
of the farm and the old folks and sped away North 
ward, from Mississippi to Nashville. He entered 
Roger Williams and completed the elementary 
education. From Roger Wiliams, he went to Chi 
cago University where he pursued a college course. 
Returning to Nashville, he marticulated at Wai- 
den, where he completed his course in law. In 
1902, he was admitted to the bar in Oklahoma. 

He was not long in becoming known, once he 
had gotten before the courts. Sound reasoning, 
thorough scholarship and common sense soon gave 
him extraordinary prestige. On one occasion he 
was chosen special judge of the Superior Court in 
Oklahoma County, to sit in judgment on a case in 
which all the litigants were white. 

Mr. Harrison keeps in touch with practically all 
the activities of his State, and indeed of the whole 
country. He is an extensive traveller, having 
covered the whole country on business and pleas 
ure trips. He is wide awake to business chances 
as well as to planning out a suit. He owns heavy 
interests in zinc, lead and oil companies, as well 
as a home and several pieces of real estate. He 
is a good Baptist, a Mason, a loyal Knight of Py 
thias. In these latter organizations, as well as in 
others, not named, he has taken a leading part in 
many councils. He is Past Grand Chancellor of the 
Oklahoma Knights of Pythias, former attorney 
of the National Baptist Convention, President of 
the Negro Civic League, President of the People's 
Protective Circle, member of the Chamber of Com 
merce of Oklahoma City, being the only colored 
man to hold membership in this body. 

Mr. Harrison was married in Clanton, Mississ 
ippi. June, 1898, to Miss Idella B. Carmichael. Mr. 
and Mrs. Harrison have two children; Wilhelmina. 
who is fifteen years of age, and who is in school; 
and William Alfred, who is twelve years old, and 
a school boy. 



248 





R. W. WESTBERRY 

OME day, R. W. Westberry of 
Sumter, South Carolina, should 
go apart and set down in some 
sort of form a few of his exper 
iences and describe the types of 
men he has known in given occu 
pations. Was the account a mere catalogue, it 
would prove an instructive document, in that it 
would not only afford an engaging panorama, but 
would demonstrate how wide a variety of tasks 
one man can perform passably well. 

Mr. Westberry was born in Sumter, South Car 
olina, near Horatio Post Office, July 11, 1871. A 
member of the younger generation, he managed to 
eke out a good education. He attended the public 
schools in Sumter County, then went to Benedict 
College at Columbia, S. C. and finished his school 
career at Wilberforce University, Ohio. 

Mr. Westberry began his life on the farm, where 
as a lad he worked for his father. His life exper 
ience widened Summer by Summer during his 
school life and year by year after his graduation. 
For a time he was a waiter in a Chicago Hotel. 
From this he took up the task of odd jobs. Tn a 
little time he became a Chicago letter carrier, 



working at this post twelve years. For two years 
he was a member of the letter carrier's Council, 
one year of which he was the only Negro member 
of the body. 

Although the West, especially Chicago had many 
attractions for a live, wide-awake man like Mr. 
Westberry, he could not resist the call of the South 
and hither he turned his steps and again found 
himself in his native state of South Carolina. 

The first five years after his return South he 
worked as a United States Demonstration Agent. 
He gave up this work to accept the Secretaryship 
of the South Carolina State Fair, which position 
he held for three years, when he was elected Sup 
erintendent of the same organization and served 
the Company three years more in that capacity. 

At the end of his six year's service for the fair 
organization he decided that the time had come to 
strike out for himself so he organized the West- 
berry Realty Company, and became its President. 

To this variety of experiences in occupations, he 
adds a career fuller still in honorary pursuits. In 
1909 he was one of the leading members in the 
Booker T. Washington party that toured South 
Carolina. He was a volunteer soldier in the Spanish 
American War. When the Negroes of South Car 
olina were waging a campaign for a boy's reforma 
tory, Mr. Westberry was one of the committee to 
appear before the Governor in the interest of the 
cause. Again when the Negroes of the State were 
laboring for a Colored People's Fair, Mr. West- 
berry advocated their cause before the State leg 
islature. 

His membership in Church and Lodge and on va 
rious boards shows how wide are his interests and 
activities. He is a member of the Baptist Church, 
and a Deacon and Trustee. He is a Mason, Odd 
Fellow ; a Knight of Pythias ; a member of the 
Gospel Aid Society. He was a member of the fi 
nance committee of the Masonic Lodge of his state 
three years ; a state officer of the Odd Fellows two 
years, a Master of Finance for the Knights of Py 
thias one year ; Grand Deputy Archon of the Wise 
Men one year ; local secretary of the Gospel Aid 
Society one year. He is a trustee of the Mays- 
ville Institute and of Morris College; a life member 
of the National Negro Business Men's League ; 
President of the South Carolina Farmer's Confer 
ence and of the National Farmer's Asociation and 
an honorary member of the Sumter Chamber of 
Commerce, the only Negro member of that body. 

Mr. Westberry is an extensive property holder 
in South Carolina, and in other places. He owns 
two lots on Oyster Bay, Long Island ; three lots 
and two two-story buildings in Chicago, and his 
property in Sumter, among which is included his 
two-story house valued at $30.000. 

He was married in 1902, to Miss Eva Anderson. 
of Chatham, Canada. 



249 





JACOB JAVAN DURHAM, A. B., M. D. 

ACOB Javan Durham, famous as 
an orator and debater was born 
near Spartanburg, Sovtth Carolina, 
April 13th, 1849. He attended the 
public school, at Greenville, South 
Carolina. From the public school 
he entered the State University of South Car 
olina, remaining in that institution until 1877, 
when it was closed against Colored students. 
He then entered Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn 
essee, where he was graduated two years later 
with the degree A. B. 

He graduated from Meharry Medical College, 
Nashville, Tenn., in 1880, and received his M. D. 
degree. At his graduation he won the honor of 
being the class valedictorian, having made 98^2 on 
his final examination. Recognizing his great abil 
ity he was offered a professorship in the college 
but declined the honor as he wished to enter at 
once upon his chosen fields of labor that of med 
icine and the ministry. 

His first charge was the Bethesda Baptist church 
at Society Hill, which was one of the largest 
churches in the State of South Carolina, receiving 
and accepting a call to this church immediately up 



on his leaving Meharry Medical College. He en 
tered upon his work both as a preacher and a phy 
sician with energy and zeal, and did the work of 
both with marked success. 

He gave up his work in Society Hill to enter a 
larger field. He was elected Educational Mission 
ary of the Baptist State Convention of South Car 
olina, which office he filled so ably that he was ad 
vanced a step higher and made the Financial Se 
cretary of the Baptist State Convention. Here he 
had a wider scope for the exercise of his gifts and 
for ten years he applied himself to his work with 
such skill and tact that he won the cooperation of 
his brethren and raised large sums of money and 
paid off large debts. 

He was especially gifted in this line, an illustra 
tion of which is seen in his accomplishment when 
pastor of the Second Baptist Church, of Savannah, 
Georgia. In one rally he raised for this church 
$3059.33. 

Dr. Durham was then recalled to South Carolina 
to become educational secretary. At the close of 
his first year's work as Educational Secretary he 
recommended among other things the establish 
ment of an institution of learning to be owned and 
operated by the Negro Baptists of the State. The 
report was followed by an eloquent and powerful 
speech on the subject by the Secretary, and in a few 
minutes, more than $12,000 was subscribed, and 
Morris College, at Sumter, South Carolina, is the 
result. The presidency of this institution was 
offered him but he declined it. Dr. Durham has 
been often referred to as "the Daniel Webster of 
his race," because of his unusual ability and elo 
quence as a debater. 

He has been called upon to introduce some of the 
great public men of the Nation. Frederick Douglas 
on being introduced once by Dr. Durham, said: 
"That was the most eloquent introduction I ever 
had. That man ought to be in Congress pleading 
the cause of the people." 

After introducing President McKinley on one 
occasion, the President remarked, "That was the 
most beautiful and eloquent speech I ever heard." 

Dr. Durham is a great scholar and has been a 
hard student. He reads the Bible in five different 
languages English, German, Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew. 

Dr. Durham has been twice married, first to Miss 
Ella Simpkins, and from this union there was one 
son. His second wife was Miss Emma Ramey of 
Edgefield, South Carolina, daughter of Judge W. 
D. and Katie Ramey. 

Dr. Durham is a man of considerable wealth. He 
is public spirited; has made many great public and 
patriotic speeches ; written much on great public 
questions. He stands high as a man and citizen and 
has received many honorary degrees from repu 
table institutions. 



250 




ROBERT E. L. HOLLAND, M. D. 




OCTOR Robert E. L. Holland, the 
eldest of eight living children of 
Benjamin and Margaret Holland, 
was born in Montgomery County, 
Texas, November eleventh, 1864. 
The father was a farmer ; and as 
such set a glowing example of hard work and 
thrift for his son. All day the parent would labor 
in the field and then at night time split rails or chop 
wood. For a while the eldest son followed this 
example. He, too, labored on the farm, and at 
night split rails, chopped wood and built char-coal 
kilns until midnight. He attended school when 
time permitted and when the two or three months 
country school was in session. As he was ambi 
tious, however, he studied in and out of season. 

Such close application to his studies soon began 
to bear fruit and note was made of his mental de 
velopment, and at the age of seventeen years he 
was advised to stand for a teacher's certificate, and 
was offered the position of assistant teacher if he 
should successfully pass the teacher's examination. 
He passed the examination, got his certificate for 
second grade and secured the teacher's position. 
Thus he began his career as a teacher. He had 



started up the ladder and the following year had 
advanced so far as to be made principal of one of 
the largest schools of his county. While he was 
teaching he continued his studies and in two years 
he stood his examination for first grade license 
and got his certificate. After receiving this certi 
ficate he continued to teach and applide himself 
more vigorously to his studies. Continuing this 
course for seven years he entered a competitive 
contest for a scholarship in Prairie View State 
Normal School which he won after standing a most 
rigid examination. He entered the Prairie View 
State Normal School with his ambition whetted by 
his success in the scholarship competition and fin 
ished his course with honor, in 1888. 

He returned home and taught one year in the 
school in which he taught before he went away to 
Prairie View. In 1890, on passing a rigid examina 
tion he was made principal of one of the Ward 
Schools, of Austin. However, though he was con 
tinually climbing as a teacher, he had long felt 
called to another profession that of medicine. 
And so, after three years teaching in Austin, he 
resigned his post and went away to Meharry Med 
ical College, Nashville, and then to the University 
of Vermont, to study medicine, obtaining his de 
gree from the latter school. 

Finishing his course in medicine in 1895, he re 
turned to his native state and began practice in 
Temple. Here he rapidly gained the confidence 
of all the people and soon had a lucrative practice. 
For twenty-one years he followed his profession in 
Temple, equipping his office with the best imple 
ments, widening his services and usefulness in 
many drections. 

On returning to Texas, Doctor Holland decided 
to affiliate himself with all local organizations that 
stood for the good of his race. He allied himself 
with the Eighth Street Baptist Church at Temple, 
became a Knights of Pythias, an Odd Fellow, a 
United Brother of Friendship, and a member of the 
Court of Calanthe. At one time he was a past 
Grand officer in the Knights of Pythias. He joined 
the Lone Star State Medical Association, was Sec 
retary for eight years, and President for one year. 

Dr. Holland was married in 1898 to Miss Mary 
B. Pittman of Tavbora, North Carolina. Dr. and 
Mrs. Holland have one son, Robert E. L. Jr., who is 
a student at Tillotson College, Austin, Texas. 

The crowning recognition came to Dr. Holland in 
1916, when the Governor of the State of Texas 
appointed him Superintendent of the Texas Deaf, 
Dumb and Blind Institute for Colored youths, at 
Austin, Texas. Within a year marked signs of 'im 
provement had already become manifested under 
him. The attendance has increased 35 per cent, 
the teaching force has been enlarged, new indus 
tries added and larger appropriations gained for 
the maintenance of the institution. 



2S1 




JOHN MARION FRIERSON 




OMMENCING at the bottom in 
business, John M. Frierson, Un 
dertaker and Embalmer, of Hous 
ton, Texas, has climed steadily 
and persistently until he is the 
leader in his kind of business in 
the State of Texas. With no special training for his 
task and no very large bulk of capital, he enter a 
city where competition was sharp and rent high ; 
yet he has never moved, never failed. He has only 
expanded. The room which once held the business 
of his whole plant is now the store room for his 
caskets. 

Mr. Frierson was born in Columbia, Tennessee, 
June 10th, 1865. He was born in a period which 
was fraught with great difficulties for the colored 
race, for it was passing through the transition 
from slavery to freedom and had to encounter the 
many problems which opened up in meeting this 
crucial test. Trials met him when a small lad and 
he had his turn at hard labor, scant food, scant 
clothing, and very meager facilities for education. 
He soon learned that the way of success in life 
was not a path of ease, but a way of thorns. He 
aspired to make something of his life and had an 
ambition to be an educated man. This he deter 



mined to be and he never took his eye from the 
goal until he had reached it. In order to earn 
the money to pursue his studies he toiled as a 
laborer, as a carpenter's helper to his father, as a 
teacher in country schools. Sometimes his earn 
ings amounted to two dollars per week, but fre 
quently fell below that amount and occasionally 
went above it. Frugality and perseverance won 
their reward and he was enabled to enter college. 

Finally he was able to enter Roger Williams Uni 
versity, Nashville, Tenn. Graduating here in the 
spring of 1891, he went out and became principal 
of the colored school in Galletin, Tenn. in the fall 
of the same year. Texas at that time, as it is now, 
was a more attractive field in education than most 
of the Southern States. It paid better salaries, held 
longer school terms, had better schools and proved 
more respectable for a teacher. Hither in 1892, Mr. 
Frierson went to take charge of a school near Wax- 
ahatchie, in Ellis County. The next year he be 
came associate principal of Hearne Academy in 
Roberson County. For the next five years he 
taught in Hearne Academy and in the County 
schools. 

Feeling that teaching was too itinerant and in 
many ways too restrictive in the opportunities foi 
advancement, Mr. Frierson left the school room 
and began his present business of Undertaking in 
Houston, Tejcas He opened a shop at 203 San Fe 
lipe Street, where his shop still stands, though 
much expanded. His was the first Negro Under 
taking business to open in the State of Texas. 
Hence for a number of years he had to overcome 
the obstacles common to all pioneers, to overcome 
prejudice and to establish confidence. This he had 
to do while buying his horses and equipment, learn 
ing those detals of business which only experience 
can give The obstacles overcome, he rose rapidly, 
as a business man. Today his stock room which as 
hasvbeen said, was his original establishment, is full 
of the best caskets available. He is accredited with 
having the finest outfit of horses of any Negro in 
Texas. These, however, he is now converting into 
automobile hearses. In addition to this business in 
Houston, he owns interests in businesses in Tex- 
arkana and in Brenham. 

Mr. Frierson stands high in many of the leading 
organizations of his state. He is a member of the 
Baptist Church, of the the Masonic Lodge, of the 
Knights of Pythias, of the Odd Fellows, of the 
Knights and Daughters of Tabor and of the Amer 
ican Woodman. He is one of the leading members 
of the National Undertakers' Association and of 
the National Negro Business Men's League. He 
has attended every meeting of the two latter since 
their founding. He has traveled over practically 
the whole United States, on business and on pleas 
ure. 

Mr. Frierson was married to Miss Hattie Esk- 
ridge of Atlanta. Ga., December 23, 1906. They 
live in their own home on San Felipe Street in 
I louston. 



252 




of Knoxville, Tenn. For six years Rev. B e ll served 
his home congregation, endearing himself to them 
by his kind ministrations to their many needs and 
his ready help in time of great trouble. Rev. Bell 
from the first decided that he could best serve by 
remaining long enough in one place to really ac 
complish some good in the community. To bear 
this out, he has during his nearly twenty years of 
pastoring, served only two churches. 

After leaving Knoxville, he accepted work in 
Chattanooga, Tennessee. Here he has remained, 
pastoring the First Baptist Church. Rev. Bell is 
well beloved by all of his congregation. He has 
won the interest and co-operation of the children, 
young men, and women as well as that of the old 
er members of his congregation. To do this has 
meant work on the part of the pastor. In this 
work he has shown great executive ability. He 
has reorganized his church, putting it on a work 
ing basis. Rev. Bell has his own ideas about a 
church and its functions. He believes that a 
church is not merely a place for Sunday meetings 
or rather he believes that this is not the purpose 
at all. He belives that a church is a center for 
thought, for culture, for activities of all kinds for 
the people. He believes that the church should 
train the young, and spur up the old in things tem 
poral and intellectural as well as in things which 
are purely spiritual. 

Thus the first Baptist Church at Chattanooga is 
one of those modern churches. It is organized 
upon thoroughly business method, and it seeks to 
render the highest possible efficiency in the church 
and religious work. This church, under the direc 
tion and inspiration of Rev. Bell has developed a 
mission and Educational Society. This organiza 
tion is an auxiliary to the Church proper. There 
are several other organizations that are auxiliaries 
EV. Charles Augustus Bell was to t h e cnu rch. Among these are the Teachers' 
born in Knoxville, Tennessee. He training Class; the Christian Culture Class- the 
was of poor parentage and so Dunbar Literary Society; the Young Men's auxi- 
had to work at an early age to H ar y ; a corps of Boy Cadets. Rev Bell has taken 
help support himself. His earliest pleasure and pride in adding these branches to his 
school days were spent in the church. They have added much to the life of his 
public schools of Knox County, congregation and to the community in general In 
where he applied himself dih- these organizations Rev. Bell has sought to pro 
mote and sustain the efficiency of the church. 
One direct result of the establishing of all these 




REVEREND CHARLES AUGUSTUS BELI. 



gently and secured all that he could. Finishing the 
course offered in the public school, the young man 
entered Knoxville College and by working at odd 
jobs he was able to remain in school till he had auxiliaries to the First Baptist church, is the di- 
completed the course prescribed. During this pe- reeling of the thoughts and actions of the young 
riod of study Rev. Bell spent his summers in teach- and the adult toward the good, the useful and the 
ing in the rural districts of his state. In this way beautiful. Through them the people are kept 
he kept himself in funds sufficient to keep up with i )()Uvc d up< enthusiastic, the church is freely sup- 



his needs. 

Rev. Bell at can early age decided to take up 
the ministry as his life work. To this end he 



ported and the pastor encouraged. By reorganiz 
ing his church Rev. Bell has been able to use all 



LIH-. 1111111. ^LIVCUIlliJiIlV^ vvwirv. J. *-S 1*110 Vs i * v.*. t \^ ^ f 1 , _ ,. 

spent a great deal of time in study with corres- the members of his congregation. In this way, 
pondence schools. He took a course of study with every member is given a chance for growth and 
the Extension Department of the University of every member feels that he is of use to the church. 
Chicago, and later took a course with the Oska- 
loosa College, of Iowa. In this way he fitted him 
self very thoroughly for the work he had before 

him, as a minister of the Gospel and a servant of also ' a Mason and a Rreat traveler, having toured 
the people. 

Feeling himself to be fairly well equipped now 
for his life work he entered the ministry in 1899. 
His first charge was the Rogers Memorial Church. 



Rev. Bell is a member of the executive board of 
the State Convention and a Trustee of the Nelson 
Mary Academy of Jefferson City, Tenn. He is 



the whole of this country and Canada. 

Rev. Bell was married in 1901 to Miss Mary A. 
Hell, of Knoxville, Tennessee. 



253 




BISHOP CHARLES HENRY PHILLIPS, A. B., A. M., 
M. D., D. D., LL. D. 




ISHOP Charles Henry Phillips, 
Bishop of the 4th Episcopal Dis 
trict, Colored Methodist Episco 
pal Church, is easily one of the 
leading; churchmen of his genera 
tion. He was born in Milledge- 
ville, Ga., January 17, 1858. His 
parents the Rev. and Mrs. George 
Washington Phillips, were devout Christians. 

As a boy young Phillips worked on his father's 
farm and attended the common schools. Convert 
ed at the age of sixteen, four years later he was li 
censed to preach by Rev. R. T. White, D. D., one 
of the leaders of Georgia Methodism. 

Seeking a higher education he attended first At 
lanta University, Atlanta, Ga., and in 1880 graduat 
ed from Walden University, Nashville, Tenn., with 
the degree of A. B., and "Cum Laude." Bishop I. 
B. Scott of the M. E. Church and the late Dr. Rob 
ert Fulton Boyd were classmates, and both declare 
Bishop Phillips to be an expert Linguist, especially 
in Hebrew, Latin and Greek. Studying Theology 
at Walden he also graduated from Meharry Med 
ical College, with the M. D. degree, in 1882. Since 
his graduation he is universally recognized a bril 
liant scholar. Wiley University, of Marshall, Texas, 
and Philander Smith College, of Little Rock, Ark., 
conferred on him D. D. ; Walden University, M. 
A., and Wilberforce University of Ohio, LL. D. 



ferred D. D. ; Walden University, M. A., and Wil 
berforce University, of Ohio, LL. D. 

Bishop Phillips taught school a few years and 
served as President of Lane College, of Jackson, 
Tenn. From the latter position he was called to 
the pastorate. He served a "circuit," a "station" 
and as Presiding Elder. His rise was rapid, for 
soon the young minister was pastor in charge of 
Collins Chapel, of Memphis, Tenn., one of the larg 
est and most aristocratic congregations in the 
South. From here he was sent to Israel Metropol 
itan C. M. E. Church, of Washington, D. C., where 
for four years he was one of the leading and most 
popular ministers of the Nation's capital. He was 
in constant demand, both as speaker and preacher, 
and the daily press often reported his sermons and 
addresses. The citizens of Washington, in 1890. 
regardless of color and denomination, sent him a 
delegate to the First World's Sunday School Con 
vention, which convened in London, England. 

At the farewell reception given him by Israel 
and citizens when transferred to Kentucky, the 
Hon. Frederick Douglass, John Mercer Langston, 
the Rev. J. C. Price and other notables were on the 
program. It was pronounced one of the most 
brilliant affairs of its kind ever given. From 
Washington he was sent to old historic Center 
Street C. M. E. Church, of Louisville, Ky., and 
serving out his time there, he was made presiding 
elder of the Mt. Sterling District. He visited Eu 
rope a second time in 1901, when his church sent 
him a delegate to the Third Ecumenical Confer 
ence. While abroad Bishop Phillips traveled and 
lectured in England, Scotland. France, Belgium, 
and other countries. He was elected editor of 
the Christian Index in 1894, after coming within 
three votes of the Bishopric. 

In 1902, after serving The Index two terms he 
was elevated to the high office of Bishop, with the 
largest majority ever given a Negro for that office. 
At the Toronto Ecumenical Conference in 1911 
Bishop Phillips served as assistant-secretary, the 
first time a Negro ever filled so distinguished a 
position. He has attended every General Confer 
ence since 1886 as a delegate ; is at present an offi 
cial member of the Federal Council of Churches, 
the Ecumenical Methodist Conference, the Church 
Council and various other inter-racial organiza 
tions, and was recently appointed by the United 
State Government, one of its spokesmen. He is 
called the scholar of the bench of bishops and pio 
neer bishop of the church, having established the 
C. M. E. Church in Western, Texas, Arizona, New 
Mexico, California and sections of Ohio and In. 
diana. He is author of the History of the C. M. E. 
Church and a writer of great force and power. 

Bishop Phillips married Miss Lucy Ellis Tappan 
in 1880, who was a graduate of Fisk University. 
She died in Nashville, Tenn., in 1913, survived 
by five children : Dr. Chas. Phillips, Jr.. Dr. Jas 
per Tappan Phillips ; Miss Lady Emma ; Mrs. Lucy 
Phillips-Stewart, and Mrs. Lottie Phillips-James. 
Bishop Phillips was married a second time in 
1918, to Miss Ella Cheeks, of Cleveland. Ohio. She 
is a very charming woman, and one of culture. She 
graduated from Hampton Institute and did post 
graduate work in Columbia L'niversity and Cheney 
Institute. Bishop and Mrs. Phillips reside at 
"Sunshine," their Nashville home. 



254 








O. W. JAMES, M. D. 

HEN the people of Chattanooga 
want a man to head a list of don 
ors to a good cause, someone 
whose name will inspire friends 
for the cause, they very frequent- 

ly seek out the office of Dr. O. W. 

James. This is particularly the case if the cause 
for which they are working is that of education. 
Dr. James very seldom turns a deaf ear to appeals 
of help for schools. This he does because he likes 
to and because of what the schools have done for 
him For in point of education, Dr. James is 
not very unlike a great many persons whose strug 
gle for book-learning is recorded in these pages. 
The great majority had to work with the hands in 
order that they might have the oportunity to 
stud}-. 

Dr. James was born in Missouri, Warren County, 
in 1868. Because he was born in 1868, he had the 
privilege of studying and becoming a great man in 
any profession he might choose. But because he 
was born in 1868, he had to work his way, for very 
few Negroes had gotten together means enough to 
educate their children at that early date. But in 
so many of our colored families the lack of means 
was made up by the great desire to study, and the 



willingness to do any kind of work in order to sat 
isfy that desire. So we find Dr. James as a lad at 
tending the public schools of his home town, studv- 
ing, applying himself, and getting more ambitious 
each day to become a man of culture, helpfulness, 
and wealth. 

When he had gotten all from the public schools 
that he could, he made up his mind to attend col 
lege. He had heard of Tougaloo University, an 
A. M. A. school about seven miles out of Jackson, 
Mississippi, and made up his mind to enter there. 
And so he matriculated at Tougaloo and remained 
there to finish his literary training. On leaving 
Tougaloo he entered Meharry Medical College, at 
Nashville, Tennessee, and remained to complete 
his course. He was graduated with the degree of 
M. D., in 1890. 

After graduating and giving thought to the 
question of a location, Chattanooga became the 
City of his choice, and he moved there the year he 
graduated. He has never regretted his choice, for 
he has built up a good practice, and has become 
very much attached to its citizens. In fact, so well 
pleased is he with Chattanooga, that during his 
long period of residence in that city he has never 
been tempted to make a change. He feels that he 
is located there for' life, and is giving his best ser 
vice to this city in which he has made his home. 

All over the city of Chattanooga ,Dr. James is 
well known, both as a physician and as a man. All 
Chattanooga knows and speaks of the James 
Building. This is a three-story double brick build 
ing which stands near the heart of the city. In 
this building is one of the big drug stores of the 
city, spacious ice cream parlors, carrying a most 
elaborate bill of sodas, creams and ices. It is the 
center of the colored population of the city and 
headquarters of most of the colored physicians. It 
is also a sort of bureau of information and sponsor 
for all things pertaining to the Chattanooga Negro. 
Seeking for a colored man's residence or his stand 
ing in the community, you are instructed to "ask 
at the James Building, they can tell you if anbody 
can." 

This building stands as a monument to the man 
who began life almost penniless and in this short 
time has acquired so choice a bit of property. The 
building is used for offices and stores. In addition 
to this Dr. James owns his own home and six 
rent houses, which net him a good monthly income. 

The home of Dr. James is without a mother, 
Mrs. James having passed away in June of 1916. 
Mrs. James was a native of Chattanooga, and was 
beloved by the many friends of the good Doctor, 
There is one child, a little four-year-old daughter. 
Charlotte. She is a bit of sunshine in the home. 

Dr. James is considered the leading colored phy 
sician of Chattanooga, and numbers many of the 
best people among his patrons. 



255 





BISHOP EVANS TYREE, D. D., M. D, LL. D. 

ISHOP Evans Tyree of the A. M. 
E. Church is one of those church 
fathers, who spends all of their 
days about the altar and wax old 
slowly in the service for men and 
for their Maker. Putting aside 
the finer distinction of denominatons and proceed 
ing rather upon the basis of men, Bishop Tyrce be 
longs in that galaxy of giants with the late Bishop 
Grant, Turner, and Gaines, with the fine veteran, 
still active Bishop Holsey. 

Bishop Tyree, the twenty-sixth bishop of the A. 
M. E. Church, the son of Harry and Winifree Tyree 
both African Methodists, was born a slave, in 
DeKalb County Tennessee, in 1854. He was one 
of the twelve children. He began attending school 
in 1876, and received about ten years schooling in 
all, attending principally Central Tennessee Col 
lege, Walden University, and graduated from the 
theological department without a degree. He re 
ceived D. D. degree from Livingston ; M. D. from 
Louisville Medical School; LL. D. from Paul 
Quinn, and also from Wilberforce. Most of his 
educational struggle was outside of school, by pri 
vate instructors. He was converted in 1866, at 



Carthage, and joined the Methodist Episcopal 
Church the same year, as there was no A. M. E. 
Church then. He was always active in the church, 
and has held almost every office in the body. He 
was licensed to preach in 1869, at Hartscllc, Tenn., 
by Rev. Jordon W. Earley. 

In 1872, he began his career as minister .start 
ing in the Alexandria Mission, Dekalb County, the 
place of his birth. For 28 years he followed the 
humble career of minister; filling posts, raising 
collections, moving from place to place, organizing 
Sunday Schools, Conventions, and other bodies 
necessary for the uplift of the people . 

In May 1900 came his promotion. While at Col 
umbus, Ohio, he was consecrated bishop. Once 
more, however, he began to go from place to place. 
On election to the bishopric he was assigned to the 
8th Episcopal District, comprised (of Mississippi 
and Arkansas. 

Four years later he was transferred to the Dis 
trict covered by Texas and Oklahoma ; over which 
section he remained until 1912. 

January 1912 Bishop Gaines having died. Bishop 
Tyree was called to fill out his unexpired term in 
the East and immediately was given charge of the 
First Episcopal District which covers one half of 
Pennsylvania, all of Delaware, New Jersey. New 
York and the New England States. 

This he held until the General Conference, which 
met at Kansas City, Mo., May, 1912, when he was 
given permanent charge of the First Episcopal Dis 
trict and remained in that district until the General 
Conference of 1916, when he was returned to the 
First District for a second full term. 

Bishop Tyree holds membership of a fraternal 
nature and of honor in several bodies. He is a mem 
ber of the Masons and of the Knights of Pythias 
in the fraternal bodies. He is a member of the 
Board of Trustees of Wilberforce University, Ohio ; 
chairman of the Executive Board of Payne Theo 
logical Seminary, of the same University, a member 
of the Board of Directors of the One Cent Savings 
Bank and of the People's Saving Bank and Trust 
Co. of Nashville, Tenn. 

Bishop Tyree makes his home in Nashville. Tenn. 
Here he owns his home, a two and one-half story 
brick structure on North Hill St. 

He was married to Miss Ellen Thompkins in 
Smith County, Tenn., in 1871. Seven children were 
born of this union. Of these two arc deceased, 
namely: Mattie and Wayman Tyree. Misses Eu 
genia and Carrie arc married. Miss Alberta is em 
ployed by the Sunday School Union of the African 
Methodist Church; Evans, Jr., is a printer in Chi 
cago, and Herman is a minister in Texas; all show 
ing their splendid home training. 



256 




JAMES WELDON JOHNSON, A. B., A. M, LITT. D. 




AWES Weldon Johnson, writer and 
poet, was born in Jacksonville, 
Florida, where he attended the 
Public Schools. In 1894 he grad 
uated from Atlanta University, 
with the degree of A. B., and he 
received the degree of A. M. from 
the same University in 1904. Mr. 
Johnson also spent three years in post graduate 
work at Columbia University, in the City of New 
York. In 1917, the honorary degree of Litt. D., 
was conferred upon him by the Talladega College, 
Talladega, Alabama. 

For several years, Mr. Johnson was princi 
pal of the Colored high school at Jacksonville. He 
was admitted to the Florida Bar in 1897, and prac 
ticed law in Jacksonville until 1901, when he re 
moved to New York to collaborate with his bro 
ther, J. Rosamond Johnson, in writing for the light 
opera stage. 

In 1906, he was appointed United States Consul 
at Pe.urto Cabello, Venezuela, being transferred as 
Consul to Corinto, Nicaragua, in 1909, and to the 
Azores in 1912. While in Corinto, he looked after 
the interests of his country during the stormy days 
of revolution which resulted in the downfall of 
Zelaya, and through the abortive revolution against 
Diaz. 

His knowledge of Spanish has been put to use 
in the translation of a number of Spanish plays. He 
was the translator for the English libretto of "Goy- 



escas," the Spanish grand opera produced by the 
Metropolitan Opera Company in 1915. Mr. Johnson 
also has several French translations to his credit. 
Mr. Johnson is well known throughout the coun 
try as the Contributing Editor of the New York 
Age. He added to his distinction as a newspaper 
writer by winning in an editorial contest, one of 
three prizes offered by the Philadelphia Public 
Ledger, in 1916. 

During the fall of 1916 Mr. Johnson went on a 
six weeks mission throughout the South, when he 
interviewed the editors of the leading white news 
papers and talked with them regarding the atti 
tude they should take on the exodus of Negro la 
bor, which was then reaching its height, and upon 
the whole Negro question. 

Mr. Johnson contributes to various magazines 
and periodicals. His poems have appeared in the 
Century, the Independent, the Crisis and other pub 
lications. He is the author of a novel, "The Auto 
biography of an Ex-Colored Man," and a volume 
of poems, "Fifty Years and Other Poems." He is 
a member of the American Society of Authors and 
Composers, the American Sociological Society, and 
of the Civic Club of New York, and is the Field Se 
cretary of the National Association for the Ad 
vancement of Colored People. 

It is as a writer that Mr. Johnson is best known. 
His novel, "The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored 
Man" aroused considerable comment, and his re 
cent volume of poems, "Fifty Years and Other 
Poems" has been favorably reviewed by a num 
ber of the best critics of the country Professor 
Branden Matthews, of Columbia University, in his 
introduction which he wrote for the book, says of 
Mr. Johnson and his work, "But where he shows 
himself a pioneer is in the half-dozen larger and 
bolder poems, of a loftier strain, in which he has 
been -nobly successful in expressing amply the 
higher aspirations of his own people. It is in ut 
tering this cry for recognition, for sympathy, for 
understanding, and, above all, for justice, that Mr. 
Johnson is most original and most powerful." 

Mr. Elias Lieberman, in the American Hebrew, 
says of him, "James Weldon Johnson is not only 
versatile but more than that sincere. He has con 
tinued to do for the Negro race what Paul Law 
rence Dunbar began so inimitably. He has thrown 
the illuminating light of interpretation upon lives 
which for so many of us are puzzles." 

The following was taken from a tribute to him 
in the Boston Evening Transcript : 

"And in other verses that strike a universal note 
there is more often both felicity of conception and 
expression. Particular reference should be made 
to .Mr. Johnson's poem, "The Young Warrior," 
which, set to music by Mr. Harry T. Burleigh, has 
been sung throughout Italy as a martial song in 
spiring the Italian soldier on his way to the front. 
The pieces in Negro dialect are characteristic of 
work of this kind and Mr .Johnson's possesses the 
usual intensity of pathos and the usual humorous 
abandon. One notes particularly, however, in the 
dialect verses in this volume, the absence of 
coarseness, of crudity, in the humor which has 
more or less pervaded the racial writers of dialect 
since Dunbar. Mr. Johnson, if he has done noth 
ing else to enhance the value of this kind of speech 
in verse, has given it a quality of refinement." 



257 






PHILLIP A. PAYTON 

HE late Phillip A. Payton, of New 
York City, was without doubt the 
greatest Negro real estate dealer 
that ever lived. Measured by the 
competition he met, by the con 
tracts he executed and consider 
ing the city in which he operated, going right into 
the lair of the tiger, he has up to this time not even 
a second. 

Mr. Payton was born in Westfield, Massachu 
setts, February 27th, 1876. Finishing the public 
and high schools of his native town, he went down 
to Livingston College, Salisbury, North Carolina, 
for his college course. Completing his college 
course, Mr. Payton went to New York and began 
a career of want and penury which none but a 
stout lu-art like his could endure. Others would 
have succumbed to the easy living in the hotel or 
Pullman Service. Going to New York in 1899. he 
found a job as penny-in-the-slot-man, at the wage 
of six dollars per week scarcely board money. On 
losing this post, he took up barbering. a trade he 
had learned from his father. Again his earnings 
amounted to five or six dollars a week. In 1900 he 
secured a job as porter in a real estate office. His 



wages here were eight dollars a week, but his time 
proved an investment, for here he conceived the 
idea of going into the real estate business for him 
self. 

Opening his real estate business with a partner 
he soon found that his former job had been a lux 
ury. The business began in October, 1900. By 
spring the partner had grown weary and quit. A 
little later, Mr. Payton was himself dispossessed 
because he could not pay his rent. In a'l these 
seven months the gross receipts had amounted to 
one hundred and twenty dollars. 

Ousted in one place he opened another office. In 
a few months he was again put out for his inabil 
ity to pay his rent. Three times he suffered this 
fate. Then a grim sort of fortune held out her 
hand. A murder had been committed in a certain 
tenement. Nobody would live there. Mr. Payton 
agreed to take charge of the house. He soon filled 
it with tenants. This gained the respect and grat 
itude of the owner, who gave him more houses to 
rent. 

Mr. Payton, feeling that the colored people 
should be better housed, set about getting them 
more decent homes in Harlem. 

The "Outlook" of December 14. 1914 says of him, 
"It was Payton's theory that equal housing condi 
tions for colored people as for white would make 
for healthier and more self-respecting Negro Cit 
izens." 

Working day and night at this idea he moved to 
Harlem, which he opened up for the colored people. 
He became known as the "Father of Harlem" be 
cause he was the pioneer in securing for the color 
ed people the best houses in this district. 

His last and greatest effort in this direction was 
the securing of six elevator houses in 141st and 
142nd Street, which were valued at more than 
$1,500,000.00 and which are now known as the Pay- 
ton Apartments Corporation. These houses are 
among the most modern and up-to-date to be 
found anywhere, and are the largest group of ele 
vator houses owned by Negroes in the United 
States. 

Mr. Payton's fearless aggressiveness and thor 
ough knowledge of his business earned him the re 
spect of the greatest real estate dealers of the 
country. Ninety-nine per cent of his clients were 
white, and he necesarily had to be well grounded 
in his business to retain them. 

He has a country home in Allenhurst, New jer 
sey, which is valued at $25,000.00. Of his last deal 
which secured him the 141st and 142nd Street 
houses, the Press of the city had the following to 
say : 

I'".vening Mail. (N. Y. : "The most notable 
transaction in which Negroes have ever figured in 
this City." 

New York Sun : "Reflects progress of Negro 
Race in this city. Largest deal associated with 
housing of colored families that has ever been con 
summated in this city." 



258 






HENRY PARKER 

HE time was when good self-re 
specting, well-to-do colored peo 
ple could not find a decent home 
in which to dwell and rear their 
children. For the last quarter of 
a century New York has been un 
dergoing a very wholesome change in Negro hous 
ing. This change has asserted itself for the most 
part in Harlem, and happy to relate has been 
brought about by the enterprising colored men 
themselves. Philip A. Payton, Jr., was the pioneer 
in this field. Following close upon his trail, and in 
deed associated with him for a time were the two 
real estate dealers, Nail and Parker. 

The firm of John E. Nail and Henry Parker op 
ened its doors for business December 10th, 1907. 
They began in a one-room apartment on West 
133rd Street. Harlem then had a Negro population 
of about fifteen thousand people. These inhabi 
tants dwelt for the most part between 133th and 
135th Streets. In 1900 the white population began 
to move out of Harlem. The property owners were 
on the verge of realizing a panic. But the colored 
people, led by their business men, saved the dealers 
and at the same time gained the option on good 
comfortable homes. Nail and Parker were among 
the few astute dealers to see the opportunity for 
housing respectable colored people. They combined 
as a firm and from that move won their place in 
the real estate world. Today, thanks to their en 
terprise ,the Negro population of Harlem numbers 
more than 100,000 people. These inhabitants have 




JOHN E. NAIL 

spread themselves in two directions. From 133rd 
Street they have pushed their way all the way up 
to 144th Street, and back to 131st Street, all of this 
turned on one heroic move, the opening of one or 
two houses on West 134th Street. 

The effecting of this wholesale change was a ser 
vice indeed, but it wholly pales before the other im 
petus which it gave the colored people. Though 
they were realizing fair and satisfactory returns as 
renters, Nail and Parker began to inspire by their 
dealings the desire to buy. Thus began the Negro 
home owner in Harlem. Before the change in 1900 
the colored householder was very rare in New York 
perhaps a half million dollars would cover all their 
holdings. It would take twenty millions to cover 
it today. 

Among the big realty owners in this section is 
the St. Philip P. E. Church. This church controlled 
about $1,500,000 worth of realty, which property 
is controlled wholly by Negroes. In 1911 Nail and 
Parker made an exchange of properties with this 
church. This involved the sum of $1,700,000. The 
firm then moved into its present spacious office 
apartments on 135th Street, where they have ever 
since been established, and where their business 
has steadily developed. They manage more than 
fifty buildings and do a monthly business amount 
ing to One Hundred Thousand Dollars. They han 
dle property and serve in advisory capacity for 
some of the largest mortgage institutions in New 
York, and are prime movers in all civic and up 
lift work of the city. 



259 




Photo By r. M. Tiattry 



WILLIAM EDWARD BURGHAKDT DUBO1S, A. 13., A. M., I'll. D. 



William Edward Burghardt Dubois, A. B., A. M., Ph. D. 




O history of the Negro race is 
complete without a sketch of the 
life of William Edward Burghardt 
Dubois. His place in the litera 
ture of the race is a most promi 
nent one. The book that won for 
him fame, was the first he published, "The Soul of 
Black Folk." Of this book Professor Brawley, 
who is a writer of no mean note himself, says : 
"The remarkable style of this book has made it un 
questionably the most important work in Classic 
English yet written by a Negro. It is marked by 
all the arts of Rhetoric, especially by liquid and al 
literative effects, strong anthithesis, frequent allu 
sion, and poetic suggestiveness." Had Dr. Dubois 
done nothing more than produce this master piece 
of English he would have a place in any history of 
the Race." 

W. E. H. Dubois was born February 23, 1868, at 
Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Here, where 
most of his associates were of the white race, the 
young lad was slow in realizing that he was not 
one of them. When this realization came he says 
that he always felt himself "the superior, not the 
inferior, and any advantages which they had were 
quite accidental." At the age of sixteen years he 
graduated from the school in his home town and 
upon the advice of friends turned his face South 
ward. Here