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Full text of "National defense migration. Hearings before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, first[-second] session, pursuant to H. Res. 113, a resolution to inquire further into the interstate migration of citizens, emphasizing the present and potential consequences of the migraion caused by the national defense program. pt. 11-[34]"

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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMIHEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

HOUSE OF EEPBJSENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

FIKST SESSION 

PURSUANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OP CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 13 
HARTFORD HEARINGS 

JUNE 24 AND 25, 1941 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 

HOUSE OF KEPRESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH. (;ONGEESS 

FIEST SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 13 
HARTFORD HEARINGS 

JUNE 24 AND 25, 1941 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1941 



U. S. SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS 

SEP 25 1941 



SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING NATIONAL DEFENSE 
MIGRATION 

JOHN H. TOLAN, California, Chairman 
JOHN J. SPARKMAN. Alabama CARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska 

LAURENCE F. ARNOLD, niinois FRANK C. OSMERS, Jr., New Jersey 

Robert K. Lamb, Staff Director 



Harold D. Cullen, Associate Editor 
Josef Berger, Associate Editor 



CONTENTS 

Pa&e 
List of witnesses V 

Tuesday, June 24, 1941, morning; session 5021 

Testimony of Hon. Robert Hurley 5022 

Statement by Hon. Robert Hurley 5022 

Testimony of Hon. Robert Hurley, resumed 5024 

Testimony of Hon. Thomas Spellacy 5028 

Statement by Hon. Thomas Spellacy 5029 

Testimony of Hon. Thomas Spellacy, resumed 5042 

Testimony of Major Leonard J. Maloney 5051 

Statement by Major Leonard J. Maloney 5051 

Testimony of Major Leonard J. Maloney, resumed 5108 

Testimony of Frank E. Robbins 5117 

Testimony of Milton H. Gloyer 5123 

Statement by Milton H. Glover 5123 

Testimony of Milton H. Glover, resumed 5136 

Testimony of Mrs. Ivy Despard 5138 

Testimony of N. Searle Light 5144 

Statement by N. Searle Light 5144 

Testimony of N. Searle Light, resumed 5176 

Testimony of J. E. Nichols 5179 

Testimony of N. Searle Light, resumed 5180 

Tuesday, June 24, 1941, afternoon session 5183 

Testimony of John W. Nickerson 5183 

Statement by E. Kent Hubbard 5184 

Testimony of John W. Nickerson, resumed 5185 

Statement by Donald S. Sammis 5188 

Testimony of Donald S. Sammis 5192 

Testimony of Dr. Albert S. Gray 5196 

Statement by Dr. Albert S. Gray 5196 

Testimony of Dr. Albert S. Gray, resumed 5218 

Testimony of Ernest A. Stowell 5220 

Statement by Ernest A. Stowell 5221 

Testimony of Ernest A. Stowell, resumed 5234 

Testimony of Dr. Millicent Pond 5239 

Statement by Dr. Millicent Pond 5241 

Testimony of Dr. Millicent Pond, resumed 5246 

Testimony of Albert F. Snvder 5248 

Statement by Albert F. Snyder 5249 

Testimony of Albert F. Snyder, resumed 5259 

Testimony of Norris W. Ford 5261 

Statement by Norris W. Ford 5262 

Testimony by Norris W. Ford, resumed 5271 

Testimony of Mike Du Mond 5275 

Testimony of Dr. Stanley H. Osborn 5278 

Statement by Dr. Stanley H. Osborn 5279 

Testimony of Dr. Stanley H. Osborn, resumed 5291 

Testimony of Nicholas Tomassetti 5293 

Statement by Nicholas Tomassetti 5293 

Testimony of Nicholas Tomassetti, resumed 5296 

Testimony of Kenneth Hickman 5299 

Wednesday, June 25, 1941, morning session 5303 

Testimony of Hon. George J. Coyle 5303 

Reports by Hon. George J. Coyle 5304 

Testimony of Hon. George J. Coyle, resumed 5307 

Testimony of Elmer Olsen ' 5310 

Testimony of T. R. Downs 5311 

Statement by T. R. Downs 5311 

Testimony of T. R. Downs, resumed 5314 

Testimony of William T. Pinault 5319 

Testimony of Russel H. Allen 5325 

III 



IV CONTENTS 

Wednesday, June 25, 1941, morning session — Continued. Page 

Statement bj' Russel H. Allen . 5326 

Testimony of Russel H. Allen, resumed 5329 

Testimony of William J. Ryan 5340 

Statement by William J. Ryan 5340 

Testimony of William J. Ryan, resumed 5348 

Testimony of Hon. Jasper McLevy 5355 

Statement by Hon. Jasper McLevy 5356 

Testimony of Hon. Jasper McLevy, resumed.. 5358 

Testimony of Benjamin Lenda 5362 

Testimony of John J. Egan 5365 

Testimony of William H. Bulkeley 5371 

Statement by William H. Bulkeley 5371 

Testimony of William H . Bulkeley, resumed 5374 

Testimony of Hon. William J. Miller 5376 

Wednesday, June 25, 1941, afternoon session 5378 

Testimony of Herbert Booma 5378 

Testimony of Ben Abrams 5378 

Statement by Ben Abrams 5378 

Testimony of Ben Abrams, resumed 5382 

Testimony of Ralph C. Lasbury 5386 

Statement by Ralph C. Lasbury 5387 

Testimony of Ralph C. Lasbury, resumed 5394 

Testimony of W. L. Harris 5396 

Testimony of Leonard P. Ball 5398 

Testimony of Arthur V. Geary 5399 

Testimony of William Richardson 5406 

Testimony of Mary Smith 5408 

Testimony of George Gershel 5410 

Statement by George Gershel 5410 

Testimony of George Gershel, resumed 5412 

Testimony of George Hayes 5414 

Statement by George Hayes 5415 

TestiiBony of George Hayes, resumed 5418 

Testimony of Daniel Howard 5421 

Statement by Daniel Howard 5421 

Testimony of Daniel Howard, resumed 5432 

Testimony of John Luddy 5434 

Exhibits introduced by staff members 5437 

Exhibit 1 . Farm Labor in Connecticut 5437 

Exhibit 2. Connecticut Industrial Activity and Need for Work Proj- 
ects Administration Employment 5454 

Exhibit 3. Literstate Movement of Workers 5459 

Exhibit 4. Impact of National Defense Program on the Hartford 

Negro 5463 

Exhibit 5. Impact of Defense Activities on New London Area 5466 

Exhibit 6. Defense Activities in New London 5474 

Exhibit 7. Operations of East Hartford Aircraft Federal Credit Union. 5476 

Exhibit 8. Bristol Housing Emergency 5478 

Exhibit 9. Housing in East Hartford 5479 

Exhibit 10. Social Services in Bridgeport 5481 

Exhibit 11. Migration of Motor Vehicle Operators." 5487 

Exhibit 12. Mobile Housing 5489 

Exhibit 13. Defense Problems in Waterburv 5490 

Exhibit 13-B. Health Conditions in Waterbury 5491 

Exhibit 13-C. Employment and Business Indexes of Waterbury 5493 

Exhibit 14-A. Points of Origin of Labor Supplv 5499 

Exhibit 14-B. Statistical Report, May 1941. _J 5503 

Exhibit 14-C. Survey of Hourly Earnings 5504 

Exhibit 14-D. Survey of the Physically Handicapped 5507 

Exhibit 14-E. Negro Workers in Hartford County Factories 5507 

Exhibit 15. Attempt to place Union Workers from the South 5508 

Exhibit 16. Recommended Federal Housing Programs in Connecticut 

Defense Area 5511 

Exhibit 17. Recruitment and Training of Labor for Defense 5516 

Exhibit 18. Purchasing Procedure of the War Department 5523 

Exhibit 19. Vocational Rehabilitation Service 5524 

Exhibit 20. Applications to Central Homes Registry 5531 



t 



LIST OF WITNESSES 

Hartford Hearings, June 24 and 25, 1941 

Page 
Abrams, Ben, secretary of the Hartford Civic and Economic Welfare 

Council, Hartford, Conn 5378,5382 

Allen, Russell, member of the Hartford Housing 'Authority', Hartford, 

Conn 5325,5329 

Ball, Leonard P., farm placement center of the State employment service, 

Hartford, Conn 5398 

Booma, Herbert, chairman of the housing committee, Chamber of Com- 
merce, East Hartford, Conn 5378 

Bulkeley, William, vice president, National Travelers' Aid, Hartford, 

Conn 5371 , 5374 

Coyle, Hon. George J., mayor. New Britain, Conn 5303, 5307 

Despard, Ivy (Mrs.), trailer camp, South Windsor, Conn 5138 

Downs, T. R., emplovment supervisor, United Aircraft Corporation, 

Hartford, Conn 5311,5314 

Du Mond, Mike, an employee of the Colt Arms Co., of Hartford, Conn 5275 

Egan, John J., State secretary of the American Federation of Labor, 

Hartford, Conn 5365 

Ford, Norris W., manager of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, 

Hartford, Conn 5261,5271 

Geary, Arthur V., farm placement supervisor for the Connecticut State 

Employment Service, Hartford, Conn 5399 

Gershel, George, shade tobacco grower, 801 Windsor Street, Hartford, 

Conn 5410,5412 

Glover, Milton H., chairman of the budget committee, Hartford Com- 
munity Chest, Hartford, Conn 5123,5136 

Gray, Dr. Albert S., director of division of industrial hygiene of the State 

department of health, Hartford, Conn 5196, 5218 

Harris, W. L., Hartford County Farm Bureau agent, 95 Washington 

Street, Hartford, Conn 5396 

Haves, George, Internal Revenue Department, Tariffville, Conn 5414,5418 

Hickman, Kenneth, 35 Mahl Avenue, Hartford, Com 5299 

Howard, Daniel, representing the Connecticut Conference on Social and 

Labor Legislation, Windsor, Conn 5421, 5432 

Hurlev, Hon. Robert, Governor of the State of Connecticut, Hartford, 

Conn 5022,5024 

Lasbury, Ralph, speaking on behalf of the agriculture subcommittee and 

State defense council and representing growers, Hartford, Conn 5386, 5394 

Lenda, Benjamin, machine operator, Pratt & Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn. 5362 
Light, N. Searle, director, bureau of supervision, State department of edu- 
cation, Hartford, Conn 5144, 5179, 5183 

Luddy, John, wholesale cotton dealer, Windsor, Conn 5434 

Malonev, Maj. Leonard J., director, Connecticut State Employment 

Service 5051,5108 

McLevy, Hon. Jasper, mayor, Bridgeport, Conn 5355, 5358 

Miller, Hon. William J., former Member of Congress from the State of 

Connecticut 5376 

Nichols, N. E., supervisor of buildings and plans. State department of 

education, Hartford, Conn 5180 

Nicker^on, John W., chairman of the emergency employment committee 

of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, Inc., Manchester, 

Conn 5183,5185 

Olsen, Elmer, chairman of the planning commission. New Britain, Conn_- 5310 
Osborn, Dr. Stanley H., State commissioner of health, Hartford, Conn. 5278, 5291 
Pinault, William P., migrant worker, 87 Park Street, Hartford, Conn 5319 

V 



VI LIST OF WITNESSES 

Page 
Pond, Dr. Millicent, employment manager, Scovill Manufacturing Co., 

Waterbury, Conn 6239, 5246 

Richardson, William, a migrant worker 5406 

Robbins, Frank E., and Mrs. Frank E. (Jean), Pratt & Whitney trailer 

camp, Hartford, Conn 5117 

Ryan, William J., superintendent, department of public welfare, Hartford, 

Conn 5340,5348 

Sammis, Donald S., works manager of Underwood-Elliott-Fisher Co., 

Bridgeport, Conn 51 92 

Smith, Mary, 21 Avon Street, Hartford, Conn 5308 

Snyder, Albert F., industrial relations manager of the Winchester Repeat- 
ing Arms Co., New Haven, Conn 5248, 5259 

Spellacy, Hon. Thomas, mayor of the city of Hartford, Conn 5029, 5042 

Stowell, Ernest A., employment manager, Underwood-Elliott-Fisher Co., 

Hartford, Conn 5220,5234 

Tomassetti, Nicholas, representing the Congress of Industrial Organiza- 
tions, New Britain, Conn 5293, 5296 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGKATION 



TUESDAY, JUNE 24, 1941 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Was/iington, D. C. 

The committee met at 10 a. m., Tuesday, June 24, 1941, in the 
State Capitol Building, Hartford, Conn., Hon. John H. Tolan (chair- 
man), presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman) of 
California; John J. Sparkman of Alabama; Laurence F. Arnold of 
Illinois; and Carl T. Curtis of Nebraska. 

Also present: Robert K. Lamb, staff director; John W. Abbott, 
chief field investigator; Francis X. Riley and Frank B. Wells, field 
investigators; and Irene Hageman, field secretary. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

Governor Hurley is our first witness. Governor, we know you are a 
busy man in a busy city, and we will hear you as the first witness. 

I want to say on behalf of the committee that we are deeply ap- 
preciative of your coming here and starting off these hearings. 
We have had excellent success with governors and mayors, as well 
as others. Everybody seems to be interested in this problem. 

This committee was appointed by the Speaker of the House over 
a year ago. We have traveled all over the LTnited States, starting at 
New York City with our first hearing, to show that this migration 
problem is not connected solely with any one State but that all are 
involved. We traveled over the whole country and made our report 
to Congress on the general subject of migration. We found that 
there had been as many as 4,000,000 of the American people moving 
out of their own States at one time and wandering about the countrj^ 
in search of employment, and that in most instances they wound up 
Stateless, homeless, and voteless. 

Wlien the national-defense program had reached its stride, this 
migration became further accelerated, and the transient status of 
people aggravated. Congress therefore, in view of the dangers in- 
herent in such a situation unless it be controlled, thought it wise to 
continue the committee. So that is what we are concerned with now, 
the national-defense program, and the effects of the migration neces- 
sitated by it, upon States like Connecticut. 

The committee has outlined as its immediate work these hearings 
in Connecticut, and then we go to New Jersey, and following that to 
Baltimore; then back to Washington to make a preliminary report to 
Congress, 

5021 



5022 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

The committee has also visited San Diego, CaHf., which is probably, 
if I may say it, "the hottest spot" in the United States. 

We are holding these hearings in order to give Congress as accurate 
a picture as we can of what your problems are in the State of Connec- 
ticut, with reference to migration. 

We are not here to show up any witness or to cross-examine anyone, 
but just to get the facts, so that we can report to Congress and then 
see what can be done about it. 

Now, that in brief is why we are here and. Governor, any remarks 
you would like to make at this time we would be only too glad to hear. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. ROBERT HURLEY, GOVERNOR OF THE STATE 
OF CONNECTICUT, HARTFORD, CONN. 

Governor Hurley. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. I have, of course, 
received my information about this problem from the various agencies 
that we have set up to look into it and make reports to the govern- 
mental authorities. 

I have prepared a short statement which I will be glad to read. It 
is in rough form and I will have it typed and submit it to the com- 
mittee later if the committee desires to have it. 

The Chairman. Let me interrupt you to say. Governor, that after 
these hearings, if there are any additional data you think the State of 
Connecticut should place in our records, we will be glad to hold the 
record open for a week or 10 days, so that you can supplement what 
you have to say today. 

Governor Hurley. That will be very fine, because there exist 
further data concerning this that I would like to present to the 
committee. I have tried to sum up what I have here from data 
submitted to me by the various agencies — our defense council, our 
State labor department, and others. We have gone into this problem 
fully. My prepared statement is a short summary of what I have 
been able to find out about the problem. [Reading:] 

STATEMENT OF GOV. ROBERT HURLEY OF CONNECTICUT 

The problem of adequate housing created by migratory workers exerts a social 
and economic pressure upon the people of Connecticut that becomes increasingly 
more acute with the expanding needs of defense production. 

In area we arc a small State, but because of our industrial capacity and our 
skilled workers we have been allotted an immense share of the national-defense 
production. I believe that the figure is somewhere about $1,000,000,000 at the 
present time that is under order in the State of Connecticut, and the State has 
become an important source of materials needed in the building up of this country 
as the arsenal of democracy. 

From every where. skilled and unskilled workers have been coming to our State 
looking for jobs. Many of them are given employment. All of them, however, 
have added to the seriousness of our housing needs. I would not be overstating 
the fact if I should tell you that in every community in our State where there is 
production for defense, there is a great housing shortage and, moreover, that 
housing shortage will not be diminished in the near future despite the sporadic 
housing construction that is in progress here and there. On the contrary, it will 
probably develop into an even graver housing situation. 

NEW ORDERS CALL FOR 50,000 MEN 

As you know, on May 16 considerably more than a half billion dollars of new 
defense orders were placed in this State. This added defense production will 
require, according to a study made recently, at least an additional 50,000 new 
full-time workers. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5023 

Our study also shows that for the immediate future there is need for an addi- 
tional 10,000 seasonal workers in agriculture. I would like to state that our 
Connecticut Valley and the lower Housatonic Valley are great tobacco-producing 
areas. These areas in Connecticut produce tobacco for cigar manufacture, and a 
great many seasonal workers come in here from the South each year to work these 
crops. 

The Chairman. Wlien is that season, Governor Hurley? 

Governor Hurley. The planting period begins about June 1 and 
the season runs into September, when the last of the tobacco is har- 
vested. 

The Chairman. Do you anticipate any shortage in that type of 
labor for this year? 

Governor Hurley. Yes ; there is considerable shortage at the present 
time. [Continues reading:] 

We have been trying to get boys from colleges and schools, both in the South 
and in our own area here, to go to work on those farms but we haven't been very 
successful so far, although a number have come up from the South. 

RENT PROFITEERING 

All of this complicates the housing situation, which as I indicated before, is a 
major problem. Indeed, the demand for adequate sanitary dwellings is dispro- 
portionately above any available supply, and in many places the trend of rents 
has risen so sharply that we are confronted with the additional problem of rent 
profiteering and rent gouging. 

That part of the housing problem I attempted to solve when, during the recent 
session of the general assembly, we put in legislation that would prohibit rent 
gouging, but that was defeated, and we are now left in the position that we have 
to appeal to landlords. The bill unfortunately did not pass the lower house, 
although it did pass the senate. Thus the only means the State government 
now has to curtail gouging and profiteering is to appeal to the dormant patriotism 
of certain landlords not to seize upon this defense emergency as an opportunity 
for making exorbitant profits. 

Profiteering has been blocked in most defense industries, not only because of 
the farsightedness of the President, but also because of the patriotic cooperation 
of the industrialists themselves. This same cooperation must be shown in housing 
if that problem is to be solved. And it is imperative that it be solved to insure 
the health and the security of our workers as well as the most efficient prosecution 
of the national-defense effort. 

IMPORTATION OF LABOR 

In nay opinion a partial solution of the housing shortage lies in encouraging 
employers to use the full force of Connecticut's industrial manpower before they 
draw upon the labor surplus of other States. 

I make that statement because a survey made by our labor department and 
employment service shows that we still have a great number of Connecticut 
citizens who are not employed in our defense industries, while a great number 
who have come in from other States have been employed. 

We can and must work toward the abolition of discriminatory practices in the 
hiring of workers so that skilled Connecticut workers will not be disqualified 
because of race, color, or creed. We can encourage the training of Connecticut 
women for those defense jobs to which women can be adapted. We can work 
toward the eradication of discrimination against married women for defense jobs. 

HOUSING A FEDERAL PROBLEM 

In my judgment, however, these steps of themselves would not solve the prob- 
lem of housing. 

I believe the solution of that problem rests almost entirely in the hands of the 
Federal Government and should be recognized as a problem of the Federal Gov- 
ernment. I believe that housing, especially in this time of defense emergency, 
should be regarded by the Federal Government as a vast national problem, com- 
parable to the problem of training a great Army and Navy and of creating in 
America an "arsenal for democracy." Housing must be included in that picture 
of total defense. 



5024 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

In my judgment, the Federal Government should adopt all necessary measures 
for the immediate planning, construction, and financing of large-scale housing 
facilities in all defense centers. 

I believe that the Federal Government should also provide recreational facilities 
for defense workers, as well as roads, highways, street improvements, health 
facilities, and schools wherever they are needed. 

It cannot be expected that the municipalities affected by the defense housing 
problems will be able to adopt effective measures for solving these problems. 
Many of the municipalities are still suffering from the effects of the last depression. 

These municipalities are understandably timid and an.xious with respect to the 
disastrous effects of boom-time activities; they justifiably discourage makeshift 
construction and consequently impose housing conditions that are not adequate 
to a national emergency. Furthermore, the migratory worker is looked upon by 
the municipalities as a present or future relief problem. I cannot see the problem 
as anything but a national one. In building the Nation into a mighty armed 
camp ready to fight off aggression the Federal Government should take into 
account the indispensable part being played by industry and should assume 
responsibility for all those things that will make such a camp strong. 

TESTIMONY OF GOVERNOR HURLEY— Resumed 

The Chairman. Governor, I don't know if there is anything in 
there that I cannot agree with. As a matter of fact we started off in 
New York with Mayor LaGuardia saying. "Even the migration prob- 
lem prior to this emergency was a national problem." 

Now, Governor, the selective service indicated an appalling state 
of health in the Nation, didn't it? 

Governor Hurley. Yes. 

The Chairman. And doesn't that strike right at our national de- 
fense? We put up these great national-defense projects, but we don't 
take care of the health and the education and the housing and sanita- 
tion of these people who come in here in the name of national defense. 
We are making just as serious a mistake as we made in the last war. 
You cannot divorce Arrriy and Navy morale from civilian morale; it 
just can't be done. 

Governor Hurley. I don't believe it can be. 

The Chairman. They are all a part of the one program. In other 
words there is more to this thing than just guns and bullets. You 
must have healthy people and you must keep them healthy. 

Now, I understand that in Connecticut you have 1.3 percent of the 
total population of the United States, and you have 4.17 percent of 
the total national-defense contracts? 

Governor Hurley. Yes. 

The Chairman. People are encouraged by the Federal Government 
to come here and that involves the problem of housing them; it in- 
volves the problem of protecting their health, their lives from fire 
hazards and many other things. 

In San Diego the committee found that the population had increased 
by 100,000 people. The Kearney Mesa housing project is located 
about 5 miles from the city of San Diego. The builders went right 
out there in the sagebrush and constructed 1,766 housing units to 
house 10,000 people. That project is half finished and we were amazed 
to see the way they were getting along. There was no confusion or 
anything. 

But Connecticut can't do that; Hartford can't do that. You 
haven't the money to do it, have you? 

Governor Hurley. The city hasn't of course, nor has the State 
made any provision for anything like that. 

The Chairman. Have you any national-defense housing project? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5025 

HOUSING PROJECTS UNCOORDINATED 

Governor Hurley. Yes; the U. S. H. A. is building, I believe, in 
Bridgeport, Hartford, Waterbury, and New London, but I have 
become rather confused about these various Federal housing agencies. 
It seems to me that there is competition in our State among the 
various agencies. I know that I have talked to the mayors of the 
municipalities. These mayors have set up housing authorities and 
also registries where migratory workers can go and find out what the 
rents are and where available housing facilities are located, but it seems 
to me that the Agriculture Department and the Work Projects Admin- 
istration and the U. S. H. A. are in competition with one another as to 
setting up these housing projects in our various cities. 

I have heard that one city was waiting because another Federal 
agency had made an offer that seemed more advantageous to the 
city. There doesn't seem to be any coordination. 

The Chairman. You think there should be. 

Governor Hurley. I think there should be. I think there should 
be a Federal coordinator here who would be the contact man for the 
Federal Government in our municipalities. 

The Chairman. In other words, supervise the larger picture? 

Governor Hurley. That is right. 

rent situation 

The Chairman. Now, with reference to the rent problem: Wlicii 
we went to San Diego, the chamber of commerce reported to me 
that everything was satisfactory. But, I said, ''You still want $21,- 
000,000; the Federal Government has appropriated $150,000,000 for 
the entire United States. How about your rents?" 

They said: "Well, we don't know about those." 

Governor Hurley. Chambers of commerce don't usually know 
about those things. 

The Chairman. So we put a migrant witness on the stand who 
testified that he had six children and that he had a one-room house 
and that he paid $18 a week for it. That is approximately $80 a 
month. He testified that he was earning $135 a month. A rent- 
control committee was formed in San Diego, but of course that 
committee has no power. In that respect the situation was similar 
to your own; they wanted power to enforce their orders. 

Your mentioning the matter here brought that situation to my 
mind, and I am glad you brought it up because rent gouging, as you 
indicated, is a disastrous practice. 

four-year settlement requirement 

Mr. Sparkman. Governor Hurley, I would just like to have your 
comment on this phase of the problem, with which I think we should 
be greatly concerned: What is going to happen to these people when 
this thing is over? 

Governor Hurley. That is a question that alarms all of us here. 
We have a relief law in our State that establishes the length of time a 
person must live in a municipality or one of our towns before he 
becomes a ward of that town or of the State. 

Mr. Sparkman. Wliat is that length of time? 



5026 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Governor Hurley. Four years. 

Mr. Sparkman. I don't believe you stated in your typewritten 
statement what the increase in population for the State of Connecticut 
is reasonably considered to be as a result of this defense program. 
Do you know that, approximately? 

Governor Hurley. No; that figure I can't tell you. 

Mr. Sparkman. I notice in the mayor's statement for the city of 
Hartford, for instance, the estimate of an increase of 35,000, and I just 
wondered if you had any similar estimate for the State as a whole. 

Governor Hurley. I think Mr. Maloney, in his report, will give 
you that figure. I don't happen to have it. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course we are all bound to recognize the fact 
that this thing is coming to an end some day, and when it does we 
might as well he ready for a tremendous shock; don't you think so? 

Governor Hurley. I do. 

public works as shock absorber 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have any suggestions as to what the 
Federal Government ought to be doing to prepare for that shock? 
For after all, that is what we are trying to accomplish; that is the 
question we are trying to answer — how to care for migrants tempo- 
rarily while this program is on, and then absorb the shock when it 
is over. 

Governor Hurley. Well, I think that part of the problem is one 
for the industrialists who must provide for the let-down that will come 
after the national-defense orders have stopped. Secondly, I think 
that the Federal Government will have to go back into a public-works 
program in order to absorb some of these workers. 

I don't think that the situation should be allowed to become as 
acute as it did during the last depression when a great proportion of 
our population was allowed to become pauperized before the Federal 
Government took action. 

Mr. Sparkman. It was the concern of the Federal Government 
that gave us this mandate to go out and study the problem in order 
that we might not again let it become so acute. But let me ask you 
about your remark in connection with letting the industrialists take 
care of the situation. Do you mean by that that during the present 
time they should slow down as much as possible m the production of 
their normal products and go into defense production, and then, 
when it is over, be prepared to swing back into normal production? 

Governor Hurley. I have talked to some industrialists along that 
line and I have been informed by some of our larger manufacturers 
that the production of new and better household appliances, for 
instance, is being held up, to be put on the market after this is over, 
and that their research departments are continuously working to 
improve radios, washing machines, and so on, so that they can be 
put upon the market and advertised about the time that their defense 
production begins slackening. 

backlog program of public works 

Mr. Sparkamn. Now, in regard to the public works program: 
Do you believe that Congress should be building up a kinr of backlog 
program now? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5Q27 

Governor Hurley. I do. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, getting the projects authorized and 
ready to start work in order to avoid such things as C. W. A. and 
F. E. R. A., and the other experimental agencies of the last depression? 

Governor Hurley. That is right. I don't believe that the C. W. A. 
type of program will work again. 

A'Ir. Sparkman. Your idea would be something along the lines of a 
P. W. A.? 

Governor Hurley. The construction of recreational facilities, 
schools, sewers, and so forth, to be built by contractors who are now 
engaged in building up these defense plants of ours. And then I 
don't know, frankly, what could be done with these people we are 
now training as machinists and tool makers and so forth. It would 
seem to me those people must be absorbed by industry in some new 
line. 

DISTRIBUTION OF NEW WORK PROJECTS 

Mr. Sparkman. Now, of course, the public works cannot be 
designed to fit exactly into the places to which the people are now 
migrating. That is, it is possible that many great public-works 
projects will be far removed from any present defense centers. Do 
you not think that the natural pull of those projects will shift your 
population away from these areas of concentrated defense contracts? 

Governor Hurley. Yes, I do to a certain extent. It seems to me 
that these people are coming here solely because Connecticut offers 
them employment in defense industries. I don't think they are coming 
here with any intention of becoming permanent residents of the State. 

slum clearance for defense housing 

Mr. Sparkman. ^Miat are j^ou going to do about the housing that 
you arc now building for them? 

Governor Hurley. Well, the housing, I think, should be in the form 
of slum-clearance projects. In other words, if we are going to build 
new homes to take care of the migratory workers they should be avail- 
able for rent by those who now occupy substandard homes, what we 
call slums, which the Federal Government is now desirous of clear- 
ing up so that the low-income population in our cities can move away 
fromj unsanitary homes they now occupy when these people go out. 

types of housing advocated 

There is quite a difference of opmion in our own State in the various 
municipalities as to the type of homes that should be put up. Some 
advocate houses that can be demolished after these people have left; 
others advocate the more permanent type of homes, such as were built 
in Bridgeport during the World War and later on became very desir- 
able as homes for workers who moved in there. 

Mr. Sparkman. In a great many areas they are using the collapsible 
or removable type of home. 

Governor Hurley. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. Building them in sections so they can move them 
by trailers and trucks and barge them up and down the rivers. 

Governor Hurley. I think that probably in some areas they are 
desirable, but it is my own opinion that they are not desirable for 
Connecticut, due to climatic conditions. 



5028 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

The Chairman. Governor Hurley, there isn't any question in my 
mind, and I don't think there is in yours, that unless we can anticipate 
and provide some cushion after this war is over, conditions may create 
just as dangerous a situation as could any possible attack on our land 
by any nation. Do you agree with me? 

Governor Hurley. I do; yes. 

The Chairman. Now, the President has issued an Executive order 
calling for a survey for public works after the war is over. But, of 
course, the weakness of that is that we haven't appropriated any 
money for it and we may not have any money after this thing is over. 

DISMISSAL WAGE 

Now look at the picture that is before us. There are millions of 
migrants moving from State to State now on account of the defense 
program. It is only reasonable to assume that if they had had posi- 
tions where they came from, they would not have moved. 

So we are deeply concerned about making some recommendation 
to Congress as to how these migrants can save a little of the money 
that they are now making to provide a cushion when this thing is over. 
The Government may not have the money for them. But if they 
have a few hundred dollars for themselves until the Government 
can get its breath again it will be of tremendous benefit to the country. 

Along that line we had a witness who testified at San Diego that 
in Connecticut some of your industrial concerns had what he termed 
a ''dismissal wage." In other words, the company would add to the 
cost of production an item to take care of its employees in the event 
that it closed down or reduced its pay roll. Do you know anything 
about that, Governor? 

Governor Hurley. No; I have never heard of it. 

The Chairman. Well, that was testified in San Diego. In other 
words, the problem, as you indicate, is a Federal one anyway, and if 
your industrial concerns figured in as a part of their cost of produc- 
tion this so-called dismissal wage, don't you see, that would help 
cushion the shock after this thing is over. We thought that was a 
pretty good idea when we heard of it. 

I would appreciate it very much, and I know the committee would 
too, Governor, if you could have your staff look into that for us and 
give us any data on it. 

Governor Hurley. I will be very glad to. 

The Chairman. Governor Hurley, we deeply appreciate your com- 
ing here and if you have anything else you would like to submit for 
the record, we will be glad to have it. 

Governor Hurley. Thank you, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen of 
the committee. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. THOMAS SPELLACY, MAYOR OF THE CITY 
OF HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Chairman. Our next witness is Mayor Thomas Spellacy of 
Hartford. 

Mayor Spellacy, we deeply appreciate your coining here and giving 
this committee your views and your assistance. Congressman 
Sparkman will interrogate you. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5029 

Mr. Sparkman. Mayor Spellacy, you have submitted to us a pre- 
pared statement which I have read with much interest. 

STATEMENT OF HON. THOMAS J. SPELLACY, MAYOR, CITY OF 
HARTFORD, CONN. 

Since the completion of the 1940 census report by the Federal Government, 
which listed Hartford with a population of 166,329 it is estimated, on the basis of 
reports filed at the office of the mayor, that there has been an influx of at least 
35,000 persons, with the present population estimate probably in excess of 
200,000. This does not take into consideration the increase in population in 
other towns in metropolitan Hartford. There has been comparatively little 
migration from Hartford. 

The addition is due to industrial defense activities, in the main. 

Hartford nominally is a trading center for more than 500,000 persons. Seventy 
or more factories are located in this city. With many of these industrial estab- 
lishments engaged in defense work and with the augmented working personnel 
housed in Hartford and in surrounding towns, excluding some who commute daily 
from distant points, there is a substantial increase in the total number of persons 
utilizing trading facilities in this city. 

Among the major plants in the Hartford area centering their activities on defense 
work are the Colt's Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Co., in Hartford; the 
United Aircraft Co., in East Hartford; and the Pratt & Whitney branch of the 
Niles-Bement-Pond Co., in West Hartford. It has been found necessary to 
reroute traffic in the vicinity of the Colt plant, through the establishment of 
one-way streets and through the practical cessation of traffic on some thorough- 
fares. As there is only one bridge spanning the Connecticut River to connect 
Hartford and East Hartford, the traffic problem in regard to workers at the 
United Aircraft plant who live in Hartford and who cross the bridge twice daily 
has been a serious one. Through the cooperation of the Connecticut State police, 
the Hartford police and the East Hartford police, traffic is expedited as much as 
possible. There is also a problem with respect to the traffic by residents of 
Hartford going to and from their employment in West Hartford. 

DEFENSE WORK DRAWS MIGRANTS 

The migration to Hartford is due to the increase in defense work in local 
factories. Initially, the additional workers came in general from other localities 
in Connecticut and from the other New England States, with a material represen- 
tation from each of the other five States in New P^ngland — Rhode Island, Massa- 
chusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. Various sections of the country 
are represented, however, in the influx of defense workers. 

It is estimated that about 50 percent of the newcomers are married. Some 
have brought their families to Hartford with them; others are living in Hartford 
while their families remain at home. In this connection, it has been found neces- 
sary to add to the hours in which the money-order windows are open at the 
Hartford Post Office. In May, 17,000,000 pieces of mail, incoming and outgoing, 
were handled by the Hartford Post Office, including Hartford, East Hartford, 
West Hartford, Wethersfield, and Wilson. The incoming mail increased by 
1,700,000 pieces, exclusive of parcel post and new.spapers. On the basis of the 
figures to date, the 1940 total of $3,081,864 of receipts for the Hartford Post 
Office will be substantially increased. It has been necessary to add additional 
clerks and carriers. The increase in business at the local post office began when 
defense industries started to expand. 

The majority of the migrants are in the younger age group, principally males, 
but representing no particular racial group. Comparatively few Negroes and 
aliens are included in the increase. 

The principal demand has been for skilled workers. Training schools have 
been and are being conducted under the sponsorship of factories, the board of 
education, the National Youth Administration, and others. 

The movement to Hartford was occasioned by the increased employment 
opportunities, particularly for skilled workers. Few reports are made in regard 
to newcomers stranded without work. 

The arrival of thousands of defense workers resulted in a housing shortage. 
Supplementing the housing projects to provide new homes coincident with the 
elimination of slum areas, tliere is in progress now the construction of 1,000 homes 



5030 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

for defense workers, as an enterprise of the Federal Government, and with the 
cooperation of the city of Hartford and the Hartford Housing Authority. 

Through the Federal housing program, private construction and the plan now 
in effect covering the construction of buildings for defense workers in the South 
Meadows (apart from the 1,000-family defense project) efforts are being made to 
meet the housing shortage. 

VACANT HOMES RECISTRT ORGANIZED 

More than 3 months ago, the Hartford Vacant Homes Registry Committee 
was organized, and is working in cooperation with social agencies and others. The 
Central Home and Room Registration Bureau has been established at the head- 
quarters of the Hartford Chamber of Commerce. 

Four public housing projects have been provided for the city of Hartford. 
Nelton Court, cost $668,294, with 146 units, is entirely occupied. Dutch Point 
Colony, with 222 units, cost $1,069,756. As of June 11, 134 families were as- 
signed. The cost of the Bellevue Square project is estimated at $2,703,000. 
This will provide 500 units with occupancy to be about 100 families by Septem- 
ber. The Charter Oak Terrace defense housing project is for 1,000 families. 
The estimated cost is $4,737,000. It is expected that about 200 families will 
occupy homes in this locality by Septemijer. 

The United States Army has arranged for an Army air base at Windsor Locks, 
which is only 12 miles from Hartford. It is probable that some of the men will 
be housed in this city. 

There is attached to and made a part of this statement a compilation by the 
Department of Building Inspection of the city of Hartford, showing a yearly 
summary of public and private dwelling construction, with details, on a month- 
to-month schedule, from .lanuary 1939 through April 1941. 

It is the opinion of the board of education that there seems no danger of in- 
ability to carry any anticipated load and there does not appear to be any appre- 
ciable shortage of teachers. A statement from the board of education concern- 
ing this matter is appended to and made a part of this comment. 

HEALTH FACILITIES OUTLINED 

A detailed memorandum relative to the health and medical facilities in Hart- 
ford has been compiled by the Hartford Department of Health and is affixed to 
and made a part of this report to your committee. With re.spect to facilities, 
hospital-bed capacities at the time of this report are as follows: 

Hartford Hospital, private, 145; semlprivate, 155; ward, 297; cribs, 35; bas- 
sinets, 106; total, 738. 

St. Francis Hospital, beds, 530; bassinets, 75; total, 605. 

Municipal Hospital, municipal, 175; isolation, 65; Men's Home, 250; Women's 
Home, 65; Men's Chronic Ward, 45; Women's Chronic Ward, 25; Nursery, 
30: total, 655. 

Mount Sinai, beds, 60. 

The Neuro-Psychiatric Institute is not listed, as clientele is of restricted type. 

To meet emergencies, plans are being made for supplementary hospital facilities 
at the Rocky Hill Soldiers' Home. In addition, temporary facilities can be made 
available in halls, schools, and in large residences in the surrounding suburbs. 

The present Isolation Hospital, as stated above, has a bed capacity of 65, of 
which 24 are for tuberculosis cases. The Isolation Hospital was built as a tem- 
porary structure in 1914, and is totally unfitted for its present use. The facilities 
are not satisfactory from all standpoints in normal times and the building would be 
entirely inadequate in the event of an emergenc}\ Immediate steps should be 
taken to replace the structure. 

Under date of March 20, 1941, statements were submitted to Frank Bane, 
Director, Division of State and Local Cooperation, National Defense Commission, 
New Social Security Building, Washington, D. C, in regard to proposals for Fed- 
eral aid for municipal public works in connection with defense projects. This was 
filed following a conference with Mr. C. A. Harrell, field representative of the 
National Defense Commission. Copies of reports, with recommendations, made 
at that time by the engineering department of the city of Hartford, the Hartford 
Aviation Commission, and the Hartford Work Projects Administration Sponsor's 
Representative Office were filed recently with Mr. John W. Abbott, chief field 
invpsti<rator of the House Committee Investigating National Defense Migration. 

The peak load in the Hartford Department of Public Welfare was 4,032 fami- 
lies, as of May 1, 1933. This declined to 1,202 as of July 9, 1937, and then 
increased again to a figure of 2,563 as of March 22, 1939. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5031 

The total number of families on aid has been decreasing steadily for some 
time and as of June 7, 1941, the number of families on aid was 882, in com- 
parison with 924 as of June 1, 1941. 

Hartford has 29 parks and public squares, administered by the park depart- 
ment and its recreation division, through which efforts are being made to increase 
recreational facilities. Through the committee on playgrounds not on park 
department property, provision was made for recreational activities at the head- 
quarters from which Hartford men are inducted into the Service. 

There are two municipal golf courses, 36 tennis courts, 36 baseball diamonds, 
and about 30 playgrounds, maintained by the park department. 

HEALTH AND MEDICAL FACILITIES IN HARTFORD 

The Hartford Board of Health is constituted under a board of six members, 
two of whom are physicians. The leading political parties are both equally 
represented. Each commissioner serves for a period of 3 years. The board is 
an executive body, and the health officer is vested with its powers between monthly 
meetings. 

The board of health has broad powers conferred upon it by general statute, 
the sanitary code, and city ordinance. It is charged with the general health of 
the public, controlling the safety of milk, food, general sanitation, and the control 
of communicable diseases. 

The department is set up under eight bureaus, each bureau in charge of a 
trained director. These bureaus are: 

1. Administration. 

2. Vital statistics. 

3. Communicable di 

4. Tuberculosis. 

5. Venereal 

6. Laboratory. 

7. Food and sanitation. 

8. Maternal and child hygiene. 

There is a total of 47 full- and part-time employees. Seven of these are phy- 
sicians, 2 veterinarians, 2 dentists, 4 nurses, 1 dental hygienist, 3 laboratory 
personnel, which makes a total of 19 professional persons. The remainder are 
classified as clerical employees, sanitary inspectors, statisticians, technical 
assistants. 

The following persons are within the age group of selective service: 2 veteri- 
narians, 1 physician, 1 statistician, 1 sanitary inspector, 1 professional laboratory 
worker. What exem]3tions will be made among these men is not certain. 

The quarters occupied by the board of health are admittedly inadequate, and 
the furnishing of new quarters is now under active consideration. This is par- 
ticularly true of the bureaus of communicable diseases, tuberculosis, and venereal 
diseases. Plans have already been drawn up to remedy the problem. 

In the city as a whole, clinic facilities are provided in a number of ways. Gen- 
eral out-patient clinic services are rendered at the Hartford Dispensary and at the 
Municipal Hospital. In addition, the following clinic facilities are available. 

HARTFORD HOSPITAL 

Prenatal Clinic for ward patients to be delivered at the Hartford Hospital. 
There was a total of 2,440 births at this hospital last year, 

ST. FRANCIS HOSPITAL 

Allergy, tonsil, leutic, cardiac, tumor gynecology orthopedic, surgical, mater- 
nity and well-baby, and dental clincis. The patients are referred by private 
physicians, and are patients who have been discharged from the hospital who 
return for post-operative treatment. The approximate total number of persons 
seen in the out-patient clinics per month is 459. 

The charges here vary with the t.ype of service rendered. As an example, the 
dental clinic fees range from 50 cents to $1 ; the tonsil clinic is $14. Other fees 
range from 50 cents to $1, with the exception of the allergy clinic, where the 
rate is $2 for the primary examination and 50 cents for subsequent ones. 



60396— 41— pt. 13- 



5032 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 

MUNICIPAL HOSPITAL 



To be admitted a patient must be on city or town aid, or in a very low income 
bracket, able to pay very little if anything. The patient is obliged to pay, if 
the welfare department upon investigation finds that the patient is financially 
able to do so. To be classified as eligible for city aid, must live in Hartford 4 
years. If residence in Hartford is less than 4 years, is classified as a town case, 
and the last town residence is billed. All aliens charged to the State. 

The daily average in these clinics is 146. 

In addition to the hospitals, there is the Hartford Dispensary which offers a wide 
range of outpatient clinic facilities, open not only to Hartford residents, but also 
to persons living in the surrounding areas. The charges here are 50 cents for 
almost all services rendered, and a certain number of others for which no charge 
is made. 

The average weekly load of these clinics is approximately 500 visits. 

CENTRAL REGISTRY 

The method of reporting venereal diseases in the State of Connecticut is by 
number. The name and address is given to the health officer only in case the 
patient lapses treatment. By this method indigent patients can go from clinic 
to clinic causing a duplication of reports. To offset such a condition and keep 
control of this type of patient, a confidential central registry was established 2 
years ago. All institutions treating these diseases are cooperating with the bureau 
of venereal diseases of the board of health as the central agency. The admissions, 
transfers, and discharges are reported by name and address and consequently 
these patients are under control at all times. Following are registrants from each 
institution for the past 2 years: 

Cases on registry by calendar years 



Svnhilis Gonor- Miscel- 
S'yphilis ^fjg^ laneous 



Syphilis ^°°°''- ,^^'s°el- 
•'^^ rhea laneous 



Board of health clinic 
Municipal Hospital-. 
St. Francis HospitaL 

Dispensary 

Total cases 



METHODS OF CASE FINDING 

The methods used for case finding consist of routine serological blood testing 
and through epidemiologic investigations of persons who have been intimately 
exposed to communicable syphilis and gonorrhea as well as familial contacts of 
persons being treated with late or latent syphilis. 

Efforts are made to encourage routine serological blood tests on all patients 
seeking medical care in hospitals as well as from physicians, particularly in 
pregnant women. All hospitals in the city have adopted this routine on all 
general admission patients. Another group upon which routine serologic testing 
is done is men in industry. That this is a valuable group in which to locate cases 
of syphilis may be shown in the case of one of our large industries where a routine 
serologic test is made. For the first 5 months of this year they have reported 
29 cases of syphilis which is 13.2 percent of total cases reported for the city; 
13 or 41.4 percent of the cases found in this group were migratory workers seeking 
employment with this company. In passing it can be said that this company 
continues the infected people in employment but requires them to present a 
periodical report from the physician treating them. 

The premarriage blood testing and the selective-service examination es well as 
the examination of the National Youth Administration enrollees were responsible 
for the finding of several new cases. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5033 



TECHNIQUE FOR CASE HOLDING 

Experience has shown several causes for neglect of treatment. These pitfalls 
are avoided by the personnel of our clinic and consequently the following routine 
is followed with all admissions. 

1 . Careful medical and social history, particularly as to ability to pay for private 
treatment until cured. 

2. Working hours and residence of the patient are considered to determine the 
most convenient place for treatment. 

3. The nature of the infection is explained to each individual and the importance 
of treatment in controlling communicability. The late results of untreated 
sj'philis and gonorrhea are explained and literature on the diseases furnished. 
At all clinic sessions, moving pictures on health subjects are shown. 

4. No roughness or discourteous handling of the patients is used and all phy- 
sicians administering treatment have had several years of experience in veneieal 
disease clinic work so that pain and reactions are at a minimum. 

5. As much privacy as space will permit is given and as attendance increases, 
extra sessions are added to care for the increase. 

In the case of lapsed treatment if the person is in the communicable stage, an 
immediate personal call is made by the public health nurse. Late or latent cases 
are reminded by letter and, if unanswered, by a personal call. 

Each clinic of the citj- uses its own resources for follow-up and if unable to 
obtain results, refers the case to the health department public health nurse. 
In cases of epidemiologic work for a clinic or for a physician, the follow-up worker 
acts as agent for that clinic or physician. Only those patients and contacts who 
are noncooperative are brought formally to the attention of the health depart- 
ment at which time the director of the bureau of venereal diseases continues with 
the case. Seldom, if ever, is it necessary to exercise police powers to continue 
patients under treatment. 



Bureau of Venereal Diseases activities, by calendar years 





1937 


1938 


1939 


1940 


Januarv 
to May 
1941, in- 
clusive 


New cases reported: 


744 
378 

133 
136 

325 
222 

7,194 
2,497 

5,100 
2,086 

35 
109 

17 
50 
40 

401 
125 
967 
129 


552 
355 

177 
127 

380 
225 

8,335 
3,289 

8,980 
3,858 

13 
167 

27 
23 

87 
78 

425 
136 
828 
282 


367 
261 

145 
110 

362 
230 

8,326 
3,450 

9,050 
3,910 

44 
142 

40 
28 
102 
94 

486 
291 
709 
296 


319 
361 

162 
204 

355 
238 

8,471 
3,726 

9.121 
4,015 

13 
232 

81 
68 
100 
134 

502 
316 
748 
213 


211 


Gonorrhea 


145 


CLINIC ACTIVITIES 

New cases admitted: 


87 


Gonorrhea 


47 


Patients treated: 




Gonorrhea 


71 


Treatments given: 




Gonorrhea 


936 


Total patient visits: 




Gonorrhea 


1 029 


Patients discharged: 




Gonorrhea 




Epidemiology: 


53 


Gonorrhea 


14 




35 


Consultations 


56 


Control of delinquents: 


352 


Returned as result 


140 


Follow-up bv call 


274 




117 







5034 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 



Syphilis cases reported in Hartford 

JUNE 1939 TO MAY 1940, INCLUSIVE 





Infectious 


Noninfectious 


Total 




Physi- 
cians 


Institu- 
tions 


Physi- 
cians 


Institu- 
tions 


Infec- 
tious 


Noninfec- 
tious 


June- 

July 


2 
1 

2 












2 

3 



1 
1 
2 


11 
11 
4 
15 
13 
11 
17 
13 
10 
6 
6 
10 


19 
15 
23 
16 
13 
' 20 
10 
13 
10 
21 
13 
15 


1 

2 
2 
2 
3 



1 
2 
2 


30 
26 


August 


27 






October 

November 


26 
31 


December 

January 

February 


27 
26 
20 


March... 




April 


19 


May 


25 






Total cases 


7 


10 


127 


188 


17 


315 
332 

















JUNE 1940 TO MAY 1941. INCLUSIVE 



June.. 

July 









1 
2 

1 
2 


4 

5 

1 
2 
2 
1 

1 
2 

1 


4 

12 
5 
8 
9 
11 
9 
16 
18 
20 
18 
22 


15 
21 
15 
23 
18 
23 
18 
20 
21 
19 
26 


4 
1 
5 

1 
2 
3 
3 
2 
2 
4 
2 


12 


August 


26 


September 

October 

November 


23 
29 




32 


January 

February 


34 
38 


March 

April 

May 


41 
37 

48 


Total cases 


9 


20 


152 


227 


29 


379 

408 

















SANITATION 

Hartford as a city is almost 100 percent sewered. There are but few dwellings 
serviced by approved septic tanks. All septic-tank installations must be approved 
by the local board of health. At the present time there are 21 installations in the 
city, all of the approved type. 

During 1938 a survey of interior water piping was done, looking primarily for 
cross-connections. Twenty-four conditions were found which constituted viola- 
tions, and all were corrected. 

At the present time all tenement structures must have, by city ordinance, 
two means of egress from each floor. This ordinance is enforced, however, by the 
fire and building departments. 

With regard to the power of this department to enforce orders, it has been the 
experience of the department that we have ample support from the courts. In 
almost all instances the issuance of orders by the department is tantamount to 
correction. 

In 1938 there were 7,497 orders issued and 7,314 orders complied with; in 1939 
there were 7,241 orders issued and 7,193 complied with. In 1940jthere_were 7,408 
orders issued, and 6,965 complied with. 

HOSPITAL FACILITIES 

As far as hospital facilities are concerned, the city has the following hospital-bed 
capacities at the time of this writing: 



Hartford Hospital: 

Private 145 

Semiprivate 155 

Ward 297 

Cribs 35 

Bassinets 106 

St. Francis Hospital: 

Beds 530 

Bassinets 75 



738 



605 



Municipal Hospital: 

Municipal 175 

Isolation 65 

Men's home 250 

Women's home 65 

Men's chronic ward 45 

Women's chronic ward 25 

Nursery 30 

Mount Sinai Hospital: Beds.. 



655 
60 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5035 



Neuropsj^chiatric Institute not listed, because clientele of restricted type. 

In case of emergency, plans are in the making for supplementary hospital 
facilities at the Rocky Hill Soldiers' Home, and there are additional temporary 
facilities available in halls, schools, and in large residences in the surrounding 
suburbs. 

City of Hartford, department of building- — yearly summary of public and private 
dwelling construction 

BUILDING PERMITS, CHART NO. 1 





1-family 
residences 


2-family 
dwellings 


Multifaraily dweUings 


Total 
num- 
ber of 
family 
units 


Total 


Year 1939 


Num- 
ber of 
build- 
ings 


Esti- 
mated 
cost 


Num- 
ber of 
build- 
ings 


Esti- 
mated 
cost 


Num- 
ber of 
build- 
ings 


Num- 
ber of 
family 
units 


Esti- 
mated 
cost 


esti- 
mated 
cost 




6 
4 
10 
4 
11 
16 
16 
5 
6 
10 
10 
5 


$31, 250 

22, 490 
49, 553 
20, 000 
57, 200 
75, 500 
75,000 
22,800 
33, 140 
43, 000 
47, 500 

23, 200 


1 
1 


$8, 000 
9,000 








8 
6 
68 
6 
11 
16 
18 
7 
9 
10 
12 
157 


$39, 250 


February 








31, 490 


March 


1 


58 


$218, 000 


267, 553 


April 

May 


1 


6,000 


26, 000 








57, 200 














75, 500 


July 

August 


1 
1 


7,500 
6,000 








■ 82, 500 








28 800 




1 


3 


15, 800 


48, 940 


October 






43, 000 




1 
3 


7,800 
21. 800 








55, 300 




15 


146 


1494,000 


2 539, 000 






Total, year 1939.. .. 


103 


500, 633 


9 


66, 100 


17 


207 


727, 800 


328 


1, 294. 533 



> Federal housing project. 

* Federal housing project, Nelton Court, 15 buildings, 146-family units; cost, .$494,000. 







BUILDING PERMITS, 


CHART NO. 2 










1-family resi- 
dences 


2-family 
dwellings 


Multifamily dwellings 


Total 
num- 
ber of 
family 
units 




Year 1940 


Num- 
ber of 
build- 
ings 


Esti- 
mated 
cost 


Num- 
ber of 
build- 
ings 


Esti- 
mated 
cost 


Num- 
ber of 
build- 
ings 


Num- 
ber of 
family 
units 


Esti- 
mated 
cost 


Total esti- 
mated cost 




8 
6 

12 
20 
27 
19 


$58, 460. 00 
33, 700. 00 
59,800.00 
93,600.00 
97, 890. 00 
77. S.50_ 00 












8 
6 
12 
102 
257 
19 
40 
41 
22 
20 
6 
17 




February 












33 700 00 


March 












59, 800. 00 








2 

28 


82 
222 


$195, 666 
1 840, 000 


288, 600. 00 
2 968 690 00 


May 


4 


$30, 800 




77, 850. 00 


July 

August 


26 114,238.00 
311143 700 no 


3 

1 
2 
1 
1 
(3) 


21,666 
7,600 

14, 700 
7,800 
5,900 
1,000 


2 

1 


8 
8 


30, 666 

30, 000 


165, 838. 00 
181 300 00 




18 
10 
4 
17 


79, 564. 09 
40, 500. 00 
23.938.00 
82, 000. 00 


94! 264. 09 


October 


2 


8 


24,000 


72 300 00 




29, 838. 00 










83,000.00 










Total year 1940. 


198'905,240.09 


12 


89,400 


35 


328 


1,119,000 


550 


2, 113, 640. 09 



' Federal housing project. 

2 Federal housing project, Dutch Point Colony, 28 buildings, 222 family units; cost, $840,000. 

' Additional cost. 



5036 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

City of Hartford, department of building — yearly summary of public and private 
dwelling construction — Continued 







BUILDING PERMITS, CHART NO. 3 










1-family resi- 
dences 


2-family dwell- 
ings 


Multifamily dwellings 


Total 
num- 
ber of 
family 
units 


Total 


Year 1941 


Num- 
ber of 
build- 
ings 


Esti- 
mated 
cost 


Num- 
ber of 
build- 
ings 


Esti- 
mated 
cost 


Num- 
ber of 
build- 
ings 


Num- 
ber of 
family 
units 


Esti- 
mated 
cost 


esti- 
mated 
cost 


January _ 


10 
2 
17 
43 


$54. 125 
12, 260 
77. 400 

205, 870 


2 
2 


$16, 000 
16, 000 








14 

6 

374 

1,045 


$70 125 




0) 

17 
237 


"'"357' 
1,000 


$1, 000 
21,205,559 
23,597,000 


29,260 
1 1,282, 959 
3 3,808, 870 


March 


April 


1 


6,000 


Total, 1941. Jan- 
uary to April, 
inclusive 


72 


349, 655 


5 


38, 000 


254 


1,357 


4, 803, 559 


1,439 


5, 191, 214 



1 Federal housing project, Bellevue Square, 16 buildings, 345 family units; cost, $1,198,559, 

2 Federal housing project. 

3 Federal housing project, Flatbush Ave., 237 buildings, 1,000 family units; cost, $3,597,000. 



BUILDING PERMITS, CHART NO. 4 
Demolition permits residential buildings 



Year 


Number 
of permits 


Family 
units 


1939 . 


20 
31 
56 


89 


1940 


43 




272 








Total 


107 


404 







Comparative yearly value of private and public duelling construction 





Private housing 


Public housing 


Total 
number 
of family 

units 




Recapitulation, by years 


Number 

of family 

units 


Estimated 
cost 


Number 

of family 

units 


Estimated 
cost 


Total esti- 
mated cost 


1939 


182 
328 
94 


$800, 533. 00 

1, 273, 640. 09 

395, 655. 00 


146 

222 

1,345 


$494, 000 

840, 000 

4, 795, 559 


328 

550 

1,439 


$1 294 533 00 


1940 

1941, January to April 


2', 113,640.09 
5, 191, 214. 00 


Total.. .. 


604 


2, 469, 828. 09 


1.713 


6, 129. 559 


2,317 


8, 599, 387. 09 







Yearly aggregate value and number of building permits isstied, including public and 
private dwelling construction 



Years 


Total 

number 

of permits 

issued 


Total esti- 
mated cost 


1939 


1,928 

1,933 

745 


$3 379, 486 84 


1940 


7. 562, 761. 05 


1941, January to April 


6. 051, 516. 40 






Total 


4,606 


16, 993, 764. 39 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5037 

Exhibit A. — Recommendations to Federal Agencies 

[Copy] 

March 20, 1941. 
Mr. Frank Bane, 

Director, Division of State and Local Cooperation, 

National Defense Commission, Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Mr. Bane: Mr. C. A. Harrell, field representative of the National 
Defense Commission, called recently at the office of the mayor in reference to 
proposals for Federal aid for municipal public works in connection with defense 
projects. 

In addition to various industries in Hartford, including the Colt's Patent Fire 
Arms Manufacturing Co., other industries in adjacent towns employ thousands 
of Hartford residents — the United Aircraft Co. in East Hartford, and the Pratt & 
Whitney branch of the Niles-Bement-Pond Co. in West Hartford. 

In addition, the United States Army has arranged for an Army air base at 
Windsor Locks, which is only 12 miles from Hartford. 

A program similar to that outlined by Mr. Harrell necessarily involves con- 
sideration of the situation thus presented. 

At the request of the mayor, following Mr. Harrell's visit, City Engineer 
Robert J. Ross, Commissioner William O. Wormstedt, president of the Hartford 
Aviation Commission, and Thomas F. Foley, sponsor's representative. Work 
Projects Administration, were asked to prepare summaries of projects which 
might be included in the scope of the plan presented by Mr. Harrell. 

Mr. Ross, Mr. Wormstedt, and Mr. Foley have filed reports suggesting projects 
which might be undertaken. Their statements are enclosed. With the state- 
ment from Mr. Ross is an explanatory map, on which are listed the locations of the 
proposals suggested. 

Cost estimates are not given in all cases, but full information regarding each 
of the projects will be available upon request. If Mr. Harrell or some other 
representative of your Commission is sent to Hartford I will be glad to confer 
with him in greater detail, and to arrange for a meeting with the officials who have 
compiled the individual reports. 

Your careful consideration of the recommendations advanced in the accompany- 
ing statements is respectfully requested. It is our belief that the major part 
of the suggestions come under the defense program heading. If any additional 
data is required, it will be forwarded to you immediately. 
Sincerely yours, 

Thomas J. Spellacy, Mayor. 



[Copy] 

City of Hartford, Conn. 

March, 18, 1941. 
memorandum 

From: Thomas F. Foley, sponsor's representative. 

To: Thomas J. Spellacy, mayor. 

Re Projects that could be classed under the national-defense program. 

1. The health authorities are stressing the importance of additional health 
facilities to care for the increased population of Hartford due to the influx of 
workers on national defense. The present isolation hospital is inadequate for the 
normal population and the burden of caring for additional isolation patients 
would be impossible. A new isolation hospital would cost approximately $300,000. 
Also the board of health j^ersonnel must be increased to properly care for these 
workers and more space needed. We have a location on Sheldon Street where a 
health center could be erected for approximately $290,000. It would be centrally 
located and house all the various departments of the health board including the 
free clinics, etc. 

2. At Brainard Field Airport a new hangar is imperative to house the ships 
that are being used to train men for aviation. In case of need these experienced 
pilots will be available to the Government. They are also training women 
belonging to the Women Flyers of America, a national club which is recognized 
by the Civil Aeronautics Administration. These women, if needed, are to be 
used to fly planes from factories to bases and many other duties that may be 



5038 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

performed by women in an emergency. An estimated cost for the hangar would 
be approximately $350,000. With adequate hangar facilities space could be 
provided for the additional ships that are waiting to be housed here to be used 
for training purposes. 

3. Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Co. is using the National Guard hangar to test the 
planes on Government order. An enormous amount of cars is already using this 
one entrance road to Brainard Field; at least one more entrance is needed. In 
case of a dangerous condition on the one entrance, gasoline supplies, etc., would 
be entirely cut off from the field. This would seriously hamper the testing opera- 
tions of the airplane factory. Construction and repairing of roads necessary are 
as follows: Building new entrance and repairing present one — 20,000 feet of road- 
way 100 feet wide — this would also include repairing Wawarme Avenue; a separate 
service road 8,000 feet long and 32 feet wide which will give access to the sewage- 
disposal plant and pumping station independent of aviation roads. At the re- 
quest of Thomas J. Burke, former director of operations, Work Projects Adminis- 
tration, I submitted the Brainard Field road program to the Work Projects Ad- 
ministration, but on checking with the New Haven office March 1, I find that it is 
still being retained there awaiting additional information from Washington. 
Since that time, I have been requested by Frank Upman, Acting Administrator of 
the Work Projects Administration, to resubmit the program. 

4. Extension of Vine Street at the cost of $120,000. This was at one time 
considered by the War Department as a military outlet and would certainly be 
needed in case of war. 

5. The construction of a bridge costing $75,000 to connect the two defense 
housing projects at Flatbush Avenue and the building of roads in this area neces- 
sary particularly in case of fire. 

6. As soon as the dike is completed new roads to the North Meadows Pumping 
Station would be necessary to operate and maintain at all times. This would 
keep surrounding area dry at all times and it would be available for temporary or 
permanent homes for defense workers. 

7. A new firehouse may be needed on account of the thousands of defense 
workers which will be housed in the Flatbush Avenue area. 

Thomas F. Foley, 

Sponsor's Representative. 



[Copy] 

City of Hartford, Conn. 

h.\rtford aviation commission 

Brainard Field 

March 6, 1941. 
Hon. Thomas J. Spellacy, 

Mayor of Hartford, Hartford, Conn. 

My Dear Mr. Mayor: As requested by you in connection with projects made 
necessary by national defense activities, we submit for your earnest consideration 
the following: 

Parking areas. — It is highly desirable that these areas be placed in such condi- 
tion that parking facilities would be available at all seasons of the year for the 
multitudes of people that congregate at the airport during the year. I would 
do away for all times with the present practice, ofttimes necessary, of parking 
cars on the shoulders of the main road. To sum it up completely, it would keep 
all arteries to and from the airport open, which is an extremely A'ital point. This 
would be accomplished with a 4-inch stone base with wear coa.t including proper 
drainage. A conservative estimate for this project would be $30,300. 

Adequate fencing. — Five thousand four hundred lineal feet of bethanized fence 
to enclose the south and west sides of the field to prevent persons from trespassing, 
in view of the fact that there is valuable ligliting equipment located around the 
airport coupled with the fact that it is a very important safety angle with the 
increasing traffic and national defense to make sure that persons could not enter 
the field or airport itself from other than the proper entrances. The purchase 
price of this coupled with installation would be approximately $6,000. 

North-south runway. — A runway known as a north-south runway to supplement 
the runway being constructed presently, known as the northeast-southwest 
runway. The present two runways will be widened 50 feet. This would be 2,800 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5039 

feet long and 150 feet wide with adequate drainage. This is estimated to cost 
about $101,200. 

Taxi strips.— Three thousand eight hundred lineal feet taxi strip to include a 
north-south one running from the ramp in front of the administration building 
to a point of intersection with the northeast-southwest runway and the northwest- 
southeast runway and one connecting the turning circles of the above runways — 
that is, southeast and southwest at the south end of the field. This would cost 
approximately $95,000. 

With the Forty-third Division Aviation, Connecticut National Guard, stationed 
at the airport and the War Department's constant watchful eye on the field with a 
view to possibly placing an additional military outfit here, it becomes increasingly 
important that we keep in step with the growing demands necessitated by national 
defense. 

We will indeed be highly grateful for your submission of these projects to the 
proper source, so that they may be given their due consideration. 
Respectfully yours, 

The Hartford Aviation Commission, 
William O. Wormstedt, President. 



City of Hartford, Conn. 
department of engineering 

Municipal Building 

March 4, 1941. 
Hon. Thomas J. Spellacy, 

Maijor, City of Hartford, 

Municipal Building, Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Sir: You have requested me to suggest projects which the Federal 
Government might consider for allotment of funds because of the effect of defense 
activities on the city. The projects listed hereinafter may be classed in one of 
these categories. No cost estimates are attached because in the short time 
available it would be impractical to make intelligent estimates. We can, if you 
desire, however, give you rough approximations of costs in a short space of time 
on any of the projects which particulaily appeal to .you. 
Suggested projects are as follows: 



(A) Improvement of Aviation Road and Wawarme Avenue. — The only connection 
between the airport and the city proper is through Aviation Road and streets in 
the Colt district which experience has shown prove insufficient in capacity in 
times when large crowds visit the airport. The widening and improvement of 
Aviation Road from the field northerly to Wawarme Avenue and then widening 
and adequately paving Wawarme Avenue from Aviation Road to Wethersfield 
Avenue would afford a proper means of ingress and egress to the field far beyond 
that now available. 

Sometime in the near future the Hartford Bypass and approach to the new 
Connecticut River bridge will be coiuiected by a clover leaf near the aviation 
field administration building to Meadow Road, thus insuring adequate approaches 
to the field from points outside the city, but this Aviation Road- Wawarme Avenue 
connection from the business area of the city is also desirable. 

(B) Improvement of Maxim Road. — Maxim Road from its eastern terminus at 
the dike to the proposed cloverleaf west of the administration building could well 
be widened and improved to facilitate traffic movement at the field and to make 
a better connection to the proposed Hartford bypass of the State highway 
system. 

(C) Construction of service roads. — To improve maintenance work at the airport 
it would be desirable to construct an oiled macadam service road along the east 
and southerly borders of the field. (This road would also be useful in mainte- 
nance of the dike; see flood-control section of this report.) 

(D) Construction of miscellaneous facilities at the airport. — The construction of 
hangars, machine shop and service buildings at the airport would seem to be 
desirable in improving the usefulness of the field for defense. 



5040 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

BOULEVARD SYSTEM 

(E) Southerly cross-town route. — The State highway department will start con- 
struction of the Hartford bypass through the South Meadows in the very near 
future. Included in their plans is the paving of what is known as Meadow Road, 
from the airport to Wethersfield Avenue, with cloverleaf at the bypass and an 
underpass at the Valley Railroad. The improvement of this extension to the 
west to connect with Route U S 6 is a very desirable project, as it would facilitate 
movement of trucks and passenger cars to and from the industrial area in Elm- 
wood and around the Pratt & Whitney- New Park Avenue plant without entering 
the more congested section of the city and will also keep through traffic from New 
Britain, Bristol, Waterbury, and Danbury and the west from going through the 
congested shop district in order to pass through Hartford. This project involves 
the improvement of existing streets as well as a section of new street as shown on 
the accompanying map. 

FLOOD CONTROL 

(F) Service roads. — A desirable addition to the flood-control work now under 
way would be the construction of service roads along the upper toe of the dike 
slopes. These service roads would be extremely useful in maintenance work or 
in emergency repairs which might be difficult to make if no such roads were avail- 
able. It is suggested that such roads be built throughout the entire length of the 
North Meadows and South Meadows dikes. (The service road east of the airport 
mentioned above would serve as a dike service road through part of the length 
of the Clark Dike). 

(G) Stop-log structiires. — It would be desirable to construct several permanent 
structures to house stop logs for emergency closures of several railroad and road- 
way openings through the dike system, particularly at the west end of the Clark 
Dike. 

(H) Local flood-protection projects. — The protection of several local areas along 
the Paik River from flooding by the overflow of that river should be considered. 
This is particularly true because there are several important industrial plants 
subject to such flooding. 

NORTH MEADOWS DEVELOPMENT 

Now that the North Meadows dike is practically complete and the work on 
the central dike section and Park River conduit progressing, it would seem 
desirable to make the North Meadows available for development into industrial 
sites and for housing for industrial defense workers. In order to utilize the mead- 
ows at all, certain facilities must be constructed. 

(I) Local service roads. — A boulevard across the entire length of the North 
Meadows will be constructed as part of the State highway system in the not very 
distant future, but this boulevard will be an express highway and not designed 
for local traffic which under the city's agreement with the State is to be served by 
parallel local roads to be constructed adjacent to the express highway. 

It would seem desirable in order to make the meadows available for develop- 
ment at once to construct portions, at least, of these service roads. 

(J) Tower Avenue extension. — The only means of ingress and egress to and fiom 
the North Meadows at present is by means of Fishfry Street and various unim- 
proved meadow roads which can only be used in good weather. In the future 
adequate connection to Morgan Street will be available, but this cannot be ex- 
pected to be accomplished for some time. The plan for the major boulevard 
system includes a connection from the express highway through the North Mead- 
ows to Tower Avenue extension at Main Stieet, although the construction of the 
same could not be definitely provided for in the city's agreement with the State. 

In order to open up the meadows and provide adequate traffic arteries to con- 
nect with the service roads mentioned above, it is suggested that this Tower 
Avenue extension could be constructed in the immediate future. 

(K) Drainage. — Portions of the meadows are swampy at present but can 
readily be drained by proper ditch system and improvement of the channel of 
Meadow Brook leading to the storage pond of the North Meadows Pumping 
Station. The accomplishment of this drainage work would enable development 
of quite a bit of the North Meadows land not otherwise available. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5041 

IN CONNECTION WITH HOUSING 

(L) Paling work. — The macadamizing and improving of Chandler Street and 
the regrading and repaying of Newfield Avenue, both border streets of the new 
defense-housing project, are desirable in many ways. 

The macadamizing of accepted and laid-out city streets within the defense 
housing project limits could well be considered. In order to provide an adequate 
traffic connection from this housing project to the center of the city, it is suggested 
that Flatbush Avenue be paved with permanent pavement and sidewalks installed. 
The construction of sidewalks on streets leading to this project would seem to 
be essential in that the thousands of residents can otherwise approach the project 
only by walking over streets with no sidewalks for a considerable distance in all 
directions from the project. 

(M) Park River bridge. — The defense housing project site is divided in two 
sections by the Park River. A bridge over the river well south of Flatbush 
Avenue, connecting the two portions of the site, would be of considerable value. 

(X) Flatbush Avenue grade crossing. — In the west end of the housing project 
Flatbush Avenue crosses the main line of the New Haven Railroad at grade. 
This crossing is in the section of track where the speed of trains often approaches 
70 miles per hour and visibility of the tracks at the crossing is extremely poor. 
As a matter of fact, only the east approach and east end of an overpass for this 
crossing would be within the city limits, but its elimination would certainly be 
advantageous to the citizens of Hartford, particularly to those who use the cross- 
ing in going to and from the Pratt & Whitney plant, the Royal Typewriter Co., 
and other large manufacturing establishments in the New Park Avenue and Elm- 
wood sections. 

BRIDGES AND MISCELLANEOUS HIGHWAY IMPROVEMENTS 

(O) Wellington Street. — The Wellington Street bridge is on a traffic route con- 
veniently connecting the defense housing project as well as the southwest part of 
the city with the Capitol Avenue shop district. This bridge is a timber trestle, 
built as a more or less temporary structure and its replacement by a permanent 
bridge suitable for heavy traffic and not susceptible to damage from ice would be 
a desirable project. 

(P) Sigourney Street bridge crossing. — The elimination of the Sigourney Street 
grade crossing by construction of a viaduct over the railroad over Capitol Avenue 
and across the Park River connecting Sigourney Street to Park Terrace would 
be an extremely useful link in the city's traffic system, particularly in that it would 
eliminate much congestion in the Capitol Avenue industrial area and afford a 
much faster north and south route across the city. 

(Q) Taylor Street connection. — The paving of an extension of Taylor Street to 
connect that street with Wyllys Street would* be an extremely desirable project 
in that it would relieve congestion on the heavily traveled route through the Colt 
district. 

(R) Prospect Street-Market Street projects. — The widening of South Prospect 
Street, its connection to Charter Oak Place, together with the widening of Market 
Street north of Temple Street and the extension of Market to connect with Wind- 
sor Street and Pleasant Street, as well as the widening and improving of Windsor 
Street between Pleasant Street and the Windsor Street underpass, is a project 
well worth consideration to facilitate traffic movement north and south through 
the center of the city particularly in connection with traffic to the factories on 
upper Main Street and to those in the Colt district. 

Accompanying this letter is a map on which all the above projects have been 
indicated and lettered in conformity with lettering on the above headings. 

In order to avoid undue length we have made reference to all the above rather 
sketchy, but any of these can be enlarged upon if it seems desirable. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert J. Ross, City Engineer. 



5042 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

[Copy] 

City of Hartford, Conn. 

department of engineering 

Municipal Building 

March 6, 1941. 
Hon. Thomas J. Spellacy, 
Mayor, City of Hartford, 

Municipal Building, Hartford, Conn. 

Dear Sir: At the suggestion of Mr. Linnane the following amplification of 
our letter of March 4, 1941, is submitted. 

The relationship of the several projects suggested in our letter to defense 
problems is, we believe, as follows: 

Projects A, B, C, and D vitally affect the airport which, without question, is a 
key point in any defense set-up. 

A and B seem necessary to prevent traffic congestion from affecting usefulness 
of the field by hampering emergency vehicle movements to and from the city 
proper. 

E serves several useful purposes. It connects the airport and the Colt district 
with the south and west sections of the city. The defense housing project is 
quite close to this route and traffic over unimproved routes in this section has 
already increased. Further increases will follow occupation of the housing site. 
(See also discussion in reference to C, etc.) 

F and G are suggested because anything which improves facilities for mainte- 
nance and patrol of our flood-protection works, particularly during emergencies, 
is important in view of the fact that a number of vital manufacturing plants 
(particularly the Colt plant) must depend on the dikes for protection from dis- 
astrous shut-downs should they be flooded. 

H would extend flood protection to other areas occupied by important manu- 
facturing establishments and/or inhabited by industrial workers. 

I, J, and K, if done, would allow expansion for defense needs into a hitherto 
unused area of the city with ample railroad facilities and close to the business 
district and residential areas. Further sites for large plants and defense housing 
facilities are few and the north meadows should, we believe, receive serious 
consideration. 

L, M, and N are things which the city wiU, in all probability, have to do in the 
future because of the influx of defense workers and the development of the 1,000- 
unit housing site on Flatbush Avenue. 

O, P, Q, and R are suggested because increased activity in all lines of business, 
particularly in manufacturing, has already produced a quite noticeable increase in 
traffic congestion, hampering not only ordinary business but defense production 
as well. The passage through our congested streets of the cars of thousands of 
workers in defense plants is constantly decreasing the speed of traffic flow and the 
development of suggested projects would tend to minimize the effect. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert J. Ross, 

City Engineer. 

TESTIMONY OF MAYOR SPELLACY— Resumed 

Mr. Sparkman. Now, we would be very glad for you to proceed 
as you wish. I wonder if you would care to summarize your paper 
for the benefit of the committee. 

Mayor Spellacy. The committee has my statement and I would 
prefer your asking questions rather than my making any further 
statement. 

Mr. Sparkman. I shall be glad to proceed in that manner. 

I notice in your paper you estimate that the population of Hartford 
proper has increased by 35,000 persons since the 1940 census. 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Does that include only the principal part of 
Hartford or does it include also East and West Hartford? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5Q43 

Mayor Spellacy. It includes metropolitan Hartford as served by 
the Hartford post office department. That would include West 
Hartford, East Hartford, Wethersfield, and a place called Wilson. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are those separate towns? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Separate corporations? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir; we have 169 towns in Connecticut and 
each is a corporate entity. Hartford itself is territorially very small, 
one of the smallest cities of its size in the country. It covers 18.6 
square miles. There is no line of demarcation between Hartford 
and West Hartford, and a stranger driving out Farmington Avenue 
wouldn't know where the line was unless he happened to see the sign. 
We are separated from East Hartford by the Connecticut River; but 
our problem is a community problem. It is a metropolitan district 
problem. 

Mr. Sparkman. And when you refer to "Hartford," you mean the 
metropolitan area? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. What was the population in the 1940 census of 
metropolitan Hartford? 

Mayor Spellacy. I can't give you the figure for metropolitan 
Hartford but for the city of Hartford proper it was 166,000. 

Mr. Sparkman. But metropolitan Hartford has increased in popu- 
lation an estimated 35,000 since that time? 

Mayor Spellacy. That estimate is based upon the post office 
survey. 

HOUSING PROGRAM INSUFFICIENT 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you feel that the present housing expansion 
in the city of Hartford of two or three thousand units is sufficient to 
care for that increase? 

Mayor Spellacy. No, sir. In Hartford, through the Federal 
Housing Authority, we are building 1,000 houses or units for defense 
workers. We have completed, or partially completed, four projects 
of so-called slum-clearance houses and upon the completion of all 
these our city will be greatly relieved. 

Through the Department of Agriculture we are erecting temporary 
housing for defense workers that will accommodate some 700 people. 

In Connecticut we have a problem that may not exist in a State 
such as New York, which provides substantial aid for its cities. For 
instance, in education, over 90 percent of the entire cost is borne by 
the municipal tax on real estate and the contents of real estate, so 
that you have a burden upon the taxpayers that must be figured in 
any enterprise in which the city may participate. 

PAYMENT IN LIEU OF TAXES 

Now it is costing this city the equivalent of 20 percent of the income 
on private property to service our tax-free slum clearance project; 
this is a burden placed upon one group of taxpayers to subsidize a 
particular group of people. We attempted to solve this by having the 
United States Government agree to pay at least $50,000 a year to the 
city to help carry the cost of servicing that particular section. Of 
course that won't do it. It is still going to cost us a considerable sum 
beyond that figure. 



5044 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

We spend in Hartford some $13,000,000 a year for our total city 
service. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do I understand from your statement that you 
have to bear all of your educational expense? The State does not 
bear part of it? 

Mayor Spellacy. We get a grant from the State. Our operating 
cost in Hartford for the school system is $3,500,000 a year. That 
does not include capital expenditures. It only includes the operating 
costs and it doesn't mclude pensions or insurance. It is just the 
operating cost of the schools themselves. We have something like 
$95,000 in State grants which is our proportion, while New York 
State, for instance, pays 40 percent. 

$50,000 TO SERVICE DEFENSE HOUSING 

Mr. Sparkman. Let me ask you about this servicing charge 
toward which the Government pays $50,000. Upon what housing is 
that paid? Do I understand now that that is your slum clearance 
project? 

Mayor Spellacy. No, sir; it is for the 1,000 units that are being 
erected for defense housing. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is there such a service charge paid in other parts 
of the country? 

Mayor Spellacy. This is the only place that I know of. 

Mr. Sparkman. It is a special concession to Hartford? 

Mayor Spellacy. Well, it was an agreement we entered into with 
the United States Housing Authority. At the time of the agreement 
I was in the hospital with a fractured hip and I thmk they felt sorry 
for me and agreed to give us $50,000 a year. 

Mr. Sparkman. Then that was a $50,000 hip. 

The Chairman. We hope you don't have to fracture the other hip 
to get an additional $50,000. 

Mayor Spellacy. At that I didn't get enough money to cover the 
cost. 

rents increase 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have a rent problem here? What I mean 
is have rent charges increased? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is there any plan on the part of the city to control 
the matter of rents? 

Mayor Spellacy. The city has attempted to control them but 
I think it is futile. We attempted it after the last war. The city 
hasn't any of the police powers that the State possesses and I don't 
think constitutionally we have any control over the amount of rent 
to be charged by a private owner. We can use moral suasion and 
perhaps through taxation we may have some control, but legally, 
we haven't any. 

ISOLATION hospitals NEEDED 

Mr. Sparkman. What is the situation with reference to the hos- 
pitals in Hartford? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5045 

I notice in your statement you have given us the sizes of the hos- 
pitals, but I would like to know whether there is an acute shortage 
in hospital facilities. 

Mayor Spellacy. There would be in the event of an epidemic. 
Connecticut is woefully short of isolation hospitals. We have one in 
Hartford which has only 65 beds. It was built as a temporary 
structure and the cost of operating the hospital is 80 percent of the 
total cost if there isn't a single bed occupied. We furnish its facilities 
to other towns in the vicinity at a net cost They pay only when 
they actually have a patient there. But the cost to the city of 
Hartford goes on whether there is a patient in the hospital or not. 

Mr. Sparkman. Has there been any increase in your hospital 
facilities during the past year? 

Mayor Spellacy. The Hartford hospital is about to erect a new 
unit. 

Mr. Sparkman. W^cll, has there been any increase in clinical 
facilities? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes; through our board of health. 

Mr. Sparkman. Within the last year, I mean since the impact of 
this defense program has been felt. 

Mayor Spellacy. We have excellent physical facilities for all 
kinds "^ of service to the citizens of Hartford through our board of 
health and through the hospitals and the community chest, all work- 
ing as one unit. We haven't any disagreements on that whatever. 
We all work together. 

CASES OF SYPHILIS INCREASE 

Mr. Sparkman. What are your facilities for taking care of and 
controlling communicable diseases? 

Mayor Spellacy. The isolation hospital is inadequate. For in- 
stance, the problem of syphilis. Cases reported to the local boaj-d of 
health have doubled from March a year ago to March of this year 
and are still on the increase. The other venereal diseases have like- 
wise increased and there are no facilities for taking care of those cases. 
Our hospitals will not take communicable disease patients. The 
isolation hospital reprcs{^nts the biggest problem that we have at the 
moment in our health work. 

Our facilities are totally inadequate, not only for this city but for 
the State as a whole. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have any way of detecting those with 
communicable diseases except as you may just come upon them in 
clinical treatments? 

Mayor Spellacy. Well, of course, under the State law doctors are 
compelled to report to the board of health uny communicable diseases 
they may find. 

PLANTS REQUIRE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION 

Mr. Sparkman. But new workmen coming into the city of Hartford 
do not have to submit to any physical examination, through which 
they might be discovered? 

Mayor Spellacy. If they go into a defense industry they are exam- 
ined by a physician representing the contractor before they receive 
employment. 



5046 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Sparkman. And he, of course, would be compelled under the 
law to report to the public board of health any communicable disease 
that he found? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Does the city give any medical and hospital care 
to any nonsettled person? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Now, I believe you prompted the Governor a few 
minutes ago to the effect that your settlement law calls for a 4-year 
residence? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. But that is not true as to hospitalization and 
medical services — you provide them even to nonsettled persons? 

state billed for service to in-migrants 

Mayor Spellacy. We give whatever assistance is required in the 
way of aid. If the person is from another State, then the State is 
billed for that service; if the person is a resident of another town in 
Connecticut, then that town is billed for the service. If he is not an 
alien and has no settlement in any other town in Connecticut, then the 
State assumes the obligation. We perform the service but, of course, 
we are never totally reimbursed because the cost of the investigation 
is borne by the local community. 

declares schools are adequate 

Mr. Sparkman. "What about your schools? Wliat is the present 
pupil load? 

Mayor Spellacy. They are absolutely adequate, and would be 
adequate even if we had six or seven thousand more pupils than we 
now have. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words you anticipate no difficulty as far 
as schools are concerned with relation to the defense program? 

Mayor Spellacy. We shall face an increase of teachers, an increase 
of expense, but not an increase of school facilities. Of course there 
will be the additional cost of textbooks and supplies. 

Mr. Sparkman. Does the city of Hartford supply textbooks? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. To all grades? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Chairman, I believe that is all. 

The Chairman. Mayor Spellacy, it is gratifying to hear you state 
that your school facilities are adequate. In San Diego the situation 
is entirely different. There they are pressed for school facilities. 

Mayor Spellacy. In speaking of school facilities, I am taking also 
into consideration our parochial-school system as well as the public- 
school system. We have some 9,000 pupils m the parochial schools 
in the city of Hartford. If they should close down, then, of course, 
our public schools would be inadequate. 

TRAFFIC PROBLEMS 

Mr. Sparkman. Wliat about services such as roads, streets, sewers, 
and other things provided for under the so-called Lanham Act? 

Mayor Spellacy. Two of the largest" defense plants in this locality 
are in other towns. The United Aircraft Co., employing some 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5047 

22,000 people and scheduled to employ many thousands more, is 
located in East Hartford, and the Pratt & Whitney Co. has a large 
plant in West Hartford. Twenty-one policemen are used just to take 
care of the Pratt & Whitney traffic. We have to pay those 21 police- 
men. 

The situation is equally serious with respect to East Hartford. 
We only have one bridge across the Connecticut River at present; 
another is being built, but it will be some 2 years before it is completed. 
In the meantime, many extra policemen are required to keep that 
traffic movmg. It isn't flowing as well as w^e would like, but it is 
the best we can do under the circumstances. 

In other words, for the accommodation of these defense industries 
and their workers, the city is put to a considerable expense, and it 
receives no revenue from either of these factories in the way of taxes. 
The taxes are paid to the communities in which they are located. 

Mr. Sparkman. I presume the people who work in these plants 
you have mentioned live in those towns — they don't live in Hartford? 

Mayor Spellacy. Many of thom live in Hartford. But many 
others who work in East Hartford live in West Hartford, so they 
must go enthely through Hartford to get to their work. 

Mr. Sparkman. Except for the services which you mentioned, they 
really are not a charge on Hartford proper. 

Mayor Spellacy. It is a considerable expense, sir, even to service 
them. 

Mr. Sparkman. I realize that, but I am now talking about schools 
for thgir children, housing and so forth; those are problems for East 
Hartford or West Hartford or wherever they might live? 

Mayor Spellacy. That is correct. 

DANGER OF INFLATION MENTIONED 

Mr. Sparkman. And, Mayor Spellacy, I wonder what your ideas 
are as to the proper way to meet the shock that is coming when this 
thing lets dow^n? 

Mayor Spellacy. Well, of course, one could only hazard a guess as 
to what is to be done. 

Mr. Sparkman. You heard the Governor's suggestion and I am 
wondering if you have any further thoughts, or if your ideas coincide 
with his. 

Mayor Spellacy. They generally do because he has a much better 
mind than I have and much greater experience, perhaps, in certain 
lines, than I have had. 

I am just a plain, ordmary, everyday lawyer. I think that the 
large problem in the future is to prevent inflation. Infia'tion can be 
prevented, in my opinion, only by the imposition of the highest tax 
that the individual can bear, plus the sale of bonds, such as defense 
bonds, to the public, rather than to banks where they create a credit 
inflation. If the imposition of this high tax during the so-called boom 
period were such that the individual would be prevented from buying 
any of the luxuries that he now enjoys (if I could buy but one suit 
instead of two or three, for instance), we would be creating a backlog 
of orders for the future, provided Congress could be induced to take 
that tax right out of existence when this boom is over. 

-41— pt 13 3 



5048 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

BACKLOG OF POST-DEFENSE ORDERS 

We would be creating a backlog of potential orders for refrigerators, 
typewriters, shoes, clothes and everythmg else that we couldn't buy- 
now because of the exorbitant tax rate. Create such a market and 
give the people at that time the money to buy with, which you could 
do as I have suggested; then relieve the tax situation, and you would 
have a flood of buying that would answer the future problem. But 
that is so idealistic that I doubt if it could be accomplished. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course your idea there is to stimulate industry 
to a production of needed commodities after this thing is over and 
thereby prevent another serious depression? 

Mayor Spellacy. Well, it is self-evident we can't do business as 
usual and carry on defense work, because we have neither the workers 
nor the materials to do it with. Self-preservation is the first law of 
nature, so your immediate necessity is the manufacture of the kind 
of goods that will preserve the United States as the United States. 

All of us have got to make some sacrifice, whether we like it or not. 
We can make the sacrifice of going without things at the moment. 
The Government can compel that by taxation but that taxation will 
have to be removed to allow people to buy the things they have gone 
without. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you agree with the Governor's second recom- 
mendation of a public-works program after this is over? 

WOULD NOT TAX PROPERTY FOR P. W. A. PROGRAM 

• 

Mayor Spellacy. If you carry the public-works program under 
an organization such as the P. W. A., whereby the localities had to 
bear 55 percent of the cost and the Government 45 percent, I doubt 
if there is going to be any locality in the United States that will be 
sufficiently sound when this thing is over to do it, and that is especially 
true in this State where your taxes are on one kind of wealth only. 

We haven't a distributed tax. Ninety-six percent of our taxes 
are on one-third of our wealth. That is real estate and the contents 
of real estate, so again we come to the question that if the localities 
have to contribute as they did under P. W. A., I doubt that they'll 
be able to do it. 

Mr. Sparkman. I think it is pertinent to consider the matter that 
you are mentioning, but I wonder if you would recommend such a 
program for Federal projects — flood control, navigation projects, 
buildings, and so forth? You know, of course, that we have quit 
building post offices and Federal buildings throughout the country. 
We could ndturaily resume that program when this is over as well as 
other projects of that type. 

unskilled WORKERS ARE CHIEF PROBLEM 

Mayor Spellacy. But that only takes care of the skilled workers, 
and the skilled worker was a very small factor in our relief problem. 
The skilled workers have always been employed. We had very few 
skilled workers on relief. For instance, there was never a single tool- 
maker on relief in Hartford. I am just giving you an example of the 
condition of the skilled man. It was the nonskilled workers who fur- 
nished the great body of those on relief. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5049 

Mr. Sparkman. I am sure you are correct iii that statement, but 
when this program is over many of those skilled workers are going to 
be out of work. 

Mayor Spellacy. Oh, yes; there isn't any doubt about that. And 
there "isn't any doubt but what the Govermnent can do a great deal to 
keep them employed by public-works projects. 

Wliat I am saying is that it only takes care of one small group. 
Even today you still see the unskilled on our relief rolls in Hartford. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

FEDERAL AID NEEDED 

The Chairman. Mayor Spellacy, I just want to ask you one or two- 
questions. Now, consider the great influx of people who are coming 
here and who will probably come here in increased thousands. Are 
you going to be able to carry that load — the hospital load, the housing 
load, and the other loads, without Federal aid? 

Mayor Spellacy. No, sir. 

The Chairman. It just can't be done, can it? 

Mayor Spellacy. No, sir. There are a great many things the 
Federal Government could do. For instance, here is the Pratt & 
Whitney Co. That is a very important defense industry. Today 
that one shop is manufacturing in dollar value more than the entire 
tool-making industry does in normal times. In other words it has 
over $100,000,000 worth of annual production. 

Now, these 1,000 houses the Government is building will be occupied 
by many of the Pratt & TVliitney workers. To show you how des- 
perate tiie situation is, many of those workers, in order to get to their 
work, will have to cross a railroad track which should be safeguarded 
by a grade crossing. The railroad hasn't the money to build the grade 
crossing and the city of Hartford hasn't the money. 

But in addition to that, part of the crossing lies in West Hartford, so 
we wouldn't have any authority to do it anyway. However, West 
Hartford and Hartford combined couldn't do it without first submit- 
tmg it to a vote of the people as appropriations in excess of $100,000 
requhe an affirmative vote of the electorate. In the meantime we 
are jeopardizing the lives of hundreds of workers by not having that 
grade crossing eliminated. 

I am just giving you one mstance of what the Federal Government 
could do toward the preservation of life and the assistance of a great 
industry. 

NEAR DEBT LIMIT 

The Chairman. Have you any debt limitation? 

Mayor Spellacy. Five percent. 

The Chairman. How close are you to it? 

Mayor Spellacy. We are about two and a half million dollars away 
from it in Hartford, but we have recently begun spending a very large 
sum of money for flood protection, as you may notice as you go through 
our parks. We appropriated $5,000,000 for that purpose. 

The Chairman. In other words, you are pretty close to the deadline 
after you pay the money that you have contracted for? 

Mayor Spellacy. Well, about two and a half miflion dollars. Of 
course we issue only serial bonds and those are paid every year, which 



5050 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

automatically reduces the debt, if we don't do any refunding. During 
the present fiscal year we are paying off some $2,000,000 of bonds with- 
out any refunding. 

RATIO OF HOSPITAL BEDS TO POPULATION 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb? 

Dr. Lamb. I would like to ask about the ratio of hospital beds to 
population. Have you any idea what that figure would be? 

Mayor Spellacy. Yes, sir; you mean the local population? 

Dr. Lamb. Yes, sir. 

Mayor Spellacy. Well, our population is 166,000. The Hartford 
Hospital has a total bed capacity of 738. St. Francis Hospital has 
a total bed capacity of 605. The municipal hospital, in the hospital 
proper, has a bed capacity of 175; the isolation hospital, 65; but be- 
tween the chronic wards, and so forth, we have a total bed capacity 
there of 655. Mt. Sinai has a bed capacity of 60. We have a neuro- 
psychiatric institute that is intended for people who are mentally ill, 
which is not included in that figure, but in an emergency could be used. 
The United States has a veterans' hospital at Newington, and a 
soldiers home is going in at Rocky Hill, which could be used in an 
emergency. In the event an epidemic like the flu epidemic of 1918 
should come along we have additional temporary facilities in Hartford. 

Dr. Lamb. In other words, not counting the veterans' hospital or 
the psychoneurological hospital, you have upward of 2,200 beds, 
but they could not all be counted upon unless in the event of an 
emergency? 

Mayor Spellacy. In the Municipal Hospital our bed capacity is 175 
plus isolation facilities for 65. Now, we also have a men's home with 
250 beds which is occupied by people who are not necessarily sick, 
and a women's home with 65, and a men's chronic ward with 45, and 
a women's chronic ward with 25, besides a nursery with 30 beds. 
You wouldn't ordinarily class that as a hospital but it could be used 
in an emergency in connection with our municipal hospitals. The bed 
capacity, however, is really 65 in the isolation and 175 in the municipal 
hospital. 

Dr. Lamb. Would you say, with respect to facilities for the care of 
communicable diseases, that further centralization woidd be a good 
thing — that is — if you had various services all in one building? 

Mayor Spellacy. I will put it as a primary need: The primary 
need is isolation for the entire community. I think you will find that 
condition not only in Hartford, but throughout Connecticut. What 
we have here is adequate for om* normal purposes but totally inade- 
quate for emergency conditions. 

FORTY teachers ADDED THIS YEAR 

Dr. Lamb. With respect to the school situation, you indicated that 
the load per teacher was heavy and that there was need for more 
teachers. 

Mayor Spellacy. No; I said if there was an increase, we have the 
rooms, but we would be obliged to employ more teachers. As a 
matter of fact we have just employed 40 more now for this year, 
.commencing next Septen;ber. We now have an increased load. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5051 

Dr. Lamb. And an increased population woidd cause a further 
condition along those lines? 

Mayor Spellacy. That is why we had to employ the 40 teachers. 
We are g'oing to have an increased load in our schools starting next 
September, but beyond that we still have facilities for 6,000 pupils 
in the Hartford schools. We would require more teachers and the 
operating cost would be higher, but we have the physical capacity. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all. 

The Chairman. Mayor Spellacy, have aiw requests been made 
by Hartford or any of the surrounding communities for financial 
assistance from the Federal Government, to take care of the present 
load and a possible future load? 

Mayor Spellacy. Well, what the Governor said, of course, is true, 
that there are so many agencies coming here that practically every 
week you see a new agency — practically every other day — and we 
answer every question that they ask us. We have sent them a list 
of recommendations, and will be veiy glad to give the committee a 
copy. 

The Chairman. I think it would be very valuable, and if you will 
supply that to the committee later, we will make it a part of the 
record. 

[The document referred to was received at the committee's offices 
subsequent to the hearing, and is included in this volume as exhibit A, 
p. 5037.J 

The Chairman. Mayor Spellacy, we thank you very sincerely 
for your statement.^ You have given us a valuable contribution and 
we appreciate your presence here. Thank you very much, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF MAJ. LEONARD J. MALONEY, CONNECTICUT 
DIRECTOR STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Chairman. Our next witness is Major Maloney. 

Major Maloney, will you give j^our full name and state the capacity 
in which your appear before the committee? 

Major Maloney. Leonard J. Maloney, and I appear here as 
director of the Connecticut State Employment Service. 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold will ask you questions. 

Mr. Arnold. At the outset I want to say that the Connecticut 
State Employment Service is worthy of praise. It has done a fine 
job for the committee and its prepared statement has been used as a 
sample in approaching other State emploj^ment offices. This state- 
ment will be entered in the record of our hearing. 

(The statement referred to is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY LEONARD J. MALONEY, DIRECTOR, CONNECTICUT 
STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

Part I. Defense Labor Migration in Connecticut 

OUTLINE OF problem 

Connecticut's problem with respect to the migration of labor in connection with 
national-defense production is not one of finding a means to stop the flow of 
workers from outside the State nor of stopping the movement of workers within 
the State but rather one of establishing a structure that w ill bring both the out-of- 
State and within-State flows under orderly control and give to defense and other 
industries the types of workers now needed or who will be needed in the months 



5052 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

immediately ahead. Because of the impact upon local communities it is important 
that workers be brought in only in the quantities needed to the end that housing 
facilities will not be needlessly overtaxed to care for people not adaptable to our 
needs. 

A recent report from 306 Connecticut employers indicated that on May 26 it 
•was estimated that 25,000 additional workers would be needed in the ensuing 6 
xnonths. Our previous experience with these estimates of needs indicate that in 
most instances the figures given are conservative. However, accepting the 
estimates as accurate and giving consideration to the needs of employers not 
solicited and to other industries it can be seen that Connecticut will need from 
40,000 to 50,000 new full-time workers within the next 6 months and that agri- 
culture will require in excess of 10,000 seasonal workers during the same period 
.as noted in part III of this statement. 

TOTAL OF ORDERS AND CONTRACTS 

The cumulative totals of various orders and contracts received by Connecticut 
-employers up to May 15, 1941, as reported by the Office of Government Reports 
were as follows: 

Army contracts $206,267,596 

Navy contracts-,: 361, 487, 602 

Farm security housing 223, 200 

Work Projects Administration defense projects 3, 023, 369 

United States Housing Authority defense housing projects 6, 357, 650 

Public Buildings Administration 933, 000 

Office of Education (training) 1, 397, 739 

National Youth Administration defense training 643, 003 

Defense Plant Corporation 740, 000 

Retail Trade Council 248, 000 

While the foregoing totals, other than Arm}^ and Navy contracts, have no direct 
bearing upon defense labor supply each does contribute to the general economic 
welfare of the State and results in business improvement and expansion. 

SOURCES OF LABOR SUPPLY 

In general the State has but three sources of labor supply: 

(1) Its unemployed. 

(2) Those to come into the labor market from schools and colleges and women 
heretofore not in the labor market. 

(3) People from outside the State. 

In order that our own supply be used to the fullest extent it is necessary that 
■discriminations now existing with respect to race, nationality, physically handi- 
capped applicants, the use of women in men's jobs and the use of married women 
be broken down. A study of the active files of the State employment offices 
indicated that on April 26, 1941, an estimated 16 percent of the 35,000 people in 
the files were difficult of placement because they were of Italian or German 
extraction, another 4 percent could be placed only in a limited category of occupa- 
tions because of color, about 6 percent were barred from defense industries because 
they were aliens, and while not particularly checked in the inventory referred to 
above it is known that there are about 1,500 people with physical handicaps 
actively seeking employment. 

Included among those available for referral are about 7,400 workers on Work 
Projects Administration projects, about 3,000 youths on National Youth Ad- 
ministration projects, and about 400 Civilian Conservation Corps enrollees. 

These are all included in the employment service active file totals. 

The adaptation of women to some jobs ordinarily filled by men and the in- 
creased use of married women is necessary if Connecticut is to fully utilize what 
it has in its own labor pool. 

SCHOOL GRADUATES 

The only substantial freshening of our State labor supply in the period imme- 
diately ahead will come from the high schools and colleges. A recent study of 
high school graduating classes (appendix A, Part I) indicates that 16,000 boys and 
girls will complete that phase of their education this month.' It is estimated that 
12,000 will come into the labor market for full-time or summer jobs from the 
high schools. Statistics show that there will be somewhat more girls than boys 
and our information is that the number of graduates under 18 is higher this year 
than in other years. The employment offices have registered 52 percent of the 

' See p. 5056. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5053 

graduates and it is likely that not over 80 percent will eventually register. The 
remaining 20 percent either do not wish to enter the labor market or have secured 
jobs on their own initiative. 

An increased earmarking of high-school boys for jobs vipon graduation raises 
question as to whether any appreciable number of boys over 18 will be left for 
a labor reserve. Several cities — Bridgeport, Bristol, and Ansonia are already 
giving pre-employment training to high-school boys who will go immediately 
into industry upon graduation. 

SUPPLY FROM OUT-OF-STATE 

As shown in part II of this statement, migrants from outside Connecticut 
come largely from New York, Pennsylvania, and the other New England States, 
with others coming from Alabama, Florida, and New Jersey, and smaller num- 
bers, principally skilled workers, coming from all parts of the country. Our 
present information is that the New England States, New York, and New Jersey 
cannot be depended upon for any substantial number of additional migrants as 
the demand in those States is catching up and in some cases passing the supply. 
Increased business activity in the States from which we have drawn heavily is 
already reflected in a return of some of the migrants to their home States. Penn- 
sylvania still serves as a reservoir for Connecticut but it is our belief that exhaus- 
tion of the labor supply in Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and other defense centers 
will result not only in stemming the flow of Pennsylvanians to Connecticut but 
wiU cause the return of many to that State. 

SHORTAGES IN OTHER THAN DEFENSE INDUSTRIES 

In addition to the shortage of farm labor referred to above and covered in 
detail in part III other industries are experiencing acute labor shortages. The 
service trades, laundries, retail stores, gas stations, cleaning and pressing estab- 
lishments, restaurants, etc., have been hit hard. 

One chain operating gas stations has under consideration a plan to utilize 
women as attendants and a chain market concern has already introduced women 
as meat cutters. Retail stores are swingmg from male to female clerks and 
restaurants are using married women in the older age groups as waitresses, short- 
order cooks, and chefs. 

In summarizing this outline of Connecticut's defense migration problem it 
may be said that the expansion of our manufacturing industry for the production 
of defense materials and the consequent iinprovement in almost all other in- 
dustries has caused over 100,000 men and women to move into the State or move 
from one part of Connecticut to another in search of employment since the first 
defense orders were placed with Connecticut manufacturers. That as a result 
of these migrations and the existence of discriminatory hiring practices there 
have been instances where jobs have gone to nonresidents instead of those sub- 
jected to discrimination but that the lively condition of the labor market and the 
relaxation of discriminatory practices has opened or will soon open jobs to those 
who have been passed over. 

It may be said also that no seiious social problems have resulted from defense 
migration to date although difficulties in housing have been encountered. Plans 
for additional expansions already in process point toward the need for continued 
careful study of the State's labor supply, the fullest utilization of that supply 
and the establishment of smoothly functioning machinery for the orderly impor- 
tation of such types of workers as may be needed and in the exact numbers needed. 

REMEDIAL STEPS TAKEN 

With characteristic Yankee foresight the employers of Connecticut through 
the Association of Manufacturers has been at work for several months studying 
all phases of the complexities of labor procurement. A committee of 35 per- 
sonnel and employment men and woinen has undertaken the research work and 
investigation necessary to find an intelligent solution for each of the problems 
connected with personnel expansion necessary to speed production on existing 
orders and provide for future orders. The objectives and accomplishments of 
the committee will be presented your committee by the association itself. As 
director of the Connecticut State Employment Service this witness wishes to 
compliment the Connecticut Association of Manufacturers for its ready response 
to our appeal for cooperation in our efforts to bring about an orderly control of 
the State's labor market. There is every indication that our own supply of labor 



5054 n.sjiTFORD hearings 

will be used insofar as it is adaptable to the needs of our State and the remaining 
discrimination because of race, nationality, alien status, marital status, physical 
handicaps and relief-work status will be broken down. 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE ACTIVE FILE 

The active file of the Connecticut State employment offices at the close of 
business on May 31, stood at 38,000. This means that 38,000 men and women 
were actively seeking employment upon that date or had visited the employment 
office during the preceding 30 days. It does not mean that 38,000 men and women 
were immediately available and qualified for the types of occupations in which 
there are openings. 

The active files contain the registration cai'ds of not only those who are unem- 
ployed but also the cards of those who are currently employed but who seek better 
paying positions or more congenial work, the cards of those who will accept em- 
ployment only in the district in which registered, the cards of people presently em- 
ployed on Work Projects Administration relief projects, National ^ outh Admin- 
istration projects and Civilian Conservation Corps camps. The files contain also 
the cards of people with physical handicaps, superannuated registrants, men and 
women who because of questionable w^ork habits or character are difficult of 
placement and others who for various reasons are hard to place even in a lively 
labor market. 

The 38,000 people referred to above, plus the high school and college students 
who have not yet been added to the active files, plus an undetermined number of 
women, particularly married women, who have not yet entered the labor market, 
represent all the State has in its own labor reservoir. It should be pointed out 
that 28 percent of the 38,000 are men and women in the so-called white-collar 
occupations. While some of this group arc adaptable to defense work it must 
be remembered that the files have been combed for over a year and few applicants 
remain who are adaptable to and willing to take factory work. It is true, too, 
that many high-school students who have taken precollege or commercial training 
will not at the outset accept employment in manufacturing. Others in the school 
group are not acceptable to manufacturers because of age restrictions provided 
in our laws. 

TRAINING AND UPGRADING 

A factor contributing considerably to the migration of labor within the State 
is the failure of many employers to promote within their own organization. 
Instead of upgrading within the plant and bringing new help in at the lower 
levels some employers breed dissatisfaction by bringing in skilled workers and 
placing them above those who with little or no training could have been utilized. 
For over a year the employment offices have studied their inactive and dead files, 
have reinterviewed thousands of applicants and have uncovered a wealth of infor- 
mation with respect to skills urgently needed. In cooperation with the State 
department of education the Employment Service is now studying trade-school 
graduation lists for the years 1932 to 1940, inclusive, to determine whether the 
graduates are using to the fullest extent the skills obtained in training. Already 
a number of transfers from nondefense to defense industries have been effected as 
a result of this survey. 

DRAFT QUESTIONNAIRES 

At the suggestion of the committee on defense emergency problems of the 
Connecticut Association of Manufacturers, the Employment Service has under- 
taken a study of the questionnaires of youths registered under the Selective 
Service Act and deferred to classes IB, 3A, and 4F. P'arlj' results indicate the 
value of the study and it is being set up on a State-wide basis. The State em- 
ployment service also maintains a special file of men in military service and has a 
procedure for returning these men to industry upon completion of training. 

DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL TRAINING COURSES 

Connecticut started early in preparing its unemployed for jobs in industry. 
Our defense industrial training courses started in the fall of 1939 and were placed 
under Government supervision on July 1. 19-10. 

While preemployment and supplemental training courses for males are in full 
swing the recruitment of trainees for these courses is becoming increasingly 
difficult. The need for manpower is so pressing that employers are taking the 
greer material and training takes place after employment. To meet this situation, 
the employment service has recommended to the State department of education 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5055 

and that agency has agreed to change over courses in areas in which shortages are 
most acute from men to women. Several courses for women are aheady in 
operation. 

ENCIINEERING DEFENSE TKAINING 

The engineering defense training courses in our schools of higher learning have 
given advanced instruction to about 4,000, mostly men. There is need to bring 
this program into closer relationship to the employer's need for while most ot the 
trainees were selected on the basis of the employer's recommendation it is not 
believed the latter had definite plans for upgrading the employee at the con)pletion 
of training. 

WOHK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION AS A SOUKCE OF SUPPLY 

The rolls of the Work Projects Administration have declined from a peak of 
33,000 to about 7,400 at present. The employment offices have exerted every 
effort toward returning these relief workers to private employment. The closest 
cooperation has been extended by Work Projects Administration officials and 
workers who refuse private employment of suitable type arc promptly dismissed. 
It is believed that we will soon reach that point in the Work Projects Administra- 
tion labor pool beyond which we cannot go as the files will contain only those who 
because of age, physical impairment, work habits or for other reasons must have 
protected emi)loyment. A new study of those remaining on Work Projects 
Administration rolls is now underway and effort is being made to further reduce 
the rolls by 2,000 to 2,200. 

NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION CLEARANCE CENTER 

A new use for the National Youth Administration has become necessary in 
Connecticut because of the difficulties experienced by that agency in the recruit- 
ment of boys and girls for its work experience centers. An experiment is being 
made at the Nepaug Village Training Center to determine whether or not resi- 
dential clearing centers can be set up to house boys trained in other States until 
such time as they may be placed with Connecticut employers. Boys from New 
York City and Wilkea-Barre, Pa., have been brought in and while a refinement of 
selection methods is indicated it is believed these centers may become a valuable 
part of the interstate clearance structure. 

CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMPS 

These camps continue to be a source of excellent labor supply and while the 
number of camps in Connecticut has decreased from 21 to 5 and a further decrease 
to 3 is imminent, employers continue to absorb all who complete training. 

UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE CLEARANCE STRUCTURE 

While the State employment service has successfully used the United States 
Employment Service clearance .structure in moving workers into and out of the 
State, we believe that simplification of the present clearance procedure is neces- 
sary. Operating as it does through regional offices the office holding an order 
does not have the intimate touch with the applicant holding office that is necessary 
if all parties are to be satisfied. 

Local offices should bo allowed direct contact with a local office in another 
State witli the State and regional clearance officers receiving copies of all forms. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

1. That Connecticut employers utilize to the fullest extent its own supply of 
labor and that discriminatory hiring practices with re-spect to race, nationality, 
and phy.>ical handicap be abandoned. 

2. That women Ix^ trained for and used in the types of jobs ordinarily per- 
formed by men but 1o which women could be adapted. 

3. That discrimination against married women cease in ord<;r that a great 
many women with needed skills may be brought into the labor market. 

4. That the Dei)artments of War and Navy clear up the situation regarding 
the employment of aliens and advise just who may be employed and who may 
not be employed, that these departments devise a uniform and more simple 
form for securing the retention of aliens and that the two departments be urged 
to expedite action on applications already in their hands. 



5056 H.4JITFORD HEARINGS 

5. That employers plan more intelligently for training and upgrading of their 
own personnel and give promotion whenever possible on the basis of seniority. 

6. That employers study the jobs within their plants so that workable dilu- 
tions may be made of jobs rec]uiring high skill. 

7. That employers recognize the rights of Americans to go wherever they want 
in search of employment and that a structure be set up that will facilitate the 
transfer when it is warranted but which at the same time will permit an un- 
biased discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed transfer. 

8. That the State employment service be used exclusively for the clearance of 
labor from outside the State. 

9. That the National Youth Administration extend its experiment with resi- 
dence clearance centers and that Civilian Conservation Corps camps not in use 
be made available to the National Youth Administration for this purpose and 
that machinery now used by National Youth Administration be made available 
for defense-industrial training courses. 

10. That Connecticut employers anticipate their labor needs so that requisi- 
tions may be pooled for clearance and that the public employment offices re- 
ceive daily advice from all employers of people taken from or returned to the 
labor market. 

11. That employers continue to cooperate with the State employment service 
in the return of Work Projects Administration workers to private employment. 

12. That the State selective service officials endeavor to bring about a closer 
relationship between local draft boards and local employment offices in order 
that men needed in defense industries will be considered for occupational 
deferment prior to classification. 

13. That the Committee on Emergency Defense Problems continue through 
the period of the emergency its present splendid cooperation with the State 
employment service and other State and Federal agencies. 



Appendix A, Part I. — Connecticut State Employment Service- 
ing classes, number registered, and number in active files 



-High-school graduat- 
May 27, 1941 





High-school graduating 
class 


Number 
regis- 
tered 


Percent 
regis- 
tered 


Number 

now in 

active 

file 


Number now 
registered 
to be added 




Total 


Male 


Female 


to active file 
in June 


Ansouia 

Brid eeport 


651 

2,072 
407 
539 
274 

2,665 
629 
571 
714 

3,125 
682 
568 
473 
862 
300 
488 

1,107 
220 


308 
940 
185 
237 
162 

1, 147 
351 
250 
297 

1,425 
315 
269 
197 
407 
115 
237 
535 
89 


343 
1,132 
222 
302 
112 
1,518 
278 
321 
417 
1,700 
367 
299 
276 
455 
185 
251 
572 
131 


390 
207 
400 
209 
146 

1,998 
234 
381 
457 

1,256 
506 
415 
122 
213 
255 
390 
899 
132 


60 
10 
100 
39 
. 53 
75 
37 

40 

I 

27 
25 
85 
80 
81 
60 



207 


209 
146 




70 
46 


506 
415 
122 


204 




107 


390 





355 


Danbury 










Hartford 

Meriden 


1,998 
234 
311 


New Britain 


411 




1,256 


New London 





Norwalk 





Norwich . 





Stamford 


213 
51 


Torrineiton 

Waterbury 


390 

884 


Willimantic 









Total 


16, 347 


17,466 


1 8, 881 


8,601 


52-f 


2,032 


6,493 







1 Estimated. 
Part II. Report of Field Office Study of Defense Migration Problems 



SUMMARY OP A STUDY MADE THROUGH THE 18 FIELD OFFICES OF THE CONNECTICUT 
STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, JUNE 1941 

In order that a fairly accurate picture might be secured of the defense migratory 
labor problem as it affects Connecticut, questionnaires were sent to the mana- 
gers of the 18 district offices of the employment service. It is believed employ- 
ment office managers know more about the movement of labor into and out of the 
towns served by their offices than any other individual or agency within the 
territory. The files of the Connecticut State Employment Service contain the 
registration cards of over 600,000 individuals who during the past 8 years have 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5057 

visited the employment offices in searcli of work or to qualify for unemployment- 
compensation benefits. It is unlikely that any other State employment service 
has occupational information about such a large percentage of its working popula- 
tion. In addition to the 18 full-time field offices, there are 13 itinerant stations 
and the offices and part-time stations are so located that nobody in Connecticut 
has to go more than 10 miles to an employment office. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

The reports (see appendix A') submitted by the field-office managers indicate 
that an estimated total of 107,543 persons have come into Connecticut or have 
moved more within the State since the fall of 1939 in search of employment. 
These estimates are based upon statistical samples, actual checks of registration 
cards, studies of placement and registration statistics, and by contact with 
public authorities and representatives of industry and are believed to be as 
accurate as can be compiled. 

Of the 107,543 migrants it is estimated that 62,226 went directly to employers 
and that only 45,317 visited the State employment offices. Of those who visited 
the offices it is estimated that 35,692 were from outside the State and 9,625 from 
other parts of the State. The offices registered 18,060 of the migrants and 
placed 8,649 of those registered. Persons from within the State and already 
registered at another employment office were not reregistered, and those from 
outside the State who obviously did not meet with the requirements of employers 
were not registered. 

The reports indicate that of the 62,226 persons who went directly to employers 
and did not visit tlie employment offices an estimated 18,839 found employment. 
This makes a total of 27,488 given employment of the 107,543 migrants. 

TREND OF MIGRATION 

Six of the employment offices report an increase of migration at present, while 
eight report decreases and three say the volume remains static It is interesting 
to note that while a substantial number of the migrants come from the other 
New England States, high percentages come to some districts from Pennsylvania 
and New York. Whereas at the outset of the migration only 10 offices reported 
migrants from Pennsylvania, at present 12 offices report migrants from that 
State. Some offices show high percentages of their out-of-State migrants from 
Pennsylvania, with Ansonia showing 60 percent; Meriden, Norwalk, and Stam- 
ford, each 50 percent; Middletown, 40 percent; Bridgeport, 35 percent; New 
Haven and Waterbury, 30 percent; New Britain, 25 percent. 

Stamford and Danbury each report 40 percent of their migrants as coming 
from New York State; Norwalk reports 50 percent from that source; Thompson- 
viUe, 35 percent; Ansonia, Torrington, and Waterbury, each 30 percent; Bridge- 
port and Willimantic, each 25 percent. 

Maine is furnishing 25 percent of the migrants who come into Bristol and 
New Britain whereas in the beginning Maine furnished 50 percent of Bristol's 
migrants and 75 percent of New Britain's. Middletown, which once received 30 
percent of its migrants from Maine, now receives only 5 percent from that source. 

Ten offices report migrants from Massachusetts, with the highest percentages 
coming into two border districts, Danielson, with 75 percent, and Thompsonville, 
with 45 percent. Ten offices now report receiving migrants from Massachusetts, 
whereas 12 offices received them early in 1940. 

New Hampshire provides 30 percent of the New Haven and Meriden migrants 
and 25 percent of those coming into Bristol and 20 percent of those being received 
by Torrington. Ten offices report migrants at present from New Hampshire. 
Early in 1940 9 offices were getting migrants from that State, and in January 1941 
10 offices were receiving them. 

Vermont accounts for 25 percent of Bristol's migrants, and Torrington gets 
20 percent from that source. Nine offices are receiving Vermont workers, com- 
pared with 9 in early 1940 and 11 in January 1941. Middletown, which reported 
50 percent of its migrants from Vermont in early 1940, had dropped to 20 percent 
by January 1941 and is now receiving only 5 percent from that source. 

Rhode Island contributes most heavily to New London, an abutting territory, 
25 percent of New London's migrants coming from that State. Only 7 offices 
report receiving migrants at present from Rhode Island. Ten were getting 
workers from Rhode Island in January 1941. 

Alabama, New Jersey, and Florida have given Connecticut substantial numbers 
of migrants, and small numbers have come from many other States. 



5Q58 IIARTFOKD HEARINGS 

REASONS FOR MIGRATION 

Only six employment-office managers attributed any portion of the migration 
into their territories to newspaper advertising by employers. Ansonia reported 
10 percent estimated as coming in for that reason; Bridgeport, 5 percent; Daniel- 
son, 45 percent; Middletown, 5 percent; Torrington, 10 percent; and Willimantic, 
10 percent. Most offices attributed a high percentage of their migrations to the 
large amount of publicity given to Connecticut's defense production efforts in 
magazines and periodicals of national circulation and metropohtan newspapers. 
Collier's, Time, News Week, Look, and other magazines carried articles on the 
State's industrial training program, its production of submarines, airplanes, and 
war munitions and other phases of defense worlv. Managers' estimates ran from 
30 percent at Bristol and Norwalk to 100 percent at Stamford. Defense centers 
reported as follows: Bridgeport, 80 percent; Hartford, 60 percent; Waterbury, 
50 percent; New Britain, 50 percent. 

The importation of workers by employers through out-of-State employees 
already hired was given by the Stamford office manager as the reason for 70 
percent of its migrants. Bridgeport reported only 5 percent from that source; 
Hartford, 10 percent; Waterbury, 20 percent; New Britain, 47 percent. 

The clearance structure of the State employment service did not fare too well 
in the movement of workers into Connecticut. Bristol and New London report 
20 percent of their migrants as being brought in through regular clearance. Other 
percentages are as follows: Ansonia, 2 percent; Bridgeport, 10 percent; Danbury, 
2 percent; Danielson, 5 percent; Hartford, 5 percent; Middletown, 10 percent; 
New Britain, 3 percent; New Haven, 10 percent; Thompsonville, 10 percent; 
Waterbury, 10 percent; Willimantic, 5 percent. 

Only two offices reported fee-charging private agencies as the source of migra- 
tion — ^Middletown, attributing 2 percent to New York City agencies, and Tor- 
rington, 10 percent. 

TYPES OF OCCUPATIONS 

Except in the instance of the Thompsonville office, most of the out-of-State 
migrants are semiskilled or unskilled. In the Thompsonville district an airport- 
construction project accounts for the fact that 55 percent of the migrants from 
rural areas and 63 percent from urban centeis were of the skilled occupations. 
Bridgeport reported 2 percent skilled, c8 percent semiskilled, and 60 percent 
unskilled among those from rural areas, and 5 percent skilled, 15 percent semi- 
skilled, and 80 percent unskilled among those from the cities. Hartford reports 
no skilled from either rural or urban areas, 10 percent of semiskilled and 90 percent 
of unskilled from the country areas, and 20 percent of semiskilled and 80 percent 
of unskilled from the urban centers. 

Included among the skills possessed by the migrants were miners, mechanics, 
construction workers, shipbuilders, truck drivers, bakers, farm workers, lumber 
workers and woodsmen, textile workers, service workers, and clerks. 

MARITAL STATUS 

In some districts the major proportion of migrants are married men with families, 
while in others single men have predominated. Two offices, Bridgeport, 50 per- 
cent, and Danielson, 60 percent, report a high percentage of "boomers," those 
who drift from place to place in search of employment. New Britain reports 75 
percent of its migrants as married, while other offices in defense centers report as 
follows: Bridgeport, 25 percent single and 25 percent married; Hartford, 40 per- 
cent single and 50 percent married; Waterbury, 40 percent single and 40 percent 
married. New Haven reports 80 percent of its migrants as being single and 20 
percent married. 

DISCRIMINATORY HIRING PRACTICES 

State-wide relaxation of discrimination because of age is reported, all 18 offices 
saying that age is no longer an important factor in employment. All offices also 
report that barriers against the employment of married women are also relaxing, 
although in some territories some firms still bar married women. All except two 
offices report relaxation of discrimination because of nationality, Torrington and 
Waterburjr both reporting that there has been no ai)preciable change in their 
territories. Six of the eighteen offices report no improvement in discrimination 
against the Negro, although the situation in this respect is very much improved. 
The bar against aliens is even more tight at present than a year ago. Only four 
offices report improvement, and none of these is in a defense area. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5059 

INCREASED USE OP WOMEN IN MEN's JOBS 

Connecticut employers seem still hesitant to use more women in jobs ordinarily- 
filled by men although in many districts individual employers are studying the 
possibifities of using women. Bridgeport reports that employers are interested 
but have not yet committed themselves to use women if preemployment training 
is given. Hartford says that while women are not yet being adapted to men's 
jobs in defense work a gasoline vending company has discussed the possibility 
of using women as gas station attendants and a chain market system is using 
women as meat cutters. Torrington reports a steady increase in the use of 
women and estimates that 10 percent of the jobs ordinarily held by men are now 
filled by women. Waterbury says women are used only in "rare instances." 

DEPLETION OF RURAL AREAS 

The recruitment of men and women for defense industries has raised havoc 
with the labor supply in the rural areas of Connecticut, according to the reports 
of the employment office managers. Hartford, Meriden, Middletown, Ansonia, 
Bristol, New Britain, Torrington, and Waterbury report the towns in their area 
as being almost entirely stripped of male labor; Danbury reports heavy inroads 
on its own supply and a decrease of about 10 percent in the other towns served 
by the office. New Haven saj's all desirable young men have been taken from 
the towns in its district; Danielson reports a 50 to 60 percent decrease; New 
London, 75 percent; Norwalk, 25 percent; Thompsonville, 30 percent; and Willi- 
mautic, 85 percent, of the labor supply drawn from their respective small towns. 

HOUSING PROBLEM 

No housing problems have yet arisen in the Danbury, Danielson, Meriden, 
Middletown, Stamford, or Willimantic districts although Middletown reports a 
large number of Hartford workers are taking up residence in its district and using 
up available rents. Torrington, Waterbur\', and Bridgeport report acute housing 
shortages and there are shortages also in Ansonia, Bristol, Hartford, New Britain, 
and Thompsonville. New Haven reports a scarcity of low-priced rents; New- 
London says rents are high and Norwalk has a shortage of rooming houses. Hous- 
ing projects are under way or contemplated in Bridgeport, Bristol, Haitford, 
New Britain, New- Haven, and New London. 

Most of the larger cities of the State have taken steps to cope with their housing 
problems and many have established housing authorities and rental agents. 

SCHOOL, RECREATION, SOCIAL, AND OTHER PROBLEMS 

There have as yet been no shortages of school facilities reported. Principal 
defense centers are studying the needs for fall and it is likely that schools closed 
during depression years will be reopened. Not much has been done with respect 
to extension of recreational facilities and the employment office managers have 
not reported any serious social problems that have arisen from the influx of 
workers into certain areas. 

DISTRIBUTION OF MIGRATORY LOAD 

A study of the reports made by the employment office managers discloses that 
of the total of 107,543 migrants, an estimated 98,237 have moved into the 5 
principal defense production centers. Bridgeport has received 60,000 of the 
number; Hartford 23,500; New London, 6,000; New^ Britain. 4,500; and Water- 
bury 4,237. Of the 98,227 migrants who visited these towns 21,125 went directly 
to employers and 17,332 found employment. The employment offices in those 
cities placed 7,371 of the migrants. 

ANSONIA DISTRICT 

1. We estimate that approximately 600 migrants have visited our office since 
the start of w-ork on defense contracts. We find it impossible to estimate the num- 
ber that went directly to employers in the district, w'ithout stopping at our office, 
although we feel fairly sure that as many followed the latter course as follow-ed 
the former. 

(a) Six hundred. (See above.) 

(1) Of the 6U0 we estimate that 500 were from outside the State. 



5060 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

(2) Our guess would be that there were about 100 from other parts of the 
State. 

(b) Of the number of migrants who have visited our office, our estimate would 
be that about 250 were registered here. 

(c) Of these 250, we would put the number of placements at about 225. 

(d) (See statement in first paragraph above (par. 1).) 

(e) We are in the same position as on 1 (d) . We have been unable to get any 
information by inquiry among employers, that seems to be at all helpful, except 
that the number of migrants visiting the plants is becoming increasingly large, 
that some are finding employment, and that some employers have had an unsatis- 
factory experience in hiring help in this way and are curtailing or restricting the 
practice. 

2. The number of migrants is apparently increasing, and the rate of acceleration 
seems to be rather rapid. 

3. (a) Pennsylvania, one-third; New York, one-third; other New England 
States, one-third (source of migrants at beginning of migration). 

(b) We do not feel that there was much change in the source of migrants, from 
the beginning of the period to January 1, 1941. 

(c) Pennsylvania, 60 percent; New York, 30 percent; other States, 10 percent 
(source at present) . 

4. (a) It is almost impossible to find a rent in any of the towns included in our 
district. Almost invariably, Vv-hen a rent is vacated, the price is raised before the 
place is relet, and a new tenant contracts to hire it, before it is vacated. The 
situation is particularly difficult for tenants with children, most landlords becoming 
more and more insistent on their refusal to rent to such families. 

(6) There did not seem to be any shortage of school facilities during the current 
school year, the increase in enrollment serving, for the most part, to take up the 
slack left by the decreased enrollment of the past years. Most of the school 
authorities feel, however, that a continuation of the increase in enrollment will 
result in a shortage next year. 

(c) So far as we know, there have been no recreation problems. 

(d) No serious social problems seem to be arising with the possible exception 
of the fact that many men have found it necessary to separate from their families, 
leaving them behind because of the inability to secure adequate housing here. 
There has been much doubling up in apartments, but, so far as we know, this has 
not occasioned any serious problems as yet. 

(e) Rents and food prices are rising continually. Restaurants are crowded, 
and traffic has become extremely heavy. 

5. (a) There has apparently been no organized movement to improve the hous- 
ing situation, with the exception of a substantial increase in private building, 
several developments containing small numbers of private houses having been 
started by private contractors. 

(b) The school authorities seem to be fully aware of the situation and are mak- 
ing efforts to meet it by requests for appropriations, etc. Mr. Stevens, the super- 
intendent of education here in Ansonia, is trying to get an appropriation to rebuild 
a junior high school which burned down 2 or 3 years ago, and to add a second floor 
to one of the wings of the Pine Manual School. 

(c) We have heard of no measures being taken with respect to increased facilities 
for recreation. 

(d) So far as we know, nothing has been done to meet new social problems with 
the possible exception of small increases in the police forces of the various towns. 

(e) Rather surprisingly, there does not seem to be any increase in the number 
of local restaurants, in spite of the crowded conditions of those now in business. 

6. Most workers from rural towns in this district are apparently now working 
locally. 

7. Percentage of those who come in have responded to — 

(a) Advertising of Connecticut employers, 10 percent. 

(b) News stories of defense work in Connecticut, 58 percent. 

(c) Requests by employers through friends or neighbors, who have previously 
migrated into the State, 30 percent. 

(d) Regular employment-service clearance, 2 percent. 

(e) Private fee charging agencies, percent. • 

8. Type of migrants: 
(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled from Connecticut, 2 percent; from other States, 2 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled from Connecticut, 28 percent; from other States, 38 percent. 
t'3) Unskilled from Connecticut, 70 percent; from other States, 60 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5Q61 

(&) Urban: 

(1) Skilled from Connecticut, 15 percent; from other States, 15 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled from Connecticut, 55 percent; from other States, 55 percent. 

(3) Unskilled from Connecticut, 30 percent; from other States, 30 percent. 

(c) The outstanding skills possessed by migrants are as follows: Coal miners, 
maintenance mechanics, truck drivers, welders, bakers, and chefs. 

(d) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers: 2 percent. 

(2) Single men: 38 percent. 

(5) Married men with families: 60 percent. 

9. In your opinion had discrimination because of color, nationality, and citizen 
status resulted in loss of employment to these groups in favor of migrants? Yes. 

10. Is discrimination relaxing with respect to — 
(a) Age: Yes. 

(6) Citizenship status: Slightly. 

(c) Color: Slightly. 

(d) Nationality: Yes. 

(e) Married women: Yes. 

11. Most employers are trying to use women wherever possible. Many are 
being used on machine jobs formerly performed by men. This is especially true 
in the operation of small milling machines, and of drill presses. Some employers 
have reported that the women they are now using on the drill presses are apparently 
more apt at that type of work than the men they have replaced. 

BRIDGEPORT DISTRICT 

1 . The estimated number of migrants coming into the office for the past 6 months 
from out of State: 18,000. 

(a) From other parts of the State: 2,000. 

(b) The approximate number who have registered in the Bridgeport office : 2,400. 

(c) The number placed is approximately: 1,800. 

(d) Estimate of number who went directly to employers: From out of State, 
40,000; from other parts of State, 5,000. 

(e) Approximate number who found employment: 8,000. 

2. Indications established in the last few days indicate that the number of 
migrants coming into the territory are increasing. 

3. Percentage at the beginning of migration: (a) Pennsylvania, 50 percent; 
New York, 20 percent; all others, 30 percent. 

(b) In January 1941, approximate percentage: Pennsylvania, 60 percent; 
New York, 20 percent; all others, 20 percent. 

(c) At the present time, approximate percentage: Pennsylvania, 35 percent; 
New York, 25 percent; New Hampshire 5 percent; Massachusetts, 5 percent; 
Vermont, 3 percent; Maine, 3 percent; all others, 24 percent. 

4. The only difficulty that we have experienced has been in the housing situa- 
tion, which insofar as it affects rents for families, has been serious for some time. 
There is a large demand with practically none available. 

(a) Number of complaints of the jacking-up of rents. 

(b) There has been no difficulty insofar as school facilities, recreation, social 
problems, and other problems are concerned. 

5. Housing situation: 

The Federal Housing Authority has already started work on 600 units. The 
sites have been selected for 1,600 more and bids will probably be let in the very 
near future. On top of this, it is estimated that private capital will add from 
1,800 to 2,000 more units between now and next summer. 

Y. M. C. A. has already started to work on a recreation program for defense 
workers. 

6. Due to the compactness of the territory we serve, and also that wage earners 
in the out-laying towns have usually been employed in Bridgeport, there has 
been no depletion of workers from the small surrounding towns. 

7. The following are approximate percentages of those who come to Bridgeport 
in response to: 

(o) Advertising of Connecticut employers, 5 percent. 

(b) News stories of defense work in Connecticut, 80 percent. 

(c) Requests by employers through friends or neighbors who have previously 
migrated into the State, 5 percent. 

(d) Regular employment service clearance, 10 percent. 

(e) Private fee-charging agencies, none. 



5062 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

8. Tj'pe of migrants: 

(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 4 percent; from other States, 2 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 16 percent; from other States, 10 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 80 percent; from other States, 88 percent. 

(b) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 10 percent; from other States, 5 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 25 percent; from other States, 15 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 65 percent; from other States, 80 percent. 

(c) Types of skills possessed by migrants: Mechanics, carpenters, electricians, 
miners, farm workers, lumber workers. 

{d) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers: 50 percent. 

(2) Single men: 25 percent. 

(3) Married men: 25 percent. 

9. There has been some discrimination because of color or nationality, and it 
has possibly resulted in some loss of employment to these groups in favor of 
migrants. In the main the loss of employment has been in preferred occupations. 
In most cases work of some kind has been found in these groups. 

10. There has befen considerable relaxation in discrimination as to age^none 
as to citizenship — considerably as to color — slight as to nationality, and cou- 
sidei-ably as to married women. 

11. In most cases up to date the demand for women has been in those occupa- 
tions that have been usually done by women. We know of one case — the Bridge- 
port Brass Co. — where they are using women to load carriers with shells running 
into the annealing ovens. Heretofore this work has always been done by men. 
One company is using women as crane operators, although this practice started 
in the last war and has always continued, the eixiployer claiming they have found 
that women give better satisfaction to them on this type of work. We have 
contacted several employers in the past few months in reference to the training 
of women to do work normally handled by men, and while we have found some 
interest in this direction, we have to date been unable to find any employer who 
would commit himself to employing these women after they have been trained. 

BRISTOL DISTRICT 

1. Number of migrants who have come into this territory since start of work 
on defense contracts. 

(a) We have hp.d approximately 250 migrants come to this office from outside 
the State and probably 50 from other parts of this State. 
(6) Of these we have registered approximately 150. 

(c) Of these we have placed approximately 75. 

(d) We would estimate that approximately 250 from out of State went directly 
to employer and approximately 50 from the other parts of the State. 

(e) Of these probably 150 to 200 obtained employment. 

2. The number of migrants is apparently decreasing slightly. 

3. The sources of migrants from other States are as follows: 

(a) Maine, 50 percent; Xew Hampshire, 25 percent; Vermont, 25 percent. 

(b) In January 1941 migration was about the same as above. 

(c) At present Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, 75 percent; New York 
and Pennsylvania, 25 percent. 

4. The chief difficulty in regard to migrants is in relation to housing — dwellings 
and apartments are no longer available and single rooms are few and of poor 
quality. There is no difficulty in regard to school facilities and recreational 
facilities ai^.d so far no particular social problem has arisen. 

5. In order to correct the housing situation 200 low-cost houses are being 
planned under the defense housing program. 

6. We have almost entirely depleted the rural towns of workers. 

7. Those workers who came to this office re.sponded for the reasons given below: 

(a) Advertising of Connecticut employers: None. 

(b) News stories of defense work in Connecticut: 30 percent. 

(c) Requests of employers through friends or neighbors who have previously 
migrated into the State: 50 percent word of mouth stories from friends and 
neighbors. 

(d) Regular employment service clearance: 20 percent. 

(e) Private fee charging agencies: None. 

8. Types of migrants from Connecticut and from other States, both rural and 
urban, have b^n almost 100 percent unskilled. Most of these are woodsmen, 
agricultural workers, construction laborers, relief project workers, and the like. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5063 

(a) We would estimate that the percentages of types of migrants as follows: 

(1) Boomers: 25 percent. 

(2) Single men: 35 percent. 

(3) Married men with families: 40 percent. 

9. In my opinion there are discriminations because of color, nationality, and 
citizen status resulting in loss of employment in favor of migrants. 

10. Discrimination is relaxirg with respect to the following in the manner in- 
dicated: 

(a) Age: Yes. 

(6) Citizenship status: No. 

(c) Color: No. 

(d) Nationality: Somewhat. 

le) Married women: Somewhat. 

11. Won. en are not as yet being accepted by employers in positions ordinarily 
held by nien. 

DANBURY DISTRICT 

1. Fstim.ate number of migrants who have come into your territory since start 
of work on defense contracts. 

(a) Estimate of number that have visited your office: 

(1) trom out of State: 100. 

(2) From other parts of State: 20. 

{b) Of this number (a), give estimate of number you have registered: 100. 

(c) Of this number (6), give estimate of number of placements: 60. 

(d) Estimate of number that went directly to employers: 

(1) From out of State: 15 or 20. 

(2) From other parts of State: None. 

(e) Estimate of this number (d), who found employment (Note.— This does 
not include agricultural workers, on whom we have no information): 10 or 12. 

2. Is number of migrants increasing or decreasing and to what extent? Ap- 
proximately static at this time. 

3. Source of migrants from other States: 

(a) At beginning of migration (name States and percentages): New York, 
40 percent; Massachusetts, 40 percent. 

(6) In January 1941 (name States and percentages). Same, 20 percent 
scattered throughout States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Pennsylvania, 
and New Jersey. 

(c) At present (name States and percentages), same. 

4. \N hat difficulties have arisen in your territory with respect to: No changes 
due to migration. Otherwise: 

(a) Housing: No acute problem: (Trade school inadvertently housed.) 
(6) School facilities adequate: Not outstanding. 
(c) Recreation: No organized program. 

id) Social problems: Average of small urban areas under predefense condi- 
tions. 

(e) Other. 

5. What corrective measures have been taken with respect to No. 4. None 
caused by migration. Otherwise: 

(o) Housing: Two private developments nearly com^plete (60 units). 
(6) School facilities: Finance board just turned down trade school. No 
additic nal public schools as yet. 

(c) Recreation: None. 

(d) Social problems: None. 

(e) Other. 

6. To what extent have rural towns in your district been depleted of workers? 
Young m,en normally doing farm work have been traired for defense industries: 
5 to 10 percent. NoTE.^Darbury is n.ore depleted than rural areas. 

7. What percentage of those who com.e in have responded to: 
(a) Advertising of Connecticut employers: Almost none. 

(6) News stories of defense work in Connecticut: SO percent approximately. 

(c) Requests by employers through friends or neighbors who have previously 
migrated into the State: 18 percent approximately. 

{d) Regular employment service clearance: 2 percent (two men from Massa- 
chusetts). 

(e) Private fee charging agencies: None. 

8. Types of migrants: 

60396— 41— pt. 13 4 



^Qg4 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled from Connecticut, none; from other States, none. 

(2) Semi-skilled from Connecticut, 1 percent; from other States, 6 percent. 

(3) Unskilled from Connecticut, 7 percent; from other States, 35 percent 
(estimated) . 

(6) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, none. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 7 percent; from other States, 6 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 8 percent; from other States 36 percetit. 

(c) Types of skills possessed by migrants (carpenters, mechanics, agricultural 
workers, etc.) Agircultural, 90 percent; some diverted into factory labor, 
mechanics. 

(d) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers: None. 

(2) Single men: 3 to 4 percent (scattered, unskilled). 

(3) Married men with families: 6 to 7 percent. 

9. In your opinion has discrimination because of color, nationality, and citizen 
status resulted in loss of employment to these groups in favor of migrants. No. 

10. Is discrimination relaxing with respect to: Yes, in general. 

(0) Age: Higher ages accepted. 

(b) Citizenship status: Government contracts only. 

(c) Color: No fixed policy, very few applicants. 

(d) Nationality: No discrimination. 

(e) Married women: Very little discrimination, confined to few employers. 

11. Are women being accepted by employers in defense industries in jobs 
ordinarily held by men and to what extent? (Give types of jobs.) No experi- 
ence, because no need has yet developed. Willingness to adapt has been 
expressed. 

(Note. — Danbury's problem consists of openings because of local workers 
who have migrated to other areas, rather than an influx of migrant workers.) 

DANIELSON DISTRICT 

1. Estimated number of migrants who have come into this territory since start 
of work on defense contracts. 

(a) Estimate of number that have visited this office: 

(1) From out of State: 75. 

(2) From other parts of State: 45. 

(6) Of this number (a), estimate of number this office has registered: 20. 

(c) Of this number (b), estimate of number of placements: 4. 

(d) Estimate of number that went directly to employers: 

(1) From out of State: 25. 

(2) From other parts of State: 6. 

(e) Estimate of this number (d), who found employment: 15. 

2. Number of migrants is decreasing to practically vanishing point in last month. 

3. Source of migrants from other States: 

(a) At beginning of migration (States and percentages): Massachusetts, 50 
percent; New flampshire, 20 percent; New York, 15 percent; Rhode Island, 
15 percent. 

(b) In January 1941: Massachusetts, 65 percent; New York, 10 percent; 
Rhode Island, 10 percent; New Hampshire, 15 percent. 

(c) At present time: Massachusetts, 75 percent; Rhode Island, 5 percent; 
New York, 20 percent. 

4-5. No difficulties have arisen in this territory with respect to housing, school 
facilities, recreation, social problems, or other. 

6. Extent to which rural towns in this district have been depleted of workers; 
50 to 60 percent, including those taken into military service. 

7. Percentage of those who come in have responded to: 

(a) Advertising of Connecticut employers: 45 percent. 

(b) News stories of defense work in Connecticut: 50 percent. 

(c) Requests by employers through friends or neighbors who have previously 
migrated: None that we can discover. 

(d) Regular employment service clearance: 5 percent. 

(e) Private fee-charging agencies: None. 

8. Types of migrants: 
(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 5 percent; from other States, 10 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 10 percent; from other States, 25 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 85 percent; from other States, 65 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5Qg5 

(.6) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 20 percent; from other States, 35 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 30 percent; from other States, 15 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 50 percent; from other States, 50 percent. 

(c) Types of skills possessed by migrants: Textile workers, construction 
workers, machine-shop workers. 

(d) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers: 60 percent. 

(2) Single men: 25 percent. 

(3) Married men with families: 15 percent. 

9. Has discrimination because of color, nationality, and citizen status resulted 
in loss of employment to these groups in favor of migrants? No. 

10. Is discrimination relaxing with respect to: 

(a) Age: Yes. 

(b) Citizenship status: No. 

(c) Color: No. 

(d) Nationality: Yes. 

(e) Married women: To slight extent. 

11. Are women being accepted by employers in defense industries in jobs 
ordinarily held by men and to what extent? No. 

HARTFORD DISTRICT 

1. (a) Totalnumber of migrants visiting office: 11,750. 

(1) Out of State (80 percent) : 9,400. 

(2) In State (20 percent) : 2,350. 
(6) Total registered by us: 9,150. 

(c) Estimated placements: 4,000. 

(d) Probably about the same number as called at this office. 

(e) Between 7,000 and 8,000 out of State. 

2. The number of migrants is probably decreasing. Since the number of unem- 
ployed is constanth' decreasing throughout the country and especially in the east 
where there is a heavy concentration of defense industries, this seems to be a 
logical conclusion. The monthly average for this office for the year surveyed 
was about 1,000. The month of May shows about'500. It is improbable that 
the general decrease is as much as 50 percent but the trend is apparent. 

3. Throughout the whole period covered, the principal source of migrants has 
been Massachusetts. The average percentages have been as follows: Massa- 
chusetts, 30 percent; New York, 15 to 20 percent; Maine, 10 percent; New 
Hampshire, 734 percent; Vermont, 4 percent; Rhode Island, 2}^ percent and 
Pennsylvania, 3V2 percent. The balance has been scattered throughout the east. 

4. (a) Housing has presented serious problems. Rents are at a premium in 
Hartford proper and in all of the towns of the surrounding area. The situation is 
also acute as far as rooms for single men are concerned. 

(b) The school problem is not serious at the present. The school population 
has been shrinking for some time with the result that there were more school 
facilities than were l^eing used. 

(c) Recreation facilities are being taxed by the large numbers who are now here. 
The movies seemed to be filled to capacity every night; bowling alleys have been 
hard to get all winter and I have noticed that new ones are being built in the city. 
With the coming of good weather, public dancing is available at some of the parks 
and there is great interest in night baseball and softball. Due to the fact that 
where there has been a great amount of hiring done, the workers have gone on 
three shifts, there has been a tendency to even up the load of those who are idle at 
one time and so facilities have not been too heavily in demand. 

(d) The social agencies tell me that their greatest problem is that arising out of 
housing conditions and involves such things as keeping families together or finding 
more suitable cjuarters for them. There appears to be no great demand for relief 
from people who get here and fail to secure emjiloyment. Juvenile delinquency 
and crime do not appear to have increased. Traffic is, of course, a major problem. 
There is also increased demand for hospitalization facilities. 

5. (a) New heme building is increasing as rapidly as possible in the whole area. 
There is one large development in West Hartford which will take care of about 
1,000 families. Trailer camps have been set up; barracks are being built and an 

old hotel is being considered as a home for single men. The Federal Housing 
Administration is cooperating through furnishing funds. ' A committee canvasses 
the citv to maintain a file of available rooms. 



5066 HABTFORD HEARINGS 

(b) It has not been necessary to do anything about the school situation up to 
date. 

(c) All agencies which have to do with recreation are expanding their facilities 
as they can and arranging programs on a time schedule that will give opportunities 
to as great a number as possible. 

(rf) All of the agencies seem to be doing what they can to meet this situation as 
it arises. There are funds to meet requirements; hospital service is being extended 
and increased; case workers are being added to give advice and aid in family 
adjustment. A quick survey of the situation seems to indicate that all who are 
responsible for executing any program are aware of M^hat is going on and are 
prepared to find solutions as they are needed. 

6. The employment service records show that there is practically no labor avail- 
able in any of the towns in the area. We have been unable to get much of any 
help from the relief rolls in our area for either construction or agricultural labor. 

7. (a) I do not believe that any appreciable percentage of workers have come 
into this area in response to advertising. In one case a manufacturer has adver- 
tised in those localities where it was believed that workers of his type would be and 
the response has been negligible. 

(6) It may be safely assumed that between 60 and 65 percent of the people 
who have come here have been attracted by news stories. It must be remembered 
that every newspaper and nationally circulated magazine has carried articles 
concerning our training program and the progress of industry in Conrecticut. 
This coverage has also extended to trade journals. A letter was received this 
week from Venezuela following an article in the New York Times concerning the 
training program. 

(c) This section should be qualified. These people have not come in response 
to a request by employers through friends and neighbors but rather through 
information as to job possibilities being passed on gratis by those who have been 
successful in obtaining employment here. It is interesting to note that whenever 
we answer a request for information from some obscure community that a few 
days later more requests will come from the same town. 

(d) The employment service clearance has initiated little of this migration since 
it has been concerned principally with selected occupations in the skilled brackets. 

(e) I.ittle or none. The industries here are not private employment agency 
minded and except in the higher type industrial jobs have done little with migrants. 

8. In this area, the proportion of people who have come in have been from urban 
rather than rural communities. In determining a percentage, occupationally, 
we find that potential semiskilled workers constitute the largest group. In a 
selected list of 311, 68 or a little more than 20 percent were so coded. This 
means, in general, that they were young men who had not definitely established 
themselves in any job and were recent school graduates or drops; about 18 percent 
had previously done service work of some kind; 10 percent were from the clerical 
field; about 18 percent had done semiskilled work in either manufacturing or non- 
manufacturing industries; 7 percent had done sales work; 7 percent were skilled 
in nonmanufacturing lines and are assumed to be building tradesmen; about 5 
percent were skilled factory men; 3 percent were from agriculture and the re- 
mainder unskilled. 

The men in all of the groups sampled were pretty much evenly divided as to 
marital status. In one group of 350, 168 were single and 182 married. I do not 
believe that more than 10 percent of them are boomers, which I construe to be 
men who have had jobs in widely scattered sections of the country and who .seem 
to follow activity wherever it is. 

9. In the early days of the defense program, I think that discrimination did exist 
with the result that many migrants were hired to the exclusion of local colored 
people, noncitizens and those nationality groups considered unsuitable for fac- 
tory work. 

10. I am sure that discrimination is relaxing or about to do so for all of the groups 
involved. 

11. There seems to be no appreciable hiring of women on jobs at the present time 
in the defense industries. At a meeting of the local defense advisory group this 
week, the sentiment seemed to be a bit against it. It is worth noting, however, 
that a major oil company called this morning to discuss women as gas station at- 
tendants and one of the chains is now using women as meat cutters in its markets. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5Q67 

MERIDEN DISTRICT 

1. I estimate the number of migrant workers who have come into the Meriden 
territory' since the start of work on defense work as approximately 850. 

(a) The number who have visited the Meriden office since June 1, 1940, were 
approximately 250. 

(1) From out of State: 225. 

(2) From other parts of State: 25. 

lb) We have registered approximately 200. 

(c) We have placed approximately 100. 

(d) From information gathered from employers in the district I would estimate 
that approximately, from June 1, 1940, to June 1, 1941, 600 went directly to 
employers: 600. 

(1) From out of State: 500. 

(2) Other parts of the State: 100. 

(e) Found employment: 270. 

2. The number of migrants coming into the Meriden district is decreasing 
considerably. Where we formerly had some coming in each week it seems at the 
present that they come in in groups about once a month. 

3. The out-of-State migrants come from Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. 

(a) At the beginning of migration: Maine, 15 percent; New Hampshire, 40 
percent; Vermont, 5 percent; Massachusetts, 2 percent; Rhode Island, 2 percent; 
New York, 30 percent; New Jersey, 1 percent; Pennsylvania, 5 percent. 

(b) In January 1941: Maine, 2 percent; New Hampshire, 50 percent; Vermont, 
2 percent; Massachusetts, 2 percent; Rhode Island, 2 percent; New York, 30 
percent; New Jersey, none; Pennsylvania and other States, 12 percent. 

(c) At present: Pennsylvania, 50 percent; Maine, 2 percent; New Hampshire, 
30 percent; New York, 10 percent; other States, 8 percent. 

4. We have had no real difficulties in this territory in respect to (a) housing, 
(b) school facilities, (c) recreation, (d) social problems, (e) other. Rents have 
been hard to find, but eventually all persons coming into the territory seem to 
locate housing. 

5. The following measures have been taken with respect to housing: 

(a) A room registry was established at the Meriden Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation. This is being financed in part by the Manufacturers Association of 
Meriden. Any person having room to rent may register same with the Young 
Men's Christian Association. An inspector is sent to the premises and a check-up 
is made on the locality, the condition of the room, and a check is made on the per- 
sons having the room to rent to be sure that the rooms are suitable and all sur- 
rounding conditions are proper and fit to refer persons who are looking for quarters. 
There is a Federal Housing Administration project under way to build 200 low- 
cost homes. This will in a short time release other premises for rental. The 
Salvation Army of Meriden has taken over a 14-room house on Veteran Street 
and converted same into a low-cost hotel. 

(6) School facilities are adequate. 

(c) Recreation facilities are adequate. 

(d) No particular social problems are prevalent. 

6. The rural areas have been practically depleted of available male workers. 
The rural areas in the vicinity of Meriden are not necessarily agricultural as is the 
usual case. Most of the inhabitants in the rural towns of this area work or have 
worked in one of the factories in the surrounding cities. There is a definite short- 
age of male farm helpers in these rural areas. There is an available supply of 
female workers in the area. These are semiskilled or unskilled factory types. 

7. Migration of workers to the Meriden area was a result of — 

(a) Advertising of Connecticut employers: None. The employers in the 
Meriden area agreed not to advertise in the newspapers and to the best of my 
knowledge have refrained from so doing. 

(5) News stories of defense work in Connecticut was the prime reason for mi- 
grants to this area: 85 percent. 

(c) Requests by employers to friends and neighbors who had previously mi- 
grated into the State: 5 percent. 

(d) Regular employment service clearance: 10 percent. 

(e) Private fee-charging agencies: None. 

8. Types of migrants: 
(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 5 percent; from other States, 5 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 80 percent; from other States, 15 percent. 



5068 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 15 percent; from other States, 80 percent .- 

(b) Urban: 

(1) Skilled from Connecticut, 5 percent; from other States, 5 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled from Connecticut, 80 percent; from other States, 10 percent. 

(3) Unskilled from Connecticut, 15 percent; from other States, 85 percent. 

(c) The types of skills possessed by migrants to the Meriden area were agri- 
cultural, woodsmen, and unskilled labor, 75 percent; semiskilled machine opera- 
tors, 20 percent; skilled mechanics, 5 percent. 

(d) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers, 10 percent. 

(2) Single men, 60 percent. 

(3) Married men with families, 30 percent. 

9. There has been no discrimination because of color or nationality in the 
Meriden area. In reference to citizen status, all those plants which are required 
to live up to citizen requirements as results of Government contracts are enforcing 
the citizen requirement. 

10. There has been a shght relaxing with respect to age in both directions. 
Some of the plants are now taking boys under 18, that is, 16 to 18 years, where they 
formerly would only consider boys 18 or over and are also taking older men, 
although the age limit was never very rigidly enforced in the Meriden territory. 
We never have had a question of nationality. We have never had a problem of 
color because there are practically no colored people in the territory. Some of 
the plants which normally have a ruling against married women working have 
dropped this and have called back former employees who have married and have 
hired other married women. 

11. To date women have not been placed on jobs ordinarily held by men. It 
has not been necessary as yet to do this. The plants are considering this move 
should it be necessary. Some of the jobs for which they may use women where 
men are now employed are buffing, sand, tripoli, and rouge; drill-press operators; 
power-press operators; hydraulic-press operators; and hand millers and possibly 
a few other light machine operators jobs such as small lathes and riveting machines^ 

MIDDLETOWN DISTRICT 

1. Number of migrants coming into territory: 755. 

(a) Number visiting office: 130. 

(1) Out of State: 50. 

(2) In State: 80. 

(b) Total registered: 20. 

(c) Number of placements: 15. 

(d) Number that went directlv to employers: 625. 

(1) From out of State: 600. 

(2) From State: 25. 

(e) Number of (d) who found employment: 135. 

2. Migration is decreasing slightly. 

3. Source of migration: 

Beginning: New York, 5; Pennsylvania, 5; Massachusetts, 5; Maine, 30; 
Vermont, 50; Rhode Island, 5. 

January 1, 1941: New York, 15; New Jersey, 10; Pennsylvania, 25; Massachu- 
setts, 5; Maine, 15; New Hampshire, 5; Vermont, 20; Rhode Island, 5. 

At present: New York, 20; New Jersey, 15; Pennsylvania, 40; Massachusetts, 5; 
Maine, 5; New Hampshire, 5; Vermont, 5; Rhode Island, 5. 

(a) No housing difficulties, although rentals of either apartments, houses or 
rooms are not too plentiful. This is due, in great part, to workers in the Hartford 
district living in this district. 

(6) No school difficulties. 

(c) No recreation difficulties. 

(d) No social problems. 

(e) Improved transportation facilities needed. 
5. Corrective measures taken. 

(a) There is a Federal housing project, approved by Washington, to be built in 
this district for some 200 units. However, for the past many months there has 
been very strong opposition to this project and the question of its location has 
not been decided. According to advices in the newspaper there is to be a meeting 
of the common council on June 5 that will probably deci(ie the question. 

(6) The schools in general are anticipating a much lower registration next 
year. One at least, the Middletown city school district, has announced that it is 
not replacing several of the teachers who have resigned or retired. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5069 

(c) Recreation: None. 

(d) Social problems: None. 

(e) Other: None. 

6. Male workers in the rural districts have been greatly depleted and some 
towns report that there are no able-bodied workers in the town. This is not true 
of the women, and there should be an adequate supply of women workers for 
local industry or nearby industry if the transportation problem can be solved. 

7. Migrants came as a result of — 

(a) Advertising: 5 percent. 

(b) News stories: 60 percent. 

(c) Invitation: 23 percent. 

(d) Clearance: 10 percent. 

(e) Private agencies: 2 percent (New York City). 

8. Types of migrants: 
(a) Eural: 

(D Skilled, from Connecticut, 5 percent; from other States, 5 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled from Connecticut, 25 percent; from other States, 20 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 70 percent; from other States, 75 percent. 
(6) Urben: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 10 percent; from other States, 10 percent. 

(2^ Semiskilled, frofti Connecticut, 30 percent; from other States, 30 percent. 

(3) I n.-killed, from Connecticut, 60 percent; from other States, 60 percent. 

(c) Mechanics, agricultural workers, semiskilled and unskilled factory laborers.. 

(d) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers; 20 percent. 

(2) Single men: 40 percent. 

(3) Married men with families: 40 percent. 

9. No discrimination. 

10. Relaxation of discrimination: 
(a) Age: Yes. 

lb') Citizenship status: Yes, except where defense contracts prohibit. 

(c) Color: No. Very small percentage of colored and very small problem. 

(d) Nationality: Yes. 

(e) Married women: Yes. 

11. Are women being accepted by employers in defense industries? To a smaU 
but increasing extent. Several employers are contemplating the use of women, 
but have not actually started. The types of jobs are assemblers and bench, 
workers, small-press operators, and weavers. 

NEW BRITAIN DISTRICT 

1. We estimate that the number of migrants who have come into this territorjr 
seeking work since the start of work on defense contracts, at 4,500. 

(a) Estimate of number that have visited this office: 900. 

(1) Out of State: 600. 

(2) From other parts of State : 300. 

(6) Of this number (a) we estimated that we have registered 700. 

(c) Of this number (6) we estimate that we have placed 400. 

(d) Of the total 4,500 we estimate that 3,600 went directlv to employers: 

(1) From out of State: 3,000. 

(2) From other parts of State: 600. 

(e) Of this total number of 3,600, we estimate 1,100 found employment. 

2. We estimate that the number of migrants at the present rate, in 6 months 
will be double the number for the preceding 6 months. 

3. Source of migrants from other States: 

(a) At beginning of migration: Maine, 75 percent; Vermont, 5 percent; New 
Hampshire, 10 pei-cent; Massachusetts, 10 percent — 100 percent. 

(b) January 1941: Maine, 65 percent; Vermont, 10 percent; New Hampshire, 
10 percent; Massachusetts, 10 percent; Rhode Island, 5 percent — 100 percent. 

(c) At present: Maine, 25 percent; Vermont, 10 percent; New Hampshire, 10 
percent; Massachusetts, 10 percent; Rhode Island, 5 percent; New York, 10 
percent; Pennsylvania, 25 percent; All other States, 5 percent — 100 percent. 

4. Difficulties which have arisen in this territory: 

(a) Housing: Two-tenths of 1 percent rental vacancies in New Britain, Jan- 
uary 1941. 

(6) School facilities: Ample school facilities in New Britain. Shortage of 
high-school facilities in Plainville and Berlin. 

(c) Recreation: None. 



5070 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

(d) Social problems: No serious social problems. 

(e) Other: Improved bus schedules needed from New Britain to Meriden, 
Southington, and Bristol. Difficulty in securing skilled workers for industry and 
enrollees for national-defense training courses, also strikes. 

5. Corrective measures which have been taken with respect to No. 4: 

(a) Housing: Contract has been let for project Connecticut 5-1 and is now 
approximately 65 percent complete — low-rent housing to accommodate 340 
families. Already 212 applications have been received. Rentals are restricted to 
families with incomes under $1,600. Defense housing project, Connecticut 
6-031, calling for 300 units, has also been let to contract and 165 applications have 
already been received. This project is just starting to get under way and it is 
expected that approximately 77 units will be ready in July. The only restrictions 
for rentals in this project are that applicants must be residents of New Britain and 
employed on defense work. Defense housing project No. 6032-X, calling for 200 
units, is now under consideration. Restrictions will be the same on this project, 
namely, that applicants must be residents of New Britain and employed on defense 
work. 

(b) School facilities: 

New Britain: There is no evidence that high-school facilities will be taxed by 
the increase in population due to defense production. An additional 2,000 pupils 
can be accommodated in elementary grades and an adcntional 1,000 in junior 
high schools. The senior high school, by crowding, can accommodate 500 more 
on a single-session program. If a double-session program is adopted, approxi- 
mately 1,500 more could be accommodated. Until the Mount Pleasant and 
defense housing projects are tenanted, school officials are unable to determine to 
what degree it may be necessary to enlarge facilities. There is no estimate of how 
many children will be taken from other elementary schools if and when their 
parents move to the Mount Pleasant and defense housing projects. 

Plainville: High-school facilities crowded. The present high school was built 
to accommodate 320 pupils, but present enrollment is 475, creating an over- 
crowded condition. The schools are operating one session only. As a last resort 
double sessions could be adopted. No definite steps have been taken to increase 
present school facilities although school authorities have instituted a cooperative 
program — the Stamford plan, whereby 40 pupils are accommodated through the 
New Britain Trade School facihties. The same general crowded conditions 
prevail in the elementary schools in Plainville. All in all, the school sj-stem in 
Plainville is definitely overcrowded at the present time. While the increase in 
enrollment during the past year has only been 10 or 15 over previous year's 
enrollment, there is a strong feeling on the part of the school authorities in Plain- 
ville that an increase in facilities is very desirable, to meet anticipated increase in 
enrollment due to defense workers who are employed in New Britain and Bristol 
and are taking up residence in Plainville. 

Berlin: The superintendent of schools in Berlin reports that there has been a 
slight increase of enrollment in Berlin due to influx of workers in this area. At 
the present time, approximately 35 more pupils could be accommodated in the 
grade schools ^nd 20 more in the high school than the present enrollment figure. 
A proposal to erect a new elementary school building to cost approximately $90,000 
failed to pass, and an emergency program was submitted by superintendent of 
schools designed to take care of the overcrowded conditions which prevail at pres- 
ent and will become more acute next fall. By a doubling up of facilities pupils 
in grade schools will be taken care of, and fifth, sixth, and seventh grades will be 
transferred to Kensington, where a new grammar school will be organized. Pres- 
ent junior high school program will be eliminated and high school will take care 
of 9 to 12 grades. 

(c) Recreation: 25 parks with 930 acres (evaluation of $4,850,000), with ample 
playground, swimming pools, and recreational facilities. Industrial baseball league 
evenings and city baseball league on Saturdays; eight public park concerts during 
summer months. 

(d) Social: No serious social problems in this area. Relief load lowest in 
years — amply taken care of by local welfare departments. 

(e) Other: There have been a minimum of strikes in this area, due to the fact 
that employers have paid bonuses and have increased wage rates. 

6. While Berlin and Plainville, the only other towns in this district, might be 
classified as rural, very few residents of these towns are engaged in agricultural 
pursuits but rather in industry. Practically all of these workers are now engaged 
in jobs in industry with the exception of unskilled and these are being rapidly 
absorbed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5071 

7. We estimate the following percentages of those who have come to New 
Britain as a result of — 

(a) Advertising of Connecticut employers: None. 

(6) News stories of defense work in Connecticut: 50 percent. 

(c) Requests by employers through friends or neighbors who have previously 
migrated into the State: 47 percent. 

(d) Regular employment-service clearance: 3 percent. 

(e) Private fee-charging agencies: None. 

8. Types of migrants: 

(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 1 percent; from other States, 1 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 5 percent; from other States, 10 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 5 percent; from other States, 5 percent. 

(b) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 5 percent; from other States, 3 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 10 percent; from other States, 15 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 10 percent; from other States, 30 percent. 

(c) Types of skills possessed by migrants are mostly mechanical, agricultural,, 
mining, and some textile. 

id) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers: 90 percent. 

(2) Single men: 25 percent. 

(3) Married men with families: 75 percent. 

9. In general there has been no discrimination because of color, nationality, 
citizen status which has resulted in loss of employment to these groups in favor 
of migrants. 

10. (a) Discrimination is relaxing with respect to age. 

(6) Citizenship status: Only a very few factories have ever insisted on citizen- 
ship status and these same concerns now hold defense contracts and, therefore, 
insist on citizenship status. 

(c) Color: No problem as regards color, excepting female Negroes in laundry 
and dry-cleaning establishments where other workers object to their presence. 

(d) Nationality: There seems to be a slight discrimination with certain con- 
cerns as regards nationality, particularly Italian and Jewish. 

(e) Married women: Discrimination is relaxing as regards married women. 

11. There has been no wholesale acceptance of women by employers in defense 
industries in jobs ordinarily held by men. New Britain employers have always 
utilized the services of women wherever practicable. Jobs in industry where 
women's services are utilized most are as follows: Foot, power, and drill-press 
operators; assembly and inspection work; brazing; light milling-machine work; 
racking; operation of sewing machines. Most manufacturers in this district are 
studying local plant situations to see where women can be used to replace men 
who are called into service or who might be used in more highly skilled opera- 
tions. 

NEW HAVEN DISTRICT 

1. Estimate number of migrants who have come into your office: 
(a) Estimate of number that have visited your office. 

(1) From out of State: 350. 

(2) From other parts of State: 75. 

(6) Of this number (a), give estimate of number you have registered: 90. 

(c) Of this number (6), give estimate of number of placements: 70. 

(d) Estimate of number that went directly to employers. 

(1) From out of State: 350. 

(2) From other parts of State: 150. 

(e) Estimate of this number (d), who found employment: 5 percent, dnas- 
niuch as New Haven is considered an open-shop town, the employers in this 
district hesitate to take employees from other States where unions are in effects, 
inasmuch as local employers are very suspicious of these migrants being possible 
agitators.) 

2. Is number of migrants increasing or decreasing and to what extent: The 
number of migrants is definitely decreasing. This is very evident among farm 
workers and unskilled labor types. 

3. Source of migrants from'other States: 

(a) At beginning of migration: Pennsylvania, 25 percent; New York, 20 per- 
cent; New Hampshire, 20 percent; Massachusetts, 20 percent; other, 15 percent. 

(b) In January 1941: New Hampshire, 10 percent; Maine, 30 percent; Vermont, 
20 percent; Pennsylvania, 20 percent; New York, 20 percent; 



3072 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

(c) At present: Pennsylvania, 30 percent; New Hampshire, 30 percent; Maine, 
10 percent; Massachusetts, 10 percent; Southern States, 20 percent. 

4. What difficulties have arisen in your territory with respect to — 

(a) Housing: There are still rents available, but there is a scarcity of low price 
rents ($20-$30 monthly) for the working class. There are rents available in 
certain sections of the city which could be used if some repair work was done. 

(b) School facilities: No problem created here locally. 

(c) Recreation: More activity at local Y. 

(d) Social problems: I have talked with Mr. Foley of the home registry bureau 
and he advised me that at the present time there is no shortage of rooms for tran- 
sients. He has a list of approximately 300 rooms which are available; and also, 
rooms as listed in the classified section of the neswpapers show that there are suffi- 
cient number of these still available. 

(e) Other: There has been a slight increase in the prices asked for rents as 
compared with 6 months ago, but this has not been too much up to the present 
time. 

5. What corrective measures have been taken with respect to No. 4: 

(a) Housing: Mayor's defense council has set up a homes registry bureau where 
:all available rents may be listed free. 

(6) School facilities: Nothing done here, with the exception of plans for a new 
trade school. 

(c) Recreation: No known changes here. 

(d) Social problems: Changes should be apparent in local budget for community 
-chest, etc. 

6. To what extent have rural towns in your district been depleted of workers: 
The younger agricultural workers have secured industrial jobs in large numbers. 

7. What percentage of those who come in have responded to — 

(a) Advertising of Connecticut employers. None. 

(b) News stories of defense work in Connecticut: 75 percent. 

(c) Requests by employers through friends or neighbors who have previously 
•migrated into the State: 15 percent. 

(d) Regular employment service clearance: 10 percent. 

(e) Private fee charging agencies: None. 

8. Types of migrants: 

(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, none. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Comiecticut, 5 percent; from other States, none. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 95 percent; from other States, 100 percent. 

(b) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, none. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, none. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 100 percent; from other States, 100 percent. 

(c) Types of skills possessed by migrants (carpenters, mechanics, agricultural 
-workers, etc.) : Majority have no specific skills, but are unskilled labor class, 
with the exception of 60 trainees from Maine. 

(d) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers: 5 percent. 

(2) Single men: 80 percent. 

(3) Married men with families: 15 percent. 

9. In your opinion has discrimination because of .color, nationality, and citizen 
status resulted in loss of employment to these groups in favor of migrants: No. 

10. Is discrimination relaxing with respect to — • 
(a) Age: Yes. 

(h) Citizenship status: No; more rigid. 

(c) Color: Yes. 

(d) Nationality: Yes. 

(e) Married women: Yes. 

11. Are women being accepted by employers in defense industries in jobs 
•ordinarily held by men and to what extent: No; not in New Haven at present. 

NEW LONDON DISTRICT 

The information contained herewith is based on estimates arrived at by the 
manager and two supervising interviewers, on the basis of applications, referrals, 
•etc., which we are able to check. The period covered is from January 1 to May 1, 
1941, and all estimates are based on this period. We are unable to give even 
approximate information concerning these matters prior to January 1, 1941. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5073 

1. Estimate number of migrants who have come into your territorj- since start 
■of work on defense contracts: 6,000. 

(a) Estimate of number that have visited your office: 5,000. 

(1) From out of State: 2,000. 

(2) From other parts of State: 3,000. 

(fc) Of this number (a), give estimate of number you have registered: 1,000. 

(c) Of this number (b), give estimate of number of placements: 550. 

(d) Estimate of number tliat went directly to emplovers: 1,000. 

(1) From out of State: 600. 

(2) From other parts of State: 400. 

(e) Estimate of this number (d) who found employment: 500. 

2. Is number of migrants increasing or decreasing and to what extent: Holding 
•steady. 

3. Source of migrants from other States: 

(a) At beginning of migration (name States and percentages) : No estimate. 

(6) In January 1941: Rhode Island, 25 percent; Massachusetts, Maine, New 
York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, 25 percent; 
in State, 45 percent; scattered, 5 percent. 

(c) At present time: In State, 60 percent; Rhode Island, 25 percent; New York 
Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Vermont, and Maine, 15 percent. 

4. What difficulties have arisen in your territory with respect to, and 

5. What corrective measures have been taken with respect to No. 4: 

(a) Housing: Rents in New London proper have been "jacked up" by property 
owners, because of the feeling that easy money procured in defense industries 
should be shared by them, too. There is no acute scarcity of houses in New 
London but those "that are available are highly priced. The available rentals 
start around $40 for a flat of five rooms and range up to $100 for a single family 
house in the better residential section. A large number of desirable homes are 
for sale at prices in the $5,000 to $6,000 range in the town of New London. 

In the town of Groton rents aie quite scarce at any price. There is, however, a 
considerable amount of building both by private interests and by governmental 
interests. Several hundred units of low priced houses are completed or in the 
process of construction in the Groton area and should relieve the pressure on the 
man of average income. 

(b) School facilities: School facilities in the New London area, with the possible 
exception of Chapman Technical High School, are adequate for any expected 
increase in load for the next year. Chapman Tech is at present crowded beyond 
capacity, although additions have been made to this school each year for the 
last 3 or 4 years. Trustees of this school have requested a loan of $75,000 to 
increase their facilities for the school year 1941-42. 

In the Groton area, the school problem promises to become acute. One housing 
area of 100 units, devoted exclusively to enlisted Navy persoiuiel, will add, it is 
•estimated, 50 children of grammar school age and 200 more units adjacent to it, 
are expected to add another 100 children. School facilities in this area consist 
of a 2-room wooden school building, housing approximately 40 students. In 
another school district area, 200 housing units will be ready in 45 to 60 days and 
400 more units are contemplated, bringing another school problem to this district. 
School authorities have been to Washington with this problem and expect to 
receive governmental aid in handling it. 

(c) Recreation: Does not seem to create a great problem in this area, which is 
situated along the shore with many public beaches easily accessible and State 
parks within easy automobile ride. Enlisted personnel in the armed forces are 
being taken care of by local organizations, including Young Men's Christian 
Association, Young Women's Christian Association, Knights of Columbus, 
Diocesan Bureau, and Salvation Army. A United Service Organizations unit has 
been organized and will gradually take over the functions now being carried on 
by the above-named organizations. No facilities of this type are at present 
available in Groton. 

(d) Social problems: No comment. 

(e) Other: Sanitary facilities in Groton seem to offer the greatest problem in 
connection with the expansion load. Groton completed a water filtration and 
pumping plant about a year ago and reports are that this plant is operating at 
full capacity, 12 hours per day. Additional storage facilities and pipe lines are 
required to set up a water reserve to care for expanded needs. Sewer facilities 
in Groton are principally limited to those provided by Groton Borough. The 
Groton sewerage system disposes raw sewage into the nearby Thames River 
without treatment. 



5074 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

In the New London area, a recently completed sewage disposal plant treats 
sewage before disposal of effluent into the Thames River from approximately 
two-thirds of the city. One-third is still discharging raw sewage directly into 
the Thames River. The city of New London is already taking steps to provide 
for connection of the raw sewage lines with the sewage-disposal plant and it is 
expected that steps will be completed along this line shortly. Some govern- 
mental aid in this project is being sought by the cit.v of New London. The water 
supply for the city of New London is deemed adequate for any reasonable increase, 
although recommendations have been made during the week, that additional 
facilities for storage be provided for the New London system, together with addi- 
tional pumping facilities. 

The city of New London is provided with electricity and gas by the Connecticut 
Power Co. and both services are such that considerable expansion can be handled 
without difficulty. 

In the Groton area, there is no gas service. Electricity is provided by municipal 
service of the borough of Groton. This municipal system is now carrying its 
maximum load and the department has plans under way for expanding its trans- 
former capacity to take care of an increased load. This will be provided for by 
a bond issue of the department. Power is purchased by the department from 
the Eastern Connecticut Power Co. at Montville. 

In the Waterford area, building has not advanced as much as expected due to 
the lack of public water supply, sewage facilities and gas. Electricity is pro- 
vided generally in all parts of the town by the Connecticut Power Co. Houses 
built in tliis town are usually provided with septic tanks and driven wells. 

6. To what extent have rural towns in your district been depleted of workers: 
It is estimated that 75 percent of the available, desirable type of w orkers residing 
in the rural towns in this area have found jobs with industries here. 

7. What percentage of those who come in have responded to — 
(a) Advertising of Connecticut employers: None as far as known. 
(6) News stories of defense work in Connecticut: 75 percent. 

(c) Requests by employers through friends or neighbors who have previousl.v 
migrated into the State : 5 percent. 

(d) Regular employment service clearance: 20 percent. 

8. Types of migrants : 

(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 10 percent; from other States, 5 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 30 percent; from other States, 5 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 60 percent; from other States, 90 percent. 

(b) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 5 percent; from other States, 5 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 30 percent; from other States, 5 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 80 percent; from other States, 90 percent. 

(c) Types of skills possessed by migrants: Carpenters, machinists, chippers, 
riggers, machine operators, plumbers, steam fitters, welders (inexperienced), 
painters, unskilled. 

(d) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers: 30 percent. 

(2) Single men: 40 percent. 

(3) Married men with families: 30 percent. 

9. In your opinion has discrimination because of color, nationality, and citizen 
status resulted in loss of employment to these groups in favor of migrants: No. 

10. Is discrimination relaxing with respect to — • 

(a) Age: Yes. 

(6) Citizenship status: No. 

(c) Color: Yes. 

(d) Nationality: Yes. 

(e) Married women : Yes. 

11. Are women being accepted by employers in defense industries in jobs ordi- 
narily held by men and to what extent: No shortage of men in this area as yet. 

NORWALK DISTRICT 

1 . (a) Approximately 250 people have come to Norwalk from out of the State. 
(1) Approximately 50 people have come to Norwalk from other parts of the 
State. 

(b) Approximately 200 people have been registered. 

(c) Approximately 200 people have been placed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5075 

(d) Seventj--five to one hundred people (but found emploj^ers had contact with 
the Norwalk Connecticut State Employment Service) and in the main were all 
referred to the office by employers. 

(e) Probably 25 people without office contact. 

2. The number of migrants coming to the Norwalk area has decreased approxi- 
mately 50 percent. 

3. Source of migrants from other States: 

(a) From Pennsylvania 50 percent; Maine 40 percent; New York 8 percent; 
Vermont 2 percent. 

(5) Approximately the same percentage as above. 

(c) From Pennsylvania 50 percent; remainder from New York State. 

4. What difficulties have arisen in your territory with respect to— 
(a) Some difficultv in regard to rooming-house facilities. 

(b), (c), (d), (e): No difficulty. 

5. No corrective measures have been taken with respect to No. 4. 

6. Hard to estimate; probably 25 percent. 

7. What percentage of those who come in have responded to — 

(a) None. 

(b) 30 percent. 
{r) 70 percent. 

(d) None. 

(e) None. 

S. Types of migrants: 

(a) Rural; 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, none. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 20 percent; from other States, 20 percent, 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 80 percent; from other States, 80 percent. 

(b) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, none. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, 20 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, 80 percent. 

(c) Coal miners, construction laborers, truck drivers, clerical workers, woods- 
men, agricultural workers. 

(d) (1) 5 percent. 

(2) 75 percent. 

(3) 20 percent. 

9. To a small degree. 

10. (a) Yes; because of necessity. 

(6) Not important factors in Norwalk. 

(c) Some, but still definite barrier. 

(d) Yes; considerably. 

(e) Yes; to a small degree. 

11. Little defense in Norwalk area. Where there is defense work, no displace- 
ment has occurred, but movement is anticipated. 

STAMFORD DISTRICT 

1. Estimate number of migrants who have come into this territory since start 
of work on defense contracts. 

(a) Estimate of number that have visited this office: 

(1) From out of State, 150. 

(2) From other parts of State, 10. 

(b) Of this number (o), give estimate of number we have registered: 25. 

(c) Of this number (5), give estimate of number of placements: 20. 

(d) Estimate of number that went directly to employers: 

(1) From out of State: Small percentage. 

(2) From other parts of State: Small percentage. 

(e) Estimate of this number (3), who found employment: Small percentage. 

2. Is number of migrants increasing or decreasing and to what extent: The 
number remains about the same. 

3. Source of migrants from other States: 

(a) At beginning of migration (name States and percentages) : Maine, 10 
percent; Pennsylvania, 50 percent; New York, 40 percent. 

(6) In January, 1941 (name States and percentage): Same as (a), 
(c) At present (name States and percentages): Same as (a). 
4-5. What difficulties have arisen in your territory with respect to: 
'{a) Housing: None. 



5076 HAKTFOKD HEARINGS 

(b) School facilities : None. 

(c) Recreation: None. 

(d) Social problems: None. 

6. To what extent have rural towns in this district been depleted of workers? 
The rural towns in this district are almost wholly residential. The workers have 
always commuted. That condition has not changed. 

7. What percentage of those who come in have responded to: 
(a) Advertising of Connecticut employers. 

(6) News stories of defense work in Connecticut: Almost 100 percent. 

(c) Requests by employers through friends or neighobrs who have previously 
migrated into the State. 

(d) Regular employment service clearance. 
(c) Private fee charging agencies. 

8. Tvpes of migrants: 
(6) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 10 percent; from other States, 10 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, 10 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, 80 percent. 

(c) Types of skills possessed by migrants (carpenters, mechanics, agricultural 
workers, etc.): No skills; construction laborers and miners. 

(d) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers: None. 

(2) Single men: 80 percent. 

(3) Married men with families: 20 percent. 

9. In our opinion, has discrimination because of color, nationality, and citizen 
status resulted in loss of employment to these groups in favor of migrants: No. 

10. Is discrimination relaxing with respect to — 

(a) Age: Yes. 

(b) Citizenship status: No. 

(c) Color: No. 

(d) Nationality: Somewhat. 

(e) Married women: There is no discrimination against married women. 

11. Are women being accepted by employers in defense industries in jobs 
ordinarily held by men and to what extent? Not to any great extent. 

THOMPSONVILLE DISTRICT 

1. We estimate that there, have been about 2,500 work seekers come into this 
territory since the start of work on defense contracts. 

(a) Of this number, about 1,000 have visited our office. Of these: 

(1) Six hundred and twenty-five have been from out of State (since we neighbor 
on Massachusetts). 

(2) Three hundred an 1 seventy-five have come from other parts of the State. 
(6) Of this number, we have registered 408. 

(c) Have placed about 375 of these. 

(d) We estimate that the other 1,500 went directly to employers. 

(1) About 1,000 from out of State. 

(2) Five hundred from other parts of State. 

(e) Of this latter number, we doubt if more than 300 have found employment 
in this territory. 

2. Apparently the number of migrants is decreasing by about 25 percent. 

3. At the beginning of the migration: 

(a) Maine accounted for 40 percent, Massachusetts for 25 percent, New Hamp- 
shire for 15 percent, and New York and Vermont 10 percent each. 

(b) The picture then changed somewhat so that in January of 1941, Massa- 
chusetts accounted for 30 percent, Maine 25 percen , New York and New Hamp- 
shire 15 percent each, Vermont, Rhode Island, and New Jersey about 5 percent 
each. 

(c) At present due, in large measure, to the Windsor Locks Airport construc- 
tion, Ma.ssachusetts accounts for about 45 percent. New York about 35 percent, 
Florida about 10 percent and New Hampshire and Vermont 5 percent each. 

4. The only difficulty which has arisen in this territory of those mentioned in 
your letter, has been in regard to housing, of which there has been and still is a 
shortage growing more acute daily. 

5. No large scale measures have been taken to remedy this situation and with 
typical rural reluctance, private enterprise has not been a corrective factor as yet. 

6. The growing industrial shortage has attracted perhaps 30 percent of the 
workers in the rural towns in this district. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5077 

7. (a) News stories of defense work in Connecticut have accounted for 80 per- 
cent of the migrants. 

(6) Requests by employers through friends or neighbors who have previously 
migrated into the State account for 10 percent, and 

(c) Regular Employment Service clearance would account for another 10 per- 
cent. 

(d) Advertising of Connecticut employers, and 

(e) Private fee-charging agencies have been negligible. 

8. Type of migrants: 

(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 79 percent; from other States, 55 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 3 percent; from other States, 5 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 18 percent; from other States, 40 percent. 

(b) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 25 percent; from other States, 63 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 10 percent; from other States, 7 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 65 percent; from other States, 30 percent. 

(r) Eighty percent of the skilled migrants have been trades people and skilled 
machine and equipment operators. The other 20 percent have been supervisory 
employees. The semiskilled have been 75 percent equipment operators and 25 
percent production employees. In the unskilled groujjs, practically 100 percent 
have been construction or agricultural employees. 

(d) Twenty percent of the total have been boomers, 60 percent have been single 
men, and the other 20 percent married men with families. Of this 20 percent, 
about 10 percent are commuters from localities in or out of State sufficiently 
nearby to permit it. 

9. In our opinion, there has been no loss of employment, because of discrimi- 
nation, to other groups in favor of these migrants. 

10. Discrimination is relaxing with respect to all the items enumerated. 

1 1 . Women are not as yet replacing men but such a move is contemplated by 
at least one large manufacturer in the district. Women are, however, being used 
to supplement work which could be done by men at the present time. 

TORRINGTON DISTRICT 

1. The number of migrants who have come into the Torrington area is estimated 
as 1,200. 

(a) Estimate of number that have visited this office: 

(1) From out of State: 420. 

(2) From other parts of Connecticut: 80. 
lb) Number who have registered: 130. 

(c) Number of placements: 64. 

(d) It is estimated that 700 went directly to employers: 

(1) From out of State: 600. 

(2) From other parts of the State: 100. 

(c) It is estimated that 300 found employment. 

2. The number of migrants is increasing sharply. 

3. Source of migrants from other Stites: 

(a) New York, i30 percent; Pennsylvania, 20 percent; Massachusetts, 20 per- 
cent; New Hampshire, 10 percent; Vermont, 10 percent; various, 10 percent. 

(b) New York, 30 percent; Pennsylvania, 30 percent; Massachusetts, 15 per- 
cent; New Hampshire, 5 percent; Vermont, 10 percent; various, 10 percent. 

(c) New York, 30 percent; Pennsylvania, 20 percent; Vermont, 20 percent; 
New Hampshire, 20 percent: various, 10 percent. 

4. (a) The housing situation has become acute. There are frequent reports 
that men seeking work did not report to their employers because they were 
unsuccessful in locating living quarters. Fan ilies of three or more are reporting 
living in one room or other inadequate quarters. 

(b) The grade school facilities appear ample to handle the increasing enroll- 
ment resulting from the influx of migrants. The local high school, already taxed 
to capacity will be hard pressed to accommodate the new students. 

(c) No organized recreational activities have been instituted. 

(d) The local social agencies and the police department report no special social 
problems having been brought on by the addition of the migrants to the city 
population. 

5. (a) A central renting bureau has been set up by the local Chamber of 
Commerce and through an organized campaign the citizens of the city have been 



5078 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

urged to register with the Chamber any living facilities which they are desirous 
of renting to newcomers. 

(b) The campaign for a new high school has been given added impetus by the 
influx of additional and potential students. 

(c) The location of the city and the nature of the terrain make available to 
residents many natural recreational activities. There is no organized program. 

id) The municipal government is alert to the possibilities of new problems 
arising from the new population and the situation appears to be well under con- 
trol. 

6. The rural towns in this district have been entirely depleted of workers. 

7. Migrants who have responded to — ■ 

(a) 10 percent. 

(b) 50 percent. 

(c) 20 percent. 

(d) 10 percent. 

(e) 10 percent. 

8. Types of migrants: 

(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 20 percent; from other States, 10 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 20 percent; from other States, 20 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 60 percent; from other States, 70 percent. 

(b) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 20 percent; from other States, 20 percent. 
<2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 30 percent; from other States, 20 percent. 
(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 50 percent; from other States, 60 percent. 

(c) The skills possessed by migrants have been limited to machinists and 
agricultural workers. 

(d) Percentage of: 

(1) Boomers: 20 percent. 

(2) Single men: 60 percent. 

(3) Married men with families: 20 percent. 

9. No. 

10. (a) Discrimination with respect to age is relaxing. 

(b) With respect to citizenship status: No. 

(c) With respect to color: Yes. 

id) With respect to nationality: No. 

(e) With respect to married women: Yes. 

There is no problem in this area with respect to Negroes. They are being 
employed but for the most part in reasonably large groups. These groups are 
completely separate and there is little comingling of whites and blacks. In 
isolated cases a Negro has been placed working side by side with a white man. 

11. Women are being accepted by employers in defense industries in jobs 
ordinarily held by men. It is estimated that approximately 10 percent of the 
jobs ordinarily handled by men have been filled by women. 

The activities of women are generally limited to performing press operations, 
bench work, and inspection duties. 

WATERBURY DISTRICT 

1. We estimate that 3,883 migrants have reported to our office during the 
period from June 24, 1940, to May 31, 1941. The first defense contract notifica- 
tion was dated June 24, 1940. 

(a) Estimate of number that have visted our office: 3,462. 

(1) From out of State: 2,597. 

(2) Froin other parts of State: 865. 

(b) Estimate of number we have registered: 3,107. 

(c) Estimate of number of placements: 621. 

(d) Estimate of number that went directly to emplovers: 775. 

1. From out of State: 620. 

2. From other parts of State: 155. 

(e) Estimate of this number (d), who found employment: 232. 

2. Number of migrants is increasing. During the months of April and May 
migrations stepped up about 10 percent. 

3. Source of migrants from other States: 

(a) At beginning of migration: New York, 55 percent; Pennsylvania, 15 per- 
cent; Massachusetts, 15 percent; Rhode Island, 15 percent. 

(6) In January 1941: New York, 45 percent; Pennsylvania, 19 percent; Rhode 
Island, 9 percent; Massachusetts, 18 percent, Maine, 9 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSP: MIGRATION 5Q79 

(c) At present: New York, 30 percent; Pennsylvania, 30 percent; Massachu- 
setts, 12 percent; Maine, 7 percent; Vermont, 5 percent; New Jersey, 3 percent; 
Rhode Island, 3 percent; New Hampshire, 2 percent; others, 8 percent. 

4-5. Difficulties which have arisen in our territory and corrective measures 
which have been taken with respect to — 

(a) Housing: There is a scarcity of apartments and homes which has grown 
acute in the past few months. Bids for Federal Housing, 300 units, have been 
awarded this past week and construction of these units starts very shortly. 
This will alleviate immediate distress with regard to living quarters. There are 
very few rooms available and waiting lists are maintained at the Room Service 
and Young Men's Christian Association. 

(6) School facilities: During the past few years, five schools have been closed 
in the Waterbury district, but due to the influx of defense workers additions have 
been requested in three schools. 

(c) Recreation: Recreation has been inadequate during normal times and 
I know of no concrete plans to better this condition. 

(d) Social problems: The workers that have come to this community although 
they are migrants, are not construction workers concerned with short period 
employment, and are not living in temporary quarters such as tourist camps; 
nor are they segregated from any other members of the community. 

(e) None. 

6. In a school registration taken during April and May, \\e found that the 
young people in the rural communities are willing to work away from home or 
within commuting distance. There seems to be no great unemployment in the 
rural districts. 

7. Percentage of those who come in have been in response to — 

(a) Advertising of Connecticut employers: 10 percent. 

(b) News stories of defense work in Connecticut: 45 percent. 

(c) Requests by employers through friends or neighbors who have previously 
migrated into the State: 40 percent. 

id) Regular employment service clearance: 5 percent. 
(e) No private fee charging agencies in this district. 

8. Types of migrants: 
(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 5 percent; other States, 1 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 15 percent; other States, 10 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 80 percent; other States, 89 percent. 
(6) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 10 percent; from other States, 9 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 40 percent; from other States, 35 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 50 percent; from other States, 66 percent. 

(c) Types of skills possessed by migrants: Miners, truck drivers, machine 
operators, auto mechanics, clerical workers, agricultural workers, restaurant 
workers. 

(d) Percentage of — 

(1) Boomers, 20 percent. 

(2) Single men and women, 60 percent. 

(3) Married men with families, 40 percent. 

9. Because of discrimination of color and some feeling with regard to nationality 
groups and of course citizen status, many of these migrants have not been referred 
to openings which they would fit. Other employers have consistently refused to 
see out of town or out of State applicants. During the month of May two firms 
changed their ruling on this and are seeing people from certain States — namely, 
Pennsylvania and Vermont. 

10. Is discrimination relaxing with respect to — 

(a) Age: Yes; with the exception of women 45 or up who look 45 and up. 

(6) Citizenship status: No. 

(c) Color: No; although efforts of the local interracial committee with the help 
of Washington are making every effort to break down this discrimination in indus- 
trial work. 

(rf) Nationality: Except in the small plants, certain nationality groups are still 
being excluded by order from the employer. The Manufacturers Association 
committee members are endeavoring to lift this ban at the present time. 

(e) Married women: Only one good-sized firm is still restricting its employ- 
ment to single women. In commercial work this status has changed and married 
women are being referred regularly on this type of work. 

60396 — il— pt. 13 5 



5080 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

11. Women are not Vjeing accepted bj^ employers in jobs ordinarily held by 
men except in rare instances. Because of a recent demand, we have instigated a 
tracing course, the graduates of which will relieve young men of tracing positions 
in drafting rooms. The hiring of women, industrially speaking, has not made the 
strides hoped for. 

WILLIMANTIC DISTRICT 

1. Number of migrants who have come into this territory since start of work on 
defense contracts: 

(a) (1) From out of State: 100. 

(2) From other parts of the State: 200. 

(6) Have registered: 110. 

(c) Have placed: 65. 

(d) (1) Went directly to employers from out of State: None. 
(2) Went to employers from other parts of State: 200. 

(e) Obtained employment: 100. 

2. The month of May showed 100 percent increase in luunber of migrants 
registering at this office as compared with January 1941. 

3. The sources of migrants from other States are as follows: 

(a) New York, 30 percent; Vermont, 30 percent; Maine, 20 percent; Rhode 
Island, 10 percent; and Massachusetts, 10 percent (at beginning of migration). 

(b) New York, 30 percent; Vermont, 30 percent; Maine, 20 percent; Rhode 
Island, 10 percent; and Massachusetts, 10 percent (January 1941). 

(c) New York, 25 percent; Rhode Island, 33 percent; Ohio, Indiana, Ma.ssa- 
chusetts, and Alabama, each 10 percent (at present). 

4. There have been no difficulties in this territory with regard to housing, 
school facilities, recreation, social problems or other. 

5. There has been no need to take any corrective measures with regard to items 
mentioned in No. 4. 

6. Rural towns in this district have been depleted of 85 percent of workers. 

7. What percentage of those who came in have responded to — 

(a) None who have come in have responded to advertising of Connecticut em- 
ployers. 

(6) Practically 100 percent have come in response to news stories of defense 
work in Connecticut. 

(c) None have come in response to requests from employers through friends or 
neighbors who have previously migrated into the State. 

(d) None hav^e come through regular employment service clearance, 
(c) None have come through private fee-charging agencies. 

8. Types of migrants: 

(a) Rural: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, none; from other States, 13 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 60 percent; from other States, 60 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 40 percent; from other States, 27 percent. 
(6) Urban: 

(1) Skilled, from Connecticut, 5 percent; from other States, 13 percent. 

(2) Semiskilled, from Connecticut, 55 percent; from other States, 60 percent. 

(3) Unskilled, from Connecticut, 40 percent; from other States, 27 percent. 

(c) Migrants possess skills as road-equipment operators, auto mechanics, and 
factory laborers. 

(d) 1. Boomers: 2 percent. 

2. Single men: 25 percent. 

3. Married men with families: 30 percent. (Balance composed primarily of 
married women whose husbands are employed in this area or nearby areas.) 

9. There has been no loss of employment due to discrimination because of 
color, nationality or citizen status in favor of migrants. 

10. (a) Discrimination is relaxing with respect to age. 

(b) To date, citizenship status has not been an obstacle to placements. 

(c) Discrimination has not relaxed with respect to color. 

(d) Discrimination has relaxed with respect to nationality. 

(e) Discrimination has relaxed with respect to married women. 

11. Women are not being accepted by employers in defense industries in jobs 
ordinarily held by men. Since there are no defense jobs in this territory limited 
to men, employers generally have not had to substitute women for men workers. 
In the cases of male employees leaving to enter other defense jobs, their places 
to date, have been filled by other males. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5083. 

Part III. Farm Labor Shortage 

Since February 11, 1941, the Connecticut State Employment Service has been 
actively working with the subcommittee on Farm Labor of the Agricultural 
Committee of the Connecticut Council of National Defense composed of Ralph C. 
Lasbury, Jr., chairman, farmer, and assistant secretary of the Connecticut 
Regional Marketing Authority, Paul Putnam of the extension service of the Uni- 
versity of Connecticut and Bradford Crossman, director of agricultural planning, 
University of Connecticut. 

In this report no attempt will be made to cover in detail the activities of this 
committee in seeking a solution of the many serious problems encountered in 
their efforts to assure that Connecticut crops are planted and harvested in this 
emergency period. They have taken their responsibilities seriously and have 
worked hard to find an answer to problems such as housing and transportation, 
etc. They have made contacts with Federal and State departments and with 
organizations of farmers, etc., including Civilian Conservation Corps, National 
Youth Administration, Work Projects Administration, State board of education^ 
county farm bureaus, county farm agents, etc. 

POLICY AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF CONNECTICUT STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

From the start the employment-service policy has been to accept definite respon- 
sibility for 

1. The recruiting and registration of workers and the development of every 
possible source of labor supply. 

2. Securing orders from the farmers and growers and filling these orders as 
rapidly and efficiently as possible through the use of every facility of the service 
and secondly to cooperate in every way possible with the general program of the 
committee. 

SURVEY 

The survey made through the managers of the 18 Connecticut State Employ- 
mert Service offices early in the year revealed the same general information as 
the survey conducted by the farm labor committee, namely that Connecticut 
farmers are faced with an immediate shortage of full time regular farm hands,, 
particularly for dairy work and that in the harvest season, the shortage of seasonal 
farm workers will be the most acute for any year since the World War. The figures 
reported officially by the committee to the employment service indicate a short- 
age of 2,400 regular farm hands and 10,000 seasonal workers. These figures have 
been accepted as roughly indicating the vast extent of the shortage of labor al- 
though to date current orders received from farmers and the farm orders placed 
for July and August with the employment service do not approach these figures. 
(The method being used to arouse the farmers and growers of the State to the 
necessity of placing definite orders so that their actual needs will be known is 
described a little later in this report).' 

REASONS FOR SHORTAGE 

The reasons for the serious shortage of farm labor in Connecticut are well known 
and a few are merely mentioned here: 

(1) The increased employment opportunities in both industrial concerns work- 
ing on national-defense orders and in construction work. 

(2) The large number of men leaving the State for service in the armed forces 
of the United States through enlistment, through the calling out of the National 
Guard and through the selective service law. 

(3) The larger number of younger men leaving the farms for training courses 
for national defense jobs. 

(4) The fact that farmers have been unable to offer wages equal to the pay 
offered industrial and construction workers. 

RECRUITING AND REGISTRATIONS 

It was apparent early in the year from a survey of the available labor in the 
files of the Connecticut State Employment Service that it would be necessary to 
secure workers for both full-time farm jobs and for work in the harvest season for 
vegetable, fruit, and tobacco farms from groups not normally included in the labor 
market and for the most part probably not registered with the Connecticut 
State Employment Service. These sources for recruiting workers have, therefore, 
been developed (and are still being developed). 

I See p. 5093. 



5084 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

(1) The regular files of workers registered with the Connecticut State Employ- 
ment Service including of course Negro registrants. 

(2) Boys in high schools, junior high schools, preparatory schools and colleges 
in the State. 

(3) Married and single women who are interested in and qualified for this type 
of work, probably to be found mainly among the foreign populations in cities and 
towns. 

(4) Alien registrants who are not eligible for Work Projects Administration 
employment or for some defense industries. 

(5) Transients who register at any of the State Employment Service offices and 
are available for this type of work. 

(6) Clearance between employment offices in the State and clearance with other 
States. 

A brief outline of the methods used to recruit workers in these groups may be 
of interest. 

(1) Regular file: For the past several years, the Employment Service has used 
every possible method of securing the registrations of workers of every type and 
during the past 6 months special emphasis has been placed on this function of the 
service. Newspaper advertising, publicity, radio talks, talks by staff members to 
organizations of every kind, announcements by priests and ministers to their 
congregations, talks at schools and colleges, etc., an intensive combing of the inac- 
tive file. These are some of the methods used to recruit the active file in each 
oflBce. 

(2) High school, prep, etc.: Through the cooperation of Commissioner Alonzo 
Grace of the State department of education, registration of high school and junior 
high school boys was handled by the principals and teachers in the schools, a 
special farm work registration form being provided by the employment service 
for this purpose. The farm labor committee handled the registrations of prep 
schools and college students for farm work on this special form. These young 
registrants are kept in a special file by towns and this file now includes over 3,000 
students who will be available for seasonal agricultural work after school closes. 
(Statistics showing registrations by district offices, towns, and age groups, fur- 
nished herewith.) 

(3) Married and single women: Local offices managers are arranging for talks 
by the clergy in their districts in sections where women might be available point- 
ing out that farm work is available for them and asking them to register at the 
Connecticut State Employment Service. 

(4) Aliens: The cooperation of Claj'ton Squires, director of the State aid divi- 
sion of the public welfare, has been enlisted and he has had a letter sent to all 
towns in the State urging them to make sure that aliens known to them and 
aliens on their welfare list particularly are registered with the Connecticut State 
Employment Service. For the most part, we believe aliens in the State are regis- 
tered. 

(5) Transients: A problematical source of supply for farm work as most of 
them are interested in industrial jobs. 

(6) Clearance: The use of clearance between offices to fill employer orders for 
which no qualified applicants can be found in the office securing the order has been 
extremely useful in filling many regular full-time farm jobs, particularly those 
offering good wages. Clearance between States offers another sound method of 
filling exceptionally attractive jobs with higher than average wages for full-time 
farm work. However, in view of the shortage of farm labor in other New England 
States and nearby States, the use of clearance offers but slight chance of filling 
the usual type of farm job as similar jobs are available in the other States. To 
arrange a uniform procedure so that clearance is used for all jobs which might 
be satisfactorily filled by this method, the following uniform procedure has been 
adopted. Offices will make use of clearance procedures in the State for all regular 
farm jobs paying $60 or more for a single man and $75 or more for a couple. 
Clearance between States will be arranged for all jobs paying $50 a month for a 
single man and $70 for a couple until experience indicates the necessit.y of a 
change in this practice. This procedure is adopted with the idea that the circular 
letter and order blank to be sent to 11,000 farmers within the next few days will 
result in a large number of orders for well-paid jobs. (The problem of clearance 
in connection with large groups of workers for seasonal jobs will be covered a 
little later in the report.) • 

' See p. 5087. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5085 

ORDERS FOR FARM WORKERS 

On May 31, 1941, unfilled orders in the State totalled 411, divided as follows: 

Tvpe of farm: 

Dairy 95 

Poultry : : 17 

Fruit 57 

Vegetable 93 

Combinations of above 67 

Tobacco (shade) 50 

Tobacco (outdoor) 32 

Total "in 

During the week ending May 31, 46 placements were made in the State, divided 
as follows: 

Tvpe of farm: 

Dairv 29 

Poultry 1 

Vegetable 1 

Any combination of above 6 

Tobacco (shade) 7 

Tobacco (outdoor) 2 

Total 46 

These figures are a definite index to the general situation in regard to the 
placement of actual orders with the Connecticut State Employment Service and 
indicate the need of more definite information immediately regarding actual 
present and future requirements of farmers, tobacco growers, etc. Only a month 
or so from the date when the estimated shortage of 2,400 full-time workers and 
10,000 seasonal workers, the total number of orders actually placed is a little 
over 400. The report also indicates the difficulty experienced in filling even this 
limited number of the total anticipated in spite of the earnest efforts of the 
placement interviewers in the 18 offices. 

To secure more definite information, a circular letter (appendix D') has been 
prepared by the Connecticut State Employment Service (with the approval of 
aU the cooperating agencies) to be sent to 11,000 farmers, a list selected by 
county farm agents. (Copies of this circular letter and the order blank (ap- 
pendix E -) which will be mailed with it are furnished herewith.) It is hoped 
that the urgent appeal for prompt action by the farmers in returning this order 
blank completed will result in the receipt of a reply from a good percentage of 
the 11,000 farmers, with definite orders for the workers they will need either at 
once or in July and August. 

The order blank also requests information regarding these extremely important 
matters: (1) Housing facilities available; (2) plans for transportation to and from 
work and the distance farmers and growers will cover in order to use Connecti- 
cut workers including the boys in the special file; (3) information in regard to 
how manj^ farmers will pay transportation for out-of-State workers for seasonal 
jobs, house them, and insure return to their home States after completion of 
haj-vest. 

If the farmers cooperate, we will then have the information needed to plan 
intelligently, namely: how many men, women, and boys are needed, where 
needed, when needed, rate of pay offered, transportation facilities provided by 
farmers, and the number interested in out-of-State workers, etc. 

REFERRAL AND PLACEMENT PROCEDURES 

That the number of full-time farm workers available in the State is almost 
exhausted is indicated by the May 31 report showing these figures: 

Dairy workers 78 

Poultry workers 9 

Fruit workers 6 

Vegetable workers 24 

Workers for combination farms 54 

Shade tobacco workers 3 

Outdoor tobacco workers 4 

Total 178 



1 See p. 5091. 

2 See p. 5093. 



5086 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

In addition there are 3,245 boys registered for seasonal summer jobs. A grand 
tot.al supply of 3,423. 

That there are unfilled orders in spite of the fact that 178 farm workers are 
registered in the State is due to the fact that many men who are well qualified for 
farm work will not accept farm work for a variety of reasons including (1) location 
of job, (2) wages unsatisfactory (3) they are interested in better-paid construction 
or factory work, etc. 

When orders for seasonal workers are received, boys will be referred to those jobs 
which they can handle satisfactorily. They will be assigned by Employment 
Service interviewers to work for which they are physically fitted. Working and 
sanitary conditions will be inspected by State labor department representatives in 
places where large groups are employed. In some cases volunteer organizations of 
women will assist in this inspection. The farm labor committee will also give every 
possible consideration to arrangements which will insure supervision of the general 
welfare of these younger workers. Employers when placing orders for boys will 
be requested to agree to supervise personally their work assignments, to make sure 
that boys not used to farm work are given work which will not overtax them, etc. 

THE TOBACCO PROBLEM 

It is very difficult to figure out the exact situation and the possible shortage in 
July and August of tobacco workers due to rather conflicting reports. For 
example, our Thompsonville office has kept in close contact with the tobacco 
plantations in that district and reports that while the growers are aware of the 
extreme difficulty experienced in securing a limited number of workers for the early 
season work — all orders not being filled — the men in charge on the farms appear to 
believe that they will have a large number of workers available from their regular 
source of labor supply and while a shortage would exist they would get by with 
women, boys, at little overtime, etc. This opinion was again expressed by some 
men in another survey of the situation reported June 3, though some growers 
expressed some anxiety over a possible shortage. None of them, however, appeared 
alarmed to the extent of placing orders for workers to be secured regardless of 
location, expense, etc. 

The exact reverse of this opinion is, however, expressed by the manager of the 
Thompsonville office who wrote on May 20 that "Many growers are depending on 
their regular year-to-year help to carry them through the season without appar- 
ently an awareness that this help will not be available," and "The wage current in 
this territory, generally about $3.50 per day, is not attractive when the type of 
work is compared with the industrial wage and the type of work required. Lack 
of transportation is another problem. We do not know what the actual need is 
except as orders are received. Our estimate of the availability of such workers is 
that there will be an unprecedented scarcity." 

Mr. William L. Harris, Jr., county farm agent, who is in a position to know 
the situation agrees with this opinion and points out that with at least 5,000 
workers needed in the shade tobacco fields alone, that "a very great shortage" 
will exist even after all the men, women, and girls from local sources have been 
put to work. (He also points out that a shortage of workers for dairy farmers, 
vegetable and fruit growers and outdoor tobacco growers "will run into hundreds 
or thousands.") He advocates taking "drastic steps," namely, clearance, possibly 
from Tennessee where he understands the Southern Tenant Farmers Association 
has a thousand men available. He has taken the matter into consideration of 
having some tobacco grower hire 10 or 20 of these men to test their adaptability 
for the work. This idea was approved by the Connecticut State Employment 
Service. No definite information as to the decision of a grower to import this 
test group is available at the time of this report. 

The estimate of shortage made by the farm labor committee is about 4,000, 
including shade and outdoor tobacco workers. 

The answer to these conflicting points of view will be found, we hope, in the 
reply to the circular and order blank which urge the supplying of definite infor- 
mation by return mail as to actual workers needed. 

THE STRAWBERRY SITUATION 

An ear'y season for strawberries in Connecticut has resulted in a serious problem. 
Reports received at the time this report is being prepared (June 5) indicate a 
danger of loss of the crop imless several hundred workers are secured within the 
next few days. Reports from the growers around New Haven and the large 
growers in the vicinity of Glastonbury indicate an emergency requiring immediate 
action. The files of workers in every classification are being combed to secure 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5087 

berry pickers. In New Haven as many high-school boys as can be interested 
who" are attending the afternoon session will be used in the morning, trucks 
picking them up at 6:30 and returning them to town at 11:30. The farm com- 
mittee and others interested are endeavoring to make some arrangement with 
towns in the vicinity of Glastonbury, etc., to have high-school children released 
for certain portions of the day or certain days to pick berries. A publicity cam- 
paign calling on every person available to go to work picking berries is being 
arranged through the Defense Council, farm labor committee, etc. (The actual 
shortage of workers for this job may be an indication of similar shortage when 
workers are actually needed in July for tobacco fields, vegetable farms, etc.) 

CLEARANCE PROBLEM 

The facts outlined previously lead to the serious question of clearance of 
Negro workers or white workers from other States to meet the threatened shortage. 
Before going into details regarding the methods to be used and the policy of the 
Connecticut State Employment Service in connection with clearance, it must 
be pointed out that at this time, regardless of the need, importation of workers 
in large numbers into the State cannot be considered because of one important 
unsolved problem^the question of housing. No organization, no concern, no 
individual and certainly no State department would have any part in bringing in 
a large number of workers and having them arrive at the Hartford railroad 
station with no arrangements for a place to live. At the present time we know 
of no housing facilities available for any large number of workers. 

The farm labor committee has been working to secure the cooperation of the 
Farm Security Administration to provide housing, living accommodations and 
supervision for eitlier out-of-State workers or high-school boys from places in the 
State too far to travel to and from work. They report they have not been able 
to secure any assurance of any kind of assistance from the Farm Security Ad- 
ministration. They are also endeavoring to secure the use of abandoned Civilian 
Conservation Corps camps in the vicinity of tobacco plantations, etc. They have 
made progress toward securing these Civilian Conservation Corps camps now out 
of use but only on condition that some approved agency will provide supervision, 
equipment, etc. The committee believed they could secure the cooperation of 
the Farm Security Administration in the matter but, as noted, they report that 
no arrangements have been made. 

The farm labor committee also reports efforts to secure dormitories in prepara- 
tory schools for use of workers on farms and tobacco plantations, but no definite 
decision has been made. 

If housing facilities for workers are made available, the Connecticut State 
Employment Service could arrange for clearance of groups of workers between 
States through the regula,r clearance channels if — 

(1) The need for out-of-State workers was demonstrated because no available 
labor supply in the State could be found. 

(2) There is a definite job with a definite employer for every worker imported. 

(3) There is housing available for these out-of-State workers. 

(4) There is assurance that they will return to their home States after their 
job is finished and that transportation will be furnished for this purpose. 

The welfare of the State and of the workers from out-of-State demand that a 
policy containing these minimum requirements be adopted by any State agency 
involved in handling the migration of workers. (Some supervision of the general 
health and welfare of any large group of this sort should also be provided.) 

Section 1692 of the General Statutes has recently been called to our attention 
in connection with clearance. This statute provides a penalty for "each person 
who shall bring into and leave in, or cause to be brought into and left in, any town 
in the State, any indigent person who is not an inhabitant of such town and who 
shall become chargeable within 1 year after having been so brought into and left 
in such town." 

INFORMATION REGARDING NEGRO STUDENTS AVAILABLE IN THE SOUTH 

In anticipation of the possible necessity of securing out-of-State workers, in- 
quiries were directed in April to the directors of the State employment services 
in all southern States east of the Mississippi River requesting information regard- 
ing the number of Negro students who might be interested in work in Connecticut 
during the summer. The replies indicated that no large number from any one 
college were interested as work opportunities are available in the South. The 
total number who were reported as available was 353. 



5088 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

SUGGESTED IMPORTATION OF TENNESSEE WORKERS 

The suggestion of Mr. William L. Harris regarding the importation of white 
workers from the Southern Tenant Farmers Union, Memphis, Tenn., has already- 
been mentioned. No information is available at the time of writing this report 
as to whether a group of these workers is to be brought in to fill jobs for some 
tobacco grower. 

NO NEW JERSEY BERRY PICKERS AVAILABLE 

On learning of the serious situation confronting the strawberry growers, a 
phone call was made to the director of the New Jersey State Employment Service 
to secure information regarding the availability of strawberry pickers from that 
State. The information received was that former berry pickers are now for the 
most part working on construction jobs, that there is a shortage of farm labor of 
15,000 in the State, and that berrypickers are available for clearance. 

(The statistical data accompanying this report will furnish this information: 

(1) Number of jobs for farm workers unfilled on May 31, 1941. Appendix A. 

(2) Number of placements of farm workers week ending May 31, 1941. Ap- 
pendix A. 

(3) Number of farm workers and students in active file May 31, 1941. Ap- 
pendix A. 

(4) Report of farm placements, 1940. Appendix B. 

(5) Report of farm placements 1941 to April 30. Appendix B. 

(6) Registration of high school, junior high school, and college students. 
Appendix C.) 

Appendix A, Part III . Weekly report of farm-labor situation, week ending May 31,1941 





Total 


Regular full-time farm 
hands (live in jobs unless 
otherwise noted) 


Seasonal farm workers 
(workers employed by 
day or week) 


received, 42 


Mar- 
ried 
couples 


Men 


Boys 


Women 


Mar- 
ried 
couples 


Men 


Boys 


Women 


Number of workers ordered 


175 


4 


58 


2 






1 


60 


50 










Type of farm: 
Dairy 


44 
5 
52 
56 

17 


4 


40 
3 
2 

7 
6 














Poultry 


2 












Fruit.. 








25 
24 


25 


Vegetable 










25 














Tobacco (shade) 














1 












1 






















Number of placements 


46 


2 


32 


1 






9 


2 












Type of farm; 
Dairy 


29 

1 


2 


26 
1 


1 
























Fruit 














Vegetable 


1 
6 
7 
2 




1 
4 






















7 






Tobacco (shade) 
























2 






















411 


6 


195 


3 






10 


128 


69 










Type of farm: 
Dairy 


95 
17 
57 

67 
50 
32 


5 
__ 


16 
2 
34 
55 


2 
























Fruit 








27 

40 
18 


28 


Vegetable 










27 














Tobacco (shade) 










10 














10 


4 
















Number of farm workers, active file 


3,423 


15 


110 


7 






« 


3,272 


11 










Type of farm: 
Dairy 


78 
9 
6 

24 

3,299 

3 

4 


14 


50 
9 
2 

40 


1 






1 


12 












Fruit 










4 

11 

3,245 




Vegetable 










4 




6 






2 
1 
4 


5 


Tobacco (shade) 






2 


Tobacco (outdoor) 































NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5089 



Appendix B, Part III. Connecticut State Employment Service applicants placed in 
agricultural employment by type of farm by months 







Year 1940 and January to April 1941] 


















T 


M 

2,087 


W 

204 

5 
3 
14 



182 


IT 



1 



3 

10 



V 

107 

42 
28 
5 

3 

1 

31 

7 
4 


5 

10 
5 


73 

39 
14 
1 

3 

14 
2 

60 


48 

30 
15 


1 

1 
"72" 


113 

43 

27 


5 

10 
28 


1 

■< 

203 

74 
39 


2 

76 
12 

297" 


1 

182 

54 
45 


4 

59 
20 


a 
431 
49 

8 

300 
11 


3 

325 

76 
60 
9 

6 

167 

7 


110 

55 
13 


5 

31 
6 


1 

i 
i 

CO 

251 

87 
28 
54 

3 


1 
2 


384 

68 
26 
140 

10 

127 
13 


1 

a 

1 

112 

29 
13 


9 

50 
11 


1 


Total (1940) 


2,291 


59 






General farms 


643 
344 
205 

64 

913 
122 


638 
341 
191 

64 

731 
122 


26 




15 


Fruit and nut farms 

Livestock and poultry 
farms 




K 


Truck farms and crop 


7 


Agricultural services _ 


3 


Total (1941) 


518 


504 






















General farms 


126 
73 
2 

31 

248 
38 


126 

2 

28 

238 


26 
16 


12 

4 
2 


23 
17 


4 

16 
12 


36 
19 


6 

24 
4 


41 
21 
2 

9 

204 
20 


















Dairy farms 




































Livestock and poultry 
farms 


















Truck farms and crop 
specialties 























































Appendix C, PaetIII. Connecticut State Employment Service — Students registered 
for agricultural employment by office district, by towns, by age groups,^ June 3, 1941 





Total 


14 and 
under 


15 


16 


17 


18 and 
over 


Total 2.... 


3,364 


996 


1.174 


743 


316 


135 






Ansonia district 


142 


23 


55 


36 


23 


5 






Ansonia _ 

Derby ._. 


37 
20 
27 
58 


3 
3 

7 
10 


18 
10 
6 
21 


9 
4 
9 
14 


7 

32 

4 
10 



1 


Shelton 


3 






Bridgeport district 


221 


Data not available. 










186 
5 
9 
10 

1 
5 
5 




East on 




Fairfield 




Milford 




Monroe 








Trumbull 








Bristol district: Plymouth 


14 


3 


8 


2 


9 


» 


Danbury district 


14 

3 

<8 
3 


Data not available. 








Bethel 




Kent 




Kidgefield 













1 Shown only where complete age-group data are 

2 Age group totals represent estimates derived from ratios represented in the available age-group data. 

3 Females. 

* Reported by Torrington office. 



5090 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 



Appendix C, Part III. Connecticut State Employment Service — Students registered 
for agricultural employment by office district, by towns, by age groxips, June 3, 
i.947— Continued 





Total 


Hand 
under 


15 


16 


17 


18 and 
over 




552 


3 


18 


14 


9 


8 




Eastford 


5 
4 

12 
8 

14 
1 
8 




1 

2 




■ 
1 

4 

4 

1 
1 



3 
4 

5 


1 


3 


2 

1 

3 


2 


1 
2 
3 



KiUingly 


Plainfleld - -- - 


Pomfret 




Sterling - 


Thompson 


Hartford district 


580 


201 


203 


113 


47 


16 


Bloomfield 


6 

98 
7 
1 
4 49 
5 

5 
6 



52 




145 

I 

2 



28 

4 


168 

2 








4 
6 


100 


1 
2 



6 
3 

33 
1 
2 
2 



6 


3 





Farmington 






Manchester 




1 


South Windsor ..- 





Windsor -- 


4 


Meriden district 


188 


66 


86 


25 


8 


3 






Meriden 


169 
18 

1 


61 
5 



77 
9 



22 
2 

1 





2 


Southington 


1 


WalHngford 











95 


Data not available. 














14 
10 
10 
18 

68 

1 

1 

29 

'3 








East Haddam 








Essex 












Middlefield 








Portland 








JNew Britain district 


228 


105 


74 


33 


12 


4 


BCTlin 


190 
10 


17 
85 
3 


5 
65 
4 


5 
28 



1 
9 





j^ew Britain 


3 


PlainvUle -- 


1 


>Tew Haven district 


929 


239 


320 


249 


86 


35 


East Haven 


16 
10 
40 
7 
728 
128 


2 
4 
3 

196 
32 


7 
3 

14 

5 

243 

48 


5 
1 

11 



196 

36 


2 

2 
9 

65 









Hamden -- 


3 








28 


West Haven... 


4 


New London --- 


154 


96 


31 


12 


10 


5 




2 
1 
9 
131 
1 

9 




1 
4 

89 
1 

1 




2 
27 


1 



2 
9 








5 


5 


1 


Groton - -- 





Montville 















1 


Waterford.... 




Norwalk district : New Canaan. 


85 





1 


1 


1 


2 



» Only 7 with sufficient work experience to make them good referrals— remainder almost impossible to 
place satisfactorily. „.„ ^^ „ 

« Includes Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Filley No. 2. 
1 Includes Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Buck No. 3. 
* 1 reported by Stamford. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5091 



Appendix C, Part III. Connecticut State Employment Service — Students registered 
for agricultural employment by office district, by toivns, by age groups, June S,. 
i94/— Continued 



Norwich district. 



Bozrah 

Colchester 

Franklin 

Qriswold 

Lisbon 

Norwich 

Preston 

Spraeue 

Voluntown__. 
Stamford district - 



Darien 

Greenwich. 
Stamford . _ 



Data not available. 



Data not available. 



Thompson ville district. 



Enfield 

Sommers 

Vernon (Rockville). 
Windsor Locks 



13 


24 


20 


19 


8 


8 


7 





4 


2 










6 


6 


3 





8 


7 


16 



Torrineton district 

Barkhamsted.. 

Cornwall- 

Litchfield 

Salisbury 

Sharon 

Torrington 

Winchester 



Waterbury district- 



Middlebury. 
Naufatuck-_ 
Prospect- -.-- 
Southbury... 
Waterbury -- 
Wfttertown.. 
Wolcott 



^'illimantic distriet. 



Lebanon 

Mansfield - 
Windham - 



Includes 10 from Civilian Conservation Corps Camp Lonergan. 

A.PPENDIX D, Part III. A Message to Connecticut Farmers From the 
Connecticut State Employment Service 

the shortage of farm workers presents a most serious problem 

These agencies are cooperating in an effort to secure workers for you : 

The farm labor committee of the State defense council. 

The county farm agents. 

The county farm bureaus. 

The extension service of the University of Connecticut. 

The Connecticut State Employment Service. 

They are in touch with your farm and growers organizations. They are en- 
leavoring to enlist the support of every Federal and State agency which may be 
ible to assist. 



5092 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

TO PLAN SUCCESSFULLY, THEY MUST HAVE COMPLETE INFORMATION 

They must know how many men, women, boys are needed, where needed, and 
when needed. This information can be secured onl}- from definite orders to the 
employment service for the workers wanted. They must have knowledge of 
housing facilities for workers, of transportation facilities, etc. They must plan 
to make full use of available labor in the State and arrange, if necessary, to import 
workers from outside the State, in cases where the necessary transportation has 
been arranged. 

To secure accurate, complete information, this communication is being sent to 
11,000 farmers in the State with the urgent request that each of these 11,000 farm- 
ers do his part by returning the enclosed blank to the proper office of the Con- 
necticut State Employment Service, the agency named by the farm labor commit- 
tee to endeavor to supply workers for you (without charge to you or to the 
workers) . 

THE CONNECTICUT STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE HAS BEEN MAKING EVERY EFFORT 
TO RECRUIT WORKERS FOR FARM JOBS SINCE EARLY IN THE YEAR AND PRESENTS 
THESE FACTS FOR YOUR INFORMATION 

REASONS FOR SHORTAGE 

Men usually interested in farm jobs are not available this year due to (1) better 
paid jobs in factories or construction work, (2) the large number of men called 
into the armed forces of the United States through the militia or the Selective 
Service Act, (3) the large number of men training in 200-hour courses for industrial 
jobs for national defense, (4) the fact that similar conditions in nearby States have 
practically eliminated a logical source of farm labor supph'. 

STEPS TAKEN TO RECRUIT WORKERS 

The Connecticut State Employment Service has taken these steps to recruit 
workers, (1) by all usual methods and by advertising for farm workers to secure 
registrations of experienced men in the files of the 18 Connecticut State Employ- 
ment Service offices, (2) by the registration of college, high school, and junior 
high school boys for farm work in the summer, (3) registrations of married and 
single women interested in and qualified for certain seasonal farm jobs, (4) regis- 
trations of aliens, (5) registrations of transients. The farm labor committee 
has also contacted Work Projects Administration, National Youth Administra- 
tion, Civilian Conservation Corps, and similar organizations for workers. 

THE PRESENT SITUATION 

Orders were on hand on May 17 for about 250 farm and tobacco workers and 
during that week 26 jobs were filled, leaving over 200 workers still needed. Every 
effort is being made to secure these workers by combing the files of unemployed and 
by clearance between offices. For jobs paying sufficient wages to offer induce- 
ments to ovit-of-State workers, clearance orders are being sent to other States. 
About 3,000 high school students are registered as available for summer work after 
school closes. The number of men with farm experience registered in the State 
employment offices is extremely limited and few are willing to accept farm jobs 
due to location, hours, working conditions, and wages. A limited number of 
Civilian Conservation Corps boys indicated an interest last week in farm work 
and practically all of these who would actually accept farm jobs were put to work 
at once. Women workers may solve the problem in conftection with some jobs. 

MAIN PROBLEMS 

But few experienced farm workers for regular live-in jobs are available. Their 
number may be slightly increased by response to advertising and by clearance 
from other States. Experience has indicated, however, that similar shortages 
exist in nearby States so that little help can be expected from this source. Many 
workers are demanding more money than offered by the farmers seeking workers, 
as ordinary construction laborers are being paid 55 to 75 cents an hour. In 
connection with seasonal work, a number of jobs undoubtedly can be filled by 
the students registered if transportation from the cities to the jobs will be arranged 
by the farmers or if housing for groups can be provided. The farm labor com- 
mittee is trying to work out ]ilans regarding housing but needs definite informa- 
tion as to when and where groups of seasonal workers are needed. If importation 
of seasonal workers is necessary, the welfare of the people of Connecticut demands 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5093 



that housing facilities be available and arrangements made for the transportation 
of these workers to their homes when their employment is terminated. These 
facts indicate the necessity of stating the best possible proposition regarding 
wages when placing orders with the State employment service, as well as furnish- 
ing the data on housing and tiansportation requested in the enclosed blank. 



HOW FARMERS CAN COOPERATE 

Farmers can assist the State employment service and cooperating organizations 

by— 

1. Completing and returning the enclosed order blank. 

2. Placing orders directly with the proper office of the Connecticut State Em- 
ployment Service. Experience has shown that in some cases farmers discuss 
their labor needs with representatives of other organizations but fail actually to 
inform the employment service of their requirements. 

3. When employing younger workers — high-school students, etc. — by assigning 
them to jobs they are physically able to handle, and by proper supervision and 
personal interest in their welfare. 

4. Placing orders as far as possible in advance of needs. Every possible method 
of speeding up the filling of orders is being used but in filling any order, whether 
farm, industrial, or commercial, it is necessary to find workers who are qualified, 
available, and interested in the job open. To fill one job it may be necessary to 
call in a large number of people. 

Appendix E, Part III. Order Blank and Information Blank 

(Please complete at once and mail to the office of the Connecticut State Em- 
ployment Service in your territory — see list herewith of offices, and towns 
served by each) 

[If your labor needs are already arranged for, please state so in place indicated] 

Name of farmer: Location of farm: 



(State briefly how to reach) 



Address: 

Phone Number: Type of farm: 

(Dairy, poultry, vegetable, fruit, tobacco) 

Have you already arranged for all workers needed? 

Have you already placed an order directly with State Employment Service for any 
of the workers ordered below (state details) 



I will need the following workers: 





Number 


State max- 
imum rate 
of pay 


When wanted 




From— 


To— 









































































How many hours a day for day workers? 
Describe type of work to be performed _ . 



Must man be able to milk? How many cows? 

Operate tractor? 

Operate other machinery? Drive truck? Driver's 

licen.se necessary? 

State any other qualifications needed 

Can you use Negro workers? _-- 

If workers are needed in large numbers or for seasonal jobs have you housing 

facilities? 

For how many? 

Can you furnish transportation to and from work? 

For how many? And for what distance? 

Would you be interested in trying to fill jobs from other States if no available 

workers in Connecticut? 



5094 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Will you pay transportation? From what distance? 

If large number of workers are needed, will you arrange to insure return of workers 

to their home States after work is completed? 

(Signature) .. 



Exhibit A. — Survey of Work Projects Administration defense register by office area 

June 24, 1941. 



Office 


Number of 
workers in 
survey ' 


Number registered 


Number 

now 
employed 


Number 
considered 
referrable 


Active file 


Inactive file 




17 

112 
22 
69 
34 

157 
24 
53 
33 

187 
36 
73 
59 

123 
30 
46 
83 
20 


5 

37 
16 
28 
23 

18 
3 
23 
7 
38 
16 
55 
33 
54 


12 

75 
6 
41 

i 

30 
26 
149 
20 
18 
26 
69 
30 
26 
12 
8 


6 


„ 






Bristol - - 


6 

2 
9 

18 
15 
17 

9 


8 








16 


Hartford 


21 




1 


Middletown --.- 


22 


New Britain 


18 


New Haven 


92 




24 


Norwalk 


3 


15 




4 








Thompsonville 

Torrington 


8 
16 
8 

7 


11 


20 
71 
12 


20 
45 


Willimantic 


5 






Total 


1,178 


459 


719 


M25 


3 385 












61 


10 


32 











' Represents Work Projects Administration workers who that organization believe are qualified for or 
adaptable to defense employment. 

2 Does not include Bridgeport and Stamford. 

3 Does not include Bridgeport and Danbury. 
Source: Connecticut State Employment Service. 

Exhibit B. — Trade School Graduates, 1932 to 1940, Inclusive 

Table 1.- — Danbvry, Pvtnam, Middletown, New Britain, Stamford, Torrington, 

Willimantic 



Auto and aircraft 

Construction 

Drafting 

Electrical 

Machine shop 

Printing _ 

Patternmaking 

Miscellaneous unspecified. 



Total. 



Em- 
ployed 
in trade 



Em- 
ployed 
not in 

trade 



United 
States 
armed 
forces 



Present 
occupa- 
tion un- 
known 



Source: Connnecticut State Employment Service. 

Table 2. — Danbury Trade School graduates 



Trade 


Gradu- 
ates 


Located 


Not lo- 
cated 


Em- 
ployed 
in trade 


Em- 
ployed 
not in 
trade 


United 
States 
armed 
forces 


Present 
occupa- 
tion un- 
known 


Construction 


23 
17 
28 
36 


18 
12 
26 
19 


5 
5 

17 


14 

12 
17 




4 
4 

1 




1 
3 



4 


Drafting 

Electrical _._ 

Machine shop 


5 

7 






Total 


104 


75 1 29 


45 


9 


4 


17 



Source: Connecticut State Employment Service. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
Table 3. — Putnam Trade School graduates 



5095 



Trade 


Gradu- 
ates 


Located 


Not lo- 
cated 


Em- 
ployed 
in trade 


Em- 
ployed 
not in 
trade 


United 
States 
armed 
forces 


Present 
occupa- 
tion un- 
known 




22 
31 
2 
25 
44 
13 


22 
31 

2 
25 
44 

5 


S 





8 


20 
22 


10 
38 




9 
2 
15 
5 



1 




1 

5 





Construction 





























Total 


137 


129 


8 


90 


32 


7 










Source: Connecticut State Employment Service. 

Table 4. — Middletown Trade School graduates 



Trade 


Gradu- 
ates 


Located 


Not lo- 
cated 


Em- 
ployed 
in trade 


Em- 
ployed 
not in 
trade 


United 
States 
armed 
forces 


Present 
occupa- 
tion un- 
known 




20 

40 
100 


16 
35 


4 

5 
31 


11 
4 
23 
65 


3 
3 

3 


1 


1 


1 


Draftinc 



















Total 


167 


127 


40 


103 


16 


7 









Source: Connecticut State Employment Service. 

Table 5. — New Britain trade-school gradiiates 



Trade 


Gradu- 
ates 


Located 


Not lo- 
cated 


Em- 
ployed 
in trade 


Em- 
ployed 
not in 

trade 


United 
States 
armed 
forces 


Present 
occupa- 
tion un- 
known 


\uto and aircraft 


44 
54 
62 
95 
344 
69 
8 


13 
20 
21 
40 
163 
26 
3 


31 
34 
41 
55 
181 

1 


9 

14 
20 
144 

2 


3 
5 
3 

12 
4 

12 



1 

1 

3 
6 
2 






Construction _ 

Drafting 

Electrical 


7 
4 
5 


Printing 


5 




1 






Total 


676 


286 


390 


203 


39 


13 


31 







Source: Connecticut State Employment Service. 

Table 6. — Stamford trade-school graduates 



Trade 


Gradu- 
ates 


Located 


Not lo- 
cated 


Em- 
ployed 
in trade 


Em- 
ployed 
not in 
trade 


United 
States 

armed 
forces 


Present 
occupa- 
tion un- 
known 


Auto and aircraft 


43 
51 

99 
1 

1 
2 




1 
3 
3 
77 





1 
42 
48 
65 
22 
1 
1 
2 






66 









2 






1 
3 
3 
5 








Construction 


li 


Electrical 









Printing 














Total 


266 


84 


182 


66 


2 


12 


4 



Source: Connecticut State Employment Service. 
60396— 41— pt. 13 6 



5096 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 
Table 7.- — Torrington trade-school graduates 



Gradu- 
ates 



Located 



Not lo- 
cated 



Em- 
ployed 
in trade 



Em- 
ployed 
not in 
trade 



Present 
occupa- 
tion un- 
known 



Construction. - 

Drafting 

Electrical 

Machine shop. 
Patternmaking 

Total.... 



Source: Connecticut State Employment Service. 

Table 8.- — Willimantic trade-school graduates 



Trade 


Gradu- 
ates 


Located 


Not lo- 
cated 


Em- 
ployed 
m trade 


Em- 
ployed 
not in 
trade 


United 
States 
armed 
forces 


Present 
occupa- 
tion un- 
known 




15 

54 
27 


10 
43 
16 
43 
25 


5 
17 

2 
11 

2 


4 
12 


2I 



4 





1 
3 

1 
4 
1 




Construction 


24 




15 






Machine shop 


3 






Total 


174 


137 


37 


51 


5 


10 


71 







Source: Connecticut State Employment Service. 

Exhibit C. — Inquiry on Negro Workers From the South 
[The following letter was sent to directors of Southern State Employment offices] 

[Copy] 

• Connecticut State Employment Service, 

April 18, 1.941. 

Dear : We have been requested by interested parties to determine, if 

possible, the approximate number of undergraauates in the College — , 

who might be interested in coming to Connecticut to perform farm worlc particu- 
larly in the tobacco fields during the vacation periods. 

This letter is not intended to initiate a recruitment of any given Jiumber of 
Negro workers but is rather intended to obtain information regarding the possibility 
of securing the services of this type of worker for this type of emplovment if such 
becomes necessary. 

We will appreciate your assistance in obtaining and forwarding this information 
at your earliest convenience. 
Very truly yours, 

Leonard J. Maloney, Director. 



[The above letter was sent to State employment offices covering territory which 
included the following schools:] 

Alabama: 

Selma University, Selma. 

Talladega College, Talladega. 
Delaware: State College for Colored Students, Dover, 

Florida: Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, Tallahassee. 
Georgia: 

Georgia State Industrial College for Colored Youths. 

University of Georgia, Industrial College. 

Clark University, Atlanta. 

Morehouse College, Atlanta. 

Morris Brown College, Atlanta. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5097 

Georgia — Continued. 

Atlanta University, Atlanta. 

Payne College, Augusta. 

Jaynes Normal and Industrial School, Augusta. 
Kentucky: Simmons University, Louisville. 
Maryland: 

Morgan State College, Baltimore. 

Princess Anne College, Princess Anne. 
North Carolina: , 

Negro Agricultural and Technical College, Greensboro. 

Johnson C. Smith University, Charlotte. 

Kittrell College, Kittrell. 

Shaw College, Shaw. 

Livingstone College, Salisbury. 

High Point Industrial School, High Point. 

National Training School, Durham. 
South Carolina: 

Colored Normal Industrial Agricultural and Mechanical College, Orangeburg. 

Allen University, Columbia. 

Benedict College, Columbia. 

Claflin College, Orangeburg. 

Voorhead Industrial College, Denmark. 

Fairmont Grade School, Fairmont. 
Pennsylvania: Downingtown Industrial and Agricultural School, Downingtown. 
Tennessee : 

Fisk University, Nashville. 

Knoxville College, Knoxville. 

Roger Williams College, Memphis. 
Virginia: 

Virginia State College for Negroes, Ettrick. 

Gloucester Agricultural and Industrial School, Capahosie. 

Virginia Union University, Richmond. 

[Copy] 

Georgia State Employment Service, 

Atlanta, Ga., April 21, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: We are pleased to acknowledge receipt of your letter 
of April 17 relative to the possibility of interesting colored undergraduates in 
coming to Connecticut during vacation periods to perform farm work, particularly 
in the tobacco fields. 

The colleges are unable to furnish any information in this respect without know- 
ing more details such as the rate of pay, the approximate duration of the Job, the 
location, living conditions, and if transportation will be paid. 

If this can be secured, we will be very glad to make a thorough canvass of the 
colleges mentioned. We might say that the Negro colleges, as a general rule, 
have the cream of the Negro population and it is extremely doubtful if any of 
them would be inclined to do manual labor. 
Yours very truly, 

Marion A. O'Connor, Director. 
By Rex Huffman, Clearance Officer. 



[Copy] 



Tennessee State Employment Service, 

April 21, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: This is in reply to your letter of April 18, 1941, in which 
you request information concerning probable availability of colored college under- 
graduates for vacation-period work in Connecticut tobacco fields. 

Before we can secure this information it will be necessary that we have data 
relative to working conditions, probable earnings for the season, transportation 
reimbursement. 



5098 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

We are having increasing difficulty in securing seasonal farm labor in our own 
area but will be glad to make these contacts for you upon receipt of the above- 
mentioned information. 
Very truly yours, 

W. O. Hake, Executive Director. 
Bv Paul Jessen, Director. 



[Copy] 

North Carolina Unemployment Compensation Commission, 

April 21, 1941. 
Maj. L. J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Major Maloney: We will be very glad to inquire as to the number of 
individuals in the Negro colleges of the State who may be interested in coming to 
Connecticut to perform farm work during vacation periods. However, in view of 
the unusual number of job opportunities for agricultural workers in this State and 
Virginia, it will be futile to make such inquiry unless we can give definite informa- 
tion about wages, length of employment, housing, specific work to be performed, 
and hourly rates of pay. We would also like to know whether or not transporta- 
tion costs will be paid to Connecticut and return. 

I am sure you will appreciate the fact that it will be almost impossible for us to 
obtain any usable information as to available workers, unless this information can 
be furnished. 

Very truly yours, 

R. Mayne Albright, 
Director, Employment Service Division. 



[Copy] 



Alabama State Employment Service, 

April 22, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: This acknowledges receipt of your letter of April 17, 
requesting the approximate number of undergraduates in certain Alabama 
Negro schools who might be interested in coming to Connecticut to perform farm 
work. 

We are developing this information from these four schools and when received, 
we will forward you the result. 
Very truly yours, 

C. F. Anderson, Director. 



[Copy] 

Morgan State College, 
Baltimore, Md., April 23, 1941. 
Mr. F. B. Gambrill, 

Supervisor, Maryland State Employment Service, 

Baltimore, Md. 
My Dear Mr. Gambrill: I have your letter requesting the apj^roximate 
number of undergraduates from Morgan State College who might be interested in 
going to Connecticut during vacation period. Naturally the first question put to 
me when I made the suggestion to several students was. How much is the amount 
of compensation? I wonder if you can give me any idea of wages for such work. 
Of course, the undergraduates here are interested in getting summer work which 
will enable them to nearly meet the expenses for the next school year. And we 
have a number of calls from passenger ships, railroads, summer hotels, etc., for 
our young men. 

If ,you can give me the information requested above I can let you know in a few 
days any who might be interested in this kind of work. 
Very truly yours, 

George C. Grant, Dean. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5099 

[Copy] 

South Carolina State Employment Service, 

April 24, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: This has reference to your letter of April 17 relative to 
the request by interested parties for a determination of the approximate number 
of undergraduates in our various Negro colleges who might be interested in coming 
to Connecticut to perform farm work, particularly in the tobacco fields during the 
vacation period. 

Sections 1377 and 1378 of the South Carolina Code of Laws (1932) treats the 
subject of solicitation of emigrants or hiring of laborers in this State to be em- 
ployed beyond the limits of same. Inasmuch as we have just had a ruling by the 
attorney general of our State on a question somewhat similar to yours, we suggest 
that you write direct to each college. 

We regret that we are unable to assist you further but feel sure that you will 
fully appreciate our position. 
Very truly yours, 

Jos. L. Keitt, Director. 



[Copy] 

Tuskegee Institute, 
Tuskegee. Ala., April 24, 1941. 
Mr. C. F. Anderson, 

Director, Alabama State Employment Service, 

Social Security Board, Montgomery, Ala. 
Dear Mr. Anderson: Dr. Patterson has referred to this office your letter of 
April 22 with reference to securing some undergraauates for work in the tobacco 
fields in Connecticut. I wish to advise that we shall be glad to cooperate m this 
matter and that it will be possible for us to have any number of graduates to per- 
form this work. 

I take it that this is the information you desire but we would, of course, like to 
know about wages, transportation and any other details which would be necessary 
in sending a group of young men to Connecticut. 
Very sincerely yours, 

J. J. Flood, Personnel Director. 



[Copy] 

Princess Anne College, 
Princess Anne, Md., April 25, 1941- 
Mr. F. B. Gambrill, 

Supervisor, Maryland Unemployment Compensation Board, 

Maryland State Employment Se>-vice, Baltimore, Md. 
Dear Sir: I thank you for your letter of April 21, concerning employment in 
Connecticut, in tobacco fields. Eight of our male students are interested. Please 
send me further details with a copy for each boy. Include in your information: 
exact place or places of occupation, possible wage, extent of experience needed, 
and living conditions. 

Very truly yours, 

R. A. Grigsby, 
Acting Dean of Administration. 

[Copy] 

State Agricultural and Mechanical Institute, 

April 25, 1941. 
Mr. C. F. Anderson, 

Director, Alabama State Employment Service, 

Montgomery, Ala. 
Dear Sir: With reference to your letter of April 22, several of our boys are 
interested in securing summer employment. Because of the vagueness of the 
request which you have mentioned, we have not attempted to get accurate in- 
formation with reference to the number of boys who would be available for the 



5100 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

work in Connecticut. We have some 250 boys living on our campus all of whom 
are dependent upon their own resources for securing sufficient money to return 
to college. I would safely say that if conditions prove favorable, we can send 
15 or 20 boys to this particular job. 
Very truly yours, 

J. F. Drake, President. 



[Copy] 



Maryland State EifPLOYMENT Service, 

April 28, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: With reference to your letter of April 18 concerning the 
possibility of securing undergraduates from Morgan State College and from 
Princess Anne College for farm work in Connecticut during the vacation period, 
I am enclosing copies of the replies which we have recently received from these 
two institutions. 

Please let me know if we can be of further assistance to you in this matter. 
Very truly yours, 

D. L. B. Fringer, Director. 



[Copy] 

Connecticut State Employment Service, 

April 28, 1941. 
Mr. Ralph E. Lasbury, 

East Windsor, Conn. 
Mr. Paul Putnam, 

University of Connecticut, 

Storrs, Conn. 
Gentlemen: A number of letters have been received from State employment 
service directors in the Southern States stating that they are unable to furnish 
information regarding the availability of colored college undergraduates for summer 
work in Connecticut tobacco fields unless they can secure data relative to working 
conditions, wages, reimbursement for transportation, dates of employment, 
housing facilities, location of the jobs, etc. 

If you will furnish this information from your records, w-e will be glad to write 
to the various directors again. 
Yours verj' truly, 

Arthur V. Geary, 
Farm Placement Supervisor. 



[Copy] 

Florida State Employment Sehvice, 

April 29, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: Replying to your letter of April 17, with reference to the 
approximate number of undergraduates in the Florida Agricultural and Mechan- 
ical College for Negroes, Tallahassee, who might be interested in going to Con- 
necticut to perform farm work in the tobacco fields during vacation periods. 

President J. R. E. Lee was contacted and told of this inquiry. He advised that 
his school had previously received a similar inquiry from Mr. S. M. Jenkins, 
2106 Main Street, Hartford, Conn., a social service director. A survey of the 
students in the school developed the fact that 51 are definitely interested in this 
type of work and Dr. Lee further stated that Mr. Jenkins was so advised. 

If we can be of further assistance ill this matter, please do not hesitate to call 
on us. 

Very truly yours, 

L. S. RicKARD, Acting Director. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 51()1 

[Copy] 

Connecticut State Employment Service, 

April ^9, 1941. 
Mr. Ralph E. Lasbury, Jr., 

East Windsor Hill, Conn. 
Mr. Paul L. Putnam, 

University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn. 
Gentlemen: You may be interested in learning that the director of the Mary- 
land State Employment Service has received a report from the Princess Anne 
College that eight of their students are interested in work in Connecticut, and 
that a number of students at the Morgan State College are also interested. 

Both schools request information as to place of employment, wages, experience 
necessary, living conditions, etc. 
Yours very truly, 

Arthur V. Geary, 
Farm Placement Supervisor. 



[Copy] 



Connecticut State Employment Service, 

May 1, 1941. 
Mr. David L. H. Fringer, 

Director, Maryland State Employment Service, Baltimore, Md. 
Dear Mr. F'ringer: Thank you very much for the information contained in 
your letter of April 28 regarding the availability of colored undergraduates from 
the Morgan State College and the Princess Anne College. 

A letter containing detailed information of the type requested by the colleges 
will reach you within the next few days. 
V'ery truly yours, 

Leonard J. Maloney, Director. 
By Arthur V. Geary, 

Farm Placement Supervisor. 



[Copy] 



State College for Colored Students, 

Dover, Del, May 2, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: At the request of Mr. 10. H. Smith, of the Delaware 
State Employment Service, I am writing you this letter. 

We have between 15 and 20 young men who expressed a desire to know more 
about the farm jobs that might be available in Connecticut this summer. Having 
worked in the Connecticut River Valley on the tobacco farms for more than 5 
years during the previous World War, I would be particularly interested in 
securing opportunities for these young men if the conditions will be as fine as 
they were during that time. I spent several years with the Farnham Corporation 
at the P]ast Windsor Hill section. 

'J'hanking you on behalf of the young men for any consideration concerning 
summer employment, I am 
Very truly yours, 

R. B. Jefferson, Dean Registrar. 



(The following letter was sent on May 2, 1941, to all State employment offices 
in the territory covered:) 

Dear Mr. — : We are furnishing below further information in regard to 

working conditions, wages, etc., in the Connecticut tobacco fields as requested, 
for the information of colored undergraduates who may be interested in such 
emjDloyment. 

The work will start June 15 and end about September 1. 

All the jjlantations are located in Hartford County, Conn. 

The Farm Labor Committee has made a check of wages, and has learned that 
the shade growers plan to offer $3 a day for a 9-hour day. They believe that the 



5102 HABTFORD HEARINGS 

wages offered by the outdoor plantations will be approximately the same. The 
growers also indicate their willingness to pay somewhat more for exceptionally 
good men. Individual employers will discuss overtime pay with the workers in 
their own fields. 

The Housing Committee is planning to arrange for proper housing through the 
Farm Security Administration. 

The work will, of course, be under the supervision of the Connecticut State 
Labor Department and working conditions will be in line with the requirements of 
that department. 

The Committee is endeavoring to secure definite information in regard to the 
shortage within the next 2 weeks, and definite orders will be placed if this survey 
indicates the need for importing workers from the South. You can readily under- 
stand that the poHcy of the Connecticut State Employment Service will be to 
insure the return to the South of workers brought north for this purpose. 
Very truly yours, 

Connecticut State Employment Service, 
Leonard J. M alone y, Director. 



[Copy] 



Pennsylvania State Employment Service, 

May 5, 1941. 
Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: The Downingtown Industrial and Agricultural School 
contacted in regard to your request for information relating to farm workers 
during the vacation period, informs us that 12 students have signified their inten- 
tion of going to Connecticut to work in the tobacco fields. Our local office believes 
that the local demand for unskilled labor in factory construction and the demand 
for farm labor with high wages, will probably absorb most of these students at the 
end of the school term. 

We will be pleased to obtain such further information on this subject as the 
interested parties mentioned by you, may desire. 
Very truly yours, 

H. Raymond Mason, Director. 
By George C. Porter, Clearance Supervisor. 



[Copy] 



Alabama State Employment Service, 

May 5, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: This is in further reference to your letter of April 17 in 
which you request the approximate number of undergraduates in certain Alabama 
Negro schools who might be interested in coming to Connecticut to perform farm 
work. 

As indicated in our letter of acknowledgment to you of April 22, we contacted 
the four Negro schools mentioned in your letter. However, to date we have only 
heard from two, the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute at Tuskegee and 
the State Agricultural and Mechanical Institute at Normal. We have not heard 
from either Selma University or Talladega College, but are today writing them a 
follow-up. 

We are attaching hereto copies of the letters from Tuskegiee Normal, and 
Industrial Institute and State Agricultural and Mechanical Institute, which are 
self-explanatory. 

We are also today in receipt of your subsequent letter of May 2 giving further 
details with reference to working conditions, wages, etc. We are passing this 
information on to all four schools. We will be glad to cooperate in every way 
possible toward working out details, and await your further suggestions. 
Very truly yours, 

C. F. Anderson, Director. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5103 

[Copy] 

Georgia State Employment Service, 

Atlanta, Ga., May 6, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employynent Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: This is with reference to your letters of April 17 and 
May 2 requesting information as to the approximate number of undergraduates 
in the Georgia State Industrial College for Colored Youths, etc., who might be 
interested in going to Connecticut to perform farm work. 

Since our previous correspondence an acute shortage of farm labor has developed 
in Georgia and the Employment Service is lending its aid in an effort to secure 
workers for Georgia farmers. Under the circumstances we do not believe it will 
be possible to export labor due to the urgent need here. Another problem that 
we would encounter is that the wage scale is so much higher in Connecticut than 
it is in Georgia. 

Assuring you that the Georgia service will be glad to cooperate with you at 
any time in "the future, and with kindest personal wishes. 
Sincerelv vours, 

M. A. O'Connor, 
Director, Georgia State Em-ployment Service. 



[Copy] 

Connecticut State Employment Service, 

May 8, 1941. 
Mr. L. S. Rickard, 

Acting Director, Florida State Employment Service, 

Tallahassee, Fla. 
Dear Mr. Rickard: Thank you for your letter of April 29 regarding the 
availability of students in the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for 
Negroes, Tallahassee. 

No definite decision has as yet been reached in regard to the necessity of import- 
ing colored workers through clearance as a recruiting campaign to secure Connec- 
ticut workers is now being conducted. I will advise you as soon as a definite 
decision has been made. 

I note that President Lee received a similar inquiry from S. M. Jenkins, 210G 
Main Street, Hartford. Jenkins is not connected with the Employment Service 
or the Farm Labor Committee of the National Defense Council, and I have no 
present information in regard to his exact interest in the matter. It may be pos- 
sible that he is a representative of one of the growers who plan to import colored 
workers directly and if so I presume that he will make definite arrangements with 
Mr. Lee in the matter. Mr. Lasbury of the Committee is checking to learn exactly 
what his interest in the matter is, aiid I will advise you further after learning the 
details. 

Yours very truly, 

Leonard J. Maloney, Director. 
By Arthur V. Geary, 

Farm Placement Supervisor. 



[Copy] 



Connecticut State Employment Service, 

May 6, J 941. 
Mr. R. B. Jefferson, 

Dean-Registrar, State College for Colored Students, 

Dover, Del. 
Dear Mr. Jefferson: Thank you for your letter of May 2, containing 
information that between 15 and 20 young men are interested in farm jobs in 
Connecticut this summer. 

I will advise you immediately when a definite decision has been made in regard 
to the necessity of importing workers from outside of the State. At the present 
time an intensive recruiting campaign is under way to fill these jobs with Con- 
necticut workers. In case it is found that not enough workers are available 



5104 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

liere, we will be glad to get in touch with you at once, supplying further details 
in regard to the jobs in the tobacco fields. 
Yours verj- truly, 

Leonard J. Maloxey, 

Director. 
By Arthur V. Geary, 

Farm Placement Supervisor. 

[Copy] 

Virginia State Employment Service, 

May 7, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: This will acknowledge receipt of your letters of April 17 
and Maj- 2 relative to employment of undergraduates from Virginia in the Con- 
necticut tobacco fields during vacation period. 

A tentative survey of the Negro schools in Virginia reveals that approximately 
50 young Xegro men are interested in this type of work, and we shall be glad to 
clear orders through our local offices if you find the need for transporting these 
workers to Connecticut. 



Very truly yours, 



Frank A. Cavedo, Director. 



[Copy] 

Maryland State Employment Service, 

May 14, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: I wish to thank you for your letter of May 2 outhning 
the wages and working conditions in the Connecticut tobacco fields. 

We have given this information to the Morgan and Princess Arme Colleges. 
They have, however, advised us that while conditions and wages are favorable, 
their students feel that they can obtain satisfactory employment here in Mary- 
land. We are experiencing cjuite a shortage of farm labor here in Maryland and 
are finding it very difficult to obtain workers for out-of-State employment. 
Kindest personal regards. 
Very truly yours, 

D. L, Fringer, Director. 



[Copy] 



Unemployment Compensation Commission, 
Division of the Department of Industrial Relations, 

Frankfort, Ky., May 19, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: Referring to your letters of April IS and May 2, concern- 
ing the approximate number of undergraduates of Simmons L'niversity, Louisville, 
Ky., who might be interested in employment in the tobacco fields in Connecticut 
during vacation periods, we have the following information: 

Dean David Lane of the university advises that he has been able to interest 
only three undergraduates but that they were reluctant to apph' for the job as 
they were uncertain about being able to furnish their own transportation. 
Very truly yours, 

W. H. Fraysure, 
Director, Employment Service. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5105 

[Copy] 

Tennessee State Employment Service, 

May 34, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticvt State Employment Service, Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: With further reference to your letter of April 18, 1941, 
in*" which you requested information concerning probable availability of colored 
college undergraduates for vacation period work in the Connecticut tobacco fields, 
a survey made by the Nashville, Memphis, and Knoxville offices is as follows: 

Fifty-seven students of the Knoxville College, Knoxville, Tenn., have indicated 
an interest in possible employment. 

Fifty-four colored college undergraduates of the Lemoyne College, at Memphis, 
Tenn., are interested. 

Approximately 28 undergraduates of the Fisk L^niversity, at Nashville, Tenn., 
are mterested. 

We find after canvassing the students that a large number had made arrange- 
ments for working during the summer, thus the small number of applicants 
interested in farm work. 
Very truly yours, 

W. O. Hake, Executive Director. 
By C. E. Love, Assistant Director. 



[Copyl 

North Carolina State Employment Service, 

May 24, 1941. 
Maj. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: In response to your request of May 2 we made a survey 
of undergraduates in specified Negro colleges who would be interested in work in 
Hartford County, Conn., tobacco fields. 

The survey reveals that 164 undergraduates expressed a desire for this work. 
This number is divided among the colleges as follows: 

Agricultural and Technical College, Greensboro 55 

Johnson C. Smith University, Charlotte 54 

Kittrell College, KittrelL_-I 10 

Shaw University, Raleigh 8 

Livingstone College, Salisbury 20 

High Point Industrial School, High Point (') 

North Carolina College for Negroes, Durham 17 

' No report. 

Should your emploj^ers be interested in employing any or all of these students, 
we will be glad to handle your order through this office. 

Unemployment Compensation Commission, 
R. Mayne Albright, 

Director, Employment Service Division. 
By J. W. Beach, Clearance Supervisor. 

[Copy of telegram] 

Nashville, Tenn., June 2, 1941. 
Director, Administrative Office, 

Connecticut State Employment Service, Hartford, Conn.: 
Twenty-five men students waiting word from you regarding tobacco farms, 
risk closes today. Answer Western Union collect. 

S. L. Gandy, 
Director, Student Employment, Fisk University. 

[Copy of reply to above telegram] 

Connecticut State Employment Service, 

June 2, 1941. 
S. L. Gandy, 

Director, Student Employment, Fisk Lniversity, Nashville, Tenn.: 
No immediate jobs for southern workers. Will advise if needed later. 

Leonard J. Maloney, Director. 



5106 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

[Copy of telegram] 

Unemployment Compensation Commission, 

Raleigh, N. C, June 2, 1941. 
Maj. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, Hartford, Conn.: 
Re report May 24: Undergraduates available Connecticut tobacco fields- 
Will workers be needed? Colleges close tomorrow. Answer Western Union. 

J. W. Beach. 

[Copy of reply to above telegram] 

Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn., June 2, 19^1. 
J. W. Beach, 

Linemployment Compensation Commission, Raleigh, N. C: 
No immediate openings for southern workers. Will advise if needed later. 

Leonard J. Maloney, Director. 



[Copy] 



State Agricultural and Mechanical Institute, 

Normal, Ala., June 5, 1941- 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Connecticut State Employment Service, 

State Office Building, Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Sir: Several weeks ago we received communication from the Alabama 
State Employment Service indicating the possibility of the employment of several 
of our students in the Connecticut tobacco fields. There are 25 students who at- 
tended our school during the past session who have expressed definite interest in 
this work. I understood from your letter that some time would be required for a 
definite check to see if there would really be a shortage of labor in your area in 
jobs which these boys could fill. Recently I have been informed that several 
groups have gone up from other Negro colleges in adjoining States. 

Can you give me specific advice as to whether there will be a need for these boys 
from our school? This information will be very much appreciated. 
Yours very truly, 

J. F. Drake, President. 



[Copy] 

Alabama State Employment Service, 

June 10, 1941. 
Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, 

Director, Connecticut State Employment Service, 

Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Mr. Maloney: This is in further reference to several communications 
from and to your agency as to possible students in certain of the Negro schools in 
Alabama who might be available for summer jobs in the tobacco fields in Con- 
necticut. 

We are continuing to receive inquiries from these schools which we contacted 
at your request, and would appreciate very much if you could give us some defi- 
nite information in regard to the possibilities of clearance orders for those who 
have expressed interest. 
Very truly yours, 

C. F. Anderson, Director. 



[Copy] 



Connecticut State P^mployment Service, 

June 11, 1941. 
Mr. J. F. Drake, 

President, State Agricultural and Mechanical Institute, 

Normal, Ala. 

Dear Mr. Drake: Your letter addressed to Mr. Leonard J. Maloney, director 

of the Connecticut State Employment Service, has been referred to me for reply. 

I was interested in learning that 25 students are definitely interested in work 

in Connecticut on farms or tobacco fields. I am sorry that at the present moment, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5107 

we have no definite necessity for importing out-of-State labor through the em- 
ployment service clearance system. A general questionnaire has been sent out 
to all tobacco growers and upon receipt of the replies, we will be in a better 
position to see how many men are needed and what arrangements the growers 
will make in connection with transportation, housing, etc. 

It is true that several small groups of southern workers have been employed 
by Connecticut tobacco growers directly. I will advise you when I have more 
definite information in regard to the need and greatly appreciate your interest 
in aiding us to fill these jobs. 
Very truly yours, 

Arthur V. Geary, 
Farm Placement Supervisor. 



[Copy] 



Connecticut St.\te Employmext Service, 

June 17, 1941. 
Mr. C. F. Anderson. 

Director, Alabama State Employment Service, 

Montgomery, Ala. 
Dear Mr. Anderson: I was very much interested in your letter of June 10 
stating that Negroes in schools in Alabama are still very much interested in work 
in tobacco fields in Connecticut. 

We are still unable to furnish any definite information with regard to the need 
of importing southern workers into Connecticut, as we are faced with a problem of 
housing which has not as yet been solved. The Farm Labor Committee of the 
Defense Council is trying to arrange with the Farm Security Administration for 
housing, so far without much success. 

If actual job openings develop and housing is available, we will be glad to get 
in touch with you again. 

Assuring you of our appreciation of your interest. 
Very truly yours, 

Leonard J. M alone y, Director. 



P^xHiBiT D. — Report of Survey of Needed Farm Labor 
by leonard j. maloney, director, connecticut state employment service 

July 24, 1941. 

The replies to date from the 11,000 questionnaires sent to Connecticut farmers 
and growers fail to substantiate the shortage of 10,000 workers indicated by farm 
authorities in testimony before your committee. All but a few tobacco growers 
failed to return the questionnaire. 

The attached statistical reports, A and B, show the situation on July 19, 1941, 
and are based on actual orders. received from farmers and tobacco growers by the 
18 oflTices of the Connecticut State Employment Service. The report shows that 
on July 19, actual unfilled orders were pending for 820 workers, including about 
500 needed in August and September. Report B shows 1,605 placements from 
May 1 to July 19. 

The requirements of farmers and tobacco growers have been met to date by the 
referral of Connecticut workers and it has not been necessary to import workers 
for seasonal jobs from outside the State. It may be that tobacco growers who 
usually import Negro labor from the South have increased their clearance of this 
type of worker this year, but we have no information in this regard. A shortage 
of dairy farm hands e.xists, as shown by 149 unfilled orders in that category. 
Some dairy hands have been secured by clearance from other New England States. 



5108 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 

A. — Unfilled orders for farm workers on July 19, 194-1 
NUMBER OF JOBS STILL OPEN 





Total 


Regular 
(live i 
noted) 


full-time farm hands 
1 jobs unless otherwise 


Seasonal farm workers (workers 
employed by day or week) 




Married 
couples 


Men 


Boys 


Women 


Married 
couples 


Men 


Boys 


Women 


Total 


820 


4 


250 


13 








353 


122 


78 


Tvpe of farm: 
Dairy 


149 
11 

107 
60 

127 
319 

47 


3 


135 
9 

i 


5 

2 






3 


3 












Fruit 








80 
10 

50 
169 
41 


25 
5 

1 
82 
6 




Vegetable 












Any combination of 
above 


1 


6 
















Tobacco (outdoor) 





























Comments: About 500 of these workers ordered for August and September. 

B. — Placements of farm workers, May, June, and July 1-19, 1941 

All farm placements: 

May 193 

June 773 

July 1-19 639 

Total 1,605 

DETAILS OF PLACEMENTS 





May 


June 


July 




46 
45 
3 

72 

20 


121 
41 
92 
4 

495 
20 


80 


Dairy farms 


96 


Fruit farms 


161 






Truck farms and crops specialty (including tobacco) 


298 










Total 


193 


773 


639 







TESTIMONY OF MAJOR MALONEY— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. I will first ask you liow^ much employment has in- 
creased in Connecticut since last June. 

Major Maloney. That is a difficult question to answer. I can tell 
you that we have made 80,000 placements since that time, up to the 
close of business on last Saturday night. 

If our estimates of the percentage of placements that w^e make 
toward the total accessions is anywhere near accurate, the number 
would run to 300,000 or 400,000. 

Mr. Arnold. How much has employment increased in Bridgeport 
and in Hartford? 

Major Maloney. In Bridgeport we have made during the year 
12,637 placements, wdiich might indicate 60,000 or more accessions; 
and in Hartford 16,818, which would indicate 80,000 or more. 

Mr. Arnold. You state that 107,000 persons or more have come 
into Connecticut since the fall of 1939, looking for jobs. How did 
you estimate the number of 62,226 that went directly to the employers' 
offices? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5109 

Major Maloney. By direct contact with the employers. We have 
quite a comprehensive field contact service which requires contact 
with the employers at frequent intervals. Through that structure we 
obtained the information for the various defense agencies in Wash- 
ington, and I think the figures we secure from our Connecticut em- 
ployers are as accurate as they are able to estimate them at the time, 
so that that number of 62,226 represents a check made with the 
employers for the purpose of this investigation. 

INTRASTATE MIGRATION 

Mr. Arnold. And then you point out that 9,625 workers migrated 
within the State. That is, this number visited a second employment 
office. It seems to us that many other thousands of w-orkers must have 
shifted within the State. Does the employment office have any way 
of estimating this intrastate movement? 

Major Maloney. No; we don't have any way of estimating those 
other than through the registrants who visit them, but the people in 
Connecticut are quite accustomed to using the employment offices 
and when they do go into another section of the State, they will go 
into the office. 

I believe there has been some movement from one part of the 
State to another, but not to any great extent beyond that indicated 
by our report. 

There have been orderly transfers involved in that 9,625 that we 
show as having moved. 

migration to BRIDGEPORT 

Mr. Arnold. It seems that Bridgeport received 60,000 of the total 
of 107,000 interstate migrants. How do you account for more than 
half of the total migration going to this one industrial center? 

Major Maloney. Bridgeport is very handy to New York. All 
the New York metropolitan newspapers, the weekly periodicals, 
the picture magazines, have their offices in New York. \Vlien they 
w^ant to wa'ite a stoiy about the Connecticut defense industry, they 
go to Bridgeport. Bridgeport's plants have been pictured in maga- 
zines and each time one of those new^s stories appears, either in the 
metropolitan papers or in the magazines, there is an influx of workers 
to Bi'idgeport. They have borne the brunt of the migration. 

Mr. Arnold. They draw heavily on the State of Pennsylvania. 
How do you explain that? 

M*ajor AIaloney. That is very easily explained. Bridgeport 
employers seem to like Pennsylvania workers. That is true, too, of 
Stamford and New Britain. One delegation of Pennsylvania workers 
wall come into the State. They have been encouraged to bring in 
others from their own home towns and they do bring them, in a con- 
siderable nimiber from the mining areas, and they are found ver}' 
acceptable. 

TRAINING FOR IN-MIGRANTS 

Mr. Arnold. Only one out of every five of the migrants obtained 
jobs. Does Connecticut offer any training facilities to the unskilled 
or semiskilled migrants? 

Major Maloney. The Connecticut training facilities, of course, 
w^e use so far as we can for the training of our own people — that is, 



5110 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

residents of the State. However, there have been a great number of 
people from other States who have been trained in them. That is 
particularly true of people from the adjoining States of New York 
and Massachusetts. 

Since early in our training program, when desirable material made 
application for these courses, particularly when we had a dearth of 
applicants for a particular course — I have in mind courses that require 
more mathematics than the ordinary|machine courses and selection 
had to be more refined — we did take in and train at our facilities 
residents of those States. Connecticuthas also brought in and used 
people trained in other States. 

SOURCES OF LABOR 

Mr. Arnold. You estimate that Connecticut will need 40,000 or 
50,000 new full-time workers in the next 6 months, excluding the 
10,000 for seasonal agricultural work. Where do you expect to obtain 
that labor and how? 

Major M ALONE Y. Just exactly as we have been doing up to now, 
first, by utilizing to the fullest extent what we have in our own labor 
pool. I don't think there is any question but that that will ulti- 
mately be done. I speak particularly with respect to the minority 
groups, because our own reservoir now has reached the point where 
it is comprised largely of those special groups, groups that have been 
affected by discriminatory practices and inhibitions against the em- 
ployment of women, and particularly married women; there is every 
indication that we will use up that pool. 

RESIDENTIAL CLEARING CENTERS 

Now, what we will need over and beyond our own supply we hope 
to bring in in an orderly manner. We have changed, I hope — and I 
believe it is true — the pattern for N. Y. A. operation in the State so 
that the N. Y. A. now, instead of operating these work-experience 
centers, will concentrate upon serving as residential clearance centers. 
I think this is very, very important, not only to our State, but to other 
States which will reach this same stage in their labor supply. 

These centers are used to house and sustain people brought in from 
out of the State until such tim.e as we can place them. 

We have one center in operation where we have brought in about 
100, and they haven't been residents for longer than 3 days in any 
instance. They are youngsters who have been trained in New York, 
Pennsylvania, and more recently, West Virgmia. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you have a witness from the N. Y. A.? 

Major Maloney. No, The N. Y. A. has also made arrangements, 
I believe, for two other such centers. They hope to establish four or 
five, located strategically, so that the supply into these centers will 
be at the proper location and, of course, can be controlled through our 
estimates of the numbers that should be brought in. 

WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION ROLLS DOWN, 34,000 TO 7,000 

I might say that I had hoped to get for the committee in this report 
the results of a couple of studies that we have made, showing the 
thoroughness with which we explore our own labor pool. Our 




At the Pratt-Whilney aircraft engine plant in Hartford more than 18.000 men were employed in June 1911 , 
with a pay roll of about 24,000 scheduled for September. Only last year this company was employing a 
total of 4, .500 men. Here is one of the plant exits at chansie of shift. 



The above photograph and those on following- pages, portraymg 
conditions in the Connecticut defense area, have been selected from 
a group of pictures entered as a part of the record of the committee's 
Hartford hearings. They were obtained from the Farm Security 
Administration and other sources. 



60396— 41— pt. 13 




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U'hen those cars shown on the opposite page start rolling in from East Hartford to Hartford, at i h^ > i 
a shift, even broad bridges become traffic bottlenecks. Here the vanguard of the daily prnces'^K 
starting across. 




Sixty dollars a month for one room and alcove was the rent Mike Du Moml, worker at Colt Arms Co., 
had to pay when he brought his family into their first Hartford apartment. (His testimony before the 
committee appears on p. 5275.) 




Mr. Du Mond. expert at making gun barrels, can afford a good apartment, but said he could find none 
vacant in Hartford. The one he has now— for $30 a month— is "peculiar," he told the committee. It has 
no bath, and because of the sloping roof, the Du Monds had to set up their new refrigerator in the middle 
of the room. 




After a hopeless house hunt, Frank Knhhin-. «liiii-:iin 
at Hartford, bought a trailer foi hinisrif aiil his fai 



(apr Coil to work in llir I'ratt-Whitney I'lant 
(His li'stiniony befoic the coiniiiittee apiiears 









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Fraak Robblns works at night, s.i Ann, u^i' i (aiMuci.and the three other ehiklieii imi.st be (iiiict in tli 
daytime so their daddy can sleep in the trailer. Makiiisf these small children play quietly all day, sa> 
Mrs. Robbins, is "very hard on the nerves." 



# 



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5.- ^ 



David Rnbbins, 7, and sister Aim, are shown "cleaning house." Payments on the trailer plus ground 
rent cost the Robbins family $32 a month. In the bed occupied by the father during the day, two of the 
children sleep at night. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION ^m 

W. P. A. rolls in the State have been brought down from 34,000 to 
under 7,000, and we have constantly combed those rolls for people 
who might be referred to industry. 

I would like to submit to the committee a report of a study of the 
so-called defense register of the W. P. A., which contains the names 
of W. P. A. workers whom the W. P. A. believe are qualified for or 
adaptable to jobs in industry. It shows the number of people given 
this extra study by us, and shows that with the relaxation that con- 
stantly goes on in employers' requirements, we are still able to absorb 
about one-third of the numbers remaining on W. P. A. 

EMPLOYMENT OF TRADE SCHOOL GRADUATES 

Another study was designed to find out whether the graduates of 
our State trade schools — that is, the full 4-year course — were being 
used to the fullest advantage and that the skills that they had acquired 
in training w^re now being used in the emergency. 

Wo have checked the graduates from 1932 to 1940, inclusive, all 
during the lean years, on the theory that some of these youngsters 
may not have got into the proper trades. The study does show" that 
there are a number not employed in the trades for which they were 
trained. 

Characteristically enough, there are very few who were trained in 
the machine-shop practices who are not now working in machine shops. 
There are only 20, as a matter of fact, out of 761 graduates. I will 
leave these with the committee. 

Mr. Arnold. The committee will be very glad to have them. 

(The two documents referred to were entered in the record. The 
study of the W. P. A. defense register was marked as Exhibit A, and 
it appears in this volume on p. 5094; the check on graduates of trade 
schools, marked as Exhibit B, appears on p. 5094.) 

NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION NOT TRAINING LOCAL YOUTHS NOW 

Mr. Arnold. You say the N. Y. A. centers are receiving young men 
from outside the State? Aren't they training Connecticut boys in 
the N. Y. A. centers? 

Major Maloney. No. The accent in training in Connecticut has 
changed materially. We have absorbed about all the likely material 
for the D. I. T. courses, as we call them — "defense industry training," 
so we are swinging over our facilities to women. The N. Y. A. was in 
competition, really, with the private employer and the employment 
centers for the youth who might still be available. Consequently 
they had to change their entire pattern, and while their work-experi- 
ence centers are bemg used, tliej^ will be integrated with the whole 
State training structure and they will concentrate instead on these 
residential clearing centers. 

One of the problems in the importation of people from outside the 
State has been what to do with them between the time they get here 
und the time that you can place them; and this N. Y. A. idea is going 
to answer that problem. 



-41— pt. 13- 



5112 HARTPORD HEARINGS 

PLANS FOR EMPLOYING WOMEN 

Mr. Arnold. You spoke of women workers who coukl be called 
upon in the future. Wliat are the plans in Connecticut for employing 
this labor reserve? 

Major Maloney. Well, the Manufacturers Association will offer 
their own testimony this afternoon. I don't want to trespass in their 
field. I will say only that a special committee of the Manufacturers 
Association has been studying the skills in which women might be 
trained and the jobs to which they might be adapted in industr}^ The 
transition from men to women is on in all jobs for which we can 
train them and for which they are adaptable. 

The question of married women has not yet fully been settled. 
There is a disposition on the part of the employers to relax their 
requirements, and if they do, it will open up a new source of supply to 
us because there are still unregistered and not yet actively seeking 
employment — married women who have skills that they acquired 
prior to their being married. 

SHIFT OF LABOR INTO DEFENSE 

Mr. Arnold. Wliat plans, if any, have been made to handle the 
shift of labor supply from nondefense industries to defense industries? 

Major Maloney. That is a thing that concerns me very much. 
I was in attendance at the meeting of one of the O. P. M. committees 
a few days ago in Washington — a committee on labor supply headed 
by Arthur Fleming — and I inferred from its deliberations that the 
materials priorities might be used to force a transfer from nondefense 
to the defense industries, which would require considerable thinking 
on our part if we are going to integrate properly what we might get 
from the nondefense industries in the defense industries. 

I recommended there that no arbitrary move in that direction be 
made, and that it be well thought out, and that instead effort be 
made to swing the nondefense industries into defense production 
work. Here in our State we have been engaged in an orderly transfer 
for over a year. 

REGISTRY OF WORKING POPULATION 

Connecticut, tln-ough its employment offices, has registered and 
occupationaliy classified over 60 percent of its working population — 
the men and women in the State who work for a living. Way back 
last year we started checking our inactive and dead files to find skiUs 
that might be used in defense industries, and in a good many instances 
we have found people with those skills, and with the cooperation of 
the employers involved, we have made the transfers. 

We have also had several firms volimtarily enter into arrangements 
with defense industries, whereby their skilled workers were loaned 
to the defense industries with all their seniority and other rights 
protected. 

SHORTAGE IN FARM LABOR 

Mr. Arnold. That is another instance in which your committee 
has been working very thoroughly and efficiently, Major. 

Now, with reference to workers in agriculture: You state that a 
shortage of 2,400 full-time workers and 10,000 seasonal workers in 
agriculture is asserted to exist. How were these estimates made? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5113 

Major Maloney. Those estimates were made by the labor com- 
mittee of om- State defense council, and they were made by contacts 
with the growers and the farmers of the State. When I say "growers" 
I mean tobacco growers and other farmers. 

Mr. Arnold. Does the Farm Placement Service check on the state- 
ment of shortages made by the State farm labor committee? 

Major Maloney. Yes; by questionnaire to 11,000 farmers of the 
State, we are trying to determine their full needs. There is mforma- 
tion available on the results of that check to date that the committee, 
may have, from the Farm Placement man. That can be prepared 
for the committee. It is an actual check with every farmer in the 
State. 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, the figure of 10,000 seasonal workers- 
might be too high, because they might go from one industry into 
another, one type of harvest into another, and there might not be an 
actual shortage of 10,000. 

Major Maloney. That is true. I have never been satisfied 
myself that that many would be needed. However, it was prepared 
by a committee of men who Imow that far better than I, and I wouldn't 
question the accuracy of the figures. 

I think, though, that the result of this survey that we have made, 
and a copy of the form, as included in this report, are sufficiently 
advanced so as to give j^ou an indication of whether or not that 
figure is too high. 

indigent transfer law not enforced 

Mr. Arnold. You quote section 1692 of the] General Statutes. 
Has this section 1692 ever been enforced? 

Major Maloney. Just what is section 1692, sir? I don't recall it. 

Mr. Arnold. That is in connection with clearances. It provides 
for a penalty for each person who shall bring into and leave in, or 
cause to be brought into or left in, any town of the State, any indigent 
person who is not an inhabitant. 

Major Maloney. No, it has never been enforced. 

Mr. Arnold. You mention in your statement that you have con- 
tacted several southern States. Was the contact made directly or 
through the regional clearance offices of the Bureau of Employment 
Security? 

Major Maloney. It was made through the Bureau to the Employ- 
ment Service directors of the other States and the contact was made 
by that State service with the colleges in those States. 

Mr. Arnold. Would it be feasible for you to file with the committee 
copies of all correspondence with the southern employment services 
in regard to this year's question of recruiting farm workers? 

Major Maloney. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. The committee will be very glad to have copies of 
the files on that subject. 

[Copies of the correspondence referred to above were received by 
the committee, subsequent to the hearing, and appear in this volume 
under the heading "Exhibit C. — Inquiry on Negro Workers from the 
South," p. 5096. 

Major Maloney. And you want also the report of the survey of 
needed farm labor? 



5JT[4 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. Please. 

Major Maloney. As far as it has gone? Or do you wish to wait 
a while and get a more complete report? 

Mr. Arnold. I think that would be better. 

Major Maloney, I will submit that to you before the committee 
leaves Hartford. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all, Mr. Chakman. 

[The report of the survey referred to above was received subsequent 
to the hearing, and appears in this volume as exhibit D, p. 5107.] 

EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION 

Mr. Sparkman. Major Maloney, I was just reading something here 
which I don't quite understand. I have read with much interest the 
statement you make regarding employment discrimination against 
persons of German or Italian extraction. 

Major Maloney. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. It seems that this is a pretty serious problem 
up here. 

Major Maloney. It has been a very serious problem. It is relax- 
ing, but it is still of sufficient moment to merit discussion. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you feel that it is clearing up to some extent? 

Major Maloney. Oh, yes. 

treatment of negroes 

Mr. Sparkman. You say [referring to the prepared statement] 
"At present Negroes are acceptable for industrial training, but no 
matter how able they may prove to be in training, they are not accept- 
able to employers when tTaining has been completed." 

Major Maloney. That is perhaps a little bit too general. We 
have had some Negro trainees who have gone into the types of jobs 
for which they were trained; but we do have, on the other hand, those 
whom we have trained, and while they might have been accepted by 
industry later, they were not accepted in the types of jobs for which 
they were trained. 

Mr. Sparkman. You don't have a very large Negi-o population 
here, do you*^ 

Major Maloney. No, sh; I think currently we have about 1,000 
Negroes in the active file — between 1,000 and 1,400. 

Mr. Sparkman. You mean all over the State? 

Major Maloney. All over the State — 2.8 percent. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, do they have difficulty in normal times find- 
ing a place in industry? 

Major Maloney. They have difficulty in finding the types of jobs 
they want. There is discrimination by some plants, of course, and 
it hasn't entirely relaxed yet. As a matter of fact, while the dis- 
crimination against Negroes is less serious than that against any of 
the minority groups, hiring of Negroes is still very spotty, both geo- 
graphically and with respect to the number of plants in a given district. 

Mr. Sparkman. I might say your statement in that connection, 
while it is quite surprising to me, bears out a statement that I heard 
a New England Congressman make a few nights ago relating to dis- 
crimination against Negroes. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 51^5 

He stated that it had been found that the discrimination against 
Negioes in defense industries was much worse in the North, and par- 
ticularly in New England, than it was where we would naturally ex- 
pect it to be — in the South. I had never thought of it until I heard 
him make that statement. I notice your comment bears him out. 

Major Maloney. That is right. They are not in the types of jobs 
that they should be m in the defense industries. There is no question 
about that. And the largest industiy in our State doesn't hire them 
at all except in the cafeteria of its plant. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is the discrimination against the Germans and 
Italians the result of prejudice or is it an inherent fear of disloyalty? 

Major Maloney. Well, in the case of Germans I suppose it is fear 
of disloyalty and sabotage, although the problem with respect to Ger- 
mans is not very acute. They are ordinarily very skilled craftsmen, 
and if they are aliens they can be segregated. 

Followmg an investigation of them, of course, if a Federal agency 
doing the investigating recommends dismissal they are dismissed; but 
their numbers are so small you don't notice them, and they are ab- 
sorbed in nondefense industries or somewhere else. 

ITALIANS SUFFER FROM PREJUDICE 

But our Italian population in the State is substantial, and I do not 
think the discrimination against them has been so much the effect of 
fear of sabotage, or of the fact that Italy is in the war, as it is — well, 
I don't know how to express it — ^a feeling that the Italians were origi- 
nally brought into the country to take the lower-paid jobs, and that 
they made for cheap labor. 

There are also some contentions by manufacturers that their work 
habits are not too good. Invariably when we try to pin a firm down 
which is not takmg its proper proportion of Italians, that is the 
answer^ — that their work habits were "not too good." It is alleged 
that they are ''inclined to complain," and they are "not as satisfactory 
workers" as people of other racial extraction. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, that discrimination would be one 
of normal times, and not necessarily attached to the defense program? 

Major Maloney. You notice it more now, as you get further down 
into your labor pool, and a higher percentage of them remain. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

discrimination now relaxing 

The Chairman. Major Maloney, I understand you to say that dis- 
crimination in employment is on tiie decrease? 

Major Maloney. That is true; yes, sir. As a matter of fact the 
discriminatory practices with respect to all groups — the physically 
handicapped, married women, the aliens, the Negroes, and the dis- 
crimination because of nationality — are all relaxing. 

Mr. Sparkman. Isn't that true though because your demand for 
labor is so much greater? In other words, when this thing starts to 
taper off, won't they be the first ones to be let out? 

Major Maloney. Unless the employers find their working habits 
have improved. There is a campaign on, designed to correct such 
habits. In other words, the leaders of their race have been told what 
the fault is, and they have promised to try to correct it. 



5116 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

The Chairman. Major Alaloney, don't you think it is a question of 
checking the individual person — the individual employee rather than 
condemning them as a whole? Take for instance an Italian or a 
German or a Negro who has been a good citizen here for years and 
years, and is an American.in every way; isn't it a question of checking 
each one rather than classifying them as a whole? 

Major Maloney. Absolutely. 

The Chairman. A check could be made, and as a result there would 
be no discrimination of that kind? 

Major Maloney. That is right. I have been fighting that for a 
year and a half, sir, trying to break down these discrimmations, and 
I think we have been fairly successful with respect to the aliens. 

There are some complications, but I do think, and I have made 
recommendations in my statement, that Washington can do a lot 
to correct that by making it very clear just who can and who cannot 
work m the defense industries, and b}^ establishmg the procedure 
necessary to secure approval of the retention of aliens. It is so 
involved now that employers shy away from it. 

The Chairman. Are there any other questions? 

LIMIT LABOR IMPORTS TO STATE SERVICE 

Dr. Lamb. You recommend that the State employment service be 
used for the clearance of labor from outside the State, and that service 
exclusivelv. Would you wish the employers to agree to that volun- 
tarily? 

Major Maloney. Absolutely. We in Connecticut always have 
believed that only voluntary agreements will function satisfactorily. 
If such agreements are made, then no effort will be made to circumvent 
them. I am hopeful that such an arrangement will be one of the 
results of this manufacturers' committee study. It is the only way 
that you can intelligently control the labor market and know what is 
going on in it, and what is going on out of it. It is only by having 
such a process as that. All firms are not cooperating now; if they 
find an opportunity to bring in somebody from another State, they 
do it, with the result that there is an addition to the labor market 
that we know nothing about, and, too, it encourages other States to 
do the same thing. 

Dr. Lamb. Wliy would you say that some fail to use the services? 

Major Maloney. Well, because they have hiring practices of 
many years' standmg and they smiply haven't been sold on the 
more modern method as yet. There are still some of the plants 
which follow the old-fashioned idea of hiring through the foremen, 
which is not economically somid nor in keeping with our defense 
requirements. But they are one by one coming around, and we have 
no complaint at all from an employment service standpoint. 

I think you will find that we have as large a percentage of the total 
employers dealing with the service as any other State service in the 
Union. 

Dr. Lamb. I have no doubt of that from your record here with 
respect to the problem. For example, if the new labor demand is 
of the volume of 50,000, or on the other hand if it should be as large 
as 106,000 on a 3-shift, 7-day factory week, in your estimation, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5117 

ill either case the need for heavy reliance on interstate clearance is 
going to be accentuated? 

Major Maloney. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. From this point out? 

FAR FROM PEAK OF PRODUCTION 

Major Maloney. That is right; and I think that the machinery 
that we are shaping up is already handling it, and I don't see any 
additional difficulty. As a matter of fact, we still have not yet 
reached peak production by any means in the State, even on our 
first shift. We have, I think, on the first shift, 15,000 idle machine- 
hours weekly on the types of machines that are used in producing 
defense materials, and on our second shift there are 119,000 idle 
hours, so that we will have a long way to go before we reach capacity. 

Dr. Lamb. With respect to machines? 

Major Maloney. With respect to machmes and manpower. We 
may have to change our sources of supply, but we have so refined our 
machinery here that at a recent discussion with our Bureau we were 
allowed to take some liberties with the clearance structure and to 
explore in connection with our planning to meet labor needs and to 
send out our interviewers mto the States where there are pools and 
line up those workers for Connecticut industries. It is all a question 
of planning. 

LABOR POOLS OUTSIDE CONNECTICUT 

Dr. Lamb. Wliere would you say the prmcipal pools which could 
be drawn upon by Connecticut are located? 

Major Maloney. It depends on the needs. We still can tap New 
Hampshire, and Vermont to a lesser extent; Massachusetts, upper 
New York State, Pennsylvania, and West Virgmia. Now, it may be 
that in 3 months we will have to extend that to some other States, 
and we do have information as to where the pools are. It will be 
simply a case of checking and finding out what are the local require- 
ments or the requirements of abutting States, and whether or not their 
requirements will use those people up before we do. 

Dr. Lamb. That is a matter of exchange between State employment 
services? 

Major Maloney. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all. 

The Chairman. Major Maloney, we thank you very much for your 
statement. You have been of valuable assistance to the committee. 
If there is anything further you want to insert m the record, we will 
give you that opportunity. 

Major Maloney. Thank you very much. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK E. ROBBINS AND MRS. FRANK E. (JEAN) 
ROBBINS, PRATT & WHITNEY TRAILER CAMP, HARTFORD, 
CONN. 

The Chairman. Mr. Robbins, will you and Mrs. Robbins come 
around and bring the three children with you? 

Mr. Robbms, will you please give the reporter your full name? 
Mr. Robbins. Frank E. Robbins. 



5118 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

The Chairman. And Airs. Robbins, will you give your name to the 
reporter? 

Mrs. Robbins. Jean Robbins. 

The Chairman. And where do you live? 

Air. Robbins. In East Hartford. 

The Chairman. How old are you, Mr. Robbins? 

Air. Robbins. Twenty-seven. 

The Chairman. And this lady with you is your wife? 

Mr. Robbins. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And these are your children? 

Air. Robbins. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are these all the children you have? 

Air. Robbins. No; we have a baby at home, 8 months old. 

The Chairman. How long have you been married? 

Mr. Robbins. Eight years. 

The Chairman. What is the name of the little boy next to you? 

Mr. Robbins. David. 

The Chairman. How old is he? 

Mr. Robbins. He will be 7 in September. 

The Chairman. And the little girl? 

Air. Robbins. She is 5 now and will be 6 by school time. 

The Chairman. Airs. Robbins, would you care to tell the committee 
how old you are? 

Airs. Robbins. I am 26. 

The Chairman. And what is the name of the little boy on vour 
left? 

Mrs. Robbins. Thomas. 

The Chairman. And how old is he? 

Mrs. Robbins. He is 3 years old. 

The Chairman. And the baby is 8 months? 

Mrs. Robbins. Yes. 

The Chairman. Mr. Robbins, how long have you been married? 

Air. Robbins. Eight years. 

The Chairman. And where were you married? 

Mr. Robbins. Plymouth, Alass. 

The Chairman. How long did you live there? 

Air. Robbins. Wliy, it is my wife's home town; 1 didn't live there 
any length of time. 

The Chairman. Where did you live immediately prior to the time 
you came here to Hartford? 

Air. Robbins. In Harwich, Mass. 

The Chairman. And what was your employment there? 

Mr. Robbins. I was service man for an illuminating gas company. 

The Chairman. And what were your wages there? 

Air. Robbins. $25 a week. 

The Chairman. And what sort of a house did you live in there? 

Air. Robbins. We had a six-room house with all modern conven- 
iences and 3 acres of land. 

The Chairman. What did you pay for that? 

Air. Robbins. $25 a month. 

The Chairman. How did you happen to leave there? 

Mr. Robbins. Well, I wasn't making enough money to support my 
family and I left to take employment where I could support them. 

The Chairman. How did you happen to come to Hartford? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5^19 

Mr. RoBBiNs. I saw an advertisement in the Saturday Evening 
Post by the United Aircraft Co. The advertisement said they were 
hiring 10,000 more men, so I thought I would try it. 

The Chairman. That was an advertisement in the Saturday Eve- 
ning Post? 

Mr, RoBBiNs. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Did it say anything about what wages you woukl 
receive? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. No. 

The Chairman. Did you bring your family here with you? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. No; I was here 3 weeks before my family came. 

The Chairman. Did you do anything during the 3 weeks? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. About wore myself out looking for a house. 

The Chairman. But you were not employed during those 3 weeks, 
were you? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Oh, yes. 

The Chairman. Where did you go to work? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. East Hartford, Pratt & Whitney. 

The Chairman. And what wages were you receiving? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. 70 cents an hour. 

The Chairman. Wliat does that amount to a month? 

Mr. RoBBiNs. Well, it came to $40.50 a week. 

The Chairman. And what was your work there — what kind of 
work were you doing? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Assistant tester. 

The Chairman. Assistant tester of what? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Airplane engines. 

The Chairman. And you left your family back at Harwich; is that 
the idea? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And when did you bring them here? 

Mr. RoBBiNs. Three weeks after I first came here and started to 
work. 

The Chairman. And you spent about 3 weeks trying to get a house 
for your family? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. All the spare time that I could get away with. 

The Chairman. What did you finally select? 

Mr. Robbins. Didn't find anything I could afford to live in. 

The Chairman. What were they asking for rent? 

Mr. Robbins. Anywhere from $45 up to $65. 

The Chairman. That was a month? 

Mr. Robbins. Yes. 

The Chairman. So you figured that wouldn't leave you very much? 

Mr. Robbins. I don't think it would. 

The Chairman. Now, you finally secured a house, did you? 

Mr. Robbins. No; 1 live in a trailer. 

The Chairman. What kind of trailer is it? 

Mr. Robbins. Well, when I first came here I didn't have much 
money for a down payment. I found two trailers, a small camping 
trailer and a home-made trailer. I bought them from Mr. Moore in 
East Hartford, a trailer dealer. 

The Chairman. What did you pay for them, Mr. Robbins? 

Mr. Robbins. The two of them came to $293. 

The Chairman. And how much did you pay down? 



5120 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Thirty dollars. 

The Chairman. Did you finally get them paid for? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. No; I traded for one single trailer, a custom-built 
trailer — a covered wagon. It is all metal. 

The Chairman. Is that the one you are living in now? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How large is that trailer? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. 1 9 feet long, 6 feet wide, and 6 feet 2 inches, I believe, 
from floor to ceiling. 

The Chairman, ^^hat sort of trade did you make? 

Mr. RoBBiNs. Mr. Moore took the old trailers back and he allowed 
just what I paid him on them. I paid in $100 and he allowed me that 
on the new one. The full price was $600 and I got it tor $500. I 
financed it through the Aircraft Credit Union. 

The Chairman. How much a month are you paying on that? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Twenty dollars a month. 

The Chairman. Wliere is that trailer located now? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. The Au-craft Trailer Park, right across from Pratt & 
Whitney. 

The Chairman. Are there man}^ trailers there? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. About 75. 

The Chairman. And how do you get along in the trailer, you and 
your wife and the children? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Well, there isn't much room. I work nights. I am 
on the night shift. I work from 20 minutes of 12 until 7:10 in the 
morning, so that solves the sleepmg problem a little bit. 

The Chairman. If you worked during the daytime it would be 
quite a problem for you; wouldn't it? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. At night we put two of the children in the bed that 
I sleep in. 

The Chairman. Two of the cliildren sleep in your bed at night? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now, what about water facilities and sanitaiy 
facilities? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Well, you can pipe your trailer up to the city water 
supply if you want to. You don't have to. I haven't yet. I have 
a pump in there and a 20-gallon tank. Showers and electricity go 
with your rent and you have a recreational hall there. 

The Chairman. Now, you are paying $20 a month on the trailer, 
aren't you? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Yes. 

The Chairman. And what rent do you pay for parking privilege? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Twelve dollars a month. 

The Chairman. In other words the whole thing stands you $32 a 
month? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Yes; that is, electric lights and water. 

The Chairman. How much ground have you with your trailer? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. The lots are all the same size. I believe they are 
35 feet long and 30-some-odd feet wide. 

The Chairman. Thu'ty by 35 feet? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Yes, sir; just about square. 

The Chairman. Is there plenty of room for the children to play m? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Well, they have the whole camp. 

The Chairman. Are any of the children old enough to go to school? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5121 

Mr. RoBBiNS. This boy here was going to school when we left 
home, and the girl will be starting this year. 

The Chairman. Well, are they now going to school? 
Mr. RoBBiNS. They are going to school here; yes. 
The Chairman. How do you like your work? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Verj^ much. 

The Chairman. You are satisfied with your job? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Absolutely. 

The Chairman. Congressman Sparkman suggests the question: 
Wliat about winter? Will you be able to live in the trailer? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Yes. They are pretty well insulated. They have 
double walls and insulation between the walls, and there is a regula- 
tion trailer oil-bm-nmg heating unit. 

The Chairman. You would rather live in a house, wouldn't you? 

Mr. RoBBiNS. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold? 

Mr. Arnold. I am just wondering how Mrs. Robbins gets along in 
the trailer. 

Mrs. RoBBiNS. Well, I just have to make the best of it, that is all. 
It is rather crowded, but we always find some way to get around 
in it. 

Mr. Arnold. There is quite a diff"erence between a six-room house 
and a trailer, isn't there? 

Mrs. RoBBiNS. Much. 

Mr. Arnold. But not as much work to do, is there? 

Mrs. Robbins. Well, I keep busy all day. 

Mr. Arnold. Does it make you nervous, living in such a small 
place? 

Mrs. Robbins. Veiy. 

Mr. Arnold. Very hard on the nerves? 

Mrs. Robbins. Yes. I have to keep the children quiet while my 
husband sleeps. 

Mr. Arnold. I was wondering if he slept very well with four 
children around. 

Mrs. Robbins. Well, he doesn't. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all. 

The Chairman. Mr. Sparkman? 

Mr. Sparkman. Is the trailer divided? 

Mrs. Robbins. Yes, sir; I have a door between the two rooms, but 
I can't very well close it because I am going back and forth all the 
time. 

The Chairman. What about your laundry? 

Mrs. Robbins. Well, there is a room provided in the hall for that, 
so I do it all up there. 

Mr. Robbins. There are washing machines there, supplied by the 
trailer park for 25 cents an hour. 

The Chairman. Would you rather be here in Hartford or back 
where you came from? 

Mrs. Robbins. I would rather be here. 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you rather be here or back in Scotland? 

Mrs. Robbins. Here. 

Mr. Sparkman. How old were you when you came over here? 

Mrs. Robbins. About 8 years old. 

Mr. Sparkman. How did you happen to come to this country? 



5122 HAKTFOKD HEAKIxNGf^ 

Mrs. RoBBiNS. Well, my mother and father had been here before 
and were married over here. My grandfather was very sick and my 
parents had to go back to Scotland again, but came back when I was 
8 years old. 

Mr. Sparkman. You came here with your parents? 

Mrs. RoBBiNs. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are they here? 

Mrs. RoBBiNS. No; they went back because of my father's poor 
health. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you stayed here? 

Mrs. RoBBiNs. I stayed here. 

Mr. Sparkman. And they are in Scotland now? 

Mrs. RoBBiNS. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all. 

Mr. Arnold. No further questions. 

The Chairman. Mr. Robbins, are you saving any money out of 
your salary? 

Mr. Robbins. Yes; I am. 

The Chairman. In what way are you saving? 

Mr. Robbins. Having the Aircraft Credit Union take it out of my 
pay every week — they just take it out and deposit it to my credit. 

The Chairman. Is that a voluntary agreement between you and 
them or is it general throughout the plant? 

Mr. Robbins. It is voluntary. You don't have to have that done 
if you don't want to. 

The Chairman. And how much do they take out of your wages 
each week? *i 

Mr. Robbins. $2.50 a week. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is there a campaign in the plant urging employes 
to engage in such a plan? 

Mr. Robbins. No, I never heard of any. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, do they advertise it or put up posters or 
anything? How does the individual worker learn of it? 

Mr. Robbins. Well, I learned of it by going by the building and I 
saw the sign in the window. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is what I mean; you did see signs? 

Mr. Robbins. Yes; I went in and inquired what it was all about. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is any interest paid on those funds? 

Mr. Robbins. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. They are not invested in defense bonds or any- 
thing like that? 

Mr. Robbins. No; you can buy — I believe they make provision to 
buy these defense bonds there — you can buy them if you want to. 

Mr. Sparkman. But that of course would be in addition to this 
regular weekly saving? 

Mr. Robbins. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do the workers generally participate in that 
program? 

Mr. Robbins. I believe they do. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. and Mrs. Robbins, 
and children. We have been all over the United States and we have 
met many people like you, people who have gone through what you 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5123 

have gone through. It always interests Congress very much because, 
after all is said and done, we want to find out how the people them- 
selves are getting along. Thank you very much for coming here. 

The Chairman. Mr. Glover is our next witness. Congressman 
Arnold will interrogate you, Mr. Glover. 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON H. GLOVER, COUNCIL OF SOCIAL 
AGENCIES, HARTFORD, CONN. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you state for the record your name and address 
and the official title of the organization you represent? 

Mr. Glover. My name is Milton H. Glover. I am investment 
ofiicer for the Hartford National Bank and I am representing here the 
council of social agencies. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Glover, you have submitted a very good state- 
ment, but owing to the shortness of time we will not have you read it 
now. We would like to have you enlarge upon it by answering some 
questions. 

[The statement referred to is as follows:] 

STATEMENT BY MILTON H. GLOVER, COUNCIL OF SOCIAL 
AGENCIES OF HARTFORD 

The Directory of Social Agencies lists 125 social and health agencies operating 
in the greater Hartford area, of which 45 are public agencies and 80 are private 
agencies. Thirty-five of these are State-wide agencies and institutions rendering 
some service in Hartford either occasionally or through a regularly established 
branch organization. 

The fields of service covered by these agencies are as follows: Child welfare is 
covered by 25 agencies, family welfare and relief by 53 agencies, hospital care by 
13 agencies, other health services by 27 agencies and leisure-time activities by 19 
agencies. It is estimated that these 125 agencies employ between 400 and 500 
professional workers in their service to the Hartford area. Eighty-five of these 
agencies (24 public and 61 private) are institutional 'members of the council of 
social agencies. Thirty-one of them are member agencies of the Hartford Com- 
munity Chest. 

For some years the Council of Social Agencies of Hartford, in cooperation with 
the United States Children's Bureau, has been compiling figures on the total cost 
of health and welfare services in the greater Hartford area. For the year 1940 
these services are estimated to have cost $9,205,506. This figure is based on the 
actual expenditures of agencies whose costs for this area can be segregated and on 
estimates for certain State-wide agencies. The sources from which these funds 
were derived are set forth in table I. 

As table I shows, 65 percent of all expenditures for health and welfare services 
in the greater Hartford area last year were provided by public tax funds. In 
other words, as measured by expenditure, approximately one-third of the total 
community program depends upon the voluntary support of private citizens 
administered for the most part by nonofficial agencies. Fees paid to certain 
agencies, especially hospitals and Young Men's Christian Association and Young 
Women's Christian Association, for services received, amount to a little over one- 
half of the private support with the balance provided by philanthropic funds. 
The major part of the philanthropic funds are made available through the Hart- 
ford Community Chest. 



5124 HAETFORD HEARINGS 

Table I. — Total expenditures for health and welfare services, Hartford chest area, 
1940, by source of funds 



Source 


Amount 


Per capita 


All sources 


$9, 205. 506 
6, 095, 841 
2, 339, 277 

1, 734, 600 

2, 021, 964 

3, 280, 444 
885, 318 
748, 071 
137, 247 
497, 646 

1, 701, 925 
24, 776 


$37 10 


Publ'c funds 


24 57 


Federal 




State - 


6 99 


Local 


8 15 






Contributions . - . 


3 57 


Chest 


3 02 






Endowment— ..- .-. .. .- 


2 00 


Beneficiaries (fees for service) 


6 86 


Another ... 









' Includes East Hartford, West Hartford, Wethersfield, Windsor, Bloomfield, and Newington. 

Hartford has long been notable for its highly developed sense of community 
responsibility and for the generosity shown by its citizens in the support of worthy 
community enterprises. This is clearly demonstrated in table II from which you 
can see that although the total cost of health and welfare services in this area was 
only slightly above the average for the 29 cities studied by the Children's Bureau 
in 1938, on a per capita basis, voluntary contributions were higher than in any 
other area and almost twice the average. 

Table II. — Comparative per capita expenditures for health and welfare services in 
Hartford and 28 other cities, by source of funds, 1938 1 



Source 


Per capita 
expendi- 
tures in 
Hartford 


Average 
per capita 

expendi- 
tures in 29 
cities 


Hartford 
ranked— 




$45. 95 
32.86 
16.23 
8.02 
8.61 
13.09 
4.25 
3.40 
.85 
2.16 
6.36 
.32 


$44. 01 
36.65 
21.84 
5. 58 
9.23 

£44 
1.72 
.72 
.52 
4.02 
.38 


Tenth. 


Public funds 


Seventeenth. 


Federal 


Nineteenth. 




Sixth. 


Local 


Eleventh. 








First. 


Chest 


Do. 


Other 


Thirteenth. 


Endowment.. 

Beneficiaries 

All other 


First. 
Fourth. 







1 statistics compiled from "The Community Welfare Picture in 29 TTrban Areas, 1938" published by 
Children's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, June 1939. The cities included In this study were Balti- 
more, Bridgeport, Buffalo, Hartford, Providence, Springfield, Syracuse, Washington, Wilkes-Barre, At- 
lanta, Birmingham, Dallas, Houston, Louisville, New Orleans, Richmond, Canton, Cincinnati, Cleveland, 
Columbus, Dayton, Grand Rapids, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Milwaukee. St. Louis, Wichita, Los An- 
geles, San Francisco. 



The distribution of the $9,205,506 spent for health and welfare services in this 
area in 1940 among the major types of service is shown in table III. For the 
family welfare and general dependency, the most important of the services, 
$4,668,194 (nearly 50 percent of the total expenditure) was spent. Second in 
importance is hospital care for which the cost was $2,534,650. This, however, 
is one of the services which receives comparatively large sums in the form of 
payments by beneficiaries. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5125 



Table III. — Total expenditures for health and welfare services in Hartford chest area, 
by types of service, 1940 



Type of service 



All services 

Family welfare and general dependency 

Care of children 

Leisure time services 

Hospital care 

Other health services 

Central planning and finance 



Amount of 
expendi- 
ture 



19, 205, 506 
4, 668, 194 
834, 331 
534, 998 
2, 534, 650 
580.801 
52, 532 



Per capita 
expendi- 
ture 



$37. 10 
IS. 81 
3.36 
2.16 
10.22 
2.34 
.21 



' Includes Work Projects Administration, National Youth Administration, and Civilian Conservation 
Corps. 

In table IV the per capita expenditures for health and welfare services in Hart- 
ford as compared to the average per capita expenditures in the 29 cities show 
certain noteworthy variations. The per capita expenditure for family welfare 
and general dependency in Hartford is below the average due to the low per 
capita expenditure of Work Projects Administration and other Federal funds in 
Hartford as shown in table II. A well-organized public foster home placement 
service instead of an extensive program of institutional care combined with the 
fact that Connecticut has not had aid to dependent children accounts for a per 
capita expenditure for care of children that is more than double the average 
expenditure. 

Table IV. — Comparative per capita expenditures for health and welfare services in 
Hartford and 28 other cities, by types of serince, 1938 ^ 



Type of service 


Per capita 
expenditures 
in Hartford 


Average per 
capita ex- 
penditures 

in 29 cities 


Hartford 
ranked— 




.$45. 95 


$44.01 


10th. 






Family welfare 


25.92 
3.31 
2.55 

11.46 
2.50 
.21 


31.68 
L57 
1.60 
7.33 
L63 
.20 


l"th 




1st. 


Leisiu'e time 


4th. 


Hospital care 


1st. 




1st. 


Chests and councils 


8th. 







I Statistics compiled from The Community Welfare Picture in 29 Urban Areas, 1938. 

The present organization for social welfare in Hartford is the result of a long 
period of growth. The confidential exchange (now known as the social service 
index) was created in 1914. Out of this came the Council of Social Agencies in 
1920 and the Community Chest in 1924. 

An important factor in oiu- preparedness for home defense was the Hartford 
survey made in 1934 at the request of the Hartford Community Chest. During 
the 5 years following the survey most of the important private agencies were 
greatly strengthened as to staff and leadership. A powerful interest in coopera- 
tive study and planning developed and the Council of Social Agencies itself, with 
augmented staff, became an extensively used facility for joint action. In 1939 
the council was reorganized and streamlined to better serve the expanding interests 
of its members. 

As now constituted the council has a membership representing 85 public and 
private agencies working together through four autonomous divisions. Three 
of these divisions — case work, group work, and health — have an open member- 
ship which permits any professional worker or lay board representative to partici- 
pate by indicating an interest in a particular division. The fourth division, the 
Commimity Organization Division, is an over-all group with a membership com- 
posed of agency executives. Other persons may be elected to membership by the 
steering committee of the division. Each division has a steering committee which 
plans the programs for the monthly division meetings and which sends representa- 
tives to the council executive committee. The council executive committee is 



5126 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

composed of representatives, both lay and professional, from each of the four 
divisions, officers and members at large elected at the council annual meeting, and 
a few ex-officio members. This committee has ample powers to tie the whole 
together. 

CASE WORK DIVISION 

The case work division is interested in matters of child welfare, family welfare, 
and health from the case work point of view. Several committees of the division 
work on special studies and projects within this broad field and prepare reports 
for the entire division. Problems studied during the past year include housing, 
care of transients, pre-school and foster day care, and legal aid. The division 
sponsors discussion groups in a professional education program for staff workers 
of case work agencies. 

GROUP WORK DIVISION- 

The group work division is concerned with recreation and education and helps 
to coordinate the programs of community centers, church centers, the public 
school program and the public recreation programs. The division carries on 
such studies as are necessary to further the growth of constructive group work 
programs in the community and to raise the standards of training and perform- 
ance in group work. 

HEALTH DIVISION 

The health division exists to foster better understanding among workers in 
the various health agencies, to serve as a medium for the exchange of information 
about new developments, to serve as a channel for the technical review of problems 
and to make provision for supplying desired educational opportunities for staff 
workers or board members. 

COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION DIVISION 

The community organization division considers those problems which arise on 
the administrative level. The division was organized to promote the study of 
the institutional structure of social welfare in metropolitan Hartford, to promote 
the study of the need for social and health services in various sections of the 
metropolitan area, to assist the agencies in the promotion of public understanding 
of their functions, and especially to promote the most effective coordination of 
agency services. 

CASE COUNCIL 

A case council made up of executives or supervisors from all important agencies 
operating on a case basis in both the social and health fields has been meeting 
weekly for more than 10 years. This council renders advisory opinions on plans 
for family treatment especially when disposition of children is involved and 
facilitates the settlement of problems of agency jurisdiction and responsibility. 

The meetings are discussions relative to a case presented by one of the social 
agencies in which it seems necessary to have the help of a cooperating group, 
the case council, in working out the best possible plan for the persons concerned. 
The material presented for these discussions is in summary form from the con- 
fidential case records of the case work agency seeking a plan. Such discussion 
promotes disinterested and cooperative thinking about the problem on the part 
of those workers present and lends to the recommendations the support of all the 
case work agencies of the community. This support is significant particularly 
in cases where commitment of children through the court is concerned. About 
100 cases ere reviewed in this manner each year by an experienced group which 
changes little in personnel." 

The professional staff of the Council of Social Agencies consists of a half-time 
executive secretary and three full-time assistants — namely, a case-work secretary 
with psychiatric social-work background, a junior assistant with group-work back- 
ground, and a research assistant. 

SOCIAL SERVICE EXCHANGE 

The council operates the Social Service Exchange, which has nearly 100,000 
cards in its file and total aniuial clearings in excess of 40,000; 35 public and 37 
private agencies use the exchange routinely. The Social Service Exchange is a 
confidential alphabetical file in which are recorded the names and identifying 
information of those families and individuals known to the social and health 
agencies of the community. It recognizes and carefully guards the confidential 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5^27 

nature of the relationship between cHents and agencies. Each card in the file 
carries the names of those agencies which have previously registered the case, 
together with the dates of their registrations. 

Consistent and regular use of the exchange by social workers has values for the 
client, the agency, and the community, as follows: 

1. Gives information as to the extent and kind of agency services in the com- 
munity used previously by the client. 

2. Assists in clarifying agency responsibility before accepting client. 

3. Facilitates mutual planning among the social workers on behalf of clients, 
thus avoiding unnecessary investigation and conflicting plans. 

4. Promotes greater coordination of effort among agencies, both public and 
private. 

5. Enables social agencies to avoid duplication and overlapping of services or 
efforts for clients, thus making possible a distribution of available funds and serv- 
ices to the largest number of those in need of assistance. 

Besides the Council of Social Agencies there are three other important coordi- 
nating organizations — the Community Chest, the Citizens' Committee for Social 
Welfare, and the Central Planning Council for Social Welfare. 

COMMUNITY CHEST 

The 31 member agencies of the community chest include nearly all the important 
private agencies — sectarian as well as nonsectarian. The chest raises about 
$3.20 per capita (on the basis of 1940 population) and listed last fall over 87,000 
contributors — one for every three inhabitants of the area. The chest and council 
are separate organizations but share office space and facilities as well as certain 
personnel including the executive. 

citizens' committee for social avelfare 

The Citizens' Committee for Social Welfaie is composed of delegates from some 
275 social, civic, religious, cultural, occupational and other groups in the com- 
munity, including agency boards — one delegate from each organization. It was 
organized in 1934 under the joint sponsorship of the chest and council. It is 
distinctly a layman's organization and is dedicated to the promotion, articulation 
and coordination of the layman's interest in the social welfare field. 

central planning council 

The Central Planning Council for Social Welfare is an overall planning group 
on the policy making level which was recommended in connection with the 
reorganization of the Council of Social Agencies. Its membership is entirely 
ex officio and consists of the steering committee of the Citizens' Committee for 
Social Welfare, the chairmen of the four divisions of the Council, and the citizen 
heads of some thirty important city departments and community organizations. 
It is not an executive agency, but depends on its various constituent organizations, 
particularly the Council of Social Agencies, for executive service. The Com- 
munity Organization Division of the Council of Social Agencies brings together 
the professional executives of the various organizations whose presidents make 
up this Central Planning Council. 

As a result of the development of these various facilities for community plan- 
ning Hartford was very well prepared to meet the emergency. With the exec- 
utive seci-etary and the four division chairmen taking the initiative the Council 
of Social Agencies assumed the responsibility for reorienting the social welfare 
program to defense needs. In June 1940 the steering committees of the four 
divisions were constituted a joint seminar to explore the implications of the de- 
fense program and the war and to integrate the thinking and experience of the 
divisions and the agencies as they endeavored to meet the needs of the unfold- 
ing future. The speculations and findings of the seminar were translated into 
action by the divisions and their member agencies — especially by the Commu- 
nity Organization Division through which suggestions were forwarded to the 
executive committee and to various responsible individuals in the defense 
program. 

effects of defense program 

The effects of the defense program which have been felt by the social and 
health agencies of this community to date have been almost entirely due to the 
industrial and economic aspects of the program and have been rather specialized 
in character. 

60396— 41— pt. 13 8 



5128 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 



As may be seeu from an examination of tables VI and VII, total expenditures 
for health and welfare work in the Hartford area were $888,902 or 8.8 percent 
less in 1940 than in 1939 due primarily to a reduction in Federal and local relief 
expenditures. Federal relief expenditures, chiefly W. P. A., declined $741,835 or 
24 percent. Total expenditures from all sources for family welfare and general 
dependency declined $754,678 or 16 percent. On the other hand, payments by 
beneficiaries increased $204,519 or 13.7 percent. The only major class of serv- 
ice showing a substantial increase as measured by expenditures was care of 
children which increased $62,842 or 8.1 percent. This increase represents pri- 
marily the steadily increasing number of children committed to State and county 
agencies for permanent care. 

Table VI. — Comparison of total expenditwes for health and welfare services in 
Hartford area for 1938, 1939, and 1940, by source of funds 



Source 


1938 


1939 


1940 




$10, 558, 165 


$10, 094, 408 


$9, 205, 506 








7, 551, 102 
3,728,497 
1,843,941 
1,978,664 


7, 093, 752 
3,081,112 
1,961,067 
2, 051, 573 


6 095 841 




2, 339, 277 


State 


1, 734, 600 


Local 


2, 021, 964 






Private funds 


3, 007, 063 


3, 000, 656 


3, 109, 665 








976, 788 
783, 773 
193,015 
496, 316 
1,462,019 


939, 150 
765, 003 
174, 147 
507, 264 
1,497,406 


885, 318 


Chest 


748 071 


Other 


137, 247 


Beneficiaries 


1,701 925 







Table VII. — Comparison of total expenditures for health and welfare services in 
Hartford area for 1938, 1939, and 1940, by type of service 



Service 


1938 


1939 


1940 




$10, 558, 105 
5, 954, 598 
759, 626 
585, 670 
2, 632, 925 
575. 543 
49, 803 


$10, 094, 408 
5, 422, 872 
771, 173 
589, 449 
2, 663, 750 
596,477 
50,687 


$9, 205, 506 




4, 668, 194 




834, 331 




534,998 




2, 534, 650 




580, 801 




52, 532 







Expenditures are only an indirect measure of changes in the welfare program 
of the community because so many different factors enter into them. We use 
them to get an over-all picture of the community program because they are the 
only figures we can get on a completely inclusive basis. Forty-eight of the more 
important agencies in Hartford do, however, participate in the social statistics 
project of the United States Children's Bureau in which they submit regular 
monthly reports on the amount of work which they have done. From these 
reports and one or two other sources we have compiled tables VIII and IX show- 
ing trends in some of the more significant services. Table IX being based upon a 
single month's operation is less reliable as an indication of trends than the annual 
figures given in table VIII but it furnishes some basis for bringing our observa- 
tions more up to date. The general indication of these tables is similar to that 
of tables VI and VII namely that major effects of the defense program, to date, 
have been felt chiefly by certain specialized services rather than by the com- 
munity program as a whole. 

The" reduction of the number of cases applying for puVjlic assistance is obvi- 
ously a direct result of the defense production program. The same is true of the 
decrease in cases accepted for active treatment by private family welfare agencies 
since this decrease has affected only their relief case loads. Cases receiving 
social treatment without relief have tended to increase slightly. 

The increase in shelter services and travelers' aid are due directly to the migra- 
tion resulting from the defense production program. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5129 



Pressure on day nursery services has recently shown a tendency to increase as 
indicated in table IX rather than to continue the easing trend suggested in table 
VIII. 

None of the other changes indicated in tables VIII and IX has any very direct 
connection, as far as we can determine, with the defense program. 



Table VIII. — Comparative statistics on selected services rendered by social and 
health agencies in the Hartford area reporting to U. S. Children's Bxireaujor 1938, 
1939, and 1940 



Type of service 



Number of case-s accepted by department public welfare for public 
assistance 

A^regate number of nights lodgings provided to transients and 
homeless by shelters and other institutions 

Number of new cases accepted for social service by Travelers' Aid 
Society -.. 

Number of new cases accepted for active treatment by private 
family welfare and relief agencies 

Number of new dependent and neglected children accepted for care 
away from home.-. - 

Number of new children enrolled by the day nur'^ery 

Number of new children accepted for treatment by mental hygiene 
clinic 

Number of women and girls accepted for care by the maternity home 

Aggregate attendance at group work activities of local private agen- 
cies 

Year end enrollment of Boy and Girl Scouts 

Number of public-health nursing visits 

Number visits to clinics and medical conferences (not including 
municipal hospital out-patient department) 

Number visits to mimicipal hospital out patient department (fiscal 
years ending Mar. .31 from annual reports) 

Number new patients accepted for care by social-service depart- 
ments, hospitals, clinics 

Number of cases opened by legal aid bureau 



3,641 

41, 336 

1,196 

2,720 

2,060 
144 

308 
26 

52,386 

5,459 

138, 717 

66, 145 

47,543 



3,777 
39,203 
1,141 
2,150 



325 
24 

56, 057 

6,179 

143, 337 

63, 796 

59, 835 

2, 561 



2,557 
43, 619 
1,242 

2,055 



97, 555 

1391747 

69, 673 

43, 912 

3,021 
945 



Table IX. — Comparative statistics on selected services rendered by social and health 
agencies in Hartford area reporting to Children's Bureau, in April 1940 and 
April 1941 



Type of service 



Number of cases receiving relief from department of public 

welfare (March) 

Average daily number of lodgings provided to transients and 

homeless by shelters and other institutions 

Number of active cases reported by Travelers' Aid Society _ 
Number of active cases under care of private family welfare 

and relief agencies 

Number of dependent and neglected children under care 

away from home 

Number of children receiving day nursery care 

Number of cases served by mental hygiene clinic 

Number of women under care of maternity home 

Average daily attendance at gToui>work activities of local 

private agencies 

Boy and girl members of Scout organisations 

Number of public health nursing visits 

Nimiber of visits to clinics and medical conferences (includ- 
ing municipal hospital out-patient department) 

Number of patients receiving medical social service in hos- 
pitals and clinics 

Number of cases opened by legal aid societies 



Number 
of agencies 
reporting 



April 
1940 



1,126 
6,582 
10,808 



April 
1941 



1,811 
94 
165 



1,106 
6,634 
10,051 



Percent in- 
crease (-f ) or 

(-) 



-f6. 55 
-f34.31 

-15.61 

-1.25 
-M3.25 
+30. 95 
-fl2.5 



As part of the preparation for this hearing the council of social agencies made 
a stud}^ of the applications to the principal social and health agencies in Hartford 
during the first 2 weeks of May 1941. A total of 519 applications received during 
this period were analyzed; 236 of these applicants had re.sided in this area less 
than 1 year while 218 had resided here 1 year or more; 170 of the applicants were 
married persons, 208 single, 46 unrepresented, 9 divorced, and 48 were widows or 
widowers. A total of 211 of these applications indicated some connection with 



5130 HARTFOKD HEARINGS 

the defense program, and at least 183 of these had resided here less than a year; 
12 presented problems growing out of the Selective Service Act, and 16 presented 
problems growing directly out of the housing shortage; 44 were persons with resi- 
dence under 1 year who needed temporary financial assistance pending receipt of 
their first pay; 113 were unemployed persons with less than 1 year's residence 
who needed temporary assistance; 26 presented other problems which could be 
identijfied as connected with the defense production program. Of the 236 appli- 
cations from persons with less than 1 year's residence, 148 were reported by the 
temporary shelters, 54 by the Travelers Aid Society, 11 by the family agencies, 
9 by the child caring agencies, 9 by the public welfare department, and 5 by 
medical social service departments. These figures point to the same conclusions 
as the data previously presented on expenditures and services rendered, namely, 
that the community welfare program, viewed as a whole, has suff"ered no serious 
dislocations as a result of the defense program although certain specialized 
services have been confronted with rather sharply increased applications. 

If we approach the matter from the standpoint of what is happening to people 
in this community, however, we get a somewhat different view of the matter. 
The experience of the social agencies during the past year furnishes considerable 
evidence that living has become increasingly difficult for many people, and 
particularly for those in underprivileged groups. There is no need for us to present 
evidence here to prove that a .serious housing shortage has developed in this area 
during the past year. The social agencies were among the first to become aware 
of this development and to become articulate about it. 

ROOMS REGISTRY 

Early last fall several of our agencies joined forces to establish a cooperative 
rooms registry service to help them increase their available supply of acceptable 
rooms for single persons and couples without children. While this service proved 
helpful in a limited way, it soon became evident that a situation existed which 
called for a service extending beyond the scope of the social agencies. The 
council of social agencies, therefore, urged the creation of a more inclusive central 
homes registration bureau and cooperated with the loc?l defense committee in 
developing plans for such a bureau which was opened in April by the Hartford 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Meanwhile, another committee of the council of social agencies had under- 
taken to study the incidence of housing problems among the families coming to the 
social agencies for help. The combined reports of the agencies interested primarily 
in family services indicated that at least 16 percent of all those applying for assist- 
ance during November and December were having some difficulties related to the 
lack of dwellings. In addition to this 16 percent, over 20 percent of families already 
active with the agencies were involved in similar problems. 

Those most commonly encountered consisted of rent increases out of propor- 
tion to the regular income of families, which called for supplementation or resulted 
in real deprivation. Moderately priced rentals not being available, families 
were forced to give up their homes to crowd into furnished rooms, double up with 
relatives, or in some instances, to request placement of their children. 

Numerous evictions had occurred for reasons other than nonpayment of rent. 

AGENCIES IN JUVENILE FIELD 

Agencies active in the children's field also reported that 25 percent of all 
families applying for assistance during November and December presented 
similar problems related to the housing shortage. Child-placing organizations 
are suffering from a serious lack of adequate foster homes. They are also finding 
it necessary to continue to care for children whose parents are only waiting for 
a rental to reestablish the family unit. 

Medical agencies reported that their patients also were concerned with the 
problems of excessive rents and overcrowded conditions. Housing facilities in 
many cases were below minimum standards in plumbing, ventilation, heating, 
and cleanliness. 

The pressure of the housing shortage has increased steadily throughout the 
spring. Families not benefiting from the defense programs have been handi- 
capped by their inability to bid against defense workers for housing as rents 
have climbed. Families with children have been particularly handicapped and 
have been the principal sufferers in a rising tide of evictions for reasons other than 
nonpayment of rent. When our case council decided to publicize this situation 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5131 

early in May, it found 75 cases among the families being cared for by the social 
agencies which were under eviction orders, in most cases because they had children. 
Nothing which has developed out of the defense program, to date, has given 
\is quite so much concern as this unexpected turn of the housing problem. The 
implications of unwanted children for the future of this community and of the 
Nation are unpleasant to contemplate. There is one other implication of defense 
migration, however, which is also giving us concern although it is still a future 
eventuality rather than a present reality. If, as, and when, defense production 
stops thousands of persons will be out of work in this community, many of them 
with no other place to go. We realize that your committee has this eventuality 
in mind and we sincerely hope that your investigation of defense migration will 
be fruitful not only in terms of immediate help for pressing current problems 
but also in terms of more fundamental constructive planning for the prevention 
of more serious problems in the post-war period. 

Exhibit A. — Study of Evictions in Hartford, Conn. 

REPORT BY HARTFORD DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WELFARE, BASED ON STUDIES MADE 
BY CASE COUNCIL OF THE COUNCIL OF SOCIAL AGENCIES, HARTFORD, CONN. 

The following cases are included in the studj' of evictions made by the Case 
Council of the Council of Social Agencies in April 1941: 

No. 1: This is a colored family comprised of mother and three children. The 
family lives in four adequate clean rooms. The rent originally was $15 per month. 
In 1940, it was raised to $18 and at the present time it is $20 a month. 

The mother is the sole support of the family and is employed on W. P. A. 
Department of Public Welfare is supplementing her income. During the year 
1940, she was ill in the hospital for a few weeks and became in arrears one- 
half month on the rent. She offered to catch up on this, but the landlord refused. 
Not only did he refuse this but also refused the Department of Public Welfare 
"rent guarantee" or to have the client pay her rent. 

The case was taken into city court and the client was ordered evicted. Client 
is now without an available rent and the furniture is to be placed in storage by 
the Department of Public Welfare and plans to move client and her children into 
a private family will be made. 

This family has lived in Hartford about 15 years. Client is wiUing to pay her 
rent or is eligible for rent from this department, depending on the circumstances. 
The department will allow any reasonable amount for the rent. The ages of the 
children are as follows: A girl 932, boy 7, and a boj- 6. 

No. 2: This is a white family comprised of two adults and nine children — girl, 
age 3; twins of 5; boy, 6; girl, 8; boy, 9; boy, 10; boy, 12; girl, 14. 

Family is being evicted. The landlord does not wish to keep such a large family. 
They have had an extension of time on the rent. Man is employed in a local 
factory and will average about $35 a week. 

It has been impossible for this family to find a rent. They have been through 
city court and are to be evicted the 2'lst of April. They have no relatives who 
can take the children and client is able to pay for his own rent and should be able 
to take care of his family with no further assistance from this department. This 
family has lived in Hartford for about 14 years except for a period in 1939, when 
they were away from Hartford for about a year and a half. 

No. 3: This family is comprised of the mother and two daughters, age 9 and 2. 
The mother returned to Hartford about 5 months ago having lived in Hartford 
previous to that date. She lives in two furnished rooms which she keeps very- 
clean and neat. 

She has some furniture and could go into a rent of her own if she were able to 
find a tenement. 

Department of Public Welfare is paying $5 per week room rent. The landlady 
is increasing the rent to $10 a week. 

The mother has been notified that she is to be evicted within a week. Because 
the mother could not locate a rent with the two children, it was necessary to 
place the baby in the municipal nursery. That left the mother and the older 
child at home. When the mother discovered that the baby was forgetting her, 
she decided to take the babv home. Although her landlady notified her that she 
would be evicted when she took the baby home, the mother decided to risk the 
landlady's eviction and take the baby. Since she had the baby home, the land- 
lady notified her that she was to move out. Since she could not locate a rent 
with the two children, it was necessary to immediately return the baby to the 



5132 HARTPX>BD HEARINGS 

municipal hospital nursery. The mother is still looking for a rent but has not 
yet found one. 

The Department of Public Welfare will pay any reasonable amount of rent for 
this family in either furnished rooms or a tenement. 

Reported by the Family Service Society: 

No. 4: The man was referred by a local business concern for suggestions in 
finding a house. Six years ago he was persuaded by present landlord, a country- 
man, to move in as a favor, but now he is threatened with eviction if he does not 
move, and the reason given is "complaints of neighbors about the children.'' 
The man does not believe that this is the real reason and thinks that the landlord 
sees a chance of getting more rent, which the man says he cannot pay on his 
present income. There is no record of their ever having had any aid. He has 
looked steadily for 2 weeks and found absolutely nothing except an undesirable 
place on the fourth floor. He feels that he cannot take this because his wife has 
painful varicose veins and his children could not get outdoors easily. He has 
appealed to a great many individuals in the community without result. He has 
tried his best to be accepted at one of the housing units but they tell him he is 
ineligible because he does not live in a substandard dwelling. This does not 
make sense to him because he says he will be "on the street and have no dwelling 
at all, and what can be worse than that?" He says he is usually a happy, easy- 
going man but he has become very nervous, so much so that his fellow-employees 
have noticed it and questioned him about it. Wherever he goes they refuse to 
consider taking his children. He has been advised to move into a substandard 
dwelling in the hope of getting into a housing unit later, but he is unwilling to do 
this as he believes it would be injurious to his children. He hesitates to consider 
life in a trailer because he fears it would not be sanitary and a school might not 
be accessible in the fall for his older child. He has not yet received a dispossess 
but has no doubt that he will receive one in the near future. The famih' consists 
of two adults and two children aged 6 and 3. Man regularly employed on same 
job for 1.3 years; $25 a week. The rent consists of five rooms, uuheated; lived 
there 6 years; $30 a month. Lived in Hartford 15 years. 

No. 5: Stock clerk in factory. Employed same place since 1928, earnings 
$30 — $32 with overtime. Five children. Evicted from rent he has lived in for 
6 years. At time of application was living in furnished rooms with parents. 
Nine people in three rooms. This case is now known to Federal investigators. 

No. 6: Defense worker earning about $38. Evicted from $45 rent. Five 
children. Could find no place to go. Had offered to attempt to meet rent but 
landlady would not allow them to stay because of the children. 

No. 7: Defense industry worker earning $38-$40. Evicted. from rent because 
of disagreement with landlord. Could find no place which would accept children 
and was living with another family in furnished rooms. There were four adults 
and eight children living in four rooms. Four children belonged to family under 
discussion. 

No. 8: Man, 47; regularly employed, earning $26 a week. Woman, 32; girl, 10; 
girl, ^Yi; boy 1. Living in cabin; .$4 a day, no inside toilet facilities. The family 
have been here onh^ a week. They have $100 and hope to find unfurnished rooms 
which they will furnish cheaply. They appear to be hard-working, thrifty people. 
They had to bring the children here because they had no relatives nor friends able 
to take them. It is a handicap to live so far outside the city in that it is difficult 
to get to advertised rents. The mother is anxious to get the children settled and 
in school. According to room registry there are no furnished nor unfurnished 
rooms priced to fit their income. As their present expenses are greater than their 
income they will soon use up their backlog of $100 without accomplishing anything. 

No. 9: Man, 31; regularly employed for the last 6 years, earning $30 a week. 
Woman, 34; girls, 11 and 3; boys, 10, 4}i and 9 months. Three rooms, $29; rent 
has gone up $5 in last 5 months. Family have received their second eviction 
notice for nonpayment of rent; landlady's brother would not accept rent as they 
do not want any family with children. Family plan to split up until they are 
eligible for housing placement, which will be in August, they have been told. 
The mother and children will go with relatives. Man is also looking in the 
suburbs for a summer place. 

No. 10: Man 27; emploved at same place for about IJ^ years; earnings have 
increased from $12 to $50. " Woman 26; boy 5>4; girls, 4 and l>i Five rooms, $25. 
The family have always lived in cheap rents because of man's previous irregular 
employment. They are forced to leave present rent where they have been about 
17 months because their rent is being made into a store. One other family has 
been asked to vacate. Family are willing to pay a rental up to $45 but no one 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5133 

wants a family with three small children. Man is looking in suburbs for a rent 
and family are now with relatives. This is a family previously known to the 
Family Service Society because of domestic difficulties, caused by needing to 
break "up the home because of irregular income. 

No. 11: Family of 6 — parents and 4 children. Hartford residence 17 years. 
Father skilled factory worker. Eviction notice in December due to clash with 
landlord. Temporarily staying with friends. Four adults and eight children 
in 4 rooms. Sleep on floor. Could pay $35 per month. 

No. 12: Divorced woman, virtually on street. Supporting children. Needed 
furnished rooms. Moved to Windsor. Present status (?). 

Reported by the Diocesan Bureau of Social Service: 

No. 13: Parents — 1 baby 5 months. Were living in three rooms. Rent was 
first raised from $35 to $45, then they were threatened with eviction and forced 
to leave because of baby. Need three or four rooms. Could pay $35. Income 
$16 per week. Agency supplementing. 

No. 14: Mother and child 4 years old, living with relatives. If she does not 
leave, the relatives have been threatened with eviction. Father is in United 
States Army service and is out of State. Need two rooms. Could pay $30. 
Income $15 per week. 

No. 15: Family have three children. Rent was raised from $30 to $35 for five 
rooms and then family was given eviction notice. Can pay $30. Need five 
rooms. Income $37 per week. 

a\o. 16: Family have four children. Rent was raised from $19 to $25 for three 
rooms. Landlord has threatened eviction. Need five rooms. Can pay $25 to 
$30. Eviction because of children. Landlady says she wants family to leave. 
Income $40 per week. 

No. 17: Family have five children. They pay $23 for five rooms. Have been 
asked to move and threatened with eviction. They were evicted from an apart- 
ment in December 1940. At that time it was necessary to make plans for tem- 
porary placement of children until they could find a rent. Eviction because of 
children. Can pay $30. Need five rooms. Income $25 per week. 

No. 18: Family have five children. They were evicted in November 1940 
from an apartment. Three children were placed with relatives and the parents 
and two younger children went to a furnished room. They are waiting to move 
into a H. H. A. rent. 

No. 19: Widower with five children, ages 15, 14, 13, 11, and 10; was evicted in 
September 1940 from the home he had lived in for a long time in West Hartford 
because they objected to children. At that time the children were separated 
and placed with relatives. Father found a rent in Hartford. He was anxious 
to keep his family together so he took the rent although it was in very poor 
condition. (In 1939 the Hartford department of public welfare paid $16 rent 
for a client living at that address.) Father had to pay $30 for the rent. He was 
given an eviction notice but this agency has tried to arrange for'an extension of 
time. Eviction due to children. Needs five rooms. Can pay $30. 

No. 20: Family have six children, five rooms needed. Rent has been raised 
from $22 to $30. Family has been threatened with eviction. Income $30 per 
week. 

No. 21: Family has 10 children. First the rent was raised from $30 to $35 
and then when the family failed to move they received notice of eviction. Father 
has been a city employee for years and earns over $40 a week. Six rooms needed. 
Can pay $35. 

No. 22: Family evicted in August 1940 because they had five children. At 
that time the children were placed in Highland Heights. The children are still 
there because the parents have been unable to get a rent. Parents in furnished 
rooms. Need six rooms. Can pay $35-$40. Income $45-$50 per week. 

No. 23: Rent raised $35 to $60 to turn into a rooming house. Woman just 
home from hospital. Paid $35 per month 4 years. February 1941 raised to $45 
per month. May 1, will be $60 per month. 

No. 24: Property sold to be made into three-room apartments. Rent raised 
from $40 to $60. No eviction notice. Recently came to town working at defense 
industry. Family moved out of town. 

No. 25: Father deserted a year ago. Mother in a convalescent home for nearly 
a year. Two children placed by agency. Now ready to reestablish home but 
can't find tenement. Mother earns $16 per week. Agency will supplement up 
to $35 per month rent. Fear the year's work with mother and children will be 
undone if cannot find quarters for them. 

No. 26: Father, mother, and two children. Father earns about $40 per week 
at Colt's. Known to agency through Visiting Homemakers' Service. Rented a 



5134 HARTPORD HEARINGS 

six-room apartment for $35 per mionth. Landlord made over building into two- 
and three-room apartments. Family now pays $36 per month for a three-room 
apartment in the same building. Mother is pregnant. Family unable to locate 
other quarters. 

In all these situations reported by the Diocesan Bureau of Social Service, the 
families have sufficient income to pay the rent but the landlord objects to the 
children and for the same reason it is impossible for these families to find new 
rents. Their incomes are too high for the Hartford Housing Authority. 

Reported by the Visiting Nurse Association: 

No. 27: Rent increased from $22 to $35 a month. Income $25 per week. 
Three children. Family given notice because landlord wanted a family of adults 
with no children. Family moved in temporarily with husband's brother. Eight 
living in five rooms. Unable to find a rent. 

No. 28: Rent increased from $36 to $50 a month. Income $20 per week. 
Family ordered to move because of three children — ages 5, 2, and 4 months. 
Would have had to move at any rate because of inability to pay such a rent. 

No. 29: Rent $16 a month for two rooms with outside toilet and no electricity. 
Asked to move because electricity is being installed and rent to be increased. 
Landlord wants tenant without children. One child in family and another 
expected. Income $17-$20. Family broken up. Mother and children with 
aunt in Windsor. Father boarding. 

No. 30: Rent increased from $28-$30 a month. Family willing to pay but 
asked to vacate as landlady does not want children in apartment. Three children 
in family, age 4, 2, and 1. Income $35 per week. 

No. 31: Family have always been independent of aid. Mr. U. earns $20 a 
week. Mrs. U. in bed with rheumatic heart. Rent consists of four rooms. 
Landlord wishes flat for a relative. 

No. 32: Family evicted because house is being torn down. Moved to one room. 
Mother pregnant. Cannot return to present quarters after confinement because 
landlady cannot tolerate children. Patient to be delivered now. May have to 
move in with relatives on return from hospital in a home which is now very much 
overcrowded. Income $18 per week. 

No. 33: A four-room apartment rented to two adults for $22 per month has 
provided a home for six people continuously, according to the landlord. Tenants 
claim they have had to take in friends who were unable to find housing facilities. 
Landlord is threatening to evict tenants. 

No. 34: Family evicted a week ago — given 3 days' notice. Reason given that 
the building was to be torn down. Building has not been torn down, but is being 
repaired. Three children in this family; one in tuberculosis sanatorium. Income 
about $18 per week. Will go to live with another family unless they can find a 
rent — three other families already living with the family who will take them in. 
Rent had been increased from $18 to $25. Family unable to pay $25. 

No. 35: Three very small dark rooms. Rent $17 per month; raising it to $25. 
One child 3 years old. Income $18 per week. Family would try to pay additional 
rent but were informed landlord had found a family who would pay even more, so 
were asked to vacate. 

No. 36: Tenement infested with lice and cockroaches; very low water pressure. 
Family reported condition to board of health after talking to landlord. Were 
given notice to move. Income $25. Employed at Colt's. 

No. 37: Family evicted because of three children. Unable to find a rent. 
Moved to Massachusetts. Landlady told them they would be unable to get a 
rent in Hartford with three children. Income $34. 

No. 38: Family evicted because of size of family — ^five children. Now living 
in two rooms. Landlord has increased rent from $8 to $9 and is threatening to 
raise it to $12. Is anxious for family to move because of so many children. 
Income $20 to $25. 

No. 39: Family evicted by landlord because he wanted house for himself. 
Four children, rent, $42; income, $40. Court order received for their eviction. 
Family have found rent for the present, but do not know how long they will be 
able to stay. Rent $35. 

No. 40: Landlord has been threatening to put family out all winter. Does not 
like children. Mrs. D. said this week she expected eviction. Has been looking 
for rent, but has been unable to find anything she can afford. Rent $34. Man 
employed at Colt's. 

No. 41: Man had an argument with landlord about need of heat and was told 
to leave, given 1 week's notice Family have not been able to find rooms yet, 
because of their children. Income, $23; rent, $8 per week. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5135 

No. 42: Landlord wished to change 6-family tenement into 12- and is raising 
rent $5 a month and says if you don't move within 3 months, I'll put you out. 
One family moved after first raise in rent; the other unable to find a rent. Num- 
ber of children, 2; income, $25; rent, ?40. 

No. 43: Three families living in one apartment house. Rent has been increased 
fr^m $25 to $30, and another increase has been threatened. Two families have 
11 children, the third has 5 children. All incomes under $30. Landlord says he 
will raise rents until the families leave ; he wants small families like newly weds. 

No. 44: Rent raised from $17 in 1935 to $28 and landlady states it is to be raised 
to $33. She knows that the family cannot pay $33, but wants them to move 
because of their two children. Family income, $25. This family are so des- 
perately anxious to find another rent that when they heard of another family who 
might possibly move out, they made a deposit with the landlord so they would be 
considered. 

No. 45: Rent raised from $25 to $35. Family have to move as they cannot 
afford to pay the increase. Income $27 a week. They are supposed to have 
moved out April 1, but so far have been unable to find a place to go. They have 
five children. 

No. 46: Rent increased to $8 a week for two rooms, unfurnished, no bathtub 
on floor. Three adults in two rooms. A child is expected, and they have to move 
out. They are unable to find a rent. Moved into trailer. Income, $23 per 
week. 

No. 47: Three families in one apartment house: (1) Rent raised from $12 to 
$19 in 6 months; income $20 to $25 a week; seven children. (2) Five children; 
same increase in rent; income, $25 a week. (3) Income irregular; four children; 
same increase in rent. All are being evicted as landlord is doing over the entire 
apartment for adults only. 

No. 48: Family have received court order for eviction. Second notice received 
yesterday. They have no place to go. Mother ill. Five children in home, which 
consists of three rooms. Rent raised from $15 to $18 as landlord does not want 
the family to stay because they have too many children. They have appealed to 
the mayor, to the chamber of commerce and to a lawyer. Evicted. Family of 
seven moved into two rooms. Evicted again because of size of family. . 

No. 49: Family have applied to the Federal Housing Authority for rent and 
were put on the waiting list. Received eviction notice because of too many 
children. Rent raised from $20 to $23. Landlady nagging family all the time to 
move, but they are unable to find a rent. Family have lived in their present 
quarters since their first child was born 6 years ago. There are now five children. 
They have paid their rent every month. 

No. 50: Family living in one housekeeping room. Two children, 4 years and 
2J4 months each. Rent was $6; has now been raised to $10. Father has worked 
for 4 years on Work Projects Administration. Family came here from New Hamp- 
shire 2 months ago. House recently taken over by new landlord who wants no 
children and familj- have been given 1 week's notice to get out. 

No. 51: Family living in two furnished rooms. Mother just delivered of new- 
baby. Landlady has raised rent because of new baby from $6 to $7 per week. 
Employed at Colt's. 

No. 52: Family have to move because the Fenn Manufacturing Co. has bought 
the lot on which the house is situated, expecting to expand their factory because 
of defense orders. Company is trying to find rent for family, but so far have been 
unable to do so. Company willing to pav 3 months' rent because of inconvenienc- 
ing family. Income, $25/ Rent paid, $22. 

No. 53: Family living with paternal grandparents. Eleven individuals in 
combined families living in eight rooms. Home too crowded and grandmother 
unable to stand commotion the children make, so must find quarters for themselves 
Unable to locate a rent. Income, $35. 

No. 54: Rent raised $25 to $27. Man offered janitor's job at home, but unable 
to take it along with present job. Family have received court order to move 
but are unable to find any place to go. Landlord wants apartment for man who 
will act as janitor and who had no children. Income, $26. Moved to Windsor. 

No. 55: Family in same building as No. 54 ordered out by June 1. No court 
order as yet. Rent raised $29 to $35. Family have lived in this apartment for 
years. Income $26 to $30. Two children, ages 11 and 8. 

No. 56. Rent raised .$30 to $36. Four in family, two adults and children ages 
3 and 1. Told to get out even though able to pay increase (with difficulty) 
because of children. Income, $19 to $22 per week. 



5136 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

No. 57: Family of eight ordered to move because landlady wants rent for her 
daughter. Rent raised $25 to $35. Income, $39. Unable to find rent with 
six children. 

No. 58: Rent raised from $10 to $12 a week for two unfurnished rooms. Land- 
lady wants to furnish rooms and charge more. Family have their own furniture. 
Cannot afford more rent. Unable to find another place to which to move. 

No. 59: Rent raised from $12 to $16 a week for two furnished rooms, unheated. 
Last year rent for same two rooms was $7. Family asked to move as owner feels 
he can get $16 a week from someone else. Income, $26. 

No. 60: Family ordered to move. Rent, $22. One child. Family went to 
see landlord's lawyer to try to straighten out rent. Allowed to remain but only 
temporarily. Unable to find out why they were asked to move. Income, $20. 

No. 61: Number in family— five children with mother and father. They have 
four rooms, rent, $30 a month. It has been raised from $26 a month. " They 
were told to leave in February because there were too many children. They 
have not left this rent yet but have been told they must get out before the 1st 
of May. This family is self-supporting, the husband earning $30 a week. 

No. 62: (Reported by Children's Village) one child has been with her great- 
grandmother since the separation of parents 3 years ago. Mother up until 
August 1940 lived with her parents and their five children all unmarried and some 
young enough to be in school. They lived in a six-room rent but were evicted 
the last of August 1940 on account of the size of the family. Their rent was paid 
up to date. The new rent that the grandparents could find was a five-room flat 
at $35 a month. This landlord would not accept more than the grandparents 
and refused to give them the rent if the grandchildren were included, so the 
children at that time were taken into the Children's Village. Mother makes a 
low wage, about $14 a week, and could not afford a home of her own without 
supplementary aid. 

No. 63: (Reported by the Hartford Board of Education, visiting teacher de- 
partment.) The family consists of parents and five children ranging in age from 
2 to 16 years. Father earns $28 a week. The family receive no supplementary 
aid from any social agency. Family have lived at this address since September 
1939 and have paid their rent regularly every month until April 1941. They have 
not paid their rent thi,s month because on May 31, 1941, they received an eviction 
notice from their landlord ordering them to move on April 7, 1941. They were 
unable to find a rent by that. time. On April 8, 1941, another eviction notice was 
given the family and it was followed by a court order. The family have been 
paying $25 a month for this apartment which consists of five rooms. They have 
asked the Housing Authority for an apartment of five or five and one-half rooms. 

Mother appeared before the judge of the city court on April 15, 1941. At that 
time landlord told the judge he didn't know why he was evicting the family. He 
had absolutely no complaints to make. However, father had questioned him 
before about reasons for the eviction notices and was told that the old couple who 
live in the apartment below complained because the children make noise during 
the day. This statement referred to the two babies, ages 2 and 4, who are at 
home all day. They are always in bed by 6 o'clock. The judge ordered the 
family to move by April 28. 

[In addition to the above 63 families the Hartford Department of Public Welfare 
reported on April 15, 1941, that in their case load 10 evictions were pending, and 
8 families who had gone through evictions were living under unsatisfactory ar- 
rangements at that time.] 

TESTIMONY OF MILTON H. GLOVER— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. Would you go into a little more detail concerning the 
historical development of the public welfare agencies here in Hartford? 

Mr. Glover. I am sorry to say I am not familiar with the public 
agencies. My entire interest has been with the private agencies. 

Mr. Arnold. Could you enlarge on the problem of the social 
agencies? 

Mr. Glover. In the private group, prior to the middle twenties, 
each operated independently, and at that tmie there were a number 
of agencies which came together to form what is now Imown as the 
community chest. Those agencies, as you know, get their support 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5137 

thi'ough the chest. As pointed out in this report, these private agen- 
cies stand high: Hartford stands high in per capita care through 
private contributions, ranking first among the 28 cities. 

Mr. Arnold. During the depression Federal welfare work some- 
what reduced the importance of private welfare agencies. But today, 
with the defense program on, many new problems are arismg which 
will have to be handled by private agencies. In other words, the 
private welfare agency seems destined to regain its former importance 
during the period that is ahead. Don't vou thmk that is true, Mr. 
Glover? 

TEMPORARY CARE 

Mr. Glover. I think it is true. Our private agencies here are 
engaged in temporary care. We don't attempt to provide any per- 
manent care in that group. We try to act as "shock troops," as it 
were, to handle emergencies when they arise. 

Mr. Arnold. Tabte 6 of your paper shows the decline of Federal 
funds and the increase of private expenditures for total welfare 
services since 1938. It is interesting to note the increase in shelter 
and travelers' aid services in recent months. These indicate clearly 
the destitute character of some of our present defense migrants, do 
they not? 

Mr. Glover. I believe so. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you care to comment in more detail on these 
aspects of the committee's problem? 

Mr. Glover. I believe it is estimated that about 10,000 additional 
residents are in Hartford in the chest area, as a result of the defense 
program, and I suppose a great many of those people have come here 
seeking jobs, and they naturally pass through our agencies when they 
are in that position. 

MANY CASES OF EVICTION 

Mr. Arnold. How has the defense program affected your local 
clients, specifically their housing situation? 

Mr. Glover. Well, the council began to study the whole defense 
impact last fall, and the first thing that was studied by the private 
agencies was the housing problem. I believe that some 15 or 20 per- 
cent of the cases reported to the case-work council last fall consisted 
of housing problems. In May there were 75 specific housing cases 
listed with our agencies. Many of those were eviction cases, the 
direct result of children being in the family. 

Mr. Arnold. Seventy-five cases? 

Mr. Glover. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Among families being cared for by the social agencies, 
which were under eviction orders; is that right? 

Mr. Glover. That is right; yes, sir. 

need for family homes 

The first thing that the council did was set up a rooms iTgistry. 
I believe the problem has shifted in the meantime to the need for 
family homes rather than single rooms. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you be able to prepare for the committee's 
records concise summaries of these 75 cases, without identifying, of 
course, the people by name? 



5138 HAKTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Glover. I believe that could be done by the agencies from 
whom we got the records. 

Mr. Arnold. The committee would be very much interested in 
having those concise summaries if it is possible to get them, Mr. 
Glover. You know that this committee is deeply concerned with 
the problem of nonsettled persons. The present defense migration 
will leave millions without settlement after the defense program is 
over, and we shall face once again the problem of neeciy people who 
haven't any work nor any legal residence status. 

Do you have any further thought on this problem which you care 
to leave with the committee? 

DANGER OF INEMPLOYMENT AHEAD 

Mr. Glover. Well, as far as the private social pi-oblem is con- 
cerned, we are probably thinking much more in terms of what is going 
to happen to us than what has happened. We r(nilize that most of 
these 10,000 people who have come into Hartford will be out of a 
job if the old notion that " the last one in is the first one out" holds 
good. We are wondering what our problem is going to be, for obvi- 
ously it will be one to be taken care of by social agencies, both, public 
and private. We haven't been able to make any detailed or general 
plans as to what we expect to meet, but we just feel it is there. 

Mr. Arnold. You are too busy taking care of the present situation? 

Mr. Glover. Insofar as we pointed out in our report, we haven't 
found any solution yet. We have established a day nursery where 
children are placed while their mothers are employed. 

Mr. Arnold. I believe that is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much for your very enlightening- 
statement. We will have it inserted in the record in full. 

Mr. Arnold. And you will supply the committee with the data 
that I have requested? 

Mr. Glover. Yes. 

(The summaries of cases of eviction of families under care of private 
social agencies in Hartford was received subsequent to the hearing. 
This paper has been entered in the record and appears in this volume 
as Exhibit A, p. 5131.) 

The Chairman. Mrs. Despard is our next witness. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. IVY DESPARD, WATERS' TRAILER CAMP, 
SOUTH WINDSOR, CONN. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Despard, will you please give the committee 
your full name? 

Mrs. Despard. Ivy Despard. 

The Chairman. And how old are you, Mrs. Despard? 

Mrs. Despard. Twenty-six. 

The Chairman. You are married? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

The Chairman. How long have you been married? 

Mrs. Despard. Nine years. 

The Chairman. And are your parents living? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

The Chairman. What is your father's occupation? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5139 

Mrs. Despard. He works for the metropolitan water bureau. 

The Chairman. Where? 

Mrs. Despard. Farmington, West Hartford. 

The Chairman. And you have two children, haven't you? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

The Chairman. What are their names? 

Mrs. Despard. Joyce is going to be 8 in September and Jacqueline 
will be 3 in October. 

The Chairman. Now, you have always lived in and about Hartford, 
haven't you? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

The Chairman. And what is your husband doing? 

Mrs. Despard. Works at the Roj^al Typewriter. 

The Chairman. How much money does he receive a month? 

Mrs. Despard. Well, he makes 81 cents an hour. He makes $32 
a week straight time. 

The Chairman. What did you pay for the first house you lived in 
since your marriage? 

Mrs. Despard. Paid $28 a month. 

The Chairman. How many rooms? 

Mrs. Despard. Four. 

The Chairman. How long ago was that? 

Mrs. Despard. Well, we went to housekeeping 2 years after we 
were married. 

The Chairman. And how long iVn] you live in that house? 

Mrs. Despard. Lived 3 years. 

The Chairman. And you paid $28 a month? 

Mrs. Despard. And then Mr. Rome raised the rent to $30, but 
we still continued to stay there. 

The Chairman. And then where did you live? 

Mrs. Despard. Then for a while my husband was on short time 
and we went and stayed with my mother for a while, and then we 
went to Standish Street. 

The Chairman. And what kind of a house did you live in there? 

Mrs. Despard. Five rooms. 

The Chairman. What did you pay for that? 

Mrs. Despard. Thirty-three dollars a month. 

The Chairman. And what vear was that? 

Mrs. Despard. About 1940'. 

The Chairman. And did you have any difficulty getting a house 
at that time? 

Mrs. Despard. Well, there was some rents but this one here, she 
told us we could have it for $33. She was asking $35 but she said 
$33 would carry the house. 

The Chairman. Then when did you move from that house? 

Mrs. Despard. We moved from th(n-e in September. We are 
living now in a trailer. 

The Chairman. Why did you leave the house on Standish Street? 
Did your landlord raise the rent? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. We were there about 9 months. When we 
first went in I told her I had the two children, and then when we were 
there about 9 months she started complaining a little bit about the 
children. You see my oldest girl was in school. She started to 
complain about the children and then afterward the man across the 



5140 HAHTPORD HEARINGS 

street — he had the same kind of a place and eveiything, the same 
kind of a house on the outside and everything — he raised his rent to 
$45 and she started telhng me her rent was worth $45 because she 
could get $45. She started telling my husband the rent would be 
$45 and we couldn't pay it because at that time my husband was 
only making $32. He hadn't gotten his raise. 

The Chairman. What were you making at the time? 

Mrs. Despard. $28 a week. 

The Chairman. Did she say why she wanted to raise the rent? 

Mrs. Despard. She said due to the fact that everybody started 
to raise the rents she figured she could get it and she started com- 
plaining about the children. I kept the children in the kitchen all 
the time. We put locks on all the doors because she had scraped the 
floors and when we moved in they didn't touch the apartment at all. 
We moved in when the other people moved out. 

The Chairman. Did you have any conversation with her in refer- 
ence to your making out rent receipts or her making out rent 
receipts? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. When we told her we couldn't pay her the 
$45, she asked if I would allow her to give me a rent receipt for $45, 
because when the other people came in, two families living together, 
the mother and daughter and son-in-law, and both families hving there 
together, she wanted to make out a $45 receipt so she could tell them 
we were paying $45 with the garage, and I told her I. didn't think that 
was fair and she got sort of mean and I went to stay with mother. 

The Chairman. In other words she gave you notice to leave the 
house? 

Mrs. Despard. Either pay the $45 or leave so she could rent it to 
the other people. 

The Chairman. And then when you paid the last month's rent, she 
wanted to make out a receipt for $45 so she could show other people 
you had paid $45; is that right? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And you refused to do that? 

Mrs. Despard. I didn't think it was quite fair for the other people 
bvccause I knew several that would have liked to have taken the house 
if she hadn't raised it so high. 

The Chairman. What did you do then about obtaining a house? 

Mrs. Despard. Then we went around and looked for a house and 
we went everywhere but couldn't find one. 

The Chairman. Where did you Hve in the meantime? 

Mrs. Despard. Well, we told her that we couldn't be out of there 
for a month and to give us at least a month to find a rent, so I started 
my little girl to school and we went out looking for rents and we 
couldn't find one and we went and borrowed the down payment 
on a trailer. 

The Chairman. Is that where you are living now? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How much did you pay for the trailer? 

Mrs. Despard. Our trailer cost $950. 

The Chairman. And how much did you pay down? 

Mrs. Despard. Two hundred dollars.] 

The Chairman. Did you have to borrow the money? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5141 

Mrs. Despard. We had a side note we had to make m order to 
get the down payment because you have to put a third down on 
them. 

The Chairman. Did you have to borrow the $200? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes; we borrowed the money. 

The Chairman. And how much a month do you pay? 

Mrs. Despard. We are paying $44 a month. 

The Chairman. On the trailer? 

Mrs. Despard. Our notes are $30. There is a balloon note at 
the end that we have to meet and then there is $10 a month for park- 
ing it and then we have our furniture in storage. We have five 
rooms in storage. 

The Chairman. But the down payment on the trailer and the rent 
where the trailer is parked cost you $44 a month? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

The Chairman. And your husband's monthly salary is how much? 

Mrs. Despard. He makes $32 a week and then he went out and took 
a side job so he could try to get some money saved and buy a house, 
but we can't seem to gain anything. In fact we have a buyer now for 
the trailer but we can't get a rent to go mto if we sell the trailer. 

The Chairman. How much ground space do you have with the 
trailer? 

Mrs. Despard. I think Mr. Waters allows us — •! know the lots are 
larger than those at the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Corporation. 

The Chairman. Are you comfortable in the trailer? 

Mrs. Despard. Well, we are quite crowded. My mother had to 
break up housekeeping and she came and stayed with us. Her house 
was sold. 

The Chairman. Your mother came to stay with you? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes; and my brother had to stay with us too. 

The Chairman. How old is he? 

Airs. Despard. Fifteen. 

The Chairman. Does your husband work nights or days? 

Mrs. Despard. Days. 

The Chairman. Well, you are pretty crowded m there? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes; we are. 

The Chairman. How large is the trailer? 

Mrs. Despard. Our trailer is 24 feet. 

The Chairman. You do your cooking in it? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

The Chairman, And you do your washing on the outside? 

Mrs. Despard. In the washroom — ^we have a washroom there. 

The Chairman. You said something about furniture being stored. 
You have your furniture stored? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

The Chairman. What does the storage on the furniture cost you? 

Mrs. Despard. Five dollars. 

The Chairman. And what does that furniture consist of? 

Mrs. Despard. We have five complete rooms of furniture. 

The Chairman. And you pay $5 a month storage on the furniture? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

The Chairman. You have spent considerable time looking for a 
house? 



5142 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mrs. Despard. Wo went to the Housing Authority and tried to 
get one of the rents down there and she told us we had lost our resi- 
dence in Hartford and she wouldn't even talk to us about getting one. 
I asked her about getting a house on Flatbush Avenue and she told us, 
No, that my husband wasn't considered a defense worker; although 
they are doing some defense work over there at the Royal Typewriter, 
she wouldn't listen to us on that. 

The Chairman. You lost your residence where? 

Mrs. Despard. In Hartford. We voted in Hartford and every- 
thing. They came to the camp and brought us over to Hartford to 
vote and our taxes were payable in Hartford. 

The Chairman. Wliat were you paying taxes on? 

Mrs. Despard. Personal taxes. 

The Chairman. Furniture? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

The Chairman. But still you were not eligible to have one of those 
houses because you were told you had lost your residence in Hartford? 

Mrs. Despard. Well, she claimed my mother lost her residence too, 
but my father never lived out of the city of Hartford. He stayed in 
Hartford and paid board and room there and my mother just stayed 
with me. Her health broke down and the doctor told her she couldn't 
stay in the trailer. 

My father would get up in the morning, every morning he ran an 
ad in the Hartford Times and he would get up every morning and go 
down to the Hartford Times and wait for the Times to come on the 
street and he would go looking for different houses and he found one 
a month ago. He has four rooms. 

The Chairman. Do they call apartments here rents? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I still don't quite understand why the Housing 
Authority woman told you that you had lost your residence. How- 
did she make that out? 

Mrs. Despard. W^ell, she claimed that due to the fact that my 
husband lived over there we had lost our residence. 

The Chairman. But you lived around here all your life? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes, I was born in Manchester, Conn. 

The Chairman. And your father lives here? 

Mrs. Despard. He has worked 18 years for the Metropolitan 
Water Bureau. 

The Chairman. Mr. Sparkman. 

Mr. Sparkman. I don't know that I am straight on this. Will you 
please tell me where you are living now? 

Mrs. Despard. South Windsor. 

Mr. Sparkman. Wliere is South Windsor with reference to Hart- 
ford? 

Mrs. Despard. You go through East Hartford and it is 3 miles 
from the city hall. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is that a different town that you are in? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes; South Windsor is a different town. 

Mr. Sparkman. But it is of course, in the State of Connecticut? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. And the person you went to see about a house was 
an employee of the town of Windsor, is that right? 

Mrs. Despard. No; Hartford. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5^43 

Mr. Sparkman. And she claimed that voii had lost voiir residence 
ni Hartford? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. So apparently you have local settlement laws here 
in addition to State settlement laws? 

Mrs. Despard. That is what she claimed, although South Windsor 
claims if my husband was unemployed or anything, that Hartford 
would still be responsible, due to the fact that we have lived here all 
our lives. 

Mr. Sparkman. Your husband is working for what company? 

Mrs. Despard. Royal Typewriter Co. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you say they are doing some defense work? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes; they are. They have the American flag in 
some departments already. That is when they go on defense work. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is he engaged in that work? 

Mrs. Despard. He is working in the Royal Typewriter now and 
they are starting to change the factory over to defense work. 

Mr. Sparkman. But they think you would not be eligible for one 
of the defense houses? 

Mrs. Despard. That is what she claimed. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you talked with any of the officials of the 
State department of welfare or whatever agency you might happen 
to have? 

Mrs. Despard. No, I haven't. 

Mr. Sparkman. Only with this woman? 

Mrs. Despard. She seemed to be the only woman we could get to 
see. She had all the authority over it and she told my mother she 
couldn't make application and my mother found out that due to the 
fact that n;y father never moved out of the city he could, and she had 
my father file application. My mother's family was broke up into 
three parts. 1 had my mother and brother and then my mother 
couldn't stay there ancl she went to live on my sister and the three 
of them were living in different places and my father was living in 
Hartford and then my sister's landlord started to kick. He didn't 
want the two families staying there and my mother made application 
and they never came to see her and my mother now is paying $35 
a month and she has to heat it and furnish the lights and gas and my 
father only makes $26 a week. 

Mr. Sparkman. Let me ask you about this rent increase that you 
detailed earlier in your testimony. Is that more or less general, do 
you think? 

Mrs. Despard. Well, that is what she is getting now for the rent. 

Mr. Sparkman. I am. not speaking of this particular landlady; 
but is that condition more or less general throughout the city? 

Mrs. Despard. It is all over, no matter where we go the rents are 
increased and where my husband works different ones tell him how 
the rents are increased. 

Mr. Sparkman. You were virtually run out of a house into a 
trailer by the increase in rents? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. And the housing program engaged in by local 
agencies or by Federal aid has not served to give you a place to live? 

Mrs. Despard. That is right. 

60396— 41— pt. 13 9 



5144 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Sparkman. Arc you able to save anything on your present 
earnings? 

Mrs. Despard. Well, just a few dollars because we are still paying 
on the loan that we borrowed for the down pa^vment. It isn't a 
year yet. It runs a year. It is $17 a month on that. 

Mr. Sparkman. On your down payment? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. And then how much on the main debt for your 
trailer? 

Mrs. Despard. $30 and $10 for parking, and $5 for furniture 
storage. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is $62 a month that you pay out before you 
have anything to live on? 

Mrs. Despard. And I have insurance on the children and every- 
thing. I have to carry that. 

Mr. Sparkman. And your husband makes how much? 

Airs. Despard. $32 a week. 

Mr. Sparkman. It keeps you pretty well on your toes to keep things 
going, doesn't it? 

Mrs. Despard. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. What the Housing Authority lady mentioned to 
you was really the State settlement laws; it was the township settle- 
ment laws, and she claimed you lost jouv residence by moving from 
one town to the other? 

Mrs. Despard. She claimed because we moved to South Windsor 
we lost our residence, and I asked her if I moved back to Hartford 
would I be able to get it and she said no, that I would have to stay 
there a year. 

The Chairman. That is all. We tiiank you very much. Our 
next witness is Mr. Light. 

TESTIMONY OF N. SEARLE LIGHT. DIRECTOR, BUREAU OF SUPER- 
VISION, STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, HARTFORD, 
CONN. 

The Chairman. Mr. Light, Mi-. Sparkman will interrogate you. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Light, will you state your name and address 
and the official capacity in vrhich you appear before us? 

Mr. Light. N. vSearle Light, director. Bureau of Supervision, 
State Department of Education. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Light, I have read your statement with much 
interest. I wouldn't say that I have digested all these tables that you 
have in your statement, but I have looked them over and the whole 
thing will be made a part of our record. 

STATEMENT BY N. SEARLE LIGHT, DIRECTOR, BUREAU OF SUPER- 
VISION, CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 

SCHOOLHOUSING AND THE DEFENSE PROGRAM 

To date there has been little increase in school enrollment attributable to the 
defense program. This is apparently because incoming workers have not tended 
to bring in their families, possibly because of housing shortages or reluctance to 
change schools in the middle of the year or change homes on a temporar3' basis. 
There has been some indication that recent migrants have largely been families 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5145 

with, children below school age. Probably full impact of the defense program on 
schoolhoiiising will not begin to be felt until the 1942-43 term. 

F]mployment pick-up in industrial centers will undoubtedly be felt strongly in 
the suburban and rural areas surrounding those centers. Workers are commuting 
and former residents seem to be moving outward. 

In general the following effects on schoolhousing are indicated: 

CITIES — ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Little immediate crowding because past decline in elementary-grade enrollments 
has left free space in existing schools. Utilization of this space may involve con- 
siderable transportation of pupils and redistricting, however. 

CITIES HIGH SCHOOLS 

Existing overcrowded conditions arising from past increases in high-school en- 
rollments will become more serious and in some cases even critical. This despite 
expected increase in high-school drop-outs due to increased employment oppor- 
tunities. 

SUBURBAN AND RURAL — ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

"Although generally not now crowded, there is little reserve capacity to take care 
of comparatively large increases in enrollments to be expected. 

SUBURBAN AND RURAL HIGH SCHOOLS 

High schools are already seriously overcrowded and lacking in essential educa- 
tional facilities. Expected enrollment increases are serious whether pupils attend 
local high schools or nearby city high schools as tuition pupils. 

Indications are that the Lanham Act will provide relief in the form of additional 
school facilities and reimbursement for increased operating expenses and trans- 
portation only in those towns actually having Federal housing within their bor- 
ders. Rural and suburban towns having no Federal housing apparently will re- 
ceive no Federal assistance on the theory that private or Federal Housing Admin- 
istration housing goes on the tax lists and should be self-supporting. Allowance 
is not made, however, for the fact that much of the private housing is of low tax 
value and that there will be a considerable lag between the completion of the 
houses and the appearance of new school children, on one hand, and the appear- 
ance of new properties on tax rolls providing borrowing capacity so that additional 
school facilities may be built. 

BRIDGEPORT AREA 

Bridgeport. — Elementary schools: Reserve capacity (2,700) sufficient for ex- 
pected increase provided recourse is made to transportation. 

High schools: Alread}^ overcrowded. Elimination of present tuition pupils 
(400) would relieve need for additional facilities. 

One thousand two hundred and fifty Federal housing units projected. Federal 
aid for schools anticipated by the local authorities. 

Stratford. — Elementary schools: Reserve capacity (75) insufficient for expected 
increase unless seventh and eighth grades are removed and housed in new building. 

High school: Filled to capacity. Cannot accommodate present seventh and 
eighth grades on a 6-year program. Expected increase will cause overcrowding 
even with new junior high school. 

Four hundred Federal housing units projected to date in addition to consider- 
able private building. Relatively little Federal aid expected because of large 
proportion of private housing. 

Fairfield. — Elementary schools: Reserve capacity (1,300) sufficient for expected 
increase provided considerable transportatioTi is undertaken. This will increase 
use of undesirable buildings, otherwise soon to be eliminated. 

High school: Already overcrowded. Additional facilities badly needed. 

Four hundred Federal housing units projected. Relatively little Federal aid 
expected largely because of private construction. 

Easton, Monroe, Trumbull. — Elementary schools: No reserve capacity for 
expected increased enrollment. 

High schools: None. Pupils go to Bridgeport. Withdrawal to a new regional 
high school has been recommended. 

Little or no Federal aid is expected because no Federal housing is projected for 
these towns. 



5146 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Milford. — Elementary schools: No data on hand except some children now on 
part-time basis and more will be in the fall. Increase is expected in areas near 
Stratford. No reserve capacity. 

High school: No reserve capacity. Already overcrowded. 

No Federal housing is expected and, therefore, no Federal aid. 

Shelton.- — Conditions not known. 

NEW LONDON AREA 

New London. — Elementary schools: Reserve capacity (300) is probably suffi- 
cient for limited increase now expected. 

High schools: All private. Sufficient reserve capacity is reported. No Federal 
housing or Federal aid anticipated. 

Groton. — Elementary schools: No reserve capacity for the proportionately 
very large increase (450) expected. 

High school: No reserve capacity for the lesser increase expected. Seven hun- 
dred Federal housing units projected. Federal aid is anticipated. 

Ledyard. — Elementary schools: No reserve capacity for expected moderate 
increase. 

High school: No high schools. Pupils are sent to New London, Norwich, and 
Groton. 

No Federal housing; therefore, no Federal aid is expected. 

Montville, Waterford. — No information. 

Glastonbury. — High school: No reserve capacity to accommodate expected 
increase. 

No Federal housing and, therefore, no Federal aid. 

Avon, Berlin, Bloomfield, Farmington, New Britain, Newington, Plainville, 
Rocky Hill, South Windsor, West Hartford, Wethersfield, Windsor, Windsor Locks. — 
No data. 

WATERBURY AREA 

Waterbury. — Elementary schools: Reserve capacity probably adequate with 
transportation. 

High schools: Overcrowded. No accommodations for expected increase. 

Four hundred (?) Federal housing units projected. 

Wolcott. — Elementary schools: No reserve capacity. No space for increases 
now being felt or for expected increases (especially toward Bristol sidej . 

High school: No high school. Pupils go to Waterbury and Bristol. 

No Federal housing. Much low-cost private housing. No Federal aid. 

Prospect. — Elementary schools: No reserve capacity. No accommodations for 
increases now felt and expected. 

High school: No high schools. Pupils go to Waterbury and Cheshire. 

No Federal housing or aid expected. 

Middlebury, Naugatuck, Watertown. — No data. 

HARTFORD AREA 

Hartford.- — Elementary schools: Reserve capacity (4,500) sufficient for ex- 
pected increase with recourse to transportation and possibly redistricting for 
attendance. 

Junior high schools: Reserve capacity (900) sufficient as above. 

High schools: Reserve capacity (800) sufficient as above. 

One thousand Federal housing units. Federal aid probably available but not 
needed. 

East Hartford. — Elementary schools: Reserve capacity sufficient for expected 
increase only if junior high school grades rehoused. 

.Junior high schools: Space in present elementary school buildings insufficient 
for expected increase. 

High school: Some overloading expected, even though new provisions made for 
ninth grade now housed in high-school building. 

Five hundred Federal housing units projected. Probably more to follow. 
Much private construction under way and expected. Probably some Federal aid. 

Manchester. — Elementary schools: Reserve capacity (600) probably sufficient 
for expected increase if transportation is undertaken. 

High schools: No reserve capacity. Additional facilities necessary for ex- 
pected increase. 

No Federal housing now planned. Much private housing. Probably no 
Federal aid. 

Glastonbury. — Elementary schools: Reserve capacity (275) probably adequate 
for next year and with much transportation. I Itimate shortage expected. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5I47 

Comments of Superintendents of Schools 
bridgeport area 

Easton. — In East on there is a slight increase in school population and in total 
population of the town, which probably is due to the same cause. There are, 
however, no large developments underway, and there are no available houses for 
rent in the town. The growth in that town will be slower than in the other town.s, 
unless some contractor decides to open a new development. 

Monroe. — The population in Monroe is receiving its increase from people that 
have school children, and in the case of Monroe, the families entering the town 
appear to have somewhat larger families than may be true in Trumbull. The in- 
migration of workers into Monroe and Trumbull is \ev\ definitely affecting the 
school enrollments in those two towns. In Monroe, we have over 300 children 
in an eight-teacher school. This is the only school building in the town, and some 
arrangement must be made in the very near future to provide for a further increase 
in school population, wh'ch may be either through an elementarj- school building, 
or by relieving the school by taking its seventh and eighth grades to a regional 
high school. 

Trumbull. — In the town of Trumbull, on several new developments, a consider- 
able number of new houses have been built, and are being built. I would say that 
their occupation was by young married couples with young children to a consider- 
able extent, and in some instances, of young married couples with no children. 

In Trumbull next year we will have every one of 24 classrooms occupied, and for 
the most part, they will be occupied by classrooms of pupils of 35 or more in num- 
ber. The town of Trumbull must do something very soon to care for its increasing 
population. There is no question that war industries in Bridgeport are affecting 
very definitely the enrollment in these two towns. 

Miljord. — Our school population has been increasing. Many young married 
couples with young children have moved to Milford and our schools have already 
felt the increase. We expect more families of the same type will come to our town 
during the summer. Two grade rooms have been on part-time since Easter and 
next fall more rooms will follow. 

HARTFORD AREA 

New Britain. — There has been a general increase in the population of New Brit- 
ain since the 1940 census, because of increased employment. 

The chamber of commerce reports that most of this influx has been of un- 
married men, and employers indicate the}- expect about 50 percent married and 
50 percent unmarried, and about 39 percent from outside of this area. 

School enrollment figures do not yet indicate any increase of children into the 
schools as a result of the in-migration, but the immediate opening of 840 units 
of Federal housing may present problems in school housing in the fall of 1941. 

EAST HARTFORD AREA 

East Windsor and South Windsor. — The population increase in South Windsor 
has been made up mostly of families with children of school age. There is some 
likelihood that the enrollment of the South Windsor schools will continue to 
increase, especially if defense work continues. 

We do not anticipate an increase so large that present school facilities will be 
inadequate. If we do require additional room the high school will be the first 
building where such room will have to be provided. All we can do for the present, 
I feel, is to watch in-migration activity during the summer most carefully. 

East Hartford. — As far as Pratt & Whitney aircraft employees are concerned, 
they are mostly single men. Next in number are young married employees 
without children or with very young children. 

As a measure of what has happened during the past year in that respect, at the 
present our elementary enrollment shows not more than 15 pupils than last year 
at the same time. Our junior high school enrollment is down about 8 pupils and 
our senior high school down about 70 pupils. The explanation is as above. 
This is checked by the fact that recently driving around the town and counting 
the new houses erected within the last year, most of which are occupied by young 
people, very few families with children were noted. 

The in-migration of workers will be regulated by the number of houses that are 
available as all present houses are filled. 

We expect very little change between now and October 1 so that the problem 
will not reach anything like a serious phase for the next year or two. 



5148 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

We have ample school facilities to take care of the governmental developments 
planned during the coming school year. After that it is probable that we shall 
have to have additional schools. 

Manchester. — During the past 2 years there has been built in Manchester a 
large number of the smaller type of houses, but the increase in the number of 
houses does not seem to have affected materially the enrollment in our schools. 
We have no specific information concerning the number of children who may be 
potential school members within a year or two but casual observation leads us 
to believe that there are a considerable number of preschool children in the new 
areas. It is reasonable, therefore, to expect that we might have a slight increase 
in lower grade enrollments within the next 2 or 3 years. 

NEW LONDON AREA 

Groton. — Estimates of gains in school enrollment if defense housing projects are 
completed include 338 elementary (grades 1 to 6), 112 elementarv (grades 7 to 
8), 45 high school. 

Ledyard. — We feel that the increase in Ledyard is largely due to the defense 
work at the submarine base and the Electric Boat nearby in Groton. 

WATERBITRY 

Middlebury, Prospect, and Wolcott. — As I have observed the recent influx of 
population in the towns of Middlebury, Prospect, and Wolcott, I am led to con- 
clude that for the most part they are permanent family residents, moving out of 
Waterbury and building their own homes. I expect that the in-migration will 
continue in these towns next year. 

Windsor Locks. — The establishment of the Army air base will, unquestionably, 
increase next year's enrollment. For that reason, the estimate for October 1941 
may be too low. 

Estimated gain or loss in school enrollment in 2-year period September 1939 to 
September 1941 (estimated), in terms of standard classroo?7is {30 pupils per 
classroom) 



1 To Bridgeport High School. 

2 No data. 

' Nonlocal high school. 
« To South Windsor. 





Elenw 


ntary 


Seventh and 
eighth, or junior 
high school 


Senior high .school 




Gain 


Loss 


Gain 


Loss 


Gain Loss 


Bridgeport area: 
Easton 


1.3 










Fairfield 


-3.0 


0.8 
.6 

.7 






-0.9 


Monroe 


1.3 
1.5 




"""'Vi.o" 


Trnmhiill 






1301 




-11.2 


-9.0 




-8.4 


Milford 


5.5 


.8 




-2.6 


Stratford 2 










Hartford area: 
Avon 


.5 








(3) 




Berim 


-.6 
-1.0 


.4 
.5 




-.6 


Bloomfleld 








-.6 


Farmington 












1.0 








L2 




Plainville 2 











Rocky Hill 


3.4 
6.4 




2.0 
5.0 




2.1 












Wethersfleld 


-.2 


-2.1 




Wmdsor 


4.5 


1.3 


-1.3 




-30.5 
-4.7 


-34.7 
-3.2 

-.3 
-.9 





-36.2 


New Britain 






— .9 


East Hartford-Manchester: 


.5 






-.3 


East Windsor 


-.2 




L8 


(') 






.6 




East Hartford 


2.5 




-.5 
-4.6 


-1.3 


Manchester . ._____._ 


-3.8 




3.4 1 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5149 



Estimated gain or loss in school enrollment in 2-year period Septetnber 1939 to 
September 1941 (estirnated), in terms of standard classrooms (SO pupils per 
classroom) — Cont inued 





Elementary 


Seventh and 
eighth, or junior 
high school 


Senior high s«hool 




Gain 


Loss 


Gain 


Loss 


Gain 


LOES 


New London area: 
Groton 


11.4 
.8 
.5 
.3 




3.7 




2.2 




Ledyard 












-L6 


3L9 




Waterford 




.2 














M'aterbury area: 
Middlebury 


LI 
.9 






-.7 

-.5 
-L8 




3-. 3 










(^) 








.4 

3.3 




Wolcott 


L2 




.4 






-18.3 
-2.3 


-9.9 


-18.5 












Windsor Locks 


2.1 




-.8 


.6 













To Bridgeport High School. 
Enumeration of children between the ages of 4 and 16 (annually in Septe)nbcr) 



Bridgeport area: 

Bridgeport 

Easton 

Fairfield _. 

Milford 

Monroe 

Shelton 

Stratford 

Trumbull 

Total 

Hartford area: 

Avon.. 

Berlin... 

Bloomfield 

East Hartford. 
Farmington... 
Glastonbury.. - 

Hartford 

Manchester 

New Britain... 

NewingtOJQ 

Plainville 

Rocky Hill 

South Windsor 



1938 


1939 


1940 


26,845 


25, 679 


24, 998 


236 


239 


232 


3,854 


3,844 


3,854 


2,980 


2.937 


3,064 


346 


362 


391 


2,179 


2,089 


2,035 


4,274 


4,275 


4,199 


997 


1,021 


1,064 


41,711 


40,446 


39, 837 


421 


433 


435 


1,071 


1,049 


1,020 


879 


921 


905 


3,622 


3,484 


3,442 


1,024 


L028 


984 


1,166 


1,157 


1,163 


29, 592 


28, 654 


27,641 


4.464 


4,314 


4,214 


13, 891 


13,217 


12, 377 


974 


958 


984 


1,449 


1,416 


1,408 


513 


520 


542 


527 


553 


569 



Hartford area— Con 
West Hartford.. 

Wethersfield 

Windsor 

AVindsor Locks. 

Total 

New London area: 

Groton 

Ledvard 

Montville 

New London... 
Waterford 

Total 

Watcrhury area: 

Middlebury 

Naugatuck 

Prospect 

Waterbury 

Walertown 

Wolcott 

Total 



5.266 
1.579 



5,596 
1,331 



2,557 

176 

18,301 



5,246 

1,652 

1,926 

747 



67, 275 



5,533 
1,372 



10, 159 



5,400 

1,685 

1,876 

734 



65, 379 



5,449 
1,327 



2,448 

202 

16, 925 

1,751 



5150 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 



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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



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It 


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1,063 
107 
333 

1,801 
519 

3,823 


1,070 
97 

338 
1,839 

533 


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5154 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Changes in Secondary-School Subject Elections for September 1941 

Of 78 public secondary schools reporting during the first week in June 1941, 40 
indicated no market changes in subject elections for September 1941. Twelve 
private and parochial schools of secondary grade also report no change in pros- 
pect. 

Marked changes in the total picture are indicated only in shop work and lan- 
guages. Many more pupils have elected shop work, a movement initiated earlier 
than the defense program but undoubtedly accelerated by it. 

A considerable shift from French to Spanish was reported with lesser decreases 
in German and Italian. Latin gains a little, four schools reporting increases and 
two reporting decreases. 

Many schools report increased withdrawals to enter employment and several 
report increased interest in trade schools. 

One school in a residential suburb reports that the percentage of its pupils 
enrolled in the college curriculum is to increase from 46 to 52 percent. 

The only conclusion to be draw n from these reports is that to date the secondary 
schools of tlie State have not been greatly affected by the defense program. 

SHOP WORK 

Thirty-t\ o schools report increases in shop-work elections, distributed as indi- 
cated in the following table. Three report decreases. Additional courses are 
being opened and girls are being admitted in some cases for the first time. 





Plus 


Minus 




P,„s 


Minus 


Shop work and related subjects: 
Industrial arts-- _._ 


19 

4 
1 
6 
2 


_ 


Shop work and related subjects- 
Continued. 




1 


Machine shop 


Auto mechanics 




1 


Aeronautics 

Mechanical drawing 


Total 






33 


3 


Industrial mathematics 





HOMEMAKINCt 

Five schools report increased elections of homemaking subjects. None report 
any decrease. 

BUSINESS education 

The following increases are reported: Business (general field) four; office 
machines, one; retail selling, one. Four report decreases in stenography. One 
school reports a falling off in a consumers' education course. 

social studies 

In view of the widespread discussion of international relationships, internal 
policies, and the "American way of living" increase in the selection of subjects in 
this field might be anticipated. Such is apparently not the case. One school 
reports an increase in history elections due to changes in college requirements; one 
a general increase in social studies; one town the development of a course on the 
Western Hemisphere. One reports a decrease in physical-geography elections. 

mathematics and science 

Five schools report increases in chemistry or physics or both and two report 
decreases in biologj-. 

One school indicates an increase in the course. Review of Mathematics; and 
two in mathematics. 

LANGUAGES 

Thirteen schools reported increases in Spanish and 1 a decrease. Thirteen 
schools reported decreases in French, 4 in German, 3 in Italian, and 2 in Latin. 
Four reported increases in Latin and 1 each in French, Italian, and Polish. 



AGRICULTURE 

One school reported an increase in agriculture. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5165 

Prospects of a Teacher Shortage in Connecticut 
J. A. baer, director oe research and planning 

F.arly in April a request was sent to superintendents throughout the State 
asking for information with respect to the probable demand for teachers for 
the coming year. Replies were received from superintendents representing 
80 percent of the towns and almost 60 percent of the total number of teachers in 
the State. 

Specifically, replies w^ere received from 62 of the 77 town and city superin- 
tendents, and 10 of the 12 field supervisors. The total number of teachers 
represented was 5,931. 

The 62 towns reported that 34 teachers had gone into military service since 
September 1940. Of the 34. 5 were elementary, 9 were junior high school, and IS 
Avere high-school teachers; 1 special teacher and 1 member of the administrative 
staflf also left for military service. Leaves of absence were granted to 31 of the 34. 
Two elementary and 1 high-school teacher seemingly were not granted leaves. 

Li the towns under State supervision, one elementary teacher only left for 
military service. A leave of absence was not granted. 

Eleven teachers, 5 elementary, 2 junior high school, and 4 high school, left school 
work for industry or business. One of the jmiior high school teachers was granted 
a leave of absence. 

The 62 towns reported 72 vacancies during the year, due to other causes than 
military service, 44 in the elementary grades, 5 in junior high school, and 23 in 
high school. A comj^lete distribution of the reasons for these vacancies is not 
available, but among those given are 29 marriages, 11 resignations (reason not 
stated), 9 maternity leaves; o health, 3 to take better positions, and other scattered 
reasons. 

DIVISIONS OF scarcity 

The superintendents who filled out the questionnaires named the following 
fields of difficulty in securing candidates: Art, commercial, domestic science or 
homemaking, industrial arts, mathematics, and a general supervisor in music. 
Men for the elementary schools also seem to be at a premium. 

Most of the superintendents liestitated to hazard an opinion as to the extent of 
probable shortage, but of those answering, only nine believe the situation to 
be general, or at least State-wide. From this, it would seem that the situation 
is not acute, and perhaps not as serious as some reports would indicate. 

Still subject to the draft are 459 men teachers, 74 in the elementary schools, 
125 in junior high schools, and 260 in high schools. If aU of these should be called 
during the coming year, it would make heavy inroads into the teaching ranks of 
the State. The probabilities, however, are that many of these men will receive a 
deferred classification by local draft boards, since the announced policy is against 
calling married men into service. 

Superintendents and field supervisors anticipate 239 additional vacancies in 
June, 101 elementary, 53 junior high, and 85 in high schools. Out of a total 
of 5,931 teachers, this is an anticipated turn-over of only 4 percent. Even 
when the 117 vacancies that have already occurred are added to the 239, the 
percent rises to only 6, which is not excessive. In normal times, one expects a 
turn-over of about 5 percent from natural causes, and in the 1920's, the turn-over 
was as high as 10 and 12 percent. 

The turn-over in high schools promises to be somewhat heavier than the 
average, inasmuch as a higher percentage of men teachers is found here. The 
increased demand for men in industry plus the calls of selective service will make 
for increased oj^portunities for women in the high schools. The only manifest 
shortage of qualified high-school teachers at present is for men teachers of indus- 
trial arts. 

Most of the superintendents either failed to answer the question, "In what 
field do you anticipate a shortage of qualified candidates?" or answered ^'none." 
Those who answered the question indicated expected shortages in various fields, 
the most commonly mentioned being industrial arts, 18 times, and homemaking 
with 6 mentions. Art, physical education, and secondary without further designa- 
tion were each mentioned 3 times. 

One man says: "We have several candidates for every vacancy at this time"; 
while another writes, "Good teachers getting scarcer. Never had enough good 
ones." This last statement is the perennial contention of a small group of adminis- 
trators. 



5166 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 

NO UNUSUAL TEACHER TURN-OVER 



Unless the superintendents do not have the facts, it would seem that the 
teacher turn-over will not be unusually high, and that there will not be an acute 
shortage of qualified candidates. A shortage may occur in the field most directly 
affected by the defense program, namely industrial arts. 

If the defense program continues, the high-school enrollments will tend to 
decrease because of increased employment opportunities. This will, in turn, tend 
to cause a decrease in the number of teaching positions, and thus tend to alleviate 
the shortage. 

On the other hand, increasing employment opportunities also tend to cut down 
the supply of candidates in two ways, first because in the past few years many 
college graduates turned to teaching since other jobs were not available, and 
second, college enrollments will probably show a falling off because of employ- 
ment and the draft, thus reducing the number of teachers in prej^aration. 

Another varial^le is the increasing demand for women workers in industrj*. 
This may react unfavorably on high school and teachers college attendance, and 
further reduce the potential supply of teachers. 

It seems reasonable to predict no serious shortage of teachers for the school year 
1941-42, but the variables are such that a prediction beyond that time is little 
more than a guess. 

Sources for Teacuers 

elementary 

The four State teachers colleges at Danbury, New Britain, New Haven, and 
Willimantic are the chief sources of supply for teachers of the elementary schools. 
Enrollment has for a good many years been regulated by the State board of educa- 
tion to meet the estimated need for teachers. No serious shortage i.s anticipated 
during the next 2 years. 

The table Ijelow gives the number of graduates this year by colleges. The 
letter from the President of the New Britain State Teachers College quoted below 
calls attention to a lo.ss of female graduates through marriage— an unconunon 
loss in recent years. 

Graduates. June 19 U 





Elemen- 
tary 


Secondary 




Business 
educa- 
tion 


Indus- 
trial 
arts 


Aca- 
demic 




41 
56 
67 
25 










14 


11 


22 


New Haven 




Willimantic 
















Total 


189 


14 


U 


22 







Note.— This table does not include graduates via extension courses, because they are already employed. 
SECONDARY • 

The State Teachei's College at New Britain prepares teachers for secondary 
schools in the academic fields of the social studies, English, mathematics and 
science, and also in the special fields of business education and industrial arts. 
The above table, "Graduates — June 1941," indicates 47. A number of the gradu- 
ating men are to enter the Army during the summer or fall and, as a result, a 
shortage of arts and industries teachers is developing. 

The University of Connecticut at Storrs also prepares tearliers for the second- 
ary schools, as do other colleges and universities in Connecticut and New England. 
The supply is likely to be adequate except as indicated above. 

Teachers of special subjects, including nrt, are drawn largely from sources 
outside the State. The supply needed each year has in the past been so small 
that no facilities for preparing them have been developed. The university, 
however, is now preparing teachers of music for the public schools. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5167 



ENROLLMENTS SEPTEMBER 1941 



Figures reported bj^ the presidents of the teachers colleges (June 9, 19U), 
indicate a considerable reduction in the totals of the entering classes. Estimates 
follow: 

Estitnaied entering classes Seplenihcr 1941 as of Junn 9, 19J,1 





1911 


Change 


Quota 




60 
120 
100 

50 


Slight decrease 

Considerable decrease _ 

Slight decrease 

Same as in 1940 


90 




155 




115 




80 







XOT£. — Selections for preparation as teachers will bo made at the end of the second year. 

A good share of the decrease is in the number of men. One president reports a 
probable lowering in quality but another is certain of an advance. 

The lowering of the draft registration age to 18 and the registration of those who 
have become 21 since the first registration date will make for a still larger decrease 
in the number of men. 

DEFENSE 

Two-thirds of these teachers have been drawn from industr}*, loaned with a 
guaranty that their jobs will be held for them. The other third has been from 
the unemployed. A few retired men 55 to 60 years of age, slower than younger 
men on production but capable of teaching, have been used with success. A 
minimum requirement of 7 years' trade experience was set but most of the instruc- 
tors have had much more. 

The quality has been good. Because industry expected to employ the persons 
trained, it has been careful to recommend well-qualified men. 

Instructors are getting more and more difficult to obtain. One of the reasons 
is that in industry with long hours and overtime, earnings are much greater. 
The training program affords 8 or 9 hours only. 



MEMORANDUM 

To: Mr. N. S. Light. 

From: Dr. H. D. Welte. 

Date: June 9, 1941. 

Subject: Enrollments 1941 — Graduates 1941. 

Dear Mr. Light: Confirming my telephone conversation with you this morn- 
ing relative to probable enrollments for 1941-42 and the disposition of our 1941 
graduates, I wish to report as follows: 

1. Approximately 160 students ' applied for admission to the freshman class in 
September. The average of the past 5 years has been about 225 so that the 
decrease is 40 percent. 

2. There is more interest in teacher placement this year than at any time during 
the past 10 years. It seems quite likely that practically all graduates of the class 
of 1941, who are not inducted into military service or married, will have little 
difficulty finding employment. In some areas, the shortage is especially acute. 

3. Following is a tabulation of the graduates and the availability for teacher 
placement: (Since the situation in industrial arts is acute, I am listing the young 
men in subsequent classes eligible for military service). 





Class of 1941 


Eligible for military service 


Major field 


Number 


Military 
service 


1942 


1943 


1944 


Elementary 

English, social science 

Mathematics, science 


55 
16 

5 
14 
11 

5 


3 

2 
3 


4 
3 



3 


1 
5 








Business education 








Fifth vear 












7 














Total 

Total military service, 57. 


106 


18 


20 


9 


7 



Because of conflicts with holiday engagements another registration day is to be held at Now Britain. 



5168 



HARTFORD HEARIX(48 



4. A considerable number of students are contemplating marriage. Thus far, 
three girls in the senior class have been married and several .voung men will be 
married in the near future. 

I hope these are the data you requested. If not, please feel free to call upon me. 

H. D. Welte, 
(Herbert D. Welte), 
President, Teachers College of Connecticut, N'eic Britain. 

Defense Training Progr.\m 

preemployment training 

The trend in preemployment training is toward a decline. The {>eak was 
reached in December of 1940. Industry has absorbed many of the available 
voung men in Connecticut who have not already been trained so that the reservoir 
is rapidly diminishing. Work Projects Administration was supposed to have 
supplied 50 percent of those being trained in our defense-training program. 
However, in no case have they been able to supply this amount. (See chart.) 
Many of those left on Work Projects Administration are not adaptable to training, 
so it is reasonable to assume that a very small number will be obtained from 
Work Projects Administration in the future. 

SUPPLEMENTARY TRAINING 

At the present time we have approximately 1,700 registered in our supple- 
mentary classes. This number will probably be maintained during the summer 
months and we expect considerable expansion in this type of training next fall. 
Many of the men in these classes are compelled to drop out because of conditions 
in their places of employment, such as, transfer from day shift to night shift and 
working overtime, which makes it physically impossible for them to attend classes 
regularly. 

Classes have been and are being set up to train those who are employed in 
occupations other than defense industries. This group would include men such 
as store clerks, gas station attendants, etc. These men would attend classes at 
the schools in the evening, and would be required to submit to testing bj' the 
State employment service to prove their mechanical aptitude. 

women's PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING 

We have two or three classes organized for this type of training, and we expect 
considerable expansion in the near future. Women will not lend themselves 
readily to some of the heavier types of machine operation, but can be used to 
advantage in such jobs as inspecting, assembling, foot-press operation, power- 
press operation, drill-press operation, milling-machine operation and screw- 
machine operation, and many similar jobs. 

ON-THE-JOB TRAINING 

As the tempo of job training increases it may be necessary to train men and 
women in the factories for specific jobs. This means that in most cases industry 
would select men and women and pay them while they are in training, providing 
machinery and tools for this training purpose. We have three courses of this 
type in operation at the present time: One at the Billings & Spencer plant for the 
Pratt & Whitney Aircraft; one at the Russell Manufacturing Co. in Middletown, 
training men and women to weave gun belts; and another at Cheney Manufactur- 
ing Co. in Manchester, teaching women to weave parachute cloth. Only those at 
Billings & Spencer are paid. These men are trained to operate one machine and 
when they have become proficient they are transferred to the aircraft factory and 
continue to operate that machine on a production basis. 

Following is a graph showing the training trends and also a statement showing 
the number and types of training that we have in operation at the present time. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5169 









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5170 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Connecticut State Department of Education, Hartford 

[Bull. II, May 19, 1941] 
ENROLLMENT DATA, DEFENSE TRAINING PROGRAM 

A series of bulletins including courses of study that have been developed in 
defense training centers is being prepared by the State department of education. 
Bulletin I is a printed document describing the general organization of classes. 
This particular bulletin is concerned with enrollment trends during the past year. 
The bulletins that follow will consider such subjects as description of courses 
offered, courses of study in defense industries, history of the development of the 
defense training program and others. 

GENERAL DATA ON ENROLLMENT AND COURSES 

Total number trained to date 7, 064 

Total number placed in employment to date 5, 980 

Total number trained before July 1, 1940 751 

Total number trained since the defense training program started 7, 064 

Total numl)er centers before July 1, 1940 4 

Total number centers at present 28 

Number new courses started within the past 2 months 11 

Present enrollment: 

Work Projects Administration 165 

Others 771 

Supplemental 1, 764 

Girls' courses in operation at present: Possible girls' courses: 

Red Cross Motor Corps. Power sewing machine operation. 

Blueprint reading. Tracing. 

Parachute making. Mechanical drawing. 

Parachute assembling. Inspection. 

Parachute shroud line making. Assembling. 

Tracer's course. Drill-press operation. 

Hand-screw machine operation. 

Milling-machine operation. 

Blueprint reading. 

Filing and fitting. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



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5X72 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Table II. — New courses opened since Mar. 15, 19^1 



Bridgeport Trade School- 



Bristol High School 

Hartford Public High School. 
Hartford Trade School 



Middletown State Trade defense 

training center Xo. 2. 
New Britain State Trade School. . . 
New Haven, Boardman Trade 

School. 
Waterbury, Leavenworth High 

School. 

Willimantic State Trade School 



^'^^TurTe""^"^ ^"^Ssf"""^' kode symbol Date opened 



General machine. 
do 



General machine. 
Foundry practice. 



Tracer's course. 



Red Cross Motor 
Corps, defense 
nursing. 



Airplane engine 
assembling. 



Machine trade 

theory. 
Screw machine 

set-up. 



Welding. 



GM-139. 
rGM-136. 
[GM-137- 
AEA-102 



fGM-133.. 
\GM-122.. 
/FP-102... 
lFP-103 -- 
MTS-101. 

/SMS-102.^ 
\SMS-101.. 
TR-101.. 
■ WS-101... 



Apr. 9,1941 



Apr. 21,1941 

Apr. 14,1941 

Apr. 21,1941 

Apr. 23,1941 

Mar. 17,1941 
Apr. 29,1941 
Apr. 1, 1941 

Do. 
Mar. 24, 1941 

May 12.1941 
Mar. 24, 1941 
May 12, 1941 
Apr. 14,1941 



DEFENSE TRAINING COURSES DISCONTINUED SINCE MAR. 15, 1941 



Middletown State Trade School.... 

Defense training center No. 1 

Hartford State Trade 


Gun belt making 


GBM-102... 


Mar. 21, 1941 




BP-105 


Mar. 27, 1941 




- 





Table III. — S>(?nmar>j of courses, defcjise (raining program, J^Iay 13, 1941 



Ansonia 

Bridgeport State Trade School. 



Bridgeport Trade School, defense training center No. 1 

Bridgeport Trade School, defense training center No. 2 

Bristol High School 

Danbury State Trade School 

Greenwich High School 

Hartford Public High School. 

Hartford Trade School 

Hartford State Trade School, defense training center No. 1_— . 

Manchester State Trade School 

Manchester State Trade School, defense training center No. 2. 

Meridon State Trade School 

M"i<ii!lrt(.\vn Pl'itr Trade S.-hool 

Ali.i^llriow';] Slate 'lr:,il,. Scluinl. defense training Center No. 1. 
Mi'!<llri(i\\ n State iiaile Sehdol. defense training center No. 2. 
New Briltiii! Stale Tiade Sfjyiol.. 

New Britain State Trade School, defense training center No. 1 
New Haven, Boardman Trade School 



General machine. 

Blueprint reading. 

Hand screw machine. 

Foundry practice. 

General machine. 

Radio circuit. 

Analyzing. 

^Machine assembly. 

Aircraft blueprint reading. 

Automatic screw machine. 

Foundry mathematics and blueprint 

reading. 
Factory inspection. 
Red Cross Motor Corps. ' 
Defense nursing. 
Aircraft metal wnrkins. 
Aircraft blueprint reading. 
Aircraft lay-out and design. 
Metallurgy. 
General machine.' 

Do. 
Welding. 
General machine.' 

Do 
Blueprint reading. 
Airplane engine assembling.' 
Special machine. 
Aircraft inpsection. 
General machine. 
Parachute making. 
Parachute assembling. 
Parachute shroud lino making. 
General machine, tool and die. 
General machine. 
Gun-belt making. 
General machine.' 

Do. 
.\utoinatic •^erew. 
Blueliiim leading. 
Foniidi y jiract iee.' 
General machine. 

Do. 
Filing. 
Machine trade theory ' 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5]^73 

Table III. — Sumwary of courses, defense irainiug program. May 13, 1941 — Con. 



Center 


Courses 


Xew London, Chapman TechniMl High School 


General machine 




Do. 




Do. 


Rockville, Rockville High School 


Do 




Do. 


Torringrton State Trade School 


Do. 


AVaterbury, Leavenworth Hiiih School 


Do 




Screw machine set-up. 
Tracer's course.' 


AVillimantic State Trade School, defense training center No. 1.... 
Millimantic State Trade School, defense training center No. 2 


Welding.i 
Arc welding. 
General machine.' 



Courses opened since Mar. 15. 1941. 

Table IV. — Women's defense training courses — enrolhneni May 15. 1941 



Center 


Supplementary courses 


Code symbol 


Total en- 
rollment, 
May 1, 1941 


Net en- 
rollment. 
May 1, 1941 




Red Cross Motor Corps 

Defense nursing ' 


fRC-lOl... 


.54 
1.3 


16 


School. 


iRC-102 


in 


Do 


DN-101 






BP-101 

fPMS-lOl 

\PMS-102_. . . 


23 
40 
38 
14 
44 
.•58 
03 




-Manchester State Trade 


Parachute making 

Parachute assembly 

Parachute shroud line mak- 
ing 
Blueprint reading 

Tracer's course (starting 
May 12, 1941). 


28 


center Xo. 2. 
New Britain State Trade 


PAS-101 

fPSS-101 

\PSS-102 

BP-107 


12 

2S 

1 


School. 
"Waterhurv, Leavenworth 


TR-101 -- 




High School. 










347 













Defense nursing at Brideeport Trade School is not yet in operation. 



Alonzo G. Grace. 

Cotnmissioncr of Educalion. 



TRANSPORT \TION 



Until more definite data are available no reliable information concerning 
transportation pos.^ibilities can be assembled. Falling enrollment figures in the 
cities and some towns have resulted in vacant classrooms and buildings which 
can be used. Hartfoid expects to absorb into its school sj'stem all the children 
housed in the new Flatbush area project (1,000 families) by a readjustment of 
attendance district lines. Little if any transportation will be involved. 

In other cities the same procedure will undoubtedly be followed. In growing 
suburban areas this method will have little or no value. 

A study of public-school transportation in the State is now in the printer's 
hands and should be available in a few weeks. Copies will be filed with the 
committee as soon as received from the printer. 

School expenditures, 1938-39 



Bridgeport area: 
Bridgeport. 

Easton 

Fairfield.. . 

.Milford 

Monroe 

Shelton 

Stratford... 
Trumbull.. 

.\rea total 



Current ex- 
penses 



Capital out- 
lay 



.$637. 

10. 194. 

1,061. 

585. 



Interest on 
debt 



$132,681.25 
2, 025. 00 

39. 984. 00 
1. 912. .50 
1,817.26 
3,861.26 

16. 925. 21 
7, 562. 50 



206, 948. 97 



, 237. 162. 40 
31,467.17 
432, 892. 27 
251. 249. 98 
33, 578. 51 
155, 194. 93 
333, 375. 30 
104, 976. 57 



13 



School grants 



.$81, 391. 70 
10, 792. 41 
15, 705. .39 

9, 468. 58 
12, 53G. 51 

6, 046. 78 
17,491.38 
12,730.11 



166, 162. 



5174 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 

School expenditures, 1938-39 — Continued 





Current e.\- 
penses 


Capital out- 
lay 


Interest on 
debt 


Total 


School grants 


New London area: 

Groton 

Ledyard 


$157,757.14 
27, 253. 55 
89, 294. 16 
509, 731. 24 
118,072.27 


$8, 659. 77 


$7,668.32 


$174, 085. 23 
27, 253. 55 
89, 294. 16 
517, 923. 83 
118, 887. 25 


$.5, 013. 93 
16, 256. 00 


New London 


415.09 
214. 98 


7, 777. 50 


17 063 87 


Waterford 


16, 391. 50 






Area total.-., 


902, 708. 36 


9, 289. 84 


15, 445. 82 


927, 444. 02 


63, 388. 02 


Waterbury area: 

Middlebury 

Naugatuek 

Prospect 

Waterbury 

Watertown 


39, 576. 21 
229, 814. 65 

18, 509. 21 

1, 588, 192. 63 

147,39.5.06 

26, 775. 19 


77.97 




39, 6.54. 18 
229, 814. 65 

20, 478. .58 

1, 642, 062. 40 

151,029.03 

29, 467. 80 


10 7.55 87 




9 0:J9 68 


1, 323. 12 
1,111.58 
3, 633. 97 
1. 342. 61 


646. 25 
52, 7.58. 25 


9.531.81 
52. 241. 21 
8 499 13 


Wolcott 


1, 350. 00 


11.070.93 


Area total 

State total 


2. 050, 262. 95 
28, 764, 271. 61 


7, 489. 25 
1, 6.54, 600. 46 


54, 754. 50 
1, 515, 538. 91 


2,112,506.70 
31,934,410.98 


101. 138. 63 
1. 880, .509. 46 


Hartford area: 


44, 472. 59 
80,031.53 
82,841.00 
321,209.12 
110,409.37 
102. 056. 28 
3, 564, 696. 41 
354,068.72 
1,240,028.98 
85,218.94 
92, 109. 82 
46,413.16 
64. 225. 52 
533,033.71 
161,166.47 
172.312.;i6 
53, 700. &4 


84.00 

1,692.66 

3, 247. 87 

1.976.19 

153,581.20 




41. 556. 59 
86, 120. 19 
92, 838. 87 
347,083.49 
273, 499. 82 
108, 828. 78 
4,271,234.11 
383, 609. 97 
1, 538, 833. 61 
88, 160. 26 
92,951.94 
46, 722. 70 
67, 221. 75 
617. 750. 73 
175. 882. 72 
174. 459. 86 
53, 700. 64 






4. .396. 00 
0, 7.50. 00 
23, 898. IS 
n. 506. 25 
6, 772. 50 
359,064.00 
29. 541. 25 
108, 876. 25 




Bloomfl"ld 


4 .16 47 






Farm'ngton 


7 248 61 


Glastonbury 

Hartford 

Manclie.ster 

New Britain 


6 631 57 


347,4/3.70 

" 189,' 928.' 38" 

2,941.32 

842.12 

309. .54 

1.546.23 

2, 365. 77 


89, 298. 41 
15,516.44 
37,097.59 


Plainvillo 


4 877 73 


Rockv Hill 




4 272 76 




1.450.00 
82,351.25 
14,716.25 


5. 3S6. 39 


West Hartford 


12 650 90 


Wethersfield 


3 911 95 




2.117.50 




Windsor I^ocks 


6 088 24 










AreatotaL 


7,108,024.62 


708, 109. 48 


647,731.93 


8, 463, 456. 03 


234. 763. 76 



School expenditures, 1939-40 





Current 
expenses 


Capital 
outlay 


Interest on 
debt 


Total 


School 

grants 


Bridgeport area: 

Bridgeport 

Easton... 

Fairfield 

Milford 

Monroe 


$2, 090. 900. 16 
30, 130. 25 
392. 054. 50 
243.660.35 
35, 374. 46 
145, 879. 71 
300, 364. 31 
89, 403. 33 


$1,341.68 
1, 249. 75 

10, 375. 61 

240. 30 

1, 010. 54 

6, 331. 43 


$124, .306. 25 
1, 890. 00 
39, 080. 00 
1, 237. 50 
1, 689. 76 
3, 138. 75 
16, 925. 21 
7, 184. 25 


$2, 216, 528. 09 
33,270.00 
441,510.11 
245, 138. 15 
38, 074. 76 
155, 349. 89 
317,289.52 
96, 662. 58 


$78. 270. 37 
11,830.97 
17,569.63 
9, 314. 30 
14 555 93 


Shelton _. ._. 

Stratford 


5, 926. 19 
15 699 85 




75.00 


13, 915. 34 






Area total 


3, 327, 767. 07 


20, 624. 31 


195, 451. 72 


3, 543, 843. 10 


167, 082. 58 


New London area: 

Groton 

Ledyard 


158, 929. 38 
28, 121. 45 
90,325.76 
524, 293. 64 
119.467.95 


5, 537. 88 


7, 354. 88 


171. 822. 14 
28.121.45 
90. 325. 76 
634, 324. 37 
119.467.95 


5, 230. 33 
16, 019. 80 


Montville- 






8, 928. 60 


New I.iondon 


103, 558. 23 


6, 472. 50 


16 825. 13 




13, 033. 22 










Area total 


921, 138. 18 


109, 096. 11 


13, 827. 38 


1,014,061.67 


GO, 037. 08 


Waterbury area: 
Middleburv 


38, 655. 72 
241,118.33 

20. 130. 78 

1. 675. 737. 26 

145. 210. 91 

28, 948. 01 


726. 79 




39. 382. 51 
241,118.33 

21,335.57 

1, 720, 976. 81 

168, 619. 74 

30, 665. 96 


11, 534. 94 






8,979.03 


Prospect _. 

\\'aterbury 


586. 04 

1, 758. 30 

23, 378. 83 

409. 95 


618. 75 
43, 481. 25 

i,'303.00' 


11,041.34 
51, 353. 48 
11,234.09 


Wolcott 


12, 468. 49 






Area total --.. 

State total 


2,149,831.01 
29, 145, 210. 45 


26, 859. 91 
1, 586, 010. 98 


45, J08. 00 
1, 369. 285. 65 


2, 222, 098. 92 
32,100.507.08 


106,611.37 
1, 886, 893. 63 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
School expenditures, 1939-40— Continned 



5175 





Current 
expenses 


Capital 
outlay 


Interest on 
debt 


Total 


School 
grants 


Waterbury area— Continued. 
\von 


$43, 091. 45 
87, 089. 12 
84, 050. 45 
321, 120. 01 
117, 030. 91 
103, 680. 18 
3, 584, 250. 38 
368, 572. 53 
1,248,011.79 
82, 107. 83 
116, 870. 01 
50, 354. 30 
64, 455. 34 
558, 165. 33 
166, 493. 91 
172,281.18 
53, 635. 85 


$260. 53 
1, 978. 05 
1, 495. 84 
1,771.01 
301, 884. 57 

' 25,'542."30' 

"111,216." 33' 
2,528.07 
1,170.97 
142. 00 
1,971.12 
12,063,11 


""" $4," 160^ 00' 
6, 075. 00 
22, 065. 62 
20, 816. 11 
6, 187. 50 
317, 484. 00 
26, 773. 75 
97, 338. 75 


$43, 351. 98 
93, 227. 17 
91, 621. 29 
344, 956. 64 
439. 731. 59 
109, 867. 68 
3, 927, 276. 68 
395, 346. 28 
1, 456, 560. 87 
84,635.90 
126. 315. 98 
50, 496. 30 
67, 776. 46 
648, 019. 69 
176, 807. 66 
174. 942. 59 
55, 266. 02 


$12,296.56 


Berlin 


5 565 43 




5. 545. 59 


East Hartford 

Farmington 


9.811.19 
7. 208. 42 
6, 885. 93 


Hartford 


88, 987. 06 
16, 889. 55 


New Britain 

Newington 


35. 679, 25 
3.307 10 




8, 275. 00 


4, 994. 79 


Rockv Hill 


4, 565, 43 


Soutli Windsor 


1. 350. 00 
77, 791. 25 
10, 313. 75 


5.404 48 


West Hartford^- 


12, 589. 51 




4. 080. 84 


Windsor 


2,661.41 
1. 630. 17 


4,935 35 


Windsor Locks 




5, 624. 45 






Area total 


7, 221, 260. 57 


466. 309. 48 


59». 630. 73 


8, 286, 200. 78 


234. 370. 93 



General financial data 



Bridgeport area: 

Bridgeport 

Easton 

Fairfield.. 

Milford 

Monroe 

Shlton 

Stratford 

Trumbull 

New London area: 

Groton 

Ledyard 

Montville 

New London... 
^^ atcrford 

Watcrburv area: 
Midllebury.... 

Xaugatuck 

Prospect 

Waterbury 

Watortown 

Wolcott 

Hartford area: 

Avon 

Berlin 

Bloonifield 

East Hartford.. 

Farmington 

Glastonbury 

Hartford 

Manchester 

New Britain 

Newington 

Plainville 

Rocky Hill 

South Windsor. 
West Hartford-. 
Wethersfield... 

Windsor 

AVindsor Locks. 



1939 grand list 



$245, 865, 380. 00 
3, 392, 698. 00 
41,804.525.00 
33, 950, 732. 00 
3, 315, 164. 00 
12, 876, 220. 00 
29, 560, 918. 00 
1 7, 591, 546. 00 

14,306.629.00 

972, 862. 40 

.5, 844, 775. 00 

49, 940. 585. 00 

8, 8:W, 145. 00 

3, 949, 101. 00 
21,0.33,415.00 
1, 1.33, 246. 00 
167, 199, 550. 00 
11.068,045,00 

2, 233, 694. 00 

3, 766, 764. 00 
7, 858, 242. 00 
7, 735, 558. 00 
37, 297, 383. 00 
8, 178, 774. 00 

9, 397, 490. 00 
369, 187, 236. 00 

36, 012, 296. 00 

106, 045, 574. 00 

7, 636, 237. 00 

9, 679, 646. 00 

3, 515, 052. 00 
3, 512, 839. 00 

83, 5.58, 201. 00 
15. 005. 840. 00 
15.575.001.00 
5, 796, 339. 00 



1940 
rate, 
mills 



28.3 
14.0 
22.0 
22.0 
18.0 



21.0 
25.0 
31.0 
28.5 
27.5 

16.0 
23.5 
18.0 
32.5 
23.0 
17.0 

16.5 
19.0 
23.0 
19.6 
20.5 
25.0 
29,25 
25.0 
29.25 
25.0 
24.0 
25.0 
25.0 
19.0 
24.0 
22.0 
24.0 



1940 levy 



.$6, 906. 635. 70 
47, 497. 77 
920. 948. 02 
747, 820, 17 
59, 672. 64 
371,916.40 
827, 708. 60 
1 204, 974. 10 

300, 435. 91 
24, 321. 56 
181,190.40 
1,423.306.67 
243. 061. 44 

63, 208. 73 
494, 533. 56 

20, 398. 43 

5, 434, 109. 76 

254. 594. 69 

37, 959. 81 

62, 151. 61 
149, 310. 76 
177, 579. 83 
732, 542. 85 
167, 666. 53 
234, 937. 27 
10, 798, 742. 67 
900, 288. 25 
3, 102, 368. 60 
190,912.54 
232, 311. 32 
87, 876. 30 
89, 330. 21 
1, 587, 605. 82 
360. 140. 57 
342. 723. 08 
139.112.08 



Percent 
collected 

on all 
rate bills, 
current 
and prior 
levies. 
Mar. 31, 
1941 



82.3 
91.7 
90.1 
77.9 
88.5 
80.9 
92.6 
91.5 

84.3 
89.2 

91^2 



82.6 
89.5 
91.4 



84.4 
87.2 
83.8 



87.1 
82.3 
81.1 
81.6 
93.9 
91.5 
92.7 
80.6 



Debt at close of fiscal year 
ending in 1940 



$14,491,865.63 
40,000.00 
1, 132, 000. 00 
466. 000. 00 
48, 125. 00 
435, 000. 00 
1.466,000.00 
137,000.00 

262. 000. 00 
17.000.00 
80. 064. 77 
5,699.000.00 
155.000.00 



670. 500. 00 
25. 000. 00 
44,000.00 



117, 250. 00 
185,511.70 

1, 337, 000. 00 
451, 000. 00 
221, 000. 00 

23, 336, 000. 00 
1, 860. 000. 00 
6, 121, 000. 00 
293, 000. 00 
193, 576. 00 
176, 000. 00 
71, 000. 00 

2, 598, 900. 00 
366, 000. 00 
213. 000. 00 
330. 000. 00 



Net 



$14, 491, 865. 63 
34, 937. 50 
909, 064. 81 
466, 000. 00 
48,125.00 
431, 835. 04 
1,406.000.00 
137,000.00 

262.000.00 
17, 000. 00 
80, 064. 77 
5, 351, 371. 45 
155,000.00 



18, 668, 514. 36 
25, 000. 00 
44. 000. 00 



1, 309, 491. 15 



207, 355. 58 
20, 205, 353. 16 



6, 126, 775. 71 
286, 253. 47 



1 1938-39 fiscal year, 
s Aug. 31, 1940. 



60396— 41— pt. li 



5176 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF N. SEARLE LIGHT— Resumed 

Mr. wSparkman. I wonder if you care to summarize the statement 
briefly, or would you rather proceed on a question-and-answer basis? 

Mr. Light. I think I would rather proceed on a question-and- 
answer basis. That might save time. 

Mr. Sparkman. I will ask you a few questions, then. I gather 
from reading your statement that in many localities in the State you 
either have overcrowded conditions already, or you have conditions 
which certainly indicate that if there is any appreciable increase you 
are not going to be able to handle it with your present facilities. Is 
that right? 

Mr. Light. That is correct. 

Mr. Sparkman. I notice also in your statement that the impact 
of the defense program really has not been felt yet. How do you 
explain that? 

many children under school age 

Mr. Light. Well, we have no data wdiich really explain it. The 
inference we might draw from testimony of various superintendents, 
and so forth, is that most of the migrant workers with whom they have 
come in contact are young, and apparently the children among 
them are under school age. 

The expectation on the part of various superintendents in the 
State is that the full impact of this thing is not going to be felt for a 
year and a half at least, possibly not for 3 years, until these clildren 
grow older and are of school age. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, is it not true also that a great manj 
workers have come in without their families? 

Mr. Light. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Either not intending to move their families until 
the work looks steadier or perhaps waitmg until their children finish 
the school year in their respective home districts? 

Mr. Light. Apparently a good many of them are waiting to see 
how durable this arrangement is before they move their families. 

Mr. Sparkman. I notice in one of the reports — I don't believe it 
was yours — a classification of these workers who have come in here. 
They were classified as single, married, and "boomers." Do you 
classify them that way? 

Mr. Light. No; that didn't come from tliis report. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you are not able to explam that to me — just 
what a "boomer" is? 

Mr. Light. No; I couldn't do that. 

Mr. Sparkman. If only 50 percent of the thousands of workers now 
being added to Connecticut's pay rolls were family men, is it not 
likely that additional facilities will be required? 

Mr. Light. Yes, sir. It will depend a good deal on where they 
settle. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, in some places you do have 
sufficient facilities? 

Mr. Light. Yes, sir. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5177 

ASCRIBES DIFFERENCES TO LANHAM ACT 

Mr. Sparkman. And I notice in your report that in some places 
you are overcrowded now and in other places you say that no further 
reserves are available; and in other places you say that Federal aid is 
anticipated ; and m still other places, you say there will be no Federal 
aid. Just why do those differences exist? 

Mr. Light. Well, as far as Federal aid is concerned, the general 
understanding is that the provisions of the Lanham bill will be avail- 
able only to those communities in which there are Federal housing- 
projects. Now, some of these communities which are overcrowded" 
are facing a rather difficult situation, either now, actually, or in 
September in prospect. They will not be eligible because they have- 
no Federal housing projects in prospect. 

Mr. Sparkman. You refer to the Lanham Act that has just recently 
passed and is in conference now between the two houses? 
Mr. Light. That is correct. 

Mr. Sparkman. And there is no such provision in the Lanham. 
Act, is there? 
Mr. Light. No. 

Mr. Sparkman. But that is just the understanding that you have? 
Mr. Light. Th.at is the understanding that we have. We are so 
informed by the representative of the Office of Education of the 
Department of the Interior, who has been working with us, studying 
the problem here in Connecticut. 

Mr. Sparkman. They say that they will tie it up with Federal 
housing projects? 
Mr. Light. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. On the theory that the Federal housing projects 
take away from your tax rolls? 
Mr. Light. That is correct. 

Mr. Sparkman. I notice that statement in your paper. 
Mr. Light. That is correct. Private housing will add to the tax 
rolls. 

Mr. Sparkman. I am frank to say I had never heard that as being 
one of the provisions in the act, or even the intention of the act. As a 
matter of tact I have understood all along that the Government was 
encouraging private houses everywhere that they possibly could be built, 
and that the purpose of the Jjanham Act was to give relief where those 
facilities were unduly taxed by reason of a heavy defense program. 
I didn't know that it was intended that housing should be tied up with 
it at all. I was interested in that statement in your paper.^ 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Sparkman, if you will yield to me for a moment, 
Mr. Sparkman. Certainly. 

Mr. Curtis. Isn't it true that the administration of the Lanham 
Act was delegated to a number of agencies? In some instances the 
United States Housing Authority will receive a certam portion of the 
money for development in a given area, and then perhaps in some other 
place a different Government agency will handle it. Have youi 
inquired into that? 

Mr. Light. No; we have gotten so many reports of different tenors. 
Mr. Curtis. I think under investigation you will find the Lanham 
Act is farmed out in its administration. 

' The Lanham Act, as amended and approved, subsequent to the hearing, appears in San Diego heas- 
ings,p.5007. 



5178 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

SITUATION AT MILFORD 

Mr. Sparkmax. Mr. Light, will you comment sperificaily on the 
school situations at Milford and Groton? 

Mr. Light. Yes; for Milford I have the figures up to date as of 
yesterday. The situation there is that the schools have been and 
were previous to this influx there, what you might call full for all 
practical purposes. There is an increase of 95 in the elementary 
schools and they anticipate a further mcrease of 100 in the elementary 
schools this coming September. There was a little increase in high 
school attendance but not in proportion to the increase in attendance 
at elementary schools, which indicates that these are younger families 
who are moving in. 

Mr. Sparkman. When was the increase of 95? 

Mr. Light. That was in April. 

Mr. Sparkman. There will be a total increase in two seasons of 195? 

Mr. Light. Correct. 

Mr. Sparkman. Added to what num})er? What was your base 
number, approximately? 

Mr. Light. The total elementary school attendance runs to about 
2,200 or 2,300. 

Mr. Sparkman. And to that number will be added the 195? 

Mr. Light. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, that is approximntply 10 percent 
increase? 

Mr. Light. Correct. 

Mr. Sparkman. But the high school increase will be small? 

Mr. Light. Yes; the increase will be small, but they are over- 
crowded now. 

Mr. Sparkman. What about Groton? 

Mr. Light. May I go on? There is more to the Milford situation. 

Mr. Sparkman. Certainly. 

Mr. Light. There will be six rooms on part time — that is double 
sessions in the elementary schoolroom next year, one group of children 
attending in the morning and another group attenduig in the after- 
noon. 

summer cottages converted 

The difficulty at present is the uncertainty in the situation caused 
by the tendency to convert a large number of beach cottages into 
permanent, year-around residences. The real estate men advise us 
that there will be a very considerable increase in that procedure after 
the close of the summer season. Milford has a summer population 
of about 10,000 in addition to its normal population. Now an un- 
known number of those cottages will be converted this fall into year- 
around residences. In addition to that, they are completing about 
1 new house a day in the town. Permits for some 30 were issued 
last Friday in one block. So that the Milford situation is becoming 
a little worse all the time. The only defense industry within the 
town is a small plant employing about 100. 

Mr. Sparkman. Therefore, j^ou do not look for any Federal aid 
there under the Lanham Act? 

Mr. Light. Correct. 



NATIONAL DEB^ENSE MIGRATION 5179 

Mr. Sparkman. That will be a State policy? 

Mr. Light. That is our understanding of the policy to be pursued 
under this particular Lanham Act. 

SITUATION AT GROTON 

Mr. Sparkman. What about Groton? 

Mr. Light. If I may, I would like to ask jVIr. Nichols to answer 
that. He has been down there recently. Mr. Nichols is the super- 
vising architect. 

Mr. Sparkman. Then let him come up and sit with you or any 
others who may be working with you. 

TESTIMONY OF J. E. NICHOLS, SUPERVISOR OF BUILDINGS AND 
PLANS, STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, HARTFORD, 
CONN. 

Mr. Sparkman. In order that the record ma}^ be complete, will 
you state your name and address? 

Mr. Nichols. J. E. Nichols, supervisor of buildings and plans in 
the State department of education, Hartford, Conn. 

Mr. Sparkman. Will you answer the question with respect to the 
Lanham Act, please? 

Mr. Nichols. In Groton, the principal pick-up in school enroll- 
ment will be due to men coming in to the submarine base and to work 
at the Electric Boat Co. They are settling in two areas primarily, 
one near the submarine base where the United States Housing Author- 
ity is building 200 housing units, and the other at the Electric Boat 
Co., where 400 units are either under construction or projected. 

At the submarine base there is now a 2-rooin school and a 1- 
room school, making a total of 3 rooms, but we expect an increase in 
that area of about 150 pupils, and of course the facilities there now 
will have to be tremendously increased. 

In the Electric Boat Co. area we expect about 300 additional pupils, 
elementary school pupils, which will practically double the size of the 
school that is there now. 

There hasn't yet been any great increase in the number of pupils, 
either high school or elementary, but the men are only just now moving 
into the houses that have been erected and, of course, other houses 
will soon be made available, so that we are expecting a pick-up next 
year and certainly a great deal more the year following. 

Mr. Sparkman. Now, as I understand your interpretation of the 
Lanham Act, that place will be eligible for Federal aid? 

Mr. Nichols. Yes. I have listened to the conversation here, and 
our understanding of this is that the Lanham Act makes available 
$150,000,000 that is to be used for water supply, sewage disposal, 
and a great many other things, of which schools are only one. Per- 
force we are going to have to limit that. There is hardly any chance 
of getting money until it is absolutely necessary. 

Mr. Sparkman. It wiU be scattered a little thin. 

Mr. Nichols. Yes; and it will be only in those places where we 
absolutely have to have schools, and probably the basis of determina- 
tion will be placed on whether or not those areas have defense housing. 



5180 HARTFORD HEARI>;GS 

NUMBER OF PUPILS PER TEACHER 

Mr. Sparkman. Wliat was your teacher load for last year? 

Mr. Nichols. In Groton? 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, I really would like to have it for the State, 

Mr. Nichols. I haven't it here. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have it for the entire State, Mr. Light? 

TESTIMONY OF N. SEARLE LIGHT— Resumed 

Mr. Light. No; but there is a wide range. It is about 32 per 
teacher. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you say there is a wide range. I wonder 
what the maximum and minimum might be, or about how wide a 
range might be expected. 

Mr. Light. I wouldn't be surprised if there were some with over 
50, and at the lower end probably some with approximately 10 
or a dozen. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, you would have teachers handling 
as many as 50 or more pupils? 

Mr. Light. Oh, yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are the children of nonresidents permitted to enter 
school without the payment of tuition? 

Mr. Light. Oh, yes; but I would like to qualify that. If they have 
moved into a town and are resident in the town, the children would 
become immediately subject to the attendance laws and must attend 
school. 

Mr. Sparkman. And of course you do not require tuition? 

Mr. Light. In some cases tuition is collected — when, for instance, 
the families are brought into the State by placement agencies. 

Mr. Sparkman. But a person just moving in ordinarily to partici- 
pate in this defense program 

Mr. Light. No; no tuition is charged. 

DEFENSE training IN SCHOOLS 

Mr. Sparkman. And that is really the migration that we are more 
concerned with. We can recognize the fact that there would be excep- 
tional cases as you state, in your placement service. For instance, 
what changes, if any, have been made in the last year or so with refer- 
ence to defense training in your schools as contrasted to the old classical 
training? 

Mr. Light. You are thinking now of the public schools? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes. 

Mr. Light. Or trade schools? 

Mr. Sparkman. Public schools. 

Mr. Light. There is an increase in the amount of industrial arts 
work. There has been the purchase of some machinery, as far as 
market conditions permit in some cases, but no very great changes, 
sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have your schools here always carried these voca- 
tional training courses — your public schools, I am referring to now? 

Mr. Light. No; very few. And most of them have not been 
treated as vocational training courses. They are prevocational 
rather than vocational. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 51gl 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you anticipate any further change in your 
junior high school courses in defense training? 

Mr. Light. Not very much in the junior high schools. There 
would be an acceleration in the development of the mdustrial-arts 
program in all of those schools, junior and senior high. 

Air. Sparkman. Now, when you say "not much in the junior high 
schools," do you mean to infer that there will be more in the senior 
high schools? 

Mr. Light. Yes; more in the senior high schools. 

MORE DROP-OUTS TO TAKE JOBS 

Mr. Sparkman. How does the age of those leaving high school in 
the past year compare with those leaving in previous years? 

Mr. Light. The number of drop-outs for employment reasons has 
increased very sharpl}^ this last year and it seems likely to increase 
in the future. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do your high schools close earlier in the spring in 
order to release students for work? 

Mr. Light. Not any more than usual. 

Air. Sparkman. Do you anticipate any of them opening later in 
the fall or will that run along about the same as usual? 

Air. Light. There are rumors that that will be done in some of the 
agricultural communities. 

Air. Sparkman. And that will be to supply agricultural rather 
than industrial labor? 

Air. Light. That is right. 

Air. Sparkman. Has the State Employment Service cooperated 
with the high schools in placements and vocational guidance of the 
students? 

Air. Light. Yes. 

Air. Sparkman. Air. Chairman, that is all I have. 

The Chairman. Air. Curtis? 

TYPE OF building RELATED TO HOUSING 

Air. Curtis. In reference to adcUtional buildings and plant equip- 
ment for schools made necessary by these defense families coming in, 
do you men favor the building of temporaiy or permanent structures 
to meet that need? 

Air. Light. It depends on the type of housing that is erected. If 
it is temporary housing then we have tried to counsel these communi- 
ties against any heavy investment in permanent school buildings; 
where the housing erected is fairly permanent in nature, then they 
have to face the possibility that that influx may be with them for a 
good many years, and that changes the problem. 

Air. Curtis. As school executives, are you proceeding on the theory 
tliat these people will leave you — great numbers of them — when the 
defense program is over? 

Air. Light. Well, we are a little wary in laying our plans here 
because of the changes which occurred during or following the World 
War, when the situation was similar and at which time we had con- 
siderable out-going of these workers from communities. The popu- 
lation dropped terribly and we are just a little wary as to what may 
happen. 



5182 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Most of the scliool administrators in this State are not as yet posi- 
tive m their own minds that this is even a 5-year situation that they 
are confronting, and consequently they are a Httle cautious about 
recommending any very heavy capital investments. 

Mr. Curtis. You have a burden in the schools here by reason of 
this defense migration. Where is the greatest emergency, the teacher 
load or your plant equipment? 

Mr. Light. At the present time it is hitting us hardest in the few 
communities mentioned — ^Milford and so on — ^in the building load. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

EFFECT OF DRAFT ON TEACHER SUPPLY 

Mr. Sparkman. Is the draft affecting your teacher situation? 

Mr. Light. Only slightly. There have been onl}^ a few places 
wdiere it has been bothersome. 

Mr. Sparkman. I think you said there were 48 of your teachers 
still subject to the draft? 

Mr. Light. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. But even if they all went it wouldn't seriously 
hamper your activities? 

Mr. Light. Except in one or two areas. One of them is in the 
mdustrial areas where the supply of industrial arts teachers is being 
cut off by the draft. 

Mv. Sparkman. If the proposed amendment goes tlu'ough reduc- 
ing the draft age to 28, will that give you some relief? 

Mr. Light. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. It would seem to me that if they are trainmg 
these young people in the industrial arts they should be entitled to 
preferment. 

Mr. Light. The trouble is most of them are not engaged in work 
which is connected with the defense program. It is a general arts 
program as distinguished from the defense program. It is part of a 
general education rather than strictly for defense. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words it is the normal training program 
instead of being set up in connection with the defense program? 

Mr. Light. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Is the supply of teachers gomg to be a problem? 

Mr. Light. It will be a problem this coming September in a few 
areas like the industrial arts areas. It will be no problem as far as 
elementary schools or general academic subjects in the high schools 
are concerned, but there will be some difficulty in getting industrial 
arts teachers. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, gentlemen, for your valu- 
able contribution. The committee will stand adjourned until 2 p. m. 

(Whereupon, at 12:40 p. m., the committee adjourned until 2 
p. m., the same day.) 

afternoon session 

The committee met at 2 p. m. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 
I want to announce at this time that copies of statements made by 
witnesses are available to any persons interested in receiving them. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 51g3 

We have a sufficient number on the table for those attending this 
hearing, and you are perfectly welcome to help yourselves. 

Our next vvitness is Mr. Nickerson and the gentlemen associated 
with him, from the Connecticut Manufacturers Association. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN W. NICKERSON, CHAIRMAN OF THE EMER- 
GENCY EMPLOYMENT COMMITTEE OF THE MANUFACTURERS 
ASSOCIATION OF CONNECTICUT, INC., MANCHESTER, CONN. 

The Chairman. Will you please give your full name and address 
to the reporter for the purpose of the record? 

Mr. Nickerson. John W. Nickerson, Manchester, Conn. 

The Chairman. And in what capacity do you appear here, Mr. 
Nickerson? 

Mr. Nickerson. I appear here as the chairman of the emergency 
employment committee of the Manufacturers Association of Con- 
necticut, Inc. 

The Chairman. Now, will you please be kind enough to give the 
names of the other members of the panel to the reporter? 

Mr. Nickerson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ernest A. Stowell, employment manager of Underwood- 
Elliott-Fisher Co., Hartford, who is regional director of Training 
Within Industry, of the Labor Division of the Office of Production 
Management, Washington, D. C, and chairman of the committee on 
emergency employment problems of the Manufacturers Association 
of Connecticut. 

Dr. Alillicent Pond, employment manager of the Scovill Manufac- 
turing Co., Waterbury, Conn.; chairman of the subcommittee on 
intrastate migratory labor of the conmiittee on emergency employ- 
ment problems of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, and 
vice president of the Connecticut chapter of the Society for the Ad- 
vancement of Management. 

Mr. Albert F. Snyder, industrial relations manager of the Win- 
chester Repeating Arms Co., New Haven, Conn. 

Mr. Donald S. Sammis, works manager of Underwood-Elliott- 
Fisher Co., Bridgeport, Conn., and member of the board of directors 
of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut; a member of the 
committee on problems of intrastate migratory labor of the com- 
mittee on emergency employment problems of the Manufacturers 
Association of Connecticut, and a member of the State subcom.mittee 
on defense housing, representing the Bridgeport area. 

Dr. Albert S. Gray, director of the division of industrial hygiene of 
the State department of health, member of the joint committee on 
industrial health of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut and 
the Connecticut State Medical Association. 

Mr. Norris W. Ford, manager of the Manufacturers Association 
of Connecticut. 

The Chairman. Mr. Nickerson, you have filed with the committee 
the material prepared by the Manufacturers Association of Con- 
necticut, have you not? 

Mr. Nickerson, Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. It certainly is voluminous and it is a very valuable 
document, and we are pleased to have it. 

(The complete report referred to above is held in committee files. 
From it have been excerpted the statements of mdividuals appearing 



5184 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

as witnesses, and these statements appear in the order of the testimony 
as given and recorded on pages following. 

At this point there is introduced as a part of the record a state- 
ment by Mr. E. Kent Hubbard, president of the Manufacturers 
Association of Connecticut, which was written as a foreword to the 
material prepared by the Association. Mr. Hubbard's statement is 
as follows:) 

Statement by E. Kent Hubbard, President, Manufacturers Association 
OF Connecticut 

foreword to report of manufacturers association of CONNECTICUT 

Because a harsb early environment forced the acquisition of the first habit as a 
necessary weapon of self-preservation, Connecticut has had, almost without 
exception, her productive and manpower facilities read}' for war ahead of her 
sister States. The versatility developed by these earlier hardships, as well as the 
disadvantages of location, likewise caused later generations of Connecticut workers 
and management to continue the habit of being first in peace, as well as in war, 
that they might continue to progress economically and socially. 

From its earliest days in 1815, as The Society for the Encouragement of Con- 
necticut Manufactories, through its corporate history since 1910, the directors, 
officers, committee members, and staff of the Manufacturers Association of 
Connecticut have conscientiously sought to discover and prescribe remedies for 
difficult problems before they reached an acute stage. 

Seeing the inevitable trend toward international strife after Munich, and the 
invasion of Poland, the association started early to pave the way for action that 
would place the vast productive facilities of Connecticut in readiness to become 
once more, as in World War I, an "Arsenal of the Nation." 

The association urged the formation of a State Defense Council. When, in 
June 1940, Governor Baldwin established the organization, he appointed me as 
president of the association, head of the industrial division of the council. The 
recommendations of this division for a survey of industrial facilities were accepted 
by the Governor and council and the survey made and the results compiled during 
the summer and fall of 1940. 

Likewise, the association and many of its member executives worked in close 
cooperation with the Governor's committee on employment and the State depart- 
ment of education to inaugurate short, job-training courses during 1939 and 1940 
for the training and retraining of manpower to fill the everexpanding require- 
ments of industries engaged in defense production. 

Forewarned by many months of increased manufacturing activity, and by a 
rapid decrease in the number of persons available for work, particularly the 
skilled and semiskilled workers, and by the knowledge that defense production 
activity was only in its initial stages, the association sponsored in March 1941, a 
meeting of its members to consider, with Ewan Clague, Director of Employment 
Security, Washington, D. C, and Leonard J. Maloney, director of the Connecticut 
State Employment Office, ways and means of launching a prompt attack upon 
rapidly developing emergency employment problems. A committee, represent- 
ing Connecticut's leading, diversified industries from every section of the State, 
was appointed and organized to launch an exhaustive investigation and make 
procedural recommendations by July 1, 1941, on all emergency employment prob- 
lems to all manufacturers in the State. 

The progress reports of the prodigious labors of these busy men, who gave 
enthusiastically hundreds of hours they could ill afford to spend away from their 
regular duties, are recorded in the following pages for the thoughtful considera- 
tion of the Select Committee on Migratory Labor. Progress reports of other 
association activities closely related to the work of the committee on emergency 
employment problems have also been included to round out the picture of Con- 
necticut's efforts to make America strong by making the individual stronger. 

It is the earnest hope that this contribution toward the solution of the migra- 
tory labor problem is one which the members of the Select Committee may read 
not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted, but to weigh 
and consider for the best interests of American democracy. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5185 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN W. NICKERSON— Resumed 

The Chairman. Now, we have several witnesses this afternoon, 
and while we don't want to be in the position of curtailing your dis- 
cussion, I would like to have the witnesses, in answering questions, 
be as brief as possible. As you know, we have only 2 days here, and 
there are many more witnessses to be heard this afternoon. That is 
the reason for my request. 

I would also like to make a further suggestion, that the various 
members of the committee ask the witnesses prepared questions, and 
that we go through those before there is any general questioning. 
You are the moderator, Mr. Nickerson, and if we get into any trouble, 
it is your job to settle it. If you are a sucesss this afternoon, we 
may want to take you back to Washington with us. I think the first 
witness will be Mr. Sammis. 

Mr. Nickerson. I do have a few remarks that I would like to 
make first, if I may. It will take but a few minutes, and you may 
rest assured our remarks will be brief. 

The Chairman. Very well. 

Mr. Nickerson. It is my function to introduce to you six repre- 
sentatives of Connecticut industry, who will very briefly sum up 
certain studies which have been in progress for months on these 
very problems which you are investigating. 

The Army and Navy have now placed contracts in this State of 
well over a half billion dollars. This tremendous addition to our 
already weighty commercial problems has not only amplified the 
technical and organizational phases, but has set up an entirely unique 
array of employment problems. 

industrial conference in march 

It long ago became increasingly clear that not only must each plant 
solve these conditions individuall} % but that it was vital that there 
be a clearer understanding of the common problems so that intelligent 
coordination might be developed. 

On March 21, 1941, the Connecticut Manufacturers Association 
sponsored a meetmg in Hartford which was attended by over 200 
representatives of Connecticut industry. The chairman of this 
meeting, Mr. D. S. Sammis, w^ho is one of our witnesses today, intro- 
duced as the principal speaker Mr. Ewan Clague, Director of Employ- 
ment Security, Washington, D. C. Mr. Clague presented the national 
situation on employment problems and policies, forecasting many of 
the very situations that today are demanding immediate action. 

Major Leonard J. Maloney, director of the Connecticut State 
Employment Service, in addressing the meeting, discussed as immi- 
nent several conditions which today are universally recognized. He 
urged that a committee of members of the Connecticut Manufacturers 
Association be named to consider the problem of labor procurement 
from all angles. 

committee on emergency employment problems 

Recognizing that the subjects presented at the Hartford meeting 
on March 21 were of State-wide and national importance, Mr. E. 
Kent Hubbard, president of the association, asked that a working 
committee be formed immediately. 



5186 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

On April 10, this committee on emergency employment problems 
was organized, a program adopted, subcommittees appointed and 
assigned their respective responsibilities. The group as a whole was 
selected so as to be representative of the entire State, both mdus- 
trially and geographically, and representative of small as well as large 
industries. 

These committees, comprised of men already very busy in their 
respective plants, have had many meetings which have also been 
attended by various State and Federal officials. All possible sources 
have been combed for data. This has not been for the purpose of 
accumulating merely statistical tabulations, but in order to formulate 
plans and recommendations for futin-e policy. 

In constant attendance at these meetings was Major Maloney, 
without whose efficient assistance and guidance the work could not 
have been neai'ly so effective. Our committee has been both as- 
tounded and gratified at the completeness of the data made available 
by Major Maloney and his organization, and it is to him that 3^our 
committee should turn for statistical information on employment. 

Upon learning that this Congressional Committee was to honor 
Connecticut first by investigating the status of its industry regarding 
these matters, the Committee on Emergency Employment Problems 
has assembled its up-to-the-moment findings and is presenting them 
in three sections, each section to be covered by a witness. 

SUBJECTS AND WITNESSES 

On the subject, "Upgrading and Training," we present as witness, 
Mr. Ernest A. Stowell, employment manager, Undenvood-Elliott- 
Fisher Co., Hartford, Conn.; regional director of "Training- Within- 
Industry," Labor Division of the Office of Production Management, 
Washington, D. C; chairman of the Committee on Emergency Em- 
ployment Problems of the Manufacturers' Association of Coimecticut. 

On the subject, "Intrastate and Interstate Migratory Labor," we 
present as witness, Mr. Millicent Pond, employment manager, Sco- 
vill Manufacturing Co., Waterbury, Conn.; chairman of subcommittee 
on intrastate migratory labor of the committee on emergency employ- 
ment problems of the Manufacturers' Association of Connecticut; vice 
president of the Connecticut chapter of the Society for the Advance- 
ment of Management. 

On the subjects, "Use of Available Labor Reserves in Connecticut" 
and "Employment Problems Concerning Minority Groups Including 
Race, Nationality, and Physically Handicapped," we present Mr. 
Albert F. Snyder, industrial relations manager of the Winchester 
Repeatmg Arms Co., New Haven, Conn. 

So much for the committee on emergency employment problems. 

The other three witnesses for the manufacturers' association will 
cover the questions of housing, industrial health, and national-defense 
contracts. 

These subjects have been under constant study for many months 
by those who will appear before you. 

In the knowledge that the Bridgeport area has been subjected to a 
serious impact in defense housing problems, and in the belief that the 
procedure followed in this area of bringing together into one group 
representatives of industry, real estate, utilities, housing authority, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5187 

bankers, and municipal officials, is the soundest method of arriving 
at a rapid and satisfactory solution of the problems, the Manufac- 
turers Association of Connecticut presents an authority on the Bridge- 
port defense housing problem and one also with knowledge of the 
State-wide defense housing problem as its witness: 

Mr. Donald S. Sammis, works manager of Underwood-Elliott- 
Fisher Co., Bridgeport, Conn.; member of the board of directors of 
Manufacturers Association of Connecticut; member of the committee 
on problems of intrastate migratory labor of the committee on emer- 
gency employment problems of the Manufacturers Association of 
Connecticut; member of State subcommittee on defense housing 
representing the Bridgeport area. 

The manufacturers of Connecticut are fortunate in that, to the best 
of our knowledge, Connecticut is the first State to initiate an effective 
program of industrial health, in which the State department of health, 
the State medical society, and the Manufacturers Association of Con- 
necticut are working in close cooperation. The broad scope of this 
program and its modus operandi are presented by a witness who, in 
his official State capacity, is in a position to fully and properly appraise 
its value. We present as witness: 

Dr. Albert S. Gray, director of division of industrial hygiene of the 
State department of health; member of the joint committee on indus- 
trial health of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, and the 
Connecticut State Medical Association. 

An early conclusion on the part of the manufacturers' association 
that an inventory of Connecticut's industrial facilities was of para- 
mount importance in speeding the Nation's rearmament program 
resulted in such an inventory being completed in the fall of 1940. 

The necessary procedures for relating this inventory to information 
about currently available idle machinery is in operation with cooper- 
ating in-State organizations. 

Also in a position of prime importance is the complex question of 
priorities as to their effect on the employment problem of manu- 
facturers of defense and nondefensc products. 

We present as witness Mr. Norris W. Ford, manager of the Manu- 
facturers Association of Connecticut. 

I want to bring out strongly, Mr. Chairman, the fact that Connecticut 
industry is intensely desirous of working out this problem on a 
voluntary basis, so that the thing, which probably can be much better 
done voluntarily, may be done before it would seem to become neces- 
sary to order certain things to be done. And in that connection I 
cannot emphasize too strongly the cooperation we have had with 
Major Maloney and I am sure our work would have been futile if it 
had not been for that effort. 

The Chairman. We heard Major Maloney this morning. 

Thank you, Mr. Nickerson. If you have no objection we will hear 
from Mr. Sammis. 



5188 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

(At this point the prepared statement of Mr. Sammis was 
introduced as a part of the record. It is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY DONALD S. SAMMIS, WORKS MANAGER, UNDER- 
WOOD-ELLIOTT-FISHER CO., BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 

Report on Local Housing 

subcommittee on local defense housing for the bridgeport metropolitan 

AREA 

This subcommittee is an outgrowth of the State committee on defense housing, 
•of which the chairman of the Bridgeport subcommittee was appointed a member 
in October. 

Shortly thereafter it became necessary, in order that the State program might 
be inteUigently conducted, to gather pertinent facts and figuies from the various 
industrial centers, indicating what the housing situation might be as industrial 
employment increased. In order to procure this information, it became desirable 
for each member of the State committee to organize a local committee in his own 
industrial area, which local committee would garner, digest, and present facts to 
the State defense housing committee. 

The Bridgeport Metropolitan Area Committee was organized, therefore, on the 
basis of getting together in one group, representatives of industry, real estate, 
utilities, housing authority, bankers, and municipal officials. All these interests 
were included in the Bridgeport metro]3olitan subcommittee. The scope of the 
■committee was to cover the residence area surrounding the Bridgeport industries 
and, therefore, includes, besides Bridgeport, Fairfield, Easton, Trumbull, Monroe, 
Stratford, and western half of Milford. 

LOW VACANCY, BIG INCREASE IN EMPLOYEES 

The first problem presented to this subcommittee was to determine how many 
housing vacancies existed in the area and what the housing needs might be ex- 
pected to be over a period of a year. The following facts were discovered: At 
the time of the survej', October 21, the available vacancies in Bridgeport were 110, 
quite a few of which were outside the reach of the ordinary industrial worker in 
price. This against a normal vacancy in the area of about 800 houses during the 
period of 1926-29. The towns surrounding Bridgeport had about the same 
general situation. 

A survey was made of the industries in the area, covering about 100 plants, of 
which 92 reported, and these plants showed an estimated increase in expected 
employment by the end of 1941 of 12,000 workers. The State employment 
department informed us at the time that perhaps 2,000 of the individuals that were 
then on their employment rolls and now living within the area, would be available 
for industrial workers. The balance of the new workers would have to come 
from outside of the Bridgeport metropolitan area. The general proportion was 
about 78 percent male and 22 percent female. For the time being, the increase in 
employment in stores, restaurants, and other commercial places outside the 
industry, were not considered, although it is obvious that an increase in employ- 
ment in industry would bring a corresponding increase in commerce. 

SLUM-CLEARANCE PROJECT 

At the time this was going on, the Bridgeport Housing Authority was carrying 
on a slum-clearance project which would provide 1,700 dwelling units, an increase 
of about 900 over the houses that were demolished in the area. A study of the 
proportion of new wage earners, who might be locally housed already, those who 
would come here for work and only require rooming space, and those that would 
require family occupancy, indicated that we were going to be very much in need 
of housing over and above what private enterprise might build. 

During the year 1940 about 1,200 homes were built by private enterprise in 
the area and it was anticipated that this pace would probably double in the year 
1941. The record up to date indicates that this estimate is not very far out of 
line. Most of the houses built for private sale were in the class from $4,000 to 
$5,000 units and it was hoped that on the governmental end of the housing pro- 
gram, single-family homes might be built in about the $3,500 figure, which, in mass 
production, should give the same style of housing which was commonly most 
acceptable in the area under the private-purchase plan. Then ultimately, the 
Government-built houses might be sold to private ownership. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5189 

ESTIMATE NEED AT 4,600 HOUSES 

Early this year, following a careful determination of needs and an analysis 
of the figures then available, it was decided that about 4,600 houses would be 
necessary to meet critical needs of the area. With an estimate of 4,600 dwelling 
units needed and the expectation that private enterprise would construct 2,400, 
2,200 were to be met by public construction. 

In the meantime, the mayor of the city of Bridgeport had made an approach 
to the Federal Government for 600 single-family homes, to be constructed in 
what is called Success Park area. Later, because of the then limited available 
funds, it was found necessary by governmental authority to substitute row 
housing for this-single family housing request, and 600 row-type family occupancies 
were approved for this area and are now being constructed. Before the final 
decision, however, many conferences were held both in Bridgeport and Washing- 
ton on the subject, trying to find sufficient funds to put up single family homes. 

With these 600 allowed for, it left 1,600 additional homes to be provided by 
Federal agencies, and with the aid of the Federal Coordinator, Justin Hartzog, of 
Mr. Palmer's office, we were able to present our needs to the proper authorities in 
Washington, and the 1,600 homes were authorized for this area — part to be built 
in Stratford, part to be built in Fairfield, and part to be built in Bridgeport. 
These 1,600 liomes were authorized on the basis of either single-family homes or 
duplex homes, which was satisfactory to local interests as well as the govern- 
mental agencies. These projects are now under the jurisdiction of Mr. William 
Davies, of the Federal Works Agency, and progress is now being made toward their 
construction. Land has been chosen and plans are being drawn for early con- 
struction. 

ADDITIONAL TEMPORARY HOUSING 

Pending the completion of these houses, some effort has been made to provide 
additional housing of a temporary character. At one time the local subcommittee 
requested the Government for 1,000 trailers to fill in that temporary need, thinking 
that for perhaps 3 months these trailers might be used in this area. Considerable 
opposition has always been registered against trailer camps in this area and the 
mere fact of the need and the temporary nature of their use were the only factors 
which made them acceptable. The unavailability of trailers, however, has 
resulted in no temporary housing of that character Ijeing provided as yet. 

At the request of Mr. Palmer's office, we organized late in the winter a homes 
registry office under a competent director and staff, to provide a centralized place 
where real estate agents, home owners, and particularly seekers of rentable rooms 
could be gotten together to their mutual advantage. This registry service has 
worked very satisfactorily to date and we still have available rentable rooms for 
defense workers, which availability, however, may not last long. 

A resurvey in March of our industries indicated that our original estimates were 
very conservative and that there was an increase of 8,500 industrial employees 
between November 1 and March 1, and estimated 9,400 additional employees 
needed between March 1 and September 1. In other words, our original estimate 
of 12,000 has now been conservatively boosted to 19,000, which mean that our 
housing load may still prove a continuing problem as our original estimates may 
not be adequate. 

In the many groups represented in the subcommittee there has been some 
diversity of opinion and in some instances there have been individual approaches 
to Washington agencies expressing personal opinions rather than considered com- 
mittee opinions. This, however, has not seriousl}^ interfered with the accomplish- 
ment of the objectives set before the committee. While there have been a number 
of items where there has been controversy of thought, in the last analyses, the 
objective of getting housing here seems to be making good progress. 



[As a supplement to this report, a memorandum was submitted, as 
follows:] 

Defense Housing 

memorandum by gen. sanford h. wadham8, june 6, 1941 

A little more than 2 years ago, Governor Baldwin foresaw the possibility of a 
need for defense housing. He therefore called a meeting in his office of repre- 
sentatives of the housing authorities of the State of Connecticut and other per- 
sons with knowledge on this subject. It was the consensus of this group that a 



5190 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

careful, systematic survey should be carried out in all of the larger centers of 
population with a view to determining just what the needs would be in case of 
a considerable increase in emploj-ment in our industries. 

A Work Projects Administration project estimated to cost well toward $300,000 
was prepared and submitted to Washington. This project proposed not only to 
determine the housing vacancies throughout the State but to collect other valuable 
information on this general subject. While the project was ultimately approved 
in Washington, there was so much delay that, before it had gotten under way, 
the situation had materially changed. In other words, an acute housing shortage 
already existed. As it seemed probable that it would require very nearly a year 
to complete the systematic survey which had been contemplated, it was believed 
that some other method which would furnish the information immediately needed 
should be adopted. 

STATE-WIDE HOUSING COMMITTEE 

In the late summer of 1940, the Governor appointed a State- wide housing 
committee. This committee was made up of representatives of the local housing 
authorities throughout the State where such authorities were in existence. There 
were also representatives of Federal agencies such as the Federal Housing Ad- 
ministration and the Home Owners Loan Corporation. Each member of the 
committee became the chairman of a subcommittee to represent his particular 
part of the State. 

These subcommittees immediately undertook to prepare the most careful 
estimate of housing needs possible in a limited length of time. The office of the 
Housing Coordinator, Mr. Palmer, had requested that such information be sup- 
plied. The procedure adopted was to secure from the manufacturers of the 
area the best possible estimate of the number of employees which it was antici- 
pated would be added to the pay rolls of the respective plants. This information 
was supplemented by inquiries from other sources such as real-estate offices as 
to the availability of housing accommodations. When this information had been 
collected, it was submitted to the whole committee, tabulated and promptly 
forwarded to Mr. Palmer's office in Washington. The covering letter pointed 
out that it did not constitute a housing survej^ but that it was an estimate care- 
fully prepared and represented the situation as of that time, which was the latter 
part of November 1940. The recommendations contained were as follows: 

Units 

Stamford 1.-. 200 

Bridgeport 3,000 

Waterburv 500 

Meriden 200 

Hartford ' 1, 000 Total 5, 700 

1 This is the defense housing already approved Nov. 19, 1940. 

In retrospect, it seems quite apparent that the estimate submitted erred on the 
side of conservatism. It had been the intention of the committee, however, to 
carry out a continuing check on the figures submitted, but this plan was aban- 
doned for the reason that it soon became apparent that representatives of the 
several housing agencies in Washington had their own field forces in the State 
preparing estimates on housing needs. The committee felt that another agency 
submitting such figures would only serve to add further confusion to the result. 

VACANT HOMES REGISTRIES 

Shortly after the first of the year, a communication was received from the 
office of the Housing Coordinator requesting that the State undertake a pro- 
gram of establishing in the centers of population vacant homes registries. A 
representative from Mr. Palmer's office w^as assigned to the New England States 
and has .spent considerable time in Connecticut. When the matter was sub- 
mitted to the Governor, he volunteered to meet from State funds the salary of 
a director to manage these registries, and the Work Projects Administration vol- 
unteered to furnish clerical assistance. Such registries were established and 
have since been in operation in those cities where the housing shortage has been 
acute. They have served a very useful purpose. 

The information collected from these registries reveals certain very definite 
facts : 

(1) Housing accommodations for the families of defense workers in the lower 
rental groups are practically nonexistent. This is particularly true if it happens 
that there are children in the familv. 



Bristol 


Units 
100 


New Britain 


400 


New London and Groton 


300 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5191 

(2) There appears to be some small surplus of housing accommodations in the 
rental group of between $60 and $100 per month. 

(3) There has been little difficulty in finding single rooms for unmarried workers, 
both male and female. 

As an illustration of this situation, it can be stated that, as of June 4, 1941, the 
Hartford vacant homes registry had 11 vacancies in the $65 to $85 classification 
and 1 at $100 per month. Al the same time, there were approximately 250 
single rooms available. 

In some communities volunteer workers have succeeded in placing in the 
homes of people who would not under other circumstances take in a defense 
worker a large number, both men and women. 

RENT PROFITEERING 

It was to be expected that under the circumstances existing complaints of rent 
profiteering w^ould appear. Quite a number of such complaints were submitted 
to the former defense committee. While the committee had no authority to take 
any action, it has followed up all of these cases. The conclusions drawn from the 
investigation of such complaints might be summarized as follows: 

(1) The raising of rent by a very small minority of property owners who have 
seen a chance to capitalize on the housing shortage; and 

(2) That a considerable group of proprietors have taken this method of evict- 
ing a tenant considered undesirable perhaps because of a large family and in the 
hope that the tenement could be divided into two and thereby increase the pro- 
prietor's income. 

. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 

The State, as represented by the State defense council and its predecessor 
body, the State defense committee, has encountered difficulties in connection 
with defense housing occasioned by the considerable number of Federal agencies 
in the field. Many representatives from these various agencies have visited the 
State and have discussed their several problems with the local officials. The 
Federal Housing Authority has had surveys made in several of the larger cities 
of the State. These, it is our impression, have been very carefully made, but as 
they are confidential the State authorities are not advised of the conclusions 
arrived at. 

The result of having so many agercies all attempting to accomplish much the 
same objective has caused a certain amount of confusion. The Defense Council 
has made every effort to cooperate and assist those responsible for carrying out 
Federal housing projects. It has been felt that valuable service could be rendered 
through the established State agencies in connection with providing the services 
such as water supply and sewage disposal for housing projects. Usually, how- 
ever, the first notice that a project has been adopted is when that fact appears in 
the public press. We have recently read that 85 housing units are to be construct- 
ed near the Windsor Locks Airfield. As recently as Jur e 4, a letter has reached 
this office asking where living accommodations for from 75 to 100 families of 
married officers and enlisted men could be found in the Hartford area. 

Before any intelligent reply to such an inquiry can be made, informatior must 
be obtained as to the number of officers and the number of enlisted men to be 
accommodated. It would be helpful also to know if these accommodations are 
to be considered as temporary awaiting only the completion of the units W'hich 
it is understood will be built. 

The situation in the New London a,rea at the present time is very confusing. 
Some projects are practically completed, others are well under way, and some are 
about to be begun. Different Federal agencies are in charge of these projects. 
A letter to the Division of State and Local Cooperation of the National Defense 
Advisory Commission under date of May 16 asking for a list of the approved 
projects and the name of the agency in charge of each has not yet produced any 
information. This information would be helpful in this particular case in decid- 
ing upon the questions of water supply and sewage disposal. 

Our experience indicates that defense housing would be materially facilitated 
if there were one individual in the State of Connecticut who represented all of 
the various Federal housing agencies with whom the State officials could cooperate. 

NEED FOR STATE LEGISLATION 

A great deal of study has been given to the possible need for State legislation. 
One bill considered by the general assembly w^as a rent-control act. This was 
modeled on the bill w'hich had been prepared by the National Defense Advisory 
-41 — pt. 13 12 



5192 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Commission. A second bill would have created a State housing authority em- 
powered to act in any town or city where no housing authority had been created. 
Both passed in one body of the general assembly but failed in the other. 

As to the rent control act, there were many who, while recognizing the need of 
controlling profiteering, believed that enforcement presented substantial difficul- 
ties. There was a strong sentiment for exercising control through local boards 
or committees, the members of which would be carefulh- selected because of 
knowledge and experience in the real-estate field. All complaints would be sub- 
mitted to and investigated by this board. Where rent raises were found to be 
unjustified and no satisfactory adjustment could be arrived at by the board, the 
matter would be given pitiless publicity. This method had been tried out in at 
least one Connecticut city during the last war with very satisfactory results. 
The proponents of this plan admitted that it probably would not be workable 
in large cities but believed that it would accomplish its purpose in the relatively 
small cities of this State. 

PRIVATE HOUSING DEVELOPMENTS 

Private building is very active throughout the State. While much of it is in a 
rental bracket beyond the reach of the average worker, there are a number of 
private developments which are comparable to those of the Federal agencies in 
cost. These houses are, however, built to be sold, and the down payment required 
sharply reduces the number of defense workers who can secure a home in this way. 

APPROVED HOUSING PROJECTS 

As of May 31, 1941, Federal housing projects as shown on the appended list 
had been approved in Connecticut. 

[Note.— Ind.=Industrial workers. N-EC = Navy enlisted 
Army enlisted. 2=Site acquired. 1 



nd civilian. N-E = Xavy enlisted. A-E = 
=Site not acquired.] 



City 


Number 
of units 


Occu- 
pants 


Approval 
date 


Site 


Construction 
begun 




600 
400 
250 
150 
40 
500 
200 
200 
300 
200 
100 
1,000 
300 
200 
400 
300 
85 


Ind 

Ind .... 

Ind 

Ind 


Feb. 3, 1941 
May 5,1941 

do 

do 


2 

2 

1 


May 2,1941 


Do 


Do . ■---. 




Do 




Bantam 


Ind 

Ind 

Ind 

Ind 

N-EC... 

Ind 

N-E 


May 26, 1941 
May 2, 1941 
May 5, 1941 

do 

Nov. 25, 1940 
Apr. 21,1941 

do 








Fairfield 




Do 








Do' 




Do 






Ind 

Ind 

Ind 

Ind 

Ind 

A-E,... 


Aug. 27, 1940 
Feb. 3, 1941 
May 2,1941 
May 5,1941 
Feb. 3,1941 
May 5,1941 




New Britain 


Apr. 24 1941 


Do 




Waterbury 













Prefabricated demountable. 



TESTIMONY OF DONALD S. SAMMIS, WORKS MANAGER OF UNDER- 
WOOD-ELLIOTT-FISHER CO., BRIDGEPORT, CONN. 



The Chairman. Mr. Sammis, on the basis of 12,000 new workers 
to be employed in Bridgeport by December of 1941, your subcom- 
mittee on housing estimated that 4,600 dwehing units would be 
needed. Your estimate of the available vacancies at that time was 
110 in Bridgeport. 

How did you arrive at the figure of 4,600 to house 12,000 new 
workers? 

Mr. Sammis. We had a conference on that subject in an attempt 
to determine what proportion of workers would be boarders or roomers 
and what proportion would be family individuals. We made a very 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5193 

complete survey of the then existing employment in Bridgeport to 
indicate the number of married people and the number of unmarried 
people, both men and women then employed in industry, and tried 
to arrive at some reasonable determination of this division. 

Naturally it had to be arbitrary because there is no formula that 
we knew of that could prognosticate the future, and what we would 
be getting in the way of new employees from outside the immediate 
area. 

We did. however, estimate on the basis of the number of employees 
who were available in our area, who had not yet been put in industry, 
either trained or untrained, and that left us a residue to come from 
the outside. 

Then of this group from the outside we estimated that about 6,000 
would be in the category of those who only needed rooms for them- 
selves and had no family to worry about. 

PUBLIC AND PRIVATE CONSTRUCTION 

I think our records to date indicate that we were rather conservative 
on that point, which left us a balance of 46 gross family units that 
needed housing. We recognized the fact that we bad no available 
housmg for those workers at the moment. That represented about 
32 percent of our total estimate. 

We knew that there were a certam number of units being constructed 
at the time. We figured that private enterprise might be expected to 
speed up to the point of increasing its previous year's record of 
1,288 houses, and we used a 2,400-unit estimate for private construc- 
tion on the supposition that private enterprise, which we were in 
thorough contact with in connection with our general, local committee, 
would do that without backing up because of public construction. 

In most places because of public construction the private interests 
would l)e frightened to do their full share, and on the basis of that 
estimate, it left us a net balance of 2,226 houses for public 
construction. 

BRIDGEPORT APPLICATION TO GOVERNMENT 

The mayor of Bridgeport had already made an application for 600 
houses mider the origmal Lanham Act and had got approval for that 
number of units, which are now under construction. 

We followed that up with a request for 1,600 more houses, which 
brought us up to 2,200, which are now being drawn up — that is, the 
plans are being drawn by architects under the Federal Works 
Administration. 

The contracts are to be let in July with occupancy promised for 
October. We have as yet none of that housing ready for occupancy, 
but it is expected that ty the end of next month they will begin to put 
tenants in the first 600 units. 

That is as near as we could figure otit what our housing requirements 
were at the time. The tendency has been for us to have more of the 
roomer type of new employees, so I think that even though our esti- 
mate of 12,000 has gone to 1.5.000 and then 19.000 new employees in 
the area, we are apparently going to be adequately covered. 



5194 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

I notice in today's press they have held up the temporary barracks 
housing which was allocated to Bridgeport by the Farm Security 
Administration now until they have further figures on how the situa- 
tion develops in the Bridgeport area. 

ONE-THIRD ARE FAMILY MEN 

The Chairman. Mr. Sammis, what percentage of the new workers 
do you estimate to be family men? 

Mr. Sammis. Thirty-two, or at least that is the way it worked out 
in our figures — roughly, a third. 

The Chairman. Only 1,200 houses were built privately in 1940. 
yet you estimated 2,400 for 1941. "Wliat are the actual figures on 
new houses constructed to date for 1941 at Bridgeport, and what are 
the figures on permits for building issued? If you do not have those 
figures, would you obtain them for the committee? 

Mr. Sammis. ft is a little difficult to find out just how many have 
been completed on the basis of permits issued, but there have been 
50 percent more in the first 5 months which includes, of course, your 
winter period than there were last year, and on the basis of new 
projects which are more than single house projects, where they are 
building 40, 50, or 60 or 100 houses under private enterprise as one 
group, those are coming stronger daily. 

Now, I thmk there is no question that our estimate will be met 
before the end of the year. 

The Chairman. You report that 2,200 units were publicly con- 
structed. How many of these units have been completed to date? 

Mr. Sammis. Six hundred have been started but not completed; 
1,500 are in the plan stage. 

The Chairman. Did your committee find any reluctance on the 
part of Washington to release the funds for the necessary housing? 

VARIOUS authorities 

Mr. Sammis. No, sir; our problem, however, was a little more 
difficult because of the fact that you have to deal with quite a number 
of different housing authorities, which is a bit confusing, and made 
some delay in getting to our final approvals. However, Mr. Palmer's 
office, the Office oi the Housing Coordinator, has been veiy, very 
helpful. All the men who have come to this area from his office have 
been exceptionally able men and we have been very much pleased with 
the facility with which we could work with them. 

The Chairman. Now, your estimate of 12,000 new workers has now 
been increased to 19,000, or more than one-third. Obviously, your 
housing estimate should be increased by one-third. In other words, 
even if 4,600 units are completed this year, Bridgeport will still be 
2,300 units short. Is your committee doing anything about this 
situation? 

Mr. Sammis. We are studying the situation and particularly with 
reference to the number of family groups that are coming in, as related 
to the number of nonfamily groups coming in. The indication is that 
if we have this supplemental work that is projected by the Farm Ad- 
ministration, we will probably be amply taken care of. We still have, 
without actually using the patriotic appeal for rooms, in the existing 
dwellings about 1,000 registered unused rooms where single men or 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5195 

single women can board. We have a homes registry bureau that we 
set up at the request of the Coordinator's office. 

The Chairman. Before I forget it, I thinlv the mayor and the 
Governor both made some mention of the difficulty in contacting these 
different housing agencies. Have you any suggestion about a central 
clearinghouse so that you could go to one agency and clear with them 
all? Do you think that would be helpful? 

WANTED COSTLIER TYPE 

Mr. Sammis. We have tried to simplify it by working more directly 
through Mr. Palmer's office and letting him show us around to the 
different places in Washington when the time came. It is bound to be 
difficult when you find that some housmg is under one agency and 
some housing to be constructed under another agency. One of the 
things that was particularly grievous to us was the fact that the funds 
available for housing did not allow quite sufficient money to provide 
the type of housing we thought we should have. 

Now, that may be presumptuous on the part of the community, to 
ask for single or duplex houses where the money available will provide 
only row housing; but again perhaps we were idealistic and we were 
trying to look beyond the present emergency, knowing that the hous- 
ing, once put up, would be with us forever. 

TURN-OVER OF MIGRATORY WORKERS 

The Chairman. Major Maloney's office has estimated that 60,000 
migrant workers visited or entered Bridgeport since the fall of 1939. 
Do you find that these workers, unneeded at the moment, have ac- 
centuated the housing shortage? 

Mr. Sammis. I would say not, because the migrant workers are in- 
dividuals rather than families. In very few cases have we had fami- 
lies come in and rest on their hopes in the area. The migratory 
workers who cannot find employment in the Bridgeport area don't 
s^ay there very long. They generally move out inside of a week, so 
that there is a constant turn-over of those temporary visitors. 

The Chairman. About what percentage of those coming in obtain 
employment? 

Mr. Sammis. Well, I don't know that I could give you any definite 
figure with reference to that. That probably could be procured 
through the local State employment office in Bridgeport, and that in- 
formation might be available through Major Maloney's office. 

REPORTS NO HOLDBACK FOR HIGHER RENTS 

The Chairman. Do you find that the private builders are trying to 
prevent expansion in the belief that they can collect excessive rents 
on their present properties? 

Mr. Sammis. I would say no, because most of the private builders 
have been waiting for 10 years for an opportunity to do a lot of build- 
ing, and the private builders and the real-estate operators — that is, 
the agents in charge of rents — are two different groups. The persons 
who might be trying to collect excessive rents are the real-estate rent 
collectors — that is the recognized realtors who are not building, but 
are managing properties. Up to the present time the real-estate board 



5196 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

in Bridgeport has, through its membership, given us wholehearted 
cooperation in the program. We have given them all of oui' facts, and 
they in tui-n have not proved gun-shy on this proposition of pushing 
private construction. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Sammis. 

Mr. Sparkman will interrogate the next witness. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. ALBERT S. GRAY, DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF 
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE, STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, 
HARTFORD, CONN. 

Mr. Sparkman. Dr. Gray, I believe your name and connections 
have aheady been given to the reporter. 

Dr. Gray. That is correct. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have a statement which you would like to 
have filed with the committee at this time? 

Dr. Gray. Yes. 

(The statement referred to above, together with related exhibits 
excerpted from the report of the manufacturers association, follows:) 

STATEMENT BY DR. ALBERT S. GRAY, DIRECTOR, DIVISION OF 
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, STATE OF 
CONNECTICUT 

The nation-wide interest in the physical welfare of industrial workers, which 
has been manifested in the creation of industrial hygiene units in health depart- 
naents in more than 30 States and cities during the past decade, is symbolic of a 
trend of interest in industrial health in which Connecticut was a pioneer and con- 
tinues to be an outstanding example. This generalized increase in attention to 
the physical welfare of the workingman was not stimulated by any marked de- 
velopment of new health hazards, n.either was it due to physical changes within 
the workers to make them more susceptible to occupational diseases, but to a 
growing realization of the tremendous cost of preventable industrial illness to 
industry, the individual, and the State. 

Connecticut is a predominantly industrial State, and has always realized that 
the health of its industrial population, comprising as it does almost half of those 
gainfully employed, is an important part of its public health program. Even 
before the formation of a separate bureau of industrial hygiene in the depatt- 
ment of health, for intensified activity in this field, the health of industrial workers 
constituted a definite part of public health activities of the State department 
of health. 

Since 1921 the Conference of State and Provincial Health Authorities of North 
America has had an industrial hygiene committee concerned with this phase of 
public health. The placing of industrial health activities of the department of 
health in a bureau of industrial hygiene laid the groundwork upon which a com- 
prehensive specialized industrial hygiene program has been built. The name of 
the bureau of occupational diseases was changed this year by the legislation to 
the bureau of industrial hygiene. 

Connecticut has been very fortunate in the relationships which exist between 
the various agencies concerned in industrial health. The medical fraternity, labor, 
industry, and public health authorities, have all contributed to the development 
of the Connecticut program for the conservation of the health of industrial 
workers. 

SEPARATE BUREAU CREATED IN 1928 

The Connecticut State Department of Health has been actively engaged in the 
control of industrial health hazards since the early 1920's, but the growing demands 
for service and the interest manifested by industry, and particularly the Connec- 
ticut Manufacturers' Association, lead to the creation in 1928 of a separate bureau 
in the State department of health, particularly charged with the investigation 
and control of conditions in industry which might affect the health of the workers. 

Starting with but a small personnel, the demands for service have propelled the 
bureau's program at a more rapid pace than even the most enthusiastic early 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5197 

supporters ever anticipated. Progress of the industrial hygiene program has 
steadil}^ increased until at the present time there are two inaustrial physicians, 
three industrial chemists, four industrial engineers, and one industrial nurse — 
all specially trained and experienced in their respective fields of industrial hvgiene 
work. This technical personnel has been augmented by additional clerical woikers 
and budgetarj- provisions have been made for the addition of additional indus- 
trial physician and industrial chemist on July 1, 1941. This expansion of the 
industrial hygiene program was a result of the growing realization that this phase 
of public health should be further developed. 

The objective of the department of health is to prevent illness, prolong life, 
and raise the health level of the general population. To this end the industrial 
hygiene program of the bureau of industrial hygiene is concerned particularly with 
safeguarding the working environment of those engaged in industry so that the 
health of the workers will not be adversely affected during their working hours. 
At the same time the bureau can bring to them, because of its close association 
with the industrial population, the other facilities of the department of health to 
preserve health and prolong life. 

Bureau of Industrial Hygiene 

connecticut department of health 

Organization of technical services 



Commissioner 

of 

Health 



Director 

of 
Bureau 



PERSONNEL 

Medical 
Nursing 
Chemical 
Engineering 



Medical and Nursing 

DUTIES 
MEDICAL 

1. Investigation of occupa- 

tional diseases. 

2. Examination of workers. 

3. Consultation service to 

physicians. 

4. Collection and analysis of 

occupational disease re- 
ports. 

5. Investigations of plant 

hazards. 

6. Consultation service to 

industry and labor. 

7. Educational work. 



NURSING 

1. Consultation service to 

industrial nurses con- 
cerning preventive nurs- 
ing activities. 

2. Assistance to bureau phy- 

sicians in occupational 
disease diagnosis and 
control work. 



DUTIES 

1. Surveys and studies of 

industrial environment. 

2. Analysis and evaluation of 

data obtained in field 
studies. 

3. Laboratory analysis of toxic 

materials. 

4. Development of methods 

used in evaluating health 
hazards. 

5. Consultation services. 

6. Educational. 



Control Engineering 

DUTIES 

1. Investigation of occupa- 

tional health hazards. 

2. Consultation service with 

plant officials concerning 
control of occupational 
hazards, including type 
and design of equipment 
methods of operation, 
etc. 

3. Studies of effectiveness of 

various types of control 
measures. 

4. Technical consultant serv- 

ice to physicians, chem- 
ists, etc., concerning cjn- 
trol facilities and practice 

5. General educational work 

concerning control of 
occupational health 
hazards. 



5198 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Occupational disease control cannot be reduced to a simple formula calling for 
the removal of a machine here, shutting off a valve there, or taking some other 
relatively elementary step of the type usually followed in safeguarding a fly- 
wheel, enclosing an elevator shaft, or repairing a hole in the floor. To the con- 
trary, logical and effective control of industrial health hazards requires sound 
scientific knowledge of the nature and uses of the chemicals, materials, or pro- 
cesses responsible for illness and the most effective means for their positive con- 
trol. This work requires the application by specially trained personnel of precise 
physical and chemical procedures, statistical interpretation, diagnostic technic, 
with formulation and enforcement of recommendations, and embraces all of the 
activities of a well-organized department of health. 

The policy of the department of health in all jihases of industrial health haz- 
ard control has been to provide the type of service which industry and labor will 
recognize as sound and effective and which they will seek and respect. The 
following is an outline of the activities of the bureau of industrial hygiene: 



All activities of the bureau are under the supervision of the director who, as 
administrator, passes upon all reports and recommendations, and is responsible 
for all services rendered in the bureau. His duties also include consultation 
service with physicians concerning the diagnosis of occupational diseases; special 
investigations in plants and elsewhere of the circumstances connected with known 
or suspected cases of industrial illness; receipt of reports of occupational disease 
from physicians; evaluation of the incidence and trends of various types of ill- 
ness arising in plants; interpretation to the chemists and control engineers of 
the medical problems presented by industrial health hazards; dissemination of 
medical and general information to physicians, plant officials, workers, and others 
concerning occupational diseases, and special examinations of workers for the 
purpose of evaluating the physical effects produced by various types of exposures. 

An additional physician was employed in July 1940 and the above types of 
medical services are now being carried out on a more extensive scale. 

CHEMICAL 

Basic analytical and chemical engineering services represent an indispensable 
phase of the industrial hygiene service. Due to the rapid development of the 
many and complex chemical procedures and their widespread use in industry, 
more than 900 actual or potential health hazards exist. The control of these 
hazards naturally requires the services of specialists in this field. The first 
technical worker employed at the beginning was a chemical engineer and there 
are now three in the Bureau. 

The chemists are charged with the responsibility of identifying the various 
chemicals and their byproducts involved in a hazardous occupation and of evalu- 
ating their role in the hazard involved. To do such work often requires the 
collection and analysis of samples of dusts, fumes, and other types of atmos- 
pheric contaminants or identification of the chemicals known or suspected to be 
involved in any given occupational disease problem. Many toxic chemicals and 
materials may be safely used in industry, so it is the chemical engineer's duty to 
determine whether such materials are being used in such a manner. 

The data collected by the chemical engineers is combined with the findings of 
the industrial engineers and physicians in order to assist in the best solution. 

ENGINEERING 

In the final analysis, the control of occupational disease hazards is the objec- 
tive we are after and engineering services are an essential part of the set-up. 
Industrial engineering services are required to devise ways and means of elimi- 
nating health hazards or reducing exposure to levels not detrimental to the 
health of workers. 

The four industrial engineers in the bureau spend all of their time in consul- 
tation within the different plants concerning ways and means of controlling 
hazardous exposures. Oftentimes dangerous operations are made safe by simple 
readjustments of existing control equipment, while on other occasions proper 
protection of the workers is accomplished only by the installation of new control 
measures. In all cases the spirit of the engineers is to assist in correcting defects 
for which plant operators are legally responsible and the elimination of which 
almost alwaj's is economical and profitable. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
NURSING 



5199 



One industrial nurse was added to our staff in January 1941, and her accom- 
plishments already demonstrate the value of embarking on this course. In 
addition to her many opportunities to be of service in connection with other basic 
services, she serves as a consultant to nurses in industry concerning the preventive 
aspects of their programs. Among the services which the industrial nurse can 
render in plants maj' be mentioned assistance concerning standardized nursing 
practices, uniform systems of recording services, and absenteeism studies. 

SPECIAL SERVICES IN NATIONAL-DEFENSE INDUSTRIES 

The bureau already had a great deal of information concerning health problems 
in a majority of industries which have been called upon to manufacture materials 
and equipment for use in the national-defense program. But, with the develop- 
ment of these extra demands on industry the bureau immediately recognized the 
potential influence of such abnormal industrial activity upon the physical welfare 
of workers. During such periods the normal regime of plant operations may be 
disturbed to the extent that the usual vigilance against illness is relaxed; old 
hazardous processes are reinstituted; new operations possessing definite or unde- 
termined health hazards are developed; physically defective and untrained 
workers may be employed — these and other factors may be responsible for the 
recurrence of old or the introduction of new hazards into the plant. During the 
present emergency the role of industries in supplying defense equipment is greater 
than ever before and the importance of conserving manpower in industry is 
definitely realized. 

Connecticut is one of the smallest States in the Union in respect to both area 
and population, yet it is among the first in the importance of its industries, in 
the defense program. To meet its obligations in this program, it is obvious that 
no stone should be left unturned to insure the protection of the health of the 
workers in this emergency. The bureau is concentrating its services in the 
defense industries by placing such plants on its priority list for service. All of 
these plants are being surveyed in detail to determine the nature and severitj' 
of their health hazards, and all unsatisfactory conditions are given the necessary 
amount of attention to insure that thev are effectivelv controlled. 



ACCOMPLISHMENTS 

The best example of the accomplishments of the bureau is the extent to which 
the services have been exjaanded during recent years. Without proper appre- 
ciation of the efforts of the bureau, demands for help on the part of industry and 
others would not have created the need for personnel expansions. This type of 
acconiplishment cannot be clearly illustrated in any statistical form. However, 
the figures shown in the following table do serve as witnesses and also reveal the 
extent to which some of the major routine services were rendered. It will be 
noted that with the exception of studies, which are special activities, there was 
a marked increase in work done during the latter two 4-year periods over the 
previous periods. Special studies are carried out only when routine investigative 
service will permit. This type of work fell off somewhat in the last 4-year period 
because of the increasing demands for routine plant investigations and because 
two of the more experienced workers left the service during the period and covild 
not be replaced for several months because of no personnel being on the civil- 
service list. 

Activities of Bureau of Industrial Hygiene, by 4-year periods, July 1928 to June 
1940, inclusive 





1928-32 


1932-36 


1936-40 


NTiirnhpr of fipld trips; 


1,125 
298 

1,205 

1,022 

500 


1,488 
630 
143 
2,480 
3,492 
1,272 


2,849 




1,171 




140 


Field determinations 


5,467 




5,399 


Consultations 


3,294 







5200 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Special activities have been engaged in from time to time in order to make 
detailed evaluations of hazards presented by certain types of industries. One 
of these studies has been that dealing with mercury poisoning in fur-cutting and 
hat-manufacturing plants which was made in cooperation with the United States 
Public Health Service. These special investigations added considerable informa- 
tion to the literature concerning the effects of prolonged exposure to mercury 
and its compounds, and also revealed the principal sources of poisoning in the 
two types of industries. One of the principal facts demonstrated by these studies 
was that the only practicable and effective way of dealing with the mercury 
hazard was to eliminate it entirely from the operations. The bureau of indus- 
trial hygiene immediately thereafter launched a drive for the suVjstitution of a 
nonmercurial carrot for the old type which contained mercury. Manj' problems 
had to be solved before this change could be made, the most important of which 
was the development of suitable nonmercurial carroting solutions. This goal 
finally has been reached and, as a result of a recent agreement reached bj* fur 
cutters, hat manufacturers, labor, and health officials, regulations were drawn 
up prohibiting the use of mercury in the carroting of hatters' fur after December 
1, 1941. This accomplishment by the Connecticut Department of Health and 
the hatting and fur-cutting industry will take its place, along with the measures 
used in eliminating phosphorus in the manufacture of matches, as one of the 
"historical mileposts in the progress of preventive medicine. 

Other special studies have been made from time to time for the purpose of 
procuring specific data on which to base control procedures. Industrial Hygiene 
still is a comparatively new field of service and much information concerning 
health hazards is incomplete. The bureau has added much information to the 
store of knowledge concerning several phases of the work, notably, electrolytic 
cleaning and stripping operations, electroplating, degreasing, radioactive sub- 
stances, exposures to lead, cadmium, silica, asbestos, and some of the newer 
toxic solvents. A study of exposures in dental laboratories revealed that of the 
184 workers involved all of them were exposed to dangerous concentrations of 
silica dust. Many of these people thought that they were using pumice in 
polishing their work but the studies revealed that they actually were using silica 
and were being subjected to a serious health hazard. 

An important feature of the Bureau's activities is concerned with educational 
efforts. Every opportunity is utilized to disseminate information by technical 
papers, lay articles, radio broadcasts, illustrated lectures, demonstrations, and 
personal conferences concerning occupational health hazards and their control. 
The committee is respectfully referred to the annual reports of the State depart- 
ment of health for further information respecting the work of the bureau. 

RELATIONSHIPS OF THE BUREAU WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS AND AGENCIES 

The bureau of industrial hygiene exists for no purpose other than to render 
honest and impartial service in the prevention and control of occupational health 
hazards and raising the general health level of the industrial worker. The bureau 
has legal power to enter any plant in the State and the public health council of 
the department of health has authority to formulate and enforce regulations in the 
sanitary code governing occupational disease hazards. Whenever occasion de- 
mand, these powers are exercised. 

INDUSTRY 

Industry is charged with the responsibility for complying with regulations 
concerning occupational health hazards and the spirit of cooperation in this work 
always has been in keeping with the character which has been a distinguishing 
characteristic of industry in Connecticut. The creation of the service was made 
possible by the legislature at the insistence of induistry. The relationships the 
bureau has had with the manufacturers' association have been on a plane which 
has materiallv assisted the bureau in its work. 



The contacts with organized labor and with the individual worker have been 
•exactly the same as those with individual industries and the manufacturers' 
association. The cooperation received from organized labor has been helpful, 
stimulating, and supportive to measures that the bureau desired to carry out in 
studying particular problems. Many individual workers go to the bureau with 
their occupational health problems or report unsatisfactory working conditions. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5201 

These people have been given the best services which the bureau is capable of 
rendering and many unsatisfactory plant conditions have been corrected as a 
result of their cooperation. 

THE MEDICAL PROFESSION 

The medical profession represents the most effective medium in the accom- 
plishment of many of the bureau's efforts. Industrial physicians occupy advan- 
tageous positions to supervise industrial health practices and to bring about 
adequate control of hazards. Just as the private physician is the most logical 
person to practice public health, in its broader aspects, so is the industrial physician 
equally well situated to practice preventive medicine in the plant. Even the 
physicians who are not connected with plants see many types of illness caused by 
or "definitely influenced by occupational exposures. The bureau recognizes the 
services which tliese doctors are in position to render concerning industrial health 
and every effort is made to cooperate with them. 

That the State medical association is actively interested in the work is attested 
by the recent publication of a brochure entitled "Conserving Manpower Through 
the Extension and Improvement of Industrial Medical Service" which was pre- 
pared bj' the joint industrial health committee of the Manufacturers' Association 
of Connecticut and the Connecticut State Medical Society. Over a thousand 
copies of this brochure have been distributed. 

This unique document describes the scope, function, and organization of medical 
service in industry and contains an inquiry form, which, when completed by 
Connecticut manufacturers, will furnish valuable information concerning exist- 
ing medical services. Upon request, manufacturers desiring information concern- 
ing the inauguration or expansion of a health program will be given assistance. 

It is hoped that the brochure will be the first of a number of cooperative enter- 
prises on the part of the manufacturers' association and medical society, aiming to 
further the interests of the preparedness program. For example, the need for 
disseminating more information about organizing first aid training courses for 
employees has been recognized, and other measures for improving employee 
morale will undoubtedly become apparent. 

The bureau renders consultation service to physicians concerning the diagnosis 
and control of occupational diseases. This phase of the work has developed so 
rapidly during the past few years that an additional industrial health physician 
was assigned to the service in July 1940 and another one will be employed in July 
1941, to assist with this program. 

NURSING ASSOCIATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS 

The bureau desires to emphasize industrial nursing service and the contribu- 
tion which the State nurses' organization, the visiting nurses' association and 
nurses in various branches of the profession are in position to render in extending 
and improving industrial nursing services. Since an industrial nurse was added 
to the bureau of industrial hygiene, definite attention is being given to the develop- 
ment of plans for promoting plant nursing activities. The interest which is being 
shown in this undertaking indicates that the nurses will keep pace with the 
physicians in their efforts to develop industrial hygiene services in the plants. 

THE STATE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 

The State department of labor cooperates with the bureau of industrial hygiene 
by reporting any health conditions observed in plants which should be investigated 
-and the same cooperation is extended to them concerning accident hazards. 

THE UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 

The United States Public Health Service, through its Division of Industrial 
Hygiene, always has rendered efficient and cooperative service to the bureau of 
industrial hygiene. The studies of mercuiialism in the fur cutting and hat manu- 
facturing plants which were referred to elsewhere in this report, are again cited 
as working examples of cooperation. 

LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENTS 

Local health departments represent the first official line of defense against all 
public health problems such as occupational disease hazards. The extent of their 
participation in the bureau's activities is governed by the type and magnitude of 
problems involved and by local facilities. In the majority of instances all control 



5202 HARTFORD HEARmGS 

work is carried out by the bureau because of inadequate personnel in the area, 
but it is the policy of the bureau to encourage local health officials to participate 
in the work as freely as possible. Many problems are reported by local health 
authorities and they are invaluable aids to the program. 

AMERICAN STANDARDS ASSOCIATION 

The American Standards Association committee on limits of exposure to 
industrial materials has rendered a very valuable service in developing standards 
respecting the safe concentrations of dusts, gases, and other types of atmospheric 
contaminants. The commissioner of health and director of the bureau of indus- 
trial hygiene are members of that committee. 

INSURANCE ORGANIZATIONS 

Cooperative relationships exist between the bureau and the various insurance 
organizations carrying occupational disease liabilities in Connecticut, and much 
technical information is interchanged concerning industrial health hazards. 

MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES AND ORGANIZATIONS 

The bureau of industrial hygiene maintains close and profitable relationship 
with various other official and" nonofficial organizations — in fact, it may be said 
that it counts as its allies any legitimate organization which is in position to be of 
any service in the improvement of conditions in industry which may adversely 
affect the health of the worker. 

The special interests which are being shown in the phj-sical welfare of workers 
in national-defense industries affords new and greater opportunities for the Bureau 
to cooperate with the various agencies and organizations concerned. The attached 
organization chart shows the manner in which cooperative relationships may he 
maintained. The Bureau has long been actively engaged in occupational disease 
control work in the State and, consequently, it is considered to be more adequately 
equipped to serve as a source of genera] information concerning health problems 
and as an agency for correcting hazards than any of the other organizations 
which are concerned with any phases of this subject. It is anxious to receive 
reports from such organizations concerning problems to be investigated and is 
equally willing to supply any information possible which would be desired by 
them. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5203 



C3 



i§ 









ii 



1^ 



3a 



OS* 




5204 HARTFORD HEARINGS 



FUTURE PROGRAM 

The Bureau of Industrial Hygiene plans to continue along the same general 
course which has been followed in the past 13 years. The major activities will 
continue to be concerned with the elimination of individual occupational disease 
hazards. The work will be expanded to include any other indicated services 
which can be handled. Some of future extensions of the service under considera- 
tion are outlined be'ow. 

MEDICAL SERVICE IN INDUSTRY 

The Bureau is not directly concerned with industrial medical service but 
recognizes that such service is of inestimable value in the control of occupational 
disease hazards. Every effort wiU be exerted to assist the industrial physicians 
in the promotion of this service. 

NURSING SERVICE IN INDUSTRY 

Reference already has been made to the values of industrial nursing service and 
to some of the Bureau's interests in this work. All possible assistance will be 
rendered to the nurses on a basis similar to that concerning industrial medical 
service. 

FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL AND NURSING SERVICES IN THE CONTROL 
OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES 

With the addition of another physician to the staff in July 1941, it will be 
possible to make more complete medical investigations of all occupational diseases 
reported to the Bureau. This service will be rendered for the purpose of procuring 
epidemiological information concerning the nature of the cases and the various 
circumstances in the plants and elsewhere which were responsible for the illness. 
Nursing participation in this service also will be developed. Much valuable 
information concerning the epidemiology of occupational diseases will be procured 
and used in bringing about more effective control of conditions responsible for 
such cases. 

FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATIONAL EFFORTS 

Education is an important'phase of a preventive medicine program and special 
attention will be given to the improvement of this service. The expanded pro- 
gram will provide for more technical articles, general bulletins and pamphlets, 
demonstrations and individual conferences dealing with various industrial health 
problems. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The prospects for rendering effective service in the future appear more encourag- 
ing than has ever been realized before. A great deal of progress has been made 
in the development of proper appreciation of the importance of health conserva- 
tion in industry. Industry, labor, and the medical profession are intensely 
interested in tl:e work. The store of knowledge and the criteria for diagnosis and 
controlling occupational diseases have been greatly advanced. Additional State 
funds ai^propriated by the Legislature will provide more personnel and permit 
more effort in dealing with occupational health hazards. With all of these 
advantages it does not appear too optimistic to predict that past accomplishments 
in this field of work soon may be looked back upon as just a small start in the 
inarch toward the final goal — adequate control of every occupational health 
hazard in Connecticut. 



[With the above statement was submitted the following supplemen- 
tal material:] 

Occupational Environment — Sanitary Code, State of Connecticut 

Regulation 280: 

No person, firm, corporation, or other employer shall use or permit to be used 
in the conduct of his business, manufacturing establishment or other place of 
employment, any process, material or condition known to have an adverse effect 
on health, unless arrangements have been made to maintain the occupational 
environment in such a manner that injury to health shall not result. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 52Q5 

Before any person, firm, corporation, or other employer shall undertake any 
actual construction in connection therewith, the State department of health shall 
be notified of any contemplated replacement, extension, or new installation of 
any industrial exhaust ventilating system for the removal of dust, fumes, vapors,, 
mists, or gases, w-hich may afi'ect the health of workers. 

Exposure to dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, gases, or any materials that may 
affect health shall be kept below the threshold limits as established in Regulatioa 
281. 

Threshold limits of toxic materials 

Regulation 281 : 

Material Concentration 

Benzene (Benzol) 100 parts per million. 

Carbon tetrachloride 100 parts per million. 

Carbon disulfide 20 parts per million. 

Carbon monoxide 100 parts pei milhon. 

Chlorine 1 part per million. 

Chromic acid 1.0 mg. per 10 cubic meters. 

Formaldehyde 20 parts per million. 

Gasoline 1,000 parts per million. 

Hydrogen cyanide 20 parts per million. 

Hydrogen chloride 10 parts per million. 

Hydrogen fluoride 3 parts per milhon. 

Hydrogen sulfide 20 paits per million. 

Lead 1.5 mgs. per 10 cubic meters. 

Mercury 1.0 mg. in 10 cubic meters. 

Methanol 100 parts per million. 

Nitrogen oxides 40 parts per million. 

Phosgene 1 part per million. 

Sulfur dioxide 10 parts per million. 

Turpentine 700 parts per million. 

Exposure to other materials not included shall be kept below injurious concen- 
trations. 

Dust (containing more than 90 percent free silica in the form of quartz) (smaller 
than 10 microns in longest dimension), less than 5,000,000 particles per cubic 
foot. 

Dusts of other mineralogical composition shall be kept below concentrationg 
which will be stipulated depending on the nature of the dust. 



5206 



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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5211 

A Program for the Extension and Improvement of Indtjstbial Medical 
Service in Connecticut 

By CLIFFORD M. KUH, M. D. 

The progress made iu recent years in providing medical and surgical service for 
industrial employees is a measure of the changing concepts of the importance of 
emploj'ees' health. It is not within the scope of this discussion to review develop- 
ments in this field or to appraise the respective roles of industry, labor, and the 
medical profession. The present level of proficiency in industrial health con- 
servation has resulted from their combined efforts, aided in Connecticut by an 
ably written compensation law wisely administered by Connecticut's compensa- 
tion commissioners, and by an efficient bureau of the State department of health 
for the control of occupational diseases. 

Despite noteworthy progress, there are still many improvements to be made 
before the general health status of employees reaches the highest possible level. 
Industry is still carrying many of the expensive and unnecessary burdens of pre- 
ventable illness and injury. 

To employees, poor health means loss of wages, shorter periods of usefulness 
and resulting social and financial privations which they and their dependents 
must bear. To the employers, such health experiences mean loss of services of 
the employee, forced use of less skilled employees, retarded production schedules 
and increased manufacturing costs. 

The national preparedness program creates demands which tax production 
severely and put a premium on the physical well-being of employees. Health 
problems of normal periods are accentuated and new ones will be created, as in- 
dustry speeds operations, employs untrained and physically defective employees, 
and institutes new processes of unknown or detrimental health significance. 

Such problems will arise at the verj' time when the physical fitness of each em- 
ployee will have a marked influence upon the extent to which industry will meet 
the abnormal demands for its services. 

Aware of the health problems which confront industry during normal times and 
cognizant of the intensification of these hazards during periods of increased 
industrial activity, the joint committee off"ers the following suggestions for the 
extension and improvement of industrial medical service. 

objectives of INDUSTRIAL MEDICAL SERVICE 

The purpose of industrial medical service may be stated to be the preservation 
and promotion of the health of employees. This implies first of all, the provision 
of a safe and congenial environment for every employee and, secondly, his proper 
placement and advancement within the organization through competent evaluation 
of the employee as a physical and mental being. 

Improved health and more effective utilization of manpower should make for 
a better product. Less sickness and fewer accidents should result in less compen- 
sation cost, fewer unjust claims for injuries, less absenteeism, less labor turn-over 
and, hence, a better production schedule. A better product and a healthier, and 
consequently happier, personnel should increase company goodwill. • ^ 

The employee as well as the emploj'er has an obligation in respect to the 
maintenance of health. Every employee is expected to utilize the safety measures 
provided by the plant. It is obvious that labor and industry have definite 
responsibilities mutually concerning the protection of health. Efficient industrial 
medical service of the type outlined below should be beneficial to both in their 
efforts to bring about better health conditions and in improving general indus- 
trial relationships. 

FUNCTIONS OF THE SERVICE 

The tj^pe of industrial medical service under consideration deals with the 
following activities: 

1. Control of plant environment. 

2. Phj'sical examinations and supervision of employees: 

(a) Preemployment examinations. 

(6) Periodic examinations, 

(c; Transfer examinations. 

(d) Examinations following absence. 

(e) Records and procedure. 



1 Do Good Working Conditions Pay?, published by National Association of Manufacturers, New York, 
N. Y.. 1<J39. 

2 Who's Too Small For a Health Program?, published by National Association [of 'Manufacturers, New 
York, N. Y., 1939. ^ . ^ 



5212 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

3. Therapy. 

4. Special investigations. 

(a) Studies of accomplishments. 

(b) Other special studies. 

5. Education. 

CONTROL OF PLANT ENVIRONMENT 

The physician is actually the health director of the plant and responsible for 
all phases of preventive medicine. He should have a thorough knowledge of all 
processes and materials being used and of the actual and potential health hazards 
involved. It is the physician's duty to see that the employees are adequately 
protected against any conditions which might cause illness or injury. The pro- 
vision of proper safety measures and the identification, measurement, and control 
of dusts, fumes, gases, etc., usually are the immediate responsibility of the safety 
engineer or others, but the plant physician should be able to assist in the evalua- 
tion of the extent of these hazards and the effectiveness of control measures for 
he sees the physical effect upon the employees of the lack of these measures. 

Plant housekeeping, toilet facilities, drinking facilities, lighting, heating, ventila- 
tion and air conditioning also play important roles in the health and safety pro- 
gram of any plant. The extent to which the plant physician concerns himself 
with these considerations — all preventive phases of his work — will determine 
to no small degree the effectiveness of the services he renders. 

One of the most satisfactory ways for the physician to assist in controlling plant 
environment is to inspect periodically the plant and the personnel en masse, 
submitting a written report of his findings on a special plant-inspection form. 
He should be accompanied in the tour about the plant by an official of the com- 
pany so that remedial measures may be pointed out. 

PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS AND SUPERVISION OF EMPLOYEES 

Physical examinations of employees are an important part of medical service 
in industry. They are useful in determining the physical fitness of applicants 
for employment; in permitting the proper placement in the organization of the 
defective or older worker (particularly important in times of preparedness) ; and 
in measuring the progress of efforts to control occupational hazards. Likewise, 
physical examinations are beneficial to all in industry because physical defects are 
discovered oftentimes when correction is still possible. 

Physical examinations of employees may be classified according to type, as 
follows : 

(a) Preemployment examinations.— The preemployment or placement examina- 
tion should be made, as the name implies, before the applicant is employed, so 
that his physical fitness for any duty can be determined. 

The extent of the preemployment examination cannot be defined here for all 
industrial conditions, but sonie general phases may be mentioned. Whenever 
practical, a careful clinical and occupational history should be taken and the 
examination should include vision, hearing, blood pressure, the heart and lungs, 
spine, extremities, abdomen, inguinal rings, etc. Routine urinalyses should be 
made and under certain conditions it is desirable to include blood Wassermanns, 
chest X-rays, and other diagnostic procedures. 

(6) Periodic examinations. — Employees exposed to hazardous conditions or in 
charge of operations which may be hazardous to other employees should be 
examined as frequently as the circumstances indicate. These examinations may 
be limited to a few essential observations and laboratory tests depending upon the 
early manifestations of the occupational disease. 

Employees showing evidence of occupational disease should be removed from 
exposure and appropriately treated. Necessary steps should be taken to control 
the hazard. The disease should be reported on forms provided by the Bureau of 
Industrial Hygiene of the Connecticut State Department of Health. 

Periodic physical reexamination of all employees whether or not exposed to 
hazardous conditions is desirable at least every 1 or 2 years. When this is not 
practicable, partial physical reexamination, depending on findings at time of the 
last examination, and selected laboratory tests may be employed. Other minimal 
types of periodic rechecking of employees are possible such as the employment of a 
personal history form without physical examination, aiming to ascertain whether 
symptoms or warning signals are present, with the idea of referring selected cases 
to their family physician. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5213 

Periodic reexamination should include office as well as factory employees. The 
inclusion of executive personnel in particular often has the beneficial effect of 
selling the examinations to the other employees. 

Periodic examinations of members of employee mutual benefit associations are 
desirable in order to lower morbidity and mortality rates. If examinations of this 
type are made the records must be kept strictly confidential, aiid neither member- 
ship in the association nor benefits derived should be affected by the results of the 
examination. Depending on the method of financing accident, sickness and 
death benefits, examinations before admission to the association may also be 
indicated. 

(c) Transfer examinations. — Employees to be transferred permanently or for 
an indefinite period from one job to another varying in nature and physical require- 
ments from the original occupation should be examined prior to the transfer to 
determine any harmful effect of the old job as well as their physical fitness for 
the new one. This refers not only to transfer to heavier work but in certain 
instances, as in the case of older or disabled employees, to other work more suit- 
able to their ph_vsical capacity. 

(d) Examinations following absence. — Employees returning to work following 
absence because of illness or injuries, or after prolonged absence for any reason 
should be subject to examination in accordance with a plan acceptable to the 
company physician. 

(e) Records and procedure. — Detailed information is readily available concern- 
ing the scope of the comprehensive physical examination and concerning forms 
to be used for recording both the preemployment and periodic reexamination. ^ * 

Where there are important physical findings the employee should be advised 
to request his family doctor to get in touch with the examining physician. When 
requested, a detailed report should be sent to the famih' doctor. 

Complete records of all findings, instructions, estimates of disabilities, etc., 
should be kept strictly confidential and be available only to the physician in 
charge or those under his supervision. Codes or other forms of physical classifi- 
cation may be submitted to the proper officials so that they may know only the 
employee's physical fitness for work. 

The decision of the physician should be respected in all matters relating to the 
physical fitness of, and medical care needed by, the examinee. All reportable 
diseases, occupational or nonoccupational, as well as accidents should be brought 
to the attention of the proper city or State officials. 



The therapeutic functions of the industrial physician should be limited to the 
care of occupational injuries and diseases, in accordance with the Compensation 
Act of Connecticut;^ to the physical rehabilitation of injured workers; and to first 
aid and other minor illnesses of nonoccupational nature for which the employee 
would not ordinarily consult his family doctor. The plant physician should not 
assume any functions in connection with his duties in the plant, which belong to 
the personal or family physician. 

SPECIAL INVESTIGATIONS 

(a) Studies of accomplishments. — An important phase of the industrial phy- 
sician's duties involves the evaluation of efi'orts to safeguard the health of em- 
ployees. Complete records should be kept of all services rendered; of sickness 
and accident experiences, particularly those causing absence from work;^ of 
special control measures which have been installed; and of costs of medical service 
and of compensation. Periodic analyses of these data according to departments or 
occupation, particularly the determination of accident frequency and severity 
rates, represent one of the best possible means of measuring accomplishments 
and substantiating claims for the continuation and expansion of the medical 
service. 

(6) Other special studies. — The factors and circumstances which do or may im- 
pair the health of industrial employees present many opportunities for study 

3 Medical Service in Industry and Workmen's Compensation Laws, published by American College of 
Surgeons. Chica?o, HI , 1938. 

* Wisconsin Physical Examination Proirram, Industrial Commission of Wisconsin, reprinted by Em- 
ployers Mutual Liability Insurance Co., Wausan. Wis.. 1939. 

6 Workmen's Compensation, Bulletin No. 15, issued by the Board of Compensation Commissioners, 
Hartford, Conn., 1939. 

« A Proposed Plan for the Recording of Industrial Absenteeism, published by the Division of Industrial 
Hygiene, National Institute of Health, United States Public Health Service, Washington, D. C, 1940. 



5214 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

to the progressive industrial physician. Many of the hazards to be found in 
industries are well known and readily controllable through existing methods. 
Others are not so well known and their elimination or control necessitates more 
specific knowledge. 

It is not advocated or expected that industrial physicians devote a major portion 
of their time to research or specific investigations. However, it is desirable that 
whenever new processes or materials are introduced into a plant, the industrial 
physician should be notified immediately by the management, in order that ' e 
may be on the alert for any new occupational hazards. 

Under the stress of the national preparedness program a number of universities 
are extending their research activities to include industrial medicine. Industry 
and the industrial physician should be afforded the opportunity to participate in, 
or to benefit by, those studies. 

Among the various conditions deserving further study by industry, the medical 
profession and the university, may be mentioned the following: 

1. Improved methods of diagnosing, classifying, and treating occupational 
diseases and injuries. 

2. Methods of measuring and controlling new and unusual health hazards. 

3. The effect on the health and efficiency of employees of such factors as fatigue, 
emotional strain (especially that of war or defense preparations), nutrition, social 
and economic problems, housing, etc. 

4. The influence of types of work or of general plant conditiorts (lighting, venti- 
lation, sanitation, etc.) upon the health of employees, notably upon the spread 
of respiratory and other communicable diseases. 

5. The effect upon the mental and physical health of employees, of employee 
relationships, and the attitude and policies of management. 

6. Elucidation of standards of physical and mental fitness for work (including 
aptitude tests) classified by job, with emphasis on rehabilitating and placing old 
or handicapped employees. 

7. The effect on the health and efficiency of employees of a deficiency of one 
or more vitamins. 

EDUCATION 

Education is a fruitful phase of service for industrial physicians. Industrial 
employees may be willing to do their part in safeguarding their health at the 
plant, but they may not know what to do or how. Likewise employees do not 
always fully understand the nature of some of their personal health problems or 
how they may be brought under control. 

The opportunities of the industrial physician are many for showing both em- 
ployees and employers alike how they can make greater effort to safeguard their 
general health, increase their personal efficiency, reduce absenteeism, and utilize 
to the best possible advantage the control measures instituted by the plant. 

The inauguration of American Red Cross first-aid courses will serve as a me- 
dium of safety education and as a means of stimulating employee activity and 
interest in the healthfulness and safety of the working environment. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL MEDICAL SERVICE 

The character of industrial medical service will vary with individual needs, 
but certain minimum standards (3) have been advocated: 

1. The industrial establishment shall have an organized medical department 
or service with competent medical staff including consultants and also have ade- 
quate emergency, dispensary, and hospital facilities and personnel to assure 
efficient care of the ill and injured. 

2. Membership on the medical staff shall be restricted to physicians and sur- 
geons who are (a) graduates from an acceptable medical school, with the degree 
of doctor of medicine, in good standing and licensed to practice in their respec- 
tive States or Provinces; (b) competent in the field of industrial medicine and 
traumatic surgery; (c) worthy in character and in matters of professional ethics; 
in the latter connection the practice of the division of fees, under any guise 
whatsoever, shall be prohibited. 

3. There shall be a system of accurate and complete records filed in an acces- 
sible manner, such records to include particularly a report of injury or illness, 
description of physical findings, treatment, estimated period of disability, end- 
results, as well as other information pertinent to the case or required by statute 
for workmen's compensation claims or other purposes. 

4. All patients requiring hospitalization shall be sent to approved institutions. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5215 

5. The medical department or service shall have general supervision over the 
sanitation of the plant and the health of all employees. 

It should be borne in mind that the above standards are to be considered as 
basic ones only and that they may be below the actual needs of many types of 
industrial organizations. On the other hand small companies often begin with 
less and build up their medical services as fast as conditions warrant. 

The medical department should be conveniently located and adequately 
equipped. The physician in charge should be given sufficient authority and 
freedom to facilitate the most desirable relationships within the plant and at 
the same time be permitted to deal with the employees in the same ethical and 
considerate manner as would be expected in private practice. 

Whether the physician should be engaged on a full-time or part-time basis 
should be governed by individual plant needs. 

The question whether the doctor should be a surgeon or not is often raised. 
In some plants surgical services represent the greatest medical need while in 
others, not having important accident hazards but definite problems of disease 
control, a well-trained internist would be more suitable than a surgeon. 

Registered nurses perform a necessary and important function in any well- 
developed industrial health program. Requirements will vary with the plant 
and should receive individual consideration. Nursing services should always be 
under the supervision of the plant physician. 

PLAN FOR ASSISTING INDUSTRIES IN DEVELOPING THEIR INDIVIDUAL MEDICAL 

SERVICE 

Upon request, the joint committee on industrial health of the Manufacturers 
Association of Connecticut and the Connecticut State Medical Society will be 
glad to study the individual medical problems of any industrial establishment in 
the State, in cooperation with its medical personnel, or when such personnel is not 
available, with other company officials. 

Furthermore, the joint committee is desirous of obtaining information con- 
cerning the extent to which medical service is being provided at present by the 
industries of Connecticut. Hence, the accompanying inquiry form has been 
prepared. Plant officials are urgently requested to use it in order to supply the 
joint committee with the information needed for a general survey of existing 
conditions. At the same time the inquiry form will enable the committee to 
serve those plant officials who desire assistance. All information submitted will 
be considered strictly confidential. 

Please return one copy of the form whether or not you seek advice. The com- 
pleted inquiries should be mailed to the joint committee on industrial health, 
Manufacturers Association of Connecticut and Connecticut State Medical 
Society, 436 Capitol Avenue, Hartford, Conn. 

Nutrition for Workmen in Defense Industries — 'National Nutrition 
Conference for Defense, Washington, D. C, May 26, 27, and 28, 1941 

Under modern conditions, those who forge the weapons of defense are just as 
important to our safety as are those for whose use those weapons are intended. 
Every care is taken to provide healthful surroundings and good food for the armed 
forces, who have been selected with the greatest care. The health and nutrition 
of defense workers, many of whom may have been rejected for military services, 
must nevertheless be maintained at high levels if industry is to meet the needs of 
this emergency. 

It is therefore urgently recommended that special attention be paid to the 
diets and nutrition of all workers in industry and particularly of those most 
directly concerned with the national defense effort. The pressing importance of 
this problem should be drawn to the attention of the governmental agencies con- 
cerned with defense industries, such as the Office of Production Management. 

Supplemental feeding in factories should be practiced wherever it is found 
that the diets of defense workers are not fully adequate from the point of view of 
modern nutrition. Such feeding has been found to increase the worker's effi- 
ciency, reduce accidents, and decrease the volume of absenteeism. 

In this emergency, defense plants are being constructed in sparsely populated 
areas where normal community facilities are lacking. 

In such instances community feeding with its advantages of economy and expert 
supervision may be required and is recommended. 



5216 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

It is also recommended that the approval of contracts calling for construction 
or expansion of defense plants should include consideration of appropriate facili- 
ties for feeding the workers. Special attention must be paid to the nutrition of 
workers who are exposed to the effects of specific industrial techniques or hazards 
such as are found in chemical factories. 

Information regarding the diets of defense workers is not available, but it is 
known that the diets of a large percentage of workers' families are inadequate by- 
modern standards. In the emergency conditions confronting defense workers, 
their diets will tend to become even less adequate than they are today unless 
particular attention is paid to this problem. 

It is therefore recommended that the families of low-income workers in defense 
industries should be included in the distribution of protective surplus foods. 

Education in the need for adequate diets is a continuing need and should be 
carried on by the most practical methods. 

THE LABOR RECRUIT 

The health conditions among labor recruits are reflected by the results of selec- 
tive service and Army medical examinations. A comparatively large proportion 
of the new workers who are being employed by defense industries are undoubtedly 
suffering from physical disabilities associated directly or indirectly with mal- 
nutrition such as underweight, general debility, defective teeth, and low-grade 
chronic infection. 

It is therefore recommended that steps be taken to condition nutritionally 
those classes of the population which are likely to become defense workers. 

Such nutritional conditioning might well be carried out among organized groups 
such as are found in Civilian Conservation Corps camps, National Youth Adminis- 
tration, Work Projects Administration, and defense training schools. Such work 
is already under way in Michigan and Wisconsin. Similar conditioning at an 
English camp resulted in the induction into the army of 87 percent of 834 young 
men who had previously been rejected. 

DEFINITION OF THE PROBLEM 

Greater and more precise knowledge concerning the nutrition of defense workers 
is an urgent need. Prompt and effective measures can be taken to improve diets 
when it is known that they are inadequate in certain essentials. The improvement 
in health which results when specific nutritional deficiencies are appropriately 
treated is a great stimulus to education in diet. Properly controlled studies 
provide the only convincing evidence of the benefits which result when the de- 
ficiencies of inadequate diets are suitably supplemented. 

It is therefore recommended that adequately controlled studies be conducted 
in selected defense plants to determine the facts concerning the influence of diet 
on health, working capacity, incidence of accidents, absenteeism, and the psycho- 
logical state (industrial unrest). 

Workers and employers who cooperate with governmental or private scientific 
agencies in carrying out such studies will be performing a national service. 

IMPLEMENTATION OF THESE RECOMMENDATIONS 

There are numerous agencies at Federal, State, and local levels to consider and 
carry out the recommendations of the National Nutrition Conference for Defense, 
in order to bring these recommendations promptly to the attention of State and 
local agencies. 

It is recommended that the governor of each State be asked to call at as early 
a date as possible a State conference on nutrition in defense for the purpose of 
formulating and devising ways and means by which the resolutions and recommen- 
dations of the national conference may be carried out through the cooperative 
efforts of the appropriate Federal, State, and local authorities and agencies, with 
special reference to the particular conditions and needs in that State. 



Nutrition Activities in Connecticut 

Inasmuch as it has been recommended in section IV — Nutrition for Workers in 
Defense Industries — at the National Nutrition Conference for Defense, April 
26-28, held in Washington, D. C, that "special attention be paid to the diets and 
nutrition of all workers in industry and particularly of those most directly con- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5217 

cerned with the national-defense effort," the facilities of Connecticut State De- 
partment of Health and of the State nutrition defense committee are brought to 
your attention. 

The State department of health for many years has been carrying on an educa- 
tional nutrition program in Connecticut to — 

(a) Bring the latest nutritional information — as it relates to the need for protein 
of the right kind, minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and iron and the vitamins 
one by one as they have been discovered — to health leaders, health officers, public- 
health nurses, industrial nurses, school nurses, dentists and dental hygienists, 
social workers and other community leaders. This has been done by conferences, 
short courses, leaflets, radio talks, bulletin articles, and exhibits. 

(6) Special emphasis always has been placed on the interpretation of nutrition 
principles in terms of daily food for the family. To this end assistance in adjust- 
ing the family food budget to secure the best returns in health values for money 
spent is constantly available to those leaders who come closest to the people in the 
homes, such as public-health nurses, industrial and school nurses. Assistance is 
given social workers so that they rfiay make sure that relief in food money or kind 
is adequate to meet the health needs of their families. 

Much was said at the National Nutrition Conference about "hollow hunger" 
and "hidden hunger." For the former, it is only necessary to advise enough food 
to meet the daily energy needs. The latter, "hidden hunger," is the more diffi- 
cult problem facing us all today. To meet this need the use of protective foods- 
milk, green and yellow vegetables, fruits, eggs must be emphasized in order to — 

(a) Make sure that the young are not stunted in growth during the formative 
period of life and sound dental structure is assured. 

(b) Assist mothers to protect their own health and produce sound healthy 
offspring. 

(c) Improve adult food habits so they may carry on efficiently at the peak of 
their economic usefulness. 

The State nutrition defense committee on which the State department of health 
is represented consists of agencies which have close contact with groups of every 
type and can influence them to raise the standards of nutrition by the daily use 
of food which more adequately meets the health needs of every member of their 
families. It is anxious to serve industry witli every effort that can be made to 
improve the health and efficiency of the worker on whom the burden of defense 
naturally falls. 

To be of the greatest service the State nutrition defense committee urgently 
requests cooperation of industry in determining whether — 

(a) The present lunchroom services for workers adequately meet their needs 
as to "hidden hunger" as well as "hollow hunger." 

(b) Whether supplementary midmeal food for the workers would make for 
greater health and efl^iciency. 

(c) Whether local lunch facilities in the area of the plant meet the required 
standards for adequate food. 

(d) Whether information about food is made available to workers through 
educational methods within the plant or to their families by means of industrial 
nurses and other personnel. 

The State department of health and the State nutrition defense committee 
pledge their support of industry in determining these needs and making improve- 
ments found necessary to the health and efficiency of the workers. 



Child Day Care Centers — Indications op Need and Initial Recommen- 
dations OF Subcommittee by Manufacturers Association of Connecti- 
cut, Inc. 

As a result of a meeting of a group of representatives from the State public 
health, public welfare, and education departments on April 24 at which considera- 
tion was given to the problem of establishing child day care centers to care for the 
children of women workers in defense industries, an organizing subcommittee 
was appointed and given power to take such action on the problem as it deemed 
necessary. Members of that committee named by the temporary chairman, of 
the April 24 meeting, N. S. Light, director of the bureau of supervision. State de- 
partment of education, included E. Kent Hubbard, president of the Manufac- 
turers Association of Connecticut; Work Projects Administration supervisor of 
nursery schools and representatives of the State public welfare department; 



5218 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

State health department; department of education; Yale University; Connecticut 
Conference of Social Work; State employment service; and State council of defense. 

Meeting for the first time June 2, the subcommittee elected Mr. N. S. Light as 
permanent chairman and gave lengthy consideration to: (1) Extent of present need 
for the establishment of day care nursery centers; (2) possible extent of future 
need; (3) consideration of utilization of foster homes, Work Projects Administra- 
tion projects and local community self-sustaining child care projects; (4) fitness 
of groups that have already demonstrated an interest in establishing child care 
projects and other groups that are likely to be interested in cooperatin.g on the 
child care program; (5) best method for immediate approach to the solution of the 
problem. 

Out of this discussion came the suggestion that the problem appeared to break 
down into a series of community problems and that the subcommittee should work 
out a suggestive policy of action to be submitted to local child day care center 
committees as rapidly as interested persons or groups could be induced to sponsor 
an organization meeting to form such local committees. 

In order to work out intelligent recommendations that might be passed on for 
the guidance of community child day care committees, five subcommittees were 
named to develop recommendations by June 16, 1941. These committees are: 
(1) Health; (2) personnel; (3) program of activities; (4) intake and agencies; 
and (5) administration. 

After the recommendations of the five sub-subcommittees are received and 
edited by the members of the subcommittee, it is expected that they will be printed 
or mimeographed and distributed to community groups as rapidly as enthusiasm 
can be engendered, by letter and personal contact, in each community to organize 
a local child care committee. 

Since the work of this State subcommittee on child day care is so closely related 
to other emergency employment problems now being considered by the committee 
on emergency employment problems, and since the association, the State employ- 
ment and State public health departments are represented in the former group 
close cooperation between the two committees and speed of action seems assured. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. ALBERT S. GRAY— Resumed 

Mr. Sparkman. Doctor, how many man-days of labor were lost in 
1940 as a result of industrial disease? 

Dr. Gray. We haven't that figure and I don't know that there are 
any reliable figures available on that. 

Mr. Sparkman. How about the man-days lost as a result of indus- 
trial accidents? 

Dr. Gray. We haven't that figure either. That would be a figure 
that would be provided, if it were available, by the department of 
labor and factory inspection; but if I may say so at this time, although 
it doesn't come under our supervision, the deputy labor commissioner 
informed me they did not have those figures. 

We do know however, that both the accident rate and severity rate 
have dropped since 1926. Also, you might be interested in knowing 
that the American College of Surgeons made a study involving 166 
companies in which three hundred and fifty-two thousand-odd workers 
were employed, and found there was about six-tenths of a day lost 
by each worker because of occupational disease and accidents. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is six-tenths of a day each year? 

Dr. Gray. Yes; and there is about 15 times as much time as that 
lost from nonindustrial illness. To me these are rather interesting 
and demonstrate the necessity for considering both industrial and 
nonindustrial illness of the working population as an entity. Its 
solution constitutes a major health problem. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5219 

SANITARY CODE ENFORCEMENT 

Air. Sparkman. How strictly is the sanitary code of Connecticut 
enforced? 

Dr. Gray. We have the right to demand that recommendations be 
comphed with. It is very definitely enforced. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is the State department of health adequately 
financed or do you have a lack of funds? 

Dr. Gray. Well, that rather puts me on the spot. Of course, as a 
director of the industrial hygiene end of it, we always want more 
money. 

I have lived to be old enough, however, to be glad sometimes that 
I didn't get what I asked for, and I must say that, compared with other 
States, I don't know of any State that is spendmg more, and very few as 
much, for this particular work. It is also my belief that Connecticut 
was the first to recognize industrial hygiene as a problem that should be 
tackled in a scientific way. We now have something like 32 or 33 
States that have these bureaus in their departments of health; and 
not to hide our light under a bushel, I am pleased to say they are 
patterned very much on the type of organization we have here. 
Furthermore, I think we have been very well provided for financially 
in the last few 3^ears. 

cooperation from industry 

Mr, Sparkman. That is very mteresting. Do you receive cooper- 
ation from the employers and the unions of Connecticut, or do they 
wait for a check-up before they correct conditions? 

Dr. Gray. Very definitely. As a matter of fact it is of interest to 
know that a great deal of our work is actually requested by industry 
itself. I think that is the answer to the question whether or not em- 
ployers cooperate. There are black sheep, of course, in all families. 
Unions also cooperate very well with us, reporting conditions they 
feel should be investigated or remedied. 

Mr. Sparkman. As a matter of fact they soon learned that it is 
decidedly to their advantage to cooperate, didn't they? 

Dr. Gray. I think that is just what happended, and isn't a question 
of opinion in this work. Fortunately, we can make a determination 
and show them the amount of toxic or poisonous material their 
people are exposed to. It isn't something that is simply a question 
of statutes. It is something that can be demonstrated. They can 
be shown that certain amounts of certain materials are poisonous and 
toxic and will affect health, and if you can show them definitely by 
making determinations of the amount of material in the air, that they 
have enough actually to cause poisoning, they will not tolerate that 
condition. 

CARE OF accident VICTIMS 

Mr. Sparkman. What facilities are there in defense centers to 
care for persons injured in plants — in plant disasters? Wliat pro- 
visions have been made for caring for such situations? 

Dr. Gray. Well, that would not come under my purview, but I 
know there has been a great deal of work done in that line. As a 
matter of fact I happen to be a member of the committee, and I am 



5220 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

quite sure that information could be provided for the committee, if 
they would like it, I know they have done a lot of work on that. 

Mr. Sparkman. If you could supply us with that information we 
would like to have it for the record. 

Dr. Gray. Yes; we will do that. Will you give me the question 
again? 

Mr. Sparkman. I simply asked what hospital facilities have been 
provided in defense areas to take care of persons injured as a result 
of a plant disaster ; whether the present facilities are adquate and if not, 
what arrangements have been made. 

Dr. Gray. We will see that the committee gets an answer to that.^ 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Chairman, that is all of Dr. Gray. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Dr. Gray, for your very 
valuable contribution. 

Mr. Nickerson, who is your next witness? 

Mr. Nickerson. Mr. Stowell. 

TESTIMONY OF ERNEST A. STOWELL, EMPLOYMENT MANAGER, 
UNDERWOOD-ELLIOTT-FISHER CO., HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Chairman. Mr. Stowell, Mr. Sparkman, will interrogate you. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have a prepared statement, Mr. Stowell? 

Mr. Stowell. It is in summary form. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Stowell, will you please read us your state- 
ment? 

Mr. Stowell. Mine is on the question of training. [Reading:] 
There are approximately 35,000 industrial workers being trained in 
Connecticut under present conditions. Of these about 2,700 are 
being trained in industry and of that number some 2,000 are being 
trained in formal apprenticeship programs. 

In addition to vocational schools and the defense courses in the 
colleges, there are being trained upward of 7,000 workers. 

The output of trained workers from the W. P. A. is practically 
negligible as there is little trainable material left on the W. P. A. rolls. 

The N. Y. A. has realized that it was not equipped adequately to 
train men in Connecticut and is converting its facilities into clearance 
centers for the importation of workers from outside the State. There 
is one such center already in operation and four others are planned. 

SEE SHORTAGE OF 106,000 WORKERS 

The problem ahead of the manufacturers in the State of Comiecticut 
is that under present commitments they are faced with a probable 
shortage of 50,000 workers by September 1, and if all plants go on a 
3-shift basis per day, this figure will build up to 106,000 workers. 

To meet this need the manufacturers are bringing in workers from 
outside the State for training purposes through the facilities of the 
State employment offices. They are also upgrading their present 
groups of employees in an effort to utilize the highest skills available 
on the highest skilled jobs, and to develop material for promotion to 
the supervisory staff. 

1 A letter from Dr. Gray's ofHce, received subsequent to the hearing, informed the Committee that a 
list of the hospital facilities referred to is included in the Hospital number of the Journal of the American 
Medical Association. A copy of the issue containing this list will be held in Committee flies. W. Earl 
Prosser, in his paper on "Social Services in Bridgeport," includes a note on this point. (See p. 5483.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5221 

Manufacturers are realizing more and more that the greater part of 
the training program must be done on the job within their own indus- 
tries, and are depending upon schools for supplemental training in 
related subjects. 

MUST EMPLOY WOMEN 

Wliile the recruiting from outside the State is controlled in a large 
measure by the State employment service, there is of course con- 
siderable independent recruiting by the larger companies for enroll- 
ment in their training department. So far that has not resulted in 
any criticism of consequence. The State recognizes that the reservoirs 
of the unemployed in neighboring States will soon be exhausted and 
they must use to a greater extent women on jobs that are now per- 
formed by men. 

Industry has absorbed practically 100 percent of all employees 
trained under the various facilities set up for training outside of 
industry and could continue to absorb substantial numbers so trained. 
However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to recruit trainees. 

There has been some uncontrolled migration of trainees from other 
States, but this is decreasing, and it is now being controlled through 
the new clearance centers in cooperation with the State employment 
service. 

The whole question of training for industry is being rapidly resolved 
into the single project of developing on the job programs in each plant 
and coordinating this training with the facilities of the vocational 
schools and the defense engineering courses offered in the university. 

(Reading of the summary ends. The complete prepared statement 
by Mr. Stowell is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY ERNEST A. STOWELL, EMPLOYMENT MANAGER, 
UNDERWOOD-ELLIOTT-FLSHER CO., HARTFORD, CONN. 

EMPLOYEE T7PGRADING AND TRAINING 

In this in-transit studj^ the committee on employee upgrading and training is 
not as yet in a position to report complete findings as to the extent to which the 
manufacturers of the State are conducting formal training courses. Out of the 
conferences held, the training material examined and a few spot checks, the com- 
mittee is able to submit the following: 

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 

1. Connecticut got off to an early start on preemployment training in the fall 
of 1939 and the 200-hour courses in the trade school, which exerted a constructive 
influence on the national preemployment training program. 

2. These preemployment courses stimulated the vocational schools to extend 
their own work through the introduction of "refresher" courses for older people 
and supplemental training courses in related subjects for employed people. 

3. Because of the popularity of the vocational training program, many prospec- 
tive employees were attracted to these courses and manufacturers, generally, 
placed too great a reliance on the school system for training the workers. 

4. Consequently, on-the-job training within the plants has not developed along 
formal lines to any great extent. 

5. There is an "apparent lack of realization, particularly among the smaller 
manufacturers, of the seriousness of the present labor shortage and the unusual 
demands for trained workers which will be confronting all of Connecticut industry 
by September 1, 1941. 

6. This is revealed by the slowness with which employers are introducing women 
into the plant productive processes. 

7. An outstanding job is being done by the Connecticut State Apprenticeship 
Council in cooperation with the Federal Committee on Apprenticeship, both 
because of the soundness of the program being promoted and the ability of the 
field workers to put the program into operation. 



5222 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 



8. There was a widespread response to the engineering training courses offered 
through the universities and other institutions of higher learning. 

9. The constructive way in which the State employment service organized to 
meet the need for defense workers was outstanding. 

10. The splendid cooperation from all of the Government agencies equipped to 
assist in the recruiting and training of industrial workers was highly effective. 

STATE LABOR RESERVES INSUFFICIENT 

It has been estimated by the State department of labor that Connecticut 
industries will need 50,000 additional employees by September 1, 1941, and if the 
working schedules move to 3 shifts for a 7-day week, this figure will build up to 
106,000 workers. There is not a sufficient reservoir of registered unemployed 
available in the State of Connecticut to meet these needs. Employees have 
already been moved across State lines for training purposes and final absorption 
into Connecticut industries. As the neighboring States receive the full impact of 
the defense program, it will not be possible to draw on the unemployed reservoirs 
of the neighboring States. This will make it necessary for Connecticut manufac- 
turers to explore the only two available sources of additional labor supply. One 
will be found in the groups of young boj's and girls under 18 years of age who may 
be placed in the productive processes of the plants on other than hazardous 
machine operations and the other will be to induce married women to tak& up 
again employment in industry, if only as a patriotic gesture. Until the second 
source of supply has been explored and exhausted, there should be no attempt to 
draw upon the younger age groups. 

From the standpoint of training, the immediate urgency is for all defense 
contractors to set up on-the-job training programs which will be tied in closely 
with the work of the vocational schools, both through their preemployment 
training courses and their supplemental courses in related subjects. It is generally 
recognized that the most effective training of production workers can be done on 
the job and it is the responsibility of management to assume this obligation. 

It is recommended to the Manufacturers' Association of Connecticut, Inc., that 
all manufacturers in the State develop these training courses along the lines set 
forth by the training within industry section of the Labor Division, Office of 
Production Management. 



[Supplemental material was submitted with the above statement, 
as follows:] 

Supplemental and Preemployment Training, State Trade Schools 
by w. a. montgomery 

There are 11 State trade schools now in operation and located in Bridgeport, 
Hartford, Danbury, Manchester, Meriden, Middletown, New Britain, Putnam, 
Stamford, Torrington, and Willimantic. There is also the Boardman Trade 
School, a city-owned institution in New Haven. Appropriations have just been 
made for three additional State trade schools to be located at New Haven, 
Waterbury, and Norwich. 

The following courses are offered in the various trade schools: 



BRIDGEPORT 

Automatic screw. 

Automobile repair. 

Carpentry. 

Design, ornamental. 

Mechanical drawing. 

Electrical. 

Foundry. 

Linotype. 

Machine work. 

Masonry. 

Painting. 

Paper hanging. 

Pattern making, wood. 

Plumbing. 

Printing. 

Sewing. 



MERIDEN 

Automobile repair. 
Carpentry. 
Ornamental design. 
Drafting, mechanical. 
Electrical. 
Machine work. 
Printing. 
Sheet metal. 
Silversmithing. 
Tool, die making. 

STAMFORD 

Automobile repair. 
Beauty culture. 



STAMFORD — CONTINUED 

Carpentry. 
Design, industrial. 
Drafting, mechanical. 
Electrical. 
Machine work. 
Printing. 
Sheet metal. 



Carpentr}\ 

Drafting, architectural. 

Drafting, mechanical. 

Electrical. 

Machine work. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5223 



MANCHESTER 

Carpentry. 
Drafting, mechanical. 
Electrical. 
Machine work. 
Textile silk. 



MIDDLETOWN 

Automobile repair. 
Carpentry. 

Drafting, mechanical. 
Electrical. 
Machine work. 



TORRINGTON 

Carpentrj^ 

Drafting, mechanical. 
Electrical. 
Machine work. 



WILLIMANTIC 

Automobile repair. 
Carpentry. 

Drafting, architectural. 
Drafting, mechanical. 



WILLIMANTIC — CON. 

Electrical. 
Machine work. 

BOARDMAN TRADE SCHOOL 

Automobile. 
Drafting, mechanical. 
Electrical. 
Machine work. 
Printing. 
Dressmaking. 

HARTFORD 

Automobile repair. 

Beauty culture. 

Carpentry. 

Drafting, architectural. 

Drafting, mechanical. 

Electrical. 

Food trades. 

Linotype. 

Machine work. 

Masonry. 

Painting. 

Paper hanging. 

Plumbing. 

Printing. 

Sewing. 



NEW BRITAIN 

Automatic screw. 

Automobile repair. 

Beauty culture. 

Carpentry. 

Drafting, architectural. 

Drafting, mechanical. 

Electrical. 

Food trades. 

Linotype. 

Machine work. 

Masonry. 

Pattern making, metal. 

Plumbing. 

Printing. 

Sewing. 

Tool, die making. 



Aircraft, ground. 

Carpentry. 

Drafting, architectural. 

Drafting, mechanical. 

Machine work. 

Masonry. 



PREEMPLOYMENT 

The main trade-school course available to those pupils of 16 years of age and 
over is given 5 days a week, 8 hours a day, for a total of 4,800 hours. This course 
is by no means full at the present time, and there are practically no pupils finish- 
ing the total required hours. It might be said that all pupils who have reached 
the age of 18 and have 1,000 or more hours have been released to industry. The 
New Britain school, with a capacitv of 90, at the present time has an enrollment 
of 45. 

The second preemployment course is one of 8 hours per day, 40 and 48 hours 
per week, based on 200 hours. However, many pupils run over their 200 hours. 
The enrollment here is not up to capacity either, and most of the prospective 
students are engaged in industry. 

The third preemployment course is one of 3 hours per night, 9 hours per week, 
based on a 200-hour total. This course is given to students who have passed a 
mechanical aptitude test. The students are recruited from clerks, gasoline-station 
attendants, and similar nonindustrial occupations. This department is running 
to capacity in all schools. The mechanical aptitude test used in connection with 
the entrance requirements of this training should be revised. The present test 
skims the cream from the top of the applicants, but leaves behind a great many 
men v.-ho would make acceptable mechanics and should be trained in the present 
emergency. 

SUPPLEMENTAL TRAINING 

The supplementary course is one of 3 hours per night, 9 per week, based on a 
200-hour total. The students for this course are recruited direct from industry. 
They are already working at some mechanical job in factories. The course will 
run through the summer and is taxed to capacity. The Boardman Trade School 
has a maximum capacity of 50 in their machine shop and a present waiting list 
of 280. We might say that the training facilities at this point are in the most 
desperate need of enlargement of any place in the State, followed closely by Water- 
bury and Norwich. The State board has requested Federal funds from Washing- 
ton to the amount of $165,000 to equip the old jail factory as an additional train- 
ing center. Mr. James Wain says this monev will not be available uiitil, when, 
and if, the Congress of the United States acts^ favorably on a bih for $12,000,000 
to equip various schools throughout the country. This bill is now being con- 
sidered by the proper committee in the House of Representatives. 
3— 41— pt. 13 14 



5224 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

I should like to recommend at this time that the State board of education 
explore the possibilities of obtaining the use of idle National Youth Administra- 
tion machinery, which at present is not being used anywhere near its maximum 
efficiency. I might state here that the National Youth Administration will be 
receptive to any concrete plan that might be worked out. 

It has been established that it is much easier to get day men to take night 
courses than night men to take day courses. This situation should be looked 
into. 

BOARDMAN TRADE SCHOOL 

The Boardman Trade School has a capacity of 85 day-school pupils and 50 
night pupils, and 40 in job training from 11a. m. to 7 p. m. The day school 
has larger accommodations as one- third of the pupils are studying related work in 
the cla8srooms. There will be 18 graduates of the day courses this year. Very 
few of them are pupils of the school but are working at their trade. 

There are three day instructors and three supplementary instructors in the 
night school. There has been some agitation to give up the 9-hour-per-week 
courses in the school but their popularity has made this seem inadvisable. 

There is attached to this report a list of new courses opened by the Connecticut 
State Board of Education in various training centers of the State and an analysis 
of the student enrollment of the Boardman Trade Evening School, showing the 
various companies having employees enrolled, and the occupation of the enroUee. 

THE NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION 

The National Youth Administration is operating shops in the following centers: 

STAMFORD NEW HAVEN (larger units) HARTFORD 

Machine shop. Machine shop. Machine shop. 

Sheet metal. Sheet metal. Sheet metal. 

Gas and arc welding. Gas and arc welding. 

WATERBURY 
NORWICH DANIELSON ,, , . 

Machme shop. 
Sheet metal. Sheet metal. Gas and arc welding. 

Machine shop. Gas and arc welding. 

NEPAUG (UNIONVILLE) NEW BRITAIN-DERBY 

Machine shop. Machine shop 

Gas and arc welding. Sheet metal (to be opened 

within 40 days) . 

None of this equipment is used 24 hours a day and could very easily be used 
at night by the State trade schools. 

At the present time the National Youth Administration is not operating at 
anywhere near capacity and is having rather a difficult time in keeping their 
rolls up. They no longer require boys to be needy and are now experimenting 
with the use of their centers as places to house youths imported from other States. 
I might again repeat that some use should be found for the equipment from which 
they are not getting the maximum benefit. The instructors in the National 
Youth Administration schools are at present supplied by the State board of 
education. 

ENGINEERING TRAINING IN INDUSTRY FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE 

Yale University and the New Haven Young Men's Christian Association 
Junior College offer engineering courses of college grade to a carefully selected 
eroup of men whom the entrance committee feel have a reasonable chance of 
completing successfully. These courses by law must be of college caliber. There 
are at present enrolled in New Haven 900 students, 200 in Waterbury, and 600 in 
Bridgeport. New Haven and Waterbury might accommodate 100 more each 
and Bridgeport 300 more. However that would be the maximum. The directors 
of these courses at all times appreciate suggestions for any new training desired, 
but they will not attempt any classes in any subjects for which a competent 
instructor cannot be found. The possibility that instructors can be obtained from 
industry must be examined. As the new courses start they expect them to be of 
20 weeks' duration with 2}^ or 5 hours per week as needed. Executives of plants 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5225 

with men enrolled should decide whether this work is of sufficient value and if so 
make arrangements to have as little time missed due to overtime work as possible. 

It would be well if arrangements could be made for prospective students to 
have a pre-entrance training in such subjects as chemistry and physics and 
particularly in mathematics. In some cases refresher courses would be all that 
would be necessary. 

These studies are designed to give men in industry a training in particular 
engineering problems. There is at the present time an acute shortage of trained 
engineers, therefore the need is being partially filled by men trained for a specific 
purpose only. The Federal Government appropriated $9,000,000 for this work 
but less than half of it has been used. 

There seems to be a definite need for the State board of education to have, in 
brief form, a list giving all the courses, entrance requirements and location of all 
free mechanical education within the State. This information should be readily 
obtainable by any person desiring it and should be prepared immediately. 



Apprenticeship Training 

BY W. R. COE 

As regards the problem of apprenticeship training in the State of Connecticut, 
the following plans or procedures may well be considered by the manufacturers 
of the State. 

1. Some companies, particularly some of the larger firms, are maintaining 
company apprenticeship schools whereby the apprentice is taught not only the 
mechanics of the trade, but also given his related instruction within the walls 
of the plant. In most cases a formal course of instruction is offered and the boys 
are indentured. 

Other companies have a more informal system of apprenticeship training, 
and while standards for the trade are decided upon, they do not sign up their 
apprentices, but simply engage them with the understanding that their apprentice 
wages will be increased as their instruction progresses. 

2. Many companies are formally employing apprentices either on a community 
apprenticeship plan or one worked out in conjunction with the trade school in 
their locality. Their apprentices are sent for their related instruction to the trade 
school a minimum of 4 hours a week. In some cases, boys are sent as high as 
8 hours a week. 

The State trade school acts as coordinator between the boys and the shop 
and endeavors to see that the boys get in their related instruction subjects that 
will tie in with their shop work. Manj- companies use the trade school as a 
vocational center for apprentices. In other words, when they need an apprentice 
the machine department of the school is approached and a boy who shows some 
aptitude for the trade is employed and given the proper credit for the time he has 
put in in the school. 

GRADUATES READILY ASSIMILATED 

Graduates from the trade school are readily assimilated into the various factories. 
They are given advanced credit for the time they have put in the school and 
generally speaking, after a year of instruction on the job, are considered full 
fledged mechanics. This, of course, varies according to the individual abilities 
of the graduate. In general, this covers the methods of training of apprentices 
in Connecticut. 

Eleven State trade schools are operated under the auspices of the State board 
of education in the 11 important industrial communities in Connecticut and serve 
as headquarters in each community for trade training. It is expected that within 
the next few years State trade schools will be erected in the cities of Norwich, 
Waterbury, and New Haven. This addition to our facilities will greatly augment 
the chance for further apprenticeship training in the State. 

Each school should be used by the industrialists in their locality for vocational 
training in their community to the limit. 

The Connecticut State Apprenticeship Council, created by the authority of 
the Fitzgerald Act, is also working in Connecticut in an endeavor to stimulate 
interest in apprenticeship training. They are endeavoring to promote the more 
formal apprenticeship training by the use of more indentured apprentices. 
_ The following is a description of the work of the council as furnished by Mr. 
Kaler, of the staff of the Connecticut State Apprenticeship Council. 



5226 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

On March 9, 1938, the Commissioner of Labor of the State of Connecticut 
appointed a committee known as the Connecticut State Apprenticeship Council. 
This committee was appointed pursuant to the passage of the Fitzgerald bill, 
enacted by the Seventy-fifth Congress, which established the Federal Committee 
of Apprenticeship Training as a permanent advisory committee to the Secretary 
of Labor. 

The Connecticut State Apprenticeship Council is composed of three represen- 
tatives of employers, three representatives of employees, and four representa- 
tives of public agencies. The aim and purpose of this council is to stimulate inter- 
est in bona fide apprentices in the skilled trades throughout the State of Con- 
necticut and to promote and assist in formulating standards of apprenticeship in 
firms desiring to establish apprenticeship-training programs. 

The Federal committee has assigned to the State council four field representa- 
tives who work under the direction of the State council and assist employers in 
the State in problems relating to apprenticeship. 

MINIMUM STANDARDS OF APPRENTICESHIP 

The State council, in cooperation with the Federal Committee on Apprentice- 
ship, has established minimum standards of apprenticeship which, it is believed, 
are essential to any well-organized and efficient apprentice-training program. 
Briefly, these standards are as follows: An agreement setting forth in some detail 
exactly what will be expected of the apprentice and what it is intended that the 
apprentice will be taught during the period of his apprenticeship. This agree- 
ment should provide for a probationary period at the beginning of the apprentice- 
ship during which time both the employer and the apprentice are given the 
opportunity of evaluating each other and determining whether or not the appren- 
ticeship should be continued. The agreement should also contain a schedule of 
the work processes which the apprentice is to be taught and should contain some 
estimate as to the time to be spent at each process. Such a schedule guarantees 
that upon completion of the training period all essential phases of the trade will 
have been learned. 

The agreement should also contain a provision for a graduated scale of wages 
which the apprentice will receive throughout his apprenticeship. These wages 
increase accordingly as the apprentice's ability increases and they should average 
at least 50 percent'of the journeyman's wage throughout the entire period of the 
apprenticeship. 

Provision should also be made in the agreement for the amount of time which 
the apprentice will be required to spend in classes in related instruction at the 
trade school. A minimum of 144 hours per year is recommended. The State 
council furnishes each apprentice, upon completion of his apprenticeship, with a 
certificate of completion signed by the State apprenticeship council, the super- 
visor of vocational education and the emplo^'er. 

The council maintains a register of all apprentices employed under agreements 
recognized by the council but does not exercise any control over any apprentice- 
ship system other than that it acts in an advisory capacity when requested. The 
sole purpose of the council is to promote and encourage the training of apprentices 
of recognized standards of apprenticeship. 

The council has also been delegated to grant exemptions from the Fair Labor 
Standards Act and the Walsh-Healey Act as regards the employment of appren- 
tices of recognized standards of apprenticeship. 

SEVENTEEN PLANTS TRAINING APPRENTICES 

The Connecticut State Apprenticeship Council is recognized by the Federal 
Committee on Apprenticeship as the most outstanding State council in the country. 
The council has made remarkable progress in the promotion of apprenticeship 
under recognized standards in this State and the progress of the council has been 
especially notable since the first of the year. At present 17 manufacturing plants 
are training apprentices on standards recognized by the State council and several 
so-called joint committees have been established in the building trades in this 
section of the State. Two of the larger firms cooperating with the council, as 
well as the oldest from point of date established, have recognized standards of 
apprenticeship training — the United Aircraft Co. and Remington Arms Co. 

Anyone desiring any information regarding the program being promoted by 
the Cotmecticut State Apprenticeship Council should write to Mr. Morgan R, 
Mooney, deputy labor commissioner. State department of labor, Hartford, Conn., 
who is the secretary of the State council. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5227 

In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the fact that it makes very little difference 
how the job of apprenticeship training is done so long as it is done. One manu- 
facturer may prefer one method, and one another. The main thing is that we 
see to it that all of the facilities in the State that are available for this important 
task be put to the fullest use inasmuch as the need for skilled mechanics has always 
been a pressing one and is even more acute today. 



Catalog of Defense Training Courses 

The Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, Inc., 

Hartford, December 11, 1940. 
To the Manufacturer Addressed. 

Dear Sir: You will recall a recent letter explaining the general character of 
the proposed educational program for defense industries. In order to arrive at 
more specific action, a catalog of technical courses has been prepared which 
covers the most common needs of industry. Other courses of instruction may 
be set up by the engineering schools, if the need is indicated by industries. A 
committee has now been formed to service this program as long as the emergency 
requires. 

The plan devised by the committee is as follows: 

1. The catalogs accompanying this letter are intended to be distributed by the 
employer to selected employees whose further training would benefit the defense 
efforts of industry. Additional catalogs will be sent upon request. 

2. The employee, if interested, is requested to consult his employer concerning 
the program. In this way the prospective student may be advised as to the 
instruction most pertinent to his future activities. There is no use in taking 
instruction that will definitely not be used or useful in production. Further- 
more the employer would be able to form some opinion of the employee's ability 
to profit from instruction. In general it would be advisable to encourage em- 
ployees since the future needs for trained men may be great. 

3. If it is decided that the employee should undertake instruction, the employer 
will give him an application blank. This should be signed by applicant and 
employer and forwarded by the employer to the Committee on Engineering 
Training in Industry, 436 Capitol Avenue, Hartford, Conn. 

4. The applications will be analyzed by the committee and further steps will be 
taken by direct communication with the applicants. 

5. Response is requested on or before December 20 by sending applications or 
b.v stating that no instruction is needed. If instruction is desired that is not 
listed in the catalog, notify the committee as soon as possible. 

The plan provides for an orderly and effective clearance of employees by the 
employer. It also provides for an orderly clearance of all applicants through 
the committee. It is hoped that employers will find it of future value to encourage 
the engineering training program. 
Very truly yours, 

E. Kent Hubbard, 
President, Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, Inc. 
John H. Lampe, 
University of Connecticut. 
Philip G. Laurson, 

Yale University. 
Lauren E. Seeley, 
Regional Adviser , Chairman, Committee on Engineering Training in Industry 



(The catalog of courses is as follows:) 

Engineering Training in Industry for National Defense — Catalog of 
Technical Subjects Tentatively Offered by the Engineering Schools 
of Connecticut, January to July 1941 

Committee on engineering training industry: E. Kent Hubbard, president of 
the Connecticut Manufacturers' Association, Inc.; Dean John H. Lampe, Con- 
necticut University; Prof. Philip G. Laurson, Yale University; Lauren E. Seeley 
regional adviser, chairman. 



5228 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

FOREWORD 

Some time ago it became evident that the rapid expansion of industries partici- 
pating in the defense program would result in a greatly increased demand for men 
with engineering training for specific jobs in industry. To help meet this demand 
the United States Office of Education inaugurated a national-defense training 
program which is now being conducted by engineering schools throughout the 
country. 

A preliminary study among manufacturers of Connecticut has convinced the 
committee on engineering training in industry that a real need for technical instruc- 
tion exists. The committee has, therefore, undertaken to establish such training 
as may be needed to help the defense efforts of Connecticut industry. This 
tentative catalog contains those subjects which appear to be most widely needed. 
Special needs of industry for instruction not herein included will be considered 
when brought to the attention of the committee. 

Financed by the Government, the instruction is offered without cost for tuition. 
It is restricted to qualified persons whose training will increase their usefulness to 
national defense. The courses, all of college grade, short and intensive, will be 
open only to persons having the specified educational background and, in some 
cases, the specified experience in industry. This does not mean that only college- 
trained men are eligible. The nature of the subject matter determines the 
qualifications. 

PROCEDURES FOR THE SELECTION OF STUDENTS 

1. Any employee who wishes to apply for instruction should consult his employer 
who, acting for the committee, will discuss the matter and provide an application 
form for the prospective student to fill out. Provision is madte for a second choice 
in case the preferred course is not given or is overcrowded, "this application will 
be forwarded to the committee by the employer. 

2. The prospective student will be notified of a date for a personal interview 
with a member of the faculty committee on admissions. 

3. The applicant will be notified of his acceptance or rejection as soon as possible 
following the interview. 

4. At any time during the instruction period if it becomes apparent that a 
student is unable to profit further, the administrative officer in charge of the 
program will notify the student and suggest that he withdraw from the course. 

5. Any employed or unemployed person may apply for admission to a course 
for which he considers himself qualified. The contribution to national defense 
will be the most important consideration in student selection, 

GENERAL INFORMATION 

Due to the tentative nature of the program, the engineering schools cannot be 
absolutely committed to conduct all of the subjects listed. The response by 
applicants must warrant the expense of instruction and the contribution to national 
defense must be apparent. 

Whenever possible, classes will be held at places convenient to the majority of 
students. Laboratory facilities may in some cases decide the place of instruction. 

In general, courses will begin in January and end in May or June. Certain 
courses will begin in January and end in April. Such courses maj^ be repeated 
beginning in April. 

Textbooks must be provided by the student. For drafting courses students 
must provide their own instruments. 

Address any questions or requests to^the Committee on Engineering Training 
in Industry, 436 Capitol Avenue, Hartford, Conn. 

PROPOSED COURSES 

It is expected that courses will begin in January and will be completed by June 
30, and may end at an earlier date. Certain short courses may be repeated, the 
second course beginning in April. It is planned that the courses listed below 
will be given after working hours (late afternoons or evening). 

Courses will require preparation outside of scheduled class hours. 

1. Applied elasticity. — A study of the theories relating to the mechanics of 
materials and their application to the analysis of stress in machine parts. Stress 
concentration at fillets and holes, fatigue failures, more complicated problems in 
the theory of flexure, torsion of bars on noncircular cross section, stresses in fly- 
wheels and rotating disks, shrink fits, use of models for stress analysis. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5229 

Prerequisites: Integral and differential calculus and a college course in strength 
of materials. Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

2. Vibration problems. — A study of the fundamental theory of vibrating system's 
with apphcation to engineering problems. Free, damped, and force vibration, 
methods of vibration isolation, theory of vibration measuring instruments, 
vibrations of rotating machinery, vibration of beams, vibration absorbers. 

Prerequisites: Differential and integral calculus and a college course in applied 
mechanics including dynamics. 

Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

3. Inspection of materials. — This course is intended to help the industrial 
workers to become inspectors and to understand specifications and a proper 
measure of qualities of both raw materials and finished products. The course 
will include general properties of materials, alterations in properties, measurement 
of properties, surfaces, mass, strength, elasticity, ductility, malleability, hardness, 
resilience, fatigue, impact, wear, soundness, strength-weight ratio," flexibility, 
elastic stability, electrical properties, specifications for materials, and calibrations. 

Prerequisites: Graduation from high school or a working knowledge of arith- 
metic and algebra through quadratics, plane geometry, and high school physics. 
This class will cover instruction over a 10-week period. It may be repeated for 
a second group, beginning in April. 

It is expected that men entering the course will have had some experience in 
manufacturing which requires the use of tools, work in a drafting room, or work 
in the procurement and handling of materials and equipment. 

4. Strength of materials. — A study of the principles of the mechanics of materials 
with particular reference to their use in design. Simple stresses, tension, com- 
pression, and shear; theory and design of beams, struts, and shafts; combined 
stress problems; riveted and welded joints. 

Prerequisites: Algebra, trigonometry, and high-school physics. 
Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

5. Elementary dynamics. — A basic course in applied mechanics with emphasis 
on dynamics and the application to engineering problems. Includes resolution, 
composition and equilibrium of forces, rectilinear and curvilinear motion, trans- 
lation, rotation, work, energy, power, impulse, and momentum. 

Prerequisites: Algebra, trigonometry, and high-school physics. 
Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

6. Industrial electricity. — A brief review of direct-current circuits and machines. 
Alternating-current circuits, machines, and distribution systems. 

Prerequisites: High-school physics, algebra and trigonometry. 
Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

7. Electrical instruments and testing. — A study of electrical indicating instru- 
ments and their use in testing materials and machines. Simple bridge circuits 
will be included as well as methods of obtaining the characteristics of direct 
current and alternating current motors and generators. 

Prerequisites: High school physics, algebra, and trigonometry. 
Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

8. Electron tubes. — Electron emission, characteristics of vacuum- and gas-filled 
tubes, and their applications in industrial control, rectification with special 
emphasis on high power rectifiers, photocells and their application in relay 
circuits and light measurements. This course is intended for those who have 
little or no familiarity with electron tubes. 

Prerequisites: Differential and integral calculus, a two-term course in physics, 
and a two-term laboratory course in physics. 
Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

9. Elements of electrical illumination. — The nature of light. Photometric 
concepts and measurement of photometric quantities. The reflection and trans- 
mission of light. Calculation of illumination produced by point-sources, line- and 
surface-sources. Properties of incandescent lamps, of gas discharge lamps, and 
fluorescent lamps. Design of luminaires. 

Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

10. Engineering electronics. — ^The course deals with the theory of electric con- 
duction in gases and the applications of this theory to problems in the field of 
power engineering, such as: circuit breakers, fuses, lightning arresters, mercury 
arc rectifiers, ignitrons, and other gas-filled tubes. 

Prerequisites: Differential and integral calculus, differential equations, theory 
of alternating current circuits. 

Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

11. Electric transients. — A study of electrical transients by the operational 
methods of Bush, Berg, Heaviside, and others. ^Although the treatment will be 



5230 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

mathematical, the emphasis will be on the electric circuit and numerous practical 
problems will be solved. 

Prerequisites: Differential equations and electric circuit theory. 

Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

12. Power transmission calculations. — The calculation of various conditions in 
transmission networks. Short circuits and unbalance calculations by symmetrical 
components. The loading of transformers by ratio change and phase shift, etc. 

Prerequisites: Electric circuit theory. 
Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

13. Electric-poioer transmission. — A study of a transmission line as an electric 
circuit. The topics to be covered are the calculation of line constants, short lines 
and approximate networks, long lines and hyperbolic solutions, circle diagrams of 
performance, problems in stability. 

Prerequisites: Differential and integral calculus and electric circuit theory. 
Two class periods of 1 liour each per week. 

14. High-voltage insulation. — Insulation and its use in power transmission. A 
study of cables, transformers, circuit breakers, and other high voltage equipment. 
The protection of lines and equipment from lightning. The testing of high 
voltage equipment. 

Prerequisites: Differential and integral calculus and electric circuit theory. 
Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

15. Theory of circuit-rxipturing devices. — An analysis of electric circuit conditions 
during the period of interruption. The properties of the electric arc. Approxi- 
mate methods of solution of arc interruption. Theory of arc reignition and its 
application to switches, to backfires in mercury arc rectifiers, and to the design 
of high power uses. Selected topics in the design of circuit interrupters. 

Prerequisites: Differential and integral calculus, differential equation, alternat- 
ing current circuit theory and electric transient theory. 
Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

16. Osctllography. — Theory of the magnetic oscillograph. Operating charac- 
teristics of string- and bifilar-oscillographs. The crystal-oscillograph. Theory of 
the low-voltage cathode ray oscillograph. The high-speed, high voltage oscillo- 
graphs. Problems in photographic recording of oscillograms. Selected topics in 
applications of oscillographic measurements. 

Prerequisites: Differential and integral calculus, differential equations and 
alternating current circuit theory. Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

17. Engineering dr awing. -^The fundamental principles of engineering draw- 
ing. Emphasis will be placed on the abihty to visualize while developing the 
habits and skills necessary to make accurate and complete drawings. Lettering, 
sketching, and simple calculations. 

Prerequisites: Students should be high school graduates with one or more years 
of industrial shop experience. Shop experience and general ability or aptitude 
for the work should be given preference over definite scholastic requirements as 
the instruction must be adapted to the special needs of the industries served. 

Two class periods of 2]/2 hours each per week. 

18. Advanced drafting. — Review of principles of projection; simple problems in 
unusual views; difficult but not unusual projections; developments; intersections; 
dimensioning -theory and practice; tolerances; methods of manufacture; surface 
quality; office standards. Reflecting the demand, groups may be set up for 
specific fields such as (a) tool drafting, (b) airplane drafting, (c) machine draft- 
ing, etc. 

Prerequisites: Two years of college or equivalent experience plus some draft- 
ing instruction. 

Two class periods of 2J^ hours each per week. 

19. Applied machine design. — This course is intended for draftsmen who are in 
training to become assistants to designers. It will attempt to give men already 
conversant with the problems of their industrial organizations a chance to de- 
velop the skill of detailing composite designs. The instruction will be adapted 
as far as possible to the problems of the industries represented. 

The course proposed covers an elementary study of mechanics and force equilib- 
rium, the composition and resolution of forces, force moments and moment dia- 
grams, stresses in simple structures, center of gravity and moment of inertia, the 
strength and design of simple structural members and machine parts, the limit- 
ing factors of machine accuracy and their effect on design. 

Drafting room work will involve the application of the above-outlined prob- 
lems to design, involving machine and structural members subject to bending 
and torsional stresses, together with some study of the factors influencing design 
other than theoretical strength. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5231 

Prerequisites: Graduation from high school is desirable, but not absolutel.v 
essential. Men who have had satisfactory drafting room experience or men who 
have had training in drafting in addition to shop experience will be considered 
for the course. 

Two class periods of 2}4 hours each per week. 

20. Machine design. — Definitions and principles; graphical methods; moment- 
stress macliine elements; lubrication; gear design; velocity and acceleration in 
design; cams, flywheels, connecting rods, engine balance, critical speeds, torsional 
vibration; gear trains; proportions in castings and forgings; choice of welding or 
casting; selection of material; simplification of detail in design. 

Prerequisites: Two years of college inchiding mathematics and science or 
equivalent experience indicating success in the course. 
Two class periods of 2}^ hours each per week. 

21. Tool design. — Elementary principles of mechanisms, mechanics of ma- 
chinery, jigs and fixture design, materials of construction, actual drafting-room 
problems in tool design. 

Prerequisites: Two years of college, including mathematics and science, or 
equivalent experience indicating success in the course. 
Two class periods of 2 hours each per week. 

22. Principles of metallurgy. — Theory and laboratory practice in the production, 
properties and engineering applications of metals and alloys; the relation -of 
structure to properties and their modification by heat treatment and work; the 
effects of principal alloying elements and of difl'erences in production processes. 

Prerequisites: Two years of college including mathematics and science or 
equivalent experience indicating success in the course. 

Two class periods of 2 hours each per week, or equivalent. 

23. Weldiyig supervision. — The course in welding supervision is intended to 
give experienced welders and designers an understanding of the correct applica- 
tion of brazing, welding, oxygen cutting, and metal facing in fabrication of tools 
and new products and in the maintenance and improvement of machinery. It 
is intended to give experienced welders an understanding of the process and weld- 
ing properties of materials to allow them to supervise others intelligently. 

The course will include welding definitions, welding symbols, welding methods, 
gas welding, oxygen cutting, metallic arc, carbon arc, resistance, blowpipe braz- 
ing, furnace brazing, silver brazing, soft soldering, welding design, welding de- 
fects, qualifying tests, welding specifications, repair welding. 

Prerequisites: Men admitted to the course should be working as welders, de- 
signers, or metal craftsmen of one sort oi another. A high-school course is not a 
necessity, but they should be well-grounded in arithmetic, shop mathematics, 
elementary physics, and chemistry. 

The course will be conducted over a period of 10 weeks. It may be repeated 
for a second group, beginning in April. 

Two class periods of 2}^ hours each per week. 

24. Scientific bases of ivelding. — The properties of metals and cl'anges resulting 
from heating and cooling; factors affecting the weldability of metals; welding 
processes and equipment; flame cutting; special techniques; alUed processes; de- 
sign considerations; inspection; testing; qualification of welders; codes and speci- 
fications. 

Prerequisites: Two years of .college, including mathematics and science, or 
equivalent experience indicating success in the course. 
Two class periods of 1 hour each per week. 

25. Power generation. — Theory of power production by steam and internal- 
combustion engines, boiler-house practice, power-plant economics. Problems in 
power plant calculation. 

Prerequisites: Two years of college including mathematics and science or 
equivalent experience indicating success in the course. 
Two class periods of 2 hours each per week. 

26. Production control. — This course is designed to train personnel in the various 
phases of engineering and design effort; industrial procurement of materials from 
vendors, including follow-up of orders placed for material, the possible steps that 
may be taken to anticipate or to insure promised delivery dates, and the proper 
disposition and storing of such materials when received at the plant; modern 
methods of production control within the plant, such as proper operation rout- 
ing, scheduling of work and maintenance of such schedules, the proper dispatch- 
ing of the work to the first and subsequent operations; the approved methods of 
maintaining a flow of finished or semifinished parts to the assembly departments 
or erecting floor; proper methods of boxing and packaging, and, finally, a working 



5232 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

knowledge of shipping and traffic, so that the problems of the traffic department 
may be appreciated and better coordination obtained. 

The course will include considerations of the ownership of industry, plant loca- 
tion and arrangement, organization of the plant, control of production, analysis 
of plant operations, procurement of materials, standardization and inspection, 
plant accounting, paying for quality and quantity, personnel problems, tools of 
management, and economics of management. 

The class is planned for a 10-week period. The class may be repeated for a 
second group beginning in April. 

Prerequisites: Graduation from high school. Consideration will be given to the 
applicant's experience in this type of work. 

Two class periods of 2)4 hours each per week. 

27. Production principles. — Historical background; analysis of methods by 
industries; organization; planning; routing; job study; time study; productive 
operations; transportation; inspection, assembly. 

Prerequisites: Two years of college plus 2 years of experience in industry or 
sufficient experience to indicate success in course. 
Two class periods of 2 hours each per week. 

28. Advanced thermodynamics. — A study of advanced thermodynamic gas laws 
and properties, and of gas mixtures and internal-combustion cycles. 

•Prerequisites: Three years of college including courses in thermodynamics of 
equivalent experience indicating success in the course. 
Two class periods of 2 hours each per week. 

29. Heat generation and transmission. — The principles of combustion of the 
various industrial fuels, the laws of heat transfer and heat exchange apparatus. 

Prerequisites: Three years of college including courses in thermodynamics 
or equivalent experience indicating success in the course.. 
Two class periods of 2 hours each per week. 

30. Cost accounting. — Standard costs and variable budgets; the distribution and 
control of factory expenses; the effect of changes in volume on costs and profits. 
Insofar as available information will permit, problems raised by recent legislation 
governing defense contracts, wages, and hours, etc., will be considered. 

For those familiar with accounting principles and practice. 

Prerequisites : An elementary course in cost accounting or equivalent experience. 

Probably two class periods of 2 hours each per week. 



Committee for Engineering Training in Industry 

hartford, conn. 

New Haven, Conn., May 2, 1941. 
The Honorable Robert A. Hurley, 

Governor of Connecticut, Hartford, Conn. 

Dear Sir: Knowing your concern for all matters pertaining to the defense of 
the State of Connecticut and also of your interest in cooperation between various 
agencies within the State and appropriate Federal agencies, you may be pleased 
with a report of one activity very intimately concerned with defense production 
in Connecticut industry. The activity is the Engineering Defense Training 
(E. D. T.) program for augmenting the technical skills of workers in defense 
industries by means of short, intensive, nighttime courses of college grade in the 
general field of engineering. 

Last October, Congress granted $9,000,000 to be administered by the United 
States Office of Education for the purpose of providing technical training on the 
college level with the object of providing more technical skills for our expanding 
industries. The instruction was to be provided by acceptable schools of engineer- 
ing 'throughout the country. In Connecticut this meant Connecticut University 
and Yale University. By virtue of a happy ability to cooperate, our junior 
colleges — Bridgeport Engineering Institute, Hillyer Institute, New Haven Young 
Men's Christian Association College, and New London Junior College — were 
invited to join the undertaking and have done so unselfishly and efficiently. 
It should be noted that the act of Congress was permissive in character and par- 
ticipation was not compulsory for anyone. All contracts for instruction are made 
with the Government by both Connecticut and Yale Universities on the ' 
of actual costs therefor. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5233 

In November last, the program was an idea to be worked out in each of 22 
regions by regional advisers. Connecticut and Rhode Island are in region 2. 
In January, actual classes of instruction were under way. Today, out of 132 
contracting institutions, Connecticut and Yale Universities rank among the 
first 10 schools in numbers of enrolled students. By early July, between 3,500 
to 4,000 persons will have completed a course of instruction under the engineering 
defense-training program in Connecticut. While intensive training cannot per- 
form miracles, one may confidently expect that the sum total of the training will 
confer a distinct benefit upon Connecticut industry. 

To appreciate the full extent of the cooperation received in connection with 
this program it should be mentioned that the active supervision of the program in 
Washington is managed by engineering educators on leave of absence from their 
respective schools. Also, that the regional advisers all serve without pay and 
are allowed a very small budget to pay the expenses of starting and carrying on 
the work. In Connecticut alone the task of reaching its many industries was, 
under the circumstances, jDractically impossible. The program was presented to 
the Manufacturers' Association of Connecticut and after careful study it offered 
its complete cooperation. This make it possible to reach all of Connecticut 
industry at once. A careful and economical plan was devised for securing promis- 
ing students and a committee was set up to implement the program. The asso- 
ciation has spent considerable time and money on this program and continues to 
do so. 

The manufacturers of Connecticut are becoming better acquainted with the 
work as time goes on. Some of the manufacturers who are most familiar with 
educational programs in industry have included this program in their plans for 
expansion in as capable a manner as one could find anywhere. Close contact is 
maintained between industry and the schools by virtue of company coordinators 
who follow the students' progress. In fact, one discovers that over the years 
many manufacturers in a quiet and unspectacular manner have been giving 
much time and effort to employee training. The records of our junior colleges 
will show this clearly. The Connecticut plan for machine operator training is 
further evidence. Our present situation is therefore not a product of neglect 
but rather a reflection of new and heavy tasks suddenly imposed. 

Major Maloney, of the Connecticut Employment Service, is completely informed 
of the program and is taking into account the probable effect of the technical 
training upon labor shortages. He has helped to locate trainable persons and is 
prepared to offer greater aid when teaching facilities are available. 

It is important to realize that the students in the engineering defense training 
program are virtually all employed persons giving up hours of earned leisure for 
new and often difficult classroom work. All of the teachers, many of whom are 
from industry, are likewise shouldering an extra burden. Such effort, being 
voluntary, ought to merit generous recognition. Simply because the whole pro- 
gram is voluntary, its vigorous prosecution must be attributed to a high sense of 
public service on the part of all persons involved. Your appreciation of this fact 
is naturally of foremost importance. 

Men whose continued efforts have been most helpful to the success of the 
program are listed below for your information : 

Members of the Committee on Engineering Training in Industry: E. Kent 
Hubbard, president of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, Inc.; 
Dean John H. Lampe, institutional representative, Connecticut University; 
Prof. Philip G. Laurson, institutional representative, Yale University; Lauren E. 
Seeley, regional adviser, chairman. 

Members of cooperative schools: Dean L. A. Hoffman and associates, Bridgeport 
Engineering Institute; Messrs. A. S. Wilson and A. B. Conrad, Hillyer Institute 
(Hartford) ; Messrs. L. L. Bethel and C. W. Fawcett, New Haven Young Men's 
Christian Association College; Messrs. R. P, Saiuiders and L. A. Lachman, New 
London Junior College; Mr. Daly, on leave from the Hartford Public High School, 
is assisting in extension courses of Connecticut University; Mr. Arthur Purinton, 
of Waterbury Young Men's Christian Association, is assisting in extension work 
of the New Haven Young Men's Christian Association College. 

Members of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut: Messrs. C. L. 
Eyanson, A. E. Whitehill, and L. M. Bingham. 

Connecticut Employment Service: Maj. Leonard J. Maloney. 

Respectfulh" submitted. 

Lauren E. Seeley, 
Regional Advisor, Region 2. 



5234 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

sxjpplembntary observations on engineering defense training program 
June 6, 1941 

by lauren e. seeley, regional advisor, region 2 

As the engineering defense training program progresses some of the early short 
courses have been completed and within about 1 month all of the present courses 
will be over. It is still too early to evaluate the program but instances of upgrad- 
ing and improved work on the job have been noted. The full utilization of the 
increased ability of trainees will be achieved when the training-within-industry 
program under Mr. Ernest A. Stowell, director of region No. 2 is in full operation. 
One definite problem which this latter program must solve is to make upgrading 
really mean what it says to the employee. Upgrading a skilled machinist to 
design work may involve a reduction in income which considerations of improved 
status, steadier'long-time employment, etc., cannot outweigh. Upgrading must 
be made desirable to the employee. 

As to the engineering defense training program — it is being planned to carry 
on during the summer with both pre-service and in-service tr.aining but not on a 
large scale. Manufacturers are divided in their opinions concerning the possi- 
bility of effective summer work. Naturally the attitude of management will 
influence employees. An atmosphere of urgency, seriousness, and hard work is 
created by the example of management. Tlie engineering defense training 
program is voluntary in character. It cannot require action but it can and will 
continue to be responsive to the needs which come within its scope. 

TESTIMONY OF EARNEST A. STOWELL— Resumed 

Mr. Sparkman, Mr. Stowell, I think you gave us a very interesting 
statement right at the beginning. You gave us the number being 
trained in Connecticut today. Will you repeat that? M 

Mr, Stowell. There are approximately 35,000 industrial workers 
being trained in Connecticut under present conditions. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is what I wanted. Now, I believe you said 
that the major portion of those were being trainccl in industry, 

Mr. Stowell. Of this group it is estimated as nearly as we can 
estimate it, 27,000 are being trained inside industry and 2,000 of those 
are on the formal apprenticeship programs at present. The others 
represent those that are going through various stages of on-the-job 
training in the plants. 

Mr. Sparkman. And I believe you said that those from the W. P, A. 
are negligible? 

Mr. Stowell. You could practically ignore their contribution to 
this program. 

ABSORBING ALL AGES 

Air. Sparkman. I remember seeing a chart in one of the statements 
today, probably the one of Major Maloney, which showed that the 
W. P. A. had never trained as many as they at first anticipated train- 
ing. Is that due to the fact that the age of persons who would seek 
training under W. P, A, was probably above what you would look 
for in industry? 

Mr. Stowell. I wouldn't say it was above because in industry we 
are absorbing all ages. This cry that has been heard for several years 
of the "40-plus club" has practically disappeared in Connecticut. If 
they are craftsmen we are glad to get them, even between 40 and 50. 
They represent good craftsmen even if they have been away from their 
jobs, because they can be trained. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5235 

NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION'S PART 

Mr, Sparkman. What part is the N. Y. A. doing in this training 
program? 

Mr. Stowell. They are not doing any training in Connecticut 
under present conditions. They are turning their facihties into clear- 
ance centers to help bring in people from outside of the State, give 
them residence and feed them into industry. 

Mr. Sparkman. What about the colleges? 

Mr. Stowell. The colleges, of course, in addition to their regular 
engineering courses and others, have set up courses that we call the 
engineering defense training courses. They are set up under Federal 
funds and are offered to anyone who wishes to take advantage of them, 
free of charge. 

Mr. Sparkman. And that is true of secondary schools, is it not? 

Mr. Stowell. It is true of secondary schools. Of course your State 
vocational schools have been training a tremendous number in Con- 
necticut and then the engineering defense-training program is super- 
imposed on top of that, in institutions of higher learning. It is esti- 
mated that about 7,000 have been trained through the secondary 
schools and defense engineering courses. 

PREREQUISITES FOR TRAINING 

Mr. Sparkman. In order to get that training you just mentioned 
in the secondary schools and colleges and so forth, is it necessary that 
the applicants be residents of the State of Connecticut? 

Mr. Stowell. I am not too sure of that. I believe it might be 
equivalent to it, because the employer has to approve the applicants 
for defense engineering courses. I think in that way it practically 
restricts them to residents of the State. 

Mr. Sparkman. I noticed in your statement that you read to us, 
you said that if working schedules moved to three shifts for a 7-day 
week, 106,000 new workers will be needed by September 1941. 

OFFICE OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT WANTS THREE-SHIFT BASIS 

Mr. Stowell. Yes; 50,000 if they stay on one shift as so many are 
doing, but the desire of tne O. P. M. is to get all tne industries on a 
3-shift basis. Some of our major industries, like Winchester and 
the aircraft industries, are now on a 3-shift basis, but a lot of others, 
particularly secondary contractors, are still on 1 shift. But they are 
running substantial overtune. The urge is to have every industry that 
has facilities for defense purposes to move to 3 shifts. 

Mr. Sparkman. And in that event 106,000 additional workers will 
be needed? 

Mr. Stowell. That is the estimated figure. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you anticipate any difficulty in meeting that 
requirement in Connecticut? 

Mr. Stowell. I think not. I believe we can meet it because not 
only will we, between now and then, still be able to draw on the un- 
employed rolls of neighboring States, but we are moving more and 
more toward using women in jobs that everyone has thought should 
be filled by men. We have in this State married women of advanced 



5236 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

age who have had fine experience in the industries, who could be called 
back if the pressure became great enough and who would be \villing 
to come back to work. 

RECRUITING OF LABOR 

Mr. Sparkman. I was interested in your treatment in the matter 
of recruiting labor. Obviously training is a more difficult process 
than recruiting labor. I suppose it is easy for industrialists to look 
toward recruiting rather than training this labor, but I believe you 
brought it out in your statement, as a matter of fact, that it is rather 
a short-sighted policy within itself. 

Mr. Stowell. And in the long run it is more expensive than a real 
training program. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you tluiik that the Connecticut manufactur- 
ers realize that that is true? 

Mr. Stowell. There is no doubt about it. We have gathered it in 
all these hearings that we have had, and we are running up against it 
all the time. There seems to be a full realization that the manufac- 
turers must assume the burden of training if they hope to meet their 
needs. 

Mr. Sparkman. I believe you stated that there is still some recruit- 
ing but that it is diminishing. 

Mr. Stowell. I think that probably the greater number of the 
people who are coming in through uncontrolled channels are people 
drawn here through the fact that we have more or less of a boom in 
Hartford and they are attracted by the size of such training programs 
as the ahcraft industry has. They have a lot of applications from out 
of the State. They reach all over the country, of course, in times like 
these. As during the last war. New England has become more or less 
of a Mecca for many people. They hear of the high wages. Of 
course, this time the defense industries are scattered pretty well all 
over the country, and probably we are not feeling it quite as heavily 
as we did in the last war. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of the workers so far that have been trained by 
various programs outside of industry, have practically all of them found 
employment? 

Mr. Stowell. The last estimate that I received was that approxi- 
mately 100 percent of them had been absorbed. We may find a few 
strays but when we do we tuck them away. 

uncontrolled migration 

Mr. Sparkman. I notice you refer to controlled and uncontrolled 
migration of workers from outside of the State of Connecticut. Do 
they come in in any great numbers? 

Mr. Stowell. Well, what we mean by "controlled" is that the 
importation is being made by the State employment service. They 
come in various numbers, according to the demand. But we realize 
that that will become less because the reservoirs are being dried up 
in the neighboring States pretty rapidly. 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you advocate closer integration of the va- 
rious training courses or programs with the immediate needs of local 
industry? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5237 

Mr. Stowell. We have it reasonably well integrated in Connecti- 
cut, but we have got to do more of it. It is the ultimate goal of the 
whole training-within-industry program. 

Mr. Sparkman. Will you comment a little more on your statement 
that too great a reliance has been placed on the school system of 
training of workers? 

TRADE SCHOOLS DID GOOD JOB 

Mr. Stowell. Yes. I think in the early days, long before the 
country, as a whole, was aroused to the need of trying to do something 
to equip the unemployed for positions in industry, there was started 
these so-called 200-hour preemployment training programs through 
trade schools. The boys were enrolled at their own expense for 
work, say from 3 to 11 o'clock at night, and then they stretched into 
another shift until 7 o'clock in the morning, so they were using those 
facilities approximately 24 hours a day, and they were turning out 
quite a number of people in the early days. The absorption was not 
anywhere near 100 percent, but as the defense contracts began to 
make their way into Connecticut there was no problem at all in 
absorbing those people. The schools geared themselves up to do a 
beautiful job, and I think that manufacturers began to feel — well 
not only here but as I have gathered in various conferences in other 
parts of the country — that they would like to build up these pre- 
employment training courses, feeling that in this way they would 
get a steady flow of trained help. And for that reason I think that 
in Connecticut, particularly, there has been some reluctance to come 
up to a real training program within their own shops, in the belief 
that the schools could continue to train their people on the preem- 
ployment courses. Actually it is becoming increasingly difficult to 
secure trainees to go into the schools on their own time because they 
can go right to the plants and secure jobs and be trained on the job. 

It is just a matter of mathematics. 

MUST IMPORT LARGE NUMBERS 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Stowell, let me be clear on this: Going back 
to one of the previous qmestions, you stated it would be necessary to 
employ approximately 106,000 additional workers by September. 

Now, I asked you awhile ago if you anticipated any difficulty in 
getting that number. Do I understand that you think that that 
number can be had here from Connecticut people, without relying to 
any unusual extent on migration from other States? 

Mr. Stowell. We will have to import a large number of workers. 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if you could give some idea of what 
proportion of those would be imported? 

Mr. Stowell. I would rather have you take a statement of that 
kind from Major Maloney, who is controlling that importation; but 
I would say that if we get a quarter of that group from outside of the 
State in that time, we are going to be fortunate, unless we move to it 
immediately, because every week we delay in bringing them in, the 
market is getting that much tighter. I believe our salvation is going 
to be in absorbing all that we can take from the unemployment rolls, 
even if they are down to very low-grade help, movmg from the non- 
defense industries to the defense industries, and bringing the women 



5238 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

into jobs now handled by men. I believe we are going to make our 
greatest contribution to this build-up through the greater use of women 
in the defense industries. 

SAFEGUARDS FOR HEALTH OF WOMEN 

Mr. Sparkman. You suggest in your paper, and in your statement 
just now, that the only remaining available sources of labor supply 
left in Connecticut are the young people around 18 years of age and 
the married women? 

Mr. Stowell. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. That you are bringing in? 

Mr. Stowell. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. If these two labor reserves are utilized, what 
measures are planned to safeguard their health on the type of work 
on which they would be employed? 

Mr. Stowell. Let me say first, and I want to check with Dr. 
Gray on that, we have very strict regulations surrounding the health 
of our workers in Connecticut. Not only is that situation policed 
by the State department of labor and factory inspection, but we have 
check-ups by the department of health. 

We have to satisfy them that we are meeting the requirements, so 
we don't anticipate in most of these plants that it is a matter of addi- 
tional facilities for safeguarding their health so much as it is a matter 
of building up the supervision to take care of those people on the night 
shift, so as to use facilities that have always been available to the day 
shift. 

We are using the plant facilities as they exist more extensively 
under these conditions, so the working conditions don't change 
substantially. It is just the strain of the night shift. 

apprenticeship council 

Mr. Sparkman. You mentioned in your paper the Connecticut 
State Apprenticeship Council. I wonder if you will give us a brief 
history of the work you have done in that connection? 

Mr. Stowell. Well, of course, that is the program of the Federal 
apprenticeship committee in Connecticut. The program that they 
have been working on is to have all formal apprenticeship programs 
conform to the standards approved by the Federal apprenticeship 
committee. 

Mr. Sparkman. The number trained through that medium has been 
regulated, too, has it not? 

Mr. Stowell. Well, the only regulation that you have ever had on 
apprentices is such regulation as unions have felt should be imposed; 
and I want to say for the unions in Connecticut generally, that they 
have never argued much with manufacturers on that matter. 

Under present conditions I don't think you would hear much of an 
objection in most shops. There may be a few shops here and there 
where there would be objections. 

Mr. Sparkman. I am wondering if the 2.000 you said had been 
trained through that system or were being trained now are something 
like the normal number, or if that is an unusual increase? 

Mr. Stowell. I would say that is a decided build-up over the 
normal number. For instance, all through the depression period 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5239 

most industries did very little on the training of apprentices. There 
are some firms that have carried their apprenticeship courses along. 
A large number of manufacturers have let them die down, but they 
have now built their courses up again. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Thank you, Mr. Stowell. 

The Chairman. Our next witness is Dr. Pond. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. MILLICENT POND, EMPLOYMENT MANAGER, 
SCOVILL MANUFACTURING CO., WATERBURY, CONN. 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold will interrogate you , Dr. Pond. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have a statement, Dr. Pond? 

Dr. Pond. Yes. I should like to read a summary of it. [Reading:] 

The two committees working on the problem of labor migration in 
Connecticut have put the emphasis of their work on causes and effects 
of migration, and upon possible remedies for some of the adverse con- 
ditions, rather than upon the quantitative story. 

1. Migration taking place: We all loiow that migration is taking 
place, and that it is not new in terms of 1941. A recognizable flow 
of applicants existed in 1937, 1939, and 1940, both interstate and intra- 
state. In 1937 and 1939 this flow was resisted by employers, who gave 
priority to local applicants for three reasons, which were: (1) Justice 
to local applicants. (2) The opportunity to reduce local relief loads. 
And (3) the danger of increasing company turn-over if nonlocal men 
were hired. 

Gradually, however, as the supply of skilled applicants required by 
the industries of the State diminished, and then the supply of tall, 
heavy, and muscularly strong individuals needed for mill and heavy 
construction work became exhausted, migratory workers were hired, 
first those who came from other towns within the State, and then 
those from other States. The States most frequently represented were 
the other New England States, and New York, New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania, and North Carolina. 

OBSERVE PRIORITY OF LOCAL APPLICANTS 

2. Conditions under which migrants are hired: There is no clearly 
defined date of change from the policy of rejecting migra to ly appli- 
cants to that of accepting them. If the hiring rate of a firm is low, 
the percentage of migratory apphcants accepted is also low, because 
hirings are made from application files, and the priority of local appli- 
cants is observed automatically. If the hiring rate is high, the 
percentage of migratory acceptances rises because the applicant 
files become depleted, workers must be obtained quitekly, and the 
employment office representative fears that he will not secure suffi- 
cient numbers of the required types if he waits for the local supply. 

These statements are intended to include such use as each com- 
pany makes of the Connecticut State Employment Service, which 
has been an important factor in facilitating the employment of local 
rather than nonlocal men and women. 



-41— pt. 13- 



5240 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

CAUSES OF MIGRATION 

3. Causes of migration: The causes of migration may be stated 
very briefly. In the carher period, the majority of nonlocal appli- 
cants stated that they were unemployed, and they probably were. 
Through newspaper and magazine articles, through verbal communi- 
cation from Connecticut, and through some labor advertisements, 
they learned of increased employment in certain towns here, and they 
came. The first search was for employment. Today, however, 
many of these applicants are currently employed elsewhere, and 
their search is for better employment. Tliis is an important shift, 
indicating spontaneous action toward individual upgrading, which 
is highly desirable from several points of view, and will be mentioned 
again. 

Unfortunately, the rumors of available work are often very unreli- 
able as to type of workers required and rates of pay offered, and many 
men have sought work here who have no qualifications superior to the 
local personnel not yet absorbed by Connecticut industry. 

DISADVANTAGES OF MIGRATION 

4. Disadvantages of migration: There are many disadvantages 
involved in unguided migration, including disappointment and cost 
to the misguided applicant; possible increase of the local population 
beyond the demands of employment in certain types of persons; a 
heavy load of interviewing for the employer and for the Connecticut 
State Employment Service; high turn-over, coupled with the waste of 
training costs; and the possibility of friction between employers over 
the problem of interplant migrations. 

ADVANTAGES OF MIGRATION 

5. Advantages of migration: On the other hand, there are also ad- 
vantages in this migration, even though it has been unguided. To the 
worker who has migrated successfully, there is the tonic effect of the 
exercise of initiative — that is, growth of the individual, new experience, 
and new goals — and this effect on the individual occiu's whether the 
migration is from one locality to another within the State, or from one 
State to another. For persons who have lived always in one of the 
economically depressed areas of the United States, this effect is marked. 
Moreover, employers have recognized that if a good selection can be 
made of the migrants capable of learning and of doing the work re- 
quired of them, this aspect of migration is of tremendous value to 
them. The employer profits by the new motivation of employees. 

Probably the most important advantage of free migration of labor, 
however, is the effect on the personnel policies of the employing 
firms, and to these the committees have given careful consideration. 
Trends have already become apparent in Connecticut, which we have 
tried to formulate and encourage in the following recommendations. 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EMPLOYERS 

6. Recommendations for Connecticut employers: We advocate 
careful, continuous, and rapid training and upgrading of currently 
employed personnel, because the present demand for skilled labor 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5241 

gives the employer an unusual opportunity to work in this way, and 
because realistic acceptance of this opportunity will reduce the neces- 
sity for the migration of workers, in many instances. 

We advocate adoption on the part of the employers of attitudes and 
procedures which will encourage the employees to ask for transfer 
within the company where he is currently employed instead of or 
before seeking it elsewhere. 

We advocate adequate standards of job evaluation and personnel 
rating, to facilitate the foregoing policies. 

We advocate free and sympathetic release of employees who are 
leaving their current employment, since this is the best invitation to 
them to return, if they find that they have been attracted by inflated 
rumors rather than fact. 

We advocate full cooperation with and use of the provisions of the 
Connecticut State Employment Service, with the one exception that 
we are not willing to promise what seems to us at present impossible — 
namely, the hiring of nonlocal personnel from their lists only. 

We advocate that employ ere in no way attempt to attract to them- 
selves the employees of another company, whether through advertising, 
or through word of mouth. 

PROCEDURE IN JOB TRANSFERS 

We advocate adoption of a standard procedure to be used when an 
employee of one company makes application to another for work, 
a procedure which will not penalize the employee, nor bar him in any 
way from making such application, but which will permit the current 
employer, as well as the prospective one, to enter into the negotiations. 
We urge that this procedure be developed with such care that it can 
be followed honestly b}^ employers, and need not be feared by em- 
ployees, and that when it is used the possible change of position shall 
be of real and not imaginary value. 

The committees on migration of labor believe that if these attitudes 
and policies can be accepted by Connecticut industry and consistently 
acted upon, the disadvantageous types of labor migration can be 
avoided, and the advantageous types facilitated. 

(Reading of the summary statement ends. Dr. Pond's complete 
prepared material follows:) 

STATEMENT BY DR. MILLICENT POND, EMPLOYMENT MANAGER,. 
SCOVILL MANUFACTURING CO., WATERBURY, CONN. 

Problems of Intrastate Migratory Labor 

Subcommittee No. 4 of the committee on emergency employment problems, 
has studied diligently all aspects of intrastate labor procurement and migration 
assigned to it, and for the purpose of integration it has included some considera- 
tion of items currently under investigation by other subcommittees. Specifically, 
it has investigated the possibility of finding and utilizing skills within the State 
which are not at present in use, and of subdividing skilled processes in such a way 
that persons who possess partial skills may be given further training on the job 
with fair rapidity, and thus be upgraded. 

It has considered carefull^y a very simple and practical transfer request system, 
which in actual operation has facilitated the handling of employees' recjuests for 
their own upgrading. It has heard reports on the diminishing local labor supply 
as registered by the Connecticut State Employment Service, affiliated with the- 
Federal Department of Employment Security, and on the possibilities of interstate 
clearance through that service. In fact, it has examined with appreciation the 



5242 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

various forms of aid which the employment service is prepared and eager to give 
to both employers and employees, and the forms of assistance which it is asking 
of employers, for an increased effectiveness of its work. All of the foregoing are 
problems largely of fact and ingenuity. 

In addition "to these, the subcommittee has worked wholeheartedly on the 
intricate problem of employer-applicant, or employer-employee relationship, 
which has been called "stealing help." As shortages in certain types of skill, 
training, and physical build increase, this problem will be come increasingly acute. 
It presents a conflict between the right of freedom of movement for the employee 
.and expediency for the employer. It also presents a long history of agreements 
between firms which were repeatedly evaded, of agreements which limited the 
freedom of the employee, and of conflicts between firms, so tliat any unanimity 
now may be difficult to achieve. This subcommittee has reviewed numerous 
types of procedure and specific case presentations, drawn largely, although not 
wholly, from current Connecticut experience, and has attempted to discriminate 
clearly between them on the basis of justice. 

FOUR PRINCIPLES 

As a summary of this portion of its work, and a background for more detailed 
procedures which will be suggested in the pages to follow, it presents four princi- 
ples, believing that a frank recognition of them by all Connecticut employers will 
be to the advantage of employers, employees, and the national-defense program: 

I. That American men and women have the right to work for, or to seek work 
with, any employer. 

II. That every effort should be made to see that skilled and trained men and 
women be employed where their skills can be used best, either in their own com- 
panies, or, if necessary, elsewhere. 

III. That, on the other hand, inadequately considered and restless moves on 
the part of employees are often unprofitable to them as well as to their employers. 
Hence, in fairness to the latter, they should be avoided whenever possible. 

IV. Finally, that since all Connecticut industry contributes directly or indirectly 
to the national-defense program, it m^ust function cooperatively and efficiently, 
maintaining its recognized high standards, and reaching a higher level of produc- 
tion that heretofore. 

We can now turn to a more detailed report of the findings of the subcommittee, 

SOURCES OF SKILLED PERSONNEL WITHIN THE STATE 

Probably the best of the sources now is persistent upgrading and training of 
employees within each organization. It is thought that upgrading has already 
been carried out vary extensively in Connecticut industry, but illustrations cited 
for a different purpose certainly indicated that the process of upgrading should 
be a continuous one. It is strongly recom-inended, not only as a source of skills, 
but also as a stabilizing influence in each organizs.tion. 

Subdivision of skilled work processes so that upgrading can take place in reason- 
ably small steps when necessary was illustrated by a description of the experimental 
placement of production grinders on surface grinding work, with provision for 
instruction, and a learning rate of pay for 1 month. Another committee is 
studying this item. 

An important investigation made by the Connecticut State Employment Service, 
and reported to this subcommittee is that of the present occupation of all mechani- 
cal graduates of the State trade schools for the years 1932 to 1940, inclusive. 
Names furnished by the trade schools have been traced by the local employment 
service offices, the individuals finally reached and interviewed. Although many 
are now using the skills learned in the school, a sufficiently large proportion to 
warrant continuing the investigation are not doing so. Those wlio are working 
in lower level jobs with a firm that needs the skills will be referred to their own 
employer for upgrading. Others will be registered as rapidly as they are found, 
and referred to skilled work in their own communities. Even if the skill has been 
out of use for some time, the retraining required is much less than full training. 

A PRACTICAL TRANSFER REQUEST SYSTEM 

In connection with its upgrading process, one large Connecticut firm has made 
provision for a written request for transfer, available to any employee. In view 
of the fear which many employers have that such an instrument would bring in 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5243 

an unmanageable number of requests, the subcommittee examined the form, 
procedure, and results in this firm with care. 

The form reads "I am employed as a 

in Dept and would like to be transferred to Dept 

My reasons for wanting this transfer are as follows 

" Spaces for signatures of employee, foreman, and superintendent 

follow, also for a record of action taken. 

The foreman holds the supply of blanks. The employee applies to him for 
permission to fill one out, the foreman signs it and consults the superintendent. 
One or both of them talk the matter over with the employee and the latter is then 
interviewed in the personnel department. If the request is simply for a change 
in shift, the foreman keeps the request on file. No openings on the first shift are 
filled by the personnel department without a statement from the foreman that he 
has no transfer requests in his file. 

This procedure has been in effect since September 1939. Out of 5,000 employ- 
ees, 408 transfer requests have been received, 211 for more responsibiUty. Of 
these, 75 have been granted, 2 canceled, 134 are in abeyance. Requests for shift 
changes number 186, of which 106 have been granted, 3 canceled, 77 held up. 

It is felt that the procedure has given reasonable opportunity for expressions 
of ambition or desire, that it has not resulted in an avalanche of requests, that it 
saves the foreman the necessity of remembering a verbal request for change, and 
that it saves both the foreman and the company from the accusation of lack of 
attention to verbal requests. 

DECREASED REGISTRATION OF UNSKILLED APPLICANTS 

The subcommittee has considered very carefully the report of the Connecticut 
State Employment Service on the reduction of numbers of registered unemployed 
workers even without skill or special training. Month by month the number is 
decreasing. The situation is serious, even if it is assumed that in times like these 
persons who become unemployed may not register at once. 

On the other hand, there is the possibility that the operation of priority restric- 
tions on the supply of raw materials may throw large numbers of persons out of 
employment quite suddenly in this State. To the extent that it happens in small 
group.s, reemployment in defense industries will absorb the laid off employees, 
but the differences in type of employee required for different types of work may 
seriously delay the reemployment of larger groups. 

Of the young people who will graduate this month from the high schools of the 
State, it is predicted those who are over 18 years of age will be absorbed in em- 
ployment very quickly — 12 percent of the total number of graduates are already 
definitely engaged for work. 

WHETHER TO HIRE THE APPLICANT WHO IS EMPLOYED 

It is apparent, of course, that the principles given on page 1 do not provide a 
mode of procedure for the employer who for any reason believes that he would 
be able to interest and could use an employee of another firm. As steps toward 
such a procedure, in recognition of the principles enunciated, the subcommittee 
urges : 

1 . That new personnel be taken to the fullest extent possible from the ranks of 
the unemployed. 

2. That no employee be penalized in any way for attempting to place himself 
in work which utilizes his best capacities, whether with his present employer or 
with another. 

3. That the greatest care be taken by personnel departments in the appraisal 
of these capacities when any change of employment is contemplated, and of other 
factors which would be involved in a change, such as: 

Loss of seniority rights or privileges, or of work security due to long service. 

Transportation and/or housing expense. 

Loss of income for the individual during the learning period. 

Possible loss of position for the individual if an error in placement has been made. 

4. That in any contemplated change of an employee from one employer to 
another, the first employer be given an opportunity to interview his employee 
before final commitments are made either by the second employer or by the 
employee, but that this shall not be construed to mean that the second employer 
may not indicate the nature of available openings for which he considers the 
applicant qualified. 

5. That no employer attempt to attract to himself any of the employees of 
another firm, by advertising, or by verbal messages of any sort. 



5244 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

*? It is recognized by the subcommittee that the procedures thus set forth are to 
some extent followed now by Connecticut industry — they are not original with 
the committee. They will only become fully active, however, if they are incor- 
porated in the basic policies of each industrial company. It is suggested that 
when these principles and procedures are sincerely followed, the transfer of a 
worker from one employer to another should not be called nor considered 
■".stealing." 

USE OF THE CONNECTICUT STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

The Connecticut State Employment Service will register employed as well as 
unemployed persons. When an employed person seeking work is referred to an 
employer, it will be stated on the referral card that the applicant is employed, 
and by whom. 

When employed individuals register at the State employment office, every 
effort will be made to persuade them to discuss their problems witli their present 
employer, or to permit the employment service to do this for them. Moreover, 
the employment service urges employers to use the service in cases of employed 
persons who apply directly to them. 

The subcommittee endorses the work of the Connecticut State Employment 
Service, and recommends that Connecticut employers cooperate with and use 
this service to the fullest extent possible. 



[With the above statement, supplemental material was submitted, 
as follows:] 

Problems of Interstate Migratory Labor 

By FRED S. SPARROW 

Having had in our subcommittee meetings, the benefit of an exact and up-to- 
date picture of the registered and available unemployed workers, unskilled, 
semiskilled and skilled in the State of Connecticut as presented by the employ- 
ment service, and having had the counsel of the Civilian Conservation Corps, 
National Youth Administration, Work Projects Administration, and other such 
administrations, and having been currently advised by the State employment 
service as to the availability of desirable workers that might be moved into 
Connecticut from other States, this committee feels that its recommendations to 
the committee on emergency employment problems of the Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation of Connecticut may be correctly summarized by: 

"Connecticut manufacturers should cooperate in full with the State employ- 
ment service on the problem of direction and control of unemployed coming 
from out of State so as to meet Connecticut needs as to trade, training, and skills." 

In its investigations, this subcommittee has given cognizance to the following 
interrelated facts: 

1. Less than 1 in 5 undirected and uncontrolled industrial workers coming 
into the State from out-of-State has qualifications needed by Connecticut industry. 

2. Labor pools in other New England States are practically exhausted and 
with our needs being filled now, mainly from Pennsylvania and States more dis- 
tant, question of clearance of qualified workers into this State is of even greater im- 
portance. As we find it necessary to reach out farther for additional workers, 
the question of transportation becomes a serious stumbling block. 

3. There is considerable flow of labor into the State, due to misleading inter- 
pretations of the size of weekly pay checks in Connecticut industry in such cases 
as where only the total amount of a week's pay is emphasized without any relation 
to amount of overtime involved. 

4. The amount of newspaper and magazine publicity that has been given to 
the volume of defense contracts awarded within the State of Connecticut, and 
from a limited number of Connecticut manufacturers advertising for workers in 
out-of-State newspapers, and from word going l)ack home from out-of-State 
workers now employed in Connecticut citing the intense industrial activity 
within the State, all tends to encourage an uncontrolled and undirected flow of 
labor into the State, a substantial part of which flow is qualified only for clerical 
work in which classification our own in Connecticut registrations of availables is 
expected to be adequate. 

5. The phrase "industrial tourist" aptly describes many out-of-State workers 
coming into Connecticut and going from city to city and plant to plant in hopes 
of locating just the job for which they are qualified. These "industrial tourists," 
moving from community to community, add to rooming problems. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5245 

6. The undirected and uncontrolled flow of labor into the State can tend to 
retard our own within-State program of placing in-State availables into employ- 
ment first, thus lessening our relief rolls and reducing movement from one com- 
munity to another with the attendant expense and difficulty as to housing, trans- 
portation, and other such involvements. 

7. Importance is given to the fact that, if a set of training standards be pre- 
sented by Connecticut to other States for instruction of out-of-State workers 
before they come to Connecticut, a greater percentage would find employment 
after arriving here. 

8. It is obvious that with little more detail and work on the part of the State 
employment service it can just as easily place its out-of-State requisitions for 
several hundred workers of a given classification as for a more limited number. 

9. With high schools closing shortly the present program of the National 
Youth Administration in using in-Connecticut National Youth Administration 
work centers as in-Connecticut residential centers for out-of-State National Youth 
Administration youths should provide for orderly clearance of these available 
young workers. 

10. Some Connecticut manufacturers have posted their employment offices 
with a printed sign to the effect that employment of workers is handled at the 
plant only after clearance through the local State employment service office. 
A broader use of such a card would tend to more orderly clearance. 

11. Many manufacturers have not as yet fully informed themselves of the 
complete service that can be offered them by their local State employment office. 
A personal visit and closer understanding of this service is urged. 

This committee has seen fit to offer to the committee on emergency employ- 
ment problems, the following recommendations: 

"That each manufacturer designate within his plant an individual or group as 
a point of service contact for new out-of-town or out-of-State employees on the 
question of rooming or housing; either for direct personal assistance or as liaison 
with recognized established local organizations serving in that capacity. This 
in appreciation of the effect of living conditions on morale, health, and produc- 
tivity of such employees." 

This committee recognizes: "It is extremely urgent that manufacturers furnish 
the State employment service with daily advice as to accessions, separations, and 
anticipated requirements, euiphasizing again that an indication of anticipated 
needs does not imply obligations as to later cmployn-ent. If the State employ- 
ment service is to function at top efficiency in cooperation with tlie manufacturers 
of the State, they must be given daily information and at least a 30-day working 
period to bring in substantial numbers of out-of-State workers in the designated 
classifications needed." 

The plan for interstate clearance submitted by Leonard J. Maloney, director 
of the State employment service under date of May 28, 1941, and as per the follow- 
ing page is recommended for thorough study and adoption in the report of this 
subcommittee to the committee on emergency enrployni'ent problems. 



Plaxs for Interstate Clearance 
by leonard j. maloney 

There is a well-established clearance system in operation in Connecticut 
by means of which it is j^ossible to clear workers not only within the State but also 
between Connecticut and other States. This system has been in operation since 
1934 and has been developed to a point where we can expect reasonable efficiency 
in its operation. This report is continued to the use of the clearance structure in 
bringing into our State the workers that you need. 

At the ])resent time, here is the way it works. A Connecticut employer places 
an order for workers. Workers of proper qualifications cannot be found locally 
nor can they be located in the State. We send the order giving complete detailed 
description of tyi>e of worker waiited to any State or to any section of a State 
where there is a possibility of finding what is needed. 

The cooperating State agency sends a transcript of personal history and work 
record of applicants directly to the order-holding office. These records are pre- 
sented to the employer for selection. The cooperating State agency is notified 
to refer those selected for final selection by the employer. 

Let us examine some of the weak spots of such a clearance system. First we 
are working with many separate orders of individual emjjloyers. In the present 
market and in the anticipated market of the future there is a lot of waste motion 



5246 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

in such a procedure. If employers throughout the State can anticipate shortages 
for which out-of-State workers will be needed, the State employment service 
could then clear a pool of workers to take care of the needs of the entire State. 
Workers in this pool could then be parceled out as needed to individual employers. 

A keystone of a successful clearance system calls for careful planning and 
anticipation of future needs by all employers in th-e State. This point must be 
enjphasized. The employment service must seek out adequate reservoirs of labor 
to meet your needs. The more time we have to conduct such a search, the better 
the chances are of finding reservoirs of good workers. We must have the fullest 
cooperation of employers in the anticipation of their labor needs in order to plan 
our clearance program to care for their needs. 

Another inherent weakness of any interstate clearance system is distance. The 
prospective worker is not at your office for interview. You have to judge his 
possibilities as an employee from facts on records sent by other State agencies. 
We do not want to bring workers from other States into Connecticut unless we 
are relatively sure that they are going to go to work. This is not an insurmount- 
able difficulty. Many individual employers have used interstate clearance with 
good results. Close cooperation between the State employment service and 
employers will result in a minimum of trouble. There might be merit in the 
idea of employer representatives interviewing and hiring on the spot where a 
good size group of applicants is available. This has been done successfully in 
some instances. 

In many cases you will wish to clear into Connecticut from other States specific 
workers by name. This can be controlled through our present clearance structure. 
When the employer tells us that he has a job for John Smith, of Lowell, Mass., 
we have facilities for having him notified and sent down by the Lowell office. 
These cases can be handled by phone in instances where speed is essential. 

I might add that we are trying in every possible way to streamline our inter- 
state clearance procedure so that it will work as smoothly as possible. We are 
trying to eliminate as many steps as possible so that we can get workers into the 
State when you employers need them. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. MILIICENT POND— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. I am sure, Dr. Pond, that you have given a very 
comprehensive statement and one that is very interesting to the 
members of the committee. Perhaps each of them will want to ques- 
tion you on some phase of the statement. I want to ask you what 
suggestions you would make for eliminating labor stealing. 

Dr. Pond. The committees have several suggestions and they are 
indicated in what I have read, and so I will simply list them again if 
that is satisfactory. 

Employers should realize that labor is going to change, is going to 
want to change, and that they should clean house or I should say — 
instead of indicating that the houses are not clean — they should go 
further than they have in the progressive policies of industrial rela- 
tions, building upon the desire of labor to move, that they should be 
active in transferring their own employees so that there shall be as 
much personal progress within each firm as possible. 

That is something that is a little hard for an employer to do because 
he feels that once he gets a person trained, that person ought to stay 
placed. It is easier to have him stay than to hire somebod}'- else. 
But if the employer wishes to avoid losing his people he can do some- 
thing about it by transferring them frequently upward, also the 
employer should adopt an attitude of cordiality when the employee 
asks for a transfer. Not always can transfers be granted, but there is 
something that can be done there. 

Each employer should realize that extensive training, according to 
the outline as given by Mr. Stowell, will tend to satisfy the workers 
who can accept that trainmg, and that he should adopt a sympathetic 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5247 

attitude toward the employees who want to go on rather than bar 
them from advancement. That alone will stop some of the people 
from going. It will help them to analyze their present situation, or if 
they make a mistake in going, they will come back again. 

This is material that has been handed to the committee in testi- 
mony. Finally, employers should make a careful analysis of the pur- 
poses of applicants who come to them from another firm or of appli- 
cants who have recently given up work with other firms in order to 
apply. It is often possible to find out why the applicant wishes to 
make the change and to discover why the grass on the other side of 
the fence looks greener. If the employer will take that into consider- 
ation he can stop some of this turn-over. 

Air. Arnold. Those are your recommendations. Now, are the 
manufacturers at the present time cooperating in that program? 

Dr. Pond. These ideas have all come to the committee from 
reports of representatives of firms as to what the different firms axe 
now doing. Not all firms are doing all of this. Some firms are not 
doing much of it, but others are doing a good deal. 

REJECTS COMPULSORY USE OF STATE SERVICE 

Mr. Arnold. Would you recommend compulsory use of State 
employment services by all employers who do hiring? 

Dr. Pond. No; I am sorry I would not. We recommend as full 
use of it as possible and as full cooperation with the State employment 
service as possible. There is an industrial relations factor there. If 
such a rule were put into effect in all cases there would be a good 
many unnecessary rejections with no cause except that the people 
were not referred by the State employment service. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you care to comment on the shipbuilding 
stabihzation committee, which you know is mstituting uniform wages 
in the shipbuilding industry? Would uniform wages for other defense 
industries help to reduce the priority of labor? 

Dr. Pond. I suppose they would help. The desire of labor to 
change working places often is a desire to go mto a higher type of woik, 
however, so even if you had the same rates of pay for the same grades 
of work in the various companies, there still would be some migration 
of labor. There would be the younger man who is capable of learn- 
ing new work, w^ork different from the type of job that he is now on, 
with another company. 

SHORTAGES OF MATERIAL 

Mr. Arnold. I notice that you mentioned unemployment created 
by priorities. We understand that many small firms are closing for 
short periods because of material shortages. Is there anything that 
can be done to eliminate such a practice? 

Dr. Pond. I mentioned that out of fear of what might happen 
rather than because it had begun to happen. It does not involve 
only the small firms, because the larger firms may have to release 
employees from certain kinds of work, which are not defense work, at 
the same time they are hiring other types of employees for defense 
work. 



5248 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

That has started to occur in the firm with which I am connecte'I. 
I am not sure how many had to be kiid off — I should think 30 or 40 — 
in the last 3 weeks whom we could not transfer to another occupation. 
Later we may be able to take them back. They will be called back if 
it is possible, but I am not certain that workers released on account 
of a shortage of materials for commercial orders will immediately be 
absorbed in other work. I am not sure that I am right in my fear, 
and I have no suggestion to make about it. I don't know enough 
about the working of priorities, I am sorry to say. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you. Doctor. 

Our next witness is Mr. Snyder. 

TESTIMONY OF ALBERT F. SNYDER, INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS 
MANAGER, WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS CO., NEW HAVEN, 
CONN. 

The Chairman. Congressman Curtis will interrogate you, Mr. 
Snyder. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have a statement you would like to read, 
Mr. Snyder? 

Mr. Snyder. Yes, sir. [Reading:] 

For several months past one of the primar}^ objectives of the com- 
mittee on emergency employment problems of the Manufacturers 
Association of Connecticut has been to analyze and utilize every avail- 
able labor reserve in the State. This is not only fairj and just proce- 
dure, but sound and farsighted economy. 

We have not considered it sufficient merely to cite a body of workers 
as a possible or probable source of additional employees, but we have 
almost without exception and with the full cooperation of the adminis- 
trators of such bodies, analyzed the qualifications for employment in 
defense industries of each available individual. I refer in particular 
to the files of the State emplovment service, the W. P. A., the C. C. C 
and the N. Y. A. 

We are exploring and assisting in the broader application of draft 
deferments for those with skills immediately, or anticipated as, trans- 
ferable and essential to the defense industries of the State. The larger 
percentage of Ciualified 1941 high-school and college graduates have 
already found their place in industry. 

urging employment of women 

We recognize women as the largest group of available workers and, 
through our committee activities, are urging their employment in 
greater numbers, not only in jobs for which they have already been 
proved efficient but in many additional job openings and industries. 

Again with a view of utilizing every available qualified worker in 
Connecticut, we have studied the employment problems concerning 
race, nationality, and the physically handicapped. 

It is plainly evident that concurrently with the work of this com- 
mittee of the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, there has 
been a substantial prowth in the willingness of employers to give 
Negroes opportunity for industrial employment if and when possessed 
of the required qualifications to serve industry. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5249 

The number of Negroes in the available group is relatively small and 
complete absorption may be reasonably anticipated. 

In recognizing the traditional role of the United States as a melting 
pot for all nationalities, employers may understandably wish to balance 
the proportions of nationalities within their plants. Skilled men have 
little difficulty in being placed in industry. It has been strongly 
urged that, through employee upgrading and training, jobs be opened 
up for additional unskilled men of Italian extraction. It is further 
urged that such workers accept their proportion of agricultural jobs. 

And in closing, it can be reported that even in spite of an exception- 
ally favorable situation as to the employment of physically handi- 
capped persons in Connecticut, an intensive program is in operation 
to place a still greater number of them in industry so as to release 
unhandicapped workers for further upgrading. 

Connecticut may well be regarded as intelligently and aggressively 
proceeding to the full use of its available labor reserves. 

(Other prepared material submitted in connection with Mr. Snyder's 
testimony follows:) 

MATERIAL SUBMITTED BY ALBERT F. SNYDER, INDUSTRIAL 
RELATIONS MANAGER, WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS CO., 
NEW HAVEN, CONN. 

Use of Available Labor Reserves in Connecticut 
by g. roy fugal, supervisor of personnel, general electric co., bridgeport, 

CONN. 

Every possible effort should be made to discover and make adaptable all avail- 
able Connecticut labor to meet Connecticut labor needs. The most conservative 
estimates indicate that the required man-hours necessary for Connecticut produc- 
tion called for under the emergency greatly exceeds the available labor supply. 

Maj. Leonard J. Maloney has presented two very important sets of figures, 
the first resulting from a recent check made by the State employment service by 
personal contact with 306 employers in the State, and these individual employers 
indicated that they would need 2.'3,000 additional employees by September 1. " 

The second set of figures indicated that if Washington orders schedules of 
7 days, 3 shifts, it will require 106,000 more employees. To these totals also must 
be added such additions as will be required by nondefense industries, distributional 
and retail business, and other such consumer services, the business of all of which 
will necessarily be further stimulated. These figures are held to be conservative, 

DRAFT DEFERMENTS AS A SOURCE OF LABOR SUPPLY 

In attempting to find further potential sources of labor a close scrutiny of 
deferred men in the selective service was deemed advisable. The findings have 
proven far beyond expectations and have developed into a State-wide investiga- 
tion. On two checks made at the Hamden, North Haven Draft Board No. 12A, 
the following percentages were noted: 

Of 47 IB men, 4.2 percent were foimd to be in jobs not related to national 
defense; of 100 men in class 3A, 15 percent; of 90 in class 4F, 6.6 percent. A 
second check at this same board taking the last 104 men classified in 3A showed 
16.5 percent available for defense work. This all led to the Labor Department 
approving an additional questionnaire which is now accompanying the selective- 
service questionnaire to give us more detailed information regarding men and their 
abilities. Inasmuch as the selective-service questionnaire only asks for occupa- 
tional experience within the last 5 years, we are attempting to go back as far as 
possible. To further expedite the matter one meeting of the advisory board of 
12A has been called; and since the advisers in the greatest percentage are the 
only men who come in personal contact with the registrant, they are attempting 
to delve into matters of importance. 

Thus far, however, the response on the part of the registrant has been so excellent 
to give full information that in local board 12A an additional 1,500 questionnaires 



5250 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 



are going to be added to each and every of the balance of selective-service ques- 
tionnaires to be sent. To further this experiment, meetings of all other local boards 
in the New Haven area are being called as soon as possible, and the same procedure 
as outhned above will be followed. 

3A men are those with dependents and undoubtedly their reticence in leaving 
their present form of employment is due to the usual considerations such men 
apply. I have no percentage figures regarding the abilities of the 16 percent avail- 
able for defense work in this group, but casual inspection shows the majority to 
be mechanics of some nature. 

SIXTY-FIVE DRAFT BOARDS, 223,520 REGISTRANTS 

In the State of Connecticut there are 65 draft boards and divided among them 
there are 223,520 registrants. This figure is as of December 16, 1940. In local 
board 12A of the first 1,501 classified, 932 were in class 3A, 104 were in 4F, 79 
were in IB, and the balance were in classifications wliich are not of interest to our 
problem. This means that out of every 1,500 men, 1,114 men offer us reasons for 
investigation. Further figures at local board 12 A show that 3 A men run about 
75 percent of all those classified. Assuming this percentage to be approximately 
true, that gives a rough estimate of approximately 167,640 class 3A men will exist 
in the State of Connecticut at the end of this present registrant group. Further 
findings would then show that this would release approximately 26,862 men who 
are working in jobs not necessary to national defense and who could well be 
used in the proper industries. 

Within 30 days close to 12,000 men will have been careful y examined in the 
New Haven district alone. It might be worth while to note that this question- 
naire being sent out will probably catch potential lA men physically and capably 
able to work successfully in defense industries prior to their being classified; and 
if these men are shifted prior to classifications, deferments will gladly be granted 
since it is of utmost^importance to speed manufacturing. 



WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION AS A SOURCE OF LABOR SUPPLY 

In conjunction with the United States Employment Service this source is being 
carefully studied. Findings to date indicate the following: 

The Work Projects Administration rolls are being combed down very rapidly 
with about 2,000 supposedly still available. The Work Projects Administration 
defense register shows that the proper type of persons from the standpoint of age, 
good physical condition, and previous work experience are now being trained for 
defense industry. The register shows that those left to be trained for defense 
industry are definitely a type who need the training if they can be used in any case. 

For persons now qualified for defense industry, the New London district is still 
worth considering. A careful check of that district shows the following: 

Referable 32 

Not referable, due to character and physical condition 7 

Not on local register 14 

Total 53 

A sample of Bridgeport district shows that that territory has been completely 
drained of any likely qualified prospects. 

A tabulation of findings in other districts follows: 

Findings in Work Projects Administration defense register, May 22, 1941, at the 
State office at New Haven 



District 


Qualified 

for em- 
ployment 


Now 
being 
trained 


Who 

need 

training 


Fairfield 


167 
152 
153 
53 
10 
15 
6 
11 


51 

43 

22 

1 



276 


Hartford 


173 


New Haven 


336 




110 


Litchfield 


47 


Middlesex 


59 




5 


Windham 


39 






Total ... - - 


567 


199 


1,045 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5251 



NATIONAL YOTJTH ADMINISTRATION AND CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS FILES 

In reporting the situation as applied to the National Youth Administration 
today, it is found that the present training program conducted by the National 
Youth Administration does not offer any substantial contribution to industry. 
The turn-over of boys is exceedingly rapid and they are mostly too young. 

A study of the National Youth Administration set-up in Connecticut discloses 
that this agency is having so much trouble recruiting youths for its projects that 
it is believed to be actually in competition with the State employment service 
and with private employers for the service of desirable youths. When the 
National Youth Administration is able to recruit boys over 18 years of age for 
its work-experience centers, these youngsters are in training for such a brief period 
before they can be placed by the emploj^ment offices or employed by private 
employers that the process seems wasteful. 

The situation, however, as now developed at the Nepaug National Youth 
Administration work center is that 60 boys have already been brought into Nepaug 
as an experiement using the depot as a residential clearing center. These boys 
have been well selected by the National Youth Administration in New York 
Citj', are housed and cared for at Nepaug and the first group has been practically 
entirely absorbed by industry. The success of this experiment would indicate 
that possibly all 6 centers in the State, each of which could accommodate 60 
boys at a time, will possibly be used in this same manner. The boys are carefully 
classified before being sent into Connecticut, examined as to their qualifications 
after they reach Nepaug, and those who do not have qualifications are sent back 
home. 

It is reported that this plan has the approval of the Washington National 
Youth Administration Administrator, that he is pleased with results to date and 
that a similar program may be adopted throughout other States. 

Insofar as the Civilian Conservation Corps are concerned, it is found that they 
continue to offer an excellent but limited supply of labor for Connecticut indus- 
tries, defense and otherwise. The Civilian Conservation Corps has followed a 
policy of reducing its facilities to meet the needs of a particular State. This has 
resulted, in Connecticut, in a reduction of a number of camps from 21 to 5, and 
2 of these 5 camps will be closed soon. The present enrollment is 400. 

The Civilian Conservation Corps does not actively recruit for the camps and 
concentrates on 17-year-old boys. 

EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN INDUSTRY 

The practice of employing more women in industry is the best and only con- 
siderable source of new employees. This can be accomplished through further 
specializing the job and upgrading the employee. 

In compiling the report on the investigation of women working on jobs formerly 
done by men some 57 different concerns throughout Connecticut were contacted. 
Answers were received from some 38 concerns, totaling approximately 91,400 
employees. Of this number 10 replied that they are now using women on jobs 
that were formerly done by men. In some instances this has been a gradual 
process that has been going on, as in the case of one hardware concern ^hich 
quotes the following figures: "The proportion of women to men in this plant in 
1931 was 23 percent. The proportion May 1, 1941, was 33 percent. The classes 
of work affected have been mostly in light assembly, light machine operation, 
polishing small parts and light product." 

One very large rubber concern quotes "whenever conditions on the job are 
changed which lighten the work or make the job more pleasant, we do not hesitate 
to replace a man on that job, alwa\^s of course, making sure that we transfer him 
to ec|ual or better work somewhere else in the plant. Welhave about 55 percent of 
our force female; 10 years ago this was about 45 percent." 

One fabric concern states that the total replacements of men by women has 
been about 20 thus far. This has been in production dispatch offices, inspection 
department, research department, and also in the weaving department. 

Another concern reports that it would be able to rejilace women on some men's 
jobs if they could work on shifts later than 10 p. m. 

One other large hardware concern reports that they are now using women ia 
what they call dry scouring, on drill presses, on Brown & Sharpe Automatic 
Machines, and some types of clerical work formerly done by men. They are 
constantly .studying the situation and are going to add a great many more in a 
verv short time. 



5252 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

A gun company reports that it has 16 women doing work formerly handled bv 
men. These employees are working in the drill department, hand mill, file, wood- 
working, stock finishing, and miscellaneous shipping. 

Another gun plant has been trying women on drill-press work, gunstock finishing, 
polishing, and filing, punch presses and eyelet machines. 

Most of the concerns say that they have not replaced any men with women but 
feel that they may be forced to consider this before very long. 

JUNE HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE GRADUATES 

The report as to June 1941 high-school and college graduates is as follows: 

From ha^gh schools, there will be 16,329 graduates with 7,443 bovs and 8,886 
■girls. 

Fifty-four percent of the above have already registered at the State employ- 
ment service and it is anticipated that about 80 percent will have registered 
shortly after graduation. 

About 25 percent of the total have already been definitely earmarked for 
specific employers, and it is the present belief that all registered over 18 vears 
of age and will be immediately employed by maiuifacturers. Shortly "after 
graduation only 16-year-old and 17-year-old students will be left, and those 
mainly want clerical work and are too young to be taken into industries employed 
in hazardous production. 

As to the college graduates, there does not seem to be any sizeable labor pool 
here. They want mostly a continuation of work along the lines of their present 
studies. One company, however, reports that it has signed up 25 to 30 Yale 
.undergraduates for the 12 weeks of the summer vacation. 



Placement of Negroes 

by john williams, industrial relations manager, yale & towne manufac- 
turing co., stamford, conn. 

As chairman of this subcommittee, at the meeting held May 6, I assumed the 
task of investigating and reporting on the availability, restrictions, and limitations 
affecting the placement of unemployed Negroes. 

Before proceeding to an objective discussion of this problem, I ask your in- 
dulgence while I make a few general observations which express my views on 
certain aspects of the subject: 

The question regarding the employment of Negroes in northern industrial 
establishments should be considered with complete detachment; it should not 
be confused by the injection of issues which of themselves bear no relation to 
a sound solution of the problem. We must think straight and talce account of 
all known facts that are related to a fair and just answer to the question. 

The proportion of Negroes to the white population in our northern States is a 
factor to be reckoned with; and, also, we cannot overlook the age-old disinclina- 
tion of whites to associate on terms of equality with members of the colored race. 
This is not merely race prejudice. It is something that industrial managers 
cannot overcome or eradicate by managerial fiat. Equality is not established 
in that way. 

We recognize the principle that, before the law, all men are equal. But that 
principle cannot be relied upon to establish a claim to industrial equality. That 
kind of equality depends upon individual capacity to render comparable services 
in any given field of industrial activity. 

The average northern-born Negro, and the overwhelming majority of the 
Negroes who have migrated north from the Southland, are of the common labor 
class; therefore, these men, by and large, are not qualified to enter those occu- 
l^ations in our industries where developed skills are required. 

I believe that we should concede that this condition is not necessarily due to 
any inherent deficiency in the Negro. It must then be attributed largely to^the 
lack of opportunities for the Negro to demonstrate the possession of|latent skills. 

Be that as it may. These facts are with us. We cannot brush them aside. 
And those who prate glibly about the failure of industry to treat the colored man 
fairly are doing the race a disservice. They well know that no miracle can be 
performed that could endow colored men with the knowledge and skill that would 
permit them to enjoy industrial equality with trained whites. 

Skill may and can be acquired. But the process is slow and painstaking. 
The Negro^ like his white brother, must be willing to travel the slow road. By 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5253 



persistence and perseverance he may reach the goal of industrial equality. But 
he must carve his own path. He must justify his plea for equal opportunity by 
demonstrating his capacity to serve industry as well as the white man. Can he 
do that? In the last anslysis, he alone must supply the answer. 

In connection with this problem, industry, today, is confronted by two things: 

1. Its need of an ample, efficient force of manual w'orkers to meet the demands 
incident to the tremendous national-defense program. 

2. The allegation that it fails to tap a considerable source of manpower by its 
unwillingness to hire members of the Negro race. 

It is a part of our job to explore the situation in order to determine (1) the 
size of the problem in Connecticut , (2) whether our industries have adopted hiring 
policies that are inimical to the interests of colored workers, and (3) what recom- 
mendations should be made, if any. 

Major Maloney supplied me with a compilation showing the occupational 
grouping of active registrants who had contacted the State employment offices 
between March 1 and April 26. 

There were available for referral during that period 29,278, including men and 
women and youths under 21. Of this total, the colored group numbered 1,950 
or slightly under 7 percent. 

Taking the combined figures for the unskilled and semiskilled males we find a 
total of 9,214, or which 700 or 7.5 percent were colored. 

If we examine the figures covering skilled males we find complete confirmation 
of my remarks in the statement I have presented. Out of a group of 3,521, only 
36 colored men claimed to be skilled workers, or just 1 percent. 

A further study of the situation convinces me that in Connecticut the Negro 
is not subjected to discrimination by the managers of industrial establishments. 
The concensus of opinions expressed by those who are in close contact with 
employment practices is, that such handicaps as are imposed upon the Negro 
job seeker arise out of either the known objection of white workers to intermingling 
of racial colors, or the fear of such condition entertained by management. 

It is encouraging to note, however, the evident grow^th of a more tolerant 
spirit and of the willingiiess of employers to respond to the plea that the Negro 
citizen, if and when possessed of the required qualifications to serve industry, 
should have his opportunity. The state of the labor market is conducive to 
continued improvement in this direction — the need will absorb the supply regard- 
less of barriers. But the permanency of the relationship brought about through 
need will depend upon how well the Negro fills the picture: If he does well, this 
problem will cause no trouble; it will be solved by natural process. 

I believe consideration should be given to questions arising out of the actual or 
assumed discriminatory attitude of white workers: 

Should management submit to prejudice among employees against Negroes? 
If not, how should such a condition be dealt with? 

Should we recommend that a hiring policy be adopted and declared regarding 
nondiscrimination between citizens? 

I have not felt it to be necessary to deal in statistics. The number of Negroes in 
the available group is relatively small. And since complete absorption may 
reasonably be looked for, according to our best information, I do not see the 
necessity for affirmative action except to urge that opportunities should be open 
to young trained Negroes to prove their capacity and fitness to serve in such 
occupations as they have been trained for. 

Available colored applicants by office, by sex, Apr. 26, 1941 





Total 


Men 


Women 




Total 


Men 


Women 


Ansonia 

Bridceport 


110 
.3 
19 
3 

297 
1 
10 
25 

279 


52 
117 

14 
2 
213 

12 
20 
187 


19 
29 
2 

;j 

5 
92 


New Lonc'on 


4r, 

19 
31S 
10 

104 
1 


34 
68 
15 
255 
10 

9 
62 

1 


12 
9 




4 






63 


Daniel.«on 


Thcmpsonville 



3 






42 











Tctal 




New Haven 


1,450 


1,072 


378 



Source: Connecticut State Employment Service. 



5254 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 



Available colored applicants, by occupational groups, sex, and age groups, April 26, 

1941 



Occupational group 


Total 


Under 21 
years 


21 to 44 
years 


45 years 
and over 


Professional 


6 



7 

87 
94 
2 
96 
36 
36 
161 
539 






1 
1 
14 
16 

8 
7 

16 
74 


3 

1 

5 
3 
48 
55 
1 
53 

i? 

98 
309 


3 


Seniiprofessional 









Clerical and kindred 


1 


Sales and kindred 


3 






Personal service 


23 


Protective service 








Agriculture, fishing, forestry 


10 


Skilled 


14 






Unskilled 


156 






Total 


1,072 


138 


616 









FEMALE 

Professional _.. 

Semiprofessional 

Managerial and official 

Clerical and kindred 

Sales and kindred 

Domestic service 

Personal service 

Protective service 

Building service 

Agriculture, fishing, forestry 

Skilled 

Semiskilled 

Unskilled ■_ 

Total 



2 

1 






2 

1 











10 




9 











292 


37 


202 


17 


2 


14 











5 

1 






4 











32 


1 


27 


18 


3 


12 


378 


44 


272 



Source: Connecticut State Employment Service. 



United States Citizens of German and Italian Descent 



BY ROBERT H. MURPHY AND WILLIAM W 



At the first meeting of subcommittee No. 5 on "Employment Problems Con- 
cerning Race, Nationality, and Physically Handicapped" on May 6, Mr. Murphy, 
with Mr. Ball, was asked to "investigate availability, restrictions, limitations, and 
further placement of United States citizens of German and Italian descent." 

That these groups constituted a major defense-employment problem was evi- 
dent from the figures supplied by Major Maloney, director of the Connecticut 
State Employment Service. 

The Italian- American, however, is niore of a problem that the German-Ameri- 
can. While the German-American seems to be doing fairly well, the Italian- 
American is rapidly developing into a major part of the available labor pool. 
This is especially so in communities of high Italian population, such as Water- 
bury and New Haven, where one-third of the population of Waterbury is Italian 
and the concentration of Italians in New Haven is at least as high, if not higher. 
The percentage of Italians in the labor pools of these two cities stood, on May 19, 
at 28.1 percent for Waterbury and 29.4 percent for New Haven. 

By checking at the Hartford and Waterbury offices of the State employment 
service, through figures supplied for the State as a whole and for some individual 
cities, and by personal observation and interview with other manufacturers, we 
are fully convinced of two things: 

First. German-Americans do not need any special attention at this time. 

Second. Italian-Americans now constitute a growing percentage of the available 
unemployed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5255 



At first it seemed logical to assume that these people were being discriminated 
against because of the acute international situation now developing. This feeling 
would be both fostered and aggravated by defense contracts prohibiting aliens 
from working on defense material, by Federal Bureau of Investigation activity 
along this same line, and by the enforced example of leading manufacturers of 
any community as well as by a natural fear that these men, if hired, might soon; 
have to be fired to comply with defense requirements. 

This was not found to be true. 

It was not true because: First, German- Americans were not seriously affected; 
second, only aliens are barred by defense contracts, and then only by a small 
proportion of such contracts; and here special permission can be obtained, although 
at great trouble to the employer; third, the Italian-Americans seemed to be most 
seriously affected, but without regard to their status as citizens or aliens: and, 
fourth, Italian-Americans are not increasing in numbers on the unemployed rolls, 
they are just not being absorbed as fast as other nationalities. 

The reason for this seems to be that the Italian-Americans have congregated 
in large numbers in relatively small urban areas. As no employer wants to 
employ all Polish, all Swedish, all Italian, or all of any one nationality, and as he 
quite naturally wants to fulfill the traditional role of the United States as a 
melting pot for all nationalities, he cannot absorb these high local concentrations 
of Italians and still have a reasonable proportion of his plant made up of other 
nationalities. Consequently he is more anxious to employ non-Italians and thus 
more fairly balance the nationalities employed than he is to hire more Italians 
and thus further overbalance the percentage of other nationalities. 

As a skilled man has little or no difficulty in finding employment, and as un- 
skilled Italian laborers seem unwilling to accept jobs in agriculture, we offer 
two suggestions at present: 

1. We suggest the training of unskilled help now employed in factories so as to 
open up unskilled positions for new men of Italian extraction. 

2. We suggest that some Italians and aliens be referred to agricultural jobs 
and persuaded to take their portion of these jobs. 



Employment of Aliens 



BY JAMES F. PENNING 



the State of Connecticut. 



The survey of the alien portion of the labor market 
was made with two objects in mind: 

First. To study the geographic distribution of aliens in the hopes that such 
available or unemployed aliens could be directed and placed in employment such 
as agriculture, road work, etc., where no alien restrictions are or would be imposed. 

Second. To determine the attitude, both present and future, of manufacturers, 
toward the continued employment of aliens now on pay rolls and toward the 
hiring of aliens. 

An analysis of record^s furnished by Mr. Clayton S. Squires, director of State aid, 
showing the number of persons, adults, and children, receiving State aid in their 
various locations was made. It is believed that these figures represent a good 
and fair cross-section of the distribution of aliens throughout the State. 

This analysis proved what was believed and feared to be true — namely, that 
alien concentration is decidedly in industrial areas. 

By taking the counties of the State and dividing them into quadrants; No. I 
being the northwest; No. II, the northeast; No. Ill, the southeast; and No. IV 
the southwest; the percentage of alien population may be applied as follows: 

Percent Percent 

Litchfield County. 



•' 




No. I 




No. I 


.27 


. 15 


No. II 


2.09 


No. II 


2.88 


No. Ill 


.65 


No. Ill 


16. 63 


No. IV 


.18 


No. IV 


6.24 



60396— 41— pt. 13- 



5256 

Tolland County 


HARTFORD 

Percent 
1.01 

.09 

.35 

.08 

.49 


HEARINGS 

New Haven County 

No. I 

No. II 

No. Ill 

No. IV 

Middlesex County 

No. I 

No. II 

No. Ill 

No. IV 

New London County 

No. I 

No. II 

No. Ill 

No. IV 


Pei cent 
29. 91 


No. I 

No. II 

No. Ill 

No. IV 


7.84 

2.31 

14. 34 

5.42 


Windham County 


3.72 


2.74 


No. I 

No. II 

No. Ill 

No. IV 


.02 

.35 

2.29 

1.06 


2.39 

.03 

.32 




Fairfield County 


24.81 


8.65 


No. I 

No. II 

No. Ill 

No. IV 


2. 12 

.89 

10. 66 

11. 14 


2.79 

.64 

.73 

4.49 



It can be seen from the above figures that, since it is impossible to shift and 
proportion the alien population as we might desire it, our best procedure is to let 
the burden of alien placement fall on the shoulders of the State employment 
offices and to urge all employers to hire through these employment offices and to 
freely accept aliens in such occupations in which there are no alien employment 
prohibitions or restrictions 

An analysis of hiring and employment policies of manufacturers in the Bridge- 
port area showed the following: 

Percent 

1. No aliens are being hired, and, as yet, no attempt at segregation from 

other employees 48 

2. No aliens are being hired and present aliens are being segregated from 

other employees, placed in departments where they will not be working 

on, or handling materials for, an}' type of defense order 28 

3. No restrictions on alien hiring or employment 17 

4. No aliens hired or employed 7 

It can be noted that nearly half of the companies make no attempt to exclude 
or segregate present employees, but it was interesting to see that all companies 
qualified their statements by saying "as yet." It seems to be the general opinion 
that as we get further into defense work or actually into the war, nearly all manu- 
facturers will be making something directly assignable to defense and alien restric- 
tions will be imposed. 

It can therefore be expected that the alien employment situation will become 
worse unless the manufacturers of Connecticut give this problem immediate 
consideration and action. 

Permission for aliens to work on most service contracts can be obtained by the 
filling in of questionnaires and submitting them to either the Army or Navy 
Departments, as the case may be, and waiting for such permission to be granted. 

Some companies are currently following this procedure of submitting applica- 
tion for permission to work aliens for present long-time employees or valuable 
employees who are aliens, but in most cases it is easier to either segregate or 
eliminate aliens. Other farsighted companies are preparing themselves by giving 
present alien employees a list of questions to be asked and asking them to supply 
themselves with the necessary information so that if and when it becomes necessary 
to make application for them, a minimum of time will be lost. 

It seems that the wisest move for manufacturers to make at once is to prepare 
themselves by either making plans for alien segregation, having present alien 
employees obtain necessary information, or actually filing application for permis- 
sion to work present alien employees. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5257 

Problems of the Physically Handicapped 
by charles s. burr, chairman, c. r. burr & co. nurseries, manchester, conn. 

This report is based on the findings of two lengthy meetings of the committee, 
phis interviews with Chairman John Williams, industrial relations manager, Yale 
& Towne Manufacturing Co., Stamford. 

The data and information were gathered primarily by Mr. Walter R. Ketcham, 
of the State employment service, and Mr. Edwin P."^ Chester, of the State depart- 
ment of education. 

The fundamental problem of the committee was to ascertain how in the present 
emergency of acute shortage of labor, the untapped supply of employable physi- 
cally handicapped, who are now unemployed, could be efficiently employed in 
Connecticut industry, either on — 

1. New jobs. 

2. To replace some physically unimpaired person who could be released to take 
on another job. 

The problem resolves into one of supply and demand. 

SUPPLY 

The supply was the first to be studied witli the following findings: 
The department of education and the State employment service conservatively 
estimated that there were approximately 1,500 unemployed physically handi- 
capped who are employable. It was felt that there are "probably many more 
who have not yet been registered due to the characteristic timidity of the physi- 
calh' handicapped. 

Mr. Ketcham and Mr. Chester already have a listing and (promised to have 
more in the very near future) of each individual, which listing describes a person's 
handicaps and degrees of impairment, together with their experiences and abilities. 
Preliminary and incomplete figures of applicants available have already been 
submitted, tabulated by areas, from Bridgeport, Hartford, New Britain, New 
Haven, Torrington, and Waterbury, totaling: 

Total loss of vision in 1 eye 58 

Partial loss of vision in both eyes 40 

No vision 3 

Totally deaf . 41 

Hard of hearing 35 

Speech defect 12 

Total loss of use of 1 hand 54 

Partial loss of use of 1 hand 69 

Loss of use of legs; cannot walk 14 

Loss of use of legs; can walk but must be seated while working 15 

Partial loss of use of legs, causing varying degrees of lameness. Can work 

standing ' 113 

Cardiac 39 

Tuberculosis 156 

Others 110 

Total 759 

A summary of these areas represents only a portion of Connecticut's total 
physically handicapped. 

One can, without much imagination, realize that the above-mentioned people 
could be fitted into certain jobs where their handicaps would be no great drawback. 

The fact that this available supply is usable is borne out by the studies made bv 
Mr. Cornelius, secretary of the Hartford County Manufacturers Association. 
His survey among 59 manufacturers in Hartford County disclosed 404 recorded 
physically impaired employees, who are satisfactorily being used. All but 28 
of these were hired by firms who conduct a preemployment physical examination; 
and these people were hired with the employers' full knowledge of their handicaps. 
They are doing satisfactory work ©n such jobs as box makers, bench work, inspec- 
tors, machine operators, tool clerks, messengers, assembly, grinders, and stenog- 
raphy. 

That this supply of physically handicapped is usable is further borne out by 
very exhaustive experiments made by the Ford Motor Co.; Mr. Deitz, of the 
Western Electric Co., and Dr. Ball among Canadian World War veterans. These 



g258 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

experiments conclusively proved that this type of labor could well hold its owd 
with normal employees. 

HELP OF FEDERAL AGENCIES 

The physically handicapped are made more readily available than the public- 
realizes by certain helps of Government agencies. For instance, the State of 
Connecticut has a fund of $20,000, matched by the Federal Government dollar 
for dollar, that can be used for the purchase of appliances and teaching to enable 
the handicapped person to become so equipped that he can earn a hvelihood and 
fit into industry . 

In some instances the State is so enthusiastic, and believes so firmly in the 
ability of the handicapped person, that it has agreed to pay the handicapped 
person's salary during the trial period. 

They have likewise gone so far as to agree to handle what might be embarrassing 
to the employer — that is, discharging a worker if, in remote cases, he should be 
unsatisfactory. 

It was further brought out in the committee meetings that observations seemed 
to prove that this type of person very often seems to have the faculty for com- 
pensating, or more than compensating, for any loss that he may have sustained. 

A large part of the above-mentioned supply will be available in the very near 
future, each one listed individually with complete details as to their impairment 
and degree of impairment; also with full information as to their experience and 
abilities. 

DEMAND 

The demand for the physically handicapped in Connecticut has been very 
definitely and unsoundly lessened by misunderstanding on the part of some Con- 
necticut employers. These misunderstandings fall into three catagories: 

1. The fear on the part of the employment manager or foreman that the hiring 
of physically handicapped persons may result in criticism from superiors, due to 
the incorrect feeling that such a person may not come up to production require- 
ments. 

Obviously, of course, the physically handicapped should be intelligently placed 
on such a job where his employment will not interfere. 

2. Fear of greater possibilities of second injuries seems to be very prevalent. 
A letter received by Chairman Burr from State Compensation Commissioner 

Noonan states: 

"The experience of this office over a period of many years has been that physic- 
ally handicapped persons make loyal and conscientious employees and are less- 
prone to injury than so-called physically normal men." 

This evidence from a person who is in a position to really know, it seems to the- 
committee, should be entirely conclusive, proving that this fear of second injury- 
is largely unfounded. 

3. Ignorance on the part of many of the fact that the Connecticut State law 
provides for the use of a waiver for the physically handicapped where an injury 
can be traced to the specific handicap mentioned. 

Quoting again from Commissioner Noonan's letter, he says: 

"The waiver provisions of the statute amply protect the employer against any 
undue hazard that the physically handicapped may possibly impose, and we are 
in Hartford County approving about 1,000 of these waives each month." 

However, in spite of the three above-mentioned draw-backs, we are proud to 
state that in Connecticut the State employment service has placed more people- 
than all other States in New England combined. This does, of course, indicate- 
a demand. 

A poll made of a small but rather representative group of manufacturers in the 
recent meeting proved that Yale & Towne Manufacturing Co., Stamford, the 
Connecticut Co., New Haven, the Wiremold Co., New Haven, C. R. Burr & Co. 
nurseries, Manchester, at the present time are using physically handicapped peo- 
ple, and are very willing to go still further in employing this type of help. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

The committee came to the following conclusions and recommended that the 
Manufacturers Association lend their support in the following fashion: 

1. Cooperate with the State department of education and the State employ- 
ment service in further truthfully acquainting the manufacturers with the ad- 
vantages of taking on physically handicapped persons, also acquaint manufac- 
turers with the workings of the waiver. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5259 

2. That the Manufacturers Association approve setting up of local committees 
of members of the Manufacturers Association in the areas of Hartford, New Bri- 
tain, Bridgeport, and Waterbury, to represent manufacturers in their area, and to 
learn what supply is available from the State employment service and the depart- 
ment of education , then in turn to acquaint the manufacturers in their area of this 
supply. 

TESTIMONY OF ALBERT F. SNYDER— Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. We appreciate your contribution, Mr. Snyder. Do 
you feel that the 7,500 people still on W. P. A. are primarily unemploy- 
able, or do you feel it is just a question of age or training or both which 
is preventing their employment in defense industries? 

Mr. Snyder. Well, I feel that the lack of training is the principal 
trouble with the people on W. P. A. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you know their average age? 

Mr. Snyder. It is not so much because of age. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you know what their average age is? 

Mr. Snyder. I am not sure, but I don't believe it is over 45. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think they ever will be absorbed in the ordi- 
nary peacetime industries of Connecticut? 

Mr. Snyder. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. The W. P. A. people? 

Mr. Snyder. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. How can that happen? 

Mr. Snyder. They are being employed now. We are taking them 
in and training them. 

Mr. Curtis. And when you state that they will, that is because you 
are training them? 

Mr. Snyder. We are going to train them, that is right. 

national youth ADMINISTRATION COMPETING WITH INDUSTRY? 

Mr. Curtis. Are the N. Y. A. training centers competing with 
industry for young people? 

Mr. Snyder. Yes; I think they are. I feel that they would do 
better to follow this procedure that is now being worked here in 
Connecticut, and put in these centers and put their people through the 
State employment service and train them in industry. 

Mr. Curtis. And limit the N. Y. A. to out-of-State youth? 

Mr. Snyder. Yes. 

Mr, Curtis. Would you make any specifications as to qualifications 
for youth to be recruited by the N. Y. A. out of the State? 

Mr. Snyder. Yes. I think that we ought to specify certain 
qualifications. 

Mr. Curtis. Generally, what would those qualifications be? 

Mr. Snyder. Some training in industry, and age — of course, in 
these defense programs we have to get them over 18 years of age. 

Mr. Curtis. Is there anything that is preventing the rapid em- 
ployment of women in this State? 

Mr. Snyder. I don't believe any particular thing except the feeling 
that it is an old idea that women can't do this or that in factories. 
I think that industry is rapidly becoming educated to the fact that 
there are a great many jobs which were always considered as men's 
work that women can do, and in a good many cases do a lot better. 



5260 HARTFORD HEARIN<^tS 

Mr. Curtis. Will it be easier to cushion ourselves for the let-down 
when this defense activity is over if we utilize women in industry 
during the period of rushing the defense program? 

Mr. Snyder. I don't know as I quite got that question. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think that it would be better to employ the 
women of Connecticut in these defense industries than to import 
men from distant States, in view of that time when the defense pro- 
gram is going to stop? 

Mr. Snyder. Yes; I do. In our plant we are taking a great num- 
ber of married women on the late shifts, so that when things let down 
these women will go back into their homes as they were before. 

Mr. Curtis. In most cases is that what might be termed "supple- 
mentary income" for the family, or is it the sole income? 

Mr. Snyder. No; I think it is supplementary income in most 
cases. 

training open to negroes 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat training do you have open for Negroes at the 
present time? 

Mr. Snyder. Well, in a good many plants now they are taking 
them in and training them on the job. A good many of them have 
had training in this defense program — this 200-liour training which 
has helped a good deal in many plants. They are taking them right 
into the factories now and training them the same as other workers 
on machine jobs. 

Mr. Curtis. There is no hesitancy on the part of industry to take- 
them? Or would you say it is lessening? 

Mr. Snyder. It is lessening greatly. 

Mr. Curtis. In your paper you indicated that the Italian-Ameri- 
cans are suffering real discrimination at the present time. What dO' 
you suggest could be done to eliminate that? 

Mr. Snyder. Will you ask that question again, please? 

Mr. Curtis. I understand you to say that there is discrimination 
against Italian-Americans. Wliat do you suggest to eliminate that? 

Mr. Snyder. Well, we have found that in some plants there has 
been discrimination. I think it is largely emotional at this time. 
We have been working on that and recommending that they employ 
them more and more. 

LARGE ITALIAN-AMERICAN COMMUNITIES 

Now, in some centers, such as New Haven and Watcrbury, where 
we have very large Italian colonies, we have tried to make this a 
melting-pot for all of them. Employers don't like to have too many 
of any nationality in their factories. So where you have a large 
group of any nationality like the Italians, if you were to hire all of 
them you would soon have your plant predominantly Italian or Amer- 
ican or something of that sort. They hold back on them in order to 
balance the nationalities in the factories, which appears as though 
they were discriminating against them. 

Mr. Curtis. Do they fear sabotage, or can't the workers respond 
to the training? 

Mr. Snyder. Oh no; I think that in many cases they do fear 
sabotage. They respond to training as well as any one else; no ques- 
tion about that. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5261 

TESTIMONY OF NORRIS W. FORD, MANAGER, MANUFACTURERS 
ASSOCIATION OF CONNECTICUT, HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Chairman. Mr. Ford is our next witness. 

Air. Ford, if you have a prepared statement we shall be pleased 
to have it. 

Mr. Ford. Yes; I have. At this time I shall read a summary. 
[Reading.] 

The most important phase of the defense program up to the present 
time has been the production of all the many items that are necessary 
to equip an army for war. Included are articles ranging all the way 
from machine tools and textiles to gmis and ships. There is every 
indication that there will be no change in this situation in the imme- 
diate future. 

It necessarily follows that, being a highly industrialized State, Con- 
necticut should participate heavily in the preparation for defense. 
The first step toward preparing for the transition from civilian pro- 
duction to defense work was an inventory of machinery. This was 
undertaken during the summer of 1940 and by mid-October over 1,500 
of the approximately 1,900 manufacturers, having equipment adapt- 
able for making munitions or other articles required by the Govern- 
ment, had returned the five-page questionnaire that was prepared for 
this purpose. 

Arrangements were then made for tabulating the information that 
was gathered from the surveys. This required a series of indexes that 
were compiled with the assistance of engineers loaned by various indus- 
tries, representatives of the Air Corps, the Navy, and the Hartford 
ordnance district, and experts from the International Business Ma- 
chines Corporation. The material has since been used extensively in 
furthering the "farming out" program and also by branches of the 
Army and Navy. 

Fourteen manufacturers' organizations and chambers of commerce, 
located throughout the State, have assisted ui bringing together prime 
contractors desiring to subcontract certain components and manu- 
facturers who were found to have the necessary equipment. Con- 
versely, potential subcontractors have been aided by bringing to the 
attention of prime contractors the idle facilities that might be utilized 
for defense work. 

The Connecticut State Employment Service has used its field force 
to gather information concerning idle machine hours. This has 
greatly facilitated the program. 

FAIR DISTRIBUTION OF ORDERS 

As a consequence, there is a very fair distribution of defense orders 
in Connecticut. This statement is not intended to indicate that all 
plants capable of producing munitions of any character are engaged 
in defense work. On the contrary, there is considerable idle capacity 
even on the first shift, and but a relatively few concerns are engaged 
on a second or third shift. 

Alanufacturers in this State have endeavored to maintain a fair 
balance between defense and essential civilian work. This has tended 
to stabilize employment. 

It was natural, in the first instance, for the Army and Navy to place 
heavy orders with those companies already engaged in the manufacture 



5262 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

of munitions and having substantial plant capacity. Under this 
program, a number of important contracts were awarded to industries 
in Connecticut. Our participation in defense work is still confined 
largely to airplanes, submarines, guns, ammunition, and machine tools. 
We can appreciate the desire to allocate defense orders as equally 
as possible among the several States, but doubt if the mere location 
■of State lines should be allowed to retard the program. Certainly 
the "farming out" of defense orders at this time would be greatly 
implemented if contracts were awarded more speedily. 

UTILIZATION OF SMALL PLANTS 

In order to utilize the smaller plants, offices such as the Hartford 
-ordnance district should be authorized to award contracts for com- 
ponent parts. This procedure is followed by the various arsenals, 
but the Hartford ordnance district can place orders only for complete 
articles. 

Furthermore, it would be of great assistance if the Hartford ordnance 
district office had authority to award prime contracts. Such an 
arrangement was ultimately found necessary in the last war. At 
the present time, the Hartford ordnance district acts primarily as a 
forwarding office. 

PRIORITIES AGAINST METALS 

We are cognizant of the fact that priorities may be expected to 
play an increasingly important part in the manufacture of nondefense 
items. Connecticut is primarily a metal-working State. And the 
more urgent priorities have been placed against metals or materials 
used in the production of metals. Therefore we cannot escape the 
adverse effects of this system. We can only hope that due consider- 
ation will be given not alone to the need for an item from the stand- 
point of defense, but also to the effect that the closing of a plant will 
have upon employment, particularly when only a relatively small 
:amount of an article on the critical list might allow a plant engaged 
in nondefense work to continue its operations. 

Connecticut manufacturers may be depended upon to cooperate 
fully with the Federal Government in its preparations for defense. 
Furthermore, industry in this State will exert all the ingenuity at its 
command to adapt itself to any necessary restrictions. In return, 
we ask for sympathetic understanding on the part of the Government. 

(The complete prepared material submitted by Mr. Ford is as 
ioUows:) 

•STATEMENT BY NORRIS W. FORD, MANAGER, MANUFACTURERS 
ASSOCIATION OF CONNECTICUT, INC., HARTFORD, CONN. 

"Farming Out" for National Defense 

The organization of a Connecticut Defense Council was authorized by the 
Governor on June 12, 1940. This was one of the first commissions of its kind in 
the country. It was composed of representatives from several of the State 
•departments and citizens who were active in various branches of industry, labor, 
agriculture, finance, etc. 

As chairman of the Industrial Division, Mr. E. Kent Hubbard, president of 
the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, Inc., was quick to realize that, 
•while there were adequate records available concerning the normal products of 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5263 

manufacturing concerns, these companies would soon be called upon to produce 
an entirely new line of items for defense. 

After carefulh^ weighing the relative value of all projects, which might be 
pursued, it was concluded that an inventory of Connecticut's industrial facilities 
was a paramount importance in speeding the Nation's rearmament program. 

QUESTIONNAIRE TO MANUFACTURERS 

By August 1, 1940, after a thorough check among leading production execu- 
tives of the State, and Federal procurement officials, a five-page questionnaire 
was completed, printed and mailed to all manufacturers in Connecticut. This 
has since been used as a pattern by other organizations, including the National 
Association of Manufacturers. By mid-October over 1,500 of the approximately 
1,900 manufacturers having equiprhent adaptable to defense work had returned 
their questionnaires. 

The next problem appeared even more difficult. It contemplated the assem- 
bling of the voluminous data in usable form. Fortunately the survey had been 
broken down to show separately the equipment of various industries such as 
textile manufacturing, chemical processing and companies working with metals. 
Engineers from these several groups spent 5 days reviewing the material with 
representatives of the air corps, the Navy and the Hartford ordnance district, 
together with experts from the International Business Machines Corporation, 
seeking first to determine the type of information that would be necessary and, 
second, a practical method of classification. Ultimately a machine classification 
code was developed. A copy of this is shown below [see p. 5265]. It formed 
the basis for the entire tabulation. 

After all of the machinery that was recorded on the questionnaires had been 
coded in accordance with this classification, the information was reduced further 
by the International Business Machines Corporation punched-card method to 
six indexes of Connecticut's industrial facilities. The indexes were produced by 
running the punched cards through the Alphabetic Accounting Machine and are 
designed to establish promptly both the names of the concerns having any par- 
ticular machine in their plant and also the number of such machines. Other 
tabulations list the machinery, including a complete break-down of machine tools 
by both industry code and machine code. The location of the companies and num- 
ber of employees are also disclosed. Actually the question concerning the facil- 
ities of any plant or group of plants is available in the. study from six different 
approaches. As indicative of the wide range of information that was available, 
it was learned that certain textile plants in the State had complete tool room facil- 
ities for making their own machinery. These facilities are now being fully utilized 
in defense work. 

"CONNECTICUT PRESENTS ARMS" 

Although the material taken from the surveys has been in constant use since 
its completion, an effort to increase its usefulness to prime and subcontractors 
resulted in the issuance of a booklet entitled "Connecticut Pre.sents Arms," 
which was distributed in March of this year. The indexes of Connecticut's 
industrial facilities were taken from this pamphlet. [See pp. 5267 and 5268.] 

In consideration of the fact that approximately 500 new manufacturing estab- 
lishments have been organized in Connecticut since the original survey was corn- 
pleted and as numerous of these have not supplied information concerning their 
facilities, and in further consideration of a desire to obtain the greatest possible 
participation in the "farming out" program on the part of both prime and sub- 
contractors, the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut invited representatives 
of several manufacturing organizations and chambers of commerce, strategically 
located throughout the State, to discuss a procedure for improving the subcontract- 
ing program in this State. 

A plan was formulated, which contemplated dividing the cities and towns of 
Connecticut in such a manner that they would all be served directly by one of the 
cooperating agencies or the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, Inc., which 
was to service towns and cities not included within the other jurisdictions. A 
copy of the letter that was sent out to over 2,300 manufacturing concerns, describ- 
ing the plan and indicating the organization that would serve each of the towns, 
will be found below. 



5264 HAKTFOKD HEARINGS 

PLAN OF SUBCONTRACTING 

Briefly, the idea that met with general approval was that a prime contractor, 
desiring to subcontract any component part of a defense order would describe 
the item, together with the type of machines that would be required to perform 
the operation, and an estimate of the number of machine hours, this information 
to be sent to the representative of the organization in which his town was located. 
The same method would be employed by subcontractors having surplus machinery 
that was available for defense work. If the representative first contacted was 
unable to locate the necessary machinery or find an opportunity for utilizing the 
idle machinery of the potential subcontractors in his district, the information was 
passed along to the Manufacturers Association of Connecticut who acted as a 
clearing house and advised all of the other participating organizations. In this 
manner it has been possible to contact all of the manufacturers throughout the 
State with a minimum of time and efl'ort. 

AID OF STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

Another innovation that has supplemented the "farming out" program in 
Connecticut has been the cooperation that has been given by the Connecticut 
State Employment Service. This organization has 18 district offices located 
throughout the State and it has utilized the facilities of these offices and the 
services of its inspectors to obtain current information relative to idle machine 
hours. A copy of the form is shown. 

The State employment service has made no effort to arrange contacts between 
prime and subcontractors but has made the information that it gathered available 
to organizations such as those previously described. Furthermore, through its 
18 subdivisions, it has in emergencies been able very quickly to assist in locating 
needed idle machinery. At least insofar as the manufacturers producing items 
necessary to national defense are concerned, the State employment service has 
attempted to maintain current data that ordinarily have been brought up to date 
about every 2 or 3 weeks. 

We are cognizant of the fact that priorities may be expected to play an increas- 
ingly important part in the manufacture of nondefense items. Connecticut is 
primarily a metal-working State. And the more urgent priorities have been placed 
against metals or materials used in the production of metals. Therefore, we can- 
not escape the adverse effects of this system. We can only hope that due con- 
sideration will be given i!ot alone to the need for an item from the standpoint of 
defense, but also to the effect that the closing of a plant will have upon employ- 
ment, particularly when only a relatively small amount of an article on the 
critical list might allow a plant engaged in nondefense work, but employing a 
large number of people, to continue its operations. 

The priorities system should act as a further incentive for nondefense plants to 
devote a portion of their equipment to subcontract work for defense. 

CONTRACTS OVER HALF A BILLION 

Up to May 15, 1941, the Army and Navy have placed contracts with industries 
in this State amounting to $567,755,598. This places Connecticut as eighth among 
all the States of the Union in the amount of defense orders for which contracts 
have been awarded. With such an important stake, it is only natural that those 
interested in industry in Connecticut should wish to bring the "farming-out" 
program to a high state of efficiency. Those who have had the matter in hand 
will at all times be glad to receive suggestions concerning possible improvements 
or additions. 



r 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Machine Classification Code 



5265 



1. 


Abrasives. 


8. 


Welding equipment. 


2 


Containers and shipping supplies. 


9. 


Woodwoiking machines. 


3. 


Dies, special tools, jigs, etc. 


10. 


Textile machines: 


4. 


Factory equipment. 




1. Needle trade machines. 


5. 


Hand and precision tools. 


11. 


Paper-making machines. 


6. 


Machine tools: 




1. Paper-product machines. 




1. Bending. 


12. 


General machinery: 




2. Boring. 




1. Rolling mill: 




3. Broaching. 




2. Ferrous. 




4. Cut-off tools. 




3. Nonferrous. 




5. Drilling. 




4. Precious and al- 




6. Files. 




loyed metals. 




7. Forging. 




5. Foundry equipment. 




8. Gear cutting. 




6. Ferrous. 




9. Grinders. 




7. Nonferrous. 




10. Honing. 




8. Chemicals. 




11. Keyseating. 




9. Leather and artificial leather 




12. Lapping. 




10. General machinery (miscel- 




13. Lathes (engine). 




laneous) . 




14. Lathes (turret). 




11. Wire drawing. 




15. Lathes (automatic) 


13. 


Plastics. 




(screw machine). 




1. Rubber products. 




16. Milling. 


14. 


Die castings. 




17. Planers. 




1. Aluminum. 




IS. Polishing and buffing. 




2. Zinc. 




19. Presses. 




3. Bronze. 




20. Punching. 


15. 


Forging and drop forging. 




21. Riveting. 




1. Steel. 




22. Shapers. 




2. Aluminum. 




23. Shearing. 




3. Brass. 




24. Blotters. 


16. 


Heat treating. 




25. Threading. 


17. 


Plating. 




26. Welding. 


18. 


Printing machinery. 




27. Special. 

28. Miscellaneous. 


19. 


Felt and felt products. 




20. 


Construction and roa^i-building ma- 




29. Machine-tool accessories. 




chinery. 


7. 


Testing and instruments and gauges. 







PARTIAL LIST OF QUESTIONS ASKED IN QUESTIONNAIRE 

Nature of Product. 

1. Standard products. 

2. What other types of products is your equipment adapted to, if any? 

3. Have you manufactured for the United States Government? Direct bid. 
Subcontract. Describe items produced. 

4. Are you working on Government orders? 

Survey of Production Facilities. 
Equipment in operation: 

1. Could you purchase or rent additional equipment necessary for production 
of defense items? 

2. Would you rent or sell surplus equipment for use in defense program? 
(Describe such equipment on separate sheet.) 

3. Would you rent space with equipment? Without equipment? 

4. Please describe the types, sizes, and quantity of production equipment now 
in use in your plant. (Headings below were set up primarily for listing of ma- 
chine-tool equipment. For listing other equipment which cannot be described 
adequately by these headings, please cross out those not applicable and insert 
those which are applicable. For example, tex-tile companies would list primary 
equipment as "looms" and secondary equipment as "spindles," etc.) 

To be answered only by companies working with "metals": 

1. What heat treating and plating facilities have you? 

2. Have you had experience in machining of steel SAE — 6150, steel SAE — 4620, 
other steels, gray iron, aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel alloys, copper 
alloys, other metals and alloys? (Please list.) 



5266 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

3. What is the closest tolerance to which you work? I 

4. (Foundries only.) Have you ever made castings to Army and Navy speci- 
fications? 

These questions to be answered only by companies doing chemical processing: 

1. Have you pressure vessel equipment for chemical manufacture? 

2. What type of lining in vessels? Ceramic. Other. (If ceramic designate 
which one.) 

3. ■ Have you open vessels? Heated. Equipped with mechanical stirrer. 

4. Have you distillation equipment? Fractionating. Nonfractionating. 

5. What type of lining? Ferrous. Nonferrous. Ceramic. 

6. Have you evaporators? Vacuum type. Atmospheric. 

7. What type of lining? Ferrous. Nonferrous. Ceramic. 

These questions to be answered only by companies doing textile manufacturing: 

1. Names of principal operating machines (looms). Secondary machines 
(spindles). 

2. Adaptability of machines for other types of product (lower or coarser types) , 
(higher or finer types) . 

3. Description of diflferent machines for making products of plant. 

4. Number of different types? 

INDUSTRY AND MACHINE CLASSIFICATION CODE 

(Sample excerpts) 

Numerical listing 

INDUSTRY 



Code 


Classification 


Section 


Code 


Classification 


Section 


141 


Ammunition and related 
products 


4 

27 
14 
14 

14 
14 


244 

248 

250 
251 

261 


Tools. Not including edge 
tools, machine tools, files, 
or saws 




206 


Abrasive wheels, stones, 
paper cloth, and related 
products 


14 




Foundry products, gray 
iron, and malleable iron. . _ 
Aluminum products 


14 


224 


Files 

Firearms 

Forgings, iron, and steel. 
Made in plants not oper- 
ated in connection with 
steel works and rolling 
mills 

Screw machine products and 


17 


225 
235 


Clocks, watches. Time-re- 
cording devices including 
materials and parts, except 
watchcases 

Nonferrous metal alloys and 
products. Except alumi- 
num, not elsewhere classi- 
fied - -- 


17 

ir 











MACHINES 



Machine tools (continued) : 


12. General machinery: 


7. Forgmg. 


1. Rolling mill: 


8. Gear cutting. 


2. Ferrous. 


9. Grinders. 


3. Nonferrous. 


10. Honing. 


4. Precious and alloyed metals. 


11. Keyseating. 


5. Foundry equipment: 


12. Lapping. 


6. Ferrous. 


13. Lathes (engine) 


7. Nonferrous. 


14. Lathes (turret). 


8. Chemicals 


15. Lathes (automatic) (screw machine) . 


9. Leather and artificial leather. 


11. Paper-making machines: 


10. General machinery (miscellaneous). 


1. Paper product machmes. 


11. Wire drawing. 




13. Plastics: 




1. Rubber products. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRxVTION 
Sequence of break-down by I B M method 



5267 



SURVEY 
SHEETS 




ALPHABETICAL 

COMPANY 

INDEX 



EQUIPMENT 
BY MACHINE 
& COMPANY 



EQUIPMENT 
BY MACHINE 
C- INDUSTRY 



COMPANY 
INDEX BY 
INDUSTRIES 



Fig. 1 



F.g. 2 



Fig. 3 



Fig. 4 



Fig. 5 



Fig. 6 



Sample, alphabetical index (fig. 1) 



Company name 


Location 


Industry 
code 


Company 
number 


Number 
of em- 
ployees 




West Haven _. 

Hartford 

Waterbury.... 
New Haven. .- 

Pequabuck 

South Nor- 

Willk. 

Bridgeport 


241 
123 
458 
127 
108 
299 

206 


131 
150 
181 
200 
210 
220 

240 




Aetna Stamp and Engravina; Co 


4 


Albert Bros 








Charles I. Allen, Inc 


28 















This index answers the following questions: 

1. How many persons does any given company in Connecticut as of date 

of question employ? 

2. Where is the company located? 

3. What is its industry classification? 



5268 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Sample, company index by industry (fig. 5) 



Company name 


Location 


Industry 
code 


Company 
number 


Number 
of em- 
ployees 


Alderman Bros. Inc 


New Haven_-_ 
do 


127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 


200 
1,130 
1,760 
1,882 
1,070 
2,030 




Bingham Paper Box Co 

Bone& Son, Inc ._ 

Bradley & Scoville, Inc 


New London.. 

No town 

New Haven.. _ 
Bridgeport 


10 

iT, 







This index gives the answers to the following questions: 

1. What companies are in the machine tool or any other industry located 

in Connecticut? 

2. Where are these companies located? 

3. How many persons do they employ? 



The Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, Inc., 

Hartford, May 13, 1941. 
To: The Manufacturer Addressed. 
Subject: "Farming Out" for National Defense. 

Gentlemen: Arrangements have recently been completed whereby the organi- 
zations shown on the attached sheets will serve manufacturers located in the 
towns listed with their names in an effort to stimulate the farming-out program 
in Connecticut for both national defense and commercial business. 

Under this plan, requests from prime contractors for available facilities to do. 
subcontract work, as well as subcontractors seeking participation in defense 
orders, should initially clear through the local organizations. If it is determined 
that the facilities are not available in the immediate vicinity, the requests will be 
sent to our office and we in turn will circulate the information to all of the coop- 
erating agencies and those manufacturers who are to be served from this office. 

As an important contribution to the .success of this plan, the Connecticut State 
Employment Service has agreed to make available to us the information concerning 
idle machine hours that is being gathered by its field staff. This does not repre- 
sent a duplication of effort, but rather it supplements the activities of the par- 
ticipating organizations who will endeavor to bring together the prime contractor 
and the potential subcontractor. 

With this project in operation, we believe that almost any demand for machine- 
facilities on the part of prime contractors can be met expeditiously. In fact, 
several companies having machines that are in the greatest demand have indicated 
a willingness to increase their capacity by adding another shift if this will aid the 
defense program. 

We particularly urge prime contractors to give consideration to the possibility 
of using the subcontract service thus made available. 
Yours very truly, 

E. Kent Hubbard, President. 

Organizations and Representatives Participating in the Farming-Out' 
Program, Together With a List of Cities and Towns That Each Will 
Serve 

bridgeport area 

Representative: Alpheus Winter, executive vice president, Manufacturers' 
Association of the City (of Bridgeport, 211 State Street, Bridgeport. Cities 
and towns served: Bridgeport, Fairfield, Southport, Stratford, and Trumbull. 

derby-ansonia district 

Representative: Dean Emerson, secretary. Industrial Association of the Lower 
Naugatuck Valley, care of Star Pin Co., Derby. Cities and towns served: An- 
sonia, Derby, Oxford, Seymour, and Shelton. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 526^ 

HARTFORD COUNTY 

Representative: Sidney E. Cornelius, manager and secretary, Manufacturers 
Association of Hartford County, 612 Capitol Avenue, Hartford. Cities and 
towns served: Addison, Avon, Berlin, Bristol, Burnside, Collinsville, East Berlin, 
East Glastonbury East Hartford, East Windsor, Elmwood, Enfield, Farmington, 
Forestville, Glastonbury, Hartford, Hazardville, Hockanum, Kensington, Man- 
chester, Milldale, New I3ritain, Newington, Pequabuck, Pequonock, Plainville, 
Plantsville, Rocky Hill, Simsbury, Southington, South Glastonbury, Terryville, 
Thompsonville, Unionville,. Warehouse Point, West Hartford, Wethersfield 
Windsor, and Windsor Locks. 

^ MANCHESTER SECTION 

Representative: E. J. McCabe, executive vice president, Manchester Chamber 
of Commerce, Manchester. Cities and towns served: Andover, Bolton, Broad 
Brook, Buckland, Highland Park, Rockville, Somersville, South Coventrv, Staf- 
ford, Stafford Springs, Staffordville, Talcottville, Tolland, and West Stafford. 

MERIDEN AND VICINITY 

Representative: W. J. Wilcox, secretary, Manufacturers Association of Meri- 
den, 30 Colony Street, Meriden. Cities and towns served: Cheshire, Meriden, 
South Meriden, Wallingford, W^est Cheshire, and Yalesville. 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY 

Represenative: Mrs. Regina S. Cotter, executive vice president, Middletown 
Chamber of Commerce, Middletown. Cities and towns served: Centerbrook, 
Chester, Clinton, Cromwell, Deep River, Durham, East Haddam, East Hamp- 
ton, Essex, Gildersleeve, Higganum, Ivoryton, Middlefield, Middletown, Moodus, 
North Westchester, Portland, Rockfall, Saybrook, Tylerville, and Westbrook. 

MYSTIC-STONINGTON 

Representative: E. Allen Olds, Jr., president, Mystic Chamber of Commerce, 
Mystic. Cities and towns served: Mystic and Stonington. 

NEW HAVEN COUNTY 

Representative: J. S. Whiteside, Jr., executive secretary, Manufacturers 
Association of New Haven County, 185 .Church Street, room 624, New Haven. 
Cities and towns served: Branford, East Haven, Guilford, Hamden, Milford, 
Mount Carmel, New Haven, North Haven, Orange, and West Haven. 

NEW LONDON SECTION 

Representative: Bryon A. Fones, secretary, New London Chamber of Com- 
merce, New London. Cities and towns served: East Lyme, Groton, Montville, 
New London, Niantic, and Waterford. 

NORWALK AREA 

Representative: Thomas A. Kirkwood, secretary, Norwalk Chamber of Com- 
merce, Norwalk. Cities and towns served: East Norwalk, Georgetown, Norwalk, 
Saugatuck, South Norwalk, Westport, and Wilton. 

PUTNAM GROUP 

Representative: Omer J. Milot, secretary, Putnam Chamber of Commerce, 
Putnam. Cities and towns served: Eastford, East Woodstock, Mechanicsville, 
North Grosvernordale, Putnam, and Woodstock. 

STAMFORD AND VICINITY 

Representative: Elliot G. Kingsbury, secretary, Stamford Chamber of Com- 
merce. Cities and towns served: Darien, Cos Cob, East Portchester, Glenbrook, 
Glenville, Greenwich, New Canaan, Old Greenwich, Springdale, and Stamford. 



5270 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 

WATERBURY DISTRICT 



Representative: Frank J. Green, secretary, Waterbury Chamber of Commerce, 
Waterbury. Cities and towns served: Beacon Falls, Naugatuck, Oakville, Pros- 
pect, South Britain, Southbury, Thomaston, Union City, Waterbury, Watertown, 
Waterville, Wolcott, and Woodbury. 

WILLIMANTIC SECTION 

Representative: Albert B. Smith, president, Willimantic Chamber of Com- 
merce. Willimantic. Cities and towns served: Amston, Columbia, Eagleville, 
Hebron, Mansfield, North Windham, South Windham, Willimantic, and Wind- 
ham. 

MISCELLANEOUS TOWNS TO BE SERVED DIRECTLY BY MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION 
OF CONNECTICUT, INC. 



Baltic 

Bantam 

Bethel 

Brookfield 

Canaan 

Central Village 

Colchester 

Danbury 

Danielson 

Dayville 

Eastfor 

East Killingly 

Falls Village 

Fitchville 

Franklin 

Gihnan 

Glasgo 

Goshen 

Hanover 

Hawleyville 

Jewett City 

Killingly 



Lakeville 

Lebanon 

Lisbon 

Millstone 

Moosup 

New Hartford 

New Milford 

Newtown 

Norfolk 

Norwich 

Norwichtown 

Oakdale 

Oneco 

Oronoque 

Pawcatuck 

Pine Meadow 

Plainfield 

Pomfret 

Preston 

Quinebaug 

Redding 

Ridgefield 



Riverton 

Salisbury 

Sandy Hook 

Sharon 

South Willington 

Taftville 

Tariffville 

Thompson 

Torrington 

Uncasville 

Versailles 

Voluntown 

Wauregan 

West Mystic 

West Willington 

Willington 

Wilsonville 

Winchester 

Winsted 

Yantic 



Sample, Connecticut State Employment Service Form 

Report of machinery available for defense contracts 
Form CSES-130 
(Rev. 3-26-41) 

Name of firm Individual 

Address Title 

City 

Is firm interested in using idle machinery for defense subcontract work 





Type of machinery 


Size 


Idle hours per week 


Maker's name and 
model No. 


Is local 


of 
machines 


First 
shift 


Second 
shift 


Third 
shift 


labor 
available 



































































Remarks : 



Date Reporting office Interviewer 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5271 

TESTIMONY OF NORRIS W. FORD— Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. How much subcontracting is being done in this State 
now? 

Air. Ford. Unfortunately, I can't tell you that. We haven't made 
a study to determine that. It would be difficult to get that answer. 
We have been at times supplied with information from some of our 
members concerning the amount of farming-out that they were doing. 
However, the figures haven't been at all uniform. For example some 
have been given on the basis of percentage and others on the basis of 
dollars and cents and it has been difficult to reconcile them. 

The range is anywhere from 40 percent or slightly more down pos- 
sibly to no farming-out at all. I recently read that the Office of Pro- 
duction Management is now requesting the 5,000 manufacturers with 
which it has prime contracts or with which the Government has prime 
contracts, to supply this particular information, and I think they will 
be able to obtain it more accurately than we would because there is a 
reluctance on the part of anyone not subcontracting to a very great 
extent to disclose the figures, even though it is not their fault. Wlien 
I say it is not their fault I mean that the nature of their requirements 
is such that there just aren't the facilities available for doing it. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you find that primary contractors are unwilling to 
subcontract at a price that is satisfactory to the so-called small man? 

SUBCONTRACTING DONE AT PREMIUM 

Mr. Ford. No; we don't; but there are practical difficulties there; 
For example, all of these prime contracts are awarded on a com- 
petitive basis, and the person who is awarded a prime contract has, 
naturally, figured the cost of all the components. I think it is 
generally agreed that it is almost impossible to find subcontractors 
that will do business for the same cost that the original prime con- 
tractor has figured; therefore, it is going to cost him a premium to 
subcontract the work, and it just depends on how much of a premium 
he can afford to pay and in fact, is willing to pay. 

We have heard of instances where subcontracting has cost the 
prime contractor up to 50 percent above his return for that particular 
item, and in some instances they found such an operation profitable 
but generally speaking that is somewhat too high. 

I recently heard Colonel Crawford, of the Boston ordnance district, 
say that he had been authorized to go around to prime contractors 
and oft'er them some additional amount provided they would sub- 
contract a portion of their work. That seems to us to be a very 
satisfactory way to get at this problem of subcontracting. 

NO PREFERENCE FOR NONDEFENSE WORK 

Mr. Curtis. Does the small businessman seem to prefer to hold 
on to his nondefense business as long as possible? 

Mr. Ford. No. Especially not in these times. I think the 
majority of them recognize that their only hope for continuing in 
business is to get into the Government program to some extent, 
particularly those that are working in metals. 

Mr. Curtis. Is that because of the priority question? 

60396— 41— pt. 13 17 



5272 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Ford. Generally speaking, it is. A good many of them are 
going to find it very difficult, although there is a great surplus of 
certain types of equipment in Connecticut, for instance, stampings 
and press work, and the people that have that type of equipment and 
are engaged in manufacturing of that character just cannot turn their 
plants over to defense work. They would like to, but it is not always 
possible. 

Mr. Curtis. Isn't it true that many of the subcontractors are not 
necessarily small concerns? 

Mr. Ford. That is true. Some of the very largest ones that have 
prime contracts are also doing subcontract work. 

Mr. Curtis. And subcontracting does not necessarily mean decen- 
tralization? 

Mr. Ford. No, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Sparkman? 

WHAT WILL HAPPEN WHEN IT'S OVER? 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Chairman, I would like to ask just one 
general question. I doubt if I will get an answer to it, but I would 
like for these gentlemen to be thinking it over: What is going to happen 
to all these people that you are training in industry when this thing is 
over? 

Mr. NiCKERSON. I suppose it would be a difficult thing to get a 
concrete answer to that question, but I think the committee can rest 
assured that it will be the purpose of the Manufacturers Association of 
Connecticut to start even now working on the question and to keep it 
up because we would recognize it as being one of the most important 
questions that is before us. 

Presumably we will have to backtrack to some degree as we have 
gone forward, but we should certainly think now and before the time 
comes, how we can overcome the difficulties which we encountered 
as a result of the last war. 

I believe it is safe to say that in our opinion a great deal can be done 
so that we will not run into such effects as we had before. To answer 
that question more concretely, I think, would be quite difficult. 

Mr. Sparkman. It is something which we will need to be thinking 
over because it is a matter of real concern to the entire country. 

voluntary savings plan 

The Chairman. There was a witness this morning by the name of 
Mr. Robbins, who said there was a voluntary saving plan in some of 
the plants. 

Of course these out-of-State migrants were unemployed, or they 
would not have come here. They are getting good wages and if 
some plan of voluntary savings could be introduced, under which a 
certain amount of money would be taken out of their wages every 
week or every month and deposited to their credit, so that at the end 
of this emergency they would have a few hundred dollars to hold 
them until the Government could get in shape some way or other, 
it might provide a real cushion against the after-effects of this emer- 
gency. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5273 

Mr. NiCKERSON. That is right. 

The Chairman. Because out of it they should save something, 
which would go a long way toward helping the Government get on 
its feet aft^r this thing is over. 

COMMUNITIES SHOULD BAR EXPLOITATION 

In addition to that, the communities where defense industries are 
located should see to it that these workers are not gouged in the mat- 
ter of rent and other municipal services. 

There has been an Executive order calling for a survey of public 
works to be carried on after the war is over, but so far there is no 
appropriation and we may not have any money at the end of the war 
with which to do it. This has been brought to my mind by Congress- 
man Sparkman's question, which is right to the point. 

DISMISSAL W^AGE 

Do any of you gentlemen know about any plants in Connecticut 
where they have this so-called "dismissal wage," in which they add 
to the cost of production a certain amount and lay that aside so that 
in case of the discharge of employees or on account of the slackening of 
w^ork, that money may be paid to an employee to tide him over until 
another position is secured? A witness testified to that at our hearing 
in San Diego, but 1 have never been able to find out anything about it. 

Mr. Sammis. There has been some discussion of that, but I don't 
know of any place where it is in effect. Our legal restrictions are such 
that it is very difficult to do anything to help a man save except to 
preach to him. You can't make deductions for savings out of his pay 
even though he wants you to. 

Mr. Stowell. We are answering that by urging in most of the 
plants right now the purchase of bonds and saving stamps, but they 
buy those outright. 

The Chairman, I am really amazed to see so little being done in 
that direction. However, you gentlemen and Dr. Pond here are alive 
to the situation and are trying, as we say, to form some cushion for 
the shock that is sure to come after this thing is over. Proper atten- 
tion was not given to the problem during and after the World War, 
and we all know how long it took us to get over that. 

I think, however, that the American people, the American em- 
ployers and their workers are alive to the situation, as they should be, 
because nobody knows what the condition is going to be after this 
war is over. It can be just as serious as an attack on the ec^iintry 
by a hostile nation. 

can't tell when peak will come 

Mr. Curtis. When will the peak of employment be reached in 
Connecticut under this defense program? 

Mr. Stowell. Wlien the full impact of the defense program is felt 
in Connecticut, and it hasn't been felt yet. If you can give us the 
answer to that we will give you your answer. If we followed along 
the suggestions of Mr. Ford and got the plants fully manr.ed, we could 
tell you very definitely. 



5274 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. You have no estimate of it? Perhaps I did not state 
my question properly. Do you feel, then, that Connecticut can and 
will do, say, twice as much as it is doing now in the way of employing 
people in defense industries? 

Mr. Ford. That sounds rather vague. I doubt if it would go quite 
as high as that. 

Mr. Curtis. How much unemployment would there be in Connec- 
ticut if the defense program stopped abruptly now? 

Mr. Ford. I don't think I could tell you. You mean how much of 
a decline there would be in emplojrment? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes; how much of an unemployment problem would 
you have here in the State if this entire program ended right now? 

Mr. Ford. I think some of these gentlemen would be able to answer 
that better than I. 

NO LET-UP OF HOUSING ACTIVITY 

Mr. Sammis. I asked the question in Washington in connection 
with the housing requirements, and I was informed there would be 
no let-up after this war; that, having learned the lesson of the last 
war, we would have full, continuous operation of our industries after 
this war is over. 

Mr. Curtis. Who told you that? 

Mr. Sammis. That came from one of the men in the Federal Works 
Agency. I put this question: I assume that perhaps we can work on a 
normal basis of one shift for the existing industries, but when it comes 
to working three shifts for the existing industrial capacity in the 
State of Connecticut, after the war is over I rather doubt the ability 
of any of us to provide that amount of employment. I do believe 
personally that after this effort is over, if it isn't chopped off on some 
predetermined date, and we are allowed to complete our defense 
orders, there will be some slack time, or at least operating time in 
which to get geared up. again for private enterprise on perhaps our 
own products or on new developments. For that period, we can try 
to meet the curtailed needs of the public for consumer goods. In 
other words, people are going to go without a lot of things in the next 
year or two because they can't get them, and their wants are going to 
continue to increase; and that may provide at least a measure of 
industrial activity immediately following the cessation of defense 
orders. 

How long that will continue, however, depends upon the ingenuity 
of industry in supplying public needs and the cooperation of the 
Federal Government in allowing the program to be fostered to the 
best advantage of the general public. 

Mr. NiCKERsoN. If, as your chairman has suggested, the American 
public could see that it was right to save and sacrifice now, then when 
this thing comes about, as Mr. Sammis says, those savings and those 
sacrifices could be turned into proper and legitimate consumption 
spending, which would carry us beyond the time. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much gentlemen. We still have 
four witnesses to be heard this afternoon. We have been discussing 
a subject on which we could spend days. I think you all appreciate 
that. But even in our limited time, you have given us a very valuable 
contribution, and we appreciate, Mr. Nickerson, your appearance 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5275 

before the committee, and the appearance of Dr. Pond and these 
other g-entlemen. I know your testimony will furnish a valuable part 
of our record when the time comes for reporting to Congress. 
Our next witness is Mr. Du Alond. 

TESTIMONY OF MIKE DU MOND, HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Chairman. Mr. Du Mond, will you give your full name and 
address and state your present employment to the reporter? 

Mr. Du Mond. My name is Mike Du Mond and I live at 22 Brooks 
Street, Hartford. I am employed in the Colt Arms Co. 

The Chairman. That is an ammunition plant? 

Mr. Du Mond. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are you a native of Hartford, Mr. Du Mond? 

Mr. Du Mond. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Where did you come from? 

Mr. Du Mond. I operated a gun shop in Wisconsin. 

The Chairman. Are you a native of Wisconsin? 

Mr. Du Mond. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Of what State are you a native? 

Mr. Du Mond. Kansas. 

The Chairman. How long did you live in Wisconsin? 

Mr. Du Mond. I lived in Wisconsin since 1918. 

The Chairman. WTiat did you do prior to operating the gun shop? 

Mr. Du Mond. I was a regular gmi worker, machme worker m 
various places. I worked for a gun company in Milwaukee. 

The Chairman. In other words you learned the business and then 
finally opened a shop of your own? 

Mr. Du Mond. I more or less grew up in the business. My father 
was a gunsmith before me. 

The Chairman. Now, tell us the circumstances under which you 
came to Hartford. 

Mr. Du Mond. Well, I did considerable special barrel work for the 
Colt people, and as j^ou probably know, we had until this^I don't 
know how it is out there now, but there has been a bad depression 
in the ^Middle West for the last 10 years. Well, my shop was small. 
I did all the work out there myself, with the exception of around 
deer season when I usually employed one or two helpers. 

I had an opportunity to come to Hartford and work for the Colt 
people and they gave me an attractive proposition so I came down 
here. 

The Chairman. You never had worked for them before, exceptmg 
for what work you did for them as you mentioned? 

Mr. Du Mond. Special barrel work; no. I never worked for 
them before that. 

The Chairman. How long have you been with them? 

Mr. Du Mond. Since the 20tli of August last year. 

The Chairman. And what did thev give you to start working for 
them? 

Mr. Du Mond. I started at $40 a week. 

The Chairman. Are you getting that now or have you had a raise? 

Mr. Du Mond. I have had several raises. 

The Chairman. Ai"e you married? 

Mr. Du Mond. Yes, sir. 



5276 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

The Chairman. Have you any children? 

Mr. Du MoND. Two. 

The Chairman. Did you bring them to Hartford with you? 

Mr. Du Mono. No; I didn't. I couldn't find a place to put them. 

The Chairman. But they are here now? 

Mr. Du Mond. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Tell us something about your experience in trying 
to find a place to live. 

Mr. Du Mond. Well, I came to Hartford the 20th of August last 
year and I was here until about the middle of December. I can't 
tell you the exact time that passed before I found a place where I 
could bring my family. They came about that time, about the 
middle of December. I had an apartment for them here. 

The Chairman. \Miat were you paying for that apartment? 

Mr. Du Mond. I paid $60 a' month. 

The Chairman. ^Qiat did it consist of? 

Mr. Du Mond. A room, one room with a bed and a bath and 
another small sort of — not exactly a room 

The Chairman. An alcove or something like that? 

Mr. Du Mond. Yes; and there was a day bed in there and that is 
where I put the kids. 

The Chairman. And for those accommodations you paid $60 a 
month? 

Mr. Du Mond. That is right. 

The Chairman. Wliat about your meals? 

Mr, Du Mond. I had to eat outside. 

The Chairman. Your family took their meals outside? 

Mr. Du Mond. Yes. 

The Chairman. That made your living pretty costly, didn't it? 

Mr. Du Mond. Extremely costly — too costly. 

The Chairman. How long did you continue to live there? 

Mr. Du Mond. I was there 6 weeks. 

The Chairman. And then where did you go? 

Mr. Du Mond. To this place where I am now, 22 Brooks Street. 

The Chairman. In Hartford? 

Mr. Du Mond. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Wliat kind of quarters do you have there? 

Mr. Du Mond. Not so good; it is an attic apartment on the third 
floor. 

The Chairman. How many rooms? 

Mr. Du Mond. Well, there are four. 

The Chairman. Do you have to heat it yourself? 

Mr. Du Mond. Yes. 

The Chairman. Wliat do you pav for that? 

Mr. Du Mond. $30 a month. 

The Chairman. Do you have all conveniences? 

Mr. Du Mond. No; there is no bath. 

The Chairman. Have you tried to find a house? 

Mr. Du Mond. I'll say I have. 

The Chairman. Would you prefer to live in a house? 

Mr. Du Mond. Absolutely, especially on the ground floor. There 
is no place for the children there, and it is rather difficult to keep 
children in a place like that. 

The Chairman. No place for them to play? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5277 

Mr. Du MoND. That is right. 

The Chairman. Have you given any thought to a trailer? 

Mr. Du MoND. Yes, sir; that is where I met your representative 
from the committee, in a trailer camp. 

The Chairman. You happened to be out in a trailer camp? 

Mr. Du MoND. Yes; looking for a trailer. 

The Chairman. And I suppose you found that a trailer would 
not be very attractive to you and your family? 

\h\ Du Mono. It would be all right — ^I think we could live in a 
trailer all right, but I don't see my way clear to put $1,000 in a trailer 
when I own my own home in Wisconsin. 

The Chairman. What are you doing with your home? 

Mr. Du Mond. Nothing — there is nothing out there. 

The Chairman. Not even renting it out? 

Mr. Du Mond. No. 

The Chairman. What did you do with your shop back there? 

Mr. Du Mond. That is running now. 

The Chairman. Wlio is runnmg it? 

Mr. Du Mond. A friend of mine. 

The Chairman. Is he paying you rent? 

Mr. Du Mond. He is paying me rent. 

The Chairman. But your house is not occupied? 

Mr. Du Mond. That' is correct. 

The Chairman. Have you tried to find a defense house — are there 
any defense houses completed here yet? 

Mr. Du Mond. There wasn't the last time my wife was down there. 
There were some other houses but I couldn't get one because I made 
too much money. I think they are to be for people who make less 
than $25 a week, or some such figure as that, and I make over twice 
that much, so I couldn't get one. 

The Chairman. So you don't know whether you would be able to 
qualify for a defense house under any circumstances? 

Mr. Du Mond. No, sir; I don't know. 

The Chairman. Are you saving any money, Mr. Du Mond? 

Mr. Du Mond. Yes; otherwise I wouldn't be here. 

The Chairman. You feel that the better pay you are getting here 
does serve to offset some of the disadvantages that you are having to 
put up with? 

Mr. Du Mond. That is right. 

The Chairman. And you are able to lay by at least a small nest egg? 

Mr. Du Mond. Yes; but that is a question. I have to move by 
the 19th of July. That place is in liquidation, I understand, and so far 
I haven't been able to find a single thing to go to. If I have to pay 
$1,000 for a trailer, I can't see any point in doing that. It would 
cost me at least $1,000 if not more, to buy a trailer large enough to 
accommodate my family, due to the fact that I work nights and have 
to sleep days, and I work long hours. I work an average of 11 hours 
every night, and in the winter time we work 13, and it takes — I have 
to sleep, you know, and at the same time we must have a place for 
the children. 

The Chairman. You say you work 11 hours at night? 

Mr. Du Mond. I do now; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How man}^ nights a week? 



5278 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Du MoND. Five nights a week. 

The Chairman. 55 hours a week? 

Mr. Du MoND. That is right. 

The Chairman. Mr. Du Mond, how large an apartment are you 
living in now? 

Mr. Du Mond. Well, it is a peculiar apartment, you understand. 
The rooms aren't square. What I mean is the roof comes down and 
you can't utilize the entire room. For mstance I bought a refrigerator 
and I couldn't find any place to put it. I can't put it in the corner of 
the room. It has to set in the middle of the room because the roof 
comes down at an angle at the corners of the room. There are prob- 
ably only 4 feet between the roof and the floor at the corners and sides 
of the room. You have to walk through the center of the room. 

The Chairman. How many families live in the apartment house? 

Mr. Du Mond. Three. 

The Chairman. What floor are you on? 

Mr. Du Mond. The third. 

The Chairman. Are there any fire escapes m the building? 

Mr. Du Mond. No; there is a stairway. They don't need to be 
fire escapes. I think there are two stairways — one in the rear and 
one in the front. 

The Chairman. That is all, Mr. Du Mond. We thank you very 
much and appreciate your coming here. 

Our next witness is Dr. Osborn. Mr. Curtis will question you, 
Doctor. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. STANLEY H. OSBORN, STATE COMMISSIONER 
OF HEALTH, HARTFORD, CONN. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you please state for the record your name, 
address, official title, and the organization which you represent? 

Dr. Osborn. My name is Stanley H. Osborn. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat official position do you hold, Dr. Osborn? 

Dr. Osborn. State commissioner of health. I live in West Hartford. 

Mr. Curtis. Dr. Osborn, I understand there have been about 
107,000 migrants who have come into Connecticut in the past year. 
What medical assistance would be provided one of those migrants if 
he became ill here and without funds, not being a resident of the 
State of Connecticut? 

Dr. Osborn. The State law provides that the town shall take care 
of all sick people who have no funds. 

Mr. Curtis. Irrespective of residence? 

Dr. Osborn. I couldn't reply to that. That would be under the 
welfare department. 

Mr. Curtis. What is the extent of the hospital facilities in Hart- 
ford? How many beds do you have here? 

Dr. Osborn. That could'be determined by looking at the hospital 
number of the Journal of the American Medical Association in each 
State. I haven't that figure with me. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat is the approximate population of East and West 
Hartford? 

Dr. Osborn. East Hartford has an estimated population as of the 
1st of July of last year of 18,652, and West Hartford, 33,943. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliich city was it that was affected so seriously by 
the floods in 1936 and 1938? 



r 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5279 

Dr. OsBORN. Of those two cities East Hartford was the one that 
suffered the more. 

Mr. Curtis. Were you able to provide all the necessary hospital 
facilities at that time? 

Dr. OsBORN. Yes, sir. 

PREPAREDNESS AGAINST EPIDEMICS 

Mr. Curtis. What provisions does your health department have 
for handling epidemics in time of floods or other emergencies? Just 
answer it in your own way. I realize my question is not too well put. 

Dr. OsBORN. We had all the facihties we needed in 1936 at the time 
of the flood. In 1938 we bad the hurricane and the flood which came 
tbe same week, and. we did eveiything that we felt should be done. 
Of course our work and the aid we gave was supplemented by the 
work of the town health officers and personnel of those towns. 

Air. Curtis. The committee has been informed that I'three popu- 
lated wards of New Haven are without any sewerage lines; is that true? 

Dr. OsBORN. Three wards of New Haven are without sewer lines. 
The wards and their population according to the 1940 census are as 
follows: Ward 31, 3,682; Ward 32, 5,340; Ward 33, 2,572, a total 
population of 11,594. 

New Haven city has requested a project mider the Lanham Act 
for sewers and treatment plants for these three wards, which are in 
the eastern part of New Haven. A hearing was held under PWA in 
New Haven on July 18, 1941, on this matter, and the estunated cost 
of the project was given as three and one-half million dollars for 
sewers and sewage treatment. 

Air. Curtis. Do you have any papers or statement that you would 
like to submit at this time? 

Dr. OsBORN. I have submitted one to the committee. I presume 
you gentlemen got copies. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY DR. STANLEY H. OSBORN, COMMISSIONER OF 
HEALTH, CONNECTICUT STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH 

SPACE FACILITIES 

The present space facilities consist of the following square footage: 
State Office Building: Square feet 

Third floor 10, 192 

Second floor 414 

Ground floor (stock room) 1, 320 

Ground floor (active storage) 648 

Subbasement (dead storage) 720 

1179 Main Street, laboratories (3d, 4th floors) 17, 150 

1179 Main Street, Bureau of Industrial Hygiene (5th, 6th floors) 2, 100 

410 Capitol Avenue, department garage 3, 000 

Totals: 

State Office Building 13, 294 

1179 Main Street 19, 250 

Garage, 410 Capitol Avenue 3,000 

Total square footage 35, 544 

It is estimated that at least 4,000 additional square feet of space, located 
preferably in the State Office Building, is necessary for convenient and efficient 
operation of the State department of health. The public health council of this 
department recommended in the 1941 budget, and in others during past years, 



5280 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

that a building be erected to provide quarters for the entire State department of 
health for as indicated above the bureau of laboratories and the bureau of indus- 
trial hygiene of this department are located at 1179 Main Street, Hartford, which 
is obviously not a convenient arrangement and involves lost time in commuting 
back and forth. It was suggested that such proposed building be located prefer- 
ably within a block of the State Office Building to facilitate cooperative activities 
with other State departments. It was requested that parking space be provided 
for at least 40 automobiles, for State cars assigned to department personnel and 
for visitors to this department. It was requested that the building and appur- 
tenances be such as to provide for expansion should the occasion arise. 

PERSONNEL 

At the present time there are 194 permanent employees of this department, 6 
of whom are part-time (orthopedic surgeons receiving $100 per month for attend- 
ance at crippled children clinics and necessary treatment of children) . 

They are divided as follows: 

Male 64 

Female 130 

Total 194 

Classifications appear as follows: 

Employees of State department of health according to classification 

*Public health physicians or specialists (including six orthopedic surgeons, 

part-time) 20 

*Public health nurses 19 

Dentist 1 

Dental hygienists 5 

*Sanitary engineers 8 

*Industrial hygienists 3 

*Industrial engineers 4 

Sanitary inspectors 2 

Psychologist 1 

*Mental hygienists (psychiatric social w^orkers) 4 

Medical social workers 3 

*Physiotherapy technicians 2 

Drug inspector 1 

Nutritionists l}^* 

Public health educationists i;4* 

Inspectors (hairdressing and cosmetology) 2 

Chemist and bacteriologist 3 

Chemists 4 

*Serologists 3 

Microbiologists 10 

Laboratory technicians 9 

Laboratory helpers 7 

Business manager 1 

Executive assistant 1 

Statisticians 3 

Librarian 1 

Stenographers 50 

Clerks and typists 16 

Key-punch operators 4 

Junior messenger 1 

Mechanics (garage) 3 

Total 194 

In addition there are 12 temporary workers in the department at present, 10 
of which are clerical, 1 microbiologist and 1 serologist. 

^Potential supply. — The filling of positions in the classifications marked "*" 
has been found difficult and the personnel department has been unable to main- 
tain a waiting list of trained and experienced workers eligible for these positions. 
It has been found necessary in some cases to secure such personnel on a pro- 
visional basis pending examination by the personnel department under the pro- 
visions of the merit system now in effect but this has been found unsatisfactory 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5281 

in many cases because few people wish to accept positions on such an indefinite 
basis. 

It might be mentioned that the United States Pubhc Health Service has available 
a list of public health physicians, public health nurses and sanitary engineers who 
might be assigned to States particularly in defense areas and this department has 
requested assignment of one physician (industrial), one engineer (industrial) and 
one sanitary engineer. Salaries of these men will be paid by the United States 
Public Health Service and they are loaned to the department. 

Several (approximately 28) of the men in this department fall within the draft 
age or are in the Reserve Corps. Eiforts have been made by State health officers 
through the Conference of State and Territorial Health Officers to defer key 
people, and this matter has been taken up with the Surgeons General of the United 
States Public Health Service, the Army and the Navy. This department has 
requested deferment of the following key people — that is, we have requested that 
those holding such positions be placed on the deferred list, when necessary; 

Key persons essential to maintenance of Connecticut State Department of Health 
who are enrolled in the Officers' Reserve Corps, and First Reserve, Red Cross 
Nurses 

Associate sanitary engineer (direct supervision of water supplies) 1 

Chief chemist (Bureau of Laboratories) 1 

Chief, division of dental hygiene (only one in direct charge of dental hygiene 
activities) 1 

Chief, Division of Local Health Administration (immediate control and super- 
vision of local health departments) 1 

Note. — Since this list was requested, the position of chief of the division of 
local health administration has been vacated and has not yet been filled. 
Public health nurses 5 

(All five are either specially trained for a specific branch of the nursing 
service offered by this department or are the principal supervising public 
health nurses in their respective fields.) 

Under the provisions of the merit system appointing authorities of State depart- 
ments are permitted to recruit substitutes for those called to military duty outside 
the eligible lists for the duration of military leave of the incumbent where there is 
no eligible list available. This will facilitate the temporary fiUing of such vacan- 
cies, for should it be necessary to await an examination for the filling of a vacancy 
for 1 year, it would be practically impossible to secure such employees. 

APPROPRIATIONS (AVAILABLE FUNDS FROM STATE AND FEDERAL SOURCES) 

A total State budget of $506,744 and an appropriation from Federal sources of 
$345,410 is available for the fiscal period July 1, 1941— June 30, 1942 divided as 
indicated in the following table: 

Total funds available for use by Connecticut State Department of Health, 1941-4^ 

State appropriation, Julv 1, 1941 to June 30, 1942 $450, 749 

Cancer (special act, 1941-43, 2 years) 50, 000 

Special contingent fund 10 

Prenatal funds (for laboratory blood test) 5, 985 

Total State funds 506, 744 

Federal Funds (All Funds Estimated) 

children's bureau 

Maternal and child health fund A (matched) $48, 029 

Maternal and child health fund B (unmatched) 20, 000 

Crippled children fund A (matched) 60,000 

Crippled children fund B (unmatched) 25, 490 

U. S. Public Health Service 100, 465 

Venereal disease control 48, 980 

Local Health Departments: 

U.S. Public Health Service Social Security Act title VI 3 1 , 226 

U. S. Public Health Service venereal disease control 11, 220 

Total 345, 410 

Grand. total Federal and State funds 1941-42 852, 154 



5282 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

The Water Supply of Connecticut 

The urban character of Connecticut's population is reflected in the fact that 
about 90 percent of the people of the State are furnished with water from the 109 
public water systems within our borders. These supply 202 communities repre- 
senting an approximate population of 1,511,600. Of the 109 systems, 86 are 
privately owned and supply water to approximately 772,500 persons. The 
-remaining 23 sj'stems are under direct public ownership and control. Details 
as to the ownership of each supply, the communities served, the population served, 
and the methods of treatment may be found in the annual reports of the State 
department of health. The annual reports of the public utilities commission also 
contain considerable information about various water-supply systems in the State 
A map showing the sources of Connecticut's water supplies is appended. A rough 
estimate shows that about 31.4 percent of that portion of the State population 
served by public water systems receives water that is filtered, and about 79.4 
percent receives water that is chlorinated. These figures correspond to approxi- 
mately 27.9 and 70.6 percent of the population of the State, respectively. Only 
1.3 percent of the population, supplied by public water systems, receives surface 
water that is neither chlorinated nor filtered. 

DEVELOPMENT OF CONNECTICUT'S WATER SUPPLIES 

The first public water supply system in Connecticut was developed in Durham 
in 1798. Increase in the number of public water supplies was slow until about the 
time of the Civil War. From then on, the growth was rapid. The term "public 
water supply" as used in this discussion refers to supplies which are furnished to 
the general public, regardless of whether the ownership is public or private. The 
largest town in the State without a public water supply now is the town of Mont- 
ville, with a 1940 census population of 4,128. Niantic (in East Lyme) and East 
Hampton are among a few sizeable communities where public water supply sys- 
tems have been considered but not built. There still remains some field for new 
public water distribution systems in the State, although the only towns with a 
population of over 3,000 without a public water supply are East Lyme and Mont- 
ville, and there are only 7 towns with a population of over 2,000 which are without 
any public water supply. In most of these smaller towns, the population is scat- 
tered over a considerable area, sometimes including 2 or 3 well-separated little 
villages. 

SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLIES 

All of Connecticut's larger water supplies are obtained from surface sources. 
Of the 109 public water supplies, the sources of 69 are from lakes, impounded 
reservoirs or streams; 32 are from wells or springs; and 8 are from both surface 
and ground water sources. The largest ground water systems in constant use in 
the State are the dug well supplies of the Watertown Fire District (estimated 
population served, 3,000), the Masonvill Spring Water Co. in Grosvenordale 
(estimated population served, 3,000), and the spring supply of the Connecticut 
Light & Power in Thompsonville (estimated population served, 11,000). New 
Britain has a large auxiliary shallow well supply at White's Bridge which is in the 
nature of a filter gallery. Several of our large State institutions have well systems, 
such as the University of Connecticut, Mansfield State Training School, J'airfield 
State Hospital, and Southbury State Training School. All of these institutional 
supplies are dug, driven, or gravel packed wells, ranging from 25 to about 60 feet 
in depth, securing water from gravel or sand. At the new Army air base at Wind- 
sor Locks gravel packed wells are being developed for the source of water supply, 
A few small communities such as Suffield, Broad Brook, and Hazardville derive 
their supplies from drilled wells in rock, usually ranging from 100 to 200 feet in 
depth. Two hundred feet is the usual maximum depth of drilled wells in Con- 
necticut. 

QUALITY OF CONNECTICUT'S WATER SUPPLIES 

Connecticut is very fortunately situated with regard to its available water 
supplies. Most of our large cities and towns are located along the shore or in 
the valleys of our larger reservoirs and it has been possible to shun the use of 
waters polluted by these same communities and secure water, frequently by 
gravity, from relatively clean upland areas. There are no sewerage systems in 
Connecticut discharging into tributaries of public water supplies. 

Connecticut's public water supplies are of good sanitary quality. They meet 
the United States bacteriological standards of quality for waters used for inter- 
state carriers. Except for the few supplies obtained from drilled wells in some of 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5283 

the smaller communities, the water supplies are soft. The color is generally low, 
ranging from to 20 parts per million. In some cases where color from swampy 
areas has been troublesome, rapid sand filters have been installed. Most of 
the supplies are of good physical quality without objectionable taste and odor. 
The few remaining instances of supplies showing noticeable tastes due to algal 
growths or similar causes are being rapidly reduced in number by installation of 
filtration plants. The hardness of supplies is usually under 50 parts per million. 

WATER SUPPLY ADEQUACY 

Inasmuch as most of our Connecticut population is dependent upon public 
surface water supplies, the adequacy of such supplies and computations and esti- 
mates as to adequacy based on rainfall and run-ofi are highly important considera- 
tions to water supply officials and also to the State health department. The 
State department of health has made yield estimates of every public water supply 
in the State, either in cooperation with local water officials or independently. 
These estimates have been of great value in predicting future shortage and in some 
instances in the past few years, exhaustion of public water supplies was predicted 
and warned against in advance. By and large, the local officials in charge of our 
Connecticut public water supplies have acted wisely and well in planning against 
future shortages. Some of the steps undertaken in recent years have been 
entirely upon local initiative, such as the developments to increase the sources 
of supply in Bridgeport, Hartford, Waterbury, New Haven, and Stamford, to 
mention only a few of the larger supplies. Others have been taken as a result 
of adoption of recommendations by the State department of health or by consult- 
ing engineers called in on various water supply problems, or have been forced 
by actual shortage. Among improvements in the latter group may be men- 
tioned the enlargement of the Norwich, Danbury, and Torrington water supplies, 
connections between Bridgeport, Shelton, and Derby, connections between Green- 
wich and Stamford, construction of auxiliary well supplies in Lakeville and Jewett 
City and connections between Hartford and East Hartford, Unionville and 
Farmington. 

No attempt has been made to make a complete list of recent water supply- 
adequacy improvements, as such a list would be long. These improvements are 
of the following types: Development of new watersheds; addition to storage on 
existing watersheds; construction of auxiliary well supplies; connections with 
near-by systems; and mettering and waste elimination programs to reduce 
consumption. 

A question has been asked as to the amount of water supply available for present 
population needs and the maximum population that can be supplied from the 
existing sources. It is somewhat difficult to answer this question unless each 
supi)ly is discussed separately. However, as a matter of general information, 
a tabulation has been made of the 38 larger supplies in the State which include 
all of the defense and large industrial areas. These systems furnish water to a 
population of approximately 1,443,000 persons. Daily total consumption is in 
the neighborhood of 148,830,000 gallons. The estimated safe yields of these 
supplies, based on rainfall records in the past, indicate that at the same per capita 
consumption rate as evidenced by these figures (103.1 gallons per capita per day), 
the supplies grouped together would be capable of furnishing water to 2,315,000 
persons. This means that as a whole, based on all existing rainfall records back 
for a great many years, the water supplies of the State are adequate. It must be 
borne in mind, however, that such total figures must be viewed only as of general 
information because the question of distribution of population and possibilities of 
getting water from one section of the State to another are controlling. It might 
be stated that the yield figures quoted above do not include supplies which will 
soon be added to the systems of Bridgeport and Hartford. 

The principal problems facing Connecticut's cities and towns at the present 
time are in connection with distribution from the source. Some of the more 
important projects receiving consideration in the State are as follows: 

EAST HARTFORD 

The water supply at East Hartford has recently been taken over by the metro- 
politan district. The East Hartford water supply has been inadequate both as 
to the sizes of distribution pipes and the yield of sources of supply. The supply 
is augmented by a connection with the Hartford metropolitan district, which 
at the beginning of this year took over the management of the East Hartford 
system. East Hartford having joined jthe Hartford metroplitan district. Steps 



5284 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

are now being completed, whereby the East Hartford system is being reinforced 
by additional and larger connections with the Hartford system. This should 
overcome the difficulties that have been experienced by many of the citizens of 
Elast Hartford, especially due to the draft of a large plant manufacturing defense 
equipment. There are still some problems of pressure in the outlying sectirns, 
but these are being rapidly taken care of by the metropolitan district. The 
tremendously increased draft upon the Hartford supply has overtaxed the 
capacity of the municipal slow sand filters and despite a" recent enlargment of 
the plant, peak drafts may continue to overtax the filter plant somewhat. How- 
ever, this has been offset by the installation of additional chloiinating equipment 
so that safe water of good physical quality can continue to be supplied in ample 
quantities for future needs. 

WATERS URY 

The city of Waterbury has a sufficient supply of water for immediate needs, 
but the system is very much weakened by the fact that only one supply main 
exists to carry water from its main source of supply and this pipe line extends for 
a distance of about 10 miles. The city is now working on plans to construct a 
new pipe line. Also, the city is working on plans to build a large new reservoir 
which is needed to increase the source of supply for the future. The improve- 
ments in Waterbury will be taken in the following order: 

First, construction of a new pipe line which should get under w^ay immediately, 
with pumping arrangements to get water into this pipe line which will be at a 
higher elevation than the present supply line; and 

Second, the construction of the new reservoir. 



The source of supply of Groton is estimated to be adequate for present demands 
although a large increased draft in the future might bring about the need for 
increasing the source of supply. The Borough of Groton has investigated the 
development of an increased supply and has had a report prepared by competent 
consulting engineers. At the present time, housing projects in the outlying 
sections of Groton are. pressing bes;y'ond the adequacy of the sizes of the pipes in 
the distribution system. Studies have been made which indicate the need for an 
additional large distribution reservoir, probably of about 1,000,000 gallons capa- 
city in the northerly part of Groton, with connecting pipe lines. The borough 
has not felt that this expense should be undertaken inasmuch as the need is being 
brought about entirely by defense projects. 



The Norwich water supply i.s safe but of rather poor physical quality at times, 
due to the presence of objectionable color and taste. Present plans contemplate 
the building of a new filtration plant at Deep River and raising of the Deep River 
Dam which would improve the physical quality and add to the safe yield for the 
future, although there is now no pressing problem of water supply adequacy. 
The extension of a pipe line from the Norwich State Hospital to the submarine 
base north of Groton has been discussed inasmuch as this would give the sub- 
marine base an entirely independent source of water. The distance is about 
7 miles. 

NEW LONDON 

The sources of supply of the city of New London appear adequate for the 
present needs, although at times the pressures in certain parts of the city are low. 
The city has had studies made by consulting engineers who have recommended 
the combining of the high- and low-pressure areas of the city into one high- 
pressure area, which will necessitate pumping and additional pipe lines. 

NEW BRIT.\IN 

The large demand of industries for water in the city produces peak loads at 
the municipal filtration plant and presents a serious draft upon the existing 
sources of supply. The city is working on plans to provide increased yield from 
an auxiliary well supply. 



1 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5285 



WATER-SUPPLY PLANNING 



In connection with future water-supply planning, the State department of 
health with the valuable cooperation of Connecticut waterworks officials has for 
some little time been engaged in studies of future plans for our public water sup- 
plies. These studies have been carried out by a sanitary engineer of the depart- 
ment assigned to the work. In the case of each city and town, with or without a 
present public water supply, future populations have been estimated up to the 
year 2000, per capita consumption with possible future increases have been 
predicted, present water supply safe yields have been matched against estimated 
future consumption and possible supplies have been considered for the future. 
The information thus made available, some of which represents intensive studies 
by water officials and some of which is only preliminary, is of great value in con- 
nection with furnishing allocating advice as to future water supplies. Further 
extensions of these studies are contemplated. 

At the 1935 session of the Connecticut General Assembly, section 2529 of the 
general statutes was amended by section 997c of the cumulative supplement to 
provide that not only should the State department of health approve new water 
supply systems but also that the department should act in an advisory capacity to 
comnaunities and to the general assembly with regard to new proposed water- 
supply allocations. This represents a step forward in water-supply planning. 
This act reads as follows: 

Section 997c statement of loater supply. — Each person, firm, or corporation 
supplying water to the public shall, on request, furnish the State department of 
health with all reasonable information regarding its waterworks and the source 
from which its supply of water is derived. No system of water supply owned or 
used by such municipal or private corporation or individual shall be constructed 
until the plans therefor shall have been submitted to and approved by said de- 
partment. The State department of health shall consult with and advise any 
municipality or private corporation or individual having or desiring to have any 
system of public water supply as to proposed sources of water supply and methods 
of assuring their purity. Each petition to the general assembly for authority to 
develop or introduce any system of public water supply shall be accompanied 
by a copy of the recommendation and advice of said department thereon. 

In some States elaborate machinery to control water supply planning has already 
been stt up. In Connecticut, the need for this has not yet shown itself to be 
acute in the public water supply field, due in large measure to far-sighted policies 
developed for the future of our large public water supply systems, accompanied 
to some extent by fairly effective planning by water works managements of smaller 
supplies. The future will undoubtedly see more and more development of 
metropolitan water supply systems which will tend to take in the great bulk of 
the population in a State of as small an area as Connecticut. Bridgeport, Hart- 
ford, and New Haven now supply water to all or part of 32 towns ovit of a total of 
169 towns in the State, including emergency connections not continually used. 
These three systems with existing emergency connections can now supply water 
to 713,000 persons or 42 percent of the 1940 population of the State. When we 
consider the probable use of a virtually unlimited supply of water (for domestic 
use) from the Housatonic River as a future water supply for Fairfield County 
and possibly part of New Haven County, and present developments completed 
or under way in Hartford, New Haven, Bridgeport, and Waterbury, public water 
supply demands for the State as a whole are projected a long way into the future. 
However, water supply planning must be continued and extended. It is obvious, 
too, that other factors than potable water supply needs exist in the field of water 
resources, such as water power, recreational developments, industrial use and 
flood control. 

STATE SUPERVISION OF WATER SUPPLIES 

The laws of Connecticut (see sections 2528, 2529, amended by section 997c of 
the cumulative supplement, and 2530 of the general statutes, revision of 1930) 
delegate to the State department of health the general sanitary supervision of 
public water supplies. This work is carried on in cooperation with local agencies 
who must furnish detailed supervision. 

The consultation service and field work carried on by the department through 
its bureau of sanitary engineering consist of: (1) periodic check-ups at approxi- 
mately annual intervals of sanitary conditions at each house on each public 
water supply drainage area in the State, (2) regular inspections of chlorination 
and filtration plants installed as safeguards on many water systems, (3) consul- 



5286 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

tations with water supply officials as to protective measures which may be under- 
taken, (4) occasional collection of samples for bactferiological analyses secured 
from distribution systems, (5) regular inspections of all approved check-valve in- 
stallations existing on cross connections between public water supply systems 
and unapproved private water supplies to see that no polluted water reaches the 
mains, such inspections being made at least every 4 months, (6) investigations of 
complaints as to tastes and odor from water, (7) approval of new sources of 
public water supply and approval of plans for new treatment works, (8) consul- 
tation with any municipality or private corporation or individual having or de- 
siring to have any system or public water supply as to proposed sources of supply 
and methods of assuring their purity, and (9) reports to the general assemblj' on 
an 3^ petition to develop or introduce any system of water suppl.v. 

In addition, arrangements are made by the bureau of sanitary engineering 
whereby samples for chemical and bacteriological analysis are forwarded by 
water officials to the bureau of laboratories of the State department of health 
at regular intervals, usually every 1 to 3 months. The laboratories, also, of 
course, examine samples of water brought in by the members of the bureau of 
sanitary engineering and local health officers. 

Watershed sanitation is considered of the utmost importance in Connecticut 
where reliance is placed on clean watersheds as a measure of first-line defense 
against water-borne disease. Certain State laws prohibit pollution of water 
supplies and sanitary code regulations apply to cleanliness of properties on public 
watersheds. 

WATERWORKS DEFENSE ACTIVITIES 

The Connecticut Water Works Association has appointed a committee on water- 
works defense. The director of the bureau of sanitary engineering of the State 
department of health is a member of this committee. The committee has been 
working closely with the State department of health and the public utilities com- 
mission on matters of defense preparedness. The State department of health 
has been working with tlie water superintendents on consideration of use of 
emergency sources of supply and emergency water treatment and is acting as an 
agency to maintain a central inventory of waterworks equipment in the State. 
The waterworks managements, public and private, are submitting to the State 
department of health on inventory sheets a complete list of pipe, valves, hydrants, 
sleeves, and other fittings, and the department intends, in case of emergency, to 
use this information when needed. The public utilities commission has discussed 
with the waterworks managements questions of fencing, flood lighting of struc- 
tures, patrol, etc. The committee of the Connecticut Water Works Association 
has met with the State commissioner of police and has sent out bulletins to all of 
the waterworks superintendents. The State department of health has assisted. 
The com.mittee consists of representatives of water companies or departments in 
the following communities: Hartford, New Haven, Bridgeport, Waterbury, Stam- 
ford, Groton, Ansonia, and Bristol, in addition to the representative of the State 
department of health. The chairman of the committee is Mr. G. E. Lourie, 
superintendent of the Bristol Water Department. The president of the Connecti- 
cut Water Works Association is Mr. D. C. Warner, vice president of the Bridge- 
port Hydraulic Co. While shipm.ent of materials for waterworks has been de- 
layed, no serious emergencies have yet arisen. The question of priority of water- 
works materials in emergencies is, of course, important. 

Sewage Disposal in Connecticut 

It is estimated that approximately 70 percent of the population of the State is 
served by public sewers. About 90 percent of the population of the State is 
served by public water supplies. In almost all cases, the population represented 
in this 90 percent has water-flush toilets, which means that at least 20 percent of 
the population (difference between 90 and 70 above) is served by private water 
carriage sewage disposal systems, usually consisting of septic tanks, cesspools, 
and tile fields. The figure of 20 percent, however, is not correct because many 

fersons without public water supply have private wells and pressure systems, 
n order to make a better estimate, the department has reviewed the data avail- 
able from house inspections of sewage disposal in rural areas on public watersheds 
outside of the limits of public water supply pipes. This reveals that less than 
10 percent of the population in these areas are probably still being served with 
privies and the number is decreasing each year. On the basis of these figures it 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5287 

might be estimated that not more than 7 or 8 percent of the population of the 
State is served by privies, but even these figures are probably high and 5 percent 
might be a closer figure. 

SEWAGE DISPOSAL IN THE STATE 

None of the public sewerage systems in Connecticut discharge into any streams 
tributary to any water supplies. The principal health considerations of sewage 
disposal are possible adverse effects on bathing places, particularly along the 
shore of Long Island Sound, the pollution of shellfish areas, and the creation of 
odor nuisances or possible avenues of fly-borne infection from larger sewage dis- 
charges. There are also other considerations having to do with destruction of 
fish life, usability of water for industrial purposes, and usability of water for 
boating and recreation. 

STATE LAWS RELATING TO WATER POLLUTION 

The Connecticut State statutes provide that the State department of health 
may order conditions corrected in the case of discharge of sewage where it can be 
shown there is a public health menace. The department is also authorized to 
approve plans for new treatment plants and approve the qualifications of opera- 
tors of treatment plants. The department may order treatment plants enlarged 
or altered when such changes are necessary for the protection of the public health. 
Also, the State water commission is authorized by State law to issue orders to 
correct pollution from domestic sewage or industrial wastes. 

METHODS OF TREATMENT EMPLOYED 

About 72 percent of the sewered population in the State is served by some 
method of treatment. Approximately 13 percent of the sewered population is 
served by fine screens; 63 percent by sedimentation; 6 percent by chemical pre- 
cipitation; 8 percent by sand filters; 0.3 percent by activated sludge treatment; 
2 percent by trickling filters; and 27 percent by chlorination. 

It is seen that sedimentation is the most commonly used method of treatment. 
Along the shore, chlorination is required in the summer months. In the case of 
discharge of sewage effluents into large inland watercourses such as the Con- 
necticut River, sedimentation is the method of treatment employed. Where 
sewage discharge is into small inland streams with relatively little dilution, some 
kind of secot dary treatment such as chemical precipitation, activated sludge, or 
filtration through trickling filters or sand filters is employed. 

By and large, most of Connecticut's communities have installed sewage treat- 
ment. The principal exception is in the valley of the Naugatuck River, a highly 
industrialized valley. Preliminary studies, however, have recently been under- 
taken by various communities along the Naugatuck River. In the past 10 years, 
a great many municipal sewage treatment plants have been built in the State. 
Among the larger cities and towns whore completely new plants have been built 
or old plants have been modernized are: Greenwich, Darien, Norwalk, New 
Canaan, Milford, West Haven, New Haven, New London, Norwich, Putnam, 
Manchester, Hartford, Middletown, Meriden, New Britain, Enfield, Torrington, 
Danbury, and Wallingford. The city of Bridgeport now has a large plant under 
construction. The city of Stamford has recently employed a consulting engineer- 
ing firm to draw up plans and specifications for a new plant. 

CONNECTICUT SHORE 

Along the Connecticut shore, aside from improvements being undertaken in 
Stamford and Bridgeport, a new sewage treatment plant is needed in Groton and 
there are a few other small communities which now do not have public sewerage 
systems, such as Westport, Fairfield, Mystic, Stonington, and Pawcatuck. There 
is also a considerable area in the easterly part of New Haven where public sewers 
are needed to better sanitary conditions. Two sizable sewer outlets there must 
eventually be picked up and provided with treatment such as is now aff"orded for 
most of the city's sewage. There is a need for enlargement of the sewage plant 
in Stratford. New London has recently constructed a modern sewage treatment 
plant of ample capacity to handle the sewage of the city but there is need for an 
intercepting sewer to carry to the plant a considerable volume of sewage that is 
now reaching New London Harbor without treatment. 

-41— pf. 13 18 



5288 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

HOUSATONIC RIVER VALLEY 

The condition of the Still River has been greatly improved by the new sewage 
treatment plant in Danbury. Improvement is needed along the Naugatuck 
River. The only large Connecticut community on the main Housatonic River is 
Xew Milford where sewage treatment has been recommended and })reliminary 
engineering studies have been made. 

CONNECTICUT RIVER VALLEY 

In the Connecticut River Valley a great deal of progress has been made. The 
only large remaining community discharging untreated sewage is East Hartford 
and plans for treatment are being considered by the metropolitan district, which 
has recently been extended to include East Hartford. 

THAMES RIVER VALLEY 

In the Thames River Valley, the dilution is large so that conditions have not 
been acute although sewage treatment has been recommended in a number of 
communities, the largest of which is Norwich. Norwich has recently installed a 
treatment plant to handle a considerable amount of sewage and has an expensive 
job ahead to pick up a large number of remaining outlets. In the upper part of 
the watershed, Putnam has built a sewage treatment plant. 

DEFICIENCY OF RAINFALL IN 1941 

It is to be noted that up to the time of writing this memorandum, the rainfall 
in Connecticut in 1941 has been very deficient. For example, in Hartford the 
rainfall since the beginning of December 1940 has been deficient every month. 
The rainfall from December 1, 1940, to May 31, 1941, was 13.09 inches, which 
represents a deficiency from normal for these 6 months of 9.51 inches. This 
means that unless rain relieves the situation, we will experience extremely low 
stream flows this summer and fall, which will, of course, afford less diluting water 
for discharges of sewage and sewage effluents. This may in some cases aggravate 
any nuisance conditions which may exist. No adverse effects are expected in the 
case of our larger public water supplies. If the deficiency cf raiafall should keep 
up, of course, there might be some adverse effect on some smaller supplies. ^ 

DEFENSE AS AFFECTS OPERATION OF SEWERAGE SYSTEMS 

The State department of health has considered pcssibilities of emergencies 
arising from damage to public sewers. This was discussed at a conference of 
sewage treatment plant operators recently. Because of the fact that there are no 
sewerage systems discharging into public water supplies, the conditions are not so 
serious in Connecticut as might be the case elsewhere. Also, Connecticut is 
fortunate in having only two sewage-pumping stations on public watersheds and 
neither of these are of strategic importance in that one is on an auxiliary water- 
shed which could be abandoned if necessary, and the other is a small station in the 
upper reaches of a large watershed where the water is treated by rapid sand 
filtration and chlorination. 

MATERIALS FOR NEW SEWERS 

As yet, no acute situation has arisen due to lack of materials for construction of 
sewers. It is, of course, important that such materials receive prioiity in the 
case of defense housing. 

Water and Sewerage Facilities for New Housing Developments 

The State departn.ent of health has had nun erous consultations with the Fed- 
eral authorities with regard to sewerage facilities for new hou'^lrg developn ents. 
P'ortunately, all large housing developments so far contemplated are within reach 
of public water distribution systems. This will probably be the case for the n ost 

1 Since this was dictated, 2.70 inches of rainfall occurred in Hartford during the first few days of June and 
similar rainfall was experienced over the State. This is a material aid. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5289 

part in the future although there is one sui.all developn^ent contemplated in Litch- 
field County where a new well supply may have to be constructed. Many of the 
housing sites have been located outside of the limits of existing public sewerage 
systen s. This n eans that in order to take care of the serwerage needs, either 
(1) public sewers must be extended; or (2) new sewerage systen s and central 
disposal plants must be built; or (3) individual subsurface sewage disposal systems 
for each residence must be installed. 

Effort has been made where possible to get the public sewers extended and this 
has been possible for n any of the developn.ents. However, in the case of some of 
the housing developments such as two of the Groton projects, it has been necessary 
for the Federal Government to draw up plans for sewers and build central disposal 
plants for the projects. This has been true especially where the soil conditions 
are poor for absorbing septic tank overflows. In tlie case of one developnent 
undertaken by the United States Navy in Groton, individual subsurface disposal 
systems were installed, consisting of septic tanks and tile fields, and the State 
department of health cooperated in reviewing the detailed plans. Groton, 
being a sn all community, has probably felt the impact of defense housing, as 
related, to sewerage conditions, more than any other Connecticut community. 
Groton's sewer collecting system is not extensive and the borough needs new 
collecting sewers as well as sewage treatment facilities. 

Elsewhere in the State, the additional sewage from defense housing has not 
created a serious overload on existing sewerage systems or sewage-treatment 
plants, although the situation will bear watching. 

In the case of the more recent housing developments, the housing engineer 
of the State dei:)artment of health is making a strenuous effort to keep in contact 
with the housing developments and where possible, to advise as to the suitability 
of sites from the standpoint of sewage disposal. Soil tests have been made in 
many instances to determine the character of the underlying soil where individual 
water carriage sewage disposal systems are to be installed. Conferences have 
also been held with local officials about sewer extensions in order to promote such 
extensions where possible. 



Population of Connecticut and Methods of Estimation 

The arithmetic method of estimating populations, determined by the difference 
between the censuses of 1920 and 1930, reduced to an annual increment, yielded 
the following estimates for the years 1935-39: 

Estimaled poprdaiion {arithmetic method), State of Connecticut 
Year ■ Population 

1935 1,722,797 

1936 1, 744,872 

1937 1,766,947 

1938 1,789,022 

1939 I, 811,097 

These poi)ulations increase by the constant difference of 22,075. 

The actual census of 1940, as of April 1, was 1,709,242. Correcting this for 
midyear adjustment, gives the 1940 census as of July 1, 1940, 1,711,800. 
f- The annual increase between the censuses of 1930 and 1940 is 10,234 (compare 
with increase of 22,075 between census of 1930 and census of 1920). 

The estimated population for 1941 based on the censuses of 1940 and 1930 
is 1,722,034. The 1935 estimate, based on the censuses of 1930 and 1920 is 
1,722,797. 

TAX METHOD OF ESTIMATING POPULATION 

A method of estimating populations may be designed from the so-called old- 
age assistance tax. Each town must count all persons between the ages of 21 and 
60 on October 1 of each year. If the percentage proportion of persons between 
21 and 60 is known for each town from a previous census, an estimate of the 
population may be made, on the assumption that there has been no change in the 
age grouping since the census and that the count is complete. 
Using this method, the following may be listed as estimated population. 



5290 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Estimated population (old-age tax method), State of Connecticut 

Year: Population 

1936 1, 720,902 

1937 1,761, 162 

1938 1, 782,303 

1939 1,802,727 

DISCUSSION 

Tabulating the arithmetic and old-age-tax methods gives the following for the 
State estimates: 



Year 


Old-age tax 


Arithmetic 
method 


]93g _ . _ 


1,720,902 
1,761,162 
1, 782, 303 
1,802,727 


1, 744, 872 




1,766,947 




1,789,022 


J939 


1,811,097 







Note— Census of 1940, corrected to July 1, 1940, 1,711,800. 

In arriving at the estimated population by means of the old-age-tax method, 
the list of any year is used as the basis for the estimate for the next year; namely, 
the list for 1935 was used for estimating the population as of 1936; the reason for 
this being the fact that the tax lists are revised from time to time, additions being 
received after the close of the calendar year. 



COMPARISON OP METHODS 

It is evident that the arithmetic and the old-age-tax methods do not give 
satisfactory results in estimating populations, both methods apparently over- 
estimating'the population. However, when the percentage proportions of persons 
between 21 and 60 years of age are available for each town in the census of 1940, 
it may be quite possible by a combination of average percentages to effect a better 
reconcihation with the actual census of 1940. 

Tax-list enrollments of 1938, 1939, and 1940, are included herewith. 

Old-age tax enrollment 



Towns 


1938 


1939 


1940 


Towns 


1938 


1939 


1940 




305 
10, 677 

404 
1,447 

362 

961 
2,812 

328 
2,321 

386 
2,259 

417 

480 
4,648 
83, 267 

265 
15, 525 

610 
1,211 

600 

294 

540 

'275 

2,091 

900 

974 

1,126 

411 
458 


314 

11, 278 

404 

1,347 
395 
977 

2,913 
330 

2,362 
380 

2,473 
438 
493 

4,699 

82, 715 

261 

16, 577 

662 

1,233 
615 
313 
622 

1,439 
277 

2.190 
929 
986 

1,175 
286 
452 
437 


339 

11,313 

406 

400 
1,018 
3,027 

375 
2,388 

418 
2,613 

457 

"'84," 294 

285 

18, 523 

706 

1,253 
622 
307 
568 

1,492 
277 

2,303 
941 
994 

1, 190 
293 
480 


Coventry _ 


1,148 

1,620 

15, 537 

4,950 

5,063 

593 

305 

609 

1,091 

1,608 

10, 116 

4,624 

1,370 

721 

1,962 

1,322 

7,544 

1,511 

11,547 

2,760 

310 

3,454 

323 

20,489 
2,910 
5,081 
1,840 
1,027 

12, 674 
245 


1,187 

1,673 

15, 550 

5,112 

5,280 

642 

306 

616 

1,124 

1,641 

10, 580 

4,639 

1,467 

775 

2,059 

1,360 

7,605 

1,618 

12,171 

2,842 

329 

3.633 

360 

850 

20,672 

5,' 197 
1,857 
1,052 
13.010 
252 


1,281 




Cromwell 


1, 760 




Danbury - _ 


16, 072 






5,316 






5,310 




Durham 






Eastford 


299. 






654 


Bethel 


East Haddam 


1, 16fr 






1, 70&^ 


Bloomfield 


East Hartford 


11.601 




East Haven 


5, 087 


■R Vi 




1, 522: 


■p ' c J 


Easton 


836. 




East Windsor 






Ellington ._. 


1,404 


Bristol 


Enfield 


7,909 


Tirnnlrfiplfl 


Essex 


1.612 




Fairfield... 


13, 322 




Farmington. 


2 983 




Franklin 


328 




3. 783 




Goshen 


379 




Granby 


909 




Greenwich 

Griswold 


21, 806 


Chester 








5,372 




Guilford 

Haddam .. 


1,943 


Colebrook 


1,095 






13.505 


Cornwall 


Hampton 





NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
Exhibit 26. — Old-age tax enrollment — Continued 



5291 



Towns 


1938 


1939 


1940 


Towns 


1938 


1939 


1940 




99,283 

167 

522 

470 

736 

5,005 

282 

754 

639 

585 

2,149 

407 

1,239 

13,413 

1,732 

255 

20, 916 

1,204 

617 

13, 297 

8,678 

2,119 
319 

9,181 
37. 870 

3,639 
317 

1,096 
88, 710 

2,895 
15, 772 

2,542 

1,781 
793 
724 

1,266 

2,532 

569 

23, 225 

17, 858 

920 

1,046 
986 
704 

3,979 

3,650 

3,444 
890 

2,257 
926 
516 

4,519 
949 


101,004 
151 
573 
496 
724 

5,077 
288 
753 
679 
567 

2,215 
424 

1,254 
13, 592 

1,794 

255 

20, 670 

1,277 

662 

13, 278 

9,066 
867 

2.137 
333 

9,443 
37, 908 

3,892 
347 

1,081 
87. 788 

2,984 
16, 097 

2.662 

1,775 
798 
751 

1,201 

2,665 

611 

24,013 

17, 948 

932 

1,075 

1,078 
690 

4,097 

3,726 

3,448 
882 

2,406 
916 
521 

4,581 
947 


103,831 

606 
501 
743 

5,217 
298 
787 
710 
588 

2,236 
461 

1,292 
13,918 

1,918 

'"20,"85i 

1,360 

731 

13, 788 

9,815 

941 

2,248 

355 

9,093 

39, 800 

4,136 

436 

1,149 

""3,"239 

16, 200 

2,865 

1,948 

813 

""i,"272 

2,874 

618 

26,115 

18, 383 

941 

1,152 

1,130 

746 

4,187 

3,931 

3,506 

"""2,"5i4 

891 

581 

4,932 

1,010 


Ridgefield 


2,022 
1,321 

390 

277 
1,531 
1,228 

240 
3,647 

830 
5,530 

266 
2,184 
1,093 

701 
4.968 
1,504 
1,250 
3,126 
34, 842 

583 

12,' 205 
2,229 
2,357 
3,066 

636 
14, 769 
2,763 

130 
4,995 

376 
8,198 

176 
1,106 
56, 495 
3,229 
4,482 

684 
18, 732 
16, 091 

716 
5,045 
4,802 

702 
1,543 
4,912 
6,696 
5,411 

'907 
1,191 
1,039 
1,019 


2,022 

'382 

297 
1,550 
1,226 

249 
3,756 

829 
5,710 

254 
2,234 
1,053 

764 
5,076 
1,624 
1,220 
3,199 
34, 276 

574 
5,634 
12,847 
2,292 
2,383 
3,010 

653 
15, 407 
2,878 

5,040 

374 
8,364 

194 
1,113 
56. 396 
3,466 
4,646 

672 
19, 142 
16, 857 

768 
5,354 
5,104 

742 
1,648 
4,852 
7,014 
5,438 
2,401 
1,003 
1,194 
1,049 
1,021 




Hartland 


Rocky Hill 


1 604 


Roxbury 


381 






298 


Kent 


Salisbury 


1,685 


■RTillinnlv 


Saybrook 


1,273 










Seymour 


3,880 


T prlvnr(i 


Sharon -. 


891 


T ichmn 


Shelton 


5,895 


Litchfield 


Sherman - 


269 






2,344 






1,159 




Southbury - - 


819 






5,352 




South Windsor ... .. 


1,676 


Meriden 


Sprague 


1,244 






3,282 


Middlefield 


Stamford 


36, 018 






611 


Milford 


Stonington 


5,620 




Stratford 


13, 833 




Suffield 


2,337 


Morris 


Thomaston 


2,405 




Thompson 


3,002 




Tolland .. 


672 


New Canaan 


Torrington 


15, 558 








New Hartford 


Union 


118 




Vernon 


5,150 


Newington 


Voluntown . .. 


381 


INew London 


Wallingford 




Now Milford 




194 


"Newtown 


Washington 


1,159 


Norfolk 




55, 727 






3,504 


North Canaan 


Watertown 


4,780 






716 


North Stonington 

Norwalk 


West Hartford 


20, 824 


West Haven 

Weston 


16, 776 
800 


■Old Lyme 


Westport 


5,371 




Wethersfleld 


5,393 




Willington -- .. 


745 




Wilton 


1,736 


Plainfield 


Winchester . 


5,105 


Plainville 


Windham 


7.508 




Windsor 


5, 040 


Pom fret 


Windsor Locks 


2,554 




Wolcott 




Preston 


Woodbridge 


1,290 






1,099 




Woodstock 















TESTIMONY OF DR. STANLEY H. OSBORN— Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have anything further you would hke to tell 
us at this time? 

Dr. OsBORN. The only additional thing that I have is a map here 
(see next page) showing the places where industrial plants are that we 
have been informed have defense contracts. I believe Dr. Gray 
testified about those plants, and on this map there is outlined certain 
areas, showing plants that we have made surveys of, and plants we 
have been in contact with to a greater or less extent, which have war 
contracts. 

By furnishing this information I show how^ w^e are trying to handle 
the industrial situation in connection with diseases that may arise 
from industry. The map also shows plants that we w^ere a little back- 
ward on because w^e didn't have sufficient personnel to do them. 
That has been rectified, I think, by an act of the last legislature, and 



5292 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 



aid we have received from the PubHc Health Service, so from now on 
we will probably catch up. 

The next map (see facing page) shows the location of trailer 
camps with the number of trailers in a circle, wherever such camp ex- 
ists, and the third map (see p. 5292B) shows the defense housing 




projects that we have been informed are connected with national 
defense, together with the location of military or naval hasps that 
may later become subjected to congested liousmg areas. 

Mr. Curtis. I thank you for the maps. 

The Chairman. Dr. Osborn, we thank you very much. 

Our next witness is Mr. Nicholas Tomassetti. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5292A 




5292B 



HARTFORD HEARINGS 




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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5293 

TESTIMONY OF NICHOLAS TOMASSETTI, REPRESENTING THE 
CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS, NEW BRITAIN, 
CONN. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arnold will interrogate you, Mr, Tomassetti. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Tomassetti, will you please state for the record 
your name and address and official title and the organization you 
represent? 

Mr. Tomassetti. Nicholas Tomassetti, 30 Ervine Place, New 
Britain, Conn. I am the State chairman of Labor's Non-Partisan 
League and vice chairman of the Conference on Social and Labor 
Legislation, as well as business agent for the United Electrical, Radio 
and Machine Workers Union, which is a C. I. O. affiliate. 

Mr. Arnold. And you are also a member of the Connecticut 
House of Representatives? 

Mr. Tomassetti. Yes. 

ANTIDISCRIMINATION BILL 

Mr. Arnold. And in that capacity you introduced at the last 
session of the legislature an antidiscrimination bill. What groups 
opposed enactment of that legislation? 

Mr. Tomassetti. Nobody opposed the bill publicly, or openly, but 
in a discussion of the bill on the house floor objections were raised by 
leaders of both parties, using the argument that "You can't legislate 
tolerance," and consequently all bills were defeated on that basis. 

Mr. Arnold. We have your prepared statement, and it will be 
entered as a part of the record. 

(The statement referred to is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY NICHOLAS TOMASSETTI, OF NEW BRITAIN, REPRE- 
SENTING CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS 

The problem of housing in Connecticut today is an unlimited emergency 
for the people of the State. Not only their comfort and well-being, their family 
lives and the upbringing of their children, but their health and their whole families' 
budgets are involved in this situation. I am very happy to have this oppor- 
tunity to present evidence on this crisis and to recommend swift, energetic 
action to solve it as an essential step in any scheme of defense which considers the 
welfare of the people. Up till now the record of our public authorities — Federal, 
State, and local— has been one of inaction, of countless investigations not fol- 
lowed by necessary steps to rectify this situation. If we seriously mean to defend 
democracy, this is a problem that we can no longer postpone. 

YEARS OF NEGLECT 

I have said that this is an emergency problem. But it is much more than that. 
It is a problem that has accumulated over years of neglect. Allow me to present 
a few relevant facts to prove this statement. In 1939 the Research Department 
of the National Labor's Non-Partisan League compiled from official sources some 
figures on housing conditions in Connecticut. Twenty-five percent of the dwelling 
units in the State were found to be unsafe or insanitary. That means that one 
out of every four Connecticut families was living in a place unfit for human 
habitation. In the town of Stamford at least 26 percent of the dwellings were in 
this category; while in Waterbury, 14 percent were unfit for use and 10 percent 
had neither bath nor shower. 

At the same period the Housing Advocate prepared by the New Haven City- 
Wide Council for Slum Clearance and Better Housing published an article by 
Dr. Winslow, stating that at least 7,000 families in New Haven were living in 
substandard dwellings; while in the slum wards an infinitely higher proportion 



5294 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

of dwellings were unfit, and this situation was accompanied bj' higher delinquency 
rates, worse health, and extremely low incomes. 

Connecticut certainly contributed its share to the one-third of the Nation that 
was ill-housed. 

In a bulletin on Housing, prepared by the Work Projects Administration for 
the housing authority of the city of Hartford, vacancy ratios in homes for rent 
are shown as follows: Percent 

1938-39 3.09 

1940 first 6 months 1. 8 

Julv 1940 1. 2 

September 1940 .6 

All housing authorities agree that a city's housing is not in a healthy condition 
unless it has a 5-percent vacancy level. Hartford, even in 1938, fell badly below 
this figure. 

The United States census of last year shows the same overcrowding as being 
proven throughout the State early in 1940 before the defense boom developed. 
In a bulletin covering 24 Connecticut cities only three at that time had a vacancy 
level of 5 percent. My own town of New Britain had a vacancy of 0.6 percent; 
Bristol and Torrington had 1 percent; Hartford, 1.8 percent; Ansonia, Bridgeport, 
and countless other industrial centers, barely 2 percent. 

These few figures which I have presented so far show that housing in Connec- 
ticut is a serious problem of long standing which would challenge a solution by all 
progressive people even if it was not complicated by the present emergency 
situation. 

THE EMERGENCY 

The extent of the present emergency can only be dimly pictured here. We 
have overcrowding; we have rent gouging and we have discrimination against 
large families added to our permanent disgrace of discrimination against Negroes 
in the housing field. 

Let me briefly sketch this situation for you. 

In the official organ of Labor's Non-Partisan League — News of Connecticut — 
February 22, Mr. Allan A. Twichell reported as follows: By February 5 in Bristol 
and Terryville only seven vacancies were left. "Rent raises of 33 percent are 
reported as typical in an area studied by one housing authority," said Mr. Twi- 
chell. He also cited individual cases of increases from $18 to $30 and from $30 
to $45. 

Rev. John Edwards, leading Negro minister in New Haven, has stated: "Tak- 
ing advantage of the shortage of suitable places available for Negro tenants in 
this area, some of these landlords have raised the rents from 20 to 50 percent." 

Information made available to me by the New Haven city-wide council on 
slum clearance and better housing shows the following: Among applicants for 
admission to the housing project about 15 percent have recently had their rents 
increased bv an average amount of 10 to 15 percent. Cases are shown of increases 
from 26 to 30, 16 to 20, from 17 to 23, from 18 to 25. Surveys published in the 
Hartford Courant, based on Bureau of Labor statistics figures, show that in the 
city of Hartford almost one-third of all rents from $20 to $39 have recently been 
raised by about 9 percent. 

The Industrial Relations Club of New Haven in its monthly news letter for 
June 1941, records that "there are no plans for expansion of residence accommoda- 
tions, however. Instead, an effort is being made to squeeze the incoming workers 
into the few available vacancies, whether they fit or not. Greedy as vultures 
over the field of battle, the rent profiteers hoist their prices month by month." 

This state of affairs leads to the most serious hardships. In Hartford there 
are widespread reports that the general housing shortage is leading to "No 
Children Wanted" signs being widely seen. One social worker rei^orts that in 
the Negro section "families have doubled up, and cases are frequently cited in 
which 14 or 16 people live in three rooms, sleep in shifts, and pile furniture in 
corners to find added space for more beds." I must say here that the continued 
un-American practice of our industrialists in refusing jobs to Negroes makes this 
situation worse. 

A recent case we have heard of is particularly dramatic. In Torrington, a 
worker and a family of wife and four children were evicted because they could 
not meet a rent increase. No place in town could be found for them. Only the 
generosity of a brother trade unionist saved them from spending the night on 
the street by putting at their disposal a small summer cottage on the lake out 
of town. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5295 

AUTHORITIES FAIL TO ACT 

I stated earlier that all authorities must be held responsible for serious inac- 
tion in the present situation. 

Why has Congress allowed the fine beginnings made by the United States 
Housing Authority to come to a halt? Why is it that small appropriations for 
defense housing, which by the way materialize very slowly, are the only steps 
taken nationally to meet the situation? Why is it that the rent experts of the 
price-control bureaus in our national defense set-up are still only in the stage 
of issuing press releases stating the obvious facts of rent gouging in such cities 
as Hartford, Bridgeport, and Waterbury, but are not yet ready to take any con- 
crete action to prevent these things. 

In our own State, why it is that the rent-control law which would have given 
the cities the right to jDrevent increases was not passed? Why is it that the 
senate delayed this act until the last few days of the session? Why did the 
house vote it down? Why did not the Governor insist upon it? 

Why does not the defense council act under its powers to halt the continued 
increases of rents. In our cities and towns I find the same inaction prevalent. 
In East Hartford, according to the Connecticut State Journal, officials actually 
oppose the building of a thousand homes. Housing facilities are not overbur- 
dened, they say. United Air Craft will consider a big expansion about Sep- 
tember 1, but these officials say that new homes will still not be needed if the 
present high proportion of single men continues. One may well ask what happens 
to these single men. The East Hartford officials are worrying about being left 
"holding the bag" when the emergency is over. 

In New Haven officials issue optimistic press releases stating that there is little 
difficulty. They claim that the homes registry office has more available rents 
than it has applicants. But look a little closer and you will find that two-thirds 
of the available rents are beyond the means of the applicants and that in fact, 
clearly, a shortage exists. To say, as one official has said, that the public is to 
blame for not reporting existing vacancies is willful deception. 

The news letter of the Industrial Relations Club, already quoted, makes this 
significant statement: 

"The house registration office, of which Edward Foley is director, is pro- 
gressing slowly with a rent survey of the city. But no figures are available for 
his use on the subject of increasing needs, because factory personnel offices 
decline to state how many persons from out-of-town they have employed, or to 
guess at their employment requirements for coming months. Rents from $20 
to $40 per month are in greatest demand, this office reports, and are now difficult 
to find, in habitable condition. 

This is not an edifying example of civic consciousness on the part of our indus- 
trialists. 

ACTION NEEDED 

Gentlemen of the committee, I am certain that you are well aware of this 
situation. What is needed now is not talk, but action. I will, therefore, close by 
presenting certain proposals that Labor's Non-Partisan League, together with 
the C. I. O. in Connecticut and the Connecticut Conference on Social and Labor 
Legislation, have prepared and advocated. I trust that you will do all in your 
power to forward them. 

L We have advocated passage of legislation to empower our cities to fix and 
enforce fair rents and to prevent increases. This was done on a semiofficial 
basis in the last war. It must be done again quickly, officially and courageously 
now. Our legislature has adjourned without taking action on this. A special 
session of the legislature should act upon it immediately. 

2. We have also advocated setting up of a housing division on the same lines 
as U. S. H. A. The State of Connecticut could raise a million dollars a year to 
finance such a program by the simple expedient of levying a long-overdue State 
income tax. Such a sum could bring about the construction of 5,000 new homes 
in this State. 

3. The State defense council should be asked to give immediate attention to 
this whole problem with a view to swift action. I am no lawyer, and do not pre- 
tend to know exactly the powers of this council, but I feel sure that some effective 
action could be taken by them if they decided upon it. 

4. We believe that your committee should immediately recommend that the 
United States Congress forthwith appropriate large sums of money to expend and 
continue the construction of United States Housing Authority type low-rent 
homes in those overcrowded areas. We can set no stock in the selfish arguments 



5296 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

of real-estate owners who fear that the construction of such homes now may knock 
the bottom out of the values of their existing substandard properties after the 
emergency is over. So far from fearing this prospect, we should recommend it. 

CONCLUSION 

In appearing before you, I am authorized to speak on behalf of the Labor's 
Non-Partisan League of Connecticut of which I am chairman. I speak also for 
the Connecticut Conference on Social and Labor Legislation of which I am one of 
the vice chairmen. In this way, I appear as the spokesman for tens of thousands 
of working people who together with their families make up a sizeable proportion 
of the entire population in the State of Connecticut. 

To these people, this crisis means real hardship (economic, social, and domestic). 
The time for investigations by boards of aldermen, etc., is past. This is an 
emergency which must be met now. Our people hope most strongly that your 
committee will swiftly recommend a course of practical and energetic action of 
alleviating this situation. Already disillusioned with the inaction displayed to 
date by most of their representatives, I state with assurance that unless something 
is done soon, they will lose all confidence in the leadership of Democratic and 
Republican Parties alike. 

TESTIMONY OF NICHOLAS TOMASSETTI— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. You have been very much opposed to the rent in- 
creases, both individually and as a member of the league, and in your 
capacity as chairman of the C. I. O.? What is the C. I. O. doing 
to prevent rent increases? 

BILL TO FREEZE RENTS 

Mr, ToMASSETTi. Well, we have been carrying on educational 
work among our own membership, as well as in the communities at 
large in which we have membership, to bring this to the attention of 
the people and to the attention of the proper Government officials. 
We introduced a bill in the last session of the legislature called the fair 
rent standard bill, which would allow the setting up of rent com- 
missions before which any individual who was aggrieved by rent 
gouging could appear and present his case; if his case was justifiable, 
the commission would order the landlord to reduce his rent. Also 
the bill would have established standards and pegged all rents as of 
September 1939, which might be considered a reasonable pegging 
figure. 

Mr. Arnold. And that bill did not pass? 

Mr. TOMASSETTI. No. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is that the same bill that the Governor referred 
to this morning? 

Mr. ToMASsETTi. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Which he said passed the Senate but did not pass 
the House? 

Mr. ToMAssETTi. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. That was an administration supported measure? 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. Well, it was introduced both in the Senate and the 
House, and it passed the Democratic Senate. 

Mr. Arnold. Wliat effort is the C. I. O. making to obtain addi- 
tional housing, health, and educational facilities? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5297 

SUPPORTING MORE UNITED STATES HOUSING AUTHORITY APPROPRIA- 
TIONS 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. Well, we are not exclusively devoted to the 
problem of housing, but we are doing what we can by contacting our 
membership who may know of vacancies and urging them to report 
them into our office; we have helped in cases such as that. 

We are also, as is common knowledge, supporting additional 
appropriations for the U. S. H, A. We stand for a broad national 
program of Federal low-cost housing. We hope that your committee 
will do something about that in your recommendations to Congress. 

We feel that the housing situation is already acute, even before 
the defense boom is in full swing, and that there exists a problem of 
low-cost housing that can be solved only by a permanent Government 
program. 

STAND ON REPORTS OF LABOR SHORTAGE 

Mr. Arnold. What is the opinion of the C. I. O. on the question of 
alleged skilled-labor shortage? 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. Well, in some cases we have found this to exist; 
however, there is available skilled labor owing to discrimination 
agamst some of our skilled workers who may be of Italian or German 
extraction. The condition also applied to the Negro people. 

Some of the Negroes here have completed the 200-hour course which 
has been set up in our State but have not been able to get jobs in the 
defense industries, despite the fact that many workers from outside 
Connecticut have been hired in these plants in the meantime. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you say that that discrimination is lessening, 
as has been testified here today? 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. I would say it has lessened very little; I think it is 
Still an important problem. 

COMPULSORY LABOR PRIORITIES 

Mr. Arnold. Does the C. I. O. have an opinion on compulsory 
labor priorities? 

Mr. ToMAssETTi. Well, I don't want to venture an official opinion 
on that, but I guess you know that the C. I. O.'s position is to cooperate 
fully with the national-defense program so long as labor gets its just 
return a'nd suffers no reduction in its standards. 

However, we do have difficulties here in Connecticut in some of the 
consumer industries. For instance, we have a problem in one of our 
organized shops in Bristol, the Ingraham Clock, which, because it is 
not able to get some of the brass and zinc required for that in- 
dustry, has been forced to make certain adjustments in production 
methods, and as a result some of the people may be laid off. One of 
the immediate results, I understand, is that the workers there will get 
an extra week off during the summer to give the company an oppor- 
tunity to readjust its production to fit into some national defense work. 

lack MATERIALS FOR CONSUMER GOODS 

I think that problem is pretty general with most consumer indus- 
tries, that the required materials are not getting into the consumer 
industries because of the need for national defense. 



5298 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Aenold. Some workers, of course, will be absorbed in national- 
defense industries and others won't be? 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. That is true, but you will find a condition rapidly 
developing where, in a community, one shop is forced to operate with 
a reduced working force on hours cut to somewhere around 32 a w^eek, 
and right across the street another shop will be working three shifts; 
and if not three shifts, will be working its force 40, 50, 60, and even 
65 hours a week, which I think is a rather dangerous condition to 
have develop. 

Mr. Arnold. What does the C. I. O. organization think of requiring 
all employers to recruit labor through the State employment service, 
or do you have an^^ opinion on that? 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. We don't have an official opinion on that because 
we do some of the hiring ourselves in some of the shops where we 
have closed-shop agreements — union shop agreements. 

Mr. Arnold. You wouldn't think, then, that all employers should 
recruit all their labor through it? 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. Not all their labor. I said they should use the 
existing facilities because they can be of help. 

AVERAGE WORK WEEK 

Mr. Arnold. Wliat is the average work week for C. I. O. members, 
including overtime? 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. Well, I would say — and this is merely guess work 
because it varies in different communities here in the State — the 
average work week, including overtime, is between 45 and 48 hours in 
most industries. And time and a half is provided for all over 8 hours 
a day. 

Mr. Arnold. How does the C. I. O. stand on the question of race 
discrimination in industries? Are you for the elimination of all race 
discrimination? 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. That is correct. 

Mr. Arnold. And you believe some progress is being made along 
that line, but not as rapidly as it should be? 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. That is correct. Especially in defense industries 
where employers are doing business with the Government under 
contract to provide work for the national-defense program, one of the 
qualifications and requirements for any industry receiving a defense 
contract should be that they not discriminate against any person, 
regardless of race, color, or creed. I think that could be enforceable 
by our Government agencies, and we hope something will be done 
about it. 

Mr. Arnold. It was testified here by one of the gentlemen on the 
panel that those groups were bemg absorbed in their proportion in 
industry, but that they didn't want to absorb any one group over- 
proportionately. 

Mr. ToMASSETTi. Well, I don't think the facts show that, not here in 
Connecticut at any rate. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Tomassetti. 

Our next witness is Mr. Hiclonan. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5299 

TESTIMONY OF KENNETH HICKMAN, OF HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hicknian, will you please state your name and 
address for the record? 

Mr. Hickman. Kenneth Hickman, 35 Mahl Avenue, Hartford, 
Conn. 

The Chairman. And what is your present occupation? 

Mr. Hickman. At present I am unemployed. 

The Chairman. Will you give us sometliing of your background, 
education, and previous experience? 

Mr. Hickman. I attended the elementary schools of Hartford, 
completed a B. S. degree at Wilberforce University in Ohio and took 
special work in education, economics, and sociology at Yale University. 
I taught school 2 years in North Carolina and 2 in Maryland. I have 
worked as a social worker and as a group worker in the city of Hart- 
ford. I have been employed by the W. P. A. adult educational pro- 
gram as a teacher and as a research worker; also as a director of Negro 
community centers wherem we took care of educational, recreational 
and social activities in the north end of the city. 

I am unemployed, due to the fact that during the cut-dff of the 
W. P. A. workers, I went out with them. 

The Chairman. You mean after 18 months' work? 

Mr. Hickman. No; since the budget has been cut, 4,000 workers in 
Connecticut are being discharged and I happened to be among those. 

The Chairman. What salary were you receiving? 

Mr. Hickman. $92 a month. 

The Chairman. Are you married? 

Mr. Hickman. I am single. 

The Chairman. Now, have you had any traming or experience 
which would qualify you for a defense job? 

Mr. Hickman. Yes. I took the aptitude tests which were given at 
the adult guidance bureau to certify individuals to take the 200-hour 
training course under the defense program. I passed the course with 
a high rating. I think I was registered m the second class of workers. 

The Chairman. Under what sponsorship? 

Mr. Hickman. Under the sponsorship ot the United States Employ- 
ment Service, last fall. 

The Chairman. WQiere have you applied for work? 

Mr. Hickman. Now, under the terms of the sponsorship of the 
course, I was told by the State employment service that due to the 
difhcidty in placing Negroes in industry, it would be much easier if 
they made contacts for me. They said that they could send me out 
witii a card to various industries but the reception I would receive 
perhaps wouldn't be so encouraging, so they would make contacts for 
me and I could then follow these contacts up and attempt to get a job. 
They made contacts at one or two factories where I was sent to get a 
job as a machine operator, but the type of work that was offered me 
was of a menial capacity such as sweeping floors and cleaning lavato- 
ries. This is about the best type of job that has been offered me. 

One factory did offer me a job as a freight-elevator operator. Due 
to the fact that I had had the machine operator's training, I always 
asked, of course, for an opportunity to go on as a machine operator, 
but that wasn't given me. 



5300 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

The Chairman. In other words, your 200-hour experience in train- 
ing qualified you for a job as a machine operator? 

Mr. Hickman. It qualified me as a sort of apprentice; it just gave 
me a smattering knowledge of various kinds of machines. It would 
give me a start as a machine operator. It wouldn't make me an 
experienced worker, of course. 

The Chairman. Do you know of any other Negroes with that 
training who have been employed? 

Mr. Hickman. As far as I can ascertain, there have been nine who 
have completed the 200-hour training course, and at present none of 
the nine has been employed as a machine operator. A few of them 
have been employed as maintenance men in various factories but none 
works on a machine. 

The Chairman. And the State employment agency led you to 
believe that you would be employed if you put in the 200 hours? 

Mr. Hickman. The statement made to me at the State employment 
agency before I took the course implied that they were not guarantee- 
ing me a job. In fact, they said they doubted very much whether I 
would be able to get a job in industry, but at least I could take the 
course. 

Of course, the old argument was that Negroes are not employed 
because they are not qualified for various positions. They said: 
"If you will take this training and become qualified for the position, 
we can counteract that argument by having a pool of eligible Negroes 
qualified for various types of work"; so with that understanding I 
took the training so that I would be qualified in the event an opening 
should come; but such an opening has not occurred. 

The Chairman. And you are unemployed right now? 

Mr. Hickman. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Have you had any military training? 

Mr. Hickman. Yes; I had 4 years of R. O. T. C. and served at 
Fort Humphries in Virginia, Fort Devens, and at present I hold a 
second lieutenant's commission in the Organized Reserves. 

The Chairman. How old are you? 

Mr. Hickman. Thirty-six years old. 

The Chairman. Do you find much employment discrimination 
against your race in this vicinity? 

Mr. Hickman. Definitely. For instance, when I went to various 
factories, asking for specific kinds of work, they seemed shocked to 
find that a Negro would ask for any but the lowest type of job. 

I would go into a factory and ask for a job in a laboratory; in 
one factory they had an experimental laboratory, and I asked for 
an opportunity there. I also asked for office work, and for an oppor- 
tunity on a machine. I even asked for a lower type job if I could be 
given the assurance that, should I make a certain amount of progress, 
I would receive advancement. I was willing to start at the bottom if 
they would give me some assurance of promotion in case I made a 
certain amount of progress, but even then no opportunity was given 
for employment. 

The Chairman. You are physically well, aren't you? 

Mr. Hickman. Physically well, yes, sir; no handicaps whatsoever. 

The Chairman. What are your future plans? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 53Q1 

Mr. Hickman. It is very hard to say. I have tried everything I 
knew to make some sort of a future for myself either in mdustry, 
education, or civic government. But it seems that right now the 
future looks rather dark, because in the midst of all this defense work, 
when everybody else seems to be getting employment and making 
money, our particular group is almost as hopeless as ever. 

The Chairman. In these defense industries around Hartford, some 
Negroes are employed, are they not? 

Mr. Hickman. Yes, sir; some are employed. 

The Chairman. Are there many unemployed in this vicinity? 

Mr. Hickman. Not such a very large number. We have quite a 
few Negroes employed in construction work. There is quite a bit of 
construction work in this vicinity, and they are receiving jobs as 
laborers; but as far as work in defense industry goes, only a very small 
percentage of our group is finding work in factories. 

The Chairman. It isn't a question of your patriotism? 

Mr. Hickman. Oh, no. 

The Chairman. Or ability to work? 

Mr. Hickman. No. 

The Chairman. It is a question of your color? 

Mr. Hickman. Absolutely. 

The Chairman. Mr. Sparkman? 

Mr. Sparkman. Where were you born? 

Mr. Hickman. Hartford. 

Mr. Sparkman. Born and reared here? 

Mr. Hickman. Right here, and stayed here until I went to college. 

Mr. Sparkman. How about your father? 

Mr. Hickman. My father was born in Virginia and came to Hart- 
ford in 1883, and my mother in 1884. 

Mr. Sparkman. And your family has been here ever since? 

Mr. Hickman. Ever since. 

Mr. Sparkman. You might be interested to know of a little experi- 
ence that I had recently in visiting a very large plant in the State of 
Alabama, engaged in defense production. I saw a great many Negroes 
working in the plant. Later I was talking with one of the officials 
of the company and he told me that they made it a policy to hire 
Negroes in their numerical ratio to the total population of that section. 

Mr. Hickman. I thought that experiment was only being carried 
on out in Detroit. 

Mr. Sparkman. W>11, that is what they told me in that plant. 

The Chairman. According to that, the North can learn something 
from the South. 

Mr. Hickman. If that is true; yes, it could. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all. 

Mr. Arnold. Don't you expect to be called up on your officer's 
Reserve commission? 

Mr. Hickman. I have made application, of course, to go into 
active service. In fact, I have had two examinations and it happened 
I was about 54 pounds overweight. I' took off 34 pounds of that 
and I still have a few m.orc to go. As soon as I can take that off I 
expect to be called. 

The Chairman. You come down to Washington and enjoy a few 
days of our weather, and vou will take it off. 



60396 — 41— pt. 1.3- 



5302 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Aknold. The position of freight-elevator operator VvOiild liave 
paid you how much? 

Mr. Hickman. Forty cents an hour. 

Mr. Arnold. And you felt that if you took the freight-elevator job 
you wouldn't have any chance for advancement? 

Mr. Hickman. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. They would keep you right there? 

Mr. Hickman. Right there. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know of any colored people working on 
machines? 

Mr. Hickman. There are no colored people working on machines 
in that factory at all. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you think the President's appeal to the manu- 
facturers to refrain from race discrimination will have any effect on the 
manufacturers? 

Mr. Hickman. I doubt it seriously, unless some specific legislation 
is enacted which will force the manufacturers to let down the barriers 
and take Negroes into industry. In fact, defense contracts should be 
so awarded that in case discrimination is shown in hiring workers^ 
the contracts w^ould be taken from those factories and given to others. 
Unless some such condition is legally imposed, I doubt whether the 
appeal made by the President will carry much weight. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Hickman. We 
appreciate your coming here. 

The committee will stand adjourned until 9:30 o'clock tomorrow 
morning. 

(Whereupon, at 5:20 p. m., the hearing adjourned until 9:30 a. m., 
Wednesday, June 25, 1941.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



WEDNESDAY, JUNE 25, 1941 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 

morning session 

The committee met at 9:30 a. m., in the State Capitol Building, 
Hartford, Conn., Hon. John H. Tolan (chairman), presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of 
California; Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois; and Carl T. Curtis, of 
Nebraska. 

Also present: Robert K. Lamb, staff director; Francis X. Riley and 
Frank B. Wells, field investigators; and Irene Hageman, field secre- 
tary. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

Our first witness was to have been Mayor Jasper AIcLevy, of 
Bridgeport, but I am told he is unable to be present this morning. 
He will appear later in the day. Instead, we will now hear Mayor 
George J. Coyle, of New Britain, Conn. 

TESTIMONY OF THE HONORABLE GEORGE J. COYLE, MAYOR, NEW 
BRITAIN, CONN. 

The Chairman. Mayor Coyle, will you please state your name for 
tlie record? 

Mayor Coyle. George J. Coyle. 

The Chairman. And your position? 

Mayor Coyle. Mayor of New Britain, which is about 10 miles 
from Hartford. 

The Chairman. I understand you have some reports you would 
like to file with the committee. 

Mayor Coyle. I have a "Schedule of estimates of community 
facilities needed by defense housing projects" which was filled out for 
New Britain on blanks of the Federal Works Administration. I can 
leave these reports here with you. 

The Chairman. We will make them a part of the record. 

5303 



5304 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

(The reports referred to are as follows:) 
Exhibit 30. — Facilities Needed by Housing Projects in New Britain, Conn. 

report by mayor george j. coyle, of new britain, conn. 

Schedule — Estimates of Community Facilities Needed by Defense Housing Projects 

(Return to Division of Defense Housing, Federal Works Agency, Washington, D. C.) 

I. Schools: 

A. Are the present school facilities adequate for children of the project? (Check 

one.) Yes-_.X--- No 

******* 

II. Water Supply and Treatment: 

A. Are present sources of pure water sufficient for the residents of the project? 
(Check one.) Yes No..X--. 

B. If not, is this due to: 

1 . Insufficient water storage capacity? (Check one.) Yes No . . X - . . 

(See explanation in accompanying statement.) 

2. Insufficient facilities for treatment and purification? (Check one.) 

Yes No 

C. Describe briefly additional facilities needed: (See accompanying statement.) 

D. What is the estimated cost of each of the needed facilities (give source or 
basis of estimate) ? 

Facility Est. Cost Source or Basis 

(See accompanying statement) 

E. Are plans or negotiations under way to provide any of the above? If so, 
describe: (See accompanying statement). 

F. Remarks: (See accompanying statement.) 

III. Water Distrihution: 

A. Is the project connected to an adequate supply of pure water? (Check 
one.) Yes No ..X__. 

(See explanation) 
******* 

EXPLANATION, II Bl AND C 

The estimated safe yield of New Britains' water supply system is 8.3 million 
gallons per day. The actual average daily consumption at this time is slightly 
under 8 million gallons per day. 

New Britain is an industrial city. With factories working 24 hours per day on 
defense work and with 640 Federal-housing units in course of construction and 
200 more already allocated and the private developments in course of construction, 
New Britain is obliged to develop at once additional water supply in order not to 
hinder the defense program. 

The capacity of the main transmission pipes is adequate. 

It is interesting to note that on June 21, 1940, the amount of impounded water 
in storage was l,46r>,000,000 gallons while on June 21, 1941, the amount of im- 
pounded water in storage was 1,289,000,000. 

Impounding surface supplies are developed to full economical limits. 

Crossing the Southington Valley is a twin 20-inch pipe line approximately 6 
miles in length with a gravity capacity of 12 million gallons per day. On the 
upstream side of this pipe line and tributary to it is an area of 21.7 square miles. 
Of this area 10.4 square miles is glacial drift, 9.3 square miles is glacial till and 
2 square miles is crystalline outcrop. These figures were determined from United 
States Geographical Survey reports and the State Geological and Natural History 
Survey of the State of Connecticut — Bulletin No. 47. 

The safe yield of the impounding surface supply is estimated at 2.2 million 
gallons per day leaving an idle pipe capacity of 9.8 million gallons per day. 

From test wells driven along this 6-mile pipe line it is estimated that 30 20-inch 
diameter modern gravel packed wells will yield 10 million gallons per day without 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5305 



overtaxing the wells and utilizing the available idle pipe capacity would give a 
net yield of 8.2 million gallons per day. 

Tests of water from this section indicate that this water would not require 
filtration. 

Another impounded surface supply gives an estimated safe yield of 3.26 million 
gallons per day. It is estimated that, in an area of glacial drift another safe yield 
of 1 million gallons per day can be developed by the addition of a well system 
the water from which would utilize the remaining pipe-line capacity and make 
this pipe line work to capacity. 

At the present time we are conducting a water-v,^aste survey with the aid of the 
Pitometer Co. of New York City. 



EXPLANATION, D AND E 

Following is a tabulation of projects already authorized and for which bonds 
have been authorized to be issued: 



Facility 


Estimated 
cost 


Source or basis 


Land 


$.55, 000 
35. 000 
70, 000 
10, 000 
.30.000 


Realty advisers 


Grading and landscaping at pumping station 


Chief engineer. 
Do. 




Exploration work on 2 well systems 


Do. 




Do. 






Total 


200, 000 









The purchase of land at $55,000 included the purchase of land on an impounding 
watershed to which the State department of health raised objections and the 
purchase of a site consisting of glacial drift for the installation of a small additional 
well supply. 

The estimate of $35,000 for grading and landscaping covered the protection 
of the bank of an artificial canal feeding the main storage reservoir of New Britain 
and the covering of bare soil to i^rotect tlie machinery of our main pumping station 
from dust. In this pumping station are located two Diesel generating sets, three 
direct-connected motor-driven pumps, switchboards, and necessary auxiliaries. 

The item of $70,000 for Diesel generating set, pumps, and small pumping station 
is to replace an obsolete Diesel engine with an age of 20 years with modern equip- 
ment and erect a small automatic pumping station. 

The item of $10,000 is to conduct exploration work in glacial drift on the two 
projects before-mentioned to determine the best location for wells for additional 
supply. 

The item of $30,000 for pipe-line extensions has turned out to be far too smalL 

F. Work which is essential for defense purposes, including defense housing, and 
community interests should be listed as follows: 



Facility 


Estimat- 
ed cost 


Source or basis 




$200, 000 




Pumping stations, Diesel engines, 30 small pumping stations, pumps and 

wells. 
Additional new mains, hydrants, valves, meters, etc 


550, 000 

245, 000 
130, 000 
45, 000 


Chief engineer. 
Chief engineer. 


Covering old high service reservoir 


Chief engineer 






Total 


1, 170, 000 









The item of $550,000 covers the development across the Southington Valley in 
construction of additional well supply on the Whigville pipe line. 

The item of $245,000 covers anticipated pipe lines in the distribution system,, 
meters, valves, hydrants, and other necessary materials. 

The item of $130,000 covers the cost of a 30-inch main pipe to bring the water 
to be pumped out of the Southington Valley direct to the clear water basins of the 
filtration plant and save the cost of pumping from our Shuttle Meadow Reservoir 
and the cost of filtration. 



5306 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

The item of $45,000 is to cover an existing 3 million gallon open reservoir which 
is now not in use. The reason for covering this reservoir is to protect the filtered 
water and to prevent the growth of algae. This reservoir was temporarily put out 
of use because its elevation would not service the high section of New Britain. 
It was replaced with a standpipe raising the flow line from elevation 413 to 
elevation 506. This 3 million gallon reservoir is now connected to the low service 
side of the city and when covered it can be put into service. It is circular and is 
213 feet in diameter. 

IV. Sewage Treatment and Disposal {Davenport and Town Home): 

A. Are present facilities for sewage treatment arid disposal adequate? 
(Check one) Yes No 

******* 

V. Sewers: 

A. Is the project connected to a sewer svstem? Yes No: x. 

B. If not, list: 

1. Distance of project from nearest sewer main: One-fourth mile. 

2. Cost of extending sewer lines to project: $22,000. 

3. Source or basis of cost estimate: Sewer Department, Department of 

Public Works and City Engineer. 

C. Are plans or negotiations under way for providing any of the above? If so, 
describe: No. 

D. Remarks: If city is required to provide these sewer lines out of own funds, 
the sewer department will be required to close down during the year 1942 for lack 
of funds. 

VI. Garbage and Refuse Disposal (Davenport and Town Home): 

A. Are present facilities for collection and sanitary disposal of garbage, refuse, 
and trash adequate? (Check one.) Yes No: x. 

B. If not, describe the additional facilities needed: Incinerator. 

C. Annual cost of additional garbage disposal facihties: $250,000. 

D. Source or basis of cost estimate: City engineer, department of public works. 

E. Are plans or negotiations under way for providing any of the above? If so, 
describe: No. 

F. Remarks: Increase of workers will force closing of city dumps as a precau- 
tionary health measure. Annual permanent cost to city if Government of United 
States provides this facility will be not less than $80,000, as city wiU be forced to 
collect ashes and rubbish. 

VII. Hospitals. (See Town Home.) 
******* 

VIII. Clinics. (See Town Home.) 

IX. Streets and Access Roads: 

A. Are present streets and access roads adequate for the defense housing 
project? (Check one.) Yes No: x. 

B. If not, describe: 

1. Additional streets needed, six streets to be paved. 

2. Additional access roads needed, Stanley Street widening and resurfacing 

from Allen Street south to Elm Street. 

C. Give the estimated cost of each of the above (include source or basis of 
•estimate) . 

Facility: Six streets; estimated cost: $57,200; source or basis: City engineer. 
Facility: Stanley Street; estimated cost: $32,000; source or basis: City 
engineer. 

D. Are plans or negotiations under way to provide any of the above? If so, 
describe: No. 

E. Remarks: City without funds to do this necessary roads, all of which are 
necessary to successful operation of this project. 

X. Recreational and Welfare Facilities: ^ 

A. Ar-e the present recreational and welfare facilities adequate for the residents 
of the defense housing project? (Check one ) Yes No X 

" Including playgrounds, play fields, community centers, nursery schools, kindergartens, day nurseries, 
athletic fields, libraries, swimming pools, bathing beaches, other sport areas, and any other tyjie of facility 
providing community recreation and welfare services. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5307 

B If not, describe additional recreational and welfare facilities needed for 
residents of the project: Increased playground facilities, and acquisition of ath- 
letic field, and necessary equipment. 

C. Give the estimated cost of each of the above (include source or basis of 
estimate) . 

Facility: Playground and equipment; estimated cost: $25,000; source or basis: 
School and park departments. Facility: Athletic field; estimated cost: 
$20,000; source or basis: Park department. 

D. Are plans or negotiations under way for providing any of the above? If so, 
describe: No. 

E. Remarks: Project makes all present playgrounds in the area insufficient 
in a very large degree. Land for athletic field would have to be purchased or 
leased. 

XI. Other Facilities Required. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. GEORGE H. COYIE^Resumed 

The Chairman. Mayor Coyle, we would like to have you touch 
upon the high spots that you want to bring out at this time. 

Mayor Coyle. We have two problems in connection with our 
defense program. New Britain has been designated as a defense 
city by the President of the United States. Alost of our work is 
secondary in connection with defense, although we do have two 
factories engaged directly in prmiary production. 

Our problem is twofold. We have a problem in connection with 
defense housing, one unit of which is under construction and another 
scheduled to begin construction in about 6 weeks. 

The other problem is the one of community dislocations caused by 
the defense program. 

DEFENSE HOUSING IN NEW BRITAIN 

I would like to speak briefly on these defense housing projects and 
how they affect us and our facilities. 

All our facilities have been overtaxed. One of our projects is known 
as the Davenport project. It is a defense housing unit to take care 
of 300 families. Fortunately, our schools are all right. We can handle 
that project as far as schools are concerned. 

The Chairman. But your housing problem is your No. 1 problem? 

Mayor Coyle. Yes. New Britain, like all other cities in Connect- 
icut, has gone through a period of hardship for the last few years and 
although our financial condition at the present time is very satisfac- 
tory and quite sound, and we borrow money at very favorable rates, 
yet we feel that we have gone about as far as we can go in our borrowing. 

We have cooperated with the Government in all its programs — the 
W. P. A. program and the public works program and all other pro- 
grams — but we feel that in the case of national defense, things are 
required of us, the cost of which should be borne by the Nation as a 
whole. We believe that our share of the cost should be proportion- 
ate to our share in the general set-up and to our size. 

The Chairman. In other words, Alayor, there is nothing exceptional 
in your situation aside from the need to get New Britain into the 
general picture. The committee has just come from San Diego, 
which has an additional population of 100,000. The point is simply 
this: There comes a time when the States and cities just can't carry 
the financial load because of the increased responsibility. 



5308 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mayor Coyle. That is correct. 

The Chairman. "Wlierever we go we hear substantially the same 
testimony and I think we understand the problem. 

Mayor Coyle. If it is all right, sir, I would like to give you some 
figures quickly. 

The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mayor Coyle. To put our water supply system in proper order to 
take care of the situation under this- program, would cost the city 
$1,170,000. 

The Chairman. That is almost parallel with the situation in 
San Diego. 

Alayor Coyle. To take care of the garbage and refuse disposal 
would cost at least $250,000. 

population increase around 5,000 

The Chairman. Let me interrupt you: What is the population 
of New Britain? 

Mayor Coyle. About 72,000. 

The Chairman. And how much of an increase in population have 
you had on account of the defense program? 

Mayor Coyle. Well, I can only guess at the figure. 

The Chairman. That is all we want. 

Mayor Coyle. I slioujd say 5,000, and it is increasing all the time. 
And we must bear in mind that many workers who have come to our 
city haven't brought their families as yet, but will do so as soon as 
the thousand units of defense housing are completed. It will cost us 
for one project alone $122,000 to take care of sewers. 

Mr. Arnold. Are these figures you are giving, Mr. Mayor, the cost 
over and above your normal costs? 

Mayor Coyle. Yes. Now, the incinerator will have to be built at 
a cost of $250,000. That is a round figure, and we estimate that the 
city of New Britain will be required to spend annually from now on 
$80,000 to maintain it; this will impose a great hardship upon us if we 
have to build it and maintain it. 

NEED ISOLATION HOSPITAL 

We need an isolation hospital in New Britain as a result of the tre- 
mendous growth of the population of Hartford. For years Hartford 
has allowed New Britain to use its isolation hospital, which is a part 
of the ]Municipal Hospital of Hartford. 

The Chairman. How far is New Britain from here? 

Mayor Coyle. Eight or 10 miles. During the past few years Hart- 
ford has served notice on us that they not only don't care to have our 
patients, but they have also increased the rates. They can't help that. 
That is not done in an unfriendly spirit. It is just necessary. They 
haven't the facilities, and we feel that the least we can get by on is 
a 60-bed hospital. We would then be in a position to serve the sur- 
rounding communities. That would cost, conservatively, $200,000, 

We need a mental hygiene clinic in New Britain. We feel that 
disorders arising out of fear of war, perhaps from actual participation 
and what may follow, will require that the city have a mental hygiene 
clinic if possible. The only figures we have on that project indicate 
that it would cost in tlm neighborhood of $7,500 a year to operate. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5309 

MUST PAVE SEVEN STREETS 

In connection with the first defense housing project, now under 
construction, it is necessary to pave sLx approach streets. We feel 
that it is also necessary to repave Stanley Street, which runs in front 
of the project. To pave those seven streets will cost $89,000. We 
haven't the money to do it. 

To provide the necessary recreational facilities for the Davenport 
project win cost $45,000. Those would be provided in an additional 
area at the school. Fortunately the school there is large enough to 
take care of the needs. 

The Chairman. Wliat you are saying, Mayor, is that these prob- 
lems and expenses would not be present were it not for the fact of 
this national-defense program?] 

Mayor Coyle. That is correct. I would like to modify that m 
this respect: That the day might come when we would have to build 
the incmerator. But certamly the need for it has been greatly ac- 
celerated by the buildmg of these housing units. That is a great 
many units for a city the size of New Britaui, and on top of that, of 
course, we have a slum-clearance project that is nearing completion. 
That is a 250-unit project, which makes it absolutely necessary to 
proceed with the building of an incinerator, and after we get it built 
it is going to cost us $80,000 a year to maintain it, which is equivalent 
to about nine-tenths of a mill on our tax rate. 

FIRE AND POLICE DEPARTMENT NEEDS 

Now, in addition to that, I may add that our fire-fighting apparatus 
isn't sufficient for these two projects. 

We have a fire house which is located adjacent to the first defense 
housing program, but its equipment isn't sufficient. We need a new 
pumper. That will cost $11,000. In the area where the new defense 
units are to be built we have a 250-gallon pumper which is wholly 
inadequate. That must be replaced, and that wiU cost us $11,000. 

Our police facilities are not sufficient. We will now be required to 
police these defense housing areas by something more than the patrol 
service in an automobile. It is entirely likely that wo will have to 
increase the personnel of our police department. That is being given 
consideration. If that is necessary our police quarters will have to 
be enlarged. Even now they are inadequate. We can do one of 
two things, build new quarters or enlarge the present ones. We don't 
believe the latter course to be economically advisable. In any event, 
if we go into that it means another $250,000. Also, we have got to 
move a fire house, and that will cost $70,000. 

The amount of money required to put New Britain in shape runs 
into four or five million dollars, and we haven't got the money, and 
there is no such money in sight. We have already appropriated 
$200,000 in an attempt to increase our water supply. That amount 
is only a drop in the bucket. It will help but it won't meet the needs. 

FUNDS FOR SEWERS INSUFFICIENT 

The same is true of our sewers. Now, we are willing to build sewers 
for these defense housing units m cooperation with the Federal 
Government, but if we build these sewers, at the end of this year we 



5310 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

will have no money. We won't be able to operate next year because 
w^e operate under funds derived from the sale of sewer bonds which 
are authorized bv the State legislature. This year they authorized 
us to sell $200,000 worth of bonds. We already have $150,000 of 
that earmarked and work has begun. That doesn't include the 
defense areas. 

Now, if we include the defense areas we will have used up the $200,- 

000 before the end of this calendar year and we will then have to wait 
at least 15 months before we get any more money. We can't operate. 
We have got to make repairs. We have got to put in facilities that 
are currently required. We have got to continue with our normal 
requests for sewer extensions. We have got to have supplies; we 
have got to put in supplies against the day when there may be breaks 
and things like that. 

If New Britain is typical of the Nation at large, $150,000,000 wouldn't 
begin to solve the problem. 

The Chairman. San Diego is asking for $21,000,000, and California 
is asking for $50,000,000, and of course that does not touch you 
people back here on the Atlantic coast. That is one thing that is 
being stressed in these hearings^ — the inadequacy of this $150,000,000. 

Mayor Coyle. $150,000,000 wouldn't take care of New England. 

The Chairman. You have a gentleman here with you? 

Mayor Coyle. Yes; Mr. Elmer Olsen. 

The Chairman. Mr. Olsen, do you have anything to add to what 
Mayor Coyle has said? 

TESTIMONY OF ELMER OLSEN, CHAIRMAN OF THE PLANNING 
COMMISSION, NEW BRITAIN, CONN. 

Mr. Olsen. The only thing that I would emphasize very strongly 
in connection with this defense program is the water supply problem. 

1 think that is a very serious problem for our city. It is going to be 
absolutely necessary now that we get new wells. [To Mayor Coyle]. 
Isn't that right? 

Mayor Coyle. Yes. 

Mr. Olsen. The factories engaged in defense work are running 
day and night and are using up all our water. The danger from fh'e 
is therefore a very serious one, and something will have to be done. 

recreational facilities 

Personally, as chairman of the Planning Commission, I am very 
much interested in the recreational facilities of our city. We have 
made inquiries into various problems that confront us and we find 
that our recreational facilities are inadequate. Mayor Coyle made 
the statement that one of the schools near one of the projects was 
sufficient, but the junior high school, with an increase of another 
100 pupils, would overtax the facilities that we now have. We know 
that the enrollment of that school will bo tremendously increased 
and additional buildings will be required. 

Mayor Coyle. I might add, if I may, that our water storage 
supply is not adequate to meet the growing needs. In other words, 
every month we have less water impounded than we had the month 
before, and there will come a day when we haven't any water left. 

The Chairman. That is all set out in your report, isn't it? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5311 

Mayor Coyle. Yes; it is. 

The Chairman. We are going to make a report to Congress some- 
time in August, and we will include the data you have given us with 
similar data from other cities. 

Mr. Olsen. That is a very complete report on the water situation 
here. 

Mayor Coyle. 1 might add that I think Congress should bear in 
mind that we, for instance, are compelled to put in sewer lines for the 
defense units now, or they can't operate. Some of them must be 
ready early in July. We feel that there should be some provision 
made, b}^ which it will be brought to the notice of the proper authorities 
that this work is being done in anticipation of reimbursement. If that 
is not done, we will have to close down. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Mayor, and Mr. Olsen. 

The next witness is Mr. T. R. DoAvns. 

TESTIMONY OF T. R. DOWNS, EMPLOYMENT SUPERVISOR, UNITED 
AIRCRAFT CORPORATION, HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Chairman. Will you give he reportei- your full name, Mr. 
Downs? 

Mr. Downs. T. R. Downs. 

The Chairman. And whom do you represent? 

Mr. Downs. United Aircraft Corporation, Pratt-Whitiiey division. 

The Chairman. Do you have a prepared statement? 

Mr. Downs. Yes; I submitted it to the committee 2 or 3 days ago. 

(The statement referred to appears below:) 

STATEMENT OF T. R. DOWNS, EMPLOYMENT SUPERVISOR, PRATT 
& WHITNEY AIRCRAFT, HARTFORD, CONN. 

Report on the Training Program and Point of Origin of Employee.s of the 
Pratt & Whitney Division of United Aircraft Corporation 

part I. training programs 

During the summer of 1939 Pratt & Whitney Aircraft entered upon an un- 
precedented expansion program which continued through 1940 and is still going 
on at the present time. 

Total emi)loyment has increased from approximately 3,000 as of January 1939, 
6,500 as of Jaiuiarv 1940, 13,300 as of January 1941, until the present figure of 
18,600 was reached. 

In the early fall of 1939 it became apparent that the supply of skilled and semi- 
skilled labor necessary for expanding operations was simply not available and led 
to the establishment of within-the-plant training for machine operators. It was 
soon recognized that this method of training interfered too mrch with production 
schedules and a little later on, in November 1939, the State of Connecticut estab- 
lished its first 200-hour training course for industrial plants at the Hartford Trade 
School. This relieved some of the training load, but, due to the rigid machining 
requirements of aircraft engine production, it became necessary to set up a school- 
ing i)rogram which would utilize machines and production n ethods peculiar to 
our own requirements. 

This was accomplished again with the cooperation of the State of Connecticut 
and led to the establishment of the defense training center in the Billings & 
Spencer plant in Hartford. Machine tools and materials were furnished by 
Pratt & Whitney and the trainees were given instruction by men selected from 
the plant who qualified as State instructons. These were given leaves of absence 
from their regular duties and turned over to the State department of education. 

The course of training itself consists of a thorough grounding up to a maximum 
of 320 hours in the use and operation of one specific machine tool, together with 
related work such as shop mathematics and blue-print reading, which apply 
directly to the actual production job for which the student is trained. This work 



5312 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

is identical to the job the trainee will do in the plant itself — material, operations, 
and equipment are all duplicated. 

The first trainees graduated from this course in October of 1940 and since that 
time approximately 3,300 have gone through the course and are now employed 
in the plant. 

Capacity of this school is about 1,500 men and it operates 3 shifts a day, 6 
days a week. The school absorbs and graduates about 250 men per week. The 
results of this program have been eminently satisfactory and at the present time 
about 95 percent of our machine operators come from the Billings & Spencer 
course. We are convinced that this particular course will supply operators in 
sufficient quantity and quality to enable us to match strides with the continuing 
expansion. 

EMERGENCY TRAINING PROGRAM 

In addition to the machine operators' training course, the following emergency 
training programs are m full operation. A brief description and statement of 
purpose for each follows: 

(1) Training course for inspectors: Started February 1941; continuing enroll- 
ment 100 men; period of training: 4 weeks; objective: gear inspectors which 
training enables them to qualify for nearly all types of inspection work. Approxi- 
mately 350 men have been graduated to date. Qualifications for this training are 
extremely high and the source of supply is limited. 

(2) Engineering drafting course: Started March 17; continuing enrollment of 
40 men; period of training: 10 weeks; objective: junior draftmen for the en- 
gineering department; qualifications extremely rigid due to severe job require- 
ments; about 25 men graduated to date; again a strictly limited source of supply. 

(3) Tool room, experimental machine shop training course: Continuing enroll- 
ment of 50 men; period of training: 8 weeks, in addition to time spent in machine 
operator's course. 

(4) Airport Service Mechanic's Course (for machine shop work only): Con- 
tinuing enrollment of 40 men; period of training: 5 weeks, in addition to time spent 
in machine operator's course. 

(5) Foreman's training program, enrollment: 300 men divided into 75 percent 
existing foremen and 25 percent candidates for future supervisory work. Period 
of training: 4 months; conference methods used supplemented by in-plant 
training. 

(6) Training for naval officers on assembly, disassembly, accessories and instru- 
ments, manufacturing methods, engine test, service test, inspection, and engine 
•characteristics; period of training: 8 weeks; objective: engineer officers and/or 
instructional officers for fleet, shore and school stations; continuing enrollment of 
25 men. 

(7) Part-time extension training course in both engineering and production 
lines; available to all employees and so arranged that men on any shift can partici- 
pate. These courses are held with the cooperation of the Unitersity of Connecti- 
cut, Hillyer Institute and the State Board of Education. Enrollment of about 
1,000 students; objective: upgrading; all available at no cost to the student other 
than purchase of necessary texts. The following training programs are of a long- 
term nature. 

1. Regular indentured apprenticeship. — Period of training: 3 years for machinist 
and 4 years for toolmakers; continuing enrollment: 400 men; qualifications: 
age: 18-20; high-school graduates in top third class who are qualified in high-school 
mathematics, chemistry, and physics. 

2. Training for graduate mechanical and industrial engineers. — Period of train- 
ing: 18 months; continuing enrollment of 125 men; purpose: to maintain a con- 
tinuous supply of qualified engineering and productive personnel; special duties 
assigned in production and engineering departments. 

The above summarizes the various training programs of this company in its 
«ffort to provide personnel sufficient to cope with the national defense effort. 
We feel confident that by means of this training we shall be able to secure both the 
quality and quantity necessary to handle still further expanded production 
schedules. 

PART II. POINT OF ORIGIN OF PRATT & WHITNEY EMPLOYEES 

Pratt & Whitney Aircraft has always followed a standard policy of giving 
preference to Connecticut residents who were qualified for jobs here. This 
policy is naturally continuing at the present time, but it has been noticeable for 
the past several montlis that the proportion of out-of-Statc applicants has been 
steadily increasing. This condition appears to be a natural one since it is known 
that a definite shortage of qualified men exists in Connecticut at the present time. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5313 



The trend seems to indicate this decrease in Connecticut applicants rather than an 
abnormal increase in out-of-State applicants. 

Due to a number of high-grade shops of established reputation, the Hartford 
area has been a focal point for men versed in the machine trades for a great 
number of years and has always drawn recruits from all over New England and 
New York State. Consequently, this area has always furnished the vast majority 
of emplo3"ees and has been considered as a normal recruiting area. It appears 
that the arbitrary State line in a section of the country as comparatively small as 
New England and New York should not be considered a handicap to any qualified 
man. At the present time about 95 percent of our applicants come from this 
section. 

We have from 8,000 to 9,000 applicants per month and are hiring at a rate of 
1,400 to 1,500 of whom more than 96 percent come from the New England-New 
York area. 

During the week of May 26, an accurate record was made of all applicants and 
aU those hired as regards their home State. A summary of this tabulation is 
attached, as well as a summary of the preseiat place of residence of our employees 
and the approximate number of miles they must travel each day to get to work. 

Of the total number of applicants during the week of the survey only 242 
appear to have moved to Connecticut temporarily while in search of work, but the 
bulk of these were from the New England-New York area and in all probability 
return home if unable to secure employment. It might be well to point out that 
none of this area is more than a day's traveling time from Hartford. 

The chart shows the diversification in area of all applicants between May 26 
and June 2 who answered the following questions: 





In what 

State is 

your 

home? 


In what 

State do 

you live 

now? 


In what 

State did 

you last 

work? 


Did 

not 
work 


Apparent 
number of 
migrants to 
Connecticut 
seekingwork 


Connecticut 


595 
385 
216 
77 
106 
54 
37 
43 


837 
359 
159 
23 
86 
34 
35 
14 


584 
377 
241 
60 
99 
47 
44 
27 
1 


15 
7 
5 


242 


Massachusetts . 




New York 








New Hampshire -.- . . . 






Vermont 






Rhode Island ■_.. 






Pennsylvania 












Wisconsin - - 


4 
4 








Florida 


"" 


10 
1 
4 
2 














California .... .. 


4 
5 
2 

1 

2 
















North Carolina 


2 






West Virginia ... 








South Dakota 










New Jersey ... 


1 


11 
2 

1 
1 
2 






Ohio_ 






Canada. 












2 






Illinois 


5 
2 
4 
1 
2 
3 






South Carolina. 










i 
1 


1 
3 

1 
8 






Maryland. 






Iowa 






















Total 


1,554 


1,554 


1,554 


27 









Summary 



Total number of appli- 
cants 


Num- 
ber 
from 
Con- 
necti- 
cut 


From 
Con- 
necti- 
cut 


Number 
from New 
Eneland- 
New York, 
excluding 
Connecti- 
cut 


From New 
England- 
New York, 
excluding 
Connecti- 
cut 


Num- 
ber 
from 
out of 
area 


From 
out of 
area 


Number 
from out 
of State 


From out 
of State 


1,554 


595 
133 


Percent 
38.2 
36.2 


875 
220 


Percent 
56.3 
59.9 


84 
14 


Percent 
5.5 
3.9 


959 
234 


Percent 
61.8 
63. r 


Total number hired, 367. 



5314 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

The following are approximate percentages of Pratt & Whitney employees 
located in the given areas. The percentage figures were derived from a survey 
made December 5, 1940 on 11,200 employees. 

Approii- 

inate 
number of 
employees 
June 2. 

Area: mi 

Hartford, 52.5 9, 450 

East Hartford, 16.0 2, 880 

Manchester, 12.8 2, 304 

Massachusetts, 4.6 828 

Windsor, 4.3 774 

New Britain (Bristol), 3.5 630 

Glastonbury (Meriden), 3.2 576 

Middletown, 1.4 252 

Southern Connecticut, 1.0 180 

Willimantic (Stafford Springs), .7 126 

Total 18,000 

Break-down of distances traveled (one way) by employees 

Number of 

Miles distant: men 

1-10 ^- 14,760 

10-20 1,917 

20-30 315 

30-40 594 

40-50 414 

Over 50 1 20 

TESTIMONY OF T. R. DOWNS—Resumed 

The Chairman. Perhaps it would be better to proceed now by 
asking you questions. The committee is interested in the training 
program now in operation at the Pratt-Whitney plant. Will you 
enlarge upon that? I would like to suggest that you tell the com- 
mittee when the program was begun, and the types of skills taught, 
and the length of the training course, and whether employees are 
given further up-grade training on the job? 

Mr. Downs. Yes, sir. In the latter part of 1939 a shortage of 
skilled labor became pretty apparent to us, and we realized that 
there was a considerably enlarged production schedule on our hands, 
and we had to do something about a training program. 

The first move in that direction came at the time of the French 
orders. A new building was built, and in order to staff that building 
our first attempt in training was to hire roughly one extra man for 
every machine. In other words, we had two men on one machine, 
the regular operator and the trainee who was observing and trying to 
learn that job. 

The machinery and the equipment in the new addition duplicated 
the equipment in the old building, so as the new building was being 
built the men were being trained in the old one, and as the new equip- 
ment came in, the men were moved over, having been trained as well 
as possible under those circumstances. But we realized that that was 
not adequate nor the proper method of training. 

TWO-HUNDRED-HOUR COURSE 

Shortly after that the State of Connecticut instituted the so-called 
■200-hour training courses. I believe the first one started in the Hart- 
ford Trade School and utilized the trade-school equipment. That 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5315 

was of considerable help to us. The boys were put through these 
training courses away from the plant and then placed on jobs in the 
plant upon completion of their courses. But as the expansion grew 
it became evident that the facilities of the trade school were not 
adequate for training people for our particular class and type of work. 

BILLINGS & SPENCER COURSE 

Trade schools just didn't have the machine tools and the equipment 
to do it. In cooperation with the State of Connecticut the Billings & 
Spencer training course was established. Space w^as rented from the 
Billings & Spencer plant here in Hartford ; equipment, machine tools 
and instructors, materials and everything necessary lor the operation 
of the school were taken directly from the plant and set up in the 
Billings & Spencer school. 

There the boys are trained in an eight-weeks course, roughly 300 
hours, and they are trained on exactly the same type of machines, and 
the same methods of operation that are used in the plant itself. They 
are given their related work, their blueprint reading, micrometer read- 
ing, and so forth. 

The equipment that they w^ork on, the equipment that they use is, 
as I say, exactly the same as that used in the plant. The materials 
and the jobs themselves, the operation, is actually in miniature a 
reproduction of the plant itself, and in that manner we are able to 
train and provide men in order to keep up with our expansion program. 

The school has turned out already approximately 3,300 trainees 
who have been graduated into the plant, and the first of those Came 
out in October, I believe, of 1940. Suice that time we have put 
in about 3.300 boys. It has a capacity of about 1,500. 

STATE PAYS TEACHERS 

Mr. Curtis. I may not have b(>eii following your statement as 
i-losely as I should have been, but do you get any direct subsidy from 
tlie Federal Government or any other governmental agency for this 
training progTam? 

Mr. Downs. We provide all the insli-uctors and the State of Con- 
necticut pays them. They are certified by th(> State Department of 
Education. 

Mr. Curtis. What do vou suppose the cost is to the State to edu- 
cate those 3,300 boys? 

Mr. Downs. I don't know; I couldn't give you the answer to tliat. 

Mr. Curtis. It would be just the salary of the instructors? 

Mr. Downs. Primarily the salary of the instructors. We pay the 
rent and light, and so forth, over there. 

TRAINEES GET 50 CENTS AN HOUR 

The Chairman. How do the boys maintain themselves? 

Mr. Downs. They are paid while they are in the school. 

Mr. Arnold. What wage are they paid? 

Mr. Downs. Fifty cents an hour while in training. 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, with the vast expansion you have inider- 
gone, your employees have been given an opportunity to advance. 
Do you give them instruction looking toward up-grading? 



5316 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Downs. Yes; up-grading is going on continuously through the 
entire plant. As the men develop on the jobs in the shop they are 
watched pretty carefully and those who show any marked abilities 
are moved along as rapidly as possible. 

RECRUITING METHODS^ 

Mr. Arnold. Your trainees came from outside the State of Con- 
necticut? 

Mr. Downs. Yes, they do. 

Mr. Arnold. "Would you tell the committee what recruiting 
methods you employ in obtaining desirable men? 

Mr. Downs. We haven't had to use anything along the line of 
recruiting methods, if you mean by ''recruiting," advertising or send- 
ing people out to find employees. We never have done it. 

We are perhaps in a fortunate position so far as that is concerned 
because the aircraft industry itself has a very definite appeal to a 
great many people and particularly to the younger element. The 
number of applicants over there has showed no signs of decreasing 
whatever. 

AGE, SEX, RACE SPECIFICATIONS 

Mr. Arnold. What are the specifications as to age, sex, education, 
race, and nationality? 

Mr. Downs. The only age specification for trainees is that they be 
at least 18 years old. There is no top age limit on it. We put men 
55 and 60 years old in the schools as well as the younger element, 
though, of course, the younger fellows predominate. 

As to sex, they are all men. We don't employ women except in a 
very few jobs in the shop. High school graduates are preferred. We 
have been very careful to select the very best quality that we could 
get because we feel that it is very definitely a paying proposition to 
have as superior a labor force as possible. 

The boys have to pass certain mathero.atical tests before they are 
admitted to the school and failing those, they are not taken in. 

As for nationality or race, there is no particular attention paid to 
that. We pretty much take them as they come. 

HIRE 18,600; 25 NEGROES 

Mr. Arnold. How many employees does Pratt & Whitney have, 
and what percentage of them, are Negroes? 

Mr. Downs. Well, at the present time we hav^e about 18,600 total. 
Of those we have approximately 20 or 25, I believe, colored boys who 
are working in the United Aircraft cafeteria. 

Mr. Arnold. You have none on the machines at all? 

Mr. Downs. None. 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, you know it has been charged frequently 
that Pratt & Whitney discriminates against qualified Negro workers. 
Would you care to discuss that? 

Air. Downs. Well, I can only say that we follow pretty much the 
same policy as the United States Navy.^ 

Mr. Arnold. Do you anticipate any change in that policy? 

Mr. Downs. We are observing the results of the fellows who are 
in the cafeteria, and to date they have not been satisfactory. 

1 See Trenton Hearings, testimony of Martin F. Burke. Mr. Burke, personnel director of United Air- 
craft Corporation, Hartford, appeared at the Trenton hearing of the Committee on June 27 "to clarify 
what he [Mr. Downs] sai 1" on the corporation's policy in regard to employment of Negroes. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGKATION 5317 

Mr. Arnold. We have been told that you attempt to keep a balance 
in j^oiir labor force of workers of diflferent nationalities or origuis or 
background. How frequently does the corporation check its records 
on that aspect of the labor force? 

Mr. Downs. That question has arisen. About a year ago we 
naturally were very much interested in the national break-ups of the 
men in the plant, and in September of 1940 we made our first survey. 
At that time we had almost 11,000 employees and I have here in this 
supplementary report the complete break-down of all the nationality 
groups. 

It is our purpose to make these surveys on a regular basis, but the 
first survey was made mechanically. In other words, we had to go 
through our complete file manually. At the present time we are 
setting up a system brought out by the I. B. M. key punchcard 
which will enable us to tabulate that data quickly and effectively. 

That survey is not yet complete, and I don't think it will be for 3 or 
4 weeks, but on completion of that we will be able to give up-to-the 
minute figures on request or at any given time. It is our intention 
to make a survey of that sort at least every 6 months, simply to keep 
informed as to what the various divisions are as regards racial origin. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you find that plan very satisfactory? 

Mr. Downs. It will have to be tied to the general break-down of 
the nationalities, I think, in this locality. It would appear that that 
is the most logical method of handling it, and to be governed more or 
less by the break-up in the community itself. 

Mr. Arnold. Don't you ever have any trouble with national 
prejudices or friction with such a balanced labor force? 

IVlr. Downs. No; we haven't. We have had no trouble of that 
sort at all. 

WHITES, NEGROES GO TO SCHOOL TOGETHER 

Mr. Arnold. Now, getting back to the employing of Negroes: It 
has been stated that in Connecticut the white workers would object 
to working alongside Negro workers, but the Negroes and whites go 
to school together in Hartford, and this committee has ascertained 
that in the steel mills and iron mines of Alabama they work together 
and on the assembly line of General Alotors and Ford. Why can't 
they work in harmony in Hartford and the remainder of Connecticut? 

Mr. Downs. I frankly don't know the answer to that. The only 
thing that I think I can say on that is that we, of course, have been 
through an extremely hazardous period during the past year and a 
half or 2 years. We have done an awful lot of work over there. We 
have been extremely careful in the selection of our employees, and I 
think we have been entirely justified in the sense that so far as I 
know we are today the only aircraft company in the country that is 
actually considerably ahead of schedule. We are pretty proud of 
that. We tlnnk our first job is to got out engines just as fast as it is 
humanly possible to get them out. 

That may be an evasion of the question, but we would hate to do 
anything that might tend in any way to disrupt the pretty fine workmg 
of the plant at the present time. 

Mr. Arnold. And to your laiowledge the Connecticut Manu- 
facturers' Association has not taken any steps or does not plan any 
steps toward compliance with the President's request and Mr. Knud- 

-41— pt. 13 20 



5318 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

sen's request and Mr. Hillman's request that all labor receive, includ- 
ing Negroes and other groups, employment without discrimination? 
Mr. Downs. I haven't heard anything from the iManufacturers' 
Association on it. 

PAY ROLL UP FROM 4,500 TO 18,600 

Mr. Arnold. How many millions of dollars of defense contracts 
does the Pratt-^Vliitney plant have? 

Mr. Downs. I couldn't give you an accurate answer to that; I 
don't know. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't know, then, how many millions the Con- 
necticut Manufacturers' Association has? 

Mr. Downs. No, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. I guess it is well over a half billion dollars. 

Mr. Downs. I imagine so. I believe we are around $300,000,000. 
That is purely a guess. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you give us your total employment now, and 
what it was in September of 1939? 

Mr. Downs. Yes, sir; it is 18,600, and in September it was 4,500. 

Mr. Arnold. And you expect, of course, future increases — you 
are building another plant? 

Mr. Downs. Yes, sir; there is another large addition being built 
at the present time, which we expect will be completed in the early 
fall — I would say around September 1. 

Mr. Arnold. And that will employ 6,000 or 7,000 additional? 

]\Ir. Downs. About 5,000 or 6,000, I would say, before the end of 
the year. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all, Mr. Chairman. I think perhaps Dr. 
Lamb has a question or two he wishes to ask, 

follows navy, not navy yard 

Dr. Lamb. You said something about following the policy of the 
United States Navy? 

Mr. Downs. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. Would you care to enlarge on that so as to show what 
your policy is? 

Mr. Downs. Well, we don't employ colored people in the shop. 

Dr. Lamb. And I take it from what vou sav that that is also true 
of the Navy? 

Mr. Downs. As I understand, it is. 

Dr. Lamb. Of the navy yard? 

Mr. Downs. Not the navv yard, ])ut the Navv itself. 

Dr. Lamb. That is ah. 

BELIEVES NEGROES LAG IN MECHANICAL ABILITY 

Mr. Curtis. I would like to ask a question that is based upon a 
feeling that Negroes are not mechanically as adaptable as the white 
race. 

Mr. Downs. We believe that to be true. 

Mr. Curtis. Does the company have any motive or desire to 
discriminate against one race for the pu pose of merely discriminating? 



NATIONAL I)EFi:XSE MIGRATION 5319 

Mr. Downs. None whatsoever; no, sir. We are only interested 
in a man's abilit}' and not what his creed may be or his rehgion or his 
n^tionahty or anything else. 

Mr. Curtis. Have yon made any observations as between various 
nationalities as to their mechanical ability? 

Mr. Downs. That is a difficult question. You would have to 
generalize a great deal on it. We have found that, generally speaking, 
the Yankee boys are pretty good mechanics. The Swedes, the Ger- 
mans, the Pol?s — all of those people are pretty good, steady industrial 
workers. 

Mr. Curtis. You believe, how^ever, that there is a slight variance 
between them, although it would be quite difficult to chart it up? 
Is that true? 

Mr. Downs. Yes, it would be, because you would have to bring 
it right down to indivi(hial cases, I think. 

FEW FARM BOYS EMPLOYED 

Mr. Curtis. Do vou emplov manv farm bovs from the Middle 
West? 

Mr. Downs. Very few. 

Mr. Curtis. Do those you have hired turn out to be good me- 
chanics? 

Mr. Downs. I couldn't say. I don't know that we have any farmer 
boys from the Middle West. I suppose there are a few, but they are 
in such a distinct minority it would be difficult to find them. I would 
say this, that we made a veiy exacting surve}^ of all of our applicants — 
the total number of our applicants over a period of time — and we 
found that better than 95 percent of our applicants came from the 
New England States and the New York area, which we have always 
considered as a normal drawing ground for this particular locality. 
We have very few applicants coming from any great distances. 

Mr. Curtis. You don't know^ whether the boy with a background 
of tractor experience, and probably trucks and that sort of thing, has 
any advantage? 

Mr. Downs. Yes; they do. In the training programs boys who are 
brought up on farms and know how to use their hands and how to 
work usually are very adaptable to machine work and imder proper 
instruction and training work out very nicely. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The .Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Downs. 

Our next witness is Mr. Pinault. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM T. PINAULT, MIGRANT WORKER, AND 
HIS WIFE, MARY, OF HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Chairman. Your name is William Pinault? 

Mr. Pinault. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Where do j^ou live? 

Mr. Pinault. Eighty-seven Park Street. 

The Chairman. How^ old are you? 

Mr. Pinault. Thirty-six. 

The Chairman. Is your wife present today? 

Mr. Pinault. Yes. 



5320 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

The Chairman. Will you have her come forward? Will you give 
us your name, Airs. Pmault? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Mary Pinault. ♦ 

The Chairman. Mr. Pinault, where were you born? 

Mr. Pinault. St. Albans, Vt. 

The Chairman. And how long have you lived here? 

Mr. Pinault. I have been here in Connecticut since 1925. 

The Chairman. And have you lived here continuously? 

Mr. Pinault. I have lived in another place, Willimantic, Conn. T 
was sent down there by the city of Hartford Welfare Department. 

The Chairman. How long were you there? 

Mr. Pinault. I was there just about 2 years. 

The Chairman. And what are you doing now? 

Mr. Pinault. I am in the hardening room at Colt Arms. 

The Chairman. And what wages are you receiving, Mr. Pinault. 

Mr. Pinault. Around 49 cents. I have all my receipts right with 
me if you want to see them. 

The Chairman. How much a month does that amount to? 

Mr. Pinault. Well, that averages $40.49 a week — average itup 
for 4 weeks in the month. 

The Chairman. Have you any children? 

Mr. Pinault, Yes, sir; I have nine children. 

The Chairman. Only nine? 

Mr. Pinault. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How old are they? 

Mr. Pinault. Helen is the oldest and she is 14 and the youngest is 3. 

The Chairman. Are any of them going to school? 

Mr. Pinault. No; my children are not going to school, on account 
of this business about this house — ^getting rents for m^^ children — 
they have been taken out of school. 

The Chairman. Were you married here in Hartford? 

Mr. Pinault. Yes, sir; St. Ann's Church on Clark Street. 

The Chairman. And have you lived m more than one house since 
your marriage? 

Mr. Pinault. Yes, sir; I have lived on Park Street, 485 Park, and 
Judge Bailey's mother's house on Prospect Street and 149 Governor 
Street. 

The Chairman. "Wliere are the children now? 

Mr. Pinault. The children arc at the Municipal Hospital. 

The Chairman. Here in Hartford? 

Mr. Pinault. There are eight of them up there and one in Willi- 
mantic at my brother-in-law's — Helen, the oldest one is at Willimantic. 

The Chairman. What do you pay for them at the Municipal 
Hospital? 

Mr. Pinault. They wanted $10 a week for the support of the 
children, but I couldn't give the $10 a week because I had other bills 
and other arrangements to make. I couldn't afford it, because I have 
been taken out of work looking for rents and this and that, and been 
losing a lot of time. 

The Chairman. Have you tried to look for a house? 

Mr. Pinault. Yes, sir; I went one-hun(h-od-some-odd miles within 
2 days in my own car. I have an old piece of junk that I paid $10 for 
just to run around. I have lost other good jobs on account of looking 
for a house. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5321 

The Chairman. How long have you been looking for a house? 

Mr. PiNAULT. I have been lookmg for a house now for the last 9 
months. I have tried hard to get one, too. 

The Chairman. What are you actually paying now? 

Mr. PiNAULT. I am paying $7 a week, 1 had to move out of a 
place up on Lafayette Street where they were charging me $12 a week 
for just one room. 

The Chairman. Does your difficulty derive from the size of your 
family — your mability to get a house? 

Mr. PiNAULT. Yes; that is right. 

The Chairman. They don't want any one with a large family — 
a family as large as yours? 

Mr. PiNAULT. That is right. I have been turned down several 
times on that account. 

ThiB Chairman. Well, in the old days of this country a large family 
lilve that was looked upon as quite an asset, wasn't it? 

Mr. PiNAULT. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I remember there were 11 children in my family 
and in my wife's family there were 12. We are kind of getting away 
from that idea these days, aren't we? 

^Ir. PiNAULT. It is pretty hard, I guess, to try to place the family. 

The Chairman. But have you been turned down? 

Mr. PiNAULT. Yes, sir ; several times. 

The Chairman. What are you going to do about it? 

Mr. PiNAULT. Well, I can't do anything about it — that is all. I 
absolutely have been out looking around for rents — if I could only get 
a place like that I am willing to pay my rent. 

The Chairman. You are paying $7 a week now? 

Mr. PiNAULT. That is right. 

The Chairman. With your rent and the cost of taking care of your 
children that will run to pretty close to $200 a month? 

Mr. PiNAULT. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And you are earning less than that? 

Mr. PiNAULT. Yes. You figure it out for yourself. I have got 
every one of my receipts here. I have been out looking for rents and 
losing a lot of work. I have dropped right down from $40.49 to $32 
and $30. That makes an awful drop but if I can get in— if this trouble 
is ever settled and I can get in a home and get my children there, I 
can loiock out my $60 and $70 a week. 

The Chairman. But the situation now has both you and your wife 
worried? 

Mr. PiNAULT, Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are you behind in your payments to the Municipal 
Hospital? 

Mr. PiNAULT. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How much are you behind? 

Mr. PiNAULT. I am 4 weeks back in payments, 4 or 5 weeks back 
in payments. 

The Chairman. Wliat are they going to do about that? 

Mr. PiNAULT. They are going to try to put my children somewhere 
else, which I don't object to. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Pinault, do you want to say something? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes. They wrote and told me they were going to 
put them in the orphan's home. If they go there, they will be com- 



5322 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

mittcd for 6 months and I wouldn't be able to take them out even 
if I had a home. 

The Chairman. They would commit them for 6 months? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. That is what they done before. They tried to do 
it quite a long; while ago. That is why we moved to Willimantie. 
They wanted to take my children away and told my husband to stay 
here — didn't care if he went with me or not. 

Mr. Curtis. At that point, whereabouts were they sroing to put 
your children in the orphan's home? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. I don't know. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliere were the children at that time? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. The children was with me. 

Mr. Curtis. "VMiere, with you? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. In Hartford. 

Mr. Curtis. Is there anything- involved in this otlier than a housing- 
shortage? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. No. 

Mr. Curtis. Was there any other reason why they made the threat 
tliat they were going to take the children away from you? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. No, sir; there wasn't. He wasn't workuig then. 
We were on the welfare, and the county was taking care of me and 
my nine children and my husband's State was taking care of hun 
alone because I had a settlement, they said, and my husband didn't. 
W^e tried to fight it, but we couldn't do nothing about it. If I want 
to have all my children taken away from me I could have done that 
before, but I kept them all and moved to Willimantie. 

Mr. Curtis. They didn't make any charges that you were not 
properly caring for them or anything like that? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. No; my children are well taken care of, as much as 
I could give them. We couldn't give them any more than we could. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. Have you contacted any welfare agencies about 
your situation? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. No; they wrote to me. She called me up Monday, 
my investigator, and she told me that I owed them $300 already and 
she says I have to do one thing — I would have to have my children 
taken out. Yesterday she said that they would have to be taken out 
of the nursery or they would bring them into court. I don't know how 
true it is. I haven't heard any more about it. She sent me to a rent, 
and we went and looked at it and it was already rented. She said if 
I don't have that rent they will have to do something because they 
couldn't do it any more. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Pinault, did you receive the following letter 
from the Hartford Department of Public Welfare, Hartford, Conn.? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes. 

The Chairman. Wliich you have just handed to me? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes. 

The Chairman. WTiich is as follows [reading]: 

June 3, 1941. William Pinault, 87 Park Street, Hartford, Conn. 

My Dear Mr. Pinault: This is to notify you that you are to remove your 
children from the Municipal Hospital Nursery within the next few days or it will 
be necessary to file a petition for commitment on them. 

Mrs. Pinault. That is right. 
The Chairman (continuing): 



I 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5323 

Please notify Miss Lublin immediately. Very truly yours, Department of 
Public Welfare, William J. Ryan, superintendent. 

You received that letter, did you? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. I did, sir. 

Mr. PiNAULT. I have another one in my pocket. They were gohig 
to attach my sahiry. I don't see why they should attach my salary. 

[Hands letter to the chairman.] 

The Chairman. Did you receive the following letter from the 
Hartford Department of Public Welfare: 

Haktford, Conn., June 13, 1941. 
Mr. William T. Pinault, 

87 Park Street, Hartford, Conn. 
Dear Sir: To date only $5 has been received by our collection department for 
your eight children. Unless a payment is made within the next 5 days and unless 
regular payments are continued, we will give this over to our legal aid department 
for a lien against your salary. 
Very truly yours, 

Department of Public Welfare, 
William J. Ryan, Superintendent. 

Have you done everything you could to provide support for your 
children? 

Mr. Pinault. Yes, sir. 

Mrs. Pinault. He has been sick and hasn't been working steady for 
several days. He has a nei-vous stomach and goes to the doctor for it 
and this works him up a lot and he hasn't been working and this week 
he has 3 days out. 

Now, we have been looking for a rent. If we could have got the rent 
he could have been settled and then he woidd have worked steady 
every tlay ; so I don't know what we are going to do. 

The Chairman. Were you ever evicted from any home on account 
of your chikh'en? 

Mrs. Pinault. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Now, you feel if you could get a house at a reason- 
able rental you could keep your children with you and make a go of it 
under the salary you are now receiving? 

Mr. Pinault. Yes, sir. 

Mrs. Pinault. We have always took care of them so far, until we 
were thrown out and then we couldn't do nothing — couldn't leave the 
children in the street. I woiddn't want mj^ children placed away 
some place. 

Mr. Pinault. 1 feel I could handle my family if I had a place to 
put a roof over their head. You see I have dropped down from $10 
a day right down to $14 a day on account of this thing working me 
up so much that I couldn't make it in time for my job. You know 
what a hardening room is, I guess, if you was ever in one. There is a 
lot of heat and this thing working on me and e\erything, it is kind of 
a tough proposition. 

The Chairman. Any questions, Mr. Arnold? 

Air. Arnold. No questions. 

Mr. Curtis. No questions. 

Dr. Lamb. When you went to Willimantic in 1937, was that after 
you were injured? 

Mr. Pinault. Yes; I was in Willimantic and I was on a W. P. A. 
job and I got transferred to a construction job and a staging broke 
and I fell and seven of us got hurt. 



5324 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Dr. Lamb. And was it after that that the authorities here in 
Hartford said that you had lost your settlement? 

Mr. PiNAULT. Didn't mention nothing about that, Dr. Lamb. 

Dr. Lamb. They did not? 

Mr. PiNAULT. No, they didn't. We didn't even know we would 
have lost it. 

Dr. Lamb. But they said you should go back to Willimantic? 

Mr. PiNAULT. Yes; they said Willimantic wanted me back from 
Hartford. They wrote to Willimantic and Willmiantic said that I 
have to go to Willimantic to live there if I want any support from 
them. 

Dr. Lamb. Was that after the accident? 

Mr. PiNAULT. No. 

Mrs. PiNAULT. No; he was in Willimantic when the accident 
happened. 

Dr. Lamb. Was it at a time when he wasn't working? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Well, he was working on W. P. A. then and I don't 
know, something came up — they didn't need him any more or some- 
thing happened. Anyway he was out of w^ork a month, I guess, 
before we moved to Willimantic. 

Dr. Lamb. It was at that time that they said that you would have 
to go to Willimantic? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes; it was at that time. 

Dr. Lamb. Because your settlement was in Willimantic? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. And how old were you when you left Willimantic? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. I was 10 years old. 

Dr. Lamb. And you were not back to Willimantic except on this 
occasion? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. On this occasion I have been back. 

Dr. Lamb. So the authorities here said that because when you 
were 10 years old you lived in Willimantic, therefore your settlement 
was there. I suppose you were born and raised there? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes; they said that is why, because I was born and 
raised there, that I should be their case. 

Dr. Lamb. And on the strength of that they expected the Willi- 
mantic authorities to take care of your children? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes, sir; they did. My children were all born in 
Hartford, every one of them. 

Dr. Lamb. But because you had settlement in Willimantic they 
expected Willimantic to support your children? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. I guess they did^ — they must have. They tried to 
make them pay up to the nursery. They wrote them a letter but 
Willimantic said they didn't have anything to do with us any more. 

Dr. Lamb. Recently? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes; they said I was in Hartford and my children 
belonged to Hartford — they all belonged there. That is all I know. 
They couldn't get no money from Willimantic. That is why they 
charge us for the children. 

Dr. Lamb. Otherwise they said the city of Hartford would be 
responsible for the children? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. It said they are now. 

Dr. Lamb. But because the settlement is supposed by Hartford to 
be in Willimantic, therefore the authorities here are charging you for 
the children — is that your understanding? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5325 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes; that is the understanding I got, because when 
I moved out of my residence they didn't mention about my children. 
They tokl me to pay my bihs up and try to get on my feet and pay 
my storage. They didn't mention anythmg about children. They 
were up there over a month. 

Dr. Lamb. The nursery authorities came at the time you were 
evicted? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. The welfare department; yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. And took your children? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. And said nothing about any expense to you? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. No; they did not — not a bit. That is how they 
told me to pay my storage every month, and I never have any answer 
from the storage people. 

Dr. Lamb. Just the storage for your furinture? 

Mrs. PiNAULT. Yes. 

Mr. PiNAULT. That runs up to $5 a month and I haven't heard 
from storage or nothing. 

Mrs. PiNAULT. It is somewhere. They don't tell me where it was 
or nothing. They just took my furniture and put it away and 1 
didn't know nothing about it any more. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. and Mrs. Pinault. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Chairman, what I am about to say is no reflection 
whatever on this lady and gentleman who just testified, because nw 
sympathies are with them; but I would suggest that if there is not a 
place already provided on our list of witnesses for the day, some 
welfare worker connected with this agency be called before the com- 
mittee to tell us about this case. 

The Chairman. We do have a witness from that department who 
will appear before the committee today. (See testimony of William 
J. Ryan, superintendent of the Hartford Department of Public 
Welfare, pp. 5349-5352. See also exhibit B, in material submitted 
by Russel H. Allen, Reply re case of William Pinault, p. 5329.) 

Our next witness is Mr. Russel Allen. 

TESTIMONY OF RUSSEL H. ALLEN, MEMBER OF THE HARTFORD 
HOUSING AUTHORITY, HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Chairman. Mr. Curtis will interrogate you, Mr. Allen, 

Mr, Curtis. Mr. Allen, will you state your full name? 

Mr. Allen. Russel H. Allen. 

Mr. Curtis. And what is your official position? 

Mr. Allen. Executive secretary of the Hartford Housing 
Authority, 

Mr. Curtis. And when did you become executive secretary? 

Mr, Allen, I took up my duties on August 28, 1938, 

Mr. Curtis. Do you live here in Hartford? 

Mr, Allen. I have my home in West Hartford. 

Mr. Curtis. What was your business prior to that time? 

Mr. Allen. I was in the manufacturing business for 18 vears. 
Prior to that I was in public administration with the New York 
Bureau of Municipal Research in New York. 



5326 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Allen, I have carefully gone over the entire 
statement that has been prepared by you and your associates in 
connection with this housing situation. Do you have a copy of that 
for the reporter? 

Mr. Allen. I have a copy in front of me, Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you please be sure the reporter gets a copy? 

(The statement submitted by Mr. Allen is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY RUSSEL H. ALLEX, HARTFORD HOUSING 
AUTHORITY, HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Hartford Housing Authority is a public corporation established by the 
city of Hartford according to the provisions of State law to relieve the shortage 
of safe and sanitary dwellings for families of low income, eliminate slum conditions, 
and investigate living, dwelling, and housing conditions and the means and 
methods of improving such conditions. Its area of operation is confined to the 
city of Hartford and does not include the suburban towns. 

The authority was organized in June 1938, with the appointment of five 
commissioners: 

Chairman, Stillman F. Westbrook, vice president in charge of mortgage invest- 
ments at the Aetna Life Insurance Co.; vice chairman, William A. Scott, presi- 
dent of the Central Labor Union; treasurer, G. Burgess Fisher, insurance broker; 
vice treasurer, Bruce Caldwell, attorney; and the Reverend William K. Hopes. 

Due to pressure of business activity, Mr. Westbrook resigned and Mr. Berkeley 
Cox, legal counsel for the Aetna Life, replaced him as chairman. Mr. M. Allyn 
Wadhams, a building contractor, was appointed to succeed Mr. Fisher after the 
latter's death. 

PROGRAM OF THE HARTFORD HOUSING AUTHORITY 

The program of the Hartford Housing Authority has developed along three 
lines of activity: 

1. The construction of permanent low-rent homes for low-income families and 
also the construction cjf medium rental homes for defense workers with the under- 
standing that this latter project can also be used to house low-income families 
when the present emergency ends. 

2. The demolition of unsafe and insanitary dwellings either through the use 
of the city's police powers or through the purcliase of slum property and the elimi- 
nation of the buildings thereon by the housing authority so that the}- can be re- 
placed by a new housing project. 

3. Cooperation with municipal, civic, and other agencies for the prevention 
and elimination of unsatisfactory housing conditions in the city of Hartford. 

(1) Construction: 



Name of project 


Size 


Cost 


Occupants 




Units 
146 
222 
500 

1,000 


$668, 294 
1,069,756 
2, 703, 000 
4,737,000 




Dutch Point Colony 


134 families as of June 11. 


Bellevue Square 


About 100 families bv September. 











(2) Demolition: The law requires that the authority eliminate a number of 
substandard dwellings equivalent to the number of new liomes it will build. This 
can be accomplished either by actual demolition or bj' bringing substandard 
buildings up to standard. 

In the period from June 1938 to July 1940, 100 dwelling units were demolished 
and 610 were made standard due to the use of the city's police powers. Since 
July 1940 there undoubtedly have been more demolitions due to new public-works 
construction such as roads and highways, but no compilation is available. 

Nelton Court and Dutch Point Colony, the first two projects, were constructed 
on vacant land and therefore did not effect any demolition. Bellevue Square, 
the third project, located in the heart of the slum area, will mean the demolition 
of about 350 dwelling units, but since 500 new homes will replace the 350 demol- 
ished there will be a net addition to the amount of housing in that section. Charter 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATTON 5327 

Oak Terrace, the defense housing project, involves no demolition. It is apparent, 
then, that the authority, for the time being at least, has made a net addition to 
the number of homes in the low and medium rental classifications despite con- 
siderable demolition activity in the city. 

(3) Cooperation: Cooperation with other agencies for improving housing condi- 
tions has taken the form of statistical surveys such as the real property and low- 
income housing-area studies, the presentation of problems by reports, analyses 
of the means of coordinating the city's municipal services, of city planning and 
Ihousing, of decentralization, and of the housing market. 

HOUSING SITUATION PRIOR TO DEFENSE EMERGENCY 

(1) 111 1935 the mayor's slum-clearance study committee reported that a slum 
section comprising one-tenth the area and one-fourth the pojiulation of the 
entire city of Hartford had to be subsidized by other better sections because of its 
low yield" in taxes and of the high cost of municipal services— police, fire, health- 
it required. 

In 1939 the low income housing area surveys of the city of Hartford indicated 
that 3,804 dwelling units, 8 percent of the 44,977 dwelling units in the city were 
substandard due to bad structural conditions or for lack of essential living facil- 
ities. The low-income housing area survey showed that 12,065 families were 
living under housing conditions detrimental to their general welfare. 

2. The surveys also disclosed the existence of a shortage of low- and medium- 
rental homes. A vacancy ratio of 3.09 percent prevailed despite the fact that 
5 percent is considered normal. That shortage was presumably due to the fact 
that Hartford, provides almost all of the medium and low rental housing needed 
by families in the Greater Hartford area and has had relatively no new construction 
of rental dwellings within the medium or low rental brackets in recent years. 
Hartford has a large relatively stable market for this type of rental dwellings due 
to the presence in the city of the home offices of a number of insurance companies 
and also due to the presence of its prosperous machine tool industries. There 
has also been relatively a small amount of building of the single family home 
variety in the city of Hartford. Most of this type of construction has been con- 
fined to the suburbs. 

Prior to the defense emergency it is apparent, therefore, that Hartford was 
experiencing a minor if not acute shortage of dwellings renting for less than $50 
a month despite the fact that there was present in the city even then a market 
for such accommodations. 

CHANGES IN HOUSING SITUATION DUE TO DEFENSE ACTIVITY 

1. In July 1940 the personnel of 7 of Hartford's largest defense industries 
totaled 32,190. It was estimated that by January 1941, this total would be in- 
creased by 5,500 additional workers and that by January 1942, it would increase 
about 14,000 workers. Since the time these estimates were made the national 
defense program has been accelerated more rapidly than was expected and, con- 
sequently, the increase in personnel is likely to be far greater than these figures 
show. Some 54 industries in Greater Hartford have war orders. 

2. The vacancy ratio of 3.09 percent has declined markedly. The following 
table gives an excellent picture of the extent to which the increase in local employ- 
ment rolls has absorbed all available vacant units: 

Percerif 

Real property .survev, 1938-39 2. 09 

U. S. Census, first half 1940 1. 8 

Post office survey, 1940 1- 2 

Work Projects Administration spot survey, September 1940 . 6 

3. Only a slight evidence of an overturn in defense personnel due to the hou.s- 
ing shortage has been reported by local defense industries. 

4. The major effect of the increase in personnel and of the shortage has been 
the number of evictions among Hartford residents, the general rent increases, 
and the discrimination against families with children. 

5. In many instances family incomes in the city of Hartford have increased, due 
either to the fact that the wage earner has changed his employment to a defense 
industry or to the fact that other members in the family hitherto unemployed 
have found defense work. Defense industries estimated that the average gross 
earnings of their workers are about $35. These facts would indicate that the 
demand for housing in Hartford is still primarily for medium- and low-rental 
liomes. 



5328 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

HOUSING PROGRAM TO MEET DEFENSE NEEDS 

1. A housing program aimed at preventing a shortage due to the influx of 
defense workers must be planned long before the shortage actually develops. In 
May 1940 Russel H. Allen, the executive secretary of the Hartford Housing 
Authority', wrote to the Governor presenting the need for defense housing as he 
foresaw it, and shortly thereafter the Hartford Housing Authority applied for and 
received an earmarking from the United States Housing Authority of funds to 
build 1,000 homes for defense workers. This project is well under way and 
should be comi)leted by the end of the year. 

2. In addition the authority, by postponing demolition activities and by build- 
ing its three low-rent projects on vacant land has added to the number of low- 
rental units in the city. While these homes are not generally available to defens 
workers because the income limits of $1,575 per year and under are for a lower 
income group, nevertheless, these homes have to some extent helped to solve the 
problem of the low-income, nondefense worker, who in many cases has suffered 
more than anj'one else from the shortage. 

3. Private construction in the greater Hartford area has been extensive, par- 
ticularly in the suburban towns, but the volume of new rental construction has 
been small and the rents charged too high for the prevailing market as reported 
by the defense workers. 

Exhibit A. Analysis of Housing Scores 

June 27, 1941. 
House Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, 

Hartford, Conn. 

Dear Sir: In the course of the hearing before the above committee on June 
25 the question was asked me as a witness how many families we had put in our 
low-income housing projects with scores of 80 or above. My reply was that 1 
could not state at that time jut-t what percentage this miglit be but that I would 
prepare an analysis of the housing scores of the tenants in the two tenanted low- 
income projects, Nelton Court and Dutch Point Colony, and would file with the 
committee a statement of this analysis. I am accordingly enclosing herewith 
such a statement which appears on the attached sheet setting forth for each 
project the number of families placed in the projects having scores from to 
100. It will be noted in each case that we have employees living in the project. 
These employees are not necessarily placed in the project on the basis of housing 
score but under the rules of the United States Housing Authority we are allowed 
to place a certain number of project employees in the project. 

In its initial tenant selection the Authority have endeavored to go down to the 
score of 30, believing that any score from 30 and above represents undesirable 
and unsatisfactory housing. In placing these tenants those families with the 
highest scores of substandard housing are placed in the i^roject first. It will be 
noted, however, that there are in each project a few who have been placed in the 
respective projects who have a score below 30. All of these families represent 
families who had actually been evicted by the cdurt and who, due to the extreme 
and tragic lack of housing in Hartford, had to be taken care of. In fact these 
were individulas who virtually had no housing accommodations at alL 

I also enclose the application form which contains the housing-score sheet which 
breaks down the factor of substandard housing into 15 heads or items. The 
maximum scores attainable for each item are indicated on the housing-score sheet. 
It will be further noted that there two break-downs under each item (I) the basic 
substaTidard factors and (II) the other substandard factors, or the primary and 
secondary factors. The total of each of these two sets of factors appear as the 
index of the substandard conditions of the housing of the family. 

I trust this will be the information which is desired, and if there is any further 
information which I am able to supply I shall be happy to cooperate to the fullest. 
Very truly yours, 

Russel H. Allen, Executive Secretary. 



[The enclosure referred to above is as follows:] 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5329 



\.NALYSIS OF HOUSING SCORES OF FAMILIES LIVING IN DUTCH POINT COLONY AS OF 
JUNE 26, 1941 

Number 
of 
Housing score; families 

0-9 2 

10-19 

20-29 6 

30-39 27 

40-49 39 

50-59 42 

60-69 9 



ousing score — 
70-79 


Coutiiuied. 


Number 

of 
families 

5 


80-89 






2 


90-99 









Site 






1 


Employees 


living 


in project.. 5 



Total. 



136 



ANALYSIS OF HOUSING SCOBES OF FAMILIES LIVING IN NELTON COURT AS OF 
JUNE 26, 1941 • 



Housing score: 
0-9 


Number 

of 
families 



2 

2 

50 

56 


H 


Number 
of 
ousing score — Continued. families 
70^79 2 


10-19 

20-29 

30-39 

40-49 


80-89 

90-99 

Site 

Employees living in project. . 1 

Total 135 


50-59 

60-69 


19 

13 



1 This total includes 8 families who have signed leases but have not yet moved into the project. 

Exhibit B. Reply Re Case of William Pinault 

Housing Authority of the City of Hartford, 

Hartford, Conn., June 25, 1941. 
Housing Committee Investigating Defense Migration, 

Hartford, Conn. 
(Attention: John W. Abbot, Chief Field Investigator.) 
Dear Sir: During the course of the hearing this morning before your committee 
one of the members of the committee requested that the case of William Pinault, 
87 Park Street, a defense worker at Colt's factory, be investigated to see what 
could be done for his family to house him in our defense housing project. 

On investigation we do not find that this party has ever made an application so 
that we are communicating with him requesting that he make this application 
immediately and if eligible, which he apparently is, we will do everything possible 
to accommodate him in the project. 
Very truly yours, 

RussEL H. Allen. Executive Secretary. 



TESTIMONY OF RUSSEL H. ALLEN— Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. How many units does the Housing Authority have 
under construction here in Hartford which will be open to defense 
workers? 

Air. Allen. ^Ye have 1,000 units in the defense housing project. 

Mr. Curtis. What do you call that defense housing project? 

Mr. Allen. We call it Charter Oak Terrace. 

Mr. Curtis. I see by your paper that you expect to have about 
200 families in there by September? 

Mr. Allen. Yes; we went to Washington 2 or 3 weeks ago to see 
if we couldn't accelerate that schedule, and as a result the contractor 
has gone on record that he will have the first 200 ready by August 9. 
I rather feel that that is a little optimistic. I don't believe we will 
have them by August 9. 

Mr. Curtis, ^^iien do vou think the entire thousand will be readv? 



5330 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. xVllen. According to this schedule which the contractor has 
given us, it will be November 1. I should say December probably 
would be more likely. 

Mr. Curtis. When does your extremely cold weather begin? 

Mr. Allp:n. Wc have cold weather here in November. 

LOCATION OF PROJECT 

Mr. Curtis. Where is Charter Oak Terrace located? 

Mr. Allen. It is bounded on the north by Flatbush Avenue, on 
the west by Newfield Avenue, and on the east by Chandler Street — 
in the southwest part of town, virtually in the corner of the southwest 
area of the city, 

Mr. Curtis. It was built within the corporate limits? 

Mr. Allen. It was, yes; on raw land. 

Mr. Curtis. When was it started? 

Mr. Allen. Off-hand I should say 3 or 4 months ago. 

Mr. Curtis. Nelton Court is already completed, is it not? 

Mr. Allen. That is being completed and being tenanted. I think, 
as of last Saturday, we only had eleven 2-room apartments still unoc- 
cupied, and we are still selecting tenants for those. 

Mr. Curtis. You have a great number of applicants for the 11? 

BIG WAITING list 

Mr. Allen. For the Nelton Court and Dutch Point Colony — 
Nelton Court having 146 units and Dutch Point Colony having 222 — 
we have had nearly 3,500 applications. 

Mr. Curtis. Wlien was construction started on Nelton Court? 

Mr. Allen. In February 1940. 

Mr. Curtis. And it is all ready for occupancy? 

Mr. Allen. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. And who w^as the contractor? 

Mr. Allen. The Chain Construction Co. of New York City. 

Mr. Curtis. When was Dutch Point Colony started? 

Mr. Allen. About 2K or 3 months after Nelton Court. 

Mr. Curtis. That wouhl be about April of 1941? 

Mr. Allen. Yes; around March or April. I don't recall the exact 
date. 

Mr. Curtis. When was it ready for occupancy? 

Mr. Allen. It is being tenanted now. We still have 88 vacant 
units which are being held up because we have found some indication 
that the plaster work was not satisfactory. We are now having tests 
and investigations made, and until we are satisfied that either the 
plaster work will be coirected or that we will get proper recovery, wc 
wnll not open up the remaining 88 units. 

Mr. Curtis. How long ago w^as Nelton Court completed? 

Mr. Allen. Well, the completion <hite is rfUher hard to fix. We 
began to tenant it, as 1 recall it, along the eaily part of this year. 

\h'. Curtis. By that you mean about Januaiy or February 1941? 

Mr. Allen. Yes. The completion date hasii't really arrived yet; 
that is, from the standpoint of accepting the buildings, for there are 
tilings still to bo done. 

Mr. Curtis. But you started to ])hic(> i)eo]^h' in thei" in Jniuiary 
of this year? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5331 

^Ir. Allen. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. Who is the contractor for Dutch Colony? 

Mr. Allp]n. Edmund J. Rapolli Co. of Cambridge, Alass. 

Mr. Curtis. When will Bellevue Sc^uare be completed? 

Mr. Allen. We are expecting to get 110 dwelling units open around 
July 15; the rest is rather cpiestionable, because there are priorities on 
certain materials and equipment. I hardly think we will meet that 
date. 

SOME DOUBLING UP 

Mr. Curtis. Are you finding that some of your applicants for 
apartments are young married people who were living with the parents 
of either the husband or wife, and that when you make an apartment 
available for them it does not leave an empty apartment elsewhere? 

Mr. Allen. I don't think we have many of those but such cases 
do arise. 

Mr. Curtis. There has been considerable crowding here in Hart- 
ford? 

Mr. Allen. I don't think there is any question about it, particularly 
among the Negroes. 

Mr. Curtis. And the availability of one hundred or one thousand 
apartments doesn't mean that there will be that many other apart- 
ments vacated? 

Mr. Allen. Not necessarily. It may simply relieve two families 
living together. 

Mr. Curtis. Then what has been don