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Full text of "National defense migration. Hearings before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, first[-second] session, pursuant to H. Res. 113, a resolution to inquire further into the interstate migration of citizens, emphasizing the present and potential consequences of the migraion caused by the national defense program. pt. 11-[34]"

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H. Res. 113 


PART 12 

JUNE 12 AND 13, 1941 

'rinted for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 









H. Res. 113 


PART 12 

JUNE 12 AND 13, 1941 

Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 





StP 25 1941 


JOHN H. TOLAN, California, Chairman 

LAURENCE F. ARNOLD, Illinois PRANK C. OSMERS, Jr., New Jersey 

Robert K. Lamb, Staff Director 

Harold D. Cullen, Associate Editor 
Josef Berger, Associate Editor 



List of witnesses v 

Thursday, June 12, 1941, morning session 4823 

Testimony of Walter W. Cooper 4823 

Statement by Walter W. Cooper 4824 

Testimony of Walter W. Cooper, resumed 4828 

Testimony of Otis Mirrel Porter 4836- 

Testimony of Walter Bellon 4841 

Statement by Walter Bellon 4841 

Testimony of Walter Bellon, resumed 4843= 

Testimony of Edgar N. Gott and Herman R. Wiseman 4848 

Statement by Edgar N. Gott 4848 

Testimony of Edgar N. Gott, resumed 4850 

Testimony of John Russell Price and Dorothy Price 4859 

Testimony of Ray Mathewson 4862 

Statement by Ray Mathewson 4863 

Testimony of Ray Mathewson, resumed 4865 

Thursday, June 12, afternoon session 4871 

Testimony of H. S. Bear 4871 

Statement by C. A. Blakely 4871 

Testimony of H. S. Bear, resumed 4873 

Testimony of Cecil M. Goodin 4876 

Testimony of Max I. Black 4878 

Statement bv Max I. Black 4878 

Testimony of Max I. Black, resumed 4887 

Testimony of Alex M. Lesem 4895 

Statement by Alex M . Lesem 4896 

Testimony of Alex M . Lesem , resumed 4905 

Testimony of Julius H. Rainwater 4911 

Statement by Julius H. Rainwater 4912 

Additional statement by Julius H. Rainwater 4918 

Testimony of Julius H. Rainwater, resumed 4920 

Testimony of Raymond Wayman 4927 

Letter from Raymond Wayman 4927 

Testimony of Raymond Wayman 4928 

Friday, June 13, 1911, morning session 4931 

Testimony of Will C. Crawford and Edward L. Hardy 4931 

Statement by Will C. Crawford 4931 

Testimony of Will C. Crawford and Edward L. Hardy, resumed 4937 

Testimony of Howard Gardner 4943 

Statement by Howard Gardner 4944 

Testimony of Howard Gardner, resumed 4944 

Testimony of Richard M. Neustadt 4947 

Statement by Richard M. Neustadt 4947 

Testimony o'f Richard M. Neustadt, resumed 4955 

Introduction of statements 4962 

Introduction of exhibits -- — --- 4963 

1. Report on rent increases, by California Relief Administration, San 

Diego office ' 4963 

2. Federal aid for school housing, by Fred M. Tonge 4965 

3. Memo on eyidence of citizenship from Consolidated Aircraft Cor- 

poration 4967 

4. Notice published by San Diego Realty Board 4968 

5. Letter to Consolidated Aircraft Corporation from R. A. Wiest.__ 4968 
6 Letters protesting rent raises, bv C. Edward Kops and Mrs. D. G. 

Bray.—-.-. - 4969, 4970 

7. Statement on rent raise, by Mrs. C. H. Blanchard 4970 




Introduction of exhibits — Continued. e *£ e 

8. Report on rental conditions, by San Diego Realty Board 4971 

9. Letter to the chairman, by Frederick J. Thatcher 4971 

10. Needs of San Diego County School, bv Ada York Allen, superin- 

tendent 1 4972 

11. San Diego's defense housing, todav and tomorrow, by Edward 

J. Howden ' 4974 

12. Housing in California defense areas, by Carey McWilliams 4975 

13. Additional hospital needs in San Diego, by Dr. E. A. Blondin_- 4984 

14. Growth of population in San Diego, by San Diego Chamber of 

Commerce 4987 

15. Effect of worker influx on the city plan of San Diego, bv Lottie 

L. Crawford 4988 

16. Map showing defense projects in city of San Diego, by Office of 

Planning Commission 4990 

17. Hospital facilities in La Jolla area, by Curtis Hillyer 4991 

18. Recreational facilities in San Diego, by George W. Braden 4992 

19. Housing problems of women and girls, by Katherine C. Halsey__ 4993 

20. Form statements used in answering inquiries, by Los Angeles 

Chamber of Commerce 4995 

21. Reports and memoranda from officers of United States Navy 4999 

22. Housing conditions in Los Angeles Harbor area, bv Eugene Wes- 

ton, Jr 5005 

23. Public Law 137 (Lanharn Act) 5007 

24. Necessity of low-cost housing in San Diego, by Anita E. Jones 5009 

25. Correspondence between National Congress of Spanish-speaking 

People of the United States of America, the committee, and 

certain employers and agencies 5010 

26. Letters in re situation in Long Beach, Calif., submitted by Francis 

H. Gentry 5013 

27. Letter in re housing for single men, Chas. F. Palmer, Coordinator, 

Division of Defense Housing Coordination 5015 

Index to part 12, by subjects 5017 


San Diego Hearings, June 12, 13, 1941 


Bear, H. S., commander, Civil Engineer Corps, United States Navy.. 4869-4875 

Bellon, Walter, chairman, board of supervisors, San Diego County. . 4841-4847 
Black, Lt. Max I., United States Navy (retired), chairman, San 

Diego Defense Housing Committee 4878-4895 

Cooper, Walter W., city manager, city of San Diego 4823-4836 

Crawford, Will C, superintendent of schools, city of San Diego 4931-4943 

Gardner, Howard, assistant secretary, League of California Cities 4943-4947 

Goodin, Cecil Martin, migrant aircraft school student 4876-4877 

Gott, Major Edgar N., vice president, Consolidated Aircraft Corpora- 
tion, San Diego 4848-4859 

Hardy, Edward Lawyer, president, board of education, San Diego 4931-4943 

Lesem, Alex M., director of health for citv and county health depart- 
ment, San Diego 4895-4911 

Mathewson, Rav, manager, San Diego office, California Department of 

Employment. 4862-4869 

Neustadt, Richard M., regional defense coordinator, Federal Security 

Agency, San Francisco 4947-4962 

Porter, Otis Mirrel and Gladys, migrant defense worker and wife 4836-4841 

Price, John Russell and Dorothy Frances, migrant and wife 4859-4862 

Rainwater, Julius H., director, public welfare, San Diego County 4911-4927 

Wayman, Raymond, representing civic organizations, Fallbrook, Calif. 4927-4929 
Wiseman, Herman R., personnel administrator, Consolidated Aircraft 

Corporation 4848-4859 



THURSDAY, JUNE 12, 1941 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
The committee met at 9:30 a. m. in the United States Customhouse 
and Courthouse, room 234, San Diego, Calif., Hon. John H. Tolan 
(chairman), presiding. 

Also present: Catherine Bauer and John W. Abbott, field investi- 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. We 
will call Mr. Cooper as the first witness. 


The Chairman. Mr. Cooper, will you please give your name and 
in what official capacity you are appearing here? 

Mr. Cooper. Walter W. Cooper, city manager, city of San Diego, 

The Chairman. How long have you been city manager, Mr. Cooper? 

Mr. Cooper. Since the 8th of October 1940. 

The Chairman. Now, Mr. Cooper, I have read your statement, 
and I think it is a very valuable contribution in showing the conditions 
here in San Diego. Of course, what we are interested in is migration 
as connected with the national-defense program, and the reason that 
we are here in San Diego is that we are conducting hearings on migra- 
tion in various sections of the country. We will go to Connecticut 
next, then to New Jersey, and next month to Maryland and then 
back to Washington. We expect to make a report to the Congress 
in August. 

It was considered necesssary to get the picture of conditions in 
San Diego, as this city probably has the greatest proportionate in- 
migration on account of the national-defense program of any in the 
United States. Now, suppose we approach it this way: Without 
reading your statement, we will incorporate it into the record here. 
Anything further that you want to send on to the committee at Wash- 
ington, as I told you yesterday, will be accepted. 



(The statement referred to is as follows:) 



Effects of the National-Defense Program on San Diego 

The city of San Diego is in the midst of an industrial revolution. A revolution 
characterized by the suddenness and scope of its impact upon the community. 
The cause and responsibility for this change rests squarely on national defense. 

In April 1940 the Federal census showed that San Diego had a population of 
203,000. A decade earlier San Diego had a population of 148,000, an increase of 
55,000 or 38 percent. In a single year since the 1940 census was taken, San 
Diego's population has increased almost as much as it did during the preceding 
decade. Another 50,000 persons probably will be added to the population of 
San Diego during the coming year, giving this city a population of over 300,000 
by the end of the coming fiscal year, a population increase of 50 percent in 2 years. 
This increase is apart from the large increase of military personnel located in 
camps or stations in and about San Diego, totaling about 40,000. 

In 1938 the city set up a long-term program of capital expenditures both for 
general improvements and for water development and conservation. In this pro- 
gram it was estimated that the population of San Diego in 1948 would be 260,000. 
We are already at that point and in a year from now the population will be about 
equal to that anticipated in 1960 under normal growth conditions. 

That is, within a period of 2 years the city is being called upon to furnish plant 
facilities and a volume of service which, even under conditions of rapid growth to 
which San Diego by its past experience has become accustomed, would be ex- 
pected to arise over a term of approximately 20 years. 


Prior to the recent influx of population San Diego was a well-ordered city, 
distinguished because of its climate and location as a highly desirable residential 
city. In addition, it was the center of a number of naval activities. The major 
military activities become apparent from the following list of establishments now 
located in or adjacent to San Diego: 

Headquarters, Eleventh Naval District; naval training station; naval supply 
depot; naval radio stations; naval hospital; destroyer base; naval fuel depot; 
naval air station, North Island; Coast Guard base; marine base; Camp Elliott; 
Fort Rosecrans; and Camp Callan. 

Camp Callan and Camp Elliott have been established since the expansion of 
the defense program and the other establishments have been greatly expanded. 
The construction of new, and the expansion of existing, military establishments 
have brought into the city large numbers of persons employed in the construction 
industry. To the extent that construction activity falls off in the future the im- 
ported construction workers will find employment locally in other industries or 
move to other areas where construction work is under way, or merely return to 
their former homes. 

The major responsibility for increased local employment and the importation of 
workers rests with the defense industries, principally the aircraft-manufacturing 

The increase in local population has resulted in extensive changes in local munic- 
ipal administration due to increased activity and requirements for expanded serv- 
ice. These requirements involve increased personnel and expenses that go with 
them as well as expansion of facilities. The impact of this growth has been felt 
in every phase of municipal operation and administration. The effect on housing 
and the problem which it presents to school authorities and to our public health 
administrators will be presented by other witnesses. 


The city has strained its ability to aid the Federal Government in carrying 
forward locally the national-defense program. Valuable water-front property 
owned by the city has been turned over to the Federal Government, a site has 
been given in Balboa Park for the naval hospital, the site for Camp Callan has 
been leased to the Government at an annual rental of $1, the marine rifle range 
also represents a donation by the city. The city's budget for the coming fiscal 


year will require municipal expenditures about $1,500,000 greater than during the 
current fiscal year. 

In passing it should be pointed out that much of the construction which has 
taken place is tax exempt, being federally owned or constructed. Taxable 
wealth or property has not kept pace with population increases as might be 
expected with a more normal population growth. City tax revenue, largely 
resting on the taxation of real estate and improvements and personalty, has not 
grown proportionately with population or demands for funds. The State and 
Federal Governments collect locally taxes which reflect the increased income in 
the community through sales taxes and other taxes based upon income or profits. 


To meet requirements for service property owners are faced with higher local 
taxation. The tax rate for city purposes for the coming fiscal year will be about 
17 percent higher than for the fiscal year just ending. 

Being caused by national-defense activities and because of the very large local 
Federal investment, the Federal Government should participate in meeting the 
costs of local government and in the expansion of local facilities. 

Work Projects Administration and the Federal Government, through the 
Navy, are cooperating with the city in the construction of a sewage-treatment 
plant and an interceptor sewer which will extend around the bay. Local taxpayers 
are contributing substantially to the improvement of sewerage conditions, having 
in April of this year approved a bond issue of $1,983,000 for the construction of 
trunk sewers. Today the bay is badly polluted because of the raw sewage flowing 
into it from the expanding city. 


San Diego's water supply is rainfall captured and conserved in an extensive 
system of reservoirs. The' system has been developed on a basis designed to 
impound water sufficient to carry through a period of 7 years without run-off. 
Based upon present demands, though reservoirs are now full, the supply is only 
sufficient for about 4 years. To augment reservoir storage capacity and main 
capacities, in November of 1940 the voters authorized the issuance of $4,300,000 
of water bonds. To illustrate the increased demand for water, on May 20 of 
this year occurred the all-time peak day for water use — 35,993,000 gallons — an 
increase of 15 percent over the peak day of May 1940. 

A standby water supply is essential for the future and safety of San Diego. 
That is a supply not controlled by the vagaries of rainfall in San Diego County. 
The city has acquired a water' right on the Colorado River amounting to 
100,000,000 gallons per day. Works must be constructed to make this water 
available to the San Diego system. The cost of these works is estimated at 
$10,000,000, approximately. Extensive Federal aid on this project is essential if 
a continuity of water supply to this vital defense area is to be assured. 

Increased activity has made San Diego's streets and highways inadequate to 
carry the traffic imposed upon them. With the assistance of State highway and 
Federal road agencies an access highway program has been prepared. Existing 
traffic congestion can only be corrected through full Federal participation in the 
access highway program. The cost is now estimated at $7,000,000 aside from 
the sums that the city proposes to spend on street openings and widenings. 

Aside from capital expenditures the service facilities of the city must be 
expanded due to population increase. 


The police force must be expanded with an increased personnel and more 
equipment. Additional motorcycle officers are required to handle traffic, more 
detectives and patrolmen are necessary. In April 1940, 1,020 prisoners were 
booked at the city jail; in April 1941, 1,509 prisoners were booked, an increase 
of 47 percent. During the first 4 months of this year the increase in prisoners 
booked was 27 percent above the same months a year earlier. 

To protect life and property in the areas where defense housing has been estab- 
lished, there exists a requirement for increased police and fire service, rubbish 
and garbage must be collected, even new street lights must be installed. 

The expanding population requires additional facilities for wholesome enter- 
tainment and recreation. Playgrounds for children and young people must be 
expanded or built. Directors to supervise the activities of an increased number 
of users must be provided. 


The same sort of problem presents itself in every department of municipal 
service — namely a requirement for increased service and facilities. 


To make the problems facing the municipal administration somewhat concrete, 
let me illustrate by citing the defense housing project now under construction on 
Linda Vista Mesa. The project is located on the mesa land north of the San 
Diego River. No one lived on the site where the Government is now erecting 
1,766 dwellings to house 3,000 defense workers' families. The tract is connected 
with the city by two existing roads with poor alinement and bad turns. The one 
which will be largely used by men going to and from work has only a 20-foot 
concrete pavement with 3-foot dirt shoulders. To furnish water to the tract the 
city is hastening the construction of a water main on the south side of the San 
Diego River, which the housing project must tap at its own expense. A local 
sewer system must be constructed with the effluent carried into Mission Bay. 

The Government has indicated its desire that the city supply police and fire 
protection, rubbish and garbage collection, street cleaning and maintenance, 
public-health service, library service, and in fact all services supplied by the city 
to its residents in built-up areas. Of course the board of education is expected 
and required to furnish school facilities. 


Because of the isolated situation of the development, municipal services cannot 
be supplied with existing facilities or organization. To render fire protection a 
fire station must be built in the area and equipped and manned. A police car 
and officers must be assigned to patrol the tract. Additional garbage and rubbish 
trucks must be purchased and manned and routes established. Being federally 
owned, the project will pay no local taxes. Under the Lanham Act, Public) No. 
849, a payment in lieu of taxes is authorized, limited only by the amount of taxes 
the property would pay if privately owned. By administrative determination, 
this payment was fixed at 15 percent of the shelter rent — 5.6 percent for schools 
and 9.4 percent in lieu of city and county taxes. The 9.4 percent is to be shared 
by city and county. The 15 percent of shelter rent will approximate $150,000. 
Privately owned, the taxes would be at least 60 percent greater. The amount 
which the city is to receive will be insufficient to reimburse it for the out-of-pocket 
expense to be incurred by the city for direct services to be furnished in the com- 
munity, such as wages of policemen, firemen, garbage and rubbish collection, 
street cleaning and maintenance, etc. Without adequate compensation from the 
Government for services to be rendered, local taxpayers must make up the defi- 
ciency or the services will not be provided. 

In dealing with the problems of expansion, the inevitable contraction must also 
be borne in mind. Expansion must be so ordered that when the emergency ceases 
and some of the local workers and the military personnel return to their former 
homes the city will not be overburdened with expanded facilities and enlarged 
personnel that will hamper readjustment to changed conditions. 


In dealing with the local problems the Federal Government should not be less 
generous with municipalities than it is with industry in its advance of funds on a 
basis which eliminates risk so far as possible from national-defense industry and 
offers every promise of profit. The point of this discussion, from the point of 
view of municipal administration in San Diego, is that there exists a Federal 
responsibility to share in the cost of local government in San Diego. The require- 
ments for additional expenditures arise because of national defense, not local 
defense, and there exists a national responsibility to participate. 

The city has been visited by innumerable representatives of Federal civil- 
defense agencies and all have left apparently convinced of the necessity for Fed- 
eral assistance to the city of San Diego. They have uniformly commended San 
Diego for the efforts which the city has put forth in meeting emergency conditions, 
but as yet nothing tangible has resulted in the way of substantial Federal partici- 
pation. H. R. 4545, which I understand is now before the Senate, represents a 
recognition of this obligation, although the $150,000,000 which the bill provides 
is, T believe, hopelessly inadequate for the purpose. The enactment of this piece 
of legislation has been too long delayed. Municipalities operate on budgets under 
charter restrictions. Operations must be planned and provided for in advance. 


This bill should be enacted immediately, and defense area municipalities definitely- 
advised what they may expect in the way of Federal assistance. 

The citizens of San Diego have willingly cooperated with the Nation in this 
emergency, even though community life and development have been largely dis- 
rupted thereby. Entirely aside from the physical discomfort which is inevitable 
in times such as these, the good faith of the citizens has been demonstrated by the 
voting of more than $6,000,000 of bonds, the gift of valuable tracts of land, and 
the acceptance of a substantially increased tax rate. I am sure they will continue 
to give willingly as they have in the past, but this is not enough. If the Nation 
is to be assured that this national-defense area is to have adequate police and fire 
protection, a certain water supply, and other municipal services, the Federal Gov- 
ernment must come to the fore and accept financial responsibility for the condi- 
tions which it has created. 

(Supplementary information was submitted by Mr. Cooper in the 
following letter and statement:) 

The City of San Diego, 
San Diego, Calif., June 13, 19 J, 1. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, House Committee Investigating National 

Defense Migration, San Diego, Calif. 

Dear Congressman Tolan: Supplementing the statement which I filed with 
you at the hearing on national-defense migration, held in San Diego on June 12, 
I submit the following information concerning the financial position of the city of 
San Diego. This information is submitted in response to questions which you 
directed to me and which I answered only in general terms. 

Section 76 of the charter of the city of San Diego provides that no indebtedness 
shall ever be incurred by the city of San Diego for public improvements which 
shall in the aggregate exceed 25 percent of the assessed value of all real and per- 
sonal property of such city. 

Section 90 of the charter provides that the amount of bonds which may be 
issued for the purpose of development, conservation, and furnishing of water shall 
not exceed 15 percent of the assessed valuation of all real and personal property. 
This section also provides that the amount of indebtedness incurred for other 
public improvements shall not exceed 10 percent of the assessed valuation of real 
and personal property. 

Based upon the latest available assessment of real and personal property — 
that is, March 1940 — the assessed value of all property within the city of San 
Diego is $149,932,440. As of that date the limitation on the issuance of water 
bonds was $22,489,866 and on bonds for other public improvements, $14,993,244, 
a total bond debt limit of $37,483,110. 

The authorized bonded debt of the city of San Diego as of June 1, 1941, is as 

Water bonds issued and outstanding $15, 976, 058. 71 

Other bonds issued and outstanding 2, 308, 881. 54 

Sewer bonds authorized Apr. 22, 1941, not yet sold 1, 983, 000. 00 

Total bonds authorized and/or issued 20, 267, 940. 25 

All of the above bonds are a direct obligation of the city and secured by the full 
faith and credit of the city. The city has no authority to issue revenue bonds. 

As will be noted from the figures given above, the available bonding capacity 
of the city with respect to water development is about $6,500,000, a sum entirely 
inadequate to provide a standby water supply. While the city's debt, in total, 
does not approach the total debt limit, the wide margin for issuance of new bonds 
applies to general improvement bonds and not to bonds for water purposes. 

For your further information I am attaching a statement of the financial con- 
dition of the city of San Diego as of June 30, 1940, revised to June 1, 1941. 
Yours very truly, 

Walter W. Cooper, City Manager. 


Statement of Bonded Indebtedness as of June 30, 1941 

(Furnished by the Office of City Auditor and Comptroller, Citv of San Diego, 


GENERAL information 

City of San Diego, County of San Diego, State of California. 

Incorporated 1850, population 1930, 147,897; 1940, 202,038. 

Fiscal year begins July 1; council-managerial government. 

City owns and operates water system, harbor, airport, cemetery. 

Funds of the city are deposited in various local banks, secured in the amount of 
110 percent by bonds of the United States Government, the State of California, 
and its political subdivisions. 


Charter limitation: Water purposes, 15 percent of assessed valuation; other 
purposes, 10 percent of assessed valuation. 

All bonds are full faith and credit obligations of the municipality and are issued 
pursuant to the provisions of Act No. 5178, Deerings General Laws of the State 
of California, Statutes of 1901, page 27. 

All bonds are serial and are not callable. This city has never defaulted on its 
bonds. In 1898 the city issued the first and only issue of refunding bonds. 

Each year a special tax is levied to provide funds for bonded debt service. This 
is a charter provision. No sinking fund is accumulated for this purpose. 

Bonded debt as of June 1 1941: 

For water purposes $15, 976, 058. 71 

For other purposes 2,308,881. 54 

Total J 18,284,940. 25 

Bonds authorized but unsold: 

For water purposes 

For other purposes 1, 983, 000. 00 

Total 1,983,000.00 

Total outstanding and unsold 20, 267, 940. 25 


The Chairman. Suppose you tell us what the national-defense 
program has meant to San Diego. How have you handled this load? 
What effect has it had upon San Diego with respect to its different 
utilities, its sewerage, schools, and so on? I would like to have you, 
for the purpose of the record, give us a verbal picture of the situation 
as you see it. 

Mr. Cooper. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. In the name of Mayor 
Benbough, I might say that the administration of the city of San 
Diego is very appreciative of the interest that your committee has in 
San Diego, as indicated by your coming here and conducting a hearing 
for purposes of the preparation, I take it, of an interim report. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Cooper. We are deeply appreciative of the fact that you are 
concerned, and that the Federal Government, as represented by your 
presence, is concerned in what is happening in San Diego, and we are 
very happy to come before you and tell you our story, as we see it. 



San Diego has been in prior years distinguished largely by the fact 
that it was a residential, a home community, a community to which 
people came because of the particular advantages of its location, its 
climatic advantages. Many came here to settle down at the age of 
retirement, and to spend their declining years here. Coupled with 
that phase of the city's growth there has been an extensive military 
development. We have always considered that San Diego has one 
of the most important and finest locations for naval and military use, 
and that fact, of course, has been generally recognized by the Federal 

San Diego has never been, to any extensive degree, an industrial 
center, but it did offer to certain types of industries peculiar advan- 
tages. Those advantages were recognized by the aircraft industry, 
which started here in a modest way. But with the development of 
the national emergenc}^, aircraft became a No. 1 industry, and 
development here was immediate and extensive. 

The Chairman. More extensive, would you say, than in any other 
location in the United States? 

Mr. Cooper. Well, I would say this: More extensive than any 
other location in the United States in relation to population and size 
of community. In the national-defense program, as I see it, the 
cities affected would fall roughly into three classes: 

First, large industrial communities which have a large labor popu- 
lation to draw upon, where you can put a large industry and yet 
not create a severe problem. 

The Chairman. You mean, in other words, that if we were to take 
a city like New York, with its millions of people, it could absorb 
100,000 and not notice it as much as, sav, 10,000 coming into San 

Mr. Cooper. That is right. It scarcely makes a ripple on the 
surface. To a degree that is also true of the metropolitan area of 
Los Angeles. That area can absorb a large influx without creating 
too severe a problem. For example, you will find, in the Los Angeles 
area, men employed at the Vultee plant at Downey, who live as far 
away as the San Fernando Valley. 

Then, second, you have those communities where a defense industry 
just completely swallows the community, as, for instance, where you 
have put a powder plant next to a town of 500 or 600 persons. 

Then, as a third category, we have communities such as San 
Diego, where, percentagewise, the defense program completely dis- 
rupts and disorganizes the normal community life, but where increased 
activity can be absorbed to a degree somewhat beyond what would 
be the normal rate of growth. 


Now, San Diego is a city that has had through the years a very 
substantial growth. In the 2 decades prior to 1930 San Diego's 
population more than doubled, and in the decade from 1930 to 1940 
there was a 38 percent increase, making San Diego, I believe, the next 
to the fastest growing city of its class in the United States. So that 


here, you see, we are not unaccustomed to rapid growth. However, 
the growth which has been experienced since something over a year 
ago is just unprecedented, even in the experience of San Diego. 

Our plans for the future — our general plans — anticipated a city 
with a rate of increase continuing much as it had in the past. Our 
long-time planning program anticipated that by 1948 or 1950 there 
would be 260,000 people in San Diego, and by i960, around 320,000. 

Now, what has actually happened within the last year and what 
will happen within the coming year is that, so far as population is 
concerned, we will have grown in 2 years as much as it was anticipated 
we would grow in 20 years. 

This sudden growth, of course, has meant a disorganization of 
practically all municipal services. Our plans were laid for an orderly 
growth. Suddenly we find ourselves with a disordered growth, and 
we have to step up the tempo of every community function. Now, 
this involves not alone municipal operations, or, let us say, municipal 
service — and by that I mean street maintenance, garbage collection, 
rubbish collection, fire protection, police and such matters — but also 
fixed capital investment that must go into our public services and 


The city of San Diego owns and operates its own water department. 
Of course, we do have sewerage. The city does not own its electric, 
gas, or telephone facilities. The only municipal utility, in the ordinary 
sense, that we own is the water department. 

We collect all the rubbish and garbage of the city, except in certain 
instances, such as the naval training station and like establishments, 
which are required to make their own arrangements for rubbish and 
garbage collection. Incidentally, rubbish and garbage collection 
here is free — that is, it is included in the taxes, and not separately 
billed, as is the case in many California cities. 

Now, the growth of the population has resulted, as I say, in in- 
creased demands for municipal service. Last fall, in anticipation of 
the growing demand for water, a bond issue of $4,300,000 was voted 
by the citizens of San Diego. That was in November. 

The Chairman. What is your bonded indebtedness? 

Mr. Cooper. At the present time I believe it is of the order of 
$18,000,000, including the water-bond issue. 

The Chairman. What is your limitation, or have you any? 

Air. Cooper. Our limitation would hit around, I think, $36,000,000. 
I am trying to recall it. I am sorry I haven't my financial reports 
here, so that I could answer those questions accurately. 

The Chairman. I think that is very important. If you could 
supply those figures, it would be very helpful. 

Mr. CoorER. I should be very happy to. and I would rather have 
my answers predicated on what the report will show, rather than my 
recollection now. This is the fact: If we were to go ahead and 
attempt to meet our problem, say, of a stand-by water supply, our 
bonding capacity would break down completely. We can't do it 
under our bonding capacity. 

The Chairman. Then I suggest you file a supplemental statement 
for the record. 


Air. Cooper. Yes; I would like to do that. 1 
The Chairman. I am sorry to have interrupted you. 
Mr. Cooper. That is all right. I would rather that the exact 
figures appear in the record than to depend on my recollection. 
The Chairman. Yes. 


Mr. Cooper. The citizens' or taxpayers' action in increasing the 
water supply involves construction of a dam. at $3,500,000 and $1,300,- 
000 for additional distribution facilities — that is, large mains, not small 
distribution mains — because we are faced with the necessity of in- 
creasing our lines to bring water into the ci ty . At the moment we have 
plenty of water in our reservoirs, but we do lack capacity to bring that 
water into the city and distribute it in the areas which now require it. 
Something of the order of $1,500,000 would, be required to lay addi- 
tional mains to bring in the water which we are going to need now and 
in the relatively near future. 

The Chairman. Have you in mind the Kearney Mesa project? 

Mr. Cooper. Yes, sir; that statement is predicated upon the full 
neeas of a city of better than 300,000. 

The Chairman. Mr. Cooper, I don't like to keep interrupting you, 
but with respect to your statement, I notice that you say that in the 
Kearney Mesa project there will be at least 1.776 units, which will 
take care of approximately 3,000 people. 

Mr. Cooper. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you mean 3,000 people or 3,000 families? 

Mr. Cooper. Three thousand families. You see, some of the units 
are duplexes and some aie for four families. 

The Chairman. The reason I am calling your attention to it is that 
yesterday I was out there, and I understood then that there would be 
3,000 housing units. 

Mr. Cooper. 1 think they will have space for 3,000 families. 

The Chairman. Will you check on that? 

Mr. Cooper. I will be glad to. The 1,776 figure is my understand- 
ing of the number of buildings, as distinguished from housing or resi- 
dential units. 

The Chairman. I believe I was told that it would take care of about 
10,000 people. 

Mr. Cooper. That is right. 

The Chairman. That would check with the 3,000 families? 

Mr. Cooper. Yes, sir. In other words, you will have 3.2 persons 
per family. 

The Chairman. But you will check on that? 

Mr. Cooper. Yes, sir. I should be glad to do so. My understand- 
ing is that, so far as building units are concerned, there will be 1,776, 
with space for 3,000 families, just as you find in the Navy housing, 
where, for instance, you have 150 buildings for 600 families, or 4 
families to the building. 

The Chairman. That is correct. 

See Statement of Bon Jed Indebtedness, p. 4828. 



Mr. Cooper. Now, in addition to increasing the water facilities, 
in April of this year the city voted $1,983,000 for sewers — that is, 
major trunk-line sewers to be connected with an interceptor sewer 
and a sewage treatment plant to be constructed. 

In connection with our sewer program, I want to pay my respects to 
the aid which we have had from both the Navy and the W. P. A. 
They have come to the fore very gallantly in assisting in an extensive 
program. The interceptor sewer and the sewage-disposal plant 
involved an expenditure of approximately $2,000,000, and, as I say, 
in addition to that there has been voted $2,000,000 of bonds for sewer 
lines, which will make available sewerage facilities to many parts of 
San Diego where they are not now available. That is of distinct 
assistance in the future development of housing here, because very 
many areas which in other respects might be highly desirable for, let 
us say, a group of demountable houses, trailer camps, and so forth, 
are unavailable because of the lack of sewerage facilities, or because 
the cost of such facilities is prohibitive. 

San Diego, I think, has an excellent reputation for its cooperation 
with the Federal Government. As you are probably aware, the city 
has in the past donated to the Federal Government very large aieas 
for military establishments, such as the naval training station, the 
marine base, the marine rifle range, the naval supply depot, the 
headquarters of the Eleventh Naval District. We have experienced 
a fine degree of cooperation with the Navy Department in that respect. 
The site of Camp Callan is within the city limits, or rather, it is on 
city property and is leased to the Federal Government at $1 a year. 

The naval hospital is located on land which originally was a part of 
Balboa Park, but was voted out of the park and given to the Navy. 
So I think the city has displayed a fine degree of cooperation with 
the Federal Government. 


The city, in turn, for the coming year, is going to be faced with a 
substantially increased tax rate. We can't supply the services we are 
being called on to supply without material increases in city taxes. 

The CHArRMAN. What is your present tax rate? 

Mr. Cooper. Our present rate is $1 .92. For the coming year, I am 
satisfied it will be no less than $2.25. Now, that is the city rate. 

The Chairman. I understand. What is the county rate? 

Mr. Cooper. The county rate is, I think, $1.96, or right around 
$2, and the school rate for this year, as I recall, is $1.70. 

The Chairman. What are the total taxes? 

Mr. Cooper. $6; a little under $6 for this year. 1 

The Chairman. Do you know what the District of Columbia rate 
is — the total taxes? 

Mr. Cooper. Well, I think they are limited to $1.75. 

The Chairman. You are correct. That is absolutely correct. 
We are not quite satisfied with that back there, either. 

Mr. Cooper. I understand they are always anxious to get from 
Congress all that they can. 

1 See testimony of Walter Bellon, p. 4845. 


The Chairman. I mentioned the District tax rate only for purposes 
of comparison. 


Mr. Cooper. I understand San Diego is fast becoming, because of 
the extensive Federal investment here, a second District of Columbia. 
That brings me to the point that I want to make next: That with this 
tremendous activity and growth we are experiencing here, much of 
the new property is tax-exempt or tax-free, being Federally con- 
structed. So that we have only one alternative — to increase the tax 
rate on the property which is subject to taxation. 

Now, we understand that there are provisions in the Lanham Act 
which will permit payment in lieu of taxation for those projects fall- 
ing within that act. 1 

The Chairman. Yes. I am very familiar with that legislation, 
but I think when San Diego presents its requirements along with 
other cities and States of the Nation, the total provided in the act — 
$150,000,000 — is going to be woefully small. 

Mr. Cooper. I am veiy glad, Mr. Chairman, to have you say that, 
because we have felt, in view of our needs here and in view of what 
the needs elsewhere must be, that $150,000,000 is scarcely a drop in 
the bucket. We could set up a program that would take quite a sub- 
stantial percentage of the entire amount provided, and I am sure that 
other municipalities feel equally keenly as to the need, although I 
believe, frankly and honestly, that we present as complete a situation 
requiring Federal assistance as any community that can be found in 
the country, with the exception of those instances in which defense 
activities have just taken over the community, swallowing up what 
was normally the community life. 


Reverting to this matter of in-lieu payments with respect to Federal 
projects, I want to point this out: That we have been informed that, 
by administrative order, under the Lanham Act the in-lieu payments 
have been limited to 15 percent of the shelter rent. 

Now, the shelter rent for a full year, so far as I am able to deter- 
mine it, from the Kearney Mesa house project and the dormitories built 
by the Federal Works Agency, would be of the order of $1,000,000. 
Fifteen percent is $150,000, and that, of course, is divided in three 
ways: Schools, county, and city. I understand that for school pur- 
poses 5.6 percent has been allocated, and the remaining 9.4 percent 
will represent the compensation for the city and county. 

Now, actually, in a situation such as the Kearney Mesa housing 
project, there is but little county activity. In other words, there are 
few expenditures there that might be viewed as county out-of-pocket 
expenditures. True, they must maintain the county jail, they must 
maintain the courts, and so far as elections are paid for by the county, 
they will result in increased expenditures commensurate with the 
increase in population. 

But the city is faced with certain very definite out-of-pocket ex- 
penditures. Now, that arises partly because of the location of the 
housing project. Had the project or the 1,776 units been scattered 

i The act referred to, approved October 14, 1940, and amended and approved June 28, 1941, appears as 
exhibit 23 in this volume, p. 5007. 

60396 — 41 — pt.12 2 


throughout the city of San Diego, the children would have gone to 
city schools. It is true, of course, that that would have overcrowded 
many schools. 

But fire protection would have been afforded from existing fire sta- 
tions. The police would have rendered services in connection with 
the regular patrol routes. Garbage and rubbish would have been col- 
lected by the present methods. With the new houses creating the 
extra load, we probably would have had to put on additional personnel 
and trucks, but it would not have created the problem of setting up an 
entirely new service. The streets would have been cleaned in front 
of the houses, as we clean them now. 


The Chairman. How far is the Kearney Mesa project from San 

Mr. Cooper. It is located on the mesa land lying northerly of the 
San Diego River, just to the west of what is known as the Sixth Street 
Extension. I would say the distance to the center of it is approxi- 
mately 2 miles from the nearest built-up area in San Diego. It is 
located in an area where we had no development whatsoever. They 
took bare land and have built up a city of 10,000 people entirely 
within the city limits of San Diego. 

To service that area properly we would have to build a fire station. 
We can't serve it adequately from any existing station. 

The Chairman. In your opinion does it constitute a fire hazard 

Mr. Cooper. Potentially; yes. However, we will respond to 
alarms out there. 

The Chairman. You have responded to a good many alarms, 
haven't you, in the past? 

Mr. Cooper. Yes; false and otherwise, I am afraid. The project 
will require special police protection. In other words, we will have 
to set up our special patrol route out there. We will have to assign 
special officers during periods of heavy traffic. In other words, we 
cannot answer the needs through existing assignments. 

Of course, we will have to establish garbage and rubbish collection, 
and street cleaning, and such other maintenance services as are re- 
quired to be set up for the area. Library facilities should be brought 
in, and parks, and playgrounds should be established. It is as yet 
undetermined as to who is going to do all this. 


The Chairman. Do you feel, Mr. Cooper, from the observations 
you may have made of this whole national-defense program and the 
resultant increase in population, that it is financially possible for 
San Diego to take care of its increase? Do you feel that you can do 
it alone, without Federal aid? 

Mr. Cooper. It is definitely impossible, and for several reasons: 
First, wealth — taxable wealth — has not been substantially increased 
by this influx of population. The vast majority of people who are 
coming in here are at present nontaxpayers. They will contribute 
nothing to our city revenues. 


Now, the city itself is able and willing to take care of all its normal 
growth, its normal demands. But it. cannot take care of the abnormal 
demand. We have in our city charter a definite limitation upon the 
taxes we can levy. We are limited to $1.34 for general purposes, 
which does not include the amount needed for bond redemption and 
retirement, or for certain special items set up in the budget. The 
limit that I could go to in my budget this year, and the limit that I set 
up in determining items to be included, was based on the necessity of 
keeping within $1.34. I had to trim the budget that I actually sub- 
mitted to the council, to remain below the $1.34. By "trimming" 
I mean eliminating or excluding some items that I felt were needed 
and essential. 

The Chairman. Coif d you do as the Government has — alter the 
legal limit 

Mr. Cooper. To do that would take a vote of the people, and to 
hold such an election would cost $20,000 or $25,000, and 1 have some 
doubt as to whether the vote would be in favor of it. Of course, 
municipalities operate on rigid limitations as to how they can spend 
their money. In other words, we can't have a deficiency appropria- 
tion, such as the Federal Government can make through Congress. 

When the budget is set up and when the appropriation ordinance 
is passed that establishes the amount of money we can spend during 
the ensuing year. Even though I were to underestimate the actual 
needs, I cannot spend beyond that amount. Our appropriation 
ordinance represents the ceiling of our expenditures. We have to 
set that up a year in advance of the actual period in which it is to be 
expended. The cities do operate under rather severe financial limita- 
tions, and that is one of the things that makes it impossible for a city 
like San Diego to shoulder the burden as it comes along, in a defense 
area such as this, where the population is increased at the rate of 
50,000 a year. 

Now, in the statement which I filed with you, I have broadly out- 
lined, rather than detailed, our problem. 

The Chairman. Yes, I know. 

Mr. Cooper. And I should be glad to supplement that statement 
with such detail as you might wish. 


The Chairman. I think, Mr. Cooper, with your statement and 
what talks I have had with you, that you have covered the situation 
very well. I think I have the picture, and I believe the record will 
reflect it. 

One other point for the purpose of the record, though: How did the 
Federal Government come to select the Kearney Mesa site? 

Mr. Cooper. Mr. Chairman, I am afraid I can't answer that ques- 

The Chairman. I suppose I should be able to answer it better than 

Mr. Cooper. I can say this: We have had innumerable conferences, 
so-called, with the Federal authorities. They have come out here by 
the legion, and they dropped in to see the various city officials. Yes, 
I may say that there have been conferences. However, we usually 
find out these things, like the location of that project, after they have 


happened. We are not taken into their confidence, and asked, "Now, 
is this the site that you think is best? Is this the place where you 
think this should go?" 

We have expressed ourselves on some of these situations, largely as 
a defensive matter rather than as one representing a careful considera- 
tion of all the facts. But the selection of most of these sites has been 
dictated by conditions that the Federal Government has set up — 
limitation of money, let us say, or the necessity for going in and getting 
a sufficient area where there were no houses. The selection, ap- 
parently, has been dictated by some considerations aside from local 
community interest. The determination has been on the outside, 


The Chairman. This is an emergency program, is it not? 

Mr. Cooper. Yes, sir; and that is the position, more or less, that 
the city and the community has taken — that the national emergency 
dictates that we must play ball. We may not like it. We may not 
like what is being done, and there are innumerable people here who feel 
their condition has been decidedly "worsened" by what has happened. 
But we feel it is a national emergency, and we are going to play ball. 

The Chairman. Anyway, it is here? 

Mr. Cooper. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And there remains the question of what part the 
city of San Diego and what part the Federal Government play in its 

Mr. Cooper. We want to go ahead with the Federal Government 
100 percent, but there are limits beyond which we cannot go. Our 
hands are tied. And at such a point we think the Federal Govern- 
ment should step in and aid us. 

The Chairman. Mr. Cooper, we thank you very much. We have 
many witnesses here. I would like very much to hear more from 
you, but our time is limited. I appreciate your contribution. 

Mr. Cooper. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Please express my thanks also to the mayor. 

Mr. Cooper. Yes, sir. We appreciate this opportunity of appear- 
ing before you and the time you have given us. 

The Chairman. I will next call Mr. Porter. 


The Chairman. Mr. Porter, will you give us your full name for 
the record? 

Mr. Porter. Otis Mirrel Porter. 

The Chairman. And your wife is here with you? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What is her name? 

Mr. Porter. Gladys. 

The Chairman. Will you talk a little louder, please? The little 
boy your wife is holding, what is his name? 

Mr. Porter. That is Sherman Carl. 

The Chairman. How old is he? 

Mr. Porter. He is 3 years. 


The Chairman. And the next little girl? 

Mr. Porter. Mary Helen. 

The Chairman. And how old is Mary Helen? 

Mr. Porter. She is 5. 

The Chairman. And the boy next to you? 

Mr. Porter. Harry Allen. 

The Chairman. How old is he? 

Mr. Porter. He is 7. 

The Chairman. And you are how old? 

Mr. Porter. I am 39. 

The Chairman. It wouldn't be fair to ask you how old your wife 
is; I suppose. 

Mr. Porter. Well, you had better ask her. 

The Chairman. How old are you? 

Mrs. Porter. Thirty-one. 

The Chairman. Now, these are not all the children you have? 

Mr. Porter. No, sir. 

The Chairman. How many more have you? 

Mr. Porter. We have three more at home. 

The Chairman. How old are they? 

Mr. Porter. We have Betty Jean, who is 13, and Otis Neal, who 
is 11, and the baby, Roy Eugene, who is 11 months. 

The Chairman. Now, Mr. Porter, this is a part of the congressional 
committee which for the last year has been investigating the migration 
of people from one State to another, particularly people who were 
destitute. This is one of the follow-up hearings, on the national-defense 
program, to see how that has affected migration. 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. We have heard over 100 migrants and I want to 
say this to you: That we will treat you with just the same courtesy as 
we have treated governors and mayors, and any other dignitaries. 
So I want your answers to be perfectly frank. There will not be any 
cross-examination, and the only thing we are interested in is to get, 
for the purpose of the record, your own story. Now, where were 
you born? 

Mr. Porter. I was born in Pawnee, Okla. 

The Chairman. Were you on a farm there? 

Mr. Porter. No, sir; I lived in town. 

The Chairman. What were you doing? 

Mr. Porter. My occupation was electrician. 

The Chairman. How long did you work there in Pawnee? 

Mr. Porter. Ever since I have been big enough to work. 

The Chairman. When were you married? 

Mr. Porter. In 1927. 

The Chairman. In Pawnee? 

Mr. Porter. Well, in Pawnee County; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And was your wife raised on the farm? 

Mr. Porter. No; she was raised in Perry. 

The Chairman. On a farm? 

Mr. Porter. In town. 

The Chairman. Now, when did you become unemployed? 

Mr. Porter. In 1937. 

The Chairman. What did you do after that? 


Mr. Porter. Just whatever I could get to do in the way of work 
here and there, wherever I could find it. 

The Chairman. Odd jobs? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Where did you live? 

Mr. Porter. We have a home in Pawnee. 

The Chairman. You own your own home? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is anyone living in it now? 

Mr. Porter. We have it rented out. 

The Chairman. How much rent are you getting? 

Mr. Porter. We are getting $12.50 furnished. 

The Chairman. When did you leave Oklahoma? 

Mr. Porter. I left in January of this year. 

The Chairman. With the six children? 

Mr. Porter. No, sir; they just came out 2 weeks ago. 

The Chairman. How did you come out here? 

Mr. Porter. I drove for a lady in Long Beach. I drove her from 
Oklahoma City to Long Beach. 

The Chairman. And vou left all your children at home with vour 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How much money did you have when you left? 

Mr. Porter. I had. when I left home, about $14. 

The Chairman. Did that last you throughout the trip? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir; 1 arrived in San Diego with $7.50. 

The Chairman. And after you got here, what did you do? 

Mr. Porter. I went to the home of friends. 

The Chairman. Do you have any relatives here? 

Mr. Porter. Not in San Diego. 

The Chairman. Why .did you want to come to San Diego? 

Mr. Porter. I have a friend here, and he worked for Consolidated 
Aircraft. I have a telegram that he sent me, and I came on the 
strength of that telegram. 

(The telegram was handed to the chairman.) 

The Chairman. The telegram reads as follows: 

Otis M. Porter, 

Pawnee, Okla. 
Think you can get on right away if you come on out. 

C. H. Tucker, 
4528 University, San Diego. 

Now, what did you do with respect to obtaining employment after 
you arrived? 

Mr. Porter. I stayed with the Tuckers until I could get an inter- 
view at Consolidated. Formerly Consolidated had sent me an appli- 
cation blank to Oklahoma. They were badly in need of electricians, 
and they sent me an employment blank. I filled it out and sent it 
back air mail, and then this telegram came. 

The Chairman. Just go on, in your own words. 

Mr. Porter. And I stayed with the Tuckers until I got my inter- 
view, and the day I got my interview, he told me to come back on a 
certain date and get my physical examination. I came back on that 
date. That was, I believe, January 22. I came back on that date and 


got my physical examination, and was told to come back February 2 
and go to work. 

The Chairman. Did you go to work? 

Air. Porter. Yes, sir; I went to work on February 2. 

The Chairman. You have been working ever since? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. As an electrician? 

Mr. Porter. As an electrician in final assembly. 

The Chairman. How much money do you make? 

Mr. Porter. I make 64 cents an hour. 

The Chairman. How many hours do you work? 

Mr. Porter. We get 8 hours and 2 hours overtime. 

The Chairman. Where are you living with your family now? 

Mr. Porter. At the Sunset Auto Court. That is on the bay here. 

The Chairman. How much rent do you pay? 

Mr. Porter. We pay $18 a week for a 1-room cabin. 

The Chairman. Eighteen dollars a week for a 1-room cabin? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir; and lucky to get it. 

The Chairman. What is in that one room? 

Mr. Porter. We have a fold-away — in other words, a fold-away 
bed, and one bed, and an Army cot. And we have a kitchenette, and 
then a bathroom with a shower bath. Everything is furnished, 
however, on the $18 a week. 

The Chairman. Well, that makes how many of you altogether? 

Mr. Porter. Makes eight of us. 

The Chairman. Eight of you in the one room? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you have difficulty getting it? 

Mr. Porter. Yes. My family arrived on Saturday at about 
4 o'clock 

The Chairman. On what Saturday? 

Mr. Porter. Two weeks ago this last Saturday. 

Mrs. Porter. The 23d, I believe, on May 23. 

Mr. Porter. And we drove until 11 o'clock on Saturday night, 
trying to find a place to get in to sleep— j ust any place to sleep. I found 
a vacant cabin in the Bayview Auto Court, and rented it for one night 
only, and then the next day, Sunday, we drove all day. We drove out 
here to El Cajon, we drove to National City, we drove clear clown as 
far as Chula Vista and up to La Jolla, and all over, and at 10 o'clock 
that Sunday night we finally found this cabin at the Sunset Auto 
Court, and we asked the man if he would rent it to us. 

I told him the situation — that I had six children. He said, "We 
never turn away children," and I rented it from him. He said, "It 
is rather expensive," and he said, "You can't afford to pay it." 

And I told him I had to have some place to live. And he said, 
"O. K. We will rent it to you for 1 week." 

Well, the 1 week's time was up, and I didn't find a house again 
after that week, and after driving all Saturday and Sunday again, we 
failed to find a house. Every place we went, when we would get 
there and we would run it down, they would say, "Why, sorry, we 
don't take children. We won't take children." 

The Chairman. What do your total wages amount to in a month? 

Mr. Porter. Approximately $135. 

The Chairman. Then you pay more than half of that for rent? 


Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do the children go to school? 

Mr. Porter. We have four children — well, three go to school and 
this little girl will go this next year. However, school back where 
they came from is already out, and tbey stayed home until the schools 
back in Oklahoma were out, and then they came on out. 

The Chairman. Are any of the children going to school here? 

Mr. Porter. No ; they are not going to school because they already 
have their grades made, and we didn't think it was necessary for them 
to go. 

The Chairman. What do you say, Mr. Porter, about this: Would 
you rather be back home or here? 

Mr. Porter. If I had a job at home, I would rather be home. 

The Chairman. That is the situation that we have found almost 
everywhere in our investigation. I have hardly ever met a person 
who wouldn't rather be at home if he could subsist there. And you 
feel that same way? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What do you intend to do? Do you think you are 
going to stay here now? 

Mr. Porter. Well, if this work continues, which it looks like it 
will, for some time, I will stay at least as long as I am permitted to 
work out there. 

The Chairman. What are you going to do afterward? Suppose 
this war is over and some of these plants are closed down. What 
would be your plan then? 

Mr. Porter. Well, that is the reason for keeping the home in 
Oklahoma. I have always got some place to go back to, where I can 
live if it comes to that. 

The Chairman. Then you figure on saving enough money to go 
back home? 

Mr. Porter. Yes; we do, if we can find some place to live, where 
we can save some money. At the present time, where I am living it 
costs all my wages to pay our room rent and buy something to eat 
and other necessaries. 

The Chairman. Do you find any other families in similar cir- 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. All through the plant I hear of families in 
the same condition. I hear of fellows living in places where the land- 
lord comes to them and tells them that the rent is going up, and they 
say, well, their excuse is that their taxes are going up, and first one 
thing and another, and they have to have more money. Conse- 
quently, it takes all the money the boys can make to live. 

The Chairman. In other words, you feel, Mr. Porter, that this 
defense program depends a great deal upon housing, does it not? 

Mr. Porter. It does. 

The Chairman. As a matter of fact, you yourself were going to get 
out on account of the lack of it? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. I turned in my resignation and told them 
I couldn't find a place to live, and that I was going back to Oklahoma 
if I couldn't find a place to live. 

However, I have found a house. After so long a time, I have found 
a house, and I am not really able to pay the price that the lady asks, 
but in order to get it, I told her I would pay the price she asks. 


The Chairman. You say you earn about $135 a month? 

Mr. Porter. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You don't see much chance of saving any consider- 
able amount of money now, do you? 

Mr. Porter. No. It doesn't look as though I will be able to save 
much. However, at the present rate of pay, and if I can find living 
quarters and things within my means, I can save money enough so 
that when it comes time to go back home, I can go back. 

The Chairman. What are conditions among your friends, the per- 
sons you know in Oklahoma? Are they moving out here, too? 

Mr. Porter. At the present time, I couldn't say. I couldn't 
answer that question, because I don't know. I do know that several 
of them have wrote letters to me, asking the conditions here and could 
they get a job. 

The Chairman. I take it you like the San Diego climate? 

Mr. Porter. Oh, yes. I think it is all right. I think the chamber 
of commerce did a good job. 

The Chairman. Do you want to add anything, Mrs. Porter, to what 
has been said? 

Mrs. Porter. I don't know of anything. 

The Chairman. You substantially agree with what your husband 
says here? 

Mrs. Porter. Yes. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Porter, for coming down 
here. We appreciate it. 

I will call Mr. Bellon. 


The Chairman. Mr. Bellon, give your full name and in what official 
capacity you appear here. 

Mr. Bellon. Walter Bellon, chairman of the board of supervisors, 
San Diego County. 

The Chairman. How long have you been a member of the board of 
supervisors, Mr. Bellon? 

Mr. Bellon. I am in my second term; 5 years now. 

The Chairman. I have read your statement quite carefully, Mr. 
Bellon, and I think it is a very valuable contribution. 

(The statement referred to is as follows:) 


San Diego and the Present Emergency 

At present, San Diego County as a whole finds itself at the height of prosperity, 
prosperity that we have never enjoyed before. Paralleling this, we are faced with 
a staggering tax rate for this year of approximately $6.20 per $100 taxable valua- 
tion, with our county relief rolls holding firm to last year's high. With this in 
mind, we find in order to meet national-defense requirements that San Diego 
County has many readily apparent needs occasioned by the defense emergency: 
Increase in hospital facilities; new bridges strong enough to bear the weight of 
heavy military equipment; and means of meeting the added relief load that is 
apparent immediately after this defense prosperity. 


It cannot be too strongly emphasized, however, that continuance of the emer- 
gency will create many needs not so readily foreseen or enumerated; and further, 
that end of the national emergency will undoubtedl}' create another, bearing even 
more heavily upon San Diego and other defense centers than the defense prepara- 
tion itself. 


The county board of supervisors in this year's budget program has set aside 
one-half million dollars in the general reserve emergency fund to meet the imme- 
diate crisis, but if such crisis is in proportion to the 1933 depression, it will last 
but a few days. San Diego County is still paying heavily to the State of Cali- 
fornia for money borrowed to meet emergencies that were created by unemploy- 
ment in 1934. The problems of the county board of supervisors are not only to 
meet the present emergency but to prepare against the next one, especially when 
defense industries go into decline throwing thousands out of work, leaving a 
burden of transient unemployed to be shifted about the country once more, far 
more suddenly than the transient burden has been built up by the inflow of 
persons seeking defense employment here. We have seen the effects of that 
burden on housing, which had to expand to meet the needs of new people. Can 
San Diego carry on as easily after the emergency? 


At present we have in our county road system approximately 450 bridges. This 
does not include bridge construction under the State highway system. We were 
informed during our budget sessions of last month by our engineers that 60 new 
bridges should be constructed this year, all of which are wooden structures. 

We find that many bridges of this type of construction would be unable to bear 
heavy military equipment. Main traffic arteries under the State road system, I 
believe, are ample to meet military needs, but would military maneuvers be 
successful, especially those using heavy mobile units, in traversing our county 
road system, especially during the rainy period? We have set aside sufficient 
money in our budget to rehabilitate and reconstruct about 30 unsafe bridge 
structures. We have in San Diego County about 2,500 miles of secondary county 
roads. About 500 miles in addition is under State control and in the State road 


The new social order established in our county with reference to relief problems 
is one to be considered, as the problems are largely under the jurisdiction of San 
Diego County officials. We suddenly find our metropolitan area increasing 
through migration from other parts of the country in such rapid strides that it has 
been impossible to meet housing demands unaided. The city of San Diego is 
not a manufacturing center, but should be classed as an assembling location. 
However, it requires skilled and unskilled labor only during extreme assembling 
emergencies such as we have now. 

When this emergency is over, these families that have ventured far to locate 
here will find no other place of employment because they have been trained in a 
definite, limited branch of industry in which defense materials are assembled. 
Very few of these men have sufficient skill to assemble a complete piece of appa- 
ratus. Therefore, with this limited knowledge, they are only capable of doing one 
thing well. San Diego County finds itself, therefore, facing a new condition 
which we have never experienced before. 

At present we are providing relief for over 25,000 individuals, including Fed- 
eral Government projects which the county sponsors, and, it must be 
remembered, at a peak of prosperity. We have on our county rolls of May 
1941, S,408 aged persons receiving Federal, State, and county relief. We have 
298 blind, 760 orphans, and approximately 3,000 individuals known as indigents, 
or in other words 1,437 county indigent cases. This county problem costs the 
taxpayers at present over 50 percent of the county budget, or approximately 
$5,749,000, out of which is taken $552,000 annually to support the unemployable 
alone, or what is commonly known as the indigent load. This is shown in the 
tabulation below: 


Sci7i Diego County Relief Load April 30, 1941 

Type of aid Cases Persons 

Indigent 1,452 2,663 

Old-age assistance 7, 836 7, 836 

Blind 280 280 

State orphan aid 681 2, 159 

Total D. P. W 10,249 12,938 

State Relief Administration 586 > 1, 640 

Work Projects Administration 2, 147 ' 6, 012 

Civilian Conservation Corps junior camps (variable) 450-500 

Civilian Conservation Corps, senior camps.. 150 

School lunch program T 1, 748 

Farm Security Administration, grants r 2 48 

Farm Security Administration, loans 3 1, 180 

National Youth Administration (in school) 4 885 

National Youth Administration (out of school) 4 595 

Civilian Conservation, Indian Department 4 100 

Grand total 25,796 

' 2.8 persons per case. 

2 14 cases. 

3 347 cases. 

* Approximately. 

In 1930 the county of San Diego had a population of approximately 209,000, 
and we only had a welfare load costing $144,000. The last census indicated that 
our population increased 80,000, which increase was largely due to fairly prosperous 
times, but because of the new social order our relief cost reached, as I have said 
before, $5,749,000. 

400,000 IN COUNTY 

Since the census was taken, our population, according to some actuaries, has 
increased between 75,000 and 100,000 people. This is offering a new relief 
problem. Our county population now stands at approximatley 400,000 people, 
who are trained not for the farm but to assemble materials in defense manufac- 
turing plants. This entire migration is caused by the national-defense program, 
but will the national-defense program provide employment for those persons 
and their families who migrated from other parts of the States and from foreign 
countries when the emergency is over? 


The Chairman. Now, we have many witnesses and I don't want to 
detain you any longer than necessary, but I just want you, in your own 
way, to give us a picture of what you want to have the committee 

Mr. Bellon. Well, I did give in round terms a picture of what we 
expect — that is, when this prosperity that we are going through 
ceases to exist, as it must do some time. 

The Chairman. It always has. 


Mr. Bellon. We perhaps may find ourselves in the same condition 
as we were in 1933. The community was financially able to take 
care of its needs at that time. We had a very low case load of welfare 
people. But we are now attempting to look at the picture of what is 
going to happen when we have a population of perhaps 450,000 in 
the county — 100 percent more than 1933. 

Speaking of our relief load in 1929, our entire cost did not exceed 
$160,000, but in the height of prosperity we find our relief load ex- 
ceeding one-half of our county budget. We speak in terms of the 


county budget at this time as being about $22,000,000, but that in 
eludes all fixed charges. Now, when I speak of our county budget, 
in relation to the relief load, I am speaking only of $11,000,000, which 
is the workable budget or the supervisors' budget. 

The Chairman. What is your debt limitation there? 

Mr. Bellon. We have none. However, we feel this year our 
entire welfare budget, in the height of prosperity, is approximately 
$5,700,000. Now, that is the starting point. That is the starting 
point to meet the next depression, which will be several hundred 
percent greater than the starting point of the last depression. At 
the starting point of the last depression our entire relief load was 
$164,000, and at the starting point of this depression it is $5,700,000. 


Now, we are attempting to set aside a certain amount for the un- 
employables alone, we have been building up for the last 4 years 
an emergency fund that has reached $500,000. I think I made that 
statement in my letter to you. I am quite sure that I did. 

Now, you can readily see, using the witness that has preceded me as 
an example, what is going to happen to that $500,000. It wouldn't 
last but perhaps a week or 2 weeks. We went through that experience 
in 1933. I believe we had an emergency fund then of $900,000, and 
we had hundreds swarm the courthouse, demanding recognition. It 
was given them in every way possible, using road-tax money to supple- 
ment their needs. We are still paying that debt off today, and will 
for the next 6 years. 

But there are many other factors that enter into our expansion 
here, and one of them is this: The Federal Government has been no 
aid to the county in preventing the expansion of parks. There are 
certain groups that would like to form this county into a perennial 
garden, instead of one in which we can create wealth, and the Federal 
Government is largely responsible for this park system. 

The Chairman. Are you one of the advocaters of that park ex- 

"park poor" 

Mr. Bellon. No, I am not an advocate of the State and Federal 
park expansion program. We are becoming park poor. In other 
words, 48 percent of our county is untaxable because of our park 
situation, tax-free Indian lands, and national forest. Just recently 
the State park board announced its intention to make further en- 
croachments by adding 68,000 acres of fine lands which are located 
in the Vallecito and Carrizo sections of San Diego County in order 
to satisfy certain pressure groups located in Los Angeles and Imperial 
Counties at our expense. These lands are arid, not desert in character. 
All that is needed is water and ample water is there to be developed. 

We do have hundreds of people who still have the pioneer spirit, 
who would like to settle down and do things for themselves. I can 
name one or two families that live in our arid area today, who are 
perfectly comfortable, having a small pension of $30 a month for two 
people, and saving money off the land that they have settled on some 
5 or 6 years ago. 


Now, our own State park system is attempting"^ o change that, and 
if their program goes through, we will have little land for expansion, 
because a great deal of our county is mountain tops, as you realize. 
Out of a total of 2,700,000 acres, we have only 171,000 acres under 

The Chairman. What is the square-mile area of San Diego County? 

Mr. Bellon. Four thousand two hundred square miles. 

The Chairman. You have a big county. 

Mr. Bellon. Yes; quite a large county. I wish to give this picture 
for the record. We have ample park facilities to take care of our 
needs for the rest of our existence; in fact, for the next thousand years. 
We have 53 city parks, 31 county parks, and 1 national forest of over 
247,000 acres which encircles 640 square miles. In addition we have 
6 large State parks on the western slopes and a State park known as 
the Anza Park in the eastern section of our county of over 481,000 
acres, divided and split up into 216 separate parks which affects and 
destroys the potential development of 1,000,000 acres of county terri- 
tory. This giant land grab affects our potential development and tax 

The Chairman. I am wondering how that is tied into this inquiry. 

Mr. Bellon. It does tie into it, because in the future we hope to 
develop lands to take care of the needs of people who are clamoring 
to come here. 

The Chairman. And you have to have the money to do it? 

resources locked up 

Mr. Bellon. We are going to encourage development if we are 
permitted to do so, but first we must have the land. If the land is 
given over to a State park system, development ceases and the wealth 
that could be created is locked up forever. There are metallic and 
nonmetallic minerals all through this area, which cannot be developed, 
contrary to statements made otherwise. Our people are forced to 
live in the metropolitan areas. Very few people want to be farmers. 
It appears farming is being discouraged. This gigantic park system in 
San Diego County is a blight upon a free people and discouraging to 
men with initiative and foresight. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Bellon. But there are a few who do have the pioneer spirit, 
as I said before. 

Now, with everybody rushing to the center of the city, when this 
prosperity has broken down, I can readily see that our tax rate will 
exceed $10. Our tax rate is pegged this year at $6.20 per $100 
valuation. It is $2.11 in the countv, and $2.06 in the city. We are 
going to hold it to $2.06. 

The Chairman. Do you think it is going to be financially possible 
for San Diego County, on account of your increase in population as 
a result of the defense program, to handle it without Federal aid? 

Mr. Bellon. No; we cannot do it. We could do it this year, that 
is, if the peak stays at this level. 



Now, another point on welfare, which we are all interested in: 
The city has no welfare department, we take care of the entire county. 
In this peak of prosperity, we have only dropped, to be exact, 112 cases. 

The Chairman. What do you mean by "indigent" cases? 

Mr. Bellon. They are the unemployables, those that are consid- 
ered to be unemployable, though they may be able to do certain 
types of light work. 

The Chairman. What do you do with nonresident people who come 
in here who are indigent? 

Mr. Bellon. We are taking care of them through a special fund we 
have provided. We provide food for them. Also, we spend several 
thousands each year sending families back to where they came from, 
after we find that they are unemployable or cannot find work. 

The Chairman. Are you reimbursed for that by the State they 
came from? 

Mr. Bellon. No, sir. That is out of our own county funds. 

The Chairman. Your relief case load has decreased, has it not? 

Mr. Bellon. No, it hasn't, except, as I say, the 112 cases. 

Now, our old-age assistance load, for some unknown reason, has 
stopped climbing. That case load is a little under 8,000. 

The number of our blind cases is growing, and our orphan aid is 
increasing, but we receive State and Federal aid for the orphans 
and blind. 


Then another picture enters into this expansion, and that is our new 
polling places and the juvenile delinquency camps which we are forced 
to set up. Of course, not only juvenile, but those of age. There are 
two new prison camps that are costing us close to $100,000 a year. 
That is a new item of expenditure which we are compelled to meet. 
One is a new men's prison camp and one a new juvenile prison camp. 
That will make four prison camps that we have. 

If we didn't do that, we would have to enlarge our jail, because we 
have about 75 percent more in our jail today than it really should hold. 

Those facts bring your governmental expenditures up. I think we 
can hold them to a fairly low level, except for the expense in connection 
with juvenile delinquencies and the personnel to control them. We 
are employing about 130 additional adults in county government to 
meet the increased demands. Our pay roll now exceeds 1,600 per- 
sons in county government. 


The Chairman. Mr. Bellon, before I forget it: You heard Mr. 
Porter testify, didn't you? 

Mr. Bellon. Yes. 

The Chairman. About the rent he was paving, which was about 
$72 a month? 

Mr. Bellon. Yes. 

The Chairman. Is that general or not? 

Mr. Bellon. No; that is not general. That is evidently an 
exception because he has so many children. For instance, there is a 
property next to mine which has about five rooms and is well equipped, 


and it stood idle for 3 months at $40 a month, and was just rented by a 
Navy man. 

The Chairman. Mr. Porter has only a one-room house. 

Mr. Bellon. That is really out of the ordinary. 

The Chairman. I just wanted to get your reaction to it. 

Air. Bellon. If he is a defense worker, is not the Government 
project, and those facilities, open for him to live in? I believe they 
have a camp out here on the Mesa, out across the river, which will 
take care of 12,000 persons, or about 4,000 families. That camp, I 
understand, has a low-rent base. 


Miss Bauer. Just for the record, Mr. Bellon, will you distinguish 
between the general relief load and the relief load so far as categorical 
aid is concern ed? 

Mr. Bellon. The categorical aid is a new word they inserted in 
the record — I think to be used in the way of confusion. 

The indigent aid is purely county aid. That is a direct county 
responsibility. Categorical aid includes orphan aid, blind aid, and 
old-age aid. That is the difference between the two, as we have it 
here in San Diego. 

Miss Bauer. What is the distinction between the two of them, so 
far as the comparison between the load now and the load before is con- 
cerned? Your general relief load, is that up or down, considering 
that alone, apart from the categorical? 

Mr. Bellon. Our general relief load is holding at about the level of 
last year, except our indigent cases have dropped a total of 112 cases. 

The old-age aid has been increasing about 1,000 a year up to this 
year, and we find that it has stopped climbing this month. For what 
reason, we don't know, but I imagine that it will climb again, for we 
find through our investigations that many people come to California 
to live over the 5-year period that is required, and then make applica- 
tion for old-age aid. That qualifies them as citizens and makes them 
eligible to receive old-age aid. 

The Chairman. Is there anything further that you want to present? 

Mr. Bellon. No; nothing. 

The Chairman. Then I will repeat the invitation that I made to 
you and to the city manager yesterday, that if there is anything 
further that you have in mind, which you wish to present, we will be 
glad to have you send it in to us, and we will make it a part of the 

Mr. Bellon. I think you will have Dr. Lesem. who will speak 
on the hospital end of the welfare situation. 1 

The Chairman. All right. That is so as not to duplicate? 

Mr. Bellon. Correct. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Bellon. The com- 
mittee will take a 5 minute recess. 

(After a 5-minute recess.) 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. Major 
Gott and Mr. Wiseman will be our next witnesses. 



The Chairman. Major, will you please give your full name and in 
what capacity you appear here? 

Major Gott. My name is Edgar N. Gott, vice president and 
director of public relations, Consolidated Aircraft Corporation. 

The Chairman. And the gentleman with you? 

Mr. Wiseman. Herman R. Wiseman, personnel administrator, 
Consolidated Aircraft Corporation. 

The Chairman. Now, you filed a statement here which will become 
a part of the record, but may I ask you how long you have been 
identified with Consolidated? 

Major Gott. Since January 1936. 

The Chairman. Just what are your duties? 

Major Gott. Public relations director. That covers a number of 

The Chairman. What are some of them? 

Major Gott. Well, at present all relations with the public, other 
than those pertaining to manufacture, sales, accounting, and work 
of that kind. 

The Chairman. Have you anything to do with the labor supply? 

Major Gott. Not directly. Mr. Wiseman can answer any ques- 
tions along those lines. 

The Chairman. You would rather discuss the housing end of it, 
would you? 

Major Gott. Yes; I would. 

The Chairman. Then I will permit you to proceed in whatever 
way you want in order to bring out your ideas. Your statement is 
going to go into the record, but if there is anything additional or any 
part that you want to emphasize here, you may do so, and then I 
want to ask you some questions about it. Your statement will be 
printed in the record at this point. 


Some months ago it became evident that rents — especially in the lower brack- 
ets — were being increased to what seemed an unwarranted extent. As a result, 
many persons employed in defense industries were confronted with unreasonable 
expenditures for shelter. 

The situation had its genesis at a time when the various housing projects pro- 
posed by the Government were still taking form and at a time when a number of 
San Diego landlords had not yet fully realized the cooperative attitude necessary 
in the present emergency. It was found that under present law a tenant had 
practically no recourse or protection so far as unwarranted rental increases were 

A survey was made not only by the personnel office of Consolidated, but by the 
commandant of the Eleventh Naval District, which revealed that approximately 
1,200 employees of the Navy and of Consolidated had been subjected to what they 
felt were unwarranted rental increases. 

In the case of Consolidated the number of complaints reached approximately 
150. This survey was started during January 1941, and it was then apparent 
that there was no legislation — either State or Federal — which would prevent the 
landlord from charging anything he pleased for rental, although in the case of the 


Navy the Soldiers' and Sailors' Act for 1940 accorded partial relief. Shortly 
thereafter the Defense Housing Committee was organized and all data of this 
nature was turned over to that body. 


A bill was introduced in the State legislature closely patterned after recom- 
mendations made by the Consumer Division of the Office of Production Manage- 
ment, but this bill was never brought out of committee due to vehement opposi- 
tion on the part of California real-estate interests. The city of San Diego under 
its charter, it is understood, cannot regulate rents. Therefore the only relief is 
through either State or Federal legislation. Attention is drawn to the Wartime 
Prices and Trade Board Order No. 30 of the Canadian Government, enacted 
effective on and after February 1, 1941. This act, it is understood, has very 
materially ameliorated the situation as regards high rents in and near defense 
centers in the Dominion of Canada. 

I have not personally had specific instances of unwarranted rental increases 
brought to my attention for some months. This, I believe, is due to several 

First, for the time being the employment program of Consolidated Aircraft 
Corporation has been more or less stationary, awaiting the completion of our new 
parts-plant facility. 

Second, there has been a gradual leveling off of tenants and housing facilities 
in an endeavor to reach a stable position. 

Third, the completion of new Federal facilities and their gradual occupancy has 
improved the situation. In addition to which it is believed that property owners 
in this city, on the average, have become more indoctrinated with the necessity 
of cooperating with the Federal Government. (Perhaps this is partly due to fear 
of regulatory legislation.) A great deal of credit is due the homes registration 
bureau for their excellent work. This agency was authorized by the mayor of 
San Diego and sponsored by the defense housing committee. They have found a 
number of homes for many prospective tenants, which through lack of coordina- 
tion would not otherwise have been made available. 


It is a fact, however, that there is still a tremendous shortage — first of all, of 
any kind of houses; and, secondly, of houses within the price levels which would 
enable the average employee to enjoy their use. It is also a fact that from 75 
to 80 percent of those offering houses will not permit children on the premises. 
The average price level of housing facilities suitable for our men should not exceed 
$30 per month. 

It is interesting to note that, for example, in the issue of the San Diego Tribune- 
Sun for Tuesday, June 10, there were listed 27 furnished apartments for rent, 
of which only 5 indicated rentals of $30 and below. There were 62 furnished 
houses listed, of which only 10 showed rentals of $30 and below. It is my opinion 
further that notwithstanding the increase in facilities which will be afforded by 
the Government units now under construction, there will not only continue to 
be a shortage of houses as our employment increases but also that rents will 
continue to rise unless regulatory legislation is enacted. 


We have a fair rental committee in the process of establishment by the mayor. 
This committee, however, will have no power to enforce its decisions and will act 
only in an advisory capacity. Undoubtedly, this is a step in the right direction, 
but it is felt that the committee should be fortified with actual regulations which 
would prevent exorbitant rentals. 

It is my opinion that a landlord should be entitled to a fair return upon his 
investment but no further; anything above a fair return should be unlawful. 
Conversely it is my opinion that basing charges for rentals upon the employee's 
income is not an equitable solution to the problem. This method of rental 
charge is, I understand, being adopted by the defense housing project located on 
Kearney Mesa, and is sure to result in hard feeling and friction. 

It would seem that rents should be based solely upon the value of the property 

occupied and not measured by any other yardstick. This opinion, I believe, is 

shared not only by property owners here but also by those representing labor. 

It is furthermore believed that regulatory legislation, if passed, would not have 

60396— 41— pt. 12 3 


to be utilized in very many cases, as it is felt that the patriotic impulses of the 
average landlord will far outweigh his desire for temporary enrichment. How- 
ever, the law should be there in case of necessity. 


Legislation of this type, based upon fair return, would in my estimation be 
preferable to that suggested by the Consumer Division of the Office of Production 
Management. A brief outline of same follows: 

1. Granted that a landlord is entitled to a fair return upon his investment; 
the law should state what such a return should be — for instance, 1 percent of 
the appraised value per month — and then should fix a penalty for anyone charg- 
ing in excess of that amount. 

2. The appraised valuation could be determined by a representative of the 
county assessor, and would not necessarily have any bearing upon the then as- 
sessed valuation; but of course in cases where the appraised valuation was very 
materially increased then, as the assessor would be the deciding factor in making 
the appraisal, the property owner would think twice before raising the ante too 

3. Rents to be so controlled would be only within a certain radius of accredited 
defense industries as certified to by either the Army, Navy, or Office of Produc- 
tion Management. Of course the legislation should be limited to the term of 
the present emergency. 

These regulations should apply not only for the benefit of defense workers 
but for the benefit of anyone located in the defense area so designated. It is 
believed that those citizens who serve the defense workers — such as the butcher, 
the baker, and the candlestick maker — are also vital to the defense industry. 
At present, however, they have no preference as regards the rental and housing 
situation, and are subject to the same difficulties as those which confront the 
defense workers. In all fairness, any legislation should apply to all those living 
in the defense area specified. 


As regards the employment situation, we submit the following: 

1. We are receiving approximately 300 calls a day, as well as from 100 to 110 
new applications. 

2. There are approximately 40,000 applications on file which are less than 1 
year old; the majority of these applicants are now employed in other plants and 

3. Last June we had approximately 7,000 people on our pay roll; there are 
16,600 at present. To gain that figure it was necessary to hire approximately 
10,500 because of turn-over. We will probably increase our pay roll 7,000 to 
8,000 between now and January 1, 1942, which will entail hiring possibly 8,500 
to 9,500 to obtain that increase. 

4. Our starting rates are comparable with those found in the East; our over- 
time schedule is likewise comparable. In hiring men from the East the words 
"aircraft" and "southern California" are an attraction; since increased production 
in the East, however, we have lost all except our "southern California incentive." 

5. Our wages are comparable with other California aircraft industries. In 
skilled trades our going rates are comparable, but due to our incentive plan our 
starting rates are not as high as job shops or some other types of industry. 

6. The average distance traveled by our employees is 5.3 miles; however, in this 
area there is considerable congestion of families and some crowding in rooming 
houses, etc., which would be alleviated if the tenants could be located throughout 
a larger radius. 



The Chairman. Now, Mr. Gott, we shall be glad to hear any com- 
ments you may desire to make. 

Major Gott. I think the most important thing at present is that, 
in order to secure fair rentals or facilities, a fair-rents committee 
should be established, which is being done, as I understand it, but 
that that committee should be empowered to enforce their findings. 


The Chairman. Who would appoint the committee? 

Major Gott. The committee, as I understand it, is to be appointed 
by the mayor, and I have understood that its personnel is to com- 
prise persons of responsibility, who have the respect of the com- 
munity, from various walks of life, and not prejudicial to any particular 

The Chairman. Would you include the Army and Navy and 
Government representatives? 

Major Gott. I don't think that the Army and Navy representa- 
tives could serve on such a committee. I don't know. 

The Chairman. I am just thinking out loud, to find out your 
thoughts in the matter. 

Major Gott. Yes. So far as I can see, their participation would 
not be of any advantage, either to the service or to the work that they 
are supposed to do. 

The Chairman. Would you recommend that fair-ients committees, 
similar to the one that you indicate, should also be appointed in 
other national-defense communities? 

Major Gott. Wherever the necessity arises, yes. 

The Chairman. Wherever there has been a great increase in 
population on account of the national-defense program? 

Major Gott. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now, has such a committee been authorized by 
the legislature? 

defense housing committee 

Major Gott. No. Through the efforts of the — I can't remember 
which Government agency it was; I think Mr. Scarbrough represented 
that agency — tin 1 mayor appointed a defense homes committee. 
Let me get the name of that right. I have it in here somewhere. 

The Chairman. A fair rent control committee? 

Major Gott. That is another one. Defense housing committee. 
Now, that committee was made up of a number of interested people. 
That committee was appointed by the mayor. Lieutenant Black, of 
the staff of the commandant of the Eleventh Naval District, was 
chairman. His specific duties in the naval district are in connection 
with the hiring of civilian personnel. We have various representatives 
on that committee. 

That committee has, in turn, brought into being the homes registra- 
tion bureau, which is set up in the civic center, for the purpose of 
coordinating people who want to rent houses with those who want to 
become tenants; I mean the landlord and the tenant. They have 
done a very good job. 

Then in addition to that, I understand the mayor is to appoint, 
possibly already has, a fair rents committee, whose duty it will be to 
piss upon any complaints as to rental increases. That, 1 believe, is 
now in process. 

enforcement is problem 

The Chairman. The weakness of it will be the right to enforce? 
Major Gott. That is right. 
The Chairman. How will you do that? 

Major Gott. Through public opinion, through publicity, and moral 


The Chairman. You would not suggest legislation, would you? 

Major Gott. Yes; to back that committee up. 

The Chairman. Could that be handled by an ordinance? 

Major Gott. You mean a Presidential order? 

The Chairman. No; an ordinance; a city ordinance. 

Major Gott. I don't think the city charter permits such regulation. 
I can't say definitely as to that, but I understand it does not. It will 
either have to be State or Federal. 

The Chairman. From your investigations do you find that exorbi- 
tant rents do exist here? 

Major Gott. We made a survey and the commandant of the 
Eleventh Naval District made a survey, I think, in January. 

Mr. Wiseman. That is right; in January. 

Major Gott. And a number of cases were brought to light. Those 
cases were, in turn, referred to this defense housing committee and 
investigations were made. Well, the investigations were made by the 
realty board representatives here in San Diego. 

Now, since then no further survey has been made, and as I stated 
here, there may be several reasons why the situation may not be as 
acute now as it was then. That was before these government houses 
had come into being, and a number of other developments, so that 
I can't say at the present moment whether that condition still exists 
or not. 

The Chairman. Was the survey filed? 

Major Gott. It was. I believe the survey was turned over either 
to Mr. Scarbrough or Mr. Palmer, I am not sure which. Lieutenant 
Black can give you that information in detail. 


Another thing, Congressman Tolan: The employment schedule of 
Consolidated has temporarily leveled off. We have maintained a 
level of 16,500 men for about 3 months. [To Mr. Wiseman:] Is that 

Mr. Wiseman. That is correct. 

Major Gott. That was for about 3 months. As soon as this new 
facility or works starts up, we will gradually pick up. In fact, we 
are commencing to pick up now. We will take on, as the report here 
states, possibly 7,000 to 8,000 men between now and January 1, which 
will mean hiring between 8,500 and 9,500, on account of the turn-over. 

The Chairman. What housing is to be provided for that additional 
group of workers? Is any plan being worked out? 
i Major Gott. Yes. The housing project on Kearney Mesa is one 
thing. The dormitory units which have been brought in are another. 
The demountable houses that have been put up are a third, and, of 
course, private enterprise is gradually helping to fill the gap also. 

many trailer camps 

The Chairman. Are there any migrant camps around San Diego? 
Major Gott. There are a lot of trailer camps. I wouldn't know 
the exact definition of your phrase. 

The Chairman. Are those Government migrant camps? 

Major Gott. No; none of these is around here, to my knowledge. 


The Chairman. Did you hear the migrant, Mr. Porter, testify this 

Major Gott. No. I heard only a part of it, and I couldn't make 
out exactly what he said. 

The Chairman. Well, he said that he has six children, he and his 
wife, and he said he looked around here for a couple of days, and 
finally got a house, a one-room house with a kitchenette and bath- 
room, and is paying $72 a month for it; that he receives approxi- 
mately $135 a month wages, which, of course, wouldn't give him 
much opportunity to save money. Do you know of any cases of that 
kind yourself? Or you, Mr. Wiseman? 

Mr. Wiseman. I can't call any to mind. I do have brought to my 
attention at various times, by some of the employees, then rental sit- 
uation, what their earnings would be, and what the normal living 
expenses would be for the family. 

Major Gott. Was your witness unable to locate in the housing 
proj ect? 

The Chairman. He said he traveled for 2 days around here and 
coukl not find anything. 

Major Gott. I mean, in the defense housing project on Kearney 

The Chairman. I don't think any of those units were ready at that 
time. He came here in February. 

Major Gott. There should be before long. 

Mr. Abbott. He stated that he has applied there, but they have 
none of that size ready for occupancy. 

Major Gott. His family is too large? 

Mr. Abbott. His family is too large. 


The Chairman. Do you find any difficulty here, Major, in regard to 
getting houses for families who have children? Are such families 
handicapped in any way? 

Major Gott. Well, the records of this committee on homes — I 
keep forgetting the name of that — the defense housing committee and 
this homes registration bureau show that, roughly speaking, from 75 
to 85 percent of the people offering houses for rent will not accept 

The Chairman. Seventy-five percent? As high as that? 

Major Gott. Yes. That is subject to verification, but I think that 
is approximately correct. It certainly is not below 70 percent. 

The Chairman. At any rate, your proposed solution is that you 
have a fair-rent-control committee appointed? 

Major Gott. Yes. 

The Chairman. With some power to enforce their regulations? 

Major Gott. Yes. 

The Chairman. And vou think San Diego is going to undertake 

Major Gott. I don't think they can. You mean, the city 

The Chairman. Yes. 



Major Gott. I doubt if it is within their power. Here is another 
thing, Congressman, and that is that the defense area should not 
necessarily be bounded by the city limits of San Diego. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Major Gott. A great many of our men live outside of the city 
limits. Mr. Wiseman, for one, lives outside the city limits. 

Mr. Wiseman. Yes; I live outside. 

Major Gott. A number live as far north as Ocean Side, and to the 
east as far as Escondido and other points; and the area is what counts, 
not the corporate limits in which the facility is located. That area 
should be so designated. 


The Chairman. That is right. Mr. Wiseman, where do your 
workers come from? 

Mr. Wiseman. At present, as in the past, they are coming from all 
points of the compass in the United States. We drain no particular 

The Chairman. How are they contacted? I suppose various 
factors cause them to come here? 

Mr. Wiseman. Yes. A number of the present employees write 
back to their home towns and to friends, saying that there is a possi- 
bility of employment, that it looks promising in this area. Of course, 
the aircraft industry itself has advertised in various parts of the 
country, and that incites the individual, say in the Middle West, and 
other parts of the country, to come out and try his luck. 

We answer and have a very comprehensive mail set-up for answering 
all inquiries as to employment, in which we give very complete 
information on what the situation is, and enclose an application blank, 
in which correspondents can state their qualifications. 1 If the appli- 
cation looks promising, we ask them, at their own expense of course, 
to make application for employment. That is, we do that with skilled 
men. We do not make any such answer, say, to a farm boy who has 
had no experience; but we ask a skilled man when he is in the proximity 
of the plant to stop in and we will be glad to talk to him about em- 


The Chairman. How extensive is your company's advertising to 
get workers here? 

Mr. Wiseman. At only one time in the last 8 months have we 
advertised locally. However, we do have, or, we have in the past, 
worked out an employment schedule in the East, through the medium 
of advertising in the newspapeis, and I sent some of our employees, 
some of our employment department, back, and they have contacted 
men in the East through the medium of the State employment offices. 

The Chairman. Now, when a man comes here from some other 
State, and he is a skilled worker, just what method does he use to 
make the application? 

Mr. Wiseman. If he has applied to us previously by mail, our 
facilities are so set up in the employment office that we can handle a 

1 See Exhibit 3.— Documentary Evidence of Citizenship Required for Employment, p. 4907. 


very large number of applicants dining the day. Each man has a 
chance to state his qualifications, his experience, and his capabilities; 
if we find these acceptable, we will hire that man, with definite proof 
of citizenship. Each man has an opportunity to be heard. Of course, 
we have certain physical limitations that we are governed by. 


The Chairman. Now, your employment set-up, is it affected in 
any way by housing conditions around here? 

Mr. Wiseman. It is, to a certain extent. Particularly, with the 
man who, we will say, will enter our employ at our minimum starting 
wage. He investigates what be can get, and naturally he bargains 
for the highest rate of pay to start. When his ability is determined 
by us, and it is found that he is not entitled to a rate higher than our 
minimum, then he learns something of the rent situation here, and 
we have many men tell us they are governed as to whether they will 
stay in San Diego by whether they can find a place to stay. Of course, 
he lias to pay the rent that he has found to prevail. 

"fake aircraft schools" 

The Chairman. Now, has either one of you gentlemen heard of 
these so-called fake aircraft schools and their advertising? 

Major Gott. Yes. 

The Chairman. Have you any here in San Diego? 

Major Gott. I don't think so. 

Mr. Wiseman. No; we have not, in this area. All the schools here 
operate on a legitimate basis. 

Major Gott. I might say this 

Mr. Wiseman. We investigate those schools. [To Major Gott:] 
Pardon me. 

Major Gott. Yes. 

Mr. Wiseman. We investigate those schools here in this area very 
thoroughly before we will take any recommendation from them at all. 

Major Gott. In other words, if they do not measure up to the 
standards, as they are so close to us here, they will soon become 

Mr. Wiseman. That is right. 

Major Gott. The thing we are trying to do is to draw as much of 
our personnel from the city vocational school as possible. We have 
given their graduates, as I understand it, preference wherever pos- 
sible, and they are doing a very good job of training men for our 
business, although at the present time the supply of local trainees is 
greatly diminishing, and it may become necessary to bring them 
from outside the city. 


That brings up another point, which may not exactly tie in with 
your investigation, but there is a surplus of rooms available for single 

Mr. Wiseman. That is right. 


Major Gott. Now, then, the Government has put up barracks and 
dormitories for single men, which, in turn, are not nearly so much in 
demand as the residences for the married men. 

The National Youth Administration proposes to bring in young 
men from the outside and take care of them, according to their plan, 
and, in turn, allow them to learn a trade in the vocational school. 
These young men have to have a place to live. The barracks which 
the Government has built are ideal for that purpose, but due to an 
interpretation of the enabling act for the barracks, they cannot let 
N. Y. A. trainees live in them. That is, the occupants of the barracks 
have to have a job in the defense program. 1 

Naturally, we cannot hire any man who just comes here, but we 
need the trained men, and if there is anything that could be done to 
allow these N. Y. A. trainees to live in these barracks, it would bo a 
fine thing. They are as vital to the defense industry as the men who 
are turned out of the vocational schools. As I say, it would be a 
wonderful thing, because here are the facilities lying idle, and the 
N. Y. A. has no place to put the boys. If it was possible to put them 
in there, it would serve a very useful purpose. I think that is a very 
important point. 


The Chairman. Yes; I think so too. Now, could you throw any 
light on the question of how many people are coming to you now look- 
ing for work? I mean, has the number decreased, increased, or held 

Major Gott. You can tell that better than I can, Mr. Wiseman, 
about the increase. 

Mr. Wiseman. We have a normal flow of applicants hi the employ- 
ment office of approximately 300 a day. Some of them are "repeats." 
We have no means of measuring that. We feel that that is a normal 
flow, approximately 300 calls daily. 

Major Gott. And you say in this report, "as well as some 100 to 
110 new applications." 

Mr. Wiseman. That is right. 

The Chairman. Are you putting on many men at tliis time? 

Mr. Wiseman. We have increased slightly over what Major Gott 
said just a moment ago — a pay roll of 16,500 men. We are hiring 
perhaps 25 men a day at the present time. 


The Chairman. Could you give me any idea of the average weekly 
pay they receive? 

Mr. Wiseman. Our pay throughout the plant averages about $34 a 
week. (See p. 4859.) 

Major Gott. There is another point, Congressman Tolan. At 
present we have taken on a lot of new men, you may say a lot of green 
men. According to our incentive system, those men get an automatic 
increase of 2 cents an hour every 5 weeks, until they get up to 60 cents 
an hour, plus any merit increase that they may receive. One is 
automatic, and the other is based upon ability, so that as time goes 
on that level will rise, so that I imagine it will be closer to $40 or $42 a 

See letter of C. F. Palmer, page 5015. 


Mr. Wiseman. That is true — taking the present level. 

The Chairman. What about their efficiency? Do you have to 
let out many men on account of inefficiency? 

Mr. Wiseman. Not many, Congressman, for this reason: Most 
of the men that we employ have gone through vocational training. 
The percentage there would be a very small fraction of 1 percent, 
a very small percentage that we let out for inefficiency. 

The Chairman. Now, what is your pay roll now? 

Mr. Wiseman. 16,572 as of yesterday. 

The Chairman. And the increase before January 1 is going to be 

Major Gott. There will be an increase here of from seven to eight 

Mr. Wiseman. Yes; about 8,000. 


Major Gott. But that isn't all, because when this new plant of 
ours is in operation, we will have practically the same number of men 
emploved there as we have at our present facilities, or even more; 
perhaps 20,000. 

Mr. Wiseman. We are speaking here of our present plans. 

Major Gott. Yes; our present plans. In other words, I want to 
say that January. 1, 1942, is not the termination of our program. It 
is going to continue on after that date. 

Miss Bauer. When do you expect your maximum pay roll? 

Major Gott. I wish I could tell you. I don't know. But I 
would say in — [to Air. Wiseman] What do you think? Either Febru- 
ary or March? 

Mr. Wiseman. I would say March. We will have probably 
40,000 to 42,000 by that time. 

Miss Bauer. I understand that although there is a shortage of 
trainees at the present time, over the past few months when you 
were not taking on men there were several hundred trainees in the 
local schools who could not get work with Consolidated. I wonder if 
you feel that this might be having any effect on the supply of trainees. 
You might like to give us any other ideas you might have on how you 
are going to get your 7,000 or 8,000 new people. 


Mr. Wiseman. You must understand that all of the trainees who 
go through the local schools are not absorbed by our company here. 
They have an equal chance of employment at the other aircraft plants, 
although we take better than 65 percent of those graduated from the 
local schools. Now, the local schools have increased their training 
hours from 120 hours to approximately 240, making it necessary for 
some of the boys who have completed their course to go back and take 
additional training. We know, as you say, that the material is 
running short. We can, if necessar}', inaugurate a hiring program 
away from our office here, which we have clone successfully on one 
occasion. We would prefer to have that material in the proximity 
of San Diego, but we know it would be impossible. 


When you ask mo a question like that, I cannot say just what part 
of the country we can get these men from, but so far we have been able 
to meet any demands that might be placed on us for personnel. 

Major Gott. There was a gap there, which wasn't anticipated, 
because we had hoped that our new facilities would be completed before 
this time. An unusual winter here slowed things up. 


The Chairman. Would either one of you gentlemen care to take a 
look into the future and tell us what is going to happen to Consoli- 
dated and to similar plants in the United States after the war is over? 
Or is that going too far for you? 

Major Gott. I am not a crystal gazer, so I don't know. This is 
an offhand statement, not based on anything except hope, not on 
facts, or anything of that kind, because we don't know. After it is 
all over, we hope that we will be able to maintain at least half of 
our anticipated total facilities all the way through. In other words, 
put it this way: Practically all of our present plant belongs to Con- 
solidated. The facility being put up north of our plant, which is 
what we call the parts plant, is being constructed by the Defense 
Plant Corporation, which, as you know, is an instrumentality of the 
United States Government. We want to keep what we have got 
after the emergency is over, and it is up to the Government to say 
what to do with the other. Now, that is about 50 percent. That is 
just a guess. We hope that will be correct. 

The Chairman. If you have a pay roll of about 25,000, and 12,000 
have to go, I wonder what will become of them? 

Major Gott. Well, I can't say. 

The Chairman. I think from what investigation I have made and 
from conversations with Members of Congress, that the aircraft 
industry, at the finish of the war, will not immediately close down. 
I don't think it will. I think it will be one of the defense industries 
that will hold up. 

commercial future for aviation 

Major Gott. Not only that, Congressman, but a lot of shipping is 
to be done by air as time goes on, which has previously been carried 
by rail and by water; and especially with our attitude toward the 
South American nations, the finest way to build up good will and com- 
munity of interest is through closer communication, and the airplane 
does that like nobody's business. It is a wonderful vehicle. For 
instance, Pan-American Airways have done a fine job in handling 
their traffic to South America to build up good will, and I look to see 
the time when freight will be carried by air, as well as express and 
passengers. I don't mean by that big stamp-mills, or anything like 
that, but reasonably sized freight packages. 

Mr. Wiseman. And while we are supposing. Congressman, we 
might say also that it is reasonable to believe that in the future 
someone will have to maintain aircraft from a mechanical standpoint, 
which will mean replacement business. 

Major Gott. We will always need aircraft, for military purposes 
and for peacetime purposes. That is what we hope. 


The Chairman. Thank you very much, gentlemen. 

Major Gott. Before we go, could I make a correction in the testi- 
mony that was just given by Air. Wiseman, in the figure that he gave 
of $34 a week as the average wage? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Major Gott. The figure which was given of $34 a week average 
was based on the 40-hour base week. As a matter of fact, we are 
operating now on a 50-hour base week, with time and a half for the 
added 10 hours over 40 hours, so that, in other words, the average 
now, based on overtime, is $48 a week, instead of $34. 

(The witnesses were excused.) 

The Chairman. Are Mr. and Mrs. Price here? 


The Chairman. Will you please give your full name, Mr. Price? 

Mr. Price. John Russell Price. 

The Chairman. Where are you living now? 

Mrs. Price. 3443 Boston Avenue. 

The Chairman. San Diego? 

Mr. Price. Yes. 

The Chairman. How old are you? 

Mr. Price. Twenty-seven. 

The Chairman (to Mrs. Price). And what is your full name? 

Mrs. Price. Dorothy Frances Price. 

The Chairman. How old are you? 

Mrs. Price. Nineteen. 

The Chairman. You are not so old that you mind telling your age. 
[To Mr. Price] I understand that you have just got a job? 

Mr. Price. That is right, 

The Chairman. Where were you born? 

Mr. Price. Prospect, Md. 

The Chairman. What work did you do there? 

Mr. Price. I was working in silk work in 1928, and from 1928 in 
the General Textile and Rolling Mills. 

The Chairman. How much did you earn? 

Mr. Price. About $25 a week, for 12 hours a day. 

The Chairman. How long did you hold that job? 

Mr. Price. Oh, for 3 years. Then I went to the Celanese Cor- 

The Chairman. Where is that? 

Air. Price. Cumberland, Md. 

The Chairman. What did you do there? 

Mr. Price. The same kind of work, silk work. 

The Chairman. And how much did you make? 

Mr. Price. $24.50 for 8 hours. 

The Chairman. How many are there in your family? I mean your 
own family. 

Mr. Price. iSix of us. 

The Chairman. Are they all living back there yet, in Maryland? 

Mr. Price. Yes; they are all in Maryland. 

The Chairman. Were you married there? 

Mr. Price. Yes. 


The Chairman. When? 

Mr. Price. In 1937. 

The Chairman. Where did you live? In your own home? 

Mr. Price. No. 

The Chairman. You rented a home? 

Mr. Price. An apartment. 

The Chairman. What did you pay for it? 

Mr. Price. $27 a month. 

The Chairman. Now, how did you happen to come here to San 

Mr. Price. Oh, my mother-in-law wrote me that there was lots of 
work out here. She said things were going good. 

The Chairman. And that is one time when you can't say that your 
mother-in-law wasn't all right? 

Mr. Price. Yes — for a change. 

The Chairman. Does she live here? 

Mr. Price. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Now, when did you arrive here? 

Air. Price. Three weeks ago, I think, Friday. 

The Chairman. How did you get here? 

Mr. Price. By a travel agency, a travel bureau. 

The Chairman. Was your wife with you? 

Mr. Price. Yes. 

The Chairman. Did you come by automobile? 

Mr. Price. Yes. 

The Chairman. How much money did you have when you got here? 

Mr. Price. Broke. 

The Chairman. And you are still broke? 

Mr. Price. Still broke. 

The Chairman. How did you make it across the country? 

Mr. Price. Well, I wired for about $15 in St. Louis, to come on out, 
that we needed $15. 

The Chairman. You wired your mother-in-law? 

Mr. Price. Yes. 

The Chairman. Where have you been living since arriving in San 

Mr. Price. I stayed up there with my mother-in-law up until the 
last part of last week. 

The Chairman. Then where did you go? 

Mr. Price. To a trailer, where are are living now, over on Boston 

The Chairman. What do you pay for the trailer? 

Mr. Price. $18 a month. 

The Chairman. Just you and our wife occupying the trailer? 

Mr. Price. And the two children. 

The Chairman. How old are the children? 

Mr. Price. One is 2}i years old, and the other 18 months. 

The Chairman. Where did you secure employment here? 

Mr. Price. At the Sperry Flour Co. That is General Mills. 

The Chairman. What wages are you to receive? 

Mr. Price. Sixty-five cents an hour, and time and a half for over- 

The Chairman. How did you happen to get that job? 

Mr. Price. Through the State employment. 


The Chaikman. Do you intend to continue living in the trailer? 

Mr. Price. No. We will move as soon as we can. 

The Chairman. Would you rather be back in Maryland, if you 
were getting the same amount of money? 

Mr. Price. Well, as long as I am making a living, it doesn't make 
any difference where I live. I have no furniture of my own. I have 
just been renting apartments and all that. I just left everything 
after I left the Celanese plant. 

The Chairman. Did you have much difficult}^ in finding a place 
here? Did you have to look around much to get the trailer? 

Mr. Price. No. The lady next door, she owned the trailer. 

The Chairman. What sanitary facilities do you have there? Do 
you have sewerage, and everything of that kind? 

Mr. Price. Yes. There is a place at the back where there is a 
sink and drain. 

The Chairman. So you intend to stay here now, do you? 

Mr. Price. Well, this job I got, the people are a good firm, you 
know, and they are giving me a pretty good break. If I will stay 
there, they will raise my wages, and I get employment insurance, 
and all that stuff. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Price, do you have anything you wish to say 
about that? Do you like it here? 

Mrs. Price. Yes. 

The Chairman. Do you want to stay here? 

Mrs. Price. I would like to. 

The Chairman. That all depends on how the "old man" feels 
about it? 

Mrs. Price. Yes. 

The Chairman. Are your folks back in Maryland, too? 

Mrs. Price. Yes. 

Mr. Price. Except her mother is living here. 

The Chairman. Now, you were on S. R. A. for a while, were you? 

Mr. Price. Yes. 

The Chairman. Not here, however? 

Mr. Price. Yes. 

The Chairman. How much did you get? 

Mr. Price. $18. 

The Chairman. A month? 

Mr. Price. No. I just got it last week. 

The Chairman. How much is it, $18 a week or a month? 

Mr. Price. I don't know what it is supposed to be. I think she 
found out what it was supposed to be. I know I got 30 days' aid. 

The Chairman. Oh, it is 30 days' aid? 

Mr. Price. That is all you can get. 

The Chairman. I think that is a provision of the State law, that 
they have a right to give you aid for a period of 30 days, and during 
that time they are conducting negotiations as to whether to send you 
back or not. I think that is how you got that 30 days' aid. 

Mr. Price. Yes. 

The Chairman. Has that $18 been sufficient for you to live on, 
until you got this job? 


Mr. Price. Well, you see, in the first place I went down there to 
find out if I couldn't get transportation back to Maryland, and that is 
the reason that I did that, so they wrote back 

The Chairman. They found out that you were a resident of 

Mr. Price. I don't know. 

The Chairman. Weren't you entitled to .some unemployment 
compensation back there? 

Mr. Price. No. You see, where 1 worked last was for the Govern- 
ment, on a Government job, and the first 6 months of this year I 
worked for a defense powder company. 

The Chairman. Do you think that you will be able, with the money 
you are getting from the Sperry Flour Co., to save up so that you will 
have a few hundred dollars? 

Mr. Prick. If things don't get worse, I hope so. 

The Chairman. You are going to do your best? 

Mr. Price. Yes. 

The Chairman. Are the children both well? 

Mr. Price. Yes. 

Miss Bauer. Mrs. Price, you were in Radford, Ya., just before you 
came here? 

Mr. Price. She was in Pulaski. T was in Radford, Va. 

Miss Bauer. Well, in Radford, how was the situation? That is 
another defense town? 

Mr. Price. Just like this town. It was a town of about 5,000 and, 
well, as soon as the job opened up good, there were 24,000 or 25,000 

When I hit there, you couldn't buy a room for $10 a night, and 
you slept in gas stations, and automobiles in the dead of winter, until 
they opened up — in about 2 or 3 months they opened up some trailers. 

The Chairman. This is true, isn't it: You would have had to go 
back to Maryland if you had not got a job? 

Mr. Price. Sure. I would have gone back, if I could have gotten 
a way to go back. 

The Chairman. Wouldn't your mother-in-law send you back, give 
you money to go back, as she did to come out here? 

Mr. Price. No. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, both of you, for coming 
down here. We appreciate it. 

Our next witness is Mr. Mathewson. 


The Chairman. Mr. Mathewson, will you please give your full 
name and. state in what official capacity you are appearing here? 

Mr. Mathewson. Ray Mathewson. 

The Chairman. You are in the State employment service in San 

Mr. Mathewson. Manager of the San Diego office of the depart- 
ment of employment. 

The Chairman. Now, you have filed a very interesting statement, 
imd I will not ask you to read it, but will ask you some questions; 


and if there are any points you want to bring; out, please feel free to 
<lo so. 

Mr. Mathewson. I might have to refer to the statement. After 
all, it is just figures, and I can't remember the figures. 


Migratory Workers Coming Into the San Diego Area, Taken From the 
Records of the San Diego Office of the Department of Employment 

Large numbers of people have come into San Diego for many years, as is evi- 
denced by population statistics. However, beginning in the summer of 1940, 
and as a direct result of national-defense program activities, a sharp increase has 
been noted. A large proportion of these workers has been needed; some of them, 
however, cannot be used. 

Until 2 months ago no oversupply existed, with the exception of unskilled labor, 
persons without specific training, and female clerical and factory workers. Cur- 
rently, with the leveling off in building-construction activities, there has been 
added to this oversupply a considerable number of skilled building mechanics, 
particularly carpenters, and a large number of unskilled building construction 

Migration out of this area has also been quite extensive. That migration both 
into and out of this area is a continuing process is evidenced by the constantly 
changing condition of our active tile of applications for employment. Our total 
active file figures have not changed very much, but the movement of cards into 
and out of the active file amounts to several thousands per month. 

three major groups 

Workers coming into this area may, for the purpose of this report, be placed in 
three major classifications: Aircraft, building construction, and general. 

Migration of aircraft workers began in the spring of 1940. The peak is yet to 
come and will probably be reached about July 1942. 

Migration of building construction workers started about September 1940, and 
tin- peak was reached about April 15. As of that date the number started to 

The third large group of workers consists of the (1) so-called white-collar class, 
(2) husbands and wives (mostly wives), who have followed defense workers to this 
area, and a (3) general group of persons without specific training or skills drawn 
here by attendant publicity in connection with the defense program. Volume of 
migration in connection with this large general group is not so extensive as in the 
ease of the other two, but it will continue for a longer period. This migration 
commenced about the spring of 1940. and it is believed the peak will be reached 
about the end of this year, provided there is no new activity other than that now 

source of migration 

In attempting to determine the areas from which migrants have been coming we 
have made an exhaustive check of our employment application files and unem- 
ployment insurance claims records — 16.61 percent of our active applications for 
employment are migrants, 19.5 percent of our unemployment insurance claimants 
are migrants. (This figure has ranged as high as 28 percent on a monthly basis 
since last September.) 

Only 9.1 percent of migrant applicants for employment are from the Eastern and 
New England States. Of this number 6.09 percent are from New York and 
Massachusetts. Only 5.45 percent are from the deep South. Of this number 
2.18 percent are from Florida and 22.32 percent are from the Rocky Mountain 
and Pacific Coast States. The major proportion of migrants, better than 63 
percent, are from the 18 Middle Western States. 

Ninety-one percent of the unemployment insurance claims are from 28 States. 
Of these 28 States, 7 percent are from New York and Massachusetts, 27 percent 
are from the Rocky Mountain and Pacific Coast States, and 57 percent are from 
the Middle West.' From the 20 other States there are only 9 percent. These 
States are all Southern. Eastern, or New England States, with the exception of 
North Dakota. 



Aircraft workers fall into two major classifications, skilled mechanics and poten- 
tial trainees or recent aircraft training-school graduates. It is from this latter 
group that the so-called helper groups are recruited. 

Building-construction workers are about evenly divided between skilled 
mechanics, all classifications, and unskilled laborers. 

Of the general group about 60 percent of the women have no training to speak of. 
They have accompanied or followed their husbands to this area, but are definitely 
in the labor market for some kind of employment. The other 40 percent of the 
women are clerical workers and eastern factory hands with little probability for 
utilization of their skills in this area. About one-third of the men in the general 
group are so-called white-collared workers, and the other two-thirds are without 
previous training or skills but attracted by and interested in aircraft employment. 
Many of this latter group are Middle Western agricultural workers. 


The age range is from 18 to 65, with the bulk of them between 30 and 40 years 
of age. About 65 percent are male and 35 percent female. Practically all are 
citizens. Mostly all are' whites, except in one category, that of building-con- 
struction laborers, in which case about one-third are Negroes. About two-thirds 
are married and one-third single. Of those who are married about half come here 
without their families. 


General publicity with respect to the national-defense program, and especially 
publicity in connection with activity going on in this area, has been responsible 
for bringing in most of our outside people. While wages are the same as in other 
defense areas, wages have been a factor in drawing workers from the Middle West. 
It is, and has always been, necessary to recruit aircraft workers. Every known 
means is being used to secure the two principal types desired, that is, highly 
skilled workers and trainees. In the aircraft industry skilled workers have been 
recruited by clearance, by advertising, and by sending personal representatives to 
areas from which they might be secured. Trainees and school graduates have 
been secured by advertising, by arrangements with other private schools, and by 
clearance. The kind not desired, that is to say, those without skills and those 
unable to meet training class requirements have come of their own accord, as a 
result of the general publicity attendant with the increase in aircraft manufactur- 
ing. In the case of building-construction workers, most of them have come in 
response to rumors. It has been necessary to secure some by recruiting methods, 
but not very many. These have been in certain highly skilled occupations. 


Up to 2 months ago practically all skilled building mechanics were able to find 
employment. At no time was it possible for all building-construction laborers to 
secure work. At one time, but for a very brief period, all that came could be 
used, but the surge of migrants to this area in these classifications continued 
way beyond our ability to absorb them. At the present time there are approxi- 
mately 2,000 building-construction laborers on hand, about 800 carpenters, and 
from 500 to 700 other building craftsmen. 

All skilled aircraft mechanics or other skilled mechanics who could be utilized in 
aircraft employment have found work. All training-school graduates and all 
trainees could be placed up to the first of this year. About that time hiring in the 
industry was suspended and has only now commenced again. 

In the meantime we built up what we thought was a reserve supply of graduate 
trainees in the amount of about 1,100. However, it is interesting to note that with 
a resumption of hiring and in an effort to fill our first few orders a survey deter- 
mined that most of these graduate trainees had gone back home, secured employ- 
ment in the industry elsewhere, or secured some other kind of employment locally. 
Of this group about 150 have been placed in the industry, and there are now on 
hand about 200 available for placement. The balance have become definitely 
unavailable, a great proportion of them by migration out of the area. 



The Chairman. In the first place, is there anything that you would 
like to tell us about the general labor supply in this area, skilled and 

Mr. Mathewson. I have nothing of any particular interest to re- 
port or comment on. I think it is all in the statement. 

The Chairman. Well now, up to 2 months ago no oversupply of 
skilled workers existed; isn't that true? 

Mr. Mathewson. Well, that is in the statement, but the report 
covers only the period from about the summer — that is, August or 
September of last year, to the present time. 


The Chairman. There is one thing in your statement in which I 
was very much interested, and that is that the out-migration has been 
considerable from this area. 

Mr. Mathewson. Yes, it has. There has been a substantial move- 
ment, a constant movement of those who have not been successful in 
finding employment, and they will not stay here. That statement is 
borne out by our own records in the office. Our active file figures are 
the lowest in history at the present time, about 11,000. There were 
actually 6,000 hie changes in the past 30 days; 3,000 new applica- 
tions and about 2,900 cancelations as a result of inability of appli- 
cants to maintain a 30-day contact with our office, which indicates 
either that they have gone to work here or have moved elsewhere, or 
as a third alternative, have not taken the trouble to recontact us after 
explicit instructions of the office. That leads us to believe they are 
no longer available. We have no other way of knowing. 

The Chairman. That is right. Now, as to the immigration; where 
:lo those people come from? All the States? 

Mr. Mathewson. From different places. It is all contained in the 
report. Primarily from the Middle West. We get few people from the 
eastern seaboard; very few from the South. In the statement that 
I have given here, there is no record made of persons coming to San 
Diego from other places in California. We excluded California in our 
study. That was due to a misunderstanding of our instructions, and 
after seven people had worked a week on checking the cards I didn't 
have the nerve to go back and have them include California; and so 
we let it go through as it was. It was quite a chore. 


The Chairman. Of course. Now, I think, contrary to public 
opinion, your statement here indicates that Texas is the base whence 
most of the migrants come, more than any other State of the Union? 

Mr. Mathewson. Well, one must take into consideration the 
population of Texas and the size of Texas, which reduces the propor- 
tionate figure somewhat. Then, again, I am not an expert on geogra- 
phy, and I don't know where you would put Texas. Is it a Southern 
State or a Midwestern State or a Southwestern State? 

The Chairman. I think it would be called a Southern State. 

60396— 41— pt. 12 4 


Mr. Mathewson. Well, you take Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas; 
there are always lots of people lolling in from those States. But for 
our purposes here, is Texas a Southern State? It certainly isn't in 
the deep South. Or is it a Middle Western State? I would say it 
belongs in that great area west of the Appalachian Mountains and 
east of the Rockies. Or is it the tail end of the Rockies? I don't 

The Chairman. We call the Representatives from Texas "south- 
erners." That is all I know. 

Mr. Mathewson. All right. They are southerners; good south- 
erners, too. 


The Chairman. Yes. Now, tell us something about the vocational 
school. How does it fit into the labor market? 

Mr. Mathewson. Well, that is kind of a sad story. We have all 
heard about the enormous work opportunities in the aircraft industry 
locally. We have made an effort to meet the problem, especially as 
funds were available through the department of education to set up 
training facilities. But perhaps this testimony should be reserved for 
someone else ; or do you just want my opinion? 

The Chairman. Yes; I just want your opinion. 

Mr. Mathewson. Well, the San Diego Vocational School, in a 
sincere effort to meet the problem, did everything it could to set 
itself up, in order to accommodate training facilities for workers that 
might be needed in the aircraft and other defense industries; and it is 
probably one of the largest, and I am proud to say, one of the finest 
plants in the United States. But we have had difficulty in keeping 
it sufficiently manned with trainees. It is set up to accommodate, 
on a 1-shift basis, 750 trainees. At the present time it has only 600 
altogether. On a 3-shift basis it is set up to accommodate 2,250. 
That is the capacity. That, plus other schools, makes a total of about 
3,800 trainees for whom we could have facilities at the present time. 
The total number now is around 1,200 or 1,300, in all the schools in 
this area. We just haven't been able to get them. 


Miss Bauef. How many trainees for the aircraft industry did secure 
employment in and around this area? In the first place, how many 
trainees has the school turned out. to your knowledge, suitable for 
work in the aircraft industry? 

Mr. Mathewson. I don't remember those figures. We have them 
up to about 30 days ago, but I don't remember them. Oh. in round 
figures, I imagine around 3,000. 

Miss Bauer. Could you also give a round figure on how many 
actually secured employment in this general area in the aircraft 

Mr. Mathewson. Most of them. 

Miss Bauer. There is one other question I would like to ask: What. 
is the experience of the employment service with respect to nondefense 
jobs? I assume that for every new job in a defense industry, some 
sort of employment is created in the other industries in a community. 
I wonder if you had been able to collect enough figures to make any 


sort of estimate as to nondefense employment which might have been 
created by, say, 20,000 potential or actual employees at Consolidated? 

Mr. Mathewson. Well, they work there, but you understand that 
we do not have a monopoly on the employment movement of all 
persons in this area. We get only a proportion of it, and assuming 
the proportion is a cross-index of what is actually happening, then I 
can proceed from that statement forward. 

Miss Bauer. Yes. 


Mr. Mathewson. Well, there has been a general upping in em- 
ployment in all classifications in the area, but that general increase has 
been in direct proportion to the increase in population. We have 
noticed some changes that upset any norma! movement, and one of 
these is well, for laek of a better expression, the romance of the 
aircraft industry, which draws people from other classifications. I 
mean, garage workers, service-station workers, service industries, and 
even men in the clerical and professional field, who have come out of 
school and gone to the trouble of taking extra courses in commercial 
training. They either completed their courses and went into the 
aircraft business in mechanical positions, or stopped their courses in 
that training and took other training to fit them for the mechanical 
jobs in aircraft. 

Well, as a result, our commercial and technical files have gone down 
almost to nothing. It is almost impossible to get a good stenographer, 
for example, right today, because of the demand not only in private 
industry for them, but because their ranks have been generally 
depleted by opportunities in other fields which they had no thought of 
getting into at the outset of their training. 


The Chairman. What, Mr. Mathewson, in a general way, is the 
present situation here regarding unemployment? 

Mr. Mathewson. There is less unemployment, according to our 
records, than in any other period since I have been here, and that has 
been 19 years. Our active (ile is the lowest in history. There is more 
opportunity here today than there has been in the history of San 
Diego. That does not mean that all those unemployed can find 
employment, because there are any number who have no specific 
training, no specific skill. As we speak of them with respect to the 
building industry, they would be common laborers, and as we speak 
of them with respect to any other category, they are unskilled people. 

The Chairman. 1 know something about that, because I receive 
hundreds of letters from people who ask for jobs under the 
Government defense program, without setting forth qualifications of 
any kind. 

Mr. Mathewson. That is right. And it may be noted, with the 
increased demand for workers, employers still, as a general rule, 
haven't relaxed in their specifications. They still demand almost the 
same as before, still demand the same top specifications. There is 
some change in age range, but, for the most part, they hold to the 
original specifications. 


It has become necessary to relax standards in some cases, however. 
Take grocery clerks, for example. It is very difficult to get a good 
grocery clerk right today. I don't know the reason for that. It may 
be the hours. It may be the wages. That may have something to 
do with it; I am not prepared to state that positively. But, certainly, 
there are equal opportunities in other kinds of industry, and a grocery 
clerk, after all, doesn't waste any large amount of training in throwing 
his clerk's job overboard. He is of a type who finds it easy to make 
a change. But that has left the grocery business prettj- short of 
good clerks. They are hard to get. In grocery stores today you can 
quickly notice that situation, especially at the checking counter. 


The Chairman. Is this in-migration greater from farming areas or 
from industrial centers? 

Mr. Mathewson. I will still have to go back to my original 
statement, that most of these folks are coming from the Middle West. 

The Chairman. And whether they are from farms or industries, 
you don't know? 

Mr. Mathewson. The only significant thing we have noticed 
about a specific movement in skilled lines is that it is from Chicago, 
and from other parts of Illinois and from the northern part of Iowa, 
the top part of Indiana and some part of Wisconsin. That is where 
your considerable movement of skilled mechanics is from. But 
outside of that, the general movement, which is 60 percent, I would 
say is from the Middle West. And let us not misunderstand each 
other; maybe I am taking in too much territory when I say "Middle 
West"; I mean west of the Appalachian Mountains, east of the 
Rockies, and south as far as we can go, which includes Texas. If 
you want to take Texas out and put it in the South, it is going to 
alter these figures. But, in the main, 60 percent of the people are 
coining from that area, and a fair proportion of them are agricultural 
workers. They are evenly distributed among agricultural, clerical 
and professional, skilled, semiskilled and unskilled. They run 18 to 
20 or 21 percent in each one of those classifications — a general smatter- 
ing of them. 


The Chairman. Well, take the men who have been farming, say, 
in the Middle West, and who come out here. There are not many 
among them who also have industrial skills, are there? 

Mr. Mathewson. No, sir. Some of them — believe it or not — we 
have been able to put into school and have given them 6 to 8 weeks 
of training, mechanical training, and then they get in the aircraft 
business by virtue of the fact that they had some expeiience in 
repairing their own tractors — whether with hay wire or not. In 
other words, it is an opportunity to remake these people, so to speak. 
But for the most part such agricultural woikers as come into this 
area, and I speak of San Diego, have virtually no opportunity in agri- 
cultural work at all. This is not an agricultural community. We 
have no agricultural problems. Even in the case of migration, it has 
never been a factor. Most of those people we have lost to other 
areas, and perhaps it is better so. They move north, up to the 
San Joaquin Valley, and other places. 



Miss Bauer. Do you have any evidence, Mr. Mathewson, either 
from your job applications or from applications for unemployment 
compensation, as to whether the amount of unemployment among 
employables in San Diego at the moment is larger among newcomers 
than it is among people who are iegular residents? 

Mr. Mathewson. We notice no difference. And the reason we 
can't notice any diffeience — and this is all on paper — is that our 
proportion of unemployed and of these applying for unemployment 
compensation is running only about 18 or 19 percent of our total file, 
and the proportion of normally employed persons filing for unem- 
ployment compensation is running about 7 or 8 percent; and that 
isn't enough of a differential on which to base any conclusions. 

Even in the best of times, we have a 7 to 8 percent record of claims 
for unemployment compensation in San Diego County of people who 
would normally be steadily employed, and that, I believe, is due to 
changing jobs. Now, that is a little high; even in the best of times, 
over the whole country, the normal labor turn-over is about 5 percent. 
If we had just a 5-percent labor turn-over in San Diego County, it 
would bring us 700, 800, or 900 unemployment compensation claims a 
month, on the basis of the total workers covered, so it is hard to tell. 

Miss Bauer. There is a rather striking discrepancy in figures, which 
I don't quite understand, myself. Apparently, only about 20 percent 
of the men who appear in person seeking jobs at Consolidated are 
taken on. On the other hand, the relief burden is not vastly greater. 
In geneial, it is really lower. Now, what happens to the other 80 
percent? Would 3^011 feel that most of them do not stay in San Diego 
if they cannot find a job here, and that these people go right through 
to some other place? Do you have anything to contribute on that? 

"they move on" 

Mr. Mathewson. I believe that those folks are moving. There 
is nothing to hold them here, and when they can't get employment 
there are other factors that work against them — their own shortage 
of funds, their inability to secure housing at a cost that they are 
normally accustomed to. I don't mean by that that housing is not 
available here now, but what they have been accustomed to paying 
for housing is less than what they might. have to pay for it here. 
They have spent a lot of money to get here and they don't have 
much left, so they can't afford to sit around. They get a job or move 
on, and because there are work opportunities elsewhere, they will 
move on. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Mathewson. You 
have given us a valuable contribution for the record, both your state- 
ment and your testimony, and we appreciate it. 

Mr. Mathewson. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. The committee will now stand adjourned until 2 

(Whereupon, at 12 noon, a recess was taken until 2 p. m. of the 
same day.) 


The hearing; was reconvened at 2 p. m. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. I will 
call Commander Bear. 


The Chairman. Commander Bear, will yon kindly give us your 
full name for the record? 

Commander Bear. Commander H. S. Bear, Civil Engineer Corps, 
United States Navy. I represent the commandant in one department, 
the department of public works. 

The Chairman. Are you stationed here? 

Commander Bear. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How long have you been here, Commander? 

Commander Beak. Two years and nine months. 

The Chairman. Commander, we have the statement of Admiral 
Blakely here, and I may say that I deeply appreciate having the 
practical knowledge which it gives the committee. It will be printed 
at this point hi the record. 



In response to a request from your committee, the following statement covering 
statistical data on Navy personnel and civilian employees of this naval district, 
together with other information pertinent to the interests and welfare of the Navy 
personnel and civilian employees and their families, is submitted for consideration 
at the hearing of the committee to be conducted at San Diego, Calif., June 12, 

The total number of Navy and Marine Corps personnel attached to the activities 
of this naval district as of'May 1, 1941, was 34,422; of this number, 1,574 were 
officers and 32,848 were enlisted men. 

For the same date the number of civilian employees was 3,668 with civil-service 
ratings and 204 Work Projects Administration workers. 

As of the same date the data collected shows that there were 534 officers' 
families and 9,713 families of enlisted men, while the number of families of civilian 
employees was close to 2,745. 

A chart showing the distribution of this personnel in various pay groups together 
with other useful data is attached, and gives in detail much of the information set 
forth above. 


The general area of southern California, and particularly San Diego and vicinity, 
has been a favorite location for Navy and Marine personnel for many years. 
A check of the directories of both the Army and Navy made within the last 3 
years indicates there is a greater concentration of retired Army and Navy officers 
and enlisted personnel in southern California than in any other section of the 
country. The attractions of this general section to these groups and to other 



groups of people should continue to the end that San Diego as a community is 
believed to be destined to have above normal increase of population from year to 
year. It is believed that this increase in population for San Diego will continue 
in a reduced but still healthy degree even after the present emergency. 


The critical shortage of suitable housing facilities in San Diego has been keenly 
felt by the enlisted personnel of this district. During the past 6 months an average 
of approximately 125 families of enlisted personnel per month have requested 
that the husband's application for Navy defense housing units be given special 
consideration, stating in most instances that — 

(1) Their rent has been raised beyond their ability to pay. 

(2) They have been asked to vacate. 

With the increased cost of living it is practically impossible for enlisted personnel 
to pay rent in excess of the amount provided in the rental allowance, which at 
the present time is $22.50 per month for petty officers second class and above. 
There is no rental allowance for enlisted men below second-class petty officer. 


The commandant has utilized every facility at his command to alleviate the 
general conditions being encountered by service personnel. The San Diego 
Auxiliary, Navy Relief Society, has rendered financial assistance in the amount 
of approximately $2,000 per month for the following purposes: Food orders, pay- 
ment of rent, payment of gas and electric bills, purchase of medicine. 

The necessity for these emergency loans was largely due to delay in mail, delay 
in transit of pay accounts, transfers, etc. During the past 2 years this auxiliary 
has financed hospitalization for the dependents of enlisted personnel in the amount 
of approximately $130,000. The demand for this service is definitely on the 
increase but through the service there has been effected a saving to Navy enlisted 
personnel of approximately 40 percent of normal hospital costs. 

This Naval Relief Auxiliary has also financed the purchase of furniture for 
approximately 60 dependent families of enlisted personnel assigned to Navy 
defense housing units who were unable to arrange their own financing. The 
majority of these families selected unfinished furniture and by this procedure it 
was possible to effect a saving of approximately 40 percent over the normal cost 
of such furnishings. This assistance is extended in the form of loans to be paid 
by regular monthly installments. 


The particular local problems which have developed within the past year and 
in which the commandant has collaborated with the local civic administration in 
handling are: (1) Schools; (2) water supply; (3) access highway; (4) hospitals; 
(5) recreation; (6) drainage, defense areas; (7) miscellaneous municipal activities. 

The prompt and satisfactory solution of these problems affect the welfare and 
efficiency of defense workers in the entire area and are particularly applicable to 
the welfare of Navy personnel in this district. 

It is presumed the details of the recommendations which have been made to 
date will be presented to the Committee by the head of the San Diego Civic 
Department most vitally concerned in each individual item. 

As a summation of the situation in regard to these items, a committee on 
national defense needs in the San Diego area, on May 15, 1941, recommended as 

Needs in order of priority 

1. Schools: 

5 buildings $2, 500, 000 

Operation, 1 year 500, 000 

2. Water: Standby (additional capacity) 8,000,000 

3. Access highway: Including Coronado 7,000,000 

4. Hospitals: United States Public Health Service (restricted to 

workers in national-defense activities), 500 beds 2, 500, 000 

5. Recreation 100, 000 

6. Drainage, defense areas 265, 000 

7. Miscellaneous municipal activities 100, 000 



No funds have as yet been allotted for any of the above items. 

A new sanitary sewer system and disposal plant for the entire city of San Diego, 
including all naval activities, is now being constructed, using joint city and 
Government funds. The city of Coronado will also be included in this plan. 

Personnel summary for morale purposes 
[Location: Eleventh Naval District, San Diego (including Long Beach)] 



Officers- __ 


Enlisted men. 


Enlisted men_ 



By groups 


10, 571 






Number em- 
ployed, attached 




5, C06 












10, 571 












rary fam- 

of perma- 
nent fam- 
ilies : 







1 Families temporarily residing in area. 

2 Families permanently residing in area. 

Head of family stationed elsewhere or at sea. 


May 1, 1941 




May 1, 1941 3 



faci lit if s 



May 1, 1941 » 

Number may 
be expected 

to utilize 

Mayl, 1941 






Officers _. 







19, 000 








s Two naval defense-housing units have been completed, totaling 1,200 units, of which number 1,000 are 
alloted to naval enlisted families and 200 are available for civilian employees of the Navy and Marine Corps. 
At Long Beach 400 units have been completed, all of which are being assigned to naval families. An addi- 
tional project providing 900 houses has been allotted to San Diego," and an additional 600 houses will be 
placed at Long Beach. 


The Chairman. Commander Bear, I want to ask you a few ques- 
tions. Can you tell me the proportion of the population in and about 
San Diego that consists of Navy men and their dependents? 

Commander Bear. I think you have in that statement the number 
of Navy and Marine Corps personnel in this area. I don't believe 
anyone knows the exact population of San Diego now, but it is roughly 
estimated these clavs to be somewhere near 200,000. 


Tlie Chairman. Since my arrival I have heard several guesses on 
that matter, and I would say that yours is the most conservative on 
my list. 

Commander Bear. Well, you had better not take my testimony on 
that. It is onlv a guess. 

The Chairman. Yes. The census, 1 think, in 1940 was 247,000. 
But, anyway, we have those figures. 

Commander Bear. Whatever it was in that census, it ought to be 
about 50,000 more now. I thought it was under 200,000. but maybe 
T am incorrect. 

The Chairman. About what proportion of the Navy men are 

Commander Bear. I would guess offhand that 90 percent of the 
officers are married, and 40 percent of the enlisted men. 

The Chairman. Now, the increase in personnel of the Navy and 
the Marine Corps has been considerable — in recent months here, has 
it not? 

Commander Bear. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you anticipate that it will continue to increase? 

Commander Bear. I think that there isn't any doubt but what it 
will increase. 

navy housing units 

The Chairman. Now, what are you informed about the housing 
situation here? 

Commander Bear. The Navy has recently constructed 1,200 
units here, 600 of them near the destroyer base and 600 of them near 
the training station. However, the commandant has asked for 900 
more units in San Diego, and I understand — from hearsay, not 
officially — that the Navy will construct 900 additional demountable 
temporary units. 

You do not care for information outside of San Diego? You are 
interested only in San Diego, I believe. 

The Chairman. Not necessarily. Anything else you have may be 
important to us. 

Commander Bear. We have also — that is, the Navy has built — 
400 units in Long Beach, and we have asked for 600 additional units 
there; and we have unofficial information to the effect that we will 
be provided with the funds to construct those 600 additional units, 
the same as in San Diego. The units which we have previously 
constructed are more of a permanent nature than the ones which we 
will construct. 

The Chairman. On account of the time element? 

Commander Bear. Not so much on account of that as the saving 
in cost, as well as the ability to remove them after the emergency is over. 

The Chairman. Now, how is the construction itself handled? 
Through the Navy — that is, through contracts? 

Commander Bear. Those which we have built have been financed 
directly by Navy appropriations. However, there are other housing 
authorities in San Diego County. I am speaking only of the Navy. 

The Chairman. I know that. 

Commander Bear. These are primarily for Navy enlisted person- 
nel of low incomes. 



The Chairman. Have you heard any complaint about rent in- 

Commander Bear. That is out of my line, but there have been 
certain instances of which I have heard in the past. 

The Chairman. Now, among the various responsibilities assumed 
by the Navy for the welfare of its personnel and its families, I have 
made a notation. Emergency loan for financial assistance in the 
amount of $2,000 per month for the following purposes: Food orders, 
payment of rent, payment of gas and electric bills, purchase of medi- 
cine. Are you informed about that, Commander? 

Commander Bear. That is something other officers can answer 
better than I can. 

The Chairman. I sec. Now, 1 have a notation here that on May 1, 
1941, the total personnel in the Marine Corps was 34,422. Would 
that mean in this area alone? 

Commander Bear. 1 think you have a letter from the Commandant 
that tells you exactly the number of enlisted personnel in the area. 
And I wish to say that I am not supposed to have very good informa- 
tion about subjects other than shore construction work. 

The Chairman. What connection have you with shore construction? 

Commander Bear. I am the assistant public works officer, who 
handles all of the shore construction in the Eleventh Naval District. 

The Chairman. This is the Eleventh District? 

Commander Bear. The Eleventh District extends from the Mexi- 
can border to the northern boundary of Santa Barbara County, that 
part of California, plus the States of Arizona and New Mexico, and a 
very small part of Nevada. 

The Chairman. Is this shore construction work done by contract? 

Commander Bear. Most of it in this district is done by contract. 

The Chairman. Is there any shortage of labor, that you know 

Commander Bear. We haven't experienced any great shortage of 
labor so far. 


The Chairman. Have you anything to say about the recreation 

Commander Bear. That is something that we have taken care of to 
a limited degree in our housing schemes so far, and I know that the 
city has in mind a project of about $100,000, to place a recreation house 
or building in the Plaza in San Diego. At least, they have given it 
some thought, and the city hopes to obtain Federal funds for that 
purpose. I do think it is highly important, with the recent growth of 
the city. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Commander. Please 
express my appreciation to the admiral. I think w-e have the informa- 
tion we need in the prepared statement. 

Commander Bear. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Mr. Goodin. 



The Chairman. Your name is Cecil Martin Goodin? 

Mr. Goodin. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Where were you born? 

Mr. Goodin. I was born in Holdenville, Okla. 

The Chairman. On a farm? 

Mr. Goodin. No, sir. My folks were living in town at that time. 

The Chairman. How old are you? 

Mr. Goodin. I am 23 years old. 

The Chairman. What schooling did you have? 

Mr. Goodin. I had 8 years. I completed the eighth grade, gram- 
mar school. 

The Chairman. Was yours a large family? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, there were five — well, there were seven of us in 
the family. 

The Chairman. Are your folks still living in Oklahoma? 

Mr. Goodin. Yes, sir; my mother is, and my wife is there, too. 

The Chairman. How long have you been married? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, about 2 years. 

The Chairman. Any children? 

Mr. Goodin. Yes, sir; one boy. 

The Chairman. How old is the boy? 

Mr. Goodin. He is 16 months old now. 

The Chairman. When did you leave Oklahoma? 

Mr. Goodin. I left there about the 20th of May, last. 

The Chairman. How did you come here? 

Mr. Goodin. I rode a freight train. 

The Chairman. I don't suppose it is necessary or proper to ask you 
how much fare you paid, or anything of that kind? 

Mr. Goodin. No. They didn't charge anything for it. 

The Chairman. Did you come alone? 

Mr. Goodin. No, sir. Me and my cousin came out together. 

The Chairman. Did you come straight out to San Diego? 

Mr. Goodin. No, sir. We went to Bakersfield. 

The Chairman. How did you happen to choose Bakersfield? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, I have folks at Bakersfield. 

The Chairman. Did they write you, to tell you to come out here? 

Mr. Goodin. No, sir. They didn't write me. I had been there 
before, and I have been here before. 

The Chairman. You came out for employment, did you? 

Mr. Goodin. Yes, sir. I came out to get in this aircraft school, 
or to get into aircraft. 

The Chairman. Did you get in the school? 

Mr. Goodin. Yes, sir; I have. I have gone to school 3 days. 

The Chairman. Did you graduate in 3 days? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, hardly. I am still in school. 

The Chairman. What were you doing prior to that time, between 
the 20th of May and up to 3 days ago? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, I was just looking for work, mostly. 

The Chairman. When did you come to San Diego? 

Mr. Goodin. I came to San Diego a week ago last Sunday. 

The Chairman. Where have your wife and baby been staying since 
the time you left Oklahoma?"* 


Mr. Goodin. They are at Marlow, Okla., with her mother. I 
intend to get them out here some way or another before I go ahead 
and work. 

The Chairman. How long a course do you have to take? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, I don't know. Probably 4 or 5 weeks. 

The Chairman. How are you maintaining yourself in the mean- 
time? How are you living? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, I am staying with my uncle now, here in San 

The Chairman. What course are you taking? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, I intended to take the riveting course, that they 
have in the sheet metal department, but I don't know whether they 
will put me all through that or not. They want to give me the 
foundation of all of it, it seems like. It seems like they want to give 
me a little of all of the schooling, in case they would need me some- 
where else when I went to work. 

The Chairman. Do you enjoy the work? 

Mr. Goodin. Yes, sir; I like the work. 

The Chairman. Do you find many Oklahomans out here in this 

Mr. Goodin. Well, I find a whole lot of them; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is work scarce back there? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, it wasn't right when I left. It had been, but 
right now there is work there, but it is just a farm job here and there. 
There is nothing there that is steady or that would amount to any- 
thing in the long run. It is just a job, and it is from job to job, and 
nothing that could be accumulated at all. 

The Chairman. What do you intend to do? Do you intend to live 
here permanently? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, if I can get my folks out here, I do, and if I 
can't get my folks out here, why, I don't intend to stay myself. 

The Chairman. In other words, you never would have left Okla- 
homa, and you would also go back there, if you could not get the work 
that you think you can get here; is that the idea? 

Mr. Goodin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Abbott. I just wanted to ask you, Mr. Goodin, how did you 
happen to decide to come to California? You lived in a small town; 
didn't you? 

Mr. Goodin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Abbott. Did you get this information about aircraft on the 
west coast through reading the papers and talking to your friends or 
to people who had been out here? 

Mr. Goodin. Well, I just picked that up mostly, as you would say, 
on the street. 

Miss Bauer. Is it your understanding that when you finish your 
4 to 6 weeks' course you probably will get a job at one of the aircraft 
companies here? 

Air. Goodin. Yes, ma'am. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Goodin. 

Lieutenant Black. 



The Chairman. Lieutenant Black, will you give us your full name 
for the record and state in what capacity you are appearing here? 

Lieutenant Black. Lt. Max I. Black, assistant civilian personnel 
director, Eleventh Naval District; chairman of the local defense- 
housing committee. 

The Chairman. Lieutenant, are you connected with the Navy at 
the present time? 

Lieutenant Black. I am connected with the Eleventh Naval 

The Chairman. You filed a very enlightening statement here, and 
it is going to be useful to us, Lieutenant. 


National Defense Housing in the San Diego, Calif., Area 

In response to a request from your committee, the following statement covering 
the San Diego housing situation is submitted for consideration. 

History and co?nposition of local defense-housing committee. — The defense- 
housing committee for San Diego was inaugurated as the result of a visit to San 
Diego by Mr. Charles F. Palmer, Coordinator of Defense Housing, Washington, 
D. C., on February 6, 1941. Mr. Palmer met with various city officials and 
representatives of civic groups vitally interested in the housing situation as affected 
by national-defense activities in this area. As a result of this conference he 
recognized the urgent housing needs of the community and, on February 18, 
1941, his representative, Mr. Louis E. Scarbrough, arrived in San Diego to confer 
with the mayor, the city manager, and city council with a view of setting up a 
local defense-housing committee and a homes registration office. 

Committee membership. — The mayor, with the consent of the city council, 
appointed the local defense-housing committee on February 20, 1941. This 
committee consists of the following members: Lt. Max I. Black, United States 
Navy (retired), assistant civilian personnel officer, Eleventh Naval District, 
chairman of the committee; Maj. Edgar N. Gott, vice president, Consolidated 
Aircraft Corporation; Miss Lottie Crawford, chairman of the city planning com- 
mission, and member of State defense council ; Mr. Edwin A. Walsh, local manager. 
Federal Housing Administration; Mr. Edwin Austin, editor in chief, San Diego 
Union and Tribune-Sun; Mr. Van France, area director, National Youth Admin- 
istration; Mr. Ray Mathewson, manager, California State Employment Service: 
Mr. John N. D. Griffith, secretary-manager, San Diego Realty Board; Mr. D. W. 
Campbell, manager of public events, San Diego Chamber of Commerce: Mr. 
Thomas Hamilton, Jr., president, Junior Chamber of Commerce. 

Advisors to this committee, who regularly attend meetings, are: Mr. Raymond 
A. Voigt, manager, San Diego Federal Works Agency, defense-housing project, 
California 4092; Mr. E. E. Tucker, area manager, defense housing, Farm Security 
Administration; Mrs. Anna Breen, community services, Work Projects Admin- 

Representatives of various groups, such as labor unions, social-welfare groups, 
administrative offices of the city, builders, contractors, etc., attend the meetings 
from time to time. 

Homes registration office. — The homes registration office, located at L53 Civic 
Center, was opened on March 3, 1941. The committee selected a full-time paid 
director, Mr. George White, to conduct the business of this office. 

The primary function of this office is to act as a central service bureau for 
persons desiring housing and room accommodations. a.nd a plac ■ for those havine: 
these facilities available to register them. The office Has been stafffd with 


National Youth Administration enrollees. On Juno 9, 1941, the Work Projects 
Administration project was finally approved to furnish field workers to operate 
in conjunction with this office. The primary function of these Work Projects 
Administration field workers is to obtain listings of houses and rooms throughout 
the city which have not been registered voluntarily. 

The files of this office are kept on a visible cardex system, and are broken down 
into price ranges and by districts. The system for files furnished by Washington 
has been changed somewhat to meet the needs of this particular locality. 
Basically the procedure is as follows: 

Application procedure. —When an applicant applies for a house or a room he is 
given a list of the accommodations available which would seem most nearly to 
meet his requirements. He is furnished a card to mail back to inform the office 
if he is successful in renting one of the accommodations offered. In this connec- 
tion, I might point out that if an owner indicates he has a real-estate agent, the 
applicant is referred direct to the agent rather than to the owner. Pending 
receipt of information as to whether a particular applicant rents one of the places 
referred to him. a "flag" is placed in the file in order that the same accommodations 
will not be referred to more than one applicant at the same time. At the end 
of 24 hours, if the office has not received advice from the applicant, efforts are 
made to reach the owner either by telephone or by personal contact by one of the 
field investigators in order that the accommodations will not remain "flagged" 
if still available. This point is vitally important since only up-to-date listings 
are of value. 

Weekly and semimonthly reports by this office are made to Washington via 
the local defense-housing committee. We are using our own forms (copy attached 
hereto, enclosure (see p. 4882) rather than the forms furnished by Washington, 
as we have not had the necessary clerical assistance to compile the data neces- 
sary to complete the standard forms. This will be changed when the Work 
Projects Administration office staff becomes operative. 

A total of six windows to receive applications are manned at all times, and 
there has been very little delay in handling applications for rooms due to the fact 
that we have a surplus of rooms, but quite the reverse is true of hjuuses in the 
price range the average defense worker can pay. 

Fair-rent committee. — The fair-rent committee, about to be set up, was requested 
by the Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply (Mr. Joseph P. Tufts, 
Chief of the Rent Section). When Washington requested that this committee 
be appointed, a letter was directed to the mayor and city council requesting that 
they set up such a committee. The city council on April 29, 1941, passed the 
following resolution: 

"The council hereby goes on record approving appointment of a suggested 
fair-rent committee, for San Diego, by the local defense-housing committee, 
which committee shall serve without compensation and work with the defense- 
housing committee." 

The chairman appointed a nominating committee and the nominating com- 
mittee recommended that not more than five and not less than three influential, 
impartial citizens be appointed to serve on the fair-rent committee. 

All rental complaints which have been received to date are to be turned over to 
the fair-rent committee for investigation, and it is planned to use the field inves- 
tigation staff of the homes registration office to assist the fair-rent committee in 
their investigations. In the absence of fair-rent legislation, the committee's only 
means of making adjustments in proven cases of exorbitant rent increases would 
be through adverse publicity and moral suasion. Therefore, the committee felt 
that a small, impartial, representative group of men whose standing in the com- 
munity is above question would function much more effectively than a larger 
group representing many different factions. In other words, the fair-rent com- 
mittee would have somewhat the same standing as judges in their relationship 
with the public. 

Present and future employment in defense i?idustries. — The local defense housing 
committee has continually tried to keep in mind the over-all picture of the housing 
needs for this city. There are three very distinct sides to this problem: (1) The 
total number which will be employed when the peak is reached; (2) the number 
that will be permanently employed; (3) the number employed that will be of a 
temporary nature. The difference between the permanent employment curve 
and the peak employment curve should be cared for by providing demountable 
or mobile housing units. (See enclosure (p. 4883) showing estimates covering 
present and future employment by aircraft and shipbuilding companies.) 


The committee is charged with the responsibility of providing adequate housing 
facilities to be available for occupancy when needed. It is felt, however, that 
due to changing conditions it would be impossible to indicate or forecast housing 
needs with any degree of accuracy for a longer period than 6 months in advance. 
The employment estimates shown on enclosure (p. 4883), therefore, cover only to 
January 1, 1942. This, of course, will not be the peak of employment. To these 
estimates should be added approximately another ten to fifteen thousand workers. 

Program of new houses. — Constructed and already occupied or ear-marked for 
construction by the Federal Government in this area are the following: 

Units for married Units for sin- 
Agency workers gle workers 

Federal Works Agency 3,000 748 

Do i 1,500 

Federal Security Agency 2 500 980 

Navy 1,200 

Total 6,200 1,728 

Combined total, 7,928 units. 

1 Demountable. 
" Trailers. 

In addition to the above, there will probably be constructed by the Navy 900 
additional units for married personnel; and the committee has asked private indus- 
try to construct 4,000 houses with private capital. This makes an estirrated total 
of 11,100 housing accommodations for married defense workers. Spot surveys, 
taken from time to time throughout the various plants engaged in defense con- 
tracts, have indicated that we may expect approximately 50 percent of applicants 
for employment will be married. (See enclosure (p. 4884) spot survey.) Since the 
total additional employment by aircraft and shipbuilding companies in this area 
should not exceed 10,000 by January 1, 1942, of which approximately 5,000 to 
6,000 will be married, the housing situation has been considerably relieved. invited to the fact that the above figures- do not include additional 
workers who may be brought to the city or who may come of their own volition 
to accept positions in nondefense activities. Figures with any degree of accuracy 
on this employment expansion would be very difficult to obtain but must be taken 
into account when the over-all housing situation is being considered. 

Private building situation 

Private building has been slow in getting started for the following reasons: 
(a) Fear of Government competition. 

(6) Delay caused by contractors awaiting passage of title VI, Federal Housing 

(c) Contractors' inability to obtain sufficient loans. 

(d) Increase in building costs. (See enclosure (p. 4885)). 

(e) Purchaser not qualified by Federal Housing Administration when initial 
transaction goes through. 

(/) Competition caused by low rentals of Government housing projects. 

Obstacle (a) has been largely removed due to positive statements by Defense 
Housing Coordinator in regard to future housing program by the Government. 
Obstacle (b) -was removed when the President made effective title VI, Federal 
Housing Administration for defense areas and designated San Diego as a defense 
area on April 10, 1941. Obstacle (c) was somewhat clarified as the result of a 
meeting on April 23, 1941, attended by executives of all lending institutions at 
which details of entire building program were presented. These executives have 
stated that they will lend to the limit of anyone's credit. Obstacles (d) and (e) 
are now being worked out by the officials of Federal Housing Administration. 
These specific problems were presented in detail to Mr. Earl Draper during his 
visit to San Diego on June 7 and 8. (See enclosure "e", report of local Federal 
Housing Administration underwriter.) In regard to obstacle (/), it is the belief 
of this committee that private contractors will experience difficulty in convincing 
potential private builders that the building of a home of their own would be 
economically sound so long as they are able to obtain Government housing at the 
low rentals which prevail. 

The committee believes that coordination among the several Government 
agencies controlling Government housing projects is necessary to stabilize rents in 
Government housing. For example,- the average rental in the Kearney Mesa 
project is now $18 a month for a two-bedroom house, whereas the rental for a 


trailer under Federal Security Agency is approximately $30 a month. This 
situation would be somewhat alleviated if all aircraft plants were placed on a 
40-hour week working basis. As it is now. some families are only paying about 11 
percent of their income for shelter rent. The committee is of the belief that this 
is too low for the Kearney Mesa project. 

Trainees. — The homes registration office has at present a total of 1,949 rooms 
registered available for single defense workers. In addition, there will be ready 
for occupancy in the immediate future approximately 1,728 dormitories for single 
defense workers. This makes a grand total of 3,677 rooms available. There are 
actually on file, as of June 10, 1941, 13 applications by single defense workers for 
accommodations in dormitories. The committee has made repeated efforts to 
obtain permission to house trainees in the Federal Security .Agency bar- 
racks at the fool of Twenty-eighth Street. The local labor market has become 
practically exhausted and it is urgently necessary that men be brought in from 
outside areas and trained to meet the future requirements of defense industries in 
this area. It has been suggested in Washington that men he trained in their 
home towns and brought to defense areas after the training. We believe this to 
t>e impracticable for the several reasons listed below : 

(a) The San Diego Vocational School has recently installed approximately 
$300,000 worth of machinery for training purposes. 

W Coordination is extremely difficult when students are trained in outlying 
areas (for example we might get 500 riveters when we needed 500 welders, etc.). 

(c) The only place to obtain competent instructors is from the aircraft plants 
now in operation. Therefore, it is logical to do the training in aircraft industrial 

{d) It is much easier to execute control when the trainees are housed in one 
centra] place. For this last-named reason, therefore, it is impracticable to house 
trainees throughout the city in the rooms now registered with the homes registra- 
tion office. 

(< I The trainees, generally speaking, musi be subsidized during their training 
period, and for thai reasoi i is believed that th3 only feasible method would be 
to enroll them on the National Youth Administration program already set tip, 
or on a Work Projects Administration program such as is now being worked out. 

(See enclosure (p. 4SS5), letter from Mr. Ray Mathcwson, manager, depart- 
ment of employment, Stat i of California, dated June 5, 1941.) (Enclosure 
(p. 4886), letter from sup< rintendent of San Diego City Schools, June 7, 1941.) 

School facililii .s 

It is vitally necessary that steps he take;, to construct school housing facilities 
at the various Government defense housing projects. A junior-senior high school 
ami two elementary schools are urgently needed at the Kearney Mesa project. 

An elementary school is urgently required at each of the Navy housing projects; 
and further, the committee believes that steps should be taken at this time to 
obtain funds for the erection of school housing facilities near the two demountable 
units now authorized. Further, it is the belief of the committee that the school 
houses so constructed should be no more durable than the project itself. In other 
words, some sort of demountable school should be erected at the demountable 
housing project. We believe the only way this could be done would be under the 
cognizance of the Federal Government, since the California State law would not 
permit the erection of such a temporary school building. 


From present indications, approximately 9,975 additional defense workers 
will be employed in the San Dieszo area by January 1, 1942. 

Units which will be available for married workers by January 1942 appear 
to be as follows: 

Kearney Mesa 2, 852 

Federal Security Agency (trailers) 468 

Federal Works Agencv (demountable) 1,500 

Private capital . 4, 000 

Total 8, 820 

60396— 41— pt. 12- 



The largest "unknown" in the average figures is, of course, the 4,000 houses 
promised by private capital. But since, by past performance, we may expect an 
increase of only between five to six thousand married defense workers by January 
1, 1942, it would appear that adequate housing will be available by that time, if 
the present employment estimates by the aircraft and shipbuilding companies can 
be relied upon. One of the most pressing problems in connection with housing 
for married defense workers in this area has been the reluctance of private owners 
to take families with children. This situation, of course, does not obtain in the 
Government housing projects; and it is believed that the law of supply and 
demand will work to the benefit of married defense workers with children in con- 
nection with obtaining housing when the question of children is involved. 

The committee is endeavoring to keep the over-all picture in mind in order 
that only such permanent housing will be constructed as will be absorbed after 
the emergency is over. It would seem that this is one of the major functions of 
such a committee. When the time arises for final disposition of the temporary 
housing units, it is believed that accurate and comprehensive information, such as 
could be furnished by the committee, would be of considerable assistance to the 
Federal Government. 

Homes Registration Office listings and applications {in files at close of day, June 1 , 





for rent 


for rent 

Under $25—91 

dren, 79 p 


Under $25—26 


dren, 70 p 

$25 to $30—119 . 

$25 to $30— 41 

$30 to $35— 117 

$30 to $35— 31. _ 


$3." In $40— 95_ 

$35 to $40—27 


$40 to $45— 5 


$45 to $50— 30 

$45 to $50—4 


$50 and over— 14 

Places that will not take chi 

$50 and over— 5 

Places that will not take chi 


Number oj 
rooms for 


$2. 50 a week 152 

$3 a week 154 

$3.50 a week 177 

$4 a week 221 

$4.50 a week 75 

$5 a week 143 

$6 a week 133 


$7 a week 52 

$7.50 a week 79 

$8 a week 163 

$8.50 a week 115 

$9 a week 128 

$10 a week 97 

Light housekeeping 71 

All the above have running water, both hot and cold; also bath and inside 
toilet. Places not suitable for habitation not kept in our files. 

Homes registration office daily and weekly report sheet 





_ _= _ 

May 26. 
May 27. 
May 28. 
May 29. 

May 31... 

Total for week. 

Estimated employment rolls 

As estimated by the companies 
during April 1941 (approximately 
April 15) 

As estimated bv the companies as of 
June 5, 1941 


July 1941 





ber 1941 


Ryan Aeronautical Co 


* 16, 000 

1, 250 
1, 100 




( 3 ) 


( 2 ) 
( 3 ) 

( 5 ) 


• 16, 500 




• 17, 500 


« 20, 000 


2, 000-2, 100 

Consolidated Aircraft Cor- 



As estimated by the companies 
during April 1941 (approximately 
April 15) 

As estimated by the companies as of 
June 9, 1941 


July 1941 





Septem- January 
ber 1941 1 1942 


Campbell Machine Co 

Martinloch Shipbuilding 


( s ) 

( 8 ) 

io 300-400 


( 8 ) 

( 8 ) 




» 200 I (') 

(•) | 0) 

San Diego Marine & Con- 

(") ' 0) 

i No estimate. 

! Would not estimate. 

3 Would not estimate beyond July or August. 

* The employment rolls have been around 16.000 since about Mar. 1, 1941 (as advised by Mr. Waterbury 
June 5. 1941). 

« 20,000— estimated increase in 18 months (Consolidated letter dated Apr. 22, 1941). 
e These figures include helpers as well as journeymen. 

7 Pure guess. 

8 Not in a position to estimate. 

• Should double. 
10 July or August. 

" Should be 300 (indefinite). 


Consolidated Airckaft Corporation, 

March 3, 1941. 
Subject: Spot check of housing requirements for men going on the pay roll. 

The following data has been compiled from a recent spot check survey of men 
currently being employed by this company. The findings of this survey are 
considered indicative of the present trend. Additional checks of this type will be 
made at periodical intervals in the future. 

Married men recorded 87 

Single, living with dependents 3 

Single, who just want room and board 43 

Total recorded 133 

Of the married men, 37 have no children; 26 have 1 child; 9 have 2 children; 
13 have 3 children; 1 has 4 children; 1 has 6 children. 

Average married man has 1.2 children. 

Average number of children for all those recorded is 0.7. 

Of the married men and those with dependents living with them, 39 want 1 
bedroom: 37 want 2 bedrooms; 9 want 3 bedrooms; 67 want furnished rooms; 
77 want garages. 8 have 1 dependent living with them, 1 has 2 dependents living 
with him. 

Of the married men and single men with dependents living with them, 2 can 
pay up to $20 rent, 36 can pay up to $25 rent, 18 can pay up to $30 rent, 17 can 
pay up to $35 rent, 9 can pay up to $40 rent, 1 can pay up to $45 rent; 1 can pay 
up to $50 rent ; average (84) $29 per month. 

(Signed) J. H. Waterbvry. 

Building costs 


r ■ June May 
' " ir 1940 1911 


$4.00 $6.00 
7. 25 9. 00 
.12 .16 


do . 


Square foot 

Cubic yard 






Per job 

100. 00 





7 25 

9 00 



7. 75 9. 25 20 
325.00 400.00 


Per square 


Side wall shingles: 





. . .do 





Total . 



1. 15 



. 63 . 75 







Electric wiring (labor and material) 





n >o 





144. 00 

145. 00 



158. 00 

215. 00 

139. 00 



Painting (labor and material) 

Hardwood flooring (labor and material) 

Floor covering (linoleum) (companies have absorbed 
extra labor costs). 



Per square yard... 





Federal Housing Administration, 

June 2, 1941. 


To: Lt. Max Black. 
From: E. A. Walsh. 
Subject: Volume of business, particularly title VI. 

Dear Max: The San Diego office, as of May 31, 1941, has issued a total of 
102 title VI commitments (all for individual homes) within the defense area 
which comprises the San Diego metropolitan area. Approximately one-third 
of these commitments cover properties to be constructed at Chula Vista. The 
balance in general are quite widely scattered — some at Pacific Beach and some in 
East San Diego, La Mesa, etc. 

In addition to these commitments now issued, we have on file an additional 76 
cases — that is, cases upon which the fees have been paid and are now being 
processed, most of which will result in commitments as evidenced from the pre- 
liminary study which we have given them before the cases were actually filed. In 
further addition to the above we have approximately 300 tentative, proposed and 
possible applications, none of which have yet reached the stage of actual filed 
applications. It is our informal opinion that at least 200 of these stand a reason- 
ably good chance of resulting in commitments. 

So much for title VI. As to our title II business, we set forth below our month- 
by-month volume starting with January 1941: 

1 Number 






$713, 000 
166, 000 



$902, 800 


137, 400 






1, 040, 200 




663, 200 
142. 200 


726, 300 

129, 800 




805, 400 


856, 100 


New .. 



884, 500 
225, 500 



1. 110, 000 



New $3,889,800 

Exist 800,900 

Total 4,690,700 

We trust that this information may serve the purpose of our coordinating 
committee to bring the record up to date. 
Very truly yours, 

E. A. Walsh, Chief Underwriter. 

California Employment Commission, 

San Diego, Calif., June 5, 1941. 
Lt. Max I. Black, 

Civilian Personnel Officer, 

Eleventh Naval District, San Diego, Calif. 
Dear Sir: In compliance with your request for a written statement covering 
tin' reason for our inability to recruit defense industry trainees for the San Diego 
Vocational School the following statement is made. 

As you know, rather elaborate preparations were made on the part of the San 
Diego city schools to start up a defense training program to accommodate a large 
number of trainees, and this service was designated and accepted the responsi- 
bility for securing these trainees. To date the school has requisitioned, in round 
figures, approximately 3,000 trainees, and we have recruited and referred to them 
approximately 2,500 of this number. 


Up until the first of this year all trainees could be recruited locally. However, 
as of that time the local supply became exhausted and we found it necessary to 
start canvassing other areas. This canvass was limited to adjacent areas at 
first, and then gradually expanded in an ever-widening circle. We are now faced 
with the problem of going clear outside the State for trainee material. 

Very little success has been had in our efforts to secure trainees from other 
areas. While recruitment activity was confined locally the problem of housing 
was not a factor because the boys could live at home while taking the training. 
In the case of workers from the outside, however, the principal objection to tak- 
ing the training was that trainees could not sustain themselves financially during 
the period of 6 or 8 weeks they would be in school. 

In order to meet this problem arrangements were made to induct trainees in a 
National Youth Administration residence housing project in which they could 
earn their board and lodging and some additional money as National Youth Ad- 
ministration project workers. This arrangement, as it became available, created 
some immediate impetus in our program of securing trainees from the outside, 
even though there was some drawback to this arrangement because of the neces- 
sity for requiring double the time necessary to complete the training. The ca- 
pacity of the National Youth Administration residence training project is very 
limited, and to make matters worse, only a proportion of the available facilities 
of this project were reserved for defense industry trainees for induction in the San 
Diego Vocational School training program for aircraft workers specifically. 

There are other reasons, of course, why we are lagging behind in our efforts to 
secure a sufficient number of trainees on schedule to meet the program as set up 
by the San Diego Vocational School, which is based on the anticipated needs of 
defense industries, but the most important reason has been and is our inability 
to provide housing facilities. 

It is our understanding that almost unlimited expansion could be provided for 
on a National Youth Administration residence project, provided housing facili- 
ties could be made available. This would meet the biggest problem we are en- 
countering, that is to say, that of providing facilities for trainees while under 
training, at no expense to them. Without these facilities each boy must have $100 
to $150. 

We have in the past joined in efforts to correct this situation and provide the 
necessary facilities, and we know that the problem is well known to many of us 
locally and that we have made serious and untiring efforts to secure support from 
various agencies. It is our understanding that these efforts will be continued, 
and in line with that effort we want to join with you in whatever you can do to 
relieve the situation for us. 

We cannot too strongly recommend relief from any source wherever it may be 
available, and we warn that our entire program of recruiting trainees for defense 
industry training will come to a dead stop without this aid. 
Very truly yours, 

Department of Employment, 

R. G. Wagenet, Director. 

Ray Mathewson, Manager, San Diego Office. 

San Diego City Schools, 
Office of the Superintendent, 

San Diego, Cahf., June 7, 1941. 
Lt. Max I. Black, 

Chairman, Local Defense Housing Committee, 

Eleventh Naval District, San Diego, Calif. 
Dear Lieutenant Black: As you know, we have offered through the vocational 
school to train all necessary workers for the aircraft industry in San Diego. The 
Federal Government has provided extra equipment and the city has turned over 
to us the Ford Building in Balboa Park for national-defense training. We, 
therefore, have excellent facilities and can train the necessary personnel. 

However, we have almost exhausted the supply of local trainees and it is 
necessary to bring recruits from outside the city. This presents a problem of 
housing, as trainees cannot usually afford to pay rent. The National Youth 
Administration is willing to care for them, but does not have sufficient housing 
to accommodate the many requests. 

The Federal Government has recently completed several dormitories for single 
workers and there are plenty of accommodations for all concerned. However, 
trainees are not classified as "workers" and so, therefore, are not now eligible 


to live in these dormitories. It would seem, therefore, that either trainees should 
be classed as "potential workers" and allowed to live in the barracks, or that 
some of the barracks be turned over to the National Youth Administration, which 
is willing to administer the housing facilities. 

I sincerely hope that some arrangements can be worked out quickly so the 
training program will not be handicapped. 
Yours very sincerely, 

Will, C. Crawford, 
Superintendent of Schools. 


The Chairman. In connection with your prepared statement, it is 
perfectly permissible to make a brief oral statement about the situa- 
tion here, in reference to the housing, as it has come to your knowl- 
edge. For the purpose of the hearing we would like you to touch 
on some of the high spots — what the problem has been, whether 
there is any improvement in the situation, and what you anticipate. 


Lieutenant Black. Prior to the time that this new construction, 
which I set forth in detail, was started, there was a very acute hous- 
ing problem, and there is still a housing problem, although the figures 
I present here show that the situation has been somewhat alleviated. 
There are two reasons for the abatement, and they are that the major 
aircraft companies have not been hiring recently, and the fact that 
we are getting some of these Government houses built. 

Up until about 6 months ago there was very little concerted effort, 
as I see it, in San Diego to take care of this problem, with the excep- 
tion of the 1,200 units that the Navy had under way. 

Mr. Palmer, in his visit here on the 15th of January, saw the ur- 
gent need, and for that reason set up the Homes Kegistration Office, 
or authorized the setting up of the homes registration office and this 
local defense housing committee. I think it is the consensus in 
the community that such a coordination was essential. It is new, it 
has a lot of holes in it, but I do honestly think that it is a step in the 
right direction. 

The Chairman. Of course, it is. I am absolutely convinced that 
housing is connected directly with the national-defense program. In 
other words, Lieutenant, you cannot divorce civilian morale from 
Army and Navy morale. They go hand in hand. 

Lieutenant Black. No, sir; you cannot, especially in the type of 
war this is. We are commencing to think that it becomes more and 
more a civilian effort, as I see it. 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. 


Lieutenant Black. For that reason it makes San Diego, we may 
say, a "hot spot." This is an air and a naval war. 

As for the actual conditions as they exist today, we have a com- 
bined total of 7,928 units, either completed, under construction, or 
authorized, or earmarked. That is broken clown into 6,200 units for 
married people and 1,728 for single men. 


The Chairman. What would the 7,000 units mean in terms of 

Lieutenant Black. Well, if we can believe the best figures, at least 
1.2 children per family is a good average. In other words, that means 
3.2 persons to a family, and we can multiply the 6,200 by 3.2, the actual 
number of houses that we will have built, and that will give us the 

I have asked for private contractors to put up 4,000 additional 
houses. Whether we will get to that figure, I can't say. I am almost 
positive now, from the latest reports I have from the F. H. A. and the 
Department of Permits — that is, the Building Permits Department 
and various other sources of information — that we will not reach the 
4,000 in the 6 months in which we ask for them. But that is not, to 
my mind, as essential now as it was when I asked for them last April, 
for the simple reason that the aircraft companies have considerably 
slowed down in their rate of hiring. Therefore, we have this breathing 
spell, which is very fortunate for the city of San Diego, and which has 
allowed us to take up the slack. 


The Chairman. Let me inquire right there, Lieutenant. We had 
a witness on here this morning by the name of Porter, and he came 
from Oklahoma, I think it was. At any rate, he has six children and 
has secured employment here. Of course, that makes eight in the 
family, and he is paying $72 a month for a one-room house. Do you 
know if these units that you speak of are made to accommodate a 
family as large as that? 

Lieutenant Black. The three-bedroom houses would. It would 
depend on the ages of the children, of course, but one of the three- 
bedroom houses could probably take care of his family; but whether 
that man is eligible for one of them or not depends on his job. 

The Chairman. He is working for the Consolidated Aircraft Cor- 

Lieutenant Black. Then I don't see why he would not be eligible 
and, under those conditions, I would say he would be way up on the 
list for priority, with that size family and because he is paying what 
sounds like exhorbitant rent and is working for the defense program. 

I wouldn't know that definitely without investigation, and that is 
handled by the F. W. A., but from what you have told me, he ousrht 
to be way up on the list. 


Miss Bauer. There aren't any three-bedroom units open yet, 
are there? 

Lieutenant Black. No. That is the sad part of that story. Only 
the two-bedroom houses are open, and the three-bedroom houses will 
not be open for quite some time yet. 

The Chairman. I was out to the Kearney Mesa project yesterday, 
and I took back with me the impression that they were doing pretty 
well in this emergency. There was a little confusion, but everything 
seemed to be in pretty good order. I think we have to realize that 
this is an emergency which is thrust upon us all at once. 

Lieutenant Black. Yes. 


The Chairman. Now, are there any garages out there at all? 

Lieutenant Black. No, sir; not to the best of my knowledge. 

The Chairman. Nearly all the people have cars, haven't they? 

Lieutenant Black. I can't answer that. I presume that a great 
proportion of them will have cars. Now, you mention the fact that 
they are doing a good job. I think that probably the only word that 
really describes that job is a miracle. I don't know how they did it. 

The Chairman. They started from scratch? 

Lieutenant Black. Yes; I watched it week by week, and I still 
don't know how they did it, and I think people who have seen it from 
the outside will back me up on that statement — people who have seen 
other projects. 

The Chairman. That is one of the reasons I came here. We are 
going into Connecticut, New Jersey, and Maryland, and spots similar 
to this elsewhere, and see how they are getting along, and one of our 
objects is to find out how methods and conditions can be improved. 


Lieutenant Black. You should really have seen it when they 
started it, which was in the rainy season, and you would then be able 
to realize what they were up against. Now, in addition to the housing 
units that I have enumerated, and these are strictly Government, we 
have the 900 additional units which Commander Bear mentioned, 
and the 4,000 that we hope to have built. I think we will succeed in 
getting them if we can get certain other problems ironed out- 
rentals on the Mesa, and so forth. These 4,000 are to be built by 
private contractors. That makes a total of 11,100 house accommoda- 
tions for married people and 1,728 for unmarried men or men living 
alone, in the barracks type of accommodation. In addition to that 
we now have 1,949, I believe it is, rooms available throughout the 
city, voluntarily registered at the homes registration office. 

These latter rooms are not all 100 percent. We have from time to 
time picked out at random certain ones and gone out and had them 
investigated; and as rapidly as possible, with the assistance of the new 
field staff of the W. P. A., we are going to go and investigate most of 
them. But the grand total of rooms for single people adds to some- 
thing over 3,677. 

Now, balanced against that, wc have the anticipated employment— 
and 3^011 can check these figures probably — an anticipated employment, 
that is, the four aircraft companies and the three shipbuilding com- 
panies — by January 1942, of approximately 9,975, in addition to what 
we have right now. 

Of that number of anticipated employees, approximately 5,000 to 
5,500 would be married, if we could be guided by past statistics. But 
I believe that from now on the proportion of married people will drop, 
because the labor market has become practically flat, as far as skilled 
older workers are concerned, and more and more, as we pull in men 
from the outside field, we are going to have to take young boys just 
out of high school. Therefore, I think the proportion of married men 
will drop; but even if it doesn't, we still have only to supply by the 
1st of January approximately 5,500 homes, and we have these that I 
have just mentioned, which is more than enough. 



However, we cannot forget this — and I think it is a very important 
point, and I, for one, do not know the answer to it: As to the defense 
workers, we have figures on them, which I believe to be fairly reliable. 
Now, we do know that there are going to be other people brought into 
this town, people who are either sent for, or are coming in of their 
own free will, to take jobs in nondefense industries. 

How we are going to get the figures on those, except to make sur- 
veys from time to time, and just how we can estimate their number, 
is not entirely clear to me. Furthermore, up to now I know of no 
way to take care of those people, except through the old law of supply 
and demand; that is, as we can get the people into the Government 
houses who rightfully belong there under the present rules, they will 
vacate other houses for the second class I have just spoken of. 

We are trying by every means at our command to keep accurate 
figures on it, because, after all, they affect the over-all housing picture 
in San Diego just as much as the workers at Consolidated; and, to 
my mind, they are just as essential. You cannot run Consolidated 
without the 5 and 10, and the rest of them. 

The Chairman. Lieutenant, in Congress did we hold you up at all 
in getting started, in getting these projects under way? 

Lieutenant Black. I can't answer that part of it exactly. I can 
say this, that since this new office of emergency employment was set 
up, we certainly are getting things a lot faster than we did before; at 
least, as far as I personally am concerned. For example, I sent a 
telegram at 11:15 in the morning that required an answer from the 
head man, the top man in the bureau, and I received the answer at 
2:30 that afternoon. I don't think you can ask for much better 
than that. Generally speaking, they are very, very prompt, at 
least as far as my personal business is concerned. 

Now, as to the actual allocation of funds by Congress, I think 
probably somebody else could better answer that, because I have had 
nothing to do with that. Our job is to find out the facts, present 
them to Mr. Palmer's office, and keep him informed. 


The Chairman. Now, these houses out at Kearney Mesa, what do 
they rent for? 

Lieutenant Black. The rental is based on the income that the 
man receives, and the size of the house is determined by the man's 
needs. At present, I think that Mr. Voigt, the manager of the project, 
could give you those details much better than I could, although I 
know, generally speaking, what they are. I think Mr. Voigt can 
give you the exact figures. 

The Chairman. I think yesterday he told me $22.50 was the 
rental for one of the houses I was looking at. 

Lieutenant Black. Yes. That sounds right. They could go all 
the way up to $50. They could run from $14 up to $50. That is the 
spread. Roughly speaking, it was based on 17 to 20.6 percent of the 
man's wages. 

The Chairman. At this time, then, from the investigation you 
have made and your practical knowledge of the whole problem, you 
don't anticipate too much trouble about this housing problem. 



Lieutenant Black. Let me put it this way: I don't think we are 
going to have as much trouble as we did in the past, but I certainly 
wouldn't say that we are out of the woods or completely out of trouble 
yet, not by a long way. I think this will work in peaks and valleys. 
We can see daylight now, but when Consolidated starts hiring a full 
personnel, and the other companies start expanding rapidly, then we 
are going to reach the point where these houses on the mesa become 
filled up. The Navy houses are almost filled now When the F. S. A. 
trailers become filled, then we are going to have more trouble, and 
we may have to ask for more demountable houses. 

Of course, I understand the second $150,000,000 is coming, but 
I have been given to understand that the need will be met with 
demountable housing in the future; unless there is a complete change 
of policy on the part of private capital, builders can't keep up with the 
need, and they will do it with demountable, mobile houses, which 
are the easiest type. 


The Chairman. What do you think of the demountable, mobile 
houses? Are they cheaper than the other type? 

Lieutenant Black. I couldn't give you the figures on it. I have 
tried, as recently as 2 months ago, when a representative from the 
F. W. A. was out here. I tried at that time to get the figures on the 
houses, but he himself didn't know, and he told me, furthermore, that 
he didn't think anybody in Washington knew for sure at that time. 

The Chairman. The question that keeps running through my 
mind is whether the investment in that kind of defense housing will 
be lost, in large part, after this emergency is over, or will such housing 
continue to provide a reasonable accommodation for people. There 
might be an element of saving there to be considered. That is what 
I am trying to keep in mind. 

Lieutenant Black. I understand they will be able to salvage 
demountable houses, and while I can't give you the final answer, 
I think it should be one of the duties of our committee to be consider- 
ing that right now; that is, what are we going to do when the emergency 
is over? We have already discussed it, and I expect to keep that 
uppermost in the minds of the authorities — to try to figure out a way 
to use the houses after the emergency. Of course, it is a problem that 
is larger than the scope of our local committee. It will have to be 
done, no doubt, on a national scale. 

The Chairman. That is why I am here. We are going, as I said, 
into Connecticut and other areas, where the national-defense program 
is centered, and we will report back to Congress in August. So we 
thought we would have to have this picture here, because San Diego is 
among the greatest defense centers in the United States. 

Now, we had city officials here— the city manager and the county 
commissioner — stressing the point that the increase in population 
on account of the defense program and the growth of Navy and Marine 
Corps facilities would bring about a condition so burdensome that the 
city and county will be financially unable to handle the load — that is, 
for schools, hospitals, sewerage, water, and other services. Do you 
agree with that? 


Lieutenant Black. Very decidedly ; yes, sir. The letters that have 
been written by our committee to the various governmental agencies 
in regard to that, I think, would bear out that statement. 

The Chairman. I just wanted to get your opinion on it. 


Lieutenant Black. I don't think T am overestimating when I say 
that the need for more schoolhouse facilities is desperate, and I think 
that drastic measures should be taken to correct this situation. It 
is a shame it wasn't done when they originally started these cities. 
That is the time it should have been done. They should have started 
building the school the day they broke ground for the first house. 
And for that reason, Congressman, if you can get the word back on 
the two cities of demountable houses, I think that would be an 
important step. I know. I lived in the area where they are putting 
a lot of them. I think the schoolhouse ought to go up at the time the 
demountable houses go up, and I think probably the schoolhouse 
should not be more durable than the project itself. There is no use 
in building a permanent schoolhouse, or one which would come under 
the State laws, which are very stringent since the 1932 earthquake. 
For that reason the State cannot handle it. 

The Chairman. When we talk of this situation, we come back to 
the question of citizen morale. 

Lieutenant Black. Exactly. 

The Chairman. That is the way towns were built. The schools 
grew with the towns. 

Lieutenant Black. And the schools are vitally important in con- 
nection with tne new housing. Practically the number one require- 
ment to get into these housing projects is that you must have children ; 
at least, families with children are being put on the preferred lists. 
In other words, the fellow with four or five children is the one who will 
be preferred, his name goes up to the top, and you can't have the 
children running around the streets. You have to have them in the 

The Chairman. That is what I had in mind. You see, we have 
been all over the United States getting the general picture of migra- 
tion. The committee has traveled something over 20,000 miles, on 
both coasts, and north and south. 

We found that in the depression of the thirties, as many as 
4,000,000 people were wandering around the country, looking for 
work. Now, here you are again with new thousands moving out of 
their homes, to defense centers. We weren't interested in the per- 
ennial tramp or hobo. We were interested in American citizens, who 
had left their homes on account of circumstances over which they had 
no control. That question has been neglected. It has just simply 
been neglected. 

Now, for example, there is one district, a congressional district in 
Nebraska, where 40,000 people, one-half of the population, had to 
leave after they had 8 years of dry weather. In such a circumstance, 
what are they going to do? They aren't going to sit there and starve, 
so they are on their way. 

I am very much impressed with the idea of the schools. What are 
we going to do? We aren't going to have a Nation of intelligent 
citizens if we leave the children of all these people uneducated. 



Lieutenant Black. That is right. I want to bring out one more 
point. Speaking of migration; as I see it, there are two kinds of 
migration — the kind that we want and the kind that we can't help. 
The ones we want — the labor movement being what it is — we have 
to go out and pull in. That is a form of migration. If we can't get 
them here, we have to get them somewhere else. 

The other type of migration is of such as the young girls who are 
coming in here. They hear about this fine climate and they come 
here. Now, generally speaking, we don't need female help. Maybe 
the time will come when we do. I don't know. 

But if we bring in outside people, we have got to train them. We 
have got to take them and train them before they are employed in 
the defense industries. This is a matter which I am going to take up 
with Mr. Hay dock of Mr. Palmer's office, when he gets here, but it 
presents another difficulty that must be solved. 


Miss Bauer. Just one thing: In view of the shortage of trainees, 
which was mentioned in testimony this morning, I wonder if you would 
like to say just a few words on this question of using either tiie new 
F. S. A. trailers or the P. W. A. dormitories for the trainers. 

Lieutenant Black. I just started to talk about that. I wasn't 
going to go into detail. The scheme, or plan, as I see it, is that we 
want to bring in young men from further afield. We can't bring them 
from the Los Angeles area, because if we bring them down here and 
train them, the minute they become trained they will go back to 
Lockheed and those other companies. So we have to go to farming 
communities and maybe clear back into the Mississippi Valley terri- 
tory and bring those people in here. 

Now, one of the main reasons they don't come here for training, the 
majority being boys in ordinary circumstances, is that they know they 
can't subsist after they get here. I know it is hard to believe that a 
man can travel 500 miles and yet doesn't have money to keep himself 
for 6 weeks after he reaches his destination, but that, apparently, is 
the case. 

So what w T e propose to do now, if the authorities in Washington 
will grant it, is either to raise all bars outright, or by some means or 
other take over a part of these F. S. A. barracks temporarily and enroll 
these men under an N. Y. A. program; and we w 7 ill even work on a 
W. P. A. scheme for the older people. Then w r e can put them through 
the vocational school, which, incidentally, has $300,000 from the 
Federal Government for machinery for just this purpose. After they 
have become trained, w T e can place them in industry. 

Then, eventually, as w T e get to the peak, that scheme can be either 
abandoned or cut down to normal replacements, for people who quit 
or are fired. That could be handled in a project such as they have 
out at Ocean Park Village now. That, generally speaking, is the idea 
of housing trainees in barracks. 



The Chairman. I am just thinking, Lieutenant, how things have 
changed since the time of our investigation only a year ago. Do you 
know that we have 31 States in this Union — and California is one of 
them — that make it a crime to transport an indigent citizen across 
State lines? Thirty -one States. And here we have the Federal 
Government and representatives of welfare agencies and industries 
encouraging people to go from one State to another. 

Lieutenant, what sort of cushion can we devise to lighten the 
shocks of the readjustment which must follow such great displacement 
of the population? Have you given it any thought? 

Lieutenant Black. A great deal. You mean, as far as the housing 
situation is concerned? 

The Chairman. No. What is going to become of the defense 
workers? Don't you think that is about as great a problem as the war 

Lieutenant Black. It might be an even greater problem, because 
it might last longer. 

I don't like to talk about compulsory insurance. Of course, with 
my Navy job, I have always had that cushion, if I retired, to fall back 
on. There might be some sort of scheme worked out to help these 
people from out of town save some money, so that when it is all over 
and they want to go home, they can go. 

The Chairman. You are speaking my language. I drove out from 
Chicago, and on the way, I talked to people. I also talked to many 
people up in Oakland, Calif., and this problem has bothered me. 
You hit the nail on the head when you mention that compulsory 
insurance idea to me. 

Now, the President of the United States has issued an Executive 
order, calling for a survey of public-works projects to take up the slack 
after this war is over. But the trouble with that, of course, is that 
there is no appropriation, and the country itself might not have very 
much money when this thing is over. Nobody knows. But it seems 
to me that we shall have the answer when we find a way to get the 
defense workers to lay aside a little each month, so that at the end of 
this situation they would have four or five hundred dollars, or eight 
hundred or nine hundred, so that they can take care of themselves 
until the country can get its post-war problems straightened out. 
That kind of insurance is taken out of the wages of civil-service 
workers. It is not done for defense workers, is it? 

Lieutenant Black. No. But they do that in civil service, and 
maybe it could be worked out some way among the private companies. 
I think it would be a fine idea, personally, if some satisfactory way 
could be worked out. 

The Chairman. So that the money could be saved for them. 


Lieutenant Black. Yes, because I would almost swear the average 
worker is not doing it. I say that because I see too many of them 
lined up at the pay windows to have their checks cashed the minute 
they get them. They just can't wait. 


The Chairman. A great many of those people, thousands of them, 
were unemployed. They wouldn't have traveled all this distance if 
they had had a good job at home. They wouldn't have come out 
here. That is true, isn't it — that a lot of them were unemployed? 

Lieutenant Black. Generally speaking, that probably is true. 

The Chairman. After having been unemployed, they are working 
now and making good wages; and if some scheme could be created 
by which a certain amount of their pay each month would be laid 
aside for them, they would be taken care of. 

Lieutenant Black. Of course, the unemployment insurance takes 
care of that to a certain extent. 

The Chairman. But they have to make application for it. Is 
that right? 

Lieutenant Black. I don't know enough about it to answer that. 

Miss Bauer. There is some coverage with the unemployment 
insurance, isn't there? 

Lieutenant Black. That is what I thought, but I think it is rather 
small. I don't know about that. 

The Chairman. We still can think about it anyway. I don't know 
where we will get with it, but I think it is very important, and I think 
you do too. 

Lieutenant Black. Yes. My idea is also, so far as the housing 
problem is concerned, since you are speaking of insurance to recognize 
the differnce between permanent jobs and temporary jobs — that is, to 
use the demountable houses for the difference in that curve. 

The Chairman. Yes. England is handling this particular situation 
in a little different manner, making it a matter of taxation. No matter 
who you are, they tax yon over there, and they say to their citizens, 
"We are laving aside s certain amount of your wages each month for 
3 7 ou." Of course, again the old problem comes up, that they might 
not have anything at the end of the war either. 

Well, Lieutenant, we deeply appreciate your contribution here, and 
I know it is going to be very valuable to the committee. Thank you 
very much, sir. 

We will take a 5-minute recess. 

(After a 5-minute recess.) 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order, and we 
will hear Dr. Lesem. 


The Chairman. Doctor, please give us your full name and your 
official capacity. 

Dr. Lesem. Alex M. Lesem. I am director of health for the city 
and county health department. 

The Chairman. How long have you held that position, Doctor? 

Dr. Lesem. For the city since 1918. With the county and city 
since 1924. 

The Chairman. How long have you lived here? 

Dr. Lesem. Since 1886. 

The Chairman. You should be qualified as an expert around this 


Dr. Lesem. Well, an expert is an ordinary guy away from home. 
So I am not an expert. 

The Chairman. You have filed a statement here, haven't you? 

Dr. Lesem. Yes. 

(The statement referred to appears below:) 



Substandard Housing and Health Conditions in San Diego 

The following data obtained from several local surveys and special studies 
relating to substandard housing in the city of San Diego is offered: 

In each of the last three decades— 1910-20, 1920-30, 1930-40— the population 
of San Diego has doubled — from a population of slightly more than 35,000 in 
1910 the city will probably reach 300,000 by January 1, 1941. 

New construction has not kept pace with the demand needed to furnish adequate 
housing for the normal population increase. Old houses constructed prior to 
1900 are being occupied as boarding homes or substandard apartments or multiple 
dwelling units in violation of the State housing act and contrary to local fire and 
safety regulations. The enforcement of local and State regulations has been de- 
layed for the reason that there has been an acute housing shortage. 

insanitary camps 

Trailer camps have operated under insanitary conditions and often we have 
found families living outside of established camp grounds without adequate 
sanitary facilities. 

On several occasions the quarantine officers have ordered the removal of children 
with communicable diseases to the communicable disease ward of the county 
hospital from families living in trailers, shacks, and even chicken coops. 

The effect of epidemics on national-defense industries when due to close contact 
of workers and overcrowding has been tabulated. From December 5, 1940, 
until December 13, 1940, records were made of the number of men absent from the 
various airplane industries; the number of days lost by the employees seriously 
affected the volume of production as shown in the tabulation: 

Date, firm, and number of employees 





13, 200 




















1 Not reported. 

Cases of influenza, city of San Diego 
j 940 ■ Number of cases ' 

November 62 

December 186 


January 4 

February 2 

Total 254 

i Cases reported to this department; many cases were not reported by physicians or families. 


Cases of German measles, city of San Diego 

January 31 

February 153 

March _ _ 495 

April 769 

May 613 

Total cases reported to this department 2, 061 


From January 1, 1937, to the date of the 1940 census, the population of the 
city of San Diego increased from 183,000 to 202,038; the estimated increase in 
numbers of families 4,539. During this period, 5,167 new family units have been 
built and occupied. 


In 1934, a real property inventory was made by the Works Progress Adminis- 
tration : 

Number of dwellings listed 53, 379 

Rental at 810 per month or less 1, 662 

Rental at $10 to $15 per month 4. 367 

Rental at $15 to $20 per month 7, 536 

Rental at $20 to $30 per month 12, 757 

(This reflects the inability of Navy personnel to pay high rents.) 

W ithout water-flushed toilets 2, 532 

Without tub or shower 4, 059 

Without gas or electricity 966 

Dwellings condemned 545 

Apartments condemned 120 


During the early part of 1940, the health officer was requested to study a group 
of 25 families for the purpose of determining the cost of medical care and material 

Two public-health nurses were assigned to interview the families and to investi- 
gate health and welfare conditions in these dwellings. 

This group did not live in any designated slum area, but were located in different 
parts of the city with considerable distances between houses. 

Answers to all questions were tabulated on individual history sheets, which 
were then cleared through the central social service records and checked in regard 
to the expenditures for material relief with the various welfare agencies, having 
the families listed as clients of that particular agency throughout, the year 1939. 
Often more than one agency was found to have administered relief. The infor- 
mation thus obtained was recorded on the individual history sheets and then 
transferred to a master sheet. A photostat copy of the master sheet is transmitted 
with this report and it is desired to place this on record for the reason that it 
establishes the fact that we are able to refute the statement that "There are no 

60396 — 41— pt. 12- 


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Summary of survey 

Total number of families 25 

Total number of people 146 

Average number of rooms per family 3. 04 

Total rent paid $306. 00 

Average rent paid per family $12. 24 

Average rent per room $3. 60 

Total income $1 , 306. 50 


Tuberculosis (26 cases; 12 deaths): 

Cost for hospitalization $8,902.00 

Average per family 523. 00 

25-family average! 356.00 

Cost of clinic treatment 907. 90 

Cost per family 36. 32 


County welfare: 

Total rent paid by county welfare 514. 16 

Total aid, county' welfare 3, 486. 57 

Average per family (10 families receiving aid) 348. 65 

25-family average 139. 46 

State relief agencies: 

Total rent paid by State relief agencies 1, 005. 92 

Total aid, State relief agencies 5. 590. 19 

Average per family (9 families receiving aid) 621. 13 

25-family average 22. 36 

Work Projects Administration: 

Total income, Work Projects Administration 3, 474. 80 

Average per family (4 families receiving aid) 868. 70 

25-family averagel 139. 00 

Nursing and housekeeping service 485. 93 

Average per family (5 families receiving service) 97. 19 

25-family average 19. 43 

Tuberculosis Society: 

Total care of children, Rest Haven 682. 00 

Average per family (6 families receiving care) 1 13. 66 

25-family average 27. 2S 

County probation office: Ruth Home (1 family receiving care) 411. 69 

Total cost for medical care and relief 23, 941. 06 

These figures are exclusive of adult offenses against Federal. State, and local 
laws and ordinances, including misdemeanors or major crime. 


The 25 families and their dwellings were well known to the sanitary officers and 
the division of communicable disease control; complaints on numerous occasions 
have been received by this office, relative to insanitary or bad housing conditions. 
These complaints have been made by individuals, welfare and other agencies, 
and include: "Violation of sanitary laws, violation of State housing code, local 
building code, health and safety' code, fire-prevention regulations, reports of 
communicable disease to the quarantine division, and reports of tuberculosis and 
venereal diseases. 

It should be understood that the 25 families represent only a cross section of this 
type of people, and it should not be assumed that this number approximates 
anything near the total number of families that could have been surveyed with 
similar findings. 


The following communicable diseases are listed in our office records as subject 
to quarantine and isolation: Measles, typhoid fever, whooping cough, tubercu- 
losis, diphtheria, pneumonia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. 

In addition to these diseases, the following infections were listed during the 
survey: Upper respiratory, infections and common colds, ringworm, impetigo, 
scabies, and some other diseases not communicable. 



The following tabulation is submitted for the purpose of comparison between 
the rates occurring in standard and substandard houses. A total of 1,193 dwellings 
were surveyed and tabulated as follows: 

Rates per 

thousand dwellings for health problems and juvenile delinquency 

of houses 
in group 










54, 371 











51 5 


Number of houses in city at 



A general survey of hotels, apartments, and lodging units, completed Septem- 
ber 1, 1940, by the housing inspectors of the sanitary division, shows the follow- 
ing figures on record in the health department files: 

Total number of lodging rooms 
surveyed (including hotel 
apartments) 11, 655 

Substandard rooms 888 

Estimated number of substand- 
ard family dwellings 2, 893 















Summary of report on auto courts, trailer courts, and population of the same 
as of Januarv 16, 1941: 

Auto courts 

Trailer courts 

Combination auto and trailer courts 



Auto court units 1, 286 

Trailer court spaces 765 

Estimated population: Adults, 3,544; children 644 (18.1 percent of popula- 
tion); population per space or unit, 2.39; auto courts, average rent per week per 
unit, $15.15; trailer courts, average rent per week per space, $2.73. 


Since these figures were compiled, 5 more trailer courts have been put into 
service. These 5 courts provide accommodations for 250 trailers; also, there are 
some additions to the number of auto court units. Several of these auto and trailer 
courts are in bad condition owing to the wet winter and to their locations. These 
conditions will be corrected soon. 

This report covers the boarding houses of record in this office April 1, 1941. 
There are many of which we have no record at present; most of these, however, 
accommodate only three or four people. 

The larger houses listed are residences and cannot be made to comply with the 
requirements of the State Housing Act without heavy expense. 

The following figures represent a summary of this report: 

Houses listed 58 [ Total rooms in operation 391 

Houses closed 9 | Total rooms overcrowded 80 

— ■ — Population planned for 904 

Total 49 I Population at present 699 

Analysis of this report discloses that overcrowding in most cases is unnecessary, 
as nearly all of these houses have vacancies. 




In July 1940, a survey of approximately 1,500 dwellings in the southeast section 
of the city of San Diego was completed by the health department. This area may 
be considered as an industrial-residence section in which workers and wage earners 
reside. None is wealthy as will be shown in the income and rental chart. 

In classifying the type of dwellings we surveyed, three types were first con- 
sidered: (1) Standard, (2) substandard, (3) dwellings unfit for human habitation, 
to be condemned. 

The investigators had difficulty in classifying a certain type of dwelling; there- 
fore the classification "Optional" was added. By selecting this fourth type, it 
enabled us to present a complete survey, and statistical data could be broken 
down and more accurate housing figures in regard to incomes, insanitary condi- 
tions, crowding, need of repair, and need of sanitary facilities could be presented. 

In other words, the "Optional House" is a dwelling, which with a small amount 
of expenditure could be rehabilitated for occupany as a standard dwelling provid- 
ing the size of the family would not exceed the capacity of the house. 

Houses surveyed 











Total . 



Income and rental data 

Type of housing 






on relief 








i $13. 97 










1 14 percent unknown. 

The survey included the status of the family group, percentage of citizens, 
adults and children, and the sex of each. 

Fourteen percent of the units could not be surveyed on account of vacancy, not 
at home, or refusal to give information. 

Status of family group 

Type of housing 






























The public officials of the city and county, including the legislative and admin- 
istrative officers, desire to cooperate with the Federal Government in every re- 
spect in establishing as quickly as possible the necessary and adequate housing 
units for defense workers. 

Overcrowding tends to increase the number of upper respiratory infections 
and increase the number and variety of epidemics; some will be serious. All will 


cause a loss of time to the defense worker. It is necessary that the Federal Hous- 
ing authorities work in harmony with the local authorities in planning and exe- 
cuting standards high enough to insure health and safety. 

The Navy housing authorities have cooperated with the local officials to the 
fullest extent possible. This cannot be said for the defense housing project at 
Kearney Mesa. 

Every attempt on the part of local officials to assist or suggest proper standards 
suitable to climatic conditions and health and safety standards have been answered 
by information in regard to what they propose to do, or what has already been 

[Photographs of the type of installation of sewers, gas and water mains were 
affixed to this report, and are being held in committee files.] 

The type of installation used in sewers, gas and water mains is dangerous, and 
for every dollar saved in the process of installation many dollars will be spent 
later for maintenance and repairs. Forty percent of these utilities are installed, 
and any additional installation of the same type should be stopped immediately, 
and if and when the city is required to take over streets and maintain and repair 
the present system, adequate funds should be provided from Federal sources to 
compensate for installations which do not meet with good engineering practice. 


The plumbing installations in the unit comply with the minimum requirements 
of the Hoover Code. This installation was planned for rural districts and small 
towns but never intended as a satisfactory standard for larger cities. Some of 
the material used will have to be replaced in 10 years or less — at great expense. 
The San Diego Code could have been followed and the increase in cost would 
have been negligible, but the material used in this installation would have endured 
100 years, and repair would be practically nil. 

Master and journeyman plumbers and sanitation experts objected to this instal- 
lation and protested against it, but the swivel-chair engineers in the Bureau of 
Standards informed us as to what they had done and what they proposed to do. 
A copy of the letter from the Bureau of Standards is included in this report. 

The following recommendations to Mr. Felt and letter from the Public Buildings 
Administration are submitted for the record. These, in the opinion of the Director 
of Health, are the minimum requirements for adequate care of the indigent sick 
at the time that these units can be completed in 1942 or early in 1943. 

City of San Diego, Calif., 

June 2, 1941. 
Mr. Wright L. Felt, 

Room 1002, 785 Market Street, San Francisco, Calif. 
Dear Mr. Felt: You are informed that I have recently made a survey with 
Dr. Harrison, Dr. Brown, and Mr. J. A. Harmon, sanitary engineer, State board 
of health. 

1. There are approximately 5,500 feet of wood-stave pipe line crossing the 
Sorrento flume; this wood-stave pipe line is in bad repair. Through this pipe 
line, water is conveyed to Camp Callan. Sewage effluent discharged from the 
treatment plant from Camp Callan flows down this flume and at times this pipe 
line is submerged in water and effluent originating from the camp. This should 
be replaced immediately at an elevation higher than the present level and realined 
so that there will be no chance of flood waters and effluent reaching its level. 

2. There is immediate need of a contagious-disease hospital. The present ward 
was sufficient to take care of San Diego's need before the influx of industrial 
workers and also the families of Army and Navy enlisted personnel. The present 
contagious-disease ward is located within the general hospital. It is now deemed 
advisable to build a hospital with at least 100 beds for general contagious diseases 
and 30 beds for the care and treatment of venereal-disease patients, making a 
total of 130 beds. 

3. An out-patient clinic should be established at the county hospital to take 
care of the additional number of patients being cared for in this clinic. An 
average case load of 200 per day is now being handled and the space and facilities 
are entirely inadequate. This demand has been caused by the rapid increase in 
population that must be taken care of. 


4. It is estimated that an additional 135 beds will be necessary to take care of 
an estimated population increase of 100,000 persons who will come to San Diego 
by January 1, 1942. I have been assured by members of the board of supervisors 
that, if necessary, 5 percent of the cost of this building would be assumed by the 
county of San Diego. 

5. Tuberculosis: During the first 5 months of 1941, there have been reported 
to the city health department 87 cases of tuberculosis; for the same period of 
1940 only 66 cases were reported. In order to admit more needy cases, it is neces- 
sary to discharge certain patients from the tuberculosis hospital before they are 
ready to leave; this will result in recurrence of the disease and relapses and will 
increase the future problem of tuberculosis by causing additional spread of the 

A brief report is submitted for May 1940-41 showing the increase of activities 
at the tuberculosis hospital. There are adequate facilities for the care of women 
and children but the immediate care of men patients at the tuberculosis hospital 
is entirely inadequate. It is my opinion that the immediate construction of a 
150-bed unit for men at the present hospital site should be undertaken. 

We are beginning to find tuberculous patients in industry and as soon as more 
careful examinations can be made in the national-defense industry, I am sure that 
a great many industrial workers will have to be hospitalized. The construction 
of a tuberculosis ward for men should receive priority over many other activities 
that are being requested. 
Yours very truly, 

Alex M. Lesem, Director. 

San Diego, Calif., Defense Housing, 

Federal Works Agency, 
Public Buildings Administration, 

Washington, April 9, J941- 
Dr. Alex M. Lesem, 

Director of Public Health, San Diego, Calif. 
My Dear Dr. Lesem: This is with further reference to your telegrams addressed 
to the President of the United States, Hon. Hiram Johnson, Hon. Ed. V. Izac, 
and others urging observance of the local plumbing code in the construction of the 
defense housing project at San Diego, Calif. 

It is obvious that an endeavor to comply with the widely varying requirements 
of local codes throughout the United States would complicate the preparation of 
drawings and specifications, increase costs, and retard the speed of defense housing 
work. For this reason it was decided to adopt a single uniform code for all defense 
housing projects and the Plumbing Manual of the Central Housing Committee, 
an organization of governmental agencies engaged in housing, construction, and 
finance, was selected for that purpose. 

The Plumbing Code is supported by the following agencies: National Bureau of 
Standards, Federal Housing Administration, United States Housing Authority, 
Home Owners' Loan Corporation, Public Buildings Administration, Public Health 
Service, Office of the Quartermaster General (War), Veterans' Administration, 
Bureau of Yards and Docks (Navy), and Bureau of Agricultural Chemistry and 
Engineering (Agriculture). 

It should be noted that the Central Housing Committee code was adopted only 
after due study from the standpoint of efficient plumbing operation and careful 
consideration of protection of the public health, both of which in the opinion of 
the engineers of the agencies enumerated are adequately served within the provi- 
sions of the Plumbing Manual. 

The authority of municipal, county, or State regulation does not extend to 
Federal property and in view of the foregoing, the requirements of the Plumbing 
Manual are being followed with respect to all defense housing projects under this 

Very truly yours, 

L. A. Simon, 
Acting Commissioner of Public Buildings. 



The Chairman. Now, suppose you just give us, in your own way, 
a brief outline of health conditions in relation to the increase in popu- 
lation in this vicinity, Doctor. 

Dr. Lesem. Well, we do have some very serious health problems 
at this particular time, due to the influx of a good many people from 
various parts of the country. In comparing our communicable- 
disease incidence in May 1940 and 1941, we find an increase of 
about 400 percent in the number of actual quarantine cases that we 
have taken care of. 


The Chairman. And that is the result of what? 

Dr. Lesem. Well, the first epidemic that we had was influenza last 

The Chairman. That was quite general throughout the country, 
wasn't it? 

Dr. Lesem. It began here. It probabl} T had its inception in Hawaii. 
California was one of the first States to experience it, and while it 
was not a serious epidemic, yet from the standpoint of national defense 
it was, because at times out of 14,000 employees at Consolidated, 
8 or 9 percent were away from work over a period of a week or 10 days. 

Following that came an epidemic of German measles, and since 
then we have had chicken pox and mumps, and some of the minor 
things; nothing serious. We could anticipate such things, with the 
congregation of young military men, as meningitis, and we could 
even expect an infantile paralysis epidemic this summer. 

The Chairman. What about venereal diseases? Are they on the 

Dr. Lesem. As to venereal diseases, owing to the program that we 
have had here for a great many years, which we started back in 1918, 
and on which we have never let down the bars, we have always taken 
care of the load. Our clinical load is not increasing, but I would say 
we are getting more of the cases into private physicians' offices. At this 
time our attendance at the venereal clinic is about 1,000 patients, and 
it is more or less constant. That is about what we have had for some 
time, with no sharp tendency upward. 


The Chairman. Now, there has been a tremendous increase in 
population in San Diego County, as a result of this national-defense 
program, hasn't there? 

Dr. Lesem. That is right. 

The Chairman. And the people come from all over the United 

Dr. Lesem. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now, many of these people who come in are 
without positions. How are they taken care of? If they are taken 
sick, where do they go? How are they attended to? 

Dr. Lesem. Well, it depends a good deal on whether they come 
within the province of the health department. 


I could give you an instance here and there, and particularly as to 
one family that came from the Ohio River Valley and another from 
Vermont. I cite these two cases because when citations are made 
they are usually from Oklahoma and Texas. But we do have people 
from other States, and that is the reason I want to bring the two cases 
before you. 

The one man, with a family of four children, lived in a trailer. They 
originally came from Vermont. They had lived 4 years in a trailer, 
and had one child 9 months old. They had scarlet fever, and, of 
course, that is a major disease and quite serious. We went to these 
people in the trailer and we removed the children to the hospital, to 
the contagious-disease ward. 

The other family was brought out here at the recommendation of the 
man's brother-in-law, and it was a family of six children. It was 
suggested to the man that he come out alone and get work in the 
aircraft industry, but instead of coming alone, he brought the wife and 
six children. There was no accommodation for them out here, so they 
lived in a chicken coop. We had in that particular neighborhood two 
families living in chicken coops. Now, when there is a major disease 
among families such as that, we take them to a hospital. If it is a 
minor disease — something like mumps or chickenpox — we don't take 
them into the hospital. In fact, we wouldn't have the hospital facili- 
ties to take care of them. 


The Chairman. Do such cases get any treatment at all? 

Dr. Lesem. No; I don't think they would, unless they could pay for 
it. There is very little of it given. 

The Chairman. They would have to get along in the chicken coop 
the best way they could? 

Dr. Lesem. The best they could. There is no provision for that 
type of case. On the other hand, if it is a dangerous disease, they are 
taken to the hospital. 

The Chairman. That is a self-protective measure? 

Dr. Lesem. That is right. When people have, for instance, 
German measles, if we can keep them isolated, there is very seldom 
any complication. Nurses go in occasionally to inspect them, and if 
there are complications, why, we will take them to the hospital. 

hospitals overtaxed 

The Chairman. What about your hospital facilities to take care of 
your increased load? 

Dr. Lesem. We just don't have them. Our hospital facilities are 
overtaxed now, and if anything of a serious nature were to come up, 
we would have to do as we did in 1918, in that influenza epidemic. At 
that time we took over a warehouse that was a part of a brewery, and 
a school building, to house the influenza patients. That would be the 
thing we would have to do if it happened tomorrow, if something 
broke out of a serious nature. We would not have suitable facilities to 
take care of the patients. 

The Chairman. Have you in mind, Doctor, any sort of program for 
hospitals that you yourself feel would be necessary? 



Dr. Lesem. Well, I have this opinion, and it is concurred in by 
many of the representative medical men here: We do need immedi- 
ately a new contagious-disease hospital. The present ward is very 
small and located in the general hospital. 

We need, in addition — and this is the request of the United States 
Public Health Service — 30 beds for the treatment of acute venereal 
diseases in infectious stages, when they are dangerous through ordinary 
contact other than through venereal channels. 


Then we are getting an increase in tuberculosis cases. Many of the 
workers who are coming here haven't had medical attention, and we 
are finding more of those cases. As an example, I can cite one man 
whom we had to remove from a boarding house where there were 30 
other young men. That is the type we are getting at. If we had the 
facilities, industrial medicine or personnel, to do some case finding, 
we would find a good many more than are being reported right now. 
We do need at this particular time, to complete the program which we 
started to carry out some time ago, a tuberculosis hospital with 150 
beds for men. We have adequate facilities for women and children 
at the San Diego County Hospital. For the treatment of tuberculosis 
only we have not nearly enough provided for men. They are over- 
crowded and not able to keep tuberculosis patients in that hospital 
long enough, and we have to send them out because we need the beds 
for sicker people, and the result is they have relapses and are brought 

The Chairman. To fit the needs here you would require quite an 
extensive financial program, wouldn't you, for the necessary hospi- 


Dr. Lesem. Yes; we would. In addition to that, at the present 
time there isn't a bed available in the surgical and medical wards in 
our county hospital. 

The Chairman. They are full? 

Dr. Lesem. They are full. We do have some empty beds for obstet- 
rical cases and in the contagious-disease ward at the present time, 
because our major contagion is running very light at this time, and 
it isn't our policy to hospitalize the minor communicable diseases. 

The Chairman. In just the one project I looked at yesterday, the 
Kearney Mesa, they tell me there will be 10,000 people. 

Dr. Lesem. That is right. 

The Chairman. Where would they go if they were to get sick? 

Dr. Lesem. If we have the increased facilities, centrally located, 
in the county hospital, which is across the valley, they can be taken 
care of. 

fire, accident hazard 

The Chairman. But the way the situation is now, what would 

Dr. Lesem. I don't know. There is no place for them, and there 
aren't sufficient private hospital beds to take care of any emergency, 
even if they could pay for it. 


I have been wondering what we would do if there was a bad accident 
somewhere in one of these factories and a number of people got hurt, 
say, as a result of an explosion or a fire. I don't know where we would 
take those people. There is no place for them. 

The Chairman. Then there is a real health hazard? 

Dr. Lesem. There is a health hazard and there is the hazard of 
getting proper medical care. Our particular work in the health 
department is one of prevention. We have recommended in the 
Kearney Mesa project a child-welfare center, where we can take care 
of the babies — and there are plenty of them out there, lots of them. 
The women who move in there have little children, and in nearly 
every house there is one or more. There is another need for guidance 
in regard to feeding, and they also need immunization against the 
communicable diseases. 

Now, we are willing to take care of hygiene and see that the expect- 
ant mothers have proper medical care in case of delivery, but the 
question of medical treatment should be handled elsewhere, and not 
in the housing project. 


The Chairman. What about sanitation throughout this territory? 
At the Kearney Mesa project, for example? 

Dr. Lesem. Well, the people of San Diego, I think, have met that 
emergency. They voted a lot of money for bonds to take care of 
sewage disposal, which will be a 2-year program. We do not expect 
anything disastrous to happen in that respect, because we are on our 
way with the construction of what is needed. 

The Chairman. Doctor, do you know that in the city of Washing- 
ton, the capital of the United States, there are over 6,000 outside 
privies, not connected with any sewers? Did you know that? 

Dr. Lesem. That is what Dr. Lukin told me one time, and he was 
very much surprised that we didn't have any. 

The Chairman. So I guess we haven't much business coming out 
here from Washington and telling you about sanitation. 

Dr. Lesem. Well, I don't like Lukin's privies. And he is from 

sanitation at trailer camps 

Miss Bauer. How do you manage to control the trailer camps' 

Dr. Lesem. The influx has been so rapid, with no available places 
for these people to go, that we haven't been able to exercise much 
control, unless we were just to push them out and put them in the 

We have submitted to Mr. Cooper a trailer ordinance. If the city 
council will pass that, we can control the trailer camps that do not 
meet the required standards. And we do have some means of enforc- 
ing certain measures of the State Housing Act. The only weakness 
in that is that there have been no available homes for these people 
to go to, and we have had to let them live in substandard houses. 



Miss Bauer. I notice that you included in your statement various 
material on housing surveys. Could you make an estimate, an over- 
all estimate, on the number of substandard houses that you think are 
occupied right now in San Diego? 

Dr. Lesem. Well, including substandard hotels and apartments 
and dwellings, I think our estimate was a little over 2,800, and if we 
want to include overcrowding and dangerous conditions, I think it 
would run over 3,000. That is an approximate figure. 


Miss Bauer. Can you see ahead to a point where any of those new 
emergency defense houses might, after the emergency is over, be used 
to rehouse some of the families now living in your bad or substandard 

Dr. Lesem. Yes, I do. I think that the demountable construc- 
tion would be acceptable and also that we could use that material 
for houses that could be made standard. I doubt very much whether 
it would be a wise thing to turn material like that over to private 
individuals — that is, for realty development. I think it should be 
turned over to a housing authority that would maintain sanitary 
conditions, and keep the houses in repair. That is the principal 
objection we have to a lot of these privately rented houses — that they 
are permitted to run down and get more and more substandard, 
without the owner exercising his right to keep the house up to a livable 
standard. That is what makes for slums. You know, we have a 
certain group of people whose normal mental condition doesn't 
demand a very high living standard, unless there is somebody who 
can exercise control over them. Those people should have certain 
standards set up which they are required to meet, or you are going to 
have them slump back into their old habits. Any kind of house you 
build for them will drift back into a slum house, unless you exercise 


It seems to me there should be some constituted authority re- 
sponsible for the maintenance of sanitary conditions. 

Now, the Farm Security Administration is doing a fine job with the 
sanitation of their trader camps. We think that the trailer camp is 
about the lowest standard of living that a family should go to; not 
necessarily from the sanitary standpoint, but from the possibility of 
educating the children or the home life — that that is just simply 
impossible. But the Farm Security Administration has a crew of 
men that are doing a fine job, so that we know that we are not going 
to have so many difficulties as to communicable diseases and other 
things, because the garbage and rubbish question will be taken care of. 
They are on the job. But I think that should be merely a temporary 



Miss Bauer. Now, the new defense housing is available only to 
defense workers, as I understand it. Would that mean, do you think, 
that in the event that you have a serious shortage for some time ahead 
in getting houses, some of your own native San Diegoans may get the 
worst of it actually, if defense workers only are eligible for these hous- 
ing projects? And as you go on, might it not be true that you actually 
have some worse conditions among your lower-income people here? 

Dr. Lesem. I think the defense housing is not relieving us of the 
condition of the family which, through illness or low mentality, is 
required to live in a substandard dwelling. 

For instance, we selected 25 families that were known to us, and we 
found those were costing us for medical care and material relief on the 
average about $1 ,000 per family per year. Now, if we could give them 
better surroundings and prevent overcrowding, we could cut down a 
lot of the respiratory diseases, because in this group there were 25 
cases of tuberculosis, with 12 deaths. If we let them run on, they 
eliminate themselves eventually, but you have some children in these 
groups that should be taken care of. 


That is a very serious point you bring up, because we have no 
means of clearing these people out of their present substandard 
dwellings. Something should be done about it. However, after all, 
it isn't really the slum house itself that is our problem. It is the 
slummer who lives in the slum house, because he is the spreader of the 
disease, and the house is not. That is the way we look at it from a 
health standpoint. We hear much about diseases in houses, but it is 
not in the house itself, it is the disease in people. If you got those 
people under supervision and get them out of their hovels into a better 
standard of living, you are going to cut down your disease. I guess 
I am talking too much. 

The Chairman. Not a bit. In other words, the disease comes 
from the individual, and the house itself would not offer any problem 
if it weren't for the individual? 

Dr. Lesem. That is right. That has reference only to the upper 
respiratory diseases. When you come to typhoid fever and the 
gastrointestinal diseases, that means poor community hygiene. That 
is, poor sewerage and bad water. We do not have that in San Diego, 
because we have our rubbish, garbage, and waste disposal, and the 
city takes care of that. 

federal funds sought 

The Chairman. The hospital situation appears critical to me, 
Doctor, as described by you. What is being done about it? Are 
there any requests being made to the Federal Government, Doctor, 
for increased hospital facilities? 

Dr. Lesem. Yes; through Dr. Harrison and Dr. Creel of the Public 
Health Service and through Mr. Felt, we have requested a participa- 
tion in this new appropriation of $150,000,000 for that purpose. In 
our last report, as given to you, we have asked only for the free beds, 
and our minimum estimate was that we needed 135 additional beds 
for the general hospital. 


The Chairman. The trouble with that $150,000,000, as I stated 
this morning, is that with requests coming in from all over the United 
States, I don't think it is going to last very long. I think that this 
committee's report to Congress in August will be very helpful in 
pointing out the necessity for increasing the appropriation for hospital 
needs, because that is national defense if anything ever was national 


Dr. Lesem. That is right. If we don't have health in these civil- 
ians, we can't have health in the Army. 

Now, nearly everybody is employed today, and the need for the 
free hospital beds then goes down. The minute you get a slack period, 
however, there is a need for it, and the need for free hospital beds 
goes up. 

If you can build — I don't say you — but if the Government can 
assist us in building these facilities, you will find when they are com- 
pleted that they are going to be very necessary. If we have a serious 
epidemic right now, that is going to slow up your airplane industry, 
because wherever you have a large crowd, in a factory or in any place 
of business where people congregate 1 , that is where your increase in 
epidemics occurs. 

Then, too, these people who come from other States bring that in. 
For instance, we hadn't had a German measles epidemic for 10 years, 
not until the workers came in, and then the thing popped up. It is 
brought in from elsewhere. 

The need for additional hospital beds, as I have mentioned, is very 
acute. I may say that I went through the influenza epidemic of the 
last war as a young man, and it made an old man out of me. I 
would hate to see anything hit us that would equal that. The con- 
ditions were appalling, and with the poor hospital facilities we had 
to cope with in those days, people did not get adequate care. 

The Chairman. Doctor, you have given us a very splendid con- 
tribution here, and I know it will be particularly helpful to us when 
we get back in Washington. Thank you. 

Mr. Rainwater. 


The Chairman. Give your full name, please, Mr. Rainwater. 
Air. Rainwater. Julius H. Rainwater. 
The Chairman. And what is your official position? 
Mr. Rainwater. Director of Public Welfare, San Diego County. 
The Chairman. How long have you been director? 
Mr. Rainwater. In this particular connection? 
The Chairman. Yes. 
Mr. Rainwater. Six years. 

The Chairman. I suppose you are pretty familiar with the relief 
record around you here in this territory? 

Mr. Rainwater. Yes; I have been wrestling with it exclusively. 
The Chairman. You filed a statement here about it, didn't you? 
Mr. Rainwater. Y"es; I have filed a statement here. 



Relief as It Is Affected by National Defense Migration 

The grand total of cases in all public-relief agencies has shown a gradual decline 
since about September 1939, as will be noted from the exhibit appended hereto 
and showing the number of active cases in each form of aid at the close of each 
month. In September 1939 the total was 19,281 cases, for April 1941 this number 
had declined to 12,982, or a decrease of 6,299 cases. It would be an error to assume 
that this figure represents the number of persons formerly on relief who have 
secured employment for this number is evidently a much greater item. Categories 
of aid, namely old-age assistance, aid to needy children, and aid to needy blind 
are little, if any, affected by the upswing of employment; The unemployable 
category, therefore, has shown an increase from September 1939 to the present 
as follows: 

ber 1939 



6, 573 




Total . 

7, 445 


An increase in unemployable categories of 1,352 cases. It would indicate that 
the number of families formerly on relief but now self-supporting, must be not 
less than 7,651. This decrease has taken place by reductions from the rolls of: 

ber 1939 



1, 682 








Notwithstanding the net increase in cases of aid to needy children as above 
cited there is at the present time a decline in the number of cases in this form of 
aid. The number of families increased from 632 in September 1939 to 776 in 
August 1940 and since that time has declined to the present figure of 681. A 
study of the cases involved indicates that what most frequently happens is that 
one or more children of a needy-children family become 18 years of age and being 
ineligible for further children's aid secure some training from the San Diego 
vocational schools and find a job in defense or other industry sufficient to support 
the family. The same is undoubtedly true of the county indigent aid except 
that the decline from 1,682 in September 1939 has been continuous to the present 
low of 1,452 cases as of April 30, 1941. 


Although the county welfare department has dealt primarily with unemployable 
people, the largest single reason for closing cases from September 1939 to the 
present time has been self-supporting. The number of cases of indigent relief 
closed by reason of self-support by months has been — 

October 1939 100 

November 1939 90 

December 1939 46 

January 1940 39 

February 1940 54 

March 1940 50 

April 1940 78 

May 1940 31 

June 1940 39 

July 1940 60 

August 1940 42 

September 1940 49 

October 1940 45 

November 1940 39 

December 1940 38 

January 1941 62 

February 1941 45 

March 1941 65 

April 1941 59 



It would seem evident that the increase in employment opportunity in San 
Diego is largely responsible for the decrease in the general relief load and that the 
increase since September 1939 in old-age assistance, blind aid, and aid to needy 
children has been brought about by liberalization of the corresponding relief laws. 


There has undoubtedly been a tremendous increase in San Diego's population 
due to migration from other places seeking employment in defense industries. 
The new residents, however, represent a very small portion of the general relief 
load because of residence restrictions which are as follows: 

Old-age assisl ance 5 years. 

Blind aid 5 years. 

Aid to needy children 1 year. 

State relief agency Formerly 1 year ; now 3 years. 

Indigent aid 3 years independent residence. 

The exceptions to the foregoing residence restrictions are that those who are in 
emergen! need maj T be given county indigent or State relief agency assistance 
during the period of verification of their residence elsewhere aid the securing of 
authorization for their return. We have no reliable figures as to the number of 
recent immigrants who have become in need except from the result of a study of 
applications for emergency aid made at the county department of public welfare 
under date of February 19, 1941, copy of which is attached hereto. In this exhibit 
it will be noted that the total number of interstate applicants was as follows: 





Of the 367 applications made during 1940 the count}- welfare department opened 
108 cases for emergency aid and the report referred to gives an analysis of these 
10S cases showing that they were mostly single persons or small families; that the 
age of the breadwinner of the families was in most cases of employable age. The 
occupations were varied, most of those in need either had no trade or were skilled 
at occupations for which there is little demand in San Diego; that Texas and not 
Oklahoma or Arkansas was the principal source from which the migrants came, 
while Missouri and Arizona tie for second place; that the most frequently given 
reason for coming to California was to look for work. 

A family without means on coming to San Diego expecting to find a job and 
being unable to do so, may, if employable, turn to the State relief agency for emer- 
gency aid and State legal residence, or if the head of the family is unemployable 
or otherwise ineligible to State relief agency aid the application is made to the 
county department of public welfare. 

It has been frequently asked what proportion of unsuccessful job seekers actually 
stay in San Diego. The volume of migrants and the comparative small number 
of applicants for relief lead me to believe that those unable to secure employment 
here move on, hoping for better luck elsewhere. 


The shortage of housing accommodations in San Diego during the last year or 
so has resulted in a number of cases in the inability of persons on relief to find 
living accommodations within the rent budget provided by the welfare depart- 
ment. Prior to January 1, 1941, the board of public welfare made no provision 
for the payment of rent above the established rent budget which is as follows: 

Rent budget: 



2 in family. 

3 in family. 

$10. 00 




4 in family 20.00 

Rent budget — Continued. 

5 in family $24 00 

6 in family 25. 00 

7 in family 25. 00 

8 in family 25.00 

With the beginning of 1941 the board found it necessary to authorize the 
welfare department to exceed the rent budget wherever necessary and to main- 
tain an account of the number of families so aided and the amount of the excess 
rental it was necessary to pay. During the first 5 months of 1941 there have 
0OJ96— 41— pt. 12 7 



been 68 cases of aid to needy children in which excess rent allowances have been 
made. This represents 10 percent of the case load. There were 87 instances in 
which excess rent was allowed in county indigent aid. This is 6 percent of the 
total number of cases receiving indigent aid. In both types of aid it is to be 
noted that the lowest usual amounts paid in excess of the budget ran from $1 
to $3 with occasional excess of from $4 to $5 per month. 

It is a general tendency for families receiving children's aid to live in better 
quarters than those receiving indigent aid. Our experience has been that a larger 
percentage of these families have had increases and that the average increase 
has been a greater amount. This, plus other observations of the rent situation 
leads to the conclusion that the greatest increase in rentals due to housing shortage 
have occurred in the range of medium and better class houses, and that houses 
occupied by families on relief have for the most part been of such quality as not 
to be in demand by self-supporting families. 

Attached hereto are copies of (1) summary of nonresidents survey of indigent 
intake families of February 1941; (2) statistical report of the San Diego County 
Department of Public Welfare of April 1941; and (3) statement of case load of 
major relief agencies in San Diego for the years 1939, 1940, and 1941. 


The problem of medical or hospital care seems to be the one most frequently 
met with among those related to the relief field. The demand on our county 
hospital for care of nonresident cases has caused the hospital admissions committee 
to relax its residence rules as a matter of public necessity although it is well 
known that the facilities of the county hospital are not fully adequate to meet 
the increased demands being made upon it. 

Private agencies in San Diego in practically all fields are being faced with 
demands that are beyond the capacity of their facilities. Notable among these 
are the Army and Navy Young Men's Christian Association, the city Young 
Men's Christian Association, the Travelers Aid, the Young Women's Christian 
Association, the Catholic Welfare Bureau, and the Salvation Army. Among 
these organizations the Travelers Aid Society is in process of being reorganized 
and expanded to meet its new responsibilities. The Young Women's Christian 
Association has been attempting to meet an acute problem growing out of a large 
number of single women coming to San Diego seeking employment and has had 
great difficulty in securing adequate reasonably priced housing. Other private 
social agencies report an increase in demand made upon them but the capacity 
of smaller agencies in comparison with the large movement of population is so 
limited that such a demand represents only a symptom of the situation and does 
not point the way to any hope of adequate handling through expansion of these 

Summary of Nonresident Survey, February 19, 1941 

Size of families 

45 families 

21 families 

13 families 

13 families 

Total men 

Total women 

Total children 

Families with no children 

Families with children 

Average number of children. 

Number of 



23 to 35 years of age. 
35 to 45 years of age. 
45 to 55 years of age. 
55 to 65 vears of age- 
Over 65 

5 families. 
9 families . 
2 families. 
2 families. 

Ages of men 

Number of 








2. 31 


of men 










Odd jobs 



Truck driver 




Unable to work 




Dairy hand 

Construction work. 

Fruit picker 




Cannery work 


Factory work 


Depaitment store 

Iron worker 


Sugar refining 

Dish washer 

Beauty operator 




Service man 


Malted-milk stand 


Card dealer 

Hotel work 


Grocery clerk 

Work Projects Administration. 
Family service -. 



Legal residence 













Massachusetts. _ 






New Hampshire- 
New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina. 

Oklahoma 6 

Oregon 5 

Pennsylvania 2 

Rhode Island 

South Dakota 


Texas 1 



Washington 2 




Total 110 

Reason for leaving 

To look for work 26 

To be with relatives 21 

Health 9 

No apparent reason 9 

Climate 5 

Spouse deserted 4 

To make home here 4 

Promise of work 3 

Free transportation 3 

Arranged by relatives 3 

Marital difficulties 3 

To escape responsibilities 2 

To visit friends 2 

Request of spouse 2 

Brought by relatives 1 

Married to Navy man 

To raise chickens 

To escape old associates 

For financial support 

For an illegal operation 

Spouse deserted in Navy 

To escape "persecution" 

Took wrong road 

Assist son 

Leave place of spouse's death. 

Parents unable to support 

To be with friends 

Sent back by spouse 

Total 110 



Nonresident survey, Jan. 29, 1941 


















Jan. 1, 1939. to Jan. 1, 1940 

Jan. 1, 1940, to Jan. 1, 1941 





to legal 































1 State and county. 




































































































New Hampshire.. . 























































































Washington, D. C. 
























1 » 









Grand total. 367. 


San Diego County case load, January 19S9 to April 1941, inclusive 









September. . 


December. _. 















February.. . 

March . . . 




1, 506 

Old age 

6. 130 
6, 268 
6, 372 

6. 833 
7, 160 

7, 502 
7, 695 


old age 


8, 629 
8, 839 

9. 282 
9. 324 


9, 939 
10, 158 
10, 231 
10, 252 

10, 253 
10, 285 
10, 249 




2. 332 

3. 264 

3, 520 

2, 580 

2, 25 1 










6, 306 
6, 963 
5, 867 

1. 548 
4, 329 
4. 398 

3, 074 
2, 339 


17, 267 
18, 396 
18, 330 
17, 158 
15, 866 
16, 796 

17, 217 
16, 749 
16, 632 
16, 352 
15, 739 
15, 150 
14, 964 
14, 384 

14, 120 

13, 837 
13, 128 
12, 982 

San Diego's Defense Migration Problem, From the Standpoint of the 
Department of Public Welfare, June 12, 1941 

San Diego's welfare problem can be considered under three headings: 

1. San Diego's immediate problem: 

A. Caring for an expanding population. 

(1) Housing. 

(2) Water. 

(3) Sewage and waste disposal. 

(4) Health and hospitalization. 

(5) Preservation of order, traffic, policing, etc. 

(6) Emergency aid to stranded people. 

B. Costs of necessary public improvements. 

(1) Quick adjustment to expanding population demands heavy 

(a) Must be done on a high and rising labor and materials market. 

(2) Local expenditures to meet this adjustment are interfered with 
by the relief program. 

(a) Additional employment has reduced relief expenditures for 
employables by Federal and State Governments. 

(b) No reduction in county-welfare expense which handles 
unemployable categories, and these expand with the population. 

(c) San Diego County's expense, under mandatory relief laws, 
now equals half its total expenditures and cannot legally be reduced, 
therefore — 

C. San Diego needs immediate Federal aid to meet present needs. 


2. San Diego's next problem: 

It is generally conceded that defense communities will face great problems 
when the emergency is over. San Diego's problem will not wait that long. 

A. Employment opportunities will soon cease to expand. 

(1) Camp and factory construction being completed with labor lay-off. 

(2) Necessary housing expansion will also be completed in a few 
months' time with further labor lay-offs. 

(3) Defense pay rolls will cease to expand and tend to become stabi- 

B. The flow of population will continue to come in as at present and 
will meet a decreasing instead of increasing opportunity for employment; 
therefore, on or before January 1, 1942, we may expect a vast increase in 
numbers of unemployed in San Diego either of migrants or persons displaced 
by migrants. San Diego must face this problem not "after the emergency" 
but in the immediate future. 

3. San Diego's ultimate problem of future development after the emergency: 

A. Plans for this eventuality must be carefully worked out but we have 
time to do it. 

(1) We cannot now foresee when. 

(2) We can only judge future possibilities in general outline. 

(3) These opportunities for future planning for the support of a large 
population now seem to be- 
ta) Expanded naval and defense center due to strategic location. 
(6) Aircraft manufacture for large transport ships if demanded. 

(c) Port for sea-borne commerce. 

(d) Fishing and sea-food packing. 

(e) Resort and tourist trade. 

(/) Industries dependent upon agriculture which will probably 
always be last and least. 

(The statement below was received subsequent to the hearing, and 
is included as a part of the record in accordance with instructions 
from the chairman.) 


July 7, 1941. 

Supplementing remarks made at the hearing conducted by your honorable 
body in San Diego on the 12th of June, I respectfully present the following 
observations concerning the national-defense-migration situation in San Diego. 

As stated at that time, San Diego's welfare problem can well be considered 
under three main headings. The first is the immediate problem of caring for 
rapidly expanding population. The second, which has been evident to many 
observers, is the ultimate problem of future development in the community after 
the emergency is over. The third, which is more immediate than that and which 
may have escaped notice, consists of the community's problems of adjustments 
that will have to take place when the defense industry completes its expansion 
and the population is continuing to flow in. I will discuss them briefly. 


No stress need be laid upon this phase of the situation at this time for it is by 
this time evident to all that an expanding population makes demands far beyond 
the community's resources for such items as housing, water supply, sewage and 
waste disposal, provisions for health and hospitalization, the preservation of order, 
traffic control and the like, and emergency aid to stranded people who come to 
San Diego looking for employment but who are not equipped to do any of the 
jobs that need to be done. 

Much of the cost of caring for a rapidly expanding population demands heavy 
capital expenditure and under present conditions these additional community 
facilities must be produced against the increasing cost of a rising labor and mate- 
rials market. These things would be true in any community but in San Diego's 
particular position there is another factor that works against the community's 
large participation in this program. 


Local expenditures to meet adjustments necessary to an increasing population 
are currently interfered with by the necessity for the county government to par- 
ticipate so heavily in the already established relief program. The county's bur- 
den for relief has not been perceptibly decreased by the upswing in employment 
opportunities for the reason that the county welfare department was caring ex- 
clusively for unemployables of the various categories. The additional employ- 
ment, therefore, has reduced the expenditures of the Work Projects Administra- 
tion, an activity of the Federal Government, and of the State relief administration, 
an activity of the State government, while the county's burden of caring for the 
unemployable classifications has continued to expand with the population. While 
prior to June 30 San Diego County's expense under mandatory relief law equaled 
one-half its total expenditures, this condition became even worse on July 1 because 
of the refusal of the California Legislature to make any financial provision for the 
continuation of the State relief administration. Under the provisions of the wel- 
fare and institutions code the county welfare department has had to absorb some- 
thing over 600 cases of unemployment relief which up to June 30 were cared for 
by the State relief administration. A quick analysis of these cases reveals the 
fact that many of them are aliens who cannot be employed in national-defense 

At a time, therefore, when the community should, and under other conditions 
would, willingly make tremendous expenditures to meet the national-defense ad- 
justment it finds itself saddled with a very considerable relief burden. 


While it is generally conceded that defense communities will face great problems 
of adjustment "when the emergency is over," it is becoming most evident that San 
Diego's problem will not wait that long. The rapid expansion of defense-industry 
pay rolls has brought about a heavy migration to San Diego. Under present pro- 
grams of expansion plants will be complete and in full operation within the next 
few months The migration, however, may well be expected to continue and if it 
does we will very soon have a staggering problem of unemployment relief in the 
midst of the greatest employment San Diego has ever known. 

Camp and factory construction is rapidly being completed and this necessitates 
a considerable labor lay-off, some of which of course will find employment in other 
occupations for the present. The necessary housing expansion will not continue 
indefinitely and the building mechanics engaged in this type of work will face the 
day, within the next year or so, when the present boom is over. 

Defense pay rolls in aircraft and other industries which are at the present rapidly 
expanding will, upon completion, cease to expand while the flow of population to- 
ward San Diego may well be expected to be at its very peak. Therefore, on or 
before January 1, 1942, you may expect a vast increase in numbers of unemployed 
in San Diego, either of migrants or of local residents who have been displaced in 
their employment by migrants. 

San Diego as a community will be under the necessity of facing this problem, 
not "after the emergency" but during the time that the national-defense effort 
is at its very peak. It is my belief that the community will be depended upon as in 
the past to do everything it can to meet its local problems but it will do this all 
the more willingly if there is assurance that the National Government will assist. 

There will be need in the immediate future for some plan by which employable 
persons seeking employment in San Diego may be referred to definite employment 
opportunities elsewhere. It is not enough for the manpower of this Nation to 
wander here and there seeking employment when their services are so badly 
needed somewhere. To clear the employable men, therefore, directly through 
to the job on which he is needed is not only a service to migrants but a service to 
the Nation. 


Future development after the emergency — this is a problem with which many 
people are already concerned. This community which has expanded very rapidly 
in the past on the basis of its attractiveness as a resort, or as a place in which to 
retire, has suddenly changed face and become an industrial center. Citizens are 
concerned with what will happen when the basis for this industry suddenly shrinks. 
While this is a problem that will ultimately have to be met, it is one upon which 
we can expend the effort of some long-time planning. We cannot now foresee 
when this contraction will occur and it is possible only to judge future possibilities 


in general outline. At this time the major opportunities for future planning for 
San Diego to support an increased population seem to be — 

1. Activities having to do with expansion brought on by the increasing Naval 
Establishment of the future. This would seem to me to be expected due to San 
Diego's strategic position, proper facilities and the like. 

San Diego's back country, which is less intensively developed in agriculture, 
may well become a part of any future field of expansion or maneuver in the land 
military expansion and the same can be said in the field of Air Corps training. 

2. The future of air transportation seems to point to the need of large pas- 
senger- or freight-carrying aircraft. San Diego's manufacturing facilities can be 
used in part in this commerce. 

3. San Diego has a natural port for sea-borne commerce and as a seaport can, 
to some extent, be developed. 

4. Fishing and sea-food packing is an already well-developed industry but due 
to location and source of supply could be expanded. 

5. San Diego's climate and its location as resort or goal for tourists will always 
be an attraction and can be promoted so as to give employment to many people. 

6. Industries dependent upon agriculture may, to some extent, be increased; 
but due to the infertile character of the back country land this activity is not 
likely to be the ground for any future large development. 

There are several reasons that lead the writer not to be concerned over what 
may happen at some indefinite date in the future. The first of these is that 50 
years ago San Diego consisted of a very small community facing a shallow bay 
and backed by a land that was characteristically nonagricultural. Yet in these 
50 years a community has doubled its population with each succeeding 10 years' 
census and people have managed to live. The 1940 census was the first one in 
half a century which did not double in population over 10 years before and the 
present increase has but little more than brought us up to an established rate of 
growth. In actual numbers the growth is, of course, far beyond anything ex- 
perienced in the past, but the growing pains and the adjustments are those of 
the immediate present and immediate future and if these are well cared for the 
ultimate let-down after the emergency will be the more easy to meet. 


The Chairman. What about the relief record in San Diego? Is 
relief on the increase or the decrease? 

Mr. Rainwater. During the last year and a half, there has been a 
marked decrease in the number of persons on relief in employable 
classifications. However, the unemployable classifications are still on 
a steady increase. I have given you some figures in the report show- 
ing that. 


The Chairman. There is one thing I notice from your report. 
Miss Bauer thought this morning that I was wrong when I said that 
these people who have come out here, who are on relief, were from 
Texas in a greater number than any other State. According to your 
report, it is Texas. 

Mr. Rainwater. Well, the number from Texas has passed the 
number from Oklahoma and Arkansas recently. Oklahoma and 
Arkansas were first, prior to a year and a half ago. Now, we find 
Texas high. Those areas where there has been some degree of air- 
craft development seem to be the ones that are sending in people 
largely to find employment in the aircraft industry. The thing 
rather explains itself. 

We have checked up and will be able to submit to you some further 
information. Some of our experience, I think I sent back to you at 
Washington some time ago, with an analysis of some 108 cases that 


were opened for emergency aid. We made a very careful analysis to 
see where they came from, and what their problem was. Since then 
I have checked up on a larger scale, and I find in the experience of the 
State relief administration that they show also the majority of people 
coming from about the same States. It seems that there is a ratio of 
something like 70 percent of the people who come here and become 
stranded, who are employable and looking for work. Then there is 
the question of the employability of the other 30 percent. 

The Chairman. It was thought, you know, that when we had 
completed our first study, our inquiry was finished, because this new 
emergency spending program would take up the slack. But it has 
really increased the migration among the States, and increased the 
problems of the local communities. 


Mr. Rainwater. It has. That is the thing that worries us now. 
You will probably, at the end of this hearing, be impressed by San 
Diego's willingness in all branches of government to do all we can. 
The thing that is getting in the way of that, financially, is the problem 
of unemployables. In the relief picture, which is financially a very 
big burden, those forms of aid which deal with employable persons 
have been carried by the Federal and State governments, and the 
forms of aid dealing with unemployables have been carried on the 
basis of local taxation. Now, the unemployables have not decreased. 
Therefore, the local financial resources are just as heavily taxed, or 
more heavily so, whereas the branch that has gone down is the 


We have been concerned in comparing notes with the S. R. A. 
and the W. P. A. in the last day or so, particularly the S. R. A., not 
as to what may happen at the end of the emergency — everybody seems 
to think in terms of that — but as to something that is a lot closer to 
us than that. The wave of construction is very soon to be over. 
What happens to the building mechanics when that occurs? There 
is going to be some unemployment. 

Then the rapidity with which defense pay rolls have been increased 
is going to taper off, maybe within the next year or so. Is the number 
of people who are rushing out here suddenly coming to a stop? We 
doubt it. We think there is going to be a big wave of unemployment 
that doesen't belong to us. There is a stream of people coming in 
steadily. Are they going to find out on the way out here that the 
pay rolls are full, or will they keep on coming? 

The Chairman. You have a thought there. And after the emer- 
gency is over, the influx might be even greater, you say? 

Mr. Rainwater. Our worries are going to really begin in San 
Diego, I think, at the moment that the defense effort gets fully under 
way, when the aircraft industry has absorbed all it is going to absorb. 
Then there will be a very small market for the labor of a great influx 
of people. Whose burden will that be? That is what we are begin- 
ning to worrv about. 



The Chairman. Now, has there been any increase in the old-age 
assistance and the blind cases? 

Mr. Rainwater. Yes. That shows a steady increase ever since 
the law began to operate in 1930. However, the increment is decreas- 
ing. The curve shows a tendency to level off, and it has always done 
that. It shows a tendency to level off at about the end of every 
2 years, from our investigation, and now there is a distinct leveling 
oft. As you will see from the report, we have had better than 8,000 
on the rolls in this county, and it is now 7,800. It is tapering off. 

The Chairman. Now, before the nonresident is qualified for old-age 
assistance, he has to be here for 5 years, as I understand it? 

Mr. Rainwater. Continuous residence of 1 year and approximately 
5 years out of the last 9 years. For the blind it is also 5 years, except 
cases in which the person went blind in California. 

The Chairman. Suppose a family comes here, the Jones family 
from Texas, and when they arrive here they are destitute. How 
could they live? 


Mr. Rainwater. If the Jones family is employable, they go to the 
State relief administration. There the emergency can be met while 
they are verifying their residence. 

The Chairman. That is the 30-day period? 

Mr. Rainwater. That runs for 30 days, yes. 

The Chairman. After the 30 days, what is the procedure? They 
aren't permitted to starve? 

Mr. Rainwater. They are offered transportation back to their 
legal residence, and they either accept that or move on to look for aid 
somewhere else in the State. 

The Chairman. How long would they have to be here before they 
would qualify? 

Mr. Rainwater. You mean, for unemployment relief? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Rainwater. Three years under the present law. For county 
indigent aid, much the same thing. That deals with unemployable 
people, and for them the residence requirement is 3 years, without 
having any aid within the 3 years. But, similarly, we give the emer- 
gency aid and transport them back to the State of their legal residence. 

The Chairman. So that the 5 years really applies also to the old- 
age assistance and the blind? 

Mr. Rainwater. Yes. However, blind people do not tend to 
move around as rapidly as employable younger people. Also, people 
beyond the age of 65 show very little tendency to migrate. 

long residence requirements 

The Chairman. What do you think of the practice of the States, 
in shooting the requirement up to 5 years, and in some instances up 
to 10 or 15? What is going to become of the migrating public? 

Mr. Rainwater. Statistically, I think you will find that the States 
that increase the requirement get most of the people, rather than 
those that keep it down. 

The Chairman. You think that is the rule? 


Mr. Rainwater. Yes. I think raising the residence requirements 
does not tend to keep them away, because the people coming from 
other States do not know the requirements. They get here and 
they get into trouble, and then they find out. 


The Chairman. Now, we have 31 States in the Union which make 
it a crime to transport an indigent person across a State line. What 
would happen to anyone who would try to do that in the State of 

Mr. Rainwater. I wouldn't want to try it, but I don't know that 
there have been any prosecutions. It is seldom that that comes to 

The Chairman. But we are now going around through the country, 
and in Washington this year, priding ourselves on how we are getting 
people to go from one State to another, and pointing out that we could 
not defend this Nation without such movement. 

Mr. Rainwater. Of course not. The theory and philosophy of 
that residence requirement is that it will keep persons who are destitute 
from coming out here, and that is primarily put into the law for pub- 
licity purposes, and to avoid a competitive situation between States. 
It does not mean that the State that has the higher requirement or the 
county within the State does not give aid. They give it, and they 
give it for whatever time is necessary. They do work with indigents. 
They attempt to find out a person's State of legal residence. 

The Chairman. But you can readily see, Mr. Rainwater, that there 
comes a time wdien a saturation point is reached. 

Mr. Rainwater. That is true. 

The Chairman. In other words, San Diego County can handle 
only so great a load, and the same is true of the State of California. 

Mr. Rainwater. Yes. 

The Chairman. Miss Bauer, was there anything else you wanted 
to bring out? 

what is happening to the needy 

Miss Bauer. I just wondered if Mr. Rainwater might give us his 
ideas as to what is happening to needy people coming to San Diego. 
Apparently, only one out of five who apply at the doors of Consoli- 
dated is accepted. On the other hand, the S. R. A. figures show a 
decline. Are they just going through town if they can't get a job, or 
are they managing somehow? Would you have any idea on that? 

Mr. Rainwater. As in most such problems of human society, the 
State authority is a finite thing. The problem is infinite. The many 
things that happen are infinite. Many people do go through town, 
and many go into other employment. That is due to the employment 
policy of the aircraft companies. The people who come here do not 
all find aircraft jobs, but the fact that you have a big pay roll in the 
community means more jobs in other lines of endeavor, so many people 
find jobs in other forms of business. Manj^ of them do move on to 
other communities. We are not the only community in which there 
is an increased need for employees. 

The Chairman. We have made quite a study of this problem. I 
think you will agree with me that the migration — interstate migration 
of destitute citizens — is caused by many factors, such as worn-out 


soil, and unemployment. No single factor can account for all of it. 
Is there any single reason you can think of? 

Mr. Rainwater. No, sir; I think not. 

The Chairman. In other words, there comes a time when these 
people will get up and move, and they are told by the Constitution of 
the United States that they are not only citizens of Texas, or whatever 
State you may name, but citizens of the other 47 States as well. 

Mr. Rainwater. Very true. 

The Chairman. So, in these hearings, we have had people like 
Mayor LaGuardia in New York and the Governors of various States 
talk to us, and they all seem to agree that it is a national problem. 
For instance, in New York, they have about 100,000 migrants annually. 
So they don't all come to California. All through our investigations 
we have developed that it was a national problem. You simply can- 
not tell the people to stay home. It is their own country. 

Now, there are partial solutions, and one of them is the program of 
the Farm Security Administration, which is handling a part of the 
problem by maintaining migrant camps, by loans and grants, and in 
other ways. They have taken care of about 800,000 families in the 
last 5 years. Then there is another suggestion — long-term resettle- 
ment. Mr. Hoover and Mrs. Roosevelt both agree on that. They 
think that is one of the solutions. But when you think of the millions 
and billions that have been spent to protect the traffic in iron and coal 
and steel and the other products of man passing freely through the 
States, when you realize that this is the first time that any investiga- 
tion has been undertaken, or any effort has been made to plan for 
human interstate commerce, it begins to look like a big problem. 


Mr. Rainwater. It is a problem with which I have been wrestling 
for about 30 years now. I am not altogether convinced that it is 
desirable that people should do nothing but stay at home. In the 
old days, when you had nothing but the horse and buggy and the 
local parish life, people lived in a very small area. Some people 
didn't travel more than 10 miles away from home in a lifetime. Now 
we have highways, and they go from here to everywhere, and for a 
very small price any person may have an automobile that will take 
him anywhere. We have set up mechanically the very thing that 
keeps people moving through the States and it becomes very easy for 
them to move. 

Now, as you say, every person is a citizen of the United States, and 
he has a right to be in any part of the United States that he wants to 
go to. We still cling to the thought that if he is in need, the local 
community shall administer to his needs and shall pay for it, and, 
therefore, since you touch the local community's pocketbook, the 
State or the local community tends to set up a residence restriction. 


There is another argument in favor of the residence restriction, 
however, and that is its function [in determining positively whether a 
person is in need. When a person comes in from the East and says 
he is in need, how much do you know about him, or where he came 


from, or what resources he has? If he has lived in the community a 
little longer, you can tell that much more accurately. 

Your solution of the migratory problem must be brought about by 
working at both ends of the yardstick, rather than between them. 
One cannot just sit back and try to get the people to stay home. It 
seems to me we ought to let the more mobile jobs remain that way. 
We are housing a lot of the defense workers on wheels. What for? 
You are not tying people down to the soil very much when you house 
them in trailers and they sleep in houses on rubber tires. That is in 
itself a pretty strong suggestion, it seems to me. I think such housing 
is necessary and that a very good use can be made of those people. 
In a State the size of California, 1,000 miles long, our agriculture, for 
instance, is entirely dependent upon a migratory group of agricultural 
workers, who travel up and down the State. If we make them stay 
home, we are going to have another problem, because we would thus 
have a group of people working only a few months out of the year. 
W T e would probably have another relief problem there. 


The Chairman. Our records in the hearings are replete with testi- 
mony of people who lost their residence in their own State, or the 
State of origin, and didn't gain it in any other State; and they were 
people without real citizenship, in a sense, or without a status of any 
kind or character. Would you recommend a uniform settlement law 
in the United States? 

Mr. Rainwater. It would be an advantage. Basically, our resi- 
dence law now is the old English common law, which we have in Cal- 
ifornia, written into section 52 of the Political Code. It is the old 
English common law, as to residence, that you can't lose one residence 
until you gain another, and that the residence is where the person is 
and intends to remain, and so forth; but modifications are made, and 
in any of our relief laws, unless the definition of the residence is written 
into the law, the old common law applies. 

The Chairman. But, you see, the Congress of the United States 
cannot tell any of the individual States what the residence require- 
ments must be. However, if the Federal Government participates in 
the relief load, it gains at least partial jurisdiction, because the au- 
thority follows the dollar, and we can put the strings to it. That is 
about the only way we can handle it. 


Mr. Rainwater. That is true. It seems to me we have a good 
method for handling that right here in California in our intercounty 
records. The provision there is that if a person is in one county on 
any of the three categorical aids, and he is not a resident of that 
county, nor any other county, but is a resident of the State, he becomes 
an all-State aid case, until he establishes a residence in that or some 
other county. If you were to apply the same procedure to the 
Nation, he might become an all-Federal case until he has established 
residence in some State. After that he becomes a State charge. 

The Chairman. Well, there were 4,000,000 people migrating in the 
depression, and thousands of them could not establish their residence. 


If there should be another broad decline in employment, there would 
be new millions of such people, without a country, Stateless, foodless, 
and homeless. Isn't that true? 


Mr. Rainwater. Yes; and they would fall within the same social 
category that we had some 10 or 15 years ago among the hoboes, 
who merely floated from here to elsewhere. When they got to the 
old home State it disowned them. Unless there is some way to tie 
people down and encourage settlement, you are really developing a 
very large roving population that will never be allowed to settle any- 
where. I don't think that is socially good. 

The Chairman. Of course, people on farms, who are good citizens, 
do not want to leave their homes unless conditions get so bad that 
they have to go. 

Mr. Rainwater. Right. 

The Chairman. Now, the question is, When they do take to the 
road, what part should the Federal Government play? It was rec- 
ommended very strongly to our committee that in proportion to the 
amount that the States take care of those Stateless people, the Federal 
Government should help them out. 

Mr. Rainwater. If there could be a uniform settlement law in the 
States, the Federal Government could carry those who do not have 
a State residence; that is, until they have established a State resi- 
dence, and then let the State carry them. 

time limit on federal aid 

The Chairman. But would you recommend that the Federal 
Government pay that whole load? 

Mr. Rainwater. Until they achieve or until they accomplish a 
State residence ; yes. As we have it now, our old-age aid and children's 
aid and the blind aid are on that basis between counties. W T e have 
many all-State cases, and an all-State case in this county cannot last 
for longer than a year/ because it takes a year to achieve a county 
residence. So the all-State is carried for that fraction of a year neces- 
sary to complete the year of residence in the county. After that the 
county takes the person over. The county can administer the aid, 
but the State reimburses it in full where there is no county residence. 
There is no tendency to drop anybody out of the county because it 
costs us nothing until after he becomes a resident. 

The Chairman. Does it take a year to become a resident of the 
county and to get aid? 

Mr. Rainwater. Yes. From one county to another within the 

The Chairman. Before he can acquire a new residence in the county 
of his destination he has to live there a year? 

Mr. Rainwater. In the county of his destination; yes. He may 
be on aid in one county, and may move around, and whatever county 
he is in will carry him as an all-State aid case until he establishes 1 
year of residence in some one county. 

I am just giving you my thought about it, that in achieving some 
national solution to this thing, if the Federal Government could take 
the place the State occupies here among the counties, you might have 


the beginning of the solution. It would probably take years to 
accomplish it. 

The Chairman. Did you say you had something additional to offer 
for the record? 

Mr. Rainwater. Yes; perhaps I can. I just worked this out in 
outline form. 

The Chairman. Perhaps you would like to give us something on 
the all-State aid. 

Mr. Rainwater. Every time I talk to either you or Miss Bauer 
something else crops up that I think should be covered. I have just 
given an outline, and I would be glad to submit it for the record and 
expand upon it, if you like. 1 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. We will be glad to have 
you do so. You have been very helpful to us, Mr. Rainwater. 

Now, I will call Mr. Wayman. 


The Chairman. Mr. Wayman, will you give us your full name, 

Mr. Wayman. Raymond Wayman. 

The Chairman. Where do you live? 

Mr. Wayman. Fallbrook. 

The Chairman. I understand that while you are not on our sched- 
ule here, you would like to discuss a few matters. Your letter will be 
placed in the record at this point and then you can make your state- 

(The letter referred to is as follows:) 

Fallbrook, Calif., June 12, 1941. 
Hon. J. H. Tolan, 
San Diego, Calif. 

Dear Sir: I, Raymond Wayman, represent the civic organizations in the 
town of Fallbrook, Calif. The town of Fallbrook lies in the northernmost portion 
of San Diego County, and has a population of approximately 1,500 persons. 

In the last few days the United States Navy has purchased a tract of some 
8,000 acres which adjoins the town of Fallbrook on the west. The purpose of 
this project was to immediately establish a large navy ammunition depot. 

It is our understanding that Congress has already appropriated some two and 
one-half million dollars to start this project. 

It is the desire of the Fallbrook district to cooperate with the Navy and United 
States Government in this matter. We have already turned over to the con- 
tractors the use of our high-school plant, so that they may not be in any way 
delayed in starting this defense project. It is of interest to note that these con- 
tractors have already taken possession and are on the ground. 

To further facilitate national defense our public utilities department, which 
supplies water to our town, has agreed to furnish water to the contractors, and 
later to the Navy when the project is completed. 

We have every reason to believe that this construction is going to throw an 
unsurmountable burden on the town of Fallbrook with 2,000 to 4,000 people 
moving into our town; it will be impossible for us to handle the situation without 
Federal aid. 

In the first place we do not have the proper sewerage to take care of this tre- 
mendous additional population. 

Secondly, our school facilities are completely inadequate, in view of the coming 

Thirdly, the road situation in our town is such that to handle the increased 
traffic, much improvement will be necessary. 

1 See Supplementary Statement, p. 4918. 


Lastly, steps should be taken to increase the supply of water available at 

While it is impossible at this time to make a definite statement as to the actual 
needs of our district, it is essential that an appropriation be set up to take care 
of them. 

We would suggest that tentative appropriation be set up as follows: Schools, 
$100,000; sewers, $100,000; roads, $50,000; water department, $100,000. 

Assuring you of the desire on the part of our district to cooperate in this very 
important development, I am, 
Very truly yours, 

Raymond Wayman. 

Mr. Wayman. In a veiy few minutes I can present to you what we 
consider a very nasty little problem, one that is very critical to us. 
I represent a small area, unincorporated, in the northern end of San 
Diego County, called Fallbrook. 

The Chairman. Whom did you say you represent? 

Mr. Wayman. I am a member of the chamber of commerce and 
other civic organizations there. 

The Chairman. I just want to get that for the record. 

naval ammunition building 

Mr. Wayman. In the last 2 weeks the Navy has purchased an 
8,000-acre tract of land and they are going to build a large ammunition 
building. That will mean that the 1,500 people of Fallbrook are 
going to be increased by 100 percent, or to about 3,100. Now, we 
have no sewerage, we have no police protection and we have none of 
the other facilities that the city of San Diego has. I would like to 
show you Fallbrook on this map. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Wayman. Here [indicating] is the little town of Fallbrook, 
approximately 7 blocks by 7 blocks, with a population of about 1,500. 

The Chairman. What is it — a farming community? 

Mr. Wayman. A little farming community. The Navy bought 
8,000 acres from Santa Margarita Ranch. 

The Chairman. How far away from the town? 

Mr. Wayman. The property line comes along clear down to here 
[indicating]. We have turned over the high school to the contractors. 
They already have headquarters, in this high school, so that they will 
not have any trouble waiting for offices and can get right on with the 

Mr. Wayman. There will be 2,000 to 4,000 men, I understand, for a 
period of 1 to 2 years constructing this ammunition building. We are 
already having an influx of all kinds of people. 

The Chairman. Do you have any idea what the personnel will be 
there after it is constructed? 

Mr. Wayman. Well, these projects go so rapidly that we don't 
know. I understand that eventually they will have a civilian popula- 
tion of about 500 people, and a little farther south of the town will be 
the military barracks. Of course, it is a 1- to 2-year program, but it is 
causing us a considerable worry. 


The Chairman. What will be the result of that construction by the 
Navy? What will be your problem? 

Mr. Wayman. Our primary problem is going to be sewerage. 


The Chairman. And, of course, you have lots of money in that 
little town, haven't you, to pay for it? 

Mr. Wayman. You can appreciate that. As a matter of fact, we 
have already drawn all the plans for a sewer plant and we have the 
approval of the county engineer, but we haven't been able to raise 
the money to finance it. With the influx of the population, we are 
going to have to increase the appropriation for the sewer district. 
That is one of our biggest problems. 

The Chairman. Unless you get Federal aid? 

Mr. Wayman. Yes. 

The Chairman. In other words, the Federal Government is in there 
with a project? 

Mr. Wayman. That is correct. 

The Chairman. And it is going to increase your financial respon- 
sibilities, just as in San Diego? 

Mr. Wayman. Yes. The only difference, Congressman, is that 
whereas San Diego has a 30-percent increase in population, we are 
going to have 150, maybe 200 percent, so that our situation is more 


Now, we have another problem. Our schools are not going to be 
adequate for the next years, to take care of these people. These little 
village roads around there are not going to be adequate to take care 
of the traffic of such a population. 

Finally, we have what we call the Fallbrook public utility district. 
That supplies water to the town. That district has agreed to give 
the Navy and the contractors, both, all the water they need for this 
construction project, but as the Navy development grows, the town 
will grow, and we are going to have to have more money to bring up 
sufficient water. 

The Chairman. There are numerous cases similar to yours, and I 
think it is a very good idea to have it in the record here, and we will 
incorporate your statement. I do not think the amount of money 
appropriated now will be sufficient, but there are going to be applica- 
tions based on similar situations. Undoubtedly you cannot handle it. 

Mr. Wayman. It is just out of the question. We are not even 
in the position to hire an engineer to go out and figure how much that 
is going to cost. 

The Chairman. Have you contacted the Navy about it? 

Mr. Wayman. We have had the Navy up there, and, as a matter of 
fact, they are going to operate out of the high school, and they are 
very interested in helping us solve a part of our problem, but they 
have no money to put in a school, nor is it possible for them to help 
with the water or the city streets. 

The Chairman. All right, sir. I thank you for your contribution. 

The committee will stand adjourned until tomorrow morning at 

Whereupon, at 4 p. m., a recess was taken until 9:45 a. m., Friday, 
June 13, 1941.) 

60396— 41— pt. 12- 


FRIDAY, JUNE 13, 1941 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 
National-Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
The committee met at. 9:45 a. m. in the United States customhouse 
and court house, Room 234, San Diego, Calif., Hon. John H. Tolan 
(chairman), presiding. 

Also present: Catherine Bauer and John W. Abbott, field investi- 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. Dr. Crawford 
and Mr. Hardy, if you will, please come up here. 


The Chairman. For the purpose of the record, will you give your 
full names and state in what official capacity you are appearing here? 

Dr. Crawford. Will Clark Crawford, superintendent of city 

Mr. Hardy. Edward Lawyer Hardy, president of the board of 

The Chairman. How long have you been president of the board, 
Mr. Hardy? 

Mr. Hardy. Since the 1st of May. 

The Chairman. You were a member prior to that time? 

Mr. Hardy. For 4 years. 

The Chairman. Dr. Crawford, how long have vou been superin- 

Dr. Crawford. I have been superintendent for 7 3^ears. 

The Chairman. I have your interesting statement, Doctor, and it 
will be introduced into the record at this point. 


Educational Needs Brought About by the National Defense Migration 

The San Diego City Board of Education appreciates the opportunity of pre- 
senting to the Tolan committee the serious situation faced by our city schools 
in the task of providing adequate educational facilities to many thousands of 
new children coming to San Diego on account of national-defense activities. 
Almost overnight our city has been transformed from a quiet residence community 
to a hustling manufacturing and military center, into which are crowding thousands 



of new workers together with others seeking work, and still others hoping to 
make a living from workers by any means at their disposal. The majority of 
these new residents will bring families with children. 

To accommodate this situation, the Government has stepped in with a plan 
of building homes for families and dormitories for single men. To date, homes 
are being provided as follows: 


1. Navy housing project at the destroyer base 1 600 

2. Navy housing project at the training station 600 

3. Defense housing project, Kearney Mesa 3, 000 

Total 4,200 

Many of these homes are already occupied and the trend of occupancy indicates 
approximately 2 children per home, or a total of approximately 8,400 new children. 


Announcement has just been made of additional housing not included in the 
above figures. We understand that 1,000 new temporary houses are to be erected 
in the Pacific Beach area and 500 new temporary houses in the southeastern section 
of the city. We, also, understand that the Navy is planning an additional 
housing project of 900 family units similar to those already erected at the destroyer 
base and the naval training station. If the families occupying these houses are 
of about the same size as those now moving into San Diego, these new Federal 
homes will bring approximately 4,800 additional children, making a total of 13,200 
children residing on Federal property. To this number should be added approxi- 
mately 4,000 children living in new homes built throughout the city during the 
past year by private capital to meet the local situation. This would mean a 
grand total of at least 17,000 children in new houses from which should, of course, 
be deducted those children already living in San Diego who will move from sub- 
standard homes to new quarters. 

This situation is complicated by the fact that the San Diego city schools are 
already greatly overcrowded. Last fall, when the Federal Government first 
announced plans for local housing projects, a survey of school facilities indicated 
a few vacant rooms scattered throughout the city with a total extra capacity of 
580 pupils. Since last year, however, school enrollment has increased by almost 
2,000 which has not only used up available reserve space, but has necessitated 
placing several elementary schools on a double session basis. By this arrange- 
ment, some children come early in the morning and others stay late in the after- 
noon, alternating in their use of the same classroom facilities. This arrangement 
necessarily greatly limits the educational program as well as being inconvenient 
to the families involved. 


From the above it may be readily seen that the problem of furnishing adequate 
school facilities in San Diego is a serious one which warrants immediate and 
generous help from the Federal Government. 

This Federal help should include money for the erection of several completely 
new plants as well as for additions to many existing schools on both the elementary 
and secondary levels. Into these classrooms must go desks, chairs, and other 
necessary school equipment. 

To the cost of erecting new schools and additional classrooms must be added 
the expense of operation which includes teachers' salaries, supplies, heat, light, etc. 

In addition to facilities for regular elementary and high schools, there is need 
for assistance in the vocational education program which is expanding by leaps 
and bounds from day to day. In addition to the development of a large program 
for training workers in aircraft and shipbuilding industries, we have undertaken 
the responsibility for assisting in the training of military and naval establish- 
ments. Our vocational school facilities have been greatly enlarged to care for 
our industrial training, but facilities are limited for business training which has 
become important as a supplement to industrial workers in local factories. At 
the present time, this program is being carried on in rented quarters which should 
be moved to a regular addition to our vocational school. 


These needs, described in detail below, may be summarized as follows: 

1. For buildings on Federal reservations $1, 465, 000 

2. For additions to existing buildings l 937, 500 

3. For addition to vocational school 450, 000 

4. For operation of schools in Federal reservation during 1941-42. _ 675, 000 

5. For added operation costs in existing schools 350, 000 

Total 3,877,500 


It hardly seems necessary to emphasize the need for speed in meeting this 
problem. We called the attention of the Federal Government to our needs last 
fall, and each month that has passed without relief adds to the difficulty of the 
situation because most of the new children will be on our doorstep next September 
when the new school term opens. We are, therefore, concerned as to the ma- 
chinery which will be involved in securing Federal aid. So far, we have received 
no authoritative information as to what Federal agency will administer funds to be 
provided under H. R. 4545, or what procedures will be required for applications 
and approval. We already have applications on file with the United States Office 
of Education (Federal Security Agency) and the Federal Works Agency. 

We are also anxious to know how school buildings will be erected and financed. 
We have been led to believe that the local board of education will be given the 
responsibility for the planning and the letting of contracts for new buildings, and 
that money will be given as outright grants to the local school district. Informa- 
tion on these points will be appreciated. In order that no time be lost while 
waiting for Federal funds, the board of education has made arrangements with 
local architects to develop plans and specifications for the necessary new school 
buildings listed above. These plans are being rushed to completion and should be 
ready for calling of bids in July. It is hoped that this arrangement will meet the 
approval of the Federal Government in meeting the emergency situation in San 

In connection with the financing of this program it should be pointed out that 
the local school district has a statutory tax limitation which would prohibit the 
local board of education from raising any considerable sum of money over the 
current budget. Under the circumstances, therefore, the local district could not 
possibly provide the necessary funds to meet the present situation. 


In connection with the vocational program, it may be of interest to know that 
the local program has met with hearty approval on the part of industrial and 
military authorities, and that there is no problem in relation to private vocational 
schools in this area. 

A serious problem still unsolved is the securing of sufficient trainees to meet the 
local demands. The local supply of trainees is almost exhausted, and unless other 
recruits are brought in from outside San Diego, it will be impossible to secure a 
sufficient number of workers to meet the needs of factories during the next few 
months. This situation is further complicated by the lack of housing facilities 
for trainees before they are employed in industries. It would seem that trainees 
should either be eligible for quarters in dormitories built for single men, or that 
some dormitories should be opened temporarily to the National Youth Adminis- 
tration which can accommodate the trainees. 


The most clean-cut and critical needs for school housing created in San Diego 
by the defense program are those created by the housing projects. Two Navy 
housing projects of 600 units each are nearing completion. One of these projects 
is located near the destroyer base and one near the naval training station. New 
school facilities will be required to house the children who will reside in these 
projects. In both cases it seems advisable and desirable that entirely new build- 
ings be constructed as the elementary school pattern of the city is varied by these 
concentrations of homes. There seems to be no recourse other than to construct 
an elementary school on each of the sites set aside for schools at the projects. 

Available data regarding the families assigned to these projects indicates that 
an elementary school (kindergarten and grades 1 to 6) to house approximately 



1,000 children will be necessary at each of these projects. This will require the 
immediate provision of one 24-classroom building at both the destroyer base and 
the naval training station project. These buildings will cost at least $225,000 
and each will require $25,000 worth of equipment. 

To house defense workers, a Federal project for the construction of 3,000 unit* 
on Kearney Mesa 1 has been approved and work is now well under way and on 
schedule. The area selected fur this project is far away from any of the existing 
schools. It will be mandatory to construct at least 2 large elementary schools for 
this area and, in addition, a secondary school to house grades 7 to 12. 

Data available regarding the families assigned to this project indicates that 
the elementary school population of the area will be approximately 2,400 and that 
two elementary schools will be necessary. The cost of constructing each of these 
schools is estimated at 8250,000 and the cost of equipment for each is estimated 
at $30,000. This is probably a minimum estimate. 

A secondary school to house from 1,000 to 1,200 students will also be necessary 
in the Kearnev Mesa project. The construction cost of this building is estimated 
at $350,000 and the equipment cost at $55,000, a total of $405,000. 


Within the housing projects the following school buildings are necessary: 




tion cost 

ment cost 




$225, 000 
225, 000 
250. 000 
250, 000 
350, 000 

$25, 000 
25, 000 
30, 000 
30. 000 
55, 000 

$250, 000 

250,000 . 

230, 000 

Do . 


280, 000 

Do ... 

Complete secondary 
grades 7 to 12. 

405, 000 


1, 300, 000 

165, 000 

1, 465, 000 

These buildings will all be in areas in which all property is owned by the Federal 
Government and not subject to local tax levies. For this reason and because all 
of the families residing in these houses have been brought to San Diego by the 
defense activities, it would seem entirely fair that the cost of constructing and 
equipping these buildings should be borne 100 percent by direct grants of Federal 


In addition to the elementary school population to be found in each of the naval 
housing projects there will be from 150 to 225 secondary pupils residing in each of 
the projects. 

The secondary children from the destroyer base housing project will attend the 
Memorial Junior High School for the most part. This school is already hopelessly 
overcrowded and cannot absorb additional enrollment. Not only must additional 
space be provided at Memorial Junior High School but additional relief must be 
obtained for the school bj^ the construction of the first unit of a junior-senior high 
school in the southeastern section of the city. The need for this new unit is further 
emphasized by the rapid construction of houses with private capital in the south- 
eastern section to house the current influx of population. Several completely new 
subdivisions are already under way in this area. This new housing is made neces- 
sary by the influx of defense workers into San Diego. 

To serve the children of secondary school age from the naval training station 
project and the children of the personnel connected with Fort Rosecrans, there 
must be an expansion of secondary school facilities on Point Loma. The first unit 
of a new junior high school known as the Dana Junior High School is now under 
construction. This new school is necessary to relieve congestion in the present 
Point Loma Junior-Senior High School winch has been sadly overcrowded for 
many years. The combined capacity of the two schools, however, will not be 
adequate to accommodate the new enrollment. The problem of providing 
secondary facilities for the Point Loma area is further complicated by the fact that 
private home building has been going ahead at a rapid pace in the Ocean Beach 
area and that a large subdivision is planned in the area north and west of the naval 

i This project is known officially as the Linda Vista housing project. 



training station. In order to house the secondary school children of the Point 
Loma area adequately it will be necessary to make a substantial addition to the 
Dana Junior High School. Junior high-school students may then be removed 
from the Point Loma High School and space released there for the new senior 
high-school enrollment (grades 10, 11, and 12). 

The permanent personnel of Fort Rosecrans is being materially increased. An 
addition to the Cabrillo Elementary School is necessary because of this increased 

The population of La Jolla and Pacific Beach areas has been sharply increased 
because of the development of Camp Callan. The population of the area will be 
further increased when the 75 houses to be constructed on Torrey Pines Mesa 
with Federal funds are completed. The increasing school population which 
results will require that an addition be made to the La Jolla High School, the 
La Jolla Elementary School, the Pacific Beach Junior High School, and the 
Pacific Beach Elementary School. 

In addition to the housing facilities built by the Federal Government for the 
housing of families connected with the armed forces and in national-defense in- 
dustries, local capital has constructed several thousand new family units in the 
city. This new construction has been at the request of the Federal Government 
and because of the desperate need for housing. This stimulation in local house 
building has been due not to the normal increase of the city's population but to the 
defense program and the influx of defense workers and personnel connected with 
the armed services. The development of this privately financed housing has also 
created demands for additional school facilities. The majority of the elementary- 
school buildings in the city are now crowded to capacity and require immediate 
additions of new classrooms to house the new enrollment. Fifty additional ele- 
mentary-school classrooms will be needed at existing elementary schools by the 
beginning of the new school term, September 1941. These are in excess of the 
specific additions mentioned above. In this connection it must also be pointed 
out that many families are living in trailer camps and in auto courts and that all 
margin of available housing usually found in a city disappeared months ago. 


In summary then, the following facilities are required, in addition to the new 
school buildings outlined above to house the school enrollment in September 1941. 


tion cost 

ment cost 


$150, 000 
250. 000 
22, 000 
25, 000 
16, 500 
22, 000 
17, 000 
13, 000 
300, 000 

$25, 000 
50, 000 

$175, 000 

275, 000 

27, 000 

30, 000 

19, 500 

20, 000 

20, 000 

15, 000 

350, 000 

815, 500 


937, 500 

The construction of these school buildings has been made necessary by the 
defense program in San Diego. The cost cannot be absorbed by the local district. 
It seems fair that the construction and equipment of these buildings should be 
financed directly by Federal grants. 

It has been reported authoratatively that a group of 1,500 federally financed 
temporary housing units is to be constructed in San Diego to house defense 
workers. Should this project be developed temporary school buildings for ap- 
proximately 2,000 additional children will be needed. This will require 50 
bungalow classrooms which will cost, including equipment, approximately 
$150,000. This amount must be added to the above estimates if this new housing 
project becomes a reality. 


Classes for the direct training of defense workers in aircraft and shipbuilding 
industries are being housed in the Ford Building in Balboa Park. The training 
program for this type of worker is well under way on a temporary basis. A major 
portion of the cost of this program is being financed from Federal funds. No 


provision is being made, however, for the training of workers in the various 
clerical and secretarial occupations. The demand for this type of worker in the 
defense program has been great. At present the needs are being met in San 
Diego by the city schools and a large training program is under way in rented 
space in the Spreckels Theatre Building. 

The expansion of the defense industries in San Diego has attracted men with 
various types of skills from private industry. The replacement of these men in 
the existing industrial life of the city has caused an unexpected and unprecedented 
demand on the whole vocational-training program. The building of the regular 
vocational school is hopelessly overcrowded and it has been found impossible to 
open certain training courses because of the lack of space. A shop addition to 
this building estimated to cost $350,000 is mandatory. The equipment needed 
for these new shops will cost approximately $100,000. 


Even after the buildings outlined in the above are constructed, the operation 
cost of the schools must be paid. It seems entirely fair that this cost should also 
be borne from Federal funds because: (1) The sudden growth of San Diego has 
been caused entirely by the defense program. The expansion of the armed serv- 
ices in San Diego, the construction of new training camps, and the doubling and 
redoubling of the aircraft plants and their personnel have been entirely responsible 
for the current growth. (2) In normal times approximately 50 percent of the cost 
of operating schools comes from the State in direct reimbursement made to the 
district on the basis of average daily attendance. This reimbursement is made, 
however, on the year following the accumulation of the attendance. No reim- 
bursement from the State will be available for this new enrollment which will 
appear during the 1941-42 fiscal year during that year. The sudden increase is 
too great to be borne by the local tax base and must, therefore, come from some 
outside source. (3) It is to be normally expected that any area within the city 
will contribute through the direct property tax the remaining 50 percent of the 
cost of operating the schools. The Federal housing projects, being federally 
owned, will pay no taxes and will not make this contribution. No contribution 
will be made by the property in the two naval housing projects. The contribu- 
tions proposed by the project on Kearney Mesa, under the Lanham Act provision 
for payments, is far less than would normally be expected from the application of 
the tax levy to such an area. (4) Even though the district and the school offi- 
cials may desire to carry on these schools, the statutory tax limitation will prevent 
raising enough money to operate the schools. 

The operation of the school includes teachers' salaries and all supplies and books 
necessary for instruction, custodial care of the building and all utility cost, cost 
of the health service, which includes nurses' salaries and medical supplies, cost of 
insurance, and cost of retirement. 

According to the official report of the San Diego city schools for 1939-40 the 
average current expenditure per pupil in average daily attendance for operation 
of the schools was $124.79. The cost of educating the 5,400 children in the 5 
new schools required in the housing projects will be $675,000. 

The operating cost for the education of the children in the other new schools 
requested and the additions to the existing schools will be approximately $350,000. 

The total operating cost of the San Diego city schools will be increased then 
by approximately $1,025,000 during the 1941-42 year. This additional cost must 
be met without great additions of State aid or without a corresponding increase 
in the tax base. It seems entirely logical that these operating costs added to the 
cost of the national-defense program should be paid with Federal funds. 


1. For buildings on Federal reservations $1, 465, 000 

2. For additions to existing buildings 937, 500 

3. For addition to the vocational school 450, 000 

4. For operation of schools in Federal reservation during 1941-42__ 675, 000 

5. For added operation costs in existing schools 350, 000 

Total 3,877,500 



The total tax base of the San Diego unified school district was, at the time 
that the 1940-41 budget was made, $135,591,921. To operate schools during this 
fiscal year a tax levy of $1.70 was necessary. It is estimated that the tax base 
for the district at present is $146,390,000. It can readily be seen that this 
increase in tax base is in no way comparable with the increased demand for school 

The school district has a bonded indebtedness of $3,270,000. Two attempts 
made to pass school-bond issues in recent years have been defeated. 

Since the statutory limitation on the tax rate for a California unified school 
district is $1.85, it is obviously impossible for a local district to raise enough 
money to provide education for the number of children who will be present in 
September 1941 even though the tax levy were raised to its maximum. It is 
equally obvious that outside funds must be obtained, both for the construction of 
necessary buildings, and for the operation of these schools during the next fiscal 

HARDY— Resumed 

The Chairman. Now, what wo are concerned with, Doctor, is the 
migration of people from State to State, expecially in connection with 
our national-defense program; and although we are investigating con- 
ditions in San Diego, we are also going to other places, you see, so 
that, for the purpose of the record I would like to say right iioav that 
we are not here to "show up" San Diego, any more than Hartford, 
Conn., or Trenton, N. J., or any other place. That isn't our purpose. 
I want to say now also, for the record, that from the preliminary re- 
ports which I have received from other sections of the country we 
expect to visit, I think San Diego will rank high in the public-spirited 
manner in which it has met conditions, expecially considering the 
tremendous increase that you have had in your population. That is 
my own idea about it. 

Now, Doctor, in a brief way. on account of this great in 
population, what are your problems here from the standpoint of 


Dr. Crawford. Well, our first and foremost problem, naturally, is 
that of housing our school population. Like most other communities, 
we have been for the past few years in a comparatively static condi- 
tion, with a slight increase each year; primarily, a static condition so 
far as school enrollment from year to year was concerned, and we 
have been able to take care of that by making seme additions to our 
schools from year to year out of our current funds. 

However, beginning with this current school year, we have faced a 
very unusual situation, in having a very large increase of children 
suddenly, which has been very difficult or impossible to take care of 
out of our current funds, from the standpoint of school housing. 

In the report which I have filed with you here, we have indicated 
the situation very briefly. 

I might say that, from the standpoint of the extra children, the 
Federal Government has recognized that situation and has come in 
here to establish additional homes. You have been told of the two 
Navy projects of 600 families each, and on Kearrey Mesa of 3,000, 
making a. total of 4,200 homes. Now, the indications are, from the 


number of families that have moved in to date, that there will be 
approximately two children per family. That will vary, of course, 
but as it goes along, I think the average has run about 2.1, so for these 
4,200 homes there will be approximately 8,400 children. 


In addition to these projects which are under way now, and which 
are largely completed, we have definite word that there is to be another 
unit, or rather, that there are to be two more units of temporary houses. 
These others that I have mentioned are considered more as permanent 
homes. The information that we have is that there will be 1,500 new 
temporary houses; 1,000 to be erected in the Pacific Beach area and 500 
in the southeastern section of the city. Then this week we have 
heard that the Navy Department is planning to erect 900 houses, 
so that if my mental arithmetic is correct, that would be 6,600 homes, 
and on that basis there will be 13,200 children, figuring on practically 
the same basis. 

Now, on account of the situation, local capital has been encouraged 
to go ahead and build homes, and the chamber of commerce has 
indicated that there are several thousand — I would say conservatively 
2,000 — new homes that have been built, which would add approxi- 
mately 4,000 more children, or a total of something like 17,000 chil- 
dren in new homes that are being built in San Diego. 

Of course, from that number we would have to deduct the number of 
those newcomers who are already in San Diego, and that is a little 
difficult to determine at this time; but I would say, very conservatively, 
that of the 17,000, certainly something over 10,000 are children that 
are coming into San Diego, so that we have then the immediate problem 
of having to house these children. 


The Chairman. Now, your school facilities are not adequate to 
take care of that number, are they, at present? 

Dr. Crawford. No; we have been having a slight increase each 
year, with the result that our facilities have been practically full all 
the time. 

When we first learned of the Federal Government coming in here 
with housing last fall, we made a survey of the school facilities and 
found there was room for some 480 children, whom we could sandwich 
in here and there, as we might have a room or two vacant throughout 
the city; but during this current year our enrollment has increased 
about 2,000 over the same period last year, so that not only have we 
caught up on available facilities, but we have already had to go into 
double sessions in a number of our schools. We have added teachers 
and are running double sessions by which part of the children come 
early in the morning and leave at noon, and others come in at noon 
and stay until late in the afternoon. 

That program, however, is not at all satisfactory, in that it means 
a curtailment of the educational program, and it also is very incon- 
venient from the home standpoint and social standpoint — that is, 
having the children free a whole half day, without any supervision. 



The Chairman. Dr. Crawford, the largest project around here is 
the Kearney Mesa project, is it not? 

Dr. Crawford. Yes. 

The Chairman. We have been told there are 1,766 units being con- 
structed there, and the figures that we obtained yesterday indicated 
that the completed project would house approximately 10,000 people. 
Now, what proportion, would you say, of those 10,000 would be 
school children? 

Dr. Crawford. Well, we have estimated there would be about 
6,000 children there. 

The Chairman. What facilities for schooling are out there? 

Dr. Crawford. There is absolutely none, because, unfortunately, 
that whole development is miles away from any development at the 
present time where there are any schools. That means that the only 
satisfactory solution would be to build schools on that immediate 
project, and we have estimated a need for at least two large elemen- 
tary schools, and one combination junior-senior high school. 

The Chairman. I am just referring to that project as an example, 
and I think it will be one of the best examples, probably, in the 
United States, don't you see? In other words, you have about 
10,000 people, with about 6,000 children, and with no school facilities 
for them at all in this project. Is that right? 

Dr. Crawford. That is right. 


Mr. Hardy. That region was all sagebrush 6 months ago. 

The Chairman. When did they start that project? 

Mr. Hardy. In the winter, the beginning of the winter. 

Dr. Crawford. Along about Christmas time. They started breaking 
ground there in the fall. 

The Chairman. Has any application been made for funds? 

Dr. Crawford. Yes. When we first heard that the Federal 
Government was planning to erect houses here, we contacted the 
United States Office of Education and the Federal Security Agency, 
and they contacted other defense offices throughout the United States, 
and on forms which they devised we made formal application for help 
in school housing, not only for the erection of new houses, new schools 
on these projects themselves, but for enlargement of existing schools 
throughout the city where people are crowding in for national defense 

The Chairman. Could you estimate the amount of money that 
would be necessary? 

Dr. Crawford/ We estimated the need at about $4,000,000. 

The Chairman. Now, of course, in addition to that $4,000,000, 
you are also asking for other funds, aren't you — for sewerage, for 

Dr. Crawford. The city? 

The Chairman. Yes. 



Dr. Crawford. Yes. Let me first, before we get away from this 
school proposition, indicate that we have a need not only for the 
erection of new schools, also for the operation of them, because not 
only would the new schools present a problem of capital outlay but also 
the hiring of teachers. We are not in a position to employ extra 
teachers, largely because most of these housing projects are being 
developed on Federal property, from which we can expect to get no 

Our normal method of operation is to get relief from the State for 
about half of our expenses, and from local taxation, through real- 
property tax, for the other half. 

Mr. Hardy. The State relief is a year late in coming. You do not 
get it until a year later. 

CITY ASKING $21,000,000 TOTAL 

The Chairman. For the purpose of the record, do you know about 
what amount of money San Diego is asking from the Federal Govern- 

Dr. Crawford. The whole city? 

The Chairman. For the sewerage, and all. 

Dr. Crawford. About $21,000,000. 

The Chairman. I will tell you what I am thinking about. Before 
I left Washington the bill that you are familiar with — the Lanham bill, 
to take care of these various needs — passed the House, and I see in 
this morning's paper that it passed the Senate. But it provides only 

Dr. Crawford. Yes; $150,000,000. 

The Chairman. So you would take almost one-seventh of that 
wouldn't you? 

Dr. Crawford. Yes. 

The Chairman. I am very much interested in that, because in our 
report to Congress in August we will have to cover that situation. 

Dr. Crawford. Well, that situation, as I understand it, is some- 
thing like this: When the United States Office of Education made its 
survey of the school needs they found in the defense centers that were 
approved by the Army and Navy Department a need for $115,000,000 
for schools, whereas this bill for $150,000,000 is for all purposes — 
water, sewerage, roads, and hospitals — and therefore that $150,000,000 
is, obviously, inadequate. 

PUTS SCHOOL NEEDS AT $100,000,000 

We are frankly prejudiced. We feel the schools, inasmuch as the 
need originated from their request, and inasmuch as they face the 
deadline of having the children taken care of next September, should 
be given rather generous consideration out of this $150,000,000. I 
would say that at least $100,000,000 should be allocated for school 
needs, and probably other moneys would have to be appropriated to 
pick up some of the bigger items of sewerage, water, and roads. 

The Chairman. What is going to be the situation here in Septem- 
ber with respect to schools? Where are they going to go? 



Dr. Crawford. In some places we will have to employ teachers 
and have double sessions in our schools. Kearney Mesa, however, is 
so far away that what we have asked for there is to have the Govern- 
ment turn over to us a number of their multiple dwellings, and we 
hope to open schools in them. It would be under very crowded con- 
ditions, of course, but we could maintain the schools there. 

The Chairman. Will any large number of children out there be 
depiived of an opportunity to attend, school? 

Dr. Crawford. No, I don't think so, because we have a State law 
which requires them to attend school. There would be probably 
some loss, but we will plan to get these children into some kind, of 
schools, not only because it is required by law, but also because we feel 
that it ; s a primary necessity in our American program. 

Mr. Hardy. Haven't you asked for the warehouse out there? 

Dr. Crawford. We have asked for the warehouse, but Mr. Voigt, 
who is the manager, indicated that the warehouses would not be 
satisfactory, because they have no windows of any kind. His sugges- 
tion was that they turn over to us some of the multiple-dwelling units, 
which he thought would, be adequate for our purposes. 


The Chairman. Now, what do you have to say about the local 
supply of trainees? 

Dr. Crawford. For vocational training? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Dr. Crawford. Another one of the problems, along with the 
housing, is the responsibility for training people for the defense 
industries and for the armed forces, because we have in San Diego 
both camps and defense industries, notably aircraft and shipbuilding. 

The board of education has indicated its willingness to cooperate 
with the defense industries and the armed forces in training their 
men, and through some Federal funds, which we have already secured, 
and through the cooperation of the city, we have taken over the 
Ford Building in Balboa Park for training purposes. They have 
facilities there for about 3,(500 trainees at a time, in addition to our 
own vocational school and through rented quarters in the Spreckels 
Building downtown. 

In other words, we have increased our facilities tremendously, and 
we are able to take care of several thousand trainees at one time. 
We have trained, now, about 5,000. 


Now, going to your specific question, we have at this time about 
exhausted the local supply of trainees. There will be a few more 
coming out of the high schools, hi the next few weeks, but we will 
take care of them rather quickly. Then with the continued expan- 
sion, especially of the Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, San Diego 
will be in the market for several thousand new workers, and if they 
are to come here and to receive training, then they, in turn, must 


have some place to be taken care of, because at the present time they 
cannot come here without any funds. 

Many can't afford to pay rent, and for that reason we have requested, 
through the housing commission here, that the Federal Government 
either open up the dormitories which are available here, and for which 
there is at the present time no rush for the occupancy of workers — to 
open those up to the trainees as potential workers, or else to turn over 
some of the barracks of the N. Y. A., which is willing to take these 
people on. So we are at sort of a stalemate, unless we can bring train- 
ees in; and unless we can bring them in, they cannot be trained for 
work in the aircraft factories; and unless there is some housing pro- 
vided for them, they cannot come for the training, and that, in turn, 
would act as a hindrance to the defense industries. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hardy, have you anything you wish to say? 

Mr. Hardy. No; I think Dr. Crawford's report, which he made in 
th< name of the board of education, and his statement, puts the situa- 
tion very clearly and very fully before you. We are very appreciative 
of the opportunity to appear at this hearing. 


The Chairman. Dr. Crawford, you have no fake aircraft schools 
here, have you? 

Dr. Crawford. I think not. We have some private schools here, 
a very small number, but they are working in cooperation with us and 
with the aircraft industries. There were a number of schools that 
planned to start, but inasmuch as we were apparently able to offer 
satisfactory training — that is, training satisfactory to the defense and 
Navy forces — they backed the public schools; and the private schools, 
most of them, folded up and didn't develop their plans here. 

We have worked very closely in cooperation with the military and 
defense authorities, in developing the kind of training which would be 
most useful to their needs. We have an advisory committee, which is 
composed of industrial leaders and workers as well — both employers 
and employees, and military authorities — and all our program has 
been developed under that general guidance. 

Miss Bauer. The committee has heard sometimes that the aircraft 
companies should themselves train their own personnel. The argu- 
ment is that this would cost the taxpayers less, and that it might also 
bring about better coordination between local trainees and local 
employment. Would you, on the other hand, bring out some of the 
relative evidence on the public education in the schools, as you have 
experienced it here? 


Dr. Crawford. We feel that training for the aircraft industry i- 
not different from any other training for vocations in the community. 
We have undertaken in the vocational department to offer training 
which will be helpful to the induction of any person into any kind of 
job; and while the aircraft industry, like any other industry, may 
develop certain plans for the improvement of its own personnel, we 
feel that the job training, which is under the supervision of a general 
advisory committee representing the whole community, is better than 


the training which would be provided by one company only, for its 
own use. 

In other words, we feel that our ultimate objective is to train people 
as broadly as possible, so that they may be able to do not just one 
little machine job, which is a "blind-alley" job, but that we may be 
able to train them so that they can earn their living and serve effec- 
tively in any job to which they might be assigned. 

Air. Hardy. Those questions, of course, come before the school 
board as matters of policy. We have tried to go into all of the 
functions very carefully, from the point of view of public policy, and 
1 think what we are doing is fully justified on the ground of public 
education. I particularly stress what Superintendent Crawford has 
sail about what follows after the training, whether the training is 
merely for the convenience of an industry or to tram a man to earn 
his living. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, gentlemen. 


Dr. Crawford. I might just add this comment. You asked a 
question on how we have met the problem of housing and vocational 
education. There is still one further problem in which your com- 
mittee might be interested. That is the problem of the adjustment 
of many children from many parts of the country into a new situation. 
That is a problem that has given us some consideration. It isn't a 
financial problem. It is a problem of education and morals, and every- 
thing else, including educational standards. It is something which 
should be given some concern, where a great many people come into a 
community, with all kinds of backgrounds, with all kinds of standards 
of living, with all kinds of mental abilities. That has placed a great 
burden on us, on what we might call our guidance program, and we 
feel that is a very important problem, and one which we are studying 

The Chairman. Oh, yes. 

Dr. Crawford. I don't think there is any immediate answer to it, 
but I think you can realize it means that our whole educational 
program lias to be adjusted somewhat, to meet the needs of these 
children who are coming in and who may have different backgrounds. 

The Chairman. Yes. Thank you very much, gentlemen. You 
have been of great assistance to us. We appreciate it. 

Mr. Gardner. 


The Chairman. Air. Gardner, will you please give us your name 
and state in what official capacity you appear here? 

Mr. Gardner. Howard Gardner, representing the Hon. Culbert 
L. Olson, Governor of California, and the California State Council of 
Defense. My address is 725 Rowan Building, Los Angeles, Calif. 

The Chairman. You have submitted a statement, Mr. Gardner, 
which will be made a part of the record. 

(The statement referred to appears below.) 



It is generally agreed that the problems of defense-connected areas have been 
created as a result of the national-defense program, and that the primary 
responsibility for assisting in solving these problems is fundamentally the task 
of the Federal Government. 

Whereas, it is true that the State government and the State defense council 
can be of some assistance to areas such as San Diego, it is unlikely that this 
assistance will ever be of such proportions as to accomplish anything more than 
to serve as a form of supplemental aid to expected substantial Federal assistance. 

The assistance which the State government and the State defense council have 
rendered the city of San Diego has consisted largely of the following types of aid: 

1 . Assistance with defense council organization. 

2. Liaison activity in helping to bring Federal assistance to bear on problems. 

3. Making available personnel from State agencies to assist with technical 

(a) State planning board. 

(b) State department of public health. 

(c) Highway surveys. 

(d) Vocational education and training. 

4. Liberalization of State laws. 

5. State leadership in developing total preparedness. 
(a) Emergency police mobilization. 

{b) Fire defense. 

(c) State Guard: A substantial organization of this type, as authorized by 
Congress, is being developed in this State. Although this organization is being 
formed to assist in the preservation of law and order and the protection of public 
and private property it will never be used for example to assist in meeting prob- 
lems now facing the San Diego police department. 

Defense-connected areas are faced with the need for immediate and substantial 
financial assistance which is beyond the ability of the State to provide. The 
financial condition of the State is well known to the members of this committee 
and even though money were available to assist in meeting the needs of this city 
as carefully and ably outlined to you by Mr. Cooper, the city manager, constitu- 
tional limitations would drastically limit the type of assistance that could be 


The Chairman. Will you tell us the set-up of the State defense 
council? What are its purposes? 

Mr. Gardner. Yes. The present State defense council has just 
been authorized by legislative action, assembly bill 227, passed by the 
legislature and signed by the Governor. The Governor has made the 
appointment of the members of that committee, and they are holding 
an organization meeting today in Sacramento, which is the reason why 
no member of that council is here today. 


The program or organization of the State council of defense is 
patterned very largely after the suggested plan of organization worked 
out by the National Defense Advisory Commission, particularly, the 
Division of State and Local Cooperation. 

The organization of the defense council in California has been 
planned on an official basis. If it is in the State region, it is being 
organized under the Governor; if in the county, under the board of 
supervisors; and in the municipality, under the mayor and city council; 
the thought being that if we can keep the organization on an official 
basis, we have a much better opportunity of coordinating all the 


public and private agencies in the area that are available to assist in 
meeting certain defense problems. 


In accordance with that general thesis of organization, the California 
State Council of Defense has been set up, and within that organization 
there are six major functional fields, which more or less resolve them- 
selves into six major committees. They are mentioned in the legis- 
lative act. 

The fiist is agricultural resources and production, to consider all of 
the relationships and problems involved in agricultural laboi, and all 
the other problems that are beconr'ng more and more acute in the 
agricultural field of the State. 

The second committee is human resources and skills, which is to 
attempt to evaluate the impact of this defense program upon industry, 
so far as personnel goes, and to assist in the training of people to fill 
defense jobs. 

The third committee is civil protection, which involves all those 
things such as disaster planning, police mobilization, fire mobilization, 
and the development of air-raid precaution programs for the State 
and local governments. 

The fourth committee function relates to health, welfare, and con- 
sumer interests, which is to consider the large variety of problems 
that would come under that heading. 

The fifth functional area is transportation, housing, works and 
facilities, which is to take into consideration all the major facilities in 
the State for transportation and the providing of public works and 
utilities, powei problems, and all that type of thing. 

And the sixth is called industrial resources and production, to look 
into the ability of the State to produce, and whether it can do more 
than it is doing, what is available that is not being used, and what can 
we do to help put it to work, in order to meet the test of total 

Very briefly, those are the six functional areas that the committees 
will cover. They will, of course, have many subcommittees, and 
most of the items that I have mentioned within each of these func- 
tional fields is being considered by a subcommittee of people in the 
State, who are considered to be familiar with those problems. 

The Chairman. Will you take any part in the program dealing 
with school tiainees? 

Mr. Gardner. Of course, there is within the State of California the 
bureau of trade and industrial education, which is cooperating 
very closely with the Federal Government in that program. 

The State defense council would probably assist in that program to 
the extent of creating public interest in that type of program, where 
it might be needed, and also would assist, if it became necessary, to 
get additional support lor that type of program, although I think with 
the George Deen Act, and the funds available under it, that it is 
very likely the training of people will be pretty largely handled 
as a State department of education and United States Office of Edu- 
cation matter working in close cooperation with State and Federal 
defense agencies. 

60396 — 41— pt. 12 9 



The Chairman. Will this California State Defense Council work in 
conjunction with or independent of the Federal Government? 

Mr. Gardner. The defense council, as such, serves only in an advi- 
sory capacity. It has no authority to act, and will serve as a liaison 
agency between the Feaeral defense agencies and other Federal agen- 
cies interested in problems in California and the actual working depart- 
ments of the State, and down through county and local agencies. It 
is more or less a channel of communication and information from the 
Federal Government down through to the local governments, and then 
from the local governments back through to the Federal-defense organ- 

The Chairman. What power will it have? 

Mr. Gardner. Advisory only. That is, the actual commission 
itself. But with the Governor of the State as the chairman of the 
committee, if it should be necessary for some State department or 
agency to do something in connection with the program, there is the 
authority through the chairman of the committee to bring all the 
facilities of the State into play. 


The Chairman. Would one of those six committees have to do with 
the migration problem? 

Mr. Gardner. Well, I think two committees would be primarily 
interested in it. Human resources and skills — that is, workers avail- 
able and where they are; and health, welfare, and consumers' interest 
committee, as to the whereabouts of those people when they come into 
the State, and their housing and health problems. I think both those 
committees will assume the responsibility for investigating and aiding 
in finding a solution to the problems presented by the migrant worker. 


The Chairman. Will the California State Defense Council give 
any attention to the task of devising some sort of economic cushion 
after this emergency is over? 

Mr. Gardner. I am sure it will, Mr. Chairman. One of the first 
points that was brought out in connection with the defense council 
activity was that it should not only look at the present situation, 
but be the one agency that should look ahead to see where we are 
going after the emergency is passed, to think now in terms of prob- 
lems of readjustment, and to work with agencies such as planning 
boards that are also thinking of future possibilities, and to try to 
lessen the impact of these problems when they are presented. 

Now, I wonder if I could leave with you, Mr. Chairman, a report 
of the cities and the national-defense program, which has just been 
released by the American Municipal Association, an excellent sum- 
mary of the impact of this whole program among local agencies, and 
the relationship of the State and local governments. It has a very 
interesting chapter on looking ahead, which will probably interest 

The Chairman. Yes. Miss Reporter, I would like to have you 
mark this book for the committee's files. (The document referred 
to is held in committee files.) 


Thank you very much, Mr. Gardner. Please give my respects to 
the Governor. 

Now, we will call Mr. Neustadt. 


The Chairman. Mr. Neustadt, will you please give us your full 
name for the record? 

Mr. Neustadt. Richard M. Neustadt, Regional Director of the 
Social Security Board, Federal Security Agency, and also Regional 
Defense Coordinator. 

The Chairman. How long have you been connected with the Social 
Security Board? 

Mr. Neustadt. Five years. 

The Chairman. And what is your territory? 

Mr. Neustadt. The States of California, Oregon, Washington, 
and Nevada, with offices in San Francisco. 

The Chairman. You cover a lot of territory. 

Mr. Neustadt. Unfortunately, yes, sir; a beautiful territory, 

The Chairman. Mr. Neustadt, while I am out here as a member 
of this congressional committee, we also have staffs of investigators 
in sections of Connecticut, New Jersey, and Maryland where the 
pressure as a result of this national- defense program is the greatest. 
We shall hold hearings within the next month in all those places, but 
our information is that San Diego may become one of the "hottest 
spots'' in the United States in regard to that matter, and that is why 
I am out here now. 

Now, as you know, this committee has been in existence over a year, 
and we have been all over the United States, looking into the general 
subject of interstate migration. The committee was continued by 
Congress because of the fact that migration has not decreased, but 
rather has increased, on account of the national-defense program, 
upon which we shall report to Congress in August. So that is what 
we are concerned with. 

Mr. Neustadt. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. W T e have your prepared statement, which will be 
made a part of the record. 

(The statement referred to appears below.) 


By Executive order of the President, the United States Employment Service 
was consolidated with the Bureau of Unemployment Compensation to become the 
Bureau of Employment Security of the Social Security Board in July 1939. 
This bureau, under the direction of the Board, was made responsible for the co- 
ordination of the unemployment compensation and employment service functions 
administered by the States under the terms of the Social Security and Wagner- 
Peyser Acts. 

One of the major responsibilities of the bureau, in cooperation with State 
agencies, is to prepare reports on national and local labor market conditions, par- 
ticularly as relating to the supply of workers and the demand for workers. Most 
of this material has been forwarded to the Office of Production Management in 


Washington, D. C. The reports show some of the major effects of the defense 
program on San Diego. 

Monthly data for the four major aircraft companies in San Diego show that 
aircraft employment has increased from approximately 15,000 in October 1940 
to approximately 20,000 in May 1941. The figures indicate no appreciable 
increase in aircraft employment since February 1941, approximately 19,000 
workers being employed in aircraft at that time. 


Last January the Bureau of Employment Security requested the California 
Department of Employment to conduct a labor market survey in the San Diego 
area. This report was completed on February 14, 1941. 

The report showed that aircraft manufacturers then employing 18,000 workers 
in San Diego expected to add 12,000 new employes before August 1941. A 
review of the employment office active files indicated that only 245 male applicants 
possessing bona fide skills for these openings were available. These data, together 
with other information on the supply Of workers, indicated a local shortage of 
more than 11,000 workers in the next 6 months. It was estimated that approxi- 
mately 10,000 workers would have to be brought into the community in order 
to meet aircraft industry demands alone. 

A review of training facilities in the vicinity of San Diego, including both public 
and private schools, indicated that a maximum of 3,500 local trainees could be 
made available to employers within the next 6 months. It was expected, however, 
that most of these trainees would have to be recruited outside of San Diego since 
the local trainee supply was apparently nearly exhausted. 


The report also stated that the San Diego aircraft companies expected to 
secure 50 percent of the 10,000 workers from the Middle West. Two major San 
Diego plants had agents in the Middle West attempting to secure workers at the 
time the report was compiled. 

It was also estimated that of the 10,000 workers to be brought into the com- 
munity, approximately 25 percent would be single men under 25 years of age. 
Most of those recruited would be between 30 and 40 years of age. Wage rates 
being offered by the aircraft companies at the time indicated that very few 
would earn as much as $40 a week. 

The most recent reports on demand and supply in the San Diego area as collected 
during the period from May 1 to May 15 and as supplemented by material obtained 
during the w r eek of June 2, indicated that four major San Diego aircraft plants now 
employing 20,000 workers expected to hire approximately 15,000 workers during 
the following 6-month period. Of these 15,000, approximately 1,000 would De 
hired during the first and second months, 6,000 during the third and fourth months, 
and 8,000 during the fifth and sixth months. Reports on anticipated hiring by 
defense employers in shipbuilding and metal industries indicate appreciable 
increases in hiring activities in these trades during the next 6 months. 

The reports for the two periods, February and May, indicate that the hiring 
schedule anticipated in February has not been maintained to the degree origirally 
expected. If the hiring schedules submitted in May are met, the demands will 
undoubtedly have to be satisfied by outside workers. 


Figures on the supply of workers in San Diego as reported by the department 
of employment on May 17, showed that very few of the present openings could 
be met by local supply. Trainees are now being secured from other localities. 
Employers report existing shortages in all skilled occupations. 

A report on defense labor migration in California was also prepared by the 
California department of employment in cooperation with the Social Security 
Board on Maj' 2, 1941. The report states that approximately 12,000 workers had 
come into San Diego County from the period from August 1940 to May 1941 to 
look for aircraft jobs. Approximately 8,000 of these workers had been hired and 
another 1,000 not yet at work had gone into pretraining classes. 

It was also estimated that construction work on military establishments, defense 
housing, new plant facilities, and other construction contracts had drawn another 
6,000 additional workers into the area since August 1940, of whom about 4,000 
found work. This influx of construction workers passed its peak in March and 


has now begun to decline. Construction workers who had migrated to the San 
Diego area were leaving the area in considerable numbers at the time the report 
was compiled. 

In addition to the 12,000 persons in search of aircraft employment and the 6,000 
construction workers who migrated to the area, approximately 4,500 white- 
collar workers also migrated to San Diego. 

It was estimated that of the above migrants to the San Diego area, about 80 
percent were men, the majority of whom were between 30 and 40 years of age. 
It was also estimated that 50 percent of the men were married, although half of 
this 50 percent probably left their families and came to San Diego alone. 


Between 15 and 20 percent of the incoming workers in search of aircraft jobs 
were believed to be professional skilled workers. The larger proportion of those 
seeking aircraft work, however, were semiskilled or unskilled workers, many of 
whom had little experience. It was also estimated that only about 20 percent of 
the aircraft workers coming into the San Diego area were from California. About 
1,500 aircraft workers came from eastern cities, and most of the remainder from 
the north-central States and the Middle West. About 500 Negro construction 
workers came from cities in the north-central States. The report states: 

"Rumors and newspaper accounts of defense activities have undoubtedly 
played an important part in sending workers into San Diego, particularly for 
construction work, but the relative inaccessibility of the city places it at a dis- 
advantage in competing with Los Angeles for freely migrating workers. Much 
heavier reliance has been placed on recruiting, and the two major aircraft plants 
have maintained personnel officers in Chicago and New York for the past several 
months. Both skilled metal trades workers and trainees have been extensively 
recruited, although not always hired, by these representatives. Arrangements 
have also been made to recruit workers through private preemployment training 
schools located in the north-central States. 

"The local shortage of housing has forced unsuccessful job seekers to move 
out of the city almost immediately. The presence of out-of-town trainees in 
preemployment courses, without adequate means of subsistence, has raised serious 
local problems. 

"The influx of workers has raised more serious social problems in San Diego 
than in either Los Angeles or the San Francisco Bay area, but the rapid out- 
flow of unsuccessful job seekers has eased the burden somewhat." 


Neither the Bureau of Employment Security nor the California Department 
of Employment has attempted to estimate the net increase in population in San 
Diego since the inception of the defense program. However, a report from the 
San Diego Chamber of Commerce, which seems reasonably accurate, indicates 
a net increase of 57,000 persons since April 1940. On this basis, the present 
population of the city would be approximately 260,000 persons as compared with 
the 203,000 enumerated in the April 1940 census. 

The San Diego Chamber of Commerce also estimates that another 52,000 per- 
sons, as based on anticipated hiring schedules and expected migration, will be 
added to the present population by the spring of 1942. The above figure may 
be slightly low. It would be reasonable to assume that if anticipated labor needs 
are met the population of San Diego may equal from 312,000 to 322,000 in the 
spring of 1942. 

In other words, the problems created by an influx of new workers and persons 
searching for work in San Diego will become increasingly pressing during the 
coming year. 


As part of its responsibility for meeting this situation, the Bureau of Employ- 
ment Security has established 13 major interstate clearance offices throughout 
the county. These clearance offices, working in cooperation with the States and 
their 3,500 local employment offices and itinerant stations, are attempting to pro- 
vide for the orderly clearance of workers to areas which need them, and to prevent 
needless, unnecessary, and wasteful migration. 

The bureau has attempted to accomplish these objectives by requesting em- 
ployers to utilize the local labor supply prior to attempts to recruit workers from 
outside areas. In cases where outside recruiting has been necessary, the bureau 


has requested employers to utilize the employment service. If this procedure is 
followed, every attempt is made to secure workers in the immediate vicinity of 
the job. 

At the same time, the bureau has advised job applicants against migration to 
other areas in search of work. By the use of the clearance system, workers can 
be advised when and where job opportunities exist. 

In Mr. Knudsen's letter of February 27, addressed to employers holding defense 
contracts, the desirability of recruiting workers through local State-operated 
employment offices was reemphasized. It was further pointed out that employers 
should utilize the local labor supply through the medium of their local public 
employment offices, thereby eliminating labor scouting, Nation-wide advertising, 
and needless duplication of existing recruitment and placement facilities. Also, 
by fully using the local labor supply, unnecessary migration of labor, high rates 
of labor turnover, and other inefficient practices could be reduced to a minimum. 

To what extent this has been accomplished in the San Diego area is question- 
able. It is understood that one of the largest local defense employers has been 
recruiting workers in eastern States for several months. To my knowledge, 
only two orders for San Diego defense employers have been put into intrastate 
or interstate clearance within the last several months. One order is for an un- 
limited number of toolmakers, and the other is for 1,000 aircraft trainees for train- 
ing in San Diego national-defense vocational schools. It has been requested that 
this order for trainees be distributed to the States in Social Security Board Regions 
XI and XII, and New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Texas. 


The question naturally arises as to what will happen to the defense migrants 
as well as the national economy after the emergency. In this respect, it is inter- 
esting to note that many of the leading economists in this country and in Great 
Britain have recommended the use of "forced saving" to prevent inflation during 
the present period and to provide a cushion against deflation following the emer- 
gency. One of the best methods of saving which would at the same time achieve 
a worth-while social objective would be the extension of coverage under the 
Social Security Act. 

At present nearly half the workers in the country are not employed under full- 
time coverage of the old-age insurance system. Nearly as many are not covered 
under the State unemployment compensation systems. The reason that these 
groups have been excluded from coverage was that at the inception of the Social 
Security Act, it was believed the administrative problems relating to coverage of 
agricultural workers, domestic servants, maritime workers, and other excluded 
groups, would be too great. However, we have now had 6 years of experience in 
the administration of the Social Security Act, and it would appear that the 
problems originally envisioned can be solved. The President of the United States 
and the Social Security Advisory Council have repeatedly recommended that the 
excluded groups be covered. Savings now would provide a cushion for the shock 
following an emergency period. 

An examination of the condition of the unemployment trust fund in California 
at present reveals that approximately $175,000,000 are now available for benefits. 
Estimates of the California department indicate that approximately $78,000,000 
will be received in contributions this year, and that $62,000,000 will be paid out 
in benefits. This means that the California unemployment insurance fund will 
equal approximately $185,000,000 by January 1, 1942. It should be noted in 
this regard that approximately $1,380,000 as estimated by the California Depart- 
ment of Employment will not be collected in California this year because of 
experience rating provisions. A greater reduction in contributions can be expected 
because of experience rating in subsequent years. 

By extending the coverage under the unemployment compensation system in 
California at this time we could not only provide present protection for the large 
number of workers who are in industrialized agriculture and other fields, but also 
could provide broader reserves that could be used for the protection of all workers 
to face whatever additional hazards may be brought about by the cessation of 
the defense emergency. For this we will have to look to the Congress for leader- 
ship rather than to the State. 

It is my understanding that the Social Security Board has made recommenda- 
tions to the President, not only on the extension of coverage of the present law, 
but also with respect to extending the device of social insurance to other hazards 
as well as those of old age and unemployment. These will be brought to the 
attention of the Congress by the President. Pending such submission it would 
not be proper for me to discuss them. 



Anticipated hirings for next 6 months by major aircraft plants in California as 
reported May 15, 1941 l 

Present em- 



First and 

Third and 

Fifth and 



18, 900 


8, 245 



Source: Department of Employment, California. Smaller plants not included. 

(As supplementary material, the following: tabulation was obtained 
from the office of the National Youth Administration for California, 
San Diego, Calif., and was entered as a part of the record.) 

Source of National Youth Administration youth workers, July 1940 to June 1941 

(Total, 1,369; 746 male and 623f emale] 











Camp Verde 





Holbrook — 





















Lake City... 


Little Rock.. 















Chula Vista . 



California— Continued 





El Cajon 

El Centro 



Escondido.. _. 




Glenn County 











La Mesa 

Long Beach 

Los Angeles 


Mesa Grande 

National City 







Palm City 







San Bernardino 

San Diego 

San Francisco 

San Jose 

San Pedro 

San Ysidro 

Santa Ana 

Santa Barbara 

Santa Clara 

Santa Maria. 

Santa Rosa 






Male Female Total 



Source of National Youth Administration youth workers, July 1940 to June 1941- 





- Total 





















College Springs 

Cedar Rapids 



Loveland... _ _. ... 


Farnham ville 


Rocky Ford 


San Luis 













Promise City 

South Manchester... 




























Georgia: Savannah 

Kansas City 




Coeur d'Alene 





Indian Valley 










Kentucky: Louisville 




























North Anson... 






Maryland: Park Mills... 



















Total.. . 









Source of National Youth Administration youth workers, July 1940 to June 1941- 







Female Total 


Bay City 


Nebraska— Continued. 








Nevada: Calienta 

New Hampshire: Mel- 










New Jersey: 




Blooming Prairie 








New Mexico: 


Minnesota Lake 







New William . 



St. Paul 



Zumbro Falls_ 





Silver City 

Mississippi: McComb.. 


















New York: 








Jefferson City 



Kansas Citv 


New York City 



Nevada ... 


St. Catherine 

St. Charles 


St. Joseph 




North Carolina: 

Connelly Springs 












North Dakota: 

la - 












Ranch Creek 



























Ash ton 



Broken Bow . 




South Viamaid 




North Platte 





Randolph ! 



Source of National Youth Administration youth workers, July 1940 to June 1941- 


















Olive Hill... 


Total - 















Corpus Christi 



El Paso 

Fort Worth. 





Oklahoma City 


Pilot Point 

Port Arthur 








Wills Point .. 



















Salt Lake City 

Soldier Summit 


















West Barrington 









South Carolina: Law- 





South Dakota: 










Rapid City 

Port Orchard. 












Source of A T ational Youth Administration youth workers, July 1940 to June 1941- 









West Virginia: 





Wyoming— Continued 












































Canal Zone: Colon 
Hawaii: Honolulu. 
Virgin Islands 








Chatam, Ontario 

London, Ontario 

Prince Albert, Sas- 

England: London 






Nicaragua: Corinto 

SantoDomingo: Santiago. 




Vancouver, British 









The Chairman. Now, let us take this matter up formally, because 
I would like to get your views on some matters. What about these 
trainees coming in here, in the schools? You heard Dr. Crawford's 

Mr. Neustadt. Yes. 


The Chairman. Because of the fact that the present supply of 
trainees will soon be exhausted, so far as San Diego is concerned, this 
question occurs to me: When the trainees come in here, do they get 
any money? 

Mr. Neustadt. No, sir; they do not at the present time. If you 
wish me to expand that picture a bit, perhaps I can. 


The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Neustadt. The paper plan of organization calls for the em- 
ployment service, the State department of employment, to act as the 
official aid to industry. That agency will get data on future plans for 
expansion, and employment needs would then be cleared through that 
agency. The employment service goes to the school department and 
tells them what kind of courses they will need, and the number of 
boys to be trained. The schools train them, and the employment 
service then has the reports and places them for work. 

I say, that is the paper plan, and it is pretty good, it works pretty 
well. However, there are two missing links. In the first place, in- 
dustry — I am saying this without criticism — has not been able under 
the emergency conditions to predict with any great accuracy how 
many people it is going to need, so it has had the difficulty here in 
San Diego of bringing boys in and having them trained. And if de- 
fense industry is not ready to take them at once, the boys have no 
work, so they drift away, probably to other jobs. Secondly, the 
employers, in spite of the fact thev are desirous of having the men 
trained locally, have gone into the Middle West or gone back to the 
East and taken men trained in those sections through various agencies. 


That is a problem that needs consideration. It should be possible 
to rearrange the contracts with the O. P. M. so that the people could 
bring the boys here specifically with jobs in mind. They should 
interview them carefully and, through the clearance system of the 
United States Employment Service, decide that these are the boys 
they want, then bring them to San Diego on a subsistence plan — and 
when I am speaking of "boys" I mean all those up to 30 years of age — 
and let them be trained while they are earning at least a subsistence, 
living in barracks or dormitories. 

The Chairman. In other words, we need a little better clearing 

Mr. Neustadt. Very much, and a little better planning all the way 
down the line. 

"grapevine" still at work 

The Chairman. Let me ask you, Mr. Neustadt: How do these 
boys know where to go? 

Mr. Neustadt. Well, there again I have to go back to the paper 
plan. The clearance system is working pretty well, but you can't 
stop the "grapevine," and you can't stop people from coming because 
they learn others are getting jobs. The industries are endeavoring 
to cut down on their advertising and their recruiting back east, but 
they have not cut down 100 percent, they still send" east to bring a 
few people out, those few bring other people, and you get a migration 
of people who are not going to get jobs when they get here. 

It is infinitely better than it used to be, but not as good as it should 
be. If we could work out a system under which the confidence be- 
tween the worker and the employment office was such that the worker 
would go to the local office, confident of finding out whether there is a 
job in San Diego before he comes out, we would have a pretty well 
ordered society. We are working toward it. There has been a great 


improvement. I went through the employment service in the last 
war, and the present plan is much better. 

But out here in San Diego you have a melting pot in a very small 
container, and the fire is pretty hot, and it is boiling over. That is 

The Chairman. Our original investigation, in which we visited 
many States during the past session of Congress, indicated a woeful 
lack of information among people who were going to move from State 
to State. They started out from their home States, many of them 
never having been away from home. First they ran to some private 
employment agency and were promised jobs at one thing or another. 
But when they reached their destinations, they found there weren't 
any such jobs. 

Mr. Neustadt. That is being improved upon, but it isn't nearly 
perfect yet. 


In this year California, I think, is in much better shape. In other 
words, they have better relations with Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Texas 
employment services. But still there is a lot of loose migration both 
ways and, as you know, there are labor shortages beginning in the 
agricultural fields of the Northwest. 

Recently, we had a very interesting exchange of information be- 
tween the employment departments of these western States, which 
actually made it possible for the employment agency of California to 
arrange for 4,000 families to go into Oregon to pick the crops there, 
and they will be returned at the end of the season, back to their homes. 
That can be done. 

The Chairman. In other words, where a year ago several States 
were trying to keep the migrant workers out, now you are trying to 
get them in. 

Mr. Neustadt. Yes. It is either a feast or a famine, and right now 
it is a famine, in some instances. In California I understand that 
agriculture will have enough workers this year, but next year there 
will be a shortage. Now there is needed a clearance agency, so that 
the workers can go where the employment is, and find out about con- 
ditions where they want to go. 

The workers come in for the defense industries from the agricultural 
States back east, or from what I understand was called the Middle 
West, the southern tier of States. They want work. If they can get 
work in the relatively high-wage industries, they would like it. Other- 
wise, they will go to the farms. They are farm boys, most of them, 
and if we can bring them out when they are needed, and where they 
are needed, we will have something sensible. 


Now, on the question of paying them while they are training, there 
is much to be said. Recently it was estimated by the aircraft industry 
that approximately 10,000 workers would have to be brought into the 
community m order to meet their demands, and that they will want 
them within 6 months. Some of the big companies have advertised 
in the newspapers to that effect. Now those boys come out to San 
Diego or Los Angeles, to be trained in the schools for 6 to 8 weeks. 


They offer them no guaranty of employment, and how those men can 
come and take care of themselves for 6 to 8 weeks is a great question. 
I doubt whether that is the rational way of doing things. 

The Chairman. Well, I have lived with this problem for about a 
year, and I don't know everything about it yet. 

But with reference to giving information to these people who are 
intending to move or who contemplate moving, no matter what 
information is given at home, they will take the road, because there 
comes a time, on account of circumstances over which they will have 
no control, when they are not going to sit still and starve. But if, 
for instance, at the border of California or Arizona or Texas on the 
main highways, we had some Government agency or overnight camp 
for them, where a man could get quarters and could be put up for 
the night, and where he could get the information that the Federal 
Government has with respect to employment in the various States, 
that might be a fine thing. 

Mr. Neustadt. No doubt about that. 

The Chairman. You see, this has an important bearing on the 
morale of those people. 


Mr. Neustadt. You would be interested to learn that, as a result 
of your committee's previous hearings in California, the California 
State Department of Employment is putting up large white sign- 
boards on the highways directing the people to the local employment 

The Chairman. That is a fine movement. 

Mr. Neustadt. It is a common sense thing that can be done. 
Then they are working in all the camps of the Farm Security Adminis- 
tration. I think under this present emergency we ought to adopt 
the same devices and have some camps for nonfarm people who arrive 
at our borders. 

The Chairman. Our figures show that the industrial migration is 
in excess of farm migration. 

Mr. Neustadt. I think so, sir, and I think it is the same kind of 
migration — people looking for work — and if they can't get work in 
the industry where they think there is high pay, they will go into 
agricultural labor. 

The Chairman. Millions of those people have taken to the road. 
They are good American citizens. Many of them have lived on farms 
all their lives. Treating them the way they have been treated in 
the past just strikes at the morale of this country, and whatever does 
that, strikes at our national defense. 

Mr. Neustadt. Absolutely. As a matter of fact, we are encourag- 
ing the farm boys to go into the aircraft industry. We are actually 
preaching to them to do their bit. If we treat them the way you 
speak of, we are breaking down their morale, and the civilian morale 
is as important as military morale. 


The Chairman. Another matter we are deeply concerned with is 
the aftermath of this emergency. To me — I am not speaking for the 
committee now, I am just expressing my own opinion — this is of as 


great importance as our present emergency in national defense, and 
probably greater. Now, what cushions can be employed after the 
war nobody knows. We are going to investigate and go into it thor- 
oughly everywhere we go, as thoroughly as we can. Something was 
said yesterday about compulsory unemployment insurance for these 

Mr. Neustadt. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now, would you tell us your idea about that? 

Mr. Neustadt. Of course, you are familiar with the Social Security 
Act and the unemployment compensation plan. In this State the 
provisions, the benefits, are fairly liberal. A man can get as much 
as $18 a week for 20 weeks. He has to earn $300 during the year to 
be eligible. 

The Chairman. For how long does that continue? Just 1 year — 
that unemployment compensation? 

Air. Neustadt. Yes. The benefit is based on each year of work, 
and in 1 year, if he has earned $300, he can get the maximum. It is a 
wage-loss insurance. 

The Chairman. Yes. 


Mr. Neustadt. That scheme could be and should be extended in 
its coverage. Now, it covers workers in industry, not in agricultural 
fields. Unfortunately, Congress took out of the national act the 
agricultural workers, in both old-age and unemployment insurance, 
and the States are trying to follow that trend. The reverse should 
be the case, for that at least is a minimum protection. 

Then I have been personally interested here — I am speaking per- 
sonally now 

The Chairman. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Neustadt. Over and above the minimum protection of 
unemployment compensation, I should think in an emergency of this 
kind we could work out a dismissal-wage plan, whereby the industry, 
as a part of its proper charge, would pay the man not only his regular 
wages, but also build up for him a dismissal wage that might carry 
him for quite a number of months. That has been done in this coun- 
try. It is known as a perfectly sound scheme, and it has been brought 
out, as you know, dramatically, by some unions and employers, in 
such cases as the railroads. 

You will recall when the Southern Pacific wanted to discontinue 
their ferries from the bay of San Francisco, an award was made in 
which they had to pay the workers 5 years' pay. That was for long- 
time employment, and they wanted the 5 years' pay— dismissal pay — 
as a reward for long service. 

It seems to me, as the boys are coming here to work for Consolidated 
Aircraft for 3 to 5 years, and then as the war or defense condition 
drops off and they are let out, it would be a perfectly proper charge on 
industry that over and above their unemployment compensation, the 
employees would be entitled to a dismissal wage, based on the length 
of their service. 

charge to production 

The Chairman. Where would that come from — Consolidated? 
Mr. Neustadt. As a cost of production that is mingled with the 
employment. It is all the same thing. It would seem that cost of 


production would properly be chargeable with that item. That is 
just my personal thought about it. 

The Chairman. I understand. You are not speaking for the 

Mr. Netjstadt. No; not on that. 

The Chairman. I think that is most interesting. 

Mr. Netjstadt. You will find many precedents. If you are going 
into Connecticut, you will find one at Hartford. It is better than 
attempting to make a special classification of unemployment, because 
if you attempted that governmentally, you would have to differen- 
tiate between the boys that are working for defense industries and the 
boys that are not working for them, and then you get into certain 
differences, both social and municipal. Why should a family that 
went to another State get a benefit which the family that stayed in 
the State does not? Instead of making the State the one responsible 
for that, why not the industry? 

The Chairman. Why haven't the companies followed that up, 
do you know? 

Mr. Netjstadt. No. I couldn't enumerate all the human reasons. 
I don't think there is just one reason. 

The Chairman. How long has that system been used, in the in- 
stance you mention? 

Mr. Netjstadt. That is just an instance where a company shut 
down, and by agreement with the workers, paid them a dismissal wage 
of 1 year's pay. 


The Chairman. You are firmly convinced, are you not, Mr. 
Neustadt, that some scheme is necessary to soften the impact after 
the war is over, especially in view of the fact that many of these work- 
ers were unemployed and are now getting a good wage? 

Mr. Neustadt. Yes, sir; it is always the same thing, Mr. Chair- 
man. What most of the people want is work, and if we can provide 
any plan of public works to be used in case of a sudden cessation, fine. 
That is the first thing we should do, provide work, and no scheme of 
relief or half relief. 

If we can't provide work, then we can get into our original program, 
and I would suggest that would be based on our present plan of social 
security, extended. Your committee recommended last year that the 
Federal Government go in and share with the States the cost of gen- 
eral relief. That obviously would be a necessary thing and a wise 
thing to do. The unemployment compensation coverage could be 
obtained. The old-age insurance coverage could be obtained. We 
possibly could get disability compensation, so that if the man is hurt, 
he could get benefits. They are not all-inclusive, but they are basic 
movements on which we should build. 

The Chairman. If something like that isn't done, we are going to 
have millions of American citizens who will be Stateless and homeless? 

Mr. Neustadt. That is right, and through no fault of their own. 
Here, they come to San Diego, hoping to find work and to help in a 
national emergency. That is a pretty poor reward to give them at 
the end. 

Main defense housing project in the San Diego area is Kearney Mesa, shown above. Eventually to ac- 
commodate 3,000 workers and their families, or a total of 10.000 people, this prefabricated city is being 
built at the average rate of one house every fifteen minutes. 

The above photograph and those on following pages, portraying 
conditions in San Diego as the result of the national defense program, 
have been selected from a group of pictures entered as a part of the 
record of the San Diego hearing. They were obtained from the Farm 
Security Administration and other sources. 

C0396— Part 12 

Couple are shown telling their story to the Committee. (See p. 4860.) 

(i children, arrived 
Later he got work in a flour mill. 

•nted for $lL\f>0, hi 'fore defense; now $:i.s. 

Wages $13", a month, rent $72. Otis Porter, an Oklahoman now working in San Diego's aircraft industry 
Hv.-s wit h iiis wife and six children (shown above) in a one-room cabin, for which he pays half hisearnings 
f (For his testimony before the Committee, see p. 4839. i 

Within a year, rent on this San Diego house went from $20 to $40. 

Crowded schools are a problem defense migration has brought to San Diego. In a school now operating 
on two shifts, this class has to study in the cafeteria. 

'Wholesome entertainment" was one of the needs stressed by San Diego civic leadei 
hearing. This is one of many street scenes in recent months, telling the same story 

Trailers at $7 a week haw hern ma>i<- available to San Dingo defense workers by the Farm Security Ad- 
ministration. A family of four is maximum in the trailer camp. 

Old trolley cars have been converted into houses, renting at $30. 

Inside an FSA trailer. Bath, toilet, and laundry facilities, included in the rent, are in one large building 

leofthe FSA 's 500 trailers al San Diego. Before the camp opened, this defense 

worker was driving si miles a da\ . to and from work. 

<#£&*■ . I \ 

Migrant workers had to become accustomed to quarters like these before emergency housing was under» 
taken. This scene, in San Diego, can be duplicated in many other defense centers. 



B" * ■*'**' 

% 1 i ."Z-v ~- 

More of San Diego's 3,000 substandard dwellings. 

Where the NY A trainees live. The housing problem has limited expansion of the vocational program in 
San Diego. Here, in a cabin with space for two beds, four men arc housed. 

V 11 m j ##?) 

for national defense work, cheeking in their tools at the San Diego school. 

Scene at San Diego Vocational School for aircraft workers. With Federal help, four public schools have 
turned out nearly 7,t)00 trained men, but the local supply is now giving out, and not many immigrants 
can afford to put in a month without pay. 

This child was more fortunate than many other sick persons in San Diego, having been assigned a bed in 
one of the hospitals. Tuberculosis cases show an increase of 25 to 3d percent this year, and the need for 
more facilities is urgent. 

This patient was not as lucky. 



Miss Bauer. From the point of view of California's future welfare, 
Mr. Neustadt, do you think there is much choice at the present time 
between bringing in more people, encouraging more migration into 
the State, and training the local surplus agricultural labor supply for 
work in defense industries? If there is such a choice, obviously it 
would affect all policies in regulating and training them. 

Mr. Neustadt. I admit I have done a lot of sparring around with 
the various plans, and I don't know that our present plan is the perfect 
plan. Also, I don't believe we can say that there is going to be an 
agricultural shortage in 2 years, or that there will be a surplus of 
labor. It is certainly true that those agricultural workers who came 
in here from other States — from Oklahoma and Arkansas — are in 
many instances becoming fine California citizens, and I think that 
lesson has been learned pretty well by the Californians, so that they 
are no longer so fearful about a migration. But a migration that is 
not controlled or directed is dangerous. Those who wander help- 
lessly constitute a social drain upon our community. If we can now 
learn from the bitter lesson of experience and place these people 
through proper employment services, with proper social welfare pro- 
tection around them, with decent bousing provided and training for 
their needs, I see no reason for not thinking that they would be a fine 
impetus for future California growth, and one which the chambers 
of commerce would welcome. 


Now, may I also offer this, in connection with the Lanham bill, 
while we don't know the exact terms of the administration of the bill, 
as we see by the front page of the papers the Senate today passed the 
bill. Now, representing Government interests and working with the 
representatives of the Public Works Agency, we have gathered figures 
from all these hearings, and they are being studied and analyzed, so 
as soon as the bill is definitely passed, we hope to get the schools under 
way, as far as the money will stretch. The money will have to stretch 
pretty much. 

You asked Dr. Crawford about the schools here, and I have the 
same figures. They are being analyzed. But there would be one new 
subject there, in that the Lanham Act covers access roads. That item 
was estimated at $20,000,000, or something like that. Now, there is 
another bill going through Congress for road construction. Whether 
that is highwavs or access roads, I don't know, but in that bill the 
request is for $7,000,000, so there would be the $7,000,000 request 
outside of that. Obviously, $150^000,000 will not cover the needs. 

COAST CITIES NEED $50,000,000 

The Chairman. Have you any idea what the sum total is that the 
California cities are asking? 

Mr. Neustadt. Somewhere around $50,000,000. 

The Chairman. About one-third from here? 

Mr. Neustadt. Yes. San Diego and Vallejo will be the places 
where most will be needed, and both are being called Federal com- 

6039&— 41— pt. 12 10 


You asked Mr. Gardner certain questions about the State Defense 
Council, and I wonder if it might not be well to clear that up a little 
for the record. We will work through the State Defense Council on 
our phases of the problems, and they, in turn, we hope, will get the 
local communities to work in a group, organized. The problem of 
fixing responsibilities is a delicate one. Certainly, all the services or 
activities that have gone into the defense program involve volunteers 
and nongovernmental schemes. We will need local citizen leadership, 
and that is where the local State defense council will be helpful, and 
we will use them. 


Miss Bauer. I have one further question. As coordinator of some 
of these welfare problems in the defense program, have you considered 
what efforts might be made to absorb all these new people doing vital 
work into the normal community life of the cities? For instance, 
take this new project out at Kearney Mesa, with the 10,000 people 
•there. We have already heard much about the need for schools and 
other facilities. That is, obviously, the first step. But isn't this 
likely to be a town which will be pretty much a Federal island, unless 
a very specific attempt is made to bring these people into the ordinary 
settled community life of San Diego? 

Mr. Neustadt. I feel two ways about that. Looking at it just 
from a matter of principle, I think that is obviously true. And yet, 
with the conditions as they are, I realize the dangers that come from 
an artificial attempt to bridge that gap. If you are familiar with 
the little town of Santa Rita, near Salinas, where the people from 
Arkansas and Oklahoma were 3 years ago, you can see what I mean. 
They have now become a part of the community; they are no longer 
distinct from other residents in the little California village. They 
are a part of it, socially and otherwise. Now, any attempt to do 
that arbitrarily is fraught with dangers. They are all normal Amer- 
ican citizens, and I think Kearney Mesa will be a normal American 
community, and it will play ball with San Diego, or vice versa. 

Does that answer your question? 

Miss Bauer. Yes. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. You have given us a very 
valuable contribution to the record, and I appreciate it. 


The Chairmen. Mr. Abbott will now be permitted to introduce 
certain statements and papers which have been submitted by wit- 
nesses, to be made a part of the record. 

Mr. Abbott. Mr. Chairman, I offer for the record the prepared 
statement of Mr. Walter W. Cooper, city manager of San Diego, a 
witness before the committee (see p. 4824) and also supplementary 
data submitted by Mr. Cooper (see p. 4827). 

I also wish to introduce into the record the following: 

Statement of Mr. Walter Bellon, chairman of the San Diego County 
Board of Supervisors. (See p. 4841.) 

Statement presented by Maj. Edgar N. Gott, vice president, Con- 
solidated Aircraft Corporation, San Diego, Calif. (See p. 4844.) 

Statement of Mr. Kay Mathewson, manager, San Diego office, 
department of emplovment, California Employment Commission. 
{See p. 4863.) 


Statement and exhibits submitted by Commander H. S. Bear, rep- 
resenting Admiral C. A. Blakely, commandant of the Eleventh Naval 
District. (See p. 4871.) 

Statement submitted by Lt. Max I. Black, chairman of the local 
defense housing committee of San Diego, with certain supporting 
material. (See p. 4878.) 

Statement and certain exhibits submitted by Dr. Alex M. Lesem, 
director of public health, San Diego, Calif. (See p. 4896.) 

Statement and exhibits offered by Air. Julius H. Rainwater, director 
of San Diego County Board of Public Welfare. (See p. 4912.) 

Statement of Air. Raymond Wayman, representing the town of 
Fallbrook, Calif. (See p. 4927.) 

Statement submitted by Dr. Will C. Crawford, superintendent of 
schools of the city of San Diego. (See p. 4931.) 

Statement by Mr. Howard Gardner, assistant secretary to the 
League of California Cities, member of the State defense council, and 
representing Governor Olson. (See p. 4944.) 

Statement and supplementary information submitted by Mr. 
Richard M. Neustadt, regional coordinator, Federal Security Agency, 
San Francisco. (See p. 4947.) 


Mr. Abbott. I should like now to introduce a series of exhibits into 
the record. As exhibit 1 I wish to introduce the report of a survey 
of rent increases of relief clients, prepared and submitted by the San 
Diego office of the California State Relief Association. 

Exhibit 1. — Report on Survey of Rent Increases of Relief Clients 
By California State Relief Administration, San Diego Office 

Attached are two charts showing the results of a survey of rents paid by persons 
receiving State relief administration relief in San Diego County as of May 1, 1941. 
This survey was made as the result of the acute housing situation which has 
caused numerous complaints from clients stating that they are unable to live on 
the amount of aid we are giving them due to the fact that it is necessary for them 
to use some of their food money to pay excess rent. 

In the study it was found that those who are paying a large amount of excess 
rent are becoming delinquent in payment of part of their rent or that they are new 
cases who have not been on relief a month to pa\ r a full month's rent. 

Chart I shows the break-down of rent: more, less, or equal to State relief admin- 
istration allowance or why no rent is paid. In analyzing this chart we find the 


1. Total families paying rent 475 84.7 

A. Families paying rent equal to State relief administration 

allowance 55 11.6 

B. Families paying rent less than State relief administration 

allowance 150 31.7 

C. Families paying rent more than State relief administra- 

tion allowance 270 56. 7 

2. Total families not paving rent due to owning or buving home or 

free rent 1 86 15. 3 

This chart also indicates that the most serious rent problems is in the small 
family group, consisting of 1, 2, and 3 in the family. We, therefore, made Chart 
II which is a break-down of the amount of excess rent paid by this group. This 
chart also shows the total excess paid by families of 1, 2, and 3, and the average. 


Chabt I 

Families paying rent 

Rent equal to 
State relief 






Rent less than 

State relief 
rent allowance 




Rent more than 
Less than State relief 
State administration 
relief rent allowance 

adminis- . 

allowance \*- it u 
because « , th 
prorated »«J 



Families not paying rent 










































Chart II 


Number in 

$0. 50 































3 - 

Number in family 

$8. 50 




$10. 50 



) $13. 50 

$14. 50 













t.246. 80 

12i). 00 





Number in 








































Number in 




























$388. 00 





Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 2, I offer a report entitled " Federal Aid 
for School Housing," submitted by Mr. Fred M. Tonge, superinten- 
dent of the National City school district, National City, Calif. 

Exhibit 2. — Federal Aid for School Housing 

Bv Fred M. Tonge, superintendent National City school district, National City, 


I. 1940-41 SCHOOL YEAR 

School enrollment for 1940-41 school year has increased 20 percent (or approxi- 
mately 225 students) over the 1939-40 school year. 

(a) Our normal increase about 7 percent a year. 

(b) Rough survey seems to indicate that approximately 80 percent of this 
year's increase is due to — 

1. People moving in to engage in defense work. 

2. Additional Army and Navy families moving into the district. 

II. 1941-42 SCHOOL YEAR 

As to next year, the following statements would indicate that we will have 
equally as large a percentage of increase as this year, which will mean some 300 
to 350 additional children. 

1. Consolidated Aircraft intends to double their working force by fall (from 
15,000 to 35,000). This will naturally be reflected in the population in National 
City as National City is closer to Consolidated than many parts of San Diego. 

2. Rohr Aircraft at Chula Vista intends to increase their staff and we have 
already enrolled in our schools a large number of children whose fathers are 
working at Rohr. 

3. Naval expansion: 

(a) A naval housing unit on our bay front, which already has 60 to 100 units 
in National City and we are informed there will be 2 or 3 times that many more 
before the project is completed. 

(6) A submarine base is nearing completion on the National City Bay front. 
This will mean additional naval personnel who will live in National City. 

(c) Enlargement of the destroyer base, part of which is in National City and 
the balance adjacent to National City on the north. 

(d) The construction of a graving dock at the destroyer base immediately 
adjacent to National City. We may expect many men engaged in this con- 
struction to live in National City. 

(e) The construction of a seaplane basin on the water adjacent to National 

(/) Vastly increased Navy personnel throughout the entire San Diego Bay 
area. National City has always housed large numbers of Navy personnel due to 
cheap rents. 


We believe our increase is permanent for the duration of the defense program 
for the following reasons: 

1. As has been before stated. National City is closer to Consolidated Aircraft 
Co. than many parts of San Diego such as east San Diego, Kensington Park, 
Encanto, etc. For that reason Consolidated employees will continue to live in 
National City. 

2. The destroyer base is partially in National City and partially in the extreme 
south end of San Diego adjacent to National City. 

3. Rents in National City have always been and still are cheaper than in San 


National City has the lowest assessed valuation per child enrolled of any class A 
school in San Diego County and is one of the lowest 10 in California. Ten years 
ago our assessed valuation per child was $3,600. This year it is $2,100. 

It is evident from the above that the National City school district has a diffi- 
cult time to carry on an adequate program of instruction under normal conditions, 
and that the tremendous increase of this year is making it difficult to carry on any 
type of program. We have used the maximum tax rate or near the maximum tax 
rate for vears. 


It is also evident from the above that the district is not only in no way capable 
of furnishing funds for further housing needs, but will be in desperate straits 
next year to carry on even a minimum program of instruction if the predicted 
increase is actually reached. 

While it is true we have a balance in our bonding capacity of some $90,000 on 
our present assessed valuation, our present high over-all tax rate ($6.04) would 
make it impossible to vote further bonds in this district. Some 2 years ago a 
high-school-bond issue was turned down and a sampling of opinion in the com- 
munity shows that a bond issue at this time would not pass. 

Not only does the district need aid in building, it also needs aid in its instruc- 
tional program. 


As we are carrying maximum loads in nearly all of our classes at the present 
time (35 to 40 in primary grades and 40 to 50 in the intermediate grades), it will 
be impossible to take care of any increase in enrollment by increasing class sizes. 
Also, there are but three vacant classrooms in the whole district at the present 
time, so that any added classes must be housed in added facilities. The following 
are the proposed increases: 

Highland Avenue School. — The board has a plan prepared and approved for 
the addition of four rooms and an assembly hall-cafeteria at this school. This 
building had the approval of the Work Projects Administration but the project 
was never opened due to lack of skilled labor on the Work Projects Administra- 
tion. The Highland Avenue district is the fastest growing district in National 
City and has much vacant land for further growth. It would be my suggestion 
that the plan already adopted for this school be used with the addition of two 
classrooms, making a total of six classrooms and assembly hall-cafeteria. 

West Eighteenth Street School. — The addition of 4 classrooms on our new West 
Eighteenth Street School which is just being completed under Work Projects 
Administration. This building has 10 classrooms, a kindergarten classroom, and 
assembly hall-cafeteria. A recent survey of the district in order to determine 
boundary lines for the new school showed that Ave would open the school in 
September 1941 with all 10 rooms full, carrying an average load of 40 children 
per room. The 4 classrooms at this plant could be added as follows: 

1. Two rooms to the east of the assembly hall-cafeteria wing. 

2. One room extending east from classroom No. 3. 

3. One room extending east from classroom No. 8. 

Central School. — Central School is located in the most thickly populated area 
of the town and at present is taking care of all the fifth- and sixth-grade classes 
in the district. There are 25 classrooms in the plant and 3 other classrooms used 
for the following purposes: 

1 . One room with capacity of 25 to 30 students being used to house our special 
reading teacher and her reading clinic work. 

2. A room with a capacity of 40 to 45 students being used as a stockroom for 
school supplies. This because we have no other place for the stockroom. 

3. A room capable of housing 40 to 45 students being used as a maintenance 
workshop because we have no other place in which to house a workshop. 

Our proposal for this school would be to have an administration, warehouse, 
workshop building built. This would release for use the three classrooms at 
Central School and could, I believe, be built cheaper than three classrooms as the 
present plant does not adapt itself to addition of rooms at a reasonable figure. 

The combination assembly hall-cafeteria at Central was built some 30 years ago 
to serve a high-school population of some 150 to 200 students. It can readily be 
seen from this that it is entirely inadequate for our present needs. It is impossible 
to seat more than one of the upper grade classes at an assembly at the present time. 
Should the Federal Government see fit to build us an auditorium the present audi- 
torium could be used for extension of our elementary instructional program, for 
inside cafeteria seating during rainy weather, and for additional community recre- 
ational needs. I might also mention that because of its central location the new 
auditorium at Central could well serve the community as a much needed com- 
munity center. 

Lincoln Acres School. — In a semirapidly growing part of the community but 
with a vast amount of vacant land on which houses will go up when the other 
areas in town are filled. This school has one vacant classroom in a newly con- 
structed addition and two classrooms in an old wooden bungalow which we had 
hoped to condemn but haven't, due to school increases. For an addition to this 
plant I would suggest a two- to four-room addition to the present set-up which 


can be easily accomplished as the recently completed addition was planned with 
that in mind. This school is also badly in need of a cafeteria-assembly hall 
combination as the present cafeteria hall is housed in another ancient wooden, 

Equipment. — The addition of the above-mentioned school housing units would 
call for additional equipment which the district is no more financially able to pur- 
chase than it is financially able to build buildings. For that reason we request 
consideration of a grant of $10,000 for equipping the schoolhouses mentioned in 
this plan. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 3, I offer copy of a memorandum of the 
Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, dealing with the subject of 
documentary evidence of citizenship as a requisite for application for 
employment, together with an explanatory letter from Maj. Edgar 
N. Gott, vice president and director of public relations of the cor- 

Exhibit 3 

Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, 

San Diego, Calif. 


1. A certified copy of public record, showing date of birth and also date of the 
presentation of the birth record for entry in the public record. The record must 
be accompanied by identifying data if the child is not named. 

2. Certificate of naturalization (second papers). 

3. Certificate of derivative citizenship. 

Honorable discharges from the Army, Navy, and/or Marine Corps of the United! 
States, do not in fact confer citizenship upon the parties so discharged. Such 
discharges only dispense with the necessity of satisfying certain preliminary 
requirements otherwise required for purposes of naturalization. Therefore,, 
honorable discharges alone will not be accepted as proof of citizenship. 

A voter's certificate, while indicating citizenship of the party referred to therein,, 
is not conclusive proof of such citizenship and, therefore, unacceptable. 

In all States except Pennsylvania and California evidence may be submitted to the 
proper official of the State of birth for the purpose of obtaining a delayed birth regis- 
tration. In the States of Pennsylvania and California, it is necessary to appear 
before a judge of the State court and present satisfactory evidence for the purpose 
of obtaining delayed birth registration. 

Further information may be obtained by addressing the Immigration and 
Naturalization Service at Washington, D. C, or branch offices. 

Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, 

San Diego, Calif., June 19, 1941. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, M. C, 

Chairman, House Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, 

United States House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: Referring to your communication of June 13 regarding proof of 
birth — particularly in Texas. We do not pass on the validity of affidavits re- 
garding birth data. We do, however (and you will realize that this is at the 
specific request of the Army and Navy), accept delayed registration birth certifi- 
cates, which are based upon the validity of affidavits presented at the various 
counties. In other words, the clerk of the county or the clerk of the probate 
court of the county concerned issues a delayed birth certificate; and in so doing, 
utilizes affidavits presented by parents, or by parties who were present or had 
knowledge of such births, as supporting evidence. 
I trust this conveys the information desired. 
Yours very truly, 

Edgar N. Gott, Vice President. 


Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 4, I offer copy of a notice published April 
21, 1941, by the San Diego Realty Board, dealing with the topic of 
rent increases. 

Exhibit -1. — Exorbitant Rents 
By the San Diego Realty Board, April 21, 1941 

Exorbitant rents cause complaints and stir up a lot of unfavorable agitation 
which leads to demands for rent control. Rent control in turn would slow up or 
stop private capital building houses. When private capital stops building, the 
Government will have to step in and build more houses for defense workers. 

The competition of Government houses is not to be desired — nor is rent control; 
so, Mr. Owner, Mr. Realtor, it behooves us to keep rents stabilized on a fair basis, 
according to the prevailing schedule of living and material costs — not all you can 
get because of shortage. 

The realty board is interested and anxious to work for the welfare of property 
and owners. That's the reason we are taking a long-range view of these problems. 
The realty board is fighting and opposing assembly bill 2584, a rent-control meas- 
ure which would take away in large measure the rights of a property owner, but it 
is up to us to steer a course that will make rent control unnecessary. 

Under this act an appointed, salaried commission would set a normal rent date, 
being a date previous to defense activities — before labor and materials were 
advanced. This board would pass on facilities and services that must be fur- 
nished. Landlords would be prohibited from increasing rents or decreasing 
services without board authorization. Either landlord or tenant might petition 
for determination of fair rental. Tenants could not be evicted if rent were paid 
and other conditions of tenancy met; except: Landlord asks in good faith to 
recover possession for his immediate and personal occupancy, or buyer states in 
written purchase contract that he will want immediate personal occupancy, or 
landlord asks in good faith to recover possession to make immediate alterations, 
and petitions for approval of such remodeling may be filed with the board. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 5, I offer copy of a letter reporting an 
increase in rental and addressed by an employee of the Consolidated 
Aircraft Corporation to the personnel director of that company. 

Exhibit 5 

January 21, 1941. 
Mr. Waterbury, 

Personnel Director, Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, 

Lindbergh Field, San Diego, Calif. 
Dear Sir: In answer to the notice concerning living costs within the San Diego 
area, I herewith submit my case for your consideration. 

(1) I have for 1 year past and am at present living at 4177 Georgia Street, 
San Diego. 

(2) Approximately 1 month ago my rent was increased $5 a month. The reason 
for the increase was never explained to me. 

(3) Furthermore, I was given to understand that my present rental of $27.50 
would be neither temporary nor permanent, but would be subject to my landlord's 
own personal desire without any regard to my own financial status. 

(4) The present rental is not in keeping with the condition or the conveniences 
of a small three-room house. 

(5) My family consists of my wife and two small children. Due to the age of 
my children it is very difficult at this cime to find other suitable lodgings. 

(6) The 17 percent increase in rent does not fit into my present budget and has 
lowered my living standard accordingly. 

I trust that the above contains enough information to fully state my case; if 
not, I am at your convenience. 
Yours truly, 

R. A. Wiest. 

Mr. Abott. I offer, as exhibits 6-A and 6-B, copies of two letters, 
examples of protest against rent rises, addressed to the San Diego 
Homes Resist ration Bureau. 


Exhibit 6-A 

San Diego, Calif., April 12, 1941. 
Mr. George White, 

Homes Registration Bureau, San Diego, Calif. 

Dear Mr. White: We live here in a four-room cabin in the rear over a canyon. 
When we moved here about a year ago, they wanted $25 a month, but decided 
to let us have it at $22.50. Then just before Christmas they told the boy, not me, 
that our rent would be $25, and when I sent the boy over with the rent in March, 
they said that from April on our rent would be $35 a month. 

We have no garage, the cabin is very cheaply built and furnished with the very 
cheapest furniture. There is a rug, a table, three chairs and a small gas heater in 
living room. Ice box, stove, a kitchen table, and four chairs. Two beds, a dresser, 
a comode, and three chairs, include the entire furniture. 

The roof leaks and the paper has come loose from the ceiling and is hanging down, 
the drainboard and all around the kitchen sink leaks so that underneath it is all 
mildew. The floors are badly eaten by termites, patches of linoleum on the kitchen 
and bathroom floors, nearly all the windows are cracked or broken, sash cords 
broken — use sticks to hold the windows open. The window screens are so rotten 
and torn and the frames so warped that there is no protection against insects. 
One bed has five 2 by 3's to hold the old spring off the floor, the other bed has two 
old squashed out mattresses that have pulled it apart, and have ruined all my 

Were you to see this shack you would agree that $18 to $20 should be tops for 
the condition that it is in. and now they want $35; is not this profiteering? 

My rent is due the 16th, so will you kindly give this your immediate attention? 
And I cannot afford such rent at only a salary of $4 a day. and cheap rents are 
hard to find. Thanking you in advance for all favors. 
Yours very truly. 

C. Eduard Kops. 

Exhibit 6-B 

San Diego, Calif., April 11, 1941. 
Homes Registration Offices, 

Civic Center Building, Room 153, San Diego, Calif. 

Dear Sirs: After a telephone conversation with your office this a. m. I make 
the following complaint. 

I rented the above property of Mr. M. Robinowitz, October 12, 1940, the rent 
to be $27.50 unfurnished, no garage, not even a clothesline, the yards not kept, 
no rubbish service, nothing but the four walls. 

On February 10, 1941, he sent me a letter stating thereafter the rent would be 
$35 per month, beginning March 12, 1941. I didn't answer him immediately. 
So after a few days, he called as I passed his grocery store and asked me if I was 
going to move, and I said I didn't know just what I was going to do, but I would 
like to know where this rent raising would stop. He said, "I give you my word 
of honor I won't raise it any more as long as you stay there." I said, "Well I'm 
sure we will be there for the next few years or until the properties are wrecked 
(as they are very old and in poor condition). If you will fix that old cistern in 
the back yard which is a regular mosquito trap, and fix the roof which leaks in 
three different places, I will paint the woodwork and clean the walls thoroughly." 
He said, "O. K., its a deal." I told my husband that night and he said it seemed 
fair enough to him. So I turned to on the painting and cleaning. To date I 
have invested $14.90 in materials above: "the mosquito trap" and the roof leaks 
are still the same right now. 

On February 12, 1941, when I went to pay our rent Mrs. Robinowitz told me 
the water bill was too high. I told her there was only 3 adults living there and 
we all sent our laundry out but there was two leaking taps which my husband would 
fix and he did that night. On March 12 when I again went to pay the rent Mrs. 
Robinowitz said the water bill was normal but she never said "boo" about us 


repairing the tap for her. On April 2, 1941, I received a letter of which the follow- 
ing is a copy: 

San Diego, Calif., April 1, 1941. 
Mrs. D. G. Bray, 

1221 F Street, City. 
Dear Madam: This is to notify you that starting May 12 your 
rent at 1221 F Street will be $45 per month. Thanking you, I am 
Yours truly, 

Max. Robinowitz. 

I immediately went out and asked Mr. Robinowitz if he wanted us to move 
for any reason. He said no we had been good tenants, but I can get $50 for the 
place and I said but you promised us not to raise it any more and that's all we 
can afford to pay and more than the house is worth. 

I came home and talked it over with my husband that night, and he consulted 
an attorney, a personal friend, who believes a verbal agreement is binding for a 
year, and so the matter is today. 

Our income does not permit more than $35 for rent, and this place isn't worth* 
that, so please if there is anything you can do, help us, in this way we will both be 
helping newcomers. We have lived here many years and I hope we always will. 
Yours sincerelv, 

Mrs. D. G. Bray. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 7, I offer a statement, together with copy 
of a letter informing a tenant in San Diego of an increase in rental. 

Exhibit 7. — Statement of Mrs. C. H. Blanchard, 5036 Keeny Street, 
La Mesa, Calif., June 5, 1941 

My husband and myself and our two boys, 4 and 7 years old, came here from 
Texas 3 months ago. 

Our older boy, who is 17, had been here in February, when he graduated from 
high school. When he was here in February he tried to arrange to go to school 
at Ryans but they told him he had to be 18 to go to aircraft school, so he got a 

job at the - — • — ■ — — ; then he came back home and told us about San Diego 

and the jobs that were there and we all decided to come. 

My husband was working in a cafe at home and quit his job to come here. 
He got a job in a San Diego cafe when we first came, and he is still working 
there, making $4 a day and board, but he has applied at Consolidated Aircraft 
Corporation for a job.* We have had to wait for his birth certificate for that 
job. He also has been told by a neighbor that he can get a job on the construc- 
tion work at the marine base. The man told him he could get him in the 
carpenter's union. 

When we first came we rented a house at 5036 Keeny Street, La Mesa, for $40 
per month, and we are still there but now the landlord has notified us that on 
June 10 he is going to raise the rent to $60 per month. We have looked every- 
where in San Diego for a place big enough for our family at a rent we can afford 
to pay. We even went to the homes registration bureau but the cheapest they 
had was $50 per month, and most of the landlords will not take children. 

We have tried to find out if the city or the Federal Government isn't doing 
something to stop landlords from raising the rent like this, but everybody tells 
us that nothing has been done. 

The neighbors told us that this landlord had rented our house to a widow 
woman and her two boys before we came. He charged her, at first, $20 per 
month and then raised it to $25, and when she couldn't pay he put her out. 
Now he is trying to do the same thing to us. We are willing to pay a fair price, 
or as much as we can, but we have to have enough left to feed our children. 

Mrs. C. H. Blanchard. 


La Mesa, Calif., May 19, 1941. 
Mr. C. H. Blanchard, 
5036 Keeny Street, 

La Mesa, Calif. 
Dear Sir: Your rental on the premises at 5036 Keeny Street, La Mesa, Calif., 
will be increased to $60 per month beginning June 10, 1941— payable monthly in 

Yours truly, 

Otto Scherer, 
Bertha Scherer. 

Mr. Abbott. Complaints as to rental increases, such as those just 
introduced into the record, are turned over by the homes registration 
bureau to the San Diego Realty Board for investigation and report. 
I wish to offer now, as exhibit 8, a recapitulation of the board's findings. 

Exhibit 8. — Recapitulation of Report on Rental Conditions 

by san diego realty board 

Description Number of 


Esi imated rent value more than tenant paying 8 

Estimated rent value the same as tenant paying 18 

Rent exceeds estimated value up to $2.50 12 

Rent exceeds estimated value by $5 2 

Rent exceeds estimated value by $7.50 1 

Rent exceeds estimated value by $10 2 

Rent raised in large amount, involving controversy (damages, 2 families 

1 house, owner wants possession, etc.) 7 

Rents not checked or estimated. Tenant having moved 7 

Total number of complaints investigated by realtors 57 

Not checked because complaint was not legitimate or was based on some 
controversy 10 

Not checked because there was no address given, or property was out of city. 25 

Total 35 

There are about 10 or 12 more complaints which were not checked due to 
insufficient help or time, and 25 complaints were turned over to the junior chamber 
of commerce for checking, making a total number of complaints of 139. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 9, I offer a letter submitted for the com- 
mittee's records by Mr. Frederick J. Thatcher, mayor of the city of 
National City, Calif. 

Exhibit 9 

City of National City, 
National City, Calif., June 27, 1941. 
Representative John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, House Committee on Defense Migration Problems, 

Washington, D. C. 
Honorable Sir: At the time of your hearing in San Diego we addressed a 
letter to you asking that it be made a matter of record that we wished to present 
to your committee in Washington certain evidence along the line of your investi- 
gation. We therefore present the following facts for your consideration and a 
petition for financial assistance from the Federal funds set up for the purpose as 

Previous to 1935 the built-up portion of this city was confined principally to the 
west and north portions, comprising about 25 percent of the total area of the city. 
Subsequently there has been a rapid increase in building and the south and east 
portions have built up. 


The census of 1930 listed the population as 7,286 and of 1940 as 10,344 and the 
greater part of this increase has occurred in the last 5 years. Since the census in 
March 1940, we have issued 230 building permits covering residences, apartments, 
auto courts, etc. 

Within the past year a large increase in Navy shore activity and defense in- 
dustries with attendant housing projects is rapidly increasing the necessity for 
expanded services of all kinds. There are now proposed two more housing 
projects, one of 100 units on the south and one of 300 or 400 units on the east side 
of the city. 

Our present sewer system serves only the original built up section and it will 
require an estimated $200,000 to construct sewer mains and treatment plant to 
serve the expanded area and this service is an immediate need. 

An estimated $16,000 for additional equipment for the street department to 
care for additional street work and garbage collection, and an estimated $40,000 
for a fire-alarm system as a much needed aid for the fire department. 

Connected with the above are the requirements of additional personnel for all 
departments and increased cost of same due to competition of defense projects 

The tax rate for all general city purposes is limited to a maximum of $1 per 
$100 of assessed value. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Frederick J. Thatcher, 
Mayor, City of National City, Calif. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 10, I submit for the record a report by Ada 
York Allen, superintendent of county schools, County of San Diego, 

Exhibit 10. Needs of San Diego County Schools 

By Ada York Allen, Superintendent of Schools, County of San Diego, Calif. 

June 10, 1941. 

There are 18 schools in San Diego County which feel the impact of the military 
defense training situation to such an extent that they have appealed to the Federal 
Government through our State department of education for aid. The schools 
group thus: 11 elementary schools, 2 unified schools, and 5 union high school 

Each district has prepared a brief, setting forth the information along the follow- 
ing lines: 

1. What defense-connected regular school facilities are needed, the absence or 
lack of which will impede (or is impeding) national defense? 

2. What resources has the school district to meet these needs? 

3. What amount of Federal funds is necessary? 

4. Financial statement in detail. 

5. Copy of school budget. 

In practicallv all instances the data has been accompanied by maps and charts. 
All districts presented a copy of their 1940-41 budget. The budget for the coming 
year is in process, every district having until July 15 to present same. Two copies 
of these briefs were sent to the division of schoolhouse planning in Sacramento, 
in charge of Dr. Charles Bursch, and I understand that one copy was turned over 
by Dr. Bursch to Dr. Arnold E. Joyal, who represents the Federal authorities, 
working through the office of the United States Commissioner of Education. Dr. 
Joyal was in San Diego on Saturday last, June 7, and he had in his portfolio the 
briefs of these various districts. 

I am presenting to this congressional committee investigating needs in San 
Diego County, the following data which is an aggregate. Substantiating data for 
these aggregates are in Dr. Joyal's possession and also are filed in the office of the 
division of schoolhouse planning (Dr. Bursch's office) of the State department of 
education, Sacramento. Accompanying the statement we have figures as to the 
enrollment when schools closed and the anticipated September enrollment. We 
were not able to reach all of these schools to get this data because we had to 
contact them by telephone, and certain schools could not be reached. 


San Diego County national-defense program 


School district 

Description of project 

Cost of 

Total cost 




8 classroom units, equipment, etc. 

Total cost. 
Construction of cafeteria building and 

Unit No. 3 to be completed (cafeteria, 

kindergarten, toilets, and rest 

rooms). Total cost. 

$55, 000. 00 

300. 00 

30, 000. 00 

16, 000. 00 
10, 000. 00 

500. 00 

204, 500. 00 

1, 200. 00 

6, 000. 00 
4, 000. 00 

$27, 000. 00 


100, 000. 00 
40, 000. 00 

8. 000. 00 

supplementary report). 
La Mesa Spring Valley 
(no supplementary re- 


8, 500. 00 

plementary report). 

Additional classrooms, auditorium, 

cafeteria. Total cost. 
Additional classrooms and equipment- 
Construction of classrooms, equip- 

18, 000. 00 
20, 783. 00 

43, 500. 00 
23, 000. 00 

19, 200. 00 

San Dieguito 

18, 583. 00 
49, 500. 00 

West Fallbrook Union- _. 

Construction of classrooms, cafeteria; 

27, 000. 00 

San Diego Unified (no 

supplementary report). 

Fallbrook Union High-.. 

Building; equipment 

Construction of shop building and 

1, 375, 000. 00 
24, 756. 70 
15. 000. 00 

18, 000. 00 
315, 000. 00 

190, 000. 00 

5, 354. 56 

200. 00 

1, 565, 000. 00 

(no supplementary re- 

Union High. 
San Dieguito Union 

Construction of building; equipment. _ 

63, 000. 00 


(no supplementary re- 

San Diego County national-defense program 

School district 


Anticipated Septem- 
ber enrollment 


Cajon Valley Union 



Last year it was 850. 






450 .. 



23 percent greater this year than in 

420.. .... 


20 percent increase this year over 

800.. . 


43, 506 



} 553 





Large increase this year over 1939-40. 





Oceanside-Carlsbad Union 
High School (400)-.. 



3,600. . 

/If Federal project goes through, enroll- 
\ ment will be 800. 
If Federal project goes through, enroll- 
ment will be 480. 

Junior College (153) 

San Dieguito Union High 


Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 11, I offer a statement by Mr. Edward 
Howden, executive director, California Housing and Planning Asso- 
ciation, under the title "San Diego's Defense Housing: Today and 

Exhibit 11. — San Diego's Defense Housing: Today and Tomorrow 

By Edward Howden, executive director California Housing and Planning Asso- 
ciation, June 27, 1941 

The committee has by this time received ample testimony concerning the acute 
and complex housing problems occasioned in San Diego by suddenly expanded 
defense activities, and it has heard from officials of the several Federal and local 
agencies of Government which are striving to solve these problems. To this 
account I wish to add one simple, urgent recommendation: That San Diego set up 
(preferably the city and county together) a housing authority which could coordi- 
nate locally the operating Federal housing programs, and plan future disposition 
of the emergency housing in the best interests of the permanent community. 

The advantages of a functioning local housing authority to the city and county 
are so obvious that lengthy discussion of the recommendation is hardly necessary. 
Had there been a San Diego Housing Authority 1 year ago, the city could have 
met the emergency demands thrust upon it with much less stress and confusion, 
and with a program better planned both for today and tomorrow. San Diego 
has complained bitterly about the huge Public Buildings Administration project 
on Kearney Mesa — a little city of 10,000 population undertaken almost entirely 
without previous local consultation. Had there been a local housing authority, 
there would have been no site selection or site planning in Washington offices. 
There would have been facts ready on the housing need rather than guesses. 
Probably most of the millions in Federal appropriations which are being spent 
here would have been handled through the housing authority, and with the 
advantage of technical advice from men (of the United States Housing Authority 
regional staff) experienced in building homes not post offices. Such projeccs 
would have been designed by the best local architects, in harmony with local 
tastes and traditions. And each project would have been planned with a concern 
for its ultimate place in the lay-out and economic structure of the city. Nor 
would all of this have required more time than has been used to date in getting 
this emergency housing built. 

Yet it is still not too late to set up a local housing authority to develop a coordi- 
nating and planning program of great value to the city. Such a program probably 
would include the following points. 

disposition of projects at end of emergency 

Approximately 1,500 units of demountable family dwellings are under construc- 
tion now. There is a great (and perhaps justifiable) fear among real-estate 
interests that these dwellings will be dumped on the market when the defense 
program slacks off, thus breaking down normal values of middle- and high- 
income-family residences. Yet this need not happen. There is one excellent 
solution: Turn these dwellings over to a local housing authority for the use of 
low-income families not now able to afford decent housing, and never a market for 
private builders anyhow. As one proposal, San Diego's health officer, Dr. Legem, 
in pointing out the acute need for decent quarters for Indians on many of the 17 
reservations in the county, has suggested that the demountable projects be 
car-marked now for rehousing on these reservations. 

Consider also the needs of most of the families of workers in the large canneries, 
one of San Diego's most permanently expanding industries. A housing authority 
could decide now how many of the defense units should be shifted later to meet the 
needs of this large group. At least one Navy spokesman has expressed hearty 
approval of this idea. 

Nor would this proposal be necessarily limited to the demountable dwellings. 
The Kearney Mesa project, although 5 miles from the center of the city, should 
have fast bus service, and could be made available to workers' families. It is 
designed, of course, as a group project, and it would certainly be to the best in- 
terests of the city to have it maintained as such permanently, rather than divided, 
sold to private interests, and permitted to run down. 



Dr. Lesem has already testified concerning the presence of a number of sub- 
standard dwellings in and around the city. Additional housing for low-income 
families as suggested above would enable Dr. Lesem and his department to bring 
about the condemnation or repair of perhaps all of the substandard shacks which 
mar the face of the city at the present. Although the health department under 
existing powers could eliminate or force cleaning up of such dwellings, practically 
it cannot force families out unless or until new hou&ing is provided at rents within 
reach of these families. 


If still further Federal-subsidized housing should become necessary, the San 
Diego Housing Authority, in line with recent Washington policies, could probably 
carry out the job. Thus the city would have the opportunity to control design, 
location, and construction of at least one of the projects which emergency circum- 
stances have forced upon it. Such a project could be developed if desired with 
the mature technical assistance of the regional office of the United States Housing 
Authority, the Farm Security Administration, or the Federal Works Agency itself, 
but primary decisions could be made locally. 


While the defense-housing committee in San Diego has been doing as much as 
possible without authority, and while presumably a fair-rent committee will do 
likewise, a bona fide housing authority as a regular and permanent local public 
agency would probably be more successful in carrying out surveys, judging the 
need of rent-control measures (if any) , and related functions. If local rent-control 
measures were successful, more drastic State and Federal measures might be 
thereby precluded. (Some kind of rent control is almost inevitable in view of 
exorbitant rent profiteering revealed already to this committee by many sources.) 

It was first proposed about a year and a half ago that San Diego set up its own 
housing authority. This proposal was defeated by certain local groups which felt 
their interests threatened. Had that move been successful these groups and the 
city as a whole would be in a much better position today. Assuming a concern 
not only for total community planning and welfare and for the smooth functioning 
of the defense program, but also for property values and the real-estate market, 
intelligent self-interest would seem to argue for the immediate establishment under 
State law of a San Diego Housing Authority. 

This is probably the most important single action which could be taken by San 
Diego, or any other center of defense activity, in meeting its emergency housing 

Mr. Abbott. I offer, as exhibit 12, copy of the report of an investi- 
gation of the housing situation in certain defense areas of California, 
prepared by the State division of immigration and housing, at the 
request of Gov. Culbert L. Olson. 

Exhibit 12. — Housing in California Defense Areas 

Report to Gov. Culbert L. Olson by Carey McWilliams, chief, California 
Division of Immigration and Housing 

April 1, 1941. 
Gov. Culbert L. Olson, 

Stole Capitol, Sacramento, Calif. 

My Dear Governor Olson: Immediately upon receipt of your letter of 
March 10, 1941, this division proceeded to make an investigation of the housing 
rental situation in certain national-defense areas in California and also the housing 
shortages existing in certain of these areas. 

Prior to explaining the procedure followed and the scope of the investigation 
itself, might I point out that this division is operating at the present time (as it 
has been for many years) with a wholly inadequate personnel. The division at 
the present time has three housing inspectors. In view of this circumstance and 
also in view of the fact that I assumed you wanted a report at the earliest possible 
date, the investigation was restricted to the following areas: City of San Diego; 


March Field area near Riverside; the San Luis Obispo national-defense area; 
the Monterey Peninsula national-defense area; the Vallejo national-defense area. 

For reasons pointed out later in this report, the division did not investigate the 
situation in Los Angeles County. As chief of this division I also serve on the 
housing committee of the State council of defense, which, as you know, has been 
closely in touch with this problem for some months past. I therefore feel that 
the areas embraced within this survey may be said to represent, based upon 
testimony presented before the State council of defense housing committee, the 
important national defense areas in California insofar as the housing problem is 

The procedure followed in the investigation was generally to interview a wide 
cross section of opinion in the respective communities, including welfare agencies, 
trade unions, chamber of commerce officials, realtors, apartment, hotel, and auto- 
trailer camp operators, officials of the key defense industries and the officers of 
the armed services. In addition to these interviews, an attempt was made to 
investigate complaints which had been received and also to check a limited number 
of rental units in each community to determine what the relative increase in rentals 
in certain brackets had been during the past year. In certain of the communities 
house to house surveys are now under way and will, of course, provide more ade- 
quate information than could possibly be obtained in a hasty over-all survey of 
this character. Due to the rapid influx of population into certain of these com- 
munities, it has been impossible to obtain wholly accurate information concerning 
increase of population and therefore most of the information on this score, as you 
will understand, is based upon approximations. These preliminary considerations 
stated, the results of the survey are as follows: 


There has been a sharp increase of population in San Diego. In April 1940 
population was estimated at 202,038. By December 1940 it was estimated that 
the population had increased by 18,000 (Western City, December 1940, article by 
Glenn A. Rick, planning engineer, city of San Diego). This estimate is wholly 
conservative and the actual increase in population was unquestionably much 
greater. General estimates of the expected increase of defense workers in this 
community during 1941 vary from 20,000 to 35,400. The Consolidated Aircraft 
Corporation, for example, is employing at the present time approximately 16,500 
men; they expect the number of employees to increase during 1941 to 32,300. 
The number of additional homes required during 1941 to accommodate this 
anticipated influx of defense workers was variously estimated, the estimates 
ranging from 9,600 units to 10,000 units. 

In addition, of course, to the new construction needed to accommodate defense 
workers, there is also the problem of providing housing for the increased Army 
and Navy personnel stationed in the area. We received an estimate from the 
San Diego City Planning Commission that 3,150 family units would be required 
for this purpose. The estimates, in each case, in the judgment of this division, 
are conservative, based upon estimates of the increase in population in San 
Diego for 1941 which range from 30,000 to 50,000. It seems altogether con- 
servative to estimate that the population of the community will approximate 
300,000 by the end of 1941. 


Projects under way at the present time in San Diego are as follows: 1,200 units 
are being constructed by the United States Navy; 3,000 units are being con- 
structed under the national-defense housing program. 

When these units are constructed the number of housing units still required, 
based upon the foregoing estimates, would be substantially as follows: 7,000 units 
for defense workers; and 1,950 units for Army and Navy personnel, or a total of 
8,950 units. This estimate is altogether conservative and the actual requirements 
may be assumed to be considerably in excess of this figure. As indicating the 
conservative nature of this estimate, suffice it to say that 1 public official in the 
county said to representatives of the division that 45.000 units of housing would 
be required in 1941. 

In addition to the housing projects now under way in San Diego, it has been 
proposed that the Farm Security Administration construct barracks to accom- 
modate a thousand single men and also that trailer accommodations be provided 
for some 600 families. At the date of this report, no confirmation of this proposal 
has been obtained. 


Based upon the best information obtained and the rate of new residential con- 
struction in San Diego during 1940, it is quite apparent that private capital will 
not be able to meet this need. 


Not only is there already an acute housing shortage as a result of the rapid 
expansion of the national-defense program, but there has been a sharp increase 
in existing rentals. The increase in rentals in San Diego must, however, be con- 
sidered in light of the fact that rental rates generally in the community in prior 
years have been low by comparison with the rents for similar units in metropolitan 
communities. At the present time there is a noticeable differential in rental in- 
creases depending upon the type of housing involved. For example, in the bracket 
of $50 a month or more, rents have not been materially increased. In the rental 
bracket of $40 to $50 per month the percentage of increase has been approxi- 
mately 10 percent, but in the bracket from $20 to $40 per month, which repre- 
sents the greatesl demand, there has been an increase of approximately 30 per- 
cent in rental rates in the last year. In the lowest rental bracket, that is, below 
$20 per month, there has been an increase of approximately 10 percent in rents, 
which although not as marked as in the range from $20 to $40, is nevertheless 
oppressive in that it constitutes a definite hardship to the lowest income group. 


Mr. V. E. Tiller, of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, has the following 
to report: 

A questionnaire was recently sent to 700 members of the Cannery Workers 
Union; 70 percent of the membership filled out and returned the questionnaire. 
This survey indicated that between 1940 and 1941 insofar as this group was 
concerned, there had been a 41 percent increase in rents. In 1940 rents for this 
group were generally under $20, ranging from $8 to $20 per month. In 1941 
they had increased materially with workers being charged $25 per month for one 
and two-room apartments using community toilet facilities. A survey conducted 
by the same organization among 5,000 aircraft workers (30 percent of whom filled 
out and returned the questionnaire^ indicated a 38 percent increase in rents. 
The average rent for this group in 1940 was between $20 and $30 per month. By 
1911 the average monthly rental had increased to approximately $40 per month. 
These surveys also indicate that the increase in rentals in the higher brackets, 
namely, those above $40 per month, was only about IS percent. 


Investigation of rents in some 52 auto camps and 32 trailer camps indicated that 
rentals for this type of accommodation had increased approximately 20 percent 
over 1940. All the camps are overcrowded and it is estimated that there are 
perhaps 1,000 trailers parked throughout the community not located in licensed 
auto or trailer camps. 

A homes registration bureau has been established in the community. According 
to the San Diego Union of March 15, 1941, the director of this bureau reported 
an acute shortage of furnished and unfurnished houses, with virtually no vacant 
houses in the $30 to $35 class, either furnished or unfurnished and with the greatest 
demand being concentrated in this rental bracket. 

Chaplain Dyer, of the Navy, reported that there are approximately 25,000 
families of enlisted men and officers residing in San Diego, that most of the enlisted 
men pay from $30 to $35 per month rent, the officers from $45 to $70. He stated 
that he would estimate the rental increase during the last year at 35 percent for 
the enlisted men, which in general confirms our estimate of the total rental increase 
during the last year. He further stated that he received over 800 complaints 
with respect to the existing housing shortage. 


With respect to the lowest income group, representatives of the division inter- 
viewed the director of the San Diego County Public Welfare Department, the 
local director of the State relief administration, and the director of the neighbor- 
hood settlement house. All of these officials agreed that in the lowest income 

60396— 41— pt. 12 11 


groups there had been an increase in the last year of approximately 10 to 15 per- 
cent in rental rates and that there was an acute shortage of low-cost housing for 
the recipients of public welfare. Most of them stated that the need for additional 
housing for this group was "extremely acute" and that the increase already noted 
had caused great hardship. 

San Diego was the only community investigated in which there seemed to be 
in certain quarters a decided opinion to the effect that some measure of govern- 
mental rent control was necessary. Major E. N. Gott, vice president of the 
Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, was definitely of the opinion that some meas- 
ure of control was needed and submitted to this division a plan for a rent-control 
statute based in part on the orders in council promulgated by the Canadian 
Government in September 1940. Major Gott's recommendations on this score 
are set forth as follows: 


1. Granted that a landlord is entitled to a fair return upon his invest- 
ment; the law should state what such a return should be— for instance, 
1 percent of the appraised value per month — and then should fix a 
penalty for anyone charging in excess of that amount. 

2. The appraised valuation could be determined by a representative 
of the county assessor, and would not necessarily have any bearing upon 
the then assessed valuation; but, of course, in cases where the appraised 
valuation was very materially increased then, as the assessor would be 
the deciding factor in making the appraisal, the property owner would 
think twice before raising the ante too high. 

3. Rents to be so controlled would be only within a certain radius of 
accredited defense industries as certified to by either the commanding 
general of the corps area or by the commandant of the naval district in 
which the facility is located. Of course, the legislation should be limited 
to the term of the present emergency. 

4. The city government of San Diego is not empowered to enact such 
legislation, but it is probable that a bill along these lines will be introduced 
in the present session of the California State Legislature. 

One of the difficulties at the present time in San Diego seems to be the insecurity 
felt by all of the lower-income groups with respect to rents. Based upon their 
experiences of recent months they cannot be assured for any appreciable period 
of time as to what their rent will be. It is quite common at the present time for 
families to bid against each other for housing, with the result that rents are in- 
creased from month to month. Another general impression of the situation in 
San Diego is that families with children are placed in a definitely disadvantageous 
position by reason of the fact that many landlords will not rent to families having 


In the Riverside area the chief problem, of course, is centered in the activity 
at March Field and Camp Haan and the southwest air district headquarters. 
There are approximately 6,000 men in March Field and approximately 3,000 in 
Camp Haan (as of January 22, 1941) and at the southwest air district headquar- 
ters approximately 480 men and 62 officers. A considerable portion of the con- 
struction work in connection with the enlargement of these posts has been com- 
pleted. Construction workers are beginning to leave the area. The contention is 
made in March Field, as in San Diego, that rents were abnormally low prior to the 
influx occasioned by the national-defense program and that such increase in rental 
rates as has occurred must be considered in light of this fact. 

Under the national-defense housing program a $488,000 project involving a 
total of 150 units for noncommissioned officers at March Field and Camp Haan is 
underway. Completion of this project will eliminate to a considerable extent 
pressure for housing units in the community. The problem in this area is, of 
course, a strictly military problem and is not related to any defense industry. 

At a meeting of the housing committee of the State council of defense on 
January 22, 1941, Colonel Pirie, of the Riverside County Chamber of Commerce, 
said that in his judgment 1,000 additional units of housing should be provided in 
the area, and at that date, the housing committee recommended to the Coor- 
dinator of Defense Housing in Washington the construction of at least 400 units of 
family housing in the Riverside area. From these estimates and recommenda- 
tions, it is apparent that a housing shortage still exists in the community and it is 
not likely that this need will be met by private enterprise. 


This is emphasized by the fact that in 1940 there were approximately 240 
dwellings constructed in the city. Under normal conditions approximately 80 
percent of the homes built in Riverside are constructed by and for home owners. 
There has been slight occasion in the past to build in the community for specula- 
tion or for rental purposes. 

A considerable number of the construction workers employed on these projects 
were residents and home owners in the local community and have therefore not 
been affected adversely by such increase in rental rates as has taken place. Sum- 
marizing the situation for this area, it can be said that there is still a housing 
shortage, after making allowance for the Government projects now under way, 
and that in the low-rental brackets from $15 to $25 per month an increase variously 
estimated at from 15 to 25 percent has occurred in rental rates. 

The community itself has established an appraisal committee consisting of 
members representing the Riverside Realty Board, military organizations, the 
local city and county chamber of commerce, and property owners. Complaints 
with respect to unfair rents are referred to this board, which then attempts to 
recommend a fair rental value. The increase in rental rates in this community 
has not been as sharp as in the cit} r of San Diego. 


Most of the problem in this area has been occasioned by the two important 
defense units — namely, Camp San Luis Obispo at San Luis Obispo, and Camp 
Roberts at San Miguel. The housing committee of the State council of defense 
held a meeting in San Luis Obispo on January 15, 1941, at which time the com- 
mittee heard from most of the interests represented in the community. 

As a result of the evidence presented at this hearing the committee under date 
of January 22, 1941, recommended to the Coordinator of Defense Housing in 
Washington the construction of 500 units of housing at San Luis Obispo and the 
construction of 250 units in the Paso Robles, Atascadero, San Miguel area. At a 
later meeting of the committee under date of March 3, 1941, it was recommended 
that any housing project inaugurated in this area should be located in Paso Robles, 

There has been a noticeable influx of trailers into the area, particularly in 
connection with the construction work at the camps, but the problem occasioned 
by this influx will tend to abate itself as the construction nears completion. Our 
investigation indicates that there is an acute shortage of housing, particularly in 
the rental bracket from $25 to $40 per month; that rents in the higher brackets 
and in the lower brackets have not as yet shown a noticeable increase, but that 
rentals in the middle bracket have shown a sharp increase. Units which would 
normally rent between $25 and $40 per month have increased to $45 and $75 
per month. This increase in the bracket in which the maximum demand is con- 
centrated has caused considerable hardship. This hardship has not as yet been 
noticeably reflected insofar as the local civilian population is concerned, but there 
are indications that such will be the case in the near future unless the existing 
housing shortage is relieved. Indications that such will be the development may 
be shown as follows: 

A city employee in San Luis Obispo formerly paid $25 per month for a three- 
room apartment. This rent was increased from $25 to $30 and from $302to $35 
within the last few months. An employee of a railroad in San Luis Obispo found 
his rent increased from $35 to $60 per month within a relatively short period of time. 
High building costs in the community by comparison with other areas in the State 
have had some effect in retarding new construction. Current reports indicate 
that the Government intends to establish a project at Paso Robles and the com- 
pletion of this project will to some extent relieve the existing shortage. Lt. Col. 
O. H. Means, at Camp San Luis Obispo, and Colonel Christian, Lieutenant 
Colonel Marston and Lieutenant Colonel Arnold at Camp Roberts, all indicated 
that there is a need for low rental housing units but no one interviewed in the area 
thought the situation was so critical at the present time as to indicate a necessity 
for rent control. This statement is based upon a rather comprehensive coverage 
of the community. 


Investigation of housing conditions and rental rates in the Montere}' defense 
area was made during the period from March 17 to 22, 1941. Over 40 workmen 
engaged in construction work at Camp Ord near the city of Monterey were 
interviewed. Most of these workers indicated general satisfaction with housing 
conditions and our conclusion is that the housing problem in the Monterey area 
is not acute, particularly by comparison with the cit} 7 of San Diego. The number 


of construction workers at Camp Ord is approximately 400; at one time the 
number was approximately 3,000. The reduction in the number of construction 
workers has tended to relieve the housing shortage which did exist some time 
ago. This defense area, moreover, is located in a region where there are several 
towns and important summer resorts, a factor which has tended to mitigate the 

In considering rental rates in this area one factor must be emphasized — namely, 
that rents in the community are geared primarily with respect to the summer 
tourist trade and when the influx took place with respect to the defense activities 
local residents asked rents in the winter period comparable to those received 
during the summer period. These rents, while normal in the community during 
the summer months, nevertheless may have impressed those not familiar with 
this situation as being somewhat excessive. Out of a sample of 22 dwellings 
housing construction workers or noncommissioned officers in the city of Mon- 
terey, the division found rents had only been increased in 5 cases. In I case 5 
percent, 1, 16?'3 percent, 2, 20 percent; 1, 33}'3. In Pacific Grove a sample' of 15 
dwellings housing construction workers from Camp Orel was inspected. Out of 
this sample only 4 reported increased rents; 1, 14% percent; 1, 50 percent; 1, 55 
percent; and 1, 81 percent. An auto camp located at Oak Grove housing con- 
struction workers from Camp Ord reported a general increase in rent for its facil- 
ities of 33 "3 percent. Three auto courts in the vicinity of Seaside were inspected, 
one of which reported substantial increase in rents, 2 of which reported that 
they had not increased rentals. A number of dwellings housing construction 
workers in Watsonville were inspected, no rental increases being noted. A sample 
was taken at Castroville and no increases in rental rates were noted. 

In connection with auto camps this comment should be made — namely, that 
where auto-camp operators rent to permanent occupants and not to transients, it 
is customary to charge a higher rental. A large number of persons was interviewed 
in this general area. They all indicated a shortage of rental units in the moderate 
brackets of $25 to $40 per month and a general increase of rental rates in the area 
but none of the persons interviewed stated that rent control was essential. The 
peak of the construction work is apparently over and this factor will of itself 
relieve the situation. When the normal summer tourist influx to the Monterey 
Peninsula takes place, however, the existing housing shortage will be accentuated. 

Mr. James F. Van Loben Sels, liaison officer between the chamber of commerce 
and the army at Monterey, stated that there is no noticeable housing shortage, 
but that units which would normally rent at $45 per month have in many cases 
increased to $60 per month. He also stated that there had been no wild fluctuation 
in rentals in the area but that property owners are now getting the customary 
summer rental rates during the winter and spring season. Among those inter- 
viewed was Maj. Gen. Joseph W. Stillwell. He stated that housing and rental 
conditions are now fairly normal. A survey of rental agencies was effected at the 
time officers and enlisted personnel began to arrive and every effort was made to 
prevent an excessive increase in rents. 

From a questionnaire circulated among the officers, he stated that the returns 
indicated few if any complaints with respect to excessive rents. In interviewing 
officers it was found that there was some variance of opinion but the general 
impression, as stated, was confirmed by interviews with Col. Roger S. Fitch, 
Lt. Col. O. W. Hoop, and Lt. Col. John E. McMahon. A county housing author- 
ity under the provisions of the United States Housing Authority is now in process 
of formation in Monterey County. There is likewise a housing project of 264 
units now under construction at the south end of Camp Ord to accommodate 
noncommissioned officers and their families and civilian employees in the a^my. 

The creation of the local county housing authority and the completion of the 
latter project will do much to relieve the present shortage. Generally speaking 
in this area the summer rertal rates are approximately double what the normal 
winter rental rates were prior to the national-defense program. At the present 
time, most landlords are securing the same rates and these rates in general through- 
out the area have been increased over what they were in the summer of 1940 by 
approximately 10 to 15 percent. For the Monterey area the division is able to 
furnish the following indication of the general level of rents: 

In city of Monterey: 

2-room apartment (per month furnished) $25. 00 

5-room apartment (per month furnished) 26. 50 

Do 30.00 

1 room in a house (per month) 12. 00 

2 rooms in auto court (per month) 12. 00 

Do 20. 00 


In Pacific Grove: 

2-room apartment (per month furnished) $27. 50 

2-rooni house (per month furnished) 22. 50 

4-room house (par month furnished) 25. 00 

Do 35. 00 

5-room house (per month furnished) 35. 00 

Do 40. 00 

1 hotel room (per month furnished) 14. 00 

Do 22.00 

2 rooms in auto court (per month furnished) 32. 00 

Do 48.00 

In Carmel : 5-room house (per month furnished) 60. 00 

In Seaside: 

4 rooms (per month furnished) 30. 00 

2 rooms in auto court (per month furnished) 20. 00 

In Oak Grove: 2 rooms in auto court (per month furnished) 40. 00 

In Castroville: 

4 rooms (per month furnished) 13. 00 

5 rooms (per month furnished) 25. 00 

In Watson ville: 

3 rooms (per month furnished) 28. 00 

1 hotel room (per month furnished) 16. 00 

3-room apartmeDt (per month furnished) 15. 00 

Interviews with the welfare agencies in the area indicate a shortage of low 
rental units and an increase in rents in the lowest brackets over August 1940 of 
approximately 10.7 percent. 


A survey of rental and housing situation in and around the city of Vallejo was 
made between March 17 and 21, 1941. The survey indicates a very acute housing 
shortage in this area. At the present time there are approximately 17,000 em- 
ployees in the Mare Island Navy Yard. The estimates received by the division 
indicate that perhaps as many as 6,000 of these employees now commute from local- 
ities as far removed as Oakland, Vacaville, and Napa. 

The majority of complaints regarding rentals comes from the lower income 
groups. There has been a great influx of people into the community from all 
parts of the United States; some were interviewed, for example, who had come 
from Texas and Georgia and a considerable number had moved into the area 
from the agricultural valleys of California. Many of these people have been 
accustomed to paying fairly low rents — that is, rents lower than those generally 
prevailing in urban communities. 

Generally speaking, the situation in Vallejo would indicate that rents being 
received are not particularly excessive with relation to rents being charged for 
comparable units in other communities but that they are definitely excessive 
when related to the income of the groups involved. 

A case in point is that of a watchman in the navy yard whose salary is $100 a 
month and who is compelled to pay at the present time $35 per month for a fur- 
nished house, not including utilities. This individual felt that the rent he was 
being charged was excessive, but our inspector states that the housing in question 
is a house that normally would rent in the community for $35 per month. In- 
stances of what might be termed rent profiteering were found in several cases 
where individuals had rented homes and had in turn subleased rooms at what 
were under the circumstances excessive rates. But in the sample taken in this 
community, rents being charged for dwellings and apartments were somewhat 
similar to the same rents prevailing for the same units a year ago. Many land- 
lords reported that although rents had been raised they in turn had been com- 
pelled to make improvements and repairs in their properties and felt that under 
the circumstances they were entitled to higher rents. Our inspector indicated 
thvA the officials at the yard had checked through their file of complaints about 
excessive rents. These complaints were relatively few in number. 

The Navy has constructed some 600 units of housing and some 900 additional 
temporary units are planned. The division took a sample of 81 habitations 
housing workers employed in the navy yard. Rents had only been increased 
in 32 out of the 81 units inspected. The increases for the 32 units involved 
showed a sharp variation from 8}'o to 150 percent, but the average increase was 
approximately 30 percent. Several instances were found in this sample of units 


which were designated by our inspector as unfit for human habitation. A sample 
of this type of unit is the case where 7 beds were found located in the basement of 
a building with cheesecloth being used to effect partitions between the beds; 
window area was inadequate, the place was generally insanitary. The owner of 
this establishment was renting bed space in the basement for $10 per week per 
person. The aide to the commandant of the Mare Island Navy Yard was inter- 
viewed. He stated that the Navy is concerned over the possibilities that the 
estimated 6,000 workers now commuting to the area might take jobs elsewhere 
and that the existing housing shortage might result in considerable inefficiency. 
All of the persons interviewed in this area indicated that vacant dwellings were 
virtually nonexistent at the present time and that a most acute housing shortage 


The effect of the housing shortage in defense areas is, of course, not restricted 
to workers directlj' involved in the defense industries or in the armed services. 
The influx of workers into these areas has created a general housing shortage 
which in turn has almost eliminated available low rental units. This is definitely 
reflected in a report issued by the State relief administration under date of 
February 8, 1941. In San Diego, according to this study, 27 percent of the State 
relief administration cases were paying rents above the maximum State relief 
administration allowance. 

No attempt was made to appraise the situation in the metropolitan area of Los 
Angeles, but reports received by the housing committee of the State council of 
defense indicate that the vacancy rate is falling throughout the area but that to 
date rentals have shown little change. Most of the information received by the 
■committee would indicate that a housing shortage is very likely to develop in the 
area in the near future. 


In your letter of March 10, 1941, you requested this division to submit together 
with its report any recommendations that it might have to submit, including any 
recommendations with respect to needed legislation. In this connection the 
following recommendations are submitted. 

(1) That a copy of this report be submitted to the housing committee of the 
State council of defense and to Mr. Chester Palmer, Coordinator of Defense 
Housing, Washington, D. C, together with a letter of transmittal from Your 
Excellency urging that additional defense housing be provided immediately, with 
particular reference to San Diego and Vallejo. In general, it is the opinion of this 
division that the problem can best be met through an extension of the defense 
housing program, for in the last analysis it is additional housing that is needed and 
the problem can only be met in this manner. 

(2) That following the precedent which has been established in Riverside, it 
might be suggested to the other communities involved either through your office, 
this division or the housing committee of the State council of defense, that local 
rent-appraisal boards be constituted on a purely voluntary basis to make recom- 
mendations concerning rental rates. 

(3) Following numerous suggestions received by this division in the course of 
its investigation, we would recommend that the contents of this report be publi- 
cized through your office and that an appeal be made in your name as Governor 
of the State urging property owners in the areas in question to show the utmost 
moderation in connection with rental rates. It might well be pointed out in any 
such appeal that excessive rental increases brought about in a short period of 
time and in areas where acute housing shortages exist, are likely to lead to some 
form of rent control which most of these communities seem anxious to avoid at 
the present time. 

(4) That some provision be made whereby the State government as such may 
be kept constantly in touch with the problem in the national-defense areas and 
that a clearing house be established in which all of this information may be cen- 
tralized. This end can be accomplished in several different ways — namely, 
through enlarging the housing committee of the State council of defense and 
through giving the State council of defense, as such, definite legal status as an 
agency of the State government and by providing the housing committee of the 
State council with adequate personnel for this purpose. The same end might 
be achieved by utilizing the facilities of the division of immigration and housing 
for this purpose, but for the division to undertake this responsibility and at the 
same time to discharge duties which are made mandatory upon it under existing 
statutes, would require increased personnel. 


(5) With respect to your specific inquiry concerning rent control legislation, I 
am attaching to this report a copy of a statement of the National Defense Advisory 
Commission, Consumer Division, entitled "Maintenance of Fair Rents During 
the Emergency," being Bulletin No. 7, dated January 7, 1941. This comprehen- 
sive report sets forth all of the various considerations which must be carefully 
weighed and considered before rent-control legislation is instituted. I am like- 
wise attaching to this report a copy of a suggested Emergency Fair Rent Act which 
has been drafted by the Consumer Division of the National Defense Advisory 
Commission, being Bulletin No. 10, under date of March 15, 1941. The division 
is in receipt of wire from Harriet Elliott, Consumer Division Commissioner of the 
National Defense Advisory Commission under date of March 31, 1941, indicating 
that rent legislation has been introduced in New York and Connecticut to date. 

The division has gone over both the report of the National Defense Advisory 
Commission and the proposed model statute carefully and has discussed the 
contents of both documents with housing officials throughout the State. As a 
result of this consideration the division recommends that if in your judgment the 
situation warrants legislative action at this time that the model act attached hereto 
be used as the basis for any such proposal. 

(6) As to whether the present situation in the defense areas surveyed does, in 
fact, warrant rent control , the conclusions of this division are as follows: 

That there is no indication at the present time of the actual necessity for rent 
control in any of the areas investigated, with the exception of San Diego. Unless 
the national-defense housing program is rapidly expanded in this area within the 
next few months, it is our judgment that some form of rent control will have to be 
established. In this connection the division would like, to emphasize again, 
however, that the answer to this problem is to be found in an expansion of the 
national-defense housing program rather than through rent control which is 
at best a temporary and makeshift device. 

(7) In view of the fact that no mechanism exists in the State at the present time 
for rent control and in view also of the fact that any such control would have to be 
established by the State government rather than through any local governmental 
unit and in view also of the fact that the situation in these national-defense areas 
might become much more acute in the near future than it is at the present time, 
the division would point out to you for careful consideration the advisability of 
submitting to the current legislature an act based upon the model statute drafted 
by the National Defense Advisory Commission. 

Were the legislature to adopt such a statute, then at least the necessary machin- 
ery would be established and could be used when necessary without having to sub- 
mit legislation of this character at a special session or to defer action until the next 
general session of the legislature. If the model statute referred to were adopted 
and appropriation made as provided for in the statute, then the commission created 
under the terms of the act could keep in the closest possible touch with the situa- 
tion at all times. We would point out in this connection the powers conferred upon 
the proposed emergency rent commission under section 4 of the model act. In 
view of these considerations the division recommends to Your Excellency that a 
statute based upon the proposed enactment herewith submitted be introduced 
before the adjournment of the present legislature. You will note under the pro- 
posed act that the commission itself would determine the necessity in each instance 
for the establishment of a rent-control program. Were such an act to be passed, 
therefore, the commission that would thereby come into existence could consider 
at much greater length and in much more detail than this division has been able to 
do upon short notice whether or not the situation in any of the defense areas in 
California at the moment is serious enough to warrant rent control. 

Under the powers that would be conferred under the terms of this act they 
could utilize the facilities of existing Federal, State, and local agencies; compel 
by subpena the attendance and testimony of witnesses with respect to matters 
under investigation; investigate housing and rental conditions throughout the 
State as affected by the national-defense program and conduct hearings with re- 
spect to shortage and to prevent by means of publicity, negotiations or otherwise 
an unjustifiable increase in rents. 

The mere passage of such an act would in and of itself in the judgment of this 
division have a desirable effect. All complaints with respect to excessive rentals, 
for example, might then be referred directly to this commission which could make 
a complete investigation and a recommendation which might then result in 
alleviating the particular situation. 


I am particularly impressed with the desirable functions that might be dis- 
charged by such a commission in light of the experience of the housing committee 
of the State council of defense which has endeavored to discharge much the same 
function but which by reason of the fact that it has no legal standing and only 
a voluntary personnel and no funds has not been able effectively to cope with 
the rapidly developing phases of this situation. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 13, I offer a report by Dr. E. A. Blondin, 
chairman of the special committee to investigate needs for private, 
approved hospital facilities in San Diego. 

Exhibit 13. — Additional Hospital Needs in San Diego 

Report by E. A. Blondin, M. D., Chairman Special Committee to Investigate 
Needs for Private, Approved Hospital Facilities in San Diego 

Pursuant to instructions from the chairman of the council, an investigation was 
made of the demand for hospital beds at the County Hospital and for changes 
necessary to adequately care for the estimated increase in indigent hospitalization. 

Meetings were held with representatives from each of the departments of the 
active staff of the County Hospital, and also with the health commissioner and 
other physicians representing the past and present hospital advisory boards. 
At these meetings the following facts were brought out: 

1. During the year from April 1, 1940 (the official census), to April 1, 1941, 
the population of San Diego has probably increased from 203,341 to 250,000 — ■ 
25 percent. 

2. During this period the total income of wage earners in San Diego has in- 
creased 117 percent. 

3. During this period the demand for beds in private hospitals has increased. 

4. During this period the demand for beds in the County Hospital has decreased. 

5. It is estimated that our population will increase by 45,000 during the next 
year — 20 percent. 

6. No sudden let-down in the number of employed persons in San Diego is 
anticipated, even after the present emergency is over. 

7. Many hospitals are in active and satisfactory use throughout the United 
States and the world which are many times older than the present County Hospital 


After a careful consideration of the above and other facts, it was agreed that 
the department of medicine, surgery, orthopedics, obstetrics, pediatrics, E. N. T., 
ophthalmology, urology, and gynecology, have adequate number of beds to care 
for an estimated 20- to 25-percent increase in population. 

It was agreed that a communicable-disease ward of 100 beds properly arranged 
(by use of cubicles), would adequately care for any estimated increase in popu- 

It was agreed that the men's ward and service buildings at Vauclain would be 
required in the near future and, if Federal funds are available, should be built 
now to provide an additional 140 beds for the treatment of tuberculosis and chest 

It was further agreed that a new clinic building is advisable. 


The following changes and improvements were recommended, to make the pres- 
ent hospital facilities even more adequate to care for any anticipated increase in 

(1) Obstetrical. — The use of visiting nurses, permitting multiparous mothers to 
be discharged on the fourth or fifth post partum day, at a considerable saving. 

(2) Surgical. — The use of visiting nurses, permitting an estimated one-third to 
one-half of the post operative patients to be discharged from 7 to 10 days earlier, 
at a considerable saving. No additional operating rooms are necessary. 

(3) Orthopedics. — The use of visiting nurses or convalescing home or convalesc- 
ing-ward service, permitting an estimated 25 percent of orthopedics cases to be 
discharged from the hospital, at a considerable saving. 

(4) Medicine. — The provision of facilities for more prompt laboratory reports. 
At present, a patient's discharge from the hospital may be delayed as long as a 


week or more because of a delay in some laboratory procedure. Interns' labora- 
tory is quite inadequate in its equipment. 

(5) Pediatrics, (a) Wider use of visiting nurses or convalescing homes permitting 
earlier discharge of children from the hospital; (6) pediatrics department should 
be returned to quarters designed for it, on the first floor; (c) the present practice 
of holding "diphtheria carriers" for long periods in communicable-disease ward 
(without a virulence test as recommended by the State board of health), should 
be discontinued. 

(6) Communicable, diseases. — Removal of communicable-disease ward to one of 
the vacant buildings at Vauclain (already recommended by the hospital com- 

(7) Urology. — Use of visiting nurses or convalescing ward. At present many 
patients remain in the hospital for a week or more after their "discharge" because 
social service has not arranged for their removal. 

(8) Ophthalmology. — The provisions of adequate equipment in the clinic for 


In addition to the above, it was agreed that large epidemics cannot be prepared 
for with permanent hospital buildings: that these epidemics should be prevented 
by adequate health department work; that if such an epidemic as influenza 
should occur, it would necessarily be cared for in temporary hospitals, for which an 
adequate organization is being set up in the medical defense committee. 

It was also agreed that it would be better to provide additional private hospital 
beds, which would care for the additional need in the present time of prosperity. 
In time of depression, when the demand for free hospitalization would increase, 
there would be a surplus of facilities in private hospitals. It would be much 
more economical for the county to rent facilities in private hospitals at such time 
than to overbuild the County Hospital at this time for an anticipated depression 
at some time in the future. 


It was further agreed that widespread use of the hospital-insurance plan in 
private hospitals wiil adequately solve the problem of medical care among the 
employed groups. In Rochester, N. Y., with 300,000 population, there are over 
145,000 holders of hospital insurance. 

Finally, it was agreed that a very vital need for the community, though not 
for the County Hospital, was the erection of a community convalescent home of at 
least 100 beds. This is necessary to replace the many small private convalescent 
homes which have in recent months been changed into boarding houses, and also 
those which have been closed because of inadequate facilities. Such a community 
convalescent home could be self-supporting, when once established, and should 
not be built nor maintained in any way by city, State, or Federal agency. 


According to the San Diego Evening Tribune, April 10, 1941: 

"There are approximately 90,000 civilians gainfully employed in San Diego at 
this time. The annual pav roll of these workers is $12,000,000. The naval and 
military pay roll is $30,000,000." 

On April 1, 1941, Mercy Hospital had but 25 empty beds out of 360 capacity. 
Quintard Hospital was also practically at capacity. 

On April 6, 1941, County Hospital, with a capacity of 430 beds, had a census of 
251 patients, as follows: Communicable disease, 26; pediatrics, 12; medicine, 71; 
urologv, 20: orthopedics, 37; surgery, 33; eye, nose, and throat, 9; gynecology, 
10; obstetric (mothers, 17; babies, 16), 33. 

Admissions to surgical ward: 

First quarter, 1940 363 

First quarter, 1941 291 

Admissions to clinic: 

First quarter, 1940 13, 352 

First quarter, 1941 12,553 

Admissions to Countv Hospital (main building) : 

First quarter, 1940 2,043 

First quarter, 1941 1, 938 

Newborns at County Hospital: 

First quarter, 1940 233 

First quarter, 1941 146 


The chamber of commerce reported on February 20, 1941: 

"Of these 45,000 new people in the community, 7,500 will be married officers 
and enlisted men of the Navy and their families (not eligible for County Hospital) ; 
1,800 will be Army men and their families (not eligible); and 35,000Vill be em- 
ployes of aircraft factories and their families. 

"As an indication that there will be no let-down in the present industrial 
situation in San Diego, the following facts are of interest: 

"(a) The Army and Navy must always continue to have new planes and more 
planes and larger planes. The construction of these planes will keep local fac- 
tories busy. 

"(b) Ocean flying is in its infancy. When the world is again at peace there will 
be a demand for hundreds of large transoceanic passenger planes capable of 
flying nonstop, with large loads of passengers, mail, and express, to Europe, the 
Orient, Hawaii, etc. Consolidated Aircraft is one of the few companies capable 
of building this equipment. 

"(c) The domestic air lines in the United States at present have a total of 322 
transports in operation. These companies could use 3 times this amount of 
equipment at the present time if it were available. It is obvious that a tremen- 
dous market for commercial transports will be available when the war is over. 
Consolidated is again one of the few companies capable of building these large 

"(d) Forty thousand young men (civilians) are being trained by the Government 
to fly. This creates a potential market for a huge number of small sport planes 
which can be sold for $1,000 or less. In volume production, a splendid small 
plane can be produced for this price. Therefore, the market for such manufac- 
turers as Ryan Aeronautical seems also assured. 

"(e) Due to climatic and other advantages, San Diego will always be an 
important aviation center. It is safe to assume that present aircraft plants will 
continue to operate and expand, and that new factories to produce planes and 
accessories will seek to locate here." 


The special committee to investigate the needs for additional private, ap- 
proved hospital facilities, and individual members thereof, have held numerous 
meetings with Sister Mary Beatrice, superior at Mercy Hospital; Most Rev. 
Bishop Buddy, of the Diocese of San Diego; Father O'Dwyer, head of Catholic 
Charities: Captain Crandall, head of Scripps Memorial Hospital; Mr. A. E. 
Hodgeman; Captain McMorries, United States Navy; Chaplain Dyer, Eleventh 
Naval District; and various businessmen in the community, as well as meetings 
to which designated groups of physicians were specifically invited by letter and, 
through the Bulletin, all the physicians were invited to attend. 

The facts as brought out at these meetings are as follows: 

1. San Diego has an estimated population of 250,000. 

2. The general approved hospital beds in San Diego are as follows: 


(a) County Hospital, main building 430 

(b) Mercy Hospital 360 

(c) Quintard Hospital (applying for approval) 75 

Total 865 

This gives a figure of 3.46 general, approved, hospital beds per thousand. 
Maintaining this same percentage, approximately 175 additional beds would 
care for the increase of 50,000 population estimated for the next 12 months. 

3. While no physician nor group of physicians came forward to specifically 
name any instance in which the private hospitals of San Diego were filled to ca- 
pacity, a number of such instances have been related unofficially. Also, on April 
1, 1941, Mercy Hospital reported 15 beds for adults and 10 beds for children 
vacant, or 93 percent filled. On the same date Quintard Hospital reported 20 
beds available, although 2 days before there had been no beds available. This 
would indicate that with the present population our private hospitals are operating 
dangerously near capacity. 

4. From the best information obtainable from all available naval sources, 
there is little likelihood of the Navy Hospital building its own facilities to care for 
dependents or releasing its present contract for beds with Mercy Hospital. 



In view of the above facts, it is the opinion of your committee that there is a 
true need for approximately 200 additional private, approved, hospital beds in 
San Diego. 

Four possible sources of additional hospital facilities were presented to your 

1. The addition of another wing of Mercy Hospital. 

2. The establishment of another hospital by a different community of sisters 
separate from Mercy Hospital. 

3. Mr. Hodgeman's plan for a nonsectarian community hospital dependent 
upon a Federal loan (Memorial Hospital Association of San Diego). 

4. A community hospital sponsored by a different group of citizens and with a 
building fund raised in part, at least, by popular subscription. 


Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 14, I offer a tabulation by the San Diego 
Chamber of Commerce, on the growth of population to May 1942, 
as estimated by the industrial department of that organization. 

Exhibit 14 

Estimated population groivlh of San Diego compiled by industrial department, 
San Diego Chamber of Commerce, May 20, 1941, for the Federal Power Com- 


Present num- 
ber of em- 


Total new 


by 1942 


Number of 

new employees 
from outside 
San Diego 


Number of 
dependents of 

new men 
from outside 


Total new 
residents col- 
umn III+col- 
umn IV 


16, 500 





66, 540 


15, 500 

12, 400 



22, 320 
1, 150 

34, 720 






Other aviation 

Other commercial 

Naval civilians 

3, 120 

Total civilians 

90, 000 

23, 000 

17, 380 

31, 040 

48, 420 

27, 000 





Total military 

35, 700 




Total military and 

125, 700 

29, 500 

17, 380 

33, 240 

51, 720 

Note.— Population of the city of San Diego on Apr. 1, 1940, according to the United States Census, was 
203,341. Since that time, 55,000 new residents have been added; and another 51,720 will be added by the 
spring of 1942. Therefore, San Diego's population in May 1942, will be approximately 310,000, exclusive 
of naval and military personnel. 


Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 15, I offer a statement by Lottie L. Craw- 
ford, president of the San Diego Planning Commission, setting forth 
some of the problems confronting long-term planners as a result of 
national-defense migration. 

Exhibit 15. — Effect of the Worker Influx on the City Plan of San Diego 
By Lottie L. Crawford, President, San Diego City Planning Commission 

In the early 1930's a long-term plan for allocation of city expenses and needs 
for the development of the municipality was laid out by the city planning com- 
mission. This 10-year plan was based on the normal growth of the city and worked 
excellently until the defense program was developed. 

In 1935 Lindbergh Field was a "triple A" airport. It was probably the most 
perfect port in the United States from the viewpoint of location in regard to the 
business area and in size. At this time the city council agreed to lease space here 
for various aircraft industries. Subsequent development of these industries has 
cut down the size of the field materially. 

In 1937 Pacific Highway was completed at a cost of $2,500,000. It was felt 
by the city planners that access to the city from Highway 101 was settled for 
many years to come. Stemming from Pacific Highway was Camino del Rio with 
its access streets of Sixth Street, Texas Street, Ward Road, and Mission Valley 
Read to College Park. This allowed incoming traffic to enter the residential 
districts on a high-speed highway without going through the business area. 

predefense planning 

At this time the city was well planned into an industrial area which followed 
the water front, the business areas which covered the downtown district, and the 
outlying subcenters. Residential areas were well defined and zoned. Roads to 
the beaches seemed adequate, and park facilities seemed satisfactory. • 

Then came the war contracts of 1940 and with them the influx of defense work- 
ers which, in less than 6 months, carried the city to a population which had been 
estimated it would not attain for at least 6 years. 

It was decided by Public Building Administration to build 3,000 homes for these 
workers. Apparently without regard for any consideration excepting that the 
area was a large property in one ownership, those responsible for the selection of 
the site for these houses chose the only direction in which the city had not expanded 
and crossed the river to Linda Vista Mesa. The consideration of the single owner- 
ship has already been proved an unnecessary one by the filing of condemnation 
proceedings under the law of eminent domain. 

According to the city plan the southeastern part of the city had been set forth 
for an industrial area with a large expanse of cheap land already served by high- 
ways, water, sewers, and schools. 


Linda Vista Mesa is served by one 10-inch pipe line for water which at that time 
was being extended to serve Camp Elliott which would take its entire capacity. 
It is also served by two 2-lane highways, both leading into Camino del Rio. No 
other facilities are there. The nearest subcenter is at least 5 miles from the prop- 
erty. Had city planners and other officials been consulted in the selection of this 
site, it would have been possible to have placed this development where all facil- 
ities were already in. A new water main must be run to this property, a complete 
sewer system must be installed, schools must be built, police and fire arrangements, 
garbage collection and all such facilities must be built for this property so that the 
original cost of the land is a very small proportion of what it will be when these 
necessary facilities are added. 


The cost in lives on the two-lane highways will only be estimated from the police 
records after it is necessary to move 3,000 workers from this area twice a day. 

The unprecedented expansion of Consolidated Aircraft with the movements of 
its workers has so clogged Pacific Highway that it is no longer usable as an entrance 
to the city from Highway 101. 


The development of Consolidated Aircraft along with other defense industries 
in the expansion of military establishments has imposed an abnormal traffic load 
on the street system of the city. The mass of the population of the city of San 
Diego is located in the northeastern portion of the city adjacent to Balboa Park. 
The defense industries and military establishments are situated in two localized 
spots — -one to the west in the vicinity of the municipal airport and the other in the 
southeastern portion of the city adjacent to the bay. 


There is a dire need at the present moment to provide access roads from the 
residential areas to these defense industrial districts. There is a need for an east 
and west road from the vicinity of the Consolidated Aircraft to connect with the 
Washington Street extension under construction, and a north and south road from 
the vicinity of the destroyer base to the North Park area. These two roads are 
necessary to facilitate the transportation of the defense workers from their homes 
to their places of employment. 

With the continued disregardance of facilities offered and the city plan, Public 
Building Administration selected an area near Old Town for dormitories. This 
makes an already problematical intersection, that of Rosecrans and Pacific, a 
five-way intersection which will take its increasing toll in lives as it has done in 
the past with a relatively small amount of traffic. 

Within the last month, disregarding a request of the city council, Federal Works 
Agency has selected another site on Pacific Highway for 1,000 demountable homes. 
The city council requested that these homes be put in the southeastern part of 
the city. 

That this report may not be a continued plaint of lack of cooperation with the 
city officials, I would like to point out that the Farm Securities Administration 
has cooperated with the representatives of the city government and accepted 
their advice in the location of all of their activities. 

The continuing dredging of the bay has shrunk the harbor from an area of 22 
square miles to 15 square miles — that in view of the fact that there are thousands 
of acres of unusable land for anything excepting residential purposes surrounding 
the city. 


The problems for the new 10-year plan presented are: 

1. A new city entrance to tie in with Highway 101. 

2. A method of widening Camino del Rio to care for the disbursing of traffic 
into residential areas. 

3. A straightening and widening of the highways from Linda Vista Mesa. 

4. A rapidly expanding recreational plan to care for the needs of the workers. 

5. A solution of the airplane landing problem with development of both public 
and private landing fields. 

6. Financing these projects. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 16, I offer a map of the city of San Diego, 
showing defense projects, prepared by the office of the planning com- 
mission. The map is intended to show changes in the earlier city 
plans, occasioned by the defense program. 



Exhibit 16 



City of San Diego 

Office of the Planning Commission 

Navy Property 
Army Property 
Marine Property 
Government Housing 

Camp Caltan. 

Marine Rifle Range. 

Camp Elliott. 

Kearny Mesa housing project. 

Naval training station. 

Navy housing unit. 

Marine Corps base. 

Fort Roseerans. 

Navy fuel depot. 

North Island naval air station. 

Eleventh Naval District headquarters. 

12. Navy hospital. 

13. Navy destroyer base. 

14. Navy housing unit. 

15. Naval radio station. 

16. Farm Security Administration dormitories. 

17. Farm Security Administration trailer camp. 

18. Farm Security Administration dormitories. 

19. Public Building Administration dormitories. 

20. Federal Works Agencv demountable houses, 


21. Federal Works Agency demountable houses, 500. 


Mr. Abbott. I offer, as exhibit 17, a report on hospital facilities 
in tne La Jclla area of San Diego, by Mr. Curtis Hillyer, president of 
the Scripps Memorial Hospital. 

Exhibit 17. — Hospital Facilities in La Jolla Area 
By Curtis Hillyer, President, Scripps Memorial Hospital 

June 11, 1941. 

The La Jolla region of the city of San Diego, while lying within the corporate 
limits of San Diego, is in fact a distinct community. It is immediately adjacent 
to the Army Coast Artillery replacement unit of Camp Callan. The only ci- 
vilian hospital in this area is the Scripps Memorial Hospital which has a capacity 
of 38 adults, 3 children, and 6 bassinets. This hospital was built and endowed 
by Miss Ellen Browning Scripps at a time when the population of La Jolla and 
contiguous communities was approximately 5,000. It is now serving more than 
15,000 people and its capacity has been reached. In addition to furnishing 
hospitalization for La Jolla proper, this hospital supplies hospital service for 7 
other adjacent communities, to wit: Rancho Santa Fe and Del Mar on the 
north; Pacific Beach, Crown Point, Bay Park Village, Mission Beach, and Ocean 
Beach on the south. 

La Jolla proper has 5,055 gas services. Using a constant of 2.5, this would 
mean that La Jolla proper now has a population of 13,000. We will discount 
this number and will estimate that this district has some 9,000 to 10,000 people. 
Pacific Beach has at least 4,000, Mission Beach 4,000, and Morena 1,500. 

rapid increase in building 

During the last 2 years there has been a rapid increase in building throughout 
this area. At the present moment, there is in progress there a tremendous 
privately financed building program. This has been caused by the rapidlj- ex- 
panding" defense projects, both military and civil. Three large aircraft corpora- 
tions in San Diego proper — namely, Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, Ryan 
Aeronautical Co., and Solar Aircraft Corporation — have increased the number 
of persons employed by many thousands. Many of these new employees are 
family men and a proportionate share of them has moved into the Bay Park, 
Crown Point, Pacific Beach, and La Jolla areas. "Consolidated" is in process 
of enlarging its plant and expects to employ an additional 18,000 to 20,000 men. 
A proportionate share of these will locate in the areas above named. 

The Army, Navy, Marine, and Coast Guard have all large training camps close 
to La Jolla — namely, Camp Callan, Camp Elliott, Marine Base, Naval Training 
Station, and Fort Rosecrans. Many families of officers have located within the 
area served by Scripps Memorial Hospital with the result that the 40-bed hospital 
of yesterday is too small to accommodate the increased population load of today. 

The Army hospitals are maintained exclusively for the benefit of the Army 
personnel, and not for the wives and children of the officers or men. The existence 
of necessary facilities for hospitalization of these dependents, as you can readily 
see, has a direct bearing on the military and civil morale. A communication 
bringing this situation to the attention of the military heads has, in fact, been sent 
through official channels by General Hardaway, the commanding officer at Camp 


A careful study has been made of this area, and it is estimated that it will take 
an additional 50 beds, together with enlarged surgery theater, changes in maternity 
department, etc., to accommodate the increased demand caused by the additional 

The original hospital was built at a cost of approximately $400,000 for land, 
buildings, and equipment. Since then mod?rn X-ray and physiotherapy equip- 
ment have been added in the sum of $35,000; a nurses' home was built and 
equipped at a cost of $40,000. These buildings and their equipment would be 
sufficient for the normal community but are not sufficient for the load placed upon 
them by the abnormal increase in population caused by national defense. The 
Scripps Memorial Hospital is a nonprofit eleemosynary community institution 
that has the support both financial and moral, to carry on within its income from 


patients, endowments, and gifts. It does not have available the money necessary 
to finance a new addition and no gifts for such a purpose are now available. 

We bring to your attention plans and specifications of a 50-bed addition that 
should be sufficient to care for tha additional hospital facilities required. The 
land is now owned by the hospital on which to build the addition. Plans and 
specifications have been drawn up by Myron Hunt and H. C. Chambers which 
would add a minimum of 50 and a maximum of 55 additional beds, rearrange- 
ment of major and minor surgeries, maternity department, certain additional 
kitchen changes and dumwaiter arrangements. The estimate of cost is $186,000 
to $197,000. The additional equipment will cost approximately $30,000. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 18, I offer a report by Mr. George W. 
Braden, western representative of the National Recreation Associa- 
tion, dealing with recreational facilities in San Diego. 

Exhibit 18. — Recreational Facilities in San Diego 

Report by George W. Braden, Western Representative, National Recreation 


San Diego, Calif., January 10, 1941. 
The service of your western representative at San Diego Thursday and Friday, 
January 9 and 10, was very well arranged b}' W. A. Kearns, superintendent of 
recreation, with attention to the following matters: 

1. General problems which the city and the recreation department are facing, 
due to the growth in population during the past year from 200,000 to upwards of 

2. Rapid expansion of Federal housing for the Army and Navy and civilian 

3. Rapid development of arms' units with the need of expanded defense recrea- 
tion service. 

4. Current problems which the recreation department is meeting. 

During the 2 days, as guest of Superintendent Kearns, I visited Fort Rosecrans 
new Marine Corps camp, Torrey Pines artillery replacement center, the sites of 
the two Navy housing projects, the site of the new civilian housing project, State 
college, Navy recreation fields, and the Memorial Recreation Center. 

Personnel service units in San Diego area 

1. Naval training station (HP ') 6, 000 

2. Naval hospital 2, 500 

3. Destroyer base (HP 1 ) 3, 200 

4. Naval air station 5,200 ' 

16, 900 

Marines : 

1. Marine base 14,130 

2. Camp Elliott 2 5, 000 

3. Rifle range 2,500 

21, 630 


1. Fort Rosecrans 3, 000 

2. Coast Artillery Replacement Center 8, 000 


Cavalry unit (Army) 1, 200 

58, 730 
Personnel housing projects in the San Diego area (for families) : 

1. Navy , 600-154 

2. Destroyer B 600-300 

3. National defense 3, 000' 

1 HP: Housing project. 

2 Inner draft (additional). 


Population expansion anticipated before the end of 1941, Consolidated Aircraft 
Corporation up to 40,000 workers. City of San Diego and vicinity from 250,000 
plus 70,000. 

City Manager Cooper and others outlined the tremendous problems which the 
city is facing, not only in relation to leisure activities but to housing, health, 
sanitation, and hospitalization, public safety, public utilities — light, water, and 
power, flood control and drainage, and especially the budget problems related to 

Superintendent of Schools Crawford outlined the special problems which the 
board of education is facing in trying to care for the vast expansion of those of 
school age and Dean Peterson, San Diego State College, outlined problems which 
the college is facing due to the inflow of new students, the youth of the families 
moving into the San Diego district. 


This special service was directed to the following specific problems: 

1. On-thc-ground conferences and studies at Fort Rosecrans and Torrey Pines 
Camp relating the local department of recreation to needed defense recreation 
service, both in the camps and more particularly in San Diego. 

2. Review of the recreation needs in connection with the Fort Rosecrans 
housing project, which will provide for 3,000 families. Map and studies were made 
in this connection. 

3. The premilitary conditioning and needed changes in physical education 
technique were covered with Dean Peterson and Messrs. Kearns and Robb. 

Colonel Hardaway and Lieutenant Colonel Carington were particularly 
appreciative of service rendered and have asked that we keep in very close touch 
with them. Superintendent Kearns will be notified immediately when the recrea- 
tion officers are appointed at Fort Rosecrans and Torrey Pines Camp. 


Fort Rosecrans and Torrey Pines Camp will have the usual cantonment 
recreation facilities covering service club, guest house, library, motion-picture 
theater, regimental recreation rooms, syninasiuins, fl oors f or dancing and athletic 
fields. Torrey Pines is just a half mile from the Pacific Ocean and a beautiful 
bathing beach. Both camps will have recreation officers and two hostesses. On 
special request we outlined the type of organization and service which these 
appointed people should render. We even went so far as to outline the technique 
and control of dances both within and without the camps. 

The type of defense coirmunity recreation con mil tots which should be ap- 
pointed at Pan Diego and at LaJolla was reviewed in detail with the military 
officers and with Messrs. Cooper, Crawford, and Kearns. It was agreed that as 
early as possible the city will establish a new huge sports center in Balboa Park, 
using a most serviceable existing building built at the time of the exposition. It 
is large enough to hold 14 badminton courts. This center would be used by both 
civilians and men in uniform, a downtown center to serve primarily for social 
recreation for men in uniform. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 19, I offer a report by Katharine C. Halsey, 
general secretary, Young Women's Christian Association, of San 

Exhibit 19. — Housing Problems of Women and Girls Arising From the 
Defense Program 

By Katharine C. Halsey, general secretary, Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, San Diego, Calif. 

June 9, 1941. 

This report, the facts, figures, and case stories, are submitted in an effort to 
help in the solution of a serious community problem. 

The tremendous changes which have occurred in San Diego during the past 
few months are definitely affecting girls and women. There has been an unpre- 
cedented influx of people, due to two primary causes: (1) The greatly enlarged 
program for military service, and (2) the correlated expansion in defense indus- 
tries, especially in aircraft construction and allied industries. 

60396— 41— pt. 12 12 


Great numbers of young women and girls have followed from all parts of the 
country, some of them capable of making an easy adjustment to a new com- 
munity, and others who will definitely encounter difficulties in making this tran- 
sition. One of the most difficult problems is the lack of adequate housing, and 
this factor creates a serious situation. 

More facilities are definitely needed to provide suitable places for these girls 
and women to live in. Because of the nature of the problem, and the serious 
moral consequences involved, the need for some action has become so acute that 
something must be done. 

It is a problem for the Federal Government. 


The facilities of the present community agencies are totally inadequate to 
handle the large numbers of girls coming to the city each month. The Salvation 
Army provides overnight lodging in a small hotel when this is possible. The 
Young Women's Christian Association has lodging space available for only 9 
temporary emergency cases. The rest of the building is occupied by girls in 
permanent residence (87). Girls have had to be turned away because there was 
no room or bed for them. Some girls are actually sleeping in cars and on park 
benches; others are living in undesirable rooms in questionable districts; some are 
even being lodged in the city jail, and from the jail they must emerge with a jail 

The Young Women's Christian Association is the only agency offering service 
24 hours a day, 7 days a week. This is the agency which gives a girl the temporary 
"tide over" assistance (shelter and food) she must have until she can make a 
satisfactory adjustment to the new community — either through counseling and 
employment provided by the Young Women's Christian Association or by some 
permanent plan advised by some other agency. Sometimes this involves return 
to legal residence, and sometimes further relief until an adjustment may be 


Repeatedly girls who are seeking places to live have reported to us their diffi- 
culties in finding suitable rooms and apartments. Although many rooms are listed 
with the Central Housing Bureau and other sources it is found upon investigation 
that these rooms are not for rent to girls. The few rooms available to them give 
none of the privileges necessary to girls living away from home. 

The Young Women's Christian Association investigation of possible homes for 
girls through our room registry committee has shown that many of the rooms 
formerly available to girls are now rented to young men. Also many of the places 
offered are unsuitable for the kind of girls who are seeking permanent residence 
in the city. 


It is reported by the Police Department that 32 girls were kept in jail over 
night during the last month, because they had no other place to go. They in- 
vestigated to find out whether the girls are vagrants, with no visible means of 
support, or whether they had become stranded through some unfortunate circum- 
stance such as loss of money, unemployment, etc. If the girls were from nearby 
towns, Hollywood, Pasadena, etc., the parents were notified and they usually 
came for them, and thus a jail record was not necessary. 

It was reported that most of the girls requesting lodging were girls from the 
north and east and that they had come here because some relative or friend was 
in the service, and located at one of the nearby camps. Frequently these girls 
are sent home. 

The Young Women's Christian Association is providing temporary relief (food 
and lodging) vocational and personal counseling and employment for girls and 
women. The aid which can be given, however, is inadequate for the demand 
made upon the agency. 


The following figures and case stories show the responsibility which the Young 
Women's Christian Association has been taking in the present emergency situa- 

Fifty percent of the girls and women seeking help from the association are 
nonresident girls from other States. 


Three hundred and eight girls have applied to the Young Women's Christian 
Association for aid, through the Employment and Counseling Department, 
during the 5-month period January 1 to June 1, 1941. 

One hundred and eleven girls (not included in the above number) have been 
given temporary relief from 1 to 14 nights lodging and meals during that time, 
or have been given relief counseling. 

Seventy-one girls have been given food, lodging, or small cash loans, during 
the 5-month period. 

All of these girls are nonresidents, newcomers to the State, and are in addition 
to the regular resident girls whom we are serving. 


Some of the case stories of the girls and women who make up these statistics 
give evidence of the fact that they come for reasons definitely connected with the 
defense situation. 

June came to be married, but her fiance has shipped to Honolulu with the 
Navy. She is living with a sister and three young children, in a small house with 
no adequate space for privacy. 

Nancy and her family picked up bag and baggage to move to San Diego hoping 
•'Daddy" or "Jim" can find work. She must find employment to help out until 
the job is found. They are sleeping in a trailer. 

Mrs. Hastings, who, upon her doctor's advice, brought her invalid husband and 
two children here, giving up an office position of responsibility in the Middle West, 
cannot find employment. Here she is competing with young, locally trained girls 
for every position which she is qualified to hold. Hers is a desperate problem, 
for she must supplement their small income. A brother working here in a defense 
industry thought if Mr. Hastings' health improved he might get part-time work. 

Mrs. Smith, a mother 19 years old, with two babies had slept in the park three 
nights when the police matron brought them to the Young Women's Christian 
Association. They stayed overnight, but got up and away before they were 
interviewed in the morning. 

Jennie, just another hitchhiker, who came in, stayed over the week end, leaving 
early Monday morning stating that she found a job through the newspaper. 

Mrs. Arken, an older woman, and her husband slept in an open garage several 
nights. Mrs. Arken spent her days at the Young Women's Christian Association 
in the rest room, and was given her meals until her husband received his first 
pay check on a new job. 

Mrs. Anderson, expectant mother, wife of a "selectee" at a local camp, stayed 
here several weeks because of their inability to find desirable living quarters at 
what he could afford to pay from his limited income. 

Mrs. Clay from Colorado was given a Mother's Day gift of a round trip ticket 
to San Diego to visit a sister whom she had not seen for many years. When 
she arrived, to her dismay, her sister was out of town, and was reported to ha\e 
gone to Colorado. She spent several nights with a distant cousin — lost her purse 
containing all her money and her return ticket. She came, with her little 4-year- 
old daughter, to the Young Women's Christian Association — stayed over 1 night, 
had dinner and breakfast, and then was referred to the proper agency for addi- 
tional relief and plans to return home. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 20, I wish to offer material submitted for 
the committee's record by Air. Glen B. Eastburn, manager of the 
aviation department of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, 
including certain form statements used in answering inquiries concern- 
ing employment in aircraft factories. (For testimony concerning air- 
craft training schools taken in other hearings of the committee, see 
pp. 3666, 3670, 2811, 2825, and 1523, in the published volumes of 
this series of hearings.) 


Exhibit 20. — Training and Employment in the Aviation Industry 

By Glen B. Eastburn, manager, Aviation Department, Los Angeles Chamber of 


For the information of your committee, during 1940, due to the great amount 
of publicity that the aircraft factories had received, there was the migration to 
the Los Angeles area of great numbers of men. This was stimulated by the glow- 
ing advertisements of certain of our job-training schools who were' promising 
most Anything to get students. Some of these schools were equipped, while 
others were hastily thrown together and lacked both material and personnel for 
proper instruction. There was little effort made to screen out the misfits and. 
consequently, there was some distress created during the year the plants were 
expanding and building up their plant capacity. 

Since January 1 the situation has changed to quite an extent. Some of the 
less qualified schools have been eliminated; the better schools are more carefully 
screening their students and the employment practices of the factories have 
become more standardized. Furthermore, there is a need for all available trained 
men, as well as those that are capable of receiving training. At the present there 
does not seem to be any great problem as all of the qualified men are employed. 
Our particular problem is to get enough men to fill the demands of the aircraft 

I am attaching certain form statements we are using in answering inquiries 
concerning employment in aircraft factories: 

1. Opportunity for employment in aircraft factories in Los Angeles County. 

2. Job-training schools for defense industries — Pointers for prospective 


3. Defense-training schools in Los Angeles County. 

4. Job-training schools for defense industries — Sources of information. 

Form statement 1 : 

This general statement is prepared to answer inquiries on: 


There is need for skilled and semiskilled labor in the aircraft industry. 

Requirements are, either previous experience, or basic training in some of the- 
occupations employed by aircraft factories. 

Skilled men should write or apply directly to the factories, outlining their 
experience and ability. 

Men entirely unskilled, or lacking means to procure at least short training, 
should not expect to secure employment in the aircraft factories. 

Specific trade knowledge or competent job training is a major factor in obtain- 
ing employment. Exception is made in cases where educational attainment or 
evident aptitude is a striking characteristic of the applicant. 

Only the efficient training schools prepare the type man who is eventually hired. 
Graduation does not guarantee a job. 

In addition to possessing at least rudimentary mechanical knowledge, job seek- 
ers should be prepared to establish United States citizenship by birth certificate 
or other evidence. Physical fitness is required. 

A permanent staff of employees is being built up, consequently factories require 
skill, stability of character, and a desire to succeed. 

Defense industries need the trained citizen. 

Form statement 2: 


Aircraft Schools Association, room 281, Chamber of Commerce Building, Los 
Angeles. — This organization limits its membership to schools which have adopted a 
standard code of operation. The association office at the above address furnishes 
information on courses, prices, personnel, equipment, placement, makes no charge 
for this service. 

Public schools, national defense training preparatory classes. — Alhambra, Alham- 
bra High School; Bonita, Bonita High School: Burbank, John Burroughs High 
School; El Monte, El Monte High School; Excelsior, Excelsior High School: 


Glendale, Glendale Evening High School; Inglewood, Inglewood High School; 
Long Beach, Trade Extension School; Los Angeles, Frank Wiggins Trade School, 
Fremont High School, Manual Arts High School; Venice, Venice High School; 
Montebello, Montebello High School; Pasadena, Garfield Annex, Pasadena Junior 
College; Pomona, Pomona High School, Redondo, Redondo High School; Santa 
Monica, Santa Monica Technical School. 

The Better Business Bureau, 7.^2 South Hill Street, Los Angeles. — Better business 
bureau does not endorse or recommend any organization; it is strictly a fact finding 
body. Its files contain certain factual information which may be of assistance to 
the inquirer. These facts include the corporate set-up, length of time the school 
has been in existence and antecedent record of the principals, whether or not public 
complaints have been filed at this bureau, against the school. 

Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce, aviation department, 1151 South Broadway, 
Los Angeles. — For general information on aircraft manufacturers, aircraft parts 
manufacturers, aircraft schools, and airports. 

Form Statement 3: 


The 14 schools listed herein have submitted information regarding courses 

The United States Civil Aeronautics Authority prescribes curriculum, facilities, 
equipment, and material which shall be provided by a civilian aviation school in 
order to be eligible for certification as a mechanic school, or for flying instruction. 

Aero Industries Technical Institute, 5245 West San Fernando Road, Los 
Angeles: United States Civil Aeronautics Authority approved master mechanics; 
aeronautical engineering; drafting; designing. 

California Flyers School of Aeronautics, Los Angeles Municipal Airport, 
Inglewood: United States Civil Aeronautics Authority approved master me- 
chanics; aeronautical engineering, designing; drafting; flying. 

Curtiss- Wright Technical Institute, Grand Central Air Terminal, Glendale: 
United States Civil Aeronautics Authority approved master mechanics; aero- 
nautical engineering, designing; drafting. 

Western Air College, Alhambra Airport, Alhambra: Civil Aeronautics Author- 
ity flying. 

Special Schools 

American School of Aircraft Instruments, 3903 West San Fernando Road, 
Glendale: Instrument mechanics; instrument technicians. 

In addition, there are the 4- to 12-week courses in job-training for aircraft 
riveting, welding, blueprint reading, and sheet metal, in which the following 
schools give courses: 

Aero Industries Technical Institute, 5245 West San Fernando Road, Los 

Aeronautical Institute of Technology, 3840 South Broadway Place, Los Angeles. 

Anderson Airplane School, 1100 South Flower Street, Los Angeles. 

Aviation Training, Inc., 2845 West Seventh Street, Los Angeles. 

Aviation Training Service, 1823 South Hope Street, Los Angeles. 

California Aircraft Institute, 514 West Twelfth Street, Los Angeles. 

California Flyers School of Aeronautics, Los Angeles Municipal Airport, 

Curtiss-Wright Technical Institute, Grand Central Air Terminal, Glendale. 

Fletcher Aircraft Schools, 625 West San Fernando Road, Burbank. 

National Schools, 4000 South Figueroa Street, Los Angeles. 

United Aircraft School, 10820 Hawthorne Boulevard, Inglewood. 

Western Air College, Alhambra Airport, Alhambra. 

Western Aircraft Engineers, 807 South Flower Street, Los Angeles. 

Form Statement 4: 



1. No matter what may be told you, only the words in your contract mean 
anything. Study the contract carefully, get advice on it if you are not sure. 

2. Execute your contract in duplicate, have same signed before witnesses, keep 
your copy. 


Contracts usually have a clause denying the admissibility of oral statements, 
also one prohibiting any change in wording by salesmen. 

In taking receipts, see that they state clearly what the payment is for. 

3. Know whether you are dealing direct with an accredited representative of a 
school. If the John Doe Sales Agency is selling courses for the John Doe Aircraft 
School your contract relation may be questionable. 

4. Don't be excited by the remote probability of high wages. 

0. Many good schools have a high placement record; that fact does not prove 
that you will get a job. 

Can you make the grade? Don't be oversold on the idea that everyone can 
learn aircraft mechanics. Factories require proficiency. 

6. Don't buy a "Short course'' that is too short; nor a long one that is beyond 
your financial capacity. 

7. A salesman may have exclusive representation for his school, in a specified 
territory. There is nothing in that to prevent your writing the school direct if 
you want any of his statements verified. 

8. Require any school claiming 100 percent placement to prove the statement. 

9. Provide yourself with sufficient expense money for a waiting period between 
graduation and employment. Factories cannot always pass on your qualifications 
immediately, in some cases a month has intervened. 

10. Consider very cautiously any promise of an immediate job; if part-time 
work while you are in school is promised, have that written into your contract. 

11. Don't ask if a school has merit or if it is worthy. Get in writing (or print), 
a statement concerning its owner or management, a like statement of its equip- 
ment, a list of graduate students now employed in aircraft. 

12. Don't buy a course in mechanics. Reputable schools state in their con- 
tracts, that the course is riveting, sheet-metal assembly, etc. 

13. Look twice at the course offered for a comparatively small payment and 
nothing more to pay if you don't get a job. 

14. Inquire particularly about extras, such as cost of tools, physical examina- 
tion, tests. 

15. Be sure that your physical condition is good. Trained men have'been 
forced to wait employment until they could correct defective teeth, vision, blood 

16. If in doubt on any point presented by a school representative, write the 
school and ask them to mail you their literature. The better schools will furnish 
you information on instructors, placement, other important details. 

17. Go slow on any contract which denies you all right of refund. For good 
reasons you may be entitled to a refund in part, but some contracts read in such 
a manner that your entire tuition legally belongs to the school, even though you 
may be prevented from finishing the course. While you might not be entitled 
to a refund in full, the contract should permit reasonable adjustment, in a proven 

18. Why hurry? It's your money, your career. Don't let high-pressure sales 
talk rush you into an immediate decision. 


You should have — • 

1. Your birth certificate; 

2. Your social-security card; draft registration; 

3. History of former employment and your grade, high school, or other edu- 

4. Positive information concerning relatives, if any, residing in foregin countries; 

5. Exact information on the citizenship status of your parents, if they are 
foreign born; 

6. A clean slate as to any felony or misdemeanor; 

7. No deformity, crippled limbs or hands, rupture, hernia, injuries unhealed, 
chronic disease, defective teeth or eyes; 

8. The ability to get along with fellow employees; 

9. An inclination toward mechanical work, a desire to learn; 

10. Sufficient intelligence to absorb and retain ordinary instruction, such as, 
for example, second year high school mathematics. 

Mr. Abbott. I wish to introduce certain material from the Navy 
Department, consisting of the following: 


As exhibit 21-A: A report of Lt. Comdr. C. G. Hjelte, to the Chief 
of the Bureau of Navigation, concerning recreational facilities at 
certain naval stations, including San Diego. 

As exhibit 21-B: Memorandum from the Commander in Chief, 
United States Pacific Fleet, to the Pacific Fleet, dealing with the 
subject of dependents of fleet personnel arriving in San Diego. 

As exhibit 21-C: Memorandum from the Commandant's Office, 
Eleventh Naval District, concerning housing for married enlisted 
and civilian personnel, San Diego and Long Beach, Calif. 

Exhibit 21-A 

April 13, 1941. 
From: Lt. Comdr. C. G. Hjelte, U. S. N. R. 
To: The Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. 

Subject: Recreational facilities at certain naval stations and in certain cities. 
Reference: (a) BuNav Orders 87140 of March 7, 1941. 

1. In accordance with reference (a) I have visited the cities of San Diego and 
San Francisco, Calif.; Seattle, Wash.; Great Lakes, 111.; and the naval stations in 
the vicinities of those cities. 

2. At San Diego I made the following observations: 

(a) The city of San Diego, under normal conditions, would be considered well 
organized and equipped to provide conveniences and recreational opportunities 
for men in the armed services; however, it has experienced a tremendous growth 
during the past year by reason of the expansion of the airplane industry and the 
increase in military forces. Its population has increased from approximately 
150,000 to over 250,000 and it has been rather suddenly transformed from a quiet 
city of retirement to a teeming industrial center. 

Its public recreational facilities are more numerous and better appointed than 
most cities of its size, and for over 10 years it has had a competent public recreation 
commission. This commission is in constant contact with the proper officers of 
the several naval units in the vicinity, and the latter arrange for the use of the 
public facilities whenever the occasion requires. This commission, however, can- 
not procure the funds for reasonable additions to public facilities required by the 
population brought in by defense industries and by Naval and Army expansion. 
The city has a relatively low tax revenue due to the fact that it has practically no 
industries other than governmental, which are tax exempt. This city seems in 
great need of assistance from the Federal Government, for various functions 
ordinarily considered local, but which, due to defense plans, may now be properly 
considered partially Federal in character. 

The city of San Diego has a very large, well-equipped Army and Navy Y. M. 
C. A. Facilities of the Y. M. C. A. are taxed beyond capacity and even if doubled 
would not be sufficient. 

Specifically there is required in San Diego the following facilities which there 
appears to be no opportunity of procuring except through Federal aid: 

(1) A central convenience and recreation center located near the water front 
providing headquarters for the several private agencies incorporated in the United 
Service Organization; reading room, game room, check rooms, small canteen and 
large hall, gymnasium as a center for large events. This center is required as 
much for the use of men of the army units as of the naval and marine forces of the 
same locality. 

(2) Building providing inexpensive dormitory accommodations for 1,000 or 
more men, together with locker space which may be rented at nominal cost to 
men for storage of articles which may not be stored in their stations. 

(3) Funds for the enhancement of facilities and services of public recreation 
at various centers indicated mainly by the needs of industrial personnel in the 
aircraft industry and in naval units, and, in part, by the needs of enlisted men. 

All of the above needs have been presented to the coordinator of health, welfare, 
and other matters related to national defense and requests have been transmitted 
by the municipal authorities. 

(b) The naval training station, upon completion of construction now in progress, 
including a spacious auditorium and related facilities, will be fairly equipped for 


recreation purposes; however, adequate additional equipment for this station 
should include the following items: 

(1) Gvmnasium. 

(2) Athletic field. 

(3) Swimming pool. 

(4) Bowling alleys. 

(5) Night illumination for the courts and soft ball. 
Approximate cost of the above, $350,000. 

It is believed that the recreation facilities in training stations are more important 
than in other types of stations because of the immature age of the enlisted per- 
sonnel. The few weeks which these men spend in the stations present an oppor- 
tunity to develop recreational skills and attitudes which will go far in determining 
their choices of recreational pursuits throughout their entire enlistment. It cannot 
be urged too strongly that facilities at such stations be adequate for a program 
that will reach all of the enlisted men and for leadership of a superior type in 
recreational activities. 

(c) The naval air station, being a permanent base, is not as greatly in need as 
other stations. Its personnel is comparatively small and much of it is assimilated 
in community life. Complete equipment of this station, however, for an adequate 
recreational program would include the following: 

(1) Gymnasium. 

(2) Swimming pool. 

(3) Bowling alleys. 

Approximate cost of the above, $300,000. 

(d) The needs of the destroyer base may be cared for by enhancement of the 
recreation facilities and services of both the municipal and the several private 
agencies in the community. Men from the destroyers which put in at this base 
will likewise seek their recreation in the adjacent communities. 

(e) The Navy athletic field, located on tide lands leased from the city of San 
Diego, is a highly valuable facility for the recreation of forces afloat. It has a 
gymnasium, social hall, athletic field, and four tennis courts built largely by 
contributed funds and with W. P. A. assistance. There is ample space for enlarge- 
ment and the development here of an additional gymnasium, picnic grounds, 
tennis and handball courts should be encouraged. This facility would be of 
inestimable value if so improved, not only for the recreation of forces afloat but 
for personnel from the several naval stations in the vicinity. The following 
improvements are recommended: 

(1) Gymnasium. 

(2) Recreation center. 

(3) Tennis courts. 

(4) Handball courts. 

(5) Picnic area. 

Approximate cost of the above, $150,000. 

(/) The Navy housing project, 600 units at the destroyer base and two groups 
of 600 units each, near the marine base, are wholly lacking in any facilities for 
cornniunity life and recreation. There will be immediate pressing need for a 
community center and playground at each of the three projects. Provisions 
shouM also be made of personnel consisting of one or two recreation leaders for 
each of these projects. 

Approximate cost of the above, $150,000. 

3. At San Francisco and vicinity I made the following observations: 

(a) The city of San Francisco will offer hospitality to men from many Naval 
and Army stations and cantonments, but these personnel in relation to the popu- 
lation and resources of the city are comparatively small. There has been 
appointed by the mayor a citizens committee on hospitality to service men which 
is planning construction of a hospitality center on the property of the civic center. 
Appropriation of $15,000 has already been procured from city funds and union 
labor has tentatively offered to donate necessary labor. The building planned 
represents a $60,000 project. Through various subcommittees arrangements 
have been made for entertainment, transportation, price control of commodities 
sold to service men, and related matters. 

The public recreation commission of this city is superior and its facilities are 
extensive. No aid from the Federal Government of any character is required 
by this city to render the desired service to men in the armed forces and in defense 


(b) Mare Island Navy Yard is well provided with facilities for recreation of 
officers and enlisted personnel. Industrial personnel, which have increased from 
5 to 16 thousand, crowding the adjacent city of Vallejo beyond any reasonable 
capacity, present an emergent problem. Many of these people travel 30 or 40 
miles to work. Construction of private dwellings in Vallejo is not commensurate 
with the growth of the city due to the opinion that the condition is temporary. 
Quarters are improvised hi shacks and trailers clustered in many camps in and 
out of the city. Rooms formerly available to members of crews of vessels docked 
at the yard are now largely occupied by industrial personnel. This condition 
indicates a pressing need for dormitory accommodations in Vallejo and for com- 
munity recreation facilities and program. This city and Bremerton, reported 
upon below, merit more consideration for local aid than any other cities so far 
visited. Army and Navy Y. M. C. A., although small, renders services highly 
valued by the commandant and other officers at the yard. 

(c) The Navy housing projects, consisting of two, adjacent to the yard, both 
house naval personnel and their families, and one to some extent, industrial per- 
sonnel. As in San Diego, neither of these projects has facilities for recreation, 
schools, and other normal community services, and, being somewhat detached 
from the city of Vallejo, both being out of the city limits, do not merit their 
share of municipal services. Both present emergent needs as far as recreation is 
concerned for a community center and recreation ground. 

Approximate cost of the above, $100,000. 

(d) The city of Vallejo requires the following facilities which it cannot procure 
except through Federal aid: 

(1) A central convenience and recreation center providing headquarters 

for the agencies of the United Service Organizations. 

(2) Inexpensive dormitory accommodations which may be rented at nom- 

inal prices to naval personnel. 

(e) Yerba Buena receiving ship. — Personnel at this station are few and, although 
facilities are old, those intended for recreation are adequate. 

(/) Naval air station (Alameda). — This station is now in process of construction 
and is occupied by limited personnel. Barracks, headquarters, hangars, etc., are 
completed or building, but no provision has been made for recreation facilities, 
other than recreation rooms within the barracks. Additional facilities are required 
as follows: 

(1) Gymnasium. 

(2) Swimming pool. 

(3) Tennis court. 

(4) Handball courts. 

(5) Softball fields. 

(6) Badminton courts. 

(7) Handball and squash courts. 

(8) Illumination for certain of the above outdoor facilities. 
Approximate cost of the above, $500,000. 

Exhibit 21-B 
Cincpac File No. United States Pacific Fleet 



Pearl Harbor, T. H., April 23, 1941. 


From: Commander in Chief, United States Pacific Fleet. 

To: Pacific Fleet. 

Subject: Dependents of fleet personnel arriving in San Diego. 

1. Due to the large numbers of service personnel and defense workers arriving 
in the San Diego area, it is increasingly difficult and, at the present time, almost 
impossible to obtain living quarters. 

2. It has come to the attention of the Commander in Chief that a large number 
of the dependents of men serving in the fleet have recently arrived in San Diego 
assuming that suitable places to rent are available. Unnecessary expenses are 
involved in this connection and, in many cases, actual distress has resulted. 



3. The personnel of the fleet are urged to inform their dependents who are now 
residing outside this area of the scarcity of rental property at San Diego and of the 
corresponding increase in rents. Definite arrangements for living quarters should 
be made before moving to the San Diego vicinity. 

W. W. Smith, Chief of Staff. 

List III, Case 2, O, X, 
EN4, ND11. 
P. C. Crosley, 

Flag Secretary. 

Exhibit 21-C 

Commandant's Office, 

Eleventh Naval District, 

San Diego, Calif., May 21, 19^1. 
(Serial No. P-2840) 
From: The Commandant. 
To: Addresses listed. 
Subject: Naval defense housing for married enlisted and civilian personnel, San 

Diego and Long Beach, Calif. Information concerning. 
Reference: (a) My Serial No. P-1736, dated January 14, 1941. 

(6) Defense Housing Bulletin No. 1. 
Enclosures: (A) Defense Housing Bulletin No. 2. 
(B) Modified application blank. 

1. References (a) and (6) are hereby canceled. 

2. Enclosure (A) is forwarded for the information and guidance of enlisted and 
civilian personnel concerned. 

3. Application forms may be typed or mimeographed by ships and stations. 

G. M. Ravenscroft, 

Chief of Staff. 








The Commander 



The Commander 



The Commander 



The Commander 



The Commander 



The Commander 



The Commander 



The Commander 



The Commander 



The Commander 



The Commander 

in Chief, United States Fleet. 
Battle Force. 
Scouting Force. 

Submarine Force. 
Battleships, Battle Force. 
Aircraft , Battle Force. 
Aircraft, Scouting Force. 
Cruisers, Battle Force. 
Cruisers, Scouting Force. 
Destroyers, Battle Force. 


























The Chief of Bureau of Yards and Docks. 


The Commanding General, Marine Corps Base. 

The Commanding OHicer, Naval Air Station. 

The Commanding OHicer, Naval Training Station. 

The Commanding Officer, Naval Hospital. 

The Commanding Officer, Destroyer Base. 

The Commanding Officer. Radio Stations, Eleventh Naval District. 

Each Resident Manager Naval Defense Housing Project. 


The Assistant Commandant, Eleventh Naval District, Long Beach. 
The Commanding Officer, Naval Air Station, Terminal Island, San Pedro. 
The Commanding Officer, Naval Reserve Aviation Base, Long Beach. 
Each Resident Manager, Naval Defense Housing Project. 


Headquarters, Eleventh Naval District, 

San Diego, Calif., May 16, 1941. 

Defense Housing Bulletin No. 2 

(Note.- — The information contained in this bulletin is intended for dissemination 
to enlisted personnel of the Navy and Marine Corps and to civilians employed 
by the Navy and Marine Corps shore establishments. This information is not 
for general release.) 

1. In accordance with instructions of the Chief of the Bureau of Yards and 
Docks, Navy Department, there has been established at Eleventh Naval District 
headquarters, San Diego, Calif., a naval defense housing management activity 
which will be under the cognizance of the district public works officer, who will 
act as the commandant's representative in all matters pertaining to the rental, 
operation, and maintenance of defense housing units now nearing completion 
and any additional units which may be acquired or constructed in this district 
in the future. 

2. There are available at the present time in this district 1,600 Navy defense 
housing units, the majority of which are occupied. All future applications will 
receive consideration for the remaining unassigned units and future vacancies 
by the district rental board which maintains priority lists. 

600 houses adjacent to destroyer base, San Diego, Calif. 

600 houses adjacent to Marine Corps base, San Diego, Calif. 

400 houses in vicinity of 2053 Santa Fe Avenue, Long Beach, Calif. 

3. Eligibility for occupancy. — Eligibility for occupancy will be limited to the 

Navy and Marine Corps enlisted men with grade of chief petty officer and 
master sergeant and under (1,000 units at San Diego and 400 units at Long 

Civilian personnel whose per annum income from all sources including his 
legal dependants is $1,800 or under (100 units available at Marine Corps base 
and 100 at destroyer base only for civilian personnel). 

4. Facilities provided. — Each housing unit will consist of living room, kitchen, 
bathroom, and one, two, or three bedrooms and will be furnished with gas kitchen 
range, gas water neater, gas space heater, electrical refrigeration, and window 
shades. No other furniture will be provided. 

Parking space only will be provided; no garages. 

To avoid overcrowding, no spare bedrooms will be provided and assignment 
of bedroom space will be made upon the basis of actual requirements of the 
immediate family. The following limits will be followed: 

Type of dwelling 

Minimum limits 


2 persons 

3 persons 

4 persons 

5. Rentals — Effective July 1, 1941- — Rentals for enlisted personnel of Navy and 
Marine Corps: 

For pay grades not receiving rental allowance (third class petty officers and below) 

Dwelling unit with 1 bedroom (per month) $10.00 

Dwelling unit with 2 bedrooms (per month) 12.50 

Dwelling unit with 3 bedrooms (per month) 15. 00 

For pay grades receiving rental allowance (second class and above) 

Dwelling unit with 1 bedroom (per month) $17. 00 

Dwelling unit with 2 bedrooms (per month) 20. 00 

Dwelling unit with 3 bedrooms (per month) 23. 00 


Rentals for civilian personnel of Navy 

Dwelling unit with 1 bedroom (per month) $20. 00 

Dwelling unit with 2 bedrooms (per month) 25. 00 

Dwelling unit with 3 bedrooms (per month) 30. 00 

The above monthly rentals do not include the cost of electricity, gas, or water. 
A charge of $0.50 per month will be charged for garbage and trash collection. 
Tenant must furnish his own garbage can and trash receptacle. Rentals payable 
in advance monthly. 


The attached sample application forms shall be filled out and forwarded in 
duplicate, to the commandant, Eleventh Naval District, San Diego, Calif., with 
the comment and recommendation of the applicant's commanding officer, by 
endorsement, on reverse side of form. 

Priorities will be established and houses assigned as determined by the Eleventh 
Naval District rental board. 

Each applicant or his dependent must be personally interviewed by a member 
of the district rental board. Applicants and their dependents should be advised 
to give full and accurate information at the time of interview. Interviews in 
San Diego will be conducted in room 254, Broadway Pier, and in Long Beach at 
the Navy relief office, Federal Building. 

Applicants should furnish a residence address in order to expedite contact by 
the district rental board. 

When applicants list a dependent other than wife and children a statement as 
to relationship and dependency must be made on application. 

Navy Department, 
Bureau of Yards and Docks, 

Housing Division. 


Application for Defense Housing 

Name: John E. Doe. Race: White. 

Address: 419 Railroad Avenue. City: San Diego, Calif. 

Occupation: RM3c. Name of superior: 

Employed by U. S. S. Bulkhead. A. B. C. 

Present salary: $66. Lieutenant, United States Navy. 

What rent do you now pay: $27.50. 

Number persons in family: 5. 

Over 21 years 1 M 2 F Dependent. 

16-20 years M F Mother. 

11-15 years M F 

6-10 years 1 M F 

5 and under M 1 F 

Other members of family working: No. 
Number bedrooms required: 2 or 3 if available. 
Do you own a car? Yes. 
Children attending school: Grade 1 High. 

[s] John E. Doe. 
(Applicant's signature) 


Applicant should not fill out rest of page. 

Interviewed by Date 

Approved by Date 

Assigned to # 
Assigned to Parking Area # 

(To be filled out in duplicate) 



My total income, including any income from my legal dependents, from all 

sources is $ per month. 

Do either you or your legal dependents own, or are you purchasing property? 

(Note. — If the answer to the above question is "Yes," submit 'full details 
with application.) 

[s] John E. Doe. 

u. s. s. "bulkhead 
First endorsement. 
MM/Doe, John E. 

RM3c, United States Navy, 


From: Commanding Officer. 

To: Eleventh Naval District Rental Board. 

1. Forwarded recommending approval. 

2. Statements made in basic application have been verified as far as applicable 
with the current service record of Doe. 

[s] A. B. C. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 22, I offer a report on housing conditions 
in the Los Angeles harbor area, by Mr. Eugene Weston, Jr., of Los 

Exhibit 22. Housing Conditions in the Los Angeles Harbor Area 
By Eugene Weston, Jr., architect, Los Angeles 

The housing situation in the Los Angeles area in relation to the availability of 
sale or rental dwellings for defense workers is complex and no definite conclusion 
can be drawn except by referring to a sector of that area. 

In my opinion, the most acute condition now exists and will become increasingly 
aggravated in the Los Angeles harbor area, and particularly the counties of San 
Pedro and Wilmington. These two towns are a legal part of the city of Los 
Angeles and are divided politically and geographically from the city of Long 
Beach and its harbor. 

Basically the defense-housing problem of Long Beach is related specifically to 
the new Douglas Aircraft plant northeast of Long Beach and the Consolidated 
Steel Shipbuilding plant at Long Beach Harbor. These two basic defense 
activities will absorb any vacancies now existing in Long Beach and even with all 
the single-family private residential building that is programmed, in my opinion, 
low-rental housing in that city will be at a premium in a few months. The 
aircraft workers' demands are filling the beach vacation cottages as far south as 
Newport Beach and back north into Compton and east into Fullerton and Santa 


The definite housing demand in Terminal Island, San Pedro, and Wilmington 
that is now developing will not be helped or aided by Long Beach due to its own 
immediate problem. 

Terminal Island lies across the inner harbor to the south of Wilmington and 
separates the inner and outer harbors. It is now connected by a single draw bridge 
to the north via Henry Ford Avenue on the east limits of Wilmington. San Pedro 
lies to the west of Terminal Island, and is connected by a ferry that is being re- 

Terminal Island is the site of the United States naval base now being con- 
structed at a cost of about $15,000,000, including the dry docks; the United States 
Navy land and seaplane base, Reeves Field; the new California shipbuilding plant; 
the enlarged Bethlehem shipbuilding plant; and all the other normal harbor 
activities and facilities. 



San Pedro is the site of Fort MacArthur and its accessory buildings, the site of 

the , to be built, $14,000,000. United States Army embarkation base, the 

Los Angeles shipbuilding yards and drydock, and the other normal harbor 
activities and facilities. 

Wilmington is the site of the new Los Angeles Bureau of Power & Light steam 
stand-by plant soon to be built, the site of the Wilmington branch of the Con- 
solidated Steel shipbuilding plant, and the other normal harbor activities and 

San Pedro's principal access is through a bottleneck to the north via Gaffey and 
the Wilmington and San Pedro road. All ferry traffic from Terminal Island to 
San Pedro must clear that bottleneck. 

Wilmington physically is blighted as far as the development of private housing 
by the tremendous spread of the oil fields through a substantial portion of the 
community. Building permits in the San Pedro and Wilmington area do not 
follow the pattern increase of other Los Angeles communities. During the first 
5 months of 1940 a total of 669 permits representing about 267 dwelling facilities 
and during the first 5 months of 1941, a total of 655 permits representing about 
262 dwelling facilities were built. This indicates no increase over normal demand 
in private building. 

Wilmington has certain back-country towns which usually could handle excess 
population demands but due to the tremendous increase to the northwest at the 
Los Angeles Airport, of the El Segundo branch of the Douglas Aircraft, and the 
North American Aircraft, and the nearby plant of the Northrup Co., we find 
every available facility of these towns entirely occupied by the airplane workers' 


Torrance, about halfway between this group of the aircraft factories and 
Wilmington, is the site of the Columbia Steel Co.'s plant and there are no vacancies 
in this city and 1 ,500 additional workers will soon be hired. The towns of Gardens, 
Redondo, and Compton have practically no vacancies in the $35-per-month 
brackets. A substantial amount of Federal savings and loan associations financing 
and title VI Federal Housing Administration insurance will provide a certain 
amount of sale and a few rental units. In my opinion, 2,000 privately financed 
homes would be a very generous figure from the information at my disposal. 

Coming back to Wilmington, we therefore find virtually aL of the Terminal 
Island, San Pedro, traffic clearing through Wilmington for points east, north, 
and west. There are no vacancies in Wilmington and practically none in the 
back country. It is generally agreed that outside of building-construction work- 
ers, secondary popi^ation increment, minor and subcontract defense workers, 
civi'ian employees, at Reeves Field, United States Navy base, United States 
Army base, and Fort IViac Arthur, that, the shipbuilding industry will en ploy in 
the next 12 or 15 months 25,01.0 additional shipbuilding workers and, in my 
opinion, considering the factors stated in this testimony indicates conclusively a 
most tragic housing shortage will rapidly develop. 


As I understai d from the California Department of Employment that of all 
new emj loyees in Los Angeles County hired in the month of May 50 percent were 
out of county migrants. However, due to the difficult transportation bottle- 
necks and the fact that automobiles are so extensively used, traffic will be at a 
virtual standstill with this increase of employment. I am convinced that the 
majority of these shipworkers should be housed sa> close to Wilmington and San 
Pedro as possiWe and in that case 75 percent could easily be called workers forced 
to migrate to that area for national-defense work and will require some form of 
housing facilities. 

I feel soire of the conditions in the Los Angeles Harbor area are even more 
aggravated than San Diego due to the isolation of Terminal Island and the large 
number of workers that must be housed and transported to that island. Con- 
sidering back country facilities, new bunding, and the competition of other 
workers, a minimum of 4,000 units of governmental rental housing will prove to 
be an underestimate of ultimate need in that harbor area. 

The area adjacent to the Lockheed and Lockheed- Vega plant in San Fernando 
Valley near Los Angeles is, in my judgment, the second point that needs attention 
but 1 will not go further than to call attention to that fact. 


Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 23, 1 offer copy of Public Law 137, Seventy- 
seventh Congress, "An act to provide for the acquisition and equip- 
ment of public works made necessary by the defense program," some- 
times referred to as the Lanham Act. 

Exhibit 23 

[Public Law 137 — 77th Congress] 

[Chapter 260 — 1st Session] 

[H. R. 4545] 

AN ACT To provide for the acquisition and equipment of public works made necessary by the defense 


Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, That the Act entitled "An Act to expedite the 
provision of housing in connection with national defense, and for other purposes," 
approved October 14, 1940, as amended, is amended by inserting before section 1 
the following title heading: 


"defense housing" 

Sec. 2. Section 1 (b) and section 3 of such Act are amended by striking out 
"this Act" wherever occurring therein and inserting in lieu thereof "this title". 
Sec. 3. Such Act is amended by inserting after section 3 the following: 

"defense public works 

"Sec. 201. It is hereby declared to be the policy of this title to provide means 
by which public works may be acquired, maintained, and operated in the areas 
described in section 202. As used in this title, the term 'public work' means any 
facility necessary for carrying on community life substantially expanded by the 
national-defense program, but the activities authorized under this title shall be 
devoted primarily to schools, waterworks, sewers, sewage, garbage and refuse 
disposal facilities, public sanitary facilities, works for the treatment and purifi- 
cation of water, hospitals and other places for the care of the sick, recreational 
facilities, and streets and access roads. 

"Sec. 202. Whenever the President finds that in any area or locality an acute 
shortage of public works or equipment for public works necessary to the health, 
safety, or welfare of persons engaged in national-defense activities exists or im- 
pends which would impede national-defense activities, and that such public works 
or equipment cannot otherwise be provided when needed, or could not be pro- 
vided without the imposition of an increased excessive tax burden or an unusual 
or excessive increase in the debt limit of the taxing or borrowing authority in 
which such shortage exists, the Federal Works Administrator is authorized, with 
the approval of the President, in order to relieve such shortage — 

"(a) To acquire, prior to the approval of title by the Attorney General if nec- 
essary (without regard to sections 1136, as amended, and 3709 of the Revised 
Statutes), improved or unimproved lands or interests in lands by purchase, dona- 
tion, exchange, lease (without regard to section 322 of the Act' of June 30, 1932 
(47 Stat. 412), as amended, the Act of March 3, 1877 (19 Stat. 370), or any time 
limit on the availability of funds for the payment of rent), or condemnation (in- 
cluding proceedings under the Acts of August 1, 1888 (25 Stat. 357), March 1, 
1929 (45 Stat. 1415), and February 26, 1931 (46 Stat. 1421)), for such public 

"(b) By contract or otherwise (without regard to sections 1136, as amended, 
and 3709 of the Revised Statutes, section 322 of the Act of June 30, 1932 (47 
Stat. 412), or any Federal, State, or municipal laws, ordinances, rules, or regula- 
tions relating to plans and specifications or forms of contract, the approval thereof 
or the submission of estimates therefor), prior to the approval of title by the 
Attorney General if necessary, to plan, design, construct, remodel, extend, re- 
pair, or lease public works, and to demolish structures, buildings, and improve- 
ments, on lands or interests in lands acquired under the provisions of subsection 


(a) hereof or on other lands of the United States which may be available (transfers 
of which for this purpose by the Federal agency having jurisdiction thereof are 
hereby authorized notwithstanding any other provisions of law), provide proper 
approaches thereto, utilities, and transportation facilities, and procure necessary 
materials, supplies, articles, equipment, and machinery, and do all things in 
connection therewith to carry out the purposes of this title. 

" (c) To make loans or grants, or both, to public and private agencies for public 
works and equipment therefor, and to make contributions to public or private 
agencies for the maintenance and operation of public works, upon such terms 
and in such amounts as the Administrator may consider to be in the public in- 
terest. As used in this paragraph, the term 'private agency' means any private 
agency no part of the net earnings of which inures to the benefit of any private 
shareholder or individual. 

"Sec. 203. (a) In carrying out this title — 

" (1) no contract on a cost plus a percentage of cost basis shall be made, 
but contracts may be made on a cost plus a fixed fee basis: Provided, That 
the fixed fee does not exceed 6 per centum of the estimated cost; 

"(2) wherever practicable, utilization shall be made of existing private 
and public facilities or such facilities shall be extended, enlarged, or equipped 
in lieu of constructing new facilities; 

" (3) public works shall be maintained and operated by officers and em- 
ployees of the United States only if and to the extent that local public and 
private agencies are, in the opinion of the Administrator, unable or unwill- 
ing to maintain or operate such public works adequately with their own 
personnel and under loans or grants authorized by this title; 

" (4) public works shall be provided on the basis of need and in determin- 
ing need no discrimination shall be made on account of race, creed, or color. 

"(b) No department or agency of the United States shall exercise any super- 
vision or control over any school with respect to which any funds have been or 
may be expended pursuant to this title, nor shall any term or condition of any 
agreement under this title relating to, or any lease, grant, loan, or contribution 
made under this title to or on behalf of, any such school, prescribe or affect its 
administration, personnel, curriculum, instruction, methods of instruction, or 
materials for instruction. 

"(c) No department or agency of the United States shall exercise any super- 
vision or control over any hospital or other place for the care of the sick (which 
is not owned and operated by the United States) with respect to which any funds 
have been or may be expended under this title, nor shall any term or condition 
of any agreement under this title relating to, or any lease, grant, loan, or contri- 
bution made under this title to, or on behalf of, any such hospital or place, pre- 
scribe or affect its administration, personnel, or operation. 

"Sec. 204. The sum of $150,000,000, to remain available until expended, is 
hereby authorized to be appropriated to carry out the purposes of this title and 
for administrative expenses in connection therewith, including personal services 
and rent in the District of Columbia and elsewhere, printing and binding, and 
purchase, repair, operation, and maintenance of motor-propelled passenger- 
carrving vehicles. 


"general provisions" 

Sec. 4. (a) Section 4 of such Act is amended to read as follows: 

"Sec. 301. When the President shall have declared that the emergency de- 
clared by him on September 8, 1939, has ceased to exist fa) the authority contained 
in sections 1 and 202 hereof shall terminate except with respect to contracts on 
projects previously entered into or undertaken and court proceedings then pending, 
and (b) property acquired or constructed under this Act (including schools and 
hospitals) shall be disposed of as promptly as may be advantageous under the 
circumstances and in the public interest." 

(b) Sections 5, 6, 7, 8. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 of such Act are renumbered, 
respectively, as follows: "302," "303," "304," "305," "30R," "307," "308," 
"309," "310," and "311," and as used in such sections the term "State" includes 
any Territory or possession of the T'nited States. 

Set. 5. The departments, agencies, or instrumentalities administering property 
acquired or constructed under section 201 of the Second Supplemental National 
Defense Appropriation Act, 19-11, shall have the same powers and duties with 


respect to such property and with respect to the management, maintenance, opera- 
tion, and administration thereof as are granted to the Federal Works Administra- 
tor with respect to property acquired or constructed under title I of such Act 
of October 14, 1940, and with respect to the management, maintenance, operation, 
and administration of such property so acquired or constructed under such title. 
Approved, June 28, 1941. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 24, I offer a statement furnished for the 
record by Anita E. Jones, chairman of the San Diego Chapter of the 
American Association of Social Workers. 

Exhibit 24. — Necessity for Low-Cost Housing in San Diego 

(By Anita E. Jones, Chairman, San Diego Chapter of the American Association 
of Social Workers) 

June 25, 1941. 
The San Diego Chapter, American Association of Social Workers, respectfully 
desires to call the attention of the House of Representatives' special committee on 
relation of migrants and the defense industries to the following pertinent facts: 

1. It is important to realize that the coming of defense industries to San Diego 
did not, of itself, create that housing problem. There was a great deal of sub- 
standard housing in the city prior to the recent industrial expansion. This was 
clearly brought by the real property inventory made in 1934. This also became 
apparent at the time the Federal Government operated a local program of relief 
for transients in 1934 and 1935. One of the major problems faced by its case 
workers was the securing of decent housing for transients at low rentals. It should, 
of course, be understood that the previous housing problem was greatly accentu- 
ated by the rather sudden influx of a large number of industrial workers and their 

2. We approve of the type of low-cost housing which the Government has pro- 
vided in San Diego, solid construction which will wear, with adequate heating, 
cooking, refrigeration, and plumbing provided, so that the houses will not de- 
teriorate into shanties within a few years. We sincerely hope that the standard 
set be maintained in possible future projects. 

While additional houses are being planned, they should be located where they 
could later be available for workers in nondefense industries. For example, 
many of the families employed in the fish canneries and allied interests are forced 
to live in the substandard houses because of yearly incomes between $600 land 
$900 per year. These families also have a large number of children. The present 
city zoning provides for moving of all fish canneries to one zone. Some of the 
new housing should be located within walking distance of this zone. These houses 
could be used now for defense workers and could later be used for cannery workers 
and the substandard houses in which they now live would be razed because they 
would no longer bring an economic return to their owners. This would eliminate 
disease breeding centers, foci of juvenile delinquency and fire hazards. 

4. Our organization considers it advisable to plan housing for the group where 
the number in the family is more than seven. With the present housing problem 
we recognize that it is very difficult for the families in this group to secure houses 
of adequate size for the amount they can afford to pay. The present tendency 
is to rent smaller quarters and overcrowding brings with it disease, family break- 
down, and attendant ills. 

5. It has been found that there is a definite need for houses where children are 
acceptable. Families with children have been forced to take very substandard 
houses or pay exorbitant rent. In searching for houses for families with children 
the immediate response from the landlords is "No" to the children. In some 
instances they will accept the family if there is only one small child, but if more, 
flatly refuse to accept the family. 

It's getting to be more and more of a problem of where to house these families, 
particularly at a rental they can afford to pay. This applies in particular to 
families of soldiers and civilians, who are not eligible to the defense houses. 

6. We wish to emphasize the great need for better coordination of the various 
State employment agencies by the United States Employment Service so that 
persons seeking employment will not be sent to another State for work unless it 
has been ascertained that there are jobs open for which he is qualified and he is 
given instructions as to the requirements of the job especially in regard to citizen- 
ship, birth certificates and other necessary documents, and a physical examination 
is given to be sure he is physically able to do the work required. 

60396— 41— pt. 12 T8 


7. We heartily endorse the present move to make uniform residence laws of all 
the 48 States. While this uniformity is being brought about we feel that the 
Federal Government should work out a plan to finance those families whose social 
needs cannot be met now because of conflicting State residence requirements or 
relief laws. 

(The following exchange of correspondence, part of which took 
place subsequent to the hearing, has been entered as a part of the 
record, under the heading of exhibit 25:) 

Exhibit 25 

National Congress of the Spanish Speaking People of the U. S. A., 

San Diego, Calif., June 11, 1941. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, 
U. S. Customs Building, San Diego, Calif. 
Dear Sir: We understand that your committee is investigating problems 
growing out from the defense program in defense centers. 

We have been confronted with one here in San Diego in the employment of 
trained boys from vocational school at the Consolidated Aircraft plant. These 
boys are of Mexican parentage and have been turned down because they are too 

The cases are all similar, they went to the State employment office, were inter- 
viewed and then they enrolled at vocation school for a 6 weeks' course in different 
types of aircraft work. After completing this course the boys graduated and 
went to the employment office of Consolidated. There they were told that they 
did not have enough experience; in spite of the fact that boys have been employed 
with less training, they were sent back to the State employment office, where they 
were told by different men that, in one case, the Consolidated plant was just 
sending them back and forth to stall. In another case, the boy was told that it 
was up to the State employment office to tell the boys that Consolidated was not 
hiring Mexican boys. 

Along with this letter we are enclosing an account of each of the boy's experi- 
ence with Consolidated and the State employment office: 

If you can use this material, the boys are available for confirmation of the 

We have data on many other boys but we are not at this time authorized to 
represent them; therefore, I will leave their cases until such a time as we see them 
again. It is quite evident that many boys go to work before their courses are 
finished while the Mexican boys, if a shade darker, are not taken, regardless of 
whether they have finished their course. 

We hope that this information will be vital enough to enter the hearings your 
committee is planning, and if you require any additional information we will be 
glad to cooperate with you. 

Congress of Spanish Speaking People, 
Phil Usquiano, 
Frances Flores, 

Members Comite de Justicia. 

[The case histories referred to above are as follows:] 

1. Mr. Aifonzo Louis Arriola, 2028 Logan Avenue, San Diego, Calif., was sent 
from the vocational school to the State employment office, where he was given an 
interview form to fill out. This was done at this time (February 3, 1941). On 
February 5 Mr. Arriola called at the interview office, where he was told that the 
Consolidated Co. could not take him because they have a rule that no dark- 
colored Mexican be employed. 


Richard Arellano, 3843 Boston, San Diego, Calif., graduated from vocational 
school December 13, 1940. He went to the Consolidated employment office 
where he was told that he did not have enough experience and was sent back to 
the State employment office. He was told here that Consolidated was not hiring 
an}' Mexicans. Before this boy enrolled at vocational school he was interviewed 
by a man upstairs at the State employment office who passes on the boys before 
enrollment at vocational school. 


Robert Macias, 2530 Commercial, San Diego, Calif., graduated on December 
13, 1940, and was given a recommendation to Consolidated Aircraft. After he had 
filled out the application form he was told that he did not have enough experience 
and was told to report back to the State employment office. He was told here 
that he would be sent back and forth and that it was up to the State employment 
to tell the boys that Consolidated was no longer employing Mexicans. The boy 
was told to go back to school but since other boys have been employed with less 
hours completed than this boy. 


David Ibarra, 415 Langley, San Diego, Calif., was told by the State employment 
that there wasn't any use to try to go to vocational school. Mrs. Ibarra then 
went to the State employment office and was told by Mr. Hill, "They don't want 
Mexicans, we could send them [boys] to vocational school but they had orders 
that they didn't want dark people, and the State employment didn't want to 
waste money and discourage the boys." 

Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, 

San Diego, Calif., July 18, 1941. 
Mr. Josef Berger, 

Care of House Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Berger: Your communication of July 11 has been received and 
noted. For your information I am enclosing copy of letter received from the 
same organization to which you refer — National Congress of the Spanish Speaking 
People of the U. S. A., Local No. 2 — sent by Mr. Usquiano under date of June 
18; and our reply dated June 28. You will note that Usquiano's letter to us and 
our reply thereto were subsequent to his letter of June 11 to you. Our letter of 
June 28, I believe, covers the situation thoroughly. It is my opinion that had 
Mr. Usquiano received it prior to the date he wrote you it would not have been 
necessary for him to write you as he did. 

Trusting the foregoing, together with attachments, conveys the desired informa- 

Yours very truly, 

Edgar N. Gott, Vice President. 

[The enclosures referred to above are as follows:] 


National Congress of the Spanish 

Speaking People of the U. S. A., 

June 18, 1941. 
Major Fleet, 

Consolidated Aircraft Co., San Diego, Calif. 
Dear Sir: It has recently been brought to our attention that a number of boys, 
after having received training in the different aircraft training schools, have been 
turned down by the Consolidated employment office. 

These boys are all of Mexican origin but have finished their respective training 
courses and are ready for employment. They have been turned down and told 
they do not have enough experience only to go back to the State employment 
office to be told that Consolidated is not employing Mexicans at this time or told 
that they are too dark and therefore, refused employment. 

In view of the Government's program of national defense and Government 
contracts for aircraft, the need of trained personnel is very necessary and since 
these boys have the necessary training their services should be utilized and not 
discriminated against because of their color or origin. 

As loyal citizens and supporters of this country's financial burdens, we feel 
justified in asking for equal opportunities in employment in the construction of 
materials to be used in our country's program of defense. 

We ask your sincerest cooperation in overcoming this discrimination on the 
part of the Consolidated Aircraft Company. 

Phil Usquiano, Secretary. 


Consolidated Aircraft Corporation, 

San Diego, Calif., June 28, 1941. 

Mr. Phil Usquiano, 
Secretary, National Congress of the Spanish 

Speaking People of the U. S. A., P. O. Box 698, San Diego, Calif. 

Dear Mr. Usquiano: In reply to your letter of June 18, 1941, concerning the 
possibilit}^ of employment for members of the Spanish-speaking people, we wish 
to state at the present time we have a considerable number of persons of Spanish, 
Mexican, and Indian extraction working in this plant. We are unable to give you 
the exact number, due to the fact that we make no distinction after these persons 
secure employment. 

For the most part, these persons are doing satisfactory work, and we propose to 
continue hiring others whenever their abilities justify. The short term training 
courses offered by the San Diego Vocational School are intended primarily as 
refresher courses to familiarize persons having some mechanical knowledge and 
skiU, with the manufacturing processes employed in present day aircraft work. 

It is folly to presume that any inexperienced person can become a full fledged 
mechanic merely by attending an 8 or 10 weeks' training course, when they 
have had no previous mechanical ability to use as a foundation for this training. 
We have, therefore, found it necessary to refuse employment to certain persons 
completing these courses, some of whom may have been members of the group 
you represent. 

In view of the foregoing, we feel that your use of the word "discrimination" 
has been misapplied, and we trust that you will have a better understanding of 
the problem in the future. 

Yours very truly 

E. N. Gott, 
Vice President and Public Relations Director. 

California Department of Employment, 

Sa« Diego, Calif., July 17, 1941. 
Mr. Josef Berger, Associate Editor, 

House Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Mr. Berger: I have your letter dated July 11 requesting additional 
information on the subject of the apparent inability of so-called dark-skinned 
people to obtain employment. Receipt is also acknowledged of a copy of a 
communication addressed to the Tolan Committee on this subject by Phil 
Usquiano, secretary of the National Congress of the Spanish Speaking People of 
the U. S. A., Local No. 2, San Diego, Calif., together with four case histories. 

According to established procedure the San Diego office of the department of 
employment refers trainees to the San Diego Vocational School for national- 
defense industry classes. All graduate trainees are referred back to this office for 
referral on orders from employers. 

This procedure has been followed with respect to the cases in question. It is 
true that some so-called dark-skinned people have been rejected and referred back 
to this office. In such cases we have advised applicants that we have done all 
within our power to secure employment for them, that we cannot compel the 
employer to accept them. 

As far as this office is concerned we have done everything in our power to give 
all persons the same service, regardless of race, creed, or color. 
Very truly yours, 

R. G. Wagenet, 

Ray Mathewson, 
Manager, San Diego Office. 

(The following material was submitted for the record, subsequent 
to the hearing, by Mayor Francis H. Gentry, of Long Beach, Calif., 
and appears in the record as exhibit 26.) 


Exhibit 26 

June 18, 1941. 
Mayor Francis H. Gentry, 

Long Beach, Calif. 
Dear Sir: Complying with your request of recent date I am herewith trans- 
mitting what information I have been able to obtain as requested by Mr. John H. 
Tolan, chairman of the House Committee Investigating National Defense Migra- 

1. There has been very little out-migration, but from December 1 to and includ- 
ing May 31, there were 15,873 in-migrants registered with the California State 
Employment Agency, 10,975 of which were from other States. 

2. The majority are males, many under 21; mostly single, ranging in age from 
18 to 40. Nearly all are American-born. 

3. Mostly unskilled and come from schools and rural areas. 

4. Response to increased employment opportunities and differentials in wages, 
the common laborer averaging 87^2 cents an hour in this area, whereas in the 
Middle West where many of them come from, the wages are from 45 to 50 cents 
per hour. 

The industries involved are largely shipbuilding and aircraft factories. 
This has been brought about by publicity in the press and over the radio of 
major contracts being let for defense purposes. 

5. Most of the in-migrants have found work in shipyards and aircraft factories 
after receiving training. Some migrants are stranded without work on account 
of lack of qualifications regarding citizenship. 

6. This migration is characterized by the movement of workers from rural to 
urban areas and the geographical areas from which they come as to numbers is 
in the following order: Middle Western States, North Central States, Rocky 
Mountain States, Atlantic seaboard, South Central States, and Pacific coast area. 

There has been very little in-migration of Negro workers. 

7. (a) Additional housing facilities, (b) additional personnel and finances for 
health and sanitation, (c) additional recreation facilities, (d) additional finances 
and personnel for the various welfare organizations. 

There has been considerable increase in the requirements of health and sanita- 
tion during the past few months, which is due directly to the in-migration brought 
about by the defense industries. 

I am also informed that there has been a marked increase in welfare work 
during the past 6 months, about 50 percent of which is attributed to in-migrants 
who failed to obtain work and are without funds. 

The registration of school children in October 1940 was 26,936 and the highest 
registration during the school year was 27,218, which indicates that there has 
been no marked increase in registration. 

June 18, 1941. 
Mayor Francis H. Gentry, 

Long Beach, Calif. 

Dear Mr. Gentry: In resporse to your request of June 10, we are submitting 
the following information relative to defense migration: 

A survey was made through the community chest upon the request of Mrs. 
Longmoor, chairman of the committee of welfare and relief, council of social 
agencies, of transient families requesting assistance from the local agencies. 

Reports were submitted by the State relief administration, bureau of public 
assistance, Catholic Welfare, Family Welfare, Travelers Aid, and city welfare, 
covering the month of May 1941. No report was received from either the Salva- 
tion Army or the Volunteers of An erica 

There were aporoxin ately 70 applications for aid during the month. Of this 
number, only about one-third were eligible for en ployment in the defense program. 
About 50 percent of the group were unattached; they were either single or had left 
their families in the East pending employment here. The States cortributing the 
most applicants were Oklahoma and Texas. 

As far as could be determined, the migration has been stimulated by the adver- 
tisements of the private aircraft schools. The community chest has asked assist- 
ance of the chamber of commerce m disseminating information relative to defense- 
work requirements in an effort to halt the migration of unemployables. 

Information received by this department from clients indicates that the lower 
bracket rentals have been raised. There appears to be no definite housing short- 
age at this time, however. 


Long Beach City Schools, 

June 20, 1941. 
Francis H. Gentry, 

Mayor, City of Long Beach, 

City Hall, Long Beach, Calif. 

Dear Mayor Gentry: This is in reply to your recent letter concerning an 
investigation which is being made by John H. Tolan, chairman of the House 
Investigation Committee on National Defense Migration. There are quite a 
few questions raised in his letter which I shall attempt to answer for your benefit. 

There has been a considerable in-migration affecting Long Beach during this 
year. For example, we have now a net enrollment in our elementary schools of 
1,000 over last year at this time. The normal course of events would bring about 
a decrease in enrollment, consequently, there has been quite a movement to offset 
this natural tendency. 

We also know that the State employment office has been receiving from seven 
to eight hundred new persons a month in its registration file. Our defense-train- 
ing centers have been receiving about 60 new persons a day in recent weeks. 
Apparently over 80 percent of the applications for work have occurred in relation 
to the defense activities in our community. 

As to the quality of character of the migration — apparently, the largest per- 
centage are young men under 30 years of age. Figures from the employment 
agency and our offices would indicate about one-half of them unmarried. Another 
large group is coming in without their families, looking for work and then the 
bringing of their families later. 

The percentage of Negro applicants is almost nil. 

There do not seem to be a large number of women applicants coming in, except 
in connection with families. 

It is apparent that most of the migrants are not highly skilled and are in need 
of training. They are taking training in our various defense centers. A very 
small percentage of men coming here are skilled workers. 

As to the immediate causes of migration — the essential reason is anticipated 
work in our airplane factories and in the shipbuilding centers. There is, of course, 
as you know, a considerable activity in relation to the construction of homes and 
other buildings. So far as I know, the migration has been in response to requests 
by the State employment offices and, to some extent, by the respective industries. 

I believe that the records will indicate that those persons who are skilled have 
had little difficulty in getting work, but those who are unskilled have had to go 
through a period of training before getting work. It has been necessary for a 
rather small percentage of the folks to return to their former places of living. 

The largest migration seems to be coming from the Middle West and the 
Northwest. Formerly the largest group came from Texas and Oklahoma. 

The question relating to additional facilities is one which you can answer well 
in every respect, but I should like to add a word concerning our schools. It is 
apparent now that we shall need to do considerable construction in both ele- 
mentary and secondary schools. We have indicated to the United States Office 
of Education soire of our needs. As you know, we cooperated with you in a 
previous study when Mr. Ames was here. Our present budget is anticipating 
the addition of about 30 teachers in the elementary schools and some ten or fifteen 
in the secondary schools during the year coming, 1941-42. The study of the 
subdivisions that are now in progress will give us further light on this question. 
Much of our problem rest., on the rapidity with which houses are built m the 
subdivisions. If there is any light that jour offices can help us with on that 
question, we would appreciate it very much. 

I trust that this information is of some assistance to you in your reply. 
Cordially yours, 

Kenneth E. Oberholtzer, 

Superintendent of Schools. 


(The following letter, which has been received subsequent to the 
San Diego hearing, has been entered as a part of the record, under 
the heading "Exhibit 27":) 

Exhibit 27 

Executive Office of the President, 

Office for Emergency Management, 
Division of Defense Housing Coordination, 

Washington, D. C, July 25, 1941. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

House of Representatives. 
My Dear Mr. Tolan: We have just had the opportunity to review the text 
of the hearings held in San Diego on June 12-13, 1941. The information in these 
hearings constitutes an extremely valuable study of the whole San Diego situation. 
There is one fact which I believe might appropriately be added to the record. 
Prior to the hearings, this office was requested to consider the possibility of making 
dormitory accommodations available to National Youth Administration trainees. 
I note that this need is one which is referred to on several occasions throughout 
the testimony. 

At the request of this office, the Farm Security Administration made available 
for National Youth Administration trainees 5 buildings of 70 units each, or a 
total of 350 units. The National Youth Administration pays $12 per month per 
person. All services are furnished by the Farm Security Administration except 
room service which is furnished by National Youth Administration trainees in 
hotel work. One building of 70 units is for the use of Work Projects Administra- 
tion trainees. 1 

It is felt that these arrangements will assist in meeting what appeared to be an 
urgent need, and I am glad to offer this information for the record. 
Sincerely yours, 

C. F. Palmer, Coordinator. 

The Chairman. I now direct that the record be left open for the 
receipt of supplemental statements and exhibits. This concludes 
the hearing, and the committee will stand adjourned subject to the 
call of the chairman. 

(Whereupon, at 11.30 a. m., June 13, 1941, the committee 
adjourned, subject to the call of the chairman.) 

i See p. 4856. 



Defense Council 4944-4947, 4962 

Eleventh Naval District: 

Collaboration with civil authorities 4872 

Naval Relief Society 4872 

Personnel 4873 

Employment : 

Aircraft-plant rolls 4883 

Bureau of employment security 4947, 4948, 4949, 4950 

California Department of Employment 4948, 4949, 4950, 4956 

Consolidated Aircraft 4850, 4854, 4856, 4857, 4858, 4859, 4967 

Dismissal wage plan 4959 

Discrimination against Mexicans alleged 5010-5012 

Insurance 4894, 4895 

Methods 4956 

Opportunities 4996 

Requirements 4998 

Shipbuilding plant rolls 4883 

Trends 4852, 4867, 4868, 4948 

Unemployment 4867, 4869 

Fallbrook, Calif.: 

Access highways 4927, 4928 

Federal aid 4929 

Naval ammunition depot 4928 

Sewers 4927,4928,4929 

Schools 4927,4929 

Water supply 4928, 4929 

Financial status of city of San Diego 4827, 4828, 4835 

Growth of San Diego as naval, military, and defense industry center 4824, 

4825, 4829, 4897, 4949, 4976, 4987-4990 


Child welfare 4908,4912,4943 

Communicable diseases 4899, 4900, 4905, 4907, 4908, 4910, 4911 

Complaints to health department 4900 

Conditions among 25 families in substandard homes 4898-4900 

Effects of overcrowding 4902 

Hospitals 4903, 4904, 4906, 4907, 4910, 4911, 4984-4986 

Relation to housing 4901 

Relation to production 4896 

Study of medical care costs 4897 


Building costs 4884 

Coordination 4880, 4974, 5009 

Defense housing committee 4851, 4878-4880 

Demountable 4880,4891,4909,4974 

Fair-rental committee 4849, 4851, 4879 

Future facilities 4882, 4888, 4889, 4975 

Government : 

Federal Housing Administration 4881, 4885 

Federal Security Agency 4881, 4909, 4939 

Kearney Mesa 4826, 4834, 4835, 4988, 4890 

Navy 4874, 4880, 5003-5005 

Homes registration bureau 4849, 4851, 4883, 4887 

Los Angeles Harbor area 5005 

Mobile 4880, 4881 

Monterey Peninsula area 4979 


5018 index 

Housing— Continued. Page 

Needs of Consolidated Aircraft employees 4884 

Nondefense 4890, 4982, 5009 

Private building 4881, 4968 

Recommendations 4982-4984 

Relation to employment 4855 

Relation to health 4901, 4902 

Relation to juvenile delinquency _ 4901 

Rent-control legislation 4848, 4849, 4850, 4851, 4852, 4868, 4975, 4978 

Rent increase 4848, 4872, 4875, 4968, 4969, 4970, 4971, 4977 

Riverside 4978 

San Luis Obispo . _ 4979 

Shortages 4849, 4853, 4888, 4913. 4949 

Single men 4855, 4881, 4889, 5015 

Substandard 4896, 4898, 4899, 4900, 4901, 4902, 4909, 4910, 4975 

Survey of 1,500 workers' homes 4902 

Trailer camps 4852, 4896, 4901 

Vallejo 4981 

Women 4993,4994,4995 

Lanham Act 4826, 4827, 4833, 4933, 4940, 4961, 5007, 5008 

Long Beach 5013, 5014 

Msp of city of San Diego 4990 

Migrant workers' problems: 

Lack of housing for large families... 4836-4840, 4846, 4849, 4853, 4888, 5009 

Summary of nonresident survey 4914-4916 

Training for defense work 4876, 4877 

Undirected migration 4859-4862, 4957, 4961 


Causes 4864,4924 

Farm labor ., 4957, 4961 

General information 4863, 4864, 4948, 4949 

Into San Diego area 4863 

Out-migration 4865, 4869 

Occupational characteristics 4864 

Sources 4863, 4865, 4868, 4948, 4950, 5013 

Tvpes of migrants 4863, 4893, 4948 

Work opportunities 4864, 4866 

Municipal services: 

Police 4835,4917 

Recreation 4825, 4872, 4875, 4992. 4993, 4999-5001 

Water supplv 4825, 4830, 4831, 4872, 4917 

National Citv .. . 4971, 4972 


Comparative fisures . . 4912 

County load, 1933 . . 4843 

County load, April 30, 1941 4843 

County load, January 1939, April 1941 4917 

Effects of housing shortage 4913, 4963 

Origins of out-of-State cases 4920 

Residence requirements 4913, 4922-4927 

Statement of material relief by various agencies 4900 

Thirty-day emergency aid 4922 

Unemployables 4846, 4920, 4921 

Roads and highways 4872. 4988, 4989, 5006 

San Diego County: 

Emergency fund 4842 

Necessarv bridge construction 4842 

Parks 4844 

Population increase 4843 

Prisons 4846 

San Diego's future problems 4918-4920 

Schools 4872, 4881, 4892, 4929, 4932-4937, 4938-4941, 4965-4967, 4972, 4973 

Social Security: 

Liberal benefits in California 4958 

Old-age assistance in San Diego County 4922 

Operation of present program 4748 

Proposed extension of coverage 4950, 4958 

Unemployment compensation in San Diego County 4867 

INDEX 5019 


Taxation 4825,4831,4832,4844 

Traffic. (See Roads and Highways.) 
Vocational training: 

"Fake aircraft schools" 4855, 4942, 4996 

Other schools 4996, 4997 

Local trainees - 4941, 4948 

National Youth Administration program 4856, 4886, 4951-4955, 5014 

San Diego vocational training school 4855, 4866, 4881, 488b 

Subsistence plan 495b 

Training within industry 4y4J, iy*d 




3 9999 05706 1374 


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