(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "National defense migration. Hearings before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, first[-second] session, pursuant to H. Res. 113, a resolution to inquire further into the interstate migration of citizens, emphasizing the present and potential consequences of the migraion caused by the national defense program. pt. 11-[34]"




' 









[?2>rUl- 



i o t>n ^ii\ 



°v a*0 



<Y^\.c^\A_\jk 



< \ '<» 933/. 9/^/3 



3i 



//-/V 






p 





Given By 
U. S. SUPT. OF DOCUMENTS 



IATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 




HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 

DEFENSE PROGRAM , n , 

' M" IM- 

PART 11 

WASHINGTON, D. C, HEARINGS 

MARCH 24, 25, 26, 1941 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 



H. Res. 113 



A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 11 
WASHINGTON, D. C, HEARINGS 

MARCH 24, 25, 26, 1941 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 






UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1941 



Mfl^ 



«. & SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENT 

JUN30 1941 

1 u- n 



SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING NATIONAL DEFENSE 
MIGRATION 

JOHN H. TOLAN, California, Chairman 
JOHN J. SPARKMAN, Alabama CARL T. CURTISS, Nebraska 

LAURENCE F. ARNOLD, Illinois FRANK C. OSMERS, JR., New Jersey 

Robert K. Lamb, Staff Director 



Harold D. Cullbn, Associate Editor 
Josef Berger, Associate Editor 



LIST OF WITNESSES 

Washington Hearings. March 24, 25, 26, 1941 

Page 

Altaian, Duncan, national correspondent for the newspaper PM, New 

York, N. Y 4288 

Ballon, Dr. Frank W., superintendent of public schools, Washington, 

D. C 4507, 4544 

Daniels, Jonathan, editor, News and Observer, Raleigh, N. C 4259 

de la Pole, Miss Dorothy B., staff associate, National Travelers Aid Asso- 
ciation, Washington, D. C 4592 

Grafton, Samuel, columnist, New York Post, New York, N. Y 4273, 4280 

Hinrichs, A. F., acting commissioner, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Depart- 
ment of Labor, Washington, D. C__ 4420, 4433, 4440, 4447, 4482, 4484, 4486, 4492 

Hoffman, Mrs. Helen Dewey, executive director, Washington, D. C 4551, 4560 

Lorentz, Pare, member editorial staff, MeCall's Magazine, New York, 
N. Y 4279, 4293, 4295 

McNutt, Paul V., administrator, Federal Security Agencv, Washington, 
D. C I 4321 

Palmer, C. F., coordinator, Division of Defense Housing Coordination, 

Executive Office of the President, Washington, D. C 4311, 4410 

Kuhland, Dr. George O, health officer, District of Columbia, Washington, 
D. C 4571, 4573 

Smith, Miss Katherine, reporter, Times-Herald, Washington, D. C 4284 

Wolter, Hugo W., secretary, Recreation Council of Social Agencies, Wash- 
ington. D. C 4579,4582 

in 



STATEMENTS AND MATERIAL SUBMITTED BY WITNESSES 



Subject and author 



Witness 



Reports from various sections summarized 

Letter to the Chairman 

Localities for which labor surveys have been 
asked by Division of Defense Housing 
Coordination. 

Health and Medical Care Needs in Defense 
Areas. 

School Needs in Defense Areas, by U. S. 
Office of Education. 

Trends in Employment, 1929-1937 

Nonagricultural Employment by States 

Employment Trends and Defense Labor 
Requirements. 

Labor Requirements for Aircraft Industry 

Labor Requirements for Shipbuilding In- 
dustry. 

Migration of Skilled Labor in Shipbuilding 
Industry. 

Labor Turn-over in Aircraft Industry as 
Factor in Migration. 

Conditions Affecting Children and Youth in 
Defense Areas, submitted by Katherine 
Lenroot, Children's Bureau. 

Conditions Related to Defense Program 
Affecting Mothers and Children in District 
of Columbia, submitted by Katherine 
Lenroot. 

Migration of School Children into Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Intrasemester Pupil Turn-over 

Statement by Washington Housing Associa- 
tion. 

Impact of Migration on Public Health in the 
District of Columbia. 

The Defense Worker and Recreation in the 
District of Columbia. 

Problems Presented by Interstate Migration 
to Centers of Defense Expansion. 

Regional Reports on National Defense Mi- 
gration. 

Displacement Due to Defense Purchases of 
Land, reported by Farm Security Adminis- 
tration. 

Depressed Areas in the Defense Program, by 
W T ork Projects Administration, Division of 
Research. 

Month- to- Month Variation in Employment 
and Unemployment, by W T ork Projects 
Administration, Division of Research. 

Interstate Transportation of Mexican Labor- 
ers, further material submitted by Inter- 
state Commerce Commission. 



John H. Tolan 

Pare Lorentz 

C. F. Palmer 

Paul V. McNutt 

Paul V. McNutt 

A. F. Hinrichs 

A. F. Hinrichs 

A. F. Hinrichs 

A. F. Hinrichs 

A. F. Hinrichs 

A. F. Hinrichs 

A. F. Hinrichs 

Robert K. Lamb 

Robert K. Lamb 

Frank W. Ballou 

Frank W. Ballou 

Mrs. Helen Dewey Hoff 

man. 
George C. Ruhland 

Hugo W. Wolter 

Miss Dorothv B. de h 

Pole. 
Creekmore Fath 

Creekmore Fath 

Creekmore Fath 

Creekmore Fath 

Creekmore Fath 



4256 
4293 
4320 



4340 

4378 

4421 
4434 
4441 

4450 
4464 

4483 

4490 

4498 

4504 



4507 

4525 
4552 

4571 

4579 

4585 

4597 

4735 

4757 

4759 

4771 



The hearings recorded in this volume were held by the Select Com- 
mittee to Investigate the Interstate Migration of Destitute Citizens, 
created by the House of Representatives, Seventy-Sixth Congress, 
under House Resolution 63. 

At the time the hearings were held, a resolution (H. Res. 113, 77th 
Cong.) was pending, which later passed, extending the life of the 
committee until Jan. .3, 1943, changing its name, and authorizing 
special investigation of migration as related to national defense. 

Under the latter resolution this volume is printed as the first of 
those dealing with national defense migration and its causes. 

The numbering of the parts of the hearings and the pages therein 
are continuous with those printed by the earlier committee. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



MONDAY, MAKCH 24, 1941 

House or Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 

The committee met at 10 o'clock a. m., March 24, 1941, in room 1015 
of the New House Office Building, Washington, D. C, Hon. John H. 
Tolan (chairman) presiding. 

Present : Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman) , of California ; 
John J. Sparkman, of Alabama; Carl T. Curtis, of Nebraska; and 
Frank C. Osmers, Jr., of New Jersey. 

Also present : Dr. Robert K. Lamb, chief investigator ; Creekmore 
Fath, acting counsel; John W. Abbott, field investigator, and F. 
Palmer Weber, research assistant. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

The defense program in which this Nation is now engaged has 
induced migration of labor. From information already at hand the 
committee is aware that this migration is of tremendous volume. 

The points of destination may be placed in four categories: First, 
Army cantonments, camps, and other military establishments. These 
are generally semirural or "outskirt" communities, such as Fort Ben- 
ning, in Georgia. Second, powder or shell-loading plants, located in 
or near rural areas, like Charlestown, Ind., or Radford, Va., where 
huge plants of this kind are under construction. Third, shipbuilding 
and aircraft centers, both expanding at a tremendous pace. These 
industries generally are situated in urban communities, such as Nor- 
folk, Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Seattle, San Diego, Wichita, 
Kansas City, and Dallas. Fourth, the old centers of steel, machine 
tool, brass, and other heavy goods. In this group are the plants at 
Bridgeport, Hartford, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, the up-State New York 
cities, and Bethlehem, Canton, Chicago, and Detroit. 

In all these communities, and in dozens of others like them, the new 
problems of accommodating swollen populations have already arisen. 
Here in Washington the problem has also developed. Towns and 
cities are scrambling for new plants. 

Mr. Charles P. Taft, the assistant coordinator of health, welfare, 
and related defense activities, stated recently that — 

at least 1,500,000 persons will migrate to the smaller communities adjacent to 
Military Establishments and new defense industries now in process of develop- 
ment. 

4255 



4256 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

He added that these workers will also have their families with them, 
and for the increased population new facilities will be required, such 
as hospitals, sewerage facilities, and water supply. The children may 
be expected to total at least 250,000. 

REPORTS FROM VARIOUS SECTIONS 

These reports of community problems occasioned by the defense 
program have been coming in to the committee from all over the 
country. At the request of the committee, State and Federal officials 
have surveyed their respective localities and have forwarded the facts. 
The following excerpts from a few of these reports are typical : 

NEW YORK, Albany.— Officials are already aware of threat of the end of this 
heavy employment. One estimate is that at end of this period, on basis of present 
plans, Buffalo would release 12,000 workers not ordinarily needed in that city. 

The latest estimate by State employment service is that we need, on basis of 
present contracts, 34,000 new skilled workers in this State beyond those who are 
registered in existing files. This estimate made after canvass of 38 communities 
late in December. Naturally, the above group must come from somewhere. — 
David C. Adie, welfare commissioner, State of New York. 

KENTUCKY, Louisinlle. — From a canvass of various defense plants, private 
industrial plants, labor unions, etc., as of January 21, the Louisville Real Estate 
Board estimated that there would be about 28,000 workers employed locally in 
strictly defense activities. Approximately four-fifths of these men were believed 
to be located and housed as of January 21; that about 2,000 keymen were yet 
to come and the peak of the influx would be had in May or June 1941 ; that not 
until late summer of 1941 would there be a slackening or lay-off, and by December 
there would be a definite lay-off of 25 percent. — Victor F. Williams, Executive 
Secretary, Louisville Real Estate Board. 

ALABAMA, Montgomery. — It is already evident that the rapidly expanding 
defense industries in certain areas of the State are accelerating inter- and infra- 
State migration. This seems particularly true around Mobile, Birmingham, and 
the T. V. A. section. It is apparent that younger, skilled workers are being 
employed while older, unskilled labor is infrequently employed on defense proj- 
ects 1 . Many of these older, unskilled workers are still dependent on W. P. A. 
for employment. — Loula Dunn, commissioner, Department of Public Welfare, 
State of Alabama. 

ChildersMrg. — A town of 500 where 14,000 workmen will soon be employed. 
Extracts from Meeting of Twelve County Directors and State Department of 
Public Welfare for Discussion of Defense Activities. 

MISSOURI, Pulaski County. — About 21,000 workers are now employed and 
more are added daily. The town of Waynesville, nearest to the area, had a 
population of 390, and has been transformed into a boom town. The housing 
conditions in the entire area are described as "terrible," and the problem of 
health and sanitation can be easily imagined. — P. G. Beck, Regional Director, 
Region III, Farm Security Administration, United States Department of Agri- 
culture. 

Housing is the most serious problem. Rents have skyrocketed. Rooms which 
formerly rented for $1.50 a month now rent for $35. Houses formerly rented for 
$12 to $15 a month will bring any price asked. — George I. Haworth, administrator, 
State Social Security Commission of Missouri, Jefferson City, Mo. 

OREGON, Portland.— Since August 1, 1940. approximately 20,000 out-of-town 
applicants for work have checked in at the Seattle State employment office for 
work in the Puget Sound area. This averages about 3,000 per month but the 
migration is increasing, since the registration rate is now running at approxi- 
mately 4,000 per month in the Seattle office. The Portland and Seattle areas 
combined show present registrations of out-of-town applicants for work at the 
rate of about 5,000 per month. 

Defense works contemplated in Oregon and Washington involve a prospective 
expansion of about 35,000 to 40,000 to be employed, over and above those now 
employed in Northwest defense-construction centers. — Walter A. Duffy, regional 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4257 

director, Farm Security Administration, United States Department of Agriculture, 
Portland, Oreg. 

INDIANA, Indianapolis. — Charlestown, located in Clark County a few miles 
from the Ohio River and approximately 18 miles from Louisville, Ky., was origi- 
nally a rural community with a population of about 800 people. * * * At the 
present time some 18,000 people are employed by Du Pont, and the Goodyear peo- 
ple expect to hire their employees beginning the latter part of this month. — Ben 
Deming, State supervisor, unemployment compensation division, Indiana State 
Employment Service. 

OHIO, Columbus. — * * * defense contracts have created a definite new 
situation in communities in Ohio, and these problems are of considerable concern 
to these communities. Very few are skilled, and the majority of skills are not at 
present fitted to the defense-program needs. The health question is coming up 
repeatedly, especially on hospitalization for confinement care, and this is practi- 
cally a necessitv in rooming-house! families.— H. W. Morgenthaler, administrative 
assistant, Department of Public Welfare, and chairman of the State Transient 
Committee, State of Ohio. 

TEXAS, San Antonio. — National-defense activities in Texas during the past 
3 or 4 months have attracted a flow of approximately 75,000 migrant job hunters 
into a few localities where military construction and defense industry develop- 
ments are concentrated. 

From practically every Texas county and from several outside States, job 
seekers have been* syphoned into Mineral Wells, Brownwood, Abilene, Palacios, 
El Paso, and Corpus Christi by the news of expansion going forward at Camp 
Wolters, Camp Bowie, Camp Barkeley, Camp Hulen, Fort Bliss, and the naval 
air base. At these 6 condensation points an estimated 100,000 persons have 
applied for work during the past few months. One out of four of the applicants 
was a resident of the locality. Of the remaining three-fonrths, 65 percent came 
from other Texas areas and 10 percent were out-of-State residents. 

Camp Barkeley, at Abilene, affords an example of useless migration, costly 
to the worker and to the community. When it was announced that an Army 
camp would be built at Abilene, the employment service in that city had avail- 
able approximately 3,775 workers. By the time actual construction started, 
10,000 available workmen were listed with that office. Before the project was 
completed, 28,500 persons had made themselves available. Slightly less than 
one-third of those persons who listed themselves with the employment service 
received jobs; about 8,000 were employed through the employment service, and 
1,300 were hired directly by the employer.— Supplementary report by Mrs. Val M. 
Keating, associate director, division of employment, Texas Works Projects Ad- 
ministration, San Antonio, Tex. 

TENNESSEE, Nashville. — The Tullahoma area was affected definitely by an 
influx of 15,000 workers to be housed in the vicinity of Camp Forrest project. 
Housing facilities were totally inadequate for these workers, and the problem 
could not be met satisfactorily. However, at the present time, it is reported 
that the majority of these workers have returned to their homes, and there 
remain only a few out-of-town employees who are able to find living quarters but 
not the type that are totally satisfactory to them. 

Soon there will be a minimum of 31,000 soldiers at Camp Forrest, and it is 
estimated approximately 8,000 families will move to that territory. — Henry S. 
Bloker, district manager, Tennessee State Employment Service, Chattanooga, 
Tenn. 

KANSAS, Topeka.— Sedgwick Comity estimated the present influx to be about 
4,000 to 5,000, and that it would reach 20,000 by July 1, 1941. Mr. Corsaut, of 
the Kansas State Employment Service, stated that 100,000 men would be em- 
ployed in airplane factories within a 500-mile radius of Wichita within the next 
year. 

The reports received from the counties indicate that the problem of housing the 
defense workers is either a major problem at present or it will soon reach pro- 
portions that will be extremely difficult to manage. — Paul V. Benner, director, 
bureau of public assistance, State Department of Social Welfare of Kansas. 

CALIFORNIA, Sacramento. — In the San Luis Obispo-Paso Robles area there 
are approximately 1,500 to 2,000 trailers and we have had our hands full trying 
to keep even a slight control over the situation. — Carey McWilliams, chief, 
division of immigration and housing, Department of Industrial Relations, Los 
Angeles, Calif. 



4258 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

CALIFORNIA, Burba nk — Report No. 1 is the result of a sample check made 
here at Lockheed on applicants in our line. You will notice in this report that 
1,321 applicants, or 55 percent, will not be given further consideration for direct 
or immediate employment at Lockheed.— R. B. Robertson, assistant director, 
industrial relations, Lockheed Aircraft Corporation, Burbank, Calif. 

WYOMING, Casper.— Many people have already left Wyoming and more will 
continue to leave, due to lack of work here and the need for workers in other 
places. This seriously disrupts the economic life of this State.— S. R. Heckart, 
statistician, Unemployment Compensation Commission of Wyoming. 

RHODE ISLAND, Providence,— We have tried to determine community re- 
action, social effect, and changes attendant upon the huge Government job with 
its 3,999 employees at Quonset Point * * *. Because the conditions in the 
East Greenwich schools are already overcrowded, there has been some appre- 
hension as to what may happen if many of the workers move into this town 
with their families. So far, the situation is under control.— Mrs. Eleanor Briggs, 
area supervisor, public assistance, Providence, R. I. 

Newport and Quonset military areas are to add several thousand men each. 
Estimate from Nation-wide experience indicates adjacent civilian population 
increases 1,000 for every 1,000 military- Health and sanitary facilities have to 
be provided for the equivalent of two small cities.— Rhode Island Department 
of Health. 

VIRGINIA, Richmond.— The Radford area is undergoing expansion because 
of the construction of a large powder plant for use by the Hercules Powder Co. 
There is also to be constructed a bag-packing plant to function in conjunction 
with the powder plant. These two industries will together give employment to 
something over 20,000 persons * * *. The city of Radford contains a popu- 
lation of approximately 7,000 persons.— William H. Stauffer, commissioner of 
public welfare, Department of Public Welfare, Richmond, Va. 

OREGON, Salem.— The State director of licenses (auto) reports that during 
1940 there were 19,125 cars (other than those brought into this State for resale) 
licensed that had other State certificates of title at the time of registration and 
at the same time 6,700 Washington cars were relicensed in other States. That 
would indicate that 12,425 persons (net) moved their cars to this State as a new 
place of residence. It is estimated, on the basis of the first 2 months of 1941, 
that this year will show a 50-percent increase over 1940. 

The Seattle Chamber of Commerce reports that, roughly, 25,000 migrants have 
moved into the Seattle (Puget Sound) area during the period August 1, 1940, 
to March 1, 1941, and the movement during the last full month (February) is 
estimated at 4,000 automobile registrations in King, Pierce, and Kitsap Counties 
(Seattle, Tacoma, and Bremerton areas) for the months of January and Feb- 
ruary 1941, indicating an average migration from the Middle West States into 
the State of Washington of 400 cars per month.— A. F. Hardy, supervisor, Wash- 
ington State Employment Service. 

The Chairman. I want to say at the outset this morning that we 
have been treated wonderfully by the press of this country. All of 
the newspapermen at the different places where we have been recog- 
nize national-defense migration as a new problem. 

Migration itself is a problem which has existed for a great many 
years. It comes about by reason of mechanization, worn-out. soil, and 
unemployment. It is directly or indirectly connected with the eco- 
nomic dislocation of our economic life. 

The committee deeply appreciates the attendance of you gentlemen 
who have come down to Washington to testify, so that we may have 
the benefit of your experience and your views in regard to this question 
and its solution. 

Our first witness this morning is Mr. Jonathan Daniels. 
Will you give the reporter your full name, your address, and your 
occupation, for the record? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4259 

TESTIMONY OF JONATHAN DANIELS, EDITOR, THE RALEIGH NEWS 
AND OBSERVER, RALEIGH, N. C. 

Mr. Daniels. Mr. Chairman, my name is Jonathan Daniels. I am 
editor of the Raleigh News and Observer, Raleigh, N. C. I have also 
been working in this particular connection for McCall's Magazine. 

The Chairman. You are also the author of "A Southerner Discovers 
the South," and "A Southerner Discovers New England?" 

Mr. Daniels. Yes, sir. 

The committee asked me to prepare a statement, which I have pre- 
pared, and I will either submit it for the record or read it and then 
answer questions, whichever yon wish. 

The Chairman. I think you had better present your statement first. 

Mr. Daniels. Mr. Chairman, I have entitled my statement "Amer- 
ica's Luck Has Held." [Reading:] 

Apparently the winter is ending without any serious epidemics in 
any of the defense centers. Thousands of men — and women and chil- 
dren, too— were pulled into little towns, some of them without any 
sewerage facilities, most of them without adequate housing, highways, 
health, and feeding facilities, not to speak of school and recreational 
opportunities. Early last December I was in Mobile, Ala., where an 
air depot was growing beside expanding shipyard facilities when I 
read a story broadcast by a press association which said that in xAlex- 
andria, La., a terrific influenza epidemic had broken out in that small 
city in which every community facility was overlooked. I flew to 
Alexandria to find that the story was exaggerated. Such flu as existed 
was mild. There were few more funerals than in normal times. But 
the conditions were such, with people sleeping in the backs of cars, in 
shacks, in barns, everywhere, that any man could imagine what a 
terror might have been there — what a terror the town, largely by 
luck, escaped. 

I remember one young woman living in a little tent in the Kisatchie 
National Forest, near new Camp Livingston, whose children had had 
the flu and were coughing still in the mist which had been rain and 
might be rain again. Where they lived they had to walk half a mile to 
a filling station for water. No milk was available for the children; no 
doctors. There were no toilet facilities. 

I went back there 2 months later. And the sun was shining on a new 
privy which was just then being completed as the camp was being com- 
pleted and the jobs created in building it were ending. I suppose it 
will stand there in the edge of the woods after the construction work- 
ers are gone. I wish I were as confident that there will be one where 
they go, if they move, as many such workers are moving, from the 
finished project to the new one. 

LIKE BOOM TOWNS OF THE PAST 

Undoubtedly, the boom towns of this defense spending are like 
boom towns of the past. There is the same crowding of the beer joints, 
the same pressures on facilities of bed and board. There are the same 
camp followers in them. I have been impressed with the strength and 
ingenuity of the folk; indeed, most of them seemed to me, from Maine 



4260 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

to Texas, to look and seem as I have imagined the pioneers. Not many 
of them felt sorry for themselves. But a good many of them did keep 
a sense — sometimes a saving sense — of economic insecurity in the midst 
of boom jobs and boom wages. The most remarkable new thing 
about them, however — and about them in this boom in comparison with 
the war booms of the past — was their automobiles. The fact that 
there are six times as many automobiles today as there were in 1917 has 
both lessened the pressures of moving people on the boom towns in 
some ways and increased them in others. 

There is no use multiplying to you the now familiar picture of 
people sleeping in cars, on the ground, on pool tables, and piano 
boxes. That picture has been supplied to us all. But I first became 
aware of the new spread of crowding when the construction quarter- 
master at Fort Bragg, N. C, telephoned me last November and asked 
me as editor of a newspaper circulating around his camp to publish 
a story asking people in a circle 50 miles around his job to rent rooms 
to workers. Some got rooms and some did not. Many of them moved 
back and forth from farmhouses between harvesting and planting. 
A large proportion of them were tenants or renters. 

BOOM AND CROP FAILURE 

Later I found out more about such towns in a long trip which took 
me and other men working with me into a large number of such 
crowded towns on a national survey of what was happening to people 
in defense. Plenty of things have been happening. Natives of small, 
quiet communities have been crowded out of quiet customary ways. 
People from big circles around them have come in. In one State I 
know the defense boom coincided in beautiful neatness with crop 
failures. Farmers harvested poor crops just before the building began 
and expected to finish it by planting time. Today a great many 
tenants everywhere are going to have to choose; at planting time they 
are going to have to give up their jobs or their houses. For most of 
them — if the jobs are available — it is not going to be a difficult choice. 
You can sleep outdoors if necessary in the spring and summer. A good 
many probably will. 

Undoubtedly there has been in most places a real and wise effort 
to take labor from the localities around the projects. Most of those 
who have migrated to the boom towns have been no Steinbeck distance, 
from Oklahoma to California. But a great many have moved great 
distances. The Tennessee Valley Authority, long before defense, made 
it a policy to give jobs where they did work. But on the new dam 
at Jefferson City, Tenn., which was rushed to provide power to make 
aluminum for use in planes, even the unskilled workers came from 
10 States. The skilled and semiskilled came from 28 States and the 
District of Columbia. 

I talked with Virginians in Connecticut in a trailer camp near Hart- 
ford, and a pipe fitter from Wisconsin who was working in Tennessee. 
The builders of the powder factory in Charlestown, Ind., were adver- 
tising for certain types of skilled labor as far west as Wisconsin and 
as far south as Alabama. The people who make up the movement to 
boom towns come in greatest number from the country close to them, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4261 

but they also come from far away. And when they get to the jobs 
they still may move long ways every day. There were workers in the 
Fore River shipyards at Quincy, Mass., who reported that they drove 
to New Hampshire to sleep. 

RENTS RISE 

All of them, however, look alike in the crowded towns and meet 
similar conditions — with some differences. Housing which may seem 
so intolerable that it causes a clamor in New England would seem 
almost luxurious in the South, where one enterprising individual ad- 
vertised, in confidence against prejudice, in one boom town that he 
would be glad to renovate the Negro houses for white tenants. (He 
did not say what would happen to the Negroes so dispossessed.) Ris- 
ing rents have pinched both the new worker and the old resident. 
Sometimes local people working at old salary levels have been most 
hurt by rising rents. But a good many people getting the boom's 
big wages pay a large part out of them for rent. 

Some towns have tried to crack down on profiteers, but sometimes 
there is a positive incitement to profiteering by the newcomers with 
big wages. Some Army wives have offered more money to put out 
the old occupants. Those able to pay push up the price of the best, 
and the worst follows. Anything you have ever heard about bad 
housing from anybody anywhere can be found in some of the defense 
towns in the United States. But there are boom-town conditions 
which have been similar in boom towns everywhere depending only on 
the climate. A hearty man can sleep, wrapped in a blanket, at Hines- 
ville, Ga., and can be more troubled with bugs in his food than chill 
in his sleep. 

Regardless of the crowding, you can't sleep outdoors except in mid- 
summer where they are building destroyers at Bath, Maine. But the 
same problems may attend some aspects of pay-day night everywhere. 
At such a time, a little cafe normally accommodating 50 people may 
have several hundred coming in, and public health as well as hunger 
is involved in the struggle to get dishes washed with any regard for 
the health safeguards. And not only food: In a town of less than 
5,000 to which 20,000 men have come, there simply are not toilet 
facilities for the number requiring them. Some bunkhouses seem 
almost designed to spread communicable diseases. The parking lots 
in places without adequate police or hospital facilities make increased 
traffic tolls seem surprisingly low. 

PROBLEMS IN MORALS 

It is probably fortunate in some respects that the crowding people 
locate often outside the corporate limits of towns and so, in effect if 
not in law, outside the regulations of health authorities. That at 
least cuts the threat to the overwhelmed towns. But the lack of regu- 
lation in the widening circles around camps does mean health hazards 
to people in both the country and the towns. 

The decentralization in vice which took place in America before the 
defense movement has followed the decentralized pattern around the 



4262 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

defense towns. Moralists who "clean up" a town today to protect 
workers or soldiers have the wider task of cleaning up a countryside. 
And once more the country is facing — this time in a generation which 
can talk frankly about syphilis — confusion about how to deal with 
moral problems. Equally disturbed statements have been made by de- 
fense authorities around Louisville, which did not have a segregated 
district, and Pensacola, which did. The automobile and the substitu- 
tion of waitresses for waiters in roadhouses have complicated the moral 
situation. But perhaps as offsetting changes, families on wheels and 
low long-distance rates on telephones have simplified it. One of the 
most amazing phenomena in the crowded towns, it seemed to me, is the 
terrific pressure on telephone lines after 7 o'clock in the evening. I 
think it is a moral force which has not been given proper credit in our 
times. 

C'KOWDED SCHOOLS 

The families of workers and soldiers, however, add special new com- 
plications to the situation. More have come to the neighborhood of 
defense projects than could possibly have come if there were not trail- 
ers to bring them and house them. Educational authorities have esti- 
mated that 250,000 children have moved to defense towns to crowd the 
schools. The schools are undoubtedly crowded, but by no means all of 
the children have ever gotten into the schools to crowd them. Prac- 
tically no pretense has been made around such towns of enforcing any 
compulsory school attendance laws ; indeed, the local authorities have 
been worrying about what to do with those who come of their own will. 

In many places there has not been time or facilities to take care of 
the children coining into the world, not to speak of the children going 
into the schools. In one military area, a count by qualified investi- 
gators disclosed that 58 women had arrived who were expecting 
babies within 3 months. They had made no plans for care or a proper 
place. The health officer in Monterey County, Calif., said not long 
ago, "No woman has had her baby in the street yet, but a good many 
births take place under very undesirable conditions." 

I am not sure that desirable conditions for mothers or babies, chil- 
dren or men, were possible in the first push of defense. It is not an 
easy matter to move doctors or cafes or houses or sewer lines to com- 
munities into which construction forces pour for a few months and then 
pour out again. Nothing is quite as apparent as that somebody without 
adequate shelter had to begin to build barracks in open country in 
which to house thousands of men. 

RESPONSIBILITY OF WHOLE NATION 

Expansion perhaps had to begin in some powder plant towns before 
sewer lines could be laid. In general the responsibility for the con- 
ditions which existed in the first push of defense belong to the whole 
American people who demanded such a push — and demand it still. 
Sometimes, undoubtedly, military officials seemed to act less in prepa- 
ration of communities than in surprise. 

I remember one town official said, "We. didn't have any more idea 
of this happening than a hog has of Sunday." 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4263 

The fact is that big forces of defense, big pull of wages were let 
loose in American precipitateness. It was clone in a country in which 
if the Army had failed to mechanize the people had not. They moved 
flying out of a country in which their quick presence proved the 
existence of unemployment or great underemployment more dramati- 
cally than any of the statistics. Sometimes in freedom they were im- 
pelled to move in cruelty also — to projects where there were no jobs. 

Some racketeers have emerged to advertise training schools at a 
distance which were supposed to insure magnificent jobs at a distance. 
Sometimes it has been suggested, perhaps without justification, that 
such racketeers actually served employers who wanted a bigger labor 
supply than necessary near industries, as the Okies were lured to agri- 
cultural areas. Undoubtedly sometimes legitimate demand for skilled 
labor has necessitated advertising at great distances. 

Sometimes it has been charged that some industries in defense 
preferred workers who moved on wheels rather than those with roots 
down in the communities around the plants. It has been said that 
unions and industrialists quarreled over defense housing because 
unions wanted men housed where they could more easily organize 
them, and employers wanted the men moving as fast and as far as 
possible from the local area at the changes of shifts. There has been 
a good deal of angry talk around many of the camps about unions 
and initiation fees. * Fort Bragg, N. C, has been described in ex- 
tremes as the perfect project and as a "scab" job. Most of these con- 
flicting statements are arguments in which, so far as I know, nobody 
has the information for any statement in final judgment but all de- 
serve American consideration. 

ALL KINDS OF PROJECTS 

There are not only all kinds of people in the towns and camps. 
There are all kinds of projects. There are the construction camps 
where huge gangs come in and depart. There are shipyards and fac- 
tories where employment is as enduring as defense. There will be 
the military and naval posts which expand towns with families and 
civilians for the periods of defense beyond their own gates. In the 
last two, on a semipermanent basis, the facilities are beginning to 
catch up. There is increasing Government help for overwhelmed lo- 
calities in housing, in schools, in general planning. Even in the con- 
struction areas now military planners have a duty to act with greater 
understanding in planning for people than in the first rush. I believe 
it is being provided, but it seems more spotty than uniform. Much 
depends upon the personnel in the place. 

But there are problems which are being built in America beyond 
and more important than the crowded cafes. There is a general under- 
standing that at the end of the defense effort there will be the old 
post-war problems. Such defense boom towns as Norfolk, Va., and 
Bath, Maine, have been through the process before. In this precipi- 
tate prosperity they are afraid of it still. But special new problems 
may be growing with defense, and some ironical ones. 



4264 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

GOVERNMENT LAND PURCHASES 

In the first few months of the defense effort Government land pur- 
chases dispossessed more than half as many farmers as had been helped 
to the acquisition of land in 3 years by the Farm Security Administra- 
tion under the Bankhead-Jones tenant-purchase program. The work 
in the camps, which has been such a godsend to many thousands of 
poor farmers, a large proportion of them tenants and renters, has 
served to accelerate the mechanization of farms which was already 
reducing the number of men needed on the land and will leave room for 
fewer tenants in the future. 

At the same time (and regardless of the argument about unions in 
the camps), they have not only been learning skills, but helping in a 
process which may break the skills into parts. Not only are manu- 
facturers in New England teaching men to perform one process which 
used to be one part of a skilled workman's skilled technique ; also in 
building the camps where farmers have based claims to employment 
as craftsmen upon rough farm experience and native ingenuity, con- 
tractors have met their true lack of training by letting them specialize 
in restricted processes rather than in the general practice of the crafts. 
Beyond the present labor demand, such limited specialists may over- 
load the numbers of unionists with cards if they join unions now, or 
provide new nonunion competitors of limited training on special jobs 
if they do not get into the unions now. 

Already farmers in every part of America are wondering fearfully 
if not wistfully about the migrants they could count on in the past to 
pick the strawberries and the beans and dig the potatoes. They are 
reconciled to paying more. The whole question faces them squarely 
now. They are planting without knowledge as to how they are going 
to get the stuff off the bush or the tree or out of the ground. But, also, 
many of the workers in the camps who have been living between har- 
vesting and planting in tenant cabins are hearing from their landlords 
the alternative demand that they go to work as tenants or get out of the 
tenant houses. 

MORE MEN TO PLACE NOW 

Actually, however, my understanding is that in the agricultural 
regions of the South particularly, which has been the seedbed of the 
migrants, the big defense employment has only skimmed the top of 
the strong and needy mass. In one State I know the active file of the 
United States Employment Service, which in the past year has sent 
more than 60,000 men to work building Army camps, is today larger 
than it was at the beginning of 1940. There are some duplications 
in the lists, but the Service has more men to place now than it did a 
year ago — and every reason to believe that they are workers quite as 
efficient as those who made the smaller list last year. 

The whole pattern and process of defense seems to me to be moving — 
even where there are distressing and dangerous human conditions — 
directly and with dispatch toward the power America is determined 
to possess. But it seems to me to be moving also toward the accelera- 
tion of the very conditions which created the problems of migrants 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4265 

and other victims of unemployment in the past. The needs of defense 
will mean the introduction of every machine process in industry 
which will facilitate production. The pull of Army and construction 
and industry from the farm will give the emphasis needed to over- 
come old lethargy, habit, sentimentality which have delayed the 
mechanization of the farms in the area where there is the greatest 
surplus of people. The teaching of new skills will not safeguard 
young men when, and if, the imperative demand for those skills de- 
creases. 

IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS 

These things, and others, are ahead of us. But there are impera- 
tive problems close at hand. Not many of them are new. They are 
the simple but difficult problems of adequate housing for essential 
people, safeguards for their health, some decent recreation for their 
leisure. In peace they were greater problems for a whole people. 
They remain such problems. But in the present drive the field is 
limited to the most pressing need. And even in the accomplishment 
of the limited solutions for this present necessity, difficulties must be 
met apart from the problems themselves. 

Away from Washington sometimes housing does not seem as dif- 
ficult of attainment as understanding. The Army understands its . 
military problem. Other agencies understand theirs. But there is a 
complexity in specialization, and often an increasing complexity 
among different specialists, State and Federal. And divisions in con- 
cern and authority sometimes seem maddening to local people even 
when the local people themselves are not always wise. Progress has 
definitely been made from the first almost arrogant disregard of hu- 
man problems in the defense centers last winter. Houses are going 
up. In some places Government trailers are ready in the woods even 
before camp builders cut down the first trees. Money has been made 
available for schools. Safeguards have been set up for health. By 
next winter some wholeness in concern may be hoped for. And in- 
creasingly it is obvious that nothing less than complete coordinated 
planning in community safety will suffice. [Reading ends.] 

COMMODITIES AND HUMAN BEINGS 

The Chairman. As you were giving us your statement, the thought 
occurred to me, just why is it that the human equation is the last to 
be taken care of? It is quite an interesting thing to recall that we 
have spent many millions of dollars to take care of the commodities 
that are being transported from one part of the country to another, 
but that this is the first investigation of this kind relating to human 
interests, as people travel back and forth across the country into the 
different States. It is a very interesting subject. 

We had someone from Mexico testifying before the committee, and 
he pointed out the fact that we have many agreements relating to 
boundaries, but not anything in reference to human traffic. It is 
quite interesting to note that that is the last thing taken care of in 
the defense program. 



20,0370— 41— pt. 11- 



4266 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

The Interstate Commerce Commission is on the job, regulating the 
flow of commodities and of cattle, and under the law that Com- 
mission has jurisdiction over those movements. 

So I was impressed with your statement along those lines. 

In your travels about the country, Mr. Daniels, were you interested 
mainly in Army camps or in all types of defense centers? 

Mr. Daniels. I was interested in the activities of people around 
defense activities, wherever they occurred. 

The Chairman. Can you tell us specifically about the situation at 
Camp Blanding, in Florida? 

Mr. Daniels. I have only been there briefly, but I know the situa- 
tion quite well. 

The Chairman. Where did those people come from? 

Mr. Daniels. They came from the South, Georgia and Florida, 
mostly. But there is a certain type of person who wants to go to 
Florida, and there were more workers who went to Camp Blanding 
and to the camps in Louisiana ; but they were disappointed when they 
found that north Florida is not Miami Beach. 

HOUSING IN FLORIDA 

The Chairman. What about housing conditions there? 

Mr. Daniels. They were just about alike in all these places, terrible 
at the outset and only now beginning to improve at all. 

As I said, there is no description of bad housing anywhere in the 
world that cannot be duplicated in the defense centers of America. 

The Chairman. Were the conditions at Camp Blanding practically 
the same as you outlined in your statement? 

Mr. Daniels. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. How will there ever be a remedy for that condition? 

Mr. Daniels. They are building a marine base in Onslow County, 
N. C., and they are beginning to discover that the human problem 
begins as quickly as the money is authorized. 

For instance, when they decided to build a marine base there, they 
immediately found that they were going to have to move about 200 
families living there, in the first batch of people. The titles of those 
people to their property were not clear in many cases, and some of 
them will not get their money for their property for 3 or 4 years. 

Under the Agricultural Adjustment Act some of them had large 
tobacco farms which were not paid for, so far as the purchase of the 
land is concerned, but they are trying to work that out. There is an 
effort to send in various specialists to deal with that problem. 

A certain amount of housing is being provided, but it. is difficult for 
them to get together. Although provision may be made in Washington 
for coordination, it is very difficult to provide for coordination among 
the different people in the field. 

Mr. Fath. In connection with the tobacco farms, you say because of 
defects in titles, they will not get their money for 3 or 4 years ? 

SOME TITLES UNACCEPTABLE 

Mr. Daniels. Some of the land has been in their hands for a long 
time. In many cases the titles are involved. The titles do not meet the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4267 

standards required by the Government in connection with the acquisi- 
tion of land. The Government will not pay for land until they get a 
good title. The Farm Security Administration has been asked to pro- 
vide for these people in the interim. 

Many of them will work in the camps. In some places there has been 
a disposition on their part to sell their stuff quickly and clog the mar- 
kets in their limited farm areas. 

The tenants have a lot of trouble in finding new places. The trouble 
is progressive, because if a good tenant is put off, he seeks a new place 
and often pushes somebody else off, I do not see how you can avoid 
widening circles, like you have when you throw a rock into a pond. 

Mr. Fath. If they have tobacco allotments, do they carry on with 
the land? 

Mr. Daniels. They go with the land. 

Mr. Fath. If they did not have tobacco allotments would they be 
working this year? 

Mr. Daniels. I believe if they had an allotment this year they would 
have a bad time getting their planting done. 

The A. A. A. does not see any difficulty about working out a plan for 
the tobacco farmers and tying the farmer to his allotment, due to the 
emergency. But more than half of these people are tenants, and it will 
become more complicated as you go along. 

OTHER CAMPS 

The Chairman. Is the condition you have described in your State 
true in regard to Camp Shelby, in Mississippi? 

Mr. Daniels. Camp Shelby is practically completed as a construc- 
tion job. 

The Chairman. What about Camp Livingston, near Alexandria, 
La.? 

Mr. Daniels. The construction work there is on a down-grade now. 
But they have gone along in the worst sort of way because they have 
three camps to that one little Louisiana town. Everything you could 
think of happened around Alexandria. 

The Chairman. Where do the defense migrants come from ? 

Mr. Daniels. In great bulk they come from the area all around 
there, but in almost every case there is always a substantial number who 
move hundreds of miles. The Federal Employment Service has been 
trying to cut down the distances traveled, but the distances seem to be 
shorter in the case of unskilled labor and longer in the case of skilled 
labor. 

The Chairman. Do they come from farms? 

Mr. Daniels. Many of them come from farms around Camp Living- 
ston. Last winter they had a freeze in Louisiana and snow fell, and 
their crops were destroyed. 

The building of those camps seemed to be a godsend. They had 
made no money, but they felt that they could go to work right after 
cotton picking and finish the construction in time for planting. Many 
people who originally come from around there are farmers, who merely 



4268 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

plan farm work to the extent that they think necessary ; and if they see 
that you are going to start a new project 150 miles away, the original 
intention — going back to the farm — is pretty well forgotten. 

A NEW MIGRATION 

The Chairman. Is it your impression that the national-defense 
program started a new migration in this country ? 

Mr. Daniels. I think it has. When a camp was first built in the 
community the original tendency was for the farmers to come out of 
the local areas and go to work at the camp. But when a man tastes the 
meat of those high wages, he would rather go to the next camp. I think 
there is going to be an increasing tendency by these people to go along 
with that idea, and follow along from old jobs to new ones. 

The Chairman. What about the T. V. A. area ? How is the defense 
migration being handled there ? 

Mr. Daniels. I used the figures on that area to show that the T. V. A. 
has made every effort at their dams to use local labor. They felt that 
the local people were being depressed and in every way they have tried 
for years to use local labor. But on the entire project the unskilled 
labor came from 10 States and the skilled labor came from 28 States. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Daniels, is not this true, with reference to 
T. V. A., that they do not have this influx of migrant labor such as 
you had at Camp Blanding, because when they start on a job they 
set up a definite schedule and require people to submit written appli- 
cations, and then when they want people, the people are called up 
and interviewed? 

Mr. Daniels. That is the T. V. A. policy, but it has cracked at Jeffer- 
son City. The people were sleeping in the basements of a lumber mill 
and in box cars. They built some dormitories for a small number of 
workers, but the dormitories were not completed until the dam was 
well under way. 

Mr. Sparkman. The Jefferson City job started without any advance 
planning. 

Mr. Daniels. They are very proud of the fact that they went to work 
there the clay after the President signed the authorization. 

muscle shoals 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you been around Muscle Shoals and the exten- 
sion of plant No. 2? 

Mr. Daniels. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. You have not seen any of that there? 

Mr. Daniels. They have had a rather bad situation there. They 
try to maintain a 5-day week. But up the road, not far away, their 
working time is 7 days, which meant that they have a lot of overtime. 
In one of the Government's new plants, Muscle Shoals lost 135 carpen- 
ters in one day to Tullahoma, Tenn. So T. V. A., with all its elaborate 
planning 

Mr. Sparkman. What I had reference to was the planning of re- 
cruiting of labor. I was wondering if some such policy as that could 
not be worked out in all these jobs. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4269 

Mr. Daniels. The difficulty has been that just as T. V. A. went to 
work on the dam the day after the President signed the authorization, 
there had been a terrific pressure from all the people to start work now. 
I do not think you can blame anybody. If they had said, "We want to 
hurry defense, but we believe we ought to make these arrangements 
for the human beings before we do it," I am afraid somebody would 
have got cracked down on for taking that position — from the Amer- 
ican people themselves. 

The. Chairman. How does the resident population in the cities feel 
regarding this influx ? 

Mr. Daniels. It varies in different places. In Caroline County, Va., 
the whole county has risen up in arms. The people there say they do 
not want any Army camps. Take Pensacola, for instance. That has 
had a longer time to digest its camp than any other city I have visited. 
The local boys hate the competition of the cadets in uniform, and the 
middle class citizens feel that the Navy sort of looks down its nose, 
socially, at them. 

A native woman who has been living in Alexandria, La., for 15 years 
and paying $25 a month does not like it when the wife of a colonel comes 
in and seeks out the owner and tells him she will pay $75 a month. 

HEALTH CONDITIONS IN CAMPS 

The Chairman. What about the health conditions in these camps ? 

Mr. Daniels. I think they have been pretty terrible, but I am not a 
medical man. I was talking to my brother, who is a doctor, about these 
people living in the woods. He rather thought there was a possibility 
that the dispersal of the people, rather than their being crowded in the 
quickly constructed barracks, may have had an effect in saving them 
trouble, particularly in the dissemination of respiratory diseases. 

The Chairman. Mayor LaGuardia, of New York, called the com- 
mittee's attention, at a hearing we had there, to a statute passed in 1893 
which provided for the transportation to the city of origin of people 
who were in the various stages of communicable diseases. In other 
words, we have authorization on the statute books to that effect, but I 
do wish to call attention to the fact that we are a little bit lax, because 
there has not been a single appropriation made since 1893. So we have 
the machinery, and all we need is the money. 

Mr. Daniels. We have laws in all the States I have mentioned, re- 
quiring certain specific measures in the cleaning of camps. But they 
are thrown overboard. 

Mr. Sparkman. Most of the views you have stated have related to 
the construction program. We all recognize the fact that that came 
upon us with great suddenness, and that there was insufficient time to 
make preparations. Have you visited any of the operating plants ? 

Mr. Daniels. For instance, the shipyards? 

Mr. Sparkman. I am thinking about this. I agree with you that 
probably these people will be taken care of in the construction program 
by working a while and then going back to their farms or by shifting 
from job to job. 

The thing that has given me concern has been what is going to hap- 
pen to the people in the various plants when the emergency is over. 



4270 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Daniels. The owners or the workers ? 

Mr. Sparkman. The workers; I think the Government is taking 
care of the owners very nicely. 

BREAK-DOWN OF SKILLS 

Mr. Daniels. In New England they are having difficulty in some 
plants in getting the type of labor they want. 

One of the things that disturb me — and I do not see how anything 
can be done about it — is that 3 r ou cannot get men who are skilled 
craftsmen. We are breaking down the skills into pieces and having 
a man work at one little task. What the result of that will be to the 
skilled workers I do not know, but I think it will be increasingly dif- 
ficult for skilled workers to hold jobs in plants when they can train a 
boy in 6 weeks to do one job. 

Mr. Sparkman. You think the tendency in every industry will be 
to adopt some set policy, breaking the skills down into pieces? 

Mr. Daniels. They are already adopting that, Sometimes I am 
not sure it is the pressure for skilled workmen that is entirely respon- 
sible. There has always been a desire, if possible, to get a job done by 
a $15-a-week girl rather than a $40-a-week man. 

If you restrict the task to one operation, you may develop manual 
dexterity in that one operation which may exceed that of the skilled 
worker in the whole field. 

Mr. Sparkman. Here is the thing I am thinking about primarily. 
Let us take one loading plant at Milan, Tenn. Have you been there? 

Mr. Daniels. No; but I am familiar with that project. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is out in the open country, many miles from 
any sizeable city. They' have working there four or five thousand 
people. When the emergency is over that plant will not be operated, 
presumably. What will happen to those people working at that 
plant? 

Mr. Daniels. I am not sure that plant will not be operated. 

Mr. Sparkman. Let us take the Charlestown, Ind., powder plant. 

Mr. Daniels. May I elaborate on that [Milan] statement ? 

Mr. Sparkman. Certainly. 

DECENTRALIZATION OF INDUSTRY 

Mr. Daniels. We are building plants in Tennessee at the same time 
we increase plant construction in New England, but the decentraliza- 
tion process may mean that the Milan plant will continue to operate 
in some form of peacetime industry at the expense of old plants in 
old regions where the industry has been concentrated in the past, 

Mr. Sparkman. You think there is going to be a shift from Gov- 
ernment wartime operation to an industrial peacetime operation? 

Mr. Daniels. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. That will take time to work out. 

Mr. Daniels. Yes; it will. It will happen in some places, but in 
other places the factory will be closed altogether. 

Mr. Sparkman. What are you going to put there, or do about that? 

Mr. Daniels. We are going to appropriate more money for the 
W. P. A. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4271 

Mr. Sparkman. We are going to have those people on our hands '* 
• Mr. Daniels. I think the process of defense is the process of the 
addition of more migrants, more unemployed, unless we can devise 
new methods to take care of the situation. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you think that by planning now and getting 
ready for that we will be better prepared to absorb that shock when it 
does come ? 

Mr. Daniels. I do not believe it will do any harm. I think we might 
be better able to do our thinking about it. I think it is very difficult to 
plan, but I think the planning should go ahead. I do not think we are 
going to build anything now that will save us from the storm that will 
follow if defense goes. 

Mr. Sparkman. We could build a shock absorber to take off part of it. 

Mr. Daniels. Possibly; but unquestionably mechanization would 
mean larger farms in the areas where the migrants are coming from 
now, and it will be increasingly difficult for those people to go back to 
the best lands. They will be pushed more and more on the poorer lands, 
which will mean the creation of a permanent form of subsidized 
peasantry. 

Dr. Lamb. When we come to the end of the construction period, that 
is no reason to believe that we are not on the threshold of the greatest 
migration, is it, in the areas where the newly constructed plants come 
into operation ? From your observation would you say that the amount 
of movement taking place with respect to construction of defense proj- 
ects is greater or less than the next wave of movement? 

Mr. Daniels. Of course, a great deal depends on the future. I do not 
think in most of these plants will there be the necessity for a labor 
force as large as the construction force. 

One place where that is tied up is Charlestown, Ind. They have a 
tremendous labor force there. Later they will need an operating 
force, but they are not going to need the number of men to operate the 
power plant that they have needed in the construction. 

Mr. Sparkman. What about your old defense centers, or your ship- 
building and aircraft centers? 

ABSORPTION EASIER IN LARGE TOWNS 

Mr. Daniels. In those cases the larger towns will be better able to 
absorb the load, in places like Louisville or Hartford. 

I do not think the human problems will be as acute in your indus- 
trial centers as they have been in your construction centers. 

Dr. Lamb. What is the proportion of new workers needed in the 
old industrial centers, and what is the supply available? Have you 
any impression as to that? Of course, there are exceptional places 
like San Diego. 

Mr. Daniels. I think it would differ in different places, and it 
would also depend on whether you were talking to a labor leader or 
an industrial employer. I could not answer that question satis- 
factorily. 

Dr. Lamb. Are numbers moving into the old defense centers in 
proportion to the need? 



4272 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Daniels. Take a town like Hartford. They have big trailer 
camps. They are running night schools to graduate skilled work- ■ 
men, but they are not able to keep up with the demands. 

Dr. Lamb. What about the numbers coming in there to settle in the 
trailer camps? Do they have skills? 

Mr. Daniels. Some of them have skills. The trailer camps may 
include everything from a jalopy to almost a palace on wheels. 

Dr. Lamb. But these people are being trained. They do not have 
the training to start with. Are they coming in untrained and being 
trained there? 

Mr. Daniels. Many of them are. 

Dr. Lamb. Do they all get jobs? 

Mr. Daniels. There are many people who go to these places who 
do not get jobs. 

I remember an old man told me that there were people working as 
welders who did not know a blow torch from a popgun. There has 
been an effort to get jobs by people not qualified. 

Also, there have been people pulled in by reports. 

Dr Lamb. What form are those reports taking? 

Mr. Daniels. Much of it is by word of mouth. There is one thing 
I do not understand. There have been men going over the country 
saying, "If you will come to our school in California" — for instance — 
"we will get you a wonderful job in an aircraft factory." How large 
that movement has been I do not know. I think most of it has been 
talk and a racket. 

Dr. Lamb. You spoke about the question of what is called dilution, 
or the breaking down of a job into one operation, skilled. They 
sometimes talk about it in terms of upgrading. Could it not be that 
eventually these people will be given an opportunity to improve their 
skills? Do you see anything that indicates that that is likely to take 
place? 

disadvantage in new training 

Mr. Daniels. I do not see any possibility of that; if defense pro- 
duction drops, there will be an excess number of skilled workers. I 
do not see any hope for a boy who is taught one process to compete 
with the man who is taught them all, unless the skilled worker is 
destroyed entirely. 

Mr. Curtis. To what extent would decentralization of defense ac- 
tivities tend to remedy this problem? Would it just change the loca- 
tion of the problem areas? 

Mr. Daniels. That is a pretty complicated question because, if you 
just go into a town and put in a factory temporarily, you create your 
problem. 

I think there is a labor supply that ought to be tapped, and if it is 
capable of doing work which would justify decentralization, I think 
that should go forward. 

Mr. Curtis. From the standpoint of the various problems involved 
in the human equation, would they be lessened any? 

Mr. Daniels. Immediately, I do not think so ; no. 

Mr. Curtis. The future movement would probably be more easily 
reckoned with if it is scattered about? 

Mr. Daniels. Yes. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4273 

Mr. Osmeks. On that point I think there is considerable to be said, 
and I would like to have Mr. Daniels' viewpoint on the proposition 
that it might be a little bit easier to cushion the blow if these people 
were located in existing areas where certain other industries might 
make up for the lack of defense industries. 

Mr. Daniels. I think that is true. Some planning is being done at 
Radford, Va., and at Muscle Shoals some effort is being made to build 
worker housing on farms with the idea that when the industrial boom 
is over people can grow themselves some food and perhaps do some 
farming on a small scale, and there will be a process of going back to 
normal rather than be grouped in an industrial area, with nothing to 
go to except relief. 

Mr. Osmers. That is the thing I had in mind. Mr. Curtis sort of left 
the impression that decentralization would be desirable from the em- 
ployment standpoint after the war. 

Mr. Daniels. I think it would. 

Mr. Osmers. I express a contrary view — that you would have these 
people stranded rather than having them in the existing industrial 
areas. 

Mr. Curtis. The suggestion was made some weeks ago that greater 
use be made of the United States Employment Service, to the end that 
the place to find your job was not on the job but where the worker hap- 
pened to be, and then to move forward in the job area. Is that feasible ? 

EMPLOYMENT-SERVICE FILES 

Mr. Daniels. I think that is being done to a very large extent. The 
United States Employment Service has offices at plants, but they also 
keep a file of people who have listed themselves with the United States 
Employment Service. I think there is a real effort to do that. 

Mr. Curtis. It has not extended so it retards the trek of the multi- 
tude toward the job area, thinking their chances are better if they 
themselves are personally present? 

Mr. Daniels. Yes ; I would say the trek would be vastly greater and 
more tragic had there not been the Employment Service to deal with 
them at the beginning. 

The Chairman. We will proceed with the next witness, Mr. Grafton, 
and I will ask Mr. Curtis to proceed with the interrogation. 

TESTIMONY OF SAMUEL GRAFTON, COLUMNIST, NEW YORK POST, 
NEW YORK CITY, N. Y. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you state your full name and tell us where your 
column is published ? 

Mr. Grafton. Mr. Chairman, my name is Samuel Grafton. I am a 
columnist, and my column is published in the New York Post and the 
Philadelphia Record. 

I have gone into this problem mostly in the New England area, in 
distinction to what Mr. Daniels has done, and I have been concerned 
largely with the supply of employment in existing factories. 

Mr. Curtis. You have a prepared statement? 

Mr. Grafton. Yes, I have. 



4274 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Curtis. I wonder if you will submit that and make it a part of 
the record, and then summarize it by giving us the high points that 
you would like specifically to call to the attention of the committee? 

Mr. Grafton [reading]. Mr. Chairman, this impartial congres- 
sional investigation into the problem of migratory labor in defense 
industry is one of the most heartening and encouraging events of 
these frantic days in the Nation's Capital. 

My testimony is not that of an economist, nor of an expert in labor 
problems, but simply that of a journalist who made it his business 
to see and talk with many of the rootless workers in defense industries. 

I have seen trailer colonies of defense workers near East Hartford, 
Conn. ; I have seen the commuters come and go for incredible distances 
to reach their daily jobs; I have watched wanderers in the streets 
of Bridgeport, Conn., carrying their bags in their search for work, 
seeking first the job and then a room in which to sleep. 

The automobile has increased the radius within which the unem- 
ployed worker can seek employment ; low-cost bus transportation and 
cheap railroad coach fares have had a similar effect. An immediate 
result is that employment booms no longer mean a decisive over-night 
pick-up in jobs and business activity in the towns in which they take 
place; our rapid transportation dilutes each boom over an area, per- 
haps 150 miles across, with the f actory as its center. This is the com- 
muting range, and beyond lies what might be called the migration 
range, an area of hundreds, perhaps thousands of miles. 

''HOME 1 ' IS THE AUTOMOBILE 

In these clays of temporary employment, the home has become, for 
many workers, an unsafe anchor; it is around the automobile, not the 
hearth, that family hopes center. 

This can be seen'in graphic form in East Hartford, where 90 families 
have lived through the winter on slush-covered fields, in trailers, many 
equipped with only the most primitive of facilities. One typical 
couple, I found, had recently married and had moved into a trailer in 
preference to a house. Their plan was similar to that of the other 
families on the trailer flats; to buy the trailer on the installment plan, 
instead of paying rent money, in the rope of owning it after the defense 
boom was over, and of thus* being free to wander in search of further 
employment. 

One point I would like to make is that I would not want any- 
one to conceive of these people as being all depressed or unhappy. 
They have jobs and they face the future with casualness, perhaps too 
much casualness. The important social phenomenon to be noted is 
not the hardship of the moment, but the possible consequences of this 
adaptation of the American spirit to the demands of a rootless, 
nomadic life. 

We must inquire as to what the possible social consequences may 
be to established institutions of community life— the school, the local 
tax structure, the church, family ties. All are involved in the new 
nomadism. Families on wheels, harassed by the uncertainties of the. 
future, spending as little as they can, consciously avoiding the letting 
down of roots, cannot and will* not take any responsible role in local 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4275 

life; they cannot and will not support local institutions; nor can they 
feel any* sense of participation in local problems. They do not vote. 
They are connected solely by the pay roll to the town in which, by 
accident, they find themselves to be. 

I have found one city, Portsmouth, N. H., which is making an 
effort to meet the problem. A local advisory council has been created. 
The Federal Government is helping, by building 800 so-called ''de- 
mountable houses," which can be taken down after the current defense 
boom. 

Yet Portsmouth's leading citizens feel that they are far from a 
solution. Even a "demountable" real-estate development requires 
schools and sewers. Portsmouth asks itself who shall pay for these, 
and what value they shall have when the demountable boom is over 
and the demountable houses have been removed. 

That is one horn of the dilemma. The other is represented by the 
desire of local business people to enjoy the trade of the new workers. 
Unless and until these workers move into the town, that is impossible. 
"They buy their cigarettes and gas at home, and bring their own 
lunches," is the local comment on commuters who drive from as far 
as 75 miles away each day. Therefore Portsmouth, whose navy yard 
has created almost 6,000 new jobs in a short space of time — an enor- 
mous number for a city of 15,000 people — has enjoyed little increased 
prosperity thereby. 

MEN EARN FOUR TO FIVE DOLLARS A DAY 

A floating population of migratory laborers has actually moved 
into the town, but these are largely single men, who earn from $4 
to $5 per day, live in low-cost rooming houses, experience frequent 
lay-offs, and can hardly be considered a permanent addition to the 
life and human resources of the city. 

The sense of local helplessness in the face of the problem can be felt 
everywhere in New England, and shows itself in an increasing resent- 
ment directed against the migratory workers. In many towns, the 
local tendency is actually to oppose new housing developments for the 
migrants, on the ground that these people will remain in the town as a 
problem "afterward." In some of the more ornate communities of 
Connecticut, I found a fear that cheap or jerry-built housing will be 
thrown up, disfiguring the community. 

There is some justification for these fears, which are of themselves a 
confession that there has been next to no adequate planning. In 
Bridgeport one sees long-abandoned hotels reopened on a rooming- 
house basis ; one sees fine old homes turned into throbbing hotels for 
migratory workers; the character of neighborhoods undergoes un- 
planned and unsystematic change. 

These changes, however, are not nearly so important as the changes 
which are taking place in the character of American life, churned into 
flux by the new migration. When a home becomes a risky possession, 
and mobility becomes a prized family asset, then we may ask ourselves 
how far we have progressed, in the social sense, since the day when 
Indians roamed the Northeast and moved with the game and the fishes. 
A modern American father of a family, who will travel a thousand 



4276 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

miles for the chance to spear a job, is a more streamlined individual 
than the aborigine whose place he has preempted ; but he has, on the 
whole, even less security. 

All those values of local life about which conservative opinion so 
dearly loves to boast — its stability, its wisdom, its knowledge of the 
neighbors' problems, its church, its Boy Scout troop, its parent-teacher 
association, its friendships — all, all are challenged by the disintegra- 
ting impact of the new migration. The rootless wanderer who comes 
to a new town, in which he works but in which he does not really live, 
has left a town in which he lived but in which he did not work ; both 
communities are the poorer for the move. 

"a predictable crisis'' 

We must look ahead to the day when the defense boom will be over, 
and the wanderers will be in their trailers, their tourist camps, their 
hotels, their cheap rooms, but without the jobs which made this exist- 
ence at least tolerable. Here is a perfectly predictable crisis, one which 
can never be said to have come, when it does come, without having given 
us warning. It gives us warning now. It challenges our ability to 
plan. In a world as unstable as that of today, the challenge is directed 
at our ability to live, at the viability of our way of life. 

Never was local government, still burdened by the debts and taxes of 
the twenties, more helpless; never was there greater need of imagina- 
tion and boldness in our National Government. One is compelled to 
call, at the very least, for the establishment of an emergency Federal 
fund to be held for use against the time when it shall be needed by the 
migrant workers and their families ; for a study, to be begun at once, 
of the movements of these migrant workers; for a plan which shall, at 
least ultimately, offer the hope of a normal community life for them. 

We hear, on all sides, calls for sacrifice in our great program for the 
defense of democracy, calls for enthusiastic expenditure of energy ; we 
shall soon hear calls for the purchase of Federal securities. I believe 
that the migratory workers and the communities in which they are, at 
best, tolerated, must see daylight ahead in the economic sense, before 
their full energies can be released into our defense program. That 
which strengthens our domestic security gives us the moral power to 
work for a securely democratic world. From this point of view I 
enthusiastically aver that the work of this committee is, in the highest 
sense, a national-defense project of utmost importance. 

In other words, what I have said, in a rather elaborate form, is that 
something must be done about it. [Reading ends.] 

Mr. Curtis. Continuing on your last statement, will you tell us what ? 

Mr. Grafton. What must be done about it ? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 

AN EMERGENCY FUND 

Mr. Grafton. All plans start with the Appropriations Committee. 
I think you have to have an emergency fund ready to be used at the 
moment when this boom begins to subside and collapse. You are going 
to have these people in trailers, in cheap rooming houses, cheap hotels, 
tourist camps, and up in attics of farm houses 

Mr. Curtis. Do you advise the building of better houses at this time ? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4277 

Mr. Grafton. I doubt whether an indiscriminate building of better 
houses is going to work out, because it would freeze people where 
they have no jobs. 

Mr. Curtis. What is the average wage of those fellows in New Eng- 
land, in, the towns which you investigated ? 

Mr. Grafton. It varies a good deal. It varies so greatly that you 
simply cannot generalize about it. A laborer will get from $4 to $5 a 
day, and he will be laid off when the weather is bad, and will be laid 
off between projects. We have a feeling that these things are contin- 
uous, but even in a city of industrial activity like Portsmouth, there 
will be frequent 2 or 3 weeks' lay-offs. 

Then you have a very good industrial section, such as Hartford, 
where you have Pratt & Whitney, the Colt Firearms, and a number 
of plants like that, where the wages are rather good — I imagine they 
average about $30, and better. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, among the workers who get the better wage, 
would you favor an enforced saving of some portion of that wage, 
to guard against that day when the defense activity abruptly stops? 
In addition, I mean, to having any social-security program now 
existing ? 

Mr. Grafton. That is a very interesting question, because I do not 
think, in most cases, enforcement is necessary. The opinion of busi- 
ness, practically throughout the Naugatuck Valley of Connecticut, in 
the Hartford section, and in Massachusetts, west and north of Boston, 
and in the Portsmouth corner, New Hampshire and Maine — the almost 
universal opinion is that this is not a "spending defense boom." It. 
does not compare with the "silk-shirt boom" of 20 years ago, in any 
way ; rather, the complaint is that those people will not spend. They 
all have cars, these people in the trailer camps ; instead of finding a 
place to sleep in the local houses, they prefer a trailer, because they 
pay $11 a month rent for space. They have given them a barn 
as a community hall, and it is really nice, and they have dancing. They 
spend $11 a month as a total for rent, and they plan toward owning 
the trailer. It is a deliberate, voluntary saving plan that they have 
worked out for themselves. 

All of the business people I have seen say that the young fellows, 
those with their first jobs, that is, the boy just out of school, or the one 
who has been out for several years and now has his first job, will spend 
money, but not the older people. 

Mr. Curtis. Referring to those older people : You are speaking, now, 
of New Englanders? 

Mr. Grafton. I am speaking of people working in New England. 
Many of them have come to New England for a job. A great many 
in this particular trailer camp at East Hartford were from Michigan, 
probably skilled auto workers coming into the aircraft shops. 

Mr. Curtis. You said the solution of this problem is that of an 
appropriation. For what purpose would you appropriate now — to 
deal with the problem when the defense industry is over? 

LUXURY MONEY IN CARS 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if I might interrupt there to say I think 
that last point Mr. Grafton made is a very interesting point, and 



4278 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

one that might be very important, and I wonder what the reaction of 
some of the other witnesses would be to that? What would vou say, 
Mr. Daniels? 

Mr. Daniels. About people saving money ? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes. 

Mr. Danifxs. It is undoubtedly true everywhere that they are 
thinking about buying something for the baby or putting a new roof 
on the barn; but my observation is that what lias been true and is 
true is not a phenomenon of getting their first money; I think, once 
those people do get any sense of security, we can count on a silk- 
shirt boom again ; but we must remember the used-car parking lot has 
taken the place of the silk-shirt urge; people would rather have 
wheels than have a silk shirt now. 

Mr. Curtis. Would you not say the whole picture of the automobile 
industry in the last year has reflected that very fact? 

Mr. Daniels. Yes; I think so. I think the luxury money of the 
American workers is going into automobiles, both now and hereafter. 

Mr. Grafton. There are six times as many cars now as there were 
in 1917, and the nicer cars are coming down steadily within the 
reach of the lower economic levels. 

Mr. Daniels. I do not know that I would limit that particular phase 
of it to the automobile. I think you could throw into that same scale 
your electric radio and many things that have entered into Ameri- 
can life since 1917, 1918, and 1919, that have taken the place of the 
silk shirt and the expensive suit, and so on. 

Mr. Curtis. Do I understand you agree or disagree with Mr. Graf- 
ton that these people are saving money ? 

Mr. Daniels. I agree. I do not know whether it is due to a perma- 
nent wisdom, or to timidity. 

Mr. Grafton. I was very much interested in that, and made it a 
point in a number of towns, in talking to the local doctor, optome- 
trist, and dentist. And absolutely uniformly there was a report there 
was no increase in trade, if you could cail it that. They said the 
people were not getting their teeth repaired, were not getting more 
medical attention. Then there was another reflex. I made one 5-day 
trip and made it a point to talk to at least 50 people a day, and one 
thing that struck me in the entire 5 days, which meant I talked to at 
least 250 people, was that not one brought up the question of the 
war-defense program in any generalized sense; but the question they 
did bring up time and time again was, "How long is it going to last? 
Have you been in Washington recently? How long are we going 
to have these jobs?" That was their primary interest, and I think 
it reflected their economic worry that they were not fixed. 

Mr. Daniels. I think you are quite right about that— that their own 
security is more important to them than the economic security of 
America. 

Mr. Grafton. Right. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Lorentz. what is your reaction? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4279 

TESTIMONY OF PARE LORENTZ, EDITORIAL STAFF, McCALL'S 
MAGAZINE, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y. 

Mr. Lorentz. I am sort of a veteran in looking at this problem. I 
worked for 5 years for the Government, photographing back roads, 
and I think what you are facing is chickens coming home to roost. 
You have not a new problem of migrants, but you have an accelerated 
tendency that we have been fiddling around with for 10 years. I 
agree with your statement in the beginning, that we have had all of 
these things; that the mechanization of industry is increasing, whereas 
equipment is becoming cheaper and, as technology goes hand in hand 
with industry, the impetus of the defense program has simply uncov- 
ered what is going on all of the time. 

Specifically, I just returned from a defense area. Starting from 
Jacksonville, I went over to Livingston, Beauregard, and that area ; 
and the main thing I did was to try to find out the Army's attitude 
toward the communities they are in. I talked with the commanding 
officers of three divisions, who had just come down from the North, and 
what you have there is that the Army is looking after the men. One 
division commander I talked with said he knew in the area around 
Beauregard that every inch of land was diseased; that they have 
hookworm, they have syphilis, they have pellagra, and they even have 
leprosy in Louisiana. These commanders are looking after their 
men ; and, when the Army brings 20,000 men down there, it assumes 
the responsibility of looking after them on the reservation. The 
Public Health Service, the Department of Agriculture, and everybody 
has talked about attention to the community problems; but no one 
has done anything about it. 

Now, if we bring 20,000 construction workers into that same area, 
the Army officers have no responsibility for the men. They would 
agree, perhaps, to keep out an epidemic by putting in certain wells, 
but there is also the danger of an increase of dysentery in that area, 
and what you have in Childersburg, Ala., straight right now. Cer- 
tainly that is a plant that is not going to be necessary as soon as the 
thing is over. You have Radford and Charlestown to take care of the 
powder supply, so there is not any anxiety over getting Childersburg 
built right away, and the contractor has no responsibility over the 
temporary workers. At two or three points, for instance, they were 
going to dig shallow wells. There will be all the more dysentery, and 
the country has no feeling of responsibility. It is a broken-down 
southern county— by broken down I mean it has nobody to help it, 
and no one has taken the responsibility. 

FEDERAL RESPONSIBILITY 

Mr. Osmers. Do you not think that is the responsibility of the Fed- 
eral Government, rather than of a run-down county ? 

Mr. Lorentz. I do. Mr. Daniels brought out another question. 
I went down to Starke, Fla., and there is a nice little town that 
was only a strawberry town, a very decent, nice county. They 
never had a county health officer. Down in Jacksonville they have 
only had a county health officer for 2 years, and thev recently set up 



4280 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

a venereal disease clinic in Jacksonville and are treating 1,550 cases of 
syphilis right now, with no way of knowing how many people in that 
area are infected. The philosophy there seems to be to let the people 
come in and look after themselves. You have IT southern States 
with 65 percent of the venereal disease in America. 

Now, you ask about appropriations. I think certainly the Surgeon 
General of the United States has for years been selling the idea he 
knows how to cure known diseases with known cures, given more 
money. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you not feel when this Congress appropriates money 
or when it is allotted by the various departments of the Government 
to construct these various defense developments throughout the coun- 
try, that health and sanitation and social welfare should be included 
in that appropriation, just as much as the proof on the plant, or 
the wall, or the windows in the construction they are putting up? 

Mr. Daniels. I think it is a moral responsibility, not only to the 
people coming in, but to the community where you are bringing them 
in. 

Mr. Osmers. I say, aside from the moral question, it is their respon- 
sibility in a purely economic sense ? 

Mr. Daniels. Surely. 

Mr. Osmers. Because, after all, these things can be reduced to dollars 
and cents. 

Mr. Lorentz. Mr. Chairman, Mr. Daniels and Mr. Grafton have 
more or less covered the philosophy, but I have seen two examples of 
Government planning. That used to be a bad word ; if the Government 
planned anything, it was not any good. But the Army spent $100,000,- 
000 unnecessarily on Army camps because the program was not planned 
and you have right now a lot of green timber, cracking, and all that, in 
the structures put up in the camps. 

Now, when the T. V. A. went in to take over the southern high- 
lands area, they thought of malaria control, of barracks for single 
men and barracks for married men. 

I have talked with the people of the Army, and they said it was not 
their responsibility, and as far as that area is concerned, the whole phil- 
osophy was that the contractor for the job was under no requirement, 
and the State was not responsible. But the T. V. A. met its respon- 
sibility. 

The Chairman. I wonder if I can make the suggestion that we are 
breaking clown our question structure. We will come back to you, if 
you do not mind, and we will finish with Mr. Grafton now — or had you 
finished ? 

LABOR SHORTAGE 

Mr. Curtis. What is your opinion as to whether or not a labor short- 
age exists, Mr. Grafton? 

Mr. Grafton. I think it is a labor shortage of a very complicated 
kind. I do not think there is any shortage of common labor in New 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4281 

England. I think a great many unusable skills exist. You take an 
area like Hartford. It has drawn on its night schools to train workers. 
But drive 10 miles out of town, and you notice that the great textile 
factories and other factories are not operating. The workers in those 
factories are skilled workers, but they are not much use in the defense 
industries. It is a very involved situation. I do not think it can be 
summed up in one sentence at all. I certainly feel there is a shortage 
of workers for the defense program. 

Mr. Curtis. Are more people coming in and getting jobs? 

Mr. Gkafton. Decidedly ; they are coming from all of the other cen- 
ters; they are coming in on every train, as they were during the World 
War ; they have no job, but have a vague idea they might find one ; they 
carry their tools, with the idea they might find a job and, if they find 
a job, then they try to find a room; if they do not, they take the last 
train or the last bus out, and there is a continuous procession passing 
through the streets. 

Mr. Curtis. In New England, how far do workers commute? 

Mr. Grafton. The area is really quite enormous. A typical case 
would be the brass mills, in the Naugatuck Valley. They will have a 
daily working force, part of them coming from Hartford, and way 
beyond Hartford, and some from New London, Conn. An area almost 
as big as Connecticut itself will feed workers in there daily. 

Mr. Curtis. What attitude do the employers take toward com- 
muting by their employees? 

Mr. Grafton. They prefer them to commute, I found pretty 
generally. 

Mr. Curtis. Why? 

Mr. Grafton. Partly due to the union situation. They feel if they 
gave 2,000 jobs to 2 000 local people, who always lived in the town, 
they will remain after the boom, they will be there, and there will 
be an organized problem there; on tlie other hand, if they get scat- 
tered groups from two or three States, they will just go back home. 

POLICY BARS LOCAL WORKERS 

Mr. Curtis. Is that a good thing, or a bad thing? 

Mr. Grafton. From my point of view, it is a bad thing, because in 
the city of Hartford you find local unemployment of hundreds and 
hundreds of men who are actually skilled but are not hired because 
of that policy, whereas calls have been going out as far as Michigan 
for help. 

Mr. Daniels. And a man in Hartford told me if they lived there, 
they would not have room for them. 

Mr. Grafton. That is right. They have a lot of skilled mechanics, 
but not for the war factories. Local men work 2 or 3 days a week, 
while defense factories with outside help are going to three shifts. 

Mr. Curtis. You state that is because the community seeks them 
out? 

Mr. Grafton. I think it starts with the community, yes. 



•jott.-ao— 4i— pt. li- 



4282 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Daniels. Do yon not think the employers and employees both 
like that migration from their own point of view, rather than from 
the social point of view? 

Mr. Grafton. I think that is right. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you not find a tendency on the part of these people^ 
where the problem comes right down to a local problem, to shift the 
responsibility to someone else? That the Federal Government would 
like to have the local communities take care of the social needs and 
conditions of those workers, and you find the employer will have to 
have workers, and he calls on some other community, and that goes 
all down the line throughout the program ? 

Mr. Grafton. I think that is largely true, with some exceptions. I 
would like to say I think the Federal Government, in its endeavor to 
put new housing in some towns, is actually in the situation where it 
goes to the town and tries to sell the idea of building housing — the 
idea that there is a lack of housing — to the local residents; and in 
that sense I think it passes the buck. 

Mr. Osmers. And if anyone is to be criticized, after all, it would be 
the Federal Government? 

Mr. Grafton. That is right. 

Mr. Osmers. I have not heard any other responsible group in the 
picture that has tried to accept the responsibility. 

Mr. Grafton. That is right, I know of no local housing enterprise 
anywhere in the country — that is, locally financed — except in New 
York City. 

Mr. Osmers. And that New York housing project is not for housing 
defense workers? 

Mr. Grafton. No ; it is a permanent program. 

Mr. Sparkman. You mean houses being built by private individuals? 

Mr. Grafton. No ; put up by the local government out of taxes. 

Mr. Sparkman. You mean a Government subdivision ? 

Mr. Grafton. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. But, as I understand you, you are not advocating a re- 
habilitation program of housing for defense workers? 

RESERVE PUBLIC WORKS PROGRAM 

Mr. Grafton. No; I think that might be a mistake. What I would 
like to see is something like a reserve public works program, which the 
President spoke about recently, to be used at the end of the defense 
program, that might cushion the needs of migratory workers. At 
least we would know in a general way what houses to provide and, in 
a general way, where to find the workers for public works, and how to 
be able to move them. I think you have to work on those terms. I do 
not think you can freeze it as just a boom ; I think that is attempting 
to stabilize an hysteria. 

Mr. Curtis. What kind of school structures, if any, should be 
built? 

Mr. Grafton. Well, I think in some of those rural sections, or semi- 
rural sections, you will have to adopt the school organization that the 
big cities did and were forced to some time ago — to arrange double 
school shifts. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4283 

Mr. Curtis. In other words, you feel perhaps the emphasis in the 
school situation should be upon added teachers and current supplies, 
and so on, rather than a building program, until we see what the 
future holds in regard to these people remaining in the communities? 

Mr. Grafton. I think it is just as much a mistake for the Gov- 
ernment to assume it is a permanent thing, and to build a big new 
school, as it is for the worker to assume it is a permanent thing 
and buy a big new Cadillac, because you have to realize that all 
this is temporary, really, and all of this work has to be done and, 
after this temporary work is over, you have to use the W. P. A. 
and its teachers" program, as the basis of that program of education 
for the people who are still in the communities. But I do not think 
you should proceed on the basis they are going to be there for 
more than 2 or 3 years. 

Mr. Curtis. You mentioned the Public Works program at the 
end of the defense program. Do you have any other suggestions 
dealing with the problem as it will be at the end of the defense 
program ? 

Mr. Grafton. Well, I think it is going to require a second kind 
of fund, in addition to the emergency fund, that will have to be 
much more easily available and easily spent than a public-works 
fund. I think if the thing does crash fast — and there are certain 
circumstances under which this whole thing would collapse, such 
as, for example, a sudden, unexpected British victory — that would 
be the end of the defense boom overnight; and I would say I think 
you have to look for that and be ready to give some sort of relief, 
and I think some plan ought to be made for an emergency of that 
kind, because it may become an overnight situation. 

DANGER OF FASCISM CITED 

Mr. Osmers. Regardless of the outcome, whether it is a quick 
victory, or a slow one, or is a negotiated peace, or what the end 
of the war would be, I think you are going to have a quick end 
to it all anyway, because people will just drop it. America is so 
notoriously peace-minded that it will not sustain a war industry 
except in face of an emergency. 

Mr. Grafton. True. 

Mr. Osmers. And I think we must anticipate that it might hit us 
with a crash. It will come hard and fast, and there is a much 
broader problem concerning our democratic processes and form of 
government at that time, that I almost hesitate to open up at this 
time because it is such a lengthy subject; but when you take mil- 
lions of people who will be working purely upon defense indus- 
tries, and the millions who will be in uniform, or trained to be 
in uniform, you are going to have a nucleus of a great deal of 
trouble unless some planning is done before. 

Mr. Grafton. I think so; because one of the characteristics of 
the emerging of Fascism in Germany, if you recall, was the ex- 
istence of just such a rootless people — people who started wandering 
during the inflation time and kept wandering until the collapse in 
1933. They were one of the bases of fascist organization. 



4284 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Grafton. I wish you 
would be kind enough to remain here, because we may work this 
into a joint discussion. But we have other witnesses and I am anxious 
to have them heard. 

We will hear you next, Miss Smith. 

TESTIMONY OF MISS KATHERINE SMITH, REPORTER FOR THE 
TIMES-HERALD, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Mr. Sparkman. Miss Smith, for the benefit of the record, will you 
state your name, residence, and occupation ? 

Miss Smith. Katherine Smith ; Times-Herald reporter. 

Mr. Sparkman. I understand you have been to Charlestown, Ind., 
to look over the defense project there; is that right? 

Miss Smith. Yes. I want to make one introductory remark; that 
is, I was sent there to do a human-interest story. In other words, 
I was not told to get accurate statistics o* to verify anything, or to 
check back ; I was to get what the man on the street was thinking about, 
talking about. Consequently, much of what I found, as I say, was 
what the men are thinking of, sometimes what they believe, and some- 
times what they are afraid of; but it is not in any sense related to 
what Mr. Daniels did. 

Mr. Sparkman. I wish you would tell us some of the things you 
heard, or impressions you gained. 

Miss Smith. You know the construction problem there is not as 
great as it has been, especially the construction of the powder plant. 
In other words, the great influx of migrants is pretty nearly over, 
and most of the tents along the railroad tracks are gone. The people 
live in everything from old chicken coops to garages and their own 
trailers, and there is a trailer community now of about 1,500 and an- 
other 150 on the outskirts of the plant, and the population has gone 
from a little over 900 to 3,500. 

They have one terror in common. That is : What is going to happen 
when spring and fall come ? Because they have no sewerage system. 
The sewerage system has been under way for a year and a half, but is 
not finished. They do have a waterworks that was done very recently, 
and that was of some help, and they have not had, as Mr. Daniels 
pointed out, any serious epidemics, except the flu, which was general 
throughout the country. They had one case of scarlatina, which was 
isolated out in the trailer camp, and at the time I left there was no 
danger of its spreading. 

As far as law enforcement is concerned, it is surprising they have 
controlled things as well as they have. While I was there, they had a 
number of lay-offs of carpenter workers, and petty thievery, mostly 
of people stealing the wash off of the line. 

In other words, I feel the people are attacking the emergency with 
as fine a spirit as you could hope to find anywhere. 

The other thing is — and this is my chief point — that generally the 
people did say, "If we only had had more time !" This was thrown on 
them on the second day of September, when they started to put up 
fences to start the work. By the middle of September the local hotel 
was full and practically all of the available housing was full, and still 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4285 

people were coming in, and there were not any more houses, so they 
filled the trailers. In other words, they are coming in and supplying 
their own living requirements, if the town does not do it. 

"we may be a ghost town" 

The town, on the other hand, is reluctant to invest any money in 
construction, because they say, "We may be a ghost town." Some of 
the smarter and more enterprising residents have converted garages 
and chicken coops into permanent residences, and one man has turned 
his pasture over to trailers now and has 200 there, and there are at 
least 300 people living in trailers, and it is just a town within a town 
within a town. They have several little trailer camps, and they do 
not intermingle with the people in the next trailer camp, about a block 
and a half away ; in other words, in these trailer camps there is a sort 
of social prejudice set up, and a skilled worker's wife has nothing 
to do with a less-skilled worker's wife. She knows a lady in another 
trailer camp, and all the children play together. The children play 
war games. 

Mr. Sparkman. Did the most of the people live in Charlestown, or 
out of it ? 

Miss Smith. The Charlestown population was 3,500, which includes 
the workers' families and natives, and apparently 85 percent of the 
workers, or probably less than that, commute into Louisville, because 
of that big pay roll of 23,000 men, just before I was there. It has 
dropped somewhat but the bulk of the people ride on the trains into 
Louisville. They have two trains 

Mr. Sparkman. Work trains? 

Miss Smith. Yes ; and they pile on after each shift. The Charles- 
town people are mostly family men, who have come there with their 
families, and many of them have permanent homes in other States. 

Mr. Sparkman. You mentioned the water facilities and sewers. 

Miss Smith. As I say, they have water facilities, but no sewers. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you think the water facilities are adequate? 

Miss Smith. Well, they have done this in these camps; they have 
trailer wash houses with hot and cold running water. 

Mr. Sparkman. What about the school facilities? 

Miss Smith. They are very bad; they are overcrowded. They are 
trying to teach children in the halls and the public library, and one 
young teacher who was brought down to teach social hygiene and 
physical training was called upon to teach English, geography, and two 
or three other subjects besides. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do they have staggered hours for the schools? 

Miss Smith. Not at the present time. I also found that the parents 
of a number of migrant children, who came in from other cities, were 
displeased, and sent them home again to live with their aunts, friends, 
or relatives, and go to school back home. 

origins of workers 

Mr. Sparkman. Did you get an idea of the places these people came 
from ? 



4286 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Miss Smith. Well, the skilled workers came from all over the place. 
You have some contractors' workers who a^e accustomed to travel, 
and a great many of them move from town to town every 6 months, and 
usually they are accustomed to taking apartments. I talked to one 
woman whose husband goes from town to town about every 6 months. 
They had to take to living in a trailer because they could not find any 
house. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are they scattered all over the United States, 
the places that they come from? 

Miss Smith. Pretty much. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are the workers skilled or unskilled ? 

Miss Smith. They are pretty nearly all skilled. The unskilled 
would not come there, except as itinerants. Another thing that 
made it bad was they had an employment registration office there in 
Charlestown, and at the peak of employment I understood they had 
three or four hundred workers flowing in and out, and that was 
when you had very bad housing conditions and tents along the rail- 
road tracks. But most of them are gone now. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course all these people you are talking about 
are engaged in construction work? 

Miss Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. The plant is not yet in operation ? 

Miss Smith. No. 

Mr. Sparkman. Did you discuss with any of the officials of the 
company, or anyone, the plans as to the operation of the plant ? 

Miss Smith. That is what all of the workers are sort of worried 
about. They do not know where they are going after it is over, and 
they feel, "Well, it will take so many people to run the plant." The 
local people say, "We figure it will take so many people to run the 
plant; consequently, our permanent population will be about 2,500." 
Well, an increase from 950-odd to 2,500 is quite an increase, all of 
a sudden. 

But then there is the other attitude : "We may be a ghost town ; we 
do not know how long it is going to last." There is even gossip, "Oh, 
well, if they do not have to make powder any more, they will convert it 
into a nylon-hosiery plant," and that cheers them a little bit. 

Mr. Sparkman. What about the people who work ; are they hopeful 
of getting jobs in the operation of the plant ? 

Miss Smith. Some of them, of course, those that are more highly 
skilled. 

Mr. Sparkman. And the others hope to move on to other construc- 
tion projects? 

Miss Smith. Some know they will; as I say, they have permanent 
jobs with the contractors; and some will quit because they do not get 
promoted. Those are the semiskilled ones. 

WANT BETTER TRAILERS 

Mr. Sparkman. I was very much interested in the statement Mr. 
Grafton made that he found those people in New England saving their 
money. Did you make any inquiry about that? 

Miss Smith. This much is true: These men, as I say, in Charlestown 
are mostly family people and, accordingly, from the salary they get, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4287 

they are likely to invest money in a slightly better trailer. In other 
words, you have trailers that are relative to the amount of money that 
these people have to spend. For instance, you have the home-made 
trailer that people build for permanency ; they do not have cars and 
they stay in the same situation ; and then there are others who come in 
who do not have cars, but who have bought trailers in the trailer camp. 
For instance, I talked with one carpenter's assistant who was making 
$38 a week. He was living in a very nice trailer, not anything fancy, 
but fairly comfortable and neat, and he was prepared to stay there and 
live in a trailer until either he got another job, or would have to move 
on. 

There was another woman I talked to, whose husband made consid- 
erably more. They have a home in Oklahoma, and they have invested 
$1,300 in a trailer, because she did not want to stay home; she wanted 
to be with her husband, and she said she lay awake nights trying to de- 
cide whether to live in a trailer, because of all the bad publicity that had 
been given these trailer camps, about American people having to live 
rough-and-tumble. I talked to women who were pretty sensitive about 
it. Naturally, I sympathized with them. I tried to talk to them, but 
they would hold back; they do not want to talk to you, because they 
have had unpleasant publicity ; it has been stated that Charlestown is a 
boom town, that sin is running rampant, and liquor is flowing in the 
streets. It is not so. 

Mr. Spaekman. Did you talk with any of the people who do not live 
at Charlestown, that is, any of those who stay in Louisville, or other 
places? 

Miss Smith. No ; because I could not get at them. The whistle blows 
and they come off 5,000 strong, and leave on the trains, and if you get 
in their way you get trampled upon. 

Mr. Sparkman. Did you get the impression that most of these 
people had been moving about from job to job, or had been fairly well 
settled, prior to this defense boom ? 

Miss Smith. They had been fairly well settled. There, again, it de- 
pends on the type of work they do and how skilled they are, and the 
salaries, and so on. I mean, a great many of them were accustomed 
to moving, and a great many had been living in trailers for about 6 or 7 
years. 

Mr. Sparkman. Just one more question. Back to this question about 
saving, to see if I understand you correctly. Your impression was, 
instead of saving money, that is, laying it aside for a rainy day, they 
were really investing it in things they needed? 

Miss Smith. Not entirely so ; no. They are saving. Of course, when 
they are through work in Charlestown, there is nothing you can spend 
money on ; there is not any entertainment. One place has a beer license, 
and that is all; there is not anything to do in Charlestown, and the 
family people, as I say, who are settled in Charlestown, are staying 
there and coming home nights. Occasionally they go into Louisville 
for a show, or something like that, but there is not anything to spend 
money on in Charlestown. As to the conditions in Louisville, I do not 
know. [To Mr. Daniels.] You can answer that, 

Mr. Daniels. The Louisville merchants told me they thought there 
was a 3-week lag at that time in spending; that there was a definite 
lag in the Christmas trade. 



4288 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

INVESTMENT SPENDING 

Mr. Osmers. There is one point I would like to make in connection 
with what Mr. Grafton said, and also what Miss Smith said, in regard 
to saving on the part of the migrant workers. It seems to me it is more 
a case of investment spending than it is the actual saving of cash. 

Miss Smith. That is what I was trying to say. 

Mr. Osmers. It is a question of buying better trailers, or better au- 
tomobiles, or, rather, buying things that are not consumers' goods. In 
other words, instead of buying a shirt or something to wear out in a 
few months, they are buying trailers that might have a life of 2 years. 

Miss Smith. It is not what we call "show-off" spending. 

Mr. Osmers. It is not "show-off" spending, and it is not bank-saving 
deposits, and I would like to see some figures on savings-bank deposits 
in some of the communities, just to see the extent to which money is 
actually being saved. 

Mr. Grafton. The bank-deposit figures do not alwa}'s tell the story, 
because they try to keep people from depositing too much money. 
They have deposit-acceptance limits. I was very interested in the 
subject. At Portsmouth, N. H., there are five little banks in a row on 
one street, which is really just a bank block. I asked several of the 
treasurers and vice presidents, but they were really quite indifferent 
about some people who come in to make deposits. Their whole attitude 
was, "We investigate them pretty carefully to find out whether they 
are saving money, or trying to make this as an investment. - ' 

Mr. Osmers. I know that is the attitude of banks all over the United 
States. I have never personally gone about questioning the depositors, 
but you do not feel they are saving their money necessarily in bank 
deposits ? 

Mr. Grafton. Not unless they spread it, and I do not think they 
make enough to spread it. I do not think necessarily they are saving 
in the form of bank deposits, no ; but I would like to know what the 
baby-bond purchases are and what the Postal Savings are. 

Mr. Osmers. You think they might be an attractive investment ? 

Mr. Daniels. A great many of those people are paying off debts. 

Mr. Osmers. I know that is true, because presumably the man who 
migrates to a job has had an unemployment period of some length before 
he gets the job, and he must have a list of debts to meet when he starts 
in — installment payments to make, cash loans to repay, and then, of 
course, he has to buy clothes for his family. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Miss Smith. 

Now, Mr. Aikman, we will hear from you. 

TESTIMONY OF DUNCAN AIKMAN, NATIONAL CORRESPONDENT 
FOR THE NEWSPAPER PM, NEW YORK CITY, N. Y. 

Mr. Aikman. My name is Duncan Aikman. I am national corre- 
spondent for PM, and I am just returning from a trip all around the 
country. I traveled about 12,000 miles from coast to coast. I went out 
through the Middle West first, then out the northern route through 
Montana and the Dakotas to Seattle, down the coast to Los Angeles, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4289 

and back home by way of San Antonio, New Orleans, Miami, and places 
of that sort. 

The Chairman. For what purpose? 

Mr. Axeman. I went out not to investigate defense industries pri- 
marily, but to find out as much as I could about what is going on in 
America, and the American psychology during the crisis ; how people 
look at the crisis, their own personal problems and national problems. 

I made an effort to talk to all kinds of people all of the time. I do 
not think I equaled Sam Grafton's record of 50 a day, but I did the 
best I could, and I found in this question of migration — defense migra- 
tion, if you like — that it gets back to a very old American mental habit, 
the thought that if you are in trouble where you are, you had better 
move. It is a fine old system. Our people came here originally, a great 
many of them, on that basis ; they came here from Europe because of 
economic disadvantages or troubles, or because of politics, religion, or 
having to go in the army. And so it has been a practical American 
prescription for generations; and here we come to the point where 
everybody, certainly the underprivileged class, and even the skilled 
working class, has been more or less distressed because of the depres- 
sion. For the last 10 years people have been looking for a chance to 
move, and a great many of them did move during the depression. The 
Okies, of course, in California, are just one example of that. 

So, when this defense program came along, and there was an op- 
portunity to get jobs, it stirred up a tremendous enthusiasm. I can- 
not begin to guess how many, but when I talked to people on the 
streetcars, or in beer joints, or places where you talk to them in casual 
conversation, they wanted to know what the chances were here and 
there, and what I thought about openings. That went for young 
men and even old men occasionally, who were not interested in moving 
themselves but who knew other people who would be interested, and 
they had a tremendous curiosity about openings everywhere. They 
did not seem to be so much interested in what the living conditions in 
the camps were, but they seemed to be interested in where they could 
get jobs, where they could better themselves. At any rate, there was 
a very great disposition to be on the move. 

On the other hand, as I went around and looked at the factories, 
at the construction jobs, and so forth, I had a sense of people think'ng 
that the frontier is being restored; that is, the opportunities of the 
frontier are being restored. But it is definitely an artificial frontier, 
and it is almost funny to see them going dashing around in the same 
spirit which moved their ancestors to where they will find a 3-month 
job or a 6-month job or a job for 1 or 2 years, and I found they were 
desperate enough, so they felt they must do some of this sort of thing. 

PEOPLE NOT AWARE OF PROBLEMS 

What impressed me most was that none of those people, prac- 
tically none of those with whom I talked, seemed to have any sense of 
their own or the country's permanent economic problem, as it may be 
connected with migration. They were not thinking in terms of the 
possibility that America is going to become much more static, that 
the population is not going to keep on growing, that we are not going 



4290 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

to open new lands, we are not going to have opportunities to advance 
which once came from moving somewhere else. Their main concern 
was that they were uncertain in the place where they were, in the in- 
dustrial and economic groups and classes, and they wanted to see how 
much better they could live through political pressure and other means 
in the station to which God called them. They were not interested in 
still believing in the old American dream, that if you would move 
somewhere you would better yourself and eventually become a greater 
person than you were in your home community. 

I think, when you are talking of planning for the future, that this 
is perhaps one of the things which a committee of this sort needs to 
consider more than anything else : How people are going to live in 
this land when the expansion is over, and when there will be no 
longer any opportunities for moving from place to place and bet- 
tering yourself, and when people will have to make a better living by 
sharing more of our national wealth than we have ever tried to do 
before. 

The Chairman. What did you find in regard to the employers? 
Did they prefer migrants? 

Mr. Airman. I think there is a certain class of them; yes. I got 
that feeling on the Pacific coast, in the airplane factories, especially 
in the Los Angeles area — not in the Boeing factory, where they have 
a good union set-up, but in Los Angeles, where they are fighting union 
recognition and the general tendency seemed to be to take the boys 
who came in from all over the country, and sometimes those who had 
taken courses in night schools. 

It is true that in part the schools are a racket ; on the other hand, 
some of the boys do get jobs through them. There are a lot of young 
men here and there who have had training and who go out to the 
Pacific coast, I found a little school in Helena, Mont., as part of the 
high school, where they were giving vocational training to airplane 
people, and apparently it was pretty good, because they were sending 
boys to Los Angeles, Seattle, and all those places, and they were 
having pretty good job-getting results. Some of the straw bosses I 
talked with, and especially the front-office straw bosses, seemed to 
think that was a very healthy thing — getting young men full of 
ambition and putting them to work — and I think there was almost 
an instinctive feeling there was a most wonderful opportunity, for 
development, of course, in Los Angeles. 

The Chairman. The people you talked to, though, did not take 
these employments with any intention of permanency, that is, in the 
States where they had gone into it ? 

NOT THINKING ABOUT HOME 

Mr. Aikman. It is hard to tell about that, They look forward to 
a better stake somewhere. I think they think of it as a chance ; they 
are distressed where they are, and they want to get out from what 
they have done before. 

The Chairman. What do you think about it? Do you think these 
people all want to go home when peace comes ? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4291 

Mr. Airman. No; I do not think most of them are even thinking 
about it, certainly not the young people. 

The Chairman. I was thinking of what the migrants think about it. 

Mr. Aikman. That depends, too, on how far they are going. I am 
referring now to the people who go to Los Angeles from a consider- 
able distance. They are not thinking about home very much ; on the 
other hand, the people connected with their own neighborhoods, who 
perhaps are moving away for the time being are thinking about 
going back. 

The Chairman. How do the local community citizens react to the 
influx of people coming in on defense projects? 

Mr. Airman. In some of the small towns in the South, like Anniston, 
Ala., where Fort McClellan is built, and around Columbus, Ga., I 
got very much the same impression that you had from Mr. Daniels 
and Mr. Grafton, that there is a good deal of opposition. But I have 
not heard thrift being spoken of, except in New England, and that 
shows what revolutionary times we live in. But in these smaller 
southern towns they are worried and regard it as a major problem. 
On the other hand, in Los Angeles and Spokane, there is still the 
feeling that there are big industrial towns being built and, as far as I 
could find, they are pretty glad to have them. Los Angeles felt par- 
ticularly they needed the diversification that industry would bring 
to them. 

The Chairman. What about the geographical location of the de- 
fense plants? Has that caused migration in this country? 

Mr. Airman. You mean having so many large airplane factories 
on the Pacific coast? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Airman. I think it is causing quite a large migration. These 
young men, especially, pouring into the airplane plants, think avia- 
tion is the industry of the future, and they are a pretty good type; 
on the whole, I think they are a pretty swell type ; they are almost the 
cream of the migratory group, and they are the fellows who are 
definitely going out to get jobs in the airplane industry. 

The Chairman. Have you anything to say regarding the health 
problem ? 

Mr. Airman. I do not know a great deal about that. As I say, 
I was not making the type of detailed investigation of defense plants 
that Mr. Daniels and Mr. Grafton have made, except as I saw these 
things incidentally out in Anniston, Ala., and I did not get a very 
clear picture of that. 

Mr. Osmers. I would like to ask one or two questions about the 
mental attitude of a great many of these people you talked with, 
because you dealt mainly with the human side rather than with the 
financial and economic side. 

Mr. Airman. Yes. 

SECURITY MAIN OBJECTIVE 

Mr. Osmers. The main objective that many of them have is eco- 
nomic security, is it not ? 



4292 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Airman. Yes; I met a fellow who was just a commuter, 
commuting over the Georgia line to Anniston, Ala. That man was 
going about TO miles every clay. He got up at 3 : 30 in the morning, 
he told me, and he got home about 7 : 30 at night, and he got his sleep, 
dinner, and breakfast in between; he carried his lunch to the job. 
He was making $7 a day as a rough carpenter. He had a little farm, 
and had gotten very much in debt, and he said all he could make for 
2 years had been less than $300 a year, so he was just as happy as he 
could be, getting seven bucks. He was a family man, had a wife and 
a couple of children, and he was putting some money aside to pay 
his old debts. He was a very happy fellow while this thing lasted, 
but he did not think it would, and he asked me if I knew anything 
about the Florida conditions. He said he had not been to Florida 
yet, and he was worried about Anniston blowing up, and if he could 
get down to Florida, it would not cost him anything because 

Mr. Osmers. I think undoubtedly the committee, in some of its 
previous work in the past months, found a tendency on the part of 
migrants to seek escape from the humdrum conditions which existed 
where they had previously lived. It was a refreshing and romantic 
life to hit the road and get away from the installment man, and 
from making rent payments to the landlord, and all that sort of 
thing, and to travel in the best American spirit with your troubles 
behind you and a rosy future. Did you find a lot of that? 

Mr. Airman. An awful lot of that, especially among the younger 
generation. And I went up to Yale a few weeks ago, which is not a 
migratory production center. But all of those young graduates were 
crazy about going to South America. I happened to have been there 
and knew a little about it, so I spent a whole evening bullsessioning 
with them. All they wanted to know was how to get jobs down there. 
That is the same thing, but it is on a different economic level. 

Mr. Osmers. But they did not know anything about South America, 
or anything beyond thinking, if they would go there, that it would 
be helpful, and they wanted to go there because it was attractive? 

Mr. Airman. It was like a new frontier that is now opening, and 
they were getting away from the humdrum life on graduation. 

EXPANSION AT ANNISTON 

Mr. Sparrman. Mr. Aikman, I was interested in what you had to 
say about Anniston, Ala. It is not in my district, but very near my 
district, and I was just wondering if you might expand a little on 
that. Of course, you know Anniston is the site of a Regular Army 
post, even during peacetime ? 

Mr. Airman. Yes. 

Mr. Sparrman. And they are accustomed to a great number of Army 
people there all of the time. What expansion did you have in mind ? 

Mr. Airman. Of course, there is a tremendous expansion of the 
number of soldiers. 

Mr. Sparrman. Yes; at the post. 

Mr. Airman. From 4,000 to something like 30,000, when they get 
them all there. And there has been this tremendous housing program, 
and I have forgotten how many — I was told at one time — but several 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4293 

thousand people have come there on account of the building operations, 
particularly people that offer a housing problem. Some of them, I 
think, did come from somewhere in the neighborhood, but the housing 
problem had mainly to do with the officers and people around the camp 
and people who are a little more permanent than the laborers. 

Mr. Sparkman. I know the War Department officials testified be- 
fore our Military Affairs Committee that the construction job at 
Anniston was probably the best in their whole program, and that it 
had gone off perhaps the most smoothly of all. And I have talked to 
a great many people living in Anniston, and also a great many people 
who have worked around there, and a great many from my district 
who have gone there to work; and I have never run into that before 
you mentioned it. As a matter of fact, one of their representatives 
was up here, trying to get other projects, and I just wonder at the 
cause of the criticism. 

Mr. Airman. I talked with some of the people who were worried 
about it. Perhaps it was not an objection so much as it was worry 
about the thing. Perhaps I overstated it. 

There seems to be a little less friction between the Army and the 
townspeople, and a little more reasonable view than heretofore. 

TESTIMONY OF PARE LORENTZ— Resumed 

The Chairman. Mr. Osmers will proceed with the interrogation of 
Mr. Lorentz, who has already been called upon informally to partici- 
pate in our discussion. 

Mr. Osmers. Mr. Lorentz, will you state your full name and your 
occupation ? 

Mr. Lorentz. Mr. Chairman, my name is Pare Lorentz. I am on the 
editorial staff of McCall's magazine, New York. 

Mr. Osmers. What defense projects have you examined first-hand, 
Mr. Lorentz ? 

Mr. Lorentz. I have been to Camp Blanding and Starke, and briefly 
at Pensacola, at Alexandria, at Camp Claiborne, at Livingston, and 
at Beauregard. My particular purpose on this trip was to ask both 
Army officers and local officials as to general conditions surrounding 
the camps, with emphasis on what they were going to do this summer 
when they start maneuvering on the Sabine and Red Rivers. 

Mr. Osmers. I wonder if you would care to make a short statement 
to the committee. Then we can question you more or less on the basis 
of that. 

Mr. Lorentz. I will be glad to submit for the record this letter 
which I addressed to the chairman of the committee last Friday. 

(The letter referred to above is as follows :) 

McCall Corporation, 

McCall's Magazine, 
New York, March 21, 19>,1. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Tolan : I am sorry that I have not sent you my proposed testimon y, 
but I have been sick in bed the last few days. I fully intend to be in Washington 
at the Washington Hotel early Monday morning unless I became seriously ill, 
which I neither hope nor expect to be. 



4294 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

I do not think I should present myself as an informed witness on special 
migratory problems in specific migratory communities at the present time. 
However, since 1935 I have traveled a quarter of a million miles in the 
United States both as a movie-maker for the Government and as an as- 
sociate editor of McCall's magazine. I have been trying to report on general 
social and economic problems in the country. I feel the following things 
are true : 

1. The entire country is on wheels. You have a wealthy group in America 
w T hich in the summer goes to summer resorts in the North or Northwest or 
Pacific coast vacation areas, and which goes South and Southwest and West 
in the winter. We have increasing numbers of old people who have retired 
and who seek out warm weather and cheap living communities in the winter. 
We have hundreds of youngsters who rove around the country in old cars 
in the summertime. We have mechanized technological industries that depend 
on surplus labor working seasonally ; for example, the men who work on 
the lake boats in the summertime and take jobs on the straight line in the 
automobile industry in the winter. 

The migrant is known to the public as a poverty-stricken farmer from 
Oklahoma, but right now there are men from Georgia working on construc- 
tion camps in New England, and men from New England working in the 
piney woods of Florida, Louisiana, and Alabama. The Government realizes 
that it is increasingly faced with the fact that millions of people are moving 
across the country and up and down the country in seasons, and that to date 
it has been spending more time trying to pin these people down and secure 
them in communities through such devices as farm loans and unemployment 
compensation rather than accept the philosophy of roving populations and 
attempt to provide those populations with facilities for education, health, and 
recreation. 

2. The State of New York, and New England in general, do a very good job 
of taking care of millions of summer vacationers. I feel that it would be simple 
enough to include in a summer-tourist program the bottom income group of agri- 
cultural and ndustrial workers who move into vacation States along with tourists. 
For example, Florida is a boom defense State. It also has had this winter its 
biggest tourist year. However, there is no provision made for the tourist in the 
low-income group. There is no reason why the Florida Keys should not be made 
into a national reservation for the purpose of saving the last area of fine game 
fishing, if for no other reason. Instead of the juke joints, broken-down motor 
courts, unsanitary tourist camps, and the facilities now available for the people 
who can't afford $30-a-day hotel bills, set up regular national parksi and national 
forestry concessions such as we have at Norris Lake, Jacksons Hole, along the 
shores of Lake Ontario, up at Mount Hood, and at the other very well-known 
national recreation areas. 

3. In the poor districts of the country we have set up trailer health services, 
with the blood wagons in the Deep South working on venereal disease and the 
eye doctors who are sent into the remote mountain regions of the South. The 
trailer doctor should be considered as a logical development of a civilization that 
is now mobile, instead of the rare example. Therefore, instead of calling the 
migrant problem an agricultural problem, which should be handled by the Farm 
Security Administration or some other Department of Agriculture division, it 
should be considered as a national one. Either this or it should be stated as 
a philosophy of Government that millions of footloose men and women, and 
particularly children, eventually will create a citizenry who have no social 
responsibility, no vote, no civic pride, no roots in any one section of the land. 
no concern for any particular way of living. If this is the intent of the Govern- 
ment, there will have to be radical measures taken immediately. For example, 
right now the policy of this Government is to subsidize mechanized farming. 
First we pay a bonus in the form of parity crop prices to cash-crop farmers. 
We set up camps for migratory workers to live in so that they could have a 
minimum of health and housing facilities, but we set them up in areas adjacent 
to commercial farms. What we should do is pass national legislation forcing 
these mechanized farms to provide a minimum of housing, health, and recrea- 
tional facilities for seasonal workers. We have long since set up wage-and-hour 
and health requirements for mechanizes industry and the factory farm should 
be considered as an industry by the Congress. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4295 

4. Various records show that from one-half to two-thirds of the gross income 
received by agricultural migrants goes into transportation costs. Thus, the second- 
hand automobiles should be considered an agricultural utility and the Government 
should make some attempt to see that these roving hordes at least are furnished 
with jaloppies which have been checked by some licensed agency and that 
migrants are not cheated as they are constantly now. 

5. There is a farm-placement service and a reemployment service, but a man 
traveling through the swamp country of Alabama and Louisiana to California is 
going to find very few places where he can get accurate information on agricul- 
tural or industrial employment. There has been no advertising by the Govern- 
ment of where these places are. Also, there is only one medium of advertising 
through which you can reach these people, and that is the radio. The city of 
Syracuse had last year on a local station a very fine employment radio broadcast 
in which they actually put on the air six men and women every afternoon who 
outlined their qualifications for employment. 

The Government has never used the radio as a utilitarian medium except in 
times of emergency, such as fires, floods, and drought. We don't even have a 
Government radio system. The Farm and Home Hour program and the many 
other Government programs, including the Office of Education broadcast, are all 
attempts at radio drama. Every little roadside hamburger joint has a radio ; so 
have all the motor courts. It will be perfectly possible to run a State, county, and 
city employment service at a set 15-minute period all over the United States. If 
nothing else, you can at least broadcast the location of employment centers. 

6. What we need mainly is to take a map of the United States, mark down the 
routes traveled by all classes of migrants — rich, middle class, and broke. You 
should set up recreational and housing and health-information centers all along 
these routes. Instead of classifying the migrant as a peon, he should be treated 
as a tourist and given the same facilities as a tourist. 

7. The immediate situation is a crime and a disgrace in that no provision yet 
is written into the Government cost-plus contracts for the care of temporary con- 
struction workers. The taxpayers are paying for this work, the contractors have 
made scandalous profits and the people who have to do the work are living like 
dogs. 

Very truly yours, 

Pare Lokentz. 

A MOBILE UNITED STATES 

Mr. Lorentz. I would like to make one simple statement, Mr. Chair- 
man : I think this committee particularly has seen evidence that the 
whole country is on wheels. It is not a matter of agricultural migra- 
tion or defense migration, but that you have a mobile United States, 
and that you are not faced with a rare example, but you have a 
million and a half people going into New York State, for instance, 
in the summer, in the tourist areas, and you have Florida, one of 
the biggest boom States and one of the big tourist States. You have 
multiplied problems of all kinds in a State like Florida. I do not 
think the ordinary individual realizes the extent of the problems in- 
volved. The milk is coming from Dallas. And they are going to 
have to start to get milk from Michigan. Mobile is getting milk 
from Wisconsin. 

You are having a great shifting of the population, and it is all on 
wheels. 

The one place you can find out about it is at the juke joint. There 
is a big population with no telephone number. There is no place to 
find out about them. The townspeople do not see them. You can go 
into Jacksonville and they are not aware of how many hundreds and 
thousands of those people are camped around there. You would not 
know how many people there are there unless you located them. 



4296 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

You have no information about them except what is obtained at the 
juke joints. 

I think the Government should use the radio as a part of its equip- 
ment in dealing with these people. They should use the radio if for 
no other reason than to inform them where the health centers and the 
employment agencies are. I have been driving around these places 
since i935, and if I had not been informed in advance I would have 
a hard time finding any Government agency in these towns. You 
cannot expect a man driving over the roads of Louisiana and Ala- 
bama to know where to find a job. 

Mr. Osmers. You mean the United States Employment Service 
which Congress established to take care of this problem is leaving its 
employees in an office on some street known to us, but that their 
notices are not distributed to places where possible workers are? 

ACCESSIBLE OFFICES NEEDED 

Mr. Lorentz. Yes ; and I think that is particularly important today, 
so you will not have to go from Jacksonville to Seattle without seeing 
a Government sign. I think you can go to every juke joint if you 
want to find out what is going on in the woods, and that is the only 
place where you can get that information. 

Mr. Osmers. Would you say it would be advisable for the Govern- 
ment to establish employment offices close to highways, with machin- 
ery to serve important areas? 

Mr. Lorentz. I have the specific feeling that we should put those 
offices where they are reasonably available, and the Public Health 
Service has the same sort of a problem. 

The motor court or temporary juke joint is the source of contact 
resulting in venereal diseases. 

I think you could adopt the idea of the Farm Security transient 
camps so that the migrants will know where the defense centers are. 
Many of them are agricultural migrants, and there is no reason why 
you should not have these offices where they could come and get 
information. 

Mr. Osmers. Are most of these people from rural areas or from de- 
pressed industrial areas? 

Mr. Lorentz. My information tallies exactly with that of Mr. Graf- 
ton and Mr. Daniels. I think Mr. Daniels left out one group, the 
Indians' camps. 

Mr. Daniels. They had Government checks coming in on the first 
of the month, and there is an enormous number of these people. 

For instance the city of Yakima has had its problems, with 20,000 
people coming into a town of 23,000. You cannot have 20,000 people 
living along irrigation ditches without difficulty. You do not have 
any health checks ; you have no possible way of knowing whether they 
are diseased or not. 

Mr. Osmers. What happens to people who do not get jobs after such 
a long trek? Do they go along, or do they stay there? 

Mr. Daniels. Some of the youngsters become prostitutes, particu- 
larly in the Northwest, where they are a long way from any industrial 
or agricultural center. In crossing the Cascades, if you go broke 
you are really broke. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4297 

I feel too that it has been the policy of the Government to attempt 
to take up the aftermath. If you go down in the Okeechobee migrant 
camp for agricultural labor you find the Government subsidizing some 
farm families in that field. I think Farm Security is doing a mag- 
nificent job in Okeechobee. 

You can go into any State, particularly into the national forests, 
and you can get proper water and a very good camp, very cheap. 

I do not agree that it is temporary. It seems to me that Blanding 
will be in existence for many years. Blanding is a permanent camp. 
I think that is a national Government area which should be looked 
after. It is an enormous speculative area, with just one juke-joint 
block, and the whole place is already a rural slum for miles. 

SCHOOL FACILITIES LACKING 

Mr. Osmers. Have you made any observations as to educational 
facilities ? 

Mr. Lorentz. Except for the work of Farm Security, there is none. 

Mr. Osmers. You mentioned the increase at Yakima. 

Mr. Lorentz. Every time they pick the apple crop that goes on. 

Mr. Osmers. I was trying to make a laboratory case of a town where 
there has been some permanent increase in population. 

Mr. Lorentz. In Bremerton, Wash., they have a problem which 
sometimes is completely out of hand. You have it in the big auto- 
mobile centers where men come in in the winter and get part-time 
jobs. 

You have that tendency toward low cost, for instance, in New 
York State, in the Adirondacks, where a million and a half people 
come in, where they can get good food, and they are well handled. 
I do not see why that could not be done as a regular tourist pro- 
gram. We could put up places and run them as they do in the 
national forests. 

Mr. Osmers. Would you say that employers show a preference 
for migrants? 

Mr. Lorentz. I have not talked with enough employers to answer 
that accurately. 

Mr. Osmers. What is your impression of the feeling of the per- 
manent residents of a community toward the migrants? 

Mr. Lorentz. In most of the southern areas they are so glad 
to have real cash that they do not think of anything beyond that. 
There has been an enormous pressure put on all facilities. They 
do not realize that these men are training to be soldiers. They 
have no knowledge of just what is going on, with 8,000 men coming 
in in a week. They are too busy with the new money coming in. 

Mr. Daniels. Do you not think it makes a considerable difference 
whether you are a small dealer or a school teacher on salary ? 

Mr. Osmers. I wonder whether you have looked over any municipal 
financial statements, for instance the budget of Bremerton, Wash., 
as to what this migration has done to the municipal financial struc- 
ture ? 



260370— 41— pt. 11- 



4298 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

If you move population from one municipality to another, you 
are transferring the service burden from one to another, and you 
must be affecting the local tax situation, which is basic, and which 
Ave often overlook. 

We see that in the case of Jersey City, where people are moving 
out, and we know what effect that has on the local tax situation. 
We know what a bad effect it has when all these small communities 
burst forth. 

Mr. Lorentz. I do not think communities, when one of these 
big movements comes, have gotten over the first feeling of plenty. 

Mr. Osmers. I am thinking of the police, fire, and school municipal 
services and their effect on rates. 

BREAK-DOWN IN HEALTH SERVICE 

Mr. Lorentz. The main break-down has been in public health. 
We have gone into tremendous areas which have lacked public 
health service. We are going into rural areas where they have never 
had any health program, and where you have the low-income group. 
I think that is the most immediate and serious problem. 

Mr. Osmers. This is a question which is basic, I think, with re- 
spect to decentralization, or the spreading out of industry, and we 
have a great many opinions on both sides. I think Mr. Daniels 
expressed the opinion that it was general. 

Mr. Daniels. I think there is an important problem created by 
decentralization. I think the ultimate results will be less harmful 
without decentralization. 

Mr. Osmers. We have a great many ghost towns in the United 
sStates, from the industrial standpoint. They have streets, sewers, 
water supply, schools, and everything. They have reasonable public 
health precautions. 

Is it better to go right out into the wilderness, where these problems 
are going to be multiplied, with no provision for them, with all the 
conditions which arise from the defense program to create them, or is 
it better to place these defense industries in existing industrial areas? 

Mr. Lorentz. I feel very strongly about that, I do not agree with 
Mr. Grafton. I think there is too much of the 1929 crash consciousness, 
(vith everybody worrying about what is going to happen afterward. If 
we want to train half a million men to be pilots, if we can go on the basis 
of calling men for the Army and appropriating $7,000,000,000 to help 
England, I do not think we should worry about building a couple of 
hundred thousand dollars' worth of houses, wondering whether or not 
they are going to be permanent. I think you have every plan you need 
in the Government now, and also in the State planning commissions. 

There are too many plans. Take the State of Louisiana, for in- 
stance. You know that the people down there do not drink enough 
milk, and you cannot get enough milk now for the Thirty-fourth Divi- 
sion in Louisiana. 

If you decentralize and go down into Louisiana and make a going 
concern now, you are going to have a lot stronger country in Louisiana. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4299 

But if you keep building up dairy farms in Wisconsin, then you will 
have a worse crash because Louisiana will be worse off than it was and 
worse off than the industrial areas. 

COUNTER ARGUMENTS 

Mr. Osmers. Of course, there are some very strong counter argu- 
ments in answer to that argument. Suppose you have an instance 
where machine tools have been installed, with houses, railroads, and 
everything else. Then if the machine tools were taken out of that 
area, which had become industrial, so there was a combination of agri- 
culture and industry, and the men were taken out, then you would have 
a ghost Middle West because you will have more Detroits and more 
Pittsburghs. We went through that in 1929 and 1930. 

I think if you rehabilitate the areas that need things and that need 
them now, and bring in some decent housing, then those men may be 
able to stay there. 

You will admit that the Government is not doing that now, that 
when we go into an area in the South and put up a great industry, 
we are not looking to the future and locating these workers in such 
a way that they will become permanent parts of the economy, whether 
they stop making powder in that town or not. 

Mr. Lorentz. I agree with you. There is a combined project that 
might work. 

Mr. Osmers. They are living in trailers and tents, and the family 
structure is breaking down. 

Mr. Lorentz. I think if you gave those communities the money to 
operate services that they cannot operate now, that is a Federal respon- 
sibility. If you put 20,000 men from other cities or other places into 
one county, that is a Federal responsibility. 

If you also find that for 10 years thereafter the development of 
natural resources would show certain lags, and if in other years many 
of the lags may be supplied, especially in roads, and that if you build 
up that community, if it does cost more than under normal times, 
you have given them a better standard of living in that area. If you 
reduce their way of living it will cost double. 

I think decentralization is not the word; I think it is the matter 
of getting health and putting up those houses that are needed anyway. 

Mr. Osmers. Of course, your past 5 years have been spent very close 
to the depressed country areas in the United States. Some of the 
rest of us have spent the last 5 years very close to the industrial de- 
pression areas and large cities where you have had hundreds of 
thousands of men unemployed for years. Their attitude is that they 
are normally industrial workers, they live in the city, and they think 
that industries should be placed there, that they should not be forced 
to work on the defense program and buy a trailer and bring up their 
families under those conditions and take their children to some place 
where there are no schools. 

Mr. Lorentz. Then you are looking technological unemployment 
in the face. There is no longer any excuse for Pittsburgh or Cleve- 



4300 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

land. They cannot take up their unemployment and still cannot pro- 
duce any more. You will not make unemployment any better by 
building another factory. 

Mr. Osmers. I was not referring to the construction of another 
factory. 

EFFECT OF NEW PROCESSES 

Mr. Lorentz. I doubt if you could roll another sheet of steel in Pitts- 
burgh right now. I think you can take the figure of unemployment 
in production and you will find in Pittsburgh that everything is rolling 
that can roll, but you still have a great many men out of work. 

Mr. Osmers. Have not some of the new processes effected that ? 

Mr. Lorentz. The strip mill has put about 87,000 steel men out 
of work. You are bringing young men in because you do not need 
$25-a-day men running a strip mill. 

Mr. Osmers. You believe if we build plants, say, in Alabama that, 
theoretically, an unemployed man in Pittsburgh who could not get 
a job there would then have to ride his jaloppy into Louisiana to find 
a job? How would that help Louisiana? 

Mr. Lorentz. I think you help Louisiana if you faced the fact that 
no matter what production we go into, in textiles or anything else, we 
are never going to take up all the unemployment in this country. 

Mr. Osmers. You and I have come to a point where I would go 
along, so far as building factories in Louisiana is concerned, if Louisi- 
ana people are to be employed there. 

I question whether the Federal Government should build a factory 
there, knowing that it will bring more people into Louisiana and that 
there will be more unemployment ; in that case, I question the wisdom 
of doing that. 

Mr. Lorentz. Do you not feel that this is the difference, that there 
is a lag of so many services, but that with industry such as dairy 
products and vegetables 

Mr. Osmers. But bringing people in from outside Louisiana will 
only aggravate that problem, will it not? 

Mr. Lorentz. No. Jacksonville, with its $6,000,000 activity coming 
in, will permit a lot of people to get minor jobs. I think you will in- 
crease enormously the facilities for living which have been lacking in 
that area. If the tendency is to build a powder plant and bring every- 
thing from the North and try to get these industrial areas to supply 
them, you will find them taking up employment in the industrial 
areas. If you throw everybody into the industrial areas, you could pro- 
duce everything you need in existing factories and still have unem- 
ployment. If you bring more people in and concentrate them at the 
plant, that will be a burden on the community. 

Mr. Osmers. The committee, as far as we have gone into the situa- 
tion, has found the conditions as you state them, and there is no argu- 
ment about it on any side. I am wondering whether attracting those 
people from the other parts of America to that location will ulti- 
mately help that situation. 

Mr. Daniels. Industrially, you will not very long have to attract 
people, 

Mr. Osmers. Why? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 43Q1 

SOUTHERN LABOR POOL 

Mr. Daniels. Because the labor supply of America, which has been 
running to Detroit, is all there. The South is the area from which 
the people have been coming to these industries. If the industry is 
there, they have to go there. 

Mr. Osmers. If the industry is there, they stay there. 

Mr. Sparkman. They have gone to take up the slack there, but at 
the same time there is an increasing pool always developing in indus- 
trial areas. 

Mr. Osmers. But instead of merely relieving the existing southern 
pool of labor, we are increasing the southern pool by attracting other 
workers there. 

Mr. Sparkman. I think you are just guessing. 

Mr. Osmers. Every witness has said that people are coming there 
from all over the United States. 

Mr. Daniels. You run into Virginians in Hartford. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is a temporary construction program. 

Mr. Osmers. Our problem is the extent to which the Federal Gov- 
ernment participates in attracting them. 

I think my own State has more contracts in dollar value than any 
other State in the Union. It has not upset our economy or created a 
tremendous burden of housing. 

Mr. Daniels. There are some pretty bad conditions in Camden. 

Mr. Osmers. Camden has had it in greater degree than any other 
city there, but you are on the border of one of the largest cities in 
America, and you do not have the pressure that you have when you 
put them out into the woods. You have a million people to draw 
from, and you have tax ratables to supply the services, and you have 
real-estate development. 

Mr. Lorentz. Do you not feel that in the Department of Agricul- 
ture, with its many millions of dollars, which is a part of the tax- 
payers' money, you have to get some relation to expenditures? If you 
would also get railroads and roads by putting up a factory in Georgia 
and get your medical care, you would have twice the value of your 
dollars, whereas if you go into a high-tax industrial city with the 
high living conditions and a high cost for food supply, you still have 
a county in Georgia opposed to the program. 

Mr. Osmers. You are right up to the point where it helps people in 
Georgia who are there now. 

Mr. Lorentz. I am going on the theory you do not bring them in 
and do what they did with T. V. A., that you just do not bring in a 
factory and plunk it down here ; but you are going to have standards, 
say, of housing, school, and recreation. 

Mr. Osmers. That is a far different thing. 

Mr. Lorentz. What is being done today is too ill-planned, ill- 
conceived. 

Mr. Osmers. Today it seems to me that those plants are a sort of a 
grab bag. 

Mr. Lorentz. That is so. 

Mr. Osmers. That is, the Chamber of Commerce of Podunk comes 
into Washington with its representatives, and they try to get a plant 



4302 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

for that county, and that county may not have anybody to work in 
the plant, or it may not be the place for it. 

Mr. Grafton. It seems to me we really have two problems; one 
is the long-range problem of making the United States of America 
work, and the other one is the defense program. I would agree with 
Mr. Lorentz that the United States of America is permanent ; but I 
won't go so far as to say that the defense boom is permanent. What 
Mr. Lorentz is really trying to point out, I think, is the way of 
making America work as an entire country, regardless of the defense 
program, using the impetus given by the defense program to get 
certain things done which might not otherwise be done. 

BEST RESEARCH AGENCIES 

Mr. Lorentz. I really want to say this, that we have the best 
research agencies in our country of any country in the world, and if 
you are going into an area in a county, it is silly to ignore the social 
agencies that already have done work in that county. The Office of 
Production Management was set up, and Mr. Knudsen knows who 
makes ring gears, and he knows who makes bolts, and there is no 
reason why you could not have an executive domestic production 
office with exactly the same powers for this. 

Mr. Curtis. If you are going to adopt that kind of plan, you 
have to begin at the beginning and decide, for example, it we want 
to set up a steel plant in Georgia or Alabama, and you have to 
decide how much steel they can produce, and not only the question 
of getting labor on the spot, but what it is going to do afterward 
to the steel plants of Pittsburgh and Cleveland. 

Mr. Daniels And what about the tendency to displace a whole 
industry by that process? If you are going to build plants like 
those in Pittsburgh in New England, that displacement is not going 
to stop, and they will build bigger and bigger boom towns. 

Mr. Grafton. That is right, and if you are going to plan, you 
have to take into account what that industry has found. 

Mr. Lorentz. But why can we not do it? If nobody spends any 
more, nobody yet knows what we can produce, I was told no matter 
what happens we cannot use the textile machinery in America; and 
even if we could, that we still won't have a complete production in the 
textile industry. We do not know what we have, and we do not even 
have the foresight to go out and start to spend and build. We built 
the Grand Coulee, and no one ever conceived the benefit it would be. 
I do not think we need any new plans. 

Mr. Grafton. If we are going to plan in this way we have to 
plan on a scale never before approached. 

Mr. Lorentz. We have to do that on everything. 

Mr. Daniels. Wall Street, in 1929, had more reasearch on 
industrial plants of America than was ever known before, but 
nobody put it together. Washington has all of the information about 
the country, but we have nobody to put it together. We know we 
ought to put it together. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you think this planning is bunk? When the 
defense program first started or, I should say, when the war started 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4303 

in Europe, and we started to become defense conscious, before it came 
down on our heads, we did plan, did a lot of thinking and, as the tem- 
po increased and continued to increase, we gave less and less atten- 
tion to planning, and more and more attention to getting things made. 

HOUSING PROVISION OMITTED 

Mr. Lorentz. I think that is just old-fashioned laziness, because, 
from the very beginning, those contracts have been let on a cost 
plus basis, and they forgot to put in a provision for essential housing. 
That was just a mistake. That was a mistake last fall, and here it 
is March, and Childersburg, Ala., is going through. 

Mr. Grafton. And you remember the President's first speech pro- 
posed a billion dollars and then, 10 days later, 11 billions were added 
to it, 

Mr. Lorentz. I agree with you, but I think if these problems were 
known to exist back in November — problems everybody knows about 
now — I do not think it would have been a matter of programming 
more and more, There have been many men reporting since 1932 on 
these problems. I think now we might take some time out and see if the 
Office of Production Management is being run the best way. I know 
the common thing is to say, "Let us give it a boost," but you cannot 
handle matters that way. 

Mr. Daniels. I think there has been considerable progress in han- 
dling the workers' problem. 

A lag is inevitable, but I do think we are making progress. 

Mr. Lorentz. I do not deny that, but this is a committee on migration, 
and I think migrants are too much in the public mind, particularly in 
Oklahoma, in connection with this problem of a roving population. 
Here you have the biggest problem in the country. If a policy is set 
down, such as has been set down on prices by Leon Henderson — that is, 
if the Congress set down a policy of preventing the movement of people 
into a community which has no centers for the prevention of communi- 
cable diseases 

Mr. Osmers. It will be a problem as in New York, for example, 
where certain conditions had to be met by the local plant ; you have to 
have an extension of that, you have to have a housing minimum, a health 
minimum, and so on down the line, 

Mr. Lorentz. If you get Congress to accept the philosophy, you al- 
ready have the agencies in existence; you have many agencies — the 
Farm Security, W. P. A., Public Health 

Mr. Osmers. We have the machinery. 

Mr. Lorentz. All you need is the philosophy to be set, As I say, we 
have seen all kinds of Government projects in the past; you have fine 
Forest Service projects, the T. V. A., fine National Parks Service proj- 
ects, and I do not think it is poor economy. 



4304 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Grafton. I wrote a short book last year, in which I agree with 
everything yon have said today, and I did agree that the defense pro- 
gram points to a new frontier, and that where it is used to expand 
economic activity and the rate of production, great public gains come 
out of that. I still think that ought to be done, but do you not think 
that has been neglected and that there has been a complete failure on 
that point, since the beginning of the defense program ? 

Mr. Lorentz. I think all the chickens we have have come home to 
roost. Where we have put out a good public-health program, it is pay- 
ing a return to elate, and naturally you have the same situation here. 
For instance, you have a wonderful health officer in a southern town 
and he is handling the problem in his local office, but he may have 
20,000 new people come in there, and still he has no authority. And why 
hasn't he? Because they are still monkeying around there. 

RECOVERY OR REFORM 

Mr. Grafton. Do you not agree that those who want to make this 
defense program simply a byproduct of our activity have won out, and 
those who want to make an improvement out of it have lost out ? 

Mr. Lorentz. I think the difficulty is to see that naturally we are still 
in the old fight of recovery or reform all over again. We had 1 hat same 
fight before, when we wanted to get the banks running, and the rail- 
roads, and we would never have to worry about reform. That ran on in 
1935, 1936, and 1937 — the question of whether the Government should 
help the people, or whether it should maintain the existing status quo 
and go back to the regular order as fast as possible — and that is still the 
fight in this country. Some are still for it; some are not. But this 
defense program is so big that I do not think anybody realizes it. 
Driving 12 miles through Camp Blanding as I did, it was difficult for 
me to realize that only a little while ago that land was a strawberry 
county. If the Army can expand G80 percent and still see that the 
men have good water and get good medical care, I do not see why the 
social services cannot do it. 

Mr. Daniels. In connection with the schools, Congress provided 
$115,000,000 for 250,000 school children in the defense cent ers. That is 
$460 per year per child — just about four times what the State of New 
York appropriates. But the military is going to throw all of the 
money into those spots and neglect the problem which created the fund. 

Mr. Airman. If we put out a simple statement that a community was 
going to establish a new industry, how much time would that take, 
and how much would that interfere with defense? 

Mr. Lorentz. I would say a lot of time, because, right now, the Army 
has broken down on road construction. I saw a statement where they 
are killing a kid about every 4 days. The Army knew they were 
going to build a camp clown there, and we have agencies that know 
how to build roads. It would have been a lot more efficient if somebody 
had said, "This agency is in charge of the camp area." 

Mr. Osmers. There is not any doubt that if planning in construction 
had been done first, you would have eliminated lay-offs from sickness 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4305 

and the need of fast transportation, and I would say that from the day 
you got the idea until the day you started producing, you would have 
speeded up production. 

Mr. Lorentz. You know, when the T. V. A. tried to keep a perma- 
nent field force, they kept men to cut trees down and kept them as 
part of their own staff; they knew the men were going to be there 
and, since they were going to be there, that they would be permanent. 

Mr. Daniels. Has the T. V. A. broken down at Jefferson City ? 

Mr. Lorentz. Well, it still has the machinery to be able to work 
fast, and it has the schedule. 

Mr. Grafton. It is all right for little rural sections to have a nice 
bridge, but where do you go from there ? Do you not need an increas- 
ing control of your defense program? 

OFFICE OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTION 

Mr. Lorentz. I think you should have an office of domestic produc- 
tion, just as well as an office of armament production, and certainly you 
might have a shoe manufacturer who could work on domestic shoes. 
All of the known shoe manufacturers are working on Army contracts, 
and the price of shoes goes up. There are plenty of agencies to look 
into that, but I think, in expanding this country, you need exactly the 
same set-up as Knudsen has. 

Mr. Osmers. I do not want to change the course of the conversa- 
tion but, Mr. Chairman, after all, we have been devoting our at- 
tention to this question of migration and its effects, and I do not 
know whether we can, in a committee of this sort, sort of plan our 
defense program and how it shall be operated; but I would like 
to hear the views of these witnesses as to migration and steps to end it. 
We are talking about the problems that migration creates after migra- 
tion takes place, and I would like to hear some views on the migration 
problem itself. 

The Chairman. Miss Smith, would you like to get in a few words 
at this point ? 

Miss Smith. I am not an expert on migration. I went down to 
Charlestown to find out the effects of migration on the people, and 
the number of migrants, and I am not up on this. 

Mr. Osmers. Did they all feel after the program was over that 
they would again migrate? 

construction workers 

Miss Smith. As I said before, many of them I talked to were 
used to migrating. I think there is a lot of truth in the statement 
that these people are on wheels and are used to it. They do not 
like it, but they are used to it. 

Mr. Osmers. The people you specifically referred to are permanent 
employees of large construction companies ? 

Miss Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. I would not consider them as migrants in the sense 
of persons who had gone to some place in the hope of finding a 



4306 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

job. That was just their way of life. That would be different 
from the migrant who goes from Oklahoma to California. 

Miss Smith. I did not talk to enough of the other type; most 
of the migrants I talked to were skilled workers who were perma- 
nently employed, and I think the contractors sent them from job 
to job, and they were looking forward, when this plant was com- 
pleted, to moving to some other place. 

Mr. Osmers. And they may move to Seattle, if the firm gets a 
job there? 

Miss Smith. Yes. None of them came in the hope of getting 
permanent jobs. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you feel, at the end of the program, we will have 
a tremendous wave of migration again? 

Miss Smith. As I say, I do not know; I have not studied migra- 
tory labor. I think it has been brought out that labor moves; it 
is moving on wheels, not only farm labor, which started to move 
many, many years ago; industrial labor is now moving and will 
be moving in increasing numbers, and the problem has to be tackled 
on the assumption that labor is moving. In other words, if you 
cannot figure out a way to stop labor moving, you have to figure 
out a plan that will eliminate some of the hazards of schooling 
and community conditions because labor moves. In other words, 
we cannot stop labor from moving — or can we ? 

Mr. Osmers. The question is whether we want to. 

Miss Smith. Either you start with the viewpoint that labor is 
moving and must be stopped, and then you set up a permanent com- 
munity planning around that, once it is frozen; or, if you cannot 
freeze it, then you have to plan according to that fact. In other 
words, in this Charlestown situation I see no reason why you should 
build a brand new schoolhouse, or settle down on that, or put money 
into permanent structures, on the assumption it is going to be a per- 
manent town, because it may not. God knows, this place has no gov- 
ernmental appropriation, no advice, and the help they need, more than 
anything else, is a sewer system. But the Government is thinking, 
rather, of building a housing project and giving the town a new 
school ; and from my point of view, it seems to me that that sort of 
action is based upon the premise that it is a permanent thing, that the 
labor condition of the town is already frozen, which it is not. 

Mr. Osmers. What are they making at Charlestown ? 

Miss Smith. Powder. 

The Chairman. Mr. Aikman, what is your impression? What do 
you feel will be the conditions in this country at the end of the war, 
so far as migration is concerned ? 

MORE FEOPLE "ON WHEELS" 

Mr. Aikman. I think they are going to be, quite possibly, pretty bad. 
This same tendency to move around, to look for better pastures, will 
be strengthened by the fact that a great many more hundreds of 
thousands and millions of people have been more or less uprooted, 
and we will have more people on wheels, more people believing they 
would find a pot of gold at the end of the wheel's turn. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4307 

Mr. Osmers. I think more and more, as we get into this war effort, 
we are going to find priorities instituted that will stop certain normal 
peacetime industries. 

Mr. Airman. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. And, of course, when the war ends, the normal peace- 
time agencies will come back again, so that the people who are rushed 
to the powder plant in Charlestown will offer to go to the shoe factory 
in New England, that will now start to make shoes again, and the 
rush will probably be on up to that point. 

Mr. Airman. Some of it will be healthy, of course, and there will 
be some opportunties for employment; on the other hand, with the 
number of men being demobilized from the Army and from war in- 
dustries, I suspect that the demand for jobs will be much bigger than 
the number of openings. 

Mr. Osmers. What do you think the Government should do against 
that evil day? 

Miss Smith. That is a rather large question. 

Mr. Osmers. Yes. 

Mr. Airman. Another $7,000,000,000, probably. 

Mr. Osmers. Of course, that in itself will not be the end. We have 
been in that psychology for a long time but, basically, it cures nothing; 
it stops the noise, but it does not cure anything. 

Mr. Airman. I think we have to plan ahead for a new kind of eco- 
nomic functional machinery, and I have to leave a good deal of that to 
the technicians, not being an economist; but we have to think in the 
future of more purchasing power, better distribution system, and less 
along the line of building profits up at the top, building up savings. 
This is the old argument of the New Deal. We are not going to make 
this system function by holding to the method of accumulating large 
groups of capital in special places. It may be too bad that it won't 
work, but I do not think it will work. We have to put our thinking 
on terms of more employment. We have to build statues to people 
who make more jobs, rather than people who make bigger and better 
banks. I think Mr. Grafton's bank reaction is a very interesting 
thought, though. Those fellows' philosophy was to adopt the thrift 
basis, and now thrift is beginning to give them a pain in the neck and 
they say "For God's sake, go out and spend it some place; don't give it 
to me.'" 

Mr. Osmers. In the course of your travels, did you run up against 
activities of the United States Employment Office?' 

Mr. Airman. Not specifically ; no. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you feel that is a field where the Federal Govern- 
ment should become increasingly active and more effective ? 

Mr. Airman. I think any organization that can, by any chance, im- 
prove the opportunity for employment, should be busy, and the Fed- 
eral Government probably has the largest amount of information it 
can get. 

Mr. Osmers. It does not necessarily, in fact it does not at all, increase 
the opportunities for the United States Employment Service; but it is, 
on paper, a great idea to prevent needless migration. 

Mr. Airman. Yes. 



4308 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Osmers. We are not trying to prevent men from going from New 
York to Chicago to get a job, but we would like to prevent men going 
from New York to Chicago to get nothing. 

Mr. Airman. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. And in some places in the United States the committee 
has found that the United States Employment Service is doing a great 
job ; in other places that it is not doing a great job, because it is not big 
enough in relation to the problem. It is just a minor establishment off 
on some side street in the town, rather than being in the center of 
things, or it is next door to a juke joint. 

RADIO AS EMPLOYMENT MEDIUM 

Mr. Daniels. You have a big personnel problem there, where you 
have to have the right men to do the job. 

Mr. Lorentz. I think the radio is the right way to get to people, and 
I think it should be used. Once you get to using it as a matter of course, 
the trailer houses will listen to the radio. If you used it right in 
Charlestown, if they had use for construction workers and you would 
put on a 15-minute broadcast each morning for a week, you would 
have everybody you wanted. 

Mr. Osmers. But you are likely to run into the very worst type of — 
I won't say "labor baiting," but of attracting labor — practices that we 
have been criticizing private employers for. If you put a broadcast on 
the air that they want construction workers in Charlestown, Charles- 
town will look something like Brooklyn in 2 days' time. 

Mr. Lorentz. I would put it the other way around. You could 
certainly break it down into regions for the employment service to 
work on, and you would have a list, and you would state that so many 
people are needed, and those are the people you can work on. 

Mr. Osmers. I would like to see the radio used as an instrument 
to get the fellows in motor courts and juke joints to go to the local 
construction offices by saying there are jobs here in shipping, or some- 
thing like that. Then the local employment office could have a quota. 

Mr. Lorentz. That is, the only way is to publicize the work they 
can get in your area, and that is what they do not know. In town 
after town, in the rural area, if you could say, "Fifty miles away you 
can find out something," you could save a man a 1,000-mile trip. 

Mr. Osmers. I wonder whether you feel, Mr. Grafton, that the Gov- 
ernment should offer a person a certain security set-up at increased 
unemployment-compensation rates, so that those who work on purely 
defense activities, where the industries we know are going to collapse 
when the thing is over, shall contribute a larger share of their salary, 
and the employer shall contribute a larger share, so that, when the 
job is over, they won't have 15 weeks, or something like that, but they 
may have something like 6 months of a small income to see if they 
could be transferred from a wartime industry to a possible peacetime 
industry. 

Mr. Grafton. I think that would be a splendid thing, because you 
either have to do it that way, or in the hit-and-miss way. 

Mr. Osmers. And just pay it out of the Treasury? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4309 

Mr. Grafton. Just pay it out of the Treasury afterwards. I think 
the fact is that all morning we have been veering around to the larger 
national question of starting governmental work, and we inevitably 
talk about the whole economy of the country, and that is a significant 
question; because I cannot see any difference between the great mi- 
grations in this country and the great migrations from Europe a 
century ago. The people have no place to go. I think the whole 
thing is an economic problem, and I think the need is to get going 
straight. 

The Chairman. But when you start to break it down, you get into 
the health problem, the housing problem, and others, and our whole 
economy is tied up in this migration problem. 

Mr. Osmers. But you do feel, Mr. Grafton, that consideration should 
be given to that narrower question of increased unemployment in- 
surance for those working in purely defense activities? 

Mr. Grafton. Yes, I do; I think special provision should positively 
be made. 

The Chairman. Is there anything else you gentlemen want to con- 
tribute? I want to say to you that we are certainly very grateful to 
you gentlemen for coming^ here, and to you, Miss Smith, too, and it 
has been very interesting to me. Of course, I have lived with this 
problem for several months now. and have tried to think it out, and 
the more you study it the more you have to come to the conclusion 
that it is wrapped up in our whole economy, don't you see ; it is con- 
nected, directly or indirectly, with every economic dislocation in our 
national life, so that we have to keep our minds on the main picture 
and not get off on the side roads too much, because we are still liable 
to lose sight of what the problem really involves. For instance, there 
are two approaches to it— the short-term and the long-term approach. 
The 'short-term question arises when people hit the road under cir- 
cumstances over which we have no control, and we must consider how 
have we been treating them, and how they should be treated. We 
have been treating them as people who are not our people, When 
you start out, you are a citizen, under the Constitution, of every State 
of the Union ; but we have not been treating these people that way : 
we have raised barriers of from 1 year up to 5 years of residence, and 
we have not given them information. You take the farmer who starts 
out with his family. He goes dowm the road, and he does not know 
where to go to get information, or anything of the kind, and some 
private employment agency may take his last dollar and shoot him 
across the State line. By 'the way, we are going to introduce legis- 
lation to correct that— that is, to regulate these contractors for mi- 
grant labor, and to require them to register. That is the short-term 
approach. 

The long-term approach is to the matter of resettlement, and I am 
glad to hear you people say here this morning that this is a national 
problem. It is the one in which we are deeply concerned, and the one 
which is neglected. I think it is going to be increasingly serious. 
Now, we cannot just keep chasing people around the way we have. 
without striking at the morale of our country, which means our na- 
tional defense. It simply cannot be done. 



4310 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Take mechanization alone : Why, 150 years ago, it took 19 farmers 
to raise enough to feed themselves and one surplus city family. 

Mr. Daniels. Yet the region that is producing the most of your 
migrants has less machinery than any other. 

The Chaieman. Yes. But now, with mechanization, the same people 
take care of 59. 

Let us not try to settle the whole thing now. I just want again to 
express appreciation of your coming here, and I was thinking this 
morning, while you were testifying, that it was just too bad we did 
not have the facilities here for broadcasting. 

(Whereupon the committee adjourned until 10 o'clock a, m., Tues- 
day, March 25, 1941.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



TUESDAY, MARCH 25, 1941 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
The committee met at 10: 20 a. m., March 25, 1941, in room 1015 of 
the New House Office Building, Washington, D. C, Hon. John H. 
Tolan (chairman), presiding. 

Present: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of California; 
John J. Sparkman, of Alabama; Carl T. Curtis, of Nebraska; Frank 
C. Osmers, Jr., of New Jersey; and Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois. 
Also present : Robert K. Lamb, chief investigator; Creekmore Fath, 
acting counsel; John W. Abbott, field investigator, and F. Palmer 
Weber, research assistant. 

TESTIMONY OF C. F. PALMER, COORDINATOR OF DEFENSE HOUSING, 
DIVISION OF DEFENSE HOUSING COORDINATION IN THE 
EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT 

The Chairman. It is very nice of you to appear here, Mr. Palmer ; 
we appreciate it. Congressman Sparkman will interrogate you. 

Mr. Palmer. Do you think it might be helpful if a statement were 
given to you first and then questions asked, or would you rather pro- 
ceed the other way? 

Mr. Sparkman. I was going to suggest that if you had a prepared 
statement, you might summarize it for us. For the record, will you 
state your name, residence, and official capacities? 

Mr. Palmer. My name is C. F. Palmer. My position is that of 
Coordinator of Defense Housing, Division of Defense Housing Co- 
ordination in the executive office of the President. My place of resi- 
dence, for the duration, will be Washington. 

Because the matter of defense housing covers so wide a territory, 
the following statement may be of help. Its purpose is to show, in 
an orderly fashion, what the field actually is. [Reading :] 

In appearing before this committee, my purpose is to enter into a 
discussion of the extensive problems imposed by the migration of 
workers, only to the extent that migration is related to the operations 
of the Division of Defense Housing Coordination. Information upon 
other aspects of current migration will be given you by Mr. Hinrichs 
and others. Mr. McNutt, who I understand will follow me, will 

4311 



4312 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

undoubtedly give you additional useful information on the general 
problems involved, based on surveys made by his organization. 

The sphere of activity of the Division of Defense Housing Coordi- 
nation is by no means coextensive with the whole of the migrant 
problem. In fact, we deal only with that part of the migrant problem 
which results from the defense program and center our attention on 
only certain phases of it. Our operations are at present restricted to 
the purpose of insuring that the defense program is not handicapped 
by lack of housing. 

In the first place, housing must be provided in the vicinity of Mili- 
tary and Naval Establishments for families of permanent personnel 
in the armed services ordered to those points. The second and more 
important sphere of our operations is the providing of housing for 
in-migrant employees. I do not know if anybody in our office coined 
that word. It sounds like "immigrant." We do not want that. The 
"in-migrant workers" are workers migrating into an area, as dis- 
tinguished from "out-migrant" workers. 

Where tremendous expansion of employment takes place, as our 
1917-18 experience shows, there is danger that the new workers coming 
into the community to work in the new or expanded industries may be 
unable to find homes for themselves and their families, or even to find 
single rooms. This is an obstacle to the recruitment of the necessary 
defense workers and, consequently, to defense production. It is this 
obstacle that we are endeavoring to overcome, and which furnishes 
the main reason for our existence — that is, of the Division of Defense 
Housing Coordination. This is, of course, in part a problem of 
migration ; but, as I will point out later, there are several classes of 
migrants connected directly or indirectly with defense activities, for 
whom we do not now provide housing, though we are fully aware of 
serious and sometimes deplorable conditions. 

BUILDING INDUSTRY'S PROBLEM 

Our problem is more than one of migratory population, however. 
It arises in large part out of the private building industry. Migration 
of workers to growing centers of industry has long been a character- 
istic of the American economy. The building boom of the twenties 
reflected not only this movement but the contemporaneous response 
of the building industry to the new needs created. The present accel- 
erated migration, unfortunately, comes at a time when the building 
industry, despite some degree of Government assistance, has scarcely 
recovered the capacity and willingness to meet normal needs which it 
lost during the depression years. Thus there is added, to the problem 
of meeting normal housing needs, the problem of housing the new 
migrants. 

Before entering upon a general discussion of the relation of our 
program to the entire migration problem, and before outlining for you 
the manner in which we proceed in the course of our operation's, I 
would like to tell you briefly of the tangible results of our operations 
to date, This will give you some idea of the magnitude and the gen- 
eral distribution of the housing problem which we are undertaking to 
solve. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4313 

In the first place, I think I should make it clear that the Division of 
Defense Housing Coordination is not a construction agency. We de- 
termine, on the basis of information secured for us, partly through 
our own staff but largely through a coordinated program of surveys 
made for us by existing Federal agencies, in what localities and in 
what quantities additional housing for defense purposes will be re- 
quired. After determining further what proportion of this housing is 
likely to be provided by private initiative, we recommend the alloca- 
tion by the President, from the several funds provided by Congress, of 
the money necessary for building public housing required in each lo- 
cality. This money is allocated to the Federal Works Agency, the 
Navy, the Army, or some other operating agency for construction of 
the particular project. 

It should be noted here that when we recommend a program for a 
locality in which we expect to rely upon private construction as well as 
public, our recommendations for private construction are embodied 
in and approved and published as a part of the over-all program. It 
should also be noted that the term "locality," as we use it, embodies 
an industrial area, which may be composed of a number of industrial 
communities and residential communities within the practicable com- 
muting area. For instance, you will find that the defense activities in 
Boston, or even in Fall River, affect that whole surrounding area ; the 
Philadelphia Navy Yard affects the Camden district and also the 
North Paterson district. 

As of March 22 a total of 72,803 family dwelling units had been 
allocated for construction. During the entire year 1940, the housing 
built with public money comprised 5,045 nonrnral dwellings, or a 
total of 75,000 family units. In the few months that we have been in 
operation, we have allocated funds for 72,803 dwelling units. These 
houses are located in 47 States and Territories and 136 localities. Of 
the total number of units allocated, 46,805 are earmarked for occupancy 
by civilians and the remaining 25,998 are provided for married non- 
commissioned officers of the Army and Navy. 

You will recall that you gentlemen of Congress voted originally, 
under Public 781, of the Seventy-sixth Congress, $100,000,000 exclu- 
sively for the Army and Navy. That was followed by $150,000,000 of 
the Lanham fund. That is one reason why there is a high proportion — 
one might say a l-to-2 proportion — for the enlisted personnel as against 
the industrial workers. That ratio will change very rapidly, however, 
as the program expands, with a great deal more housing for industrial 
workers. In addition to providing shelter for in-migrant families in 
defense localities, funds for the accommodation of 2,445 single persons 
have been allocated. 

Since the defense-housing program started late last year, construc- 
tion contracts for 43,357 units have been let, and 3,855 units have been 
completed. Something over 1,000 a week are now being completed for 
occupancy and that rate will be accelerated, with a great mass of hous- 
ing to be completed by midsummer. 



2603T0— 41— pt. 11- 



4314 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

TEMPORARY SHELTER 

In order to provide shelter for in-migrant workers before the hous- 
ing units are ready for occupancy, a program of temporary shelter 
is getting under way. On March 18, the President signed an order 
releasing funds to purchase trailers to accommodate 2,035 families and 
for the construction of temporary dormitories to accommodate 2,900 
single men employed in defense industries. This need for temporary 
shelter has come about because of the speed in completing new plants 
and hiring defense workers, and because of the resultant migration of 
labor ahead of the original schedule. Sometimes this bulge comes in 
with an accumulation of labor which migrates into an area before the 
housing to take care of them can possibly be completed ; yet they must 
be housed, because the plant is ready to function. 

The policy of the Division of Defense Housing Coordination is to 
provide housing of three types: (1) permanent; (2) demountable; 
(3) portable. 

A demountable house is of as high standard as a permanent house, 
but it has the added feature that it can be moved to another locality. 

Permanent housing is constructed in localities where it is believed 
the units can be absorbed after the defense needs have passed. 
Demountable housing is constructed in areas where use after the 
defense period is uncertain. These units have high salvage value. It 
is hoped that this type of housing will eliminate the ghost towns which 
were so familiar after the World War. 

Portable units are used to meet temporary shelter needs before 
the permanent or demountable housing program of a locality is 
complete. Demountable and portable housing is designed to ac- 
commodate labor migrating to a community and to adjust the hous- 
ing situation in a locality when there is outward migration. 

The tendency of the housing program has been both to anticipate 
and follow the labor needs of industry. It is not surprising there- 
fore that over 60 percent of the housing allocated to date is located 
in the tidewater States of the Atlantic and Pacific. There are sev- 
eral reasons for this, chief among them being (1) the large number 
of men required by the shipbuilding industry, often in small cities 
or in remote suburbs of metropolitan areas where existing housing 
and labor supplies are not adequate; (2) the location of the airplane 
industry in coastal areas; (3) the great expansion of naval estab- 
lishments; and (4) the strengthening of coastal defenses by the 
Army. The greatest number of units — 21,453 — are being constructed 
in the South Atlantic States, bordering the Atlantic from Delaware 
to Florida. Next in order is the Pacific coast region, with 11,829 
units. 

This, in brief, is the outline of the specific allocations made at 
our recommendation to date. It does not represent, however, the 
full extent of our activities, nor does it give an indication of the 
eventual extent to which the defense housing program may be ex- 
panded. Already we are engaged in studies of the need for housing 
in a great number of additional localities, as well as of the need for 
additional housing in some of the places for which we have already 
made allocations. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4315 

EMPLOYMENT SURVEYS 

One of the first steps we take in our investigation of need in a locality- 
is to ask the Bureau of Employment Security, of the Social Security 
Board, to conduct a survey of the employment situation in that area. 
These surveys, concerning' which Mr. McNutt will doubtless give you 
more detailed information, secure data on expected increases in em- 
ployment within the area, and on the supply of labor locally available 
and possessing the skills necessary to fill the local job openings or 
then being trained for these jobs. From these figures are derived esti- 
mates of the number of workers it will be necessary to import into the 
area to meet the industrial needs. In these studies, I might add, we 
try to have covered not only the labor supply in the individual cities, 
but the largest practicable commuting area about the centers of defense 
industry, feeling as we do that all local sources ought to be exhausted, 
before workers are brought in from other areas. 

I should like to give at this point an example of the type of labor 
information which we secure, and of the type of problem with which 
we are faced, using the city of San Diego, Calif., as the example. San 
Diego, as you know, is not only the site of an important naval base and 
the center of several Army activities; it also contains the plants of 4 
aircraft companies, largest of which is the main plant of the Consoli- 
dated Aircraft Corporation. The report which we have just received 
indicates that employment in these aircraft plants has risen from 5,000 
in January 1940, and 13,000 in October 1940, to 18.000 in February 
1941. Two thousand employees were added during the month of Jan- 
uary 1941. It is not a large city, either, as you know. Furthermore, 
there will be 22,000 more taken on by the manufacturing industries in 
San Diego by February 1942. 

The Chairman. What is the population of San Diego normally ? 

Mr. Palmer. The actual census is less than 300,000, I believe. Of 
these additional 22,000 men to be employed by February next, the sup- 
ply of local unemployed labor and of potential trainees is expected 
to furnish a maximum of 5,000 workers, leaving 17,000 aircraft and 
other manufacturing workers to be imported into the San Diego area. 
Fifty percent of these, it is expected, will come from the Middle West 
and the Eastern States where the companies are already engaged in 
recruiting labor of the types desired. It has been estimated that the 
population of San Diego increased 30,000 between April 1940 and the 
end of the year. This increase includes some 4,000 construction work- 
ers who have come into the city, most of whom are expected to leave 
when construction operations now under way are completed. 

To meet the need which this great population influx presents, private 
builders have constructed over 3,000 dwellings in the San Diego area 
during the past year ; but, as is obvious, this is not sufficient. To date, 
we have recommended the allocation of funds for the construction of 
3,000 dwellings for aircraft workers and 1,200 for the families of Navy 
personnel, in addition to 750 accommodations for single men. During 
the last 10 days we have also recommended allocations for 1,000 de- 
mountable dormitory units for single civilian workers and for 500 
trailers to accommodate families of workers in the airplane industry. 



4316 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

You can see what a large program that is. Those facilities alone would 
house a very sizable population in a town; in just one area alone, there 
will be a concentration between a satellite or quasi-satellite town and 
Fonda Mesa that will house about 12,000 people. The new report 
which we have just received confirms our previous belief that the situ- 
ation in San Diego must be reconsidered and perhaps additional hous- 
ing provided if new funds are made available by Congress. 

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION 

To date we have requested labor surveys similar to that for San 
Diego in approximately 150 localities — localities in which reported 
plant expansions or defense contracts are sufficiently large in volume 
to indicate a potential importation of workers and a resulting short- 
age of housing. Only 10 percent of these localities are primarily mili- 
tary or naval centers ; the remaining 90 percent are industrial, engaged 
in the production of ships, airplanes, munitions, steel, and similar 
products essential to defense. Of the 150 localities, it is interesting to 
note that 48 are located in the Atlantic Coastal States from New York 
to Virginia, 18 in the New England States, and 43 in the 5 Midwestern 
States bordering the Great Lakes. In the remaining 30 Southern and 
Western States the number of localities represented in the present list 
of critical industrial areas is relatively small — 40 in all — but some of 
them, because of the size of the defense activity in relation to available 
local labor supplies, are among our most serious problems. 

There again you get back to San Diego which, parenthetically, might 
be called almost a second Federal city, because the land to be occupied 
by Federal industries will be Federally owned. This materially 
affects the taxing sources of the State. 

This list of localities for which we have requested labor surveys does 
not indicate the full extent of the migration problem, however. It is 
confined for the most part to the larger industrial cities, which are 
the first to feel the impact of primary defense contracts, and to smaller 
cities which are chosen as locations for large new aircraft and powder 
plants, and shipyards. 

New centers of industrial activity are constantly being brought to 
our attention as new contracts for defense materials are awarded, 
new plants placed under construction, and the volume of subcontract 
activity increases. I know one contractor in Detroit who is dealing 
with over 76 subcontractors, giving some of them such a great volume 
that the secondary impact on the program through this subcontract 
system is materially affecting the housing needs in remote localities. 
Nor have we as yet requested labor surveys for more than a handful 
of the towns near the new training camps and air fields throughout 
the country, concentrated largely in the South and West. We will 
soon complete arrangements for making these surveys, which we have 
heretofore deferred because of the great number of more urgent situa- 
tions in industrial areas to be covered, and because of the different 
nature of the problems involved in military centers. 

In some of the localities, of course, the labor surveys will doubtless 
indicate that no housing problem will be experienced. However, it 
would not surprise me if within the next year it should become neces- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4317 

sary for us to allocate funds for the provision of defense housing in 
as many as 200 to 250 localities, including those where military estab- 
lishments are located and those for which some housing has already 
been provided. (And we must remember, gentlemen, that the impact 
of the lease-lend bill has not even been felt yet.) In addition, per- 
haps 50 to 100 localities will experience problems of inward migra- 
tion which will not be of sufficient extent to warrant provision for 
additional housing, or will be of a type for which the provision of 
housing will be outside the sphere of this Division's operations as 
presently constituted. 

In many and perhaps in most of the localities for which we provide 
housing, we shall not be able, under existing conditions, to provide 
the various kinds of housing which may be needed by in-migrants of all 
types. For example, if the defense industry is superimposed upon 
the present automobile industry of Detroit, the repercussions on the 
outside areas, even as far removed as Ypsilanti, will be such that 
thousands and thousands of houses of some type or other will be 
necessary to approach a solution of the problem. It is now estimated 
that over 120,000 new workers, without their corollaries, would have 
to come into that area. The total volume of migration will obviously 
be not only at least as greafas the number of dwellings we have pro- 
vided and are authorized under present legislation to provide, but it 
will in all likelihood be considerably, perhaps several times, greater. 

TYFES OF RESTRICTIONS 

The effective restrictions upon the sphere of our operations, to 
which I have previously alluded, are of several types. It should be 
remembered that our primary purpose is to provide homes for work- 
ers in defense industries, and to satisfy the demands of the military 
services for housing for the families of their personnel. _ The provi- 
sions of housing for in-migrant workers engaged in servicing the in- 
creased population of the city does not at present come within the 
sphere of our activities, nor are we, obviously, providing housing for 
persons who come into the city with the hope of finding employment 
and remain there, wholly or partially unemployed. Insofar as in- 
migrants of the latter two classes compete with defense workers for 
housing in industrial localities, it is necessary for us to take these 
problems into consideration and to provide, for defense workers 
threatened with displacement by these other in-migrants, some hous- 
ing in addition to that which we might otherwise furnish. 

During a peak of construction activity, however, such as was re- 
ferred to yesterday— at Charlestown, Ind.— it would be impracticable 
to try to house those people. There they are building a $72,000,000 
plant, over a period of about 90 days. In cases of that kind provision 
for the workers is primarily the obligation of the contractor himself. 

The exact extent of this secondarv migration we have not as yet 
been able to determine, but certain special types of surveys, now being 
made on an experimental basis by the. Work Projects Administration, 
may furnish us with information bearing on this problem. We are 
at "least fully aware of, and sympathetic with, the problems ot the 
people who come into these communities, and it may well be that in 



4318 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

the future, as the nature and extent of these problems become clearer, 
we will take steps to cope with them more fully. 

FAMILIES OF ENLISTED PERSONNEL 

Another class of in-migrants for whom our program does not pro- 
vide under existing authorizations includes persons indirectly at- 
tached or attracted to Military Establishments other than permanent 
reservations and bases. These include not only the increased popu- 
lation engaged in retail and service activities in the areas concerned, 
and persons who migrate thereto in search of employment, but also 
the families and friends of enlisted personnel, for whom the War De- 
partment does not feel obligated to provide housing. 

We have gone into the problem very carefully in these temporary 
areas where men are established for only a year under the selective 
service. Army officials properly feel there is no more reason to pro- 
vide housing in that area for the family of an officer called there to 
duty than there would be to tow along some boats in back of the war- 
ships to take the families of the naval officers when they go on sea 
duty. So they are discouraging such requests in order to try to an- 
ticipate and prevent housing shortages. Up to the present time, the 
War Department has requested housing only for the wives and chil- 
dren of its permanent noncommissioned officers who do not wish to be 
separated from their families, and also for some of the families of 
civilian workers employed at the posts. The families of permanent 
commissioned officers have been left to find their own housing, al- 
though recent discussions with the military services suggest that hous- 
ing for this class of personnel presents a serious problem. It may 
enter into our program in the future in situations involving perma- 
nent location. 

It has also been a settled Army policy to discourage residence 
near the post of relatives or friends of National Guard officers and 
men, and of draftees and other enlisted men of the lower grades in 
the Regular Army. No housing is provided for these groups. In 
so far as persons in these classifications move into the neighborhood 
of the Army and Navy establishments, they sharply intensify, if 
only temporarily, the existing shortages of housing and pose a prob- 
lem for which no solution has yet been determined. 

Mention should be made at this point of the problem of housing 
workers engaged in the construction of new plants and military 
posts. We have generally taken the position that the housing re- 
quirement for such of those workers as do not live within commuting 
distance is of too temporary a nature to fall within our program. 
Furthermore, construction workers are accustomed to commuting 
long distances to their work and to living temporarily apart from 
their families in such quarters as they may find near the site. Also, 
where an extraordinary need exists, some responsibility devolves 
upon the contractor to provide temporary housing, and in many in- 
stances such housing is provided in that way. Thus, except when 
dormitories or temporary shelter provided for permanent workers 
has become available while construction was still in progress, we 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4319 

have not provided housing for construction employees, although they 
doubtless form a part of the migration problem. 

OTHER APPROACHES 

Before concluding my remarks this morning, I should like to point 
out that the Division of Defense Housing Coordination is attacking 
the problem of providing housing for defense workers from other 
approaches than merely the provision of public housing. We not 
only attempt to stimulate new private construction activity in de- 
fense areas, but we also make some effort to hold down the volume 
of migration. The F. H. A. surveys over a period of 7 months show 
an expansion of construction which in some places has risen as high 
as 280 percent above corresponding figures of a year ago. For that 
7-month period in these defense areas, the total number of dwellings 
increased, compared with the corresponding period of last year, from 
69,000 to 88,000— an increase of over 29 percent. 

With the help that comes from knowing what to expect from pub- 
lic housing when the program is actually planned and then adhered 
to, our policy of not providing housing for nondefense migrants 
might itself be considered a* step to discourage unnecessary migra- 
tion; but we also exercise some positive influence in this connection. 
For example, when new plants are proposed, we make recommenda- 
tions regarding the desirability of the various proposed locations 
from the standpoint of the availability of housing. We also, when 
the occasion demands, take steps to inquire into local transportation 
facilities and to recommend such improvements in transportation 
as may be necessary to broaden the practical commuting area and 
thus relieve the urgency of housing requirements within the im- 
mediate vicinity. 

There again* Charlestown, Ind., is a good example. Six trains 
carry a thousand men back and forth to avoid aggravating the 
congestion in areas of poor housing. The same thing is taking place 
at Radford, Va. 

In order to help incoming defense workers find living accommoda- 
tions, we are assisting local groups in the organization of homes regis- 
tration offices in cities affected by the defense program. These offices 
will locate and list all existing vacancies and refer applicants to them. 
They will encourage the improvement of poor dwellings and in some 
instances encourage property owners to make additional family dwell- 
ings available by the conversion of large dwellings into smaller units 
and to make unused rooms available for rental. It is also the general 
policy of this division to stimulate private construction of new dwell- 
ings in localities where private housing is likely to meet a substantial 
part of the need. [Reading ends.] 

That, in general, gives you the basis of our procedure and I would 
be glad to withdraw now* in favor of Governor McNutt and then, if 
you wish, to answer questions later. 

The Chairman. Yes ; we would like to have you remain, because that 
is a very interesting statement, and the committee may wish to inter- 
rogate you further. 



4320 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Palmer. Here is, also, a list of the areas in which we are request- 
ing a labor survey. 

(The list referred to is as follows :) 

List op Localities fob Which Labor Surveys Have Been Requested by thh 
Division of Defense Housing Coordination 



NEW ENGLAND REGION 



Maine : 

Bath. 

Portland area. 
New Hampshire : Portsmouth. 
Vermont : Springfield. 
Massachusetts : 

Boston area. 

Greenfield. 

Worcester. 
Rhode Island : 

Newport. 

Quonset Point. 



Connecticut : 
Bridgeport. 
Bristol. 

Hartford area. 
Meriden. 
New Britain. 
New Haven. 
New London area. 
Stamford. 
Waterbury. 



MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES REGION 



Now York : 

Albany-Schenectady-Troy area. 

Bethpage-Farmingdale area. 

Binghamton. 

Buffalo area. 

Elmira. 

Jamestown. 

Massena. 

Rochester. 

Sidney. 

Staten Island-Bayonne area. 

Syracuse. 

Utica. 

Water town. 
New Jersey : 

Camden. 

Dover area. 

Kearny area. 

Paterson area. 

Trenton. 
Pennsylvania : 

Allegheny County area. 

Allentown-Bethlehem area. 

Beaver County. 

Berwick. 

Bristol. 

Coatesville. 

Corry. 



Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Delaware County. 

Ellwood City. 

Erie. 

Harrisburg area. 

Hatboro. 

Norristown-Conshohocken area , 

Philadelphia. 

Reading. 

Titusville. 

Warren-Irvine area. 

Williamsport. 

York. 
Delaware : Wilmington. 
District of Columbia : Washington area. 
Maryland : 

Baltimore area. 

Elkton. 

Hagerstown. 
Virginia : 

Newport News area. 

Norfolk-Portsmouth area. 

Radford-Pulaski area. 
West Virginia : 

Charleston area. 

Morgantown. 

Point Pleasant. 



GREAT LAKES STATES REGION 



Ohio : 



Akron area. 
Canton-Massillon area. 
Cincinnati area. 
Cleveland area. 
Columbus. 
Dayton. 

Ravenna-Warren area. 
Sandusky. 
Springfield. 



Ohio — Continued. 

Steubenville-Weirton area. 

Youngstown area. 
Indiana : 

Charlestown. 

Evansville. 

Fort Wayne. 

Indianapolis. 

LaPorte-Kingsbury area. 

Madison. 

South Bend. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4321 



Illinois : 

Alton area. 

Chicago area. 

East St. Louis area. 

Harvey. 

Joliet-Wilmington area. 

Rockford. 

Rock Island area. 

Savanna. 

Waukegan-North Chicago area. 
Michigan : 

Battle Creek. 

Bay City-Midland. 

Detroit area. 

Flint. 



Mich i ga n — Continued. 

Jackson. 

Muskegon. 

Niles-Buchanan. 

Pontiac. 

Saginaw. 

Ypsilanti-Chelsea area. 
Wisconsin : 

Beloit. 

Kenosha. 

Manitowoc. 

Milwaukee area. 

Oshkosh. 

Racine. 



SOUTHEASTERN STATES 



North Carolina : 

Henderson. 

Wilmington. 
Georgia : Macon. 
Florida : 

Jacksonville. 

Pensacola. 

Tampa. 
Kentucky : 

Henderson. 

Louisville. 



Mississippi : Pascagoula. 
Tennessee : 

Knoxville. 

Memphis. 

Milan-Humboldt. 

Nashville. 
Alabama : 

Birmingham. 

Childersburg. 

Gadsden. 

Mobile area. 

Muscle Shoals area. 



SOUTHWESTERN AND PLAINS STATES 



Iowa : Burlington. 
Missouri : 

Kansas City area. 

St. Louis area. 
Nebraska : Omaha. 
Kansas : Wichita. 
Arkansas: Little Rock. 
Oklahoma : Tulsa. 



Texas : 

Dallas. 

Dumas. 

Fort Worth. 

Freeport. 

Galveston. 

Houston. 

Orange area. 



MOUNTAIN AND PACIFIC STATES 



Colorado : Denver. 
Utah: Ogden. 
Washington : 

Bremerton. 

Seattle. 
Oregon : Portland. 



California : 

Los Angeles area. 

San Diego. 

San Francisco area. 

Vallejo. 



TESTIMONY OF HON. PAUL V. McNUTT, ADMINISTRATOR, FEDERAL 
SECURITY AGENCY, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Chairman. We will now hear Hon. Paul V. McNutt, Admin- 
istrator, Federal Security Agency and Coordinator of Health and 
Welfare Activities for the Defense Commission. 

Now, Governor, I have read your statement. It is a very valu- 
able contribution and we have broken it down into questions, but 
probably you would rather proceed in your own way and make a 



4322 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

statement first, and then we will ask you a few questions later. 

Mr. McNutt. I think perhaps that is better. [Reading:] 

The defense effort will greatly speed up the mobility of labor. 
The labor problems associated with defense are largely those of a 
wholesale retraining and wholesale relocation of the working popu- 
lation. The trek to industrial centers will be as large as — if not 
larger than — those during the boom of World War No. 1 and. during 
the latter part of the 1920's. The programs of civil defense which 
I have been asked to coordinate will vary in intensity from one com- 
munity to another in proportion to the amount of ''bulge" in the 
population ; hence we are actively interested in these defense mi- 
grations. 

The picture will be more exact if I describe briefly the main types 
of movement which are now occurring : 

First: Over a million soldiers have been placed in camps. This 
number will grow, and sailors are also concentrated around naval 
bases. While military concentration is not usually looked on as 
migration, it raises some of the same problems which occur because 
of the normal movement of civilians. Again, some of the men of 
the armed forces will move their families with them, and this swells 
the size of the population of nearby communities. 

Second : There is the movement of a large number of construction 
workers who are building these new camps and new factories. This 
will be an impermanent movement. When the facilities are built, 
the construction workers will either have to find another job in the 
community or shift to another area. Nearly 700,000 workers will 
be engaged in construction next month at the peak of the construc- 
tion program under present contracts. If no new facilities or bar- 
racks are started, this number will dwindle rapidly to under 200,000 
by December. Thus, nearly half a million workers will have to 
shift their jobs or their residence. 

This construction is accomplished in part by commuting workers 
who do not change their residence but who bring especial problems 
of approach highways, eating facilities, and sanitation. The con- 
struction at Charlestown, Ind., is being accomplished in part by 
running a number of commuters' trains out of Louisville. Camp 
Blanding, in Florida, is partially manned by commuters from Jack- 
sonville, and I understand that busses are running to Fort Bragg 
at Fayetteville, N. C, from 60 and 70 miles, transporting workers 
back and forth daily. 

The third type of migration will be into industrial centers which 
were large to begin with. The idle machines of Detroit, Chicago, 
and Pittsburgh have begun to hum again and are tended partially 
by the local unemployed and partially by the newcomers from sur- 
rounding areas. 

The fourth type of migration occurs where a new plant is built or 
an existing plant greatly enlarged in a community which was small 
to begin with. Radford, Va., and Charlestown, Ind., are frequently 
cited as examples of this. In these communities, the original small 
population which was there will be increased manyfold and com- 
munity facilities will have to be built practically from the ground up. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4323 

USELESS MIGRATION 

Finally, there is much useless migration. When there are hordes 
of unemployed and hordes whose earnings are inadequate to support 
a family, such as there have been during the depression, there are 
thousands who will move at the slightest prospect of improving their 
lot. They cannot be blamed for wanting to try their luck somewhere 
else. This results in an oversupply in many localities. The rumor 
gets around that jobs are opening up in a certain town and overnight 
the hopeful applicants flock in. Those who come too late and those 
who are not qualified for the jobs to be done are disappointed and have 
to drift on or become a charge on the community. 

A few weeks ago a certain Midwest corporation was awarded a 
defense contract by the Government, Only a few of the several 
thousand skilled craftsmen who would be needed were available 
locally. But the management was informed that the United States 
Employment Service, through its interstate clearance system, could 
recruit them all over the country — wherever there were more such 
workers than jobs. 

The offer was accepted — with reservations. The United States 
Employment Service could help if it wanted to. But the management 
had always been able to find workers for itself and, it thought, it 
would continue to do so. And so, want ads, handbills, scattered over 
several States, labor contractors, labor scouts — the whole battery of 
old-time methods, all the "many are called but few are chosen" methods 
of getting workers — were set in motion by the company. 

The results were immediate and overwhelming. Thousands of 
applicants stormed the company's employment office — too many 
thousands. There were three or four applicants for every job. Many 
were turned away for lack of training and experience. Most of the 
disappointed ones were broke; many had brought their families; 
all were camped amid unspeakable conditions around a community 
having only meager accommodations for transients. 

DISTRIBUTION OF CONTRACTS AND LABOR 

It will interest the committee to get a broad picture of the distribu- 
tion of defense contracts and the distribution of available labor. 
If we assume a 5,000,000 increase in employment distributed between 
regions as the defense contracts are now distributed, we see that the 
contracts and the labor supply are not in the same areas. The fol- 
lowing is the result : 

Northeast— defense employment, 2,355,000; labor supply, 3,074,- 
000; Lake States— defense* employment, 770,000; labor supply, 
2,688,000. 

South and Southwest— defense employment, 985,000; labor supply, 
2,560,000. 

Pacific and Mountain— defense employment, 890.000 ; labor supply, 
907,000. 

Thus, it appears that these regions may have within themselves a 
sufficient gross labor supply to take care of employment expansion up 
to 5,000,000 jobs. While this does not indicate the need for much 
long-range migration except in highly skilled trades, there will be 



4324 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

intense and rapid short-range movements. The defense program is 
highly concentrated in certain communities and in certain industries. 

I am filing for the record a statement prepared by the Bureau of 
Employment Security of the Social Security Board covering this 
point more in detail. Your committee has before it, I understand, 
a list of 20 defense centers in which 73 percent of the primary con- 
tracts have been located. I am informed by the W. P. A. that only 
19 percent of the W. P. A. employment last December was in these 
areas. In addition to these industrial areas, there are 20 or 25 
camps which will include a large proportion of the armed forces. 
This gives you an idea of the great concentration of defense activity. 
It is this concentration which will be responsible for many of the 
major problems which would not be so acute if the employment 
were spread evenly over the country. 

The occupational concentration of the defense program and the 
fact that such a large proportion of the labor required has to be 
skilled labor will require the movement of skilled laborers from 
wherever they can be found to the expanding plants. This places 
extremely important responsibilities upon the training programs 
which are operated by the Civilian Conservation Corps, National 
Youth Administration, Office of Education, and by industry itself. 
Besides the apprenticeship and training courses within industry 
which do not call for migration, the vocational schools are attempt- 
ing, in cooperation with the Employment Service, to meet the needs 
of the major industrial areas by training in surrounding territory. 
Refresher courses are given for people whose skills have become rusty, 
and inexperienced youths are offered elementary vocational work and 
work experience in the work program of the National Youth Ad- 
ministration. Since a large proportion of the unemployed and on-' 
der-employed labor force is in farm and village families, the adjust- 
ment of the labor supply to demand will call for a large amount of 
rural-urban migration. Especial effort is therefore being made to 
extend training facilities to rural areas. In view of this need, the 
National Youth Administration is establishing 1,000 rural work- 
shops where farm and village boys can receive instruction in the 
use of materials and tools and some experience in handling power 
machinery. 

Civilian defense means that we must develop all the abilities which 
we have and be willing to go wherever those talents can be most 
useful. We just don't have the people now with the right skills in 
the right place. 

The Employment Service, operating in all of the States, has been 
designated by the Defense Commission as the agency for getting men 
and jobs together, and we feel that it is a piece of machinery which can 
keep down much of the useless migration if workers and employers 
will cooperate in the use of its facilities. They are keeping especial 
check on the supply of workers in occupations especially useful to 
defense and in areas of defense concentration, they are endeavoring 
to forecast through especial employer reports the needs 60 days ahead. 
There are some 500 of these essential defense occupations on which they 
make a monthly report, and, according to the last report, in 100 of 
these occupations there were less than 25 registered applicants. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4325 

SOCIAL PROBLEMS 

These various types of migration cause a wide range of social prob- 
lems in the communities to which the people go, the acuteness of the 
problem depending on the ratio of new activity to normal activity in 
the area. Mr. Charles P. Taft, of my staff, has placed before the Com- 
mittee on Public Buildings and Grounds of the House of Representa- 
tives on March 4 a statement as to community facilities in those areas 
where there exists or impends such an acute shortage of such facilities 
as to impede essential national-defense activities. 

Manifestly, it is of great concern to the National Government that 
the morale of the armed forces and civilian workers should be safe- 
guarded by assuring them that the health, educational, and recreational 
needs of their families will not be neglected. There is also a Federal 
financial responsibility, since much of this emergency migration is not 
permanent and local communities therefore do not feel justified in 
making capital outlays for permanent facilities. Again, the local com- 
munities are subject to legal restrictions as to bonded indebtedness and 
taxing powers which often hamper their ability to support emergency 
expansion of institutions. 

Subject to these handicaps; we are asking local defense communities 
to do what they can in the way of provision for defense migrants. 
Over and above that, we believe that the Federal Government should 
guarantee adequate services and protection for the families of those 
who will furnish the manpower for defense. 

HEALTH PROTECTION 

Such concentrated movements bring with them grave health prob- 
lems. 1 am filing for the record a summary of the report of the study 
made by the Public Health Service as to the public-health require- 
ments of some of these communities and also individual reports on 
a number of these communities. 

Among the most important problems of national defense are those 
involving protection of the public health. Migratory movements and 
new concentrations of large numbers of persons require certain com- 
munity facilities and services without which there is the constant dan- 
ger of disease outbreaks. The health problems created by such rapid 
community expansion include the development of an adequate and safe 
public water supply, sewer system, garbage collection and disposal 
facilities, pasteurized milk supply, and hospital and clinical facilities. 
In many instances malaria and rodent-control measures will be re- 
quired. In almost every case it will be necessary to provide addi- 
tional personnel for organized health work, either by increasing the 
staffs of existing health departments or by establishing completely 
new organizations where there is none at present. 

Because, of their rugged pioneering characteristics, the defense mi- 
grants have for the most part accepted the fact that the course of their 
lives is to be greatly altered and that living conditions are likely to be 
rather difficult. They now are improvising ways of meeting these new 
conditions and will continue to do so. Unfortunately, however, such 
admirable efforts by individuals seldom result in sanitary facilities 



4326 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

which are satisfactory from the community standpoint and can be at 
best only substitutes for public systems. Improper methods of gar- 
bage and excreta disposal and unprotected wells are potentially dan- 
gerous in strictly rural areas, but in centers of population they are 
definite menaces to the public health. 

Some of these communities have facilities which are fairly adequate 
for the existing populations but which would be wholly inadequate for 
even a small population increase of 10 or 25 percent. Other com- 
munities are completely lacking in public sanitary and hospital facili- 
ties. The typical town which will receive the influx of civilians 
incident to the defense program has, in the past, been dependent upon 
the State and Federal Governments for assistance in providing the 
normal necessary community health facilities. Now that the town is 
to receive an increase which is several times its original population, it 
seems obvious that even more State and Federal assistance will be 
necessary. Prompt and careful planning, supervision, and financial 
assistance are imperative if such communities are to be suitable for 
human habitation when completed. 

The description of an actual situation may best demonstrate the 
seriousness of this problem and the urgent need for prompt action. 
A southern town of 500 is expected to attain a population of at least 
5,000 as a result of a nearby military establishment with an aggre- 
gate military strength of 13,000 men. The municipality concerned 
has a public well-water supply inadequate for its normal population 
of 500. There is no sewer system whatever. The present milk sup- 
ply is derived from several small individual dairies in and about the 
town. There is no pasteurized milk available in the area. Extensive 
mosquito-control work will be necessary if malaria both inside and 
outside the military reservation is to be prevented. There are no 
hospital facilities within a distance of 40 miles. Expansion of the 
present water supply, construction of a sewer system and sewage- 
treatment plant, extensive mosquito-control measures, construction of 
£l small hospital and out-patient clinic, and the possible construction 
of a milk-pasteurization plant will be minimum requirements for the 
protection of the health of the people in this community. 

Situations similar to this, and in some cases even more serious, may 
be observed in many defense areas throughout the Nation. 

I am informed by the Surgeon General of the United States Public 
Health Service, who has just returned from a study of civilian health 
measures in England, that he visited air-raid shelters, good and bad, 
in a number of English cities and that their sanitary conditions were 
not half as bad as those in some of our boom towns. 

EDUCATION 

I have spoken of the especial responsibilities thrown on the voca- 
tional-training program by the need for defense skills. In expanded 
communities the normal public-school facilities will also be greatly 
taxed. I am filing for your record a summary of a report made by 
the Commissioner of Education at the direction of Senate Kesolution 
324, dated October 9, 1940, which directed the Secretary of the Navy 
;and the Secretary of War "to make a full and complete study and 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4327 

investigation of all school facilities at or near navy yards, Army 
and naval reservations, and bases at which housing programs for 
defense workers are being carried out or are contemplated." 

This survey has been transmitted by me to the Secretaries of War 
and Navy and by them to the Congress. It sets out the needs of these 
communities as reported by the State departments of education, but 
since, the defense program is constantly expanding, new communities 
will come into the picture, so this survey is only an estimate of the 
ultimate needs which must be met if the children of our armed forces 
and of industrial workers are to be educated. And nothing will 
undermine their morale more than the feeling that their families are 
not properly provided for on the home front. 

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 

The following brief summary indicates the conditions found in 
this investigation : 

Keports to the Office of Education point out that, with few ex- 
ceptions, housing programs for defense workers necessitate addi- 
tional school facilities. In, most local areas affected to an appreci- 
able extent by defense activities, the need for housing (family dwell- 
ing) units has been recognized. The influx of personnel connected 
with (and to be connected with) these activities is, according to the 
estimates submitted, generally expected to bring into these areas 
more children of school age than can be accommodated by existing 
school facilities. The exceptions noted are that several of the large 
city school systems can accommodate in existing school buildings 
additional pupils expected. 

Local school administrative units in the defense areas are faced 
with the problem of providing school-building facilities and teachers 
for a large number of additional children of school age without 
the authority to obtain through regular channels additional funds 
for these needs. Some of these units find themselves with a de- 
crease in assessed valuations of property. 

(a) Capital outlay.— Information reflecting financial ability of 
local school administrative units in these areas indicates that in the 
main these units, because of existing legal limitations on bonded 
indebtedness for school purposes, cannot provide funds for capital- 
outlay purposes. It is common practice to derive funds for capital 
outlay through the issuance of bonds by local school administrative 
units. These units must conform to limitations regarding maximum 
bonded indebtedness that may be incurred for school purposes and 
to the maximum local tax on'property that may be levied for inter- 
est on and redemption of such bonded debt. 

(b) Current expense. — Individual area reports show that in most 
cases local school administrative units involved find it impossible 
to obtain additional funds for current expenses. These local school 
units generally must conform to legal limitations regarding the local 
tax rate that 'may be levied for current expense for public schools. 
Obviously a reduction in the property subject to taxation within a 
local school unit reduces the income of that unit. This results when 
property is acquired by the Federal Government. Furthermore, 



4328 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

local school administrative units must conform to stipulated budget- 
ary procedures. These procedures prevent local units from increas- 
ing their respective budgets after a date fixed by law. In some in- 
stances public-school authorities have no recourse in the matter of 
obtaining increased local funds because the additional children live 
on property of the Federal Government or of a private industrial 
concern not a part of but adjoining the local school administrative 
unit involved. 

Another branch of our responsibility is for recreation and leisure- 
time activities. Recreation is an essential life activity. It is essen- 
tial to personal growth, social adjustment, and strong bodies and 
minds. It is of especial importance in just such situations as these 
created by large migrations of individuals and family groups with 
accompanying personal strains and dislocations. 

The minimum program for leisure time activities for service men is 
not complicated. These boys are away from home with its normal 
habits and the ordinary activities and resources of the home town. 
Our objective is to bring just as much of the atmosphere of the home 
town and its guiding influence as possible. 

The boys in uniform in the evening and week ends in the normal 
course of events go to town. 

I can tell you, frankly, you can have the best recreational facili- 
ties in the world, and the best shows in the world, inside of the 
camp; but give the soldier a chance to leave the camp, and he will 
leave. That is just a part of his psychology of life. At first, even 
where Army posts and naval stations have been in the vicinity, 
the community is not ready to receive them. Ordinary washroom 
facilities are lacking, and there is no place but the streets to loaf. 
Obviously there are even less desirable commercialized influences. 
There is not at first any place for the boy's family and friends to 
meet him or even to find out simple information about rooms, places 
to eat, and so forth. 

It takes a really organized campaign to secure for the boys home 
hospitality and the normal social contacts with decent girls. 

COMMUNITY CENTERS NEEDED 

All this needs to head up in a service club or community center. 
Some cities like Louisville have a club building now in financial 
difficulties, which can be taken over and operated by the city. Others, 
like Columbus, Ga., have supported a particular private agency in 
the operation of a large rented building. In others, the Knights of 
Columbus and the Jewish Welfare Board have been giving partial 
service in rented or other quarters. 

But, generally speaking, there is pressing need, growing every 
hour as the Army increases, for rented and constructed quarters to 
serve this purpose, and local resources cannot supply most of them. 

There is pressing need in some places for sleeping accommodations 
for men in uniform, at least until the community has grown up to 
itself. Miscellaneous facilities of other kinds may prove essential. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4329 

I would refer especially to the needs also at distant points — in 
Alaska, Hawaii, the Philippines, the Canal Zone, the new island 
bases, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. 

Altogether, there are oyer 100 places, surrounded by over 200 
communities, where we believe some buildings will be needed. 

A different kind of problem is presented by the new industrial 
towns, as well as by suddenly expanded industry in older towns. 
Normal recreation expression is particularly important for the work- 
ers themselves and their wives and children. Studies indicate that 
large numbers of these new industrial workers are unattached 
younger men and younger women. The industrial concerns should 
accept responsibility for the same recreation services to these new- 
workers as many concerns now accept further normal working forces. 
However, there would still be need for normal community recreation 
activities in addition to those conducted on company property adjacent 
to company plants. 

As in the Army, this is the same situation. A man in the service does 
not want to stay on the reservation all the time. A man working in 
a plant does not want to have his recreation there. He wants to 
get out and mingle with tin* people in the community. 

There are at least 30 places where additional community facilities 
will be necessary and many more where expanded services must 
be developed. 

Our best estimate is that for all needs about 350 buildings of some 
type will be requested beyond those which the communities them- 
selves will be able to supply. 

From information which I receive currently from the bureaus and 
services in the Federal Security Agency, I am convinced that there 
axe many needy families in the United States today who are re- 
ceiving such inadequate relief and medical care that their health 
and welfare are seriously affected. In thousands of these families 
there is no employable person, and therefore the possibility of 
securing an income through work in private employment or on 
public work projects is out of the question. 

Agricultural migrants who move from place to place and are em- 
ployed only irregularly have created a serious problem in some States- 
for a number of years. Today there is an added problem because 
individuals and families are leaving their homes to go to new com- 
munities, either in search of work in a defense industry or to be near 
a man in military service. Many such families do not find employ- 
ment and in a very short time become destitute in the new commu- 
nity and can receive no relief or medical care because of the rigid set- 
tlement laws in most States. Thus, the need for relief of transients 
is likely to be increased rather than diminished by the defense pro- 
gram. The existence of this large number of families with insuffi- 
cient resources to meet even their subsistence needs, I believe, is a very 
serious obstacle to the development of civilian morale essential to a 
defense program. 



260370— 41— pt. 11- 



4330 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



FOURTH CAJEGORY OF RELIEF 



Therefore, my suggestion is that a fourth category of general relief 
be established under which Federal funds would be made available 
to the States by the Social Security Board on the same basis as the 
three categories the Board is now administering; that is, a 50-per- 
cent grant for administration and assistance, provided the State will 
make available assistance and service without regard to residence or 
settlement. 

The President has requested, and there is before you in H. R. 3570, 
an appropriation of $150,000,000 to cover the construction of the 
physical facilities needed for the communities most drastically affected 
by defense. This amount is conservative and is needed urgently. 

The facts presented will, I think, indicate to you the tremendous 
task involved in the relocation of our population for defense. The 
milling about of people, the physical facilities necessary for their 
comfort, and the services necessary for their welfare are matters of 
national concern. You will, I am sure, realize that success in plan- 
ning and executing these programs is vital to civilian morale. [Read- 
ing ends.] 

The Chairman. That is a very interesting statement, Mr. McNutt, 
but I would like to ask you this question : Have any surveys been 
made, presenting in actual figures the number of migrants to centers 
of defense activity? 

Mr. McNutt. I have not included in my statement any numerical 
estimate of the migration. Such estimates are difficult to arrive at 
with any degree of accuracy because we have no exact information of 
how many jobs have been filled by local unemployed, by commuters, 
and by married women and retired workers. 

As was pointed out a moment ago by Mr. Palmer, in reference to 
Louisville and Chariest own, Ind., which I happen to know pretty 
well, the census of 1940 showed 864 residents of the community of 
Charlestown, whereas there are now 15,000 employed in the defense 
plant located there. 

The Chairman. Mr. Taft, of your office, in his testimony recently 
before the Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds, stated that 
1,500,000 people would migrate to Army camp areas and smaller de- 
fense communities. 

BELIEVES ESTIMATE IS LOW 

Mr. McNutt. We are filing this morning a supplemental document 
from the Public Health Service which uses the figure of 1,500,000 
new people coming into the communities surveyed. That covers only 
communities most heavily affected, and it does not include secondary, 
subcontracting centers like those in which mines and blast furnaces 
are operated. This is a matter that reaches further than the plant 
itself. It is not only the location where the primary contract is; 
there are secondary contracts, and we see some of those matters dis- 
cussed every day in the papers. They have a vital effect upon the 
distribution of industrial activity. 

A million and a half is the estimate, but my own feeling is that 
that estimate is low. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 433 1 

The Chairman. I suppose the number of unskilled migrants ex- 
ceeds the number of skilled migrants going into the defense centers. 
Is not that true ? 

Mr. McNutt. You know what happens. Here is a man without a 
job. He hears that there is some work going on and, training or 
no training, he goes to try to get it. 

We are trying as best we can to prevent that, and if the men 
follow the advice of the Employment Service, we can prevent much 
of it. But we cannot prevent it all. They are going to move and 
see if they can get a job. 

Of course, the shortage is in the skilled workers today. 

The Chairman. Now, Governor, I think you are doing a wonder- 
ful work, and I am in hearty accord with your purposes; but while we 
are in this emergency we have to take care of the morale of our own 
people. 

Mr. McNutt. I feel, more strongly, perhaps than anything else, 
that external defense is absolutely no good if you have a situation 
within that means the breaking of the civilian morale. The English 
demonstrated that conclusively when they valued civilian morale 
more than they did facilities. 

What are we righting for or defending ? 

The Chairman. Unless you have a country worth fighting for and 
dying for, what indeed? 

' Mr. McNutt. And what kind of defense are you going to be able to 
produce unless you have people who are able? If they are to be 
able, they must have health facilities and recreational facilities and 
they must have, too, educational facilities. 

change in law studied 

The Chairman. Perhaps it is a little unfair, but I want to ask you 
this : You have a job that is big enough, in what you are doing, but 
we are deeply interested in any thought that you or your associates 
may have given as to any change in the law. 

Mr. McNutt. We have given that very serious thought. Much of 
the responsibility will fall on the Agency through the Social Security 
Board. As a matter of fact, much of the tentative legislation has 
been drafted. 

The Chairman. A survey has been made? 

Mr. McNutt. A survey has been made. We have been working 
with the National Kesources Planning Board in an effort to pool all 
the best information together in order to get a complete picture. 

Of course, anyone who assumes the role of prophet m these days 
is nothing short' of a fool. Nobody can say how long this emergency 
Avill last. . , T . 

If it is a short war, and Germany is successful, it means a JNazi 
Germany dominating Europe, and it will have its economic repercus- 
sions in this country. The extent of those repercussions no one 
knows, but it would mean a changed economic policy. 

The second possibility is a stalemate, which means a glonned 
-armistice, which means preparing for other wars. 

The third possibility is victory for the British, which we all hope 
ior; but that will take a long time— how long no one knows. 



4332 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

VOCATIONAL TRAINING 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. McNutt, I was interested in your statement 
about the need for expanding vocational training. Is that getting 
pretty well under way? 

Mr. McNutt. Yes. I had the vocational group in my office before 
I came here this morning. 

On the whole, they have done a good job. 

The question is, are they producing what is wanted, namely, people 
who are able to go in and do the job in the plants. 

Mr. Sparkman. This survey that you said was being made — does 
it go into the needs of the various defense communities, or the extra 
need brought about by the in-migration of the defense workers ? 

Mr. McNutt. Let me interject one thing there. I was interested 
in what Mr. Palmer said about the number outside as compared with 
those inside. The figures for the World War were 1.4 outside and 
1 inside. There has been a hope expressed that in this emergency 
it will not exceed 1 to 1. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is a continuing survey? 

Mr. McNutt. That is right, 

Mr. Sparkman. I had this question called to my attention recently 
by the State superintendent of education of my own State, who said 
he had been asked for a report in the fall, about November. He said 
he had made his report, based on the facts available to him at that 
time, but that it was far out of date now. 

Mr. McNutt. It is a changing scene, and it is a matter of keeping 
the information up to date. We have established an information 
center where we collect and clear information and then pass it back 
to the interested agencies. 

Mr. Sparkman. That will be a continuing process? 

Mr. McNutt. Certainly; it is set up on that basis. 

VARIABLE GRANTS 

Mr. Sparkman. One of your recommendations in which I am 
greatly interested is your suggestion "that a fourth category of gen- 
eral relief be established under which Federal funds would be made 
available to the States by the Social Security Board on the same 
basis as the three categories the Board is now administering ; that is y 
a 50-percent grant for administration and assistance, provided the 
State will make available assistance and service without regard to 
residence or settlement," 

Of course, as you know, the Social Security Board in its last 
annual report has recommended that the basis of grants be changed. 

Mr. McNutt. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. And that variable grants be made, 

Mr. McNutt. That is right, 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if you differ with the Board in your 
views. 

Mr. McNutt. I do not. But that has to be cleared by the person 
charged with the general administrative responsibility for the Fed- 
eral Government before we go on record. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4333 

Yes; I am in favor of variable grants. The statement refers to what 
we do now. We are dealing with the present situation. The other 
matter you are considering is a long-time policy. 

Mr. Sparkman. You are familiar with the President's statement 
in which he indicated his idea about the grants? 

Mr. McNutt. Of course, even that does not quite apply to this 
situation. There you are dealing with a normal situation. Here 
you are dealing with an emergency situation. 

Mr. Sparkman. But it seems to me the argument would be exactly 
the reverse if you are going to require the States to match for 
general relief. 

Take my State of Alabama, for instance, which cannot match on 
an equal basis. Is it not natural to assume that my State, in behalf 
of its own settled people, will take the funds available and apply 
them to matching those funds that will take care of its own people? 

Mr. McNutt. That is right. Let me tell you one other thing in 
that connection. After all, this matching means income for the 
States. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is true, but there is a considerable lag there. 

GROSS INCOME TAX 

Mr. McNutt. It all depends on how you overcome the lag. There 
are certain methods of getting the money. I might suggest a gross 
income tax. You can start in 3 months on that. 

Mr. Sparkman. Then we have the Townsend plan. 

Mr. McNutt. No; you have not. I point you back to 1933, when 
we saved a situation in that way. It can be done. What everyone 
wants here is to be fair. 

For example, in our efforts to get the communities to do what 
they should do we are starting on this policy. We make a survey 
to determine what the communities can do and then put all the 
pressures on to make those communities do what they should do. 

Every community should do everything in its power; it is first 
of all a community job. But we recognize the fact that there are 
certain communities without any resources at all, and the tax re- 
sources may have been exhausted, although I am not so sure that a 
complete survey has been made of that. 

In a situation of that kind, there is a job to be done, and if the 
community cannot do it, and if the State cannot do it, then it is 
the obligation of the Federal Government to do it. 

Mr. Osmers. I would like to ask you a question about the voca- 
tional training program. Before we started to concentrate on de- 
fense migration we had a great many witnesses appear before the 
committee who laid the blame for our destitute migration upon the 
fact that those who migrated were not adequately trained in their 
public schools. 

Would you advocate vocational training as a permanent part of 
the public educational system of the United States? 

Mr. McNutt. I certainly would. 

Mr. Osmers. In some localities we find that it has been made 
available: would you recommend an extension of that? 



4334 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Air. McNutt. I would, without question, but I think the time has 
come for revamping all secondary education in the United States. 

Mr. Osmers. I shall urge that the committee include that in its 
final report. 

Should vocational training be financed locally or by the Federal 
Government ? 

Mr. McNutt. You are getting into a more fundamental policy 
than just that. How far are we going in grants-in-aid? 

Mr. Osmers. How far in the field of education ? 

Mr. McNutt. It is a question of how far the local communities 
can go in matching that aid. If you have exhausted the local re- 
sources, it does not make any difference how generous the Federal 
Government might be ; that is not the end of it. 

Mr. Osmers. Of course, nearly every State provides a reasonably 
fair degree of secondary education, and it has been my opinion, from 
what the committee has learned, that during the last 2 years of the 
high-school period vocational training should be available. 

Mr. McNutt. There should be an opportunity for vocational 
training. 

UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION 

Mr. Osmers. The students should have the option to select that 
just as they have in other elective subjects. 

There is another point that has been suggested to the committee, 
on which you might care to express an opinion, and that is the ques- 
tion of increased payments on the part of workers and employers for 
unemployment compensation in defense industries — purely defense 
industries, such as powder plants of gun factories, or munitions 
works — the feeling being that we know that at the conclusion of the 
war these people will be unemployed, that when the peace period 
comes, they will probably be unemployed for a longer period than 
those in normal peacetime endeavors. 

Mr. McNutt. First of all, I doubt the legality of such a move and 
I do not believe it is sound from a purely economic standpoint. 

You are guessing when you say they are going to be unemployed 
for a longer period. 

Mr. Osmers. We are guessing when anybody is going to be un- 
employed when we establish unemployment compensation. So it 
is all guessing. 

Mr. McNutt. You are guessing what will happen in the post-war 
period. If there is some planning done to absorb these people, then 
it would not follow. Therefore it seems to me that any such propo- 
sition as that is based on a false assumption. 

Mr. Osmers. I do not believe I am guessing when I make the basic 
statement that when peace comes a wartime powder plant will close. 

Mr. McNutt. I quite agree. But if we will use the intelligence 
with which we are endowed we will either have some other use 
planned for that plant, or some other activities that will absorb 
these workers. Yes, I agree that we are not going to make any more 
powder, but there are a lot of other things that can be made. 

Mr. Osmers. I am thinking of those plants that have been located 
far away from normal industrial centers. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4335 

Mr. McNutt. They have had to be located far away for obvious 
reasons. 

Mr. Osmers. That is right; I am not entering into that question. 

But consider the human problem that is involved. We know peo- 
ple must move from a distance, and in some cases the distances are 
tremendous. Also, we know that the chances are they will be 
stranded, not being able to get jobs. 

I am wondering whether the Government, as such, could make any 
special provision in the unemployment-compensation field or along 
some other line. 

Mr. McNutt. Trying to do it through unemployment compensa- 
tion is not a sound way, even if it were a legal way. 

Mr. Osmers. Then can you tell us what you suggest as sound ? 

PLANNING POST-WAR MEASURES 

Mr. McNutt. The sound way is to be planning now for the possible 
contingencies of the post-war period. We are going to have a dis- 
location of our economy, no matter what happens on the continent. 

Mr. Osmers. That is right, Here is the point. Nearly every wit- 
ness, and particularly those occupying positions like yourself — promi- 
nent in the Government or prominent in the industrial life of the 
country — have admitted the need for planning, and urged that plan- 
ning be done. And there is evidence of planning. You have given 
evidence this morning of the planning that your agency is doing. 

Mr. McNutt. That is right. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you believe that Congress should seek to establish 
some superplanning board so that all this planning could be tied 
together ; or should we continue as we are, with everyone saying that 
planning is a good thing, and everyone doing a little planning in 
his own way ? 

Mr. McNutt. I have been a firm believer in the coordination of 
Federal activities. 

Mr. Osmers. I know you have, I wonder whether you believe that 
this need for planning calls for congressional action. 

Mr. McNutt. It calls for congressional attention, and if it gets 
attention I hope action will follow. 

Mr. Osmers. We are trying in a small way to give it that atten- 
tion. I would like to see it lead to action. I am as tired as every- 
body else in the country must be with the universal talk of "planning," 
but with no coordinated planning. 

All the plans in the world which your agency or some other might 
make will mean nothing unless they are merged into a large, coordi- 
nated plan, which everyone will know about, I think it would con- 
tribute a great deal to further the liberalization of labor. 

Mr. McNutt. Furthermore, maybe it will do something else; maybe 
it will calm interdepartmental jealousies. 

Mr. Osmers. I think that would be of great importance, if it would. 

Do you have in mind any hypothetical set-up of such a planning 
organization or board? 

Mr. McNutt. So long as it is a responsible body, it all depends, 
when vou get down to it, on the personnel involved. 



4336 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Osmers. In the departments of Government. 

Mr. McNutt. It has been demonstrated very clearly through the 
cooperation of agencies in connection with defense. For example, 
there is a meeting this afternoon in which many departments of the 
Government are to be represented in carrying on our program. I 
must say for them that they have willingly and wholeheartedly given 
everything they have. There is no selfishness manifest. Apparently 
they all want to go ahead and complete this program in an efficient 
way. That is a very heartening thing. 

Mr. Osmers. I do think as we have gone along that the Office of 
Production Management, a central body planning production in all 
its phases, has been a good thing. I think it could be improved just 
as anything else could be improved. 

But with planning, of course, we realize that that is not the func- 
tion of the Office of Production Management, but the function of an- 
other agency of the Government. 

I do not in my own mind identify the Office of Production Manage- 
ment in a large sense as the planning body. But the personnel of 
O. P. M. should be aware of everything being planned, so they can 
coordinate their efforts during the war and certainly during any future 
planning. 

Would you care to specify any particular department of the Govern- 
ment? 

Mr. McNutt. I am not so sure that a planning board should be 
composed of representatives of the departments of the Government, 
but the departments themselves should be ready to bring their own 
picture in. 

In other words, there might be a little too much — I will not say 
selfish interest, but it would be an abiding interest in something you 
have been doing, and the natural feeling that what you are doing is 
the most important thing. That is all right, but there should be a 
body to which you could go and have your hearing, and with which 
you would sit. 

Mr. Osmers. I have always felt in my own mind that Members of 
the Senate and House of Representatives should play an important 
part in that because the plans, unless favorably enacted by both sides, 
would mean nothing at all. 

Mr. McNutt. Certainly there would be no objection on my part to 
having Congress represented ; I think that is all right. 

But I am not at all certain that the board itself should be made up 
of representatives of the departments, but rather that the departments 
should bring in the material and let there be an independent judg- 
ment, based upon the results of factual investigations. 

Mr. Osmers. It might be better to give more or less control of such 
a planning board to civilians, shall we call them — that is, those not 
associated with the Government — and to have the plans passed upon 
by them. 

Mr. McNutt. The National Resources Planning Board is really 
that now. 

Mr. Osmers. It is, in a sense ; but it should be enlarged in its scope 
in order to include a great many other things, I think. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4337 

Mr. McNutt. I think the inclusion of the legislative branch of the 
Government would be a very fine thing. 

Mr. Osmers. I did not have in mind to make it in the form of a 
congressional committee. 

Mr. McNutt. I understand. 

Mr. Osmers. But, in a sense, to have the legislature represented, 
because it will take the legislative and executive branches to make 
the plan work anyway. 

MECHANICS OF RELIEF MEASURE 

Mr. Curtis. I would like to get a little better picture of what you 
have in mind by a fourth category in the Social Security set-up, in 
general relief. Would you enlarge upon that a little bit? 

Mr. McNutt. The need is obvious. 

Mr. Curtis. I mean your mechanics. What do you propose there ? 

Mr. McNutt. I propose to do that, of course, within the existing 
framework of our operations. 

In other words, I cannot see that it would be necessary to change 
our methods unless there is a complete change in policy, on the 
whole relief problem — I mean, in dealing with the emergency prob- 
lem, which has to do with those who cannot secure relief because 
of the settlement laws. 

Mr. Curtis. Your first three categories include old-age assistance, 
relief for the blind, and the care of dependent children. 

Mr. McNutt. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. The fourth category would not be a category for non- 
settled people only, but it would have to do with general relief? 

Mr. McNutt. I did not think that came into the scope of the hear- 
ing, but I will give you an answer categorically, and that is, yes, 
for everybody. 

Mr. Curtis. On a 50-50 matching basis? 

Mr. McNutt. That is the present plan. 

Mr. Curtis. Or some matching basis from the States? 

Mr. McNutt. Yes. Personally, I favor variable grants as the 
onlv answer. 

Mr. Curtis. Up until the present time the Federal Government 
has not gone into the general relief business. 

Mr. McNutt. Not since 1935. 

Mr. Curtis. It would mean a new departure, putting the Federal 
Government into furnishing general relief. 

Mr. McNutt. That is right, because it is quite obvious from what 
is going on in many States today that unless the Federal Govern- 
ment gets into it, there will be no relief; there is not any now. 

Mr. Curtis. You propose that as a change in our relief set-up; 
and it is a matter which, incidentally, would take in nonsettled 
people. You propose it generally? 

Mr. McNutt. Yes, that is, basically in connection with the Social 
Security law today. But we are dealing with special problems here 
in connection with the migrants, who are a pitiful group. 

Mr. Curtis. That is very true. 



4338 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. McNutt. But not any more pitiful than some of those in some 
States, who are dependent upon surplus commodities, the C. C. C., and 
the N. Y. A. to do the job which the States should be doing in relief. 

Generally speaking, it was the thought that the Federal Government 
was going to take care of the employable unemployed, and the States 
were going to take care of the unemployable. Neither has performed 
completely. 

QUESTION OF SETTLEMENT 

Mr. Curtis. Suppose Congress would reject the idea of the Federal 
Government going into the general relief picture. 

Mr. McNutt. That is entirely possible. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have any suggestions for dealing with the non- 
settled person in connection with this settlement law situation? 

Mr. McNutt. You can make it strictly a defense situation in the areas 
declared to be defense areas. That is one way of doing it. 

Mr. Curtis. What would be your reaction to a proposition that a 
grant be made to the States, based on the number of nonsettled people 
to whom they were giving relief, on the stipulation that the States 
give these unsettled persons the same relief, free education, medical 
care, and so forth, that they give their own people, for a definite length 
of time, say a year, with the further agreement from the State that at 
the end of that time it will raise no question of settlement against 
them. 

Mr. McNutt. It is a temporary expedient. I do think something 
must be done, and we are willing to operate the machinery to do it. 

Mr. Curtis. But, aside from the question of the nonsettled person, 
you still contend that the Federal Government should go into general 
relief? 

Mr. McNutt. If the problem is going to be taken care of the Federal 
Government will have to go into it, because it is not being taken care 
of today. 

Mr. Curtis. What is happening where it is not ? 

Mr. McNutt. People are not being adequately cared for. 

Mr. Curtis. What has happened to them? Are they starving? 

Mr. McNutt. Yes; they are not getting proper food, and they are 
not getting enough of it. There are some pitiful situations in this 
country today. 

EFFECT OF DEMOBILIZATION 

Mr. Curtis. In reference to the ending of the defense emergency, 
do you have any estimates of how many people will be directly af- 
fected—I mean how many laborers, not their dependents — when those 
industries that are purely war industries cease to operate, and the de- 
mobilization of the armed forces takes place ? How many people will 
we have to deal with ? Do you have any estimate of that ? 

Mr. McNutt. No, it would be a guess. 

Mr. Curtis. Are there any guesses at all at this time? 

Mr. McNutt. I do not know of any guesses. They would not even 
be very good guesses, if there are any in existence. I do not see how 
they can be. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4339 

You can make a table showing how many are engaged in business 
and industries, how many are in the armed forces, and say that 
when it is all over that number will constitute a problem of unem- 
ployment, It may or may not, all depending on how ready we are 
to absorb such workers when the time comes. 

Mr. Curtis. This planning you have referred to, to provide for 
the day of demobilization, refers, I assume, primarily to public 
works? 

Mr. McNutt. That is one possibility only. 

Mr. Curtis. What other things do you have in mind? 

Mr. McNutt. The matter of absorption into vital industries, de- 
pending upon what the impact upon our economy is, and what it will 
turn out to be by reason of the affair on the Continent. It will bo 
necessary to determine whether or not we are going into new fields 
of endeavor, and whether we must expand special services, such as 
medical care, and school lunches, and extend the social security 
program. If we become isolated economically, we are going to have 
to readjust our entire economy. There will be some dislocations 
that will be even more severe than the changes caused by preparing 
for defense. It is not a simple problem. You might answer it in 
a book, but I am not so sure you could answer it in testimony. 

Mr. Curtis. That is what this committee is trying to find out, 

The Chairman. Let me ask you one question. I think, as I get 
the import of your testimony, this is a matter of deep concern to 
you, just as it is to us. And that concern resolves around the fact 
that this committee discovered that there are about 4,000,000 migrants. 
Your deep concern is this, that under the Constitution, you are not 
only a citizen of Indiana, for instance, but of all the other 47 States; 
and when you move and find these barriers that you are up against, 
you find that you are, after all, not a citizen, from a practical stand- 
point, What' you are concerned about is to assist these American 
citizens who are in a nonsettled status, so that they can at least live 
and have a little health and education. That is your concern, is it not? 

Mr. McNutt. Precisely; they are entitled to it as you and I. 

The Chairman. If we refuse to do that much we are striking at the 
very fundamentals of government, 

Mr. McNutt. If we do not do it, we are going to be in serious trouble. 

RELIEF AS MIGRATION MAGNET 

Dr. Lamb. If the suggestion of Mr. Curtis were to be followed, 
whereby certain of the States participated by agreement in a Federal 
plan and other States did not, and the States which participated m a 
general relief program were to extend assistance to nonsettled persons ; 
or, alternatively, if those States extended assistance only to nonsettled 
persons, would there not be a tendency for those States to draw 
migrants out of the nonparticipating States? 

Mr. McNutt. That is human nature. They will go where they can 
get it. . . . 

Mr. Curtis. That is contrary to all the testimony the committee has 
received. All of our social workers and many of the experts have 



4340 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

insisted that the desire for more relief was not one of the motivating 
causes of migration. 

Mr. McNutt. I do not agree with that. I have seen them migrate 
from Kentucky into Indiana when we were giving them food, and I 
think that was the strongest motive. They wanted to eat, so they 
moved where they could get it. 

Mr. Curtis. I am very much interested in your opinion, and I am 
rather inclined to the view that you have expressed. 

Mr. McNutt. I am not talking about theory; I am talking about 
facts. 

Dr. Lamb. Assuming that they do not migrate for purposes of relief, 
is it not probable that the States which will participate are the States 
which are best able to participate, and hence the States of out-migra- 
tion will continue to be those of the lower-income bracket? 

Mr. McNutt. Of course, there are other motives, necessarily, when 
people move. There are some cases where they may become so dis- 
couraged that they think anything else could not be worse, so they 
will try it somewhere else, and if they know they can find some- 
thing better they will certainly try it. 

Dr. Lamb. In other words, the States that will participate in a 
Federal relief plan will be the States to which people would normally 
migrate anyway. 

Mr. McNutt. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. Does your office and Mr. Bane's office have surveys 
with reference to the bonded debt situation and the budgetary situ- 
ation as to certain expenses and local tax rates for defense com- 
munities which are being assisted under one form or another of 
community assistance ? 

Mr. McNutt. We have certain material of that kind. I do not 
know what Mr. Bane's office has. 

Dr. Lamb. Would it be possible for the committee to secure sur- 
veys of that kind? 

Mr. McNutt. You are at liberty to have anything we have. 

The Chairman. Governor, unless you have something else to say, 
I want to assure you on behalf of the committee that we are deeply 
appreciative of your coming here and giving us this valuable con- 
tribution for our record. 

Mr. McNutt. I am very glad to be here and to be of any assist- 
ance I can. 

(The following material was submitted by Mr. McNutt and was 
admitted to the record :) 

Health and Medical Care Needs in Defense Areas 

Federal Security Agency, 
United States Public Health Service, 

Washington. March 22, 19f t l. 
Mr. Thomas J. Wooftir, Jr., 

Director of Research, Federal Security Agency, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Woofter: In accordance with your request for certain material to 
be used in connection with Administrator McNutt's testimony before the Tolan 
committee, there are forwarded one copy of Health and Medical Care Needs in 






NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4341 



Extra Military and Defense Industrial Areas, and copies of summaries of recon- 
naissance surveys of 17 defense areas specifically mentioned in your request. 
By direction of the Surgeon General. 
Respectfully, 

E. R. Coffey, 
Surgeon, Assistant Chief, Domestic Quarantine Division. 

Attached are copies of summaries on the following areas : 



Fort Belvoir, Alexandria, Va. 
Fort Meyer, Arlington, Va. 
Fort Story and Naval Area, Norfolk, Va. 
Newport News (Virginia) area. 
Fort Benning, Columbus, Ga. 
Camp Blanding, Jacksonville, Fla. 
Fort Bragg, Fayetteville, N. C. 
Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, Miss. 
Smokeless Powder Plant, Cbarlestown, 
Ind. 



Arsenal, Rock Island (Illinois) and 

Davenport (Iowa). 
Shell loading Plant, Burlington, Iowa. 
General Industries, Wichita, Kans. 
Camp J. T. Robinson, Little Rock. Ark. 
Military Areas, San Antonio, Tex. 
Military Areas, Corpus Christi, Tex. 
Fort Lewis, Tacoma, Wash. 
San Diego, Calif. 



FORT HE1.VOIR AREA, VIRGINIA 

I. Military area. — Fort Belvoir is an Army camp located in Fairfax County, 
Va., 8 miles' south of Alexandria. The topography of the reservation is moder- 
ately rolling and fairly well drained. About 21,000 troops are expected. Water 
supply from Accotink Creek treated and adequate for about 20,000. Sewage to 
be treated Doten septic tanks with submerged outlet in Potomac River. Raw 
garbage sold to farmers. Prolific growth of Chinese water chestnut in Potomac 
produces extensive breeding of mosquitoes, including malaria type. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Washington, D. C, 663,091; Alexandria, 
33,523; Fairfax, 979; Falls Church, 2,576: Herndon, 1,046. 

III. Industry. — No industries with defense importance. 

IV. General character of area.— The topography of the county is moderately 
rolling and fairly well drained. Mosquito nuisances severe at times. Two 
small unincorporated villages located on United States Highway No. 1, about 
2i/£ miles from camp. Neither has water or sewerage systems. Septic tanks 
in use. Several roadside eating places also located close to camp along highway. 

V. Summary (for Fairfax only).— Water : Source is 2 wells 160 and 350 
feet deep. Treatment not provided. 

Sewage: Sewage treated and effluent discharged into Accotink Creek. Few 
septic tanks, pit and surface privies in use. 

Food: County ordinance for establishments; supervised by county health 
department. 

Milk: Supply supervised by health department of District of Columbia, 
Arlington County, and city of Alexandria. No record of milk-borne epidemic. 

Garbage: Ordinance governing location and operation of commercial hog 
farms feeding garbage. 

Vermin : No special control measures at present. 

Housing : Shortage reported throughout area. 

Other towns: Falls Church, 2,576, and Herndon, 1,046, both outside the 
25-mile zone according to highway distance, expected to take part of popula- 
tion increase. 

Health organizations: Full-time health department for Fairfax County. 
Budget, $19,500. Personnel : Health officer, two sanitary officers, three nurses, 
one clerk. Generalized public health program with special reference to TB 
and venereal disease control. Venereal disease control: Four treatment clinics 
operating in county. Routine follow-up visits to all contacts and delinquent 
cases. If delinquents fail to return to treatment quarantine measures or even 
arrests are made. ., , . 

Hospitals: Government hospital with 60 beds is only general hospital in 
county. 

Welfare organizations : No information obtained. 

Outstanding needs: (1) Safe water supply for Accotink and Pohick Church 
roadside establishments and new developments. 

(2) Increase in malaria control program. 



4342 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

(3) Better garbage disposal for camp. 

(4) Close supervision of sanitation in areas surrounding fort. 

(5) Ratproofing of buildings where food is stored. 

FORT MYER AND ARLINGTON CANTONMENT, VA. 

I. Military area. — Fort Myer: Tbe fort occupies entire reservation. Buildings 
are permanent and occupied by Regular Army troops. Maximum population 
approximately 2,200. Drainage is into small streams and Four Mile Run. Water 
supply taken from District of Columbia system. Sewerage system has been dis- 
connected from old septic tank and connected into Arlington County system. 
Garbage and trash burned in an incinerator. Arlington Cantonment: Camp 
located adjacent to Arlington Ridge Road in south central part of area. Build- 
ings of wood construction and occupied by Regular Army troops. Maximum 
population at present is 1,100. Likely to be increased to approximately 10,000. 
Drainage is into Potomac River. Water supply taken from District of Columbia 
system. Camp sewer is connected to Arlington County treatment plant. Gar- 
bage and other refuse to be disposed of in an incinerator. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Washington, D. C. ; Arlington County, Va., 
population, 56,931; Alexandria, Va., population, 33.523. 

III. Industries. — None associated with national defense. 

IV. General character of area. — Fort Myer, a permanent Army post located in 
the central part of Arlington County, Va. Fort is approximately 5 miles from 
Washington, D. C., and approximately 7 miles north of Alexandria and is sur- 
rounded by highly developed suburban areas. Located on well-drained land and 
no malarious areas in vicinity. Transportation by dual lane U. S. Highway 50. 
Washington National Airport 3 miles southeast of fort. Arlington Cantonment 
is an Army camp located on west bank of Potomac River on a Government-owned 
tract of land near Arlington National Cemetery. The reservation is about 10 
minutes' drive from Washington, D. C, and about 6 miles north of Alexandria in 
Arlington County. Area is flat but well drained. A pest mosquito-control pro- 
gram will probably be necessary to control breeding areas on south side of 
reservation. Transportation by Arlington Ridge Road. Washington National 
Airport V/j miles east of reservation. Arlington County and Alexandria are each 
served by a full-time health department. City of Alexandria is located in the 
area. 

V. Summary. — Water, Arlington County : Water is obtained on contract from 
District of Columbia Daleearlia filtration plant. Distribution system owned by 
county. Two 20-inch mains completed recently making available an increase from 
5,000,000 gallons to 23,000.000 gallons per day considered adequate for future 
needs. Alexandria, Va. : Water supply owned by Alexandria Water Co. Water 
taken from canal in western part of city, through which nearly all the water from 
Holmes and Cameron Runs is diverted. Reserve supply for dry periods available 
from Bancroft Reservoir. Filtration plant adequate for present needs. Plans 
have been made to increase capacity in the near future. No known cross-con- 
nections. Approximately 07 percent of population served by public water supply. 

Sewage, Arlington County : Owns and operates a county-wide sewerage system 
and a modern treatment plant. No private sewerage systems. There are 1,300 
homes served by box and can privies. Strict inspection of these units is main- 
tained by county health department. Alexandrian public sewerage system, 
owned by city, accessible to approximately 90 percent of population. No sewage 
treatment facilities are provided. Sewage discharged raw into Four Mile Run 
and into Potomac River. Two hundred and ten dwelling units not accessib'e to 
sewer line provided with either septic tanks or box and can privies. No nidus- 
trial wastes problem. No stream pollution conditions affecting water supply. 

Food, Arlington County : The county-wide food ordinance in force considered 
inadequate for present needs; a new one (based on recommendations of the 
United States Public Health Service ordinance and code) is being approved 
for adoption. Enforcement of regulations under direction of county health 
department. Alexandria : Control measures governing food-handling establish- 
ments are enforced by city health department under terms of an ordinance 
s : milar to United States Public Health Service ordinance and code for eating 
establishments. 

Milk, Arlington County : Two pasteurization plants in the county, one in Alex- 
andria, two in Fairfax County and nine in District of Columbia ; 95 percent of 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4343 

milk sold is grade A pasteurized. There is a milk ordinance in force similar to 
recommendations by United States Public Health Service milk ordinance and 
code. Supervision by county health department in cooperation with District 
of Columbia Health Department ; no record of milk-borne epidemics. Alexan- 
dria : There are five local pasteurization plants and three raw dairies distribu- 
ting milk under supervision of city health department. There is in effect a milk 
ordinance which is equivalent to United States Public Health Service milk ordi- 
nance and code. No record of milk-borne epidemics. 

Garbage, Arlington County : There is an ordinance governing storage, collection, 
and disposal of garbage in force under direction of health department which i8 
adequate. Disposal by means of dumps. Alexandria : Garbage is collected in 
enclosed trucks and sold raw for hog food ; refuse and rubbish disposed of at 
city dumps. All collections made by city refuse department. Adequate garbage 
ordinance which is enforced by city. 

Vermin, Arlington County : Control by means of a general county sanitation 
law. Mosquito-control oiling program maintained during summer months. 
Alexandria : No ordinances for control of rats, flies, or mosquitoes. Rat poison- 
ing campaigns carried out almost continuously and catch basins are oiled during 
summer months. 

Housing, Arlington County : No information as to number of dwelling units 
or rooms. Reported no houses suitable for occupancy vacant. No increase in 
rents. Two small tourist camps operating under county permits. A zoning 
ordinance in effect. Regulations governing overcrowding and sanitary conditions 
of occupied houses. Alexandria: At beginning of present year there were 8,606 
dwelling units in city; 1,456 dwellings closed because of needed repairs and 116 
closed as unfit for occupancy. Number of units in which overcrowding existed 
was given as 2S0. Estimated 400 un^ts needed to meet present demand. Three 
low-cost housing projects have been approved for the city. Zoning ordinance 
in effect. Sufficient regulations covering construction of buildings and plumbing 
installations. No regulations governing overcrowding or sanitary conditions of 
occupied houses. 

Health organization, Alexandria : Considered an independent city and provides 
for full-time health officer. Present health officer has resigned. Full-time per- 
sonnel in department are 4 public-health nurses, sanitary engineer, dental 
director, 3 clerks, 1 full-time and 2 N. Y. A., and 1 laboratory technician, 
9 full-time employees with professional background, and 6 full-time lay em- 
ployees. Total budget of $28,000. Venereal-disease control : Clinic is conducted 
at community health center. Cases treated by private physicians. Free drugs 
and certain financial assistance available from State. Some effort to control 
prostitution by city manager and police. Arlington County: County maintains 
full-time health department. There are 13 full-time and 8 part-time profes- 
sional personnel, 4 full-time nonprofessional employees. Total budget of 
$27,660. Venereal-disease control : Never be sufficient until adequate measures 
are provided by District of Columbia. Department provides 3 venereal-disease 
clinics within county. 

Medical care, Alexandria : One hundred-bed hospital, privately owned but city 
provides $12,000 per annum to assist in care of poor treated in the hospital. 
No plans for expansion ; 49 physicians and 14 dentists. Other agencies : TB 
Association, Red Cross, and Parent-Teachers Association. Arlington : No hos- 
pital facilities; 48 physicians and 15 dentists. TB Association finances all 
tuberculosis work. Parent-Teachers Association, Red Cross, and others give 
material assistance. 

Welfare organizations, Alexandria: Full-time director; budget, $25,000; dis- 
tributed among old-age assistance, aid to dependent children, aid to blind, gen- 
eral relief administration, Red Cross maintains a full-time nurse. Arlington : 
Full-time director, five full-time and 2 part-time workers. Budget, $64,537.69. 

Outstanding needs : 

Alexandria : 

(1) Additional hospital facilities. 

(2) Health department and District of Columbia should be augmented to 
provide better facilities for food-handling and venereal-disease control. 

(3) At least two sanitary inspectors and two additional nurses should be 
added to the staff. 

(4) State and Federal agencies should give definite financial assistance to 
improve health programs. 



4344 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Arlington : 

(1) Increase local funds to strengthen department program as to quarters, 
food establishments, sanitation, nursing, and communicable-disease control. 

(2) State and Federal Government assistance for additional funds. 

(3) Well-trained engineer needed and at least two or three nurses. 

(4) Rat control recommended. 

(5) Plans for cooking of garbage before feeding to hogs. 

FORT STOREY AND NAVAL AREA, VA. 

I. Military area. — (a) Fort Storey is a Coast Artillery camp, located ap- 
proximately 16 miles east of Norfolk, 6 miles north of Virginia Beach and 
adjacent to Cape Henry Lighthouse, Va. The maximum military strength is 
estimated as 3,500. The present well supply is to be abandoned and water 
obtained from Norfolk. An existing 25,000-gallon septic tank is to be rehabili- 
tated and an additional tank of the same capacity constructed. Effluent will 
be discharged a short distance offshore through a submerged outfall. How- 
ever, this treatment is believed insufficient to protect adjacent beaches and 
shellfish areas and complete treatment or pumping into the Virginia Beach 
system is being considered. Surface drainage is into the bay and ocean. The 
formation is tidewater beach sand with numerous sand dunes, (ft) Canton- 
ment camp is an Army camp on a former National Guard reservation about 
3 miles south of Virginia Beach and 18 miles east of Norfolk. The maximum 
military strength is estimated at 5,000 troops. Area is flat with a sandy tide- 
water surface formation draining into the ocean. Water is now furnished by 
Virginia Beach but soon will be from the Fort Storey supply line. Sewage 
will be discharged into Virginia Beach system. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Virginia Beach, 2,600; (vacation total 
often 35,000 or 40,000); Norfolk, 144,332; Portsmouth, 50,745; Suffolk, 11,343; 
Smithfield, 1,178 ; South Norfolk, 8,038. 

III. Industries. — (a) The Norfolk naval base is within the Norfolk city limits 
and on the south side of Willoughby Bay. Civilian employees will increase 
from 8,000 to 15,000, and maximum of enlisted personnel is 30,000. A 500- 
unit low-cost housing project for civilian workers adjacent to reservation has 
been approved. City water is used and sewage is discharged into Hampton 
Roads raw. (&) The Portsmouth Navy Yard is near the Portsmouth city 
limits on southern branch of Elizabeth River. Civilian employees will increase 
from 11,000 to 30,000 when adequate housing is provided. A 700-unit Federal 
low-cost housing project has been approved and private projects are under 
construction. City water is used and sewage is discharged directly into south- 
ern branch of Elizabeth River, (c) The Nansemond Ordnance Department is 
at Pig Point on Nansemond River. Only other information is that sewage is 
given primary treatment and chlorination before discharge into James River. 
(d) There are no major industries associated with national defense which are 
not located in or adjacent to urban communities. 

Ilia. Total population — military, naval, and civilian employees. — The total 
military and naval strength (I plus III) is about 40,000. The total civilian 
employees is a maximum of about 45,000, an increase of 26,000. 

IV. General character of area. — The two military reservations are in the 
eastern half of Princess Anne County, in an area generally flat — typical tide- 
water formation, and poorly drained in places. There is mosquito breeding, 
of both malaria and pest types. There are numerous roadside eating estab- 
lishments and camps. Septic tanks and privies are generally used. Several of 
the Norfolk water supply lakes are in the area. 

V. Summary. — Water supply — (a) Virginia Beach: From Norfolk, pumped 
to a surface reservoir and rechlorinated as pumped into distribution system. 

(6) Norfolk: (1) Moores Bridge supply from chain of lakes pumped to 
filter plant; (2) Lake Prince supply from Exchange Creek (tributary of Nan- 
semond River) is pumped to another filter plant on Thirty-seventh Street. 
Treatment is conventional, with ph control and pre and post chlorination. 
Norfolk also supplies water to South Norfolk and parts of Norfolk and Princess 
Anne Counties. Excess capacity estimated from report is 10.6 m. g. d. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4345 

(c) Portsmouth: From two impounded reservoirs water is pumped to the 
filter plant. Treatment includes ph and corrosion control and chlorine and 
lime for sterilization. This supply serves a total population of 5S.0J0 persons 
in Portsmouth and Suffolk and an additional 15,000 in Norfolk and Nansemond 
Counties. Excess capacity estimated from report is 4.7 m. g. d. 

(d) Suffolk: Is supplied from Portsmouth. 

(e) Smithfield: Supply is from three flowing artesian wells 363 to 441 feet 
deep. No treatment was reported. In case of extreme emergency, water from 
a mill pond may be pumped into system with hypochlorites added. Ordinarily 
this is disconnected by removing section of pipe. 

Sewage: (a) Virgina Beach: Plant completed 1939 may be operated as either 
chemical or biological process or a combination of both. Units include floccula- 
tion basins, trickling filters, digestion tanks, automatic chlorinators and many 
others. Effluent goes into Little Neck Creek and thence to tidal estuary near 
mouth of Lynnhaven River. Plant designed so capacity can be doubled or 
tripled if necessary. 

(&) Norfolk: Discharged raw into Elizabeth River at several points. Hamp- 
ton Roads Sanitary District has been formed and experimental model treat- 
ment plant is being operated for study. Satisfactory treatment in near future 
is expected. 

(c) Portsmouth: Discharged raw into Elizabeth River. It is expected that 
steps toward satisfactory treatment will be taken in near future. 

Food: (a) Virginia Beach: Municipal food ordinance. 

(b) Norfolk and Portsmouth: Municipal food ordinance enforced by City 
Hen lth Department. 

Milk: (a) Virginia Beach: Has a milk ordinance but since almost all milk 
comes from pasteurization plants in Norfolk the need for enforcement is 
doubtful. 

(b) Norfolk and Portsmouth : Have milk ordinances enforced by the city health 
departments. Little data available on sanitary conditions. Milkshed control 
in general is under State department of agriculture; State health department 
exercises little control. 

Garbage: Virginia Beach has a garbage ordinance enforced by county health 
department. 

Norfolk and Portsmouth also have a municipal ordinance. Disposal is by 
incineration. 

Vermin: (a) Virginia Beach: No information available. 

(&) Norfolk and Portsmouth Area: The control of both malaria and pest 
mosquitoes is likely to be a serious problem. A survey of the area has been 
made by the State health department, including estimates of work to be done, 
cost and labor. 

Housing: (a) Virginia Beach: No data on needs. A defense-housing project 
has been approved for the town. 

(6) Norfolk an dPortsmouth area: Naval and shipyard authorities say ad- 
ditional employees can't be given work until additional housing is provided. 
Problem is acute. . 

Health organization: The bi-county health department services Norfolk and 
Princess Anne Counties. Both Norfolk and Portsmouth have city health depart- 
ments. Isle of Wight, Nansemond, and city of Suffolk constitute a health 
district now operating on a full-time basis. All these departments are believed 
to conduct generalized programs. 

Welfare organizations: No information obtained. 

Outstanding needs: These are not summarized as such in the report. How- 
ever, the following would doubtless be included. 

(1) Additional personnel for health departments. 

(2) Sewage treatment for the Norfolk-Portsmouth area. 

(3) Revise Fort Storey sewage treatment plans. (See I.) 
<4) Mosquito control measures in Norfolk-Portsmouth area. 



2(10.170— 41— pt 11- 



4346 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



FORTRESS MONROE, LANGLEY FIELD, FORT EUSTIS, VA., INCLUDING THE PENINSULA 
HEALTH DISTRICT 

I. Military area. — Located in Virginia in Elizabeth City and Warwick 
Counties. 



Military establishment 


Agency 


Nearest city 


Expected 

military 

population 








7,000 




....do ... 


....do 


7,000 




do 




16.000 











Water supply of Fortress Monroe and Langley Field from Government treat- 
ment plant adequate for 23,000. Sewage-treatment plant adequate for 5,000 at 
Fortress Monroe and 1,800 at Langley Field. Water supply for Fort Eustis 
from two drilled wells. Sewage-treatment plant adequate for 10,000. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Hampton, 5,898; Phoebus, 3,503; Williams- 
burg, 3,942 : Newport News, 30.933 : Yorktown, 521. 

HI. Industry. — Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company. Type: 
Fighting and auxiliary vessels for United States Navy. Employees: 12-20,000. 
Location : Newport News. 

IV. General character of area. — Aside from Newport News area is rural with 
few small towns. Topography is flat, being only a few feet above mean sea 
level. 

V. Summary. — Water : Public supply satisfactory in cities and towns. Ques- 
tionable supply in small villages and rural areas. Military and industrial 
supplies adequate. 

Sewage: Disposal is adequate for urban, military, and industrial areas. 
Rural areas have sanitary privies or septic tanks. Control of human waste 
disposal governed by county-wide ordinances. 

Food : County ordinance for food-handling establishments enforced by county 
health department considered adequate. Local ordinance in Hampton and 
Williamsburg also adequate. Need increase in personnel for expected increase 
in establishments. 

Milk : Information for Williamsburg only : city has a milk ordinance in accord- 
ance with United States Public Health Service, milk ordinance and code. Dis- 
trict health department supervises. 

Garbage: Information for Williamsburg only. City collectors and in- 
cinerators. 

Vermin : No information available. 

Housing: Considerable shortage reported but recently created housing com- 
mission to serve entire Hampton Roads area expected to solve problem. Na- 
tional defense housing projects approved for Phoebus and Langley Field. 

Health organiation: Peninsula Health Department serves Eliabeth City, 
Hampton, James City, Williamsburg, Warwick, York Counties. Personnel full- 
time, include health officer, engineer, three sanitary engineers, five nurses, and 
three clerks, $19,500 total budget. Program is efficient but not adequate. 

Venereal-disease control: Five clinics operated. Free drugs to physicians. 
Effort made to locate and treat all cases of syphilis. Some effort made to con- 
trol commercial prostitutes. Newport News has a full-time health officer, clerk, 
four nurses, four sanitary inspectors, and one laboratory technician. Informa- 
tion as to program not available at present. 

Hospitals : Information not available. 

Welfare organizations : Information not available. 

Outstanding needs: (1) Cooperative public health program between Com- 
monwealth of Virginia and city of Newport News. 

(2) Addition of venereal-disease control officer, public health engineers, two 
sanitarians, and four muses for district area. 

(3) Malaria-control program augmentation. 

(4) Ratproofing of all buildings where food is stored. 

(5) Safe water supply and sewage disposal system for village of Lee Hall. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4347 

FORT BEN NINO, COLUMBUS, GA. 

I. Military area.— Fort Benning is an Army post with an ultimate military 
strength of about 45,000. The reservation is expected to comprise 240,000 acres 
in Muskogee and Chattahoochee Counties, with headquarters about 9 miles 
south of Columbus, Ga. Water supply derived from Upatoi Creek and treated 
by rapid sand filtration. Part of sewage given complete treatment, part dis- 
charged raw, and part given partial treatment. Garbage is handled by the post 
collection system and incinerated. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Columbus (53,000), Ga., Phoenix City 
(15.000), Ala. 

III. Industry.— Six or eight hosiery and cotton mills are located at Columbus; 
however, no industrial developments of national-defense character are anticipated. 

IV. General description of area. — The terrain around the reservation is rather 
high, rolling land, with drainage toward the south and west. Development of 
tourist camps, food stands, and trailer camps along main roads quite prominent 
Excreta disposal by pit privies. Water supplies at individual homes. 

V. Summary. — Water : Derived from Chattahoochee River, which carries con- 
siderable turbidity and some pollution. Treatment consists of conventional 
stages. Plans for plant expansion are under consideration. Two subdivisions 
5 miles from city have deep wells not believed to be dangerous. 

Sewage : 95-percent sewered, 80-percent connected. All sewage and industrial 
wastes from Bibb City (northern edge of Columbus) discharged to Chattahoochee 
River untreated. Industrial wastes primarily from hosiery and cotton mills. 
Stream conditions not critical as dilution is great. 

Food: Operated under inadequate ordinance of 1921, supplemented by food 
handlers medical-examination provisions enacted in 1934. Muskogee County 
intends to use regulation adopted by the State board of health in 1940. Personnel 
and control do not appear to be entirely satisfactory. 

Milk : 57-percent pasteurized. Existing regulations were adopted in 1934 using 
basically the 1934 edition of the standard milk ordinance. Enforcement by full- 
time veterinarian under direction of city-county sanitary engineer. The 1940 
grading gave raw milk 69.9 and the pasteurized supply 72.8. General State 
control of milk under Department of Agriculture. 

Garbage: City requires tightly covered metal containers. Collection three 
times per week in residential, and daily in business districts. Incineration said 
to be adequate for increased population. 

Vermin: No rodent-control program has been adopted. 

Housing: Rather large itinerant population now housed in trailer and tourist 
camps along main highways. Rents definitely increased. One thousand-unit 
project being developed chiefly for noncommissioned officers. It is said that 
500 to 600 additional units will be necessary to take care of the ultimate popula- 
tion. No regulations exist relative to overcrowding of living quarters. 

Health organization: Combined city-county unit, budget $41,882. Health of- 
ficer away to school for training. Assistant Surgeon Weber of United States 
Public Health Service acting health officer. Venereal disease clinic not satis- 
factory. 

Medical care: One general hospital, one county TB sanitorium, county poor 
physicians, school physician employed by school board, visiting nurses' associa- 
tion, 45 physicians, and 24 dentists. 

Hospitals : General hospital of 175 beds being expanded to 265 beds including 
35 bassinets. 

Welfare organization: Financed by city, county, State, and Federal funds. 
Annual budget about $96,000. Personnel consists of 1 director, 1 supervisor, 12 
case workers, 1 bookkeeper, 7 stenographers, and 1 receptionist There are also 
a family-welfare bureau supported by the community chest consisting of a 
director, and 2 or 3 case workers. This agency operates on a budget of $500- 
600 per month. 

Outstanding needs: (1) Additional housing facilities. 

(2) Improvements in environmental sanitation service of the health depart- 
ment food sanitation and restaurant hygiene considered deplorable by military 
authorities. 

(3) Sufficient trained milk personnel should be added to health department to 
relieve military authorities of making inspections. 



4348 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

(4) The several "box and can" excreta disposal units in the city should be 
replaced with sewer connections and with sanitary pit privies where sewer con- 
nections are impracticable. 

(5) Rest-room facilities within the city are inadequate. 

(6) State health department should furnish consultation service in enriron- 
mental sanitation 10 days per month. 

(7) Nursing service activities should be augmented. 

(8) School physician and poor physician should be replaced by a full-time 
physician trained in public-health work. 

CAMP BLANDING, FLA. 

I. Military area. — Camp Blanding is an Army post located about 50 miles 
southwest of Jacksonville and 8 miles east of Starke, in Clay County. The 
War Department estimates the aggregate military strength of the camp will 
be 45,000. The camp water supply is to be derived from a series of wells of 
about 800 to 1,200 feet depth, and chlorinated. Sewage is to be treated 
by a new plant providing clarification, separate sludge digestion and chlorina- 
tion of effluent, which is to be discharged to Black Creek. Garbage is to be 
disposed of by contract. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Starke (1,500), largest and only city of 
any size within a distance of 15 miles. 

III. Industries. — No major industries associated with national defense. 

IV. General character of area. — The terrain is generally fiat and soil sandy, 
timbered by scrub oak, pine, and underbrush. Area is rural in character. 
Studies of potential anopheline mosquito-breeding areas should be conducted 
prior to any great expenditures for malaria-control drainage. Pest mosquitoes 
are almost certain to be a problem. Ground water by deep or shallow wells 
is available in this section. 

V. Summary (Starke).— Water : Derived from 500-foot well, penetrating the 
Ocala limestone formation. It is believed that chlorination of the supply 
should be included in estimating the cost of system expansion. Present con- 
sumption estimated to be not in excess of 0.005 million gallons daily. State 
geological survey reports there should be no difficulty in securing an increased 
supply commensurate with a population several times that of the present. 

Sewage: Public sewerage system is estimated as serving from 40 to 60 percent 
of the population and sewage said to be passed through septic tanks — thought 
to be inadequate for present connected population. At least 100 privies in 
town and 8 to 10 private septic tanks. 

Food: State sanitary code only requirement, absence of enforcing personnel 
means no local control. Two State inspectors have been assigned to area. 

Milk: Small amount of pasteurized milk received from Jacksonville and 
Gainesville. Believed that raw milk from family-owned cows or community 
dairies constitute greater part of supply. 

Garbage: Disposed of individually, burning, burying, or feeding uncooked 
to hogs. 

Vermin : No special measures to control rat, fly, or mosquito prevalence. 

Housing: Squatters' camps near employment office at camp entrance; condi- 
tions appear to be growing worse. All houses, rooms, and tourist cabins in 
vicinity occupied. People living in cars, tents, and trailers among trees and 
underbrush. 

Health organization: No formal health organization exists in any of the 
counties containing or adjacent to the Camp Blanding reservation. Each 
county has an untrained nurse employed by the school board. 

Medical care: None of the counties has hospital or clinic. Five physicians 
practicing in Clay County. 

Welfare organization : Clay County has no functioning welfare organization 
either voluntary or official. 

Outstanding needs: Starke will probably be virtually rebuilt to care for an 
ultimate population of 30,000; practically no municipal facilities exist at 
present. Special problem of present is housing and providing facilities for 
migratory workers. A full-time local health unit having jurisdiction over 
Bradford, Clay, and Putnam Counties should be established at once. It is 
recommended that this unit contain a full-time venereal disease control officer, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4349 



well-trained public health engineer, one milk sanitarian, three sanitary officers, 
two public health nurses and a clerk. One malariologist should be assigned to 
this unit, at least until the malaria potentialities are known. 

FORT BRAGG, FAYETTEVnXE, N. C. 

I. Military area.— Fort Bragg is an Army military reservation located in 
Cumberland and Hoke Counties about 10 miles northwest of Fayetteville. The 
reservation comprises an area 8 by 25 miles. Topography is gently rolling, 
soil sandy, and rainfall rapidly absorbed. Military population may be increased 
from 18,000 to 66,500 men. The water supply for Fort Bragg comes from 
Little River. At present sewage is discharged raw into Little River. It is con- 
templated that complete treatment will be provided for sewage from Fort 
Bragg. Present garbage facilities inadequate. Recommend modern high-tem- 
perature incinerator be provided. 

II. Communities in critical area. — 



Municipality 


Population 


County 




1,303 
4,558 
5,154 
3,074 
1.3S2 
17,413 
500-2. 5f0 
980 


















Do. 





















III. Industries. — Fayetteville: Eight cotton mills and three rayon mills and 
one hosiery mill. Sanford : Cotton mills, knitting mills, sash and blind mill, 
brick works, veneer and roofing company. Lillington : Brick works and cotton 
oil and fertilizer works. Dunn and Erwin : Cotton mills, lumber companies, and 
ginnery. Great expansion of industries not indicated ; consequently no special 
problem anticipated in connection with their activities. 

IV. General character of area. — Topography gently rolling and soil sandy. 
Soil rapidly absorbs water so that it is not allowed to stand long enough to 
become a mosquito-breeding hazard. Mean annual precipitation 52.6 inches. 

V. Summary.— Water : Raeford, Sanford, Southern Pines, Aberdeen, Fayette- 
ville, Dunn, and Erwin have public water supplies, which appear to be generally 
adequate and satisfactory. Erwin obtains its water from the Dunn supply. 
Lillington supply inadequate. 

Sewage : Fayetteville : Treatment contemplated ; 75 percent of homes accessible 
to sewers. Pinehurst : Sewered and septic tanks. Aberdeen: 80 percent con- 
nected to sewers. Treatment by septic tanks. Raeford : Major portion of popu- 
lation accessible to sewers; treatment by Imhoff tank. Sanford: Adequately 
sewered; treatment by Imhoff tank. Southern Pines: 00 percent connected to 
sewers ; treatment by Imhoff tank. 

Food : Food control is in general exercised by local and State officials enforcing 
the State laws for "cafes and meat markets." 

Milk : Control generally exercised by local officials. Large amount of raw 
milk being distributed, some of which meets grade A requirements. Fayetteville 
and Raeford operate under the standard ordinance. 

Garbage: Fayetteville incinerator, and uses ashes for fill. Other municipalities 
in general have semiweekly collection and "an attempt" is made in burning at 
the public dump. 

Vermin : Some private control measures in certain localities. No general pub- 
lic program has been undertaken. 

Housing: At time of survey 1-4 percent vacancies in some areas, and a small 
number of rooms for rent. "Doubling up" now beginning in some towns but 
tents and trailers not much in evidence as yet. 

Health organization : None of the towns listed have independent full-time health 
departments; however, Dunn, Fayetteville, Southern Pines, and Aberdeen are 
served by county health departments. 



4350 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Hospitals : There are 364 hospital beds in the area. 

Welfare organizations: Cumberland County has a welfare organization with 
budget at $137,140. The Salvation Army has three full-time workers and a budget 
of $5,000. The Red Cross has one full-time worker, whose services are limited to 
aid to World War veterans. Cumberland County Blind Association has annual 
budget of $1,800. 

Outstanding needs: (1) That malaria drainage and maintenance projects for 
the area be continued and enlarged. 

(2) More efficient methods and control in collecting and disposing of garbage. 

(3) Extension of water and sewerage systems and improvement in sewage- 
treatment plants, and new sewage-treatment plant where none exist 

(4) More regulation and supervision of public milk supplies. 

(5) Rodent-control program. 

CAMP SHELBY AREA, MISS. 

I. Military area.— Camp Shelby is an Army camp located in Mississippi about 
8 miles southeast of Hattiesburg and 37 miles south of Laurel. The aggregate 
military strength is to be around 53,300. Ample good water is supplied without 
treatment from wells. Sewage is to be treated in a complete activated sludge 
plant. Garbage is sold on contract to be fed raw to hogs in the vicinity. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Hattiesburg, 21.024 ; Ellisville. 2.607 ; Laurel, 
20,602 ; Ovett, 467 ; Sumrall, 819 ; Lumberton, 1,485 ; Purvis, 1,000 ; Wiggins, 1,141 ; 
Richton, 136. 

III. Industry.— Hercules Powder plant only pertinent industry. Present em- 
ployees number 506. No expected increase. 

IV. General character of area. — Topography of surrounding area is rolling, with 
good drainage. Malaria is present in the area, but lowest rate in State. Two 
Work Projects Administration drainage projects in operation. Area except for 
Hattiesburg is rural. Dag wells and privies in use. Numerous food-handling 
establishments along United States Highway No. 49. State health department 
has detailed two inspectors to assist in the inspection of these establishments. 

V. Summary. — Water: Hattiesburg, water obtained from wells; properly 
treated ; meets Treasury standards. One cross connection needs adjustment. 
Supply ample for present and future demands. Laurel, supply unsatisfactory 
from both a physical and bacteriological viewpoint ; disapproved by State board 
of health. 

Sewage : Hattiesburg, 100 percent of population accessible ; 75 percent con- 
nected. Sewerage system adequate for present and future demands; no treat- 
ment ; discharged into stream ; dilution ample. Laurel, 100 percent of popula- 
tion accessible ; 50 percent connected. Sewerage will be adequate for present 
and future demands; no treatment. Industrial wastes plus city sewage produco 
considerable nuisance in Tullahalla Creek. 

Food: Hattiesburg: Local ordinance complying with State regulations well 
enforced. Laurel : Regulations well enforced by two full-time inspectors. 

Milk : Hattiesburg, 6 percent of supply pasteurized. 1939 United States Public 
Health Service milk ordinance enforced. 92 percent raw milk rating, 68 percent 
pasteurizing plant rating, 92 percent raw-to-plant rating. No history of milk- 
borne epidemics. Laurel, similar to Hattiesburg but about 75 percent as efficient. 
No history of milk-borne epidemics. 

Garbage: Collected by municipal trucks and burned in municipal incinerators. 
Collection and incineration facilities considered adequate in both places. 

Vermin : No special measures other than Work Projects Administration drain- 
age projects for the control of mosquito breeding. 

Housing: Problem acute in Hattiesburg with marked increase in rentals. No 
problem at present in Laurel. 

Health organization : Full-time health units in all surrounding counties but one. 
Well-ronnded public health program carried on. Forrest County (Hattiesburg) 
has a health officer, three nurses, one sanitary supervisor, one milk inspector, one 
laboratory technician, and two clerks with an annual budget of $17,498. This 
unit is considered capable of handling its problems. Venereal disease control : 
Clinics are held in all surrounding counties ; have full-time units except Lamar. 
Forrest County has four weekly clinics. Treatment for both gonorrhea and 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 435I 

syphilis. Prostitution well controlled by health unit in Hattiesburg. Cooperation 
between police and health officials very effective. 

Hospitals: There are 278 beds available in 5 general hospitals. Hattiesburg 
and Laurel each have two hospitals and Lumberton one. There are 107 physicians 
and 38 dentists in the area. 

Welfare organization: General relief is almost negligible. County department 
of public welfare is a branch office of State department of public welfare. Under 
State department there are the following: Division for the blind, division for 
surplus commodities, division of Civilian CoHservation Corps selectees, children's 
division. 

Outstanding needs : (1) Housing facilities. 

(2) Mosquito control. 

(3) Increased food inspectional work. 

(4) Water and sewerage systems for Laurel. 

DEFENSE INDUSTRY NEAR CHARLESTOWN, IND. 

I. Military area. — The Indiana ordnance works now under construction to 
manufacture smokeless powder is located on Government property south of 
the town of Charlestown just outside the town limits and next to the Ohio 
River. It is estimated that the plant will employ from 6,500 to 10,000 men. 
Drinking water supply will probably be drilled wells located in the alluvial 
deposits along the Ohio River. These sources will be chlorinated. Industrial 
water supply will be obtained from wells near the Ohio River. Iinhoff tanks 
have been suggested for treatment of domestic sewage ; a settling pool, 24- 
hour capacity, for industrial wastes will run through onen ditch 3% to 4 miles 
discharging into Ohio River 12 miles above Louisville, Ky. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Cities and towns within 10-mile radius of 
Charlestown: Charlestown, 2.000: Sellersburg, 1,059; Speed, 800: Claysburg, 
615; Utica, 500; Henryville, 400; New Washington, 275; Otisco, 200; Memphis, 
200 ; Watson, 100. 

There are 34 cities and towns with a 1930 population of 60,155 within a 25- 
mile radius. Louisville, Ky., is not included. 

III. Industries. — None mentioned. 

IV. Summary. — The only towns within 10-mile radius of Charlestown that 
have public water supplies and sewerage systems are Charlestown and Sellers- 
burg. 

Charlestown — Water: One 10-inch drilled well is at present supplying a 
sufficient quantity of water. An auxiliary source of supply should be made 
available immediately. 

Sewage: The sanitary sewerage system and sewage-disposal plant are under 
construction. The system has a design population of 1,500 people. 

Food : All public eating establishments in the 10-mile area are under surveillance 
of district health department No. 3. All new eating establishments must comply 
with the grade A requirements before opening. 

Milk : About 50 percent pasteurized. Ali the larger producers of milk are in 
romnliance with the grade A milk requirements. 

Garbage : It is recommended that all communities should provide regular and 
frequent collection service. 

Sellersbu-g: Similar set-up as Charlestown. In this case public water 
supply is failing fast. 

Vermin : No mention. 

Housing : Urban housing survey revealed that no dwellings or no rooms are 
available for rental in any of 10 towns within the 10-mile radius of Charlestown. 
Rural housing survev disclosed inadequate facilities. In New Albanv there 
are 44 single-family dwellings vacant and 31 under construction ; in Jefferson- 
ville, 3 dwellings vacant and 15 under construction; in Scottsburg, 6 vacant and 
12 under construction; in Crovdon, 13 vacant; in Salem, 2 vacant; in Madison, 
6 vacant ; in North Madison, Hanover, and Galena, 6 vacant. 

Health organization : District health department No. 3. 

Hospitals: None mentioned. 

Welfare organizations : None mentioned. 

Outstanding needs: (1) Assignment of two sanitary engineers to the person- 
nel of district health unit No. 3. 



4352 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

(2) (a) A housing development, especially at cities where new units will be 
assimiliated later by the general population; (ft) inexpensive transportation 
facilities; (c) encouragement of new construction in areas where approved public 
water supply and sewerage facilities exist, or where an extension of water mains 
and sewers is possible; (d) a general sanitation improvement for rooming and 
boarding in rural areas. 

(3) (a) An auxiliary well and pumping equipment to the Charlestown water 
supply, also an auxiliary source of power; (&) extensions to the sewerage system 
for Charlestown. 

(4) Additional source of water supply for Sellersburg and completion of the 
sewage-treatment works. 

(5) Public water supplies for the the towns of Henry ville, Utica, and North 
Madison, all in Indiana. 

(6) Sewage-treatment works to provide 45-percent removal of suspended solids 
at New Albany, Jeffersonville, Clarksville, and Madison. 

(7) Public eating establishments made to comply with grade A standards. 

(8) Adopt grade A milk ordinances. 

(9) Regular and frequent garbage collection and disposal. 

(10) Immediate improvements to water-supply and sewerage systems of 
schools in the 10-mile area. 

(11) Proper drainage for mosquito control. 

ROCK ISLAND ARSENAL, IIX. 

I. Military area. — 164 troops, 10 officers, and 7,200 civilian employees in Rock 
Island Arsenal. 

II. Communities in critieal area. — Rock Island, 42,647; Moline, 34,599; East 
Moline, 10,859; Silvis, 2.9S5; Milan, 1,206. 

III. Industries. — In addition to the ordnance arsenal there are two important 
industries, namely: Deere & Co., 5,000 (agricultural implements.); Interna- 
tional Harvester Co., 6,000 (machinery and metal products). 

Industrial wastes and sewage are discharged into the Mississippi River. 
Rock Island Arsenal obtains water from Mississippi River and treats it to 
conform with United States Public Health Service standards for drinking 
water. Refuse burned in open. 

IV. General charaeter of area. — Part of the area is underlain by water bearing 
creviced limestone formations. Covering is so thin in areas that danger of 
water pollution exists. A quadrimaculatus mosquito is present. The present 
regular program of raising and lowering water levels in United States Govern- 
ment navigation pools thought to be adequate. Shore lines have been cleared. 
Four tourist camps in nearby area have sanitary defects which might be 
considered a health hazard. 

V. Summary. — Water: For the larger cities of Rock Island and Moline the 
water supply is obtained from the Mississippi River. The water received 
prechlorination, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, addition of lime for 
corrosion control if necessary, and postchlorination. East Moline uses deep 
wells with continuous chlorination. Silvis and Milan use wells from a ques- 
tionable strata without treatment. In general, the supplies are safe and 
adequate. There is considerable excess capacity when all supplies are grouped. 
Individual excess capacity can take care of limited population increases. 

Sewage: Rock Island has an adequate sewerage treatment plant which dis- 
charges its effluent into the Mississippi River. Moline has an Imhoff tank and 
treatment which is inadequate. East Moline and Silvis discharge untreated 
sewage into the Mississippi and Rock Rivers. Milan has no public sewer system 
but uses mostly septic tanks instead. Sewage disposal apparently is a problem 
in this area. 

Food : Information not siven in report. 

Milk: Approximately 95 percent of the milk produced in the area is pas- 
teurized. There are no ordinances in effect and no laboratory control. Pas- 
teurization plants inspected at least once each 2 months by State Health 
Department. 

Garbage: Regular collection and mostly sold for hog-feeding purposes. 

Vermin : No special control measures. 

Housing: Few vacancies — situation becoming acute 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4353 

Health organizations: Rock Island has a full-time lay health officer and a 
plumbing inspector. Moline has a full-time lay health officer. Both have 
part-time physicians. It is the duty of the health officers to administer the 
rules and regulations of the State Health Department and city of Rock Island. 
East Moline and Silvis have part-time medical health officers. Public-health 
work is limited. Venereal disease control: There is only one treatment clinic 
for indigent patients in the entire county. There is a county clinic nurse and 
a lay investigator to do follow-up work. 

Medical care: Four hundred and seventy-three general hospital beds available; 
133 physicians and 65 dentists practice in the area. 

Outstanding needs: (1) Adequate full-time health unit. 

(2) Adequate sewage disposal and treatment facilities. 

(3) Private or public housing developments. 

PROPOSED MACHINE TOOL PLANT, DAVENPORT, IOWA 

I. Military Area. — None. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Davenport, 65,001 

III. Industries. — Machine tool plant, 8,000 to 10,000 employees anticipated. 
Plans for housing, water, and sewage not made at present. 

IV. General character of area. — Not given. 

V. Summary (Davenport). — Water: Source is the Mississippi. Water treated 
and considered safe. Operation of treatment plant excellent. Present system 
serving 90 percent of population is adequate for moderate expansion. 

Sewage : Treatment plant designed for 75,000. Efficiency of 30 percent to 35 
percent. Effluent to Mississippi River. 

Milk : Eighty percent of milk consumed is pasteurized. Ordinances in effect. 
Now working on United States Public Health Service ordinance. Estimate of 
compliance: Raw milk. 50 percent; pasteurized milk, 70 percent. 

PROPOSED SHELL-LOADING PLANT NEAR BURLINGTON, IOWA 

I. Military area. — None. 

II. Comunities in critical ana.— Burlington 27,000; Fort Madison, 13 779. 

III. Industries. — A proposed shell-loading plant to employ between 12,000 and 
15.000 people. Plans for housing, water supply, sewage disposal, and health, 
welfare and medical care for employees not yet developed. 

IV. General character of area. — No information. 

V. Summary.— Water : Both Burlington and Fort Madison obtain water from 
Mississippi River. Both supplies receive routine treatment which is approved. 
Both supplies and systems are considered adequate at present. 

Milk: Lack enforcement of an obsolete ordinance in Fort Madison. 90 rercent 
of milk consumed in Burlington is pasteurized. United States Public Health 
Service ordinance in effect. Raw milk 70 percent compliance ; pasteurized milk, 
70 percent compliance. 

DEFENSE INDUSTRIES NEAR WICHITA, KANS. 

I. Military area. — None. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Wichita, 109,945. 

III. Industries.— There are to be four airplane factories located on the south- 
east outskirts of the citv of Wichita beyond the city limits. Between 15 000 
and 20,000 men are to be employed. All water is to be obtained from the city 
supply of Wichita and all sewage will be discharged into the city system 
except in the case of Culver where an old industrial septic tank and disposal 
field are available. Adequacy of the system is questionable. 1. Beach. 2. 
Stearman. 3. Cessna. 4. Culver. 

IV. General character of area.— The city and environs are slightly rolling 
with good drainage to the Arkansas River. There is no malaria problem and 
the general mosquito nuisance is not excessive. 

V. Summary.— Water: Source is 25 new wells located 35 miles southwest of 
the city. Treatment plant includes coke tray aerators, rapid mix and slow 
mix with flocculators, mechanically raked clariflers, final settling tanks, filtra- 
tion, and chlorination. Treasury standards are met. System is adequate for 
the increase in population anticipated. 



4354 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Sewage: City sewage treated in a plant consisting of a coarse screen and 
grit chamber, preaeration chamber, mechanically raked clarifiers, sludge diges- 
ters, and sludge drying beds. There is no secondary treatment. Effluent is 
discharged into Arkansas River. The system is adequate for present and 
future demands. The treatment is not considered adequate for preparing the 
effluent. 

Food: Food ordinances are adequate and fairly well enforced by two city 
inspectors and one county engineer. 

Milk: Seventy-five percent of milk consumed is pasteurized. The United 
States Public Health Service ordinance is in effect. The extent of compliance 
is 91 percent of both raw and pasteurized milk. State board of health runs 
a check survey annually. 

Garbage: There is a questionable ordinance in effect with unsatisfactory 
compliance. Private contractors collect garbage which is fed uncooked to hogs'; 
also refuse which is dumped on one of two city dumps inadequately main- 
tained. 

Vermin : No special control measures. 

Housing: Kansas legislature did not pass the house enabling act so United 
States Housing Authority cannot operate unless possibly as an emergency. 
There are no housing developments at the plants for employees at present and 
none is anticipated. All available housing space is believed to be occupied. 

Health organization : Wichita city and Sedgwick County each have full-time 
health units. The two units work separately in the fields of sanitation and 
communicable disease control but together especially in the fields of venereal- 
disease and tuberculosis control. The Sedgwick County unit has a budget of 
$22,490 and carries out a well-rounded public health program. The Wichita 
unit has a $30,500 budget which is limited almost entirely to the field of sanita- 
tion. A part-time health officer is in charge but the other 14 staff members 
are full time. No nurses are employed. Nurses employed by the schools and 
private nursing association carry out a routine public health nursing program. 
Venereal-disease control : The. Sedgwick County unit runs two treatment clinics 
weekly with a case load of about 80. Case finding and holding is done by the 
nurses. The program is limited. 

Hospitals: 929 general hospital beds are available; 154 physicians and 57 
dentists practice in the county. 

Welfare organization : The county board of welfare is composed of the county 
commissioners. A full-time director is employed. Expenditures not available. 
Very little money spent on medical care. County hospital for county residents 
of 1 year. 

Outstanding needs: (1) Reorganization of Wichita health unit: (a) Full-time 
director; (ft) Public health engineer; (c) Public health nurses. 

OAMP JOSEPH T. ROBINSON, LITTLE ROCK, ARK. 

I. Military area. — Camp Robinson, an Army camp, is located 4 miles north of 
Little Rock, Ark. The aggregate military strength is expected to be 30,000 troops. 
The water supply is to be obtained from the city of Little Rock. A sewage- 
treatment plant now under construction has been approved by the State board 
of health. Garbage disposal is not mentioned. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Little Rock, 88,129; North Little Rock, 
21.132; Sylvan Hills, 1.000; Lonoke, 1,674; Levy, 1,197; Park Hill, 1,189; Beebe, 
1,108 ; Cabot, 684 ; Conway, 5,534. 

III. Industries. — None mentioned. 

IV. General character of area. — The topography is generally very rugged, with 
slopes predominantly 8 to 12 percent and greater. There are numerous ravines, 
many of which contain permanent pools throughout the summer season. An 
investigation of mosquito breeding revealed the presence of A. quadrimaculatus. 
Very little drainage is necessary. Control by oiling is recommended. 

V. Summary. — Water: The water supply of Little Rock, North Little Rock, 
Levy, and Park Hill is ample and is derived from an impounded lake. It is treated 
to meet strict Treasury requirements. Sylvan Hills obtains water from deep wells. 
The water is treated by aeration, coagulation, filtration, and chlorination. It is 
checked occasionally by the State health department. At Conway water is ob- 
tained from a creek and given conventional treatment, including chlorination. 
Beebe, Lonoke, and Cabot use untreated well water. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4355 

Sewage: Little Rock has a sewerage system which should be adequate for 
future needs. Ninety-eight percent of the population is connected. North Little 
Rock has a sewerage system which is available to 85 percent of the population • 
75 percent are connected. The system is not adequate. In Levy the system is 
available to all but 10 houses, but only 50 percent of the population are connected 
Park Hill is 100 percent sewered. Levy and Park Hill discharge their sewage 
into the North Little Rock system. Treatment is not provided in any system. 
The sewage in Conway and Lonoke is collected and treated. Beebe uses a large 
septic tank for its population. In Sylvan Hills and Cabot no public sewerage 
system is available, so numerous septic tanks and privies are in use. 

Food : Ordinances are adequate and personnel are available in Little Rock, but 
the program is new and not well under way. North Little Rock has adequate 
ordinances, enforced by one man, on milk and food only, from the health de- 
partment. In other communities State regulations are enforced by the county 
health department. 

Milk: Little Rock, North Little Rock, Levy, Park Hill, and Sylvan Hills in 
general have the same milk supply. All supplies are supervised by the State 
health department. The United States Public Health Service ordinances and 
code are in effect. The ratings are 96 percent raw and 95 percent for pasteurized. 
Fifty-one percent of the milk consumed is pasteurized. Laboratory control and 
inspection locally is also maintained in Little Rock and North Little Rock. No 
information on Conway. Most of the milk consumed in Lonoke is pasteurized. 
It is supervised by the State health department. In Cabot and Beebe most of 
the milk consumed is raw. No supervision is maintained. 

Garbage: Garbage and refuse are collected by the city in Little Rock, refuse 
by the city and garbage by private individuals in North Little Rock. Garbage 
is fed uncooked to hogs and refuse is burned on a dump. In the other com- 
munities individuals dispose of their own garbage. 

Vermin : There are no measures for control except in Little Rock and North 
Little Rock where an effort is made to control flies and mosquitoes ; flies by 
proper garbage disposal and mosquitoes by drainage and oiling. 

Housing: There is no acute shortage nor have rents increased in Little 
Rock. There is a shortage and rents have steadily increased in North Little 
Rock. In Levy, people are living in trailers promiscuously scattered over cer- 
tain parts of the city. Park Hill and Sylvan Hills are well to do residential 
towns and have strict housing ordinances. No problem is reported in these 
two towns. No information available in the other communities. 

Health organization: There are full-time health units in this area, Little 
Rock has a budget of $50,000, $59,000 is spent for general public health and 
venereal-disease control ; a balanced program of public health is operated. 
Pulaski County has a budget of $19,680. The usual program of general 
health work is in progress with emphasis upon venereal-disease control. 
Faulkner-Cleburne County has a budget of $12,900. The program is the usual 
rounded activity of a county unit. White County has a budget of $12,600. 
The program is balanced. North Little Rock and Lanoke County have part- 
time units. 

Venereal-disease control: Limited venereal-disease control programs are car- 
ried on in all units, but the more intensive programs are carried out in Little 
Rock and Pulaski Countv. Pulaski County operates 3 weekly clinics with a 
load of 800 to 1.000. Case finding and holding are done by the 2 nurses in 
connection with their routine duties. Prostitution is a difficult problem. Two 
weekly clinics with a case load of about 900 are onerated. Case finding and 
case holding is done by the nurses. It is not adequate. 

Hospitals: Little Rock has 957 general hospital beds available. Faulkner 
County has 40 beds, White County has 69 beds. There are 194 physicians and 
65 dentists in Pulaski County, including Little Rock; 27 physicians and 3 
dentists in Faulkner County; 23 nhysicians and 2 dentists in Lanoke County; 
30 physicians and 5 dentists in White County. 

Welfare organization : Pulaski. Faulkner, and Lanoke Counties have full- 
time welfare units which are units of the State department of welfare. Relief 
consists of old-age assistance, aid to dependent children, aid to blind, and 
general relief, and hospitalization. There are several private agencies in Little 



4356 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Rock which render direct relief. The State units do little of this type of 
work. 

Outstanding needs: (1) Venereal-disease control and measures to check prosti- 
tution; (2) housing; and (3) consolidation of several units and expansion, of 
the one. 

SAN ANTONIO MILITARY AREA, TEX. 

I. Military area. — Located in Bexar County, Tex., in and around San An- 
tonio. All military establishments under jurisdiction of Army. 

Expected 
military 
Military establishment: population 

Fort Sam Houston 21,000 

Brook Field 1, 920 

Camp Bullis 

Camp Normoyle 1, 146 

Camp Stanley 

Dodd Field : 

Duncan Field 300 

Kelly Field 3, 300 

Randolph Field 4, 800 

There are adequate water supplies and sewage disposal facilities for all these 
Army posts. Measures have also been taken to assure proper facilities in case 
of emergencies. Better supervision of the plants is recommended however. 
There is a problem at present at Duncan Field. The sewage-disposal plant is 
overloaded and industrial wastes are killing some fish in the stream into which 
the wastes are discharged. Measures are being taken to correct this. 

Raw garbage is sold to farmers to feed to hogs. Refuse is burned. 

II. San Antonio is the only community of note in the area. 

III. Indvstry. — No industries connected with national defense. 

IV. General character of area. — Topography is moderately hilly with fertile 
plain between San Antonio River and Leon Creek. Mosquitoes, including Aedes 
aeffypti, are plentiful, but malaria reported not to be problem. Area is rural 
and sparsely settled except in and around San Antonio. Numerous tourist camps 
and food-handling establishments on main highways leading to San Antonio. 
Reported not to present a problem. Mitchell Lake, which receives sewage from 
San Antonio treatment plant, also has been used as reservoir for irrigation of 
area raising vegetables. Close supervision needed to prevent any contamina- 
tion of vegetables in this way. 

V. Summary (Rav Antonio).— Water : Three principal defects noted (1) lack 
of chlorination facilities; (2) lack of adequate bacteriological control ; (3) inter- 
connections with other water supplies of undetermined sanitary quality, and 
numerous cross connections. 

Sewage: Efficient sewage-treatment plant working at capacity now. Need 
for expansion beginning to be felt. 

Food : Adequate city ordinance in effect in city. Good supervision by limited 
personnel. Texas food and drug laws in effect outside San Antonio. Special 
attention given to food-handling establishments along main highways by county 
personnel. 

Milk : Efficient supervision by city, county, and State. United States Public 
Health Service milk ordinance and code (1936) in effect; 82 percent of milk 
pasteurized. 

Garbage: Part collected and incinerated, part fed raw to hogs. 

Vermin : No special measures to control. 

Housing: Slight amount of doubling up but no real problem. Expect problem 
to rise slowly as population increases. 

Health organization: Full-time city health department, with' total budget 
of $182,020. Limited general public-health program carried on. There is also 
a county health unit. Chief function is to render medical care to indigents. 
Public health activities are a minor activity. Supported entirely by county 
funds. Venereal disease control : One clinic held in San Antonio with case 
load of 2,100. Follow-up work by a specially trained and several general 
nurses. Police and health departments work together in controlling prostitutes 
and venereal diseases. Prostitution a real problem. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4357 

Medical care: Approximately 886 general hospital beds available to residents 
of San Antonio in addition to some others available in small institutions not 
registered; 395 physicians and 148 dentists reported in San Antonio. 

Welfare organizations: Full-time Bexar County-San Antonio welfare depart- 
ment. State and Federal Government administer 99.5 percent of direct relief, 
old-age assistance, surplus commodity distribution, child-welfare service, super- 
vision of certification and determination of eligibility of various Federal relief 
programs and county institutions for dependent and delinquent children. 

Outstanding needs: 

(1) Increased venereal disease treatment and prostitution control. 

(2) Chlorination of San Antonio water supply. 

(3) Close supervision of planes returning from Panama and Mexico. 

(4) Close supervision over irrigation district near Mitchell Lake. 

(5) Better housing. 

CORPUS CHBISTI-NEUCES COUNTY MILITARY AREA 

I. Military area. — The main base of the naval air station is situated approx- 
imately 13 miles southeast of Corpus Christi, Tex. There are three other 
smaller air fields located in the vicinity. The aggregate military strength is 
expected to reach 30,000 by 1SJ42. The sources of water at all fields is the 
public supply of Corpus Christi. Each field will be provided with an efficient 
sewage treatment plant. Information concerning garbage disposal was not 
available. 

II. Communities in, critical area. — Corpus Christi, 57.443; Robstown, G,700; 
Bishop, 1,327; Driscoll, 2u0; Rockport, 1,705; Aransas Pass, 4,153. 

III. Industries. — No major industries associated with national defense. 

IV. General character of area. — The area is on a level coastal plain with a 
gentle slope toward the Gulf. There are no swamps nearby, and soil is a tight 
black loam, making hookworm disease unknown. Very little history of 
malaria. Tourist camps and food-handling establishments in the area are 
attempting to comply with items of sanitation. 

V. Summary. — Water: Corpus Christi and Robstown obtain water from the 
Neuces River and Lake Corpus Christi. Both have efficient treatment plants 
with laboratories, and both meet Treasury standards. Supply is adequate for 
present and future needs. Corpus Christi has a capacity of 18,000 gallons per 
day. The other communities use drilled wells without any treatment. Monthly 
analyses are run by Texas Department of Health. Supplies are deemed ade- 
quate for present and future needs. 

Sewage: Corpus Christi has an efficient collection system and treatment 
for present and 3 to 5 years' future growth unless growth occurs in low area 
where additional plant is necessary. Robstown also has an efficient sewerage 
system with a treatment plant adequate for present and future needs. Bishop 
uses a large septic tank for the entire community. Its efficiency is questionable. 
Aransas Pass uses an Imhoff tank, sludge drymg beds and hyporblarinator. 
Driscoll has no public sewerage system. Rockport has Work Projects Adminis- 
tration project for a system under consideration. 

Food: The Corpus Christi-Neuces County health unit has two public health 
engineers, a milk sanitarian, and seven additional sanitarians who handle the 
various activities of the unit. Several ordinances for food control are in 
effect. Routine inspections are carried out. Rockport and Aransas Pass have 
little, if any, work done in this field. 

Milk: The milk situation is favorable in Neuces County. The pasteurized 
and raw milk both are rated above 90 percent. An ordinance comparable to 
the United States Public Health Service ordinance is in effect and is enforced. 
Ninety percent of the milk consumed in Corpus Christi is pasteurized. Rock- 
port and Aransas have little if any milk work done. The raw milk rating is 
55 percent. 

Garbage: Corpus Christi and Robstown have adequate ordinances, adequate 
storage and adequate disposition by incinerator or dump. Bishop has a collec- 
tion system but uncooked garbage is fed to hogs. Driscoll has no public collec- 
tion svstem and feeds most of garbage to hogs. No informat ; on on Aransas. 

Vermin: In Nueces County an attempt is made to eliminate breeding places 



4358 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

for flies and to keep all drainage ditches open. Malaria is not a problem. In 
Corpus Christi rats are poisoned. 

Housing: Corpus Christi has an acute housing shortage. Rents are up to 10 
and 33 percent. No informat.on on Robstown, Bishop, and Driscoll. Rockport 
and Aransas Pass have no problem at present but the number of vacancies 
is small. 

Health organization: The Corpus Christi-Nueces County health unit has a 
well-qualified director, seven part-time physicians, two part-time dentists, two 
public-health engineers, a milk sanitarian, seven nurses, seven sanitarians, a vet- 
erinarian, a aboratory director, a technician and four clerks. The total budget 
is $63,260. A fairly well-balanced program is carried on. Venereal-disease con- 
trol — five clinics in Corpus Christi and one clinic in Robstown are conducted. 
They are well-operated. Case finding and holding are performed by the nurses. 
More nurses are needed. Little control is exerted over prostitution. 

Hospitalization: One hundred and ninety-six general hospital beds are avail- 
able in the area. There are 88 physicians and 33 dentists in Nueces County. 

Welfare organization : Corpus Christi unit has a full-time director and a full- 
time eleik on a $12,000 annual budget. Mostly direct relief as food and milk is 
given. There is also a full-time director for the county unit. The $23,391.60 
annual budget is mostly used for direct relief, including $9,000 for hospitali- 
zation. 

Outstanding needs: (1) More efficient control over prostitution and venereal 
disease. 

(2) Tuberculosis control. 

(3) Sanitation (tourist camps, beer parlors, honky tonks). 

(4) Welfare. 

(5) Housing. 

FORT LEWIS ABEA, STATE OF WASHINGTON 

I. Military area. — Includes Fort Lewis Military Reservation, containing Fort 
Lewis, Camp Murray, McChord Air Field, du Pont Powder Works and testing 
area, town of Du Pont, city of Tacoma, and the city of Olympia. 

Fort Lewis is located about 13 miles east of Olympia and 13 miles southwest 
of Tacoma by United States Highway No. 99. The area is quite flat, with a few 
depressions and ridges. Water-supply sources are springs. Sewage is discharged, 
without treatment, through two outfalls into Paget Sound. Nonedible refuse is 
disposed in a sanitary fill ; edible is disposed for feeding of hogs. 

II. Communities in critical area. — Olympia, 13178 ; Tacoma, 107,520. 

III. Industry. — (1) Du Pont Powder Works located immediately across from 
Fort Lewis headquarters. The town of Du Pont includes offices, stores, and homes 
of employees. The water supply for the town and industry are two wells. The 
town is completely sewered, and all wastes, including industry, are discharged 
without treatment into Paget Sound. Number of employees not known. 

(2) Lumber mills, shipyards, pulp mills, and chemical industries at Tacoma. 

(3) Lumber mills and yards are in Olympia. 
A. The total military population is 50,000 men. 

IV. General character of area. — The Fort Lewis Military Reservation is irregu- 
lar in shape and located entirely within Pierce County. The average elevation 
is less than 100 feet above sea level. There are a few swampy areas along stream 
banks that are not prolific mosquito-breeding areas. The reservation is higher 
in the east and general drainage is toward the west. 

V Summary. — (a) Olympia, (b) Tacoma. 

Water : (a) The water supply is 33 drilled wells considered adequate and satis- 
factory and is accessible to the total population. Fourteen thousand persons are 
served. The per capita consumption is 98 gallons per day. 

(ft) A surface supply secured from Green River, with watershed sparsely 
settled. This water is chlorinated. A ground-water supply is secured from 10 
wells. This is also chlorinated. The average consumption is 266 gallons per 
capita per day. Roth supplies are adequate and satisfactory in quality. 

Sewage: (a) Eighty-five percent of population is sewered, discharging waste 
untreated into Puget Sound. Some privies, cesspools, and septic tanks are used. 
There are no local ordinances governing waste disposal. 

(6) Eighty percent of the population is served by sewers; the rest is served 
by privies, cesspools, and septic tanks. Domestic and industrial wastes dis- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4359 

charged into Puget Sound without treatment. There are no records of nuisances. 
There are no local ordinances governing the disposal of wastes. 

Food: (a) Regulations of the State department of health; the State depart- 
ment of agriculture to certain establishments. Regulations enforced by local 
officials in lieu of local ordinances. 

(6) Food control is exercised in a limited manner by the city health de- 
partment. 

Milk: (a) Bicounty health unit has a dairy inspector under general supervi- 
sion of the State milk sanitarian. Milk production and sale including sanitary 
control is a function of the State agriculture department. 

(6) Two city inspectors are employed. This is not a standard ordinance 
city but requirements are met as a result of standards set by Fort Lewis 
authorities. 

Garbage: (a) Disposal is by sanitary fill method. There are both local ordi- 
nances and State health department regulations. 

(6) Local ordinances control both collection and disposal. Regulations of 
the State health department also apply. 

Vermin : No special measures for the control of vermin. 

Housing: (a) Acute shortage of housing facilities. The shortage is being 
relieved by new construction. 

(&) Acute shortage of housing facilities. 

Health organization : Pierce County health department has a general program 
but does not include housing, general sanitation, food control, and milk sanita- 
tion. 

Venereal disease : The city of Tacoma health department has programs fairly 
adequate except for venereal-disease control, housing and food control. Thurs- 
ton county health department (including Olympia) has a general health pro- 
gram adequate for normal conditions but medical care is subject to improve- 
ments. Lewis County Health Department has a program inadequate in direc- 
tion, planning, and accomplishment. 

Welfare organizations: No information obtained. 

Outstanding needs: (1) Full-time health department in Lewis County. 

(2) Additional personnel for Pierce County Health Department. 

(3) Housing. 

(4) Control of venereal disease and prostitution. 

(5) Water and sewage. 

SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA AREA 

I. Military area,— Fort Roseerans, Army, 2,500 ; Torrey Pines, Army, 10,000 ; 
Camp Elliott, Navy, 8,000; rifle range, Navy, 2,500; naval training station, Navy; 
destroyer base and naval fuel depot, Navy ; naval air station, Navy ; Army air 
station, Army ; Marine Corps base, Navy. 

All units are located in or adjacent to the city limits of San Diego. The area 
in the vicinity of Torrey Pines, the rifle range, and Camp Elliott is hilly and 
affords good drainage. All present and proposed units will be supplied with 
water from the city of San Diego. All units except the rifle range, Camp Elliott, 
and Torrey Pines will be served by a trunk sewer and treatment plant to be 
constructed along the bay. New treatment plants with plans approved by the 
State health department are to be built for the rifle range, Camp Elliott, and 
Torrey Pines. Garbage is fed to hogs and refuse is burned. 

II. Communities in critical area.— San Diego, 147,995; National City, 7,301; 
Coronado, 5,425; Chula Vista. 3,869; La Mesa, 2,513; Leman Graves, 1.2C0; and 
El Cajan, 1,050. . . , 

III. Industries.— San Diego for some time has been a center for airplane 
manufacturing. Growth has been continuous so no marked problem is expected 
from industry. 

IV. General character of area,— San Diego is a large city with several smaller 
towns surrounding. It is not believed that they will be materially affected by 
any population increase. There are numerous tourist and trailer camps in 
the city to accommodate a temporary population. Sanitary conditions are gen- 
erally good. A relatively small number of privies are in use and these are of 
the approved type. 



4360 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

V. Summary (Sam, Diego). — Water and sewage: The water supplies and 
sewage-disposal systems in the unincorporated towns have been under the strict 
supervision of the county health department and the State health department 
has maintained active contact with the incorporated areas. 

Milk : Eighty percent of the milk consumed in the area is pasteurized. 

Garbage : Generally disposed of by feeding garbage to hogs and burning refuse. 

Housing : Problem is acute. 

Health organization : Well-operated full-time health unit with a $202,755 
budget in operation. The public-health program is a well-rounded program 
and is carried out under the directiron of an experienced health officer and 
a corps of trained and experienced public-health workers. 

Venereal disease control : Treatment clinics are operated by one full-time medi- 
cal director and two part-time clinic physicians. Two public-health nurses 
and one male venereal disease investigator do follow-up work. 

Medical care: One thousand and thirty-two general hospital beds are avail- 
able. 

Welfare organization : An excellent welfare program is carried out on a 
cooperative basis by the county and State welfare departments. The program 
includes aid to the aged, aid to the blind, pensions for widowed mothers, general 
relief for unemployables, inspection and supervision of homes for dependent 
and orphaned children, inspection and supervision of convalescent homes, and 
administration of the crippled children's program. 

Outstanding needs: (1) Housing; (2) additional public-health personnel. 



A Digest of Defense Developments 

HAMPTON ROADS AREA, VIRGINIA 

(From materials available March 21, 1941, in Office of Coordinator of Health, 
Welfare, and Related Defense Activities) 

A. Relation ship between defense areas and communities. 1 
Norfolk and Virginia Beach : 
Army : 

Camp Pendleton, 1,800 men. 2 
Fort Story. 

Norfolk Army supply base. 
Fort Norfolk. 
Navy yard and naval operating base. 
Fifth naval district headquarters. 
Shipbuilding. 
Portsmouth : 

Nansemond Ordnance Depot, Army, 200 men. 
Norfolk Navy Yard radio laboratory. 
Norfolk Naval Hospital. 
Naval ammunition depot. 
Marine barracks. 
Shipbuilding. 
Newport News, Hampton and Phoebus : 
Army : 

Fort Eustis, 10.800 men including 400 colored. 
Fort Monroe, including Fort Wool. 
Langley Field and vicinity, 7,100 men. 
Shipbuilding. 
Yorktown : Naval mine depot. 

Norfolk : 1940 population, 143,273. Economic character, lumber, fishing, ship- 
building, foundries. Local government, c'ty manager. 

Portsmouth : 1940 population, 50,687. Economic character, navy yard, ammu- 
nition plant, cotton oil processing, soybean processing, hosiery manufacturing. 
Local government, city manager. 

Newport News: 1940 population, 36,933. Economic character, shipbuilding and 
repairing, turbines, tobacco. Local government, city manager. 



See footnotes on pages 4365—4366. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 43Q1 

B. General situation. 

Hampton Roads may be largest military center in country, counting soldiers, 
sailors, flying force. 3 As of January 1941, about 25 percent' of people in whole 
area making living, directly or indirectly, from defense activities. 4 6 

Norfolk tbe focal point of whole area. 4 Army personnel from nearby posts 
spend leisure here in increasing numbers. All Government functions taxed to 
utmost, but city will do its share. Many newcomers only temporary nontax- 
paying residents. Remembering last war, Norfolk unwilling to spend heavily 
for such population, feels aid should come from Federal Government for extra 
burdens resulting from defense. 4 5 

Newport News, great shipbuilding center, has also large soldier problem. 
Rapid increase in population, especially in single industrial workers. 7 

Portsmouth different from other cities in area. With large Negro and 
large poor white population, many Federal Government centers here. City 
acquires defense problems, but no taxes from Federal Government, needs help." 

Mr. Charles P. Taft, Assistant Coordinator of Health, Welfare, nnd Related 
Defense Activities, to visit Hampton Roads area in late March 1941.' 

C. Defense organization. 

Hnmpton Roads Regional Defense Council, representing major communities 
in area, established November G, 1940, coordinated with State Defense Council. 1 * 
Key men of regional council: Maj. Raymond B. Bottom, chairman; and Andre 
Faure, serving both as secretary and as full-time paid executive. 11 Fund allot- 
ments to regional council: State, $8,060: Norfolk, $2,000; Portsmouth : nd 
Newport News, each $1,000; total $12,000. 511 Regional recreation representa- 
tive reports regional council's needs for full-time community organizer." Con- 
gressman S. O. Bland of Virginia has urged creation of a Federal agency for 
Hampton Roads area with authority to act on hospitalization and sanitation, 
traffic congestion, water and sewerage facilities, school facilities, and recrea- 
tion." 

Norfolk, Newport News, and Virginia Beach awake to defense problems. 
Portsmouth needs promotional and organization? 1 help to arouse public opinion.* 

Norfolk's Defense Recreation Committee appointed in September 1940 by city 
manager with city council's approval. 13 Committee inactive until enlarged Jan- 
uary 1941. New committee represents practically all organizations. 14 Chair- 
man, Richard D. Coke. Secretary, Ford C. Stewart, also city director of 
recreation. Offices of city recreation department shared by local recreation 
committee. 4 w 

At Virginia Beach, a defense recreation committee organized, to be integrated 
with Virginia Beach Defense Council, when latter is set up. Chairman, defense 
recreation committee: Don Seiwell, managing director, Virginia Beach Chamber 
of Commerce. Defense recreation committee cooperating with Hampton Roads 
Regional Defense Council. State defense council, and similar bodies in Norfolk 
and adjacent area, but Norfolk and Portsmouth essentially Navy-minded, Vir- 
ginia Beach concerned mainly with Army. 15 

At Newport News, organization of a local defense recreation committee, simi- 
lar to Norfolk's, planned. 

Portsmouth as yet unorganized. 8 

D. Housing. 

Housing one of principal concerns of Hampton Roads Regional Defense 
Council.* 16 As of January 1941, communities within 25 miles of Norfolk sat- 
urated. 5 

Housing shortage acute in Norfolk. In December 1940. men from shipyards 
living two or three to a room." Rents for tenements increased as much as 50 
percent; social workers alarmed. After long real-estate depression and remem- 
bering last war, Norfolk reluctant to embark on public housing projects. 
Shocking slums, mostly Negro. While vacancies for whites a problem, vacancies 
for Negroes rarer. 1819 

In Portsmouth all hotels, rooming houses, homes crowded. Some registration 
and billeting done, but most people shifting for themselves. 8 

At Newport News, room renting a business second only to shipbuilding 
Poorer people do not rent room, only a bed." 



See footnotes on pages 4365-4366. 
260370— 41— pt. 11 8 



4362 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Federally approved housing program for Hampton Roads are-a as of Feb. 11, 

1941 1 2 



Locality 


Defense activity 


Family 
units 


Intended occupants 


Construction agency 




Army air field 

Shipbuilding 

do 


350 
1,200 

500 
2,200 
90 
100 
30 

50 
1,002 

500 
2,000 

150 
510 
350 
150 
565 




Federal Works Agency. 
Navy. 

Local authority. 
To be determined later. 
Federal Works Agency. 
Navy. 
Do. 

Federal Works Agency. 
Navy. 

Local authority. 


Newport News 

Do 


Civilian defense work- 
ers. 

do-__ 

do 


Do 


do 

Fort Monroe, Army.. 

Navy mine depot 

do 

Fort Story, Army 

Naval Operating Base. 

do.. 




do 

Civilian defense work- 
ers. 


i Do—.-— 




Enlisted men and 
civilian defense 
workers. 


Do 


Do ... 


.do 


Civilian defense work- 
ers. 

do 

do 

do 

. do 






Navy. 

Local authority. 


Do 


do... 


Do . 


do 


Do — 


do 




Do 


do ... 




Federal Works Agency . 









1 Report Feb. 11, 1941 on approved housing program by Division of Defense Housing Coordination, 
Office for Emergency Management, Executive Office of the President. 

3 Defense Housing Construction Bulletin 14 on status of projects under Federal Works Agency for week 
ending Mar. 15, 1941 shows no change in figures for Federal Works Agency construction. 

E. Roads. 

Traffic congestion problem in Hamilton Roads area thoroughly explored 
November 28, 1940 in Norfolk meeting attended by representatives of Army, 
Navy, various Federal agencies, Hampton Roads regional defense council. 
Virginia State and local agencies. Defense highway projects recommended by 
United States Bureau of Public Roads in late 1940. In January 1941, regional 
defense council seeking additional Federal funds to speed these projects. Frank 
Bane, Division of State and Local Cooperation, then negotiating with United 
States Bureau of Public Roads and State defense council. 2021 

F. Health, 

In fall 1940 Virginia State Health Department reported health survey made 
of Hampton Roads area hospitals and clinics deemed sufficient to cover normal 
situation. 16 State defense council and Hamilton Roads regional defense council 
at work to meet emergency. Branch of State health department established 
in area to correlate health activities. Norfolk, Newport News, and Portsmouth 
have their own health departments, in addition to county health departments. 2 * 
Expansion of water and sewerage facilities has been special problem. 81 ffl 

Federal funds sought fur expansion of hospital facilities in Newport News and 
Hampton. 24 Norfolk hospitals expanding. 23 

Norfolk milk situation reported bad as of December 1940. Large quantity 
imported. More milk inspectors needed. Best milk will go to military posts. 
Danger of inferior milk for civilians. 22 

Venereal disease control a special problem. Red light districts in Norfolk and 
Portsmouth closed at suggestion from Washington and from American Social 
Hygiene Association. Difference of opinion in Norfolk regarding advisability of 
move. As of November 1940, Virginia Public Health Service had already added 
a venereal disease clinic to facilities of Hampton Roads area. 45818 

G. Welfare. 

Hampton Roads area has had to import numbers of skilled workers from other 
areas. 18 While Work Projects Administration working load same as about a 
year ago, Work Projects Administration applications and waiting list greatly 
reduced. As of November 1940, number of recently reemployed sufficient to have 
absorbed practically all employable males, had they required skills and were 
there no racial question. Most difficult problem: Unskilled workers. 518 In one 
known instance in this area, private contractors' failure to clear labor needs 
with State Employment Service before recruiting elsewhere has deprived local 



See footnotes on pages 4365-436fi. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4353 

labor of employment opportunities. 26 Private agencies such as ravelers Aid help- 
ing stranded newcomers who fail to get jobs.* 6 w 

Sharp decreases in general relief recipients throughout area. Grants for 
social security and general relief affected by rent increases." ,s M 

Acute problem : Young girls coming into area for jobs and drifting into ama- 
teur prostitution. Further problem of unmarried expectant mothers following 
"nances" in naval forces here. Private agencies trying to contact man and 
naval authorities. Some cases result in marriage, others in girl's necessity 
to return home for needed care. 518 

H. Education. 

On basis of information from State education officials, United States Office 
of Education, as of December 1, 1940, estimated following school needs for 
Hampton Roads area : * 



On Federal 
reservations 



Not on Fed- 
eral reserva- 
tions 



Number of additional children to be accommodated September 1941 

Number of additional teachers required September 1941 

Funds needed for expansion of school and school tiansportation facilities. 



110 
$1, 315, 250 



3,810 
124 

$1, 060, 140 



1. Recreation. 

As of February 26, 1941, Arthur H. Jones appointed field recreation repre- 
sentative for Hampton Roads area by coordinator of health, welfare, and 
related defense activities. James E. Rogers, regional recreation representative 
covering Virginia and other States in region IV. 28 Arrangements completed 
by coordinator for assignment of Mrs. Grace M. Connelley, as field recreation 
representative to handle coordination and development of services for women 
and girls in the Hampton Roads area. 

All cities and towns in area have all sorts of commercial recreation, all 
overcrowded, especially on week-ends. 11 In Norfolk, hundreds of taxpaying 
commercial recreational establishments, built since beginning of defense 
activities. 29 Elaborate study of commercial recreation for whole area planned 
by National Resources Planning Board, in cooperation with Hampton Roads 
Regional Defense Council. T 

Each city in area needs a downtown central community recreation building. 
Portsmouth and Newport News need recreational executives, such as Norfolk 
has. 11 Ai'ea's immediate need: Personnel to staff recreation programs under 
way. Norfolk alone needs 25 workers now. 3031 No competent recreation lead- 
ership available on Work Projects Administration rolls in vicinity of Norfolk. 6 S1 

Federal funds sought for recreation centers and other facilities for whole 
Hampton Roads area, 112824 and in specific instances, for Norfolk, 13 Portsmouth, 8 
Newport News, 3384 and Virginia Beach. 35 

Norfolk ranks second among areas listed by Navy Department as priorities 
for recreational facilities. 36 Norfolk Navy Y. M. C. A., one of the largest in 
the country, cooperating with municipal officials, but inadequate to meet tre- 
mondous need. Central Y. M. C. A. has no recreational building but runs 
useful though limited program of extra-mural activities. 315 In early fall, 
1940. Norfolk's Defense Recreation Committee requested city council to make 
addiiional appropriations for recreation and to request Federal funds if neces- 
sary. 13 City's greatest needs, besides need for downtown community recreation 
center : Information service ; comfort stations ; locker, lounge, and rest-room 
facilities; full use of city's large auditorium; full-tinie woman assistant to 
city director of recreation. 4 

Clarkson Meredith, retired coast artillery captain, responsible for forming 
Norfolk Defense Entertainment Corps. Obtained Navy's consent and cooper- 
ation of number of community leaders, including city recreation director and 
members of Norfolk's Defense Recreation Committee. This group planning 
dances for enlisted men. 37 Regional recreation representative has suggested 
tying this program into that of defense recreation committee. 88 

Norfolk Defense Recreation Committee has promoted series of Saturday 
night dances for enlisted men. Dances excellently organized and well attended 
roosts (about $65 per dance) met by donations solicited by volunteer committee.* 80 



!*ee footnotes on pages 4365-4360. 



4364 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Recreation program needed for Navy wives and children in Norfolk area* 
living on bare subsistence pay, separated from husbands and fathers, and 
meeting of young men on shore. City experimenting with program. 3039 

No year-round recreation program in Newport News. City manager inter- 
ested in providing recreational centers- from increased tax revenues resulting 
from normal population increase, but feels tmeporary defense recreation pro- 
gram should be financed from Federal funds. 7 City heavily taxed now. In 
January 1941, city's vice mayor reported lapse in public behavior due to lack 
of wholesome recreation program. Civic groups willing to help, but no rally- 
ing point. 34 

No recreation .of any kind in Portsmouth other than commercial amusements. 
Small Y. M. C. A. continuing its regular peacetime program. 8 

At Virginia Beach, because of inadequacy of facilities of winter season for 
Army personnel, recreation committee of Virginia Beach Chamber of Com- 
merce has raised funds toward a downtown recreation center, a basketball 
court for soldiers, and a winter theatrical program; also sponsoring monthly 
dances. No municipal funds for community recreation program." M 

FORT BRAGG, FATETTEVUXE, N. C. 4 * 

A. Description of Fort Bragg and Fayetteville. 

Fort Bragg: Total number of troops anticipated by June 15, 1941, 60.942.* 1 
Fayetteville, in Cumberland County, about 10 miles southeast of Fort Bragg: 
1940 population, 17,413. Economic character: Market and industrial — textile, 
hosiery, lumber, and turpentine products. Type of local government : Mayor- 
council. 41 General situation as seen February 1941 : Town of some 17,000 next 
to camp of 00,000 soldiers (eventually) and 28.000 camp industrial workers; 
streets overcrowded ; community facilities exhausted ; 42 unemployment and re- 
lief no problem so far, nor evidence of any probable serious crisis. 28 

B. Defense Developments. 

1. Defense organization. — No indication of any local defense council other 
than local recreation committee appointed by mayor. Key members: William 
Shaw, chairman, and Alton Murchison. Through this committee, city and 
junior chamber of commerce raised $6,000 as sponsor's share of a $23,000 
Work Projects Administration defense nonrelief project, covering Recrea- 
tion Director Manley Loomis, and a staff of nonrelief workers. This arrange- 
ment to last until July 1, 1941 — city funds used for equipment, Work Projects 
Administration funds for personnel. Recreation director to be executive of 
local defense council. Thus, line of responsibility will be direct to local recrea- 
tion committee and to national leaders. 42 

2. Housing and transportation. — Serious housing problem since October 1040. 
Exorbitant rents. On January 13, 1941, local chamber of commerce, which 
since summer 1940, has done outstanding job of housing thousands of new- 
comers and of directing publicity against price gouging, announced no houses 
or apartments available in Fayetteville or nearby towns. In immediate Fort 
Bragg area, from H00 to 700 trailers and shacks housing about 2,000 peo- 
ple. 43 44 45 Fayetteville Chamber of Commerce discouraging overexpansion of 
housing, trying to get nearby towns to absorb officers and civilian employees, 
so as to avoid housing deflation later. Private real-estate development in Fay- 
etteville intended to provide for 550 white noucommissioned officers and 47 
colored noncommissioned officers. 46 Federally approved housing program for 
Fort Bragg as of February 27, 1941 ; 550 family units for enlisted men living 
with families, F. W. A. construction : 110 family units for civilian defense em- 
ployees, private construction. 47 In late February 1941, Fayetteville appropri- 
ated $1,200 for housing survey, with view toward getting $400,000 set aside 
for Fayettsville by United States Housing Authority for additional low-cost 
family dwellings. 48 

Industrial workers and military personnel commuting from distances as far 
as 93 miles. 4244 Fort Bragg about 9 miles from town. Army urging widening 
of road with National, State, and city authorities. Traffic congestion terrible. 43 
Eighty miles of new road construction in vicinity ; in mid-February 1941. esti- 
mated 65 to 70 percent complete; probable completion date, May 1, 1941. 44 

3. Food prices. — Food prices in Fayetteville restaurants about normal. 4 " 



See footnotes on pages 436a— 4366. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4365 

4. Health. — Despite crowding in town and trailer camps, county health offi- 
cials have insured against too unsanitary conditions. Recent flu epidemic, al- 
though severe in town, had little effect on crowded areas outside town. No 
other epidemic of consequence up to February 1941. Sanitation pretty well in 
hand by Public Health Service." In late February 1941, Fayetteville planning 
to appropriate $25,000 for combined comfort stations and lounges. 40 

Outstanding health needs according to 1941 United States Public Health 
Service report: Expansion of malaria drainage and maintenance projects, more 
efficient garbage disposal, extension and improvement of water and sewerage sys- 
tems, greater supervision of public milk supplies, rodent-control program. 

5. Education. — Estimates, as of December 1, 1940, of school needs for families 
on Federal reservation, 10 Fort Bragg area : 50 Number of children to be accom- 
modated, September 1941, 1,100 ; number of teachers required September 1941, 
34; funds needed for expansion of school facilities, $290,000. 

6. Recreation. — John W. Faust recently appointed by Federal Coordinator of 
Health and Welfare, as field recreation representative covering Fayetteville and 
nearby towns. 51 

Recreational facilities at Fort Bragg excellent: athletics, theater, traveling 
entertainers scheduled. 4 " 

Lack of large-scale recreational facilities for civilian defense workers no 
problem, since large proportion commute between Fayetteville and their homes 
nearby. 43 

Need for community-wide promotion of entertainment programs, and for mobil- 
ization and training of volunteers for military personnel on leave. Recreational 
program to be operated by city and present Work Projects Administration organ- 
ization. 52 Local recreation committee reported by its chairman as planning to ask 
city council for a recreation appropriation of $15,000, to become effective July 1, 
1941. In sponsoring Work Projects Administration playground program, local 
recreation committe has done good job. Y. M. C. A. annex allocated to soldiers, 
for which community chest donated $1,000, good, but inadequate. 4253 Salvation 
Army club for soldiers has larger facilities than Y. M. C. A., but still inadequate; 
good possibilities here, however, of broader services. 42 American Legion has meet- 
ing place for soldiers. Church rooms used for entertainment. 4364 Fayetteville 
Armory usable. Mayor progressive, trying to get recreation building. 53 Jewish 
welfare board has centrally located rest rooms and a club library distributing 
reading material to Army and industrial personnel, but quarters unsatisfactory, 
since they are on third floor of building. Jewish welfare board trying to locate 
other quarters. 424554 National Park Service developing outdoor park and recre- 
ation area within Fort Bragg Reservation and prepared to do same outside con- 
fines of fort. 44 Opening for Y. W. C. A. service is need for girls' clubhouse pro- 
viding room, board, and social life to girls working in city and at post, also for 
girls visiting Fort Bragg men over week ends.* 4 Commercial amusement, not 
many but growing, all overcrowded. Many Negro troops with practically no 
recreational facilities. Outstanding need: A white recreational center down- 
town providing information, lavatories, etc., and a Negro center downtown.* 2 



1 All information under this subtopic has been taken from the defense community list, 
revision No. 1 of March 1".. 1941. prepared by the Office of the Coordinator of Health, 
Welfare, and Related Defense Activities, and from forms CO-1, defense community rec- 
ords, for Norfolk. Portsmouth, and Newport News. 

3 Numbers of armed men used under this topic, unless otherwise specified, will be the 
approximate totals expected by June 1041. according to tables of the Bureau of Research 
and Statistics. National Defense Advisory Commission. 
t » Report October 14, 1940 of Mr. James E. Rogers, then field worker, National Recrea- 
tion Association. . .. . .. 

* Undated report No. 2 of Mr. James E. Rogers, regional recreation representative, on 
Hamilton Roads area. „ _ .. _ ,„., 

6 Miss Gertrude Sprinarer's Growing Pains of Defense in Survey Graphic. January 1941. 

« Undated report of Mr. G. Ott Romney on visit of August 1940 to Norfolk. 

T Undated report No. 5 on Newport News by Mr. James E. Rogers. 

8 Undated report on Portsmouth by Mr. James E. Rogers 

8 Letter March 1° 194] J K Taussig, rear admiral. U. S. Navy, commandant, to Mr. 
Charles P. Taft andMr. faffs letter March 17. 1941. to Admiral Taussig 

"Wire November 0. 1940. Mr. Rowland Egger of the Governor s office Richmond to 
Mr. Frank Bane, chief. Division of State and Local Cooperation, National Defense Ad- 
visorv Commission < available in Mr. Bane's files). 

"Undated report I by Mr. James E. Rogers on Virginia and the Hampton Roads area 

"Letter January 7. 1941. Congressman S. O. Bland to Mr. William S. Knudsen, National 
Defense Advisory Committee. 



4366 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

13 Report, September 1940, by Mr. Arthur Jones, field worker, National Recreation 
Association. 

14 Report, January 1941, of Mr. James E. Rogers and January 8, 1941, issue of unspecified 
newspaper. 

15 Undated report, No. 5, on Virginia Beach Defense Recreation Survey, by Mr. Don. 
Seiwell. 

16 Conference, October 5, 1940, between Virginia State officials and staff of the Division 
of State and Local Cooperation, National Defense Advisory Commission, as reported Octo- 
ber 7, 1940, by Mr. Allen Moore of that Division (report, October 7, 1940, available in 
Division of State and Local Cooperation). 

17 New York Times, December 22, 1940. 

"Report. November 27, 1940, by Mr. P. D. Flanner, American Public Welfare Associa- 
tion, on Defense and Welfare. 

19 Undated article on Effects of National Defense Preparations, by Sue R. Slaughter, 
director. Family Welfare Association, Norfolk; submitted by that Agency to Mr. Paul V. 
McNutt under date of January 16, 1941. 

20 Letter, November 29, 1940, Mr. Frank Bane to Governor Price, of Virginia (letter 
available in Division of State and Local Cooperation. 

21 Wire, January 6. 1941, to Mr. Frank Bane from Maj. R. B. Bottom, chairman, Hamp- 
ton Roads Regional Defense Council (wire available in Division of State and Local Co- 
operation. 

22 Information received December 2, 1940, by U. S. Children's Bureau from Dr. A. L. 
Carson, Jr., acting director, Bureau of Maternal and Child Health, Virginia Department of 
Health. 

23 Letters, October 19, 1940, and January 3, 1941, to Miss Harriet Elliott and Miss Gay 
Shepperson, respectively, from Mr. Malcolm S. MacLean, president, Hampton Institute, 
Hampton, Va. 

24 Letters, dated December 7, 1940, Congressman S. O. Bland, of Virginia, to Mr. Paul 
McNutt. 

^Information received on Norfolk hv Travelers Aid, January 6, 13, 20, 1941. 

26 Report, December 30, 1940, on defense problems from U. S. Bureau of Employment 
Security to Mr. Paul McNutt. 

27 Tables comnilrd by U. S. Office of Education on basis of questionnaires sent to all State 
education officials, November 28, 1940. 

28 Memorandum, March 3, 1941, Arthur Jones to Maj. Raymond B. Bottom, chairman, 
Hampton Roads Regional Defense Council. 

23 Report, October 3, 1940, of Mr. Fred C. Stewart, city director of recreation, Norfolk. 

30 Memorandum, March 12, 1941, to Mr. Mark McCloskey from Mr. Arthur Jones, field 
recreation representative. 

31 Letter, Februarv 2, 1941, to Mr. Paul McNutt from Mr. Fred C. Stewart. 

32 Letter, September 9, 1940, R. S. Hummel, State Works Projects Administration ad- 
ministrator for Virginia to Mrs. Florence Kerr, Assistant Works Projects Administration 
Commissioner, Washington, D. C., and to W. H. Brummett, Jr., executive assistant. 

33 Letter, January 14, 1941, from Mr. Robert C. Cutler, vice president, council chamber, 
Newport News, to Congressman S. O. Bland, and Mr. Bland's letter, January 15, 1941, to 
Mr. Frank Bane. 

Si Report, January 31, 1941. of Mr. Robert C. Cutler. 

35 Letter. February 17, 1941, from Mr. Don Seiwell to Mr. Mark McCloskey. 

38 Navy Department's undated report, Priorities of Naval Requirements for Recreational 
Facilities. 

- 7 Letter, November 26, 1940, from Mr. Arthur Jones. 

38 Report, December 11, 1940, by Mr. James E. Rogers. 

89 Survey of Religious, Recreational, and Moral Activities on Shore, by Commander Wil- 
liam W. Edel, head chaplain, Norfolk Naval Operating Base, also member of Norfolk's 
Defense Recreation Committee. A short review of this survey is given in Mr. James 
Roger's undated report on Naval Units in and About Norfolk. 

40 From materials available March 17, 1941, in office of Coordinator of Health, Welfare, 
and Related Defense Activities. 

41 Form CO-1, Defense Community Record, for Fayetteville. 

^Reports, February 10, 1941, of Mr. James E. Rogers, Farm Security Administration's 
regional recreation representative. 

43 Memo, February 7, 1941, Mr. G. R. Parker, regional defense coordinator, to Mr. Paul 
V. McNutt. 

44 Report of Travelers Aid on field visit of November 24, 1940. 

45 Letter, February 27, 1941, from Mr. John W. Faust, Farm Security Administration's 
field recreation representative, to Mr. Mark McCloskey. 

49 Notes of Mr. G. R. Parker on defense projects in Fort Bragg area visited February 
11-14. 1941. 

47 Program report on Fayetteville, prepared February 25, 1941, by the Division of De- 
fense Housing Coordination, Office for Emergency Management. Executive Office of the 
President, and approved by the President February 27, 1941. 

48 Fayetteville Observer, February 25, 1941. 

49 No needs reported for families not on Federal reservation. 

1(0 Tables compiled by U. S. Office of Education from answers to Its questionnaire of 
November 28. 1940. sent to State education officials. 

61 Weekly Operations Progress Report, March 12, 1941, of the Office of Coordinator of 
Health, Welfare, and Related Defense Activities. 

62 See statement under "Defense organization." 

53 Report, December 3, 1940, of Mr. James B. Rogers, then field worker for National 
Recreation Association. 

61 Report, March 11, 1941, from Mr. John W. Faust to Mr. Mark McCloskey. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION AQQf 

FORT M'CLELLAN, ANNISTON, ALA. 

A. Description of Fort McClellan and Anniston, 

Fort McClellan, total number of troops anticipated by June 15 1941 21 07fi 
iq4 nn 9fS. 6 io U 4 n e o^ h °* F ° rt . Mc Clellan, in Calboun County. Population: 
1930 22 345; 1940 25 523 Economic character: Industrial; cast-iron pipe, tex- 
tile, electrochemical, foundries. In normal times Calhoun County is an industrial 
county. Employment stimulated by defense contracts. Work Projects Adminis- 
t^tion applications in Calhoun County had reached all-time low by November 30 
1940. Type of local government, commission. 

B. Defense developments. 

1. Defense organization,— While a local or district defense council has been 
recommended for Anniston, no official council exists. The Anniston Chamber 
of Commerce is the coordinating agency between fort and Anniston. Chamber's 
military affairs committee, which in leisure-time service functions through an 
interclub council, operates somewhat as local defense council. Anniston pro- 
gressive, alive to problems, spending for needed improvements, but limits to its 
financial ability. 

2. Housing and related areas.— -In fall 1940 numbers of families of New York 
National Guard men seeking housing without success. Problem of sheltering 
construction workers becoming acute, since large-scale construction may continue 
for considerable period. In fall 1940 a 104-unit $000,000 low-cost slum-clearance 
project opened. Private construction greatly increased. A 50-unit defense proj- 
ect approved. Rumored Army to build 50 duplex houses at fort for officers' 
families. 

Additional problems: Provision of adequate highways and policing county 
outside city limits. 

3. Health. — In November 1940 water supply reported safe, plentiful, well dis- 
tributed; a $400,000 sewerage system was soon to be constructed, to be financed 
by sewer tax; health controls in city and county adequate and well adminis- 
tered ; eating places licensed only after approval by health department. 

Anniston's outstanding health needs reported in 1941 by United States Public 
Health Service : Assignment by State health department of sanitary engineer and 
trained sanitarian ; development of adequate pasteurized milk supplies ; method 
of keeping soldiers from food establishments not approved by State; sanitary 
privy program ; housing project. 

Local health unit and Army Medical Corps taking care of health problems. 
Calhoun County one of several Alabama defense areas maintaining hospitals for 
needy patients. Local health department has venereal clinic as part of public- 
health program. 

Calhoun County public welfare director disturbed over number of women crowd- 
ing into Anniston because of male population at fort. Published in local news- 
papers that women on streets at night will be arrested for vagrancy. Quite 
thorough job of getting rid of "professional" women, but semiprofessional and 
amateurs more difficult. City ordinances regarding prostitution apparently rigidly 
enforced. 

4. Education.— Estimates, as of December 1, 1940, of school needs for Fort 
McClellan area: 



Number of children to be accommodated September 1941. 

Number of teachers required September 1941.. 

Funds needed for expansion of school facilities 



On Fed- 
eral reser- 
vation 



6 

$20. 190 



Not on 
Federal 

reservation 



300 
9 

$33. 535 



5. Recreation. — Recreation one of Anniston's main problems. 

As of November 1940 recreational activities organized through interclub coun- 
cil: (1) Special committee and city commissioners to plan downtown recrea- 
tional center for soldiers, to be financed by city and businessmen; (2) clearing 
house maintained bv chamber of commerce for recreational programs for men at 
Fort McClellan; (3) regular Saturday night dances planned for officers at Annis- 
ton Country Club; (4) special membership in Elks' Club for officers, club open 
every day; (5) American Legion to have open house for its members at fort, also 
weekly dances for members and friends; (6) clubhouse of Veterans of Foreign 



4368 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Wars open to soldiers every evening, special parties planned; (7) Business and 
Professional Women's Club has open house for wives of Twenty-seventh Division, 
Sunday afternoon meetings between military personnel and young women of 
city; (8) Axis club has bridge, etc., for wives of New York men; (9) Protestant 
ministers have open house Sundays to aequainl military personnel with young 
people of churches; (10) Rotary, Kiwanis, Civitan, Exchange, and Lions Clubs 
invite out-of-town members to affiliate with them during stay at Anniston ; (11) 
Pilot Club, young women's organization, assists Fort McClellan hostess in getting 
girls of good standing to participate in entertainment at fort ; (12) city hostesses 
look after wishes of National Guardsmen's wives and distribute chamber of 
commerce literature. 

By February 1941 Army Young Men's Christian Association just set up at 
Anniston ; country club open to officers ; municipal golf club available to enlisted 
men ; Sunday movies ; city churches entertaining Army men at informal dinners 
and meetings with Anniston people; recreational facilities in some places of 
business opened to soldiers. 

FORT JACKSON, COLUMBIA, S. C. 1 

A. Description of Fort Jackson and of Columbia, S. C. (Richland County) 

Fort Jackson : Total number of troops at post December 1, 1940, 23,000 ; total 
number of troops expected by June 14, 1941, 43,122. 

Columbia, S. C. (5 miles west of Fort Jackson): Population 1930, 51,581; 
1940, 62,396. Economic character: State capital, industrial, cotton mills, etc. 

B. Defense developments. 

1. Defense organization.— Local defense council organized by the chamber of 
commerce, serving both as defense council and as liaison between Fort Jackson 
and local agencies, with chairman, cochairman, executive committee, and follow- 
ing six subcommittees: School and church committee, liaison committee, enter- 
tainment committees (one for officers, one for enlisted men), housing committee, 
and hotel and restaurant committee. Woman's defense council organized of 
representative Columbia women to promote national defense and particularly to 
aid in recreational activities, to cooperate with county and State national 
defense councils. Women's council cooperating closely with men's. 

Minutes of October 29, 1940, meeting, South Carolina State Council for Na- 
tional Defense show motion passed requesting Governor to approve local defense 
councils for Columbia, Charlestown, and Beaufort. 

2. Health.— Outstanding needs, Columbia, Fort Jackson area: according to 
1941 report of United States Public Health Service: (1) Establishment of Co- 
lumbia City-Richland County health department under direction of full-time, 
qualified health officer. Personnel needed: A public health engineer and a nurs- 
ing supervisor, additional sanitary and nursing personnel; a full-time clin'cian 
to manage venereal disease clinics. (2) Ratproofing of all Fort Jackson build- 
ings in which food is stored or handled and a city rodent-control program. 
(3) Malaria-mosquito control. (4) Expans ; on of city's water plant and storage 
facilities. (5) Cooking of all garbage before feeding to hogs. (See 1941 tables 
of United States Public Health Service on health and medical care needs of 
defense areas, for such details as additional amounts needed for medical care.) 

Meeting held by the American Social Hygiene Association at Columbia 
January 3, 1941. Present at meeting: Army officials, representative of United 
States 'Public Health Service, State and local officials, health and welfare 
workers, and interested citizens. Purpose of meeting: Discussion of law en- 
forcement for control of prostitution and venereal diseases in Columbia-Fort 
Jackson area. United States Public Health Service representative emphasized 
importance of adhering to agreement made by Secretary of War, Secretary of 
Navy, and State and Territorial health officers in 1940. At request of Ameri- 
can Social Hygiene Association representative, mnyor of Columbia appointed 
committee to study prostitution control and reduction of venereal disease, and 
to report recommendations to another general meeting within 10 days. State 
health officer recommended immediate provision in area of detention home for 
commitment of all prostitutes until free from infection; also enforcement of 
State laws against prostitution. Immediate establishment of full-time city 
health department at Columbia also recommended at meeting. Cooperative 
relationship indicated between sheriff of Richland County and provost mar- 
shall at Fort Jackson regarding control of prostitution. 



Soo footnotes on page 4371. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4359 

Health problems involve adequate water supply, drainage, and sewerage, 
malaria and typhoid control, establishment of clinics for civilians, shortage ol 
nurses and doctors, and control and treatment of venereal disease. 

3. Housing. — As of October 1940, community facilities very inadequate, 
families of enlisted men living in trailers, fifth-rate hotels, disreputable room- 
ing houses. 

Minutes of October 29, 1940, meeting of South Carolina State Council for 
National Defense show discussion to effect that there had been little advance, 
if any, in rents for Columbia so far and plans made for additional housing 
project to provide at least 80 more apartments. 

Approved housing program as of February 11, 1941, for Columbia : 350 family 
units for enlisted men, 2 Federal Works Administration construction, and 50 
units for civilian defense employees, private construction. 

4. Education. — Estimates, as of December 1, 1940, of school needs for Fort 
Jackson area : 



Number of children to be accommodated September 1941. 

Number of teachers requiied September 1941 

Funds needed for expansion of school facilities --. 



On Fed- 
eral res- 
ervation 



400 
16 

$179, 775 



Not on 

Federal 

reservation 



4. Nutrition. — Minutes of October 29, 1940, meeting, South Carolina State Coun- 
cil for National Defense indicate no advance in prices for any foods, except meat, 
in Fort Jackson area. This last due to rigid requirement for all meat bought 
by camp authorities. Even so, food prices for Columbia-Fort Jackson area less 
than one-half of food prices in 1917-18 for same locality. 

5. Recreation. — As of October 1940, city recreation department unable to handle 
increased recreation needs. Special council formed with subcommittee to conduct 
a survey on which depends future plans. Work Projects Administration supply- 
ing a supervisor to direct survey. Outstanding needs : At least three centers 
and more leadership personnel. 

Gym facilities for soldiers arranged at educational institutions without charge. 
Army and Navy "Y" attempting to set up local organization. Work Projects 
Administration offering personnel to carry on program. 

Miss Adele Minahan, formerly city recreation director, now secretary, State 
conference of social work, with experience in 1918 in war camp community 
service, will help with dances arranged by Fort Jackson service committee of 
the Chamber of Commerce. 

Among other key people contacted in Columbia in late November 1940, Mr. 
James Rogers, field worker. National Recreation Association, conferred with Mr. 
Edwin Seibels, wealthy businessman, who wants full-time community organizer, 
feels municipality must do something, and expects to push these two ideas. Mr. 
Rogers conferred with camp and city officials in effort to get location for soldiers' 
club. A larger community-wide citizens' committee representing city, county, 
chamber of commerce, and all organizations being selected, to be related to the 
large Fort Jackson committee, and to be aprointed by mayor. City recreation 
director needs additional staff and increased budget. Masons, as well as Jewish 
Welfare Board, plan to use their own national funds to establish local community 
centers for soldiers. Masons also giving libra rv service. Columbia hopes for 
Government he'p. Recreation subcommittee of Fort Jackson committee received 
Work Projects Administration survey of community's recreation facilities. 
Chamber of commerce taking strong lead in recreation activities. 

Columbia State of December 21. 1940, charged Columbia with no organized 
provision of recreation for troops as yet corresponding to the war camp com- 
munity service of the first World War, which functioned admirably in Columbia. 
Paper' felt it a capital omission not to use. as in 1917-18 talents of women leaders, 
who administered various phases of the War Camp Community Service. 

On January 23. 1941, a representative of Columbia's Women's Defense Council 
requested suggestions from Mr. McNutt for her council's recreational work for 
men at Fort Jackson; asked also if funds are available through Farm Security 



footnotes on page 4371. 



4370 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Administration for recreational quarters. Mr. MeNutt's reply of February 19, 
1941, encourages local leadership, but states no Federal funds available for such 
purposes. 

School and church committee seeking use of recreation facilities for all schools 
and churches. Movement under way to provide week-end entertainment. This 
committee has enabled officers at Fort Jackson to become members of country 
clubs and various local organizations. 

Committee on entertainment for enlisted men, together with Woman's Defense 
Council, seeking to establish recreation centers. If Woman's Defense Council 
is successful in raising funds for purchase of entire city block, this property 
will be converted into recreation center for Fort Jack-son men. 

In Columbia's main business area, a center with writing tables, stationery, and 
various games established by Masons for enlisted men's use. This center serves 
also as bus terminal. Plans under way to establish another such center and to 
hold dances for enlisted men. Basketball and other courts being opened to 
Fort Jackson men. 

FORT LEWIS, CAMP MURRAY, AM) M'CHORD FIELD, TACOMA, WASH. 8 

A. Description of Fort Lewis 4 and of T acorn a. Wash. 

Fort Lewis — total number of troops anticipated by June 15, 1941, 48,083. 

Tacoma— population : 1930, 106,817; 1940, 107,520. Economic character: In- 
dustrial — lumber, shipbuilding, fish packing, etc. 5 By October 1940, a 20 percent 
increase in industrial employees within previous 6 months and an additional 
10 percent to 15 percent anticipated. As of January 1941, 4,000 civilians 
employed in Fort Lewis construction, of which about 40 percent nonlocal work- 
ers; 1,500 employees in shipyards, of which about 20 percent nonresidents. 6 
Type of local government : Commission. 6 

B. Defense developments. — 

1. Defense organization. — No indication of an official local defense council. 
A civil advisory board organized in Tacoma, comprised of commissioners of 
public safety, utilities, and public works; county sheriff; Red Cross officials; 
and representatives of both American Federation of Labor and Congress of 
Industrial Organizations. Tacoma has also a home-defense corps. 7 whuh, ap- 
parently, has a women's training corps, training women in thrift, first aid, 
home nursing, and mental hygiene. 8 

2. Housing. — As of October 1940, housing in Tacoma inadequate both for 
officers and their families, families of industrial defense personnel, and regular 
civilians. As of January 1941, housing problem aggravated by the 4,000 
civilian construction workers at Fort Lewis (40 percent nonresident) and by 
nonresident shipyard workers. Acute problem for officers, Army nurses, and 
Fort Lewis soldiers. Reserve officers requested to leave families at home. 8 

Housing program for Tacoma area approved by the President, as of February 
11, 1941 : 9 

Army post, 225 family units, for enlisted men and families. 
Army post, 25 family units, for civilian-defense employees. 
McChord Field, 100 family units, for enlisted men and families. 
Total, 350 family units. 

3. Health. — Health program reported well planned by State, city, and Army 
officials and adequate in scope. Close check reported on venereal problems, a 
prophylactic station established in center of Tacoma red-light district.* 

4. Education. — Following school needs estimated as of December 1, 1949, for 
area of Fort Lewis. Camp Murray, and McChord Field : ,0 





For chil- 
dren on 
Federal 
reservation 


For chil- 
dren not on 

Federal 
reservation 




1, 150 
32 

$215,600 


800 




22 




$145, 000 







See footnotes on page 4871. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4371 

5. Recreation. — A committee, appointed by mayor, functioning in Tacoma, with 
experienced Young Men's Christian Association recreation leader, Mr. Charles 
Ernst, favorably impressed with progress made at Fort Lewis and surrounding 
communities. 11 In early fall 1940, Tacoma furnished recreation hall for service 
men. Salvation Army and Luthern Welfare Society created more adequate read- 
ing rooms. 67 

Several Tacoma agencies have written to Mr. McNutt for help with recreation 
problems. Tacoma Altrusa Club, an organization of executive women, requested 
aid toward erection of an Army and Navy Young Men's Christian Associaiton. 12 
The First Methodist Church requested help in making available a recreational 
center for service men. 13 The Tacoma branch, A. A. V. W. sought Federal aid 
for an Army and Navy recreation center. 14 These agencies were advised recrea- 
tional field representative would confer with them in Tacoma. 15 



UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The surveys of the areas and the reviews of the reports have been made by 
doctors and engineers experienced in public-health activities. 

The methods outlined herein have been generally followed in determining the 
various needs. Modifications have been made for places or items based on the 
data available in the report and the experience and knowledge of the reviewers. 

All cost estimates are based on average figures and hence may be considered 
only as an approximation of the probable cost as applied to any definite area. 

Critical area. — The extramilitary and defense industry area is considered as 
that within a 25-mile radius of the military or industrial establishment. 

Population.— A study of the probable increase of population in extramilitary 
and defense industry areas in terms of aggregate military strength or increase 
in industrial employees indicate the following : 

1. Increase in population in extramilitary areas will be equal to one-half the 
aggregate military strength. 

2. Increase in population in industrial areas will be equal to three times the 
increase in industrial employees. 

Public-health organisation.— Until conditions become stabilized in 'areas where 
a large number of troops are in training or large industries are established 
greatly increased activities in health work will be necessary. It is estimated 
that a budget of $1 per capita per year is required. The estimated normal 
population within the critical area (25-mile zone) plus the expected increase 



1 From materials available March 5, 1941, in Office of Coordinator of Health, Welfare, 
and Related Defense Activities. „ _ . _ . ... 

* According to a report December 23, 1040, of the Coordinator of Defense Housing (then 
in the National Defense Advisorv Commission, in addition to these 350 units recommended, 
100 units of 2 U. S. Housing Administration proiects had been allocated to enlisted men. 

a From materi'ls available March 8, 1941, in Office of Coordinator of Health, Welfare, 
and Related Defense Activities. .»„■•«■ „ ,-„,„ A 

* Community folder on Tacoma contains no description of Camp Murray or McCnorct 
Field. 

6 Form CO-1. Defense Community Record, on Tacoma. 

•Information received October 1040 and January 1041 by Travelers Aid. 

7 Information received January 1041 by Travelers Aid. „ tho „,„«*,,„, 
s Letter, November 26. 1040. to National Defense Research Board from the secietaij. 

Women's Training Corps. Tacoma Home Defense (available in the Division of State and 
Local Cooperation. National Defense Advisory Commission). „„„«„„ nffi™ fnr 

"Report, F bruary 11, 1941. of Division of Defense Housing Coordination, Office for 
Emere-pnev Management Executive Office of the President. . , 

"o F?Z y responses to Westionnafre issued November 28, 1940, to State education officials 
by IT. S. Office of F.ducation. „ „ , _ 

ii Wire February 9, 1041. Mr. Chas. Ernst to Mr P red Hoehler. M „ Nlltt 

^Letter January 30, 1041. secretary. Tacoma Altrusa Club, to Mr McNutt M ~ tt 

« Letter January 28. 1041, president, First Methodist Clnirch of Tacoma to Mr McNutt. 

1 4 Letter January 30 1041 secretary, Tacoma Branch, A. A. V. W to Mr. McNutt. 

is Mr McNuU's le iters February 13, 1041, and February 10. 1941 to Tacoma First 
Methodist Church and A. A V. W. ( respectively ; Mr. McCJoskey's letter, February 13, 
1941, to Tacoma Altrusa Club. 



4372 national defense: migration 

is used for basis of estimate. The additional public-health expenditure neces- 
sary in an area is determined by obtaining the difference between a proposed 
budget based on $1 per capita per year for the expected total population and 
the present annual public-health budget. 

Hospitalization. — Adequate hospitalization requires 4.5 beds per thousand pop- 
ulation for general and communicable-disease purposes. The total number of 
beds required is based on the total expected population increase within the 
25-mile zone. The cost of necessary hospital construction is based on the addi- 
tional number of beds required at $4,000 per bed. Maintenance cost exclusive 
of income from hospitalization of cases is estimated at $200 per bed per annum. 
This operating cost applies only to the additional number of beds required and 
not to existing facilities. 

Clinic. — In areas where a large number of troops are concentrated or new 
industrial works established a health center and a general clinic is required 
in addition to hospital clinics. The estimated cost of construction of such a 
clinic is $35,000. The operating costs per annum per clinic is estimated at 
$5,000. 

Medical care. — It is estimated that the cost of adequate medical care is $21 
per capita per annum. This breaks down as follows : Physician services, $8.50 ; 
denti-st services, $4 ; nurses' services, $2 ; hospitalization, $4 ; drugs, $2.50. The 
estimate of cost of medical care is based upon the total expected population 
within 25-mile zone. The assumption is made that one-third of the population 
is capable of paying for such medical care as is necessary, that one-third is 
capable of paying for such care through some form of group arrangement, and 
that one-third must be furnished such care outright. 

Housing. — In determining the additional housing facilities needed the expected 
increase in population within the zone is taken as a basis. In order to care 
for individuals as well as families it is assumed that one unit will be needed for 
each four people. The housing needs are determined by deducting from the 
housing required for the expected increase in population the vacant units avail- 
able. The cost of additional housing is based on $4,000 construction cost per unit, 
exclusive of cost of land. 

Public water supplies. — Public water supplies of existing cities adjacent to the 
camp or industry will in general have to be increased or water supplies developed 
for new groupings of population. In determining the increase in population to 
be served by public water supply three-fourths of the expected increase is taken. 
After allowing for the additional population that may be served by existing 
plants on the basis of 100 gallons per capita per day, the cost of constructing 
new or additional water supply for the remaining population is estimated at $ !5 
per capita. Where existing water supply appears sufficient it is assumed that 
extension of distribution system for at least one-fourth of expected increase in 
population is necessary at $15 per capita. The cost of construction and operation 
of the public water supply should be self-liquidating. 

Sewerage and sewage disposal. — In determining the needs for sewerage and 
sewage treatment no set procedure has been adopted. From the data available 
in the report, the location, the character of the area and the grouping of popula- 
tions assumptions have been made as to the needs and the population affected. 
In general, not over three-fourths of the expected increase is considered. 

Cost estimates used are $15 per capita for installation of sewers and $20 per 
capita for interceptors and sewage-treatment plants. Sewage treatment is con- 
sidered necessary wherever the probable amount of sewage is sufficient to over- 
load receiving bodies of water. In this case the existing as well as the expected 
increased population is included. 

The cost of construction and maintenance including operation is considered 
as being on a self-liquidating basis. 

Sanitary services, collection of garbage and wastes. — It is assumed that the 
normal population is being cared for. The additional needs are based on the 
expected increase in population at a yearly charge of $2 per capita. 

Sanitary privies. — Where privies are necessary it is assumed that new ones 
constructed within the area will be of the sanitary type and the cost included 
in the cost of the structures to which they are attached. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4373 



It is assumed that improvement in the sanitary conditions of the existing 
premises in the rural area 5 miles around the camp or industry and along main 
highways to nearby cities will be necessary. In this area it is estimated that 
one-half of the existing privies should be replaced by privies of a sanitary type. 
The estimated number of privies to be replaced is determined by dividing the 
total rural population in the 25-mile zone by 200. The unit cost for replacement 
is estimated as $42.50. 



Rural population, 25-mile zone _ 



25 
Rural population, 5-mile zone 
4 



Rural population, 5-mile zone 



^Premises, 5-mile zone=existing privies 



Wells.— Where wells are necessary as a source of water supply for individual 
premises it is assumed that new ones will be properly constructed and the cost 
included in the cost of the structure served. 

As in the case of privies it is expected that one-half of the wells in the rural 
area need improvement if the water therefrom is to be safe for use. Insofar as 
protection to the military forces it is assumed that the critical area is the 5-mile 
zone around the camp or industry and along highways therefrom. The number 
of wells needing improvement will be the same as privies needing replacement. 
The estimated cost of improvement is $50 per well. 

Mosquito control. — Mosquito control for prevention of malaria and in some 
cases to prevent excessive annoyance will be necessary in some areas in the South 
and along the coast. The reports indicate where this is necessary. In most 
cases the estimates are based only on general knowledge of the required work. 

Rodent control. — In areas where endemic typhus exists rodent control may be 
necessary. Such control should be confined to existing places of business in com- 
munities. Since new construction of places of business should be required to 
provide proper control only existing structures are considered. It is estimated 
that 5 percent of the existing buildings are used as business places. The number 
of buildings requiring correction is obtained by dividing the normal population 
of the community by 60. 



Population community _ 



Buildings in community 



[Notk. — The following tables have been excerpted from more comprehensive 
tabulations by the United States Public Health Service. A copy of the complete 
tabulations is held in committee files.] 



Population and Expected Increase in Defense Areas 

FIRST CORPS AREA 



Establishment 


Expected 
aggregate 
military 
strength or 
industriil 
employees 


Civilian population in crit- 
ical extramilitary or in- 
dustrial area 


No. 


State 


Typei 


Name and location 


Normal 


Ex- 

pected 
increase 


Ex- 
pected 
total 


1 


Massachu- 
setts. 

do 

Rhode Island. 

do 

New Hamp- 
shire. 


A 

A 

NA 

na 

NI 


Camp Edwards (Barnstable) .— 


29,000 

30, 000 
21,000 

11,290 
10, 300 


26, 445 

9.813 
75, 000 

45, 843 
76, 000 


14, 500 

15,000 

25, 000 

6,000 
28,000 


41, 000 
25,000 


3 

4 
5 


Quonset Point area (Provi- 
dence). 

Newport area (Newport) 

Portsmouth area (Portsmouth).. 


100, 000 

52, 000 
104, 000 



SECOND CORPS AREA 



New York.. 
New Jersey. 
Delaware. .. 
New York.. 



Camp Pine (Watertown) 

Fort Dix (Burlington County).. 
Fort Du Pont (Wilmington).... 
Camp Upton (Yaphank) 



30,000 
30, 000 
S.200 



83, 574 
23. 000 
179,600 



15, ) 

15,000 
13, 400 



98. 000 
38, 600 

193, 000 



i A = Army; N = Navy; I industrial. 



4374 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Population and Expected Increase in Defense Areas — Continued 

THIRD CORPS AREA 



Establishment 


Expected 
aggregate 
military 
strength or 
industrial 
employees 


Civilian population in crit- 
ical extramilitary or in- 
dustrial area 


No. 


State 


Type 


Name and location 


Normal 


Ex- 
pected 
increase 


Ex- 
pected 
total 




Pennsylvania. 

Maryland 

Virginia 

do- - 

do 

do— 

do... 

do 


A 

A 
A 

NA 

A 
N 
AI 
A 
AI 

AI 
AI 

I 

IN 

I 


Camp Indiantown Gap (Leban- 
on). 


21, 200 

27,300 
21,000 
40, 000 
35. 500 
12,200 

7,000 

30. 000 
14,000 
24. 400 
10. 000 
30, 000 
17,000 

5,000 

2,500 

10,000 

1,350 
2,500 


232, 334 

58. 000 

73. 500 
297, 000 

57, 000 

27,300 

102, 000 

100, 700 

217, 292 

28,000 
22,700 
25, 250 

16, 166 
68,838 


1,000 

6,000 
10,500 
120, 000 

6,000 

3,500 

67,000 
2,200 

44,000 

12,000 
7,500 
30,000 

4,000 
7,500 


234,000 


3 
4 

S 

6 

7 
8 


Fort Bohoir (Alexandria) 

Fort Storey and naval area 
(Norfolk). 

Fort Myer and Arlington Can- 
tonment. 

Quantico Marine Barracks 
(Quautico). 

Newport News area (Newport 
News.) 


84,000 
423, 000 

63,000 

31,000 

169, 000 




do 

do- 

do 

Maryland 

. do 


Aberdeen Proving Ground 


261, 000 

40,000 
30,200 
55, 250 

20,166 


10 
11 
12 

13 


Phillips Field, Vicinity of Bal- 
timore, Md. 

Hercules Powder plant area 
(Radford). 

Ordnance bag-loading plant 
(Dublin). 

Bethlehem-Fairchild Ship 
Building Corporation (Balti- 
more). 

Naval Powder Factory (Indian 
Head). 

Fairchild Aircraft Corporation 
(Hagerstown). 


14 


do 


76, 338 



Note— Near Baltimore, Washington, or Richmond no additional facilities deemed necessary. 
FOURTH CORPS AREA 



1 


North Caro- 
lina. 

South Caro- 
lina. 
do... 


A 


Fort Bragg (Fayetteville) 


66,500 


125, 757 


33,250 


159,000 


2 


A 


Fort Jackson (Columbia) 


43,000 


149,000 


21,000 


170, 000 




\ NT 




4,000 

7, 500 


} 121,000 


17,000 




3 




138, 000 


4 


do 


N 


Parris Island (Beaufort County). 


7,000 


22.000 


3,500 


25,500 


5 


do 


AI 


Camp Croft (Spartanburg) 


18, 000 


123, 000 


9.000 


131,000 


6 


Tennessee 


A 


Camp Forrest (Tullahoma) 


28,000 


72, 000 


14, 000 


86, 000 


7 


Alabama 


A 


Fort McClelland (Anniston) 


21,400 


63, 300 


10. 700 


74,000 


8 


Florida 


A 


Camp Blanding (Jacksonville).. 


45, 000 


34,400 


22. 500 


57,000 


9 


do- - 


N 


Air training station (Jackson- 
ville). 


J 21,000 
\ 3,000 


} 158,000 


20,500 


179, 000 


10 


do 


A 


Air Corps training base (Talla- 
hassee) . 


2,540 


31,000 


1,270 


32,300 


11 


do. 


N 


Naval Air Station (Pensacola).- 


10,000 


74,000 


5,000 


79,000 


1? 


. do 


A 












13 


Georgia 


A 


paraiso). 
Fort Benning (Columbus) 


60,000 


116,000 


30, 000 


146,000 


II 


do— 


A 


Camp Stuart (Hinesville)- 


18,000 


32.500 


9,000 


41,500 


15 


do 


AN 


Camp Wheeler, Army Aircraft 
training station, N. Fuse 
Loading Plant— Macon. 


20,000 


92, 000 


10, 000 


102, 000 


16 


do 


A 


Fort Scriven and air base 
(Savannah). 


6, 000 


108,000 


3,000 


111,000 


17 


Louisiana 


A 


Camp Beauregard, Camp Liv- 
ingston, Camp Claiborne- 
Alexandria. 


100,000 


171, 000 


50,000 


221,000 


18 


Mississippi 

North Caro- 
lina. 


A 


Camp Shelby (Hattiesburg) 


53,000 


34,900 


26,500 


61,400 


19 


A 


Camp Davis (Holly Ridge) 


20,000 


17,000 


10, 000 


27,000 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4375 

Population and Expected Increase in Defense Areas — Continued 

FIFTH CORPS AREA 



Establishment 


Expected 
aggregate 
military 
strength or 
industrial 
employees 


Civilian population in crit- 
ical extramilitary or in- 
dustrial area 


No. 


State 


Type 


Name and location 


Normal 


Ex- 
pected 
increase 


Ex- 
pected 
total I 


1 
2 

3 


Kentucky 

do 

do 


A 
A 

A 


Fort Knox (Hardin County) 

Fort Thomas (Covington), no 
problem. 

Bowman Field (Louisville), no 
problem. 

Ammunition loading: plant (Un- 
ion Center). 

Smokeless powder plant 
(Charleston). 

Fort Benjamin Harrison (Indi- 
anapolis), no problem. 

Jefferson Proving Ground (Mad- 


41,000 


62, 500 


20, 500 


83,000 


4 
5 
6 
7 


Indiana 

do 

do 

do _ 


I 
I 
A 
A 


12, 000 
13, 000 

500 


64,000 
126,000 

65, 500 


36, 000 

39, 000 

1,500 


100,000 
165,000 

67,000 


8 
9 


do 

Ohio 


I 
AI 


Speedway City (Speedway City) 
Fort Hayes, industrial (Colum- 
bus). 
Erie Ordnance Depot (La Carne) 
Ravenna ordnance plant (Ra- 
venna). 
Plum Brook ordnance works 

(Sandusky). 
Fairmont industrial (Fairmont) 
Point Pleasant, industrial _ 
South Charleston, industrial 

(South Charleston). 
Morgantown. industrial (Mor- 
gantown). 


3.000 
16,000 


461,000 
388, 000 


9,000 
44, 000 


470. 000 
432, 000 


10 
11 


do 

do- - 


A 
A 


900 
8,000 


87. 000 
49,000 


2,300 
24, 000 


89. 300 
73, 000 


12 


do 


A 


2,200 


81,000 


7,000 


88, 000 


13 

14 
15 

16 

17 


West Virginia 

do 

do 

do 

Ohio 


I 
I 
I 

I 

AI 


33 

800 

9,500 

1,000 

A- 1800 1-5000 

A-350 1-6000 

1-1500 


69,000 
47. 000 
215, 000 

51, 000 
1 394,000 


1,000 
3. COO 

28, 000 

3,000 
22, 000 


70.000 

50. 000 
243, 000 

54,000 






Wright Flying Field 


416,000 




Aero Products Factory (Dayton) 





SIXTH CORPS AREA 



Michigan 

do— 


A 
AI 


do 


A 


do— 


N 


do 


A 


Illinois 

do 


A 
A 


do 


A 


do 





— do_ - 

—do 

—do 

—do 

— do 

Iowa 

Illinois 



Fort Custer (Battle Creek) 

Selfridge Field and U. S. Tank 

Arsenal (Mount Clemens). 
Fort Wayne (Detroit) no prob- 
lem. 
Naval Air Base (Detroit), no 

problem. 
Fort Brady (Sault Ste. Marie), 

no problem. 
Chanute Field Area (RantouD — 
Camp Lincoln (Springfield), no 

problem. 
Savanna Ordnance Depot Area 

(Savanna). 
Parks Air College (East St. 

Louis), no problem. 
Western Cartridge Co. (Alton), 

no problem. 
Scott Field (St. Clair County) - 

Fort Sheridan 

Great Lakes Naval Tr. Station 

(Waukegan) 

Camp Grant (Rockford) 

Arsenal and Machine Tool Plant 
(Rock Island and Davenport) __ 
Wilmington Powder and Shell 

Loading Plant, Wilmington, 

111. 



21,000 
4,420 
7,500 



16,000 
2,700 



7,500 
200A 
000N" 
000CE 
10, 000 
16,640 
6.000 



193, 967 


10, 500 


107, 638 


24,710 


85, 000 


8,000 


20, 000 


5,100 


170, 000 


4,000 


104, 387 


28, 600 


117, 373 


5,000 


196, 130 


49, 920 


120, 000 


18,000 



4376 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Population and Expected Increase in Defense Areas — Continued 

SEVENTH CORPS AREA 



Establishment 


Expected 

aggregate 
military 
strength or 
industrial 
employees 


Civilian population in crit- 
ical extramilitary or in- 
dustrial area 


No. 


State 


Type 


Name and location 


Normal 


Ex- 
pected 
increase 


Ex- 
pected 
total 






I 
A 
A 

A 
I 

A 

A 

...... 

AI 

AI 


Shell loading plant (Burlington) . 

Fort Warren (Cheyenne) 

Camp Leonard Wood (Waynes- 
ville). 

Fort Riley (Junction City) 

Defense industries (Wichita, 
Kans.). 

Camp Joseph T. Robinson (Lit- 
tle Rock). 

Fort Leavenworth (Leaven- 
worth) , no problem at present. 

Lake City Ordnance Works ... 

Ma-tin bomber assembly plant . 

Jeffe-son Braracks and Curtis- 
Wright plant (St. Louis). 

Aircraft industry (Omaha) 


13, 000 
10, 000 
36, 500 

22, 000 
18, 000 

30,000 

} 21,000 
32, 000 

15, 000 


78, 000 
30, 000 
23, 299 

52, 000 
152, 000 

194, 000 

709, 000 

1, 188, 000 

345, 000 


39, 000 
5.000 
18, 250 

11,000 
54, 000 

15,000 

63, 000 
65, 000 
45, 000 


117,000 


2 
3 

4 

6 

6 
7 
8 
9 
10 


Wyoming 

Missouri 

Kansas 

do.. 

Arkansas 

Kansas... 

do.... 

Missouri 

do 

Nebraska 


35, 000 
46, 549 

63, 000 
206,000 

209,000 

772, 000 

1, 188, 000 

390,000 



EIGHTH CORPS AREA 











43,000 


35,600 


21,500 


57,000 


2 


do 


A 


Bombing school (Oklahoma 
City), no problem. 










3 


do 


A 


Spartan Pilot Training School 
(Tulsa), no problem. 










4 


Texas 


A 


Camp lluliu (J'ala io) ... 


12, 000 


18,000 


6,000 


24, 000 


fi 


do 


A 


Militarv area (San Antonio) 


33. 000 


292, 533 


20, 000 


313, 00C 


6 


do 


A 


Fort Bliss (El Paso) 


24, 000 


131,000 


12, 000 


143, 00C 


7 


do 


A 


Camp Bowie (BroA-nwood) 


30, 000 


27, 000 


15, 000 


42,000 


8 


do.... 


A 


Camp Wolters (Mineral Wells). 


18, 000 


38, 000 


9,000 


47,000 


9 


do 


N 


Corpus Christi military area 
(Corpus Christi). 


30, 000 


87, 500 


25, 000 


112,500 


10 


do 


A 


Galveston military area (Gal- 
veston). 
Fort H uachuca (Cochise) 


12, COO 


73, 000 


6,000 


79,000 


11 


Arizona 


A 


30, 000 


35, 000 


15, 000 


50, 000 


1? 




I 


Remington Arms Co. (Denver) . 


12, 000 


353, 000 


36, 000 


389, 00C 


13 


Texas 


IN 


Orange Ship Building plant 


4,000 


17, 000 


12,000 


29.00C 








(Orange). 










14 


do 


A 


Camp Barkeley (Abilene) 


20, 000 


44,000 


10, 000 


54,000 









NINTH CORPS AREA 



Washington 
California. . . 

....do 

.....do 

.....do 

.....do 

Idaho.. 



AN' 
A 
A 
A 



Fort Lewis (Tacoma) 

March Field and Army Aircraft 
firing center (Riverside Coun- 
ty). 
Camp San Luis Obispo (San 
Luis Obispo). 

San Diego area 

Fort Ord (Salinas) 

Camp Roberts (Nancimiento).. 
Air base, Boise... 



50, 000 
21,200 



20,000 

81, 000 

35. 000 
20. 000 
2,500 



212, 500 
267, 200 



33, 000 

289. 000 
52. 000 
3.300 
74, 500 



25, 000 
10, 600 



10, 000 

120. 000 
17, 500 
13 000 
1,250 



CORPS AREA TOTALS 



Number of 


Corps area 


Expected 
aggregate 
military 

strength or 
industrial 

employees 


Civilian population in critical extra- 
military or industrial area 




Normal 


Expected 
increase 


Expected 
total 


5.... 




101, 590 
68, 200 
310.950 
553, 940 
125, 882 
124, 960 
197, 500 
268, 000 
235, 700 


233, 101 

286, 174 

1, 326, 080 

1, 544, 857 

2, 160, 000 

1, 114,495 

2, 776, 299 
1, 151, 100 

931, 500 


88, 500 
43, 400 
347, 200 
296, 220 
249, 300 
153, 830 
315,250 
187, 500 
197, 350 


322. 000 


4 




329, 000 


14 


Third Corps 


1, 653, 854 


19.... 




1, 810, 700 


17 


Fifth Corps. 


2, 409, 300 


15 . . 




1, 268, 448 


10 




3, 026, 549 


14 




1, 339, 500 


7 . 




1, 130, 300 









NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4377 

Population and Expected Increase in Defense Areas — Continued 
CORPS AREA TOTALS— Continued 



Number 

of 
establish- 
ments 


Corps area 


Public health activities annual 
budget 


Hospital facilities 


Recom- 
mended 


Present 


Required 
increase 


Beds 

exist- 
ing 


Addi- 
tional 
beds 
neces- 
sary 


Capital 

outlay 

necessary 


Cost- 
year 

opera- 
tion 


5 


First 


$322, 000 

329, 000 

1, 653, 854 

1, 840, 700 

2, 409, 000 
1, 268, 448 
3, 030, 000 
1,339,500 
1, 130, 300 


$92,611 
63, 632 
416,639 
928, 200 
880, 564 
350, 500 
1, 424, 000 
493, 700 
563, 000 


$229, 600 
72, 000 
948, 558 
771, 900 
1, 529, 000 
675, 448 
1, 603, 000 
456, 800 
573, 000 










4 


Second 


466 

2,068 
4,499 
7,932 
4,074 
13, 930 
7,193 
4,535 


65 
965 
1,542 
897 
480 
170 
845 
665 


$260, 000 
3, 860, 000 
6, 168, 000 
3,588,000 
1,920,000 
680, 000 
3, 380, 000 
2, 660, 000 


$13, 000 


19 


Fourth 

Fifth 

Sixth 


308, 000 
174, 000 


15 


96, 000 


10 

14 

7 


Seventh 

Eighth 

Ninth . 


34, 000 
169, 000 
133, 000 











Clinics 


Medical care 


Number 
of estab- 
lishments 


Corps area 


Addi- 
tional 
neces- 
sary 


Capital 
outlay 
neces- 
sary 


Cost- 
yearly 
opera- 
tion 


Popula- 
tion ap- 
plicable 


Total an- 
nual ex- 
penditure 
required 


Expendi- 
ture by 
individual 


Additional 
amount 
needed 


5 


First 


5 
3 
14 
20 
14 
9 
9 
12 
8 


$175, 000 
105, 000 
490, 000 
700, 000 
490, 000 
315,000 
315, 000 
420, 000 
280, 000 


$25, 000 
15, 000 
70, 000 

100, 000 
70, 000 
45, 000 
45, 000 
60, 000 
40, 000 


322, 000 

329, 000 

1, 653, 854 

1, 830, 700 

2, 400, 000 
1, 268, 448 
2, 997, 000 
1, 439, 500 
1, 130, 300 


$6, 762, 000 
6, 906, 000 
34, 728, 500 
38, 614, 500 
50, 366, 000 

26, 648, 000 
62, 838, 000 

27, 959, 000 
23, 700, 000 


$4, 507, 000 
4, 604, 000 
22,710,700 
25, 714, 000 
33, 529, 000 
17, 772, 000 
42, 892, 000 
18,638,000 
15, 801, 000 


$2, 255, 000 


4 




2, 302, 000 


14 


Third 


11, 576, 500 


19... 


Fourth 


12, 868, 500 


17.. _ 


Fifth 


16,837,000 


15. __ 


Sixth 


8, 876, 000 


10 




20, 946, 000 


14 


Eighth .. 


9, 319, 000 


7 .. 


Ninth... 


7, 900, 000 













Housing 


r 


equirements 












Number of 
establishments 


Corps area 


Units 

required for 

increased 

population 


Additional 
units re- 
quired 


Capital 

expenditure 

needed 


Units 
authorized 
by U. S. 
Govern- 
ment 


5 




20, 325 
10, 860 
78, 075 
73, 395 
43, 023 
35, 225 
46, 750 


20,125 
9,180 
78, 795 
72, 545 
38, 959 
35, 225 
46,750 
38, 375 
49, 259 


$80, 500, 000 
36,720,000 

254,080,0110 
290,27(1,000 
155,830.000 
141,200,000 
187,100.000 
153,500,0(10 
197, 036, 000 


3,483 






100 






5,942 


19 




4,762 


17 


Fifth Corps. . 


1,019 


15 






10 




125 






3,457 


7 




49,025 


4,750 










Corps area 


Public water supply (in terms of population) 




Supply 


Distribution 


Number of 
establishments 


Present 
capacity 


Addi- 
tional 
capacity 
needed 

55, 500 
15, 700 
130, 500 
129, 200 
97, 800 
35, 975 
31,500 
51, 250 
57. 350 


$1 


Cost 


Present 
popula- 
tion 
accessible 


Addi- 
tional 
popula- 
tion 
to be 
served 


Cost 








294, 000 


1, 661, OC0 
174,026 


64, 750 
20, 400 
150, 600 
168, 150 
150, 000 
69, 525 
205, 500 
102, 750 
115,600 


$971,200 


4 


Second Corps 

Third Corps 


333, 300 
789, 440 


314, 0C0 
2, 610, 00C 
2, 384, 000 
1, 880, 000 
719. 500 
630, 000 
1, 025, 000 
1.149.000 


309, 000 




2, 260, 000 






2,521,250 








714,300 


2, 730, 000 








1, 043, 000 








2, 266, 000 


3,082,000 








1, 542, 000 










1,731,000 

























L'«;o:;70— 41— pt. 11- 



4378 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Housing requirements — Continued 





Sewage disposal (in terms of population) 








Garbage and trash 

collection and 

disposal 


Collection 


Treatment 


Number 
of estab- 
lishments 


Corps area 


Present 

popula- 
tion 
served 


Addi- 
tional 
popula- 
tion to be 
served 


Capital 
expendi- 
ture 
needed 


Present 
capac- 
ity 


In- 
creased 
capac- 
ity 

needed 


Capital 
expendi- 
ture 
needed 


Increased 
popula- 
tion to be 
served 


Yearly 
cost 








94, 500 
41, 300 
316,375 


$3, 159, 000 

620, 000 

3, 442, 000 

4,641,000 

3, 268, 000 
885, 450 

4, 546, 000 
2, 009, 500 
2, 959, 500 




94, 500 
83, 700 
599, 500 


$1, 650, 000 
1, 674, 000 
3, 388. 000 

12,848,000 
6, 753, 000 
3, 259, 500 

3, 426, 000 

4, 524, 000 
8, 127, 000 


88, 500 
43, 40C 
434, 20C 
289, 220 
237, 200 
153, 900 
317,750 
187, 000 
197, 350 


$177,000 


4 


Second 

Third 


48,400 


8,500 


87, 000 
868, 000 








579, 000 


17 


Fifth 




216, 600 


21, 500 


335, 700 

174," 700 

243, 200 
482, 600 


474, 000 




Sixth 




307. 800 








286, 700 
133, 950 
197, 210 


636, 000 








374, 000 










394, 500 












Number of 
establish- 
ments 


Corps area 


Sanitary privies 
(based on exist- 
ing privies) 


Wells (based on 
existing wells) 


Mosquito control 


Rodent control 


Re- 
quiring 

re- 
place- 
ment 


Cost 


Re- 
quiring 
correc- 
tion 


Cost 


Esti- 
mated 
cost of 
ditching 


Yearly 
main- 
tenance 
cost 


Existing 
buildings 
requiring 
correc- 
tion 


Cost 






2, 130 
885 
7,011 
9,477 
4, 559 
2,400 
2,113 
1,295 
1,459 


$91,000 
37,500 
29s, :-;.-.i ) 
403,7uo 
190,500 
103, 700 
92, 050 
55, 525 
61, 900 


2,655 
1,025 
6,635 
8,627 
5,099 
2,800 
2, 103 
1,295 
1, 459 


$133, 500 
51,000 
327, 000 
433. 300 
255. 300 
139,000 
104,700 
51, 100 
73. 750 


$10, 000 

107. 000 

310, 000 

2, 402, 000 




2,470 
2,901 
9,845 
13,335 
761 
1,423 
5,099 
5,959 
6,010 


$247, 500 








290,000 


14 


Third 




984, 200 








1, 333, 000 








93, 600 






30, 000 
30, 000 
130, 000 




142,300 


10 






1, 050, 000 


14 


Eighth 




595, 600 


7 






611.000 





















Report on School Needs in Defense Areas 
U. S. Office of Education 

(RECOMMENDATIONS) 

The findings of the study of school needs in defense areas, as set forth, in the 
attached report, show: 

That there is an imperative need in many localities for additional school facil- 
ities to accommodate children of personnel connected with projects essential to 
the national-defense program: 

That school-plant facilities should be programmed and built at the time that 
family housing facilities are programmed and built ; 

That most local school administrative units at or near these defense areas can- 
not possibly during the current school year, and probably not during the next 
school year, provide the required school facilities; and 

That the Federal Government, as the responsible agency for the sudden re- 
moval of these children into communities, few of which can provide adequate 
school facilities for them, should without delay, authorize the use of funds to 
assist States in providing for the following needs: 

1. Capital outlay. — (a) School sites and school buildings and equipment; 
(b) transportation equipment required for transporting pupils to and from 
existing public schools not within walking distance (as defined by State law). 

2. Current expense. — (a) Cost of operation and maintenance of school plants 
and of transportation; and (6) salaries of teachers and other costs of instruction. 

The urgency of these needs, in my opinion, justifies immediate legislation, 
which should include: 

A. An approprial ion of $1 15,000,000 to be used, or as much thereof as is neces- 
sary, to assist Slates and outlying parts of the United States in providing for the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4379 

school needs enumerated above, with the provision that $80,000,000 be made 
available immediately to assist States in establishing school plant facilities in those 
defense areas in which family housing units are now under construction and in 
some instances ready for occupancy, and in providing for the remainder of the 
current school year teachers' salaries and other instructional costs required to 
meet the increased pupil load. 

B. A plan for paying the cost of needs, as follows: 

(1) For children "residing on public property the Federal Government should 
bear the cost of required capital outlay and current expense except that when such 
property is liquidated, a pro rata part of the cost should be assumed by the local 
school administrative unit or units involved. 

(2) For children residing on private property not subject to immediate taxation 
the Federal Government should lend to the local school administrative unit the 
required funds for capital outlay and current expense that cannot be derived 
locally until the property in question appears on the tax rolls, except that during 
the non-tax-producing period the Federal Government should pay, in lieu of taxes, 
its pro rata part of the current exepnses. 

C. Specifications for the administration of the program as follows: 

(1) Submission to the United States Office of Education by the chief State 
school officer of (a) an approved application for funds accompanied by certified 
statement of need based on evidence submitted by local school administrative 
units, and (b) a plan for the control and operation of school facilities to be provided 
by the requested funds. 

(2) Cooperation of the United States Office of Education with the Department 
of War, the Department of the Navy, and the Division of Defense Housing 
Coordination in determining the premanency of required school housing. 

(3) Approval by the United States Office of Education of the State plan and of 
need certified by the chief State school officer. 

(4) Pavment'of funds by the Treasurer of the United States upon certification 
to the Secretary of the Treasury by the United States Commissioner of Education, 
to the respective State officials legally designated to handle public funds with the 
provision that such funds be administered for the approved purposes by the 
lc gaily authorized agents of the State. 



THE PROBLEM 

Senate Resolution 324 dated October 9, 1940, called upon the Secretary of the 
Navy and the Secretary of War "to make a full and complete study and investi- 
gation of all school facilities at or near naval yards, Army and naval reservations, 
and bases at which housing programs for defense workers are being carried out 
or are contemplated." 

Specifically three questions were asked relative to these areas, namely: 

1. Whether such housing programs will necessitate additional school facilities. 

2. Whether the communities adjacent to or near such yards, reservations, and 
bases are financially able to provide such additional facilities if needed. 

3. Whether the Federal Government should provide such additional facilities 
irrespective of the financial ability of the community. 

Following requests from the Secretary of the Navy and the Secretary of War 
for the United States Office of Education to make the study called for by Senate 
Resolution 324, plans for the study were formulated with the assistance of inter- 
ested Federal agencies and State departments of education. The study as 
planned and carried out, however, includes all local areas affected by activities 
of the defense program — not only those "at which Rousing programs for defense 
workers are being carried out or are contemplated." 

PROCEDURE 

On November 28, 1940, the Office of Education sent to State superintendents 
and commissioners of education a form and instructions for collecting information 
for evaluating the adequacy of existing school facilities and for preparing esti- 
mates of school facilities needed to accommodate children of school age of per- 
sonnel connected with projects essential to the defense program. Representatives 
of the chief State school officers cooperated with local school authorities in ob- 
taining the information. 



4380 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

In brief, the inquiry form sought the following information: 

1. The number of additional pupils that could be accommodated (as of Decem- 
ber 1, 1940) by existing school facilities. 

2. The number of additional families and of children of school age estimated 
in terms of available information on proposed housing units. 

3. The number of additional teachers required. 

4. Needed school plant facilities for increased school population. 

5. Estimated amounts of funds needed for school-plant facilities (including 
school sites) ; for operation and maintenance of these facilities; for transportation 
facilities (including equipment and cost of operation and maintenance) ; and for 
salaries of teachers required. 

Reports from State departments of education setting forth by areas (by schools 
and by local school administrative units) estimates, as of December 1, 1940, of 
needed school facilities are on file in the Office of Education. A number of area 
maps showing locations of existing school buildings and of proposed new buildings 
and additions are also on file. Tabulations based on these reports to show esti- 
mated increases in school population and estimated amounts of funds required 
for needed school facilities to accommodate this additional pupil load are attached 
as tables 1 and 2. 

FINDINGS OF THE STUDY 

1. Will hoxising programs necessitate additional school facilities? 

Reports to the Office of Education point out that, with few exceptions, housing 
programs for defense workers necessitate additional school facilities. In most 
local areas affected to an appreciable extent by defense activities, the need for 
housing (family dwelling) units has been recognized. The influx of personnel 
connected with (and to be connected with) these activities is, according to the 
estimates submitted, generally expected to bring into these areas more children 
of school age than can be accommodated by existing school facilities. The excep- 
tions noted are that several of the large city school systems can accommodate in 
existing school buildings additional pupils expected. 

Summaries of estimates recorded in tables 1 and 2 are recorded in tables A 
and B. 

Table A. — Summaries of estimates recorded in table 1 



Item 
1 


On Federal 
reservations 

2 


Not on Federal 
reservations 

3 


Total 
4 


Number of families anticipated September 1941 

Number of children to be accommodated September 1941 


47, 182 
60, 358 
14, 701 

1,895 
1.28 

31.80 


96, 742 
143, 707 
35, 582 
4,815 
1.48 
30.00 


143, 924 
204, 265 
50, 283 




6,710 


Number of children per family September 1941 - 

Number of children per teacher September 1941 2 


1.42 
30.40 



Taken from special tabulation by Office of Education. 
1 Derived from table 1. 



Owing to the fact that definite information regarding housing programs for 
defense workers was not available for all areas involved, State and local educa- 
tional officials found it difficult to prepare estimates for these areas. The large 
number of schools and of local school administrative units involved in areas with 
concentrations of population made it impossible in some instances for these State 
officials to submit complete returns in the short time available. Furthermore, 
the number of housing (family dwelling) units has been increased materially in a 
number of areas since November 28, 1940. Housing projects have been pro- 
grammed since then in additional areas. 

Estimated school needs for children residing on Federal reservations (children 
living in public housing units) were projected by States and localities in terms of 
47,182 families (representing an equal number of public housing units). 

As the program for defense-housing facilities approximates 85,000 housing 
(family dwelling) units, the estimated amounts of funds needed for children re- 
siding on Federal reservations will be approximately double the estimated needs 
projected in terms of 47,182 families (see column 2, table B). The estimated 
costs per child of school age for providing the needs listed in column 1 of table C, 
are shown in column 2 of this table. The estimated needs for the 120,700 children 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4381 



of the 85,000 families, derived in terms of costs per child of school age set forth in 
column 2 of table C, approximate $46,000,000 (see column 3, table C). When 
this amount is added to the estimated needs for children not residing on Federal 
reservations, the total estimated need for school facilities needed in defense areas 
(as projected in terms of reports on file in this office) approximates $100,000,000. 
This does not include estimates from Alaska, the Philippine Islands, the Hawaiian 
Islands, and from local areas in States whose reports were received too late to be 
included in these tabulations. (See footnote 4, table C.) 

Table B. — Summaries of estimates recorded in table 2 





Estimated amount of 
funds needed for 
children- 




Item 

1 


Residing on 
Federal res- 
ervation 

2 


Not resid- 
ing on Fed- 
eral reser- 
vation 

3 


Total 
4 


Capital outlay: 


$692, 750 

18, 604, 682 
599, 875 


$1, 708, 792 

41,876,195 
1, 564, 900 


$2, 401, 542 


Construction (new buildings, additions, equipment, and alter- 


60, 480, 877 




2, 164, 775 






Total - - - 


19, 897, 307 


45, 149, 887 


65,047,194 


Current expense: 


656, 840 

281. 883 
2,401,514 


1, 687, 277 

777, 812 

6, 709, 009 


2,344,117 




1,059,695 


Salaries of teachers 


9, 110, 523 


Total 


3, 340, 237 


9,174,098 


12,514,335 




23, 237, 544 


54,323,985 


77, 561, 529 







Table C. — Estimated capital outlay and current-expense needs projected in terms of 
cost per child of school age 





Estimated 
cost per 
child of 
school age 
(column 4, 
table B, 
divided by 
column 4, 
table A) 

2 


Estimated amount of funds needed 
for— 


Item 
1 


120,700 
children 
residing on 
Federal 
reserva- 
tion * 

3 


143,707 
children 
not resid- 
ing on 
Federal 
reserva- 
tion 

4 


Total 
5 


Capital outlay: 


$11. 76 

296.09 
43.05 


$1, 419, 432 

35, 738, 063 
2 1, 140, 136 


$1, 689, 994 

42, 550, 206 
3 1,531,805 


$3, 109, 426 


Construction (new buildings, additions, equip- 


78, 288, 269 


Transportation equipment 


2,671,941 


Total - — 




38, 297, 631 


45, 772, 005 


84,069,636 


Current expense: 

Operation and maintenance of school plant 

Operation and maintenance of transportation 

Salaries of teachers 


11.48 
21.07 
44.60 


1, 385, 636 
2 558, 018 
5, 383, 220 


1, 649, 756 
3 749, 713 
6, 409, 332 


3, 035, 392 
1,307,731 
11, 792, 552 


Total - 




7, 325, 874 


8,808,8C1 


16, 135, 675 




. 


45, 624, 505 


54, 580, 806 


U00,205,311 









i Projected on basis of 1.42 children of school age per family for 85,000 housing (family dwelling) units. 
2 The number of children to be transported is estimated at 26,484. 

a The number of children to be transported is 35,582. , onnr „ v i m! .t« 

« When needs reported subsequently to completed tabulations are included the total will approximate 
$115,000,000. 



4382 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

2. Are communities adjacent to or near naval yards, Army and naval reservations 

and bases financially able to -provide additional school facilities as needed? 

Local school administrative units in the defense areas are faced with the 
problem of providing school -building facilities and teachers for a large number of 
additional children of school age without the authority to obtain through regular 
channels additional funds for these needs. Some of these units find themselves 
with a decrease in assessed valuations of property. 

(a) Capital outlay. — Information reflecting financial ability of local school 
administrative units in these areas indicate that in the main these units, because 
of existing legal limitations on bonded indebtedness for school purposes, cannot 
provide funds for capital outlay purposes. It is common practice to derive funds 
for capital outlay through the issuance of bonds by local school administrative 
units. These units must conform to limitations regarding maximum bonded 
indebtedness that may be incurred for school purposes and to the maximum local 
tax on property that may be levied for interest on and redemption of such bonded 
debt. 

(b) Current expense. — Individual area reports show that in most cases local 
school administrative units involved find it impossible to obtain additional funds 
for current expenses. These local school units generally must conform to legal 
limitations regarding the local tax rate that may be levied for current expense for 
public schools. Obviously a reduction in the property subject to taxation within 
a local school unit reduces the income of that unit. This results when property 
is acquired by the Federal Government. Furthermore, local school administra- 
tive units must conform to stipulated budgetary procedures. These procedures 
prevent local units from increasing their respective budgets after a date fixed by 
law. In some instances public school authorities have no recourse in the matter 
of obtaining increased local funds because the additional children live on property 
of the Federal Government or of a private industrial concern not a part of but 
adjoining the local school administrative unit involved. 

3. Should the Federal Government provide such additional facilities irrespective of 

the financial ability of the community? 

There is urgent need for a definite Federal Government policy which includes: 

(a) Authorization for the use of Federal funds for providing additional school 
plant facilities (including school sites) and required transportation equipment. 

(b) Authorization of an annual appropriation sufficient to pay salaries of 
teachers necessary for children residing on Federal reservations and for operation 
and maintenance of school -plant facilities and transportation in (a) above. 

The numerous local congested situations resulting from activities of the national- 
defense program are, in many instances, very acute and the immediate school 
problems they create cannot be solved by local school-administrative units or 
even by these units and the States. 

The Federal Government has an obligation to provide school facilities to 
accommodate children of personnel connected with projects essential to this 
program. 

In areas over which Federal jurisdiction is exclusive, States and local govern- 
mental entities, such as local school-administrative units, cannot legally provide 
public services, including public education. 

Although State and local authorities of their own free will often grant educa- 
tion privileges to children residing on Federal reservations, such children have no 
legal right to attend public schools of the respective States. Generally, Federal 
reservations are not integral parts of local governmental entities such as local 
school-administrative units. 

Equity demands that the Federal Government assume responsibility for pro- 
viding educational facilities for these children. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4383 

Table 1. — Estimates as of Dec. 1, 1940, of additional families, pupils, and teachers 
in areas affected by activities of the National-defense program (Jan. 7, 1941) 





K. 

111 

■s|s 

3 z"S 

M 

W 
2 


On Federal reservation 


Not on Federal 
reservation 


State and area 

1 


ST -r 
o CB ~ 

!§! 
Ill 

2 
3 


III 

•= || 

3--0-, 
4 


Sa 

•5-2 
1 » 

■2 02 

B.hoa 
JD 3- 

agss 

3 Sj3 

5 


m a. 

|a 

O (3^ 

III 

6 


Number of children 
to be accommo- 
dated September 
1941 


Eel 

» a 
■g| 

0"3„ 
IIS 

8 


Alabama: 




570 


ISO 


6 


150 

335 

906 

952 
50 
122 

150 

322 
30 

542 


300 

600 

720 

640 
100 
200 

300 

644 
60 

740 






Munitions-storage dump (near Camp 






Gulf Shipbuilding Corporation (Mobile 












Shell-forging and machine plant (Gads- 










18 


T. C. I. Steel & Ammunition (Fairfield). 




250 


500 


15 


3 
6 


Alabama Dry Docks & Shipbuilding 










9 


Maxwell Field and Basic Flying School 


424 
208 


290 
212 


580 
424 


17 
12 


19 




2 


Aluminum plant and nitrate plant No. 


21 
















632 


1,322 


1,684 


50 


3, 559 


4,304 




124 








30 














Arkansas: Camp Joseph T. Robiuson (Lit- 








1,737 

75 
65 

2,975 
1.161 


2,400 

150 
140 

3,990 
3. 929 




73 


California: 


150 
50 


75 
10 


150 
20 


5 
1 


6 




5 


Mather Field and McClellan Air Depot 


95 


Camps Nacimiento and San Luis 
Obispo, and Paso Robles Airport (San 










155 


Forts Baker and Barry and Hamilton 


175 
550 


105 
550 


300 
794 


9 
26 




Fort Ord and Salinas Army Airport 


945 


1,781 




fil 


Nacimiento Replacement Center 1 














40 
7,196 


40 
5,559 




j 


San Diego Bay military area (San 


1,200 

150 
850 
600 


5,000 


5,000 


156 


207 


March Field and National Guard base 




Mare Island Navy Yard (Vallejo) 

Alameda Naval Base ' (Alameda) 


725 


3,500 


93 


























Total 


3,725 


6,465 


9,764 


290 


12, 457 


15, 589 


519 


Colorado: 


125 
45 


125 
75 

200 


250 
145 

395 


9 
5 

14 










550 
550 


505 
505 




17 






Total 


170 


17 


Connecticut: 


1,000 








5,000 

4,200 

500 


4,196 

4,924 

319 




179 










183 


New London-Groton -. 


100 


100 


110 


4 


11 


Total - 


1,100 


100 


110 


4 


9,700 


9,439 


373 


Delaware: Fort Du Pont ' (Delaware City). 
District of Columbia: Southeast and South- 
west (Washington) 


600 














1,000 


3,200 


85 


1,952 


2,262 




62 



1 Reported "No need at present.' 1 



4384 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Table 1. — Estimates as of Dec. 1, 1940, of additional families, pupils, and teachers 
in areas affected by activities of the national-defense program (Jan. 7, 1941) — 
Continued 





■s-g 
g« 

ill 

SS£: 
W 

2 


On Federal reservation 


Not on Federal 
reservation 


State and area 

1 


If- 

££- 

3 aZ 
3 

600 
300 


111 
!"* 

ja.2 o_ 
S «S 

4 

800 
300 


Is 

"CO 

!'P 

3&.Q 

z 

5 

18 
12 


£ 6. 

— a/ 
|. 

In ■S cr ' 
c c " 

B-gg 

3 <5J" 

6 


IP 

lit 
4-1- 

7 


Js 

II 

"CO 
O-0_ 

5S.SS 

3 £.0 

8 


Florida: 

Camp Blanding and auxiliary air base 




1,100 

300 
175 

900 

400 

600 
400 


2,200 

600 
525 

1,800 

750 

1,200 

800 


68 


West Palm Beach Air Base (West Palm 


300 
100 

200 

300 

200 
100 


22 


Orlando Army Air Base (Orlando) 

Jacksonville Naval Air Station (Jackson- 


11 


800 
400 

600 
100 


1,600 
600 

600 
100 


47 
25 

20 
4 


52 


MacDill & Tampa Shipbuilding & 


32 


Forts Barrancas and Pickens, naval air 
station, Corry, Saufley, and subsidiary 
fields and shipyards (Pensacola) 

Fourth Corps Area Air Base (Talla- 
hassee). 


40 
24 


Total. 


1,200 


2,800 


3,800 


126 


3,875 


7,875 


249 


Georgia: 










75 

50 
1, 550 

450 

50 
300 
315 


150 

100 
2,400 

900 

100 
600 
720 


6 


Supply depot, Fourth Corps Area 










3 




962 


1,962 
300 


2,300 
600 


70 
21 


64 


Supply depot, Fourth Corps Area 


32' 


Camp Blanding [Starke, Fla.] (Lown- 




3 












24 




50 


40 


120 


5 


23 






Total 


1,012 


2,302 


3,020 


96 


2,790 


4,970 


154 




100 

200 
200 














Illinois: 

Great Lakes Naval Training Station 
and Fort Sheridan (Great Lakes, Fort 

Sheridan, and North Chicago). 

Savanna Ordnance Depot (Savanna) 

Proposed munitions plant and Elwood- 


100 
30 


78 
60 


2 
2 


50 


100 


3 








Roek Island Arsenal (Rock Island, 


602 
400 








605 
75 


853 


30 


Air Corps Technical School (and Scott 
Field i), Chanute Field (Rantoul) 


400 


575 


19 








Total 


1,402 


530 

11 

2,000 
700 


713 


23 


730 

3,700 
200 

300 


953 

1,210 

4,270 
400 

600 


33 




48 


Iowa: Burlington shell-loading plant (Bur- 








172 




700 


840 


28 


15 


Louisiana: Camps Beauregard, Livingston 


23 


Maine: 


150 


150 
600 


300 
1,200 






Portsmouth, [New Hampshire] Navy 


36 


100 
250 






Bath Iron Works (Bath, Brunswick) 




140 


19 


Total 


150 


750 


1,500 


36 


350 


140 


19 



'Reported "No need at present." 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4385 



Table 1. — Estimates as of Dec. 1, 1940, of additional families, pupils, and teachers 
in areas affected by activities of the national-defense program (Jan. 7, 1941) — 
Continued 





"§■0 

ai 

££« 

° ° a 

£■!« 

S °^ 

|o| 

W 
2 


On Federal reservation 


Not on Federal 
reservation 


Stato and area 


Jj 6. 

*^; 

J" & q3 

StoS 

3 


g6S 

in 

■si-s 

" b a 
4 


§a 

o-o_ 

j§-§S 

5 


8 a, 

|4 

"Sis'"" 1 

<- ftb 

.c'3.0 

III 

3 aJ.8 




a i n 

si! 

isls 

7 


Sa 

•S-S 

« a. 

ag"c3 

3 C.Q 

8 


Maryland: 


100 

1,000 
350 

1,450 














Edge wood Arsenal and Aberdeen Prov- 


1,000 
300 


1,700 
1,900 


60 
52 










45 












TotaL 


1,300 


3,600 


112 


45 






Massachusetts: 


200 
300 
50 

550 








200 


400 







































200 








400 














Michigan: 

Fort Custer (Battle Creole) 


250 
130 

380 


600 


1,200 


30 


1,600 
130 


3,200 

260 


100 








600 


1,200 


30 




Total. 


1,730 


3,460 


109 






Mississippi: 
Thirty-eighth bombardment and thirty- 


50 


50 
170 

700 


100 
380 

1,300 


4 

12 

27 


200 
1,805 


360 
3,416 


9 






Ingalls Shipbuilding Corporation (Pas- 


700 












Total 


750 


920 


1,780 


43 


2,005 


3,776 


125 






Missouri: 










6,364 

4.660 
4,827 

1,000 


12, 000 

9,320 
9,000 

2, 000 


400 


Seventh Corps Camp (Waynesville, 




1,500 


3,000 


109 








260 


Weldon Springs Ordnance Plant (Wel- 










50 














Total 




1.500 


3.000 


109 


16, 851 


32, 320 


1,110 










Nevada: 


50 


20 
20 


100 
75 


4 
3 


























Total 


50 


40 


175 


7 
















New Hampshire: Portsmouth Navy Yard 


600 

100 
525 

50 


100 
525 

50 

500 


1,160 

200 
525 

100 

500 


46 

12 
3 
16 


400 






New Jersey: 














Lakehurst Naval Air Station (Lake- 








New York Shipbuilding Corporation 


250 


250 


7 








Total 


675 


1,175 


1,325 


38 


250 


250 


7 






New Mexico: Nineteenth Bombardment 

Group, Fourth air base (Albuquerque) 

North Carolina: Fort Bragg ( Fayette ville).. 
Oklahoma: Fort Sill (Lawton) 


100 
550 
150 


loo 

50 
loO 


200 

1.100 

225 


8 
34 
10 


238 
510" 


400 
765" 


16 
19 



Reported "No need at present.' 



4386 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Table 1. — Estimates as of Dec. 1, 1940, of additional families, pupils, and teachers 
in areas affected by activities of the national-defense program (Jan. 7, 1941) — 
Continued 





IS 

i s 

M 
2 


On Federal reservation 


Not on Federal 
reservation 


State and area 

1 


S a 

M 

O 03 ~* 

m 

in 

S3 
3 


g6!3 

■c5a 

4 


ia 
11 

a cs? 

§£.S 

5 


8 d 

1" 

O cj""' 

111 

6 


go S 

111 

m 

Offl$ 

p «-* 
7 


isa 

Is 

|a 
Si os 

£ 3- 

ag"s 

3 £i.Q 

8 


Oregon: 

Air base and ammunition dump (Pen- 










300 


600 




Fort Stevens and Tongue Point Naval 
Base 




60 


70 


2 














Total.. 




60 


70 


2 


300 


600 










Pennsylvania: 










750 

2,500 

50 


1.400 
3.200 

100 




Philadelphia Navy Yard (Philadelphia). 
Middletown Airport and Depot (Mid- 




600 


300 


10 


84 














Total 




600 


300 


10 


3,300 


4.700 










Rhode Island: 

Naval air base, Quonset Point (North 


238 
862 


300 
1,200 


600 
1,400 


38 
55 


200 
918 


400 
938 






35 






Total 


1,100 

600 
200 
50 


1,500 

2,920 
400 
104 


2,000 

4,356 
400 

76 


108 
16 
3 


1,118 

1,046 

1,000 
150 

600 


1,338 

1,692 

3,200 

300 

900 




South Carolina: 

Charleston Navy Yard (Charleston) 


57 
108 






Infantry replacement center (Spartan- 


29 














Total 


850 


3,424 


4,832 


127 


2,796 


6,092 


205 






South Dakota: Fort Meade (Sturgis)... 

Tennessee: 


60 








50 

1,400 
620 

400 

90 

1,000 

3.500 

500 


10 

3.317 

1,240 

625 

180 

1, 600 

3,000 

800 












Fort Louden and Tennessee Valley 










34 












11 












8 












56 












91 


























Total 










7,510 


10. 762 
















Texas: 










275 

1,175 

300 
600 
500 
10 
75 


605 

2,350 

600 

1,425 

1,000 

20 

150 


20 


Camp Bowie and One Hundred and 










72 






100 
50 
400 

150 
500 
100 


200 
100 
800 

300 
600 
180 


6 
3 
26 

12 
19 

7 


12 








Fort Bliss (El Paso) 


200 


29 




7 


Fort Clark (Brackettville)... 


56 




Fort Mcintosh and Air School (Laredo) 






660 


1,320 


32 









Hensley Army Airport and Naval Air 
Base, and North American Aviation, 
Inc. (Grand Prairie). 








1,000 


2,000 


57 



Reported "No need at present.' 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4387 



Table 1. — Estimates as of Dec. 1, 1940, of additional families, pupils, and teachers 
in areas affected by activities of the national-defense program (Jan. 7, 1941) — 
Continued 





1* 

.Sol 

« 

2 


On Federal reservation 


Not on Federa; 
reservation 


State and area 

1 


8a 

oa 1- 
>- ah 

III 

3 


II! 

£§& 

4 


1§ 

8a 

5 


8 6, 

1*3 

o s " 

in 

6 


111 

| o«| 
7 


» 3 

sz 5 
a a 

Us 

8 


Texas— Continued. 

U. S. Naval Air Station (Corpus Christi) 


1,000 

500 

100 
2,356 


760 
1,000 

200 


433 
1,500 

400 


14 
50 

15 


1,500 
2,375 

400 


1,050 
3,562 

130 


40 
119 


Advanced Army Flying School (San 


25 






Total 


3,275 


4, 543 


153 


8,870 


14,212 


462 


Utah: 










225 
150 


450 
450 


15 


Ogden Ordnance Depot and Hill Field 




20 


40 


1 


16 








































Total --- 




20 


40 


1 


375 


900 


31 


Virginia: 




600 


600 


15 


625 

800 

2,410 


625 
518 

1,210 


15 




300 
3,952 


17 


Fort Storv. Norfolk Navy Yard, and 
Camp Pendleton (Fort Story, Ports- 


100 


200 


6 


56 






Total - 


4.252 


700 


800 


21 


3,835 


2. 353 


88 


Washington: 


150 








496 
50 

1,420 

400 
200 


745 
80 

2,120 

SOO 
200 


28 




125 

1,400 

500 


160 
1,400 
1,150 


5 
46 
32 


2 


Puget Sound Navy Yard (Bremerton, 
Port Orchard, and Kitsap County) ... 

Fort Lewis, Camp Murray, and Mc- 
Chord Field (Tacoma and Du Pont).. 


600 

400 
200 


70 

22 

1 


Coast Guard and airport (Port Angeles) 1 . 
























Total 


1,350 


2,025 


2,710 


83 


2.566 


3, 945 


123 




450 


550 


1,100 


37 


1,100 
200 


2,017 
400 


73 


Wyoming: Fort Warren (Cheyenne) 


12 




26, 504 


36, 669 


55, 186 


1,716 


96, 742 


143,617 


4,815 


OUTLYING PARTS 


2,225 

50 


10, 435 

78 


5,016 
156 


176 
3 








Virgin Islands: Bourne Field 2 (St. Thomas). 
















2,275 
2S, 779 


10, 513 
47, 182 


5,172 
60, 358 


179 
1,895 










96, 742 


143,617 


4,815 







Reported "No need at present." 
1 Reported "Impossible at present to make an intelligent estimate. 



4388 

Supplement to Table 1 dated Jan. 
and teachers in areas affected b 
15, 1941) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



7, 1941: Estimates of additional families, pupils, 
f activities of the national-defense program {Feb. 





■CO 

P 
feb 2 

OT3 

fe o 

Q.03 
,38 

|l| 

'm oaa 

H 
2 


On Federal reservation 


Not on Federal reservation 


State and area 

1 


.2 9 

If 

■s| 

.0.2- 1 
3 


-a" 

og» 

,_ a a 

325 
4 


J! 

ll 

■So. 

o 

■o 
>- £ 

5 


.2 a 

Eo. 

03 <B 

3 §i> 
6 


CT3 

° Eos 

_e~ 

eg* 

w 

325 
•z 

7 


-SB 

§2 
■3 a 

03 
O 

■a 

s 


California: 


1 400 








200 

75 
200 

300 
5,750 

300 

1,575 
500 

400 

400 

100 

200 

1,500 


400 

130 
1,900 

300 
1,400 

300 

2,050 
400 

950 

300 

200 

200 

540 


13 


Long Beach-Fort McArthur, Reeves 
Field, and new Douglas airplane 


















58 


Terminal Island— Douglas aircraft fac- 
tory and Long Beach municipal air- 


















42 


Vultee and Douglas plants (Clear- 








8 


Elementary and Union High School 








60 










11 


Montebello Unified School District 








27 


Long Beach area: 








8 


Whittier Union High School Dis- 








5 


Douglas Aircraft Corporation- 








6 


United States naval operating base 
and Douglas airplane factory- 


.1,010 


360 


22 


33 






County of Fresno ' (Fresno). 


150 














Total 


550 


1,010 


360 


22 


11,500 


9,070 j 283 






Florida: Naval air station (Dade County- 




400 


400 


13 


300 

295 
100 

75 

50 


300 

590 
225 

150 

100 


10 


Iowa: Rock Island [Illinois] Arsenal (Dav- 




20 




125 
50 
115 










Maryland: 

U. S. Naval Academy (Annapolis) 

Fort George O. Meade (Anne Arundel 


75 
230 

29 


150 
460 
63 


10 
12 
1 


10 
2 


U. S. Coast Guard Depot (Anne Arun- 




U. S. Army Ordnance Depot ' (Anne 
Arundel County) 










Total 


165 


334 


673 


23 


125 


250 


12 


















Michigan: 

Plymouth School District No. 1 Fr. 










500 

2, eoo 


358 
5,260 


15 


U. S. Tank Plant, etc. (Macomb and 
Oakland Counties, near Detroit) 










160 


Total 










3,100 


5,618 


175 














Minnesota: 

Navy Yard, North Pump ' (Fridley— 
















Navy Yard (Fridley— Independent)... 










600 


1,800 


20 


Total 










600 


1,800 


20 














Nebraska: Seventh Corps Area (Omaha) 










1,500 

100 

3,000 

412 
800 


2,400 

231 

3,000 

601 
1,600 


80 


Oregon: Proposed Air Base, Defense Indus- 




32 


10 




10 


Tennessee: Wolf Creek Ordnance Plant 
(Milan) 




105 


Texas: 

Fort Bliss (El Paso— 3 districts- 




200 


300 


10 


24 


Grand I'rairie plane factory (Arlington) 




45 



Reported "No need at present." 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4389 



Supplement to Table 1 dated Jan. 
and teachers in areas affected I 
15, 1941)— Continued 



7, 19 41: Estimates of additional families, pupils, 
y activities of the national-defense program (Feb. 





11 

CO 

5 .• 

I* 2 
cj.3 

2 


On Federal reservation 


Not on 


'"ederal reservation 


State and area 
1 


Ja 

O <D 

03 -h 

a S-2 

3 


OT3 

as 

S <D® 

B <D 

3-SOi 

4 


li 

o 

T3 

lis 
z 

5 


!§ 

as 
^ S 

'o3— I 
,Q.2 "-" 

Safe 

3 03-C 

6 


O.T3 

Hi 

° 8 ® 

^§a 
.835 

a a 
7 


<3.§ 

-3a 

03 03 

■" D, 

O 

o 

1- <° 
■o'B _ 

£"~ 

8 


Texas— Continued. 




285 


554 


16 


325 

150 
60 


900 

300 
160 




Garland Independent School District 




11 


Camp Bowie (Bangs [Brownwood])... 










5 






485 


854 


26 


1,747 


3.561 


112 








Virginia: 










200 

400 
1,800 


400 

800 
1,800 


12 


Radford area (Hercules Powder Co.— 










24 












55 






1,542 
125 

1,250 
200 

440 

220 

16 

225 


1,500 

200 

700 
300 

660 
185 
92 
225 


40 
6 

27 
10 

21 
8 
3 

8 




Naval Mine Depot, etc. (York County). 
Fort Eustis and Newport News (War- 


50 
115 








575 
666 

600 
100 
40 
850 


400 
1.000 

1,200 
200 
80 
850 


13 




20 


Elizabeth City County and city of 


350 


35 




7 


Quantico Marine base (Quantico) 

Arlington Cantonment (Arlington) 


100 


3 


Total 


615 


4,018 


3,862 


123 


5,231 


6,730 


197 




1,455 


6,309 


6,159 


207 


27, 598 


33, 775 


1,031 






Alaska: outlying parts 


325 








150 


260 


7 












Naval air base ( Kodiak) 

Sitka Naval Air Station (Sitka) 

Naval air base (Unalaska) _ 


250 
125 

75 


300 
90 
72 


60 
85 
75 


3 

4 
4 








40 

85 


10 
110 


..... 


Total 


775 


462 


220 


11 


275 


380 


12 


Hawaii: 

Fort Kamehameha— Hickam Field 


550 
1,300 


1,400 
733 


1,325 
1,466 


40 
45 






















Total. 


1,850 


2, 133 


2,791 


85 








Puerto Rico: 

Fort Buchanan Naval Air Station (San 


600 
300 


SOO 
300 
200 
30 


1,800 
475 
400 
90 


46 
16 
10 
4 


250 
150 
100 
70 


650 
550 
300 
210 


17 




15 




8 


Henry barracks (Cayey)_._ 


30 


8 


Total 


930 


1,330 


2, 765 


76 


570 


1,710 | 48 






Total for outlying parts 


3. 555 


3, 925 


5, 776 


172 


845 


_ 2.090 J 60 




5,010 


10, 234 


11,935 


379 


28, 443 


35,865 1 1,091 




1 



RECAPITULATION 



For States: 

1. As reported in table 1 

2. As reported in supplement 


26, 504 
1,455 


36. 669 
6, 309 


55, 186 
6, 159 


1,716 
207 


96, 742 
27, 598 


143,617 
33. 775 


4,815 
1,031 


Total. 


27, 959 


42, 978 


61,345 


1,923 


124, 340 


177, 392 


5. 846 


For outlying parts: 

1. As reported in table 1 

2. As reported in supplement 


2,275 
3, 555 


10,513 
3,925 


5, 172 
5, 776 


179 
172 








845 


2,090 


60 


Total 


5, 830 


14, 438 
57,416 


10, 948 
72, 293 


351 
2,274 


845 
125. 185 


2, 090 
179, 482 


60 


Grand total 


33, 789 


5,906 



Reported "No need at present." 



4390 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



r^ O 1-1 



S'rJ 



?.2 « a2-S 



3f°ifaf3il 

c 3: Sri ^ ° 5 c u - 



s -" 



g-t| 



m.g 



So 



; = 






8 



M _ H »-* -C « S. c ~ Z '.i — 



S3 

fe 5? 



^ 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4391 



§ §§§g! 






:88S8 88 



s s 



3331 



o o o oo 

C< t~- O —i o 



S3 S 






L~ 3 H S^ 



£.2 

03 

•w 3 



!?£' 



5 £■-> a 



:o3~ 

~ c = ~ 

:5S-BS. 

lff§i 

<1 5 6 « C< 



"> a 



- - 

a< 



5<; ;«iX | 
2 £"^ &E -jjIs 






^ ■? 









a 5 



f^ 



e— -> a a p*» 

Eagcccg 



<! cd <s oi ao-*-> o 



« St?- 






4392 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



= ge 



c — 

83 
S 00 " 



-- 



I 



S^a 






"3 * ° 

m— o 

b1<£ 



• c 'Cffl 



»£§' 



IS 






■c ••go 
S !«5 



5SSS Eh 

5, — I , 



bow 2 



|oQ| 3 



l§- 



: s£ 



3g J .. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4393 



FIIS 






55 
88 



= 5 



:gS§ 



l ! i 



'55 



I ss 



? s 

.- I! 'X 



:^? 



I 



I 



1* 

■Si 

d|£§ 
s°§a 

^ a_n - 






— - = = 



Us sss 



«'B 1 



81 



260370— 41— pt. 11 



E- K,r c - - - 
10 



II 



C O 



.CO 



■o-o 
> a. 



8" 



.Sep.. 

z zoo 



Is a 

o« O 

= o E" 



o>Z«j; 

■"=.2 a 

■2 3.S 



?: = 



4394 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



11 






O c3 



g 



<O00 



:g :g 



§S 






; offi ; 



111 



fill 






M £.2 g a a ^"3 S 



,ig|J 



20 

a 
aO 

P 
p oe 









iM a 



~0h~ CL,^ £ 



ass: 
_ "-oC^d^-S 3 3 

D eg as ,PQKO^coto. 
. . J2 co — a - _ c c ^ c r 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4395 



IB 



h 



8 88 



ii § 



I 



1 1 

i 1 



H 

£< 



■a H 



.2 n— o 
oO sC 

_j O S 0/ Q 

E-O CO £ 



|;| 

"H aj £ o 

£< o 5 

■oa> ° • 2 



J Oh 



g C T3 SO 









£ 5 






4396 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



oa oo cc oo r- a> cs 

GOOcTNOCtOQOOrHd 



CROC2 >o 



11 

Eh 



:F; = 



oi" doooi "5" 






igggSSESS 

< »C (N Tj !•- i- >0 CI iO 



8 ggg 



1C iC w o lO o 



§ III 

3 S8*S"8" 






Hill! 



c o <= c o o 

888888 



1 



Si ,=" 



-O 

S"offl<a 

^~~£ 

go (8 p 

.2 ftg nc. 

cE BS -• 
a 3 o c R 



&o Co, 



5 15 S3 

5 g.&'gioo 



&3U 






HJ3 

ts-s 






« ~ , K 



^ kills KlsgSiiU 



1 -S o >» § ^ ? 



J Big's s 






a s 
5 t- 



- -' 
^ 



^ 






o oo 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

llillll § 



4397 



:?s; 



Rg~ c 



S 8S2 



a s c 



-. OO Ol 



S S3' 



I §§§§< 



g'gs 



3 S c 



S° t^S 



■ s & 

3«Z 






g£f£I 



~ "5 

a 1 sag 

~ - 



12 ^JSp* 



ow -S< 






a _ t. _ 

! -> * 9 <s H 

J* 

"3.22J2 



•e a ■= 3X-M 
a o ° o — -pQ "" 

— ■.""• - a p o. 

Ifgfsi-S 

jS'&C&SEs 

•i-jCsniO 






§5 

. 3 

~ 9 



.9 p 



r- 



- B s o 
>> 03 . -" 

3 s-3i&o.go •§ 

■3.9 






03 -i 03 

o°t;a§ 
5 M° J £ 



■7, ,£ 

is 



s w a « o 

I « 2.2 £• 
•5 £ § § '3 



4398 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



I § 
sf 



o n-a 

MM" 



Sip 



SS-a 



ogH a -o a ^ -a 2 30Q1 
||5 | S 






a CQOhO 



5 



6-1 Sp'J 






fc 8a 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4399 






s s 

8 & 



sf** 



8? 

o t^ 



Sg S" 



a ^ ra 

..-a 3.2 



„ a 
"5.2 
§""S 

c ® 

■Bl 

SOS 



2 « 

■~ — 



!£ ■"§ 






o3 a a 



is 

j * O fc -1 H£ 

? ZW JSES 

9 O X 

; 22 



••2.S 5 



o o o3^; 



3 - 



:. C 



-.03 =3 



.2 a 

-5 is 






Sw£2 



.-°a 



4400 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



is 



13 



og< 



§111 



2 5 .'-• 

oo're 



'ci = - i 



— ~ s-z ~ 



>h a a S 

p-.-oSa 

,2 w ""b 



S S8383? 



8 IIS 833388 'g 

So Sooooa . oc 






g Si 



> ic X co" — ■ o 3: 



'? a 



_.C O OS'S t" 1 



O q 

il. 
■ 5.9^ 



I iliilS 



§ ssg'sss"^- 5 



>|||§ 



o o c o o = * 

3 §§§§§1 



so aa'^U 

~^3 B-S 

SgHZ* 

a- 53 gag 

a .&P.2 a £ 8 
„o2feO^.«gag 



= 5 



li 



= g 

oo5 



-a a 



ogg«0-& 



aS b b' 



5v< 



£•2 



5? 



£« gH£:= a"" !«!».£•$ 

••O-^BBOOOOOC* ' 

S3o uuhfcfcfcfcfcH P 



oar" 



St CO 

g m 
S.S 
o ^ 



.^<; 



§§ 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



g 8 



II 



IS § 



!8 8 

) o o 
>co o 



SQgg 



OM.S O 



.5 £ a 
£<: o S 



S 8 



8 8 



*5^ 



■g-o 30.2-g.t; < 



sfs 



4401 



4402 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 





O 2 

So 




I 


1 


Is 

it 




F 


•2-5 8 

Hi 

Si 2 




lis 

i s 


i 

o 

B 

o 
O 


S 

o 
Eh 


i ; 


i II s 

1 JO 


1 

03 
< 






a 

a 

a 










'I 8 - 


2 

It 

to 




If 

i II 69 


1 

GO 




:1 s * 




1 

I 
1 

a 


«, ia 

h ; o 

2 •** 

i ^ 

P C3_ 

►J a_ 
& 82 

§ W 
a a> 

*l 

aPQ 

CO 

o« 

§i 

I! 


1 
1 3 

i- o 

O *» 

1 I 

Eh © 





NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4403 




4404 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Salaries of 
teachers 

10 
























1 «o 

8 


o 
o 
3 




3 || 

CO 






iiiiiii 


Transpor- 
tation 

9 










| 














o 
o 

o 








oo" 

ll 








ggs§§ 

o — oo r- 
cooo't^ccToJ 


Operation 
and main- 
tenance 

8 
























8 

o 


o 

8 




!| 






Hill I 


I 

c 
a 
_o 

a 
o 
O 


o •*■ 






















1 

I 


a 
c 

B 
O 




I 






IIIHI 


a 

o 

< 










II 
































oo 

8 8 




I 


a 
Q 

ft IO 

'3 

V 






















8 


o 
2 
- 

o 




loll 

o 






OO OO C B 


p 

_o 

'•3 "* 
■a 


































1 






I'i'i'iis 


a 

2 m 
'3 
pq 










1 












o 
o 

o 

oo 


o 

c 
o 
o 




o II 

si 






o 

s 
| 


? 

o 


c i 

s 1 


1 « 

in 






















o 
o 
a 

5> 


a 
c 

o 




o II 

s 






ill 

oioi-T 








as 


£ 

O 

E 
g 

c 
ft 
« 


p 

> 

d 

"c 

,c 

§l 


i | 

O | 

•a i 

a 
_g ' 

2 1 

C3 , 

O ! 

fl ! 
a i 

3 ; 
^ i 

s : 

o ; 
eg | 

§• ' 

"3. : 

ft § 

= '? 

~s 

V. o 

_, a 

- :' 


5 

o 
Eh 




> 

c 
8 
1 
| 

a 

1 

£1 

ft 

C 
P 

"E 

et 

c £ 

a/ 
1 

2 


— 

a 

— 
| 

'I 

■a 
1 


3 

o 


E 

c 

« 

< 
ft 

o 
O 

et 

1 
ft 

0) 


1 

p 

a 

a 

o 
pq 
1 

.2 
3 

T3 

.5 
1 

-3 

ft 
1 i 

O ' 

ft 
29 

ft 5 

?! 

i'-ft 


p 

| 

1 
ft 

a 
c 

C3 
C 

£ 


p 

3 

| 

CO 

1 

c 


E 

c 
3 

ft 
a 


3 

c 

ft 

ft 
t» 
3 

< 


c 

« 

C 

] 
■J. 

5 

p 
ft 

E 

-. 
O 


r 
o 

a 

a 

ft 

a 
i 

s 

3 

PQ 
ft 
1 


ft 

o 


J 

— 
O 

_3 

O 

■a 

o 

ctr 

> 


5 

rj 
> 

s 

r 

a 
c 

d 
O 

Ph 

3 
- 

•r 

ft 


> 
3 
- 
o 
O 

5 

ft 

ft 


s 

c 
c 

y 

5 

"re 
■~- 

1 

ft 

ft 


> 
p 

o 

£ 
E 


p 

E 
C 

ft 

'5 

r 

to 

- 
p 
s 
X. 

= 

= 

ft 

z 

ft 


£ 

X 
p> 

c 

3 

o 
O 

c 

2 


P 

£ 
P 

B 

r 
ft 

c 

ft 
§ 

c 
> 

H 

3 
C 

o 
5 

z 


a 

Q 
-a 

o 
O 

= 

2 
ft 

■a 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



:gS 



*?§§ 



4405 



I 



i? 



SI 
121 



- u - 



I'll 



JS8 

ON 



I! 5 s 



« II o 

8 IS 
-' || 55 



oS cs 



5? 



loll-. 



:S Is 



2< 
19 



£ t^U 



1-1 = 1 






C o 

!§ 

el 



o s 
o o 

SIM 



3 S 
.5.9 



Coo 



4406 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 









i s iisl i i§! § 



O a 



■f.i'i 



8*23" 



"1 




O QO oooooo ooo m 
o o o oooooo ooo « 
to moi r-oo^ct^o ooo ^ 



o o — o o 



£S8: 



S?ig 






£:■ 



gocoa.^ggi 
2<_) CQ£h h J>K<<?; h J 






S^ 1 ? o 



so a 

Sal 



m 

g b<!o 
<10 






NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4407 



g 



s 

o o" 






S8888? 



8§S 



s hs 



8 £ 



§8888 



IIS 

s !! a 



I 888 

II oo 'on 



Sr.R' 



o o 

8 8 

© Q 



« s 



o o 

8 8 



5 55 

5 o o 

rf' lO O" 



O 03 

OO 

s-s 



5s 



112 



= S.2S 



eg. 
as 






> >- ! 8 3.3 S a os 

^3 ■ >■« Ph n. g %CQ 

"'3 « a & 

« . . J* s ■ ■ m — a . 



O 

6 

a 
o 

§ 

io 



= =S 



^laSS 



= >_C ^^ dH 3 H 

x - -. ~ = oO-_a 
g = fa~ rliv, 5 3 
a ^"3 -6 Sdufl'sa 



;£ £ : 












' - r: -h - ^ ^ o - — " — ^ 



5 B 
o o 



4408 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 









rr 



«2 
•3"° 
a § 

a o 






<s .yen c., ^ as ca n 
H oSSgS fH fcn o 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



2S 
c o 

an. 

Ill 



^aa s s 

ft! S 5 

3«M 



4409 



2Gu:;T0— 41— pt. 11- 



4410 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

TESTIMONY OF C. F. PALMER— Resumed 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Palmer, there are a few questions I would 
like to ask you. 

I would like to know for myself, and I believe it would be of interest 
to the committee to know, just how this defense housing is provided 
for and the various steps that are taken in providing it. 

1c ou say your office is not a construction agency, but that you use 
other agencies. As I understand it, your office determines the need. 

Mr. Palmer. That is correct. 

Mr. Sparkman. Then what determines what agency shall do the 
construction? 

Mr. Palmer. That is determined in various ways. Our recom- 
mendation goes to the President when a need is determined, such as 
the provision for workers who migrate into a certain area around a 
powder plant, or in connection with the expansion of a big airplane 
industry or a navy yard. 

The funds to be used we also recommend to the President. The 
final determination of the construction agency to be used will depend 
upon the fund which is used. 

For example, if we recommend that Public, No. 781, be used, which 
was the provision for $100,000,000 under the defense bill, we find 
certain restrictions on its use because it says in the first place that it 
shall be used only for the housing of families, and they shall not cost 
more than $3,500, including the land. That is primarily for the Army 
and the Navy. 

However, if we recommend that funds be used under provisions in 
the Lanham bill, which is Public, No. 849, there is not the same restric- 
tion. The cost there of the building is separate from the cost of the 
land and the utilities. If the provisions of the Lanham bill are 
applied, then the Federal Works Administrator will determine the 
construction agency. That is Mr. Carmody. Mr. Carmody can 
use any agency of the Government. He is now using many such 
agencies. He is using the Public Buildings Administration for the 
majority of the work. He is using the United States Housing Au- 
thority in some instances. 

His policy has recently been liberalized, so that local authorities 
can be used more extensively, which we think is a splendid step for- 
ward because that decentralizes the program and accelerates it. 

He also is using the Farm Security Administration in some areas 
where housing might be absorbed into the agricultural economy 
afterward. 

At Radford, Va., 200 houses are being built by Farm Security. 
As you gentlemen know, Radford is a place with a population of 
about six or seven thousand people. A $54,000,000 powder plant 
is located 4 miles from it. Not all of the 200 houses being built 
by Farm Security will be built right in Radford; only about a 
hundred houses will be there. The other hundred will be put on 
individual farms in an area within easy commuting distance of the 
plant itself. 

These will be tenant houses that can be removed from the farms 
after the emergency, and the housing now being used by the defense 
workers put into the agricultural area. 

Incidentally, along the line of what might happen after the emer- 
gency, it seems to me, after a very careful study both here and in 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 441 1 

foreign countries, that we must begin to plan right now to rebuild our 
cities and our agricultural areas. 

TRADE UPSET 

One reason for that is, as Governor McNutt said, our trade is 
bound to be upset. The whole economy of our country may have a 
more terrific impact upon it than that caused by defense at the present 
time. 

We know, for example, that if there are 4,000,000 men in the armed 
forces -and if this migration in defense centers continues and accelerates 
and expands, as in my humble opinion it will, then the reintegration 
of those people into a peacetime economy will be a greater problem 
than that which is now taking place because it will come all at one 
time. 

What is the likelihood of a solution, and where will we be at the 
end of this terrible chaos? Regardless of what side comes out on top, 
it is my opinion that there will be practically no international trade 
for at least a decade afterwards. If there is no international trade 
we will have to turn to an internal economy in America. We must 
reeducate our people to that necessity. 

We can go back to 1919 and see what confronted the little country 
of Holland. In 1919 Holland had all its international trade swept 
away. Tariff barriers were such that she could not transport her 
vegetables or other products into Belgium, and I have been in Amster- 
dam and seen ships rotting because there was no need for bottoms. 

Holland at that time had 1,380,000 houses in the entire country. 
You know how frugal and practical the Dutch are and how they still 
care for their own. 

Between 1919 and 1934 with proper assistance and guidance and 
planning by government, the little country of Holland added in that 
area 658,000 houses to the 1,380,000 she already had. She increased 
her housing by 50 percent. 

What happened? She again had all her people employed when she 
took them back from the small standing army, and a very large pro- 
portion of the people were in the standing army. She did not have to 
import labor or any materials. She did not upset her international 
trade. The balance of trade had been running against her. She 
rebuilt. 

In Amsterdam 26,000 houses were owned by the people, and that 
was worked out through the Government. 

SLUMS NEAR CAPITOL 

Now, how can that be applied to America? You can go two blocks 
from this spot, right here in Washington, and see one of the worst slums 
I have ever seen in the world. I have seen them in Moscow, I have 
seen them on the East Side of London, I have seen them in Naples, and 
in Paris. I have taken pictures of these slums within a quarter of a mile 
of this Capitol. But we cannot continue to let people rot in this 
country, and that is what you do there. Some people say, "Old folks 
cannot be cured by slum clearance and by providing healthy con- 
ditions." Well, maybe some cannot, but there is no reason why you 
should let people bring up their children exposed to those conditions. 



4412 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

That is the social side; it does not need any elaboration; to correct 
such conditions is good business and good sense. 

For example, rehousing, which was thought by some to be a New 
Deal idea, was really a very Old World common-sense idea. I found 
between 1918 and 1934, in 12 countries of Europe with a gross popula- 
tion comparable to our own 130,000,000 people — I found that over that 
period of time and taking only by those rather conservative coun- 
tries, such as the Scandinavian countries, Holland, France, and Eng- 
land, over 20,000,000 people were rehoused with government help from 
1918 to 1934. And those countries did it because it was good business. 

Now, if we get back to our own problem in America, and take any 
city of any size, after the war we will find vacancies because people 
have migrated to defense areas. We will find that the tax base has 
been decreased very definitely. W r e will find there will be the need 
to replan those cities, just the way they are replanning London now, 
to make them less vulnerable to attack in the future, to have safety 
areas around them to which people can go in case of an air raid, and 
to have evacuation centers where children can get away from the 
terrible strain on their nerves which comes from living in an area which 
is under constant attack. 

I heard Dr. Eliot the other night, when she came back from London, 
tell of some instances that took place, of the "war of nerves" and its 
effect on the mental health of the child. So I could go on for a long 
time talking about rebuilding our country, our internal economy. 
By using local labor and local materials — those that we have in abund- 
ance in our country — we will be raising the taxing power in our cities, 
and we will find that we get away from the threat of blight and the 
spread of blight which destroys agricultural as well as urban values. 
And we will find, furthermore, that the great preponderance of the 
work can be done by private industry, properly handled. 

PRIVATE INDUSTRY'S CONTRIBUTION 

Mr. Sparkman. May I ask, about private industry: To what extent 
has it met your requests in defense housing? 

Mr. Palmer. We have no final conclusions on all industries, but 
they are so satisfactory in some areas that we have not had to take off 
of the hook the funds that we had hung up there if they did not go 
ahead. 

One of the best examples, for instance, is probably Fore River. 
The Fore River shipyard is up near Boston, at Quincy, as you know. 
During the last war it expanded a great deal. Some of the war 
housing that was built there did not come into use until after the war, 
because construction of this housing was started too late and therefore 
was not completed in time. That housing still stands in Quincy. 
It stood vacant for years. 

Now, to expand the Quincy area, where the Fore River shipyard is, 
would be a very hazardous thing, because expansion there would 
threaten to leave a ghost town in its wake. In that respect Quincy 
differs from the Hampton Roads area. In the Hampton Roads area, 
we now have near completion 6,512 units, down in Newport New?, 
Portsmouth, Norfolk, St. Julien Creek, Yorktown, and Hampton 
Roads. That will be the basing point of the fleet, and for a genera- 
tion or more it will probably be an expanded community, after the 
emergency and after the ship contracts give out. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4413 

But whether Fore River will continue on an expanded basis is highly- 
problematic; consequently, plans have been worked out to take over 
877 units in the Boston Housing Authority's project, which are just 
nearing completion. I think this work will all be done in 30 days, 
and they have commutation worked out from there into Quincy, 
which is only 30 minutes away. The result is that there will not be 
any expansion in Quincy beyond that which can be absorbed. 

Private industry has now gone ahead. The Home Loan Bank 
Board has made available over $5,000,000 in a pool for construction, 
and they are building houses at the rate of over 10 a day now in that 
area and, in the next 60 days, there will be 508 new houses coming 
along. If we had gone ahead and expanded with the same number of 
units in Quincy, where they might not be used after the emergency, 
private funds would not have gone in at all. And similar conditions 
exist in other places. 

MUSCLE SHOALS HOUSING 

Mr. Sparkman. I was interested in an allocation which you made 
recently, which came to my attention because it happened to be in 
my district, in the Muscle Shoals area. I noticed you provided for 
the building by the Federal Government of 250 houses and indicated 
that private industry would build 250 houses. You used the T. V. A., 
by the way, to build the 250 houses that were to be erected by the 
Government, and part of those are being built in rural sections. 
But I was just wondering how you arrived at your conclusion that 
private industry would build 250. Do you discuss it with anyone 
engaged in the building game, or do you just make a guess? 

Mr. Palmer. It is not a guess at all. Whether private industry 
will actually produce, or not, cannot always be determined in advance; 
but the Muscle Shoals area you mentioned takes in Tuscumbia, 
Sheffield, Muscle Shoals, and Florence. It was expanded during the 
last war, and the nitrate plant going in there will, in my opinion, 
operate after this emergency, because nitrates are for soil enrichment, 
and have other uses. The 500 houses being contributed by the 
Reynolds Metal Co. there to the aluminum plant can be absorbed in 
that general area, we believe, so the Tennessee Valley Authority went 
into it very carefully. Mr. Lilienthal and all of us went into it in 
great detail. They know the area, know the future of it, know how 
they have been planning and the splendid results they have been 
getting. So we sent our men down there, and they are now going 
right into that area. They sat down and talked with the bankers, 
the real-estate promoters, and so forth, as to what can be absorbed, 
what are the wage rates that can be secured there, because those 
rates determine our rents. 

We found certain wage rates so low that people cannot pay enough 
to return interest on the capital invested and they have to be cared 
for, because the Lanham bill says you shall charge those rents that the 
defense worker can afford to pay. Consequently, we found 250 
workers in the lower economic bracket for whom private capital could 
not build. Private capital says, "All right ; Mr. John Jones and Peter 
Smith are down there in that area, and we will undertake to provide 
those 250." We say, "Go ahead, but we are going to watch you and, 
if 30 or 60 days from now you have not moved, we are coming in here 
and build ourselves/' That is the way it follows. 



4414 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Mr. Sparkman. I might say I think private industry there is 
cooperating and moving right along; but I was just wondering how 
you make those surveys throughout the country. 



MARKET ANALYSIS 



Mr .'Palmer. I would like to give you a little more of the facts. It 
does not mean we go in there and try to make a superficial survey. 
As you gentlemen probably know, the F. H. A. has in its budget 
$300,000 a year for what is called a "market analysis." It has a very 
comprehensive market analysis system; it keeps up with the flow of 
building permits and the flow of capital into homes all over the United 
States, in all areas, and the Home Loan Bank Board does the same 
tiling. Those surveys are available to us and in addition we are 
using the W. P. A. industrial service and Mr. McNutt's division, 
and other sources. We also have an analysis division in our office. 
The entire country is split up into five areas, over each of which there 
is a coordinator who is familiar with the details of the problem in his 
own district, and the Analysis Division takes all of the surveys of the 
real estate boards, chambers of commerce and all the rest of them, 
and analyzes them and sees what makes sense out of the whole job. 
That is the basis for it. 

Mr. Sparkman. You said housing for construction workers was 
primarily a responsibility of the contractor and not yours. I was 
just wondering why we could not be expected to build houses for the 
construction workers, and they be allowed to occupy them during the 
construction period, and then vacate them and leave them for the 
operators. 

Mr. Palmer. If that cycle could be followed, I think it would be 
splendid; but the construction impact usually comes simultaneously 
with the other. We are moving so fast now that, in the Radford area, 
they went to just the opposite; they programmed 100 houses in a 
contract for the construction of the plant itself, with the Hercules 
Powder Co., those 100 houses to be of a permanent nature to serve as a 
standby, even when the plant went into operation, for the officers 
and the people who take care of the plant. The demand for carpenters 
and all to build the plant itself was so great that they postponed the 
construction of their own officers' housing until afterwards. So, if 
you try to bring the houses along simultaneously, you just aggravate it. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, it is a labor problem? 

Mr. Palmer. It is a labor problem. 

HOUSING METHODS IN SAN DIEGO 

Mr. Sparkman. I was interested in your discussion of the San 
Diego area, with particular reference to housing. It seems to me that 
would create tremendous problems in other respects — utilities, schools, 
streets, and transportation. 

Mr. Palmer. Probably the San Diego situation did more to point 
out the need for a community facilities bill, now known as the Lanham 
bill, for $150,000,000, which Governor McNutt referred to, because 
the beautiful little city of San Diego has been getting on for genera- 
tions without much industry around it. Its climate was its main out- 
put. It has a swell climate, and it got along for a while. Its sewage 
empties into the bay, untreated, at the present time, and the major 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4415 

problem there is getting a water supply. Water, as you all know, in 
southern California must be impounded, and they must have reser- 
voirs, and there is a real question of the expansion of the water system. 
Also, the school problem is an acute one. 

Some of those problems, particularly in areas around the powder 
plants, will probably be solved by way of highly mobile units that we 
are now using to a degree. We have over 2,000 units under contract, 
and the ingenuity of the American people to manufacture in this 
democracy is showing itself very well; because, as the need that comes 
now for the use of mobile housing is developed, the American manu- 
facturer is coming to an approach to a solution. 

There are certain vehicles which are only 8 feet wide, and can pass 
on a highway, yet can be expanded to 18 feet wide within 5 minutes 
after getting to the site. Such vehicles will seat 30 children. The 
normal school load is about 25 to a room, but they can put as many 
as 30 very comfortably in chairs, after they get there. 

We are going into that right now for central laundries for the workers 
and their families, toilet facilities, shower baths, and so forth, so that 
practically 100 percent reclamation can be made of the housing project 
which goes into an area of undetermined need, if it is needed to be 
shifted quickly. 

Mr. Sparkman. Could that type of housing be used on these 
construction jobs? 

Mr. Palmer. Very definitely. 

Mr. Sparkman. I believe Governor McNutt used the approximate 
figure of about 2,000,000 defense workers that would be migrating to 
these various areas. Is that about your idea? 

Mr. Palmer. Any statement on it would be pure conjecture, 
because if we go into a 4,000,000 army of trainees, if we take on more 
of the British arsenal load, there is no way to say; but we can and 
would be very glad to try to get up for you something on the personnel 
situation. 

Mr. Sparkman. In a speech you made back in December, you 
estimated there were 250,000 family units of housing that would be 
needed to care for the defense migration. If these were on the basis 
of family units, that would be approximately a million and a half and 
then, if you add half a million single workers to it, that would give 
2,000,000 persons. 

Mr. Palmer. Of course, that was before the passage of the lend- 
lease bill. 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes; and the lend-lease bill has not even gone into 
effect yet. 

Mr. Palmer. That is true. 

Mr. Sparkman. I mean that certainly we have not felt any of the 
impact of it. 

Mr. Palmer. It is my humble opinion that no matter how great 
we feel the problem will be, we may underestimate it. 

Mr. Sparkman. And, of course, it is a continuing problem and one 
that is continually changing. 
Mr. Palmer. Right. 

Mr. Sparkman. And, for that very reason, I understand your omce 
is continuallv making these additional surveys. 



4416 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Palmer. We are. When we talked with Congress last Sep- 
tember, we said, "We think we ought to have $250,000,000 to do this 
job. We see there may be 200,000 units needed, and we hope private 
enterprise will handle so much of them." We felt that a good guess 
would be much larger than that, but we have hit almost exactly up to 
the present time. We now have, I think, in round numbers, 78,000 
under erection — 78,000 units — and we are hoping that 200,000, or a 
substantial part, will come out of private industry. 

Title VI of the Federal Housing Act, which passed the Senate yester- 
day and has already passed the House, helps private capital to flow, as 
you gentlemen know; and with F. H. A. assistance in these defense 
areas it is quite possible the effort being made by private capital can 
be expanded several fold, in which case there would probably not be 
the necessity for the same amount of Government fund?. 

But when we say to you in the Lanham bill that $150,000,000 should 
be added to the $150,000,000 which you voted last June, we say that is 
the minimum. We showed 57,000 units needed in 60 areas, in hearings 
before the Public Buildings and Grounds Committee and the Rules 
Committee of the House. And at the Rules Committee hearing, 
Mr. Michener, of Michigan, said, "Have you taken into consideration 
the lend-lease bill?" I said, "We cannot take into consideration the 
lend-lease bill, except on the basis of guesswork, and we have not taken 
guesswork into consideration." He said, "How about the bases out 
in the Caribbean and many of the possessions?" I said, "We cannot 
program them until we have more facts on them than we have at the 
present time." Congressman Michener then said, "It is my opinion 
you will need three or four times that amount." So we probably 
have underprogrammed consistently and felt that Congress thought it 
would be better for us to do that, and to come back and keep them up 
to date from time to time. 

USELESS MIGRATION COSTLY 

Mr. Sparkman. Do your studies show that the unnecessary 
migration of people, particularly the unskilled workers, is contributing 
to the housing problem? Of course, I realize you said it was not your 
responsibility to take care of them, if it was a useless migration; 
nevertheless, it seems to me it might contribute to the housing problem. 

Mr. Palmer. It does to a very great degree. It showed up at 
Starke, Fla., and it showed up at Rolla, Mo. When we say, "It is 
not our obligation to take care of them," I think it is the obligation of 
every citizen in the United States to try to meet those problems, and 
in our case it is our duty to try to meet the housing problem. But 
under the present laws we have no way to take care of it; consequently, 
we cannot accept it as our obligation at the present time. We have 
had three men in Missouri this last week for three days, on that 
particular problem, and there is a conference at 2:30 this afternoon, 
with Governor McNutt's staff, on how to solve the problems of camp 
followers coming into areas, because they certainly aggravate the 
housing situation, the health situation, the school situation, and the 
transportation situation. 

Mr. Sparkman. It has been stated to us from time to time that 
employers prefer green workers from rural areas, rather than the 
locally unemployed. Do you have any comment to make on that? 

Mr. Palmer. It has been said, in the airplane industry, that the 
men from 17 to 23 years of age, who come from farms and who have 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4417 

a tinkering knowledge of tractors, make the best airplane workers, 
especially if they go to the coast; because they have the spirit of ad- 
venture about them at that age, they know a little about machinery, 
they get a chance to make the trip, and the result is that several 
thousand from the Middle West, from Missouri and Kansas, notably, 
have gone as far west as San Diego and have given us the problem 
of housing single men out there. 

RENTS OUT OF CONTROL 

Mr. Sparkman. You stated you have offices, I believe, in over 24 
States for the purpose of gathering information, listing rooms for rent 
and local facilities to take care of these people. I noticed the other 
day a recommendation by Miss Elliott, I believe, of the Defense 
Commission, recommending that various States pass legislation to 
control rents. Has that been a problem? 

Mr. Palmer. Rents will get out of control. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have they, so far? 

Mr. Palmer. Yes, sir; in some areas. I should like to correct the 
impression I gave, though. We, ourselves, do not have offices in 24 
States. 

Mr. Sparkman. I understood you did, for collecting information. 

Mr. Palmer. You could have taken it that way, and I probably 
should have said we have had offices established in 24 States by the 
different registration bureaus in certain defense areas. Men from our 
office go in and work with the local defense committees. They are 
giving them lists of the rooms, which they can use for room-registration 
service. We are using the same method which we found most effec- 
tive during the last war. At that time there were over 100,000 people 
cared for in single rooms through this device of room registration in 
certain areas. 

On the matter of rent control, which is handled by Miss Elliott of 
the Consumer Protection Division of the Defense Commission, I think 
if you are interested in pursuing it further, you will find a publication 
which she has put out which covers it very exhaustively and very 
capably, and I agree with what she says in there — that rent control 
should be applied only as a last resort. I mean actual rent legislation. 
Profiteering can usually be controlled by public opinion and a proper 
approach to it without legislation. When legislation passes, it freezes 
rents in such a degree that it frequently stops new construction. This 
suggested legislation, if passed in certain States, would not apply to 
new construction, so that weakness of it would be out. However, the 
head of housing for the Dominion of Canada was here last week and 
I talked with him some about the way rent control has worked out in 
Canada. He said it came into being by pegging the prices of rents on 
certain levels to such an unjustifiable degree that he himself resigned 
from the commission. You run the risk of a great headache when 
you try to legislate on rents. Sometimes it has to be done, but only 
as a last resort. 

CONSTRUCTION IN HOLLAND 

Mr. Osmers. I would like to ask one or two questions. One is 
going back quite a way in your testimony, getting back to Holland 
and the construction of the great number of houses between 1919 and 
1934. I did not know they had increased their housing to that ex- 
tent and I am wondering whether the increase in new housing was 



4418 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

offset by the destruction of old housing. Or did they end up the 
situation by having 1,900,000 units instead of 1,300,000? 

Mr. Palmer. No; there was a substantial number of substandard 
dwellings torn down. In the ghetto district of Amsterdam they took 
a lot of alleys and threw them into broad streets; they cut down 
houses, row after row in some places, and put lungs into the city, you 
might say, and made breathing spaces. No; the increase was not 
that great. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you know what the increase was? 

Mr. Palmer. I do not. 

Mr. Osmers. One of the questions that I suppose comes to every- 
one's mind when we discuss a problem such as the one you are dealing 
with — the construction of thousands and 'thousands of new dwelling 
units — is, what happens to the dwelling units that were occupied by 
those people before? Do they become vacant, or do the families that 
lived in them jointly blossom out as individual families, or what 
happens? 

I know, in my own experience, I have met resistance from real- 
estate investors and real-estate men in general against the compe- 
tition of Government-owned housing, as contemplated in the United 
States Housing Authority's program, and great favor for the Federal 
Housing Authority's program, which was a private program, federally 
assisted. 

SLUM CLEARANCE LEGISLATION 

Mr. Palmer. Some of that came about through a misunderstand- 
ing and because the first attempts at housing in this country were not 
surrounded by the proper legal protection. On June 16, 1933, the 
N. I. R. Act was passed, and in that law was one paragraph which 
said that slums could be eliminated and new housing built, in order 
to reemplov people. It was a made-work job, because of the depres- 
sion. The" P. W. A. built about $130,000,000 worth of housing. 
There was at that time no provision excluding tenants who could 
afford to pay high rents. Therefore Senator George recommended 
the passage of the George-Healey Act. The George-Healey Act makes 
it illegal for any person who has a gross income of more than five times 
the rent to live in one of those dwellings. 

Then the subsidy basis was changed with the passage of the U. S. 
H. A. Act of 1937. That got rents down low enough so that a person 
having an income of five times the rent was necessarily in an income 
bracket that could pay a return on capital for adequate housing, and 
that is the way the U. S. H. A. housing program is going today. But 
the real-estate men got off on the wrong foot on it. They did not 
realize that, properly handled, slum clearance is absolutely noncom- 
petitive with decent housing. Maj. Harry Barnes, of London, one 
of the greatest housers in the world — I think he is dead now — once 
said, 'There is no money in housing the poorest people well; there has 
always been money in housing them ill." 

That is axiomatic. Does not that answer your question? 

Now, if we keep our slum-clearance program to groups that cannot 
pay commercial rents, then there is no fear on the part of the real- 
estate men about our present program, where defense housing is going 
ahead on the basis of what the defense worker can afford to pay. 
And some arc getting up to $50 a week. That is, you will get into 
competition with private industry very definitely if you are not careful 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4419 

which is the reason we are working with them so carefully in these 
areas, and programming also houses of the demountable type, that can 
be removed from the area after the emergency, to another area where 
there is a dearth of housing. 

Mr. Osmers. I am very much impressed with the demountable- 
house idea. I have always been rather discouraged about the Ameri- 
can failure to make available prefabricated houses to a much greater 
extent than we have. 

I want to ask you this question with respect to the defense housing 
program. Are the local municipalities levying taxes upon those 
properties? 

GOVERNMENT TO PAY 

Mr. Palmer. Under the Lanham bill the Government is directed 
to pay the taxes. We put that in the legislation because we knew 
that the load on the schools and the facilities of the cities would be 
greater because of this concentration. 

In many cases, however, the bonding rights of the communities are 
such that they camiot build their own structures. 

There has been worked out under Mr. Carmody a plan whereby 
payments in lieu of taxes can be made to municipalities or govern- 
mental organizations, the county or the State. Because under the 
Constitution the Federal Government cannot be taxed, the policy now 
set up by the Federal Works Administrator is that those payments 
should not exceed the tax which was paid to the municipalities before, 
on the land unimproved, or on the property as it was, plus the cost 
to the municipality or the governmental subdivision, of the increased 
services it has to furnish, such as schools, sanitary facilities, hospitals, 
and so forth. 

Mr. Osmers. It is true, in most instances, that they will make 
those payments quite low? 

Mr. Palmer. Yes; definitely so. 

Mr. Osmers. I believe in the New York area the United States 
Housing Authority worked out a similar adjustment with the New 
York City government in payment for essential services. 

Mr. Palmer. The housing authority of the city of New York 
under Mr. Swope worked that out. 

"camp followers" 

Dr. Lamb. You referred to "camp followers." I take it that, for 
instance, in the Detroit area, where you spoke of 100,000 additional 
workers needed for defense operations, that same method could be 
worked out to account for service workers, people not specifically 
earmarked for defense industries. Was there any such method 
worked out by any Federal agency? 

Mr. Palmer. Governor McNutt referred to the possibility ot a 1.4 
increase in the civilian population around cantonments. It was ac- 
tually that during the last war. We have heard estimates as low as 
one-half of 1 percent. But it is all guesswork. No matter what 
yardstick you try to take empirically, it is going to be somewhat 

Dr. Lamb. Yesterday Mr. Samuel Grafton, of the New York Post, 
who has been writing articles on the New England area, was here and 
said that the public, according to his observation, seemed to think 
that this was a "demountable boom." He enlarged on that by mdi- 



4420 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

eating that there was a very large amount of long-distance traveling 
to defense centers, particularly in the New England States. 

I take it from your prepared statement and also from your extem- 
poraneous remarks, that in general the policy of the Office of Housing 
Coordinator is, as far as possible for the duration of the emergency, 
to operate on an emergency and short-term basis — that is, to keep 
the housing to a minimum; whereas your statement with respect to 
Holland would indicate that one of the biggest ways out of economic 
difficulties after the defense activities have stopped would be the 
expansion of housing on a very large scale, with a plan to deal with 
that. 

Is that a correct summary? 

Mr. Palmer. As I understand your question, the feeling we have 
is that housing should not become, during the emergency, an undue 
burden on the industrial output of our country, which must be turned 
directly to the war effort, although the housing of defense workers is 
as much a part of the war effort as the production of shells for cannon. 
It is all a matter of planning. 

The permanent housing effort should come after the emergency, 
because the housing problem will be much more acute than before, 
and will be with us for quite a long time. 

It was found in England in 1919, when the Dawson Act was passed 
in an effort to build homes for heroes, that providing for the men who 
were returning from the war was the greatest problem of housing ex- 
soldiers that the Nation had ever had. The program went through 
several evolutions, such as giving subsidies to private industry. The 
trial-and-error method was resorted to, in an effort to get their housing 
work under way. That should not be our policy after this emergency, 
and we are watching that to see what should be done later. 

Dr. Lamb. In summary, the object is to have as little increased 
housing at the present time as possible, to fit into the defense needs, 
and as much housing as cheaply as possible afterward to take up the 
slack. 

Mr. Palmer. That is correct, and very well stated. 

The Chairman. We thank you very much for the contribution 
you have made to our record, Mr. Palmer, and we appreciate your 
coming in and giving us your very interesting and enlightening state- 
ment. 

The next witness is Mr. Hinrichs, and I will ask Mr. Arnold to con- 
duct the interrogation. 

TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS, ACTING COMMISSIONER OF LABOR 
STATISTICS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Hinrichs, will you give the roporter your full 
name and state the position you occupy? 

Mr. Hinrichs. Mr. Chairman, my name is A. F. Hinrichs. I am 
Acting Commissioner of Labor Statistics in the Department of Labor. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you proceed with your statement? 

Mr. Hinrichs. Mr. Chairman, the demands of the defense program 
will involve very considerable movements of labor. These are not 
only necessary, but in some instances highly desirable. For the first 
time in many years there may be a real opportunity to relieve the pres- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4421 



sure of population on inadequate resources in some of the stranded 
communities of the United States. At the same time, however, there 
is grave danger that migration into defense areas may be excessive, 
just as it has been in recent years to agricultural areas on the west 
coast. Extensive migration is going to be needed in the interests of 
national defense; but excessive migration involves both waste of 
manpower and needless suffering. 

To see this problem in its perspective, it is necessary to go back a 
few years and review the general movements of population and em- 
ployment. I am submitting for the committee's consideration a re- 
print of an article which appeared in the Monthly Labor Review for 
June 1940 on the trends of employment in manufacturing industries 
between 1929 and 1937. These were both years of peak employment. 
We found that in most industries employment in 1937 was higher than 
it had been in 1929. , . . . , „ 

(The article above referred to was placed in the committee s hies. 
The following tables have been excerpted:) 

T\ble 1 — Number of wage earners employed in industries manufacturing building, 
materials, 1929 and 1937 



Industry 



Lumber 

Clay products other than pottery « 

Planing-mill products 

Structural and ornamental metal work 

Marble, granite, etc 

Sheet-metal work 

Cement 

Plumbers' supplies 

Lighting equipment 

Concrete products 

Doors, shutters, etc., metal 

Lime 

Wallboard, etc. 2 

Roofing: 

Window shades 

Total 



Number of wage earners 



:ij:V.i-js 

65, 226 

66, 814 
38, 814 
20, 816 
22, 973 
26, 426 
25, 240 
21, 743 
12, 840 

8,408 
9,751 
11,590 
7,418 
3,166 



(if,.-, 153 



Percent of 
change 



-22.7 
-30.4 
-25.9 
-29.4 
-45.0 
-19.7 
-20.8 
-9.7 
-7.8 
-22.2 
-12.0 
+14.0 
+55.3 
+23.1 



^ of changes in classification, the clay-products industry was combined with the crucibles in- 
dustry in 1929, and with the nonclav-refractories industry in 1937 in order to obtain comparable data. 

2 Because of changes in classification, the wallboard industry was combined with the gypsum-products 
industry in 1937 in order to obtain comparable data. 

Table 2. — Number of wage earners employed in manufacturing industries, by State 
and geographic division, 1929 and 1937 



State and geographic division 


Number of wage 
earners in all man- 
ufacturing indus- 
tries > 


Percent 

of 
change 


Number of wage 
earners, excluding 
those in industries 
manufacturing 
building materials ' 


Percent 

of 
change 




1929 


1937 


1929 


1937 






1,081,122 
68, 820 
64, 722 
26, 503 
547, .509 
124, 853 
248, 715 


1,022,350 
75, 464 
56,517 
23, 682 
496,036 
108, 031 
262, 620 


-5.4 

+9.7 
-12.7 
-10.6 

-9.4 
-13.5 

+5.6 


1,044,511 
62, 933 
61,017 
18,026 
536, 088 
123, 482 
242, 965 


996, 821 
70,091 
54,348 
17, 886 
488, 875 
107, 175 
258, 446 


-4.6- 
























+6.4 


Sea footnotes at pih] of table. 









4422 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table 2. — Number of wage earners employed in manufacturing industries, by State 
and geographic division, 1929 and 1937 — Continued 



State and geographic division 


Number of wage 
earners in all man- 
ufacturing indus- 
tries 


Percent 

of 
change 


Number of wage 
earners, excluding 
those in industries 
manufacturing 
building materials 


Percent 

of 
change 




1929 


1937 


1929 


1937 




Middle Atlantic 


2, 448, 741 
1,062,012 
432,078 
954, 651 
2, 435, 350 
712,616 
297, 333 
653, 087 
518, 520 
253, 794 
418,316 
90, 468 
70, 647 
187, 264 
2,631 
5,680 
23, 176 
38, 450 
820, 755 
21, 476 
1L2, 327 
8,202 
106, 193 
75, 153 
204, 681 
105, 287 
130, 286 
47, 150 
340, 353 
64,708 
118,234 
109,116 
48, 295 
266, 593 
39, 86C 
81, 222 
29, 067 
116,444 
84, 299 
11,357 
14, 590 
4,035 
28, 003 
8,977 
2,917 
13, 463 
957 
434,019 
108, 732 
62, 230 
263, 057 

8, 329, 548 


2, 386, 743 

995. 658 

436, 745 

954, 340 

2,571,131 

694. 205 

313,342 

668, 841 

660. 676 

234, 067 

406, 176 

89, 925 

67, 878 

186,831 

2,854 

4,970 

19, 590 

34,128 

990, 613 

21, 052 

145, 932 

8,714 

132,643 

83, 464 

» 258, 771 

129, 701 

158, 686 

51,650 

370, 131 

135] C73 

120, 093 

45, 967 

272, 389 

37,280 

is 76, 057 

29, 551 

is 129, 501 

78, 774 

11,268 

12, 797 

3,795 

25. 932 

7,193 

3.683 

13, 094 

1,012 

469, 431 

101, 260 

65, 982 

302, 189 

8, 567, 738 


-2.5 
-6.2 
+1.1 
(<) 

+5.6 

-2.6 

+5.4 

+2.4 

+27.4 

-7.8 

-2.9 

-.6 

-3.9 

-.2 

+8.5 

-12.5 

-15.5 

-11.2 

+20.7 

-2.0 

+19.3 

+6.2 

+24.9 

+11.1 

+26.4 

+23.2 

+21.8 

+9.5 

+8.7 

+6.6 

+14.2 

+10.1 

-4.8 

+2.2 

-6.5 

-6.4 

+1.7 

+11.2 

-6.6 

-.8 

-12.3 

-5.9 

-7.4 

-19.9 

+26.3 

-2.7 

+5.7 

+8.2 

-6.9 

+6.0 

+ 14.9 

+2.9 


2, 323, 432 

2 1,029,910 

3 420, 854 

5 893, 936 
2, 267, 457 

6 665, 416 
273, 586 

? 623, 821 

•8 490,498 

» 225, 454 

372, 549 

78, 221 

61,661 

170, 442 

io 2, 617 

4,455 

H21,766 

33, 822 

700, 039 

1=21,080 

115,111 

'3 7, 501 

90, 936 

" 62, 536 

16 181, 322 

i' 87, 222 

106, 809 

s 28, 105 


2, 300, 470 

2 968, 822 

3 427, 971 

5 910, 110 
2, 450, 677 

6 661, 398 
295, 336 

i 648, 423 

8 639, 283 

• 214, 276 

370, 056 

80, 280 

59, 797 

173, 669 

io 2, 839 

4,079 

■I 18, 381 

31,361 

889, 829 

12 20, 813 

140, 365 

13 8, 221 

115,567 

u 74, 129 

i' io 238, 847 

1 7 116, 479 

141,864 

« 34, 490 


-1.0 

*— 6. 1 




3+1.7 




* +1.8 


East North Central 


+8.1 
6 -.6 




+7.9 




7 +3. 9 




8 +30. 3 




• -5.0 




-.7 




+2.6 




-3.0 




+1.9 




i» +8. 5 




-8.4 




ii -15.6 




-7.3 




+27.1 




12-1.3 




+21.9 




13 +9. 6 




+27.1 




' 4 +18. 5 


North Carolina 


16+31.7 
17+33.5 




+32.8 




6 +22. 7 




+24.6 




51,499 

97, 866 

75, 690 

18 15,212 


57, 115 

119,456 

96,409 

'8 26, 865 


+ 10.9 




+22.1 




+27.4 




is+76. 6 




+ 14.6 




15, 878 

47, 537 

23, 281 

i* 90, 245 


17, 739 

•5 51,513 

25, 054 

is " 108, 444 


+11.7 




+8.4 




+7.6 




is+20. 2 




-.9 




7,306 
3,215 
20 3, 152 
24, 529 
6,361 
1,090 
12,280 
681 


7,966 
4,562 
20 3, 021 
23,038 
5,244 
1,436 
12, 066 
774 


+9.0 




+41.9 




20 _4. 2 




-5.9 




-17.6 




+31.7 


Utah 


-1.7 




+13.7 




+17.9 




42,878 

24, 855 

= 221,614 

7, 467, 595 


46, 310 

27, 321 

2 265, 156 

7,902,585 


+8.0 




+9.9 




2 +19. 6 


United States 


+5.8 



» Adjusted for comparability; see p. 1309. 

2 Does not exclude clay industry. 

3 Does not exclude cement, clay, lime, and lumber industries. 
< Less than Mo of 1 percent. 

5 Does not exclude doors, etc., metal, and wall-board industries. 

6 Does not exclude cement industry. 

7 Does not exclude cement, clay, and lime industries. 

8 Does not exclude doors, etc., metal and roofing industries. 

» Does not exclude cement, doors, etc., metal, roofing, and wall-board industries, 
io Does not exclude clay, marble, planing-mill, and sheet-metal-work industries. 
■■ Does not exclude cement, lighting equipment, wall-boprd, and window-shade industries. 
12 Does not exclude plumbers' supplies industrj. 

•' Does not exclude clay, doors, etc., metal, wall-board, and window-shade industries, 
u Does not exclude rcofing and wall-board industries. 

» To avoid disclosure, 13 wage earners in 4 plants in the turpentine and rosin industry were not deducted 
in the adjustment for comparability; 2 of the plants are in Louisiana, 1 in North Carolina, and 1 in Texas. 
ie Does not exclude lime and window-shade industries. 

1 7 Does not exclude lime, structural and ornamental metal-work, and window-shade industries. 
» Does not exclude sheet -metal-work, structural and ornamental metal-work, and wall-board industries. 
>» Does not exclude lighting equipmeut and plumbers' supplies industries. 
20 Does not exclude cement and wall-board industries. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4423 



Table 3. — Employment in the motor-vehicle industry, in the United States and in 
Michigan, 1929 to 1937 





Motor vehicles 


Motor-vehicle bodies and 
parts 


Total, motor-vehicle 
industry 


Year 


Number of wage 
earners 


Percent 

in 
Mich- 
igan 


Number of wage 
earners 


Percent 

in 
Mich- 
igan 


Number of wage 
earners 


Percent 




United 

States 


Mich- 
igan 


United 
States 


Mich- 
igan 


United 
States 


Mich- 
igan 


Mich- 
igan 


1929 


226, 116 
134, 866 
97, 869 
147, 044 
194, 527 


108, 796 
64, 077 
59, 725 
83, 988 

121,312 


48.1 
47.5 
61.0 
57.1 
62.4 


221, 332 
150, 649 

145, 745 
240, 757 
284, 814 


105, 572 

88, 952 
91,475 
154,857 
176, 165 


47.7 
59.0 
62.8 
64.3 
61.9 


447, 448 
285, 515 
243, 614 
387, 801 
479, 341 


214, 368 
153, 029 
151,200 

238, 845 
297, 477 


47.9 




53.6 




62.1 




61.6 


1937 


62.1 







Table 4.- — Employment in rubber-tire and inner-tube industry in the United States, 
Ohio, and Akron Industrial Area, 1929 to 1937 





Number of wage earners 


Year 


United 
States 


Ohio 


Akron indus- 
trial area 


1929 


83, 263 
49, 159 
52, 976 
57,128 
63,290 


55, 307 
32, 180 
35, 621 
39, 063 
38, 719 


51, 135 




29,241 




32, 514 




36, 701 




35, 525 







Table 5. — Employment in industries 


making a 


Icoholic beverages, 1937 


State 


Liquors, 
distilled 


Liquors, 
malt 


Rectified 
or blended 


Vinous 




(') 


(') 








376 

(0 
138 


12 




332 

(>) 
0) 


1,611 
298 
421 
0) 
0) 

385 

(') 

32 

2,993 

1,675 

147 

993 

771 


1,713 


























(») 








(') 












'803 


1,443 
1,074 


(') 








0) 




2,070 


238 

55 
(') 
871 
321 

72 
0) 
42 






(') 








672 

107 
(') 
(') 

11 
(') 


1,377 
1,025 
2,526 
1,725 
2,823 
154 
313 
(') 
(') 
1,884 
5,608 
(') 
3,398 
(') 
103 
4,992 
340 
(') 
169 
903 
(') 


(') 








137 




0) 




(') 




















xt. Hamnshire 










79 
169 


484 
236 


66 




647 




(') 




251 


509 


122 






UKianoma 


456 




14 




1,102 

0) 






(') 






















13 












W 52 






\A ;,?;« 


104 
729 
62 

4,038 
0) 
47, 037 








30 


151 












30 












6,215 


7,094 


3,005 











J Withheld to avoid disclosure. 



4424 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Table 6. — Changes in employment in manufacturing industries from 1929 to 1937 

by State 



Industries with increase in employment 



Boots and shoes 

Shipbuilding 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Cotton goods 

Wood, turned and shaped 

Lumber 

Worsted goods 



Number of wage 
earners 



9. %7 
1, 134 
1,140 
9,862 
2,212 
3, 430 
3,956 



13,61)-. 

(' 2 ) 

2,661 
3,774 
4,148 



In- 
crease 



( 2 ) 
449 
338 
192 



Industries with decrease in employment 



Industry 



Pulp 

Planing-mill products 

Paper 

Canning, fish, etc 

Printing and publishing 
newspapers, etc 



Number of wage 



3, 835 
596 



2,393 
1,011 



3, 356 

273 

8, 023 

2,162 

838 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 



Boots and shoes 

Woolen and felt goods 

Wood, turned and shaped- 



11, 544 

i 4, 482 

425 



17,713 
5,153 
1,011 



3,169 
3 671 



Cotton goods 

Worsted goods 

Pulp 

Lumber 

Paper 

Textile machinery 



13, 769 


7,162 


4,046 


683 


2,432 


1,349 


1,982 


1,271 


2,580 


1,974 


1,108 


756 



Woolen and felt goods 

Wood, turned and shaped. 



3, 579 
1,196 



Marble, granite, etc 

Machine tools 

Lumber 

Furniture 



5,287 


3,219 


2,610 


1,700 


2,371 


1,952 


1,147 


944 



MASSACHUSETTS 



Silk and rayon 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing. 
Bread 

Worsted goods 

Paper goods, n. e. c 

Machine-tool 

Shipbuilding 



7,390 


3 12, 345 


3 4, 955 


3 8, 939 


3 13,1931 '4,254 


6,874 


3 10, 713| 3 3, 839 


10, 413 


13, 047 


2,634 


29, 962 


32, 474 


2,512 


4,053 


5,559 


1,506 


3,239 


4,239 


1,000 


3,635 


4,611 


976 



Cotton goods 

Boots and shoes 

Boots and shoes, rubber.. 
Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Motor-vehicle bodies and 

parts 

Carpets and rugs, wool 

Dyeing and finishing . 

Woolen and felt goods 

Cutlery 

Rubber tires and tubes and 

rubber goods, n. e. c 

Paper 

Jewelry 

Confectionery 

Furniture 

Planing-mill products 



70, 788 


42, 464 


55, 093 


46, 720 


11, 163 


6,034 


21, 243 


17,429 


3,393 


552 


4,297 


1,725 


14,450 


12, 150 


16, 574 


14, 287 


3,467 


2,372 


9,764 


7,846 


12, 138 


10, 506 


5,422 


4,018 


7,471 


6,340 


8,598 


7,798 


2,011 


1,317 



RHODE ISLAND 



Rubber goods, n. e. c 

Lace goods 

Silk and rayon 

Beverages, alcoholic. 
Dyeing and finishing 



1,822 


3,290 


1,468 


1,005 


1,782 


777 


7, 589 


( 2 ) 


( 2 ) 





3 340 


3 340 


9,242 


9,440 


198 



Cotton goods... 

Jewelry 

Textile machinery 

Cotton narrow fabrics 
Worsted goods 



21, 833 


( 2 ) 


10, 273 


7,215 


3,711 


2,089 


4,781 


3,783 


21,216 


20, 262 



See footnotes at end of table. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4425 



Table 6. — Changes in employment in manufacturing industries from 1929 to 1937 
by State — Continued 

CONNECTICUT 



Industries with increase in employment 


Industries with decreas* 


in employment 


Industry 


Number of wage 
earners 


Industry 


Number of wage 
earners 


1929 1937 


In- 
crease 


1929 


1937 


De- 
crease 




3, 484 3 7, 146 
3,836 3 6,306 
2, 534 4. 604 


3 3,662 
3 2, 470 
2,070 
1,315 
1,003 
858 
'689 

660 

562 

3 559 

540 

361 
342 




10,501 
17.951 
10,789 
3 5, 275 
2. 452 
6.402 
3,200 
1,031 


'5,408 15,093 










9,062 

3,669 
1,113 
5,642 
2.534 
546 


1,727 
3 1,606 

1,339 
760 
666 
485 




2,592 

864 

6,078 

2,309 

901 

1,676 



1,882 

866 
2,388 


3,907 

1,867 

6.936 

3 2, 998 

1,561 
2,238 
3 559 
2,422 

1,227 
2,730 


Silverware and plated ware. _ 
Cotton narrow fabrics 


Wirework, n. e. e 

Hats, fur-felt 


Dyeing and finishing 

Wire, drawn from pur- 


Rubber goods, n. e. c 

Planing-mill products 


Machine tool accessories 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Stamped ware 

Motor-vehicle bodies and 

parts 

Needles, pins, etc 








NEW 


YORK 





Women's clothing 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Bread 

Steel works and rolling mills 

Artificial flowers 

Paper goods, n. e. c 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Corsets and allied 

Glass 

Oloves, leather. _ 
Buttons 



102.( if 
'734 

33,704 
17,952 
1,664 
3,962 
7,810 
4,702 
3, "" 
5, 
2,468 



13, 432 
3 5,916 
3,565 
2,686 
2,048 
1,883 
1,724 
1,631 
1,599 
1,464 



Electrical machinery, radios 

and phonographs 

Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Men's clothing 

Millinery 

Motor vehicles 

Knit goods 

Cigars and cigarettes 

Printing and publishing, 

book, music, and job 

Furniture 

Silk and rayon 

Motor-vehicle bodies and 

parts 

Planing-mill products 

Boots and shoes 

Nonferrous-metal alloys 

Structural and ornamental 

metal work 

Bookbinding 

Confectionery 

Marble, granite, etc 

Shipbuilding 

Electroplating 

Beverages, nonalcoholic 

Pianos 

Sugar refining, cane 

Sheet-metal work 

Hardware 

Cotton goods 

Ice, manufactured 

Jewelry 



44.279 


32, 982 


11,297 


47.638 


38,620 


9,018 


70, 665 


62. t!7t 


3 7,995 


16. 655 


3 10.608 


16,047 


10.603 


4.621 


5,982 


31.558 


26, 087 


5.471 


8,602 


3,160 


5,442 


32,388 


27,266 


5,122 


25, 220 


20.38C 


4,840 


10.261 


3 5.609 


■4,652 


19.617 


15, 052 


4,565 


7.1171 


3,340 


3.731 


36, 980 


33. 673 


3.307 


13.901 


10,664 


3.237 


6,854 


4,005 


2,849 


10. 126 


7,528 


2,598 


9.602 


7. 10S 


2,494 


4.410 


1,943 


2,467 


10,811 




2,213 


3.189 


1.283 


1,906 




1,788 


1,794 


3,747 


2.071 


1,676 


4,352 


2.930 


1,422 


3. 142 


1,847 


1.295 


3.834 


2 S8 • 


1,245 


5,811 


4.606 


1,205 


2. 554 


1, 392 


1,162 


5.204 


4. ;4>; 


1,058 



See footnotes at end of table. 



U— pt. 11- 



4426 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table 6.- — Changes in employment in manufacturing industries from 1929 to 19S7 
by State — Continued 

NEW JERSEY 



Industries with increase in employment 


Industries with decrease in employment 




Number of wage 
earners 


Industry 


Number of wage 
earners 




1929 


1937 


In- 
crease 


1929 


1937 


De- 
crease 




8,972 
15,074 
7,223 
7,551 
13, 504 
2,945 
7,740 
1,920 
'737 
2,271 
7,293 
1,317 

4^510 
8,056 
1,471 
4,149 


23,572 

3 19,884 
11,096 
10, 708 
16, 198 
5,366 

3^797 
2,513 
3,535 
8,533 
2,508 

2,959 
5,384 
8,915 
2,239 
4,701 


14,600 
3 4,810 
3,873 
3,157 
2,694 
2,421 
2,259 
1,877 
3 1, 776 
1,264 
1,240 
1,191 

971 
874 
859 
768 
552 


Silk and rayon 

Dyeing and finishing 

Foundry and machine-shop 
products 

Electrical machinery, radio, 


21,419 
23,097 

22, 343 

3 42,193 
4,758 

2,763 

3,086 


9,991 
3 13,604 

19,769 

39, 782 
2,961 

1,047 

1,977 


11,428 




> 9, 493 








2,574 


Chemicals, n. e. c 


3 2, 411 


Rubber goods, n. e. c. 




1,797 


Structural and ornamental 




Beverages, alcoholic 


1,716 


Motor-vehicle bodies and 






1,109 


Furs, dressed and dyed 

Wire drawn from purchased 










Steel works and rolling mills. 




Nonferrous-metal alloys 





PENNSYLVANIA 



Steel works and rolling 

mills 

Men's clothing 

Women's clothing 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Bread 

Boots and shoes 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Petroleum refining 

Chemicals, n. e. c 

Asbestos products 

Boxes, paper 



145, 684 


165,952 


20,268 


i 42,041 


3 52,168 


3 10,127 


14, 688 


24,686 


9,998 


302 


6,550 


6,248 


23,960 


27, 978 


4,018 


10,429 


12,942 


2,513 


3,725 


5,801 


2,076 


7,895 


9,390 


1,495 


3,280 


4,691 


1,411 


1,136 


2,436 


1,300 


5,276 


6,279 


1,003 



Silk and rayon 

Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Cigars and cigarettes 

Cotton goods 

Dyeing and finishing 

Motor-vehicle bodies and 

parts... 

Cement 

Carpets and rugs, wool 

Confectionery 

Knit goods 



61,544 


41,203 


55,364 
25, 221 
7,773 
8,858 


47,604 

i 17,571 

3,775 

4,984 


11,678 
7,470 
6,904 
7,469 

62, 141 


9,009 
5,585 
5,326 
6,071 
61, 374 



Stamped ware 

Steel works and rolling mills 
Nonferrous-metal alloys. . . 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Bread 

Glass 

Machine tools 

Boots and shoes 

Men's clothing 

Canning, fruit, etc 



6,959 


14,978 


8,019 


89,123 


95, 530 


6,407 


4, 769 


9,934 


5,165 


i 17 


4,280 


3 4, 263 


13, 567 


17, 661 


4,094 


9,491 


12, 793 


3,302 


11,857 


14, 527 


2,670 


12, 258 


14, 810 


2,552 


3 17,786 


3 18,763 


*977 


2,480 


3,390 


910 



Rubber tires and inner tubes 

Motor vehicles 

Clay 

Structural and ornamental 

metal work 

Foundry and machine-shop 

products 



55,3117 
28, 727 
17,060 

7,464 

61,453 



Steel works and rolling 

mills 

Motor-vehicle bodies and 

parts 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Stamped ware 

Men's clothing 

Petroleum refining 

Bread 

Women's clothing 



29,169 


43,400 


14, 231 


13, 653 


21,281 


7,628 


4,877 


8,460 


3,583 


i 720 


3 3, 552 


3 2, 832 


1,867 


3,479 


1,612 


9,894 


3 11,146 


3 1, 252 


i 5,913 


6,768 


3 855 


5,055 


5,784 


729 


1,524 


3 2, 182 


'658 



Motor vehicles 

Wire, drawn from purchased 

rods 

Furniture 

Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Clay 

Cigars and cigarettes 

Marble, granite, etc _ - 

Planing-mill products 

Heating and cooking ap- 
paratus 

Printing and publishing, 

book, music, and job 

Cars, electric and steam rail- 
road 

Lumber 

Meatpacking 



20,573 


11, 279 


4,881 
18,700 


1,480 
15,406 


26,222 
4,985 
3,238 
3,342 
2,598 


i 23,099 
2,381 
1,346 
1,676 
1,346 


3,002 


2,074 


3,928 


3,052 


5,438 
3,254 
4,976 


2] 503 
4,458 



See footnotes at end of table. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4427 



Table 6. — Changes in employment in manufacturing industries from 1929 to 1937 
by State — Continued 



Industries with increase in employment 



Industries with decrease in employment 



Industry 



Steel works and rolling mills 
Agricultural implements, 

engines, tractors, etc 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Bread 

Canning, fruit, etc. — 

Lithographing ._. 

Women's clothing 

Nonferrous-metal alloys 

Boots and shoes 

Wirework, n. e. c 

Heating and cooking ap- 
paratus 

Tin cans and other tinware. _ 

Rubber goods, n. e. c 

Machine tools 

Boxes, paper 

Chemicals, n. e. c 

Stamped ware 

Leather 

Screw-machine products 

Motor-vehicle bodies and 
parts 



Number of wage 
earners 



30, 416 

36, 16' 
W20 

16, 
4,475 
2,501 

13, 802 
5,406 

14.725 



17, 065 
6, 085 
1,496 
3,653 
5," 
3,626 
4,760 
3,661 
2,707 

5,273 
4, 



41,426 

41, 193 

3 5,474 
20,013 

7,270 

4,702 
3 15,971 

7,447 
16, 662 

3,629 

18, 704 
7,551 
2,788 
4, 

6,358 
4,541 
5, 652 
4,480 
3,482 

5, 
5,177 



In- 
crease 



11,010 

5,026 
3 4, 754 
3,084 
2,795 
2,201 
3 2, 169 
2,011 
1,937 
1,640 

1,639 

1,466 

1,292 

1,186 

976 

915 

892 

819 

775 

531 
519 



Industry 



Electrical machinery, radios 

and phonographs 

Furniture 

Men's clothing 

Meatpacking 

Clay. 

Planing-mill products 

Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Printing and publishing: 
Book, music, and job_._ 

Newspapers, etc 

Lighting equipment 

Signs and advertising novel- 
ties 

Ice, manufactured 



Number of wage 
earners 



57, 646 
23, 767 
25, 256 
29, 
6,506 
6,179 

45,064 

26, 425 
11, 
4,592 

3,321 

1,879 



MICHIGAN 



Motor-vehicle bodies and 

parts 

Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Steel work and rolling mills- 

Motor vehicles 

Refrigerators 

Hardware 

Wirework, n. e. c 

Machine-tool accessories 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Printing and publishing, 

newspapers, etc 

Chemicals, n. e. c 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Bread 

Sugar, beet 

Women's clothing 

Machine tools 

Heating and cooking ap- 
paratus 

Leather 



105, 572 


176, 165 


70, 593 


42, 492 


60, 504 


18,012 


4,724 


21,024 


16, 300 


10S.796 


121,312 


12,516 


3,942 


10, 165 


6,223 


10, 077 


15, 948 


5,871 


6,162 


11,015 


4,853 


9,010 


11,773 


2,763 





3 2, 735 


3 2, 735 


3,950 


5,545 


1,595 


5,414 


6,891 


1,477 


2,617 


3,956 


1,339 


9,349 


10,483 


1,134 


619 


U330 


711 


1,420 


3 2, 124 


3 704 


1,554 


2,246 


692 


6,131 


6,661 


530 


2,070 


2,569 


499 



Agricultural implements, 

engines, tractors, etc 

Furniture 

Cigars and cigarettes 

Planing-mill products 

Electrical machinery, radios 

and phonographs. -. 

Aircraft 

Printing and publishing, 

book, music, and job 

Lighting equipment 

Nonferrous-metal alloys 

Screw-machine products 



3 8, 951 


2,680 


20, 941 


14, 851 


4,073 


2,334 


3,784 


2,121 


3 8, 196 


6,782 


1,510 


284 


6,074 


4,904 


2,010 


1,120 


10, 219 


9,561 


3,418 


2,826 



WISCONSIN 



Agricultural implements, 

engines, tractors, etc 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Paper 

Electric machinery, radios, 

and phonographs 

Forgings 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Heating and cooking appa- 
ratus 

Leather 

Bread 



14, 932 


22, 699 


7,767 





4,068 


4,068 


9,741 


11, 157 


1,416 


7,845 


9,127 


1,282 


628 


1,582 


954 


5,290 


6,171 


881 


3,016 


3,671 


655 


3,791 


3 4, 307 


'516 


4,758 


5,138 


380 



Lumber 

Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Motor vehicles 

Knit goods 

Furniture - 

Steel works and rolling mills 

Planing-mill products 

Boxes, wooden 

Structural and ornamental 

metal work 

Pulp 

Aluminum 



14, 489 


8,102 


24, 207 


18, 688 


10, 241 


5,675 


11,118 


3 8, 837 


8,714 


6,574 


5,248 


3,855 


5,283 


4,519 


2,027 


1,314 


1,570 


942 


3,446 


3,069 


3.921 


3,578 



See footnotes at end of table. 



4428 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Table 6. — Changes in employment in manufacturing industries from 1929 to 1981 
by State — Continued 

MINNESOTA 



Industries with increase in employment 


Industries with decrease in employment 




Number of wage 
earners 


Industry 


Number of wage 
earners 




1929 


1937 


In- 
crease 


1929 


1937 


De- 
crease 


Beverages, alcoholic 



1,160 
6,936 
1,767 

i 2, 148 

2,994 

447 
3,891 


3 1, 725 
2,778 
8,537 
2,470 

2,785 

3, 566 

819 
4,079 


3 1, 725 

1,618 

1,601 

703 

3 637 

572 

372 

188 




4,412 

1,915 
3,535 

5,820 
2,052 
1,781 
1,047 


2,437 

386 
2,373 

4,768 
1,241 
1,214 


1 , 975 


Signs and advertising novel- 






1,529 


IlMlJIdl |. -- 




1,162 


Heating and cooking appa- 


Foundry and machine-shop 


1,052 


Printing and publishing, 




811 




567 


Motor-vehicle bodies and 




642 405- 






Bread 













8,663 
3,516 
1,820 
3,525 


9.521 
4,257 
2,174 
3,831 


858 
741 
354 
306 




1,552 

3 1, 469 

371 
307 


1,006 

1,023 

188 
54 


516 




Printing and publishing, 

book, music, and job 

Motor-vehicle bodies and 






3 446 


Planing-mill products 


183 




Cigars and cigarettes... 


253 



Beverages, alcoholic 

Electrical machinery, ra- 
dios, and phonographs 

Men's clothing 

Boots and shoes 

Steel works and rolling mills. 

Paper goods, n. e. c 

Cars, electric and steam rail- 
road 

Stamped ware 

Women's clothing 






3 2, 876 


3 2, 876 


7, 225 


9,560 


2,335 


1 12,872 


3 14,371 


3 1,409 


24, 9113 


26,110 


1,207 


3,406 


4,467 


1,061 


147 


1,144 


997 


2,881 


3,487 


606 


781 


1,203 


422 


6,903 


3 7,201 


3 298 



Heating and cooking appa- 
ratus.. 

Clay 

Boxes, wooden 

Millinery 

Motor vehicles 

Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Motor-vehicle bodies and 

parts 

Confectionery 

Meat packing 

Cement 

Planing-mill products 

Printing and publishing, 

book, music, and job 

Ice, manufactured 

Marble, granite, etc 

Printing and publishing, 

newspapers, etc 



13,460 


1,863 


4,856 


3,822 


1,337 


318 


2,042 


1,118 


6,086 


5,246 


8,607 


7,773 


4,220 


3,404 


2,847 


2,073 


5,614 


5,066 


1,764 


1,223 


1,755 


1,270 


3 5,354 


4,895 


1,150 


739 


819 


441 


4,284 


3,972 







SOUTH DAKOTA 


















852 
731 


500 
628 


352 






103 









Beverages, alcoholic . 
Bread 



NEBRASKA 





1.912 



3131 
2,154 



Meat packing 

Printing and publishing: 

Newspapers, etc 

Book, music, and job 

Confectionery 



See footnotes at end of table. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4429 



Table 6. — Changes in employment in manufacturing industries from 1929 to 1937 
by State — Continued 



Industries with increase in employment 


Industries with decrease in employment 


Industry 


Number of wage 
earners 


Industry 


Number of wage 
earners 


1929 


1937 


In- 
crease 


1929 


1937 


De- 
crease 




3,113 
1,791 


3,335 
1,900 


222 
109 




9,068 

1,101 

1,176 

913 

565 


8,049 
513 
754 
510 

360 


1,019 




Clay . 












403 




Planing-mill products 


205 



DELAWARE 





1,414 


1,758 


344 




1,239 
585 


456 
360 


783 




Paper _ 


225 



MARYLAND 



Steel works and rolling mills 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Shipbuilding 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Men's clothing 

Bread 

Paper 

Boots and shoes 



13,956 


18, 242 


3 4,286 


6,059 


9,138 


3,079 


2,312 


4,666 


2,354 


i 720 3 2, 920 


3 2,200 


17,856,3 19,233 


3 1, 377 


3,452 4,552 


1,100 


1,240! 1,914 


674 


2,239 


2,637 


398 



Furniture 

Foundry and machine-shop 

products _ 

i Confectionery 



2,409 



4,735 
1,187 



S42 
528 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 



Printing and publishing, 

newspapers, etc 

Bread 



1,338 
1, 346 



1,762 
1,729 ; 



Planing-mill products. 



Cotton goods 

Men's clothing 

Furniture 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Knit goods -. 

Silk and rayon 

Lumber 

Shipbuilding 

Dyeing and finishing.. 
Planing-mill products. 

Bread 

Paper 

Pulp 



7,672 


12, 001 


4,329 


i 4, 895 


3 8,900 


3 4, 005 


6,285 


8,504 


2,219 


1,712 


3,578 


1,866 


3,125 


« 4, 893 


3 1,768 


2,249 


3 3, 318 


3 1, 069 


8,720 


9,629 


909 


6,760 


7,464 


704 


1701 


3 1, 378 


3 677 


1,847 


2,429 


582 


1,709 


2,202 


493 


1,935 


2,423 


488 


1,553 


1,823 


270 



Boxes, wooden. 



WEST VIRGINIA 



Chemicals, n. e. c 

Steel works and rolling mills. 



-lamped ware 

Bread 

Pottery 

Woolen and felt goods. 



1,968 


4,866 


2,898 


12,93(1 


14, 674 


1,738 


11, 123 


12,763 


1,640 


1,346 


2,372 


1,026 


1,449 


1,944 


495 i 


5,683 


6,083 


400 | 


779 


1,032 


253 I 



Lumber.. 

Planing-mill products 



5,538 
417 



See footnotes at end of table. 



4430 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table 6. — Changes in employment in manufacturing industries from 1929 to 1931 
by State — Continued 

NORTH CAROLINA 



Industries with increase in employment 



Knit goods. _. 
Cotton goods. 
Silk and rayon 
Dyeing and " 
Cigars and cigarettes 

Furniture 

Bread 

Men's clothing 

Paper 



Number of wage 



22,9311 

!ll,M4 

2,922 

2,363 

13, 778 

15, 609 

1,249 

'3,234 

425 



In- 
crease 



14, 953 
12,314 
10, 342 

6, 102 
3 2,643 

1,180 



Industries with decrease in employment 



| Number of wage 



Industry 



Lumber 

Ice, manufactured. 



17, 364 
1,197 



De- 
crease 



SOUTH CAROLINA 





71, 731 
1,939 

77 


81,002 

3 6, 979 

1,094 


9,271 

3 5,040 

1,017 




15, 720 


11, 015 


4, 705 


Dyeing and finishing 

Furniture 







Cotton goods 

Knit goods 

Men's clothing 

Woolen and felt goods 

Boxes, wooden 

Bread 

Cottonseed oil 

Dyeing and finishing. 



55, 868 


69, 735 


13, 867 


6,018 


9,419 


3,401 


i 3, 758 


3 6, 528 


3 2, 770 


i 1, 182 


2,441 


1,259 


1,231 


2,164 


933 


1,906 


2,657 


751 


1,519 


2,240 


721 


1,145 


1,582 


437 



Lumber 

Planning-mill products 
Marble, granite, etc 



15, 454 
2,788 
2,303 



10, 665 
1,842 
1,473 



Canning, fruit, etc 


1,735 

1,030 

1,724 



1,084 
188 


4,372 

2,767 
2,520 
3 385 
1,318 
290 


2,637 

1,737 

796 

3 385 

234 

202 


Cigars and cigarettes 


12, 072 
17, 438 
1,461 


9,9% 

15, 400 

650 


2,076 
2,038 






811 


Beverages, alcoholic 

Fertilizer 











KENTUCKY 



Beverages, alcoholic 

C igars and cigarettes 

Steel works and rolling mills. 

Bread 

Meat packing 

Wood, turned 

Furniture 

Knit goods 



'720 


3,301 


3 2, 581 


2,284 


3,446 


1,162 


5,358 


6,490 


1,132 


1,620 


2,262 


642 


892 


1,254 


362 


51 


367 


316 


2,890 


3,205 


315 


1,195 


1,496 


301 



Lumber 

Boots and shoes 

Printing and publishing 
newspapers, etc 



4,604 


3,461 


2,438 


1,407 


1,540 


1,097 



1,143 
1,031 



TENNESSEE 



Men's clothing.. 

Knit goods 

Heating and cooking ap- 
paratus 

Boots and shoes 

Wood, turned 

Rayon and allied products. 

Chemicals, n. e. c 

Bread 

Cotton goods 

Pulp 

Paper 



3,588 


17,839 


3 2, 771 


2,116 


1,222 


7,537 


1,360 


2,124 


7,544 


477 


466 



736 


3 6, 148 


956 


3 3, 117 


427 


i 2, 656 


(CI 


2,348 


ML' 


2,320 


.•-,vj 


2,045 


051 


1,691 


NIC 


722 


SSI 


340 


762 


285 


569 


103 



Motor-vehicle bodies 

parts 

Lumber 

Planning-mill product 



3,419 
10, 304 
3,701 



3,138 



3,327 

3,212 

563 



See footnotes at end of table. 



Table 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4431 

-Changes in employment in manufacturing industries from 1929 to 1937 
by State — Continued 



Industries with increase in employment 


Industries with decrease in employment 




Number of wage 
earners 


Industry 


Number of wage 
earners 




1929 


1937 


In- 
crease 


1929 


1937 


De- 
crease 




27, 724 
9,253 
2,607 
988 
1,513 
1,606 
1710 
1450 


37,667 

11,242 

3 3, 734 

1,652 

1,950 

2,041 

982 

665 


9,943 

3 1,' 127 

664 

437 

435 

3 272 

3 215 




25, 954 
9,335 
2,398 
1,982 


17,293 
8,316 
1,831 
1,418 


8,661 


Steel works and rolling mills. 




1,019 


Blast-furnace products . 

Planing-mill products 


567 




564 






Coke-oven products 













MISSISSIPPI 



Men's clothing 

Canning, fish, etc. 

Cotton goods 

Wood distillation.. 

Boxes, wooden 

Cottonseed oil 

Canning, fruit, etc 



1 2, 395 


3 6, 257 


3 3, 862 




636 


2,211 


1,575 




2,342 


3,031 


689 




449 


884 


435 




560 


931 


371 




2,080 


2,329 


249 




387 


578 


191 





30,747 17,045 13,702 



AKKANSAS 



Canning, fruit, etc 

Wood, turned 

Furniture 

Cotton goods. 



1,347 
547 

1,551 
617 



2,315 
1,103 



LOUISIANA 



Sugar, cane 

Canning, fish, etc... 
Sugar refining, cane. 

Pulp 

Paper 

Chemicals, n. e. c.__ 
Beverages, alcoholic 
Canning, fruit, etc.. 



2,319 


14,221 


1 1,902 


1,402 


2,530 


1,128 


2,223 


3,181 


958 


996 


1, 793 


797 


1,150 


1,942 


792 


U47 


821 


3 674 


342 


3 826 


3 484 


415 


720 


305 



Lumber 

Petroleum refining. 




OKLAHOMA 



Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Butter 

Meatpacking 

Bread 

Flour 

Petroleum refining 



1,973 


3 2,547 


3 574 


257 


635 


378 


1 1,857 


2,198 


»341 


1,706 


2,016 


310 


746 


934 


188 


5,164 


5,310 


146 



Lumber. 
Clay— . 



2,162 
301 



Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Petroleum refining 

Shipbuilding 

Men's clothing 

Bread 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Cotton goods 

Bone black ... 

Flour 



8, $22 

597 

19, 434 

579 

3,941 

5,137 


4,649 
842 

1,326 



3 11,545 
3,284 
21,017 
2,075 

3 5, 156 



5, 538 
1,554 
1,770 



3,123 
2,687 
1, 583 
1, 496 
1,215 
1,186 
916 



Lumber 

Ice, manufactured 
Clay... 



16, 387 
2,946 
2,244 



13, 117 

1,688 
1,588 



3,270 
'656 



See footnotes at end of table. 



4432 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Table 6. — Changes in employment in manufacturing industries from 1929 to 1937 
by State — Continued 



MONTANA 



Industries with increase in employment 


Industries with decrease in employment 




Number of wage 
earners 


Industry 


Number of wage 
earners 




1929 


1937 


In- 
crease 


1929 


1937 


De- 
crease 




356 
168 

394 


689 
430 

614 


333 
262 

220 




3.501 


2,810 


691 








Printing and publishing, 









Canning, fruit, etc 
Bread. _ 



222 374 152 Lumber 

267 408 141 



11,228 



Petroleum refining. 



1,169 



COLORADO 



Foundry and machine-shop 
products 


1,036 

1,497 




3 1, 782 
1,934 
3 299 
1,915 


3 746 
437 

3 299 
226 




1,219 

1,034 
508 

1,121 


795 

691 
279 

975 


424 


Printing and publishing, 
book, music, and job 


343 


Beverages, alcoholic ... 


229 


Printing and publishing, 






146 









NEW MEXICO 



Lumber. 
Bread . . . 



1,549 
177 



Smelting and refining cop- 
per -. 

Lumber 

Ice, manufactured 



3,711 
2,084 



2. 262 

1,527 

231 



Sugar, beet r 


691 


851 


160 




431 
1,859 
1,468 


295 
1,732 
1,370 


136 


Canning, fruit, etc 

Smelting and refining, lead.. 


127 
98 



WASHINGTON 



Pulp 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Paper ... 

Planing-mill products 

Feeds, prepared foranimt.ls 

and fowls 

Bread 

Furniture 

Meatpacking 



2,394 


4,318 


1,924 


3,720 


4,910 


1,190 





910 


910 


2,774 


3,345 


571 


3,600 


4,169 


569 


410 


632 


222 


2,607 


2,827 


220 


1,632 


1,814 


212 


1,283 


1,424 


141 



Lumber 

Clay 

Canning, fish, etc. 



S, 570 
1.066 
1, 122 



footnotes at end of table. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4433 



Table 6. — Changes in employment in manufacturing industries from 1929 to 1937 
by State — Continued 



Industries with increase in employment 



Industry 



Lumber 

Paper 

Canning, fruit, etc. 

Pulp 

Furniture 

Bread 



Number of wage 
earners 



■M. s:;2 
1,115 
4,101 
734 
2,095 
1,647 



::<>. n in 
2, 
4, 
1,236 
2, 222 
1, 



In- 
crease 



Industries with decrease in employment 



Industry 



Printing and publishing, 
book, music, and job 



Number of wage 
earners 



CALIFORNIA 



Aircraft 

Canning, fruit, etc 

Beverages, alcoholic 

Women 's clothing 

Canning, fish, etc 

Bread 

Motor vehicles 

Heating and cooking appa- 
ratus 

Meat packing 

Printing and publishing, 

newspapers, etc 

Chemicals, n. e. c 

Structural and ornamental 

metal work 

Glass 

Motor-vehicle bodies and 

parts 

Petroleum refining _ 

Men's clothing 

Pottery 

Knit goods 

Steel works and rolling 

mills 

Paper 



1,277 


11,520 


10, 243 


28,186 


34, 055 


5,869 


265 


4,032 


3,767 


7,165 


3 9, 697 


3 2, 532 


4,319 


6,499 


2,180 


11, 395 


13,519 


2,124 


5,443 


7,229 


1,786 


1 1, 899 


3,586 


3 1, 687 


3,858 


5,413 


1,555 


6,876 


8,359 


1,483 


2,152 


3,225 


1,073 


1,973 


2,977 


1,004 


1,526 


2,444 


918 


2,170 


3,048 


878 


8,133 


8,858 


725 


> 5, 759 


3 6, 404 


3 645 


1,068 


1,568 


500 


1,834 


2,290 


456 


6,616 


7,055 


439 


1,763 


2,181 


418 



Lumber 

Agricultural implements, 

engines, tractors, etc 

Millinery 

Foundry and machine-shop 

products 

Clay - 

Planing-mill products 



3,621 
2, 702 



17, 
4, 
7,159 



1, 300 
1,100 

15,647 

3 3, 455 

5,769 



3,845 
2,324 



■ Indicates that the actual employment figure or actual change is less than the indicated number. 

2 Withheld to avoid disclosure. . 

3 Indicates that the actual employment figure or actual change is greater than the indicated number. 
Indicates an approximate employment change, when employment for 1929 and 1937 is give approxi- 



mately. 



TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS— Resumed 



Mr. Hinrichs. There were a few industries which showed outstand- 
ing growth in number of wage-earners. Of these the following may 
by cited: Alcoholic beverages, 62,000; synthetic resins and plastics 
about 13,500; canning, 43,000; stamped and enameledware, 21,000; 
rayon, 16,000; aircraft, 9,000; asbestos products, 5,000; blast furnaces, 
steel works, and rolling mills, 83,000; baking, 38,000; men's clothing, 
26,000; shirts and collars, 10,000; women's clothing, 55,000; converted 
paper products, 26,000; chemicals, 17,000; glass, 11,500; rubber goods 
other than tires and boots and shoes, 8,000; leather products other 
than boots and shoes, 7,000; cigarettes, 5,000; knit goods, 22,500; 
shipbuilding, 7,000; paper boxes, 10,000; electric refrigerators in the 
neighborhood of 13,500. The net increase of 83,000 in the steel 
figure does not take into account an estimated loss within this industry 
of 30,000 workers making structural shapes, concrete reinforcing 
bars, and nails. 



4434 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



DECLINES IN MANUFACTURING 

In contrast there were a few manufacturing industries which showed 
a decline in the employment over the period. They were: Cigars, 
28,000; tires and tubes, 20,000; silk and rayon, 13,500; manufactured 
ice, 13,500; confectionery and ice cream, 13,500; wooden boxes, 
4,500; furniture and wood turning, 19,000; rubber boots and shoes, 
7,300; men's and women's hats and millinery, 7,100; silverware, 
plated ware, and jewelry, 6,800; cotton textiles, 5,700. In addition 
to these industries there was a serious depression in the construction 
industry, for example, and in the industries engaged in the manufacture 
of building materials. 

Since there is a substantial degree of geographical concentration in 
the various manufacturing industries, these differing trends in em- 
ployment by industries reflected themselves in differences in the 
geographical trends of manufacturing employment. Other factors 
contributed, for in some industries, such as the cotton textile industry, 
that snowed little change in aggregate employment, there were geo- 
graphical shifts. 

Between 1929 and 1937, as regards geographical trends, there was a 
general increase in manufacturing employment in three areas— in the 
southeastern and southwestern States, stretching from Maryland to 
Texas (with the exceptions of Mississippi, Arkansas, and Louisiana, 
where decreases were the result of low activity in industries making 
building materials) ; on the Pacific coast ; and in Michigan and the 
industrial areas surrounding this center of the automobile industry. 

These underlying trends have continued in recent years except for 
a rather fundamental recovery in the construction industry. I am 
submitting for the further consideration of the committee a table 
showing by States the total nonagricultural employment by months 
from the middle of 1937 to date. 

(The table above referred to is as follows:) 

Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by States 

Estimated number of employees in nonagricultural business and Government establishments, not includ- 
ing self-employed persons, casual workers or domestic servants, and exclusive of military and maritime 
personnel, by months from July 1937 to date. These figures supersede those previously published. 

[In thousands] 





Alabama 


Arizona 


Arkansas 


California 


Colorado 


Connec- 
ticut 


Delaware 


1937 
July .. 


366 
365 
370 
366 
353 
354 


95 
95 
96 
95 
92 
90 


180 
182 
185 
184 
176 
174 


1,804 
1,827 
1,819 
1,773 
1,716 
1,698 


235 
236 
238 
237 
228 
223 


572 
578 
581 
576 
560 
543 


71 




75 




75 




70 




66 


December 


65 


1938 


338 
338 
338 
339 
333 
325 
321 
330 
341 
343 
341 
344 


84 
84 
82 
84 
83 
84 
81 
80 
83 
84 
87 
88 


164 
166 
163 
162 
162 
165 
169 
171 
178 
178 
176 
176 


1,611 
1,606 
1,606 
1,634 
1,620 
1,639 
1,646 
1,685 
1,691 
1,662 
1,645 
1,658 


208 
203 
203 
207 
206 
210 
213 
214 
216 
217 
213 
211 


509 
501 
497 
496 
493 
485 
486 
497 
506 
513 
517 
523 


61 




60 




60 




60 




60 




60 


July 


61 




64 




63 




61 




60 




61 






Average... 


336 


84 


169 


1,642 


210 


502 


61 
















_ 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by States — Continued 
[In thousands] 



4435 



1939 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 

1940 

January 

February __. 

March.. 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 

1941 
January 



Arizona ; Arkansas 



l.oos 
1,616 
1,621 
1,654 
1,671 

i!:o8 

1,749 
1,748 
1,730 
1,686 
1,702 



1, 640 
1,652 

1,' 705 

1,721 
1,735 
1,804 
1,800 
1,809 
1,793 
1,844 



Connec- 
ticut 



District 
of Co- 
lombia 



Florida 



Georgia 



1937 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November. - 

December 

1938 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June... 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 

1939 

January 

February 

March 

April. 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 



2. 269 
2.2S4 
2,300 
2, 264 
2, 208 
2,174 



2, or,;-) 

2,054 
2,040 
2.038 
2,000 
1,988 
1,984 
2,003 
2,033 
2,047 
2,046 
2,077 



2,032 



2,112* 
2,039 
2.065 
2,091 
2,114 
2,126 
2,126 
2, 150 
2,184 
2,219 
2,221 
2,226 



2,132 



4436 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Employees in nonagri cultural establishments, by States — Continued 
[In thousands] 





District 
of Co- 
lumbia 


Florida 


Georgia 


l 
Idaho 


Illinois 


Indiana 


Iowa 


1940 


321 
319 
325 
329 
334 
338 
344 
350 
356 
362 
364 
374 

343 


374 
377 
375 
356 
337 
326 
323 
338 
359 
380 
404 
429 

365 


460 
460 
469 
467 
465 
463 
461 
467 
476 
496 
503 
514 

475 


78 
76 
78 
80 
83 
85 
86 

90 
88 
87 
86 

84 


2,153 
2,152 
2,167 
2,173 
2,201 
2,219 
2,227 
2,255 
2,278 
2,306 
2,311 
2,361 


739 
738 
739 
739 
749 
767 
757 
786 
814 
818 
816 
836 


386 




380 




383 




388 




396 




403 


July 


400 




409 




416 




411 




406 




409 






Average...- 


2,234 


775 


399 


1941 


386 


424 


500 


81 


2,285 


803 


396 








Kansas 


Ken- 
tucky 


Louisi- 
ana 


Maine 


Mary- 
land 


Massa- 
chusetts 


Michi- 
gan 


1937 
July 


312 
311 
311 
307 
301 
296 


371 
373 
378 
371 
365 
358 


344 
352 
355 
360 
357 
356 


201 
205 
198 
185 
176 
174 


492 
502 
505 

485 
471 
459 


1,345 
1,350 
1,345 
1,326 
1,276 
1,251 


1.44s 




1,424 




1,423 




1,476 




1,446 


Decern ber _ 


1, 357 


1938 


286 
282 
282 
288 
289 
289 
291 
290 
293 
292 

288 


348 
345 
341 

334 
337 
340 
344 
348 
344 
347 
352 


337 
335 
334 
335 
335 
334 
337 
339 
350 
359 
358 
357 


169 
170 
167 
167 
174 
177 
186 
190 
187 
181 
177 
180 


435 
438 
441 
447 
448 
448 
446 
458 
460 
450 
453 
457 


1,197 
1,190 
1,181 
1,185 
1,178 
1,169 
1,179 
1,211 
1,233 
1,243 
1,245 
1,266 


1,210 




1,191 




1,180 




1,162 




1,142 




1,110 


July. 


1,080 




1,071 




1,152 




1,208 




1,264 


December 


1,292 


Average 


288 

277 
275 
277 
284 
289 
289 
288 
288 
291 
297 
295 
292 


343 

342 
340 
338 
310 
319 
346 
349 
351 
360 
367 
367 
372 


342 


177 


448 


1,206 


1,172 


1939 


350 
348 
353 
353 
353 
357 
357 
365 
371 
380 
381 
382 


176 
177 
175 
178 
183 
192 
197 
199 
199 
191 
187 
187 


439 
445 
458 
464 
469 
474 
478 
472 
494 
494 
496 
499 


1,231 
1,237 
1,242 
1,243 
1,251 
1,259 
1,268 
1,276 
1,293 
1,315 
1,316 
1,324 


1,257 




1,256 




1,263 




1,273 




1,257 




1,258 


Julv 


1,219 




1,208 




1,327 




1.352 




1,331 


December 


1,391 


Average 


287 


347 


362 


187 


474 


1,271 


1,283 


1940 


275 
274 
280 
285 
291 
293 
293 
293 
296 
307 


354 
352 
352 
350 
354 
357 
356 
358 
363 
367 


359 
355 
363 
358 
357 
354 
353 
360 
373 
403 


182 
180 
178 
180 
184 
185 
193 
198 
200 
187 


479 
474 
482 
486 
491 
499 
507 
518 
529 
529 


1,284 
1,282 
1,770 

1,259 
1,265 
1,277 
1,303 
1,321 
1,349 
1,382 


1,335 


February 


l! 340 


April 


1,339 




1,348 




1,341 


July 


1,283 




1,319 




1,420 


October 


1,467 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Employees in nonagricuitural establishments, by States — Continued 
[In thousands] 



4437 





Kansas 


Ken- 
tucky 


Louisi- 
ana 


Maine 


Mary- 
land 


Massa- 
chusetts 


Michi- 
gan 


1940 


312 
319 


365 
377 


435 
442 


185 
188 


540 
553 


1,410 
1,445 


1,483 




1,508 








293 


359 


376 


187 


507 


1,321 








1941 


308 


370 


425 


185 


544 


1, 406 


1,467 









Minne- 
sota 


Missis- 
sippi 


Missouri 


Mon- 
tana 


Ne- 
braska 


Nevada 


New 
Hamp- 
shire 


1937 


536 
544 
544 
533 
515 
506 


188 
186 
192 

184 
177 


795 
794 
795 
788 
768 
762 


124 
122 
120 
119 
112 
106 


211 
210 
210 
209 
203 
200 


31 
32 
32 
31 
30 
29 


134 




136 




134 




126 




119 




119 






1938 


475 
470 
473 
488 
490 
496 
504 
509 
512 
501 
497 
498 


167 
167 
169 
168 
164 
166 
170 
173 
179 
177 
173 
174 


727 
728 
734 
738 
729 
726 
732 
736 
747 
744 
741 
752 


100 
97 
96 
99 
100 
99 
101 
102 
102 
104 
105 
105 


192 
188 
188 
191 
193 
195 
196 
196 
200 
200 
197 
195 


27 
26 
26 
27 
28 
28 
29 
29 
29 
28 
28 
28 


118 




118 




117 




118 




120 




121 


July --- 


125 




130 




131 




127 




122 




124 








493 


171 


736 


101 


194 


28 


123 






1939 


475 
475 
481 
497 
512 
525 
529 
535 
542 
535 
529 
529 


170 
173 
175 
177 
175 
179 
182 
186 
191 
194 
189 
186 


731 
733 
740 

747 
747 
755 
760 
757 
775 
774 
767 
777 


102 
100 
100 
104 
108 
111 
113 
115 
114 
116 
115 
113 


188 
187 
190 
194 
199 
202 
202 
202 
205 
206 
201 
198 


27 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
32 
32 
32 
32 
31 


124 




124 




122 




121 




123 




126 


July 


131 




132 




132 




129 




128 




127 








514 


181 


755 


109 


198 


30 


127 


1940 


496 
487 
493 
501 
516 
527 
533 
536 
546 
536 
536 
537 


171 

174 
178 
179 
178 
176 
177 
177 
183 
196 
199 
204 


743 
742 
756 
756 
760 
764 
758 
759 
779 
782 
778 
795 


105 
103 
105 
107 
110 
114 
115 
116 
115 
115 
114 
113 


189 
187 
190 
193 
198 
201 
201 
200 
201 
203 
199 
201 


30 
29 
30 
31 
33 
33 
34 
34 
35 
34 
33 
33 


123 




123 




120 




121 




124 




127 


July 


134 




135 




135 


October 

November 


131 
130 
133 






Average 


520 


183 


764 


111 


197 


32 


128 


1941 
January _ 


509 


199 


767 


110 


192 


32 


130 



4438 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Employees in nonagriculiural establishments, by States — Continued 
[In thousands] 



1937 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1938 

January 

February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August... 

September _. 

October 

November 

December 

Average 

1939 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June. 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 

1940 

January. 

February 

March 

April 

May... 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November... 

December... 

Average 

1941 
January 



New New 

Jersey Mexico 



1,144 
1,151 
1,150 
1,134 
1,114 
1.09S 



1,038 
1,037 
1,034 
1,043 
1,033 
1,034 
1,035 
1,051 
1, 062 
1,051 
1,054 
1,064 



1,045 



1.03S 
1,046 
1,059 
1,067 
1,078 
1,093 
1,089 
1,105 
1.126 
1,141 
1,145 
1,149 



New North North 
York Carolina Dakota 



3. 966 
4,007 
4,076 
4, 037 
3, 933 
3,883 



3.671 

3,681 



3,642 
3,635 
3, 689 
3,784 
3,770 
3,739 
3,779 



3,672 

3, 686 
3,728 
3,772 
3,793 
3,818 
3,798 
3,822 
3,908 
3,911 
3, 896 
3, 928 



3,811 



3,780 
3,777 
3,801 
3,787 
3,838 
3,863 
3, 839 
3,881 
3,943 
3,944 
3,9,54 
4,011 



Okla- 
homa 



1,879 
1,879 
1,899 
1,892 
1,820 
1,775 



1,634 
1,616 
1, 606 
1,608 
1,576 
1,561 
1,551 
1,570 
1,607 
1,617 
1,627 
1,658 



1,603 
1,609 
1,633 
1,633 
1,647 
1,677 
1,674 
1,690 
1,737 
1,768 
1,772 
1,789 



1, 706 
1,700 
1,709 
1,705 
1,724 
1,749 
1,750 
1,775 
1,809 
1,835 
1,840 



1,765 



318 
316 
315 
312 
307 



294 
290 
289 
291 
291 
291 
291 
289 
291 



294 
295 
291 
295 
294 
293 
292 



287 
288- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4439 

Employees in nonagriculture establishments, by States — Continued 
[In thousands] 





Oregon 


Penn- 
sylvania 


Rhode 
Island 


South 
Carolina 


South 
Dakota 


Tennessee 


Texas 


1937 
July . 


251 
251 
255 
240 
220 
211 


2,794 
2,800 
2,837 
2,834 
2,759 
2,688 


231 
231 
229 
226 
217 
212 


271 
272 
273 
271 
267 
265 


85 
84 
83 
83 
81 
79 


437 
441 
444 
439 
425 
420 






1,006 












December 


994 


1938 


200 
197 
204 
207 
211 
219 
219 
225 
232 
217 
213 
211 


2,500 
2,467 
2,463 
2,466 
2,421 
2,399 
2,370 
2,386 
2,450 
2,505 
2,516 
2,534 


199 
199 
198 
199 
200 
198 
202 
206 
213 
219 
224 
228 


258 
256 
259 
260 
246 
249 
254 
257 
260 
?61 
261 
263 


76 
74 
74 
76 

79 
81 
80 
81 
81 
80 
80 


397 
395 
397 
402 
400 
399 
396 
405 
413 
412 
416 
420 






















945 


July 










951 




967 




953 












213 


2,456 


207 


257 


78 


404 


953 






1939 


207 
206 
210 
215 
222 
231 
233 
237 
246 
237 
234 
229 


2,434 
2,451 
2,459 
2,379 
2,423 
2,498 
2,491 
2,512 
2,552 
2,658 
2,684 
2,714 


220 
220 
219 
218 
218 
221 
221 
220 
227 
236 
240 
237 


261 
266 
269 
272 
270 
271 
270 
270 
270 
272 
275 
277 


76 
75 
75 
78 
80 
82 
82 
82 
83 
84 
83 
81 


407 
409 
414 
416 
420 
426 
424 
425 
435 
441 
442 
443 


934 




940 




953 




960 




969 




974 


July 


966 




966 




979 




978 




975 




984 








226 


2,521 


225 


270 


80 


425 


965 






1940 


218 
217 
222 
224 
234 
246 
244 
250 
256 
245 
238 
243 


2,588 
2,587 
2,592 
2,585 
2,608 
2,629 
2,636 
2,663 
2,712 
2,753 
2,775 
2,830 


223 
220 
217 
215 
218 
221 
224 
228 
235 
241 
247 
250 


276 
275 
274 
273 
270 
273 
277 
287 
293 
296 
305 


78 
77 
78 
78 
81 
83 
84 
85 
85 
85 
84 
83 


420 
420 
428 
429 
432 
432 
430 
436 
446 
457 
460 
468 


944 




943 




965 




963 




983 




982 


July 


983 




988 




1,009 




1,022 




1,048 




1,077 








236 


2,663 


228 


281 


82 


438 


992 


1941 


236 


2,749 


242 


296 


81 


455 


1,040 







4440 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by States — Continued 
[In thousands] 



July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December.. 



January 

February. _ 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November. 
December.. 



Average. 



January 

February. _ 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December.. 



Average. 



January 

February . _ 

March 

April. 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December.. 



January. 



Virginia 



Washing. 
ton 



West Vir 
ginia 



Wyo- 
ming 



TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS— Resumed 

You will notice from this table that employment in 1939 equaled or 
exceeded that of 1937 in such States as Georgia, Florida, North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, and Virginia — States which had showm an under- 
lying growth curve in manufacturing industries between 1929 and 
1937. On the other hand, most States had less employment in 1939 
than in 1937. 

Superimposed on these underlying trends has been the expansion 
called for by the defense program. Nonagricultural employment in 
January 1941 was higher than it has ever been at that time of the year. 
It totaled 36,343,000, and was 1,868,000 greater than in January 1940, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4441 

about 2,000,000 higher than in January 1937, and a million greater 
than in January 1929. In most industries employment was greater 
in January 1941 than in January 1940, and in general was higher than 
it had been in 1937. 

For a more detailed discussion, I submit for the consideration of the 
committee an analysis of the employment situation which I presented 
a few days ago to the conference on in-plant training called by Mr. 
Knudsen. In that analysis I pointed out that it was particularly in 
the durable goods manufacturing industries and in the construction 
industry that the defense program had affected employment. 

(The statement above referred to is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY A. F. HINRICHS, ACTING COMMISSIONER, UNITED 
STATES BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 

Employment Trends and Defense Labor Requirements 

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has two jobs in connection with employment in 
defense industries. The first is to measure accurately the changes in employment 
that are taking place and to interpret the facts promptly. It is from this record, 
maintained over many years through the cooperation of thousands of reporting 
employers, that we see in perspective the recent demands that have been made 
on the labor market. 

In 1937 an average of 35,560,000 persons were engaged in nonagricultural 
employments. In January 1940, though employment was greater than in 1938 
or 1939, the total was still only 34,475,000. In these figures we see one of the 
essential relationships of employment to the defense program in 1940. Through- 
out most of that year, and for most industries, employment was climbing back 
to earlier peak levels. By and large, it is fair to assume that most employers 
were rehiring men and women who had had recent experience in occupations 
similar to those in which thev were to be hired in 1940. 

By the late fall of 1940 this condition no longer held. In plant alter plant, 
and industry after industry, employment in the closing months of the year reached 
new high levels. By January 1941 nonagricultural employment totaled 36,343,- 
000, an increase of 1,868,000 over the year. This is the highest January total on 
record. 

Most of this increase occurred in manufacturing and construction. Thus 
there was an increase from January 1940 to January 1941 of 781,000 among wage 
and salaried workers in manufacturing and 606,000 in construction. The Govern- 
ment establishment- — exclusive of men in military service but including the 
civilian emplovees ox the Army and Navy, as well as other defense agencies — had 
increased 227,000. Smaller increases occurred in trade (125,000) ; in transporta- 
tion and public utilities (75,000) ; and in financial and service establishments 
(62,000). As a further draft on the labor market we need to note an increase of 
523.000 in the armed forces. Essentially, therefore, during 1940 there was a 
direct draft on the reservoir of unused manpower involving 2,300,000 people. 

So far the job of industrial expansion has been relatively easy. Consider as 
an example, the dramatic rise in steel production. Monthly ingot output in- 
creased from just under 4,000,000 tons in April 1940 to nearly 6,500,000 tons in 
October. This feat was essentially a matter of organizing existing resources to 
meet a huge increase in orders. On earlier occasions with less available capacity 
we had produced nearly 6,000,000 tons monthly. 

I cite this only because it is so clear a case of merely putting resources back to 
work. In the case of labor also we have been generally engaged in putting our 
resources to work. In industry after industry, for months on end, employment 
was merely climbing back to levels that had been achieved in 1937. 

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW RESOURCES 

From now on we must expect fundamental expansion through the development 
of new resources. The period in which we need merely to put fully developed 
resources to work is nearly finished. In January and February of this year 
more people have been employed than have ever before been employed at this 
time of year — and this without counting those in our military forces. The 
number is nearly 2,000,000 greater than in January 1937 and 1,000,000 greater 

260370—41 — pt. 11- 13 



4442 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

than in January 1929. Increasingly from now on the expansion of the defense 
program involves an underlying expansion of our resources, both of plant and 
of trained workers. 

It is of course an exaggeration to imply that the defense effort to date has 
involved merely pulling idle resources into use. One of the characteristics of 
defense activity is that it gives rise to an extraordinarily concentrated demand 
for special types of labor, of raw materials, and of equipment. So, for example, 
the employment of wage earners in the manufacture of durable goods increased 
more than 18 percent from January 1940 to January 1941, an aggregate increase 
of 701,000 workers. This is now well above the highest level ever before reached. 
On the other hand, employment in the manufacture of nondurable goods — food, 
clothing, tobacco, paper and printing, chemicals and petroleum, rubber goods — 
increased only 2.7 percent. In practically every one of the durable-goods in- 
dustries that the Department follows each month, employment in January 1941 
was greater than in January 1940. (The one exception was the cutting, shaping, 
and finishing of marble, granite, slate, etc.). Among the non-durable-goods 
industries there are about 20 with employment in January 1941 at about the 
same or at lower levels than in January 1940, including such industries as silk 
and rayon, leather, boots and shoes, flour milling, and petroleum refining. 

EXTRAORDINARY EXPANSION 

Even this does not tell the whole story of the concentrated character of the 
defense demand for labor. Among the durable-goods industries there are 15 in 
which employment increased more than 20 percent over the year. The relation- 
ship of most of them to defense and construction is obvious: Foundries and ma- 
chine shops; stoves; steam and hot-water heating equipment; aluminum; small 
tools (tools, not including edge tools, machine tools, files, and saws); forgings; 
brass, bronze, and copper products; electrical machinery; structural and orna- 
mental iron work; and railroad cars. In all of these industries employment 
increased by 20 to 30 percent or more. Five industries, however, had an extraor- 
dinary expansion: Machine tools, increasing 45 percent; locomotives, ship- 
building, and engines and turbines, all increasing by nearly 75 percent; and 
finally aircraft, with an increase of 121 percent over the year. 

Among the non-durable-goods industries there is just one significant case of an 
employment increase of as much as 20 percent and it is an obvious one— explosives. 
The increase in this case is 45 percent. 

Even among these defense industries there have been a number that so far 
have been going through a recovery phase. Several have not yet reached 1937 
peak levels of employment — railroad cars, locomotives, and stoves. For most of 
them the recovery phase as regards employment ended at the close of the year — ■ 
foundries and machine shops, forgings, electrical machinery, structural and orna- 
mental metalwork, steam and hot-water-heating apparatus. 

Of the durable-goods industries that added 20 to 30 percent to their employ- 
ment from January 1940 to January 1941, only aluminum, brass, bronze and 
copper products, and small tools were above 1937 peak levels for a substantial 
part of 1940. 

The brunt of the pressure, almost up to the present time, has been borne by 
three or four industries: Machine tools, shipbuilding, aircraft, and aero-engines. 
While the need for additional trained workers was apparent in these industries 
even before the defense program was launched last summer, it is obvious that most 
other large industries experienced incidental rather than major difficulties in 
recruiting labor during the first 6 months of the program. To a large extent they 
could find persons with comparatively recent work experience in their own industry 
and could even draw extensively upon people previously employed in their plants. 

In absolute numbers machine tools, shipbuilding, and the airplane program 
made comparatively small drafts on the labor market. These have been small 
industries in comparison with the great industrial giants such as steel and auto- 
mobiles. A large percentage expansion in these industries did not involve drain- 
ing the labor market. Thus in these industries alone employment increased 
from about 234,000 in January 1940 to about 424,000 in January 1941, a total 
increase of about 190,000. Durable-goods employment as a whole increased by 
about 700,000. Indeed the recovery of peak levels of employment in foundries 
and machine shops and in establishments manufacturing electrical machinery, 
involved reemploying or adding 143,000 workers— more than were added by ma- 
chine tools, engines, and aircraft in combination. Under these conditions most 
employers in the durable-goods field could share the labor market with rapidly 
expanding war industries without encountering undue difficulty in hiring capable 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4443 

and experienced workers. From this point out, however, there is going to be 
no easy means of achieving the further expansion of employment that is called 
for in the durable-goods industries. 

FORECAST OF LABOR REQUIREMENTS 

The first task of the Bureau of Labor Statistics has been to measure the changes 
in actual employment. Our second is to forecast the labor requirements of the 
defense program. 

As early as last July the Bureau of Labor Statistics made over-all estimates 
of the magnitude of the job that was indicated by the defense appropriation bills. 
They showed the need for clear thinking in terms of a broad training program. 
For purposes of such over-all estimation it may be assumed that each dollar 
expended for defense orders requires an hour's labor distributed in plants of final 
assembly, in fabricating parts and materials, in the extraction of raw materials, 
and in transporting these goods. Since the dollar also pays for the use of capital 
facilities all along the line, this is not to say that labor averages a dollar an hour. 
But for every billion dollars that is spent in a year, nearly half a million workers 
must be employed. 

Over-all figures of employment increases have an extremely limited usefulness. 
To provide a basis for administrative decisions you must have estimates of 
defense labor requirements in specific terms — in terms of the time and place at 
which men and women with particular skills are going to be demanded. How 
many of what kind of workeis will you want? Where and when? 

Such a job was done by the Bureau last fall for the Army and Navy Munitions 
Board, indicating, with reference to the draft, occupations which have significance 
in the national-defense program. The report, which covers 760 occupations, 
from accountants (cost) to yardmasters (railroad), grades them by the period of 
training required and by the relative adequacy of the supply. 

This classification has merely to do with the protection of the labor supply 
against depletion through the draft. More specific studies of labor requirements 
have been made for each of seven industries: Building construction; shipbuilding; 
aircraft; aero-engines; machine tools; electrical machinery; brass, bronze, and 
copper products. In these studies we aim first of all to pool the anticipated 
requirements of leading producers in order that each may see what the impact 
of their collective labor needs is likely to be. 

manufacturers' estimates asked 

This pooling of expectations is necessary to sound planning by individual pro- 
ducers. The manufacturer with firm contracts in hand knows his own needs 
bettei than anyone else in the world can know them. We ask him for his best 
estimate of his needs, and from his reply and those of others build an over-all 
estimate. This is needed because the labor reservoir, on which each expects to 
draw, >s adequate to the individual needs of most individual employers. It is the 
size of the collective draft that indicates that labor is going to be one of our most 
precious resources — that indicates that, by and large, ovef the next 12 months 
workers already trained will not be easily available to the man who has not 
produced his own quota of trained workers in the fabricating end of the metal 
trades. 

Manufacturers of brass, bronze, and copper products, for example, expect to 
employ more than 20,000 additional wage and salaried workers in 1941. In 
January 1941, 112,000 wage-earners were employed in this industry. According 
to the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, employ- 
ment is expected to increase to 130,800 wage earners in December, an increase 
of 17 percent. In addition, the plants will require 200 more engineers, 200 drafts- 
men, 1,000 chemists, and 100 other salaried workers. The estimated number of 
additional wage earners to be hired during the year includes 5,800 skilled, 7,400 
semiskilled, and 5,600 unskilled workers. 

The above estimates are based upon reports received from 51 plants employing 
63,000 wage earners in January, or 56 percent of the estimated total for the 
industry. Predictions of expansion during the year were general throughout the 
reporting establishments. Only one of the plants reported no anticipated increase 
in employment during the coming year. The estimate does not include any allow- 
ance for employment in plants not now in existence, and hence probably errs on 
the side of conservatism. 



4444 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Estimated labor force in the brass, bronze, and copper products industry in 1941 

WAGE EARNERS 





Total 


Skilled 


Semiskilled 


Unskilled 


1941 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 




100.0 
106.8 
116.8 


112,000 
119,600 
130, 800 


100.0 
107.3 
117.2 


31,000 
36, 500 
39,800 


100.0 
109.8 
119.6 


37,700 
41,400 
45,100 


100.0 
103.6 
113.8 


40,300 




41,700 


December 


45,900 



SALARIED EMPLOYEES 





Engineers 


Draftsmen 


Chemists 


Other salaried 


1941 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


January... 


100.0 
108.4 
113.8 


1,100 
1,200 
1,300 


100.0 
107.0 
114.2 


900 
1,000 
1,100 


100.0 
104.4 
108.5 


10, 700 

11, 200 
11,700 


100.0 
106.9 
113. 1 


700 
700 




800 







Any individual manufacturer of brass products, if his demands alone were to 
be considered, could easily cover his needs. Even the industry demand for 20,000 
or more workers is not large. But manufacturers of electrical machinery, appa- 
ratus and supplies are also going to be in the market for large numbers of workers. 
Reports from the electrical machinery industry indicate an increase of 63,100 wage 
earners, 900 engineers, 1,200 draftsmen, 100 chemists, and 4,000 other salaried 
workers. This is a total of nearly 70,000 persons to be hired. The wage force 
will expand by 22 percent between January and December 1941, and the industry 
will need 23,000 skilled workers, 26,800 semiskilled, and 13,300 unskilled. More 
than four-fifths of the 108 reporting establishments expected to increase their 
employment. The reporting group employs 55 percent of the total number of 
wage earners in the industry. 

Estimated labor force in the electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies industry 

in 1941 

WAGE EARNERS 





Total 


Skilled 


Semiskilled 


Unskilled 


1941 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Indax 


Estimated 
total 


January... 


100.0 
111.9 
121.9 


288,500 
322, 800 
351, 600 


100.0 
114.1 
129.6 


77, 700 
88. 700 
100. 700 


100.0 
112.6 
120.9 


128,000 
144. 100 
1.54.800 


100.0 
108.7 
116.1 


82, 800 
90,000 




96,100 











SALARIED EMPLOYEES 





Engineers 


Draftsmen 


Chemists 


Other salaried 


1941 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


t„,w Estimated 
Index total 


index J estimated 


Index 


Estimated 
total 




100.0 
106.0 
109.9 


8,800 
9,300 
9,700 


100.0 7,400 100.0 1 700 
109.4 8,100 108.1 1 760 


100.0 
106.3 
107.9 


50,400 




53, 000 


December.. 


115.6 1 \<W 
1 


115.4 ! 800 

1 


54,400 



Machine-tool establishments expect to increase their employment from 80,200 
wage earners in January 1941 to 102,800 by December, an increase of 28 percent. 
They will need 300 additional engineers and 500 more draftsmen and expect to 
hire 1,800 other salaried workers. This is a total increase of about 25,000 wage 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4445 



and salaried workers. The estimated increase in wage earners will bring the total 
number by December to a level more than twice as high as the earlier peak reached 
in 1937. Individual establishments estimate their increased labor needs as high 
as 75 percent. All but 2 of the 24 reporting establishments predict increased 
employment in 1941. The reporting establishments on which estimates for this 
industry are based employ about 30 percent of the workers in the industry. 

Particularly noteworthy is the extremely high proportion of skilled workers that 
will be required. Of the 22,600 additional wage earners demanded, 16,000 are 
skilled, 4,000 semiskilled, and only 2,600 unskilled. 

Estimated labor force in the machine-tool industry in 1941 
WAGE EARNERS 





Total 


Skilled 


Semiskilled 


Unskilled 


1941 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 




100. 80, 200 
115. 7 92. 800 


100.0 
116.1 
129.3 


54,800 
63,600 
70,800 


100.0 
117.6 
129.2 


13,600 
16,000 
17,600 


100.0 
111.8 

122.4 


11,800 




13,200 


December 


128.3 


102, 800 


14,400 



SALARIED EMPLOYEES 





Engineers 


Draftsmen 


Other salaried 


1941 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


Index 


Estimated 
total 


January 

June 

December 


100.0 
124.4 
134.9 


1,100 
1,300 
1,400 


100.0 
118.3 
129.8 


1,900 
2,200 
2,400 


100.0 
110.2 
118.7 


9,900 
10,900 
11,700 



We have in process studies for additional industries and plan in April to make 
similar studies for 20 defense areas with over 75 percent of the primary defense 
contracts. In the case of industry studies we make inquiry of all leading pro- 
ducers in the industry asking them to forecast their needs 3 months, 6 months, 
and 12 months ahead. In the defense areas we shall not limit ourselves to defense 
industries but shall determine the collective demand for all leading producers over 
the next 12 months. A pilot study for Hartford is nearing completion. 

These studies can never be regarded as done, once and for all. We shall revise 
the estimates quarterly and extend them into the future. Nor are the studies 
intended to yield results that are more than good approximations. In the 3 
industries that I have summarized, however, we can foresee an increase in em- 
ployment of roughly 20 percent or more in 1941 — or of about 105,000 wage earn- 
ers, of whom nearly 45,000 will be in occupations that are regarded in the industry 
as skilled. 

These industries are by no manner of means all that will expand by virtue of 
the defense effort. They serve, however, to illustrate the expansion in industries 
that underlies the defense program proper. Remember that this expansion is 
going to have to be achieved in a labor market in which more workers already are 
employed in heavy industries than have ever before been employed. 



STUDIES OF AIRCRAFT AND SHIPBUILDING 

Against this background, we can visualize better the pro! lem of the two indus- 
tries that are under maximum pressure- — aircraft and shipbuilding. For these 
industries, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has completed more detailed studies, 
showing by particular occupations and areas the labor required to complete con- 
tracts already let. Both of these studies, made to reflect conditions in the closing 
days of 1940, are in process of revision. The revisions will all lead to greater 
indicated labor demands, but the problem was grave enough last December. 

When our estimate for aircraft employment was first made in the late fall, we 
estimated that in October 203,600 workers were engaged in making airframes, 
engines, and propellers (in plants of final assembly and at subcontractors). By 
August 1941, 455,500 workers were going to be needed to complete contracts 



4446 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

already let in October 1940. In other words the industry had. undertaken a 
schedule requiring the hiring and training of a quarter of a million workers in 
10 months. This is a rate of growth of 8.4 percent compounded each month 
from October 1940 to August 1941. 

This rate of increase is almost unprecedented in the industry. * * * 

Our best estimate now is that total employment will reach 520,000 in October 
1941. But even the earlier study showed a need for 13,100 sheet metal bench 
hands, 12,800 metal bench hands and bench mechanics, 7,500 machinists, 4,500 
inspectors, 3,600 tool makers, among the 68,600 skilled workers required by 
airframe plants. 

Employment on the shipbuilding program can be projected further than for 
the other lines of production I have described. None the less, since the other 
estimates have run to the end of 1941, we may indicate an expansion of about 
150,000 for the year in shipyards on the construction of United States Govern- 
ment vessels contracted for by November 1940. 

Thus these selected defense industries — by no manner of means all of them — 
will require the addition of more than half a million workers in 1941. Nor does 
this make any substantial allowance for an increase in employment in the ex- 
traction and fabrication of raw materials and semifinished products needed to 
produce these goods. The increase in these selected industries alone is nearly 
three-quarters as great as the whole increase in durable goods manufacture in 
1940. 

Shipbuilding Peak in November 1942 

The shipbuilding program under contract last November will not reach a peak 
of employment until November 1942. In November 1940 there were 127,000 
in navy yards and private yards at work on the construction of United States 
Government vessels. Bv June 1942 there should be 380,000 and bv November 
of that year 388,000. 

This increase of nearly a quarter of a million workers between November 1940 
and June 1942 represents a compounded monthly increase of 5.9 percent. The 
average monthly rate from September 1938 to November 1940 was 4.8 percent. 

In this case it is the absolute growth rather than the rate that seems staggering. 
This can be better shown in another chart that indicates a trebling of employment 
in the next 2 years. 

What this means in terms of monthly increases is shown in a third chart. The 
cross hatched bars on the left show that increases of 10,000 workers occurred in 
September and again in November. These were the largest increases made in 
recent years. Such increases must be made in all but 2 months from now until 
June 1942 to meet the schedule. Much larger increases are called for in 5 months. 

Here again we know the occupational requirements. For example, 450 angle- 
smiths, 850 blacksmiths, 1,580 boilermakers, 1,890 coppersmiths, 6,660 calkers 
and chippers, 9,300 electricians, 31,000 machinists. Among the machinists it is 
going to be necessary to find 17,500 for the North Atlantic yards, 4,600 for the 
South Atlantic, 1,000 on the Gulf, 500 on the Great Lakes, and 3,500 on the Pacific 
coast. It is a concentrated demand — concentrated both occupationally and 
geographically. 

Labor demands can be forecast with rough accuracy. The ability to meet the 
demand cannot be. It depends in the first place upon the number of skilled 
workers unemployed. We know from the figures of the United States Employ- 
ment Service that this reserve will not cover the need for workers already skilled 
in the metal industries that are expanding. For example, there were not enough 
boring mill and machine operators, machine shop inspectors, or planer operators 
registered with the United States Employment Service at the close of 1940 to 
meet the 1941 needs of the machine-tool industry alone. This industry alone 
would require almost all the machine shop electricians, gear cutters, lathe and 
screw-machine operators, and milling machine shapers and operators registered 
with the United States Employment Service. 

Our ability to meet the demand depends further upon the number of workers 
whose skills are underemployed — upon the number of machinists on assembly 
lines in automobile plants, for example, or who are self-employed as storekeepers. 
We know that this has been an important source of supply for shipyards — more 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4447 

important than the ranks of the unemployed. We do not know how many there 
are, and, of these, how many we can induce to transfer to work at their craft in 
defense work. There are signs that this is an easily exhausted reservoir. 

Our ability to meet the demand for skilled labor depends not only on the 
numbers unemployed and underemployed but depends even more fundamentally 
upon what employers do. How rapidly will hiring standards be relaxed? To 
what extent, for example, are employers in nondefense industries going to bar 
aliens with needed skills? Today in many areas there are skilled workers who 
cannot be placed because of the spreading tendency to demand citizenship in all 
employments. To what extent are employers generally going to train new 
workers and upgrade workers within the plant and between industries? To what 
extent are the nonessential industries going to be forced by conditions in the labor 
market to do training? 

The problem is large enough so that our success may well depend upon the extent 
to which our resources of skilled workers can be spread more or less evenly over 
industry as well as within a plant or company. The latter process is going on 
widely." Dilution of the labor force within plants is general. Large companies 
building plants in new localities are manning them with a skeleton force from the 
old established location. I know of few cases in which plants or industries have 
been manned by drawing in an orderly manner on industries with a high propor- 
tion of skilled workers. Some cases do exist. Pirating merely makes the problem 
worse by increasing the "float"; by building up the total of potential man-hours 
lost through disorganized labor turn-over. 

Finally, our problem depends upon the capacity of management itself. Every 
effort to economize skilled labor puts a further burden on management. When 
the time comes that labor generally is scarce and must be conserved — not merely 
skilled labor but man-hours as such — the volume of our output will depend upon 
the quality of management. Management, even more than skilled production 
workers, is the ultimate labor bottleneck. It is in this connection that we shall 
suffer because of an absence of training programs in industry that would have 
developed an adequate supply of fully qualified journeymen ready to take over in 
junior supervisory posts. 

Our problem is tremendous. The difficulties, however, are not insuperable. 
The ranks of the unemployed will furnish adequate numbers of unskilled workers 
and of workers available for training in semiskilled jobs. Some skilled workers 
still can be drawn for work in the metal trades from the ranks of the unemployed. 
Even more can be found as workers now employed outside of their crafts. In 
many cases they may require retraining. But training programs throughout 
the heavy industries — training programs that run all the way from teaching 
simple semiskilled machine operations to the development of journeymen fully 
qualified through apprenticeships — are essential to meet the needs of national 
defense. 

Foresight and time are of the essence. The Bureau of Labor Statistics with 
your cooperation will furnish you with the best estimates that can be made of 
labor requirements. We have lost too much time already, but some time still 
remains. Whether or not the job is done depends essentially upon you and you 
alone. 

TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS— Resumed 

The effect of the defense program on employment has been a con- 
centrated one. There were some 15 of the durable-goods industries 
in which employment in January 1941 was 20 percent or more above 
the levels of January 1940. Only one of the nondurable-goods 
industries — explosives — showed an increase of this sort. Five of the 
durable-goods industries showed an employment increase of more 
than 45 percent — machine tools; shipbuilding; locomotives; engines, 
turbines, and so forth; and aircraft. As may be seen from this chart, 
employment in airplane factories more than doubled in 1939 and again 
doubled itself in 1940. The present program calls for a threefold 
expansion of employment in this industry in 1941. 

(The chart above referred to is as follows:) 



4448 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



(/) 



o 

CL 

ot 

^ O 



LLl 

>- 

O 

_J 
CL 

LLl 

















[ 
















































V -J 
\ o 

I ^ 

I 5 

-I- Q- - - 

Is 
HI 










































/ 














Ul 

& 

_l 

n 














2 
UJ 
















































1 



X O 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4449 



There has also been an uneven geographical distribution of the 
employment created by the defense program among the various parts 
of the United States. Thus, if I may refer again to the tables of non- 
agricultural employment by States, you will notice that in Colorado, 
for example, employment in 1940 tended to run below the peak levels 
of 1937, whereas in Connecticut employment has been consistently 
above the peak levels of 1937 since August of 1940. 

I am submitting now a preliminary tabulation, subject to revision 
but available now for the first time, showing the new plant facilities 
that are being erected for the defense program. To date these facili- 
ties call for the expenditure of more than $2,300,000,000. This total 
covers new plants and additions to existing plant facilities financed 
directly or indirectly by either the United States Government or the 
British Government. This total includes both certificates of necessity 
which have been approved and those which have been recommended 
for approval. 

(The tabulation above referred to is as follows:) 

Distribution of amounts involved in the expansion of defense plant capacity in major 
geographical regions as of March 1941 

[Preliminary] 



Region 


Involved in plant ex- 
pansion for defense 


Value of 
product 
of manu- 
facturers, 
census 




Amount 


Percent 


of manu- 
factures, 
1939 




$168, 500, 000 
501, 600, 000 
791,800,000 
246,800,000 
324, 900, 000 
183, 200, 000 
88, 700, 000 


7.3 
21.8 
34.3 
10.7 
14.1 
8.0 
3.8 


Percent 




28.2 




37.6 




9.5 


South Central 


8.0 




8.1 










United States total 


2, 305, 500, 000 


100.0 


100.0 







Based upon capital assistance rendered to defense establishments by both British and American Govern- 
ments plus the amounts represented in certificates of necessities recommended and approved. 

This tabulation shows that the distribution of funds for new 
facilities is tending toward a regional decentralization. For ex- 
ample, somewhat less than 22 percent of the new funds are for con- 
struction in the Middle Atlantic States, whereas about 28 percent 
of the manufacturing industry of the country was located in these 
States in 1939. Similarly, the North Central States, which had 
about 37.6 percent of the manufactures of the country in 1939, had 
received only about 34.3 percent of the funds for new plants. The 
South Central States, on the other hand, had about 8 percent of the 
manufactures of the country in 1939, and have received 14.1 per- 
cent of the funds for new plants. The South Atlantic States have 
received a slightly higher proportion of the funds for new plants 
than they had as a share in total manufactures. 

It is obvious, therefore, that when we speak of the defense demand 
as being concentrated, we do not imply that the regional concen- 
tration of defense business is substantially more marked than is 



4450 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

manufacturing activity generally. The concentration of defense 
business is rather a concentration in certain specific lines of pro- 
duction and a concentration within localities. 

AIRPLANE AND SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRIES 

The largest increases in employment that are expected this next 
year will occur in connection with the airplane and shipbuilding 
programs. Both of these are going to give rise to geographically 
concentrated demands for labor. There is a marked tendency, 
particularly in the aircraft industry, to develop new producing 
centers. New plants are being developed in the interior; but these 
plants will be large and the demand for employment will be con- 
centrated in relatively few centers. 

In connection with both the airplane and shipbuilding program, 
I am submitting for the committee's consideration reports of esti- 
mated labor requirements that have been prepared by the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics. The first deals with labor requirements esti- 
mated for the aircraft industry under the national-defense program. 
I call attention particularly to chart 4 in that report, which I am 
now exhibiting. (See p. 4461 .) This shows graphically the geograph- 
ical distribution of the employment to be created, with extreme con- 
centration in New York and Connecticut, Maryland, southern Cali- 
fornia, and the Pacific Northwest, with a further expansion projected 
in Buffalo, Cincinnati, Detroit, Indianapolis, St. Louis, and Wichita. 
A similar discussion of the geographical concentration of the labor 
requirements of the shipbuilding industry under the national-defense 
program is contained in the second report which I am submitting. 

(The statements above referred to are as follows:) 

Labor Requirements Estimated for the Aircraft Industry Under the 
National Defense Program as of December 19, 1940 

(United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 
Washington, D. C.) 

EXPANSION OF THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY 

Unfilled orders of the aircraft industry are now well over $3,500,000,000. 
United States Army contracts have all been awarded, but the Navy has still to 
contract for some hundreds of the planes which it will buv, and further extensive 
orders are expected from Great Britain. At the beginning of 1939, backlogs of 
orders for both air frames and airplane engines were under $200,000,000. By 
September 1939, the backlog of the industry, most of which represented orders of 
Great Britain and France, was about $400,000,000, whereas on January 1, 1940, 
the total had risen to $621,900,000. By January 1, 1941, it is estimated that the 
total will have increased to over $3,700,000,000, six times the level of the preceding 
year. 

This enormous backlog of orders has created a number of extremely serious 
problems, including (1) the necessity for tremendous expansion of manufacturing 
floor space and equipment, and (2) the necessity of hiring and training requisite 
personnel. 

Governmental assistance for plant construction, expansion, or equipment. — It is 
estimated that in order to meet the new demand for planes, the aircraft industry 
will have to more than double its physical plant facilities. While normal orders 
in themselves are usually sufficient incentive for companies to expand their plants 
with private funds, the present huge orders are of such magnitude that few com- 
panies are in a position to expand independently within the time desired. In 
consequence, both the French and British Governments, and more lately the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4451 



United States Government, have provided a great deal of the money required for 
plant expansion. The British Government has made capital loans of unstated 
amounts to Bell, Curtiss- Wright, Douglas, Lockheed, Martin, and Vultee. The 
United States Government has already advanced some $182,627,571 for the 
expansion of the aircraft industry. The recipients of such aid are shown in table 1. 

LOCATION OF THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY 

Air frames. — As shown in the accompanying table (table 2), the major part of 
the capacity to produce air frames is located along the Pacific coast. It will be 
noted that approximately 60 percent of the air-frame workers are employed in tnis 
area. It is likely, however, that this geographical concentration will not continue 
for long. Because of the desire of military authorities to locate vital industries 
in places more easily protected, there is an increased tendency for new factories 
to be built in the interior of the United States rather than near the seacoasts. 

Table 1. — U. S. Government advances to expand aircraft-producing capacity as of 

Dec. 1, 1940 



Company 


Location 


Purpose 


Amount 


Airframes: 




Plant expansion... 
New plant 


$1, 775, 000 
1, 015, 000 
3, 050, 000 




Niagara Falls, N. Y _ 




Do 


Seattle, Wash... _ 


Plant expansion... 

New plant 

Plant expansion... 

New plant 

do 

do 

Plant expansion... 

do 

do 

... do 


7, 544, 000 


Consolidated Aircraft Corporation.. ._ 




14, 450, 000 


Curtiss-Wright Coiporation_ 

Do 


Buffalo, N. Y_. 


12, 730, 000 


Do..... 


St. Louis, Mo 

Long Beach, Calif 


11,243,000 




850, 000 


Engine & Airplane Corporation. 
Grumman Aircraft Engineering Co 

Glenn L. Martin Co 


Bethpage, Long Island, 
N. Y. 

Baltimore, Md 

Burbank, Calif 


3, 500, 000 

19, 659, 920 
2, 259, 385 




Inglewood, Calif 


do 

New plant 

Plant expansion... 
do 


2, 400, 000 




2, 400, 000 


Texas. 
Republic Aviation Corporation. 


Farmingdale, Long Island 
N. Y. 


9, 796, 140 
370, 630 


Stearman Aircraft Division, Boeing 
Aircraft Co. 

Stinson Aircraft Division, Vultee Air- 
craft, Inc. 

Vought-Sikorsky Aircraft Division, 
United Aircraft Corporation. 


Wichita, Kans 

Nashville, Tenn 

Stratford, Conn 

Downey, Calif 

Farmingdale, Long Island 

N. Y. 
East Hartford, Conn 


do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 


450, 000 
4, 340, 668 
1,600,000 
4, 800, 000 


Engines and propellers: 

Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corpora- 
tion. 

Hamilton Standard Propeller Division 
of United Aircraft Corporation. 


982, 891 
1,761,745 
1, 597, 491 


facturing Corporation. 
Pratt & Whitney Division of United 

Aircraft Corporation. 
Wright Aeronautical Corporation 


East Hartford, Conn 

Lockland, Ohio 


do 

New plant 


14, 799, 000 
37, 000, 000 


Total i 


182, 627, 571 











i This does not include about $70,000,000 in known British assistance and an unknown amount for engine 
plant expansion to Packard and Ford. 

Not included are 2 proposed engine plants to cost a total of $61,000,000. 

Not included are additional airframe building facilities at Omaha and Kansas City. These are up for 
approval now and will cost a total of $16,000,000. Two other new plants of unreported size and cost are 
under consideration. 



4452 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table 2. — Principal firms producing military planes 



Company 


Location 


Approxi- 
mate num- 
ber of Chief type of mili- 
employees, ■ tary production 

Oct. 31, ; 

1940' 


Backlog of 

military 

orders as of 

Dec. 1. 1940 


Pacific region: 

Southern Pacific coast area: 

Consolidated Aircraft Corpo- 


San Diego, Calif. . 

Santa Monica and 
El Segundo, 
Calif. 

Burbank, Calif 

Inglewood, Calif.. 
Hawthorne, Calif. 
San Diego, Calif. . 
Burbank, Calif... 

Downey, Calif 

Seattle, Wash 

Long Island City, 
Long Island. 

Bethpage, Long 
Island. 

Farmingdale, 
Long Island. 

Stratford, Conn... 

Hagerstown, Md_. 
Baltimore, Md 

Buffalo, N. Y 

do... 

Columbus, Ohio.. 

Wichita, Kans 

do 


13. 900 
17,300 




$300, 000, 000 


ration. 


.. .do K 


400, 000, 000 


Lockheed Aircraft Corpora- 
tion. 

North American Aviation . . 


14,200 

7. 100 
1,200 
1,600 
2,300 
5, 300 
7.400 

5,500 


Bombers, pur- 
suits. 2 


181, 000, 000 
225, 000, 000 


Northrop Aircraft, Inc . . 


do 


24, 000, 000 


Ryan Aeronautical Co 




12, 000, 000 






3 30, 000, 000 






1 95, 000, 000 
« 203, 000, 000 






ing Aircraft Co. 
Atlantic region: 

Long Island area: 

Brewster Aeronautical Cor- 




100, 000, 000 


poration. 
Grumman Aircraft Engi- 
neering Co. 


1,600 
2.600 
4.100 

1.100 
14.500 

3,300 
3,900 



1,700 

600 

1,900 

1,600 

200 


do 


20,000,000 
65, 000, 000 


tion. 
United Aircraft Corporation 
(Vought Sikorsky Divi- 
sion). 
North Atlantic area: 

Fairchild Aircraft Division. ._ 

Glenn L. Martin Co 


Fighters, bombers. 

Trainers, observa- 
tion. 
Bombers 

Fighters 

Fighters, bombers. 

do 

Trainers 

do 

Transports, fight- 
ers. 
Trainers.. 


s 430, 000, 000 

15, 000, 000 
322, 000, 000 

60,000,000 
» 520, 000, 000 

(') 

22, 000, 000 
11,000,000 
(') 

0) 


Canadian border region: 

Buffalo and Niagara Falls area: 

Bell Aircraft Corporation 

Curtiss- Wright Corporation. 
Interior region: 

Eastern interior area: Curtiss- 

Wright Corporation. 
Middle West area: 

Beech Aircraft Corporation... 


Curtiss-Wright Corporation.. 

Stearman Aircraft Co... 

Southern interior area: 


St. Louis, Mo 

Wichita, Kans 

Tulsa, Okla 

Nashville, Tenn... 


Vultee Aircraft, Inc. (Stin- 
son aircraft division). 


700 | do 


( 4 ) 


Total 




118,600 




3, 037, 000, 000 









1 Based on aeronautical monthly progress report and semimonthly production report. (Total em- 
ployees at site of final assembly.) 

2 Also important producer of commercial transports. 

3 As of August 21, 1940 

4 Includes Vultee aircraft plants at Detroit, Mich.; Nashville, Tenn.; and Downey, Calif. 

5 Includes Boeing aircraft plants at Seattle, Wash.; Wichita, Kans. (Stearman Aircraft Co.). 

6 Includes Pratt & Whitney engines, and Hamilton-Standard propellers. 

'Includes Curtiss-Wright Corporation plants at Buffalo, N. Y.; St. Louis, Mo.; and Columbus, Ohio; 
and propeller plants at Clifton and Caldwell, N. J.; and Pittsburgh, Pa., as well as Wright Aeronautical 
Corporation. 

s As of July 10, 1940. Orders for United States only included. 

Air engines. — It will appear from the accompanying table (table 3) that the 
engine industry is concentrated on the eastern seaboard. The present output of 
engines is derived principally from two plants, one at Paterson, N. J., and the 
other at East Hartford, Conn. Two smaller plants are located in Pennsylvania, 
at Williamsport and Pottstown, and another plant on Long Island. There is a 
small output from southern California. Military motors are now produced in 
the interior only at Indianapolis. A huge plant to build Wright engines is now 
under construction in this region at Cincinnati, and it is probable that Studebaker 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4453 



at South Bend also may enter the engine-manufacturing industry. On the Ca- 
nadian border, Ford, Packard, and Continental will soon be in large-scale produc- 
tion. There is a possibility that they will soon be joined by Buick. 

Propellers. — 'Propeller manufacturing is also concentrated in the Eastern States. 
Two companies have propeller plants in Connecticut, New Jersey, and Pennsyl- 
vania. 

EXPANSION OF MANUFACTURING FLOOR SPACE 

Financed by the huge sums advanced by the United States Government, the 
British Government, and private sources, military aircraft manufacturers have 
begun to enlarge existing plants and to build new plants. Table 4 shows the 
present floor space of the principal companies and estimates of the total floor 
space which will be available in the future. It should be noted that approximately 
100 square feet are required per worker for airplanes and approximately 150 
square feet for air engine manufacturing. 



Table 3. — Principal firms producing military engines 



Company 


Location 


Approximate 
number of 
employees, 

Oct. 31, 1940 i 


Backlog of 

military 

orders fas of 

Dec. 1, 1940) 


Pacific region: 

Southern Pacific coast region: 


Glendale, Calif 

Los Angeles, Calif... 

East Hartford, Conn 

Farmingdale, Long 
Island, N. Y. 

Williamsport, Pa 

Pottstown, Pa 

Paterson, N.J 

Detroit & Mus- 
kegon, Mich. 


100 
300 

10, 900 
400 

800 

400 
13,100 

900 


$700, 000 




4, 000, 00t> 


Atlantic region: 

Long Island area: 

Pratt & Whitney Division of United Aircraft 

Corporation. 
Ranger Aircraft Engine Division of Fairchild 
Engine & Airplane Corporation. 
North Atlantic area: 

Lycoming Division. Aviation Manufacturing 
Co. 


( ? ) 
15, 400, 000 




( 4 ) 


Canadian border region: 
Wayne-Detroit area: 


35, 000, 000 




122, 323, 020 




Detroit, Mich 

do 


400 


217, 000, 000 




1,000,000 


Interior region: 

Middlewest area: 

Allison Division, General Motors Corpora- 
tion. 


Indianapolis, Ind... 


6,500 


100, 000, 000 


Total 


33, 800 


495,423,020 








Grand total, air frames, engines, and pro- 
pellers. 




3, 532, 423, 020 









' Based on Aeronautical Monthly Progress Report and Semimonthly Production Report (total em- 
ployees at site of final assembly). 

2 The backlog of Pratt & Whitnev is included in United Aircraft Corporation on the air-frame tabulation. 

s The backlog of Ranger Engine Division is included in Fairchild Engine & Airplane Corporation on the 
air-frame tabulation. , 

< The backlog of Wright Aeronautical Corporation is included in Curtiss-Wright Corporation on the 
air-frame tabulation. 



4454 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table 4. — Present and future floor space of the principal aircraft factories 





Floor space in scpaare feet 


Company 


Present 


Future 


Percentage 
change 


Airframes: 

Beech Aircraft Corporation, Wichita, Kans 

Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N". Y 


173, 250 
397, 800 
997, 926 
648, 768 
151,450 

126, 061 
555,000 


523, 060 
600, 000 
2, 039, 000 
648. 768 
151,450 

1, 200, 000 

1, 800, 000 

z 1,200.000 

310, 000 

1,329,000 

1,422,350 

97, 136 

2 500, 000 

1.365.405 
1, 488, 830 

1, 400, 000 

2 1, 000, 000 

527. 530 

825, 500 
214, 275 

265, 000 
889, 000 

618,000 

1, 236, 000 

520, 000 


+201.9 
+50. 8 
+104.3 


Brewster Aeronautical Corporation, Lone Island Citv, N. Y 




(') 

+851. 9 
+224.3 


Curtiss-Wright Corporation: 


Buffalo, N. Y 

Columbus, Ohio 


Douglas Aircraft Co.: 

El Segundo, Calif 


215. 136 
1, 190, 000 


+44.1 
+11.7 




Long Beach, Calif 


Fairchild Engine & Aircraft Corporation, Hagcrstown, Md 

Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, Bethpage, Long 


97, 136 

3 145, 000 

663,112 

1, 188, 830 

621, 000 


(') 

+244. 8 
+105. 9 
+25.2 

+125. 4 




The Glenn L. Martin Co., Baltimore, Md 

North American Aviation, Inc.: 


Dallas, Tex 




205, 980 

149, 355 
128, 525 

205, 604 
183, 797 

163, 400 
647, 300 

310, 000 


+156. 1 

+452. 7 

+66.7 

+28.9 
+383. 7 


Republic Aviation Corporation, Farmingdale, Long Island, 
N. Y ... 




Stearman Aircraft Division (Boeing Aircraft Co.), Wichita, 




Vultee Aircraft, Inc.: 

Nashville, Tenn. (Stinson Aircraft Division) 


Downey, Calif _ 

Vought-Sikorsky Division (United Aircraft Corporation), 


+90.9 






Total _ __ 




22, 170, 304 


+141.9 




Engines: 

Allison Division (General Motors Corporation), Indianapolis, 
Ind 


450, 000 
581,400 


870,000 
860, 400 
800,000 
133, 600 
40,000 

380, 000 

100. 000 

1, 059, 438 

94, 901 

1, 661, 908 
24,000 

3, 405. 000 
1, 694, 320 


+93.3 

+48.0 




Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, Mich. 


Jacobs Aircraft Engine Co., Pottstown, Pa 


44, 660 
35,000 

105, 000 
51, 825 
465, 082 

69, 975 

1, 055, 773 

8,400 

2, 100, 000 






+ 14.3 


Lycoming (Aviation Manufacturing Corporation) Division, 
Williamsport, Pa 


Menasco Manufacturing Co., Los Angeles, Calif 




Packard Motor Car Co., Detroit, Mich 




Ranger Engine Division (Fairchild Engine & Aircraft Corpora- 
tion), Farmingdale, Long Island, N. Y 

Pratt & Whitney Division (United Aircraft Corporation), East 
Hartford, Conn 


+35.6 


Warner Aircraft Corporation, Detroit, Mich 


+185 7 


Wright Aeronautical Corporation: 
Paterson, N. J 




Lockland, Ohio 










Total 


4,967,115 


11,123,567 


+ 123.9 




Propellers: 

Curtiss-Wright Corporation, New Jersev and Pennsylvania 
Hamilton Standard Division (United 'Aircraft Corporation), 
East Hartford, Conn 


220,000 

178, 720 


590, 000 
563, 900 


+168. 2 
+215. 5 






Total 


398. 720 


1, 153, 900 


+189. 4 






14, 530, 265 


34. 447, 771 


+ 137. 1 





2 New plant. 

3 In 1939. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4455 



FUTURE LABOR REQUIREMENTS 

Interest here is focused on the labor aspects of this huge program of plant 
expansion. To execute contracts for $3,500,000,000 worth of military aircraft 
will require an enormously increased labor force. 

A number of estimates of future labor requirements have been made. Many 
are pure guesses, and all are subject to a wide margin of error. The figures pre- 
sented here are for the most part derived from confidential reports from individual 
manufacturing companies. The reports of these companies show the number of 
each model to be made each month and the man-hours of work required to make 
each model. From these data, we have estimated the man-hours which must be 
applied each month to fulfill the scheduled operations. 

Examinations of the accompanying charts (charts 1 and 2) will show that the 
present employment in the aircraft industry is at the highest point ever reached. 
It has risen rapidly and at an almost constant rate for the past 2 years. Not- 
withstanding this, the industry must be pushed at an even greater rate of increase 
if the program is to be executed. The magnitude of the expansion required may 
be seen by contrasting the total employment in the industry in October 1940 
with the estimated total employment for August 1941, when according to present 
commitments of manufacturers, the peak of employment will be attained (table 5) . 
For October of 1940, it is estimated that there were 203,600 workers engaged in 
making air frames, air engines, and propellers. By August 1941 it is estimated 
that the number will be 455,500 workers. In other words, if the industry is to be 
able to deliver according to schedule, it will have to hire and train a quarter of a 
million new workers by August of 1941. 

This expansion may be visualized by translating the increment into monthly 
terms. If the addition were made in equal monthly increments, it would mean 
that 25,000 workers would have to be hired each month from October 31 to and 
including August 31 of next year. On the other hand, if the additions were made 
at a constant rate of growth, that rate would have to be 8.4 percent compounded 
each month from October 1940 to August 1941. 

The translation may be made on a month-to-month basis of the number of men 
required to meet commitments for deliveries. This is shown in table 6 and is 
presented graphically in the accompanying bar chart (chart 3). 

Although it has been estimated that the peak of employment will probably be 
reached during the month of August 1941 with a total of 455,500 in air frame, 
engine, and propeller plants, this is a very conservative figure. It should be 
pointed out that certain other groups of workers in the aircraft industry are not 
included in this total: 



Table 5. — Estimated total employment in the aircraft industry (including sub- 
contractors) 





Air frames 


Engines 


Propellers 


Total 


1940: October 

1941: 


136, 400 

205, 100 
299, 100 
350. 600 
318,300 
290, 100 


56, 500 

64, 500 

76, 000 
91,000 
66. 800 
71, 100 


10, 700 

14, 700 
18,200 
13, 900 
13, 500 
13, 500 


203, 600 

284, 300 


May 

August 


393, 300 
455, 500 
398, 600 




374, 700 







Table 



-Estimate of number of new workers to be hired by the aircraft industry 
each month from October 1940 to August 1941 



1940: 

November 7, 100 

December 26, 700 

1941: 

Januarv 34,800 

Februarv 12, 100 

March 32,900 

April 32,000 



1941— Continued. 

May 

June 

July 

August 



44. 


100 


29, 


500 


16, 


600 


16, 


100 



Total 251,900 



4456 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



ooo O O o o 
oO o o o o o 
-ooo ooo 



^ Z> 

_ < 

h- p 
Ll. l^- 

^ LJ 

ol 
o: f 

— </) 

<; UJ 

x < - 
h- o - 

I— O eg 

I 
CM 

ro 
en 



U. o 

X CD 



5 


|\ 


* 






^ 






































































































































































































1 




























\ \ " 

£ \ V" vJ> 
5 \ \* X? 




















t »«v> \\ \ 
5 2 V \ \ 

I *& V 

8 ^oSY* \* 


\* 












1 


^ 






| 








I5, 


J °H 


















s 


1 



(0 o 
0> 



00 0000 o 



000 0000 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4457 

TOTAL EMPLOYMENT 
N THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY 

ANNUAL AVERAGES 1935-1939 
OCTOBER 1940 AND ESTIMATE FOR AUGUST 1941 



700 



600 



500 



400 



700 



600 



500 




300 - 



200 



100 - 



1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 JM JjW 1942 

UNITED STATES BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 

Chart II 

260370— 41— pt. 11 14 



4458 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4459 

(1) Employment at the Philadelphia Naval Aircraft Factory which, it is esti- 
mated, will reach 5,000 by August 1941. 

(2) Total employment in nonmilitary aircraft and engine factories, such as 
Piper, Taylorcraft, Waco, Rearwin, Aircooled Motors, and others, which, it may 
be assumed, will employ 5,000 in August 1941. 

(3) Employment in accessory manufacturing. While no complete data are 
available, it would appear reasonable on the basis of the number of present 
workers and announced expansion plans to figure on a total of 50,000 by August 
1941. 

(4) New plants now under construction for which no delivery schedules are at 
present available. These include Wright Aeronautical Corporation at Lockland, 
Ohio, and Ford Motor Co., at Dearborn, Mich. At the new Lockland plant, 
the peak employment, estimated now, will be between 12,000 and 15,000 while 
Ford (Pratt and Whitney engine division) will employ about 10,000 workers. 
For this purpose a figure of 25,000 workers in the two plants plus 15,000 others 
on subcontracting, or a total of 40,000 workers, will be assumed. 

This gives a total employment estimate of 555,500 for August 1941. 

Potential additions to present program. — The estimates arrived at above are 
based on the present program only. Because of indications that the United 
States and Great Britain jointly will order 24,000 more bombers, the parts for 
which will be made as far as possible with the existing facilities of the automobile 
industry, this total labor requirement probably will be much below the actual 
employment. 

It is considered probable that 16,000 of the proposed additional planes will be 
medium two-engine bombers and that 8,000 will be large four-engine bombers. 
While the standardization of manufacture should normally result in a material 
saving in labor expended, the haste with which the program will be put into op- 
eration and the pressure for deliveries will probably result in no net saving of 
labor. Earlier talk centered on a 3-year program for these bombers, but now 
this period has been shortened to 2 years. Assuming that production could be 
started by midsummer and continue for 2 years, there would be an average of 
308,000 workers (based on a 40-hour week) at airframe factories or subassembly 
plants. With a greater number of hours per week, the number of workers re- 
quired would be smaller. Under this proposed program, much of the work now 
done at final assembly plants would be done by subcontractors. If the work 
were accomplished on a 40-hour week over a 3-year interval, 205,000 workers 
would be needed. 

The 24,000 additional bombers would require the installation of 64,000 high- 
power engines, with 48,000 engines in reserve, a total of 112,000 engines. If pro- 
duced in 2 years, an output of about 4,700 engines per month would require about 
70,000 workers (based on present working hours). Only 47,000 workers would 
be required if the program were accomplished in a 3-year period. 

To equip 112,000 engines would require at least the same number of propellers, 
together with a proportionate quantity of accessories, so that perhaps 50,000 
more workers (based on present working hours and a 2-year program) would be 
needed in these branches of the industry. 

To further this second program, two new assembly plants are now under con- 
sideration — one at Kansas City which will employ 12,000 workers and the other 
at Omaha which will employ 17,000 workers. The former plant would take the 
subassemblies or completely assembled sections of medium bombers and the latter 
similar parts for large bombers. Sites for several other similar plants are now 
in the process of investigation. 

There is a strong probability that 2 new aircraft-engine plants will be approved 
within the next week. These plants would employ a total of more than 24,000 
workers, with additional thousands on subcontracts. 

The magnitude of the proposed program is such that many workers now engaged 
in the manufacture of automobiles for civilian use will necessarily be transferred 
to aircraft work. To meet the needs of the program, models of bombers and their 
parts have been delivered to Detroit, and manufacturers of automotive material, 
from the biggest units to the smallest shops, are bidding upon the pieces that they 
are best equipped to make. 

LOCATION OF NEW JOBS IN THE AIKCRAFT INDUSTRY 

It is possible to be fairly definite about the greater part of the quarter of a 
million of new workers who will have to be added to the industry by August 
1941. Seventy-five percent of these, or about 190,000 workers, will be required 
at the site of final assembly. Table 7 shows the estimates of the total number 



4460 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



of workers needed in plants of final assembly from October 1940 to February 
1942, classified according to planes, engines, and propellers and arranged bv geo- 
graphical areas. (See chart 4.) Little can be said at this time of the location or 
the character of the 61,000 workers who will be required in plants working on 
subcontracts taken from the original contracting aircraft firms as the identity of 
these plants is not known. There is knowledge, however, of the percent of'the 
work which each firm contracts out to others. These percentages now range from 
1 percent to 32 percent in air frames and from 15 percent to 70 percent in engines. 
In the future, subcontracting percentages are expected to range from 4 percent 
to 40 percent in air frames, but in the production of engines no substantial change 
is anticipated. 

Table 7. — Total employees in plants of final assembly, aircraft industry 





October 
1940 


February 
1941 


May 1941 


August 
1941 


Novem- 
ber 1941 


February 
1942 


Airframes: 

Total, United States (20 plants). 


118,500 
70, 300 
29, 400 
12, 200 
6,600 

33,900 
500 

25, 600 
1,300 
6,500 

5,400 
5,400 


171,800 
109, 000 
32, 500 
15, 300 
15,000 

39,200 
400 

29, 000 
2,200 
7,600 

7,100 
7,100 


242, 100 
119,400 
62, 400 
24, 700 
35, 600 

46, 700 
400 

32, 200 
5,100 
9,000 

8,500 
8,500 


284, 600 
124,600 
81, 100 
31,100 
47, 800 

55,800 
300 
33, 500 
11,900 
10, 100 

7,900 
7,900 


264, 500 
105, 300 
80, 700 
31,000 
47,500 

41. 200 
300 

13,700 
16,600 
10,600 

7,100 
7,100 


242, 800 


Atlantic coast (6 plants) 

Canadian border (2 plants) 


81,300 
31, 000 
49,300 

42,400 


Engines- 
Total, United States (11 plants) 






Canadian border (3 plants) 


18,200 


Propellers: 

Total, United States (2 plants) 


7,100 






Total, United States 


157, 800 


218, 100 


297,300 


348, 300 


312, 800 









LABOR REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPATION 

Merely to estimate the number of employees which will be required to meet 
orders for planes is insufficient; it is necessary also to examine the skills which are 
needed in airplane manufacture. The Bureau of Labor Statistics is now engaged 
in making studies at the individual plants to determine the number of employees 
and types of skills which will be required under the present program. Unfor- 
tunately these figures are not yet available, and it is necessary to draw upon the 
findings of surveys previously made. 

On the basis of a field study made in June 1939 by the Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics, it is estimated that in F the airframe industry skilled workers comprise 41.3 
percent of the total; semiskilled 46.5 percent, unskilled 7.7 percent, and others, 
including clerical, 4.5 percent. In the engine industry 37.4 percent of the workers 
are skilled, 46.6 are semiskilled, 9.9 percent are unskilled, and 6.1 percent clerical 
and other. 

The August 1941 estimate of 348,300 total employees in plants of final assembly 
(table 7) represents an increase of 190,500 over the October employment in air- 
craft factories. On the basis of the Bureau of Labor Statistics survey, it is 
possible to estimate how many of these additional workers will be needed for 
each type of occupation and skill. Table 8 presents these estimates for the 
airframe industry and table 9 presents the corresponding estimates for the engine 
and propeller industry, both for the United States and by regions. Chart 5 shows 
the principal occupations in the order of their importance. 

It is to be noted that these figures cover labor requirements and do not directly 
answer the question as to how workers are to be secured. It is to be assumed, 
for example, that the majority of the 11,300 skilled fuselage, tank, and wing 
assemblers will be recruited from among persons who are at present semiskilled 
assemblers. If this method of upgrading is resorted to, the number of workers 
who will have to be hired directly as skilled assemblers will be reduced by the 
number upgraded from among the semiskilled assemblers. The number to 
be hired as semiskilled assemblers would, therefore, have to be correspondingly 
larger than the 33,700 indicated in table 8. 

No attempt has been made in this memorandum to appraise the methods of 
training which will be used. This is particularly important in understanding the 
absence of information with reference to apprentices. The development of the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4461 





S>* 




1! 


__ 


^*ȣ 




\ !j 


<fr 






J !j 


— r" 




%■ 


i, j! 


\- ^> 






■in |i 

i. ! 


<n z 




\ 'S»»|ffi 


i ! j 


=>o 






1 ^ 


§1= 






J !' 


< O r. 




\ V**}' \ >v 




— o 








>- 0:2 




' «S1 \ vi~\ \ f ^\ 


J*^ S \ 


OD <5h 




\ (••*! \ \\ 7^ \ 1 V, 




<o 








y- or 






1 / "^ 


STR 

INAL 
:onti 




^iv^rrv 


( °* 


3 U-OD 




^_^C St c \ \ -^ 


1 if <°- 


2 O" 1 

_ UJ 






1 S ^ 




v 1 s! s •" 1 


IvS. ►" 2 


UJQ 






3 s ls 


h t3 

U- COo 














< H z 


%\ \ / 




r-^fs lL ma: 


a: < H 


h \y 






Hrt. /ff w IE 


9coi 








^~J > ^ Ul 

*! < is =1 


E AIF 

LOYEE 

DOES 1 














J K 2 u 

^ — i ESS 

1 ^ ^l <i uj a. 

«V • ■ X 




r" 




*1 
























LJ 






5* 






-z. _| 












— < 












ofe 












UJ F 












Q 












UJ 










UJ 










z 










CO / 








cr / 








UJ / 






Y^ 


* / 








q: / 








/ 








<s / 








^ ir 








UJ / 








2 / 






/^"^ j 


ll 




f~^~~~^s' IH&^*^ 




^~-~ 




1 li ' 






AIR FRAMES 



4462 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY 

ADDITIONAL WORKERS NEEDED AT SITE OF FINAL ASSEMBLY 
BY AUGUST 1941, BY PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS* 

OCCUPATION 

GRINDERS 

ASSEMBLERS 

BENCH BURRERS 

DRILLING MACHINE OPERATORS 

LABORERS (Maintenance 8 Direct) 
SUPERVISOR (Foremen, Sua Foremen B AsstJ 

LATHE, TURRET, OPERATORS 

INSPECTORS 

CLERICAL 

TESTERS, ENGINE 

LATHE, ENGINE, OPERATORS 

MILLING MACHINE OPERATORS 

SCREW CUTTING a THREADING 

POLISHERS 

COREMAKERS 

CASTING CLEANERS 

TOOL DESIGNERS 

TOOL MAKERS 

MAINTENANCE 

BAFFLE MAKERS 

PATTERN MAKERS 

ELECTRICIANS 

CARPENTERS a BOX MAKERS 

PAINTERS 

ASSEMBLERS, FINAL 

RIVETERS 

SHEET METAL BENCH HANDS 

METAL BENCH HANDS 8 Bench Mechanics 

LABORERS 

ASSEMBLERS, SUB (Precision Assembler) 

MACHINISTS 

ASSEMBLERS, FUSELAGE 

CLERICAL 

SPRAYERS, PAINTERS a DOPERS 

INSPECTORS 

MECHANICS, UNSKILLED (Helpers) 

ASSEMBLERS, WING 

TOOL MAKERS (Jig a Fixture Builder) 

LEAD MEN 

SHEET METAL MACHINE OPERATORS 

WELDERS 

PATTERN MAKERS 

i 

UNITED STATES BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 




ENGINES 
AND PROPELLERS 



OCCUPATIONS UNDISTRIBUTED TOTALING 6.SX 



Chart V 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4463 



skills indicated will undoubtedly require an increase in apprenticeship as well as 
an active program of upgrading and of adaptation of existing skills. Further- 
more, from time to time methods of production are likely to be adapted to the 
existing labor supply and may lead to a substantial dilution of the labor force. 

Table 8. — Airframe industry — Additional workers needed at the site of final assembly 
by August 1941, by occupation and skill 



Occupation 


Percent 


United 
States 
total 


Pacific 
coast 


Atlantic 
coast 


Canadian 
bolder 


Interior 




100.0 


166, 100 


54, 300 


51, 700 


18, 900 


41, 200 








41.3 


68, 599 


22, 426 


21, 352 


7,806 


17,015 








.3 
4.1 
.3 
2.4 
.2 
(') 
.6 
.9 
.6 
.6 
.3 
.4 
.2 
2.7 

2^0 
4.5 

7.7 
.1 

1.1 
.3 

'.1 
7.9 

.1 

.5 
2.2 

.3 


166 

499 

6,807 

499 

3,984 

332 

33 

995 

1,494 

995 

995 

499 

664 

332 

4,481 

1,161 

3,321 

7,473 

12, 783 
166 
1,826 
499 
166 
166 

13, 117 

166 

830 

3,651 

499 


54 
163 

2,226 
163 

1,303 
109 
11 
325 
488 
325 
325 
163 
217 
109 

1,466 
380 

1,085 

2,443 

4,178 
54 
597 
163 
54 
54 
4,289 
54 
271 
1,194 
163 


52 
155 

2,119 
155 

1,240 
103 
10 
310 
465 
310 
310 
155 
206 
103 

1,395 
361 

1,034 

2,326 

3,980 
52 

568 
155 
52 
52 
4,082 
52 
258 
1,137 
155 


19 

57 
774 
57 
453 
38 
4 
113 
170 
113 
113 
57 
76 
38 
509 
132 
378 
851 

1,454 
19 
208 
57 
19 
19 

1,492 
19 
95 
415 
57 


41 




124 




1,688 




124 




988 




82 




8 




247 




371 




247 


Foremen, assistant, or subforemen 


247 
124 




165 




82 




1,111 


Layout men (template makers) 


288 
824 




1,853 


Metal bench hand and bench me- 


3,171 




41 




453 




124 




41 




41 




3, 254 




41 




206 


Tool makers (jig and fixture builders). 


905 
124 








46.5 


77, 236 


25, 250 


24, 040 


8,789 


19, 157 








20.3 

.1 
.4 

4.5 
.1 
.3 
.9 
.5 
.2 
.2 
.5 
11.1 
.2 
.2 

1.8 
.3 

3.1 

.2 
1.6 


33, 718 

166 
664 

7,475 
166 
498 

1,495 
831 
332 
332 
831 
18, 437 
332 
332 

2,990 
498 

5,149 

332 
2,658 


11,022 

54 
217 

2,443 
54 
163 
489 
272 
109 
109 
272 

6,027 
109 
109 
977 
163 

1,683 

109 
869 


10, 495 

52 
207 

2,328 
52 
155 
465 
258 
103 
103 
258 

5,739 
103 
103 
931 
155 

1,603 

103 

827 


3,837 

19 
75 

850 
19 
56 

170 
95 
38 
38 
95 
2,098 
38 
38 

340 
56 

586 

38 
303 


8,364 


Assemblers, final, instrument me- 


41 


Assemblers, final motor mechanics 

Assemblers, sub (precision assembler) . 


165 
1,854 

41 




124 




371 




206 


Grinder operators and polishers 

Hydraulic press operators 


82 
82 
206 




4,573 




82 




82 


Sheet metal machine operators 


742 
124 




1,277 


Upholsterers (sewing machine opera- 


82 


Welders. _ 


659 


Unskilled employees 


~ 7.7 


12, 790 


4,181 


3,981 


1,456 


3,172 




5.2 
2.5 


8,637 
4,153 


2,824 
1,357 


2,688 
1,293 


983 
473 


2,142 


Mechanics, unskilled (helpers) 


1,030 


Clerical employees 


3.5 


5,814 


1,900 


1,810 


661 


1,443 




To" 


1,661 


543 


517 


188 


413 







» 0.02 percent. 



4464 

Table 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

-Engine and propeller industry — Additional workers needed at the site of 
final assembly by August 1941, by occupation and skill 



Occupation 


Percent 


United 

States 
total 


Pacific 
coast ' 


Atlantic 
coast 


Cana- 
dian 
border 


Interior 




100.0 


24, 400 




10, 400 


10,600 


3,600 








37.4 


9,126 




3,890 


3,964 












.4 
( 2 ) 
.2 
.4 
.1 
2.2 
1.1 
.8 
.5 
5.7 
3.2 
6.1 
.5 
2.8 
.8 
1.2 
.6 
.5 

6.4 

L9 

1.7 
.2 


97 
7 
49 
97 
24 
536 
268 
195 
122 
1,390 
781 
1,488 
122 
683 
195 
293 
146 
122 

1, 561 
24 
463 
414 
49 




42 
3 
21 
42 
10 
228 
114 
83 
52 
593 
333 
634 
52 
291 
83 
125 
62 
52 

666 
10 
197 
176 
21 


42 

3 

21 
42 
11 
233 
116 
85 
53 
604 
339 
647 
53 
296 
85 
127 
64 
53 

678 
11 
201 
180 
21 














7 






14 






4 






79 






40 






29 






18 






205 






115 






220 






18 






100 






29 






43 


Pipefitters 




22 


Platers.. 




18 


Supervisors (foremen, subforemen.and 


230 












68 






61 






7 










46.6 


11,370 




4,846 


4,940 


1,678 










9.4 
1.3 
7.6 
1.1 
7.4 
9.5 
1.1 
2.3 
2.4 
.2 
.2 
4.1 


2,294 
317 

1,854 
268 

1.806 

2,318 
268 
561 
586 
49 
49 

1.000 




978 
135 
790 
114 
770 

114 
239 

250 
21 
21 

426 


996 
138 
806 
117 
784 
1,007 
117 
244 
254 
21 
21 
435 


338 






47 






274 






40 






266 






342 






40 






83 






86 






7 












148 










9.9 


2,416 




1,029 


1,050 


357 










2.0 

.'8 


488 

1,733 

195 




208 
738 
83 


212 

753 
85 


72 






2.56 






29 








Clerical 


4.4 


1,073 




458 


466 












1.7 


415 




177 


180 


61 









1 According to present scheduled production there will be a slight drop in employment in this region. 

2 0.03 percent. 



Labor Requirements Estimated for the Shipbuilding Industry Under the 
National Defense Program as of December 31, 1940 

United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D. C. 

At the end of 1940 the United States Government had under way the largest 
ship-construction program in the history of the Nation. Contracts had been let 
to private shipbuilders or provision made for "force account" construction in 
navy yards of more than $4,749,000,000 worth of vessels. 

This represents merely the work which is definitely projected with reference 
to starting and completion dates. Five battleships, for example, for which funds 
have been appropriated but for which contracts have not yet been awarded, are 
not included. Nor do the figures cover the shipbuilding program for private or 
British account. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4465 

Most of the $4,749,000,000 worth of work has originated under contracts let 
since June 1, 1940. For shipbuilding, however, it is confusing to try to distin- 
guish sharply between work originating before and after the defense' appropria- 
tions were made for the fiscal year 1941 which are frequently described as giving 
rise to the "defense program." For example, in December 1940 work was still 
in progress on $670,000,000 worth of vessels, some of which had been started as 
far back as August 1937 but the bulk of which had been laid down in 1939 and the 
first half of 1940. These earlier contracts are included in the total of $4,749,000,- 
000. Much of the work on these contracts has been completed. In the estimates 
of labor requirements here presented, only that work needed to complete the con- 
tracts has been considered. However, for some months to come the bulk of the 
employment on the construction of Government vessels will be required to com- 
plete work on "predefense" contracts. Through November, work on contracts 
let since June 1, especially for the larger vessels, was still largely at the stage of 
preparatory work in the shops. Month by month, however, as new facilities are 
completed and as vessels are launched and old ways become clear, an increasing 
amount of labor will be required on the later contracts. 

The following analysis of employment requirements for the construction of 
Government vessels, therefore, traces, month by month, the growing demand for 
men for the completion of all definitely projected work, whether it be the comple- 
tion of vessels started several years ago or of vessels provided for in the two-ocean 
navy authorization. 

TYPES OF VESSELS INCLUDED IN THE PROGRAM 

The United States Government ship construction program consists mainly of 
naval vessels but includes some vessels of every type and size. Table 1 (see p. 
4466) shows the number and types of vessels included in the program. The com- 
pletion of the program will require as long as 4 or 5 years. According to the best 
available information, it normally requires from 49 to 55 months to construct a 
battleship and only a slightly shorter period to build an aircraft carrier. These 
periods may be reduced somewhat if two or three shifts are employed in the 
operation of shipyards. 

Before proceeding to a discussion of labor requirements, which need to be seen 
in relation to place as well as time, it is necessary to consider the location of ship- 
yards and the pressure of the program upon shipbuilding and shipyard facilities. 
These facilities are severely taxed and a program for their expansion has been 
adopted to make possible the completion of the work on scheduled time. 

LOCATION OF THE INDUSTRY 

Shipyard facilities are located in ports along the seacoast and the Great Lakes. 
The Atlantic seacoast possesses the greatest number of yards. Tliese extend from 
Maine to South Carolina. The primary concentrations of shipbuilding facilities 
on the Atlantic Coast are located around Boston, New York, Fhiladelphia, and 
Newport News. These four areas were handling more than 60 percent of the 
total Federal shipbuilding program under way at the end of 1940. Table 2 
shows the location of principal shipyards constructing Federal vessels and the 
contract value of this work. In addition, this table presents data on the number of 
vessels under contract, the number of shipways available and in use, and the capac- 
ity of these shipways. 

As may be seen from this table, private shipyards were building 543 of these 
ships at an estimated construction cost of $3,759,000,000. These private yards 
were building 126 cargo vessels for the United States Maritime Commission and 
417 vessels for the United States Navy. United States Navy Yards were handling 
100 vessels, the dollar value of which constitutes approximately 20 percent of the 
total. It must be kept in mind that the major function of the United States 
navy yards is to service, repair, and recondition the fleet. At the present time, the 
navy yards are also engaged in an extensive program of modernizing and refitting 
older vessels of the fleet. 



4466 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table 1. — United States Government vessels under construction in private shipyards 
and United States navy yards 1 as of Dec. 31, 1940 

Number 

Naval vessels: Type of ship 

Battleships 12 

Aircraft carriers 12 

Heavy cruisers 8 

Large cruisers 6 

Light cruisers 40 

Submarines 80 

Destroyers 205 

Destroyer tenders 3 

Minesweepers 11 

Repair ship 4 

Submarine rescue vessel 5 

Submarine tenders 7 

Seaplane tenders 20 

Mine layers 3 

Submarine chasers 62 

Motor torpedo boats 15 

Net layers 4 

Coastal minesweepers 20 

U. S. Maritime Commission: Cargo vessels 126 

Total 643 

1 Does not include 5 battleships which have been allotted to United States navy yards but on which con- 
struction has not yet started. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4467 



llJi 

aj to 



a> © _ o> © v <d c a; u o a> a; a> © qj oi a} 

.£.£2.2 _^£ ££^.£,2 o S^" 2 J> » S ,8 

ox^ooo o o o »o o "* ?i u~ o oc-ic» o 

>> 0.-° >> >» >>>>>>:>>>> 3 m >>>,>» >, >, >> >> 

BfloXl X2 .CO .0.0,0 g ,0,0.0 ,C .CO ,C 

ujooo o oo o 

ncu: >-■: on 



.0.0.0.0 



I l e 






io tc to m r^ w •» now 



=000= OOOOO O OOO OOOO o 

;°o=oo 00000 o =29 §=§0 o 






f!'~=?£§ 5 



£8Q I ~ 



Si S2 



OOOQSw UkmO § 



>« OS 



■ — — -7 



5§.Sff* 



isiM 



_ ^ 

«B2§E 

x:r 1- ts ® 



W 

.ga g£aS m - £•§ 2 

•Ec- ;- i- c £ .= cc^T 



^T 









•="='_ 



ill 



o. o 

;« - 
fl. 



1-1 £§§* «■§ [■££$ 

,§s_g sSS^ ^s ■£!«>.> 



■a 'i 

3 K 



.-=i = 



.O o 



— or; 



1 S'E'P 
=<5 a g j 



§■82 

ego ££.a c c ^oX - -- 
c ^ «f fe > £ 'S. -7 = ■£ - ! 



5 o 



a 
P 



4468 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



I* 8 

(jj CO 



c; »- o 



.O.Q 

oo 



9< "^ 
op 



.CO 
Sg 



I 



■8 S« 



,tc § 



;£3 rot -" 



in ^ 



S :£? 



:q S 






§1 



III II 

cddh me 



."B.»o o 






; yi a * O > . b-. 



-.££-- 



°o5 £ 



. • DD T3 Si 

3 -gas, 



lllil'i 






NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4469 



XlXlX) XIX! .COX* 



883 So ggg 

cotdr-T «> eo WOO 



I! s 

HI s'| ||1 

OflO §« HOW 



Ml 



<1ot Ow> 



O w 

oCQ 

eg 



6S 



g "Ota Wg 






tfpqpqo CM ^?S5 
3h t> 



4470 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



GOVERNMENTAL AID FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF SHIPYARDS AND OTHER FACILITIES 

Table 2 indicates that at the end of 1940 the principal shipyards, private and 
Federal, constructing United States Government vessels had approximately 150 
ways available for the construction of these 643 vessels. Large ships, which take 4 
or 5 years to complete, may occupy the ways for as long as 3 years, while smaller 
ships, such as submarines and destroyers, may be launched less than a year after 
the keel is laid. The number of ways which may be used for any type of vessel is 
further limited by tne over-all length, width, and weight of the ships to be con- 
structed. In some of the private yards the ratio of ships under contract to avail- 
able shipways is as high as 10 to 1. Some of the private yards do rot at the present 
time possess ways on which to start the construction of Federal vessels they have 
contracted to build. It is evident from these data that many private yards will 
have to expand their shipway and other facilities in order to meet scheduled com- 
pletion dates. 

The Federal Government has made extensive capital advances to private ship- 
building concerns to enable them to expand their facilities. Between June 1 and 
December 31, 1940, it had furnished more than $100,000,000 for the expansion of 
private shipbuilding facilities. The recipients of this aid, distributed by regional 
geographic areas, are shown in table 3. Most of the new ways will not be ready 
for use until sometime late in 1941 . 

The United States navy yards are also expanding their capacities, but most of 
their increased facilities are' intended for the servicing and repairing of the fleet. 
Existing shipways have been improved and strengthened, overhead cranes have 
been replaced, and a number of auxiliary facilities such as storage warehouses, 
piers, and machine shops have been added. 

Table 3 — U S. Government advances to expand private shipbuilding facilities, 
June 1 to Dec. 31, 1940 



Company 



North Atlantic: 

Bath Iron Works.. 

Bethlehem Steel Co. (Staten Island) 

Bethlehem Steel Co. (Fore River Yard) 

Cramp Shipbuilding Corporation 

Electric Boat Co 

Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Co_ 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation 

Sun Shipbuilding Co 

South Atlantic: Newport News Ship Building and 
Dry Dock Co 

Gulf: 

Consolidated Steel Corporation.-.- 

Gulf Shipbuilding Co -- 

The Ingalls Shipbuilding Co 

Great Lakes: Manitowoc Shipbuilding Corpora- 
tion -- 

North Pacific: 

Associated Shipbuilders 

Seattle-Tacoma Ship Building Co 

Willamette Iron & Steel Corporation.- 

South Pacific: 

Bethlehem Steel Co. (San Pedro plant) 

Bethlehem Steel Co. (Risdon-Union plant)... 

Los Angeles Ship Building and Dry Dock 

Corporation.. 



Total. 



Bath, Maine 

Staten Island, N. Y. 

Quincy, Mass.. 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Groton, Conn.. 

Kearny, N. J 

Camden, N. J 

Chester, Pa 



Newport News, Va_ 



Orange, Tex 

Chickasaw, Ala_. 
Pascogoula, Miss. 

Manitowoc, Wis. 

Seattle, Wash.. .- 

Seattle, Wash 

Portland, Oreg--- 



San Pedro, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif- 



San Pedro, Calif- 



$2>400,000 
3; 406, 000 

14. 227, 500 

12. 000, 000 
4. 600, 000 
7, 750, 000 

10, 500, 000 
2, 500, 000 

14, 000, 000 

4, 807, 000 
2, 500, 000 
2,000,000 



700, 000 
5, 800, 000 
1,000,000 

4, 006, 000 
14, 562, 000 

850,000 



108, 608, 500 



Number 
of ship 
ways be- 
ing built 



i No new ways being added; old ways being repaired and improved. 

FUTURE LABOR REQUIREMENTS 

The labor requirements of the United States Government shipbuilding program 
is the primary concern in this report. The program under way as of December 
31, 1940, totaled close to $5,000,000,000, and its fulfillment will require a tre- 
mendous expansion in the labor force of the shipbuilding industry. 

Actual employment on the construction of United States Government vessels 
from January 15, 1935, through November 15, 1940, is shown in chart VI. (See 
p 4472.) This chart also shows the estimated employment from December 1940 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4471 



through November 1942. It indicates that employment on Federal ship construc- 
tion increased from January 1935 to July 1936 but declined over the next 2 years 
From September 1938 through November 15, 1940, employment rose steadily! 
the rate of increase being sharper after June 1940 when the present national- 
defense program was instituted. 

Total employment in private shipyards in November 1940 is estimated at 
111,100 wage earners. Of these, 73,000 were employed on the Federal ship- 
building program, the balance on private repair or construction or foreign account. 
The navy yards were employing 123,500 workers, but of these somewhat more 
than half were engaged in maintenance work or in other types of activity such as 
the manufacture of guns in the Washington Navy Yard, airplanes at Philadelphia, 
or torpedoes at Newport. Fifty-three thousand nine hundred were engaged in 
the construction of new vessels. Thus employment on the construction of 
United States Government vessels alone totaled 126,900 workers in November 
1940, approximately 2 times the average number employed in 1939 and more 
than 5 times the number employed in 1935 (chart VII, see p. 4472). 

The present schedule of ship-completion dates will require a continued increase 
in the number of workers to be hired until the peak employment is reached in 
November 1942, when a total of more than 388,000 shipyard workers will be 
required on Government vessels. In other words, employment between Novem- 
ber 1940 and November 1942 will, triple if the present schedule of operations is 
executed. 

The estimates of future labor requirements are based on patterns of employ- 
ment on ship construction developed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from 
reports received on previous Federal ship contracts. Each month reports were 
received from individual shipyards giving the monthly man-hours worked in the 
building of individual ships. From these data were derived the total man-hours 
required to complete the various types of vessels included in the present program. 
From these figures monthly estimates have been derived to accord with the time 
periods called for in the present contracts. The monthly estimates of man-hours 
required were translated into the number of workers required each month to 
complete the program according to schedule. 

Private shipyards working on Government vessels will require a greater num- 
ber of workers under this program than the Federal yards. Estimated employ- 
ment quarterly through 1942, compared with actual employment in November 
1940 in both United States navy yards and private shipyards, is presented in 
table 4. The magnitude of the increase in employment in the United States 
navy yards is much smaller than that in private shipyards. Employment in the 
navy yards ob new vessels is estimated at approximately 90,000 workers by May 
1942, when peak employment should be reached. Private shipyards, which are 
handling a much greater volume of the new \essels and are expanding shipyard 
facilities rapidly, will require 299,000 employees by November 1942. 

Table 4. — Estimated total shipyard employment in the construction of U. & Govern- 
ment vessels 



Month and year 


United 
States 
navy 
yards 


Private 
ship- 
yards 


Total 


Month and year 


United 
States 
navy 
yards 


Private 
ship- 
yards 


Total 


1940 


53, 900 
56, 300 

58, 300 
61, 300 
64, 400 
75, 300 


73, 000 
87,100 

113,900 
147,000 
181, 700 
210, 900 


126, 900 
143, 400 

172, 200 
208, 300 
246, 100 
286, 200 


1942 


81, 100 
90, 800 
86, 100 
89, 700 


237, 300 
279, 500 
297, 000 
298, 700 


318, 400 






370, 300 


1941 


August 


383, 100 
388, 400 


February 

May 

August 

November 







i Actual. 



Employment on the construction of Government vessels in private shipyards 
and in navy yards is estimated to increase from 126,900 workers in November 
1940 to 388,400 by November 1942. This means that there will be required a net 
addition to the labor force of these yards of 261,500 workers. The data contained 
in table 5 and presented in chart VIII (see p 4473) indicate that 174,000 new work- 



4472 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MRJKATION 



4473 



EMPLOYMENT IN PRIVATE SHIPYARDS AND 

U.S. NAVY YARDS ON THE CONSTRUCTION 

OF U.S. GOVERNMENT VESSELS 

ANNUAL AVERAGE 1935- 1939, NOVEMBER 1940 
AND ESTIMATE FOR NOVEMBER 1942 

JMBER OF EMPLOYEES NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 

450,000 i — 1 450,000 



- 400,000 



350,000 



300,000 - 



'50,000 



100,000 




300,000 



250,000 



200,000 



50,000 



50,000 



o 

1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1942 

NOVEMBER NOVEMBER 



U S BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



Chart VII 



200370— 41— pt. 11 li 



4474 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

ers will be needed by the end of 1941 and another 88,000 new workers will have to 
be hired from January to November 1942. If the expansion in the labor force 
were made in equal monthly increments, 11,000 new workers would have to be 
recruited each month from November 15, 1940, through November 15, 1942. 

Table 5.- — Estimated number of new workers to be hired each month- from December 
19A0 to November 1942 in private shipyards arid Vnited States navy yards on the 
construction of U. S. Government vessels 



1940: December -__ 16,500 

1941: 

January.-. 16,800 

February 12,000 

March/ 11,900 

April 4,200 

May 20,000 

June___. 13,600 

July... 15,000 

August.- 9,200 

September 9,700 

October. .. 20,500 

November 9, 900 

December 14,200 



1912: 



January- 
February . 
March. _. 

April 

Mav 



12,500 

5, 500 
21, 900 
15, 200 

14, 800 
June- 10,000 



July- 

August . - 
September. 

October 
November- 
Total 



400 

2, 400 

3, 600 
1.000 

700 

261, 500 



Effect of labor turn-over on new workers required. — The rate al which separations 
occur in the shipbuilding industry will also have an effect on the number of new 
workers to be required. The monthly turn-over rate in shipbuilding plants from 
January 1939 to November 1940 is shown in table 6 and chart IX (see p. 4476). 
The separation in the shipbuilding industry, including quits, discharges, lay-offs, 
and miscellaneous separations totaled 5.27 per 100 workers in November 1940. 
Primarily responsible for this high rate was the "lay-off" rate of 3.37. The separa- 
tion rate "for other causes" totaled only 1.90 per 100 workers employed. It is 
not possible to project the separations into the future to estimate the additional 
workers required from month to month as a result of labor turn-over in the ship- 
building industry. However, the number of workers hired from month to month 
as a result of labor turn-over undoubtedly will be substantial. While this will not 
result in any increase in the total number of workers employed at any one time, it 
does increase the number of new workers that will have to be hired to maintain 
that force." 

Table 6. — Monthly labor turn-over rates (per 100 employees) in private shipbuilding 
yards January 1939 to November 1940 l 



Class of rates and year 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dee. 


Separations: 

Quits: 

1940 

1939 
Discharges: 

1940 — - 

1939. - - 
Lay-offs: 

1940. ._ 

1939 

Total: 

1940 

1939 
























0.83 
.50 

.07 
.08 


0. 76 
.66 

.16 
.08 


1.03 

,3 

.33 

.07 


1.23 
.72 

.30 

.10 


1.00 
.64 

.29 

. 17 


1.14 

.59 

.27 
. 11 


1.21 
.67 

.48 
.21 


1.36 

.78 

.39 

.07 


1.77 
1.35 

.28 
.17 


1.54 

.99 

.37 
.30 


1.65 

.69 

.25 
.09 


11. 75 
" ."69 


3.12 
1.40 

4.02 
1.98 


3. 17 
1.66 

4.39 
2. 40 


3. 65 

1.17 

5.01 
1.97 


6.53 
1.23 

8.00 
2. 05 


4.66 

1.37 

5. 95 

2.18 


3. 89 
1.26 

5.30 
1.96 


3.71 
3.13 

5. 40 

1.(11 


5. 46 

4.17 

7.21 
5. 02 


4.03 
1 . 38 

6.08 
2.90 


2.45 
1.75 

4.36 
3.04 


3. 37 

5.27 
1.66 


".99 
"i~83 


Accessions: 


6.03 

4.66 


6.60 
6.20 


7.04 
1.79 


6.24 
5.10 


6.83 
5. 26 


10. 70 

5.51 


13.00 

7.28 


9.19 
5. 36 


9. 96 
6. 57 


7.86 
4.82 


7.80 
4. 13 




1939 


2.80 



Based on reports from 19 yards with employment of 51,800 in November 1940. 

COVERAGE OF THE EMPLOYMENT ESTIMATES 

11 should be kept in mind thai the estimates of shipyard employment presented 
here are based upon the number of workers required on new United States Govern- 
ment ship construction actually under contract on December 31, 1940. They do 
not include, therefore, the employment required for additional United States 
Government vessels such as the 5 battleships already mentioned or the employ- 
ment required on private or British ship construction porjects. The estimates 
further cover only the employment necessary at the shipyards and do not include 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4475 




Chart VIII 



4476 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4477 



the labor required for the manufacture of steel, machinery, and, in the case of 
naval vessels, armor plate and armaments. The labor required off the site of 
construction is substantial and, in the case of large vessels, may amount to as 
much as 50 percent of the labor needed at the shipyards. The estimates of em- 
ployment for the United States navy yards do not include employment in the 
Washington Navy Yard and the Newport, R. I. torpedo station. These two 
yards, one primarily a gun shop and the other a torpedo plant, employed 17,281 
workers as of November 15, 1940. The estimates also exclude the workers 
employed in repairing, reconditioning, and refitting naval vessels at United States 
navy yards. 

LOCATION OF NEW JOBS IN THE SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRY 

It is possible to estimate fairly accurately where the increases in the future 
shipbuilding employment is likely to occur. Table 7 presents the estimates of 
the total number of workers needed in shipyards from November 1940 to Novem- 
ber 1942, classified according to private shipyards and United States navy yards 
and arranged by geographic areas. Chart X (see p. 4478) based on these data, 
shows the additional workers needed through November 1942, by geographic areas. 
The North Atlantic area, with primary concentration around Boston, New York 
City, and the Philadelphia-Camden industrial areas, will require the largest addi- 
tion to the labor force, namely, 146,000 by November 1942. The increases in the 
South Atlantic area amounting to 38,000 workers will be concentrated in Newport 
News and Portsmouth, Va., and in Charleston, S. C. The North and South 
Pacific coast areas will have to add 64,000 workers by November 1942. The 
Gulf and Great Lakes areas will require only 14,000 new workers on the basis of 
contracts so far awarded. 

Table 7. — Total employment in private shipyards and United Slates navy yardaon 
the construction of United States Government vessels 



Area 


Novem- 
ber 1940 i 


Decem- 
ber 1940 


February 
1941 


May 
1941 


August 
1941 




126, 900 


143, 400 


172, 200 


208,300 








Private shipyards: 

Total United States. . . 


73, 000 


87, 100 


113,900 


147,000 


181, 700 


North Atlantic.- 


52, 300 
9,800 
5,300 
300 
1,300 
4,000 


52, 100 
13, 800 
9,300 
200 
6,100 
5,600 


64, 600 
20, 300 
10, 300 
800 
10,800 
7,100 


81, 500 
26,600 
12,700 
1,300 
14, 100 
10,800 


97,800 
28,500 
12, 100 
3,500 
23, 600 
16,200 


Gulf 




North Pacific 






Federal navy yards: 

Total United States 


53,900 


56,300 


58,300 


61,300 


64,400 






North Atlantic 


36, 700 
9,200 
3.500 
4,500 


37, 400 
9,300 
4,600 
5,000 


38,700 
9,900 
4,600 
5,100 


42,400 
10, 200 
3,600 
5,100 


43,000 
12, 300 




North Pacific 


3,800 










Area 


Novem- 
ber 1941 


February 
1942 


May 
1942 


August 
1942 


Novem- 
ber 1942 


Total United States 


286, 200 


318, 400 


370, 300 


383, 100 


388, 400 






Private shipyards: 

Total United States. 


210, 900 


237, 300 


279, 500 


297,000 


298, 700 




115, 900 
33, 300 
10, 500 
3,600 
25, 200 
22, 400 


134, 600 
32,900 
9,300 
4,300 
26,000 
30,200 


160, 200 
35, 100 
10, 600 
4,400 
31, 600 
37, 600 


170, 400 
38, 200 
12, 000 
3,800 
30, 900 
41, 700 


176, 700 




40, 700 


Gulf 


14,500 




2,800 


North Pacific .... 


27,900 




36, 100 






Federal navy yards: 
Total United States 


75, 300 


81,100 


90, 800 


86,100 


89, 700 








48,500 
15, 700 
4,900 
6,200 


50, 600 
17,600 
5,800 
7,100 


58, 800 
18, 500 
6,300 
7,200 


55,000 
17, 300 
6,900 
6,900 


60, 300 




16, 100 




7,000 




6.300 







4478 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



TT 



^J 



CO cv 


Q * 


CC <J> 


< - 


>GC 


<2 


Z UJ 


. > 


co o 


• z 


o 


_ >- 


O 00 


z 


< CO 


_l 


CO UJ 


Q CO 


CC CO 


< UJ 


£> 


XH 


coz 


Ul 


UJ ? 


H 7- 


£cc 

^ UJ 


CC > 


0. o 


e> 


z ■ 


— CO 


fi-i 


Ul 


fill 


UJ " 


2Z 


co2 


CC 1- 


UJ o 


* 3 


CC CC 


O h- 


*co 


z 


_l o 


< o 


z 


O UJ 


Ef 


Q 


o z 


< Oj 






NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4479 



LABOR REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPATIONS 

The number of workers in each occupation in the quarter of a million new- 
workers to be added by November 1942, arranged according to geographic areas, 
is shown in table 8. These data are shown separately for the private shipyards 
and for the United States navy yards, as the occupational designations employed 
differ slightly. The more important skills required are portrayed graphically in 
chart XI (see p. 4481.) 

Table 8. — Additional workers needed in shipyards for the construction of U. S. 
Government vessels by November 19J+2, by occupations 



Occupation 



United 
States 
total 



North 
Atlantic 



South 

Atlantic- 



Great 

L;ikes 



North 

Pacific 



PRIVATE SHIPYARDS 

Total employees 

Skilled employees 

Anglesmiths 

Blacksmiths 

Boilermakers 

Calkers 

Calkers and chippers 

( Carpenters (shipwrights) . . . 
Coppersmiths 

Coremakers . . 

Cranemen .. 

Drillers . . 

Electricians 

Engineers (stationary)-- ... 

Furnace men 

Galvanbers 

Gas cutters or burners .... 

Joiners 

Loftsmen. 

Machine operators ... 

Machinists 

Molders 

Painters 

Patternmakers 

Pipe coverers and insulators 

Pipe fitters 

Riveters 

Rivet testers 

Rollers and pressmen* 

Sheet metal workers 

Ship fitters 

Ship riggers 

Substation operators 

Template makers — 

Tool and die makers 

Welders, electric 

Welders, gas 

Miscellaneous skilled 

Semiskilled employees 

Bolters-up, first 

Chauffeurs 

Chippers, foundry and other 

Cupola tenders 

Erectors 

Firemen 

Handymen 

Holders-on 

Punchers and shearers 

Red leaders 

Regulators 

Riggers 

Stage builders 

Welders, tack 

Wiremen 

Miscellaneous semiskilled i. 

Unskilled employees 

Helpers 

Janitors 

Laborers 

Rivet heaters 

Rivet passers 

Watchmen 

Miscellaneous unskilled 

Supervisory emplo yees 

1 Includes apprentices. 



1.26 
1.08 
3. 39 
.14 
.20 
.05 
.72 
1.10 
..50 
.26 
10.97 
.30 
2.52 
.52 
.39 
2.40 
.76 
.08 
.08 
3.58 
3.96 
.72 
.09 
.17 
.26 
4.06 
.24 
.21 



430 
678 

1, 130 
181 

5, 982 

3.S14 

1.512 

315 

2, 843 
2, 438 
7. 652 

315 

451 

112 

1,624 

2, 483 

1.130 

586 

24. 759 



1,173 

881 

5.417 

1,715 

181 

181 
8. 079 

L624 
203 



3. 244 

2. 069 
820 
171 

1,542 
1.322 

4, 149 
171 
245 

61 
881 
1, 346 
612 
318 
13.427 
367 

3, 084 
636 
477 



1. 382 
4,847 
881 
110 
208 
318 
4.969 
294 
257 



161 
121 
742 
235 
25 
25 
1,106 
1, 224 
222 



1, 252 
17 
28 
46 
7 

244 

155 
62 
13 

116 
99 

312 
13 
18 
5 
66 

101 

46 

24 

1.009 



53 



202 
21 
21 

952 
1, 053 

192 
24 
45 



2s. :m 



.33 
.43 
.05 
.77 
.11 

6.93 

1.54 
.32 
.26 
.72 
.65 
.94 

1.01 
.16 

6.12 



112 
1,738 

248 
15,641 
3, 476 

722 

586 
1,624 
1,468 
2.121 
2. 279 



3,464 
404 
526 
61 
942 
135 
8.482 
1,885 
392 
318 



1. 151 

1.236 

196 

7,494 



874 
102 
133 

15 
238 

34 

2,141 

476 



25. 33 



57. 170 



S27 



5.53 
.70 
.41 

1.27 
.11 



3S.321 

745 

12, 481 

1.580 



5, 247 
102 

1, 709 
216 
127 
392 
34 



4,517 



4480 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Table 8. — Additional workers needed in shipyards for the construction of U. S. 
Government vessels by November 1942, by occupations — Continued 



Occupation 


Percent 


United 
States 
total 


North 
Atlantic 


South 
Atlantic 


Gulf 


Great 
Lakes 


North 
Pacific 


South 
Pacific 


UNITED STATES ?JAVY YARDS 


100. 00 


35,800 


23, 600 


7, 000 






3,500 


1,700 












61.25 


21, 925 


14, 455 


4,287 






2,143 


1,040 












.04 

.48 
.55 

1.25 
.13 
. 09 
.15 

1.91 
.05 
.58 
.05 

1.04 
.61 
.06 

1.74 

4.66 
.50 
.08 
.19 
.48 
.07 
.04 
.31 
.04 

. 11 
.43 
.11 

1.22 
.56 

2.00 
17.46 
.05 
.04 
.09 

1.13 
.31 

1.76 
.72 

2. 16 

.57 
.08 
1.32 
.30 
.33 
.16 
3. 51 
3.63 
1.46 
.67 
.08 
.04 
.09 
4.12 
.62 
.33 


14 

173 

196 

449 
46 
31 
54 

682 
IS 

206 
18 

373 

220 
21 

622 
1.667 

178 
29 
67 

173 
25 
14 

111 
14 

38 

155 
40 
438 
199 
715 
6, 250 
18 
14 
31 
404 
111 
629 
257 
248 
774 
205 
29 
472 
108 
119 
58 
1,257 
1,303 
523 
239 
29 
14 
32 
1,474 
222 
119 


9 

115 

130 

296 
30 
20 
35 

450 
12 

136 
11 

244 

145 
14 

411 
1.100 

117 
19 
44 

115 

9 
75 
9 

25 
103 

27 
288 
131 
471 
4.120 

12 
9 

20 
266 

73 
414 
170 
165 
510 
135 

19 
312 

71 

78 

38 
828 
859 
345 
158 

19 
9 

21 
972 
146 

78 


3 

33 
38 
88 

9 

6 
11 
133 

3 
40 

4 
75 
42 

4 
121 
325 
35 

6 
13 
33 

5 

21 
3 

8 
31 

8 
86 

140 

1,222 

4 

3 

6 

79 

22 

123 

50 

49 

151 

40 

6 

92 

21 

23 

11 

246 

255 

102 

47 

6 

3 

6 

288 

43 

23 






1 

17 
19 
44 
5 
3 
5 
67 
2 
20 
2 
36 
22 
2 
60 
163 

3 

17 
2 

11 
1 

3 
15 

4 
43 
20 
70 
611 

1 

3 

40 
11 
62 
25 
24 
76 
20 
3 
46 
11 
12 
6 
123 
127 
51 
23 
3 
1 
3 
144 
22 
12 


1 








8 
















21 








2 


Buffers and polishers 






2 






3 


Calkers and drippers, iron.. 






32 






1 








10 








1 


Coppersmiths.... 






18 






11 








1 








30 








79 


Enginemen, hoisting 

Enginemen, locomotive 

Enginemen, power 












j 






3 






S 
















1 








4 








1 


Furnacemen, foundry and 






2 








6 








1 








21 








9 








34 








297 








1 








1 








2 








19 








5 








30 








12 


Pipe coverers and insulators^ 






10 






37 








10 








1 








22 








5 








6 








3 








60 








62 








25 








11 








1 








1 








2 








70 








11 








6 












27.50 


9,846 


6,490 


1,926 






963 


467 












24.38 
.29 
.14 
.48 
.08 
2.13 


8,728 
103 

50 
172 

29 
764 


5, 754 
68 
33 
113 
19 
503 


1,707 
20 
10 
34 
6 
149 






853 
10 

5 
17 

3 
75 


414 








5 








2 








g 








1 








37 












7.75 


2,775 


1.829 


542 






271 


133 












7.75 
3.50 


2,775 
1,254 


1,829 
826 


542 
245 






271 
123 


133 








60 














261,500 


146,000 


37,900 


9,200 i 4.500 


30, 100 


33, 800 













i Includes apprentices. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4481 



ADDITIONAL SKILLED WORKERS NEEDED 
IN SHIPYARDS ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF 
U.S. GOVERNMENT VESSELS. BY NOV. 1942 



PRIVATE SHIPYARDS 

PERCS 

5 10 15 



MACHINISTS 
WELDERS, ELECTRIC 




SHIP FITTERS 




SHEET METAL WORKERS 




ELECTRICIANS 




CALKERS AND CHIPPERS 




PAINTERS 




PIPE FITTERS 




CARPENTERS (Shipwrights) 




CRANEMEN 




JOINERS 




DRILLERS 




RIVETERS 




SHIP RIGGERS 




GAS CUTTERS OR BURNERS 




COPPERSMITHS 




PATTERN MAKERS 




LOFTSMEN 




BOILERMAKERS 


UNDISTRIBUTED TOTALING 6.89% 


OCCUPATION I 


J. S. NAVY YARDS 


MACHINISTS 
ELECTRICIANS 




WELDERS, ELECTRIC 




SHIP FITTERS 




SHEET METAL WORKERS 




PIPE FITTERS 




MACHINE OPERATORS 




PAINTERS 




DRILLERS 




SHIPWRIGHTS 




RIGGERS 




BOILERMAKERS 




JOINERS 




MOLDERS 




COPPERSMITHS 




PATTERN MAKERS 




PIPE COVERERS 


■ 


TOOL MAKERS 


■ 


WELDERS, GAS 


■ 

UNDISTRIBUTED TOTALING 15.54%. 


CRANEMEN. ELECTRIC 



UNITED STATES BUREAU Of LAPOR STATISTICS 



Chart XI 



4482 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

An inventory of defense labor supply made by the Social Security Board indi- 
cates the number of unemployed skilled workers' seeking employment in the ship- 
building industry at the present time. This inventory is based on workers 
registered with i,500 State employment offices. According to this report the 
number of registrants for shipbuilding employment was relatively insignificant. 
Less than 2,400 skilled shipyard workers were registered with State employment 
offices on November 23, 1940. This number amounts to less than 2 percent of 
the additional skilled workers estimated as needed in shipbuilidng by November 
1942, as a result of the United States Government's shipbuilding program. Of 
course, it may be possible to draw upon skilled workers in other industrial groups, 
such as construction, to meet some of this need. A substantially larger number 
of skilled workers in the construction industry were registered with local employ- 
ment offices in November. A number of these workers, such as riveters and steam 
fitters, might be utilized by the shipbuilding industry. 

The shipbuilding industry will be faced with a tremendous problem in obtaining 
the necessary skilled workers. This need will undoubtedly be met in part by 
"upgrading"' and by adaptation of existing skills. However, the major part of the 
labor force will have to be recruited from the outside. The shortage of available 
•skilled workers in this industry is such that most of the new workers will require 
careful selection and extensive training before they can be utilized effectively in 
the shipbuilding program. 

TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS— Resumed 

Because of this concentration of employment in plants that can 
accept prime contracts, the active development of subcontracting is of 
great interest to those who are concerned with migration. The more 
heavily we rely on prime contractors to do all the work, the more 
migration will be necessary. So far as possible we should aim to take 
the work to locations in which we now find workers and equipment 
rather than to draw workers from great distances to new facilities. 

The national defense program is in fact generating two different 
kinds of migratory movements. The construction of army canton- 
ments and of military and naval bases in areas of sparse population 
has made it a necessity to assemble construction workers from distant 
points. By way of example, consider what has happened at Corpus 
Christi. In connection with a $24,000,000 contract for the construc- 
tion of a naval air station and housing units there, a force of construc- 
tion workers was built up from July to the peak in January, when 
8,599 workers were employed. Now, as the work approaches comple- 
tion, men are being released. In February over 2,000 jobs were 
terminated. 

This migration of construction workers has involved assembling 
people for relatively short jobs. Many of the army cantonments were 
started in the late fall and are scheduled for completion this spring. 
When the construction job is finished, the particular workers who have 
been involved will have to seek employment in new locations. This 
type of migration will be less important next year than it has been this. 
It has produced intense misery, because of the need for building before 
facilities for the construction workers were provided. The situation 
in some places has been made much worse by over-migration. Many 
families are now stranded who did not get jobs. 

The Employment Service is equipped to route such workers to jobs 
in the numbers needed. Working with the unions, a rather good job 
of recruiting was done at Camp Blanding, in Florida, though living 
conditions were bad, due to the pressure of the huge work force on 
inadequate community resources. The Employment Service is now 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4483 

meeting with some success in North Carolina in routing workers from 
one construction-job that is finishing to another yet to be done. 

INDUSTRIAL JOBS LAST LONGER 

Industrial expansion, on the other hand, involves a more permanent 
settlement of workers. Their employment will last at least for the 
period of the defense program. This is already projected in dimen- 
sions which assure employment for several years. 

I am submitting for the consideration of the committee a report 
prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics on the migration of skilled 
labor in the shipbuilding industry. 

(The report above referred to is as follows:) 

Migration of Skilled Labor in the Shipbuilding Industry 

An examination of the applications filed by 2,546 skilled workers hired recently 
in Atlantic coast shipyards reveals that two-thirds (65.7 percent) of them were 
obtained locally. (See table 1.) "Locally" means that the individual, at the 
time of filing application, was from the State wherein the shipyard is located. 

T\ble 1. — Skilled employees hired during the last 6 months of 1940 in selected 
Atlantic coast 1 shipyards classified according to geographical location at time of 
filing application 

Location: PeTcent 

Locally 65.7 

Adjoining States — 17. 

Other East Coast States 8. 2 

Central States 4. 9 

Miscellaneous 2 -9 

Not reported 3. 3 

Total 100.0 

1 The sample consisted of 2,54(1 workers hired at the following yards: Boston Navy Yard; Electric Boat Co., 
Groton, Conn.: New York Shipbuilding Co., Camden, N. J.: Sun Shipbuilding Co., Chester, Pa.: Mary- 
land Dry Dock Co., Baltimore, Md.; Newport News Shipbuilding Co., Newport News, Va. 

2 Including the Mountain States, Pacific states, Canal Zone, Honduras, and Venezuela.' 

The study was made during the latter part of 1940 by representatives of the 
Bureau of tabor Statistics in six shipyards on the Atlantic coast located between 
Boston, Mass., and Newport News, Va. One of the purposes of the study was to 
determine the geographical source of skilled workers hired since the shipbuilding- 
expansion program had gotten under way. 

Ordinarily over 50 percent of all workers in a shipyard are skilled. Under the 
tremendous expansion that is taking place in the industry, however, this per- 
centage will be considerably lessened. The skilled force will of necessity be diluted 
and the duties of certain skilled classifications will be broken down so that the 
job once done by a skilled worker will be performed by several people of lesser skill. 

Where most of the shipyards are located, there are usually other defense in- 
dustries that are also expanding their personnel. The peak of employment in the 
shipbuilding industry will not be reached until late 1942 or early 1943. It is 
logical to conclude, therefore, that the shipyards will continue to draw personnel 
from outside of their communities and may reach farther afield to obtain their 
personnel than this study indicates they have been doing. 

The Bureau of Employment Security of the Federal Security Agency has made 
studies recently in a few of the metropolitan areas as to the anticipated future 
labor requirements for defense work and the availability of such labor. A brief 
summary of their findings in the areas where ship construction is a factor appears 
in table 2. 



4484 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table 2. — Anticipated future labor requirements for defense work and the avail- 
ability of such labor in cities where shipbuilding's a factor 





Additional 
workers 
required 


Date needed 


Number of workers 


Location 


Available 

locally 

within the 

commuting 

area 


To be 
brought in 


Atlantic coast: 


1,000 

5,000 

4,500 

168,000 

104,000 

5,850 
2,500 
2,600 

22,000 
12,000 
1,800 


September 1941 ... 

October 1941 

December 1941 

do... 

do - 

do 

May 1941 


200 

1,200 

3,000 

108, 000 

74,000 

3, 050 

500 

2,000 

13,000 

2,000 

900 


800 




800 




1,500 




60,000 




30,000 


Gulf coast: 


2,800 




2,000 




December 1941 

do 

May 1942 


600 


West coast: 


9,000 


Vallejo, Calif 


10,000 




February 1942 


900 







•Source: Bureau of Employment Security. 

TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS— Resumed 

Mr. Hinrichs. An examination of applications filed by more than 
2,500 skilled workers recently hired in Atlantic coast shipyards 
reveals that somewhat more than one-third of the workers came from 
States other than that in which the shipyard is located. Shipyards 
are usually located where other defense industries are also expanding 
their personnel. The peak of employment in the shipbuilding industry 
will not be reached until late 1942 or early 1943. We must expect, 
therefore, that shipyards will continue to draw personnel from outside 
of their communities and may reach farther afield to obtain their 
personnel than they have been doing. 

In discussing probable migration to specific communities, great 
care must be exercised lest the statement itself produce useless migra- 
tion. There is grave danger that the mere statement that workers 
will be needed from outside any given community will precipitate a 
flood of jobseekers to that community. We must remember that 
there are still large numbers of unemployed. The census reports 
for March 1940 indicated about 5,100,000 people seeking work. 
There were about 2,900,000 on various emergency work projects, 
without counting the N. Y. A. student work program. In addition 
to these unemployed workers there are also large numbers of workers 
"backed up" on the farms, who will be drawn into industrial employ- 
ment when the opportunity affords. Since then we have drawn 
somewhat more than 2% million people into nonagricultural employ- 
ment or into the military forces. There has probably been a net 
increase in the working population. We may safely assume that 
unemployment has been reduced by about 2,000,000 over the year, 
but that there are still at least 6,000,000 persons unemployed. 

Under these conditions any indiscriminate advertising of job 
opportunities is likely to produce a flood of applicants. America is a 
Nation on wheels. Wherever jobs are available, men will find a way 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4485 

to get there. The need is for skilled workers or for men with experi- 
ence in the operation of machines in the defense industries. By and 
large, there is no justification at the present time for a large migration 
of unskilled workers. 

We shall need a guided migration of many thousands of workers to 
man defense industries. But it must be guided. Mr. Knudsen has 
addressed a letter to holders of defense contracts, requesting them 
not to engage in recruiting activities outside of their own communities, 
and not to advertise for workers, whether locally or otherwise, with- 
out first consulting the Employment Service. The Employment 
Service is the only agency in the country with facilities to guide this 
movement so that the number of workers brought to a community 
will approximate the number needed. 

At the present time any widespread advertisement of a prospective 
need for workers induces a migratory movement many times as large 
as that which is justified by the prospective economic development. 
Furthermore, we need at this time to make plans for the supply of 
workers which will be needed in various communities by the end of 
this year. A statement at this time that a certain number of workers 
will be needed at some time in the future is likely to induce an immedi- 
ate movement of jobseekers who will have to wait for many months 
before the prospective jobs actually develop. 

I point this out at some length because I do not wish my subsequent 
statements to lead people to go, for example, to San Diego, Seattle, 
or Wichita, looking for work. Unless they move after learning of 
job openings from the Employment Service or the prospective em- 
ployer, they are more likely than not to be sadly disappointed. Only 
a truly skilled worker — a craftsman — has a good chance of being 
employed at the factory gates. The need for craftsmen is so great 
that they need not travel in the hope of getting a job. They can 
now arrange to be offered a definite job opening before they leave 
home. 

With these qualifications I submit a memorandum on labor require- 
ments in Wichita, Kans. 

(The memorandum above referred to is as follows:) 

LABOR NEEDS IN WICHITA, KANS. 

To meet the scheduled operations of airplane manufacturers in Wichita, Kans., 
an additional 10,000 workers will be needed by the end of 1941. Of these, about 
33 percent will need to be skilled and about 51 percent semiskilled. Professional, 
clerical, and maintenance employees will account for slightly over 7 percent of the 
total, and the remaining 9 percent will be unskilled workers. The strain which 
such a demand for new workers will put on the local labor market can readily be 
seen when this is compared with the situation in 1937. At that time, all manu- 
facturing industries in the whole State of Kansas employed only 34,000 wage 
earners, of whom slightly over 4,000 were employed in Wichita. 

The airplane plants in Wichita have more than trebled their employment since 
last summer. At the end of May 1940, they employed a total of about 1,500 
people; by the first of this year, employment was up to 4,700. 

Of the men hired since last June only a third had worked in airplane plants. 
Almost half had had neither experience nor training directly connected with 
aircraft, and many of them were drawn from nonmanufacturing industries. About 
20 percent had had some vocational training in preparation for their jobs. Wichita 
has a first-class refresher training program capable of turning out about '300 semi- 
skilled workers per month, but the local supply of eligible applicants is running low. 



4486 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

The distribution of employees by skill, both at the January level of operations 
and as anticipated at the 1941 peak, is shown in the following table: 





January 1941 


1941 peak 


Additional require- 
ments 




Number of 
employees 


Percent 


Estimated 
number of 
employees 


Percent 


Estimated 
number of 
employees 


Percent 




4,733 


100.0 


15, 207 


100.0 


10, 474 


100.0 






Skilled 


2, 013 

1,365 

421 

277 
514 
143 


42.5 
28.8 
8.9 
5.9 
10.9 
3.0 


5,434 

6,688 

1,379 

444 

961 

301 


35.7 
44.0 
9.1 
2.9 
6.3 
2.0 


3,421 
5, 323 

958 
L67 

447 
158 


32.7 




50.8 


Unskilled 


9.1 




1.6 




4.3 




1.5 







The local supply of professional, semiprofessional, skilled, and certain semi- 
skilled workers has been practically exhausted; the State supply nearly so. The 
men who have been hired since last June have been mostly drawn from Kansas, 
Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, and Missouri. In January there were registered 
in the State employment offices of these five States about 2,500 men who had had 
experience in aircraft or in other industries requiring comparable skills and 
another 1,500 in the neighboring States of Iowa and Arkansas. 

It is probable that between 6,000 and 7,000 workers, principally technical, 
skilled, and semiskilled, will have to be brought into Wichita from beyond the 
commuting area during the next 7 or 8 months. Many of these, especially the 
technical and skilled workers, will have to come from other States. 

TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS-- Resumed 

Mr. Hinrichs. In this city [Wichita, Ivans.] manufacturers antici- 
pate a need for more than 10,000 additional workers before the end of 
1941. The magnitude of this demand can best be visualized by com- 
paring it with manufacturing employment in 1937. At that time all 
manufacturing industries in Kansas employed only 34,000 wage earn- 
ers, of whom slightly over 4,000 were employed in the city in question. 
The airplane plants in this city have more than quadrupled their em- 
ployment since last summer. At the end of May 1940 they employed 
a total of about 1,500 people, and by the beginning of this month em- 
ployment was up to 6,100. The city has a first-class refresher train- 
ing program capable of turning out about 300 semiskilled workers per 
month. In the locality the supply of eligible applicants for training- 
is running low. 

The magnituce of the migratory movement depends entirely upon 
the way in which the program is handled. If the need for workers in 
this community is broadcast without careful qualification, a large 
migration may be induced to a community which has already made 
plans for covering its labor requirements. 

Two Areas on Coast 

1 present similar detail for two industrial areas on the Pacific coast 
that have been drawing heavily on workers from outside of the areas 
in I he pasl and will undoubtedly continue to do so. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 44£7 

(The first of the two prepared analyses above referred to is as 
follows :) 

LABOR NEEDS IN SEATTLE-TACOMA 

More than 30,000 additional workers will be required by the end of 1941 in the 
aircraft and shipbuilding industry in the Seattle-Tacoma industrial area as a 
result of expanded production schedules. In the aircraft industry, most of the 
additional workers will be needed on the assembly line where newly hired workers 
are required to have only slight experience and preliminary training. In the 
shipyards, almost half of the additional jobs will require skilled workers, about 
30 percent semiskilled, and about 20 percent unskilled. 

An indication of the significance of this demand on the labor market is gained 
by comparing it with total factory employment in the area, including those working 
in one of the navy yards. In 1937 this total was 43,200 for such wage earners. 
By January 1941 this total had risen to 59,800, an increase of almost 40 percent. 
The anticipated increase during 1941 in aircraft and shipbuilding alone will raise 
total employment in factories in the area to over twice the 1937 level. This 
estimate makes no allowance for increased employment in trade and service 
establishments nor in other manufacturing industries. 

Against this picture of demand for additional workers, we find the supply of 
skilled and semiskilled workers in the local market practically exhausted. In 
the entire State of Washington less than 1,500 persons were registered on the 
active file of the State employment service in defense occupations in January 1941. 

In cooperation with the employment service and vocational school authorities, 
an adequate training program appears to be under way to fill the aircraft plant 
requirements, provided that a sufficient supply of trainees is available. A training 
school is being conducted jointly by the United States Navy and the State depart- 
ment of vocational education for the navy yard. Practically all personnel for 
the navy yard is being secured through civil service and, up to now, it has been 
possible to fill all job openings with the exception of shipfitters and loftsmen. 

The aircraft industry, in this area, expects no great difficulty in finding sufficient 
applicants to train through the vocational courses. The supply is maintaining 
itself because of a continuous influx of job seekers from other areas. The greatest 
difficulties will be faced by the shipyards in recruiting the needed skilled and semi- 
skilled workers. Here we may expect a sizeable in-migration of workers. 

TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS— Resumed 

Mr. Hinrichs. The Seattle-Tacoma area lias both an aircraft and 
shipbuilding industry. Production schedules in these two industries 
call for an additional 30,000 workers by the end of 1941. In 1937 
total factory and shipbuilding employment in the area was 43,200; 
by January of 1941 this total had risen to 59,800. The increases 
projected for 1941 will raise this total to twice the 1937 level. 

The supply of skilled and semiskilled workers in the local market 
has been practicaUv exhausted. The aircraft industry expects to be 
able to find sufficient trainees for vocational courses. The supply 
of such workers is maintaining itself because of a continuous influx 
of job seekers from other areas." Greater difficulty will be encountered 
by the shipyards in recruiting skilled and semiskilled workers. It 
will probably be necessary to call upon workers from outside areas. 

The training program 'developed through the cooperation of the 
Employment Service and the various vocational schools appears to be 
adequate to cover the aircraft requirements. The navy yard is 
conducting a training school. The navy yard personnel is being 
recruited through civil service and up to now it has been possible to 
fill all job openings with the exception of shipfitters and loftsmen. 

The second Pacific coast city, with reference to which I am sub- 
mitting a separate memorandum, is San Diego. 



4488 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

(The memorandum above referred to is as follows:) 

LABOR NEEDS IN SAN DIEGO 

Approximately 20,000 additional workers will be required by aircraft plants in 
San Diego, Calif., within the next 12 months. About 60 percent of the jobs will 
call for semiskilled workers, about 15 percent skilled, and 25 percent unskilled. 
Practically all of the skilled and semiskilled will have to be brought into the area 
from other parts of the State or from outlying States, since there are currently 
available almost no qualified workers in the area. The aircraft companies expect 
to recruit as much as 50 percent of their labor needs in the Middle West and 
Eastern States. 

Total factory employment in San Diego in 1937 was 7,400. By January 1941 
employment had increased one and one-half times, to more than 19,000.' The 
anticipated increase in aircraft plants during 1941 is equal to the present total 
factory employment in the area. 

In addition to four aircraft plants, new plants which will begin production 
shortly include an airplane-engine plant, a parachute factory, and a plant for the 
production of self-sealing gasoline tanks. These new plants will further increase 
the pressure on the local labor market. 

At the end of January there were only 581 persons in the area registered with 
the employment service as qualified and available for placement in defense occu- 
pations. Less than half were qualified for jobs in aircraft production. Nine 
unions of skilled workers in this city report only 12 of their 4,900 members unem- 
ployed. 

Training facilities in the area can make available 13,000 workers during the 
year if an adequate supply of labor for training purposes can be recruited. Actu- 
ally, the present supply of trainees will be exhausted by the end of March and 
future trainees will have to be imported. 

Specific shortages exist in supervisory and in certain skilled occupations — 'ma- 
chine operators, sheet-metal workers, and inspectors principally. The continuous 
influx of job seekers from, other areas has been sufficient up to the present to meet 
the demand for semiskilled and unskilled workers. It is entirely likely that as 
many as 15,000 workers will have to be brought into this area within the next 12 
months. 

TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS— Resumed 

Mr. Hinrichs. This city [San Diego, Calif.] is more heavily de- 
pendent upon the aircraft industry. Within the next 12 months, it 
is anticipated that 20,000 additional workers will be required. Total 
factory employment in this city in 1937 was 7,400 and by January 
1941 had increased to 19,000. 

In addition to four aircraft plants, new plants which will begin 
production shortly include an airplane engine plant, a parachute 
plant, and a plant for the production of self-sealing gasoline tanks. 

The area has been drawing heavily upon workers who have come 
in from other parts of the State or from outlying States, and will 
probably continue to do so. I understand that they are planning to 
cover as much as half of their labor needs in the Middle West and 
eastern States. The training facilities in tin 1 area can make avail- 
able about 13,000 workers during the year if an adequate supply of 
labor for training purposes can be recruited. It appears that by the 
end of March it will be necessary to bring future trainees to this area 
from other parts of the State or do the training elsewhere and import 
the workers. 

I am further submitting for the consideration of the committee a 
brief memorandum dealing with labor requirements in Washington, 
D. C. 

(The memorandum above referred to is as follows:) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 44gg 

LABOR NEEDS IN WASHINGTON, D. C. 

More than 30,000 workers were added to the Federal pay roll in the District of 
Columbia in the 8 months, May 1940 to January 1941. This brought Federal 
civilian employment in the District, including the executive, legislative, and 
judicial services, to 165,000. In addition, there were in the District in January 
close to 4,000 military officers and over 6,000 enlisted men. 

No very statisfactory estimates of future needs can be compiled because of the 
fact that the personnel needs of defense agencies are contingent upon so many 
unforeseeable developments. The current picture changes very rapidly by reason 
of pending legislation and other factors affecting the defense program. The 
latest estimates that have been made on the basis of programs now approved 
indicate that 14,500 additional civilian employees will have been hired by defense 
agencies in Washington between February 1 and June 30 of this year, and that 
another 12,300 will be taken on during the fiscal year ending June 1942. The 
distribution of these employees by agency is shown in the table below. 



\.gencj 


Estimated number of new- 
positions 


Feb. 1 to 
June 30, 1941 


July 1, 1941, 

to June 30, 

1942 


All agencies 


14, 458 


12,283 


Navy Depart menl 


6,100 


6,000 


Navy yard L . ._. 

Other .. 


4,000 
2,100 


4,000 
2,000 








4, 732 
3,626 


2,712 
3, 571 











1 Includes naval torpedo station at Alexandria. 

Except for the navy-yard workers, the bulk of these employees will fall in the 
lower CAF grades, with salaries ranging from $1,440 to $1,800 per annum. On 
the basis of the personnel needs of the War and Navy Departments, the average 
(median) salary of all new departmental employees will be about $1,568 per year. 
It is not unlikely that two-thirds of these employees will be women. The per- 
sonnel needs of the navy yard are predominantly for skilled and semiskilled men. 
Skilled employees, with annual incomes between $2,000 and $2,600, will account 
for probably half of the total. 

The Census Bureau will be releasing employees, but these will probably no 
more than balance unforeseen additions in other defense agencies. 

Because of the apportionment provisions of the Civil Service Act the majority 
of the new personnel taken on by the defense agencies come from outside the com- 
muting area of Washington. The Washington Navy Yard and the naval torpedo 
station at Alexandria, as part of the field service, are not subject to the apportion- 
ment provisions, but the local supply of qualified personnel has been exhausted. 
They have experienced much difficulty in recruiting the 200 workers per week 
which they planned to hire, and about three-quarters of those taken on in recent 
months have come from outside the District. 

By June of this year the increase in Federal workers will have raised employ- 
ment in the District by more than 10 percent. The consequent boost in popula- 
tion in Washington and its immediate vicinity in turn creates a demand for more 
workers in retail trade and the various service fields. These workers, however, 
will probably be available within the commuting area. 

TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS— Resumed 

Mr. Hinrichs. It appears that about 14,500 civilian employees will 
be needed by defense agencies between February 1 and June 30 of 
this year, and another 12,300 will be taken on during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1942. A substantial proportion of these new employ- 
ees will be women. Because of the apportionment provision of the 
Civil Service Act, the majority of the new personnel taken on by the 
defense agencies must come from outside the commuting area of 

260370— 41— pt. U 16 



4490 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Washington. While the Washington Navy Yard and the Naval 
torpedo station at Alexandria, Va., are not subject to the apportion- 
ment provisions,' they also will have to hire Workers from outside the 
District. About three-quarters of those taken on in recent months 
have come from outside this area. 

Finally, I am submitting for the consideration of the committee a 
memorandum on labor turn-over in the aircraft industry, to illustrate 
the relationship between the labor turn-over and migration. Similar 
studies might be prepared for other industries. 

(The memorandum is as follows:) 

Labor Turn-Over in the Aircraft Industry as a Factor in Interstate 
Migration of Workers 

The key industry in the defense effort, aircraft manufacture presents a striking 
example of internal migration of workers, induced by defense expansion. Em- 
ployment within the aircraft industry, exclusive of those plants making only 
aeroengines and propellers, mure than doubled in 1939 and again in 1940. By 
October 1941, it is expected to be about 10 times as great as. at the beginning of 
1939. Wage earners totaled 25,000 in January 1939, 64,000 in January 1940, 
and 141,000 in January 1941, and by October 1941 should reach approximately 
250,000.' 

This enormous expansion has presented serious problems in the procurement 
of adequate labor forces. In the early stages, skilled workers were obtained 
with little difficulty among the unemployed or underemployed of the industrial 
areas. Later, skilled technicians were absorbed from other industries. 

Quit rates — the number of voluntary separations per 100 employees on the 
pay roll — began to rise substantially during the last quarter of 1939. The chart 
shows a steady increase in quit rates until September 1940. They declined 
during the next 3 months but again advanced in January 1941. 

The quit rate for the industry (see table 1) amounted to only 72 per 10,000 
workers employed in January 1939. It has now risen to 244, the highest for 
any of the defense industries. A year ago, when the quit rate was 138, it signi- 
fied that onlv about 900 employees were leaving their jobs voluntarily each 
month. In January 1941 with both a larger number of workers and a higher 
quit rate nearly 3,500 workers were quitting aircraft plants each month pre- 
sumably to find jobs in other plants within the industry. Actually, at the present 
time, one in every four persons taken onto the pay roll is to replace a quit. 

Table 1. — Employment, earnings, and labor turn-over in the aircraft industry 



January 

1939 



Total wage earners 25, 200 

Average weekly hours H.7 

Average hourly earnings (cents) 76.8 

Average weekly earnings. - \ $31. 61 

Quil rate « 0.72 



January 

1940 


January 

1941 


Estimated 
maximum, 

1941 


63, 700 


HO. 91 Ml 

44.7 

77. 6 

$34. 13 

2. 44 


' 250,000 


71.1 




$29. 21 
1.38 





i Excluding subcontractors, aircraft engines, and parts and accessories. 
' Kate per 100 employees on pay roll. 
Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

Karnings of aircraft workers have improved. On the average, hourly earnings 
are 77.6 cents or 2.5 cents higher than a year ago. Hours have increased from 
41.5 to 44.7 and weekly earnings from $29.21 to $34. 13. 2 These industry aver- 
ages, however, fail to point up the intense competition for workers and its effect 
on t he earnings of individual workers. The expansion is only possible by a rapid 
up-grading of workers within the industry. Plants that are not equipped to 
advance their own workers stand to lose them to other establishments. 

1 Wage earners only. Does not include technical, professional, or clerical personnel. 
■' Karnintts were lower in 1940 than 1939 because of the growth of plants in low-wage areas and the begin 
ners wage of 50 cents per hour in many plants. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4491 



Table 2 shows that in individual plants located in the Pacific coast area, aver- 
age hours -varied in January, 1941 from 52.3 to 33.1, hourly earnings range from 
70 to 88 cents,' and weekly pay envelopes ranged from "$45*.62 to $29.29. On 
the Atlantic seaboard, hours ranged from 54.1 to 27.4 and weekly earnings from 
$44.20 down to $14.71. In the other areas, hours varied from 54.5 to 35.6 and 
weekly earnings from $38.40 to $18.86. 3 



Table 2.— Hours, earnings, a?id quit rate in individual aircraft plants by region, 
January 1941 





Average 

hours 
per week, 

January 
1941 


Average 
hourly 
earnings, 
January 
1941 


Average 
weekly 

earnings. 

January 

1941 


Quit rate (per 100 on 
pay roll) 


Region 


January 
1941 


December 

1940 


Pacific coast: 

Plant No. 1. - 


52.3 
47.5 
. 45. 2 
45.5 
45.7 
50.0 
47.0 
45.0 
44.5 
45.6 
42.4 
41.5 

49.6 
54.1 
51.8 
50. 5 
39.2 
44.9 
39.9 
42.5 
40. 
45.2 
43.4 
37.0 


Cents 

ST. 2 
83.3 

Whl 
76.9 
69.1 
73.1 
75.1 
75.4 
71.9 
75.5 
70.8 
88.4 

89.2 
79.5 
79.9 
79.4 
91.4 
75.1 
83.8 
74.9 
79.4 
69.9 
72.8 
83.7 


$45. 62 
39. 57 
37.65 
36.42 
35. 14 
34.54 
34. 35 
33.85 
33.56 
32.79 
32.00 
29.38 
29.29 

44.20 
43.03 
41.39 
40.09 
35.81 
33.68 
S3. 41 
31.87 
31.74 
31.59 
31.56 
30.96 
29.79 
26.61 
24.89 
24.12 
22.23 
22.13 
14.71 

38.40 
32.87 
31.08 
29.46 
28.98 
27.63 
27.46 
26.79 
25.53 
23.74 
21. 41 
21.37 
20.65 
20.50 
18.86 


1.31 
3.85 
1.94 
1.40 
3.62 
3.28 
2.75 
(') 
1.81 
5.73 
2.17 
3.42 
2.12 

.82 
(') 
1.01 
1.01 

G) 
(») 

(') 

0) 

G) 
(') 

0) 

(') 

3.42 
(') 

G) 

2.96 
4.58 
2.06 

2.73 
G) 

(') 
O 

3.83 
5.25 
2.31 
19.41 

G) 
8.44 

(') 

(') 

(') 

0) 
2.70 


2.01 


Plant -No. 3_ 

Plant No. 4 

Plant No. 5 


L13 

2.80 
3.08 


Plant No. 7_— 


1. 58 
G) 




1.86 


Plant No. 10 


3. 30 

1.94 


Plant No. 12_. 

Plant No. 13 ..._ 
Atlantic coast: 


1.43 
L.26 




(') 


Plant No. 3..-. 


l.lil 
1.53 




G) 




(') 




(') 




(i) 




G) 




w 




G) 


Planl No. 12 -, 


2.85 




37.9 
42.3 
43.1 
40.2 
27.4 

51.0 
44.1 
36.8 
47.5 
41.2 
54.5 
41.7 
45.3 
36.9 
38.7 
41.0 
35.6 
41.9 
39.3 
37.1 


70.3 
58.9 
56.0 
55.3 
80.7 
43.8 

75.2 
74.0 
84.4 
62.0 
70.3 
50.7 
65.9 

69^2 
61.3 
52.3 
60.0 
49.2 
52.1 
50.9 


(') 




(>) 




1.53 




6.16 




1. 15 




3.74 


Other: 


2.48 




(') 




(') 




G) 


Plant No. 5 '- — 


1.42 




4.75 




1.15 




16.16 




G) 




G) 




G) 




0) 




G) 




G) 




5.41 







Not available. 



Quit rates tend to be highest in those plants with the lowest weekly earnings, 
whether because of low wage rates or short hours. In general where weekly 
earnings are the same the quit rate is lower in the plant with the higher hourly 
earnings. Comparisons made during a particular month are not as exact as 
might be hoped, for workers apparently are quick to anticipate reductions in 
hours and to shift to plants where prospects are more favorable. Personnel policy, 
furthermore, has an important bearing on the quit rate. 

3 Plants making nonmilitary aircraft are included in these averages. 



4492 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



That the migration of aircraft workers will continue in the immediate future is 
suggested by the projected expansion program. The maximum 1941 employ- 
ment at the site of final assembly for the industry will be reached in October, 
with an estimated total of 321,550 productive and nonproductive employees. 
This figure excludes approximately 72,700 workers that will be engaged in produc- 
ing aircraft engines and an estimated 150,000 workers in firms with subcontracts 
to furnish parts and assembly units for primary contractors. In addition it is 
estimated that about 50,000 workers will be engaged in the production of accesso- 
ries. Hence a total of upward of 600,000 workers will be required for aircraft 
production before the end of the year. 

Table 3. — Monthly labor turn-over rates (per 100 employees) in the aircraft industry, 

1940-41 



Separations: 

Quits 

Discharges.- 
Lay-offs ' . _ . 

Total 

Accessions: 

Rehires 

Xew hires . . 

Total 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June 
1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 



1.57 
.42 
2.20 



■1. 02 
.40 
.27 



8.20 
10.14 



2. 25 

.35 



.13 

13.14 



July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. 
1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1940 1941 



.15 

3.57 

.15 
12. 25 

12.40 



.15 
7.76 



9.74 



2.57 
.36 

1. 72 

4.65 



.34 

11.42 



2.22 
.47 
.68 



1.01 

7. 62 



2.87 
.45 



.68 

11.49 



1 Including temporary, indeterminate, and permanent lay-offs. 

TESTIMONY OF A. F. HINRICHS Resumed 

Mr. Hinrichs. The "quit" rate has risen from 72 per 10,000 work-" 
ers in January 1939 to 244 in January of this year. Whereas a year 
ago, only about 900 employees were leaving their jobs voluntarily 
each month, this year, with a larger number of workers and a higher 
quit rate, nearly 3,500 workers were quitting aircraft factories each 
month, presumably to find other jobs within the same industry. 

A high level of quit rates tends to stimulate the migration of work- 
ers because it means that the number of persons hired is larger than 
it would otherwise be. At present about one in every four persons 
taken on the pay roll of aircraft factories is to replace 1 a quit, It also 
increases the total number of workers needed because many thousands 
of man-hours are lost by men between jobs. 

You will find, in the tables of quit rates by plants, indications that 
quit rates are highest in those plants with the lowest weekly earnings, 
whether because of low wage rates or short hours, in general, where 
weekly earnings are the same, the quit rate is lower in the plant with 
the higher hourly earnings. Quits are dependent not only on wage 
rates and earnings, but also upon other aspects of personnel policy. 

In this connection, I wish to call the attention of the committee to 
the efforts of the Shipbuilding Stabilization Committee of the Labor 
Division of the Office of Production Management. This committee 
is seeking through various devices to effect changes in policy which 
will reduce turn-over in the shipbuilding industry. Similar committees 
are likely to be established in other defense industries during the 
course of the defense effort. To the extent that they are successful, 
they will reduce the quit rate and hence will reduce the excessive 
pull of large hiring rates on migrant workers. 

In connection with all estimates of the need for migration, one 
must bear in mind that it depends partly upon the hiring habits of 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4493 

employers. The airplane industry has never employed many women. 
Their more extensive employment in jobs similar to those in other 
industries in which women have demonstrated exceptional capacity 
would reduce the need for migration. Prejudice against the employ- 
ment of Negroes creates an apparent shortage of labor in some com- 
munities sooner than would otherwise be the case. Finally, prejudice 
against the employment of aliens in nondefense industries means that 
one can find an acute shortage of skilled workers at the same time 
that skilled aliens are available in the community. And all these 
factors, minimizing use of the local labor supply, stimulate by just 
that much the demand for further migration. 

Mr. Arnold. You made an estimate, late in 1940, that 6,000,000 
people would be employed by December of 1941. You probably 
now have figures showing how many have been reemployed. Would 
you revise that estimate and anticipate that more than 6,000,000 
would be reemployed or put back to work by December 1941? 

Mr. Hinrichs. I should not revise the estimate. I would not esti- 
mate that more than 6,000,000 would be employed. The original 
estimate was five to six million, which meant, by the end of this year, 
approximately 40,000,000 people would be employed in nonagricultural 
employment, as against 37% million in December of 1940. That is the 
5,000,000 figure and that seems to me at least a still reasonable 
expectation. 

The Chairman. Most of that reemployment is in armainent- 
producing industries — that is, 40 as against 37 — about half of it? 

Mr. Hinrichs. The center of that reemployment, or increase of 
employment, is, of course, going to be in the armament industries. 
There is necessarily, however, going to have to be an increase in em- 
ployment in industries producing consumer goods, in trade, transporta- 
tion, and in other facilities. 

RAW-MATERIAL SHORTAGES 

Mr. Arnold. You have some unemployment, or change in employ- 
ment, for instance, with respect to aluminum consumer goods. Can 
you tell us whether or not there is anything being done about that 
situation to take care of changes in employment of that kind? 

Mr. Hinrichs. You mean, essentially, the decreases in employment 
that might occur because of shortages of raw materials? 

Mr. Arnold. Yes. 

Mr. Hinrichs. I believe that matter is under careful study in the 
Office of Production Management, not only in the Labor Division, 
but in other divisions as well. I think there is the hope, in the first 
instance, that it may be possible to utilize existing equipment for 
processing of aluminum products. In some instances a plant which 
has been making a product for which aluminum may no longer be 
available in the quantities desired can turn its facilities and existing 
workers over to the expanding need of aluminum processing for the 
defense industries. I think, in the second place, very careful study is 
being given to the relationship between the quantity of a scarce mate- 
rial which is being used or is to be used, and the quantity of employ- 
ment it produces so that, in general, one would favor those uses which 
are making relatively small drafts on the raw material, in order to 
maintain employment in general at the maximum. 



4494 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

I think some dislocation is inevitable. It certainly has occurred 
in every European country. 

SAN FRANCISCO HAY AREA 

The Chairman. In this break-down, table No. 2, Anticipated 
Future Labor Requirements for Defense Work and Availability of 
Such Labor in Cities Where Shipbuilding is a Factor (see p. 4484), I 
would like to call your attention to the city of Vallejo, Calif., where 
you set forth that 12,000 additional workers will be required bv 
May 1942, is it? 

Mr. Hinrichs. May 1942; ye,-. 

The Chairman. And available locally, 2,000; to be brought in, 
10,000 — making a total of 12,000. Now you have no break-down of 
the San Francisco Bay area, have you? Is that just limited to Vallejo 
alone? 

Mr. Hinrichs. I think that refers to Vallejo alone, yes. 

The Chairman. You see, we have several- important shipyards in 
the San Francisco Bay area, and the reason I am interested in it is 
simply this, that the Navy Department discouraged people from 
coming out in that area to put up new plants, on the ground they did 
not have the workers and they were fearful they would be taken from 
the Vallejo Navy Yard. Anyway, that is just a survev of the needs 
of Vallejo? 

Mr. Hinrichs. That is correct. 

The Chairman. And you have there a total of 2,000 available 
locally, so 10,000 will have to be brought in? 

Mr. Hinrichs. Yes. 

The Chairman. You have not any figures for the San Francisco 
Bay area shipyards? 

Mr. Hinrichs. Not on this basis; no. We could give you an esti- 
mate of the additional workers that are going to be required in all of 
those yards; as a matter of fact, I believe you will find it in the report 
which I submitted to the committee. But, so far as I know at this 
moment, the survey has not been completed on the number of workers 
who can be trained locally throughout that area, and that was basic 
to our work. Such a study, I know, is now being conducted, and when 
it is complete, will become available for the committee. Yesterday I 
know it was not available; whether it is this morning, or will be this 
week, I do not know. 

The Chairman. If it is, we would deeply appreciate having it. 

CONTROL OVER WAGES 

Dr. Lamb. If the Shipbuilding Stabilization Committee sets the 
maximum wages for the shipbuilding industry, how would the private 
employer be controlled from further upbidding the wages; what would 
be the machinery? 

Mr. Hinrichs. If I understand your question correctly — and I am 
speaking from hearsay, because that matter is being handled in the 
Office of Production Management — the effort is to arrive at a regional 
uniformity of rates under collective agreements. Collective agree- 
ments tend to perpetuate themselves for considerable periods of time, 
without intervening revisions, whereas the upbidding that you generally 
find is the thing that happens from day to day and, since there is no 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4495 

special advantage to bo gained at this time by competitive bidding as 
a source of supply, I should suppose that the machinery of the collec- 
tive agreement itself would operate as a restraining force. 

I have not heard any suggestion that it should be made compulsory 
that no more than the agreed rate should be paid. 

Dr. Lamb. The experience of the last war, I believe, with a similar 
Shipbuilding Stabilization Committee, was a tendency for workers to 
move, even after the uniform wage for the entire industry had been 
established. Finally complete uniformity was worked out, but 
upbidding then began in terms of other advantages than mere wages. 

Mr. Hinrichs. I am sorry; I believe it is true that a completely 
uniform wage scale was never put into operation . They were hovering 
on the brink of a national agreement at the close of the war. 

Dr. Lamb. Yes. 

Mr. Hinrichs. We did find that regional agreements, in and of 
themselves, were inadequate, and I do not suppose any method can 
be devised' that will completely eliminate that movement of free 
workers to free employers. I think, however, it undoubtedly is 
possible to take substantial steps in the development of greater stabil- 
ity than characteristically prevails. 

Dr. Lamb. Is it likely' that another industry soon to be put under 
the stabilization plan would be aircraft; are they next in line, would 
you say? 

Mr. Hinrichs. I am sorry; I do not know, and the inclusion of that 
statement in my remarks was without consultation with the Office of 
Production Management, and without knowledge of their plans. I 
simply look at the general situation and assume, if the program works 
in the shipbuilding industry, it is inevitable that it should be expanded 
to other industries. I do not know what industry would be likely to 
come next. The quit rate in airplanes is high; I know that. 

TRAINING IN AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURE 

Dr. Lamb. To turn to another subject, but one somewhat related, 
the question of training workers, young people, for the airplane indus- 
try : You suggested there was a considerable flow of those people from 
schools at which they were trained, sometimes over a long distance. 
What sort of machinery has been set up or is being set up for control- 
ling that? Is any check kept on such migration, to show who are 
being trained and where they are going, or receiving orders to go? 

Mr. Hinrichs. Let me take that in two bites, if I may. First, 
on the check of migration, I do not know of anything that can be 
done positively to check the migration of workers until one resorts to 
some such practice as has been used in some of the European countries, 
of placing workers in defense industries only through the employment 
service. That time has not yet arrived in this country, and may not 
arrive. The efforts that have been made to check or curb migration 
are rather efforts to avoid stimulating migration. Knudsen's letter, 
by way of example, which can be no more than a request that there 
shall be no advertisement, is very significant. Government agencies 
throughout the country now are fairly well familiar with the facilities 
of the Employment Service and, at any time anyone asks for advice 
of any governmental agency, he is almost necessarily going to be 
referred to the Employment Service for information. 



4496 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Now, as to the machinery for coordinating that work, it has seemed 
to me, as I have followed it from day to day and from month to month, 
that there is a constant improvement in the coordination of the work 
of the various agencies of the Federal and State Governments that are 
concerned with estimating the labor requirements, with discovering 
the availability of a supply of workers, and with responsibility for the 
training of workers. That work is not only being better integrated 
from day to day within the Federal Government, but also there is 
increasingly active cooperation on the part of the employers. While 
I cannot speak with absolute assurance on the Wichita situation, I 
understand in Wichita a program for the recruiting of the 10,000 
workers, that I indicated is needed, has been fairly fully worked out. 
I could not confirm that sufficiently to say with assurance that the 
need is fully covered in terms of the existing plans. 

There are many communities in which that sort of coordinated 
planning between employers and Government agencies has been worked 
out, so that prospective needs are largely covered. Under those 
conditions, your migration takes place normally through the clearing 
services of the Employment Service, and you move workers in response 
to known needs. This does not mean, necessarily, that every time 
you move John Jones he gets a job. He may be disqualified when he 
gets there. But there is a strong presumption that a man tested at 
the point from which he is moving, known to the agencies there, is 
going to be an acceptable candidate when he arrives at the employer's 
door. 

INFORMATION OFFICES 

Dr. Lamb. Would you say a considerably larger number of infor- 
mation offices is needed, to be scattered around the country, to 
supply the person who might otherwise be inclined to move a long 
distance in search of a job? 

Mr. Hinrichs. That question ought to be addressed to the Employ- 
ment Service. They maintain at the present time a large number of 
full-time offices, and a very large number of part-time offices in small 
communities, where the office is open only a single day in a week. My 
impression has been that such offices are fairly accessible to all workers 
in the country at the present time. 

There undoubtedly is going to be need for the development of some 
new offices, not so much as information centers — I do not know about 
that — but there will be need for the development of new offices to 
service some of these major enterprises by getting an office closer to the 
locality in which jobs are being offered. In that sense, I know there 
will be some demand for new offices, or the relocation of offices. 

Dr. Lamb. I was thinking of the worker's need of going to a 
designated place in his own community for information before moving. 

Mr. Hinrichs. The special need, I should say, is not so much for 
more offices; although there may be such a need, I do not know of it; 
but there is a very definite need of a continuing drive — call it 
"publicity," "propaganda," or what you will — to make the workers 
aware of the services which are available through the Employment 
Service. And I think probably, in all fairness, one must say always 
there is a corresponding need for a still further improvement in the 
quality of the service rendered in many of the employment offices, 
which, as you know, are not Federal offices, but are State offices. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4497 

Some of them are superb and others need to be improved sub- 
stantially before they will fully meet the need. You have to give 
good service and intelligent service if you are going to have people 
come to you, either looking for jobs or offering to accept your referrals. 

Dr. Lamb. Does not the existence of the purse string give the 
Federal Government an opportunity, particularly in a period of 
emergency, to encourage the State service to rapid improvement? 

Mr. Hinrichs. I can only give you my impression. My impression 
of the work is that it has not been possible adequately to control the 
State services, although my understanding is that at the present time 
magnificent cooperation is being offered. It is not a purse-string 
control, as I understand it; it is a voluntary gift offering in the interest 
of national defense. 

Dr. Lamb. Yesterday a number of witnesses discussed the disrup- 
tion of the local labor markets by the use of the automobile. That 
would seem to raise the question whether, if the local labor market 
is to be controlled, with particular reference to one or another defense 
industry in that market, it is not necessary to control it on an industry- 
wide basis. What do you think about that? 

Mr. Hinrichs. I am very sorry; I do not understand the implica- 
tion of your question. What do you mean b}^ controlling industry 
or controlling the labor market? 

Dr. Lamb. With particular reference to controlling the work of the 
Employment Service, again, where you have a situation as, for 
example, in Hartford or Bridgeport, where workers are said to be 
commuting over distances of 75 to 100 miles. They are coming in 
there by automobile to take jobs for which they unquestionably are 
qualified. If the Employment Service had been able to discover 
workers nearer by, or to transfer them from other parts of the metal 
industries, for example, in that area, the need for commuting over a 
distance of 100 miles would seem to be eliminated, would it not? 

Mr. Hinrichs. Yes; certainly. If I understand you correctly, I 
think the only way in which you can get a coordinated treatment of 
the problems of supplying workers is through an agency, such as the 
Employment Service, that serves or is prepared to serve not only the 
entire industry but all of the industries of the community, and a 
breadth of coverage is essential if the system is going to work at all 

TRANSFERENCE INTO DEFENSE 

Dr. Lamb. I was raising the question rather with respect to transfers 
between units within the same industry, say from nondefense to de- 
fense jobs, of workers available within a limited region. 

Mr. Hinrichs. You are thinking of something such as the British 
system, of actually effecting the transfer of John Jones from a non- 
essential industry to work in a defense industry? 

Dr. Lamb. Yes. 

Mr. Hinrichs. So far we have made very little approach to an 
organized handling of that problem. I should expect to see it 
approached, I should hope it would be approached, in successive 
stages. The last stage is the stage of dire necessity, when you say 
there must be a transfer of workers from nonessential to essential 
industries. I think that a stage is coming very soon in which it would 
be extremely helpful to have workers in such occupations as the 



4498 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

machinist occupation, who are at present employed in nonessential 
industries, register with the Employment Service, and to have a 
clearance with the employers of those machinists. When we offer 
a job to a man, in a nonessential industry, we should be sure not to 
disrupt another producing- mechanism on which several' hundred 
other people may be dependent. But it is desirable to get a pool or 
labor reservoir so that a job could be offered to these men, not under 
compulsion to take the job, but with an opportunity to take a job 
in defense industries. And that, I assume, would need a more formal 
organization than exists at the present time and would be the first 
stage of that kind of organization of the labor market. 

Dr. Lamb. I have no more questions. I have two exhibits to put 
in the record. These are memoranda submitted by Miss Lenroot, 
the Chief of the Children's Bureau of the United States Department 
of Labor, one relating to her observations in 7 of the 20 areas listed 
by the Work Projects Administration as having 73 percent of the 
defense contracts, and the other relating to the District of Columbia. 

(The memoranda above referred to are as follows:) 

Memorandum on Observations by Representatives of the Ch-iu>ken'> 
Bureau, United States Department of Labor, on Conditions Affecting 
the Welfare of Children and Youth in Certain Defense Areas 

The Children's Bureau has some information with reference to the effect of the 
defense program on the welfare of children and youth in 7 of the 20 areas listed 
by the Work Projects Administration as having 73 percent of the defense con- 
tracts, as of December 15, 1940. These areas include three in Connecticut 
(Bridgeport, New Haven, and Waterbury; Hartford, New London, Groton, and 
Norwich), Bath and Portland, Maine, Louisville, Ky., and Jeffersonville, Ind. , 
San Diego, Calif., and Seattle and Tacoma, Wash. The information is based on 
interviews held with State and local officials and representatives of public and 
private agencies, from November 1940 through February 1941. In no case was 
an intensive field study made. The information is summarized under the follow- 
ing headings: General conditions. Maternal and child health, Education, recrea- 
tion, and employment, and Social conditions affecting children and youth. Since 
some of these reports were made steps have been taken in some of these com- 
munities to meet some of the problems outlined. 

CONNECTICUT AREAS (INTERVIEWS, NOVEMBER AND FEBRUARY 1941) 

General conditions. — Industrial expansion, very much accelerated in connection 
with aircraft, arms, and munitions, has resulted in influx of population from 
surrounding, and to some extent more distant, territory, and in housing shortages, 
with rising rents and overcnnvding, particularly in Bridgeport and the Hartford 
area. Housing for Negroes is especially bad. There are small trailer camps in 
East Hartford and South Windsor, and all types of housing are being used in the 
areas surrounding defense centers. Both public and private housing is under 
construction in some parts of the area. 

Relief loads are decreasing (noted especially in New Haven and Hartford) and 
social agencies are relieved by the upturn of employment, but they are conscious 
of increased needs, particularly in the fields of recreation and protective services 
for youth, which are likely to become more acute as increased numbers come into 
the areas in search of employment. 

Maternal and child health. — In general, maternal and child health services are 
well organized and special problems are not yet reported. However, continuing 
increase of population will undoubtedly create problems of expansion of health 
and medical care services. Active programs for the reporting and treatment of 
venereal disease are under way. 

Education, recreation, and youth employment. — Overcrowding of schools in East 
Hartford has made it necessary to use some portable buildings. Trade classes 
are operated in shifts. Problems of unemployed youth who have finished high 
school but arc too young to obtain jobs in some of the industries are reported. 
Emphasis on high-school education in defense industries, on the other hand, is 
encouraging young people to finish high school. Problems of employment of 
Negro youth, especially Negro girls, are particularly serious. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4499 

Commercialized recreation in taverns in the cities and on State highways, dine 
and dance halls, and other places of amusement are causing concern. These 
problems existed prior to the defense period but are intensified by present condi- 
tions. The need for adequate supervision through qualified police women on the 
staff of the State police, and through the cooperation of State and local authorities, 
was receiving attention by officials and women's groups. Problems of recreation 
for Negro youth were particularly serious. Private recreational and leisure-time 
agencies recognize the need for expanded programs, and some special activities 
are under way, but there is need for comprehensive State and community plans, 
to be developed in the light of policies of national agencies in this field. 

Other social problems affecting children and youth.- — Problems of illegitimacy 
have engaged the attention of private social agencies in Hartford, probably not 
because of actual increase in the illegitimate birth rate, but of increased awareness 
of the problem. There is some evidence of difficulty in finding people willing 
to give foster-home care to dependent children. Social problems arising from 
lack of employment and recreational opportunity for Negro youth appear to be 
an important factor in prostitution; another factor is the practice of girls and 
women of questionable character coming into the areas from outside the State 
for week ends. The State and local police are endeavoring to deal with the situa- 
tion but additional service is needed. Urgent need for more adequate probation 
service for juveniles and adults is reported. 

The Veterans' Administration of Connecticut has made provision for allowances 
to the families of enlisted men and draftees, provided they remain in their home 
..communities. .This, policy undoubtedly will operate to reduce the numbers of 
families following the men in service from camp to camp. 

BATH, MAINE (INTERVIEWS NOVEMBER 1940) 

General Conditions.- — Population has increased from 11,000 to 14,375 in 3 years. 
Employment is chiefly in the Bath Iron Works (shipbuilding), and manufacturing 
of ship equipment. New families coming into the city are almost entirely families 
of employed workers. All housing is fully occupied ; there was some difference of 
opinion as to the amount of overcrowding which existed. Many workers live 
outside Bath, some 40 or 50 miles away. Many have built shacks along the roads 
outside the city — small, inadequate houses, taking claims on unclaimed land. 
Relief loads have declined, until now they are made up almost entirely of tin- 
employables. No cash relief is given. 

Maternal and child health.— The city has only a half-time health officer, and no 
public-health nurses. It conducts no prenatal or child-health conferences, though 
a child-health conference is conducted by the Red Cross. Attached to the 
district office of the State health department are nine public-health nurses and a 
supervising nurse, who give services to families living outside the city. Child- 
health conferences are conducted in several nearby communities about once a 
year, but there are no permanent child-health conferences and no prenatal clinics. 
The Red Cross supports one full-time nurse and contributes to the support of a 
school nurse. A physician is employed by the city to give free medical care to 
families receiving relief. The Red Cross gives financial assistance to needy 
families and supplies niilk to undernourished children. 

Hospital facilities are available, and the number of hospital births is increasing 
with the result that the maternity services are crowded. 

A State venereal disease clinic is held weekly. 

Education, recreation, and youth employment. — Bath has 8 schools, only 2 of 
which are of modern construction. They are badly crowded. The average 
number of children per teacher is 42.5; a great deal of transferring of pupils has 
been necessarv in attempts to reduce excessive numbers of pupils per teacher. 
High school population has increased by 100 in 3 years and the rooms are badly 
crowded. The public schools are used extensively for adult education. 

It was generally agreed among those interviewed that one of Bath's greatest 
needs is recreational facilities. The schools have very small, inadequate play- 
grounds, and there is no supervised play. There is one lot on the edge of town 
used for football and softball. There is no swimming pool in the town, and no 
place nearer than the shore, 8 or 10 miles away. A good library is available, and 
Young Men's Christian Association and Boy and Girl Scout troops are active. 

Other social pioblems affecting child: en and youth. — No trained social workers 
are available to deal with problems of juvenile delinquency, school maladjust- 
ments, or family problems. 



4500 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

LOUISVILLE (JEFFERSON COUNTY) AND HARDIN COUNTY, KY. (INTERVIEWS IN 
JANUARY 1941) 

General conditions.- — Louisville is greatly affected by the development of major 
defense industries in the vicinity, including the powder plant at Charlestown, Ind. , 
the quartermaster depot at Jeffersonville, Ind., construction of barracks at Fort 
Knox, Hardin County, Ky., and at Bowman Field. Plans are being developed 
for a bag-making and loading plant to be located at Charlestown, Ind., and for 
the construction of naval ordnance works under the Westinghouse Electric Man- 
ufacturing Co. Twenty-five thousand men are to be stationed at Fort Knox. 

As a result of population increases there is serious housing shortage in Louisville, 
and rent increases are also reported. Social agencies indicated a shortage of 
living quarters for incoming families and single girls and women. A housing 
bureau has been established where available rooms are to be registered. The 
Travelers Aid Society and other agencies give service in this field. There are 
several housing projects in Louisville. 

It is reported that there has been no great increase in the public relief load in 
Louisville. Service of this kind is not available to nonresidents. There has been 
a large increase in employment in Louisville, and several National Youth Admin- 
istration training projects are in operation in the vicinity. The Council of Social 
Agencies is cooperating with the mayor's military affairs committee which has been 
organized to deal with various phases of community planning in relation to defense, 
including problems of health, welfare, and entertainment. A volunteer bureau is 
operated by the Council of Social Agencies, and conducts training courses. 

Maternal and child health. — Louisville has a well-organized maternal and child 
health service under the city health department. Its child-health conferences 
and prenatal clinics are reported to be facing need for expanded services beyond 
resources available to meet them. Until recently Hardin County has had no 
full-time health department, but one is being established with the aid of State 
funds. Active venereal-disease programs are carried on both in Louisville and 
Hardin County. An outstanding need is for a social worker in the venereal- 
disease clinic. The Louisville Health Department feels that rural women com- 
ing to Louisville will have to be educated with reference to child-health services 
and facilities available, but no plan for this has yet been worked out. 

Recreation. — In Louisville the division of recreation of the city department of 
welfare operates a municipal-recreation program which includes three commu- 
nity centers, two for white children and adults and one for Negro children and 
adults. It also operates a number of summer playgrounds during summer months 
and uses school gymnasiums for athletic purposes. The division uses approxi- 
mately 30 Work Projects Administration leaders to supplement its regular staff 
in the various playgrounds during the summer months. Private agencies, in- 
cluding the Young Women's Christian Association, the Young Men's Christian 
Association, the Young Men's Hebrew Association, and settlement houses were 
active in the field of recreation. The Work Projects Administration is finding 
difficulty in securing adequate personnel for assistance to the agencies or to the 
soldiers' center which is being established, because of the turn-over in recreation 
staff. Recreation plans for soldiers are being made by the subcommittee on 
recreation of the mayor's military affairs committee. The soldiers' center is 
being planned for Louisville where extensive recreational activities will be car- 
ried on. The Young Women's Christian Association has been particularly active 
in providing housing for girls from outside the city. 

A number of places of commercial recreation were visited by a representative 
of the Children's Bureau. Conditions were extremely undesirable. Some of the 
places visited were dirty and dark. Waitresses were observed dancing with 
patrons. Intoxicated individuals were observed being served. Dancing was 
unsupervised. No juveniles were observed in these places. The managers cash 
checks for industrial workers when they come off duty and encourage them to 
spend their earnings in these places. No policewomen are employed in Louisville. 

Other social problems affecting children and youth. — The private children's 
agency in Louisville is concerned about the problems of nonresident children 
with which it will have to deal and the difficulty of providing additional funds to 
give adequate service to nonresidents. Already, in the first 2 weeks of January, 
the agency had had cases involving 12 children applying for service because of 
situations growing out of the increased population. Problems of juvenile de- 
linquency involving both boys and girls, that could be traced to the defense situ- 
ation were reported. In a number of cases problems concerned with families 
and young people involved in defense industries are coming to the attention of the 
family service organization. The children's agency is aware of the need for pro- 
tective work in the community and for making early contact with youth who are 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 45QJ 

exposed to special hazards. Present resources, however, do not allow for this 
type of work. 

There is great need for a law enforcement and social protection program, in 
charge of workers trained to deal with youth problems, both in areas adjacent to 
the camps and in the industrial defense areas in the vicinity of Louisville. There 
is also great need for more adequate community recreation facilities and leader- 
ship for soldiers, industrial workers, and their families. 

There is no county welfare department in Hardin County. Child- welfare 
services are great!}' needed in this count}'. 

SAN DIEGO, CALIF. (INTERVIEWS NOVEMBER 1940) 

General conditions. — The last census figures indicate a 35-percent increase in 
population over that reported in 1930. Since the 1940 census figures were com- 
pleted additional numbers of persons have moved into San Diego as a result of 
the industrial and military expansion. The new population consists principally 
of young families and single men. 

While representatives of all the social agencies which were visited anticipated 
that the change in the nature of the San Diego community and the increases in 
population would give rise to additional social problems and would create a need 
for an expansion of social service activity, it was difficult — except for the housing 
situation — to procure any specific information with respect to any trends observed 
up to the present time. 

Statistics compiled by the county department of public welfare for public 
welfare case loads, show a gradual decrease in the total number of cases receiving 
certain types of aid. The decrease is largely in the general relief and Works 
Progress Administration loads while the increases appear in the social security 
categories. 

The Travelers' Aid, which in San Diego is a department of the Young Women's 
Christian Association, reports that its work has increased 300 percent in the last 
few weeks, and the number of cases referrable to other agencies has decreased. 
Although it was thought that these might be applications for assistance from per- 
sons unable to provide for their families prior to receiving their first check, this 
apparently is not the case. 

According to the chamber of commerce during the next 8 months the community 
must absorb and house 44,650 persons who will reside in private homes in addition 
to 16,200 men who will be housed in barracks and camps. Plans appear to have 
been completed for 2 navy housing projects of 600 family units each, for which 
approximately $15 a month a unit will be paid. This is thought to be inade- 
quate. There is also about to be started a housing project for 2 units of 1,000 
families each with a possible extension to 6 or 8 units. 

Social agencies were agreed that housing has been and is bad and hard to secure. 
Many persons are driving long distances to work. Many live in trailers. Rents 
are also rising, and there have been some evictions. It seems inevitable that fami- 
lies on relief will be the chief sufferers by being forced to divert food money for 
rent and by being pushed into the least desirable places. 

Social agencies seem alive to the emergency situations created by defense meas- 
ures, and are planning how to meet them. 

Maternal and child health. — The influx of new population into the San Diego 
area is already creating problems in the field of maternal and child health. It 
will be observed that the vast majority of the incoming families are headed by 
young healthy adults in the child-bearing age group. In a short time this will 
materially affect San Diego's responsibility to the community and will necessitate 
changes in emphasis in several phases of the health work. There will be propor- 
tionatelv many more mothers and young children in the new population than in 
the old." Already it has been noted that since September 1939 the work load of 
the child hygiene' conferences has been doubled. This extra burden is being cared 
for to some extent by volunteer services of private physicians, but mainly by 
longer hours of work on the part of the staff. It is felt that without further supple- 
mental help a great deal of the need arising from national-defense emergency will 
not be adequately met. The nursing staff available for services of maternal and 
child health is not nearly adequate even for normal times. 

As far as the new housing units are concerned, they are only just getting under 
way, so that at present no child-health conferences are needed in the new areas. 
Doubtless an effort will be made to relocate conferences as soon as the need arises, 
but under the present budget it must be borne in mind that whatever time is given 



4502 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

to the new population centers will have to be taken from work already under way 
and badly needed. At the time of the study one conference was being held by a 
Navy physician for families of the Navy, but this was very much overcrowded". 

The county health department offers prenatal care to all indigent women re- 
gardless of residence. However, with hospital beds filled, it is going to be in- 
creasingly difficult to make necessary arrangements for those who do not fulfill 
residence requirements. The Visiting Nurse Association is now prepared to 
offer home-delivery nursing service at small cost, thus supplying a real need, for 
it is expected that the incidence of home deliveries must increase before more 
hospital beds are made available. In the past the Army and Navy have supplied 
medical services including maternity care to families of their men. The staff 
doctors are at present so overworked that this service is said to be no longer 
available. 

Hospital beds are already overcrowded. In case of an epidemic even of mild 
proportions there would be no extra beds and undoubtedly emergency comman- 
deering of other buildings would have to be resorted to. "The beds available for 
communicable-disease isolation are far from adequate for the increased population. 

The pediatrician of the county health unit is also responsible for school ex- 
aminations in the county area. As an example of the additional work, one rela- 
tively small school in the county had an increase of 70 children over last year's 
enrollment. 

To sum up: The program for maternal and child health as planned by the San 
Diego Health Department aims at a high standard of individualized care for 
children in low-income groups, and has been carrying on for years a program with 
a definite goal which has resulted in considerable reduction of infant mortality 
and better health with fewer defects in preschool and school children. The effi- 
ciency of this program is going to be seriously impaired by the necessity of stretch- 
in the same budget over a greatly increased population whose needs for child- 
health service will be proportionately greater. In order to bring the maternal 
and child hygiene program up to reasonable standards to meet the increased 
needs, the services of a part-time pediatrician should be made available, and the 
city nursing staff should be increased at least 50 percent, and if doubled, could be 
utilized with great profit to the health and well-being of the community. 

Education and recreation. — There are now 50 public schools in San Diego, 
accommodating some 40,000 children. The schools are experiencing a rise in 
population in all schools, indicating that the new population is not segregated in 
any one area as yet. Since July there has been a 1,200-1,500 increase in ele- 
mentary and high-school pupils. It is reported that at least three new school 
buildings are needed immediately. Pressing problems are four: 

1. Vacant rooms in which to place new teachers. 

2. Difficulty in apportioning the teaching load. 

3. Difficulty in securing competent teachers. 

4. Problems of financing. 

There seems to be agreement that recreation is and will be a pressing problem. 
Apparently men from Consolidated Aircraft alone can strain existing facilities, 
yet the welfare director stated that homesick boys wander about with nowhere 
to go. He has one man on his staff whose job it is to plan various types of recrea- 
tion for the workers. He has organized 66 bowling teams which use a commercial 
alley, and says they need badminton courts badly. Swimming teams have been 
organized. It is reported that the entire city recreation service is crowded, that 
although three park buildings have already been requested for recreational use, 
there are already enough basketball teams to crowd them. The school board 
has an agreement with the city whereby it turns over school grounds to the city 
recreation committee which supplies equipment and personnel. This is done in 
about half the schools. A craft instructor has recently been added. It is 
increasingly difficult to secure recreation staff from Work Projects Administration. 

Aside from student dances, all dancing seems to be commercial, although 
dances will soon be held in the new buildings. Although there seem to be some 
supervision and enforcement of ordinances regulating dine-and-dance places in 
the city, only a deputy sheriff supervises the many small ones in rural areas. 

Other social problems affecting children and youth. — The county welfare depart- 
ment has a children's division which provides for State aid to dependent children, 
certification of crippled children, care for children outside their own homes, 
licensing of boarding homes, and a school hot-lunch program. Social services 
for children in their own families are provided by the regular department case 
workers. The family-service society has one worker on the 'staff who jjhandles 
only children's cases. This service includes boarding home placement and some 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4503 

service to the children's institutions in the city, none of whom employ a social 
worker. 

The public schools have a visiting teaching department with a director and a 
staff of three visiting teachers, two psychologists and two attendance officers. 
There is only one visiting teacher available now for the eight secondary schools, 
and it is stated that there should be at least four and preferably eight. There 
is need for a vocational program for women, as well as more supervised recreation, 
as San Diego has many unemployed, untrained young women. 

The police department is apparently doing a fairly adequate job in its juvenile 
department which has six officers, but their interest is primarily in boys. 

It is stated that while no appreciable increase has been noted in the number 
of cases coming to the attention of the probation office, it is expected that there 
will be many problems arising from the increased number of single young men 
in the community. It will be impossible to increase the budget for the probation 
department this vear. 

Conclusions. — The new population in San Diego principally consists of young 
families and single men. As might be expected, the pressure of increased popula- 
tion is chiefly affecting housing, health, and recreational facilities. Increased 
employment has apparently affected the relief agencies more favorably, as is 
indicated by decreasing relief loads. However, agencies which primarily offer 
social services, while not yet feeling much pressure, anticipate it. 

Principal needs relate to housing, school facilities, recreational facilities and 
staff, increased maternal and child-health services, and expanded and strengthened 
facilities for the social protection of children and youth. 

SEATTLE AND TACOMA, WASH. (INTERVIEWS FEBRUARY, 1941) 

General conditions.— Tacoma is an industrial, shipbuilding, and residential city. 
It is estimated that since 1939 there has been an increase of 25,000 in the 
population of the postal area which includes Tacoma and its suburbs. Seattle and 
Tacoma are recreational centers for defense industries and military personnel in 
the Puget Sound area. 1 

Serious housing shortage in small houses and apartments is reported for Tacoma. 
Rents are reported to have increased greatly. Hotels and rooms for transients 
are full over weekends. There are a number of trailer camps up and down the 
highway between Fort Lewis and Tacoma and Fort Lewis and Olympia. Il is 
said that "there is probably not a barn in this vicinity that is not occupied." 

In Bremerton it is reported that the housing situation is serious, both as to 
increased rents and as to sanitation. A housing project for civilians working in 
the navy vard is under construction. Approximately 100 families with 170 
children are now in the navy yard. In summer there may be 600 to 800 families. 
Many of them come during summer vacation, when battleships are in for over- 
hauling. Diets in many families, including families of expectant mothers, are 
reported to be seriouslv inadec|uate. 

A local social and recreation clearing council has been appointed in Tacoma. 
Various organizations are participating in efforts to meet defense problems. 

Maternal and child health.— The hospital facilities at the Pierce County Hospital 
in Tacoira are constantlv used to capacity and beyond. Because of tax limita- 
tions it will not be possible for Pierce County to increase funds for medical care. 
There is need for increased public health and medical care facilities for dependents 
of men at Fort Lewis and McCord Field. 

Similar problems will be presented in other communities in the Puget bound 
area— for example, Snohomish County air base between Seattle and Everett. 

Education and recreation.— Schools in Bremerton and vicinity are greatly 
overcrowded. 

Recreational programs in Tacoma are conducted by the metropolitan park 
district, the recreation division of the Tacoma public schools, and various private 
agencies. Recreational activities for soldiers are being developed by the social 
and recreation clearing council, appointed by the mayor. A recreation study of 
a private foundation is under way. 

•Most of the information obtained by the Children's Bureau relates to Tacoma and to Bremerton (naval 
base) in Kitsap County. 



45Q4 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Memorandum on Conditions Related to the Defense Program Affecting 
Mothers and Children in the District of Columbia 

Information concerning conditions in the District of Columbia has been obtained 
by members of the staff of the Children's Bureau with the cooperation of the 
Health Department of the District of Columbia. 

general conditions 

Accurate figures as to the number of persons who have come into the District 
in the last few months are not available. An indication of increased popula- 
tion is the fact that 3,000 new workers were reported to have been employed by 
the War and Navy Departments in January. No one knows how many of the 
new residents are bringing their dependents with them. The Defense Housing 
Register, which has been in operation for only a week, reports that many persons 
asking for information about single rooms report that they will need rooms for 
only a few months as they plan to bring their families to Washington soon. The 
Travelers Aid Society reports a great increase in inquiries concerning places to 
live and in case-work services to newcomers. Employed women with young 
children are facing serious problems of the care of children while they are at work . 
Some children stay with their parents in small apartments, their care and super- 
vision being entrusted to a maid who does not have special training for the care 
of young children. The situation is particularly serious among the Negroes. 
Problems of care of children are presented not only by Government workers, but 
also by increasing numbers of women with children who are being employed as 
waitresses and in domestic service. 

maternal and child health 

All the maternal and child health services of the Health Department including 
the prenatal clinics, child-health conferences, public health nursing services, and 
hospital facilities for maternity care, are overtaxed. There has been a great 
increase in maternal and child-health services given by the Health Department in 
the past few years but the staff has not been expanded in proportion to the need. 
For example/in 1938, there were 103,375 visits of patients to maternal and child 
health clinics, in 1939, 123,873, and in 1940, 124,131. In the month of January 
1941, there were 12,515 such visits. All the prenatal clinics and child health 
conferences in the poorer sections of the city are overcrowded. Nonresident 
patients applying for prenatal care are accepted temporarily and referred to 
voluntary hospitals. Both residents and nonresidents are accepted for child- 
health service but the service must be spread very thin and follow-up service is 
markedly inadequate. 

The overcrowding in the pediatric and obstetric services at Gallinger Hospital 
is serious. In spite of the fact that last year additional space was arranged for 
and 7 additional graduate nurses were provided for the nurseries from maternal 
and child health funds. At the present time nurseries which were planned to 
accommodate 75 at a maximum now have 120 infants. The number of obstetric 
patients planned for on the fifth floor of the hospital was 44, yet at the present 
time 60 patients are being cared for. The number of obstetric admissions in 
January and Februarv of 1939 was 340, and in the same months of 1941, 485. 
The births in the hospital in January 1940 numbered 171, and in February 175; 
corresponding figures for 1941 were 205 and 203. 

The present nursing service gives approximately 1.4 hours per patient per day 
in the obstetrical nurseries. In 1940 the corresponding figure was approximately 
2 hours. Four or five hours care per patient per day is needed. During the 
past 2 years there has been a small decrease in nursing staff available for obstetric 
patients. At times there is only one graduate nurse supervising the care of over 
100 obstetric csise.-,. Bathing "of obstetric patients by nurses has had to be 
abandoned. 

Nursing care of infants is wholly inadequate. In one nursery, one nurse is 
often responsible for the feeding, bathing, and changing of 65 infants. Indi- 
vidual feeding even of premature infants has been abandoned, and bottles are 
placed in the infants mouth and collected 15 or 20 minutes later. Although 
student nurses are assigned to these services when not in classes, the present 
nursing personnel finds it impossible to give them adequate supervision or to do 
any teaching. Then' is need for at least 25 or 30 graduate nurses for these 
services alone. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



EDUCATION 



4505 



The Statistical } Division of the Public Schools reports an increase of 1,035 
children enrolled in elementary schools from February 7, 1941, to March 13, 
1941. This is approximately 10 times the number of new enrollments in ele- 
mentary schools in any previous similar period in the school year. 

CHILD WELFARE PROBLEMS 

Reference has already been made to the problems of child care which em- 
ployed mothers must face. These problems have always been difficult in the 
District of Columbia. Plans for the care of children are varied, depending 
on the resourcefulness of the parents, the presence of relatives in the home, or 
ability to pay for competent service or expensive schools. Although the Health 
Department attempts to exercise some supervision over boarding homes for 
children its staff is inadequate for this purpose. Many children are boarded in 
homes which have not been inspected by official agencies. Amounts that parents 
are able to pay for board are usually inadequate to secure proper care. Examples 
of problems of this sort are given below. These stories can be repeated in ever} 7 
section of the city. The situation is particularly serious among Negro groups. 
Young children are placed with anyone who will take them. Problems of this 
kind will continue to increase as population expands and need prompt planning 
for adequate community service with the object of assisting parents who are 
employed on low wages to provide more adequate care for their children. 

A white woman with no children of her own, an eight-room house, and an innate 
love of children, decided she wanted to board children. She did not advertise 
but even so had no difficulty in having 8 or 10 children in her home all the time. 
The ages of these children ranged from 18 months to 10 years. She had only a 
small back yard, cluttered with trash, no outdoor play equipment, few toys of 
any kind. Her housework was done by maids who were slovenly and poorly paid. 
The children were not bathed often enough, their clothing was filthy and inade- 
quate because the parents were supposed to provide it and keep it clean and they 
usually failed to do it regularly. The bedding was stained and there was a strong 
odor of urine throughout the house. However, the father of one child there was 
heard to remark that the thing he liked about this boarding home was that it 
was so clean, others where his two motherless children had received care during 
the past year could not compare with it. He paid a dollar a day for each child, 
which was all he could afford from his salary of about $100 a month. 

In this home was a child whose mother was employed on a Work Projects 
Administration project. She, hoping to get a better position and therefore needing 
to be well dressed, was unable to clothe herself and child, pay her own room rent, 
get her meals and pay more than $5 a week for the child's care on her salary of 
$57.50. She knew the care was poor, but did not know how to do better. 

(Whereupon the committee adjourned until 10 a. m., Wednesday, 
March 26, 1941.) 



260370— 41— pt. 11- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



WEDNESDAY, MARCH 26, 1941 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 
' National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
The committee met at 10 a. m., March 26, 1941, in room 1015, 
New House Office Building, Washington, D. C, Hon. John H. Tolan 
(chairman) presiding. 

Present: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of California,' 
John J. Sparkman, of Alabama; Frank C. Osmers, Jr., of New Jersey; 
and Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois. 

Also present: Robert K. Lamb, chief investigator; Creekmore Fath, 
acting counsel; John W. Abbott, field investigator; and F. Palmer 
Weber, research assistant. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. The 
first witness this morning is Dr. Ballou, and I will ask Mr. Sparkman 
to conduct the interrogation. 

Mr. Sparkman. Dr. Ballou, will you give the reporter your ful 1 
name and state in what capacity you appear? 

TESTIMONY OF DR. FRANK W. BALLOU, SUPERINTENDENT OF 
PUBLIC SCHOOLS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Dr. Ballou. Mr. Chairman, my name is Frank W. Ballou; I am 
Superintendent of Schools in Washington, D. C. 

I was invited, Mr. Chairman, to prepare a statement with respect 
to the migration of school pupils in the District of Columbia. I have 
prepared such a statement and offer it for the record, but I would like 
to speak briefly about some of the important aspects of that statement. 

The Chairman. Without objection, the statement will be made a. 
part of the record. 

(The statement submitted by Dr. Ballou is as follows:) 

STATEMENT OF FRANK W. BALLOU, SUPERINTENDENT OF 
SCHOOLS, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Report on Migration of School Children Into Washington, D. C. 

INTRODUCTION 

In this report, I have assembled such information as was available or could' be 
promptly procured, relating to the subject of migration of school children into the 
District of Columbia. The information relates to public-school children and does 

4501 



4508 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



not include pupils attending nonpublic schools in the District of Columbia. This 
report includes information relating to the following subjects: 

I. Report on nativity as of November 1, 1940, prepared by the school 
statistician and submitted to the Board of Education at its meeting 
on March 5, 1941. 
II. Report for the school year 1940-41 on new pupils entering the public 
schools of the District of Columbia between September 1 and Novem- 
ber 1, 1940. 
III. Reports on emergency school needs approved by the Board of Education 
on January lo, February 5, and February 19, 1941. 

I. REPORT ON NATIVITY AS OF NOVEMBER 1, 1940 

A report prepared by the school statistician as of November 1, 1940, and sub- 
nutted to the Board of Education at its meeting on March 5, 1941, shows the 
number of pupils attending the public schools born in the District of Columbia, 
lie number of pupils born in other parts of the United States, and the number 
-j. pupils born in foreign countries. The report is as follows: 



Summary — Nativity report, Nov. 1, 1940 
DIVISIONS 1 TO 13 (ALL SCHOOLS) 





Number of 

pupils born 

in District of 

Columbia 


Number of 

pupils born 

in other parts 

of the United 

States 


Number of 
pupils born 
in foreign 
countries 


Total 




614 

9,144 

902 


454 
'701 


13 
167 
26 


1,081 
16, 649 










Junior high school: 


11,807 
35 


7, 835 
19 


124 
















11,842 

764 


7,854 
683 


124 
12 


19. 820 








Elementary school: 


3,260 
3, 576 
3,557 
3,561 
4,121 
4,333 
5,864 
5,781 


1,985 
1,837 
1,886 
1,904 
2,026 
1,774 
2,802 
1,731 


110 
44 
39 

36 
28 
2 

1 


5,355 


































34, 053 


15, 945 


260 








Ungraded 


2 

445 
64 
57 
51 

205 


10 
270 
35 
30 
20 
138 


365 
4 












Crippled 












5 








Total 


824 


503 


374 


1,701 








34, 877 


16.448 


634 










58, 143 


33, 478 


976 


92,597 





NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Summary — Nativity report, Nov. 1, 1940 — Continued 
DIVISION 1 TO 9 (WHITE SCHOOLS) 



4509 





Number of 

pupils born 

in District of 

Columbia 


Number of 

pupils born 

in other parts 

of the United 

States 


Number of 
pupils born 
in foreign 
countries 


Total 




234 
'902 


235 

5,611 

701 


11 
165 
26 


480 




12, 108 




1,629 






Junior high school: 


6,824 

8 


5,281 
15 


120 


12, 225 




23 










6,832 
353 


5,296 
340 


120 
10 


12, 248 




703 






Elementary school: 


3,260 
3,576 
3, 557 
3,561 
4,121 


1,985 
1,837 
1,886 
1,904 
2,026 


110 
44 
39 
36 


5,355 




5,457 




5,482 




5,501 




6,175 






Total -- 


18, 075 


9,638 


257 


27,970 






Ungraded: 


2 
321 
12 
33 

31 
169 


10 
184 
10 
20 
12 
109 


365 
4 


377 




509 




22 






53 






43 




5 


283 






Total .. 


568 


345 


374 


1,287 






Total elementary school. 


18,643 


9,983 


631 


29,257 




33, 296 


22, 166 


963 


56, 425 







DIVISIONS 10 TO 13 (COLORED SCHOOLS) 








380 
2,812 


219 
1,727 


2 
2 


601 


Senior .high schools 


4,541 


Junior high school: 


4,983 
27 


2,554 
4 


4 


7.541 




31 








Total 


5,010 
411 


2,558 
343 


4 
2 


7,572 


Vocational 


756 


Elementary school: 


4, 333 

5,864 

5, 781 


1,774 
2,802 
1,731 


2 
1 


6,109 




8,667 




7,512 








Total. 


15, 978 


6,307 


3 


22,288 


Ungraded: 


124 
52 
24 
20 
36 


86 
25 
10 
8 
29 




210 






77 






34 






28 


Occupational -- 




65 


Total - 


256 


158 




414 


Total elementary school 


16, 234 


6,465 


3 


22, 702 




24, 847 


11,312 


13 


36, 172 







4510 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



The following table shows the percentages of pupils attending the public schools : 
(1) Born in the District of Columbia; (2) born in other parts of the United States; 
(3) born in foreign countries. 

Nativity, Nov. 1, 1940 



DIVISIONS 1 TO 13 (ALL SCH( 


)OLS) 








Divisions 1 to 13 


Number of 
pupils born 
in District 
of Colum- 
bia 


Per- 
cent 


Number of 
pupils born 

in other 
parts of the 

United 
States 


Per- 
cent 


Number of 

pupils born 

in foreign 

countries 


Per- 
cent 


Total 




614 
9,144 

902 
11,842 

764 
34, 877 


56.8 
54.9 
55.4 
59.7 
52.4 
67.1 


454 

'701 

7,854 

683 

16, 448 


42.0 
44.1 
43.0 
39.7 
46.8 
31.7 


13 
167 

26 
124 

12 
634 


1.2 
1.0 
1.6 
.6 
.8 
1.2 


1,081 




16, 649 


Junior-senior high 


1,629 
19, 820 




1,459 




51.959 






Total 


58, 143 


62.8 


33, 478 


36.2 


976 


1.0 


92, 597 







DIVISIONS 1 TO 9 (SCHOOLS FOR WHITE CHILDREN) 








234 
6,332 

902 
6,832 

353 
18, 643 


48.8 
52.3 
55.4 
55.8 
50.2 
63.7 


235 
5,611 

701 
5,296 

340 
9,983 


49.0 
46.3 
43.0 
43.2 
48.4 
34.1 


11 
165 

26 
120 

10 
631 


2.2 
1.4 
1.6 
1.0 
1.4 
2.2 


480 




12, 108 




1,629 




12, 248 




703 




29, 257 






Total. - 


33, 296 


59.0 


22, 166 


39.3 


963 


1.7 


56, 425 







DIVISIONS 10 TO 13 (SCHOOLS FOR COLORED CHILDREN) 








380 
2,812 
5,010 

411 
16, 234 


63.2 
61.9 
66.2 
54.4 
71.51 


219 
1,727 
2,558 

343 
6,465 


36.5 
38.05 
33.75 
45.4 
28.48 


2 
2 
4 
2 
3 


0.3 
.05 
.05 
.2 
.01 


601 




4,541 




7,572 




756 




22, 702 






Total 


24, 847 


68.7 


11,312 


31.26 


13 


.04 


36. 172 




58, 143 


62.8 


33, 478 


36.2 


976 


1.0 


92, 597 







These tables on nativity, showing pupils born in the District of Columbia, in 
other parts of the United States, and in foreign countries, furnish evidence to 
show the unique status of the Nation's capital where many people from the 
several States and foreign countries come to live temporarily for a considerable 
number of years and indeed permanently. 

II. REPORT ON NEW PUPILS ENTERING THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE DISTRICT OF 
COLUMBIA BETWEEN SEPTEMBER I AND NOVEMBER I, 1940 

The school officers have long recognized that a substantial number of public- 
school pupils will come into the Washington schools from practically every State 
in the Union during each school year. The schools must be organized in antici- 
pation of these pupils. 

In 1936-37, and again in 1937-38, a study was made of these pupils new to 
the District schools, showing that in 1936-37 4,974 new pupils were admitted to 
the schools up to November 1 and that in 1937-38 5,508 pupils new to the District 
were admitted. 

This information has been again collected from the 175 public schools and is 
included in this report. Pupils new to the public schools of the District of 
Columbia admitted before November 1, 1940, total 4,756. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4511 



Summary of the pupils who movtd to the District of Columbia from the various 
States, Territories, and foreign countries between July 1 and Nov. 1, 19//.0 



DIVISIONS 1 TO 9 





M 

a 

N 


Grade 






1 





> 


-r 

1 

Ph 


-5 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


"3 



UNITED STATES 


9 
21 


51 
63 
2 


ill 
2 


63 
66 
4 


62 
52 
5 


53 

4S 
1 


55 
54 
3 
2 
2 
4 
2 
3 
1 
1 
6 

"7 
6 
2 
4 

7 

1 
4 
1 
2 
3 
6 

2 


61 

.-s 
4 
1 
1 

10 

"2" 

"e" 

9 

2 

6 
1 
4 
5 
5 

1 
7 
2 
2 

"3 


47 
36 
1 

1 

""§" 
2 
2 

1 
8 
4 


46 
36 
4 

12 
1 
1 


62 

tit; 

3 

5 
13 
3 
2 


59 
54 
4 

1 


19 
16 
1 


T 


19 
4 


3 

1 


T 


678 




638 




34 




1 










8 




5 
12 

4 
4 

3 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 
4 
2 
1 
2 
3 
4 
2 
1 
2 
.... 


4 
9 
1 
4 


"16" 
"2 


2 
13 

1 

10 
9 


2 
20 
2 
4 
1 
9 
3 
2 
3 
2 
1 
3 
2 
6 












25 




5 
1 


14 
1 
3 


11 
1 










141 












19 
















1 












6 




8 
9 
2 
6 
4 
2 
2 
2 


5 
3 


7 
3 


11 
7 


12 
5 


5 
2 




1 
1 






86 




1 
1 
1 


64 




8 




5 
5 
4 
12 
2 


7 
2 
4 
3 
3 


4 
6 
7 
2 
3 

~~6~ 
5 
1 
1 
2 


8 
4 
5 
4 
3 

2 
5 
6 

2 
2 
8 


9 
1 

""§" 


6 
3 
2 

4 

1 
1 


8 
5 
3 
4 
1 
?, 


1 








73 










41 




1 




1 






37 




50 




1 










32 












16 






1 
3 
2 
1 

"b 

2 

1 














7 




6 


1 

5 

.... 

2 


2 
1 
2 
1 
6 


8 
2 

4 
2 
4 


6 
1 
3 
1 

8 

1 


6 
3 
2 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
1 
6 

29 
8 


5 
2 

1 
1 




1 
2 


1 
1 


::: 


64 




38 




22 














14 




1 
1 
1 


1 








50 










8 




2 


1 






1 










16 
















1 








1 
9 






2 
14 
2 
21 
24 
2 
8 
2 










3 
9 

17" 

4 


1 
5 

21 

3 
1 
4 
5 
1 
13 










8 




4 


7 


5 


5 

22 

14 
1 

6 
4 


7 
1 
21 

17 


9 


7 


7 
2 
30 
9 






1 




95 




7 




14 
6 

1 
2 


24 

17 

7 
6 


19 
19 


22 
18 


18 
10 


17 
15 


2 

1 


7 
4 






284 




169 




fi 




5 

5 

30 
1 
4 

"§" 
3 
4 


4 

7 


8 


11 
L 3 
r 26 

"5 
* 1 
'3 

'8 


4 
6 

"26" 
1 
3 

"5 

5 


10 

2'.l 


7 
6 


4 
5 










80 








2 




53 




4 




11 
2 

1 


22 
2 
5 
1 
4 
7 
2 


25 
1 
3 

"~6~ 
8 
1 


20 
1 
2 
1 
3 
3 


18 


36 


25 


23 


1 


5 




2 


312 




10 




3 

~~6~ 

Ki 
1 


1 
1 
4 
6 
2 
1 


5 
1 
2 

7 

1 


1 

1 
1 
9 
1 


3 

1 
3 
2 
2 

1 
4 
1 










40 












9 




2 

4 
2 

3 
1 










54 






1 






81 




16 




1 














4 




2 
10 
2 


"l6" 
3 


1 
15 
1 


3 
9 
1 




3 
9 
2 




""5" 
2 
2 

1 
2 


3 
6 
2 










15 




4 
1 


9 
4 

1 


4 
2 




7 






102 




23 












3 


OUTLYING TERRITORIES 
AND POSSESSIONS 
















1 
1 


"2 














2 








5 


1 






1 


1 

2 


.... 


1 










14 






2 




1 










8 






1 














3 








1 


























1 


FOREIGN COUNTRIES 

Asia: 


2 






1 






2 


1 






1 










7 


14 


























1 
















1 




















1 




1 


1 


1 




























2 


Central America: 




1 




1 








1 














4 


























1 


1 






2 


1 






1 










1 


1 


1 








7 



4512 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Summary of the pupils who moved to the District of Columbia from the various 
States, Territories, and foreign countries between July 1 and Nov. 1, 1.940 — 
Continued 

DIVISIONS 1 TO 9 





a 
S 

a 

: 2 


Grade 


1 

2 
1 


"3 
a 
o 

S3 

O 
> 


3 
1 

1 

PL, 


1 

1 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 





7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


o 


FOREIGN COUNTRIES— 

continued 
Europe: 




1 






























2 


























1 










1 
























1 
2 












1 


England 


1 


1 


4 


1 




2 


2 


3 


2 


1 


2 


2 










23 








2 


2 


France 


1 




1 






2 








2 


.... 


3 










9 
















2 
2 


3 


































2 




































2 




























1 








] 


































1 
4 
2 


1 




































4 




































2 
























1 












1 






1 


1 
1 

1 














1 














3 


















1 
1 


1 
2 












3 


North America: 










1 


2 


2 




1 
































8 


3 


South America: 


































2 
2 


2 




































2 






1 


2 


.... 


1 




1 






1 














6 












1 












1 


Chile 








1 


























1 


































1 
2 

1 

39 


1 




































2 




















1 
















2 


Total ... 


11 ! 


304 


:i-l(i 


313 


m 


308 


307 


ilii'.i 




256 


292 


318 


:m 


Hill 


7 


53 


9 


3,728 















DIVISIONS 10 TO 


13 




















UNITED STATES 


4 
8 

1 


11 
31 


19 
29 


20 
35 


12 
16 


14 

22 

1 
1 


13 
16 


12 
16 
1 

1 


25 
29 
1 
1 


3 
15 
2 
1 


5 

7 
2 


1 
2 


1 


... 


3 
3 


1 


1 


145 




229 








9 




















1 




5 
























1 
































1 


... 


I 






1 

8 
3 






1 


1 




















3 






"6 
4 


2 

4 


2 


3 


1 
2 


















7 




2 


3 
1 


1 


1 


1 












1 


34 














9 




























1 




























1 








1 








1 




1 


.... 


2 




1 
















5 








1 


1 


1 












3 












1 
1 
1 
3 
5 
36 
1 

19 




















1 






















1 














2 




2 


1 
2 
2 
43 
3 
3 












1 

~~3~ 

19 
















5 




"T 

29 

1 
4 


2 
2 
31 
1 
2 


6 
1 
29 

"T 


"Y 

15 
2 
10 


2 
6 

18 


3 

12 

1 
7 


2 
2 
4 


2 

1 
1 


1 










19 




2 
11 

3 










34 




3 
.... 


"2 




1 


3 


256 




13 




3 


4 


2 






45 




1 




9 


39 


17 


22 
2 


16 
2 


11 

1 


14 


17 


7 


4 


.... 


2 




4 


1 




182 




5 














1 












2 


West Virginia 


3 


1 




2 




















1 




9 


OUTLYINO TERRITORIES 
AND POSSESSIONS 

Hawaii 






1 














1 


Total 


it; 


149 


114 


125 


lilt 


96 


78 


7s 


105 


56 


33 


10 


8 


3 


12 


6 


5 ! 1,028 













NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4513 



The following table shows, for corresponding periods during the years 1936-37, 
1937-38, and 1940-41, the number of pupils from the various States, outlying 
United States possessions, or foreign countries, who have enrolled in the District 
of Columbia public schools for the first time: 





Kinder- 
garten to 
grade 6 


Grades 
7-9 


Grades 
10-12 


Teachers' 
colleges 


Voca- 
tional 
schools 


Total 


Divisions 1-9: 

1936-37 


1,980 
2,180 
2,013 

1,046 

1,047 

717 


719 

1,038 

857 

290 
309 
239 


756 
781 
798 

159 
130 
57 


14 
23 
7 

10 




3,469 
4,022 
3,728 


1937-38 




1940-41 — - 


53 


Divisions 10-13: 

1936-37 


1937-38 _ 






1940-41 


3 


12 


1,028 





In the above table, post-graduates have been included in grades 10-12, ungraded 
pupils have been included in kindergarten to grade 6, and, in the tabulations for 
1936-37 and 1937-38, the vocational pupils have been distributed among the 
grades in which they were enrolled. 



III. REPORTS ON EMERGENCY SCHOOL NEEDS IN THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Emergency school needs have developed in the District of Columbia, especially 
in the area of the District known as Anacostia located across the Eastern Branch 
of the Potomac River. These developments have increased in scope and urgency 
since the school budget for 1942 was prepared during the summer of 1940. Ac- 
cordingly, the school budget now before the Appropriations Committee of the 
House of Representatives does not include school facilities necessary to meet these 
emergency developments consisting of extensive construction of permanent homes 
which are being occupied as rapidly as completed. 

Because these school needs are not being met in the school budget now before 
the Congress, the Board of Education has found it necessary to consider supple- 
mental or deficiency appropriations to meet these emergency needs. Accordingly, 
the Superintendent and his staff, with the active participation of the committee 
on finance of the Board of Education, visited these areas and compiled information 
for the consideration of the Board of Education. 

I submit in the following pages reports prepared by the Superintendent and his 
associates for the consideration of the Board of Education. 

Two reports are submitted relating to the emergency needs in the white schools 
and two reports relate to emergency needs in the colored schools. 

Schools for white pupils, divisions 1-9 

On January 15, 1941, the Superintendent submitted a preliminary report 
reviewing the construction of houses which is taking place which has created the 
emergency school needs in the Anacostia area. The information concerning the 
housing developments in the Anacostia-Benning area was secured by actual con- 
sultation with the various builders who are operating in that area. Information 
was likewise secured from Commander Ira P. Griffen relating to the naval housing 
development south of Boiling Field. The report is as follows: 

"January 15, 1941. 
"To the Board of Education of the District of Columbia: 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: The Superintendent and his associates have con- 
sidered certain developments in the District of Columbia brought about as a result 
of the national defense program of the Federal Government. In several sections 
of the city extraordinary construction is going on to provide Federal workers with 
homes. This Federal development is accompanied by corresponding activities 
on the part of local builders as well as construction projects under the Alley 
Dwelling Authority of the District of Columbia. 

"In view of this development, the Superintendent asked First Assistant Super- 
intendent Haycock to summarize these developments and analyze them in rela- 
tion to the school situation in different sections of the city. A similar request was 
made of First Assistant Superintendent Wilkinson. 



4514 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

"Under date of January 11, 1941, the Superintendent received the following 
report from First Assistant Superintendent Haycock: 

'"Memorandum to the Superintendent. 

"Subject: Emergency school needs in Anacostia due to housing developments. 

"Problems of extreme urgency are developing in the Anacostia section, where a 
number of large housing projects are moving forward so rapidly that our present 
school facilities are not sufficient to accommodate prospective enrollments. 

'"One of the largest developments is sponsored by the Federal Government in 
connection with the defense program. The Alley Dwelling Authority is develop- 
ing a large tract near Fort Du Pont, and in other sections of Anacostia real-estate 
operators have undertaken large projects, evidently anticipating shortage of homes 
in the city due to the defense emergency. 

" 'Although the Commissioners and the Bureau of the Budget approved in the 
estimates now before Congress the purchase of a site and the erection of an 
elementary school thereon at Minnesota Avenue and Ely Place SE., and also 
approved the purchase of a site and the preparation of plans for a school in the 
vicinity of Alabama Avenue and Pennsylvania Avenue, the demands for imme- 
diate action in meeting other needs is so urgent that, in my opinion, the Board of 
Education should request the Commissioners to ask Congress for certain deficiency 
appropriations. 

'"The situations that seem to warrant immediate consideration follow: 

'"1. Federal housing development south of Boiling Field 

"Between Boiling Field and the Naval Research Laboratory the Navy Depart- 
ment is sponsoring the construction of units for 600 families, to be occupied before 
next summer. Ultimately it is expected that 1,000 families will occupy this tract. 
A statement from Commander Ira P. Griffen, attached herewith, describes cer- 
tain features of this undertaking. The naval authorities estimate that 900 chil- 
dren of school age will occupy the first 600 homes. 

" 'In addition to the above development, a large tract is being opened by a real- 
estate operator at Nichols Avenue and Chesapeake Street SE., where 125 family 
units will be erected by September. 

" 'The nearest elementary school to these developments is the Congress Heights 
School, located at least a mile to the northeast. That school has no vacant rooms 
and has only about 36 vacant seats. It is evident that a new school should be 
provided to serve this new community. In addition to this new development, 
many new homes are being erected along Nichols Avenue, south of the Congress 
Heights School. 

'"A year ago the school enrolled 535 pupils. The enrollment on December 12, 
1940, was 579. 

"'Recommendation: Purchase land for an elementary school in the vicinity of 
Nichols Avenue and Atlantic Street SE. Construct a 16-room elementary school 
and a combination auditorium-gymnasium on land to be purchased in the vicinity 
of Nichols Avenue and Atlantic Street SE. 

" '2. Housing developments near the Benning School 

"'Near the intersection of Minnesota Avenue, Ridge Road, and East Capitol 
Street a large tract is being developed. Apartments to house 792 units are to be 
completed by September 1941. 

" 'Also near the Benning School at Minnesota Avenue, north of East Capitol 
Street is a development providing 200 family units. 

"'In addition to these a large development called River Terrace will provide 
more than 500 units on a tract between Minnesota Avenue and Anacostia Avenue, 
south of Benning Road. 

" 'The enrollment at the Benning School a year ago was- 170. On December 12, 
1940, the enrollment was 248. 

" 'Recommendation: Construct an 8-room addition and a combination assembly- 
hall gymnasium at the Benning School, and provide for the remodeling of the 
present building. (Note. — If the Municipal Architect finds that the present 
structure cannot be satisfactorily enlarged, provision should be made for the con- 
struction of a 16-room building with an assembly hall.) 

" '3. Development near the Randle Highlands-Orr School 

'"Several extensive real-estate developments have been launched near the 
Randle Highlands-Orr School providing for at least 500 families. The most 
important projects to be completed next fall are as follows: Fairlawn Village, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4515 



74 units; Lyndale, 56 units; Hi-land Apartments, 35 units; Minnesota Park, 
100 units; Twenty-eighth Place and Texas Avenue, 24 units; P Street and 
Eighteenth Place, 80 units; Pennsylvania Avenue and Thirty-third Place, 15 
units; S Street near Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth, 11 units. 

" 'A year ago the enrollment at the Randle Highlands-Orr School was 650 pupils. 
On December 12, 1940, the enrollment was 747 pupils. 

" 'Recommendation: Construct an eight-room addition and assembly hall- 
gymnasium at the Randle Highlands School and provide for necessary remodeling 
of the present building. 

'"4. Developments in the Hillcrest section 

" 'Pupils residing in the Hillcrest section are attending either the Stanton School 
or the Randle Highlands School, both of which are now congested because of much 
real-estate activity near these schools. 

"'In the Hillcrest section two major real-estate projects are under way. These 
are Fairfax Village, Thirty-eighth and Alabama Avenue SE., where 640 units 
will be completed by September 1941, and Dupont Village, near Cedar Hill 
Cemetery, where 200 houses are contemplated and will be ready in the spring. 

'"It is essential, therefore, that as soon as the school site is purchased for the 
Hillcrest section in the vicinity of Pennsylvania Avenue and Alabama Avenue, a 
school should be erected as soon as possible. This building will be necessary to 
relieve the Stanton School which now has a class in a portable structure. Many 
apartments are now being built near the Stanton School near the Sky land project. 

" 'The enrollment at the Stanton School a year ago was 163 pupils. On Decem- 
ber 12, 1940, the enrollment was 203 pupils. 

" 'Recommendation: Construct an eight-room extensible building for elementary 
school pupils on the site to be purchased in the vicinity of Pennsylvania Avenue 
and Alabama Avenue SE. 

" '5. Developments in the Bradbury Heights section 

" 'New homes have been going up rapidly in Bradbury Heights. For years the 
citizens have been asking for a school. The Board of Education has recom- 
mended the purchase of a site. Small children in this neighborhood must go 
long distances to the Randle Highlands-Orr School which is now overcrowded. 

" 'It is essential that this school be provided as soon as possible so that the pupils 
of that community may be withdrawn from the Randle Highlands School to 
accommodate the pupils of its own district. 

" 'Recommendation: Purchase a site and prepare plans for an elementary school 
in the vicinity of Alabama Avenue and Hillside Road SE. 

'"6. Growth in enrollment, Anacostia section 
'"Recent rapid growth in the schools in Anacostia is shown as follows: 





Oct. 27, 
1939 


Nov. 1, 
1940 


Dec. 12, 
1940 




170 
621 
163 
527 


232 
692 
195 
553 


248 




710 




203 




579 






Total 


1,481 


1,672 


1, 742 







" 'In 1 year the increase in these schools has been 261 pupils. The increase in 
about one month and a half has been 70 pupils. 

" 'Summary of emergency school needs 

" 'Transfer a portable school to the Benning School. 

" 'Transfer a portable school to the Stanton School. 

" 'Purchase a site and prepare plans for an elementary school in the vicinity of 
Nichols Avenue and Atlantic Street SE. 

" 'Construct a 16-room building for elementary-school purposes on the site to be 
purchased in the vicinity of Nichols Avenue and Atlantic Street SE. 



4516 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



" 'Purchase land adjacent to the Benning School for the erection of an eight-room 
addition and assembly hall-gymnasium. 1 

" 'Construct an eight-room addition and assembly hall-gymnasium at the Ben- 
ning School. 1 

" 'Construct an eight-room addition and assembly hall-gymnasium at the Randle 
Highlands School. 1 

" 'Construct an eight-room extensible building for elementary-school purposes on 
the site to be purchased in the vicinity of Alabama Avenue and Pennsylvania 
Avenue SE. 1 

" 'Purchase a site and prepare plans for an elementary school in the vicinity of 
Alabama Avenue and Hillside Road SE. 1 

" 'Make immediately available the following items in the regular District of 
Columbia Appropriations Act for 1942: 

" 'Site, plans, and building at Minnesota Avenue and Ely Place SE. 

" 'Site, and plans for building at Pennsylvania Avenue and Alabama Avenue SE. 

Schools affected by housing developments now taking place in the Anacostia- Denning 

section 



Location' 


Family 
units 


Schools affected 




600 (1, 000) 

125 
326 

792 

200 
500 
74 
56 
35 
100 
24 
80 
15 
11 
G40 
200 

100 




Nichols Ave. and Chesapeake St. SE 


Ave. and Atlantic St. SE. 

Congress Heights School. 

Proposed school near Min- 
nesota Ave. and Ely PI. SE. 

Benning School and "proposed 
school near Minnesota Ave. 
and Ely PI. SE. 

Benning School. 
Do. 






River Terrace, between Minnesota Ave. and Anacostia Ave.. 




Do. 




Do. 




Do. 


28th PI. and Texas Ave 

P St. and 18th PI 


Do. 
Do. 




Do. 


S St. near 30th 


Do. 








Proposed school in Bradbury 

Heights. 
Randle Highlands School. 






Stanton School. 



" 'Respectfully submitted. 

R. L. Haycock, 
First Assistant Superintendent.' 
"The Superintendent concurs in the view expressed herein that these develop- 
ments are creating an emergency insofar as available schoolhouse accommodations 
are concerned. 

"In order that these emergency school needs may have prompt attention, the 
Superintendent recommends that the Board receive this report and refer it to the 
committee on finance of the Board for consideration and report back to the Board 
as soon as practicable, indicating an appropriate course of action to meet these 
unforeseen developments. 
"Respectfully submitted. 

Frank W. Ballou, 
Superintendent of Schools.'' 

1 To be carried in a supplemental deficiency appropriation. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4517 

The letter from Commander Ira P. Griffen, which was referred to in Mr. 
Haycock's report, is as follows : 

"Navy Yard, Washington, D. C, 

Public Works Department, 

December 20, 1940. 
"Superintendent of Schools, 

Franklin Administration Building, 

Washington' D. C. 
"Dear Sir: Replying to the questions contained in your letter of December 17, 
1940, 1 am submitting the following: 

"1. Six hundred families will be accommodated in the naval housing develop- 
ment south of Boiling Field. 

"2. From questionnaires returned, it appears that an average of probably 1.5 
children per family is a reasonable expectation. 

"3. The homes will be of temporary construction, with a life of between 10 and 
15 years. 

"4. Fifty percent of the development is expected to continue more or less per- 
manently. 

"5. The housing project is being developed under Federal auspices and support, 
and is not constructed with any private real-estate development. 

"6. It is not expected that "the Navy will furnish any transportation to pupils 
attending schools either near at hand or at other points in the city. 

"7. There is no provision as yet for rendering financial assistance to the District 
of Columbia for the construction of a public school. 

"If there are any further developments which would indicate a possibility of 
Federal assistance in providing school facilities, I will let you know. 
"Verv truly yours, 

Ira P. Griffen, 
Commander, Civil Engineer Corps, 

United States Navy, 
Public Works Officer." 

This report was received by the Board of Education on January 5 and was 
referred to the committee on finance for consideration and report. 

The second report, dated February 15, 1941, and based on the report of January 
15, makes specific recommendations for the purchase of land and the construction 
of buildings necessary to meet the existing emergency. 

This report was approved by the finance committee and by the Board of Edu- 
cation at its meeting on February 5, 1941, and forwarded to the Board of Com- 
missioners of the District of Columbia. Subsequently, the Commissioners invited 
the school officers into conference on the emergency needs. It is the understanding 
of the school officers that the Commissioners contemplate requests for as much of 
this program of land purchase and schoolhouse construction as can be financed by 
the District of Columbia under existing procedure. 

The report is as follows: 

"February 5, 1941, 
"To the Board of Education of the District of Columbia: 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: Recently school officers, accompanied by members 
of the finance committee of the Board of Education, visited sections of Anacostia 
with a view to obtaining first-hand information relative to the real-estate develop- 
ments that are rapidly taking place in that area. We were impressed with the 
urgency of providing additional schoolhouse accommodations in several com- 
munities where housing developments are so extensive and are moving forward 
so rapidly that the present schools in Anacostia cannot provide for the large influx 
of new pupils. 

"At the meeting of the Board of Education held on January 15, 1941, the Super- 
intendent submitted a comprehensive report covering the real estate situation in 
the several sections of Anacostia. On the basis of complete information already 
submitted by the school officers, and the facts revealed in the visits of officers and 
members of the Board of Education to the Anacostia area, the Superintendent 
desires to transmit certain estimates for school purposes for inclusion in the next 
deficiency bill, which is now being prepared by the Commissioners for transmittal 
to the Bureau of the Budget to be forwarded to Congress for early action. 



4518 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

"Accordingly, the Superintendent desires to transmit the following deficiency 
items: 

"1. For the purchase of land for elementary school purposes adjacent to 
the Benning School on which to construct an 8-room addition and 

a combination assembly hall-gymnasium (') 

For the construction of an 8-room addition for elementary school 
purposes to the Benning School, including a combination assem- 
bly hall-gymnasium $230, 000 

1 Land estimates confidential. 

The Benning School is to the northeast of these housing tracts. To the south- 
west is the North Randle Highlands section, where a new 8-room school is provided 
for in the regular 1942 bill. This school will serve some of the children living in 
the western portion of these real-estate developments. 

"Justification 

"Real-estate operators evidently anticipating the shortage of adequate housing 
in this city due to the defense program have begun construction on a large scale 
in the vicinity of the Benning School, located on Minnesota Avenue, north of 
Benning Road NE. 

"Near the intersection of Minnesota Avenue, Ridge Road, and East Capitol 
Street a large tract is being developed. Apartments to house 792 units are to 
be completed by September 1941. 

"Also near the Benning School at Minnesota Avenue, north of East Capitol 
Street is a development providing 200 family units. 

"In addition to these a large development called River Terrace will provide 
more than 500 units on a tract between Minnesota Avenue and Anacostia Avenue, 
south of Benning Road. 

"This school is also affected by the Alley Dwelling housing development known 
as Fort Dupont Dwellings, where units for 326 families are being erected. 

"A study of the school census in sections of Anacostia recently developed reveals 
that approximately 1.6 children of school age are found in each family unit. Of 
these about 35 percent belong in the elementary school level, grades one to six. 

"School officers are convinced that an eight-room addition should be provided 
for at once, including an assembly hall-gymnasium. 

"Increasing enrollments at the Benning School since 1937 has been as follows: 

"Oct. 29, 1937 168 

"Oct. 28, 1938 159 

"Oct. 27, 1939 170 

"Nov. 1, 1940 232 

Uan. 9, 1941 271 

"At this school the outgoing pupils of the sixth grade number 17, whereas the 
intake is 40. This is evidence of rapid influx. 

"An item is also carried herewith providing for the purchase of additional land 
at the Benning School on which to construct this addition. 

"2. For the construction of an 8-room addition for elementary school 
purposes at the Randle Highlands School, including a combina- 
tion assembly hall-gymnasium $230, 000 

"Justification 

"A rapidly developing emergency has arisen in the vicinity of the Randle High- 
lands School where new real estate projects on a large scale are now under way 
to meet the housing shortage in this city. 

"Several extensive real-estate developments have been launched near the 
Randle Highlands-Orr School providing for at least 500 families. The most 
important projects to be completed next fall are as follows: Fairlawn Village, 74 
units; Lyndale, 56 units; Hi-land Apartments, 35 units; Minnesota Park, 100 
units; Twenty-eighth Place and Texas Avenue, 24 units; P Street and Eighteenth 
Place, 80 units; Pennsylvania Avenue and Thirty-third Place, 15 units; S Street 
near Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth, 11 units. 

"Many new homes are being erected just east of the schools in the sections 
known as Fort Davis, Mount Dome, and Hollywood. All of these developments 
are moving forward so rapidly that our present schools cannot accommodate 
them. On the basis of 1.6 children per family unit, which is the average found 
in the new communities in Anacostia, an eight-room addition including an 
assembly hall-gymnasium should be provided at once. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4519 

"School records show increasing enrollments at the Randle Highlands-Orr 
School as follows: 

"Oct. 29, 1937 593 

"Oct. 28, 1938 .. __ 628 

"Oct, 27, 1939 621 

"Nov. 1, 1940 692 

"Jan. 9, 1941 723 

"At this school the outgoing pupils of the sixth grade number 83, whereas the 
intake of first-grade pupils is 143. This gives evidence of a rapid influx of new 
growth. 

"3. For the purchase of a site for elementary school purposes in the 

vicinity of Pennsylvania and Alabama A ves. SE (i) 

"In the regular bill for 1942 an item is carried providing for the purchase of a 
site and the preparation of plans for a building in the vicinity of Pennsylvania 
and Alabama Avenues. Provision for a site should be carried as a deficiency 
item in order that it may be purchased at once. 
1 Land estimates confidential. 

"For the construction of an 8-room extensible building for elementary 
school purposes on a site to be purchased in the vicinity of Pennsyl- 
vania and Alabama Aves. SE $180, 000 

"Justification 

"Housing developments of major significance are under way in and near the 
Hillcrest section of Anacostia. Work on these homes is progressing so rapidly 
that steps should be taken at once to provide a school for this neighborhood. 

"Pupils residing in the Hillcrest section are attending either the Stanton School 
or the Randle Highlands School, both of which are now congested because of 
much real estate activity near these schools. 

"In the Hillcrest section two major real-estate projects are under way. These 
are Fairfax Village, Thirty-eighth and Alabama Avenue SE., where 640 units 
will be completed by September 1941, and Dupont Village, near Cedar Hill 
Cemetery, where 200 houses are contemplated and will be ready in the spring. 

"It is essential, therefore, that a school be erected as soon as the school site is 
purchased for the Hillcrest section in the vicinity of Pennsylvania and Alabama 
Avenues. This building will be necessary to relieve the Stanton School which 
now has a class in a portable structure. Many apartments are now being built 
near the Stanton School in the Skyland project. 

"On the basis of 1.6 children of school age per family, school officers are con- 
vinced an eight-room school should be built as soon as a site can be purchased. 

"Enrollments at the Randle Highlands and the Stanton Schools definitely indi- 
cate the population growth taking place in this section. 





Oct. 29, 
1937 


Oct. 28, 
1938 


Oct. 27, 
1939 


Nov. 1, " 
1940 


Jan. 9, 
1941 


Randle Highlands-Orr 


593 
117 


628 
157 


621 
163 


195 


732 
207 






Total 


710 


785 


784 


887 


930 



'4. For the purchase of a site for elementary school purposes in the 

vicinity of Nichols Ave. and Atlantic St, SE (') 

"For the construction of an 8-room extensible building for elementary 
school purposes on a site to be purchased in the vicinity of Nichols 
Ave. and Atlantic St. SE $180,000 



Land estimates confidential. 



"Justification 



"Between Boiling Field and the Naval Research Laboratory the Navy Depart- 
ment is sponsoring the construction of units for 600 families to be occupied before 
next summer. Ultimately it is expected that 1,000 families will occupy this tract. 
A statement from Commander Ira P. Griffen, attached herewith, describes certain 
features of this undertaking. The naval authorities estimate that 900 children of 
school age will occupy the first 600 homes. 



4520 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

"In addition to the above development, a large tract is being opened by a real- 
estate operator at Nichols Avenue and Chesapeake Street SE., where 125 family 
units will be erected by September. 

"The nearest elementary school to these developments is the Congress Heights 
School, located at least a mile to the northeast. That school is operating at 
capacity. It is evident that a new school should be provided to serve this new 
community. In addition to this new development, many new homes are being 
erected along Nichols Avenue, south of the Congress Heights School. 

"According to the school census the newly developed sections of Anacostia show 
approximately 1.6 children of elementary school age to the family. It is evident 
that an eight-room building would probably be moie than filled by the new pupils 
who will live in this community. 

"Recent growth at the Congress Heights School is shown as follows: 

"Oct. 27, 1939 527 

"Nov. 1, 1940 553 

"Jan. 9, 1941 574 

"Outgoing pupils in the sixth grade number 76. Incoming pupils in the first 
grade number 111. This heavy influx indicates congestion. 

"5. For the purchase of a site for elementary school purposes in the 

vicinity of Minnesota Ave. and Ely PL SE (>) 

"For the construction of an 8-room extensible building for elementary 
school purposes on a site to be purchased in the vicinitv of Minne- 
sota Ave. and Ely PL SE ~_ $180,000 

i Land estimates confidential. 

"In the regular bill for 1942 items are carried providing for the purchase of a 
site and for the erection of a building in the vicinity of Minnesota Avenue and 
Ely Place SE. Those provisions should be carried as deficiency items in order 
that the proposed construction may begin as soon as possible. 

"Justification 

"This neighborhood lying between Benning on the east and Randle Highlands 
on the west is likewise seriously affected by the extensive real-estate developments 
taking place nearly. Many pupils in the Fairlawn development will attend the 
new school to be erected; also many of the children who will live in the housing 
developments to the east will be close enough to attend the school at this point. 
This school will have the effect of drawing pupils from the congested Randle 
Highlands area and pupils from the Benning area which are steadily overcrowding 
the schools in those sections. 

"Two portable structures have been erected on land in this vicinity purchased 
several years ago by the National Park and Planning Commission. These port- 
ables are occupied by very small children who formerly attended the Benning 
School and the Orr School, each being more than a mile away from this community 
which is known as North Randle Highlands. 

"Young children of grades 4, 5, and 6 must continue to go long distances to 
school until this neighborhood is provided with its community school. 

"6. For the purchase of a site for elementary school purposes in the 

vicinity of Alabama Ave. and Hillside Rd. SE (') 

"For the construction of an 8-room extensible building for elementary 
school purposes on a site to be purchased in the vicinity of Ala- 
bama Ave. and Hillside Rd. SE., second floor to remain uncom- 
pleted $180, 000 

'Land estimates confidential. 

"Justification 

"The erection of a school in this vicinity will provide for the children living in 
the Bradbury Heights section. This is a growing community in which many new 
homes are being erected. Several new real estate subdivisions have been opened 
in this section and many homes have been under construction during the past 
year and are already planned for the near future. 

"The children living in the Bradbury Heights section have been attending the 
Randle Highlands School and the Orr "School, both of which are far distant from 
their homes. The bus transportation for these children has been very unsatis- 
factory, and small children are subjected to very dangerous traffic situations. 
The citizens of this community have petitioned Congress and also the Board of 
Education for several years, requesting school accommodations. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4521 

"If a new building can be provided in the neighborhood of Alabama Avenue and 
Hillside Road, SE., this school will serve some of the families living in the upper 
end of the new housing development now under construction on Ridge Road by 
the Alley Dwelling Authority. It is essential that this school be provided as 
soon as possible so that the pupils of that community may be withdrawn from the 
Ran die Highlands School to accommodate the pupils of its own district. 

"The Supeiintendent recommends that the Board of Education approve the 
requests for deficiencies, as indicated in this report, the same to be forwarded to 
the Commissioners by the Secretary to the Board immediately following this 
meeting. 

"Respectively submitted. 

Frank W. Ballou, 
Superintendent of Schools. 
James A. Gannon, 

Chairman. 
Lenore W. Smith, 
John H. Wilson, 
Committee on Finance." 

Schools for colored pupils — Divisions 10-13 

Similarly the school officers and the Board of Education have given considera- 
tion to the emergency needs in the colored schools. The first report outlining 
these needs was submitted to the Board of Education under date of Eeoruary 5, 
1941, and referred to the Committee on Finance. Ths report is as follows: 

"February 5, 1941. 
"To the Board of Education of the District of Columbia: 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: Under date of February 4, 1941, the superintendent 
received the following memorandum from First Assistant Superintendent Wilkinson 
and Assistant Superintendent Savoy: 

" 'Memorandum for the Superintendent of Schools: 

" 'Re: Emergency school building needs, Divisions 10-13, caused by new housing 
construction. 

" 'In th<* northeast and the southeast sections of this city, several new housing 
projects which are scheduled to be ready for occupancy by September 1941, 
render necessary the taking at this tin e of steps to provide additional elementary 
school facilities to accommodate the younger children who will reside in the 
housing projects. Some of the projects in question are sponsored by private 
concerns; others, bv the Alley Dwelling Authority. 

" 'Existing school facilities in the vicinities of the housing projects in question 
are wholly inadequate to meet the needs of the fast-approaching situations. In 
the judgment of this office, therefore, appropriate steps should be taken in medi- 
ately to secure from the Congress deficiency appropiiations sufficient to provide 
the additional facilities indicated below. 

" 'The following are the situations which require action at this time: 

" '1. Vicinity of Forty-ninth Street and Sheriff Road NE. 

" 'On a tract of land south of Sheriff Road, between Forty-ninth and Fifty-second 
Streets, NE., a private concern, with the backing of the Federal Housing Admin- 
istration, has under construction the first section of a housing project calculated 
ultimately to house 1,260 families. This section is to be ready tor occupancy 
by September 15, 1941. The section under construction is scheduled to house 
204 families. , , , , . 

" 'The housing project in question lies about midway between, and about six 
blocks from the Burrville and the Deanwood Schools. The number of classrooms 
and enrollments of those schools are as follows: 



School 


Number 
classrooms 


Enroll- 
ment 
[Jan. 9, 1941 




20 
17 


711 


1V> n nnd 


612 







2(JO:',70— 41— pt. 11- 



4522 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

" 'With their present enrollments, the two schools together will be inadequate 
to meet the needs of the new situation. 

" 'Recommendation: Purchase a site for the construction of an eight-room 
extensible elementary school with combination assembly hall-gymnasium in the 
vicinity of Forty-ninth and Hayes Streets NE. Construct an eight-room exten- 
sible elementary school with combination assembly hall-gymnasium on land to 
be purchased in the vicinity of Forty-ninth and Hayes Streets NE. 

" '2. Carrollsburg dwellings, vicinity of Fourth and L Streets SE. 

" 'The Carrollsburg Dwellings, an Alley Dwelling Authority housing develop- 
ment, is in course of construction on property lying between Third and Fifth, 
I and M Streets SE. This development will contain 314 dwelling units. Car- 
rollsburg Dwellings are scheduled to be ready for occupancy in August 1941. 

,: 'It is estimated that the population of Carrollsburg Dwellings, fully occupied, 
will include approximately 600 children. In the judgment of this office, approxi- 
mately 300 of those children will be of elementary school age. School facilities 
within a radius of one-half mile of the new development will not offer proper 
accommodations for the children in question. The Van Ness School, when 
ready for occupancy, and the Giddings School, both within the mentioned radius, 
will this semester be fully occupied. 

" 'Recommendation: Purchase land adjoining the grounds of the Van Ness 
School to permit of the construction of an eight-room addition, with assembly 
hall-gymnasium, at that school and to provide area for physical education pur- 
poses. Construct an eight-room addition, with assembly hall-gymnasium, at 
the Van Ness School. 

" 'Summary of items requiring deficiency appropriations 

" '1. Purchase a site for the construction of an eight-room extensible elementary 
school with assembly hall-gymnasium in the vicinity of Forty-ninth and Hayes 
Streets NE. 

" '2. Construct an eight-room extensible school, with assembly hall-gymnasium, 
on site to be purchased in the vicinity of Forty-ninth and Hayes Streets NE. 

" 'Purchase land adjoining the grounds of the Van Ness School to permit of 
the construction of an eight-room addition with assembly hall-gymnasium at 
that school and to provide area for physical education purposes. 

" '4. Construct an eight-room addition, with assembly hall-gymnasium, at 
Van Ness School. 

" 'This office respectfully recommends that appropriate steps be taken to secure 
the necessary appropriations for the items listed above. 

" 'In addition to those mentioned above, other large housing projects will be 
ready for occupancv during the 1941 calendar year. They are as follows: 

" '1. Frederick Douglass Dwellings, 313 units; Alabama Avenue and Twenty- 
first Street SE.; Allev Dwelling Authority; ready June 1941. 

" '2. Kelly Miller Dwellings, 169 units; vicinity, Fourth and W Streets NW.; 
Alley Dwelling Authority; ready October 1941. 

" 'In 1942, the following projects are scheduled to be ready for occupancy: 

" '1. James Creek project, 262 units; vicinity, First and N Streets SW.; Alley 
Dwelling Authority; ready, 1942. 

" '2. King's Court project, 302 units; vicinity, Fourth and N Streets NW.; 
Alley Dwelling Authority; ready, 1942. 

"''3. Kenilworth Avenue project, 350 units; vicinity, Benmng Race Track and 
Anacostia Park NE.; Alley Dwelling Authority; ready, 1942. 

" 'The five projects listed immediately above are included in this report for the 
information of the Superintendent. No deficiency appropriation is being re- 
quested for them at this time. 

" 'A. K. Savoy, 
Assistant Superintendent of Schools. 
" 'G. C. Wilkinson, 
First Assistant Superintendent of Schools.' 

'The Superintendent transmits this report to the Board with a recommendation 
that it be referred to the Committee on Finance for consideration and report. 

"The Superintendent respectfully suggests that the finance committee visit the 
schools referred to in this report and observe the construction projects referred 
to in this report. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4523 

"In view of the urgency of these matters, it is hoped that these projects may be 
investigated and a report made to the Board at the next regular meeting on 
February 19. 

"Respectfully submitted. 

"Frank W. Ballou, 
Superintendent of Schools " 

At the subsequent meeting of the Board of Education on February 19, 1941, 
the Board of Education, on recommendation of the finance committee' adopted a 
program of land purchase and schoolhouse construction believed necessary to 
meet the emergency needs existing in the colored schools. That report was 
approved by the Board of Education and forwarded to the Commissioners and 
it is the understanding of the school officers that the Commissioners contemplate 
undertaking to meet these emergency needs as far as the finances of the District 
of Columbia will permit. 

The report is as follows: 

"February 19, 1941. 
il To the Board of Education of the District of Columbia: 

"Ladies and Gentlemen: At its meeting held on February 5, 1941, the Super- 
intendent submitted to the Board of Education a report informing the Board of 
certain housing projects either in course of construction or in contemplation for 
colored people in the District of Columbia and advising the Board of the urgent 
and immediate need for additional schoolhouse accommodations in the vicinity of 
two of those projects. 

"To gather further and direct information as to the situation, the chairman of 
the finance committee of the Board of Education, the Superintendent, and other 
school officers on Friday, February 14, 1941, visited, among others, the sections 
in which the needs are immediate. 

"As a result of careful consideration of the matter, the Superintendent submits 
to the Board of Education for inclusion in the next deficiency bill, which the 
Commissioners of the District of Columbia are now preparing, estimates covering 
certain land and construction items the provision of which the situation renders 
immediately necessary. The items in question are as follows: 

"1-a. For the purchase of land for elementary school purposes adjoining 
the grounds of the Van Ness School on which to construct an 8-room 
addition, with combination assembly hall-gymnasium ( : ) 

"1-b. For the construction of an 8-room addition, with combination 
assembly hall-gymnasium, at the Van Ness School, including the 

necessary remodeling of the present building $230, 000 

1 Land estimates confidential. 

"Justification 

"Within a distance of from one to three blocks of the Van Ness School, the 
Alley Dwelling Authority has under construction a housing project to be known 
as the Carrollsburg Dwellings. These dwellings are located between Third and 
Fifth, I and M Streets, SE. They will house 314 families and are scheduled to be 
ready for occupancy in August 1941. 

"It is estimated that of the population of Carrollsburg Dwellings, fully occupied, 
approximately 300 will be children of elementary school age. 

*'Both the Van Ness School and the Giddings School which is located approxi- 
mately one-quarter of a mile from Carrollsburg Dwellings will, when the Van Ness 
School is ready for use within the next month, be fully occupied. Provision for 
additional school facilities to accommodate the expected increase of 300 elemen- 
tary school children is therefore necessary. 

"2-a. For the purchase of land for elementary school purposes in the 
vicinity of Forty-ninth and Hayes Streets NE., on which to construct 
an 8-room extensible school 0) 

"2-b. For the construction of an 8-room extensible school building for 
elementary school purposes on a site to be purchased in the vicinity 

of Forty-ninth and Hayes Streets NE $180, 000 

1 Land estimates confidential. 



4524 



NATIONAL DEB^ENSE MIGRATION 



Justification 



"On a 10-acre section of a 62-acre tract lying between Forty-ninth Street and 
Division Avenue, Grant Street and Sheriff Road NE., 13 apartment houses de- 
signed to accommodate 204 families are under construction by a private concern 
backed by the Federal Housing Administration. The apartments in question are 
scheduled to be ready for occupancy by September 15, 1941. They constitute 
the first section of a project calculated ultimately to house 1,260 families. 

"In the 204 families expected to occupy the apartments mentioned above, it is 
estimated that there will be more than 200 children of elementary school age. 

"The housing project in question lies between the Burrville and the Deanwood 
Schools, both of which are located in growing communities. The number of class- 
rooms and the enrollments of those schools as of January 9, 1941, are as follows: 



School 


Number of 
classrooms 


Enrollment 




20 
17 


711 




612 







"It is quite evident with the enrollments given that the two schools will be 
inadequate properly to meet the needs of the new situation. Additional school- 
house accommodations for elementary school children are, therefore, necessary. 

"3-a. For the purchase of land in the vicinity of 49th St. and Washington 

PI. NE., for the construction of a junior high school (0 

"3-b. For beginning the construction of a junior high school on a site in 
the vicinity of 4kth St. and Washington PI. NE., and the Commis- 
sioners are authorized to enter into contract or contracts for such 
building at a cost not to exceed $817,200: Provided, That not to ex- 
ceed $16,761 of the amount herein appropriated may be transferred 
to the credit of the appropriation account "Municipal Architect's 
Office construction services," and to be available for the preparation 

of plans and specifications for said building $300, 000 

1 Land estimates confidential. 

"Justification 

"The Browne Junior High School, located at Twenty-fourth Street and Benning 
Road NE., is not large enough to accommodate all of the colored pupils of junior 
high school classification in the northeast section of the city. The Browne 
Junior High School, with a capacity of 918, already (February 14, 1941) has an 
enrollment of 1,417 pupils. To accommodate these extra 499 pupils at the 
beginning of the second semester of the current school year, the Browne Junior 
High School was compelled to operate a staggered program, requiring the school 
to open at 8 a. m. and close at 4 p. m. 

"The steadily increasing enrollment at Browne since 1935 and the new housing 
projects for colored people now under construction and imminent in the northeast 
section of the city point to the necessity for providing immediately additional 
junior high school accommodations for colored pupils in this area. 

"Enrollments at Browne Junior High School: 

Oct. 29, 1937 998 



'Nov. 1, 1932, 
'Nov. 1, 1933_ 
'Nov. 1, 1934_ 
'Nov. 1, 1935, 
'Oct. 30, 1936. 



669 
699 
627 
584 

873 



1937 

Oct. 28, 1938 1, 100 

Oct. 27, 1939 1, 263 

Nov. 1, 1940 1,358 

Feb. 14, 1941 1,417 



"On a tract of land south of Sheriff Road, between Forty-ninth and Fifty-second 
Streets NE., a private concern, with the backing of the Federal Housing Adminis- 
tration, has under construction the first section of a housing project calculated 
ultimately to house 1,260 families. The section under construction and to be 
completed in 1941 is scheduled to house 204 families. 

"The Alley Dwelling Authority is about to construct for colored people the 
Kenilworth housing project in the vicinity of the Benning Race Track and Ana- 
costia Park NE. This project, providing 350-family units, will be ready for 
occupancy early in 1942. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4525 

"Scores of new houses for colored people are now under construction in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the Browne Junior High School. New building operations 
now underway in Capitol Heights will further tax the inadequate junior high- 
school facilities at Browne. 

"It is essential, therefore, that land be purchased and a junior high school be 
erected at once to relieve the Browne Junior High School of its present excess 
■enrollment (approximately 500 pupils), and to provide school facilities for children 
of junior high-school classification who will reside in these new housing projects 
for colored people in the northeast section of the city. 

"The Superintendent recommends that the Board of Education approve the 
above requests for deficiency appropriations and immediately forward the same 
to the Commissioners of the District of Columbia. 
"Respectfullv submitted. 

"Frank W. Ballou, 

Superintendent of Schools. 
"James A. Gannon, Chairman. 
"Lenore W. Smith. 
"John H. Wilson, 

Committee on Finance." 



Washington, D. C, March 27, 1941. 
Hon. John Tolan, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Congressman Tolan: In accordance with your request, I hand you 
herewith an extract from the annual report of the Department of Educational 
Research, Divisions 1-9, for the school year 1939-40, prepared by Miss Jessie 
LaSalle, Assistant Superintendent of Schools. This extract covers the study of 
intrasemester pupil turn-over which I mentioned in my testimony before your 
committee on March 26. 

Yours verv sincerely, 

(Signed) Frank W. Ballou, 

Superintendent of Schools. 



[The extract referred to above, to which reference is made in testi- 
mony on p. 4551, is as follows:] 

Study of Intrasemester Pupil Turn-over 

foreword 

One of the outstanding characteristics of our present age seems to be motility— 
moving around— not "staying put." The bad effects of this are becoming evident 
in education as shown bv the following: 

1. From the standpoint of administration we face increased costs. 

The demands on the child to make adjustments to first one teacher and then 
another, one school and then another, one unit of work and then another, are 
placing a burden upon him too difficult to be carried successfully. We are laced 
with much repetition and obvious need for more remedial instruction due to tins 
growing fluctuation of pupils in our schools. 

2. From the standpoint of teaching there is terrible waste. 

It has been frequently observed that you can't teach pupils until you learn 
them." Before a teacher becomes acquainted with a child, with the influencing 
environmental factors that obtain, such as socio-economic standard of the home, 
home discipline or lack of it, its ideals and interests, the child is gone. I here is 
a great deal of wasted energy in the constant testing to find out what the new 
child knows and the effort to bring him into approximate line with the group. 

In the underprivileged areas where of course we would expect to find the great- 
est motility, there are great inroads on teacher time in getting social welfare 
agency contacts established, whereby the needy children may be fed or clothed 
or otherwise cared for. .., ,. , ,• ,i„+„ 

There is again a great deal of time devoted to clerical work in checking on data 
transferring data, making out transfers and tracing records. With this constant 
adjustment to new pupils on the part of the teacher her load is far greatei than 
"average enrollment" would lead one to suspect. 

The constant shifting of pupil personnel in the group leaves a teacher with i tt le 
of definite accomplishment and satisfaction in the work of seeing pupils 



4526 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

grow in power. Her plans are continuously in process of remaking because of 
the fluctuation of the group. The group starts on a project but change of pupils 
who are responsible for certain features, leaves the group and teacher with a sense 
of insecurity — of being unable to have a continuity of development. 

The discipline problems are greater where there are many teacher-pupil and 
pupil-pupil adjustments to be made. 

The nerve strain on teachers and pupils is increasing with the constant motility 
that does not give a sense of stability. The growing psychotic manifestations of 
teachers and pupils can be traced in no small measure to this instability of place- 
ment in this shift from school to scnool and teacher to teacher. 

3. From the standpoint of the pupil there is loss of much that is valuable for 
the well-rounded development of the individual. 

Under these conditions a pupil does not become acquainted with his fellows — 
establishes no deep and abiding friendship — -no continuity of learning — -no school 
or group loyalties. This loss of the old school pride may be one of the causes of 
growing lack of respect for school property and increase in the vandalism so 
frequently reported. 

With these many school changes and consequent increased repetitions there 
grows up a dissatisfaction in the pupil because he doesn't feel progress — dissatis- 
faction with himself — with school — with learning. His personality is distorted 
and the road leading to delinquency looks more inviting than school which gives 
him so little satisfaction. 

Because this motility seems to be on the increase and because it proves to be 
expensive in costs, in time and energy wasted, in nerve strain, in increased repe- 
tition, in warping personalities, it has been deemed of sufficient importance to 
make a serious study of its extent since intimate work with pupils' cumulative 
records has made us increasingly aware of the growing tendency toward transiency 
of pupil placement in our elementary schools. 

METHOD EMPLOYED 

In order that a study of the extent of the intrasemester turn-over might be 
made, principals and teachers were asked to fill out necessary forms at the close 
of each 6-week period during the school year 1938-39. It is due to the fine 
professional attitude and 100 percent cooperation of the elementary school 
principals and teachers that this study has been made possible. 

In the city of Washington, D. C, the roll books or pupil registers are set after a 
2-week period of organization during which pupils are entering and transferring. 
New classes are opened and small classes are closed out. It is assumed that by 
the third Monday of the school term major adjustments will have been made, 
that most of the late vacationists will have returned, and the classes will have 
shaken down to what would be considered each teacher's group for that semester. 
The enrollment at the time the roll book is set is taken as the base to be used in 
all computations in this study. Results are to be considered as approximate 
since in all computations we have confined ourselves to tenths of percents. 

RESULTS OF STUDY 

First semester. — At the setting of the roll books the third Monday of the semes- 
ter, i. e., October 3, 1938, there was an enrollment of 29,423 pupils enrolled in the 
regular classes of the elementary schools. 

In table I is shown the distribution of this enrollment according to the five 
geographical divisions of the white elementary schools. This will be found here in 
column 1. All pupils entering after the setting of the roll book, except those 
designated in our reports asE4C, are recorded in column 2, and the ratio these 
entrants (called E's) bear to the basal enrollment is expressed in the percents 
recorded in column 3 of table I. 

By the designation E4C we mean self-to-self transfers. For example, a teacher 
may have a 5B-6A group. She may transfer a pupil from her 5B to her 6A or 
vice versa. The pupil in school records would be termed a new entry to the 
group. The child's classification changes but his teacher does not, so that we 
have not considered this a change or E affecting the group, and requiring adjust- 
ment of teacher and pupil. Therefore, no such E's have been included. E's we 
do include are the following: 

Pupils entering from other District of Columbia Public schools. 
Pupils entering from other teacher's rooms in the same school. 
Pupils entering from parochial and private schools. 
Pupils entering from outside the District of Columbia. 
Pupils entering school for the first time. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
Table 1 



4527 



First semester 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


Entered 
(except 
E4c) 


E 'sex- 
pressed in 
percent of 
basal en- 
rollment 




5,037 
7,820 
4,770 
5,523 
6,273 


551 
928 
480 
813 
876 


10.9 




11.9 




10.1 




14.7 




14.0 








29,423 


3,648 


i 12.4 







1 Average. 

A study of table I reveals the fact that intrasemester entrants to teachers' 
rooms after the roll book was set represent from 10.1 percent in division V to 
14.7 percent of the basal enrollment in division VI, the average for the city bemg 
approximately 12.4 percent. 

Turn-over is not only expressed in terms of pupils entering but also by the num- 
ber of pupils being transferred out of our classes, t.iese being termed ''departures." 
The extent of such charge is included in table II. Here also the D's included are 
all those except D's from self to self — i. e., those designated in the roll book 
as D7C: 

Table II 



First semester 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


Departed 
(except 
D7C) 


D's 
expressed 
in percent 

of basal 
enrollment 




5,037 
7,820 
4,770 
5,523 
6,273 


411 
744 
498 
883 
905 


8.2 




9.5 




10.4 




16.0 




14.4 




29, 423 


3,441 


i 11.7 







Table II shows that intrasemester departures from teachers' rooms after roll 
books were set represent from 8.2 percent in division I to 16 percent of the basal 
enrollment in division VI, with the average for the city being 11.7 percent. 

Table III is a combination of tables I and II, showing turn-over expressed by 
E's and D's in terms of percent of basal enrollment: 

Table III.— Fluctuation as shown by the sum of new entrants and departures 



Division 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


Entered 
(except 
E4C) 


Departed 
(except 
D7C) 


Number 
of cases 
E andD 


E expressed 
in percent 

of basal 
enrollment 


D expressed 
in percent 

of basal 
enrollment 


Total 
E and D 
expressed 
in percent 

of basal 
enrollment 


I 


5,037 
7,820 
4,770 
5,523 
6,273 


551 
928 
480 

813 

876 


411 
744 
498 

905 


962 
1,672 

978 
1,696 
1,781 


10.9 
11.9 
10.1 
14.7 
14.0 


8.2 
9.5 
10.4 
16.0 
14.4 


19.1 
21.4 
20.5 
30.7 
28.4 


Ill 


V 


VI.... 


VII 


Total 


29, 423 


3,648 


3,441 


7,089 


U2.4 


i 11.7 


124.1 



Table III reveals the extent of change as expressed by E's and D s in terms of 
the percent of basal enrollment. This ranges on the average from 19.1 percent 
in Division I to 30.7 percent in Division VI, with a city average of 24.1 percent. 
Changes in class groups, therefore, are shown to be approximately one-fourtn ol tne 



4528 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



basal enrollment, that is, 7,089 transfers in or out of the classes, an astonishing 
amount of adjustment on the part of pupils and teachers. 

A similar study was carried on during the second semester. 

Second semester. — At the setting of the roll books on February 20, 1939, there 
was an enrollment of 29,222 pupils in the regular calsses of the elementary schools, 
distributed as is shown in Table IV. All pupils entering after the setting of the 
roll books except the transfers from self-to-self (our reports, E4C) are recorded in 
column 2 and the ratio these entrants (called E) bear to basal enrollments is 
expressed in percents and recorded in column 3 of Table IV: 

Table IV 



Second semester 


Enrolled 

February 

1939 


Entered 
(except 
E4C) 


E 'sex- 
pressed 

in percent 
of basal 

enrollment 




5,124 
7,876 
4.648 
5.423 
6,151 

29, 222 


338 
533 
345 
538 
531 


6.6 




6.8 




7.4 




9.9 




8.6 








2,285 


'7.8 







1 Average. 

Table IV shows that in the second semester entrants to classes, after the roll 
book was set, average from 6.6 percent of the basal enrollment in division I to 
9.9 percent in division VI, with city average 7.8 percent. This represents 2,795 
pupils. 

The extent of change due to departures from the classes is shown now in 
table V: 

Table V 



Second semester 


Enrolled 

February 

1939 


Departed 
(except 
D7C) 


D's ex- 
pressed in 
percent of 
basal en- 
rollment 




5,124 
7,876 
4,648 
5,423 
6,151 


449 
692 
366 
653 
635 


8.8 




8.8 




7.9 




12.0 


Division VII 


10.3 








29, 222 


2,795 


»9.6 







' Average. 

Table V shows that the second semester departures from classes after the setting 
of the rollbook average from 7.9 percent in division V to 12.0 percent in division 
VI, with the city average 9.6 percent. 

In table VI will be shown the combination of tables IV and V, i. e., turn-over 
expressed by E and D in terms of numbers and percents of basal enrollment: 



Table VI. 


— Fluctuation as shown by the 


sum of new entrants and departures 


Division 


Enrolled, 

February 

1939 


Entered 
(except 
E4C) 


Departed 
(e? cept 
D7C) 


Number 
of cases 
EandD 


E expressed 
in percent 

of basal 
enrollment 


D expressed 
in percent 

of basal 
enrollment 


Total E 

andD 

expressed 

in pen ent 

of basal 
enrollment 


I 


5,124 
7. 876 
4,648 
5,423 
6, L51 


338 
533 
345 
538 
531 


449 
692 
366 
653 
635 


787 
1,225 

711 
1,191 

i, Hit; 


6.6 
6.8 
7.4 
9.9 
8.6 


8.8 
8.8 
7.9 
12.0 
10.3 


15.4 


III 


15.6 


V 


15.3 


VI .. 


21.9 


VII 


18.9 






Total 


29, 222 


2,285 


2,795 


5,080 


17.8 


19.6 


» 17.4 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4529 



Here we see that the extent of change as expressed by E's and D's in terms of 
percent of basal enrollment ranges from 15.3 percent in division V to 21.9 percent 
in division VI, with the city average 17.4 percent. Changes in class groups in the 
second semester, therefore, are shown to be approximately one-sixth of the basal 
enrollment, i. e. 5,080 transfers in or out of the classes, and representing a great 
amount of adjustments that have to be made on the part of teachers and pupils. 

A comparison of turnover, first and second semesters, is now presented in 
table VII: 

Table VII.- — Comparison of intrasemester turnover, first and second semesters, in 
terms of percent of basal enrollment 





E 


D 


EandD 


Division 


First 

semester 


Second 
semester 


First 
semester 


Second 
semester 


First 
semester 


Second 
semester 


I 


10.9 
11.9 
10.1 
14.7 
14.0 


6.6 
6.8 
7.4 
9.9 
8.6 


8.2 
9.5 
10.4 
16.0 
14.4 


8.8 
8.8 
7.9 
12.0 
10.3 


19.1 
21.4 
20.5 
30.7 

28.4 


15.4 


III 


15.6 


V 


15.3 


VI 


21.9 


VII . 


18.9 








12.4 


7.8 


11.7 


9.6 


24.1 


17.4 







Inspection of table VII shows that the E's in first semester far exceed those in 
the second, and with the exception of division I the D's likewise, whereas the 
total change expressed in E and D percent of basal enrollment is far greater in 
the first semester than it is in the second. In other words, the second semester 
is considerably more stabilized than is the first. It is quite apparent that the 
greatest amount of adjustment is demanded in divisions VI and VII, especially 
notable in first semester. Divisions I, III, and V show much less intrasemester 
turn-over as divisions. 

Tables showing the extent of intrasemester turn-over in each of the schools and 
of the school units in each division now follow: 



Table VIII 


. — Division I, individual schools, 


first semester 




School 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


E's (ex- 
cept 
E4C) 


E in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


D's (ex- 
cept 
D7C) 


D in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


E's and 
D's 


Total E 
andD 
expressed 
in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 




192 
49 
235 
286 
578 
188 
319 
283 
186 
236 
95 
247 
260 
201 
68 
547 

329 

198 
307 


27 
15 
36 
25 
26 
16 
13 
20 
24 
71 
32 
16 
11 
14 
32 
38 

67 
29 
27 


14.1 
30.6 
15.3 
8.7 
4.5 
8.5 
4.1 
7. I 
12.9 
30.1 
33.7 
6.5 
4.2 
6.9 
47.1 
6.9 
5.1 
20.4 
14.6 
8.8 


21 
13 
31 
15 
19 
14 
21 
13 
21 
47 
26 
14 
13 
12 
26 
27 
9 
20 
24 
25 


10.9 
26.5 
13.2 
5.2 
3.3 
7.4 
6.6 
4.6 
11.3 
19.9 
27.4 
5.7 
5.0 
6.0 
38.2 
4.9 
3.9 
6.1 
12.1 
8.1 


48 
28 
67 
40 
45 
30 
34 
33 
45 
118 
58 
30 
24 
26 
58 
65 
21 
87 
53 
52 


25.0 


Curtis 


57.1 


Hyde 


28.5 




13.9 




7.8 




15.9 




10.7 




11.7 




24.2 




.50.0 




61.1 


R. L. Hardy 


12.2 


Key 


9.2 




12.9 




85.3 




11.8 




9.0 




26.5 




26.7 


Stoddert 


16.9 




5, 037 


551 


U0.9 


411 


18.2 


962 


i 19.1 







1 Average. 

A study of table VIII, excepting Industrial Home School which because of its 
uniqueness of court control is in a class by itself, shows in division I, first semester, 
that although the average E percent of basal enrollment is 10.9 percent it ranges 
from as low as 4.1 percent at John Eaton to 33.7 percent at Weightman School. 



4530 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



The D's division average 8.2 percent. Here we find the range from 3.3 percent 
at Lafayette to 27.4 percent at Weightman School. 

The E and D average percent of basal enrollment for division I is 19.1 percent. 
The schools range from 7.8 percent at Lafayette to 61.1 percent at Weightman. 
Differences in amount of adjustments necessary is startlingly obvious in situ- 
ations where only 7.8 percent of the basal enrollment changes and where 61.1 
percent changes. 

Table IX. — Division I, individual schools, second semester 



School 


Enrolled 

February 

1939 


E's 
(except 
E4C) 


E in 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


D's 
(except 
D7C) 


D in 

percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


E's and 
D's 


Total 
E and D 
expressed 
in percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 




225 
27 
220 
286 
580 
183 
297 
286 
183 
269 
100 
256 
256 
208 
62 
563 
235 
379 
204 
305 


13 

36 
7 
16 
13 
13 
26 
10 
31 
22 
8 
7 
5 

15 
56 
11 
12 
8 
26 


5.8 
11.1 
16.4 
2.4 
2.8 
7.1 
4.4 
9.1 
5.5 
11.5 
22.0 
3.1 
2.7 
2.4 
24.2 
9.9 
4.7 
3.2 
3.9 
8.5 


24 
9 
28 
10 
13 
23 
23 
27 
18 
46 
34 
21 
12 
7 
10 
54 
17 
25 
27 
21 


10.7 
33.3 
12.7 
3.5 
2.2 
12.6 
7.7 
9.4 
9.8 
17.1 
34.0 
8.2 
4.7 
3.4 
16.1 
9.6 
7.2 
6.6 
13.2 
6.9 


37 
12 
64 
17 
29 
36 
36 
53 
28 
77 
56 
29 
19 
12 
25 
110 
28 
37 
35 
47 


16.5 




44.4 




29.1 




5.9 


Lafayette 


5.0 

19.7 




12.1 




18.5 




15.3 




28.6 




56.0 




11.3 




7.4 








40.3 




19.5 




11.9 


Murch 

Oyster 

Stoddert 


9.8 
17.1 
15.4 




5,124 


338 


1 6.6 


449 


'8.8 


787 


1 15.4 







1 Average. 

Table IX shows us that division I in the second semester has E's on the average 
of 6.6 percent basal enrollment. The range is from 2.4 percent at Brown and 
Hearst Schools to 22 percent at Weightman. 

The D's in this division average 8.8 percent but the range in the schools is from 
2.2 percent at Lafayette up to 34 percent at Weightman. 

If we consider the total changes expressed by E and D we find the E and D 
average of basal enrollment for the division is 15.4 percent whereas the schools 
range from 5 percent at Lafayette to 56 percent at Weightman. The stability 
of some neighborhoods, therefore, is unquestionably shown and the unstable 
communities stand clearly revealed as one scrutinizes these tables. 

Since principals having more than one school might like to study their school 
units also, tables X and XI are herewith presented: 



Table X. — Division I, school units, first 


semester 






Unit 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


E's (ex- 
cept 
E4C) 


E in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


D's (ex- 
cent 
D7C) 


D in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


E's and 
D's 


Total E 
andD 
expressed 
in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 




1 476 

} 469 
} 331 
} 507 


78 
44 
103 
27 


16.4 
9.4 

31.1 
5.3 


65 
34 
73 
27 


13.6 
7.2 

22.1 
5.3 


143 
78 

176 
54 




Hyde 


30.0 






















Hardy. 













NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table XI. — Division I, school units, second semester 



4531 



Unit 


Enrolled 

February 

1939 


E's 

(except 
E4C) 


E in 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


D's 
(except 
D7C) 


D in 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


E's and 
D's 


Total 
E and D 
expressed 
in percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 




1 472 
} 469 
} 369 
} 512 


52 
36 
53 
15 


11.0 

7.7 
14.3 
2.9 


61 
45 
80 
33 


12.9 
9.6 

21.7 
6.4 


113 
81 

133 
48 




Hyde. .. .. 




Addison.. 






17.3 








36.0 








9 3 







The greatest demand for adjustment of pupil-teacher and pupil-pupil is shown 
in the Grant- Weightman School unit with very little at Hardy-Key. 

Table showing the extent of intrasemester turn-over in each of the schools in 
division III follows: 

Table XII. — Division III, individual schools, first semester 



School 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


E's (ex- 
cept 
E4C) 


E in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


D's (ex- 
cept 
D7C) 


D in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


E's and 
D's 


Total E 
and D 
expressed 
in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 




639 
566 
727 
517 
614 
254 
52 
198 
402 
379 
260 
503 
170 
266 
560 
609 
346 
758 


136 
73 
58 
50 
83 
41 
9 
58 
37 
30 
12 
63 
45 
10 
30 

106 
28 
59 


21.3 

12.9 
8.0 
9.7 
13.5 
16.1 
17.3 
29.3 
9.2 
7.9 
4.6 
12.5 
26.5 
3.8 
5.4 
17.4 
8.1 
7.8 


61 
37 
49 
84 
43 

34 

40 
20 

5 
53 
40 

7 
48 
74 
15 
44 


13.9 
10.8 
5.1 
9.0 
13.7 
16.9 
1.9 
17.2 
10.0 
5.3 
1.9 
10.5 
23.5 
2.6 
8.6 
12.2 
4.3 
5.8 


225 

134 
95 
99 

167 
84 
10 
92 
77 
50 
17 

116 
85 

78 
180 

43 
103 


35.2 




23.7 




13.1 




18.0 




27.2 




33.0 


Health ... 


19.2 




46.5 




19.2 




13.2 


Powell _ 


6.5 
23.0 




50.0 




6.4 




14.0 


Truesdell 


29.6 


West 


12.4 


Whittier 


1?.6 








7,820 


928 


i 11.9 


744 


'9.5 


1,672 


I 21.4 







i Average. 

A study of table XII shows that division III first semester E's expressed in 
terms of basal enrollment is 11.9 percent. It's individual schools range from 3.8 
percent at Shepherd to 29.3 percent at Hubbard. 

The D's division average is 9.5 percent of basal enrollment but the individual 
schools range from 1.9 percent at Powell to 23.5 percent at Ross. 

The E and D percent of basal enrollment was 21.4 percent for the division but 
the individual schools range from 6.4 percent at Shepherd to 50 percent at Ross. 
Differences in amount of adjustment called for is again startling when one com- 
pares a stable community like Shepherd with the unstable community around the 
Ross School. 



4532 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table XIII.— Division III, individual schools, second semester 



School 


Enrolled 

February 

1939 


E's 
(except 
E4C) 


E in 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


D's 
(except 
D7C) 


D in 
percent 

of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


E's and 
D's 


Total 
E and D 
expressed 
in percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 




672 
575 
739 
520 
645 
259 
59 
206 
392 

264 
504 
174 
231 
519 
594 
351 
773 

7,876 


32 

40 
20 
40 
23 

1 
44 
22 
20 
11 
81 
17 

9 
35 
36 
17 
46 


4.8 
6.8 
5.4 
3.8 
6.2 
8.9 
1.7 

21.4 
5.6 
5.0 
4.1 

16.1 
9.8 
3.9 
6.7 
6.1 
4.8 
6.0 


72 
63 
39 
34 
89 
50 
11 
33 
29 
21 
16 
69 
25 
1 
44 
39 
12 
45 


10.7 
10.9 
5.3 
6.5 
13.8 
19.3 
18.6 
16.0 
7.4 
5.3 
6.1 
13.7 
14.3 
.4 
8.5 
6.5 
3.4 
5.8 


104 

102 
79 
54 

129 
73 
12 
77 
51 
41 
27 

150 
42 
10 
79 
75 
29 
91 


15.5 




17.7 




10.7 


Brightwood 


10.3 
20.0 






Health 


20.3 




37.4 


Keene 


13.0 
10.3 




10.2 




29.8 




24.1 




4.3 




15.2 




12.6 


West 

Whittier 


8.2 
11.8 








533 


'6.8 


692 


•8.8 


1.225 


115.6 







1 Average. 

A study of table XIII, except health school, which is unique and not comparable 
with other schools, shows that although division III E percent of basal enrollment 
is 6.8 in the second semester in individual schools, it ranges from as low as 3.8 
percent at Brightwood to 21.4 percent at Hubbard. 

The division D's percent of basal enrollment is 8.8 percent. It ranges in the 
individual schools from 0.4 percent at Shepherd to 19.3 percent at Force. 

The E and D percent of basal enrollment for division III is 15.6 percent. The 
individual schools range in E and D percent of basal enrollment from 4.3 percent 
at Shepherd to 37.4 percent at Hubbard. The difference in amount of adjustment 
necessary in schools is quite apparent with such differing amounts of change in 
group personnel. 

Since there was but one school unit including more than one building — i. e., 
Force-Ross — and these have been given up, no data is presented on school units 
in division III. 



Table XIV. 


— Division V, individual 


schools, 


first semester 




School 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


E's 
(except 
E4C) 


E in 
percent 
of bpsal 
enroll- 
ment 


D's 
(except 
D7C) 


D in 
percent 
of ha sal 
enroll- 
ment 


E's and 
D's 


Total 
Eand D 
expressed 
in percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


Brookland 

Bunker Hill 


370 
90 
186 
686 
290 
655 
261 
197 
359 
670 
601 
105 


35 
5 
13 
25 
25 

23 
36 
34 
53 
143 
29 


9.5 
5.5 
7.0 
3.6 
8.6 
9.0 
8.8 

18.3 
9.5 
7.9 

23.8 
7.2 


32 
9 
14 
33 
31 
72 
17 
31 
39 
53 
132 


8.6 
10.0 

7.5 

4.8 
10.7 
11.0 

6.5 
15.7 
10.8 

7.9 
21.9 

8.6 


67 
14 
27 
58 
56 
131 
40 
67 
73 
106 
275 
64 


18.1 
15.5 




14.5 




8.4 




19.3 




20.0 




15.3 




34.0 




20.3 




15.8 




45.7 




15.8 






Division 


4,770 


480 


10.1 


498 


10.4 


978 


20.5 



Inspection of table XIV shows that the division V first semester E's percent 
of basal enrollment is 10.1 percent. The individual schools range from 3.6 per- 
cent at Burroughs School to 23.8 percent at Thomson. 

The D's for this division in terms of percent of basal enrollment is 10.4 percent. 
The individual schools range from 4.8 percent at Burroughs to 21.9 percent at 
Thomson. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4533 



The E and D percent of basal enrollment was 20.5 percent for the division, 
but the individual schools range from 8.4 percent at Burroughs to 45.7 percent 
at Thomson. It is quite apparent how different are the amounts of adjustment 
necessary when schools^differ in turn-over from 8.4 percent to 45.7 percent of 
basal enrollment. 



Table XV- 


-Division V, individual schools, second semester 




St&ool 


Enrolled 

February 

1939 


E's 
(except 
ElC) 


E in 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


D's 
(except 
D7C) 


Din 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


E's and 
D's 


Total 
E ami D 
expressed 
in percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 




377 
94 
179 
671 
280 
630 
261 
195 
357 
620 
585 
399 


13 
14 
16 
37 

9 
55 
18 

8 
28 
57 
53 
37 


3.4 
14.9 

8.9 
5.5 
3.2 
8.7 
6.9 
4.1 
7.8 
9.2 
9.0 
9.3 


18 
5 
17 
21 
19 
46 
20 
26 
20 
44 
100 
30 


4.8 
5.3 
9.5 
3.1 
6.8 
7.3 
7.7 

13.3 
5.0 
7.1 

17.1 
7.5 


31 
19 
33 

58 
28 
101 
38 
34 
48 
101 
153 
67 


8.2 




'20.2 




18.4 




8.6 




10.0 




16.0 




14.6 




17.4 




13.4 




16.3 




26.1 




16.8 








4,648 


345 


17.4 


366 


>7.9 


711 


i 15.3 







i Average. 

Inspection of table XV shows the division V E's in terms of percent of basal 
enrollment for the second semester is 7.4 percent. The individual schools range 
from 3.2 percent at Eckiugton to 14.9 percent at Bunker Hill. 

The division D's percent of basal enrollment is 7.9 percent. The individual 
schools range from 3.1 percent at Burroughs to 17.1 percent at Thomson. 

Division V E's and D's percent of basal enrollment is 15.3 percent. The indi- 
vidual schools range from 8.2 at Brookland to 26.1 at Thomson. 

In order that principals having more than one school may study the results of 
their units, tables XVI and XVII are herewith presented: 

Table XVI. — Division V, school units, first semester 



Unit 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


E's (ex- 
cept 
E4C) 


E in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


D's (ex- 
cept 
D7C) 


D in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


E's and 
D's 


Total E 
and D 
expressed 
in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 




I 646 

} „ 

} 458 


53 
84 
59 


8.2 

8.9 
12.9 


55 
103 

48 


8.5 
10.9 
10.5 


108 

187 
107 




Bunker Hill 


16.7 








19.8 




Gage.— 

Henry 


23.4 



Table 


XVII.— Dim 


si on V, 


school units, second semester 




Unit 


Enrolled 

February 

1939 


E's (ex- 
cept 
E4C) 


E in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


D's (ex- 
cept 
D7C) 


1) in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


E's and 
D's 


Total E 
andD 
expressed 
in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


Brookland 

Bunker Hill 


1 650 
{■ 910 
| 156 


43 
64 
26 


6.6 

7.0 


40 

65 
46 


6. 2 


83 


12.8 




7. 1 129 
10.1 j 72 




Eckiugton 


14.1 


G age 


15 8 















4534 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table XVIII. — Division VI, individual schools, first semester 



Enrolled 
October 



E's (ex- 
cept 

E4C) 



E in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 



D's (ex- 
cept 
D7C) 



D in per- 
cent of 



E's and 
D's 



Total E 
and D 
expressed 
in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 



Blair 

Hayes 

Blake 

Blow 

Webb 

Carbery 

Ludlow 

Edmonds 

Maury 

Gales 

Seaton 

Hilton 

Peabody 

Kenilworth... 

Kingsman 

Pierce 

Madison 

Taylor 

Wheatley 

Division 



13.8 
15.1 
10.3 
18.1 

7.8 
11.0 
16.4 
18.6 
12.3 

8.6 
45.1 
19.6 
16.9 
13.4 
10.1 
15.0 

9.5 
25.1 
13.6 

7.1 



20.5 
18.1 
15.2 
13.5 
14.5 
10.3 
16.4 
15.0 
12.4 
12.2 
46.4 
22.8 
14.7 
13.4 
14.4 
14.2 
10.5 
14.7 
22.0 
10.8 



34.3 

25.5 
31.6 
22.3 
21.3 
32.8 
33.6 
24.4 
20.8 
91.5 
42.4 
31.6 
26.8 
24.5 
29.2 
20.0 
39.8 
35.6 
17.9- 



10.0 



i Average 

Inspection of table XVIII shows the division VI, first semester, E's, percent 
of basal enrollment is 14.7 percent. The individual schools range from 7.1 percent 
at Wheatley to 45.1 percent at Gales. 

Division VI, D's percent of basal enrollment is 16.0 percent. The individual 
schools range from 10.3 percent at Webb to 46.4 percent at Gales. 

E and D percent of basal enrollment was 30.7 percent for the division the first 
semester. Individual schools range from 17.9 at Wheatley to 91.5 at Gales. 
Consider the startling amount of adjustment necessary in first semester where 
the turn-over is over 91 percent of the basal enrollment as it is at Gales. 

Table XIX. — Division VI, individual schools, second semester 



Banning 

Blair 

Haves 

Blake 

Blow 

Webb 

Carbery. _ 

Ludlow 

Edmonds 

Maury 

Gales 

Seaton 

Hilton 

Peabody 

Kenilworth... 

Kingsman 

Pierce 

Madison 

Taylor.. 

Wheatley 

Division 







E in 




D in 




Enrolled 


E's 


percent 


D's 


percent 


E's and 
D's 


February 


(except 


of basal 


(except 


of basal 


1939 


E4C) 


enroll- 


D7C) 


enroll- 






ment 




ment 




153 


7 


4.6 


4 


2.6 


11 


235 


27 


11.5 


24 


10.2 


51 


290 


42 


14.5 


44 


15.2 


86 


234 


27 


11.5 


41 


17.5 


68 


289 


22 


7.6 


20 


6.9 


42 


254 


1.5 


5.9 


13 


5.1 


28 


174 


lfi 


9.2 


19 


10.9 


35 


237 


30 


12.7 


38 


16.0 


68 


294 


24 


8.2 


31 


10.5 


55 


304 


31 


10.2 


31 


10.2 


62 


290 


52 


17.6 


69 


23.3 


121 


295 


58 


19.7 


74 


25. 1 


132 


277 


25 


9.0 


38 


13.7 


63 


348 


27 


7.8 


44 


12.6 


71 


138 


3 


2.2 


8 


5.8 


11 


276 


36 


13.0 


26 


9.4 


62 


302 


25 


8.3 


23 


7. 6 


48 


229 


21 


9.2 


31 


13.5 


52 


67 


2 


3.0 


11 


10.4 


13 


731 


48 


6.6 


64 


8.7 


112 


5,423 


538 


i 9.9 


653 


i 12.0 


1,191 



Total 
E and D 
expressed 
in percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 



7.2 
21.7 
29.7 
29.0' 
14.5 
11.0 
20.1 
28.7 
18.7 
20.4 
40.9' 
44.8 
22.7 
20.4 

8.0 
22.4 
15.9 
22.7 
19.4 
15.3 



Average. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4535 



Inspection of table XIX shows division VI E's percent of basal enrollment for 
the second semester 9.9. Individual schools range from 2.2 percent at Kenilworth 
to 19.7 percent at Seaton. 

Division VI D's percent of basal enrollment for the second semester is 12 
percent. Individual schools range from 2.6 at Benning to 25.1 at Seaton. 

Division VI E and D percent of basal enrollment is 21.9 percent. Individual 
schools range from 7.2 percent at Benning to 44.8 percent at Seaton School. 

Since principals may wish to study their school units tables XX and XXI are 
herewith presented: 

Table XX. — Division VI, school units, first semester 



Unit 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


E's (ex- 
cept 
E4C) 


E in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


D's (ex- 
cent 
D7C) 


D in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


E 's and 
D's 


Total E 
and D 
expressed 
in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 




| 520 
[ 568 
] 424 
} 603 
} 622 
) 644 
} 588 
} 270 


65 
53 

75 
62 
200 
96 
71 
61 


12.5 
9.3 
17.7 
10.3 
32.1 
14.9 
12.1 
22.6 


86 
71 
66 
74 
214 
90 
72 
44 


16.5 
12.5 
15.6 
12.3 
34.4 
14.0 
12.2 
16.3 


151 
124 
141 
136 
414 
186 
143 
105 


29.0 






21.8 


Webb 




33.3 






22.6 






66.5 






28.9 






24.3 






38.9 











Table XXI 


. — Division VI, 


school units, second semester 




Unit 


Enrolled 

February 

1939 


E's 
(except 
E4C) 


E in 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


D's 
(except 
D7C) 


D in 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


E's and 
D's 


Total 
E and D 
expressed 
in percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 




} 525 
} 543 
} 411 
} 598 
} 591 
} 625 
} 578 
} 296 


37 
46 
55 
110 
52 
61 
23 


13.1 

6.8 
11.2 

18.6 
8.3 

10.5 
7.8 


68 
33 
57 
62 
143 
82 
49 
42 


13.0 
6.1 
13.9 
10.4 
24.2 
13.1 
8.5 
14.2 


137 
70 
103 

253 
134 
110 

65 


26.1 








Webb 






25.1 




















Hilton . 



































4536 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Table XXII. — Division VII, individual schools, first semester 



School 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


E's (ex- 
cept 
E4C) 


E in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


D's (ex- 
cept 
D7C) 


D in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


E 's and 
D's 


Total E 
andD 
expressed 
in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 




266 
259 
252 
187 
284 
649 
717 
532 
282 
285 
234 
260 
344 
299 
327 
234 

158 
94 
541 


83 
31 
26 
38 
54 
78 
54 
45 
53 
61 
17 
41 
44 
34 
23 
54 

6 
17 
117 


31.2 
12.0 
10.3 
20.3 
19.0 
12.0 

7.5 

8.5 
18.8 
21.4 

7.3 
15.8 
12.8 
11.4 

7.0 
23.1 



3.8 
18.1 
21.6 


68 
27 
38 
32 
56 
91 
64 
46 
57 
53 
35 
52 
37 
33 
31 
43 
6 
11 
12 
113 


25.6 
10.4 
15.1 
17.1 
19.7 
14.0 
8.9 
8.6 
20.2 
18.6 
14.9 
20.0 
10.7 
11.0 
9.5 
18.4 
8.7 
7.0 
12.8 
20.9 


151 
58 
64 
70 
110 
169 
118 
91 
110 
114 
52 

81 
67 
54 
97 
6 
17 
29 
230 


56.8 




22.4 




25.4 




37.4 




38.7 




26.0 




16.4 




17.1 




39.0 




40.0 




22.2 




35.8 




23.5 




22.4 


Orr 


16.5 




41.5 


Handle Highlands Portables. .. 


8.7 
10.8 




80.9 




42 5 








6,273 


876 


14.0 


905 


14.4 


1,781 


28 4 







Inspection of table XII shows the E's percent of basal enrollment for division 
VII first semester to be 14, the individual schools ranging from (0 Randle High- 
lands portables) 3.8 percent at Stanton to 31.2 percent at Amidon. 

The division VII D's percent of basal enrollment is 14.4 percent, the individual 
schools ranging from 7 percent at Stanton to 25.6 percent at Amidon. 

The division E's and D's percent of basal enrollment is 28.4. The indivi- 
dual schools range from (8.7 percent Randle Highlands portables) 10.8 percent 
at Stanton to 56.8 percent at Amidon, a great range of adjustments to be made. 

Table XXIII. — Division VII, individual schools, stcond semester 



•School 


Enrolled 

February 

1939 


E's 
(except 
E4C) 


E in 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


D's 

(except 
D7C) 


D in 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


E's and 
D's 


Total 
Eand D 
expressed 
in percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 




268 
229 
246 
178 
295 
642 
683 
531 
272 
288 
210 
243 
339 
294 
313 
255 

159 

107 
536 


20 
31 
22 
32 
21 
52 
30 
32 
33 
52 
20 
20 
27 
23 
17 
17 


10 

7 
65 


7.5 
13.5 
8.9 
18.0 
7.1 
8.1 
4.4 
6.0 
12.1 
18.0 
9.5 
8.2 
7.9 
7.8 
5.4 
6.7 

6.3 
6.5 
12.1 


40 
16 
36 
32 

37 

38 
48 
26 
53 
20 
28 
25 
34 
22 
11 

6 
15 
65 


14.9 
7.0 
14.6 
18.0 
12.5 
11.8 
5.5 
9.0 
9.6 
18.4 
9.5 
11.5 
7.4 
11.6 
7.0 
4.3 
11.1 
3.8 
14.0 
12.1 


60 
47 
58 
64 
58 

128 
68 
80 
59 

105 
40 
48 
52 
57 
39 
28 

16 
22 
130 


22.4 




20.5 




23.5 




36.0 




19.6 




19.9 




9.9 




15.0 




21.7 




36.4 




19.0 




19.7 




15.3 




19.4 


Orr 


12.4 




11.0 


Randle Higlands portables 


11.1 
10.1 




20.5 




24.2 








6,151 


531 


'8.6 


635 


i 10.3 


1,166 


i 18.9 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4537 

Inspection of table XXIII shows the E percent of basal enrollment for the 
second semester to be 8.6 for the division. Individual schools range from (0 
Randle Highlands portables) 4.4 at Buchanan to 18 at Tyler and Brent Schools. 

D's percent of basal enrollment for the division is 10.3. Individual schools 
range from 3.8 at Stanton to 18.4 at the Tyler. 

E and D percent of basal enrollment for the second semester in division VII 
is 18.9. Individual schools range from 9.9 at Buchanan to 36.4 at Tyler. 

Since principals having more than one school like to study their units, tables 
XXIV and XXV are herewith presented: 

Table XXIV. — Division VII, school units, first semestei 



Unit 


Enrolled 

October 

1938 


E's (ex- 
cept 
E4C) 


E in per- 
cent of 

basal en- 
rollment 


D's (ex- 
cept 
D7C) 


D in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


E's and 
D's 


Total E 
and D 
expressed 
in per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


Bowen 

Greenleaf 

Brent 

Dent 


} 511 
| 471 
} 567 
| 494 
} 643 
\ 630 


57 
92 
114 

58 
78 
77 


11.2 
19.5 
20.1 
11.7 
12.1 

12.2 


65 

88 
110 
87 
70 
80 


12.7 
18.7 
19.4 
17.6 
10.9 
12.7 


122 
180 
224 
145 
148 
157 


23.9 
38.2 
39.5 






29.3 






23.0 




Orr . 


24.9 


Randle Highlands portables.... 





Table XXV. — Division VII, school units, second semester 



Unit 


Enrolled 

February 

1939 


E's 

(except 
E4C) 


E in 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


D'S 
(except 
D7C) 


D in 
percent 

of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


E's and 
D's 


Total 
E and D 
expressed 
in percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 




] 475 
} 473 
} 560 
| 453 
} 633 
[ 631 


53 
53 

85 
40 
50 
34 


11.2 
11.2 

15.2 
8.8 
7.9 
5.4 


52 
69 
79 

48 
59 
40 


10.9 
14.6 
14.1 
10.6 
9.3 
6.3 


105 
122 
164 

88 
109 

74 


22.1 






25.8 






29.3 
19.4 
17.2 


Tyler 


Rossell 

Ketcham 


Orr 






11.7 


Randle Highlands portables 





260370— 41— pt. 11- 



4538 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

The outstanding centers where the individual schools show E's and D's 40 
percent or more of their basal enrollment, and the schools which show less than 
10 percent E's and D's percent of basal enrollment are herewith listed: 



FIRST SEMESTER 

E and D 40 percent or more of 
basal enrollment: 



Gales 

Weigh tman 

Curtis 

Amidon 

Grant 

Ross 

Hubbard 

Thomson 

Wallach 

Seaton 

Randle Highlands. 
Tyler 



E and D less than 10 percent 
basal enrollment: 

Shepherd 

Powell 

Lafayette 

Burroughs 

Randle Highlands portables _ 

Mann 

Key 



91. 5 


61. 1 


57. 1 


56. 8 


50. 


50.0 


46. 5 


45.7 


42.5 


42. 4 


41. 5 


40.0 


6.4 


6. 5 


7.8 


8.4 


8. 7 


9. 


9. 2 



SECOND SEMESTER 

E and D 40 percent or more of 
basal enrollment: 

Weightman 

Seaton 

Curtis 

Gales 



4.3- 

5. 

5. 8 

5.9 

7.2 

7.4 

8.0 

8.2 

8.2 

8. 6 

9. 8 

9.9 

The school units showing E's and D's over 40 percent or under 10 percent basal 
enrollment: 



E and D less than 
basal enrollment: 

Shepherd 

Lafayette 

Hearst 

Brown 

Benning 

Key 

Kenil worth 

West 

Brookland 

Burroughs 

Murch 

Buchanan. 



10 percent 



56. 

44. 8 
44. 4 
40. 9 



FIRST SEMESTER 

E and D 40 percent or more of 
basal enrollment: 

Gales-Seaton 66.5 

Grant-Weightman 53.2 

E and D less than 10 percent 
basal enrollment: 
None. 



SECOND SEMESTER 

E and D 40 percent or more of 
basal enrollment: 

Gales-Seaton 42. 8 

E and D Less than 10 percent 
basal enrollment: 

Hardy-Key 9.3 



The following table XXVI may be of interest, showing where the upper one- 
quarter and lower one-quarter of our schools stand with respect to intrasemester 
room transiency in terms of percent of basal enrollment: 

Table XXVI 



FIRST SEMESTER 



City: 

Lowest Yt 

Highest % 

y 2 the schools. 

Division I: 

Lowest >4 

Highest }i 

l / 2 the schools, 

Division III: 

Lowest % 

Highest % 

).'-, the schools _ 



15 percent or less. 
33 percent or more. 
23 percent or more. 

10 percent or less. 
26 percent or more. 

1 6 percent or more. 

13 percent or less. 
29 percent or more. 
19 percent or more. 



Division V: 

Lowest 34 15 percent or less. 

Highest }{ 20 percent or more. 

}4 the schools. 18 percent or more. 
Division VI: 

Lowest }i 22 percent or less. 

Highest % 34 percent or more. 

Yi the schools. 31 percent or more. 
Division VII: 

Lowest }{ 17 percent or less. 

Highest % 39 percent or more. 

Yi the schools. 26 percent or more. 



City: 

Lowest Yi 

Highest y A 

y 2 the schools _ 

Divi i\ a I: 

Lowest l A 

Highest Ya 

Yt the schools. 

Division III: 

Lowest Ya 

Highest Yi 

y 2 the schools. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
Table XXVI— Continued 

SECOND SEMESTER 



Division V: 

Lowest Yi 

Highest Yi 

Yi the schools. 

Division VI: 

Lowest M 

Highest Yi 

Yz the schools. 

Division VII: 

Lowest % 

Highest Yi 

% the schools. 



11 percent or less. 
22 percent or more. 
17 percent or more. 

10 percent or less. 

19 percent or more. 
16 percent or more. 

10 percent or less. 

20 percent or more. 

12 percent or more. 



4539 



10 percent or less. 

18 percent or more. 
16 percent or more. 

15 percent or less. 
22 percent or more. 
20 percent or more. 

1 2 percent or less. 
22 percent or more. 

19 percent or more. 



In the first semester it is evident from this table that 44, or one-half of our 
elementary schools, have 23 percent intrasemester turn-over; the lower quarter, 22 
schools, running 15 percent or less; and the upper quarter, 22 schools, running 
33 percent or more. 

In the second semester one-half, or 44, of our elementary schools have 17 percent 
or more; the lower quarter, or 22 schools, running 11 percent or less; and the upper 
quarter, or 22 schools, with 22 percent or more intrasemester turn-over. 

Is there any period of the year where the E's or D's are greater? To answer 
this question a distribution of the E's and D's for each 6-weeks' report period was 
made. Of course the first advisory or report period will include only 4 weeks, 
since the first 2 weeks of the first report period were given to organization and were 
previous to the set of the roll books. This distribution by advisory is shown in the 
following tables XXVII and XXVIII: 

Table XXVII. — First semester 
E's BY ADVISORY 





Division I 


Division III 


Division V 


Division VI 


Division VII 


Total 


Advisoiy 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Ter- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 




222 
170 
159 


4.4 
3.4 
3.1 


349 
298 
281 


4.5 
3.8 
3.6 


142 
196 
142 


3.0 
4.1 
3.0 


256 
319 
238 


4.6 
5.8 
4.3 


383 
264 
229 


6.1 
4.2 
3.7 


1,352 
1,247 
1,049 


4.6 


Second 

Third. 


4.2 
3.6 


Total... 


551 


10.9 


928 


11.9 


480 


10.1 


813 


14.7 


876 


14.0 


3,648 


12.4 



D's BY ADVISORY 



First 

Second 

Third 


133 
158 
120 


2.7 
3.1 
2.4 


257 
264 
223 


3.3 
3.4 
2.8 


131 

175 
192 


2.7 
3.7 
4.0 


269 
355 
259 


4.9 
6.4 
4.7 


352 
307 
246 


5.6 
4.9 
3.9 


1,142 
1,259 
1,040 


3.9 
4.3 
3.5 


Total... 


411 


8.2 


744 


9.5 


498 


10.4 


883 


16.0 


905 


14.4 


3,441 


11.7 



E's AND D's BY ADVISORY 



First 

Second 

Third 


355 
328 

279 


7.1 
6.5 
5.5 


606 
562 
504 


7.8 
7.2 
6.4 


273 
371 
334 


5.7 
7.8 
7.0 


525 
674 

497 J 


9.5 
12.2 
9.0 


735 
571 
475 


11.7 
9.1 
7.6 


2,494 
2,506 
2,089 


8.5 
8.5 
7.1 


Total..- 


962 


19.1 


1,672 


21.4 


978 


20.5 


1,696 j 


30.7 


1,781 


28.4 


7,089 


24.1 



4540 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Table XXVIII. — Second semester 

E's BY ADVISORY 





Division I 


Division III 


Division V 


Division VI 


Division VII 


Total 


Advisory 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


Num- 
ber 


Per- 
cent 


First 

Second 

Third 


99 
187 
52 


1.9 

3.7 
1.0 


209 
258 
66 


2.7 
3.3 

.8 


96 
187 
62 


2.1 
4.0 
1.3 


166 
257 
115 


3.1 
4.7 
2.1 


151 
293 

87 


2.4 

4.8 
1.4 


721 

1,182 

382 


2.5 
4.0 
1.3 






Total... 


338 


6.6 


533 


6.8 


345 


7.4 


538 


9.9 


531 


8.6 


2,285 


7.8 



D's BY ADVISORY 



First... 

Second 

Third 

Total... 

First 

Second... 

Third 

Total... 



1,328 
774 



2.4 
1 5 
2.7 



E's AND D's BY ADVISORY 



1,225 



1,191 



10.3 

5.5 



1,414 
2. 510 
1,156 



4.9 
8.5 
4.0 

17.4 



In the following tables the data in the two previous tables has been assembled 
for more ready comparison by including the E, D, and E plus D in only terms of 
percent of basal enrollment: 

Table XXIX. — First semester 





Division 1 


Division III 


Division V 


Advisory 


E 


D 


E and 
D 


E 


D 


E and 
D 


E 


D 


E and 
D 




4.4 
3.4 
3.1 


2.7 
3.1 

2.4 


7.1 
6.5 

5.5 


4.5 
3.8 
3.6 


3.3 
3.4 

2.8 


7.8 
7.2 
6.4 


3.0 
4.1 
3.0 


2.7 
3.7 
4.0 


5.7 




7.8 


Third.... 


7.0 








10.9 


8.2 


19.1 


11.9 


9.5 


21.4 


10.1 


10.4 


20.5 








Division VI 


Division VII 


City 


First ... 


4.6 
5.8 
4.3 


4.9 
6.4 
4.7 


9.5 
12.2 
9.0 


6.1 
4.2 
3.7 


5.6 
4.9 
3.9 


11.7 
9.1 
7.6 


4.6 
4.2 
3.6 


3.9 
4.3 
3.5 


8.5 




8.5 


Third 


7.1 






Total 


14.7 


16.0 


30.7 


14.0 


14.4 


28.4 


12.4 


11.7 


24.1 









Table XXX. — Second semester 










Division I 


Division III 


Division V 


Advisory 


E 


D 


E and 
D 


E 


D 


E and 
D 


E 


D 


E and 
D 


First 


1.9 
3.7 
1.0 


1.9 
3.9 
3.0 


3.8 
7.6 
4.0 


2.7 
3.3 
.8 


2.2 
4.2 
2.4 


4.9 
7.5 
3.2 


2,1 

4.0 
1.3 


2.2 

3.9 

1.8 


4.3 




7.9 


Third 


3. 1 




6.6 


8.8 


15.4 


6.8 


8.8 


15.6 


7.4 


7.9 










Division VI 


Division VII 


City 




3.1 1 3.0 
4.7 5.6 
2.1 3.4 


6.1 
10.3 
5.5 


2.4 

4.8 
1.4 


2.5 
5.1 
2.7 


4.9 
9.9 
4.1 


2.5 
4.0 
1.3 


2.4 
4.5 
2.7 






8.5 


Third - 


4.0 








Total 


9. 9 1 2. 


21.9 


8.6 


18.9 


7.8 


9.6 

















NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4541 



In the foregoing section of this study all transfers except self-to-self were 
included. This gives us a measure of the room transiency or pupil-teacher 
adjustment required through the changing of the group personnel by withdrawals 
from or new entries to the group. 

A slightly different picture would be secured if there were also excluded E4B 
and D7B, i. e., transfers to and from other teachers within the building. Here 
we would get the building transiency or measure of adjustment necessary when 
not only adjustment of pupil to teacher is shown but the additional adjustment 
necessary due to the pupil coming from a different school. 

As we went through the data we found only a few schools where the change in 
results of intrasemester transfer would be more than a fraction of a percent if 
these E4B's and D7B's were excluded from our computations. 

The tables XXXI and XXXII now presented show those schools where a 
considerable amount of transfer to and from teachers within the building took 
place. Unless it was sufficient to change significantly the intrasemester, i. e., 
at least 2 percent, in terms of basal enrollment, the school is not included in these 
tables. 

For convenience in comparison we have added the column on the extreme 
right which was the intrasemester turn-over in terms of basal enrollment where 
all E's and D's except the self-to-self transfers were included. This we consider 
the room transiency, whereas the other data for these schools herein given show 
building transiency. 

Table XXXI. — First semester 



Division I: 

Addison... 

Curtis 

Hyde 

Jackson 

Division III: 

Adams 

Barnard 

Keene 

Ross 

Takoma- 

Truesdell 

West 

Whittier 

Division V: 

Emery 

Langdon 

Thomson 

Woodridge 

Division VI: 

Carbery.. 

Gales 

Hilton. 

Peahody 

Kenilworth 

Taylor 

Wheatley 

Division VII: 

Amidon 

Bowen 

Oreenleaf 

Dent 

Bryan 

Buchanan 

Cranch. 

Tyler 

Fairbrother 

Rossell 

Van Buren 

Orr 

Randle Highlands 
Wallach 



Enrolled 
October 



E per- 
cent of 



10.9 
26.5 
11.5 
11.3 

20.3 
6.9 
8.0 

22.9 
3.6 
7.1 
6.3 
6.6 

6.9 
7.8 
22.0 
5.7 



15.8 
12.6 
10.0 
13.6 
5.9 

18.0 
10.8 
8.3 
18.0 
8.3 
6.1 
15.3 
17.2 
6.4 
11.5 
9.4 
5.2 
10.3 
14.0 



D per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 



4.1 
11.5 
10.2 

12.2 
4.0 
9.2 

19.4 
7.5 
6.4 
2.9 
5.1 



9.1 
20.0 
7.4 

15.2 
29.1 
11.9 
12.0 
10.0 
18.6 
9.2 

17.0 
8.9 
13.1 
18.6 
10.6 
7.8 
15.6 
14.4 
12.0 
15.4 
8.7 
7.6 
3.8 
17.4 



E's 

and 
D's 



Building 
transien- 
cy per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 



20.8 
30.6 
23.0 
21.5 

32.5 
10.9 
17.2 
42.3 
11.1 
13.5 
9.2 
11.7 

16.7 
16.9 
42.0 
13.1 

30.4 
55.9 
27.7 
24.6 
20.0 
32.2 
15.1 

35.0 



13.9 
30.9 
31.6 



12.8 
14.1 
31.4 



Room 

transien- 
cy per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 



25.0 
57.1 
28.5 
24.2 

35.2 
13.1 
19.2 
50.0 
14.0 
29.6 
12.4 
13.6 

20.0 
20.3 
45.7 
15.8 

32.8 
91.5 
31.6 

24^5 
35.6 
17.9 

56.8 
22.4 
25.4 

2a 
16.4 
39.0 
40.0 
22.2 
35.8 
22.4 
16.5 
41.5 
42,5 



4542 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
Table XXXII. — Second semester 





Enrolled 

February 

1939 


E's 


E per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 


D's 


D per- 
cent of 
basal en- 
rollment 

25.9 
7.7 

15.2 
3.7 
7.7 
5.6 

21.3 

13.0 
5.2 

12.6 

15.2 
4.3 
7.0 
8.1 

13.5 
9.8 

10.3 
9.3 
5.8 


E's and 
D's 


Building 
tran- 
siency 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


Room 
tran- 
siency 
percent 
of basal 
enroll- 
ment 


Division I: 


27 
220 
269 
563 
504 
620 
296 

268 
229 
246 
178 

531 
272 
288 
294 
107 
536 
313 


3 
23 
27 
23 
49 
48 
45 

15 
28 
16 
26 
22 
25 
28 
37 
19 

5 
53 

9 


11.1 
10.5 
10.0 

4.1 
9.7 
7.7 
15.2 

5.6 
12.2 
6.5 
14.6 
3.2 
4.7 
10.3 
12.9 
6.5 
4.7 
9.9 
2.9 


7 
17 
41 
21 
39 
35 
63 

35 
12 
31 
27 
29 
37 
22 
39 
29 
11 
50 
18 


10 
40 
68 
44 

88 
83 
108 

50 
40 
47 
53 
51 
62 
50 
76 
48 
16 
103 
27 


37.0 
18.2 
25.2 
7.8 
17.4 
13.3 
36.5 

18.6 
17.4 
19.1 
29.8 

7.5 
11.7 
18.4 
26.4 
16.3 
15.0 
19.2 

8.7 


44.4 




29.1 




28.6 




19.5 


Division III: Raymond-— 

Division V: Park View 

Division VI: Gales 

Division VII: 


29.8 
16.3 
40.9 

22.4 




20.5 




23.5 




36.0 




9.9 


Congress Heights 


15.0 
21.7 




36.4 




19.4 




20.5 




24.2 


Orr 


12.4 







Comparison of intrasem ester room transiency and building transiency in 
terms of percent of basal enrollment is shown in table XXXIII as follows: 

Table XXXIII 





First semester 


Division 


Second semester 


Division 


Room tran- 
siency 


Building 
transiency 


Room tran- 

siency 


Building 
transiency 




Percent 
19.1 
21.4 
20.5 
30.7 
28.4 
24.1 


Percent 
16.9 
18.5 
18.6 
27.3 
22.1 
20.6 


I 


Percent 
15.4 
15.6 
15.3 
21.9 
18.9 
17.4 


Percent 
13.0 


III 


III 


13.7 


V 


V 


13.8 




VI 


21.3 


VII 


VII___ 

City 


15.8 




15.4 









Inspection of the foregoing tables reveals the fact that in Washington there are 
7,089 room-placement changes of pupils and 6,084 school-placement changes in 
the fall after the setting of the roll books, i. e. 24.1 and 20.6 percent, respectively, 
of basal enrollment. 

The second semester shows less instability, the figures being 17.4 and 15.4 
percent, respectively. Divisions VI and VII are considerably higher than the 
other areas of the city since the room transiency in division VI in the fall is 30.7 
percent, building transiency 27.3 percent, and in division VII room transiency is 
28.4 percent and building' transiency 22.1 percent. The same divisions show 
highest degree of transiency in the second semester with division VI leading with 
room transiency of 21.9 percent and building transiency 21.3 percent and division 
VII room transiency of 18.9 percent, building transiency 15.8 percent. 

The most stable division would appear to be division I with divisions III and V 
slightly above, with little difference between all three of them. 

When one realizes the value of continuity of instruction in the learning process 
and the demoralizing effects of constant changes — changes represented in room 
change of one-fourth and building change of one-fifth of our pupils in one semester 
in the regular classes of the city's elementary schools — one cannot wonder at the 
amount of retardation nor the growing feeling on the part of teachers that teaching 
is becoming steadily more difficult. 

In the underprivileged areas of division I and in most of divisions VI and VII 
the transiency is heaviest, and need for far more coaching and remedial work 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4543 

to keep down retardation is apparent, for in several schools the room transiency 
reaches over 50 percent (91.5 percent the highest at Gales) and building transiency 
as high as 55.9 percent in one instance (Gales). 

Comparison of Washington with other cities in respect to intrasemester turn-over 
would be interesting, but a survey of the periodic literature and letters of inquiry 
to other research departments in other cities fails to reveal any such study having 
been made. 

A few samples typical of what is happening in the various teachers' groups is 
given. These are not unique but are presented to show what many teachers face: 

Kgn.: The basal enrollment was 54, and there were 31 changes in personnel by 
15 new E's and D's. Sixty-eight pupils were at one time or another in that group, 
43 of the original 54 only remaining the entire semester in her final roll of 53 pupils. 

Pupil changes in terms of percent of basal enrollment 57. 4 

Pupils remaining entire semester in terms of percent of basal enrollment.. 80. 
Pupils remaining entire semester on basis of percent of whole group 63. 2 

IB: The basal enrollment was 43 and there were 22 changes by addition of 8 
new pupils and withdrawals of 14 pupils. Fifty different pupils were at one time 
or the other a part of her group. In her final enrollment of 37 pupils but 29 were 
with her all semester. 

Pupil changes in terms of percent of basal enrollment 51. 2 

Pupils remaining entire semester in terms of percent of basal enrollment-. 67. 4 
Pupils remaining entire semester on basis of percent of whole group 58. 

2AB: The basal enrollment was 27 and there were 32 changes through entrance 
of 19 and departure of 13 pipils. Forty-six different pupils were in her group and 
of the 33 on her last roll only 20 had been there the entire semester. 

Pupil changes in terms of percent of basal enrollment 118. 5 

Pupils remaining entire semester in terms of percent of basal enrollment.- 74. 1 
Pupils remaining entire semester on basis of percent of whole group 43. 5 

4AB: The basal enrollment was 28. There were 13 new entries and 8 with- 
drawals, 21 changes being made. Forty-one pupils were in and out of the group 
and of the 31 on her last roll only 20 were there throughout the semester. 

Pupil changes in terms of percent of basal enrollment 75. 

Pupils remaining entire semester in terms of percent of basal enrollment.- 71. 4 
Pupils remaining entire semester on basis of percent of whole group 48. 8 

5AB-6AB Opportunity: The basal enrollment was 32 and 26 changes in per- 
sonnel occurred, 18 entries and 8 withdrawals. Fifty different children were in 
her group and of the 42 final enrollment only 24 were with her a full semester. 

Pupil changes in terms of percent of basal enrollment 81. 2 

Pupils remaining entire semester in terms of percent of basal enrollment-- 75. 
Pupils remaining entire semester on basis of percent of whole group 48. 

How this high degree of motility shows up in the individual case studies may be 
seen from the following random cases that are typical and could be multiplied 
by hundreds: 

Here is the case of C. H., who entered a District of Columbia public-school 
first grade 5 years ago. He has shifted about in 10 different schools, has had 11 
teachers and' 9 home addresses. One wonders that he completed the 4B grade 
in this 5 years of such shifting. 

Again, take the case of B. J. B., who entered kindergarten 5}i years ago. She 
has been in 10 schools but has had 12 changes and 11 teachers, 9 addresses, and 
is now in 3B grade. 

Take M. E. B., who, though only in our schools 5 years, has been in 5 schools. 
He has had 16 shifts back and forth between Virginia and the Gales, Seaton, 
Rossell, and Amidon Schools. He has had 12 addresses and not less than 10 
different teachers and is only in 3A grade. 

Consider the case of I. F. B., who entered 1A 3 years ago and has been in 5 
schools but shifted from one to another 9 times. He has had 8 teachers in this 
3-vear period and 8 different addresses, and is now in the 2B grade. 

And then we wonder why children do not learn — why nervousness is increasing 
and teachers complain of' the increasing difficulties with discipline as well as 
learning. 



4544 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

TESTIMONY OF DR. FRANK W. BALLOU— Resumed 

Dr. Baijlou. The first part of that statement, Mr. Chairman, refers 
to the nativity of boys and girls coming into our schools. In that 
statement will be found a tabulation showing the number of pupils 
that were born in the District of Columbia, the number of pupils born 
in other parts of the United States, and the number of pupils born in 
foreign countries. (See p. 4508.) The totals are for the District 
public schools as a whole: 58,143 born in the District of Columbia, 
33,748 born in other parts of the United States, and 976 born in for- 
eign countries. That makes a, total of 92,597 pupils in the public 
schools as of November 1, 1940. 

The percentages are, for the school system as a whole : 62.8 percent 
born in the District of Columbia, 36.2 percent born in other parte 
of the United States, and 1 percent born in foreign countries. That, I 
think, gives some idea of the national character of the population in 
the District of Columbia as represented by the school children now 
attending school. 

The second statement which I offer has to do with new pupils 
entering the public schools. (See p. 4510 ff.) I think I would like to 
give some significance, if I may, to the particular information in that 
statement. 

The number of new pupils entering the public schools each year is, 
to us in the school department, a very significant and very important 
matter. It is significant because it is a fact that in every school year 
we have pupils entering the District schools from every State in the 
Union. 

It is a fact, also, that the number of such new pupils is relatively 
large. We must make arrangements in our schools for receiving 
those children at any time that they come, and they arrive when 
the families move here at any time up to the 1st of January. In 
1 year we admitted 100 junior high school students on the 1st of 
January, when Congress opened. The entrance of these pupils 
is at any time during the year. This record is a record of those 
entering before November 1, when we consider that our school 
enrollment has reached at least approximate stability, although we 
know there will be some additions. 

This tabulation is made upon the basis of the new pupils coming 
into our schools between September 1 and the 1st of November of 
this school year. The number of such pupils admitted was 4,756. 
They were admitted in grades all the way from kindergarten through 
the Teachers College. As I say, they came from very State in 
the Union. 

Also, this report covers the period from September 1 to November 
1, 1940, so that I might compare the situation now with the corre- 
sponding figures gathered in 1936-37 and 1937-38. 

In 1936-37, the number coming in, in the white schools, was 3,469 
and the number in colored schools was 1,505. In 1937-38 the num- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4545 

ber coming into white schools was 4,022, and the number of pupils 
coming into colored schools was 1,486. 

During this year 3,728 were enrolled in the white schools during 
the same period, and 1,028 were enrolled in the colored schools 
during that same period. 

There has been a substantial decline in the number of new pupils 
coming into the colored schools, and there has been also a decline 
in the number of those coming into the white schools. The fact is, 
however, that relatively more pupils have come in since November 
1 up to the present time. 

The Chairman. Your school enrollment has not kept pace with 
the increase in population? 

Dr. Ballou. This is the school population. We have had over a 
period of years a decline of a few hundred pupils in our total school 
population. But it looks as though we will recover a substantial 
part of that this year, from the way in which the increased enroll- 
ment is taking place. 

EMERGENCY NEEDS 

The other reports I have submitted have to do with emergency 
school needs which have developed in the District of Columbia very 
rapidly in the last year in the area across the Anacostia Kiver. (See 
pp. 4513-4525.) 

The Board of Education has already caused to be prepared a 
series of reports which analyze the development in that area and 
the increase in school population, and on the basis of those emer- 
gency needs which have arisen, the Board has requested the Com- 
missioners to submit a supplemental or deficiency estimate. The 
Commissioners have held hearings with the school officers on that 
program, and I think are trying to find ways and means of financing 
the additional schoolhouse construction in that area. 

The Chairman. In reference to the map which you have sub- 
mitted, if you will leave it with the committee we will have it 
marked as an exhibit. 

(The map referred to was marked as an exhibit and placed in the 
committee's files.) 

The Chairman. I would like to have you explain to Congressman 
Sparkman what the school situation is here. 

Dr. Ballou. The area that these reports deal with is across the 
Anacostia River. On the north there is the Benning School, just off 
of Benning Road, which is an elementary school of eight rooms, and 
which is overcrowded, and we have transferred a portable there this 
fall. 

At Minnesota Avenue and Ely Place SE. we have two portables 
which accommodate the kindergarten and the first three grades. The 
upper-grade children have to travel a mile and a half to another 
school. 

The Chairman. How many children are in that portable? 

Dr. Ballou. There are about 70 or 75 children in the 2 portables. 

The Handle Highlands School is full to capacity, and likewise the 
Orr School, operated under one principal. 

Further south we have the Stanton School. 



4546 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

We have still further south, beyond St. Elizabeths Hospital, the 
Congress Heights School. 

All these schools are full to capacity. We have transferred a port- 
able to the Stanton School, which is a four-room building, to take care 
of the increased enrollment. There is no possibility of our absorbing 
adequately pupils that are now in these areas, awaiting our taking 
care of them properly. These two portables are quite unsatisfactory 
for school purposes. 

Still further south — and I will refer to this and then come back 
to the situation with respect to the construction of buildings in that 
area — near the Research Laboratory, south of Boiling Field, the Fed- 
eral Government plans to build 1,000 family units in that area. There 
is no school near that center at all. The Congress Heights School 
is the nearest one, and that cannot accommodate those pupils. 

We are confronted with the necessity of either building temporary 
school buildings there to take care of the pupils who will come from 
those families, or transport those pupils to some other center where 
school house accommodations might be provided, either in the central 
part of the city, for example, or building a permanent new building 
somewhere in that area. We are not sure about that, because the 
project is not very well along. They expect to have these homes 
ready by next September. 

Mr. Sparkman. What are those homes being built for ? 

Dr. Ballou. They are being built for people employed by the Gov- 
ernment in that project. 

NEW LEGISLATION WOULD HELP 

Mr. Sparkmax. Under a bill which has been proposed now, to 
afford school facilities where defense workers are assembled, to give 
relief to municipalities and school boards, will you not be entitled 
to share in that provision? 

Dr. Ballou. I think we would, and I think that is very worth- 
while legislation and very necessary legislation. I think we would 
undoubtedly share in it in this particular project and perhaps in 
some of the others. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, this is an instance in which the 
Government would be setting up a school problem for you that does 
not already exist? 

Dr. Ballou. That is precisely the fact. 

Let me complete this statement about the school situation by call- 
ing your attention to the report which I have submitted. There are 
listed the schools that are to be affected by the housing development 
now taking place in the Anacostia-Benning section of the city. 

Near the Naval Research Laboratory there is a project for the 
erection of from 600 to 1,000 family units. This is based on in- 
formation procured from Com. Ira P. Griffen, of the United States 
Navy. 

At Nichols Avenue and Chesapeake Street SE., there is a project 
for the construction of 125 family units. That means single houses 
or apartments within structures. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4547 

In the Fort Du Pont dwellings there is a project for 326 family 
units. At Minnesota Avenue and Ridge Road there is a project for 
792 family units. At Minnesota Avenue and East Capitol Street 
there is a project for 200 family units. 

On River Terrace, between Minnesota Avenue and Anacostia Ave- 
nue, there is a project for 500 family units. That is not far from 
the Benning School, which is already overcrowded. 

At Fairlawn Village there is a project for 74 family units. At 
Lyndale there is a project for 56 family units. There is also a 
project for the Hi-Land Apartments providing for 35 family units. 

At Minnesota Park there is a project for 100 family units. Also, 
at Twenty-eighth Place and Texas Avenue, there is a project for 
24 family units. At P Street and Eighteenth Place there is a 
project for 80 family units. At Pennsylvania Avenue and Thirty- 
third Place there is a project for 15 family units. On S Street 
near Thirtieth Street there is a project for 11 family units. At 
Fairfax Village there is a project for 640 family units. At du 
Pont Village there is a project for 200 family units, and in the 
Skyland Apartments there is a project for 400 family units. That 
makes a total of 3,580 family units under construction or occupied, 
and many of them will be ready for occupancy next September. 
This information was procured from the builders and checked with 
the District permit office, 

The fact is that the District Commissioners made an inquiry 
before issuing the permits which have been granted, to determine 
what construction was going on and was contemplated, and they 
arrived at practically the same conclusion that we did with respect 
to those needs. 

We got information by going to contractors in that area, and 
inspected the area itself. 

The situation with respect to the colored schools is much the 
same in this same general area, and a corresponding report was sub- 
mitted to the school board and was forwarded to the Commissioners. 

INCREASE IN ATTENDANCE 

I want to get back to this matter of the schools and how much 
the attendance is increasing. 

The Benning School, which is near Benning Road, had 168 pupils 
in 1937. In 1938 it had 159 pupils, in 1939 it had 170 pupils, and 
in 1940 on November 1 it had 232 pupils. On January 9, 1941, it 
had 271 pupils, and on March 13 it had 309 pupils. That shows 
the wav in which these school populations are going up. 

The Congress Heights School had in 1939 527 pupils; it had in 
1940. 553 pupils; and on January 9. 1941, it had 574 pupils. On 
March 13, 1941. it had 558 pupils. That school graduated 37 pupils 
in Februarv, and 21 new pupils have come in. 

The Handle Highlands-Orr School in 1937 had 593 pupils. In 
October 1938, it had 628 pupils. In 1939 it had 621 pupils, and on 
November 1, 1940, it had 692 pupils. On January 9 of this year it 
had 759 pupils, and on March 13 of this year it had 765 pupils. 



4548 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

That school lost 34 pupils by graduation in February and received 
40 new pupils. 

The Stanton School had 117 pupils in 1937. It had 157 pupils in 
1938; on October 27, 1939, it had 163 pupils; on November 1, 1940, 
it had 195 pupils; on January 9, 1941, it had 207 pupils, and on 
March 13 it had 205 pupils. They graduated eight pupils in Febru- 
ary and took in six new pupils. In the colored schools, for instance, 
in the Deanwood School, the enrollments are much the same as these 
other enrollments which I have given you. 

There was a decrease at the Burrville School because of the shifting 
of pupils; but the increases have been substantial in all the schools 
of this area which have to supply school facilities for these boys and 
girls. 

Mr. Sparkman. In connection with these schools you mentioned, 
showing this increase, does that mean that other schools in the Dis- 
trict have had a decrease ? 

Dr. Ballou. In some cases, .yes; but the other schools where de- 
creases have taken place are in the heart of the city, where property 
has become commercial and where families are moving out of the 
center of the city. 

A PROBLEM OF BUILDINGS 

Mr. Sparkman. Is your problem a teacher problem, or a problem 
of school buildings? 

Dr. Ballou. It is a problem of buildings. Then it is a problem 
of equipment for the buildings and providing personnel. 

Mr. Sparkman. Has your teacher load increased ? 

Dr. Ballou. The teacher load is much higher than it has been 
over a period of years. We do not have as many teachers, rela- 
tively, for the enrollment we now have as we had back before 1930. 
We have never been able to recover what we lost during the depres- 
sion period in the number of teachers. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have any overcrowding in the schools? 

Dr. Ballou. In many of them there are large classes. We are 
proposing to add a number of teachers out of savings in the appro- 
priation for teachers. 

Mr. Sparkman. I refer particularly to the number in the rooms. 

Dr. Ballou. The number in the rooms was in excess of the 40 or 
42 seats, and in many instances we have had to put in chairs and 
run the classes up to 50. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you done any double shifting? 

Dr. Ballou. We have put the classes on the double-shift program, 
and we now have some schools such as the Brown Junior High 
School, with the double-shift program running until very late in 
the afternoon. But we cannot put the elementary schools on a 
double-shift program by dividing these larger classes into smaller 
units because we do not have the teachers. That is the way we are 
going to use the teachers we are now employing to reduce large 
classes, which means in many instances putting classes on part time. 

Mr. Sparkman. In addition to that, do you use any of your 
buildings for vocational training, or adult training? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4549 

Dr. Ballou. Yes. The vocational school buildings are used 
throughout the night in defense-program work, with skilled trades 
being taught. We have a large defense program. 

Mr. Spaekman. Is it your opinion that this increase will be per- 
manent, or do you think it is more or less of a temporary nature* 

Dr. Ballou. To a large extent, I think the development across 
the Anacostia River is permanent. It has been built up over a 
period of years, but it has been greatly accelerated within the last 
year and a half. These are permanent homes. I think this one 
project near the Naval Research Laboratory may be considered a 
temporary project. 

If the families should move away for whom the Government is 
providing temporary homes, then we would not have any need for 
a school. That is why I say we do consider that the possibility of 
transporting these pupils to school is one way in which to accom- 
modate them. 

POPULATION TRENDS 

The Chairman. I want to repeat a question I asked you awhile 
ago. Washington has shown one of the greatest increases in popu- 
lation of any city in the United States. I was trying to find out 
if the school enrollment has kept pace with that population. 

Dr. Ballou. It has not kept pace with the growth in adult popu- 
lation. There has been a decline in the white school population in 
the District of Columbia, due in part to the number coming in, 
because the figures in this statement I gave you of new students 
coming in show the number is less than it was 2 or 3 years ago. 

It is also due in part to the fact that many people are now living 
in adjacent States who work in the Federal Government depart- 
ments. 

In the Northwest section, around Connecticut Avenue, out to Chevy 
Chase, there is a surprising decrease in the number of public-school 
pupils. There are vacant rooms in that area. If they were in Ana- 
costia we could use them. There is not any way to utilize them, 
located as they are. 

Some of these shifts in school population cannot be general, but 
one of them is the case of the area along Connecticut Avenue. It is 
surprising that there has been a decrease in school population there, 
but it is accounted for in part by the fact that adults have lived in 
those houses for many years and they are now elderly people, and 
from those same homes there once came pupils in substantial numbers 
to the Cleveland Park school, but there are no children in those homes 
at the present time. The young people have moved elsewhere. 

One of the problems of operating the school system in the District 
of Columbia has to do with this shifting population. It is continuous, 
and it presents a continuous educational problem. 

Let me give you a sample from this statement prepared by the 
research department having to do with the shifting of children within 
the District. 

I think it is quite important to get some idea of the shifting of 
school population here, which presents a real problem educationally. 



4550 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Take, for example, a class of 43 pupils who have been in a first-grade 
class. There were 22 changes in the enrollment in that class and 8 of 
them were additions, and 14 pupils left the class. There were fifty- 
odd pupils who were at one time or another a part of this class organ- 
ization consisting of about 43. 

In the final enrollment of 37 pupils in that class only 29 were 
there in that room throughout the term. 

Or, take a fourth-grade class. Here is an enrollment of 28, which 
is a small enrollment. There were 13 new entries with 8 withdrawals, 
with 21 in the class during the term. Forty-one pupils were in and out 
of that group, 31 on the roll on the teacher's last roll, and only 21 
were there during the term. 

SHIFTING OF PEOPLE 

The Chairman. To what do you ascribe that shifting? 

Dr. Ballou. It is due to the shifting of people. People move. 
One of the principals of the school said to me, "I can count on from 
10 to 15, or 25 or 30 adults coming to my office every Monday morning 
near the beginning of a month for transfers to other schools." There 
are cases where these children have been in five different schools in 
one term of 5 months, spending an average of 1 mqnth at a place, 
when the family moved to some other section of the city. 

I am not qualified to testify about the migration of family popula- 
tion so much as I am about the migration of the school population, 
and we have to take that into account. There are school buildings 
in the District of Columbia that are not fully used, and they cannot be 
because the population has moved. I am amazed with the amount 
of it that is going on in the heart of the District of Columbia, in the 
area which has become commercial and less residential. It is also 
going on to some extent all over the District of Columbia. 

I think people would be amazed as to the extent of the shifting of 
the school population within the District of Columbia. 

The Chairman. Is there any out-migration of families to other 
States because of the defense program? 

Dr. Ballou. I have no information about that. I have not col- 
lected any information especially with respect to people leaving the 
District of Columbia for that purpose. 

The Chairman. You do have people coming in here from every 
State in the Union. Are any of these people migrants, living in 
trailers? 

Dr. Ballou. We have no knowledge of the status of the families. 
They register the children in the schools. I think many of them are 
migrants, but we do not know their family status. We do not know 
what their means of subsistence is when they are not in the District 
of Columbia. 

The Chairman. I suppose the varying grades of these children 
from different States present quite a problem ? 

Dr. Ballou. Indeed it does. There are children coming into every 
grade in our school system. We have semiannual promotions and 
we try to incorporate those pupils into our organization when they 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4551 

arrive and carry them along as well as we can, educationally, until 
they are completely adjusted to our program of instruction. 

The Chairman. You made reference to some report. May we have 
that report? 

Dr. Ballou. It is entitled "Study of Intrasemester Pupil Turn-over" 
and is included in the annual report of the Department of Educational 
Research in the white schools for the year 1939-40. I shall be glad to 
send you a copy of that extract. (The extract above referred to was 
received and appears on p. 4525.) 

Mr. Arnold. I wonder if your problem is in any way accentuated 
by children from foreign countries. 

Dr. Ballou. No. We are not aware of any serious problem in 
connection with refugee children. There are refugee children in the 
city, but they are registered from homes of citizens of the District. 

A considerable number of these children listed here as coming from 
foreign countries are in the families of the embassies and legations. 
They are regular residents of the city and are not foreigners in the 
sense that they are just here temporarily. Many of them have been 
in the schools for a long time. Ambassador Cze, who formerly rep- 
resented China in Washington, was a graduate of our Central High 
School, which he attended as a pupil here. 

I am trying to emphasize the fact that there is no serious problem 
in connection with the number of foreign students in our schools. 

The Chairman. We thank you for your statement, Doctor. The 
next witness is Mrs. Helen Dewey Hoffman. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. HELEN DEWEY HOFFMAN, EXECUTIVE 
DIRECTOR, WASHINGTON HOUSING ASSOCIATION 

The Chairman. Mrs. Hoffman, how would you like to proceed? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I would like to speak on Dr. Ballou's statement a 
moment — on that movement of children. May I say for the record 
that I am the executive director of the Washington Housing 
Association. 

I think I can explain a little about that shift of population in the 
heart of the city. That shift is going on among families very low in the 
economic scale, and the reason for the shift is the housing problem. 
They live in a different house every month, because they cannot afford 
to pay the rent out of the incomes that they have. A great many of 
the families are on W. P. A. or are receiving assistance, and they 
have no credit with the real-estate agents, who will not rent to them 
if it is known that they are on W. P. A. or are receiving assistance. 
They are not good risks. 

They cannot give the address of a previous landlord that would be 
a recommendation. When they are dispossessed, they have to find 
another house or dwelling, and it may be across town. Those families 
move constantly, and their problem is lack of adequate dwellings and 
a rent that they can afford, which puts a heavy burden, I think, in 
the long run on the taxpayers of this city. 



4552 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

As Mr. Hedges, of the Thompson School, has told me, there are chil- 
dren who have been in a different school every month. 

At this point, I shall introduce my statement and then I shall be 
glad to answer any questions. 

(The statement appears below :) 

STATEMENT BY THE WASHINGTON HOUSING ASSOCIATION 

POPULATION INCREASE 

The population of the District of Columbia has been increasing rapidly during 
the past 10 years, with a 36.2 percent increase during that time. The census 
reports 663,091 persons as of April 1940. During the past 8 months, however 
the rate of increase has advanced so rapidly that the housing facilities have been 
strained to their utmost. Estimates of the present population range from 715.000 
to 750,000. By July 1 another 15,000 to 25,000 will be added to Government 
services, it is estimated. 

From the monthly pay roll figures furnished by the Civil Service Commission 
new Government workers have been employed at a rate of 3,677 persons a month 
during the last 6 months of 1940, or a total of 22,119 additional employees. If 
two-thirds of these people are housed in the District, as the Civil Service Commis- 
sion states to be the case, that would mean 2,452 additional persons in the Dis- 
trict each of the last 6 months in 1940. The new employees during 1941 are 
not known yet ; however, Mr. Edwards of the Civil Service Commission has esti- 
mated that between 3,000 and 4,000 a month will continue to be hired until 
next July. 

THEIB HOUSING NEEDS 

According to Mr. S. Miles Montgomery, of the Washington Real Estate Board, 
the new workers normally absorb 0.67 units each, allowing for more than 1 
member in a family being employed and for doubling up of single employees. 
These families would necessitate 1,643 dwelling units in the District alone each 
month. 

In 1937, 66 percent of the salaries of the executive branch of the Government 
were under $2,000 a year and 32 percent under $1,500. According to Mr. Mont- 
gomery, of the Washington Real Estate Board, the expected pattern of the 
new Government employees differs from the 1937 pattern in that the new group 
contains 13.8 percent more in the group below the $2,000 annual income. If 
this were the case 80 percent of the new Government workers coming to live 
in the District, or 1,962 people a month, would have incomes under $2,000 a 
year. This group, using an average of 0.67 dwelling units each, would need 
1,315 units a month. Since, as suggested by the Civil Service Statistical Bureau, 
some of the new employees are residents of Washington who were not previously 
working, and in some families there is more than 1 salary, one-fourth of these 
may not need new housing or may have an income of over $2,000 a year. This 
would leave 986 dwelling units a month to be found by families whose yearly 
income was under $2,000. If these families were to spend not more than a 
quarter of their income on rent, it would mean a demand for 986 dwellings a 
month renting at less than $42.50 a month. 

VACANCY SURVEY 

In January 1941 the Work Projects Administration vacancy survey found a 
rental vacancy rate of 1.8 percent, which would mean a total of 3,460 dwelling 
units in the District of Columbia (if the total number of building permits granted 
from May 1940 through December 1940 were added to the number of units found 
in the census). This vacancy included all dwellings under construction at that 
time, which comprised about one-third of the total. However, of these only 
17.5 percent, or 605 dwellings, rented for under $40 a month. 

Average monthly rentals ranged from $75 in Falls Church and $65 in Mont- 
gomery County to $42.50 in Prince Georges County. The median rental was $50. 
the same as in the District. In the combined areas only 3.9 percent of the 
habitable rental vacancies were less than $30, and only 17.7 percent rented for 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4553 

less than $40. That means that 21.6 percent of the very few of the habitable 
vacancies rented for under $40. 

NONFEDERAL NEW EMPLOYEES 

In addition to the new Government employees, Mr. Edwards, of the Civil 
Service Commission Statistical Division, states "Experience has shown that for 
every Government employee put on the pay roll, another job is created in private 
employment." Since salaries in private industry are in general lower than in 
Government employment, there would be an additional demand for at least an- 
other 986 housing units a month renting in the vicinity of $40 a month or under. 
This has created the problem of 1,972 families a month seeking low-rent housing 
in the District when only 605 dwellings were vacant in January renting under 
$40 a month and an additional 890 renting under $50. These figures do not 
include the third of the newcomers who find housing in the suburban areas 
where the vacancy rate varies from 1.4 to 2.7 percent and rentals of vacant 
units are in most cases higher than in the District according to the Work 
Projects Administration survey. 

LOW-RENTAL DWELLINGS NEEDED 

The greatest strain of the increase in population is shown in the dwelling 
units renting for about $30 a month and under. At least 32 percent of the new 
workers earn under $1,500 a year, if the figures published by the Civil Service 
Commission for December 1937 were used, and the additional low-salaried work- 
ers predicted were not considered. This would mean a monthly influx of 1,113 
persons earning under $1,500 a year, about two-thirds of whom, or 742, would 
want housing in the District. If these are to occupy 0.67 dwellings each, 
after deducting one-fourth as having more than 1 salary in the family or 
being residents of the District, 375 dwelling units are needed. If the worker 
is not to spend more than a fourth of his income for rent these dwellings must 
rent for not more than $32 50 a month. If an additional housing unit is required 
for an equal number of private employees in the same income group, 750 dwellings 
a month are being sought in the District for a rental of $32.50 and under. The 
Work Projects Administration survey in January found a total of 138 dwelling 
units vacant under $30 a month, wi.h an additional 467 vacant units under $40 
a month, or a total of 605 units under $40 a month, most of which have a higher 
rental than these 750 families can afford to pay. 

The recent Work Projects Administration survey showed about 6,000 rooms 
for rent by white families in Washington and its suburbs. An earlier study m 
February found 1,000 rooms for Negroes in the District, and the later survey 
showed very few rooms now available for Negroes in the surveyed areas sur- 
rounding the District. 

MIGRANT WORKERS 

The families considered in the above analysis include only those who are 
known to have jobs in the Federal Government and those estimated to have jobs 
in private industry. The migrant worker who comes seeking work further ag- 
gravates this shortage of low-rent dwellings and at the same time is a victim 
of it Since few who are migrating to seek work can afford housing with a 
higher rental than $30 a month, and since practically no such vacancies exist 
at the present time, the migrant is forced to rent a room for his family, or double 
up with another family, with the resulting overcrowded living quarters and 
facilities. To maintain health and protect morals under such conditions is 
difficult. 

The vacancy problem for the Negro families is even more serious than for 
white families. The percent of vacant habitable dwellings for Negroes was only 
0.8 percent in January 1941, according to the Work Projects Administration sur- 
vey. Most of these vacancies were in the rental range below $40 a month. 

VACANCIES DECREASE 

Since the survey made by the Work Projects Administration contains the 
only available statistics on the vacancy rate in the District, those figures have 

260370 — 41 — pt. 11 20 



4554 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

been used throughout the report. However from the experience of the field 
workers of the Washington Housing Association, vacancies in the rental class 
of $30 or under are practically impossible to find for family units. 

The vacancy rate in Washington, D. C, at the time the census was taken in 
April 1940 was 5.4 percent, including rental and sale vacancies, or 9,999 dwelling 
units. This has dropped rapidly according to all subsequent surveys. In Au- 
gust 1940, according to the newspapers, there was a 3.5 percent over-all vacancy 
in metropolitan Washington. The Work Projects Administration survey gave 
an over-all vacancy of 3 percent in metropolitan Washington in January and a 
rental vacancy of 1.8 percent. Since there were 26,296 new Government em- 
ployees alone from April to January and permits were granted in the District 
for only 6,844 new family dwelling units during this time, at least this large a 
fall in the vacancy rate would be expected. 

The drop in the vacancy rate for apartments has been even more pronounced. 
Apartment vacancies were 7.94 percent in August 1940, dropping to 5.99 per- 
cent in September 1, 1940, and to 4.33 percent on October 1, 1940, with an 
expected drop to about 2 percent in January 1941. In March 1941, the vacancy 
rate in apartments was 1.51 percent. 

SUPPLY 

To meet the need of the increased population, building has increased during 
the past 6 months. During 1938, 4,275 families were provided for by new 
construction, while during 1940, 9,226 building permits were issued for family 
dwelling units, with 6,151 permits in the last 6 months of 1940 alone. This 
would be an average number of permits granted of 1,025 new family units a 
month from June through December 1940, including both public and private 
building. During January and February 1941, permits were issued for 789 and 
474 family units, respectively, for private building only. 

To till these 1,025 new family units, an average of almost 4,000 new Govern- 
ment employees were being hired a month, and perhaps an equal number in 
private employment. With the existing housing facilities already crowded, even 
the increased building has not been sufficient to meet the problem. 

To meet the specific needs of the incoming defense workers, 3,134 family 
units and a dormitory for 1,000 women have been authorized for the Washington 
area under the defense emergency housing program. The majority of these 
will be built with public funds, with 624 assigned to private enterprise. Of 
these units, the District Federal agencies are to provide 200 family units near 
the navy yard, 70 units near the Army Medical Center, 35 units for the fam- 
ilies of enlisted men in Arlington and 350 at Fort Beivoir, 1,000 units in Green- 
belt, and 20 units near the Army War College. These dwellings are to be 
occupied by persons employed in each specific defense center and will not be 
on the general housing market. Private enterprise is building 300 dwelling 
units near the Alexandria torpedo station. 

In addition to this defense construction, the Alley Dwelling Authority is 
building or plans to build 7 slum clearance projects for Negro families and 
has 2 projects for 543 white families which were being occupied by the end 
of 1940. Of these 7 remaining projects, which will contain 2,157 dwelling 
units, 313 units were begun during 1940 and are to be ready for occupancy 
by June 1941. Construction on 1 other project of 170 units has just been 
started. The occupancy of these dwellings is restricted to families who have 
been residents of Washington, D. C, and who are living in substandard houses. 
This will affect the housing for newcomers to Washington only by vacating 
some of the most submarginal dwellings. 

HOUSING SHORTAGE 

Mr. Richard W. Hill, Jr., in "Housing the Defense Workers," states: 
"On the side of conservatism it appears that a 20,000 dwelling-unit shortage 
is in store for the Washington area. Undoubtedly many of the new workers 
who do not have families will be taken care of in rooming houses and probably 
many more will double up. But even with a substantial portion of the increased 
population able to get along in marginal housing, the remainder will exercise 
a powerful influence on the market which will inevitably result in higher rent 
levels and force many to live in substandard dwellings." 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4555 

INCREASE IN RENTS 

Washington rents started out by being among the highest in tbe country. 
The Bureau of Labor Statistics Cost of Living Survey in March 1940, found 
that a person in Washington paid a higher percentage of his total expendi- 
tures for rent than in any other city in the United States. Since the middle 
of 1940 rents have gradually been rising as the demand for houses increased. 
From June 15, 1940, to September 15, 1940, rents paid by wage earners and 
lower salaried workers in Washington increased 0.1 percent. While in the 
next 3 months, from September 15, 1940, to December 15, 1940, rents increased 
an additional 0.2 percent. The effect of the increased demand for the lower 
rentals is indicated by the fact that dwellings renting for under $30 a month 
showed a percentage rise in rent twice as great as the units renting for $30 
or over a month. 

OVERCROWDING AND LACK OF SANITATION 

Since we have no information on the housing of migrants as a class we can 
only present the picture of the housing conditions of the low-income group as 
a whole. For several reasons it seems probable that migrant families must 
live in the worst of the city's low-rent housing. Because of uncertain income 
and lack of furnishings of their own, they frequently take furnished rooms 
which are rented out on a weekly basis. The cheapest of these rooms are in 
houses originally intended for one family which have been made over into 
rooming houses by putting a padlock on each door. The original toilet facilities 
must be shared by all the families in the house. 

Cooking facilities may be a common kitchen shared by everyone in the 
house, or there may be a tiny wood burning stove (occasionally a full-size 
range) or two-burner oil stove in each room. In one case (1027 New Jersey 
Avenue SE.) the kitchen is rented out, although the only source of water for 
everyone in the house is the sink in that kitchen. Although some of the 
larger old houses originally had gas, few people use it because a deposit must 
be paid before it can be turned on. 

Examples : 

(1) 435 K Street NW. : S-room house with a family in each room, a total 
of about 24 persons sharing 1 sink and toilet. Room rents run about $3.50 a 
week ($15 a month). Total rent collected about $120. 

(2) 1120 New Jersey Avenue SE. : Rents run from $2.50 to $4 a week for 

1 to 3 rooms. Five families, at least 15 people, sharing 1 bath. All but 1 
of these families also get water for cooking and drinking from the bathtub. 
Seven-room house. 

(3) 1004 South Caoitol Street SE. : Four families, sharing 1. sink and 1 
outside toilet. Rents run from $2.50 to $4.50 a week for 1 and 2 rooms. Five- 
room house. 

(4) 2138 Eighth Street NW. : Three families, 14 people, sharing 1 toilet. 
One 2-room apartment was vacant. Rents run from $15 to $17 a month for 

2 and 3 rooms unfurnished. Ten-room house. 

(5) 1010 First Street SE. : Four families, at least IS people share 1 outside 
toilet and hydrant. Rents run from $3 to $4 a week for 1 and 2 rooms. Five- 
room house. 

(6) 83 Defrees Street NW. : Four famillies, 12 people share 1 toilet and 1 
sink. Rents run from $2 to $4.50 a week for 1 and 2 rooms. 

Figures from our inspection work show an increase in the number of shared 
toilets in recent months. This is an indication that the number of converted 
houses is increasing. 

From May 1910 through December 1940, 29.43 percent of the dwelling units 
inspected by the Washington Housing Association had toilets shared with one 
or more families. In January 1941 the percentage was 31.37 percent and in 
February it was 50.14 percent. 

MIGRANTS HAVE NO CREDIT 

Another factor that forces migrant families into the poorest housing is the 
fact that most Washington real-estate agents require a rent receipt from a 



4556 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

previous agent as evidence of reliability. Lacking this, they rent from men 
who will take anyone and charge high rents to offset the risk of nonpayment. 
Rent is collected in advance and if not forthcoming, the tenant's belongings are 
put in a bag outside the door and the padlock is changed. Losses to the land- 
lord are therefore negligible. Loss to the tenant may be all he owns. 

This type of real-estate operator as a rule does not have a real-estate brokers 
license nor a business chance broker's license. He operates outside the law. 
He sometimes has no office but collects the weekly rents himself or has 
suba gents. 

This type of business seems to be increasing. We have unconfirmed reports 
that the subagents, finding the business lucrative, are eDgaging in it independ- 
ently. More and more vacant houses are being divided up, so that it is becom- 
ing difficult to find a whole house to rent in some sections of the city. The low- 
rent housing shortage creates this condition. 

EXORBITANT BENTS TAX BELIEF 

Work Projects Administration workers and families on relief are frequently 
found in this type of rooming house. Although the rent paid for a single room 
may be enough to rent an entire house, the convenience of having to pay only 
1 week's rent at a time outweighs other disadvantages. Furthermore, since 
many Work Projects Administration workers get behind in rent when laid off 
because of the 18-month rule, they are forced to rent from someone who does 
not require references from previous agents. Undoubtedly a large slice of the 
small relief allowance or Work Projects Administration wage is taken by these 
housing operators. This leaves less for food and medical care. This in turn 
places an increasing burden on the taxpayer, who must provide in some way or 
another for these items in the family budget. 

DWELLINGS SHARED 

Families frequently share dwelling units in order to cut down on rent. Often 
out-of-town relatives live with a family already here until they can afford a 
place to themselves. 

From May through December 1940, 17.96 percent of the dwellings inspected 
were being shared by one or more families. In January 1941 the percentage 
was up to 24.13 percent, and in February it was 28.95 percent. 

Examples : 

(1) 1104 New Jersey Avenue SE. : Six-room brick house, $25 a month. Two 
rooms are basement rooms. House has sink, electricity, and outside toilet. 
Two brothers with families are sharing the house ; 2 men, 2 women, and 8 
children ; 12 persons in 6 rooms. 

(2) 813 Second Street SE. : Five-room brick house, $27.50 a month. One room 
is basement room. House has sink, electricity, and outside toilet. Three men, 
three women, and three children ; nine persons in 5 rooms. 

(3) 1112 New Jersey Avenue SE. : One room in an old frame house, $2.50 a 
week. Shared sink and outside toilet; no electricity. Two men, two women, 
and one child ; five persons in one room. 

(4) 139 L Street SE. : Six-room brick house, $15.50 a month. Two rooms are 
in basement. House has sink, outside toilet, no electricity. Man and wife with 
four children rent house. Rent out rooms to 2 other families consisting of 4 
adults and 5 children ; 14 persons in 6 rooms. 

(5) 1017 New Jersey Avenue SE. : 5-room brick house $16 50 a month. House 
has outside water and toilet, no electricity. Two families sharing house: 2 
men, 2 women, 8 children ; 12 persons in 5 rooms. 

(6) 138 Pierce Street NW. : 6-room brick house $25.50 a month. House has 
sink, outside toilet, no electricity. Two rooms are basement rooms quite far 
below street level. Two families sharing house ; 2 men, 2 women, 9 children ; 
13 persons in 6 rooms. 

(7) 506 Twenty-first Street NW. : 5-room brick house $25.50 a montb. House 
has sink, outside toilet, electricity. Two families sharing house; 2 men, 2 
women. 8 children ; 12 persons in 5 rooms. 

(8) 923c St. Paul's Court NW. : 5-room house $15.75 a month. Outside water 
and toilet, no electricity. Man and wife with 6 children sharing house with an- 
other family of 3 adults and 4 children ; 15 persons in 5 rooms. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4557 

(9) 2222 Sixth Street NW. : 5-rooin brick house $27.50 a month. Sink, outside 
loilet, no electricity. Two related families sharing house ; 9 adults and 11 
children ; 20 persons in 5 rooms. 

INCREASE IN OVERCROWDING 

Overcrowding is also increasing. From May 1940 through February 1941, 
the percentage of dwelling units overcrowded (more than 2 persons per room, 
exclusive of kitchen ) was 19.87 percent. For the 10-month period preceding this 
(July 1939 through April 1940) it was 17.68 percent, and for the period from 
September 1938 through June 1939 it was 16.54 percent. Although these figures 
include overcrowding caused by doubling up as well as by families too large 
for the houses, it is probably safe to assume that the latter type of overcrowding 
is also increasing since the larger houses are being divided up into multi-family 
houses. This forces large families into smaller houses. For example a 6-room 
house at $42.50 may now be $50 or $60. The 4-room house at $30 is now $40. 

.LARGE FAMILIES 

Following are examples of tenants who rent houses too small for their fami- 
lies because they cannot afford the rent for larger houses: 

(1) 127 H Street SE. : Five-room brick house, $16.50 a month. House has sink 
but no electricity or inside toilet. Man and wife and 9 children; 11 persons in 
5 rooms. 

(2) 124 Francis Place SE. : Four-room brick house, $14 50 a month. House 
has sink but no electricity or inside toilet. Man and wife and 7 children; 9 
persons in 4 rooms. 

(3) 2403 Pennsylvania Avenue NW. : One basement room, $6 a week. Shared 
sink and outside toilet. Electricity. Man and wife and 2 children; 4 persons 
in 1 room. 

(4) 2526 F Street NW. : Three rooms, $17.50 a month. Sink, outside toilet, 
electricity. One woman and 6 children ; 7 persons in 3 rooms. 

(5) 80S Barry Place NW. : Two rooms, $12 50 a month. Shared outside toilet 
and water, no electricity. Man and wife and 7 children; 9 persons in 2 rooms. 

CONVERTED HOUSES 

Examples : 

(1) 1027 New Jersey Avenue, SE. : six-room house with sink, outside toilet, 
no electricity— 1938, rented to 1 family (4 people) for $17.50 a month; 1941, 
rented to 4 families (9 people) for a total of about $59 a month. 

(2) 1118 New Jersey Avenue, SE. : six-room house with sink, outside toilet, 
no electricity— 1937, rented to 1 family for $18 a month; 1941, rented to 4 
families for a total of about $55.90 a month. 

(3) 1120 New Jersey Avenue. SE. : seven-room house with 1 bath, 1 sink, 
1 outside toilet, no electricity— 1937, rented to 2 families for $26 a month; 
1941, rented to 5 families for a total of about $70.95 a month. 

(4) 1004 South Capitol Street, SE. : five-room house with sink, hydrant, out- 
ride toilet, no electricity— 1936, rented to 1 family for $18.50 a month; 1941, 
rented to 4 families for a total of about $49.45 a month. 

(5) 435 K Street, NW. : seven-room house with 1 bath and sink, electricity— 
1937, rented to 1 family for $40 a month; 1941, rented to 8 families for a 
total of about $112.50 a month. 

HOUSES IN WHICH PARTITIONS HAVE BEEN USED TO CONVERT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSES 
TO ROOMING HOUSES 

Examples : 

1027 New Jersey Avenue, SE. 101 H Street, SE. (Apartment 1). 

1112 New Jersey Avenue. SE. Ill Browns Court SW. 

1004 South Capitol Street. SE. 504. 506 F Street Terrace SE. 

223 F Street, SW. 1222 Potomac Street NW. 

RENT INCREASES 

Examples : 

(1) 1214 Place SE., rent raised from $12.50 to $15. substandard houses, some 
with loose plaster and broken floors. 



4558 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

(2) 89 N Street SE., rent raised from $12 to $20 when new family moved in. 
Roof leaks. 

(3) 2217 Eighth Street NW., rent raised $25.50 to $27.50. Plaster falling in 
kitchen. 

(4) 652 H Street NE., rent raised $12.50 to $16.50. Roof leaks. 

(5) 322 Allen's Court SW., rent raised $10 to $15.50. Loose plaster. 

(6) 919^ and 121 Chew's Alley, rent raised $12.50 to $18.50. Loose plaster, 
broken steps. 

(7) 2605 Eye Street NW., rent raised $15.50 to $17. Plaster falling in 
kitchen. 

(8) 924 St. Paul's Court NW., rent raised $16.50 to $18.50. 

(9) 2129 Ninth Street NW., rent raised $27.50 to $35. No repairs made. 2 
legal violations. 

(10) 2005 Eye Street NW., rent raised $15.50 to $17. Plaster falling in 
kitchen. 

Examples of overcrowding in rooming houses : 

(1) Indiana Avenue NW. : Sixteen people to 1 bathroom, which in addition is 
the only source of water for several of the rooms which are equipped for light 
housekeeping. (Only vacancy is a double room without light housekeeping, 
renting for $10 a week.) 

(2) Irving Street NW. : An apartment in a house turned the living room into 
a bedroom which was separated by a curtain from the part used as a bedroom 
by the lady of the house. 

(3) T Street NW. : Six-room house, housing family of 9, had 1 room rented to a 
woman for light housekeeping and was trying to rent another room to 2 people. 

(4) Twentieth Street NW. : Room in basement to be rented to 3 men, with 
the only bathtub available in the corner of the kitchen, which was used by the 
family. (Room to rent for $4 each per week.) 

(5) East Capitol: Divided room for roomers from own room by curtains. 

(6) Twenty-first Street NW. : Partitioned rooms to make extra rooms to rent, 
no building permit. 

(7) N Street NW. : Large rooming house, 3 to 4 people in each room, 13 people 
to 1 bath, 14 people to other bath. Mixed sexes in bathrooms. Room and board, 
$40 to $45 a month. All single. (Only vacancy, one-third of 1 room.) 

Addresses on file at the office of the Washington Housing Association. 

LACK OF SANITATION 

928 Burns Street SW. : Man, wife, and 2 children came here from Pennsylva- 
nia 9 months ago, where the man worked in the coal mines. He got work with 
Capital Transit Co. They moved from a more expensive house to a house on 
Burns Street, where they pay $30 a month for a 5-room bungalow. The house has 
central heat and electricity. There is city water for the house but no 
sewer, so the family uses a privy, with two buckets to catch excreta, in the yard. 
The waste water from the sink and bathtub drains under the cellar, keeping it 
flooded most of the time. 

The law says in regard to the removal of excreta from such a toilet : "Such 
(movable) receptacle for filth shall not exceed in capacity 2 cubic feet, and shall 
be made of metal, watertight, and provided with handles, and so constructed that 
it may be closed with a cover and made airtight at the time of its removal." 

Health Department Regulations, page 79. An act to regulate, in the District 
of Columbia, the disposal of certain refuse. 

EXTENSION OF SEWERS 

Over a year ago Congress repealed two acts controlling the use of outdoor 
toilets and outlawed outdoor toilets, giving the Commissioners power to set up 
new regulations. These new regulations have not yet been set up. 

Amount uf work that can be done in extending sewers depends on amount of 
appropriation for the year. There are still 1,800 yard toilets in the District not 
sewer connected. Streets with very low-rent houses on them are left until last 
because the assessments for improvements are so high in proportion to the value 
of the property. Some streets are done on petition of property owners. 

There is no Work Projects Administration project as such for sewer work but 
all unskilled labor for work on sewers in the District comes from Work Projects 
Administration rolls. They also contribute materials occasionally. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4559 

OVERCROWDING 

What the law says. — That no room in any tenement or lodging house shall 
be occupied as a sleeping room unless there are at least 400 feet cubic contents 
for each person therein not less than 10 years of age. The health officer is hereby 
authorized, if in his judgment it is necessary to secure compliance with this 
requirement, to cause to be affixed to or near the door of each room a placard 
stating the number of occupants allowed under this regulation, and shall, in any 
case where such placard has been affixed, cause a notice stating such number 
to be served on the owner, agent, or person having charge of the premises. No 
person having authority to prevent shall permit to occupy any such room as a 
sleeping room any greater number of persons than are specified on such placard, 
If any, or otherwise authorized under this section. Health Laws and Regula- 
tions, page 247. 

Appendix A 1 

Number of Federal employees as given by Civil Service Commission, August 
pay roll, $22.208,516 : 



September 1939 125,906 

October 1939 126, 51S 

November 1939 126,380 

December 1939 127,502 

January 1940 127,418 

February 1940 127,771 

March 1940 128,643 

April 1940 129,677 



May 1940 330,987 

June 1940 133,854 

July 1940 13S.453 

August 1940 142,821 

September 1940 145,572 

October 1940 149,000 

November 1940 152,605 

December 1940 155, 973 



1 Institute of Public Affairs, October 8, 1940 ; confirmed by Mr. Edwards, Civil Service 
Statistical Division. (Last 3 months added by Mr. Edwards.) 

Appendix B 1 

Number of families provided for by building permits issued in Washington, 

D- C. Family 

dwelling 
1940 : units 

May 343 

June 350 

July 950 

August 1, 185 

September 743 

October 1,607 

November 1, 143 

December 568 

Total family dwelling units including all private and public con- 
structions 6,844 

1941 : 

January 2 739 

February 474 

Total family dwelling units, private construction only 1, 263 

Family 
divelling 
Average monthly family dwelling units provided in buildings, permits «»*** 
for which were granted the last 6 months in 1940 1, 025 

Dwelling units in the District of Columbia in April 1940, from census 

figures 185,393 

Additional units for which building permits were issued May through 

December 1940 6, 844 

Total number of dwelling units constructed or under construc- 
tion December 1940 192,237 

1 Building Construction, issued monthly by the Division of Construction and Public 
Emplovment of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor. 

2 Prom the monthly report made by the Building Department of the District of Columbia. 



4560 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Appendix C 

Number of dwelling units vacant by rental groups, January 1941. 

Vacancy ratio found in January 1941 (percent 1 * 1.8 

Number of dwelling units for rent 3.400 

Percentage vacancies by rental group according to Work Projects Administra- 
tion survey and number of units represented : 





Percent of 

total 


Number of 

dwelling 

units 




4.0 
13.5 
26.0 
18.0 
15.6 
22.9 


138 




467 




900 




623 




540 




792 










3,460 









(Percentages taken from Work Projects Administration vacancy survey of 
January 1941. Number of dwelling units represented calculated from total num- 
ber of units given in appendix B.) 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. HELEN DEWEY H0FEMAN— Resumed 

The Chairman. Mrs. Hoffman, you spoke of the children of families 
who move often, within the District of Columbia. Do many of them 
live in trailers? 

Mrs. Hoffman. No; they do not. They live in basements. Dr. 
Evans, principal of the Thompson School, told me that 35 percent of 
his children live in the basements of those houses in the central area. 
There will be a mother and a father, and anywhere from two to five 
children living in one room. 

RENTS AND SANITARY CONDITIONS 

The Chairman. And what rent do they pay? 

Mrs. Hoffman. The rents fluctuate. That is to say, if they rent from 
a real-estate agent, and they pay by the month, they may be paying 
$30 or $35 a month. 

The Chairman. For what sort of accommodations ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. A room in a basement. 

The Chairman. One room? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes. 

The Chairman. What about the sanitary conditions? 

Mrs. Hoffman. They share the sanitary facilities with others. I 
have a great many records on that here with me. They may be paying 
by the week, if they are on relief or W. P. A., or just getting by on a 
very low income, in which case they may be paying anywhere from $2.50 
to $5 a week for one room. It is easier to pay by the week than it is 
by the month, for them. 

The Chairman. They have a common bath and toilet ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. They share one with anywhere from four to as high 
as eight families. The houses are one-family houses, that are being 
converted into four- or five-family houses. And there is a family in 
each room. They even share the kitchen and cook in turn. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4501 

We have a case of one house where even the kitchen is rented out, 
and they have to wait until the person goes out before they can cook. 
It is a very definite housing problem. I just wanted to bring that 
out as part of the problem of the shifting school population. I think 
among the children in the Greenleaf School, there is about a 90 percent 
turn -over in a year. 

The Chairman. Do you have any figures on the number of people 
occupying those one-room basements ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I have a great many figures here on that. Would 
you like me to go into the population problem now ? 

The Chairman. I would like to have you proceed in any way you 
see fit. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I thought that I would explain what our association 
does, and then go into the rest of the story. 

THE WASHINGTON HOUSING ASSOCIATION 

We are a Community Chest agency. Our board is made up of 22 
prominent citizens here who are well qualified. They bring to us 
the viewpoint of labor, finance, building standards, health, and legal 
problems, and so on. We have women and Negroes on our board. 
The people who make up the board, some of them, have been inter- 
ested in housing for 20 years. Mrs. Robert Woods Bliss, I believe, has 
been interested in it a long while. So has Mrs. Glover. Mrs. Roosevelt 
is our honorary president. She has been interested in better housing 
for a long time in the District of Columbia. 

The Chairman. How is it financed ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Through the Community Chest. Some of our board 
members and others originally financed it and now it is financed through 
the Community Chest. 

I think the problem in Washington is best described in the words 
of the president of the association at the annual meeting in December. 
On this case the topic for discussion was the serious housing situation 
in Washington. 

The Chairman. Who is the president? 

Mr. Hoffman. Mr. J. Bernard Wyckoff, who is with the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. Dr. Anson Phelps Stokes was our former pres- 
ident, and Mr. Clarence Dodge, before him. Mr. Frederic Delano was 
our first president. 

Mr. Wyckoff said this [reading] : 

Washington is a city of high rents, based on high land value and a floating 
population with resulting speculation in real estate. Our almost total lack 
of industry as compared with other cities of similar size means that we started 
with a lack of homes for working people— homes which in industrial centers 
are built in part at least by or for the industry. The chief industry of Wash- 
ington is government, which has taken no such responsibility for housing its 
workers. 

As in a few other cities, Washington people have been sold the idea of home 
ownership, with too little consideration for the fact that home ownership may 
be for many of our present residents a luxury they cannot afford. Tins has 
helped to create a shortage, too long ignored here, of houses to rent to a 
floating population of families of moderate though assured income levels. 



4562 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

In presenting this housing situation statistically, we found it dif- 
ficult to get an over-all picture from any agency. We were in touch 
with the Defense Housing Coordinator's office; the Federal Housing 
Administration; the Alley Dwelling Authority; the Real Estate 
Board; the Board of Trade; and other agencies, and out of the 
information that they supplied we pieced together what looks like 
an over-all picture. It is not a very good statistical picture. There 
is an absence of an agency here in the city that is very much needed, 
a central statistical agency that could keep this information up to 
date. We need it. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Hoffman, so far the Federal Government 
has taken no responsibility in this housing ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Until the present defense emergency. 

The Chairman. Have you any recommendations as to what they 
should do? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I was going to tell what they have done just very 
recently in providing new housing. 

The Chairman. Very good. 

Mrs. Hoffman. I think they should recognize the problem. The 
Government is a big industry. The Government would certainly be 
one of the first to criticize a large industry which brought great num- 
bers of workers in and made no provision for their housing. If this 
were a steel company, for example, who would be more critical than 
our own Government, if people were not provided with dwellings? 

a floating population 

I think, also — and this is my own personal opinion, you under- 
stand — that we might recognize what is being done in California 
for the floating population. To be sure, it is a floating population 
with a little — well, maybe not more income than that of those who 
come here, but there you find quantities of small apartments fur- 
nished, kitchen and bath, that can be rented by the week or by the 
month. They are all over the coast. People come in and go out. 
California has definitely a floating population and recognizes it, and 
makes a business out of it. 

I do not say the Government should go into business on this, but 
certainly it should make some provision; it should recognize that 
this is a floating population. 

The housing registry indicates that the demand is for a one-room- 
and-bath housekeeping apartment to help reduce the cost of living 
in Washington. A man and his wife, or two men, or two women, 
can occupy such an apartment, and split the cost, and live better, at 
less cost, than they can in a rooming house or a hotel. Of course, 
larger apartments are above their incomes. 

In making up this statement, I considered three types of migrants: 
The new Federal workers, the new workers in the service trades, 
and persons seeking work, usually called migrants although they may 
be white-collar workers. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4563 

VACANCY DECREASE 

We have prepared a statement covering the vacancy decrease, the 
housing shortage, the rent increases ; and the overcrowding and lack 
of sanitation; the increase in shared dwellings and converted dwell- 
ings, as we have observed them in our inspection work. This state- 
ment does not give complete statistics because they are not available. 
But it does give examples which indicate the trends. 

The census reports a population of 663,091 as of April 1940 — a 36.2 
percent increase since the last census. The present expansion began 
May 1 at the average rate of over 3,000 new Federal workers per 
month. Conservative estimates show one other worker in the service 
trades, and one other person seeking work. The Board of Trade esti- 
mates 65,000 as the probable increase since May 1. One-third of the 
new Federal workers who are housed outside the District are elimi- 
nated from the estimates of housing needs. Our agency functions 
within the District lines, because our budget comes from the Com- 
munity Chest. 

It is estimated that 80 percent of the Federal employees have sala- 
ries under $2,000. They normally absorb 67 percent of the new 
dwellings provided allowing for two earners in the family combi- 
nation. 

That does not mean newly constructed dwellings. It means newly 
provided dwellings, which may be houses split up into apartments 
or converted to other use. This means that 986 dwellings a month 
are needed, renting for under $42.50. The recent vacancy survey of 
the W. P. A. shows a total of 605 dwellings for rent under $40. 

In other words, with a need for 986 dwellings a month, since last 
June, we only have a total of 605 as indicated by the last survey. 

For new non-Federal employees whose salaries average lower than 
those of Federal employees, an equal number of dwellings is needed 
each month at rental not over $40. 

The greatest strain on housing is in the dwelling units renting under 
$30 a month. At least 32 percent of the new workers earn under 
$1,500. At least 375 dwellings per month renting at $32.50 or under 
are needed, or 750 units for both public and private employees. 

The W. P. A. survey found a total number of vacancies of 138 
under $30 a month. 

To this serious shortage we now add the migrants in search of work. 
Few of these can afford housing at a rental of $30 a month or over. 
Since practically no such vacancies exist, the migrant, and his family 
if he has one with him, is forced to rent a room or double up with one 
or more families, and share the rent. 

The vacancy rate for dwellings under $30 a month for Negro fami- 
lies has reached the vanishing point. 

At the time of the census last April the vacancy rate was estimated 
at 5.4 percent for the District, or 10,000 dwelling units. In August 
it was 3.5 percent for Metropolitan Washington and the W. P. A. 
survey gave the rate as 1.8 percent in rental units and 3 percent as the 
over-all vacancy including houses for sale. A vacancy rate of 5 
percent is needed to permit choice for the renter. 



4564 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Building permits numbered 9,226 for 1940. The rate from J une to 
December was 1,025 a month. But at least three times that number 
of new Federal employees plus an equal number of private industry 
employees were coming each month. 

Rents have been steadily mounting. The Bureau of Labor Statis- 
tics reports 0.1 percent increase from June 15, to September 15, and 
0.2 percent from September 15 to December 15. These increases are 
twice as high for the units renting for $30 a month than for those 
renting for $30 or over. 

"vacancies" only beds 

Where are these newcomers living? 

Overcrowding and lack of sanitation affect the white-collar worker 
in Federal or private employment as well as the migrant worker. 
Frequent complaints of doubling up in apartments and rooming houses 
come to us. One bath for 15 to 20 persons is a common grievance. 
This is among Federal workers and others. 

Occupation by three to six unrelated roomers of the parlor of a 
once fine private residence is not uncommon. 

Renting a vacant bed was once shocking, but is now all too fre- 
quent. Conditions which were deplored for migrant workers in 
Washington are creeping up until now Federal workers must cope 
with them. 

At rooming houses in the Massachusetts or New Hampshire Avenue 
area, there are vacancy signs in the windows. You go in and ask 
to see the vacant room, but there is not a vacant room, there is a 
vacant bed only. That is, you may move in with two or three other 
strangers in one room. 

These residences, along Massachusetts and New Hampshire Avenues 
and some of the cross streets look very fine from the outside, but there 
is no indication of what is going on inside. A house was once built, 
say, to accommodate 2 to 6 persons as a private residence, according to 
the needs or desires of the family. It is now occupied by anywhere 
from 15 to 25 people, and there has been no increase in the sanitary 
facilities. So that there is the same bath and toilet — and if it is an 
old house, they usually have only 1 or 2 to serve all of those people. 

Mr. Osmers. What are the approximate rents that are charged 
for these beds? 

Mrs. Hoffman. To illustrate, yesterday the Federal Security 
Agency called up about one case. Of course, we can do nothing 
about these, you understand. We just listen to them. This is the 
case of two girls who occupied a room, for $45. They were strangers. 

Mr. Osmers. Was that with a private bath ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. No; without a private bath. They asked to have 
another girl move in with them, a friend of theirs who could not 
find a place elsewhere. A cot was put in. The rent was $50 for 
the three girls. Then the third girl moved out, and the other two 
girls wanted to stay there at the old rental of $45, but the landlady 
insisted upon their paying $50 and taking in another stranger. 

Those complaints come to us constantly. As I have said, we can 
do nothing about it. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4565 

In the well-run rooming houses, there is not as much overcrowding, 
because the women who run those houses have a reputation to sus- 
tain as managers. But they are in the minority rather than in 
the majority. 

HOUSING REGISTRY 

A housing registry has been set up by the Defense Council of 
the District of Columbia on Indiana Avenue, and rooms are being 
listed there, and houses and apartments. To the Alley Dwelling 
Authority has been assigned the job of inspecting houses and apart- 
ments — houses under $50 and apartments under $15 per room per 
month. 

To us has been assigned the job of inspecting the rooms to rent, 
and there are quite a number of rooms already listed for rent. Most 
of them are on the outskirts of the city, and if they are downtown 
they barely meet the minimum standards. The minimum standards 
are very low in the District, but they meet the building code and 
the health code of the District. 

True migrants have no credit. No real estate agency will rent 
to them, so their housing problem is serious. 

Figures from our inspection cards show that from May 1940 
through December 1940, 30 percent of the dwelling units inspected 
had toilets shared by one or more families. A small increase showed 
in January, but in February there was a jump to 50 percent. A 
great many of these toilets are outside. 

The Chairman. You do not mean to tell me that there are outdoor 
toilets in Washington? 

Mrs. Hoffman. There are thousands. Recently, within a year, 
Congress passed a bill setting aside two old laws which provided 
that the Commissioners should set up regulations doing away with 
the outdoor toilets in Washington; that is, not doing away with 
the outdoor toilets, but doing away with the toilets not sewer-con- 
nected. There are over 1,800 outdoor toilets that are not sewer- con- 
nected. There are over 1,800 outdoor toilets that are not sewer-con- 
it. There are thousands of outdoor toilets here in the District, but 
sewer connections have been made to those. They are working, in 
the District Building, on plans to take care of the outdoor toilets not- 
sewer-connected. They need money for it, however. 

The same sudden increase since January 1, 1941, is noticed in the 
number of dwellings shared, the amount of overcrowding, and in 
the number of dwellings converted with or without "blessing" of 
ihe building inspection department. 

That "Washington is different from any other city" is true in the 
sense that until the advent of the Alley Dwelling Authority little 
or nothing had been done for the worker whose family income is less 
than $1,500 a year. 

The reason — "the chief industry of Washington is government, 
which has taken no responsibility for the housing of its workers." 

The consequent strain on low-rent housing is greatly aggravated by 
the preponderance of workers in Government and in private industry 
with incomes under $1,500 for whom private industry has not provided. 



4566 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Being the seat of the Federal Government, the city draws an increas- 
ing number of migrants whose housing conditions are becoming a 
menace to the welfare of the city. 

The seriousness of the problem is not apparent to the casual observer. 
Once handsome private residences occupied by families of 2 to 6 persons 
are now rooming houses with 15 to 20 persons or more using the same 
bath and toilet. 

Like the houses in the slums, the front of the house is much the same. 
The problem is what is happening inside the house. Overcrowding 
and lack of sanitation are becoming as prevalent in the once fine resi- 
dential neighborhood as in the alley slum. 

Health and morals always suffer under such conditions. The human 
erosion is the problem. 

In a democracy the Nation's Capital cannot afford to subject its 
workers or its citizens to this erosion. There can be no nation with- 
out families. There can be no families without decent housing. 

I have here some example records of rents, and increases in rents, 
and increases in dwellings shared and in overcrowding in converted 
houses, lack of sanitation, and so on. Would you care to have those? 

The Chairman. Of course, we are going to put your entire state- 
ment in the record, if you wish. Is that in addition to your statement ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes. I have here a full statement of our case. 

The Chairman. We would like to have all your prepared material 
go into the record, but if you would care to touch some of the high 
spots in your summary statement, you may proceed with that. 

NEW CONSTRUCTION 

Mrs. Hoffman. I thought you might like to know a little bit about 
the supply also. During 1938, 4,275 families were provided for by 
new construction while during 1940, 9,226 building permits were issued 
for family-dwelling units, with 6,151 permits in the last 6 months of 
1940 alone. This would be an average number of permits granted of 
1,025 new family units a month from June through December 1940, 
including both public and private building. During January and 
February 1941, permits were issued for 789 and 474 family units, re- 
spectively, for private building only. 

To fill these 1,025 new family units, an average of almost 4,000 new 
Government employees were being hired a month, and perhaps an 
equal number in private employment. With the existing housing 
facilities already crowded, even the increased building has not been 
sufficient to meet the problem. 

To meet the specific needs of the incoming defense workers, 3,134 
family units and a dormitory for 1,000 women have been authorized 
for the Washington area under the defense emergency housing pro- 
gram. The majority of these will be built with public funds, with 624 
assigned to private enterprise. Of these units, the District Federal 
agencies are to provide 200 family units near the navy yard, 70 units 
near the Army Medical Center, 35 units for the families of enlisted 
men in Arlington, 3H0 at Fort Belvoir, 1,000 units in Greenbelt, and 
20 units near the Army War College. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4567 

I should like to say that a conservative estimate of the increase in 
population indicates that the population is between 715,000 and 750,000 
today, although the census report showed 663,000 in April. 

Mr. Osmers. You think the population is what? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Between 715,000 and 750,000. A very conservative 
estimate is 715,000. The over-all would be 750,000. 

LOCATION OF SLUMS 

Mr. Osmers. Where are the Washington slums located? I do not 
refer to converted fine residences. 

Mrs. Hoffman. They are all over the old city. 

Mr. Osmers. In what section ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. From Georgetown to the Anacostia River. I am 
sorry I did not bring a map with me, but it would look like the 
measles when you look at the alleys and, of course, the alleys have 
destroyed the surrounding area. It is like a cancer. 

Mr. Osmers. Are they necessarily all occupied by Negroes ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Not altogether; no. The alleys are pretty largely 
occupied by Negroes today. 

Mr. Osmers. Are the occupants of the Washington slums relief cases 
or very low-income cases ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. There are borderline cases in these low-income 
groups. The Alley Dwelling Authority, for example, have appli- 
cations for their new houses and they find a great many families with 
incomes of $600 to $900 or $1,000 a year, that are not on relief. 

Mr. Osmers. I suppose for each new unit of housing that has been 
built, an old unit has been destroyed? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Supposedly, but there have been more destroyed 
because Federal buildings have displaced them. 

Mr. Osmers. Has that assisted or has that just increased the pressure 
on the slums? 

Mrs. Hoffman. It has increased the pressure, to some extent. 

Mr. Osmers. It generally does; it does not improve, merely to 
destroy. 

SLUM CLEARANCE PROJECTS 

Mrs. Hoffman. No. 

Mr. Osmers. Is there any large-scale slum-clearance project now in 
progress in Washington ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes. Quite a number of Alley Dwelling Authority 
projects in the Southwest, and in the Southeast; they are clearing six 
to eight blocks, down near the navy yard. They have two projects 
there, one for the colored and one for the white. Those are in what you 
might call large areas. But the alleys themselves dot the whole city. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you know approximately how many units are in- 
volved in these new developments? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I think the Alley Dwelling Authority has about 
2,800 over all. That is, with the $i5,000,000 that has been allocated 
to them by the United States Housing Authority. 



45C8 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Osmeks. How many family housing units in Washington are 
considered substandard today? 

Mrs. Hoffman. About 20,000 according to the real property inven- 
tory in 1934. 

Mr. Osmers. And about 2,800 are being developed? 

LAW ENFORCEMENT 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes. We also do inspection work, unofficial in- 
spection of substandard dwellings and reporting to the District offi- 
cials, health and building and fire, and so on. Then they make an 
official inspection and order the violations abated. They do not al- 
ways get it done, however. 

Mr. Osmers. You are bringing up a point that was next in my 
mind. Why is it not possible to do in Washington as is done in nearly 
every other city in the United States, or at least in a lot of other 
cities — enforce the building laws and the sanitary laws and the health 
laws ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Well, you know the District Building. It is very 
difficult to get enforcement of existing legislation and even more dif- 
ficult to get improvement of inadequate legislation. 

Mr. Osmers. I am sure they have the police power that is necessary 
to bring about the desired changes. 

Mrs. Hoffman. We brought up last June to the corporation counsel 
the matter of the inadequacy of the laws and the ineffective enforce- 
ment of adequate laws. And we are bringing it up again with the 
new corporation counsel, Mr. Keech. We do hope something can be 
done. We wish to make a test case of the condemnation of an in- 
sanitary dwelling, which law has been said to be not enforceable. 

Mr. Osmers. With respect to the ownership of these substandard 
dwellings, are they owned by large corporations or by individuals? 

Mrs. Hoffman. We would like very much to go into the ownership 
of a good many of those, but it takes research and study, and we do 
not have the money or the help for it. From all that we have been 
able to observe, estates own some of these properties. And they are 
managed by banks. Banks are not in the real-estate business. That 
is not their primary function, and it is a job that is wished on them. 
They are not interested in it particularly, and it is very difficult to 
get abatements for that reason. 

tax law 

There is another matter that I wondered about considerably, and 
that is the peculiar tax law in the District. In the case of foreclosure 
for nonpayment of taxes, the ownership of the property, if a tax- 
lien buyer should buy it, is not cleared for 20 years. 

Mr. Osmers. To whom does the income from the property go? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Presumably it goes to the buyer of the tax lieu. 
The owner may continue to live in the house and pay rent for it. 

Mr. Osmers. But he would have to do that in any normal real- 
< state transaction with a tax-lien buyer, would he not, such as you or I 
would have to do if we rented a property? 




In the slums of Washington, D. <". In this city 1.S00 1 
connection, and other thousands have been dechi 



without sewer 



The above photograph and those on the three pages following are 
part of an exhibit submitted to the committee by Mrs. Helen Dewey 
Hoffman, director of the Washington Housing Association. Refer- 
ence is made to these pictures in her testimony which appears on 
pp. 4570 and 4571. 

4508-A 



Il 



b 



\ 



? - 






m\\M 




In the shadow of the United States Senate < >ttiee Building is Sehott's Alley. 




A broken stair rail in the slums of Washington causes two broken legs. 




>» X. 




Washington, D. C, date back to the Civil War period. 



i:.r,s |. 



Photographs on the following pages were taken in various national- 
defense centers and in nearby communities occupied by migrant work- 
ers and their families. They are among a group of pictures which 
have been accepted for the record. 

436S-E 



mm ^mmm m> 




'- ;^> >*" ■**£' ^ •■ 4 s • "^T 



Portrait of a defense-boom town. The 1940 census showed 864 residents of Charlestown, 
Ind. Now 15.000 are employed there. 



""'J 




Newcomers to Charlestown, seeking work in the great powder plant, are allowed 1 night 
in the firehous e. 



< 



* 




The mattress for this worker's bed is made of cardboard hexes. He is a hod carrier at 

Charlestown. 




Garbage disposal, as the trailer camps at CI 







y. ... 


FT 




; *, 


HjJJ' ^ * B 


h^B^w f" 


1 j 


-' 




TT 7 , pkjj 

1 






^km Jm 





The line forms at the "general delivery" window at 4 p. m. in Aberdeen, Md., where mail 
from all parts of the country is pouring in now. 
4568 II 



* 



>uhi 



*1 



All the house number this child has — a New York State li 
Aberdeen, Md. 



trailer camp at 



4568-1 




Interior of a bunkhouse for 30 to 40 men at Fort Bragg. Must of the patr 
laid off, were gone when this picture was taken in March 104: 




Tent dwellers at Manchester, N. C, near Fort Bragg. Rent for these quarters is a dollai 

a week. 



^S,ir 




. \, v . • 




\r"*. • 



Texas Idaho Georgia, and South Carolina were on the license plates in this trailer camp 
at Fort Bra Kg. where parking space is a dollar, and small bunkhouse $,> a week. 




This child of a navy yard worker has a "home" but no house. He and his mother are living 
temporarily in the Helping Hand Mission at Portsmouth, Va. 



B HE 






Ml 



be <• 




Throe in a hod. li 



this farm family from North Carolina pay $10 a month rent 
at Norfolk. Va. 




This cabin cruiser is used as living quarters of a worker at the shipyards in Kearny. N. J. 

456S-M 




it is the worst for the hundreds of newcomers to the powder plant at Radford, 
These boys, unable to find quarters, take refuge in the railroad station. 



1 


^•^^ 


J J 


M .J* \ 


mm^~ 1 ' 






WL A 



The rent this couple pay for one room at Newport News, Va., is ?8 a week. The man is a 
worker from North Carolina. 




Here the basement of 



id-hand furniture store at Radford is benm converted into a 
hotel. Beds at $3.50 a week. 




Lshment mentioned above. 




Modern counterpart of the old oaken bucket at a sc 
Philadelphia. 




Largesl trailer community in the world is in Ridley Township, near Chester. Pa. Here live 
workers in the Chester shipyard and the navy yard and Locomotive and other works at 
Philadelphia. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4569 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes. Evidence does not indicate that it is a normal 
business. I would like very much to know what could be done in 
the enforcement of violations on such properties. 

Mr. Osmers. Would you say that there should be a change in the 
District law governing the foreclosure of tax property ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I would like to see a study made of it and recom- 
mendations made; yes. 

Mr. Osmers. You mean that it is possible for 20 years after the sale 
of a tax-title lien for the original owner to recapture the property ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. He has to recapture it from the tax buyer. 

Mr. Osmers. He can do it by the payment of the back taxes and 
assessments. 

Mrs. Hoffman. And whatever the tax lien owner chooses to exact. 

Mr. Osmers. Under the law, there is no stated percentage of in- 
terest ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. There is for 2 years. Then after the 2 years, as I 
understand, the law does not protect the owner of the property against 
extra charges. It is a peculiar law. I do not know enough about 
tax laws to know whether they have the same law in any other city 
or not. But I never heard of it, People from other cities to whom 
I have talked say that they have never heard of it. It might be 
worth looking into. 

Mr. Osmers. The law has an old root, although I am not speaking 
as a lawyer. That is, to give the original home owner an opportunity 
to recapture his property. Of course, in most instances, in order to 
avert municipal bankruptcy, that whole procedure has been speeded 
up, and in most cities of the country clear titles are more available 
than they ever have been before. Of course, Washington is not a 
municipality that faces bankruptcy, and there is not the pressure, 
therefore, to correct that, that there is in some other municipalities. 

EXPLOITATION OF PROPERTY 

Mrs. Hoffman. That is true, there is a lag in its activity in that 
respect ; I realize that. 

There is another reason why enforcement is difficult. There are 
people who are deliberately exploiting this property. That is our 
observation. A man who works in one of the Government agencies 
has been buying 1 up these alley properties. As fast as he gets enough 
money over the mortgage value on one, he borrows on that house and 
buys another. 

Mr. Osmers. Of course, it is probably the most profitable type of 
real-estate investment; that is, substandard housing. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes, it is. 

Mr. Osmers. It has been known for years to pay a high rate of 
return. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes ; on a very low assessment on the property. 



2G0370— 41 — pt. 11- 



4570 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Mr. Osmers. And there are no services required in connection with 
the houses. 

Mrs. Hoffman. That is true, no services are required, and there is 
a very high charge against the taxpayers in the city because of the 
conditions under which these people live, which create a burden upon 
the health and other resources of the city, such as police and fire 
protection. 

Mr. Osmers. A great many of America's great fortunes have been 
built and supported on substandard housing. 

NEW "INVESTORS" 

Mrs. Hoffman. Unfortunately that is true in Washington also. I 
will say this, though, that lots of this properly has now gotten into 
the hands of people who apparently are not old families and are not 
owners of estates, but who are just making a business of it. In other 
words, there is a newcomer in the field. 

Mr. Osmers. In other words, it is, shall we say, a new form of 
investment for some people rather than an inherited asset; just a 
straight form of investment, just as you might buy a railroad bond. 

Mrs. Hoffman. That is right. Now, the question was raised about 
whether these are largely Negroes who occupy these houses. I think 
the point should be raised, to illustrate what the problem is. Down 
near the Union Station there are four rows of dwellings, very similar, 
and all substandard. One row is occupied by foreign whites and they 
pay $12 to $15.50 for these four and five-room houses. The Negroes 
have to pay $35.50 for the same accommodation. 

Mr. Osmers. That is a situation that I believe the committee found 
true in Chicago, where the Negroes were limited as to the areas where 
they could live. 

Mrs. Hoffman. And they are exploited in that area. 

Mr. Osmers. That is a supply-and-demand proposition. Of course, 
the price went sky high for the Negro, usually two or three times 
the rental paid by the whites. 

Mrs. Hoffman. That is true. 

Mr. Osmers. Which, of course, forced down the rest of the Negroes' 
living standards, their food and their health. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes. He does not have enough for food and 
medical care, and the taxpayer is made to provide that. And it in- 
creases your crime problem. I often have facetiously said, when I 
read about this pocketbook snatching, "Somebody is hunting rent 
money." 

The Chairman. Is there anything else you wish to bring out par- 
ticularly, Mrs. Hoffman ? 

WATER FACILITIES 

Mrs. Hoffman. I think not. I have some photographs here that 
I think the committee might be interested in. 

Mr. Osmers. I see a picture here of a woman dipping water from 
a tub. Would that be in the District of Columbia? (This picture is 
reproduced on p. 4568B.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4571 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes. And that is right adjacent to the toilet, 
which is also a bad feature, because you are never quite sure that the 
water is not contaminated. 

Mr. Osmers. You are usually quite sure, because it is. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Here is one of the alleys, with the Senate Office 
Building showing right over it. (See p. 4568C.) 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you mean that this pump pumps well water ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. It is city water, but it is very close to the outdoor 
toilet. 

Mr. Sparkman. It is really a tap that is turned on ? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes. There are wells in the city, however. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are they in use? 

Mrs. Hoffman. A few, in the outlying area. That is another 
problem of the extension of sewers. 

The Chairman. So you say that there are thousands of outside 

diets in 
are not? 

Mrs. Hoffman. About 1,800 are not sewer-connected. We had the 
story the other day of a man who came to work for the Capital 
Transit Co. He had been a coal miner. He rented a bungalow at 
$30, and it was not sewer-connected. There was a bathtub in the 
basement, and since the water is not sewer-connected, the basement — 
well, it is not full of water all the time, but there is water in it all 
the time. The toilet just consists of two metal barrels sunk in the 
ground on the outside. He pays $30 a month for that. His wages 
are probably four times that, about $125 a month. He was not eli- 
gible for Alley Dwelling Authority assistance because he had been 
here only 8 months. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mrs. Hoffman. Your statement will 
be put into the record and we appreciate your coming here very much. 

The next witness is Dr. Ruhland, the Health Officer of the District 
of Columbia. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. GEORGE C. RUHLAND, HEALTH OFFICER, 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

The Chairman. Dr. Ruhland, did you bring with you a state- 
ment that you wanted to read, or did you want to make an oral 
statement ? 

Dr. Ruhland. I have a prepared statement that I will leave with 
the committee, if you desire, and I shall be glad to amplify that or 
answer such questions as you may wish to ask. 

The Chairman. You may file your statement and we shall ask you 
some questions. 

(The statement filed by Dr. Ruhland is as follows :) 

The Impact of Migration Upon the Public Health in the District of 
Columbia 

The addition of thousands to the population of the District of Columbia ob- 
viously will leave its impress on the health problems of this community. This 
problem must be seen in the light of the present facilities of the health service 



4572 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

to deal with these means. Here it appears that the District of Columbia never 
has had nor has now an adequate number of personnel nor other facilities, such 
as clinics, health centers, inspectors, nurses and equipment, to meet the health 
needs of the District of Columbia adequately as measured by the standards of 
the American Public Health Association. 

It is estimated that 30,000 persons have come to the District of Columbia 
from May through December, 1940, all to find work in Federal employment. It 
is further estimated that Federal employees or workers on Federal projects will 
be coming to Washington at the rate of 100,000 a year up to December 1942, if 
the emergency lasts that long. 

Obviously the addition of so many thousands to Washington's already large 
population is creating new and serious health problems. One of the immediate 
and properly much discussed problems created and accentuated by this influx 
of population is represented in the shortage of adequate housing to which we 
called attention in a report presented to this committee last year. 

A recent survey made in one of Washington's rooming-house districts, covering 
158 dwellings, found a total of 1,928 occupants for the 1,346 rooms available in 
these dwellings, which had been converted from single-family dwellings into the 
present multiple-family units. It is a well-known fact that where crowding of 
this type exists the incidence of sickness from communicable diseases is dis- 
tinctly greater. Significantly, the most densely crowded areas are furnishing 
likewise the highest number of admissions to the public hospitals. It is, of 
course, recognized that it is not merely the overcrowding that determines the 
higher incidence of illness in this population group, but the general economic 
disadvantages of this group, which tries to meet this disadvantage by accepting 
inadequate housing along with other curtailments. 

Among the groups coming to Washington that unquestionably expose themselves 
to particular health hazards are the unskilled colored workers with no prospect 
of employment. Another practically equally unfortunate group is represented 
in the unattached women, white, of middle age, unskilled and unemployed for 
years, who come in the hope of employment. It would be infinitely better for 
both these groups of persons if they remained where they are at home rather 
than attempt to transplant themselves into an environment of much higher living 
costs that quickly will exhaust what resources they may have and in the 
meantime subjects them to the disadvantageous housing, curtailment of food, 
plus the health-damaging effect of anxiety and worry over not getting a job. 

HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS 

In the meantime the records of the hospital permit office, through which ad- 
missions to the District public hospitals are made, show a striking increase in 
the number of applications, which perhaps may be significant of the effect of 
the recent influx in population. Against a total of 32,676 such applications for 
the year 1939, the number rose to 54,066 for the year 1940. an increase of 21,490. 

Significant too is the increase in the number of patients at Gallinger Hospital, 
which shows a rise from the daily average of in-patients in 1939 of 895 to 956 
in 1940, and a further increase to 1,184 for the first 3 months of 1941. 

Here is evidence of an already-increasing demand for health service. It should 
be recognized that this problem will be accentuated by the circumstance that the 
military service will draw both from public health personnel as well as general 
professional personnel of the District. To offset in a measure these disad- 
vantages the local Health Department — as the committee on health of the local 
Defense Council— has organized auxiliary health agencies representing private 
and professional groups and the Red Cross. While this will furnish organiza- 
tion around which further service can be built there also must be an extensive 
educational program so that the individual citizen may be better informed in the 
matter of personal hygiene and in that way contribute toward maintaining his 
health and so lessen the burden on official agency. 

Quite apart, however, from what may be regarded as an emergency measure 
if should again be emphasized that the present health machinery recognized as 
fundamentally necessary to render adequate health service in a community of 
Washington's population is inadequate. There must be additions to the per- 
sonnel in the various specialized services — such as nurses, physicians, dentists, 
sanitary inspectors, clerks, as well as an increase in the early diagnostic and 
treatment facilities — such as health centers — of which the District has but one 
so far. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4573 

TESTIMONY OF DR. GEORGE C. RUHLAND— Resumed 

The Chairman. What does your department estimate the increase 
in population in Washington to have been within the last year? And 
what increase does it anticipate in the next year? 

Dr. Ruhland. The information that has been furnished this de- 
partment from Federal sources is to the effect that between May 1940 
and the end of that year some 30,000 individuals came to the District. 
That same authority estimates that if the present emergency continues 
there would possibly be added to the population 100,000 persons per 
year. I cannot vouch, of course, for that, but those are the statements 
that are furnished to us. That, of course, is in addition to the normal 
increase through birth. 

The Chairman. Were there any epidemics in Washington in the 
last year, and could they be attributed in any way to the overcrowding 
and inadequate housing or to poor sanitary conditions? 

Dr. Ruhland. It all depends on how one defines an epidemic. Epi- 
demics, of course, follow a certain pattern. That is, the acute out- 
breaks of infections among children recur in cycles. We are at the, 
present time, for example, in a recurrent cycle of measles. Measles 
is on the increase. We have perhaps some 800 cases that have been 
reported officially, and the actual number undoubtedly is larger than 
that since the first of the year. 

But the problems that do trouble us from a health standpoint are 
such old stand-bys as tuberculosis, which is notoriously high in the 
District. That, I am personally convinced, is definitely tied in with 
the housing condition. 

The Chairman. Are there any plans for improvement of the exist- 
ing condition ? 

Dr. Ruhland. The testimony of Mrs. Hoffman, I think, has fur- 
nished your committee with what is planned officially here. 

The Chairman. Does any acute situation exist out at the navy 
yard? 

Dr. Ruhland. I would not be able to say that. I do presume, 
however, that with the increase in population there, we are bound to 
have the usual picture of inadequate facilities. 

The Chairman. What about the clinical facilities for one-third of 
the population — the low-income group? 

Dr. Ruhland. That is part of the entire health picture of the Dis- 
trict, and I think it is important that we clearly recognize that the 
public-health service in the District never has been and is not now 
adequate, as measured by nationally accepted standards, as furnished 
by the American Public Health Association. Roughly, we might say 
we have perhaps half of what is considered adequate public-health 
service. 

disadvantages of migrants 

The Chairman. What about the migrants coming to Washington, 
particularly from the South, the colored people? Is there any pecu- 
liar problem as to them ? 

Dr. Ruhland. We are left with some rather definite impressions 
so far as that category is concerned. I feel definitely that the un- 



4574 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

skilled Negro coming to Washington definitely places himself at a 
disadvantage. And so also does another category of cases, and that 
is the unattached, middle-aged white woman, who possibly has not 
been employed for years and has no particular experience. She comes 
here in the hope and belief that she will find employment. Both of 
them soon find themselves at the end of their financial resources, 
and fall, of course, a charge upon the local community, whether they 
have completed their 1-year residence requirement or not. 

HOSPITAL CROWDED 

Mr. Osmers. Does the District provide any relief for those that 
have lived here less than a year ? 

Dr. Ruhland. I would rather not talk of Mr. Bondy's public-wel- 
fare service, but let me, just from the medical viewpoint, speak of 
what is happening. We find that emergency cases are brought to 
Gallinger Hospital. That is the District general hospital. Those 
cases are obstetrical cases, children that are acutely ill, surgical cases ; 
and you cannot simply turn them away because they have not com- 
pleted their status of residents. Of course, we treat them and ulti- 
mately try to return them to their jurisdiction; but in the meantime 
you have that problem on your hands. 

The records are rather significant. For example, the admissions at 
Gallinger Hospital : There is an institution with a rated bed capacity 
of 958, which shows that for 1939 we had an average daily number of 
in-patients of 895. In the subsequent year, 1940, it rose to 940, exceed- 
ing the rated capacity, and, for the first 3 months of the present year, 
it is close to 1,200. That means definite overcrowding of that insti- 
tution, and also it means that the staff that we have is inadequate for 
the case load. 

Mr. Osmers. Has there been any increase in your staff to accommo- 
date the increase in patient load ? 

Dr. Ruhland. Not yet, no. The budget is pending. 

Mr. Osmers. You mentioned before that there were two groups that 
were migrating here with unfortunate consequences, the unskilled 
Negro from the South and the middle-aged white woman. 

Dr. Ruhland. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. Do the whites come from any particular part of the 
United States? 

Dr. Ruhland. I cannot tell you exactly where they come from, but 
it appears from such information as has been transmitted to us that 
there is a noticeable increase. The travel agencies report to us to 
that effect. 

white migrants seek employment 

Mr. Osmers. In your mind, Doctor, do you know of any reason that 
would account for attracting that particular group? That is some- 
thing new in this inquiry. We have heard of the other group as 
a migrant group, but not of this group. 

Dr. Ruhland. So far as the travel bureaus tell us, apparently the 
motivation of these persons is that they hope to find employment here. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4575 

Mr. Osmers. If they possess no skill or particular training, what 
type of employment do they seek when they get here ? 

Dr. Ruhland. That is the tragic part of it. There is no judgment 
to guide them. If they had judgment, they would never have left 
their home environment. I think it is a tragic mistake, very unfor- 
tunate. And if we could find some device that would get information 
to these groups away from here and tell them that it is much better 
that they remain in their home environment, where they have friends 
and acquaintances, I think it would be definitely to their advantage 
quite apart from the economic problem. 

Mr. Osmers. Would you say the United States Employment Service 
could be greatly enlarged to make such information more readily avail- 
able to people in various parts of the country ? 

Dr. Ruhland. Possibly they are attempting that. I would not be 
competent to answer that question. 

Mr. Osmers. They are attempting that, but apparently the effort 
is not large enough. 

Dr. Ruhland. Possibly so. 

The Chairman. Doctor, is there any overcrowding in hospitals at 
the present time here? 

Dr. Ruhland. Yes ; I have just referred to Gallinger Hospital, the 
District hospital, which is definitely overcrowded at this time, with a 
rated capacity of 1,341, which includes new medical building and tuber- 
culosis building, opened in 1940. We are running close to 1,200 
patients. 

Mr. Osmers. I would like to ask the doctor a question on that point. 
There are some twenty-odd hospitals in the District of Columbia, are 
there not? 

Dr. Ruhland. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. I do not know the exact number. Is that overcrowd- 
ing reflected in the other institutions or solely in Gallinger? 

Dr. Ruhland. No ; the other hospitals participate in that, too. The 
District has a contract with at least four other institutions to take 
the overflow which the District cannot accommodate in Gallinger 
Hospital, and there, too, I understand the same picture appears. 

Mr. Osmers. I was driving at this point, whether the migration to 
Washington has made the hospital-bed capacity in the District inade- 
quate — the total bed capacity, or the total permanent load. 

Dr. Ruhland. I have not the exact figures on the hospitals, but ordi- 
narily they figure that they do not want to exceed 80 percent of their 
rated capacity in order to have a leeway for sudden emergencies. In 
our District hospitals we have already exceeded the actual capacity ; it 
is not only that we are up to 80 percent of the capacity, but we have 
exceeded the actual rated capacity. 

HOSPITAL FACILITIES FOR NEGROES 

The Chairman. What about hospital facilities for the Negroes; 
are they adequate or inadequate ? 

Dr. Ruhland. The Negroes, of course, have access also to Gallinger 
Hospital and to Glenn Dale Sanatorium, the institution for the tuber- 
culous; and in addition thereto, there is, of course, Freedmen's Hos- 
pital, which is under Federal control and specifically now under the 



4576 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

United States Public Health Service. To that institution there were 
fortunately added 150 beds for tuberculous patients, and that helps 
some, but we still have an unfortunately high tuberculosis problem 
with the colored folk here. Among the whites, our rate is very good, 
better than in most cities in our population group. 

Mr. Osmeks. Do you find the Negro creates a more serious health 
problem than the white in other diseases than tuberculosis? 

Dr. Ruhland. They unfortunately rate higher, and I think it is a 
reflection of their economic handicaps, the handicaps under which 
they have to crowd together. 

VENEREAL DISEASE 

Mr. Osmers. The committee found, in some of its previous investi- 
gations that the incidence of venereal disease was much higher in 
Negro groups. Is that true also in Washington? 

Dr. Ruhland. That is true in Washington. 

Mr. Osmers. Have you any relative figures that you might put in 
the record to show that? They need not be exact figures. 

Dr. Ruhland. We are doing a great many Wassermann tests for 
draftees and others. The ratio is about 1 to 20 — for each 1 white, 20 
colored. 

Mr. Osmers. Does that take into consideration the difference in the 
population? You have about a 2-to-l ratio of population here, do 
you not? 

Dr. Ruhland. Yes, about 2 to 1. There is not quite one-third 
colored population in Washington. 

Mr. Osmers. I wanted to make that clear: That for 1,000 people, 
the incidence of venereal disease in the colored group would be 20 
times that in the white. 

Dr. Ruhland. So far as this sampling of cases is concerned. I 
think that is a qualification that should be recognized. 

The Chairman. What about tuberculosis in the District of Colum- 
bia? Is it on the increase or decrease? 

Dr. Ruhland. Fortunately we are making headway, I am very 
happy to state. In recent years our rate per 100,000 has dropped below 
100. In 1939 it was 87.4, and in 1940 it was 89.1. The majority of 
those cases unfortunately fall among the Negroes who, as has been 
testified here, accept overcrowding and other insanitary conditions, 
and in that way spread infection from one member of the group to 
another. 

Mr. Osmers. Are those new cases per year? 

Dr. Ruhland. That is the mortality rate. That is not the case in- 
cidence. The case incidence is possibly 20 for each death, if you 
found them all. 

mortality preventives 

The Chairman. To what do you attribute that decrease in the 
mortality rate? 

Dr. Ruhland. Some expansion in the clinic services, increased 
facilities at Glendale, and also at Howard University. That brings 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4577 

more cases under control, and withdraws them from the community, 
brings them under medical supervision so that they have a chance 
to get well, but most important, will not spread the infection to 
others with whom they come in contact. 

The Chairman. You say that tuberculosis has shown a decrease. 
What about venereal diseases ? 

Dr. Ruhland. That is still a very, very open question. As you 
know, the venereal-disease question has only more recently come before 
the public, so that the cases can be traced ; and my guess is — my ex- 
pectation is — that as prejudices are being removed, so that you can 
follow the cases up more, we will see an increase, because the incidence 
is much larger than we had believed it was. 

Mr. Osmers. Dr. Ruhland, the statement is made, not in public hear- 
ings but generally in private, that the Negroes and other low-income 
groups in the population prefer to live in these overcrowded condi- 
tions, and that they would take the finest dwellings in the world and 
convert them into a shambles. Have you found that to be true? 

Dr. Ruhland. I hardly think it could be said that they prefer to 
do that. I would doubt that. What I do believe must not be over- 
looked is this : That mere supplying of modern sanitary housing is 
not going to solve the housing problem, because, as you rightly inti- 
mate, what the occupant will do with that housing when he gets into 
it is also important, That calls for a little understanding and ex- 
tensive educational campaign, to get the occupant to appreciate per- 
sonal hygiene and cleanliness. 

ALLEY DWELLING AUTHORITY 

Mr. Osmers. Have you found that the work of the Alley Dwelling 
Authority in Washington has raised the general health of that por- 
tion of the low-income families as related to the general group? 

Dr. Ruhland. It has undoubtedly helped some of those trans- 
planted, but, of course, the sampling is too recent and possibly not 
large enough. It would be scientifically not wholly admissible to 
make generalized conclusions upon that experience. By and large, 
you may expect that it does help. 

Mr. Osmers. Your guess would be that over a period of time it will 
materially help? 

Dr. Ruhland. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. It has always been my opinion that these generalized 
conclusions are not accurate. I think everyone enjoys better hous- 
ing and better conditions, and wants to live in a sanitary way. 

Dr. Ruhl\nd. Yes. I have seen Negro families, transferred into 
this new housing, who seemed very appreciative. 

The Chairman. Is anything being done with reference to improv- 
ing the situation regarding venereal diseases among the colored 
population ? 

Dr. Ruhland. We have clinics, of course, and the clientele is large. 
In fact, we had to turn away some of the applicants because we have 
not the personnel nor the facilities. They just recently had an un- 
fortunate experience in one of them, as you know. So we are handi- 
capped that way. 



4578 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

The Chairman. The public has adopted a new thought about that, 
or has had an awakening regarding venereal diseases ? 
Dr. Ruhland. That is quite true. 

PUBLIC EDUCATION 

The Chairman. The time was, not so long ago, when you could not 
mention publicly the word "syphilis." Even now some radio stations 
may not permit it. I noticed, however, that some time ago Chicago 
put on a week's campaign of education concerning syphilis. You 
are conversant with that? 

Dr. Ruhland. Yes, indeed. 

The Chairman. When the matter is brought out publicly, you can 
combat it more successfully, can you not? 

Dr. Ruhland. That is unquestionably true. It will help. There is 
a very wholesome interest here, also. The public is quite alive to the 
importance of finding the cases, and what is more to the point, of 
getting treatment and protection against the disease. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you not feel, Doctor, that the improvement of the 
treatment methods will contribute largely to cleaning up that situa- 
tion? 

Dr. Ruhland. It surely should help. 

The Chairman. Doctor, as you know, a very large percentage of 
the new Government workers will have an income of less than $1,500. 
Medical care will take a large portion of the income of Government 
workers. Do you not feel that some type of Government-sponsored 
medical insurance for lower-salaried Government workers would be 
advisable ? 

Dr. Ruhland. There is, of course, the trend toward collective bar- 
gaining. This group insurance seems to have worked out well, and in 
certain cities group service seems also to offer certain advantages. 
The public service must come to the assistance of the medically in- 
digent group; I mean that group which cannot meet the sudden 
emergency of a major expense induced by sickness. 

Mr. Osmers. Do they have a private hospitalization plan in the 
District to which you can subscribe? 

Dr. Ruhland. There is one agency which is operated with the 
assistance of the medical and dental profession — Health Security. 
While trxe agency ought to speak for itself, briefly it functions this 
way. The agency will try to mediate between the patient and the 
professional service and try to budget the expense, which they try to 
get at the best possible figure. 

Mr. Osmers. I was thinking of the plan they have in New York, a 
hospitalization plan, whereby you pay $10 a year. 

Dr. Ruhland. You mean group hospitalization ? 

Mr. Osmers. Group hospitalization, yes. 

Dr. Ruhland. That is also in use here. 

Mr. Osmers. Has it demonstrated its soundness here? 

Dr. Ruhland. Yes. I think it is thoroughly good and is generally 
admitted to be so. * 

The Chairman. Doctor, we thank you very much for your state- 
ment. You have made a very important contribution to our record 
and we appreciate your coming here. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4579 

Dr. Euhland. May I say, Mr. Chairman, I sincerely hope that the 
Federal Government will come to the assistance of the District's health 
needs. 

The Chairman. The next witness is Mr. Hugo Wolter, secretary of 
the Recreation Council of Social Agencies. 

TESTIMONY OF HUGO W. WOLTER, SECRETARY OF THE RECREA- 
TION COUNCIL OF SOCIAL AGENCIES, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arnold will ask you some questions. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Wolter, you have submitted a paper here which 
will be made a part of the record. Would you like to proceed by 
giving us the highlights of the paper and then have it placed in the 
record as an exhibit, or how would you like to proceed ? 

Mr. Wolter. I think that would be satisfactory. 

(The statement appears below:) 

The Effect of the Transient Defense Workeb on Recreation in the District 
of Columbia 

i. aims and objectives of recreation 

Recreation in its broadest meaning includes all activity which is outside of 
the activity necessary to earn a living. The primary consideration upon which 
recreation is based is choice. Whatever a person chooses to do with those moments 
or hours when he is not directly concerned with earning a livelihood, or with 
other duties in connection with his living, is recreation. It is completely a 
matter of attitudes rather than of activity. The attitude expressed in a free 
choice is the real attitude toward life which an individual has. 

In our democracy this attitude of the individual is of greatest importance. 
If it is wholesome and democratic our form of government will continue on a 
high plane; if the attitude is unwholesome we will suffer from internal decay. 

Recreation is a vital necessity to our American way of life. It is not play, 
it is not "busy work." It is a balancing force in an unbalanced mode of living. 

Wholesome living depends upon wholesome satisfaction in living. Every 
activity in which a person engages is based upon his personal attitude. The 
personal attitude determines the choice of activity which will give the individual 
the greatest comparative satisfaction. Recreation furnishes an acceptable out- 
let for many unwholesome mental attitudes. When these are expressed through 
an activity, the individual has expelled the unwholesome attitude almost aa 
efficiently as in a catharsis. Permit me a brief illustration : Mr. Jones is a 
businessman. He must continually meet the public, be friendly, and take much 
abuse. It is quite natural that he cannot express his emotions as he would like 
to. His activity in his business is definitely hemmed in by good business policy, 
but he longs to express his annoyance and aggression. When his day is over 
he does just that at home, with his wife and children or he indulges in a whole- 
some outlet such as golf or tennis where he may literally and figuratively 
"smash" the ball. He substitutes "smashing" the ball for "smashing" the cus- 
tomer and all is well. 

The emotions find outlets in recreation. Whether these outlets are wholesome 
and socially acceptable depends upon the facilities available. Where the emo- 
tions are not given a chance for wholesome expression we find people living a 
life of fantasy, of crime, or of reversion to childhood. 

Our emotions require two things of every one of us : First, a feeling of security 
within the self, that is, self-confidence, self-assurance, independence, and almost 
self-sufficiency ; and second, a feeling of security within a group, that is, be- 
longing to a group, being needed and contributing something to the group. 

Whenever and wherever these two requirements are violated, problems of a 
personal and social nature arise. Whatever applies to an individual applies to 
the group to which he belongs. The application continues from a small unit 



4580 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



to the very largest. This becomes apparent as we recall the minority groups 
in our own and in foreign countries. 

Perfection in democracy demands that the individual possess the following : 

1. Tolerance of differences of opinion. 

2. Willingness to work with majority. 

3. Intelligence overruling emotion. 
(a) Use of scientific materials. 

(&) Understanding of human reactions. 

4. Willingness to take initiative and to accept responsibility as well as to 
work in a subordinate capacity. 

5. Desire to get results for the general common good rather than for the 
self. 

The very opposite of these qualities such as those listed below, make democracy 
impossible : 

1. Definite psychotic and neurotic behavior in which everything is submerged 
within or subordinate to self. 

2. Insistence on remaining alone and a refusal to work with or for anyone. 
Between these two conditions there are various steps which can be diagramed 

as follows : 

Perfection 



General participation 
with the acceptance 
of responsibility 

General participation with 
assistance in planning 



General participation — no assistance, 
only acceptance 



Spasmodic group participation with relapses 



Single or occasional group participation 



Dual activity or participation 



Dual activity with relapses 



•Individual activity — observation of another with interest 
Individual activity — opposition of another 
Individual activity — tolerance of another 



-» Individual activity — solely for self 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



4581 



It is the aim and purpose of the recreation movement to build each individual 
into an effective citizen of our democracy. In order to accomplish this purpose, 
we must now consider the clientele (in this case, the transient defense worker), 
the leadership and the physical facilities which the District of Columbia has 
to offer both in respect to the situation and demand last year (April 1940) and 
now (March 1941). 



Facilities 



Barney Neighborhood Uouse. 



Chirst Child Society 

Friendship House 

Jaunita K. Nye Council House. 
Georgetown Children's House. 

Hampshire House 

Northwest House (colored) 

Southwest House (colored) 

Southeast House (colored) 

Temple Center 

Opportunity House 

Washington Boys' Club 

Merrick Boys' Club 

Metropolitan Police Boys' 

Club. 
Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation (white). 
Young Women's Christian 

Association (white). 
12th Street Young Men's 
Christian Association (col- 
ored). 
Phyllis Whcatley (Young 
Women's Christian Associa- 
tion (colored). 
Jewish Community Center... 

Community Center and Play- 
ground Department. 



April 1940 



Used to capacity of staff and buildings (have devel- 
oped a service men's club with weekly attendance 
of 250. Open three nights per week). 

Used to capacity of staff - 

Used to capacity of staff 

Used to capacity of staff and buildings 

Used to capacity of staff and building. (Primarily a 

program for children). 
New. 



Used to capacity of staff and building 

Used to capacity of staff and building 

Used to capacity of staff 

Used to capacity of staff 

Used to capacity of staff 

(Boy's program) used to capacity of staff- 
Used to capacity of staff and building 

(Boy's program) used to capacity 



Swamped by demands made upon it — 

Huge program. Filled and operated to capacity. 
Used to capacity of staff 



Used to capacity of staff- 



March 1911 



Used to capacity. 



Used to capacity. 



Increase in adult attendance since April 1940. Used to 

capacity of staff. 
A totallv inadequate budget has limited the program 

so that centers are open only 1 or 2 nights per week. 

All programs are handicapped so that the effect of the 

transients could not be felt at the centers. 



The capacity usage of commercial amusements, record attendances at sports 
events and continual demands for more space points to the presence of a huge 
increase in population. 

A contest sponsored by the Federal Employees' Council and a survey made by 
the same group stressed the need for more space for outdoor activities and more 
indoor facilities. 

To a large extent, public buildings and memorials are closed when the problems 
are greatest — Sundays and holidays. 

Leadership.— Since more money for trained leadership has not been available, 
the problem presented by the transient has not been met nor considered in 
most programs. 

Clientele.— Civil-service statistics tell us of a huge increase in employment in 
Washington (35,000). Accurate figures as to the number of newcomers to the 
city are not available. The crowding of rooming houses and the inability to 
get rooms in various areas of the city prove that a large number of defense 
workers have come from outside of Washington. Their loneiiness and inability 
to find things to do leads them to the little taverns and joints which are over- 
crowded. The soldiers, sailors, and marines have a club at Eleventh and L 
Streets NW., which gives a few an opportunity for wholesome recreation. There 
is no place for the girls, who so badly need a recreational program. 

A particular problem is presented by the colored people for whom adequate 
provision has not been made in normal times and whose number has been aug- 
mented by people who came here seeking work. The night clubs are filled to 
overflowing. Housing is an acute problem. This increases the need for recre- 
ational facilities and programs. 

The housing of defense workers places them in a very difficult and unsatis- 
factory position. When they have no place to go and nothing to do but to remain. 



4582 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

In their rooms they become dissatisfied and resentful. They place themselves, 
through no fault of their own, toward the bottom of the scale of good democratic 
behavior. The loneliness and dissatisfaction expressed by them is evidence 
that this is happening. (Cf. Federal Employment Council Study.) 

The withdrawal of the Work Projects Administration workers and Civilian 
Conservation Corps boys has likewise brought about a curtailment of recre- 
ational facilities. In the Chopowamsic area, all but 12 men have been with- 
drawn when at least 30 able-bodied men are needed to operate the program, not 
to mention the number needed to put the area in condition. The same situation 
applies to the playgrounds in the District. The withdrawal of workers leaves 
several large areas undeveloped. 

The influx of people into Washington during the past year has intensified the 
problem which we already knew existed. The shortage of funds to develop areas 
and leadership has and is bringing about problems and dissatisfaction among a 
large number of defense workers. This dissatisfaction does not make for good 
work nor for good citizenship. It forces an individual into a position in which 
personal problems are magnified and in which constructive thought and work for 
our city and nation is quietly sabotaged. 

The District of Columbia Council of Defense, through its recreation communi- 
ties, is trying to solve these problems. It is again held up by an absolute lack 
of funds. We are almost at a loss as to the method we can use to provide ade- 
quate and wholesome recreation for the general populace, for the 35,000 new 
people in Government employ, the thousands of new people brought here by local 
business, and the 50,000 troops stationed near Washington who will come to our 
city on leave. 

TESTIMONY OF HUGO W. W0LTER— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. I think you should give your name and occupation, 
and title. 

Mr. Wolter. Hugo W. Wolter, secretary of the Recreation Council 
of Social Agencies; also representing the recreation services of the 
Welfare and Consumer Interests Committee of the District of Colum- 
bia Council of Defense. 

All of the things that Dr. Ballou has stated concerning the shifts of 
population of the schools, and the things that Mrs. Hoffman has stated 
concerning the increases in population, and also the statements of Dr. 
Ruhland, apply to the recreation program. 

The program which the District of Columbia is enabled to have is 
very ineffective at the present time. It does not begin to meet the 
needs. 

As shown in the statement that I have made here, private agencies 
are being used to capacity. The buildings are small, in most cases, 
and the staff is overworked. They are expected to do a great deal 
more than they can do, and as far as the public agencies are concerned 
the Community Center and Playground Department — they are handi- 
capped by a very inadequate budget, with insufficient money to pay 
really trained personnel. At the present time the area directors receive 
$1,500. 

The problem magnifies itself because the demand for recreation 
workers at the present time is so tremendous from the Army and the 
Navy and the Air Corps and from the Federal Security Administra- 
tion. There is need for more personnel in the supervision of areas 
around the camps and cantonments, in the National Park Service plan, 
and in the communities which will have to enlarge their programs to 
meet the needs of the service men. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4583 

In the field of recreation we try to offset any unpleasant and un- 
wholesome aspects of life in the community, and also provide the in- 
dividual with an outlet for the emotional stresses and strains which 
are brought about by his job or by home conditions. 

This type of approach to recreation is somewhat new. It is not 
just play, and it is not just something to fill in time, but it is an actual 
attempt to balance living, and to create satisfactions in the individual 
so that he can do his work more satisfactorily, that he can maintain 
his morale, and that he can live as a wholesome human being. 

In the problems that we see in the District;, we have this large number 
of employees who have come in. We have had figures on that, vary- 
ing from 35,000 and up. Now, from the fact that we have not been able 
to take care of our original and normal population, we have made very 
little dent on the people who are now coming in. 

LONELINESS A PROBLEM 

A survey made by the Federal Employees Council through the chair- 
manship of Archie Edward, of the Civil Service Commission, shows 
that the biggest problem in the District among the workers them- 
selves — the defense workers — is loneliness; a lack of opportunity to 
associate with other people on the basis on which they associated with 
people at home. That is a social problem. 

Together with that, we have the influx of the Army service person- 
nel — soldiers, sailors, and marines, who come in here to spend week 
ends. Last week end, all of the lodging facilities were filled. When 
I say "all," that is not a large figure. That means the Soldiers, Sail- 
ors, and Marines Club, where we have facilities for approximately 
100 men. We expect from the camps and cantonments around here 
to have about 10,000 men who will remain over the week end. We do 
not have facilities for them. We do not have game rooms for them 
and we do not have a social program for them. Through the Defense 
Council we are trying to provide that, but there again we meet the 
same situation — that we do not have money. 

We have been operating and setting up our committees completely 
on a voluntary basis so far. The situation in regard to the colored 
people is even worse than that in regard to the white. Their housing, 
as we have heard, is very inadequate, thus bringing up the problem 
of leisure time, both among the children and the young adults. This 
is greatly increased by the number of colored service men who are 
coming into the District and who will be coming in, and for whom we 
are trying to prepare. 

At the present time, what we are going to do with them or what 
sort of plans we are going to set up we do not know until we have 
some idea of what money we have available, or will have available. 

The colored section of the Community Center and Playground De- 
partment is at the present time functioning more adequately than the 
white. That is due to the fact that trained personnel is more available. 
White personnel is being snatched up, whereas colored personnel does 
not have any other placement. 



4584 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

The increase in commercial amusements throughout the city has 
shown us that the people are going to places we would rather not 
have them go; the little beer joints are overcrowded. There is not 
any other place for them to go. nothing else for them to do. Our 
movies are overcrowded, all are filled. The only place that seems to 
have a surplus of room at the present time is the Ice Arena. 

There is not a single bowling alley in the District of Columbia 
for colored people. The loneliness and dissatisfaction which is ex- 
pressed by so many of them, by all of them, as we contact them 
through the city, is simply astounding. 

The problem rolls up and rolls up, until we just do not know whether 
to go to the Federal Government or to someone who will give us some 
money to help us carry on the program. 

CAMP PROGRAM FOR CHILDREN 

In addition, there is the factor of the camp program, which we 
have tried to carry out for the District, for the underprivileged 
children. Through various agencies in the city we have developed a 
camp down in the Chopowamsic area. The work there has been 
done by W. P. A. workers under the direction of the National Park 
Service. Kecently, however, all of the men have been taken from 
those projects, so that the necessary work to put these camps in con- 
dition has not been done. 

The development of swimming facilities has not been carried out 
according to schedule. The development of water supply for one 
of the camps, the development of the picnic areas, has not been 
carried out because the W. P. A. workers have been taken from that 
job and placed into Camp Belvoir to build the buildings there. 

They have at the present time 12 men on this particular project. 
One is almost blind, one's feet have been cut off or frozen off, and 2 
are men with but 1 arm, which gives them 8 elderly men to carry 
on a project covering from 13,000 to 17,000 acres (depending on how 
you figure), including the 5 camps, with an average of from 35 to 40 
buildings in each camp, all of which have been put in repair. One 
dam is to be built for swimming facilities, a picnic area has to be 
built, and a few buildings. 

It is impossible to expect the C. C. C. boys to do that, who have 
been on that project and have also been working at Quantico and 
Belvoir. There are only 50 at the present time, and they are planning 
and building a system of roads. 

PLAYGROUNDS IN DISTRICT 

The development of facilities applies also to the District, where 
the W. P. A. force and the C. C. C. boys have been taken off from 
the leveling and building up of the playgrounds. 

The appropriation for the equipment and maintenance of these 
grounds this year was $25,000, which is to cover 150 different play- 
grounds. That appropriation is entirely inadequate. 

That, gentlemen, is the situation. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4585 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, since you have not been able to make 
provision for the normal residents of the city, there is nothing being 
done to take care of the 35,000 additional people who are already 
here and the 100,000 expected? 

Mr. Wolter. There is nothing that has actually been clone. There 
are plans being considered by the Federal Employees' Council to 
develop some sort of recreation center for Federal employees, and 
we have asked for the development of service clubs for the service 
men. But there again we have absolutely no funds at the present 
time. 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, the W. P. A. workers are being taken to 
nearby camps when, in fact, Washington has a need for having 
facilities developed as much as these camps. 

Is anything being done by the authorities to have these workers 
returned and put on these District projects? 

Mr. Wolter. Not at the present time. The Community Center 
and Playgrounds Department have submitted a deficiency appropria- 
tion request running between two and two and one-half million dol- 
lars for the present program, and the Park and Planning Commis- 
sion has plans for which most of the property is purchased, to put 
that into operation. 

Mr. Arnold. You mentioned soldiers and sailors coming here over 
the week end in added numbers, and said that buildings and memo- 
rials are closed on Sundays and holidays. 

Do you think if they were to remain open that would relieve the 
situation somewhat? 

Mr. Wolter. To a certain extent it would. Many of the Govern- 
ment workers and service men have no opportunity to come in at 
any other time. We have had innumerable requests asking why they 
cannot see these buildings. But they are closed on Sundays and 
holidays. 

For a time that would relieve the situation, but that is just a 
temporary thing until all have seen these. 

The Chairman. We thank you very much for your statement. 

Mr. Fath. Mr. Chairman, I would like to submit for the record 
a statement by the National Travelers Aid Association. Miss de la 
Pole is here this morning, and we would like very much to have 
her appear. 

The Chairman. Without objection, the statement referred to will 
be inserted in the record. 

(The statement above referred to is as follows :) 

STATEMENT OF DOROTHY B. DE LA POLE, STAFF ASSOCIATE, 
NATIONAL TRAVELERS AID ASSOCIATION 

Problems Presented by Interstate Migration to Centers of Defense 

Expansion 

The movement of people seeking employment in centers of defense expansion 
is equally important in a total defense program with the movement of men 
into training camps. In the present defense program this movement has and 
will continue to affect a much larger number of persons than those who will at 
any one time be in process of induction or of training in the armed forces. 

260370— 41— pt. 11 22 



4586 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

The necessarily elaborate procedure for the selection, examination, induction, 
transportation, training, and care of men in the armed forces and the continued 
responsibility assumed by the Army and Navy for physical care and morale 
services within the military reservations need only to be supplemented by 
services in communities and by assistance in individual circumstances. 

Little or no such planning is in operation for the potential civilian employee 
whose services need to be used in a community other than the one in which he 
is living. Only to a very limited extent is he selected before he leaves home for 
assured employment elsewhere and he must get himself to the place where the 
job is and make his own arrangements for actually securing the job, which may 
entail physical examination and the supplying of certain documents (such as 
birth certificate, naturalization papers). He must find his own place to live 
and support himself until his first pay check. He must meet alone the per- 
sonal emergencies and unexpected problems which may arise in the course of 
his journey or while he is becoming established in the new community. No 
morale department has a responsibility for his welfare and while he, from the 
standpoint of the national effort as a whole, is an important cog in the booming 
defense machinery, he is, from the standpoint of the new community, a stranger 
and a nonresident, cut off by settlement legislation and by policy from most 
of the social and community services for which other members of the com- 
munity are eligible. 

If he is employed in the rush construction of a defense factory or a military 
camp it may be necessary for him to repeat this process of unassisted job seek- 
ing, of installing himself and his family in a new community and of discovering 
the community resources that may be available to him. 

The development of centers of defense expansion, while logical from the stand- 
point of the program as a whole, puts pressures on the facilities of certain com- 
munities, and these pressures are in turn passed on to the newcomers who arrive 
in numbers after all available housing at a given price range has been exhausted, 
after schools are crowded. 

RISING CASE LOAD 

The Travelers Aid Society in a defense area is in many instances the first 
agency with which these people make contact when they need direction, advice, 
relief, or other assistance. Current reports from a number of travelers aid 
societies in defense areas afford some picture as to the impact on people of the 
situation just described. These cities are experiencing a rising case load and a 
marked increase in requests for information, direction, and referral services. 

In addition to the increase in the number of applications for assistance there 
are marked changes in the type of problem coming to these societies. These 
changes seem to be related to the fact that people are moving because they are 
pulled toward a place where jobs actually are to be found, as contrasted with an 
earlier situation in which lack of employment at home pushed people out in the 
hope of finding employment, which hope was in many cases unjustified. 

The training programs for defense industries under the National Youth Admin- 
istration, under education departments, conducted by private aircraft industries 
and so on, likewise offer a direct stepping stone to job placement. The increase 
in population and the greatly enlarged pay rolls in defense areas by stimulating 
the general commercial activity of the community likewise open up opportunities 
for employment for some of those who may not qualify for employment in indus- 
tries related to defense. There are more jobs for waiters, clerks, and so onf 

For a considerable proportion of the persons now being employed this may 
represent the first job after a prolonged period of unemployment, and therefore, 
while the job may be an ultimate solution, they may be faced with the very 
practical problem of providing for their housing, food, tools, and incidental 
expenses until the first pay check is received. The general practice of withholding 
5 days' pay usually places the first pay check at about 2 weeks after beginning 
work. The needs of the family as well as of our defense effort itself call for 
some readily available resources for advance of necessary living expenses for 
this interim, with a spaced plan for reimbursement. 

The current experience of several cities is illustrative. 

San Diego.— The defense program has made San Diego an industrial city within 
the past few months. Not only has the character of the city changed, but its 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4587 

population has been and is continuing to increase at so rapid a rate as to strain 
all facilities — housing, utilities, traffic regulation. The following selected figures 
on San Diego's population tell the story. 



San Diego 
City 



San Diego 
County 



April 1940 census 

February 1941 estimate. 



147, 995 
203, 341 

•jr.o,oi]0 



•jo'.i.r,r>9 
289, 473 
350,00 



Much of the increase in county population is due to the necessity for looking 
outside the city for housing accommodations, since housing in the city has 
for some time been exhausted and therefore the community now must be 
regarded as one of 350,000 with expansion continuing. 

In 1939 it is estimated there were 8,000 workers in manufacturing industries, 
with a pay roll of $4,000,000; in 1940 there were 24,500 workers with a pay 
roll of $44,500,000. Employment figures are changing so rapidly now as to be 
impossible to quote, actually, but the Consolidated Aircraft alone will have, 
by July 1, 1941, 41,000 employees, and this is only one of four aircraft manu- 
facturing plants, which are, of course, supplemented by numerous plants manu- 
facturing parts. 

Eighty percent of the aircraft employees in San Diego in March 1941 were 
from outside the city, and 60 percent of the employees in these plants were 
married. The Travelers Aid in San Diego is in process of reorganization to 
deal with its present problem in that city. Up to this time it has been unable 
to expand its services to keep pace with appeals for assistance so that com- 
parative figures for recent months do not indicate the total increase in the 
problems met by strangers coining to San Diego. But they illustrate trends. 

The county welfare department in San Diego County accepts only those non- 
resident cases which will agree to return to place of legal settlement if that 
can be verified. The Travelers Aid Society cooperates with the county welfare 
department in providing travel service for these cases when plans are completed 
for their return to place of settlement. In 1939 the San Diego Travelers Aid 
cooperated in this way on 444 such cases. In 1940 this number was cut exactly 
in half; it comprised 222 cases. Figures which represent the first months of 
1941 are not available but they would unquestionably show a greater rate of 
decrease. This means that people who come to San Diego now do not find 
it necessary to return to place of settlement because they find employment. 

INQUIRIES INCREASE 

In spite of the drop of 222 cases, the San Diego Travelers Aid reported in 1940 
a slightly larger number of cases served than were served in 1939. A study of 
cases which applied during 1940 but were rejected indicates that this figure would 
have increased greatly if the society had had sufficient staff and relief resources 
to enable them to accept all cases which were the society's legitimate responsi- 
bility. The requests for information, direction, and referral services likewise 
increased in 1940 by approximately 20 percent. Here again the society was meet- 
ing only part of its accepted responsibility. Comparing the two 6-month periods, 
September 1939 to February 1940 and September 1940 to February 1941, Travelers 
Aid assisted three times as many persons in finding lodgings in the second period 
as in the first and reports increases of 25 to 50 percent in the number of persons 
who were temporarily without funds, who were in need of employment. 

It is practically impossible to find an inexpensive or free overnight lodging in 
San Diego at this time. By a local ordinance a man walking the street at night 
is subject to arrest for vagrancy, and this is enforced. For example : 

"A widower with a 7-year-old daughter hitchhiked to San Diego from Texas, 
and after placing his daughter in San Diego temporarily with the last motorist 
who gave them a lift on the road secured employment immediately in an aircraft 
factorv. He was without money, and after his day's work, since he was un- 
provided with lodging for the night, was arrested for walking the street and 
spent the night in jail as a vagrant. 

"A man wife, and four small children were found living in their open car in 
a back yard with no cooking facilities, which necessitated their living on sand- 



4588 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



wiches and other cold food. They used the toilet at a nearby gasoline service 
station. The torrential rains which southern California has been experiencing 
these recent weeks made their lack of shelter particularly serious. The man was 
waiting promised employment in one of the defense industries. The family would 
be ineligible for public relief unless they would agree to return to place of legal 
settlement and the Travelers Aid at that time was not provided with the necessary 
emergency relief funds to tide them over until employment. The situation came 
to the attention of the juvenile probation department, which filed a petition on 
behalf of the children and placed them in an institution for temporary care. 

"Family of man, wife, and three small children, with man just newly employed 
in a defense job, were evicted from their furnished room at the time of the 
woman's confinement with her fourth child. There was no recourse in San 
Diego for the payment of rent or for guaranteeing such payment until the man's 
wage was paid. In this instance also the probation office filed a petition on 
behalf of the children in order to provide temporary emergency care for them." 

L is Angeles. — The Travelers Aid Society in Los Angeles reports an increase of 
10 percent in January, February, and March in their intake. The following is 
quoted from a recent report from that society : 

"Many single men and women and families make application for assistance 
pending acceptance by the armed forces, acceptance by aircraft schools, the 
aircraft industry, for all types of defense employment in Los Angeles County. 
None of these transient men and women and families is eligible to relief in Los 
Angeles County unless they agree to return to their legal residence. Many are 
unwilling to agree until it has been determined whether they are eligible for 
employment or military service. 

"Four young men have in the last 6 weeks made application for temporary care 
in food and lodging, $1 to open a bank account, and in two instances clothing, in 
preparation for accepting a contract at Midway Island on a national-defense 
project, the money loaned for assistance, etc., to be repaid out of the first full 
pay check to be received 60 days from the date of loan. * * * 

AIRCRAFT "SCHOOT," VICTIMS 

"Man, 25, came to California to an aircraft school, had deposited $100; left 
school because he found it was not acceptable to an aircraft company upon grad- 
uation and could secure only $25 of initial payment. 

"Three other boys deposited $25 for training in aircraft schools and found 
the schools were not only not acceptable to the aircraft industry but they could 
not get their $25 back again. 

"A man, 34, came to Los Angeles to get into the aircraft industry, was taken 
ill suddenly, taken to General Hospital, where he was operated on for peptic 
ulcers. Needed temporary care until he could determine whether he could 
secure employment before returning home. 

"A couple and two children and man's father came to secure employment in 
the aircraft industry, had good prospect of employment, needed temporary aid 
in food and lodging for a few days before placement. Man secured the job 
and repaid Travelers Aid Society for assistance given." 

Washington, D. C. — Attached to this statement are two charts prepared by 
the Travelers Aid Society of Washington, and showing the increase in their case 
load and in their information, direction, and referral services for the periods June 
1939 through February 1940 and June 1940 to February 1941. (See pp. 4590, 4591.) 
It will be noted that the number of cases under care shows a marked increase 
for eveiy month in the latter period. With the exception of the month of 
June, information, direction, and referral services have shown a great increase 
iii each month of the second period as compared with the first. The following 
is ([noted from a recent report from the Washington society: 

"Some of the characteristics of the general ease load have remained the 
same. We have noticed approximately four-fifths of the group have been white 
people. That has been true in the agency for about years. 

"There has beexi a definite change, I think. It is probably entirely too early 
to draw any very valid conclusions, but wo arc noticing a change in the trend 
as far as applications are concerned. Within the last ?> months we have had 
many less men, not only unattached men applying for service, but heads of 
families smoking employment, and those that do come to us now with that 
request — employment — there has been some problem, either some emotional 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4589 

problem or some physical or mental disability, which would indicate that they 
really are not employable people or that they have a great deal of difficulty 
securing work. 

"Likewise we have noticed an increase in the number of girls and women 
coming, not only proportionately, but in actual numbers. Particularly I think 
that is true of the group of middle-aged women, and there is an increasing 
number of these seeking employment — many who have previously been unem- 
ployed, supported by children, on Work Projects Administration or direct 
relief. We are beginning within the last month to have cpiite a few of the 
proverbial camp followers. Fort Meade is just being completed and the first 
groups of selectees are now there, although the total capacity is by no means 
filled. Already there is a definite indication that they may become quite a 
problem for the agency." 

Chicago. — The Chicago Travelers Aid Society reports an increase of approxi- 
mately 17 percent in information, direction, and referral services, but has not yet 
noticed a marked increase in the number of social problem case*. They have had 
in the past several months some 75 cases representing social and complicated 
travel problems which are related directly to the defense program. Excerpts 
from some of these cases follow : 

"Mr. M, a 48-year-old man who had left his home in Pittsburgh to seek work 
in a new powder plant in Charlestown, Ind., was on his way back home, having 
been unsuccessful in his attempt to find employment. He was working his way 
back home by washing dishes in various towns. Given help by Travelers Aid 
Society. 

"Mr. O had been in Joliet, looking for work at the new plant for the defense 
program. He had been told there that he might get work a little later, but since 
he was running out of money, he had come on to Chicago and was sending home 
for some money to tide him over. He was given overnight lodging, pending the 
arrival of the money." 

Memphis. — The Memphis Travelers Aid Society reports that because of the 
possibility of securing employment, constructive results can be obtained in a 
shorter period of time than was formerly the case. An important change in the 
nature of the case-load in Memphis has been the drop in the number of share- 
croppers at the present time as compared with the usual rise in this group for 
this same season in previous years. The opinion of the Du Pont powder plant at 
Millington, Tenn., gave preference in employment to local labor and advertised 
this fact widely in newspapers. 

The problem presented by the change-over in industrial plants for defense 
purposes is illustrated by the report from Memphis that the Fisher Body plant 
in Memphis, which was a wood-working plant, is now to be a plant to make metal 
parts for airplanes and will require a complete change in factory personnel, 
since the skills of the present group cannot be utilized. 

The Memphis social agencies were concerned when the construction of the 
Du Pont powder plant at Millington neared completion because they anticipated 
that the large number of emergency workers, mostly carpenters and many of 
them nonresident, would be unemployed and in Memphis. However, fortunately, 
most of the men were transferred from this completed job to a construction 
project near Louisville which was at that time just beginning. 

CONCLUSION 

The greater availability of employment and the increased ability of families 
and relatives (because they themselves are employed) to assist persons tem- 
porarily in need of relief, is making possible a greater flexibility on the part 
of the Travelers Aid Society in planning with people in accordance with the 
possibilities of each situation, rather than working within the rigid requirements 
of verification of settlement and authorization for return to settlement. This 
circumstance has already been mentioned in the San Diego discussion, as re- 
vealed by the decrease in the number of persons being returned to their legal 
settlement by the San Diego County Department of Public Welfare. The Hous- 
ton society furnishes this case illustration : 

"An Ohio couple came to Houston where the man hoped to secure employment 
in industry, but this did not materialize. The wife was nearing the time of 
confinement. The husband took and passed a civil-service examination for 
tool maker and received an appointment in Virginia, with orders to report 
within a few days. 

"The Travelers Aid Society, which was providing living expenses for the family 
in Houston, verified the employment in Virginia, advanced money for the pur- 
chase of necessary tools, provided transportation for the man to his place of 



4590 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



employment, and advanced money for living expenses until his first pay day. 
The wife remained in Houston until after the birth of the baby and by the time 
tne child was 2 weeks old the husband had established a place for them, and 
the mother and child were sent to him. He has had one promotion in his work 
and is repaying in installments the $85 which the Travelers Aid Society of 
Houston expended for them. 

"It should be noted that no steps were taken to verify settlement in Ohio, nor 
was it considered necessary to urge the family's return to Ohio merely on the 
basis of a verified settlement there." 

The swelling of the ranks of migrant agricultural workers by persons with 
other job skills who were unable to find employment in their usual line of 
work can now be seen as these people again are finding jobs in their former trade 
or occupations. Such a case is reported by the Springfield, Mass., Travelers Aid 
Society : 

"Mr. N. had been working as a migratory agricultural worker on the Pacific 
coast, his wife and four children working with him. He had been an experienced 
gunstock finisher, and learning of the possibility of employment in the United 
States Armory in Springfield, Mass., left his family in Oregon and came to 
Springfield, where he applied for employment. 

"He was unable to pass the physical examination on the first attempt because 
of a severe cold which he had contracted on the trip across country, and therefore 
applied to the Travelers Aid Society. The Travelers Aid Society provided hous- 
ing and meals until he recovered sufficiently to pass the physical examination 
and start work. Travelers Aid continued to provide housing until he received 
his pay, and helped him with his glasses which had been broken en route and 
which were necessary in his work. As soon as possible, Mr. N. brought his 
family to Springfield and established them there." 



Figure 1. — Number of cases under care of Travelers Aid Society of Washington, 

D. C. 
200 400 600 800 1000 



June 


1939 
1940 


July 


1939 
1940 


August 


1939 
1940 


September 


1939 
1940 


October 


1939 
1940 


November 


1939 
1940 


December 


1939 
1940 


January 


1940 
1941 


February 


1940 
1941 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 4591 

FiGrEE 2. — Number of information, direction, and referral services by Travelers 
Aid Society of Washington, D. C. 

1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 

T 
1939 



July 



1939 
1940 

1939 

1940 

1939 
1940 

1939 
1940 

1939 
1940 

1939 
1940 

1940 
1941 

1940 
1941 




Care and services of Travelers Aid Society of Washington, D. 0. 





Number of cases 
under care l 


Number of informa- 
tion, direction, 
and referral serv- 
ices. 2 




1939 


1940 


1939 


1940 




584 
654 
579 
620 

577 
630 


736 
854 

922 

768 
763 
869 


1,987 
1,899 
1,934 
1,663 
1,723 
1,529 
1, 423 


1,882 


July . 


1,998 




2,537 




2,858 




2,503 




1,914 




1 769 








1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 




667 
544 


. 909 
810 


1,425 
1,395 


2,222 




2, 037 







See Fig. 1. 
See Fig. 2. 



4^92 NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

National Travelers Aid Association, 

New York, N. Y., March 25, 19J,1. 

The Honorable John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, Special Committee Investigating the 
Interstate Migration of Destitute Citizens, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Congressman Tolan : In accordance with the request in your letter 
of March 11, I am glad to submit this statement on Travelers Aid experience with 
the present problem of the migration of skilled and unskilled workers to centers 
ut defense expansion. We are presenting the experience of Travelers Aid so- 
cieties in certain selected centers with figures insofar as they are available at 
this time. It has not been practical within the limitations of time to collect 
comparative material from our entire Travelers Aid field on this subject. We 
believe, however, that in the enclosed statement are illustrated the current trends 
j' nd special problems which the situation has revealed so far. 

We have just completed a meeting of the executive council of the National 
Travelers Aid Association. This is an advisory group of Travelers Aid execu- 
tives from 15 cities who, supplemented by additional representatives from Trav- 
i lers Aid in certain defense areas, met with us for 3 days last week in New York 
i 'ity to discuss the implications of present trends to future program. On Sunday 
afternoon there was a full discussion of the work of your committee and out of 
this discussion were formulated two recommendations which the executive coun- 
cil wished to have placed before your committee for its consideration in drafting 
your recommendations. I am attaching the two statements, one of which relates 
to the provision of public relief and the other to settlement legislation. 
Sincerely yours, 

Bertha McCall, General Director. 

Recommendations of the Executives' Council of the National Travelers Aid 
Association, Makch 23, 1941 

1. That a fourth category be added to the social security program which 
would make general relief available to everyone on the basis of need. 

2. That all settlement laws be abolished ; if abolition is not a possibility, 
that steps be taken to attain in all States a uniform settlement law of 1 year to 
gain residence, with the provision that residence is not lost in one State un