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Full text of "National defense migration. Hearings before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, first[-second] session, pursuant to H. Res. 113, a resolution to inquire further into the interstate migration of citizens, emphasizing the present and potential consequences of the migraion caused by the national defense program. pt. 11-[34]"

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Given By 
U. S. SUFI. OF DOCUMENTS 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMIHEE INVESTIGATINa 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 

HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGEESS 

FIRST SESSION 
PDESDANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 14 
TRENTON HEARINGS 

JUNE 27 AND 28, 1941 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 



H. Res. 113 



A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 14 
TRENTON HEARINGS 

JUNE 27 AND 28, 1941 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT TRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1941 



U. S, StiPWlNTENOENT Of Beeti**£Mi» 

OCT 21 JM 



SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING NATIONAL DEFENSE 
MIGRATION 

JOHN H. TOLAN, California, Chairman 
JOHN J. SPARKMAN, Alabama CARL T. CITRTIS, Nebraska 

LAURENCE F. ARNOLD, Illinois FRANK C. OSMERS, Jr., New Jersey 



Robert K. Lamb, Staff Director 

Mary Dublin, Coordinator of Hearings 

John W. Abbott, Chief Field Investigator 



Harold D. Cullen, Associate Editor 
Josef Berger, Associate Editor 



CONTENTS 



Page 

List of witnesses - v 

Friday, June 27, 1941, morning session 5543 

Testimony of Lewis Compton 5543 

Statement by Governor's committee 5544 

Testimony of Lewis Compton, resumed 5547 

Testimony of Glenn Gardiner— 5549 

Statement by Glenn Gardiner 5550 

Testimony of Glenn Gardiner, resumed 5554 

Testimony of William E. Ratell 5561 

Testimony of Earl Ratell 5565 

Testimony of Joseph A. Bropby 5567 

Statement by Joseph A. Brophy 5567 

Testimony of Joseph A. Brophy, resumed 55G8 

Testimony of Carl C. Holderman 5572 

Statement by Carl C. Holderman 5573 

Testimony of Carl C. Holderman, resumed 5576 

Testimony of John E. Sloane 5585 

Statement by John E. Sloane 5585 

Testimony of John E. Sloane, resumed 5587 

Testimony of Wilbur Jones 5592 

Testimony of Thomas Parsonnet 5596 

Statement by Vincent J. Murphy 5597 

Testimony of Thomas Parsonnet, resumed 5597 

Testimony of Martin F. Burke 5603 

Friday, June 27, 1941, afternoon sessinn 5607 

Testimony of New Jersey State panel ' 5607 

Statement by C. George Krueger 5607 

Statement by H. J. Lepper 5610 

Testimony of H. J. Lepper 5634 

Testimony of John T. McCormack 5646 

Testimony of William H. MacDonald 5647 

Statement by William H. MacDonald—; 5647 

Testimony of William H. Macdonald, resumed 5650 

Testimony of Lt. D. J. Dunn 5654 

Statement by Lt. D. J. Dunn 5654 

Testimony of Lt. D. J. Dunn, resumed 5655 

Testimony of Dr. Ellen C. Potter 5655 

Statement by Dr. Ellen C. Potter 5656 

Testimony of Dr. Ellen C. Potter, resumed 5660 

Testimony of Ernest Harding 5665 

Statement by Ernest Harding 5665 

Testimony of Ernest Harding, resumed 5670 

Testimony of A. R. Post 5676 

Statement by A. R. Post 5677 

Testimony of A. R. Post, resumed 5682 

Testimony of William Walker 5683 

Testimony of Theodore L. Shaffer_— 5686 

Statement by Theodore L. Shaffer 5686 

Testimony of Theodore L. Shaffer, resumed 5688 

Saturday, June 28, 1941, morning session 5695 

Testimony of E. Donald Sterner 5695 

Statement by E. Donald Sterner 5693 

Testimony of E. Donald Sterner, resumed 5697 

Testimony of H. E. Parker 5705 

Statement by H. E. Parker 5705 

Testimony of H. E. Parker, resumed 5709 

III 



IV CONTENTS 

Saturday, June 28, 1941, morning session — Continued. Page 

Testimony of Col. Cassius M. Dowell 5714 

Statement by Col. Cassius M. Dowell .jTM 

Testimony of Col. Cassius M. Dowell, resumed 5717 

Testimony of Maj. Aage Woldike 5718 

Testimony of Maj. Jo.seph C. Donoghue ^ 5721 

Testimony of Maj. John T. Daly 5725 

Testimony of Maj. Frederick D. Buttenbaum 5727 

Testimony of Arnold Vey 5728 

Statement by Arnold Vey 5730 

Testimony of John Green 5738 

Statement by John Green 5739 

Testimony of John Green, resumed . 5742 

Testimony of Andrew F. Ganser 5748 

Statement by Andrew F. Ganser 5748 

Testimony of Andrew F. Ganser, resumed 5749 

Testimony of Col. Lawrence Westbrook 57.')2 

Statement by Col. Lawrence Westbrook 5752 

Testimony of Col. Lawrence Westbrook, resumed 5754 

Testimony of Andrew F. Ganser, resumed 5756 

Testimony of Mary L. Dyckman and Helena H. Simmons 5756 

Statement by Mary L. Dyckman 5757 

Testimony of Mary L. Dyckman and Helena H. Simmons, resumed— 5763 

Saturday, June 28, 1941, afternoon session 5768 

Testimony of Hermon I. Miller 5768 

Statement by Hermon I. Miller 5768 

Testimony of Hermon I. Miller, resumed 5774 

Testimony of Thomas Donato 5781 

Testimony of Postelle A. Vaughn 5787 

Statement by Postelle A. Vaughn 5787 

Testimony of Postelle A. Vaughn, resumed 5792 

Introduction of exhibits : 

Exhibit 1. Effect of defense program on Trenton community facilities- 5800 

Exhibit 2. Letter from Public Service Coordinated Transport 5802 

Exhibit 3. Enrollments in defense-training courses 5803 

Exhibit 4. Report by Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co 5808 

Exhibit 5. Defense problems in Paterson, N. J 5809 

Exhibit 6. Letter from New Jersey Tuberculosis League, Inc 5809 

Exhibit 7. Report of New Jersey Defense Council, Newark, N. J 5810 

Exhibit 8. Report on Clark Township Federal Housing project 5S10 

Exhibit 9. Training of industrial personnel 5S13 

Exhibit 10. Migration in Pemberton, N. J 5816 

Exhibit 11. Migration in Mount Holly, N. J 5818 

Exhibit 12. Report of Camden Homes Registration Office 5818 

Exhibit 13. Employment of Aircraft Workers in New Jersey 5821 

Exhibit 14. Fort Dix Community Service 5827 

Exhibit 15. Report of Unemployment Compensation Commission on 

migration to New Jersey 5829 

Exhibit 16. Public health service needs in New Jersey 5841 

Exhibit 17. Child-labor standards 5842 

Exhibit 18. Housing conditions in Hackensack. N. J 5843 

Exhibit 19. Migration of Negroes to Trenton, N. J 5843 

Exhibit 20. Housing needs of Bergen County, N. J 5844 

Exhibit 21. Housing and employment conditions in Camden, N. J 5847 

E.xhibit 22. Farm-labor-supply situation in southern New Jersey, 1941_ 5849 

Exhibit 23. Farm-labor background in New Jersey 5858 

Exhibit 24. Statement by Division of Defense Housing Coordination— 5871 
Exhibit 25. Office of Production Miuiagement letter on race discrimi- 
nation in defense indvistries 5875 

Exhibit 26. Loans by Federal Ship Office Employees Credit Union 5876 

Exhibit 27. Camps for migrant farm labor 5876 

Exhibit 28. Industrial activity and the need for Work Projects Admin- 
istration employment in New Jersey 5877 

Exhibit 28.\. In June 1941 5877 

Exhibit 28B. In northern New Jersey, May 1941 5879 

Exhibit 2SC. In Camden County, April 1941 5881 

Exhibit 29. Reported farm-labor shortage, southern New Jersey, May 

1JK41 5882 

Index 5882C 



LIST OF WITNESSES, TRENTON HEARINGS, JUNE 27-28, 1941 

Page 

Compton, Hon. Lewis, State commissioner of finance, Trenton, N. J 5543 

Bropliy, Hon. Joseph A., secretary of state, Trenton, N. J 5567 

Burlve, IMartin F., personnel director. United Aircraft Corporation, Hart- 
ford. Conn 5603 

Biittenbaum, Maj. Frederick D., post cliaplain, Fort Dix, N. J 5727 

Daly, Maj. John T., post judge advocate. Fort Dix, N. J 5725 

Douato, Thomas, farm manager, Morristown, N. J 5781 

Donoglme, Maj. Joseph C, post moz-ale oflicer. Fort Dix, N. J 5721 

Dowell, Col. Cassius M., commanding officer. Fort Dix, N. J 5714 

Dunn, Lt. D. J., New Jersey State Police Department, Trenton, N. J 5654 

Dycliman, Mary L., chairman, child labor committee. Consumers League 

of New Jersey, 596 Berkeley Avenue, Orange, N. J 5756 

Ganser, Mayor Andrew F., Audulion, N. J 5748 

Gardiner, Glenn, district representative, training-within-industry program, 

Office of Production Management, Newark, N. J 5549 

Green, John, president, Industrial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding 

Workers of America, Camden, N. J 5738 

Harding, Ernest, deputy commissioner. Department of Public Instruction, 

Trenton, N. J 5665 

Holderman, Carl C, executive director, Labor's Non-Partisan League, 

Newark, N. J 5572 

Jones, Mr. and Mrs. Wilbur, janitor. Western Electric Co., 76 Cameron St., 

Newark, N. J 5592 

Krueger, C. George, deputy commissioner of labor. New Jersey, Trenton, 

N. J 5606 

Miller, Hermon I., secretary, State land-use planning committee, Rutgers 

University, New Brunswick, N. J 5768 

Lepper, H. J., administrative assistant, New Jersey State Employment 

Service, Trenton. N. J 5635 

McCfirmack, John T., State director, employment division, Works Projects 

Adnvinistration, Trenton, N. J 5646 

McDon;il(l, Dr. William H., Department of Health, Trenton, N. J 5647 

Parker. H. E., industrial relations manager. New York Shipbuilding Corp., 

Camden, N. J 5705 

Parsonnet, Thomas, representing Mayor Vincent J. Murphy, Newark, 

N. J 5506 

Post, A. R., manager, municipal service division. State Municipal Aid Ad- 
ministration, Trenton, N. J 5676 

Potter, Dr. Ellen C, director of medicine. Department of Institutions and 

Agencies, Trenton, N. J 5655 

Ratell, Earl, apprentice welder, 32 South Thirty-fourth Street, Camden, 

N. J 5565 

Ratell. Mr. and Mrs. William, welder, 32 South Thirty-fourth Street, 

Camden, N. J 5561 

Shaffer, Theodore L., vice president, Congoleum-Nairn, Inc., Kearny, N. J__ 5686 
Simmons, Helena H., executive secretary. Consumers League of New 

Jersey, 902 Salem Avenue, Hillside, N. J — 5756 

Sloane, John E., vice chairman. New Jersey State Planning Board, Newark, 

N. J 5585 

Sterner, E. Donald, State highway commissioner, Trenton, N. J 5695 

Vaughn, Postelle A., senior interviewer, Pennsylvania State Employment 

Service. 253 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Fa 5787 

Vev, Arnold, traffic engineer. State Motor Vehicle Department, Trenton, 

N.J 5728 

Walker, William, planker, Elco Boat Works, Blue Point, Long Island, N. Y- 5683 
Westbrook, Col. Lawrence, special assistant to the administrator, Federal 

Works Agency, Washington, D. C 5752 

V 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



FRIDAY, JUNE 27, 1941 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
morning session 

The committee met at 9 : 30 a. m. in the Post Office Building, Trenton, 
N. J., Hon. John H. Tolan (chairman) presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of Cali- 
fornia ; Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois ; Carl T. Curtis, of Nebraska ; 
and Frank C. Osmers, Jr., of New Jersey. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; John W. Abbott, 
chief field investigator ; Jack B. Burke and Edward B. Garside, field 
investigators ; and Ruth B. Abrams, field secretary. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

I understand that Governor Edison is not able to be present this 
morning, but that Mr. Lewis Compton is here to represent the Governor. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. LEWIS COMPTON, STATE COMMISSIONER OF 
FINANCE, TRENTON, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Compton, will you please give your full name 
for the purpose of the record and tell in what capacity you appear here ? 

Mr. Compton. Lewis Compton, State finance commissioner, repre- 
senting the Honorable Charles Edison, Governor of New Jersey. 

The Chairman. We appreciate very much your coming here, Mr. 
Compton. I know Governor Edison very well, and I should like to 
have you convey to him the very best wishes of this committee. 

Mi\ Compton. I shall be very happy indeed to do so. The Governor 
asked me to convey to you his personal regards, Mr. Tolan, and his 
official regrets that he cannot be here to welcome you, and to express to 
you his appreciation of the fact that your committee has come into 
New Jersey, where we do have a real problem on our hands in connec- 
tion with the expansion of defense industries. In that connection I 
have a report that the Governor asked me to leave with the committee. 

Some months ago the Governor appointed a committee to inquire 
into the problem of securing and maintaining industrial peace within 
the State of New Jersey. The report of that committee is in several 
sections. This section which I am now submitting to you happens to 
be the recommendation, or section No. 2, which deals with the problem 
of migratory labor in the State of New Jersey, and the Governor 
thought it might be of interest to you and your committee, as it shows 

5543 



5544 TRENTON HEARINGS 

pretty clearly what we are doing now and have done in trying to meet 
this problem. 

The Chairman. Mr. Compton, we will be pleased to have that, and 
we will make it a part of the record if you will leave it with the reporter. 

(The report referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY COMMITTEE APPOINTED BY GOV. CHARLES EDISON, 
OF NEW JERSEY 

(Recommendation No. II, which follows, is one of 10 made to the Governor by 
a committee appointed by the Governor to make recommendations concerning 
"Peace in industry," in the State of New Jersey. The committee consisted of 
John P. Callaghan, president of the John P. Callaghan Co., Harrison, N. J. ; Albert 
W. Hawkes, president of the Cougoleum-Nairn, Inc., Kearny, N. J. ; Carl Holder- 
man, State chairman, Labor's Non-Partisan League, Newark, N. J. ; Vincent 
Murphy, secretary, New Jersey State Federation of Labor and mayor of the city 
of Newark ; and William L. Nunn, professor of economics, University of Newark, 
Newark, N. J.) 

Recommendation Number II 

March 17, 1941. 
To : Hon. Charles Edison, Governor, State of New Jersey, Trenton, N. Y. 
From: The members of the committee appointed by you to (1) inquire into the 

problem of securing and maintaining industrial peace within the State of New 

Jersey, especially in light of the demands now being made upon the State by 

the national-defense program, and (2) to make suitable recommendations to the 

Governor. 
Subject : How may New Jersey secure an adequate supply of labor without, at the 

same time, attracting either to the State or to the industrial cities within the 

State, a surplus of unwanted labor? 

An intelligent policy, designed to control the supply of local labor and to dis- 
courage a surplus number of transients and drifters from flocking to the State 
of New Jersey in the hope of securing employment, is not only possible, but is now 
in fairly successful operation. 

I. AN estimate of the DEMAND FOR LABOR IN NEW JERSEY 

The New Jersey State Employment Service, Division of the Unemployment 
Compensation Commission, makes several indispensable estimates of the total 
demand for labor in New Jer.sey, especially in the skills used by industries with 
national-defense contracts. The methods used embody the following : 

1. Contacts icith employers. — For a long time before the national-defense pro- 
gram began, the New Jersey State Employment Service served iiersons seeking 
work and employers seeking labor. The New Jersey State Employment Service 
continues to perform this function, which has been greatly speeded up as a result 
of the demands generally made by the national-defense program, and, specifically 
by the United States Department of Labor, the Social Security Board, and the 
Office of Production Management. For example, Mr. William S. Knudsen, on 
February 27, 1941, wrote to all companies engaged in national-defense contracts 
and urged them to make use of the assistance provided by the State-operated 
employment offices of the United States Employment Service in securing em- 
ployees. The letter included the following: "The Office of Production Manage- 
ment expects you to make the maximum practicable use of the public employ- 
ment service, to inform the local office of that service in advance of your labor 
requirernents, and to refrain from engaging in recruitment efforts outside your 
locality." 

At present, just as soon as a contract has been awarded a New Jersey concern 
for an article of national defense, a representative from one of the 35 offices of 
the State employment service calls on the company and offers to secure the 
employees which will be needed. At the time, the representative shows the 
employer an inventory of the type and kind of labor which is readily available. 

2. The short-range estimate: the "270 proffram." — In addition to the above pro- 
cedure of gathering data on the demand for labor, which can be described as a 
service function, the State employment service has begun what is called the 270 
program. This program involves getting and tabulating periodic reports, at least 
monthly, from companies engaged in the national-defense program as to the 
number of persons employed and as to the number of persons who will be needed 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5545 

in the immediate future. These tabulations are broken down by skills. This 
report shows tlie number of employees, by skills, who are to be released for 
employment. 

3. The long-range estimate. — In addition to the 270 program, which may be 
called a short-range program, the State employment service also maintains a long- 
range estimate of the demand for labor. This is based on data secured from 
employers who have national-defense orders, and, when tabulated, shows antici- 
pated overages and shortages by skills, salary ranges, peak-period employment, 
and the probable time of peak employment. 

4. Summary. — To recapitulate, there exist in the State accurate monthly esti- 
mates of the demand for labor, especially in the industries most affected by the 
national-defense program. At present an educational, publicity, and promotional 
campaign is now under way to make this service of the State employment service 
even more effective than it has been in the past. 

II. AN ESTIMATE OF THE SUPPLY OF LABOR IN THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

The state employment service also has a constant inventory of persons who arc 
unemployed and who are looking for work. The inventory originates in the 35 
offices of the State employment service and is tabulated on a State-wide basis in 
Trenton. Since January 1938 approximately 500,000 persons in the State of "New 
Jer.sey have registered and have been classified as to occupational skill. In 
addition, approximately 5UO,000 other workers were registered prior to January 
1938. Of the total number of persons listed with the State employment service 
slightly over 200,000 of them are in the "active" files of the inventory. The 
inventory is made up in the following manner : 

1. All unemployed persons in the State who seek employment may register for 
placement with any of the ofiices of the State employment service. At present 
a Nation-wide drive has begun to secure complete registration of all imemployed. 

2. All persons who are unemployed and who are eligible for unemployment 
compensation must register for placement with the Siate employment service. 

3. At the time of registration a nationally used uniform job classification is 
used to classify each skill. The result is that at any time the State employment 
service has on hand an inventory of idle labor in the State, broken down by types 
of skills, expressed in a uniform way. This inventory later on is merged into 
a regional one (New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania) and into a national 
one which is maintained in Washington. 

The latter, incidentally, is a useful tool in awarding national-defense contracts. 

m. HOW SHORTAGES OF LABOR IN NEW JERSEY ABE MET 

From the knowledge secured from the estimate of the demand for, and the 
supply of, labor, intelligent planning is possible for meeting shortages and 
overages in various parts of the State and country. Two programs for doing 
this are now under day. These are: 

1. Shortages are met through intrastate and interstate clearances ivhich are 
set tip to avoid unnecessary migration. — As already indicated, the State employ- 
ment service has complete data on the supply of available labor in the State as 
well as on the anticipated demand for labor on the part of industry engaged in 
national-defense orders. If the employers seek labor from one of the 35 local 
ofiices of the State employment service, and if the labor is not obtainable in the 
locality where it is needed, the first attempt, by the State employment service, is 
made to secure the available labor from nearl)y localities, but in the same zone. 
The system of clearance, which is now functioning, is such that if the labor 
which is demanded cannot be found in the zone, an attempt is made to find it 
within the State. If, in the State, certain skills are not found, a clearance is 
then effected through the Philadelphia office of the United States Employment 
Service, which has jurisdiction over Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey. 
Failure to secure the type of skill required in the above States means that the 
request of a New Jersey industry results in a nation-wide search for the required 
skills. 

This system of clearance, now in operation, is functioning to the satisfaction 
of most of the industries engaged in national-defense orders, as well as to re- 
sponsible governmental agencies which have to do with various phases of the 
national-defense program. It is the orderly way of meeting an emergency. 

However, there are disorderly and wasteful methods of doing the same thing. 
Individual recruitment, labor scouting, and Nation-wide advertising for employees 
are practices which have resulted in unnecessary migration of labor, high rates 



5546 TRENTON HEARINGS 

of labor turn-over, and disturbances of existing labor relations in localities 
throughout the country. To some extent they are present in New Jersey. The 
Office of Production Management has been most emphatic in condemning these 
practices and in urging all employers to utilize the facilities now maintained by 
the Federal and State governments. It is believed that still further attention 
should be called to the existing service maintained by the State employment 
service. Personnel managers and directors of industrial relations can be asked 
to cooperate with the officials of the State employment service. This is clearly 
one of the points that can be discussed at the proposed State-wide conference of 
several hundred leaders of industi-y and trade unions. Likewise the detailed 
methods by which this cooperation can be effectively secured and maintained can 
become a regular item on the agenda of the proiX)sed monthly conferences of 
personnel managers and directors of industrial relations. 

PRESS EXAGGB31ATI0NS OF LABOR SHORTAGE 

Consideration may also be given to the suggestion that the Governor seek 
cooperation from the New Jersey Press Association by calling attention to the 
general uudesirability of exaggerated stories of labor shortages in the State. 
Such stories short circuit the work of the State employment service and hence 
cause undesirable and unnecessary movement of workers about the State. 

2. Shortages are also met by recognized training programs which have teen 
approved by public agencies.—Seyeval agencies — Federal, State, and local — are 
now engaged in the process of training new applicants for jobs in the national- 
defense industries, as well as in the retraining for positions of greater responsi- 
bility of persons already employed. These programs are designed to meet actual 
and anticipated shortages of skilled men. The agencies involved in the training 
program include the New Jersey office of the Office of Production Management, 
which is interested in the actual job instruction of men within the plants of 
certain of the companies of the State which have national-defense orders. Such 
companies as Western Electric, Curtiss-Wright, Thomas A. Edison, and Otis 
Elevator are cooperating in this phase of the training program. Another agency 
which is active in the training program is the United States Office of Education, 
which has two representatives in the State, and under whose guidance a con- 
siderable number of brush-up courses are given by the several trade and technical 
schools and colleges. Both the Work Projects Administration and the National 
Youth Administration have educational courses and training programs which are 
directly or indirectly concerned with the national-defense program. The New 
Jersey State Department of Education is directing another large section of this 
training program, as are the vocational and other schools throughout the State. 

Obviously, these training programs, supported as they are by different agencies 
of Government with different funds, cannot be centralized, but they should be 
coordinated. The entire training program can be made to fit the needs of New 
Jersey industry for trained men. as these needs are reported by the New Jersey 
Employment Service. Already essential steps have been taken to secure this 
coordination by the New Jersey office of the Office of Production Management. 

Your committee is of the opinion that, as a matter of principle, no new commit- 
tee or Government agency should come into existence unless it is absolutely 
essential and will not duplicate work already being done. One way of avoiding 
this potential danger of too many agencies and committees is for the Federal 
officials to delegate authority to State committees and agencies, if they are 
already in existence, and for the State officials to delegate authority to Federal 
committees and agencies, if they are already in existence. Accordingly your 
committee recommends that the New Jersey office of the Federal Office of Pro- 
duction Management be delegated by the State of New Jersey with the task of 
coordinating all the programs within the State and adapting them to the needs 
of employers as revealed by the State employment service. 

It is the suggestion of the committee that the Governor call a meeting of the 
] 2 or 15 people who have charge of the various aspects of the training programs 
in the State, for the purpose of discussing the methods for coordination as pro- 
posed by the Office of Production Management. At this meeting the Governor 
may delegate, if he approves, the proper State authority to the Federal agency 
in question. 

3. The question of certain unauthorised training schools tvhich purport to train 
employees for national-defense jobs. — The point should be made, perhaps here, 
that the present national-defense period has led to the development of a consid- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5547 

erable number of trade and other scliools, operated for private profit, wliicli are 
advertising and offering training in a wide variety of slcills needed in national- 
defense industries. Some of these schools and some of this training are obvi- 
ously very necessary and very desirable. Indeed, several agencies of the Federal 
Government, including the United States Army, are sending men, including 
soldiers, to be trained in these schools, some of them in New Jersey. There are 
other of these schools, however, of the fly-by-night variety, which are clearly 
capitalizing on the demands for skills in connection with the national-defense 
program. Certain of these schools are advertising in a manner which cannot 
be accepted as being in the best interest either of the national-defense program 
or of sound public policy. The committee is of the opinion that the activities of 
some of these trade schools should be subjected to investigation by the recognized 
agencies of the State government, including the State board of education and 
the office of the attorney general. Again, the point should be made that not all 
of these schools, by any means, are to be criticized or condemned. The activities 
of a few such schools have produced the above comment from your committee. 
The committee unanimously agrees on the above recommendation. 

William L. Nunn, 
(For the committee). 

TESTIMONY OF LEWIS COMPTON— Eesumed 

The Chairman. For your information, Mr. Compton, this commit- 
tee has been in existence for over a year, having been created in April 
of 1940. At that time its investigation had to do with the interstate 
migration of destitute citizens. 

In undertaking that investigation we went to New York, Illinois, 
Alabama, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and California, and we learned from 
the witnesses — Governors, mayors, sociologists, economists, and other 
witnesses, including the migrants themselves — that they all thought 
this was a national problem, this migration of people from State to 
State. 

Last year we made our report to Congress, together with certain 
recommendations. Congress saw fit to continue this committee for 
the seventy-seventh session, on account of the important migration of 
defense workers, which is the problem now before us. 

We selected San Diego, Calif.; Hartford, Conn.; Trenton, N. J.; 
and Baltimore, Md., as the places to hold our first series of hearings 
because they are the "hottest spots," so to speak, in the United States, 
so far as defense migration is concerned. 

We have concluded our hearings in San Diego and in Hartford. 
After these in Trenton, next week we shall go to Baltimore, and then 
back to Washington. Within a few weeks we shall make a prelimi- 
nary report to Congress as to the conditions we shall h^ve found in 
these defense centers. 

Various problems, many of them of a serious nature, have been 
brought to our attention in the hearings held thus far. I think the 
figures at San Diego showed that nearly 100,000 people have migrated 
into that city by reason of defense activities. As a result, the city has 
a housing problem and a health problem, and more police and fire 
protection and other services are needed, all on account of this 
migration. 

I expect, Mr. Compton, to find that the problems of New Jersey are 
in many respects comparable with those of other industrial sections. 
Now, I wonder if you have anything to say concerning the situation 
here, and in regard to what New Jersey is doing in the way of coping 
with these new developments. 



5548 TRENTON HEARINGS 

HOUSING, TRAFFIC PROBLEMS AGGRAVATED 

Mr. CoMPTON. Well, we do have all the problems that arise by rea- 
son of heavy migration of labor. 

The needs of the defense industries have added tremendously to 
our housing and traffic difficulties and to our requirements of schools, 
hospitals, welfare facilities, and that sort of thing. 

We are trying to meet the situation as best we can. Some low-cost 
housing developments in the State that were going on prior to the 
defense program have helped us now and some of the defense housing 
projects are located here; but the need has not been met fully as yet. 

In the welfare problem and the traffic problem and matters of that 
kind, our cities are trying to do the best they can with the resources 
they have, but they will probably need some help. 

The Chairman. According to the testimony we received at San 
Diego and Hartford, it is quite impossible for the cities and com- 
munities alone, even with the aid of their respective States, to handle 
the increased financial responsibilities incurred through this new 
migration. 

Do you have any State organization that is attempting to handle 
the situation ? 

Mr. CoMPTON. We have a State defense council, but it has concerned 
itself more with the influx of people into the State's military estab- 
lislunents, rather than to industrial establishments. In that respect we 
are mobilizing community effort to take care of the welfare work in 
places like Camp Dix and Lakehurst. 

At Lakehurst we have a housing development, which is a part of 
the Navy housing program, with which you are familiar, no doubt; 
and they are trying to look after all such needs. But none of that 
work attacks the problems caused by the industrial situation. It is 
mostly military. 

We have had a great deal of expansion at Camp Dix, at Fort Mon- 
mouth, at Sandy Hook, and at the other Army and Navy Establish- 
ments throughout the State, and the job of handling it is well organ- 
ized, and is functioning and getting splendid support from the 
communities. 

There will be other witnesses here who can give you more details 
concerning the educational problem, the traffic problem, and other 
phases of the situation, as well as housing, and I want to assure you, 
sir, that the State departments, under the direction of the Governor, 
stand ready* to give your committee the fullest possible cooperation, 
and to supply any information you may need, either at the hearing 
today or subsequently. If there is any information you desire, just 
let us know and we will get it for you. 

The Chairman. One phase of this committee's work is to report 
back to Congress just what the problems of these defense communities 
are. We are primarily a fact-finding body, and we neither desire nor 
intend to "show up" any community. We just want the facts. 

Mr. CoMPTON. I appreciate that, Mr. Tolan. 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb, do you have any questions? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5549 

"270 program" of employment ser\^ce 

Dr. Lamb. Mr. Compton, I notice in the report which you have 
presented for the record, a reference to the so-called "270 program." 
This, I take it, is a program of the State employment service? 

Mr. Compton. Yes. The State employment service has functioned 
very well, and is doing the best it can to induce industry to use its 
facilities, so as to make unnecessary any ill-advised advertising for 
labor, and to avoid bringing people into the State from a distance. It 
is felt by the service that labor needs can be supplied locally. 

Dr. Lamb. That is a matter of inventorying the available skills? 

Mr. Compton. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. And I take it that the tabulations based on reports made 
in industry — these monthly reports from companies engaged in the 
national defense program — are summarized and sent to the United 
States Employment Service ? 

Mr. Compton. Yes. There is a very close liaison between the State 
agency and the Federal office. The State gathers the information from 
the communities and transmits it in condensed form to Washington. 

Dr. Lamb. Tlien, if this committee wants to get at that material, 
it probably can do so through the United States Employment Service? 

Mr. Compton. Yes, sir ; and I am sure the Commissioner of Labor 
here in the State of New Jersey also will be happy to give you any 
information of a detailed character he has available, if that will help 
you any. 

Dr. Lamb. Thank you very nuich. 

The Chairman. Thank you, IVIr. Compton, and if anything occurs to 
you during the course of these hearings, today or tomorrow, which the 
State of New Jersey or the Governor would like to have incorporated 
in our record, we will hold the record open so that may be done. 

Mr. Compton. Thank you very much. 

TESTIMONY OF GLENN GAEDINEE, NEW JERSEY DISTRICT REPRE- 
SENTATIVE, TRAINING-WITHIN-INDUSTRY PROGRAM, OFFICE 
OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT, NEWARK, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Gardiner is our next witness. 

Mr. Gardiner, will you please give your full name and address to 
the reporter ? 

Mr, Gardiner. Glenn Gardiner. 

The Chairman. And in what capacity do you appear here? 

Mr. Gardiner. District representative. Training- Within-Industry 
Division, Office of Production Management, 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold will ask you the questions. 

Mr. Arnold. You have a paper to submit? 

Mr. Gardiner. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. We will not ask you to read the paper but we will 
make it a part of the record. 



5550 TRENTON HEARINGS 

(The paper referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY GLENN GARDINER, NEW JERSEY DISTRICT REPRE- 
SENTATIVE, TRAINING-WITHIN-INDUSTRY DIVISION, OFFICE OF 
PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT 

The State of New Jersey has been designated 1 of the 22 districts in the United 
States set up for the purpose of administering the functions of tlie Training- 
Within-Industry Division of the Office of Production Management. The State 
of New Jersey includes one of the most active defense production areas in the 
United States. The district has the widest diversilication of products made for 
national defense of any State and is second only to New York State in total 
volume of defense contracts. 

There is obvious need for a considerable supply of skilled workmen to man 
the production establishments devoted to national-defense work. At the present 
time the State employment service bureau estimates that there are 310,000 people 
employed in defense conract work in New Jersey and that defense work repre- 
sents approximately one-half of the total manufacturing activity of the State. 

The New Jersey district organization of the Training-Within-Industry Divi- 
sion of the Office of Production Management consists of a district representative, 
an assistant district representative, an advisory committee of two industrialists 
and 2 representatives of labor and a panel of training consultants composed of 
35 of the leading industrial training executives of New Jersey industries. 

The chief function of this entire organization is to assist defense industries 
in setting up programs within the companies that a sufficient number of skilled 
workmen may be developed to meet defense production schedules. 

Members of the consulting panel survey the activities and needs of individual 
defense companies and make recommendations as to steps which such companies 
should take in order to improve the efficacy of their training activities. At the 
same time, it is the function of this organization to bring to the attention of 
defense industries the availability of such public facilites as may provide further 
training assistance, such as the State employment service, the vocational schools, 
the National Youth Administration training program, and the assistance which 
may be given by the W. P. A. 

STAFF OF OFFICE OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT TRAINEES 

By far the most important service which this organization is prepared to give 
to defense industries is a new program whereby a staff of Office of Production 
Management trainers has been developed and made available to go into defense 
companies and actually train in their places of business those members of the 
company's organization — including foremen, assistant foremen, and supervisors — 
who have responsibility for teaching jobs to new workers and new jobs to old 
workers. 

This particular set-up is an innovation in the New Jersey district, which is 
the first among the 22 districts of the United States to embark upon such a pro- 
gram. In setting up this program we have drawn into active cooperation and 
participation the facilities of the New Jersey State Department of Vocational 
Education and the extension division of Rutgers University. Our panel members 
have formulated a short, intensive training course which can be given to foremen 
and others in defense companies in five 2-hour sessions. Attached is an outline 
of this Office of Production Management job instruction training course. 

Already this course is being actively installed in a number of defense indus- 
tries. We estimate that there are approximately 30,000 supervisors, foremen, and 
others in the defense companies of New Jersey who should have this specific 
training. We are now organized to be able to provide this training to all of 
these people by the end of this year. 

Office of Production Management trainers who are to do the actual training 
work in the defense industries are either men borrowed on part-time basis from 
companies of the State or instructors employed in the State vocational etlucation 
organization. At the present we have available 64 men for this work, and the 
number can be expanded quickly to 200 or 300 if necessary. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5551 

We are convinced that this practical program, directed specifically as it is to 
the very "cutting edge of the tool," will do more to accelerate the assimilation 
and training of the thousands of new workers in defense industries and the 
upgrading of other thousands to more skilled occupations than anything else that 
might be done. 

In all of our work with defense industries we have had the utmost of coopera- 
tion. We have had occasion to call upon more than 50 companies to seek approval 
for the part-time use of some executive of the company in the carrying out of 
our program, and in no instance have we had a rejection to our appeal. This 
is one of the best evidences of the willingness of industrial concerns to incon- 
venience themselves in order to help promote the defense program. 



Exhibit A. — Office of Peoductton Management Job Instructor Training Plan 



To give those with responsibility for instructing workers a short, intensive, 
and practical training in the most effective way to teach a worker a new job or a 
new skill. 

TIME REQUIRED 

Training condensed into five 2-hour sessions, scheduled to fit shifts and con- 
venience of participants. 

OUTLINE of TTLUNING 

In session 1 the four basic steps of effective instruction will be presented, 
demonstrated, and emphasized. These steps are as follows: 

Step 1, preparation (of the learner). — Instructor puts learner at ease. Ques- 
tions learner to determine his background, experience, and knowledge, to discover 
where to begin to instruct. Arouses interest in learner in new job or skill to be 
taught. Gets learner in receptive attitude of mind. 

Step 2, presentation. — Presents to learner actual operations to be performed 
on job and what worker must know in order to perform properly. Actual pre- 
sentation of new knowledge and duties. Most effective ways to present opera- 
tions and related knowledge. 

Step 3, perfornnuiee trii-out. — Has learner perform new job under observation 
of instructor. Tests learner's grasp of related knowledge. Corrects errors in 
performance. Reinstructs on points not thoroughly mastered in presentation 
step. Answers questions. Makes sure learner knows details of job. 

Step 4. foJ1ou--iip. — Includes extra close supervision during early hours or days 
after learner is "turned loose" on new job. Close check to be sure le.'irner is 
following instructions. Continues until worker is able to proceed with normal 
supervision. 

Sessions 2, 3, 4. and 5 are devoted to actual practice and drill in instructing. 
In these practice sessions members of the group bring in actual jobs which they 
themselves have to teach, and put on instructing demonstrations, teaching the 
job to another member of the group. Each such instructing demonstrntion is 
followed by a period of constructive criticism by the OflBce of Production Manage- 
ment trainer and members. Throughout drill sessions repeated emphasis is 
placed upon the four basic steps of instruction. Added knacks and instructing 
devices are presented. Members "learn to do by doing." 

All sessions are practical working sessions with ample opportunity for members 
to form good instructing habits. 

RESULTS 

No supervisor, foreman, assistant foreman, group leader, or lead man who is 
drilled and coached in this intensive training can help but step up his effective- 
ness as a job instructor. These principles will apply wherever instruction is 
required, whether it be in training a new worker, or up-grading present em- 
ployees for higher skilled jobs. Workers will be better trained in less time when 
these practical and experience-tested principles of good instruction are applied. 



5552 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



DEFENSE DISTRICT OF NEW JERSEY 



Locations of 
District Headquarters, 
Committee Advisers, 
And O. P. M. Training 
Consultants in the 
Industrial Centers 
of New Jersey 
Providing service 
of the OLP. M. to 
Defense Contractors 
on their Worker 
Training, skilled 
labor supply, and 
Supervisory Training 
Problems. 

For Information Call 
N. J. District 
Headquarters 
in Newark 
Mitchell 2-0293 




LEGEND 
ff) Headquarters Office 
O Panel Consultants 
D Committee Advisers 



OFnCE OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT 

TRAINING WITHIN INDUSTRY DIVISION 

Glenn Gardiner, N. J. District Director 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
Exhibit B. — Organization 



5553 



OFFICE OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT 

WASHINGTON 

TRAINING WITHIN INDUSTRY 
C. R. DOOLEi', National Director 



DISTRICT OF NEW JERSEY 



Glenn Gardiner, District Director 

Arthur Myer, Assistant District 

Director 



Advisory Committee 



INDUSTRY 


LABOR 


TOM JONES, President, American 


Carl L. Gylling, International As- 


Type Founders, Inc. 


sociation of Machinists, A. F. 


George Stringfellow, Vice Presi- 


of L. 


dent, Thomas A. Edison, Inc. 


Peter J. Flynn, International 




Union of Mine, Mill, and Smelt- 




er Workers of America, C. I. 0. 



Panel op Training Consultants 



Miles G. Beishline 

Owens-Illinois Glass Co., Bridgeton 
Jackson A. Cochran 

Alnniinum Co. of America, Edgewater 
Lawrence E. Cole 

U. S. IMetals Refining Co., Carteret 
Clifton Cox 

Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick 
A. T. Garrett 

Western Electric Co., Kearny 
Donald M. Heider 

E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Arling- 
ton 

William C. Hippie 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing 
Co., Trenton 

James H. Love 

Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock, 
Kearny 
Frank C. McVaugh 

E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co., Penns 
Grove 
Ralph L. Mason 

Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey, Eliza- 
beth 



Elmer C. Morse 

RCA Manufacturing Co., Camden 
William R. Mullee 

American Hard Rubber Co., Butler 
Frank Nickau 

United States Department of Labor, 
P. O., Newark 
William C. Nissen 

Hyatt Bearings Division, General Mo- 
tors Corporation, Harrison 
A. H. Oak 

Bakelite Corporation, Bound Brook 
Richard C. Oberdahn 

Calco Chemical Co., Bound Brook 
Robert E. O'Donovan 

Congoleum-Nairn, Inc., Kearny 
Howard J. I'ardee 

Wallace & Tiernan Co., Belleville 
Harrison E. Parker 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation, 
Camden 
Daniel Ross 

John A. Roebling's Sons Co., Trenton 
Bartley Whiteside 

Wright Aeronautical Corporation, Pat- 
erson 



Exhibit C. — Sample Circulab to Employers 



HOW THE training DI\-ISI0N OF THE OFFICE OF PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT CAN HELP 
YOU TO DEVELOP AN ADEQUATE FOECE OF SKILIJ:D LABOR 

1. Upon request to the District of New Jersey Headquarters, 605 Broad Street, 
Newark (Mitchell 2-0293,), a survey of training needs will be made by members of 
the consulting panel of training executives, all of whom are actively directing 
training work in their own companies and whose part-time services are made 
available by their companies. 

60396 — 41— pt. 14 2 



5554 TRENTON HEARINGS 

2. On the basin of a careful survey of your skilled labor needs and training 
requirements, recommendations and suggestions will be made as to the most 
effective and practical way to set up a training program expeditiously. 

3. The Training Division of the Office of Production Management through its 
New Jersey district headquarters serves as a clearing house of information on 
training methods and training facilities for the defense industries of New Jersey 
and is in a position to bring to focus on any one company's training problem the 
best available information to be gleaned, not only from defense industries 
throughout the S^ate of New Jersey, but throughout the entire counti-y. 

4. Suggestions will be made for the training of new men and new jobs, for 
upgrading training of present employees for more skilled jobs, for training super- 
visors, and for training men for special technical assignments. 

HOW YOU CAN GET THIS TRAINING SERVICE 

1. Telephone or write to Glenn Gardiner, District Director of the Training- 
Within-Industry Division of the Office of Production Management, at 6U5 Broad 
Street, Newark, N. J. (Mitchell 2-0293). 

2. An appointment will be made to discuss your training needs. 

3. This Office of Production Management service is without cost to defense 
production companies and any recommendations made are offered by practical 
men actively engaged in directing similar training activities in their own 
industries. 

TESTIMONY OF GLENN GARDINER— Eesumed 

Mr. Arnold. Perhaps you would want to summarize briefly the con- 
tents of your statement? 

Mr, Gardiner. Well, I think the statement itself is probably as 
good a summation as I could make. There is very little that I can 
add to that summary, Mr. Congressman. 

TRAINING FOR THOSE WHO WILL TRAIN OTHERS 

Mr. Arnold. Your efforts have gone primarily into training thoso 
who will train others in the plants, such as foremen ? 

IVIr. Gardiner. That is one of the objectives of the work we are 
doing. It is probably on a much broader scale than that. 

As a State- wide activity, we are charged with the responsibility of 
facilitating in any way possible the training of workers by defense 
industries, and it is in that capacity we are organized to give con- 
sulting help to defense companies which have training problems. 

I will file information for the record which will give you an idea oi 
the set-up of the Training-Within-Industry Division of the O. P. M. 
in the State of New Jersey and the personnel identified with it. 

At the present time our chief emphasis, I might say, is in an attempt 
to assist industry specifically in developing the abilities of foremen 
and supervisors and all those responsible for the direct instruction of 
new workers on new jobs and of present workers on new jobs or in 
higher skills. 

3 0,00 IN supervisory JOBS 

We estimate that some 30,000 people in defense industries in New 
Jersey are in supervisory capacity, in which they have responsibility 
for actually instructing people on the job. 

Mr. Arnold. Where did they come from ? 

Mr. Gardiner. They are in industry. They are the supervisors or 
the foremen, the assistant foremen, and others in industry now. 

Whatever training actually occurs in industry, 90 to 95 percent of it 
has to be done by these people. There just is no other way to do it, 
because you can't reproduce outside the plant the conditions under 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5555 

which they have to work, the equipment and materials and the opera- 
tions. They must be trained right where the work is being done, and 
by the people who will supervise that work. 

We are now setting out specifically to help train these particular 
people, to teach them how to instruct workers. There is just as much 
difference between the right way and the wrong way of teaching a 
man a job as there is between doing any other job the right and wrong 
way; and we believe that by raising the ability of these people to 
instruct workers we can cut down very materially the training time. 
And time is the thing we are fighting against. 

Mr. AliNOLD. And your office has found that this method has proved 
effective ? 

Mr. Gaedini:r. After several months of operating by going in the 
plants and surveying them, following which we make recommenda- 
tions, we found that universally this was the problem. 

Consequently we said : 'T^et us concentrate on that phase of the thing 
and devote all of our effort where the most emphasis needs to be 
placed." Therefore we have set up, with the cooperation of the State 
department of vocational education and the extension division of Rut- 
gers University, an organization to give that sort of training. 

companies' reaction to training plan 

We are just getting under way, and our effectiveness remains to be 
proved. However, within the last 3 or 4 days the several companies 
to which we proposed our plan have apparently reacted to it very well. 
We have, right now, lined up 7 or 8 companies, and there are about 
400 to start training right away, and some of them are being trained 
this week. We can expand that activity very rapidly. We have had 
wonderful cooperation from the industries in lending us people who 
can work part time to do that job. 

Mr. Arnold. Could you tell the committee how many trainees within 
industry itself there are at the present time in the State of New 
Jersey ? 

Mr. Gardiner. I think that that is impossible to state, but I can say 
that, according to the best estimates of the New Jersey State employ- 
ment service, there are some 310,000 people engaged in defense indus- 
try in the State. Now, what proportion of those are in the training 
status is impossible to say. We know that many will be trained for 
higher skills and others will have to be brought in from the bottom 
to expand the whole labor force. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you find that the employers in New Jersey are 
aware of the imperative need for rapid training of large numbers of 
people ? 

Mr. Gardiner. No ; I don't believe that universally they are. Some 
of tliem are. It depends on their own particular status with reference 
to defense contracts. Some of them have had contracts, but haven't 
contracts to follow them up with, so it is a very difficult managerial 
decision to make, as to how far to expand toward a future need which 
they cannot forecast. 

Mr. Arnold. And you say you find them receptive to the plan ? 

Mr. Gardiner. Very much so. They want to cooperate if they know 
how. The trouble is, most of them so far haven't found out just exactly 
how they are going to serve. 



5556 TRENTON HEARINGS 

NO PREFERENCE, FARM OR CITY 

Mr. Arnold. Can you tell us whether employers prefer rural young 
people or city men ? 

Mr. Gardiner. I don't believe that there is any preference. I haven't 
had any evidence that there is. 

Mr. Arnold. Is there any shortage of desirable training material 
within the State of New Jersey? 

Mr. Gardiner. So far no shortage of desirable training material has 
developed to an acute stage. From the best estimates of the employ- 
ment service, however, it is likely to become acute within a few months. 

The State employment service estimates that the number of young- 
people coming out of schools and intending to go into industry this- 
month will just about match the training capacity of the vocational 
schools for the next couple of months. 

It is very aj^parent to employers that the quality of people available 
is far below that of a few months ago, and that is going to be more in. 
evidence, I am sure, as time goes on. 

Mr. Arnold. Has there been any recruiting outside the State for 
trainees ? 

Mr. Gardiner. Well, not particularly for trainees, I believe. There; 
has been some recruiting by individual companies looking for skilled 
workers outside the State. ' 

national youth administration preparing for training 

Mr, Arnold. Is the National Youth Administration engaged in a 
training program in this State ? 

Mr. Gardiner. They are getting set up to do some training work 
noAv. Their work has not been very extensive so far, although I under- 
stand they are now about to set up a program. I understand they 
have an appropriation in sight to do a more extensive training job. 

Mr. Arnold. Have any of their people gone into defense industries?' 

Mr. Gardiner. Yes. As a matter of fact, many of their people gee 
out before their training is completed. Many are recruited and taken 
away in the midst of their program. I think they will have a great 
problem before long in finding enough people eligible for their training- 
program. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you find that employers are eager to get these? 
N. Y. A. people? 

Mr. Gardiner. No. Tliere is no evidence of that. 

Mr. Arnold. And what about the W. P. A. training program ? 

FROM WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION INTO DEFENSE 

Mr. Gardiner. The W. P. A. has no training program, to my knowl- 
edge. It has an arrangement whereby it can pay people for a periocf 
of a month after they go into private employment, during their train- 
ing period in private industry, to help absorb the training cost and to 
encourage W. P. A. workers to go into private industry. 

Mr. Arnold. And those people are being absorbed to some extent in 
private industry? 

Mr. Gardiner. Yes, sir. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5557 

Mr. Arnold. And seem to do the work satisfactorily — seem to get 
•along all right ? 

Mr. Gardiner. In the State of New Jersey over 40,000 people were 
on W. P. A. Those people have been classified by the W. P. A. people 
as to which ones might be suitable for defense work. They have set 
up what they call their "defense registry," on which there are between 
two and three thousand people who the W. P. A. says are suitable for 
defense work. 

We were called upon by headquarters of O. P. M. to interview a 
sample group of those people recently, to ascertain wliether, from the 
point of view of the employer, they were suitable. We found on that 
sample interview in the State that at least 86 percent of those people 
were not suitable f6r employment and a very low percentage of them 
would be considered employable by industry. In our judgment, the 
■eligibles represent, out of the whole 40,000, only two or three thousand 
people, so that that source cannot be counted on for any great supply. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

AGE RANGE OF TRAINEES 

The Chairman. Mr. Gardiner, what is the age range of the trainees ? 

Mv. Gardiner. Well, trainees, of course, can begin anywhere from 
17 to 60. The range is just as wide as the range of age of the people 
engaged in industry, so far as the training within the industry is 
•concerned. 

Now, the outside training agencies through the vocational schools 
have probably more specific age limits. 

The Chairman. Do you observe any race discrimination? 

Mr. Gardiner. Of course, that isn't a problem that our particular 
division is concerned witli. We have nothing to do with the recruiting 
of labor. I know, from things that we run into, that there is consider- 
able concern about tliat problem. 

The Chairman. And I suppose you have read in the press that the 
President has expressed that concern liimself ? 

Mr. Gardiner. Yes, sir. It is a part of our function and duty and 
obligation to assist in every way possible, to be helpful in the train- 
ing-program i3roblems as they are involved in connection with any 
group, but race discrimination isn't primarily a problem of our 
division. 

The Chairman. I understood you to say, Mr. Gardiner, there are 
about 310.000 defense workers in New Jersey? 

Mr. Gardiner. That is right. 

The Chairman. What proportion of those people have come from 
outside the State ? 

Mr. Gardiner. I have no idea. 

The Chairman. I suppose they have come from every State of the 
Union ? 

MANY INIIGRANTS FROM PENNSYLVANIA 

Mr. Gardiner. Well, I suppose the largest State group of im- 
migrants are from Pennsylvania. There is a considerable number of 
people coming from the Pennsylvania coal fields into the State, seek- 
ing work here. 



5558 TRENTON HEARINGS 

The Chairman. What is the reason for that? Are the mines 
closing down ? 

Mr. Gardiner. I don't know about that; but in talking^ yesterday 
or day before yesterday with people in the employment service, I 
heard them say they were having lots of people coming from that 
district, and it is noticeable on the highways — the number of Penn- 
sylvania license plates. 

The Chairman. The testimony at Hartford also indicated that they 
were tapping Pennsylvania more than any other State. 

Mr. Gardiner. Of course, Pennsylvania has been doing some re- 
cruiting in this State, too. They have been taking some skilled classi- 
fications. They are shifting back and forth. That is a thing that 
none of us knows how to analyze. The State "empoyment service 
doesn't have the figures, and they are the people who would be most 
likely to know that. 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb. 

SKILLED WORKERS IN NON-DEFENSE SHUTDOWNS 

Dr. Lamb. Have you encountered the problem of diversion of 
skilled persons from industries which have been shut down for lack 
of materials? 

Mr. Gardiner. There has been no strong trend as yet. But that is 
very definitely coming to the front. I know" of specific companies in 
which it was said : 

'"Unless we can get employment for our people w^ithin a certain 
period of time, we are going to run out of work, and if we can't give 
them full-time work those people will certainly go to other places." 

Some of those companies are engaged entirely in production for 
civilian needs, and if they can't get a good deal of overtime work they 
lose out to defense industries, which are nearly all working overtime 
hours. 

Dr. Lamb. Will not the training-within-industry program meet 
this problem? Will it not have to deal with it head-on, if there is a 
diversion of activity from consumer to defense industries? 

Mr. Gardiner. That is right; and there will be that diversion. The 
whole set-up is designed to create that diversion, as a matter of fact. 

Dr. Lamb. So you will have to do a good deal of retraining of peo- 
ple of limited skill whom you can use but who need to be redirected? 

Mr. Gardiner. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. Two members of the committee went yesterday to the 
Federal Shipbuilding Corporation and I think they were very much 
impressed with the set-up there for upgrading, a process with which 
they have been confronted in a very large measure. They spoke about 
training courses within the plant. 

Mr. Gardiner. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. When you were speaking earlier then, about your set-up 
for teaching the foremen how to instruct trainees, you meant that 
Kutgers was simply the headquarters for the work, did you not, and 
that the active teaching of that supervisory personnel also would be 
done at the plants ? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5559 

ALL TRAINING INSIDE PLANT 

Mr. Gardiner. That will all be done right within the plant, and for 
the most part during working hours. It will be short, intensive train- 
ing, and the training will be given as it has been formulated by our 
own people, on our own panel, here in the State. Rutgers and the 
State department of vocational education are in a sense delivering a 
package which we asked them to deliver, and we are helping them to 
recruit the people, whom we are designating as O. P. M. trainers, to 
deliver that package. 

Dr. Lamb. And they are borrowed, in many instances, from 
companies ? 

Mr. Gardiner. Yes ; and that work can and is being done without 
cost to the defense industries, because it is going through the colleges 
and the vocational schools which have an appropriation under the 
engineering defense training work and under the vocational school 
apjH'opriations through the United States Office of Education. 

Dr. Lamb. So it is a part of the United States Office of Education 
set-up ? 

Mr. Gardiner. It is. In other words, we are using that as a vehicle 
to put this program through, and under that set-up it is done without 
any cost to the defense industries. 

Dr. Lamb. If this program goes forward, and at the same time the 
situation gets increasingly tight, will the vocational school program 
outside of industry tend to dry up? 

Mr. Gardiner. They will have an increasingly difficult time to get 
people for training, and as the tempo steps up — as it certainly will 
and it already has — the tendency will be for industry to grab every 
person capable of working, directly, without taking the time to chan- 
nel him through any outside agency. This latter procedure is all 
right as far as it goes, and it is an excellent thing to help develop some 
conditioiiing for work in skilled occupations. But the real job has 
to be done "on the job"; it can't be done anywhere else, and any out- 
side educational training activities are really fringe activities, and 
are not going to make or break our own program, or affect it one way 
or the other. 

In other words, it is helpful chiefly as a basis for selection, rather 
than for training. They give real service, as a sieve, and they weed 
out people who may not have aptitude for these jobs, so that among 
those who do go into industry, industry has excellent material to work 
with. But industry still has to train the new people for the work 
they will do. 

UPGRADING IN SHIPYARDS 

Dr. Lamb. The Federal Shipbuilding people indicated they had an 
expansion, in their destroyer and cruiser work, of six-fold in the num- 
bers needed to handle the job. Does that not mean a tremendous 
amount of upgrading and a tremendous degree of subdivision of the 
job, in order to use the less-skilled worker? 

Mr. Gardiner. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. And then to train him? 

Mr. Gardiner. To develop production specialists. 



5560 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Dr. Lamb. To develop more skill, and also a continuous shoving 
in of new material at the bottom 'i 

Mr. Gardiner. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. You put at 310,000 the present number of defense work- 
ers in New Jersey. Is there any way of estimating the expansion from 
here out ? 

181,000 NEEDED FOR '*ALL-0UT" OPERATION 

Mr. Gardiner. Well, the State employment service — and I assume 
they are probably appearing here and might give these figures — have 
recently been called upon to estimate how many people would be 
required to expand New Jersey's defense industries on the all-out, 24- 
hour, 7-day-a-week basis, and their estimate is that it would require 
the addition of 181,000 people to the 310,000 now working. 

Dr. Lamb. By any certain date ? 

Mr. Gardiner. No. 

Dr. Lamb, Simply on the all-out basis ? 

Mr. Gardiner. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. In the present defense industries and their present pro- 
duction capacities? 

Mr. Gardiner. Yes, sir. We shall have to step it up by 181,000 new 
people, or an increase of 58 percent of the present force. 

Now that is a hypothetical goal, in a sense. It is mechanically im- 
possible to put the entire industry on a 24-hour, 7-day-a-week basis, 
because no plant is in balance in its production facilities; that is, there 
are bottlenecks within the individual plants. It may be possible to 
operate on a three-shift basis or on a two-shift basis, but you would 
never get the entire industry on a balanced basis of working 24 hours 
a day, 7 days a week. If you did, you would have to be on very stand- 
ardized production, and with the changes that are coming all the time, 
and tlie equipment that you have to make through changes in methods 
of warfare and so forth, you can't stay put long enough to put industry 
<m a standardized basis and in perfect balance. You could never get 
on that basis, although it is entirely within physical possibility and 
probability that at least a half of that expansion is to be expected. 
It will have to be done if we are to carry through. 

Dr. Lamb. Is there any indication where those additional thou- 
sands of workers will come from ? 

expect to employ women 

Mr. Gardiner. I think a great many would have to come from 
without the State — probably from the metropolitan New York area, 
where a considerable number of people would be available. Also, a 
very substantial number of the new workers would have to come 
through the introduction of women into industry. 

Just as in the last war, there are now a great many occupations 
which women can take over and are taking over. We have some 
industries now in which women are doing machine-shop work, light 
assembly work. 

I think undoubtedly a very large number of women will have to be 
introduced to carry through the program. 

Dr. Lamb. There will also continue to be shifts from nondefense 
to defense industries? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5561 

Mr. Gardiner. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. Which will draw in an additional force of already 
available people? 

Mr. Gardiner. That is right. The State employment service esti- 
mates that today approximately one-half of the manufacturing em- 
ployment of the State is devoted to defense work, which is a pretty 
high proportion. Of course, this State got started much earlier than 
many sections of the country, with a tremendous volume of contracts 
right at the beginning. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

JNIr. Gardiner. I think, if it is of interest, I would submit here an 
outline of the training, which I mentioned before. 

The Chairman. We will be pleased to have it as a part of the rec- 
ord. And thank you very much, Mr, Gardiner. 

(The material referred to above was made a part of the record and 
appears in this volume as Exhibit A, appended to Mv. Gardiner's 
statement, p. 5551.) 

The Chairman. Our next witnesses will be Mr. and Mrs. William 
Ratell. 

TESTIMONY OF MR. AND MRS. WILLIAM E. RATELL AND EARL 
RATELL, CAMDEN, N. J. 

The Chairman. Your name is William Ratell ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And where do you live? 

Mr. Ratell. Savage, Mont.; right now we are living at 32 South 
Thirty-fourth Street in Camden, N. J. 

Tlie Chairman. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Ratell. Hartford, Conn. 

The Chairman. And when did you move to Montana? 

Mr. Ratell. About 12 years ago. 

The Chairman. What did you do there ? 

Mr. Ratell. Welding. 

The Chairman. Where in Montana did you work? 

Mr. Ratell. I worked for the United States engineers. 

The Chairman. At Fort Peek Reservation ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Where did you go first, when you left Montana? 

Mr. Ratell. St. Paul, Minn. 

The Chairman. When? 

Mr. Ratell. On December 28, 1939. 

The Chairman. How long did you work in St. Paul? 

ISIr. Ratell. Eleven months. 

The Chairman. What did you do there ? 

]Mr. Ratell. I was welding at the American Hoist & Derrick. 

The Chairman. Why did you leave St. Paul ? 

Mr. Ratell. I heard there was a demand for welders at the ship- 
yard here, and I figured I could use my experience better here than 
on the job I had. 

The Chairman. What were you making at St. Paul ? 

Mr. Ratell. Eighty-six cents an hour. 

The Chairman. How long have you been married ? 

Mr. Ratell. Six years. 



5562 TRENTON HEARINC4S 

The Chairman. Did you live in a house there in St. Paul or in an 
apartment ? 

Mr. Ratell. An apartment. 

The Chairman. What did you pay for the apartment ? 

Mr. Ratell. Paid $25 a month. 

The Chairman. Was it a pretty good apartment? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir ; it was. 

The Chairman. Now, you said you heard there was shipbuilding 
work in Camden ? 

Mr, Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How did you hear about it? 

Mr. Ratell. I know four or five welders working over at the Gov- 
ernment navy yard in Philadelphia. 

The Chairman. And they wrote to you about it? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir; they did. 

The Chairman. Did you bring your family with you when you 
came? 

Mr. Ratell. I did. 

The Chairman. This is your wife with you ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What is her name? 

Mr. Ratell. Mildred. 

The Chairman. And this is your baby ? 

Mr. Ratell. This is the oldest girl. 

The Chairman. How old is she? 

Mr. Rateix. She is 4. 

The Chairman. You have another baby ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How old ? 

Mr. Ratell. Just a year. 

The Chairman. How did you come here — by automobile ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You drove? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And where did you first live when you came here? 

Mr. Ratell. Well, we know some folks here, and we stayed with 
them until we found an apartment. We were 4 days finding an apart- 
ment. 

The Chairman. You are talking about Camden now, aren't you ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And you were 4 days finding an apartment? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. When you finally found it, what did you pay for it? 

Mr. Ratell. $8 a week. 

Tlie Chairman. AVhat kind of apartment was it? 

Mr. Ratell. Well, wasn't very much. Only had two rooms. That 
was all we could find. 

The Chairman. What were they? Sleeping rooms? 

Mr. Ratell. Sleeping rooms; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you have a kitchen? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir ; we had a little kitchen. 

The Chairman. Wliat about a bath ? 

Mr. Ratell. Well, we had a bath, but in this building there were 
four families using the same bathtub and same toilet. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5563 

The Chairman. Were they large families? 

Mr. Ratell. No, they weren't ; about four in each family. 

The Chairman. And you paid $8 a week ? 

Mr. Eatell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And that is the very best you could do? 

Mr. Ratell. It was at that time. 

The CiLviRMAN. Was that in an old house or a new house ? 

Mr. Ratell. It was an old house. 

The Chairman. Did you find anything else about that house that 
you didn't like? 

Mr. Ratell. We sure did ! Cockroaches. 

The Chairman. Well, how were they ? 

Mr. Ratell. Well, they were awfully thick. 

The Chairman. Pretty good size? 

Mr. Ratell. Tliey sure were. 

Mr. Osmers. Were they fast? 

Mr. Ratell. Faster than lightning. 

Tlie Chairman. What did you do about them ? 

Mr. Ratfxl. I asked the landlord if he wouldn't get something to 
get rid of them, and he told me to go down to the drug store and get 
some powders myself and do it. 

The Chairman. How long did you live in that place? 

Mr. Ratell. About 6 or 7 weeks. The milkman told us of another 
apartment, so we went and applied for it and moved in. 

The Chairman. Are you a legal resident of Montana ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir; I am. 

The Chairman. You still claim that as your residence ? 

Mr. Ratell. I do. 

The Chairman. How much are vou making here now ? 

Mr. Ratell. I am averaging $70 a week. 

The Chairman. What kind of place are you living in now? 

Mr. Ratell. It is a nice place, but awfully small. 

The Chairman. How many rooms? 

Mr. Ratell. We have one bedroom and a parlor and kitchen, is all 
we have, and the bathroom. The people downstairs, they use it, too. 

The Chairman. Is it an apartment? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir ; it has only one entrance to it. 

The Chairman. And what are you paying for it ? 

Mr. Ratell. Paying $25 a month. 

The Chairman. And you are more or less cramped, are you, in 
these new quarters? 

Mr. Ratell. Sure are. 

The Chairman. Is there a shortage of houses in Camden? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes. sir; there sure is. 

The Chairman. Do you hear much complaint among your fellow 
workers about their inability to get houses or apartments ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes. sir. 

The Chairman. What about the children ? Do they have any 
place to play? 

Mr. Ratexl. Well, there is a little yard in the back of the house, 
but the people downstairs have a dog, and the dog is vicious, so we 
don't let the children down there. We asked them to get rid of the 
dog and they refused to do it. 



5564 TRENTON HEARINGS 

The Chairman. What about cockroaches? Do you have cock- 
roaches now? 

Mr. Ratell. No, sir. 

The Chairman. You got away from them, did you ? 

Mr, Ratell. Yes, sir ; we sure did. 

The Chairman. Will you tell us something about your work? You; 
are known as a skilled worker, aren't you ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How many hours do you work ? 

Mr. Ratell. Eight hours a day. 

The Chairman. Day shift or night shift ? 

Mr. Ratell. I am working on the midnight shift, from midnight 
until 8 in the morning. 

The Chairman. Then you sleep during the day ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What about sleeping in the daytime in the house- 
you have there ? 

Mr. Ratell. Well, it is awfully hot, and I don't get much sleep.. 
The people downstairs, when they come home in the evening, when it 
is cool and I have a chance to get some sleep, they have the radio ■ 
turned on, and I don't get much sleep with that thing going. We have 
looked all over for a house, and we went to the real-estate agents. 
They won't rent you a house. They want to sell you one. I don't feel 
I should buy a house. 

The Chairman. Do you run into any difficulties in renting a house 
on account of your having children ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir; I do. When I mention children they don't 
want to talk to me any more. 

The Chairman. That is a strange idea people have — that unwilling- 
ness to rent to families with children — but it is spreading all over the 
United States, isn't it? 

Mr. Ratell. Sure is. 

The Chairman. It used to be an honor to have a large family, but 
it seems to be a handicap now, doesn't it ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir; it does. 

The Chairman. We run into that all the time in our investigation. 
You wouldn't trade your two children for all the shipyards in the- 
country, would you ? 

Mr. Ratell. No ; I sure wouldn't. 

The Chairman. Now, have you noticed any change in your weekly 
budget — that is, have you noticed prices going up ? 

Mr, Ratell. I have noticed it in the last 6 weeks. Groceries hav& 
gone up, and meat has gone up. I notice that clothing and furniture 
has gone up. 

The Chairman. Will the wages you are receiving make it possible 
for you to save something? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir; I sure will. 

The Chairman. Are you doing it ? 

Mr. Ratell. I am. 

Mr. Arnold. While you are on that subject, Mr. Chairman, may 1 
ask Mr. Ratell : Do you know if other workmen feel they should save 
something? Do you talk with them about that ? 

Mr. Ratell. Well, they are saving something; not saving much, 
they tell me. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5565 

Mr. Arnold. But there is a tendency on the part of the workmen 
to want to save? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir ; there is. 

Mr. Arnold. They realize, perhaps, that this won't last forever, and 
when it is over it might not be easy to retain their jobs? 

Mr. Ratell. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. And they want to have something laid up ? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir ; they sure do. 

The Chairman. Mr. Ratell, that is something the committee is 
deeply interested in — not only where these people come from but what 
lies ahead for them. The people of the United States are worried 
about what is going to happen after this is over. Here in Camden, 
when this thing is over, there will be thousands and thousands of 
workers let out. The only safeguard against that day is just what you 
are doing now — that is, saving your money. That will be a real 
cushion for workers like you. If they all were to have a few hundred 
dollars when their defense jobs are finished, it would take care of 
them until they could get back on their feet. That seems to be the 
real solution, after all is said and done, and I wish the men working 
in industry would realize that and save all they can. We have had 
testimony showing that in some places the worlmien were voluntarily 
asking the company to hold out so much money a week of their wages. 
That is not the way you are saving yours, is it ? 

Mr. Ratell. No, sir ; but I think that is a good idea. 

The Chairman. You are putting yours in the bank? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is your brother here? 

Mr. Ratell. Yes, sir ; he is. 

TESTIMONY OF EARL RATELL, CAMDEN, N. J. 

The Chairman. Earl Ratell, will you come forward ? 

Your name is Earl Ratell and you are a brother of William Ratell ? 

Mr. Earl Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You are not married ? 

Mr. Ratell. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Where are you living now ? 

Mr. Ratell. With my brother in Camden, at 32 South Thirty-fourth 
Street. 

The Chairman. And how old are you? 

Mr. Ratell. Twenty-three. 

The Chairman. And where did you come from ? 

Mr. Ratell. Springfield, Mass. 

The Chairman. And when did you come from there ? 

Mr. Ratell. About May 1. 

The Chairman. What are you doing now ? 

Mr. Ratell. Right now I am going to school, studying welding. 

The Chairman. Where? 

Mr. Ratell. Crescent Welding School at Camden. 

The Chairman. How are you maintaining yourself? 

Mr. Ratell. Right now my brother is taking care of me. 

The Chairman. How long is your school course ? 

Mr. Ratell. Well, I am just about completed. I hope to go down 
next Monday to take a test as tacker at the New York Ship. 



5566 TRENTON HEARINGS 

The Chairman. How long have you been studying? 

Mr. Ratell. Just about 2 months. 

The Chairman. You don't receive any pay during that time, do 
you? 

Mr. Ratell. No, sir. 

The Chairman. You have to pass an examination at the New York 
Shipbuilding Co.? 

Mr. Raitll. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What is a tacker? 

Mr. William Ratell. Maybe I better explain that. 

The Chairman [to William Ratell]. He hasn't been graduated yet? 

Mr. William Ratell. No, sir ; he has not. He hasn't worked around 
a ship, so he doesn't understand the conception of one. The ship- 
fitter sets a plate at a bulkhead, or a frame in place, and the tacker 
comes along and puts about an inch weld to hold it in place, and the 
welder comes along and welds it up. That is the duty of a tacker- 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb. 

Dr. Lamb [to William Ratell]. Mr. Ratell, you have been teaching 
your brother a good deal of what you know, haven't you? 

Mr. William Ratell. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. And paying for the equipment with which he has been 
working ; is that correct ? 

Mr. William Ratell. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. So that actually you have been giving him more schooling 
than he has been getting any other way ? 

Mr. William Ratell. Yes, sir; he will get more schooling by me 
being his instructor than he would at a welding school because they 
don't seem — they don't seem to be really interested in how much 
knowledge their students gain. It seems to me, from what experi- 
ence I have had with welding schools, they are more out for the money 
than for what knowledge they give out. 

Dr. Lamb. Mr. Gardiner,^ who was on the stand a moment ago, said 
that the training-within-industry is the most effective kind of train- 
ing. He said, in effect, that that is the way to learn because you have- 
a great variety of work to do and you have to do it continuously. 

Mr. William Ratell. Yes, sir ; that is right. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Ratell, how do you like Camden ? 

Mrs. Ratell. I don't like it. 

The Chairman. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Ratell. Born in South Dakota. My home is in Montana. 

The Chairman. Whereabouts? 

Mrs. Ratell. In the eastern part of IMontana — Savage, Mont. 

The Chairman. Do you like it in Montana ? 

Mrs. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Better than you do here? 

Mrs. Ratell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Wliy? 

Mrs. Ratell. Oh, I don't know. In the first place there is more 
room out there. Here you haven't enough room. It is too crowded. 

1 Glenn Gardiner, district representative, Training- Within-Industry Division of tile Office- 
of Production Management. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5567 

The Chairman. You are definitely not very well pleased with hous- 
ing conditions here, is that the idea ? 

Mrs. Ratell. So far I haven't been pleased with them at all. 
The Chairman. Well, thank you very much. 
Our next witness is Mr. Brophy. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH A. BROPHY, SECRETARY OF STATE, 
TRENTON, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. B"rophy, Congressman Osmers of New Jersey 
will interrogate you. 

Mr. OsMEES. Mr. Brophy, will you state your name and official title 
for the record, please ? 

Mr. Brophy. Yes, sir ; Joseph A. Brophy. I am here in the capacity 
of Governor's liaison between Trenton and Washington on defense 
housing. 

Mr. Osmers. You have recently been sworn in as Secretary of State 
for New Jersey ? 

Mr. Brophy. Just yesterday ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. Let me extend my congratulations to you, Mr. Brophy. 

Mr. Brophy. Thank you. 

Mr. Osmers. I have read your statement submitted to the com- 
mittee. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY JOSEPH A. BROPHY, SECRETARY OF STATE, TRENTON, 
N. J., JUNE 24, 1941 

About April 1, 1941, at the request of the Honorable Charles Edison, Governor 
of New Jersey, I accepted an assignment to act as liaison between the Governor's 
otlice and the Honorable John M. Carmody, Administrator of the Federal Works 
A,i:ency in Washington, D. C, in the matter of the proposed defense-housing 
program in New Jersey. This was prompted by the protests which Governor 
Edison received from Mayor Edward Biertuempel, of Union Township, other 
officials and citizens of that township, after announcement had been made by the 
Federal Works Agency that a 700-unit housing project would be constructed 
there. 

The Governor communicated with Mr. Carmody, setting forth the objections, 
whereupon it was decided to look for another site. Federal officials with a 
committee representing the Kearny shipyard workers, who were to be housed 
in tliis project, then selected a site in Clark Township. Officials of the township 
were consulted and apparently agreed to cooperate with the Federal Works 
Agency in the plan to construct the housing development. 

The Clark Township Taxpayers' Protective Association then started an inves- 
tigation to determine what effect the project would have upon the taxpayers of 
the township. While verbal assurances were given by the Federal Works Agency 
officials that the Government would provide schools, sewers, and other municipal 
services without additional tax burdens to the present residents of Clark, the 
association was not convinced and a movement was started to change the form 
of government in retaliation to the local officials who had expressed themselves 
in favor of the program. A referendum in May decided in favor of commission 
form of government to replace the township committee, and a special election 
tonight, June 24. will be held to elect the commissioners. 

Summing up the situation as I see it, defense housing In Union County, N. J., 
and. as I understand the same problems have arisen in other parts of this State, 
is that where large-scale projects have been proposed in small communities, the 
taxpayers become alarmed, fearing additional tax burdens accruing from serv- 
ices which will be needed. Unfortunately there Is no Federal legislation at the 
present time to provide these services, and until the Lanham Act is passed, it 
will be difficult to overcome the obstacles that have and, in my opinion, will con- 
tinue to impede the much-needed defense-housing program in New Jersey. 



5568 TRENTOX HEARINGS 



TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH A. BKOPHY— Resumed 

Mr. OsMERS. I should like to hear you sum up your statement for 
us, with particular reference to the defense-housing situation. 

Mr. Brophy. Briefly, I can sum that up by saying that about April 
1, when complaints began coming into the (jovernor's office in regard 
to a proposed housing project in Union, N. J., the Governor asked me 
if I would handle the matter. He was very busy. So I investigated 
it from the standpoint of the objections and made several trips to 
Washington. I found that, in connection with a defense-housing 
project in New Jersey, proposed by the Federal Works Agency, a 
committee of workers in the Kearny Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. 
stated they were anxious to get out of the industrial area where, of 
course, there was a shortage of adequate housing, and so it was de- 
cided to find a site in the country. 

Union is about, I would say, 12 miles away from Kearny. The 
objections that came in from the township officials and the citizens 
were based on the fact that the Federal Works Agency was not in a 
position to tell them definitely that it would assume the additional 
burden of providing necessary facilities — schools, sewers, and other 
services. 

Mr. OsMERs. I wonder if you would tell us approximately the size 
of Union Township ? 

Mr. Brophy. Union is a township now of 25,000 people, approxi- 
mately. 

Mr. OsMERs. And approximately how many housing units were 
contemplated ? 

7 00 HOTTSING UNITS PROPOSED 

Mr. Brophy. It was proposed to have 700 units. The Governor 
gave careful consideration to the protest of the Union Township offi- 
cials, and after the Federal Works Agency had reconsidered the situa- 
tion they decided to look around and find another location nearby. 
They selected Clark Township, which again, I would say, is about 15 
miles from the Kearny shipyard. 

Mr. OsMERS. And how large a community is Clark Township ? 

Mr. Brophy. Clark Township is a community of only 2,000 people. 

Mr. OsMERs. And the same 700 units were in contemplation ? 

Mr. Brophy. Yes, sir; and that brings us up to a very serious 
situation. 

Mr. OsiMERS. Would it be safe to say — just making an approximation, 
Mr. Brophy — that the erection of 700 units in Clark Township would 
substantially equal the present town? 

Mr. Brophy. Just about, Congressman. The mayor and other town- 
ship officials in Clark felt it might be a good thing and were willing 
to cooperate. However, some of the citizens and a group known as the 
Tax]:)ayers Association of Clark Township organized and protested to 
the Governor and to the Federal authorities asking the same question: 
Whether the Federal Works Agency was in a position to assume the 
additional burdens. And, of course, cries went up because some of 
the people saw what is commonly known as a ghost town arising 
out of this contemplated project. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5569 

I mention both these cases because I think — and this is only my 
opinion — that it was not the proper approach for defense housing in 
New Jersey. 

Another case is arising now in Rockaway, where, we understand, 
there is a proposed project. And they have had some difficulty, also, 
down in Audubon, Camden County, N. J. 

APPLICATION OF LANHAM ACT 

Mr. OsMERS. You mention in your statement the Lanham Act; 
which act js it to which you refer ? Is that H. R. 4545 ? 

Mr. Brophy. I can't recall the number, but it is known as the 
Lanham Act or appropriation.^ There was an additional appropria- 
tion asked, just to provide for these facilities that I mentioned. I 
think that has been reported out of the Senate but hasn't been passed 
as yet. 

Mr. OsMERs. There is a bill known as H. R. 4545 which, day before 
yesterday, was on the President's desk for signature. Now, that act 
carries a $150,000,000 appropriation. 

Mr. Brophy. That is the act. 

Mr. OsMERs. To assist or take care of emergency situations that 
have arisen. 

Mr. Brophy. That is it. 

Mr. OsMERS. Frankly, I don't feel, Mr. Brophy, that it is con- 
templated under that act to take care of the normal needs that would 
arise from the construction of Government housing projects, although 
there isn't anything in the act that would prevent it being so used. 
As I understand it, it will be used as emergency money where a com- 
munity gets into a jam and has to have some help to provide such 
necessary services. Take a place like San Diego, Calif. I think San 
Diego has asked for $21,000,000 out of the $150,000,000. I don't know 
whether they will get it or not. 

I wonder whether you would care to express your opinion on the 
size of that appropriation — $150,000,000 — as against the magnitude 
of the problems it is supposed to take care of. Do you think that 
$150,000 000 will be enough for the whole United States? 

Mr. Brophy. Well, I wouldn't be in position even to express an 
opinion on that, because the defense program is a tremendous national 
project, and of course my study has all been in New Jersey. I 
realize that if the Lanham Act did provide enough money for these 
facilities, that would, in a great measure, be the answer to the prob- 
lem. However, if the Federal Works Agency continues to come into 
small communities — and I cite this particular case of Clark Town- 
ship — there are going to be serious delays and opposition, notwith- 
standing the Lanham Act. 

CHOICE OF COMMUNITIES FOR PROJECTS 

Mr. OsMERS. Would you say, Mr. Brophy, that Federal Housing 
projects should go into large communities, where the new housing will 

iH. R. 4545 (now Public Law 137) is known as the Lanham Act, "To provide for the 
acquisition and equipment of public works made necessary by the defense program," as 
amended and approved June 28, 1941 (the day following the hearing recorded above). For 
complete text of the act, see San Diego hearings, p. 5007. 

60396 — 11— pt. 14 3 



5570 TRENTON HEARINGS 

not be such a large proportion of the entire community? Let us say 
we went into the city of Newark and put in TOO units. Newark would 
never know they were there, so far as new facilities were concerned. 
But in a small town, where would you find school facilities, sewers, 
and streets, and everything else along with it? I question, as you 
do, the wisdom of going into small communities and throwing 
them out of gear. It would create the possibility of a ghost town if 
you went into a community such as, let us say, Rockaway, up in 
Morris County. The work stops at the arsenal located there, you 
very likely would have a ghost town. 

Mr. Brophy. I want to correct that. It is not my own opinion that 
they would be turned into ghost towns. I am only saying that that is 
one of the objections coming in. 

Mr. OsMERS. And we can understand why they would be. Now, 
have you made any study at all of rent increases in northern New 
Jersey ? 

Mr. Brophy. There have been rent increases. I haven't made a 
study of it, but it is generall}' known that rents have been going up 
and will continue to go up. However, an investigation has been started 
by the Governor, and a committee is now studying that phase of the 
problem. The committee will make some recommendations as to how 
it is going to be controlled. 

Mr. OsMERS. You feel that the situation will probably have some 
public attention? 

Mr. Brophy. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. That is, some control over rent increase ? 

Mr. Brophy. That is right. 

government payments for SER^^CES 

Mr. Osmers. Now, on any of these defense-housing projects in New 
Jersey, has the Federal Government agreed to pay for any new services 
that will be needed ? 

Mr. Brophy. I am glad you asked that question because this is what 
has happened : Mr. Carmody — the Honorable John M. Carmody, who 
is Administrator of the Federal Works Agency — and other officials of 
the Department have come in and have emphatically told the officials 
and the people of the various communities that the Federal Works 
Agency or some Federal source would provide all the needed facilities. 
But tlie officials of these small towns and the people insist, "Will you 
put that in writing, in plain words ?" And that hasn't been done. The 
answer given is, "Just as soon as this Lanham appropriation is ap- 
proved the moneys will be made available," 

Mr, Osmers. Well, I tliink it is very unreasonable on the part of the 
Federal Government to expect the officials of a small community to 
accept a verbal assurance about money which they are not yet certain 
of getting, and I think it is a very dangerous precedent to establisli. 
If I guess the situation correctly, I would say that there will be two 
of three billion dollars in applications against the $150,000,000 that 
has been appropriated, and it is very likely that these communities will 
not receive what they expect. 

Do you have any other observations you want to make on the situ- 
ation, Mr. Brophy? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5571 

URGES STATE FEDERAL WCRKS AGENCY OEFICE 

Mr. Brophy. Just this: I think that the Federal Works Agency 
should — and again I say this is only my opinion — have a State office, 
so that tliere will be some close contact between these communities 
and the Washington authorities. It shouldn't be necessary for citi- 
zens and officials to have to go to Washington on this matter. 

The Chairman. You recommend a sort of clearing house? 

Mr. Erophy. That is right. 

Mr. OsMERS. Mr. Brophy, do you anticipate that we are going to 
need a lot of new housing units in New Jersey as a result of the defense 
program ? 

Mr. Brophy. Yes, sir ; I do, definitely. 

Mr. OsMERS. Whether they are built privately or otherwise? 

Mr. Brophy. Yes. Unfortunately, private capital hasn't liad any 
incentive to build the defense houses. 

Mr. OsMERS. In the low-rent field ? 

Mr. Brophy. Yes; that is right. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, why will we need these new housing units ? 

Mr. Brophy. Because our population is increasing — because people 
are coming in from outside the State. When we speak of industry 
today, we have a shift in the population of nearly every industrial 
city. Houses have been vacated because they are run down and not 
fit to live in. They are substandard. There must be some replace- 
ment. Since private capital doesn't find it profitable to go into this 
replacement, the Government will have to do it. I do believe that 
there is a definite place for the Government in this housing picture. 

Mr. OsMERS. We have found ail through our experiences of last 
year — and 1 believe I am correct in this, Mr. Chairman — that 
throughout the entire United States, when you get down into the 
low-rent housing sections, in congested areas of cities where high 
taxes obtain, private capital apparently cannot show a return on its 
investment. So, whether we believe in it as a principle or not, it 
develops upon the Federal Government to step into that field. As a 
practical matter, if private capital can't do it, somebody has to do it. 

CITIES STILX, HAVING STRUGGLE 

Mr. Brophy. But in any event I think this is important; I think 
the Federal Government should realize that municipalities, or most 
of them, are still having a struggle, and that they should be reim- 
bursed for any facilities provided. I don't think the United States 
Housing Adininistration or the Federal Works Agency should expect 
the municipalities to carry too much of the burden. 

Mr. OsMERS. I know there has been considerable resistance in my 
own county of Bergen to any of this defense housing because of the 
very same fears that you have related to the committee as expressed 
by various municipal officials. 
' I was interested in visiting the Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock 
Co. yesterday in Kearny. They have been mentioned here in your 
testimonv. I was interested in going over their figures to find that 
hardly anyone, as I recall it, had moved into the State of New Jersey 
to get a job with the Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co.; that 



5572 TRENTON HEARINGS 

they were employing men who resided within the community — within 
the area of the shipyard. That was why I raised the broad question 
before : . . , , 

"Do you think we will need new housing, and if so, who will use it?' 

Now I know that the contrary is true in most other places. 

In the Bendix plant in Bergen we have had, I would say, a majority 
of workers in that plant who have come in from outside the State of 
New Jersey because of the particular skills that were required. 

That is all I have. Mr. Chairman. 

The CHAiRaiAN. Mr. Brophy, as you know, we recently held hear- 
ings in San Diego. That city has^ received about 100,000 people in 
recent months, which has practically doubled its population. They 
have a problem of providing sewerage and schools and hospitals and 
fire protection and police protection and many other services. It is 
just impossible for the State or the community to handle those prob- 
lems financially with that additional population coming in all at one 
time. 

One hundred and fifty million dollars is appropriated by Congress 
in the so-called Lanhani Act. That amount will soon be gone. The 
President yesterday, in his special message to Congress, recom- 
mended some $300,000,000 more. Did you Imow that? 

Mr. Brophy. No; I did not know that. I am glad to hear it. 

The Chairman. That amount is expected to build about 75,000 
houses. Congressman Osmers asked you the question about private 
capital building these houses. Private capital is a little loathe to 
do it. Of course there is a question of permanency there. In other 
words, if the private companies build 500 homes, and they are occupied 
for 6 months and then vacant, the builders could not afford to stand 
that loss. That is the handicap private building suffers when it 
approaches the problem. 

Thank you very much, Mr. Brophy. 

The committee will take a 5-minute recess. 
(Whereupon tlie recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

Mr. Holderman will be our next witness. 

TESTIMONY OF CARL C. HOLDERMAN, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, 
LABOR'S NON-PARTISAN LEAGUE OF NEW JERSEY 

The Chairman. Congressman Osmers will interrogate you, Mr. 
Holderman. 

Mr. Osmers. Mr. Holderman, will you give your name and position 
for the record ? 

Mr. Holderman. Carl Holderman, executive director of Labor's 
Non-Partisan League. 

Mr. Osmers. I have glanced through your paper, Mr. Holderman, 
it will be made a part of the record. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows :) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5573 

STATEMENT BY CARL C. HOLDERMAN, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, LABOR' S 
NONPARTISAN LEAGUE OF NEW JERSEY 

BEiEt^ ON Need for Housing in New Jersey 

1. NEW INDUSTRIES AND EXPANSION OF PLANTS AND MIIXS 

Because of its exceptional industrial facilities, it has been natural that New 
Jersey should, be a focal point of the national-defense production program. In- 
dustry found New Jersey superior as a location because of its fine harbors and 
ports, extensive railroad network, most modern highway system. These neces- 
sary auxiliaries to industrial activity, some natural and some man-made, have 
made this State a center of manufacture of many of those products which are 
today so vital to the Nation. The list of these products would be almost endless, 
but especially important are: A great shipbuilding industry, airplane and plane 
parts, automobile and parts plants, electrical and radio equipment, a major 
textile area of highly varied nature, great steel and rubber plants, and so on. 

It was logical that the Nation in its need should turn to this major industrial 
State. The urgencies of the program have brought enlargement of existing 
plants in such brief time that when examined objectively is little short of 
amazing. Also, because of the superb transport facilities, which make the receiv- 
ing of raw materials and the .shipping of hnished products more eiticient than 
any other area in the country, new factories and branches of industrial organiza- 
tion have unhesitatingly chosen New Jersey as their location. New Jersey was 
highest of all States in value of defense material produced in May 1941. 

2. INDUSTRIAL EXPANSION AND MANPOWER 

That the exceptional industrial growth of New Jersey can only be accom- 
plished with increased manpower is obvious. An incomplete list shows this at 
once. The following indicates what has happened : 

(a) Bendix Instrument (aviation) : New plant at Bendix, 3,000 new employees 
in 2 years. 

( b ) Curtiss-Wright Co. : New propeller plant at Caldwell, 3,000 new employees. 

(c) Passaic-Clifton textile plants, 3,000' to 4,000 new employees. 

id) Wright Aeronautical Corporation, Patersou, increase from 3,000 to 15,000 
employees. 

(c) Federal shipyards, Kearny, increase from 3,000 to approximately 15,000. 

(f) Naval base and drydocks under construction, Bayonne; anticipate 20,000 
employees when construction facilities completed. 

3. MANPOWER AND RESIDENCE PROBLEMS 

When a plant increases its number of employees by several thousands, it rarely 
obtains this manpower in its own community. With the exception of a very few 
industries which were in a very depressed state, new and expanded industrial 
units are attracting workers from great distances. 

Assuming an average of only 4 persons to a family, it can be readily seen that 
many communities are having an unprecedented increase in population and 
demand for housing. In fact, even the largest communities have been unable to 
meet the need. 

If there had previously been a great quantity of vacancies, a mild and gradual 
adjustment would have taken place. But there never has been in any of the 
larger cities and towns any real surplus of decent housing. An examination of 
the figures presented in the supplement proves this beyond doubt. 

Many cities have been attempting for many years to cope with social problems 
arising from the housing problem. Slums and overcrowding have brought condi- 
tions of delinquency, fire hazards, disease, crime, and improper balance of budget 
expenditure. This point needs no elaboration to anyone familiar with studies 
made by various Government agencies. 

Certain effects of the population shift must be commented upon : 

(a) Higher rentals. — Working of the law of supply and demand has brought a 
great increase in rentals for whatever housing is available. It is not uncommon 



5574 TRENTON HEARINGS 

to find sudden rental increases of from $5 to $10 per month in the cities. These 
increases are usually not accompanied by any services, such as repairs or improve- 
ments, which bodes ill for the future condition of housing in New Jersey. 

(b) Homes at a distance from work. — Because of impossibility of obtaining 
residence, or in search of lower rents, many workers are living at great distances 
from their place of employment. A trip of 10 miles to and trom work on buses 
is common. Workers with cars are traveling as much as 120 miles round trip 
daily. 

(c) Morale arid' health. — Workers employed recently at the Piccatiny Arsenal 
and Hercules Powder Works at Dover are renting cottages at lake resorts all 
through the district. These are intended for summer use only. At present many 
are expecting to make these cottages permanent homes. A real health hazard 
may result for families of workers who live in winter in housing intended only 
for summer use. Certainly facilities will be exceedingly primitive and limited. 

In other places an enormous burden will be placed on services of towns and 
villages. Authorities must now face school, traffic, and other problems, frequently 
with little financial preparation. 

Taxpayers, employees of nondefense industries, families passing through hard- 
ships can hardly be blamed for grumbling when affected by events and develop- 
ments as described. Solutions must be found if civilian morale is to be main- 
tained at a high level. 

4. PROPOSALS 

(a) Continuation and expansion of slum elimination and defense housing. — 
Disease, crime, and fire hazards are a blot on any civilization at any time. The 
attack on their sources is particularly pertinent, when we are joined in a program 
of making democracy work. 

(&) Housing Tprograms. — Low-cost housing construction has been among the 
most wise and intelligent activities of our socially minded administration. Great 
as the need was before, it is essential now, especially in the areas of defense- 
production activity. Efficiency of the workers, avoidance of major traffic prob- 
lems, maintenance of civilian morale, cooperation of National G ivernment with 
small communities to relieve their unexpected and unprecedented burdens, pro- 
vision for those removed from slums to decent homes within their means — all 
these call for a great national low-cost housing movement in which New Jersey 
will share in line with the concentration and intensification here. 

{(•) Until a great construction program reduces rent profiteering through 
economic action, we call for legislation to freeze rentals at a decent level. 

(fZ) An immediate construction program of 5.000 housing units for defense 
workers is vitally needed in the north Jer.sey industrial area. This would only 
partially relieve the evils of overcrowding that are becoming more aggravated 
daily. 

5. CONCLX-SION 

The American workers want to work for democracy. They want to produce 
for the defeat of evil. But every incident of rent profiteering will bring a reaction. 
No human beinu: desires to carry the entire burden alone. Unfairly high rents, 
income reduced through excessive transport costs will cause unrest and continuing 
wage demands. 

Workers and citizens will be disciplined and cooperative in ratio to the intel- 
ligence and vigor with which these problems are attacked. 

Supplements 

1. In 19^3 the State housing authority was charged by the legislature with the 
responsibility of investigating housins conditions throughout the State and deter- 
mining areas of slums and substandard dwellings. A total of 856, £162 dwelling 
units in 4Sfi.058 structures were enumerated in 214 municipalities. When com- 
pleted, in ir).S4. the survey revealed that only 17.3 percent of these structures were 
good, that 574 percent needed minor i-epairs, that 21.5 percent needed major 
repairs, and that ?, R percent were unfi*- for use. 

The survey further revealed that 77.775 out of 796.077 dwelling units, or 8.9 
percent, were vacant. This was offset, however, by the fact that extra families 
numbering 45.179 were found sharinsr dwelling units with the usual occurants. 
This, nccorfiing to t^he survey, resulted in overcrowded conditions in 14.1 percent 
of all dwelling units. 

2. In 19.34 the real pron«rty inventorv taken in Paterson by the State housing 
authority enumerated 3,330 vacant dwelling units, or 8.4 percent of the city total 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5575 



of 39,557 dwelling units. However, 1,476 extra families were found doubled up 
in single dwelling units, so that the total number of dwelling units exceeded the 
total number of families by 1,854, or 4.3 percent. This was less than the normal 
5 percent needed to allow for necessary movements and for vacancies which are 
unsuited by size, rent, or location to the requirement of prospective tenants. 

In addition, 3,672 dwelling units in Paterson were in structures classified as 
unfit for use, and 21,751 were in structures that needed major repairs ; 2,715 had 
no private indoor water closet; 8,311 had no bath; 12,442 had only cold running 
water ; and 18,703, 47 iiercent, were heated only by coal stoves, which is a danger- 
ous condition in a congested city where 35 pei'cent of the dwelling units are in 
multifamily structures, and 90 percent of the structures are of frame construction. 

It is generally conceded that those poor housing conditions were the decisive 
factor in the excessively high juvenile delinquency, crime, disease, and death 
rates. The maintenance of slum areas is exceedingly expensive. A slum section 
is a financial liability to the municipality and a constant drain on the taxpayer. 

3. A study made by the New Jersey State Housing Authority of a blighted 
area of nine blocks in Atlantic City showed expenses totaling $153,372 paid out 
of taxes. The tax income from this area was found to be $17,070. The annual 
operating loss to the municipality was $136,301. 

Elizabeth disclosed a similar situation. In an area of only four blocks, the 
total expenses paid out of taxes were $71,689, while the total tax income from 
the same area was $14,545. The annual operating loss for this section was 
$57,143. In another blighted area in the same city, total expenses were $149,050. 
The total tax income was $32,771, and the operating loss was $116,282. Total 
costs for operating the slum areas in both cities included expenses for proba- 
tionary service, emergency relief, police court, fire department, hospital service, 
etc. 

4. Comparison of residential vacancies in Newark in 193 Jf and 1939 





A. RESIDENTIAL VACANCY IN NEWARK 








1934 


October 
1939 




114, ?28 

12, C13 

11 


114, 107 


Vacint dwellin" units - -- 


3,396 




3 







B. VACANT DWELLING UNITS RY TYPE OF STRUCTURE 






Number of dwelling 
units 




1934 


October 
1939 


Type of structure: 


494 
1,634 
9,635 

850 


293 


2 family 


446 




2,425 




232 








12, 613 


3,396 







C. VACANT DWELLING UNITS BY SIZE 



Number of rooms: 


32 
534 

2, 588 
3,695 

3, 540 
1.529 

695 


21 




248 




771 




884 




757 




425 


7 or more rooms - 


257 




33 










12, 613 


3,396 







5576 TRENTOX HEARINGS 

4. Comparison of residential vacancies in 'Newark in 1934 ond 1939 — Continued 

VACANCY, BY SIZE OF UNITS 1939 





Number 


Number vacant 


Percent vacant 




89, 226 
114,238 


3,39f. 

3,396 


3.8. 




-2.9. 







5. Absorption of vacancy, hy rental groups and by sizes of units, 193.'f and 1939 



Number Percent 



Number Percent 



Ab- 
sorbed 



Percent 

ab- 
sorbed 



Under $10... 
$10-$14.99... 
$15-$19.99... 
$20-$24.99 .. 
$25-$29.99... 
$30-$49.99.-. 
$50-$74.99-- 
$75-$99.99... 
$100 or more 
No report- 
Total. 



1,378 

2,838 

2,415 

1,843 

3,039 

718 

101 

41 



20.1 
21.2 
17.5 
14.4 
12.9 
11.2 
11.6 
14.1 
16.0 



54 
190 
352 
274 
248 
1,0S9 
419 
52 
19 
709 



155 
1, 188 
2,496 
2,141 
1, 595 
1, 950 

299 

49 

22 

-078 



12, 613 



9,217 



Source: Real property inventory and Vacancy survey by Work Projects Administration, State housing 
authority, and Newark Planning Commission in October 1939. 

Ratio of vacancies (from New Jersey Council of Housing Authorities) 

Camden 0. 005 percent in 1941. 

Elizabeth 0. 35 percent in 1941. 

Newark (approximately) 1 percent in 1941 ma.iority in $50 or over class. 

Paterson (approximately) 1 percent in 1941 majority in $50 or over class. Heavy 

increases in rents in medium homes. 

Bayonne 0. 75 percent in 1941. 

Perth Amboy 0. 40 percent in 1941. 

New Brunswick (approximately) 1 percent in 1941. 

Jersey City (approximately) 0. 3 percent in 1941. 

Survey of conditions in Bayonne, U. S. Department of Labor, June 1941 

Percentage of renting units increased 44 to 55 percent. 

Percentage of increase in rentals 9 peicent. 

Between $40-$50 increase units 40 percent. 

Between $30-$40 increase units T.O percent. 

Between $2()-!t;30 increase units 45 percent. 

Less than $20 increase units 2a percent. 

Average amount of increase $2-.^'3. 

Percent of vacancies 0. 75 of 1 percent.^ 

Percentage of absorption 100 percent. 

1 Nearly all of this figure covers units renting above $50. 

TESTIMONY OF CARL C. HOLDEEMAN— Eesiimed 

Mr. OsMERs. Will you summarize your statement briefly, Mr. Hold- 
erman ? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Our workers, particularly those who are coming 
into the defense industries, are looking forward to the Government 
providing them with places to live. 

We know that there are many other problems connected with the 
erection of homes for workers, but there is a g-reat deal of dissatis- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGllATION 5577 

faction in having to live in trailer camps and other temporary struc- 
tures while they are working at pretty hard labor in some of these 
industries. 

We know that all through the northern part of the State, more and 
more of these trailer camps are being established because people can't 
find homes. 

Mr. OsMERS. Would you care to estimate the number of workers 
who have come into the State? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. I couldu't, but it might be interesting for you to 
see some pictures we have taken in various places that show automo- 
bile licenses from outside of the State. For example, at the Elco 
Boat Works. Here [exhibiting photo] is a picture of a row of cars 
in the parking lot. Five out of a row of six of these cars are from 
outside the State, and one was from outside that particular county. 

STEEP RISE IN RENTS 

Mr. OsMERS. Have rents increased any ? 

Mr. HoLDEKMAN. Tremeudously, insofar as the low-income brackets 
are concerned. 

Mr. OsMERS. W^ould you care to estimate the approximate increase 
in rental, let us say on a normal $30-a-month unit? 

IVIr. HoLDERMAx. Well, I can give you some typical cases. 

Mr. OsMERS. All right, do that. 

]Mr. HoLDERMAN. Complaiuts that have come to us. 

Mr. OsMERs. All right. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. They show not only the increase in rents to de- 
fense workers, but the impact upon living conditions of others in non- 
defense industries, which is also quite important. 

In the city of Paterson, for example, where the Wright plant has 
caused a tremendous increase in employment, there is a very definite 
impact on the living conditions of other industrial workers. 

Among textile workers we have had a good deal of complaint about 
increases that range anywhere from $7 to $8 a month in the $25-a- 
month class of rents. One worker complained that his rent was in- 
creased from $23 to $32 a month. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is a tremendous increase — an increase of 39 per- 
cent. 

]Mr. HoLDERMAN. That increased rent will begin July 1, 1941, and 
in order to justify it the landlord painted the house. 

Another worker complained that his rent had been increased from 
$25 to $30 a month, absorbing his increase in wages. 

Many of these cases come to us. People complain that they can't 
meet these rents because wages in nondefense industries are not keep- 
ing pace with the increases they are called upon to pay. 

EARNINGS AT WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL 

Mr. OsMERS. Are the workers in the Wright Aeronautical plant 
organized into unions? 

]\rr. HoLDERMAN. Well, they have what we term a company union. 

Mr. OsMERs. What are the average earnings of the workers in that 
plant? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Hourly or weekly? 



5578 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr, OsMERs. Well, weekly. 

Mr. HoLDEEMAN. They range from $30 to $50 and $60. Much of 
this is accounted for by overtime. If they were to go on a 40-hour 
basis — for example, if they were to run three shifts and to go on a 
40-hour basis — the average wage would be in the neighborhood of $30 
a week. 

Mr. OsMERS. Are the Wright people bringing any considerable num- 
ber of workers into New Jersey from outside the State? I mean as 
residents, I don't mean commuters. In other words, are men with 
their families moving into New Jersey to work at Wright's? 

Mr. HoLDEEMAN. Many of them are staying out because they can't 
find places to live. In the Paterson industrial area we have had 
considerable resistance to any kind of public-housing projects for 
the last 8 years. 

HOUSING PLANNED AT EAST PATTERSON 

Mr. OsMERS. There is a defense housing project in East Paterson, 
is there not? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. One is projected there, but it has not been started 
yet; just across the river, TOO homes, I believe, have been allotted to 
that vicinity, part of them to go into Clifton and part into East 
Paterson. 

Mr. OsMEES. Has either community welcomed the defense housing? 

Mr. Holder:man. No. There has been considerable resistance in 
both communities to defense housing projects. 

JNIr. OsMERS. You were here when Mr. Brophy, the secretary of 
state, testified, Mr. Holderman. Do you agree with his contention 
that that resistance will continue until such time as the Federal Gov- 
ernment assures the communities of adequate assistance with their 
public services? 

GETTING AROUND LOCAL PREFERENCE 

Mr. Holderman. I presume it will. But I want to correct one 
impression that was left, through a lack of information, or rather, 
through the contradictory information tliat lias come from some of 
these manufacturing concerns about out-of-State workers. It has 
been a practice in a good many of the industrial centers, and in some 
of these big industries, to give preference to local residents, insofar 
as employment is concerned ; and we know, because we have had prac- 
tical experience with it, that many workers come from outside the 
State, establish a residence — legal or otherwise — and apply for work 
at these industrial plants. Naturally their records show they are 
New Jersey men, but their automobile licenses, in many instances, will 
show they are from New York State, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, 
Massachusetts, and other States. 

Mr. Osmers. That is an interesting point, because I stated when 
Mr. Brophy was a witness that at the Federal shipyard in Kearny — 
while they employ several thousand men from outside the State of 
New Jersey — a]>parently those men commute back and forth, and 
have not moved into New Jersey. 

Now, it is entirely possible that of the 12,000 or 13,000 New Jersey 
residents who are employed there, many may have moved in in order 
to get the jobs. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5579 

COMMUTERS TO WRIGHT PLANT 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. And many of them are still commuting back and 
forth to their homes. 

For example, you asked about the Paterson area, about the Wright 
workers. We are making a survey at the present time among the 
Wright workers on housing conditions. It has not yet been com- 
pleted, but I can give you one or two samples of the kind of condi- 
tions that prevail. 

There is one worker, for example, who travels 30 minutes a day. 
He comes from Union County. He lives there with another family. 
There are eight living in a single house. It is a large house, that is 
true, with eight rooms, and they are paying $85 a month rent. They 
have been forced to double up and take acconnnodations of this sort 
in order for each of them to exist. 

It is true that this worker at the present time is earning about $50 
a week. In order to earn the $50 a week, he has to Dut in from 8 
to 12 hours a week overtime, so if production is stepped up and three 
shifts are put into his particular department, his earnings will drop 
considerably, and then it will be a question of whether he can afford 
to continue under conditions of this sort. 

It costs them about $3 a week to travel, which increases his rent — 
actually increases his rent — by another $13 or $14 a month. 

NEED FOR RENT CONTROL 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you think we are approaching a situation in New 
Jersey wliere we are going to have to pass some rent-control legislation ? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Well, I don't know how these people are going to 
meet the bill if you don't. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, I am quite familiar with the northeastern corner 
of New Jersey, and from my personal observation I would say there 
is considerable housing available, but not for a man making $30 a 
week. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. That is right. 

Mr. OsMERS. There are rentals and houses for sale and some are 
being built. Most of the houses in Bergen County, for example, are 
being built to sell at around $5,000 or $6,000. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. That is correct. 

Mr. OsMERS. And the worker who earns $30 a week has no business 
to attempt to buy a place of that sort. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. They wouldn't let him buy it anyway— the F. H. A. 
wouldn't let him purchase it. 

Mr. OsMERS. I Imow that in Fairlawn, where Wright Aeronautical 
has started a large operation, there are many privately built houses, 
and they are trying to get the prices of them clown to a point where 
they can be sold to those workers. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Well, they were successful in getting it down to 
the point where they could be purchased by $30-a-week workers in 
some localities, but I have heard some stories about the kind of hous- 
ing that came within that price range. I can't vouch for the truth 
of the stories. One is that if you move a piano in the front room the 
piano will be in the basement within a couple of weeks' time. I don't 
think American workers should be housed under such conditions. 



5580 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. OsMERS. I have heard those stories, too. I doubt them, because 
I know (he rigid inspection that an F. H. A.-financed house must 
pass. I know they don't look as though they would hold a piano, 
but apparently they do. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. I am not a construction expert, but I have seen 
some of tliem, and I would hesitate to say that a piano would stay on 
the first floor. 

Here are some pictures of trailer camps in Kahway and Linden, 
where defense workers are living at the present time. 

NEW JERSEY SLUMS 

Mr. OsMERS. In your statement, Mr. Holderman, you discussed slum 
housing in New Jersey. I wonder if you will specify those areas just 
a little bit more definitely. 

Mr. Holderman. I don't think there is an industrial area in New 
Jersey which doesn't have a large proportion of slums. Here [ex- 
hibiting photographs], for example, is the kind of house that workers 
have to occupy in Bayonne. It is typical of houses in other places. 

Here are some from the city of Paterson, where workers are com- 
pelled to live under conditions such as these. You will notice this is 
air-conditioned permanently — you can see the holes in the walls. 

The Chairman. Would you care to leave these pictures with us ? 

Mr. Holderman. Yes, sir ; you can have them. 

The Chairman. And Mr. Keporter, you will include th^se in the 
record. 

(The photographs referred to above appear on p. 5728.) 

Mr. Holderman. Recently we have been getting complaints of an- 
other sort. We liave been getting complaints from Negro workers, 
quite extensively, that they are being put out and the houses are 
being refurbished so that increased rents can be secured from white 
workers who earn more money in defense industries. 

There are more and more of these complaints coming in within the 
last 2 or 3 weeks from various sections of the State — Newark and 
Paterson particularly. 

Mr. Osmers. Newark has a large Negro population, has it not? 

Mr. Holderman. Yes ; it has. 

race discrimination in defense 

Mr. OsMERs. Have you found, in the course of your work, Mr, 
Holderman, any discrimination against persons of any race or color, 
on the part of defense industries in New Jersey ? 

Mr. Holderman. Yes, sir; very decidedly. There is a good deal 
of it. 

Mr. OsMERS. What is the nature of the complaints that you have 
been getting? 

Mr. Holderman. Probably the outstanding discrimination is 
against Negro workers. No place seems to have been made for them 
in the defense program, either in the training or in hiring in industry. 

Mr. OsMERS. I want to ask you a question along those lines — a very 
pointed question — and I think you will be able to give the answer to it : 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5581 

I have been very much interested in fiohtinj>: tliis discrimination, 
and I have taken it up with management. Management in general 
tells me that they have absolutely no objection to the employment 
of Negro workers, but that the workers in their plants object to their 
employment. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Well, there may be some justification for that 
statement in some places, but I have noticed that when economic 
necessity demands it in a particular industry, employers have not 
hesitated to break down that objection. For example, the needle trade 
industry in the State of New Jersey used to be entirely a white trade. 
Today you find hundreds of Negro girls working alongside white 
girls, and there is no apparent ill-will on the part of the white girls. 

Mr. OsMERS. There was at first? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Trobably was when the practice first started, but 
I don't think that workers generally are going to hold any resentment 
for any long period of time if a real, earnest effort is made to give 
Negro workers an opportunity to work at something more than 
scrubbing floors. 

NEGROES NOT BEING TRAINED 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, you say they are excluded from the training 
programs. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. I perhaps should revise that statement. I don't 
know whether they are excluded or not, but it is quite evident that 
they are not being trained — for what reason, I don't know. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is a very, very serious problem, and I think it 
threatens the morale of the whole Nation, to have one group of work- 
ers kept out of this defense program. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. I might mention this to you : You asked whether 
workers will work beside colored people. Employers in many of these 
large industries haven't hesitated to give the heavy, unskilled jobs to 
Negi'oes in these plants, and workers don't walk out on strike or 
demonstrate any very great antipathy to the Negro workers. 

Mr. OsMERS. Bernard Baruch has said that l)ad housing, rising 
rents, and food prices create industrial unrest. Do you think many 
strikes can be traced to the rise in rents and to bad housing ? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. -Practically all of them that involve increases in 
wages are fundamentally a protest against rising costs. Rising costs 
force workers to demand more from their job — more in the way of 
wages in order to meet those rising costs — so obviously their demands 
increase as they have to meet the increased cost of living. 

OUT-MIGRATION FROM NEW JERSEY 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, we have talked here this morning about workers 
coming into New Jersey for employment. To what extent have 
workers left New Jersey for defense work ? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Well, that would be rather difficult to say. I 
doubt very much whether there has been any migration from the State. 
As a matter of fact — and, of course, this is information that I have 
gleaned from conversations with other individuals — I have been told 
that many of the small towns in upper Pennsylvania are becoming 
almost deserted by workers who are coming into New Jersey to work 



5582 TRENTON HEARINGS 

in defense industries, because here we have the largest defense-indus- 
try program in the United States, and they are seeking employment 
here. 

Mr. OsMEES. In your statement you indicate that we will need at 
least 5,000 new housing units in northern New Jersey. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. I think that is very conservative. 

Mr. OsMERS. Certainly compared to the number of jobs in defense 
industries, 5,000 units would not be a great number. 

Did you have in mind 5,000 additional units or 5,000 units to replace 
existing substandard housing? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. I tliiuk we need an absolute minimum of 5,000 
additional units to house people who are now undobutedly "doubling 
up" or commuting long distances in order to get to their jobs. 

Mr. OsMERS. What is the vacancy figure for northern New Jersey? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Well, I haven't it for the whole area, but I have 
it for some localities. Some of my information is not up to date. As 
you know, in the city of Paterson they are now conducting a housing 
survey through the W. P. A. and up-to-date figures are not available ; 
but we do know that under the 1934 housing survey, there was only 
a 6-percent vacancy in the city of Paterson at that particular time. 

Now, with the increase in employment in defense industries — prin- 
cipally in aircraft, which has grown from about 3,000 men to about 
15,000 in the last 2 years — the vacancies are necessarily very much 
less. I dare say today that there isn't a greater vacancy there, in the 
working-class homes, than there is in the city of Newark, where you 
only have about 1.5 percent of vacancies. 

VACANCY RATE IN CHEAP HOUSING 

IVIr. OsMERS. I am looking at your statement, Mr. Hoklerman, page 6, 
at the foot of the page. (See p. 5576.) It shows a comparison of 
vacancies in residences in Newark between the years 1934 and 1939, 
and indicates the vacancy ratio in October 1939 as being 3 percent. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. That is residential vacancies. That percentage is 
not broken down into income groups. But if you will look on the next 
page you will find that in the $25 class, or in the rentals below $30 a 
month, it runs not much more than 1 or 2 percent in vacancies. 

Mr. OsMERs. I see that. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. In the working-class brackets there are practically 
no vacancies at all. 

Mr. OsMERS. From $15 to $30. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. That does not take into consideration families who 
are "doubled up" because they can find no place to live. I have no 
figures on those. 

LABOR LOOKING AHEAD 

Mr. OsMEES. Is labor in New Jersey deeply concerned about condi- 
tions after this emergency is over? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is any program of any kind at all being advocated by 
labor? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Well, we haven't formulated a definite program. 
We have been very much concerned about the conditions that may 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5583 

arise unless there is some very carefully studied plan, and unless a 
very careful study is made to absorb the unemployment that will 
undoubtedly result when war materials are no longer needed. 

We have been represented upon a committee the Governor set up to 
make a study of that and to report back to him on some plan for taking 
up this slack when the depression hits us. 

]Mr. OsMERS. It will probably be a national problem, requiring a 
national approach. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. I hopc it is approached that way. 

Mr. OsMERS. It will have to be. This committee anticipates a great 
deal of migration after the emergency — just as great as there is now 
in search of defense jobs — when the workers start back home looking 
for other jobs. That will be another great problem. 

ISOLATED FACTORIES 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. One of the problems that you have here — a tempo- 
rary problem so far as housing is concerned — is created by the fact that 
some of these industries have been built out in the country, away 
from any housing, any community facilities whatsoever. You have 
one factory in Caldwell, for example, where about 3,000 people are now 
employed, and there is hardly a house in sight of that plant. 

Mr. OsMERs. I sup]50se the workers commute ? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. They have to travel long distances. And almost 
the same condition exists in Bendix, over at the Bendix field, where 
there is hardly a house in sight. They have been building in the 
Bergen County area, but as you remarked before, the houses there are 
for sale, and they are out of reach of these people. If they were oper- 
ating normally they would not be able to purchase them. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you feel that as a result of this defense program 
we are going to run into a period of sharply increased costs in living 
and higher wages? One brings the other with it. Do you feel that 
we are going into that spiral ? 

Mr. HoLDERMAX. That is the trend at present. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Don't you feel, Mr. Holderman, that the solution 
of this housing problem which faces New Jersey and other defense 
areas is just as much a part of the national defense as making guns and 
bullets? You can't divorce civilian morale from Army and Navy 
morale, can you ? 

Mr. HoLDERisiAN. Nor can you build it upon the kind of conditions 
under which these people have to live. 

The Chairman. No ; it just can't be done. 

MOR^VLE OF NONDEFENSE WORKERS 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. May I add just this. Congressman : I thing it is 
equally important to consider the morale of nondefense workers along 
with that of defense workers. 

The Chairman. We agree with you. 

Mr. Holderman. And the impact of the defense progi-am upon these 
nondefense workers is terrific. As rents increase because of the influx 
of defense workers and because they happened at the moment to be 



5584 TRENTON HEARINGS 

earning fairly good wages, clue to overtime and so on, the morale of 
nondefense workers will be shattered because they can't meet this 
increased cost. Some low-cost housing is definitely needed in com- 
munities such as Paterson, Newark, Elizabeth, Camden, Trenton, 
and so on. 

Mr. OsMERS. Has there been any unemployment caused in New 
Jersey by the defense program ? I mean, in the industries which have 
been deprived of raw materials through priorities, and so on? 

Mr. HoLDEKMAN. I don't know of any outstanding cases. 

Mr. OsMEES. You don't know of any plants that have closed on ac- 
count of that ? 

Mr. HOLDERMAN. No. 

Mr. OsMERS. Does your organization anticipate such dislocation? 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Well, I have heard of that elsewhere. 

Mr. OsMERs. Take the automobile industry, for example. We 
know that next year they will probably make only 50 percent of the 
cars they made this year. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Ycs, sir. 

Mr. OsMERs. Now, the displaced workers won't all be employed. 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. Well, they may be able to get other jobs. I antici- 
pate they may be able to get enough materials in the woolen industry 
to go ahead. Of course, they were handicapped for a short time with 
the closing of the raw-material markets in Australia and New Z3aland 
and India and other places. I don't think they have been handi- 
capped very seriously. I believe they turned to other markets — South 
America and other markets — to get their raw materials. 

But are you talking about defense industries or all industries? 

Mr. OsMERs, I am talking about nondefense industries. 

NEW RAW MATERIAL FOR CARPETS 

Mr. HoLDERMAN. In the carpet industry they had a very serious 
shortage of materials. They were handicapped, and worked on a 
short-time basis because of that, but they, too, have experimented with 
other wools, and have been able to find — I won't say a suitable substi- 
tute, but at least a substitute that is serviceable. 

We may not get the same grade of carpets for the next 2 or 3 years, 
but at least we will get carjDets. 

The flax-processing industry, of course, was seriously handicapped 
at the beginning of the war by the shutting off of the market in Ire- 
land, Poland, Belgium, and other countries that supply the raw ma- 
terials, and for quite a long time there was serious unemployment in 
some of the flax spinning mills in New Jersey. 

I believe that has been overcome by a synthetic product that they 
are now making, after some experimentation, out of byprocessing 
cotton in some way to substitute for linen. 

Mr. OsMERs. That is all. 

Tlie Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Holderman. 

Our next witness is Mr, John E. Sloane. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5585 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN E. SLOANE, VICE CHAIRMAN, NEW JERSEY 
STATE PLANNING BOARD; STATE CHAIRMAN, NATIONAL COM- 
MITTEE ON THE HOUSING EMERGENCY, INC., NEWARK, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Sloaiie, will you state your name and address 
and your official title in the organization with which you are con- 
nected ? 

Mr. Sloane. John E. Sloane, Newark, N. J. I am in the real-estate 
business. I am also vice chairman of the New Jereey State Plaiming 
Board and State chairman for the National Committee on the Housing 
Emergency. 

The Chairman. You have submitted a statement, which will be 
made a part of the record. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows :) 

statement by JOHN E. SLOANE, VICE CHAIRMAN, NEW JERSEY STATE 
PLANNING BOARD; STATE CHAIRMAN, NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON 
THE HOUSING EMERGENCY, INC., NEWARK, N. J. 

The purpose of this statement is to discuss briefly the importance of private 
real-estate activities in connection with defense housing. 

FUNDAMENTALS 

I thinli it can be readily agreed that nobody wants the Government to construct 
all the dwelling units that will be needed in the present emergency. There are 
adequate private builders, real-estate men, funds, and we hope, labor available 
for private construction. A much healthier country-wide condition will result if 
at least 80 to 90 percent of the housing is handled by private industry. This will 
result in adding to national income, reduce Government spending and taxes. 

There is still a great demand for normal housing, such as has been built in the 
last few years, but it seems likely that priorities both as to labor and materials 
will be imposed on building construction which will result in bringing it all under 
the "emergency" classification. 

This will require readjustment of plans and programs by private industry, and 
here every assistance should be given by Government agencies to expedite this 
transition. 

Speed, of course, is the essential element, and everything should be done by the 
Government and private interests to fully understand the needs and to expedite 
a building program which will definitely be an adjunct to our preparedness 
program. 

OBSTACLES AND THEIK KEMOVAL 

The two principle fears which seem to be in the minds of the average citizen 
are that ghost cities may be constructed and that the tax burden on the present 
residents and those remaining after the emergency will be confiscatory. 

To alleviate these fears as far as possible we need as complete and rounded 
a program as possible. Every effort should be made to correlate these programs 
with present trends of development and future needs. 

All factors should be taken into consideration so that municipal oflScials and 
citizens can fully grasp the problem. Then with fuller and better public under- 
standiniT, both the Government and private interests should receive greater 
cooperation and delays should be reduced to a minimum. 

Improper choice of location and poor selection of type of buildings can easily 
result in all the damage to the community that the public fears. Proper selection 
in^ these fields and greater distribution of dwelling units among municipalities 
and between urban and nonurban centers may not only distribute the risk but 
also contribute to improvement and orderly development of the different areas. 



60396— 41— pt. 14- 



5586 TRENTON HEARINGS 

To help this situation and to stimulate proper planning and as an aid to those 
interested in real estate and building, the New Jersey section of the National 
Committee on the Housing Emergency proposes to make a survey. 

The committee at present consists of : Hon. Joseph A. Brophy, Mr. Thomas E. 
Colleton, Pi-of. William L. Nunn, Mr. Harry A. Trotter, Mr. John Kervick, and 
Mr. Arthur B. Holmes, and will be enlarged. 

OUTLINE OF TENTATIVE PROGRAM 

1. Number of units needed. 4. Location within counties or areas : 

2. Construction: (a) In cities. 

(o) Permanent or temporary. (6) In underdeveloped areas. 

(&) Prefabricated. (c) On platted land alreaay 

(c) One family. improved but not built 

(d) Large units. on. 

3. Location : 5. Financing : 

(0) Hudson & Essex. (a) Federal funds. 

(&) Union. (6) Private funds. 

(c) Bergen & Passaic. 6. Obsolescense study: Remodeling. 

(d) Middlesex. 7. Rent freezing. 

(e) Mercer. 8. Urban rehabilitation 

(f) Camden. 9. Community facilities. 

(g) Morris. 

(h) Other southern counties. 
(i) Other northern counties. 

I think the outline of. our program is quite clear. Referring to item 2 (a) 
(Permanent or temporary), we believe it is important to determine if temporary 
housing will meet the situation in localities where the equivalent amount of 
permanent structure would be devastating to a community in the future. 

2. (&). Prefabrication must be considered in relation to our building codes 
because its objective is speed and lower cost. 

4. (a). The cities are an important part of our economic structure and have 
all the community facilities such as water, sewers churches, schools, stores, 
entertainment. For the most part they are near our industries. Living in the 
cities where your section is properly planned is not necessarily a horror. 

Remodeling some sections and rebuilding others for defense housing may very 
well contribute to defense housing at less cost and also may Improve the financial 
status of these cities and supply a type of urban dwelling that many of our 
people will find well suited to their desires. 

4. (c) Platted lands: In New Jersey we have a large amount of excess platted 
land — much of which has fallen into the hands of the municipalities through tax 
delinquencies. Very little of it is built up. 

Where location Is adequate and Improvements have been put in such as 
streets, water, and sewers, I believe this land should be used. It will mate- 
rially aid the municipalities and require much smaller expenditures. 

6. Obsolescence : This study has as its objective not only supplying dwelling 
facilities but also preserving neighborhood values and will, we hope, contribute 
to a stabilization of our urban and suburban areas. Mr. Holmes, of the Mont- 
clair Planning Board, has given this a great deal of study and prepared a sug- 
gested procedure which we hope can be carried on. 

9. Community facilities: This is an important part of defense or any other 
type of housing. They must be available. As they do include schools, churches, 
stores, as well as streets, light, water, and sewers, their availability is important. 
In a location either urban or rural where these exist advantage should be taken 
of that fact. 

Much of this information we hope is readily available in various Federal 
and State agencies and that by setting it up we will be able to visualize the 
problem in quite some detail. From this we plan a series of reports that will 
be of assistance to all those Interested in building and real estate, if possible 
taking into consideration population trends as well as defense trends. We would 
like to program this for a period of several years. 

If through this activity we enable prh'ate interests to plan their construction 
programs more speedily and in better relation to industry, we believe our con- 
tribution will be worth while. 

It should also assist the municipalities to see what amount of building con- 
struction may be confronting them and enable them to properly plan and guide 
the developments with the object of preserving the character and future of their 
communities as far as possible. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 55S7 

We propose to enlist the help of the municipal engineei's, building inspectors, 
and planning boards among others, to obtain much of this information correctly 
and quickly. 

TKANSPOBTATION 

In connection with this whole situation improvements in highway transit should 
be considered. For it is quite possible that building certain so-called defense 
highways and streamlining our normal traffic, which is abominable now, might 
be much cheaper than building an excess of dwellings. 

GO\^I!NMENT ACTIVITIES 

Recently I was at the National Housing Inventory Conference in Washington. 
I studied a chart of the Government agencies involved in housing and found 
12 of them. As I understand it, several of them may be concerned with the 
same project at the same time. 

This, of course, makes it difficult for the individual to find out what to do and 
where to go with his problem for housing. It would seem that a properly set up 
functional organization would speed everything about housing and would not 
necessarily eliminate any of the outstanding men heading these various agencies. 

Recently I spent several hours and dollars in taxi fares in Washington to trace 
down some seven or eight of these and find out what they had to do with my 
current problem. 

The type of organization I'm thinking about is one like the American Red 
Cross uses to carry out its manifold responsibilities. 

To facilitate the situation in New Jersey, the simplest way might be to throw 
all these agencies into contact with the Governor's secretary for defense and the 
State planning board and the Federal Housing Autliority and let them 
act as a clearing house for private interests. 

ESSEX COUNTY 

Taking Essex County as an example and looking at our overall housing prob- 
lem, I believe our needs cover all the fronts upon which the Government is attack- 
ing this problem. 

There seems to be no question but that low-rent housing developments are 
needed similar to those already built in Newark. If past experience is any 
guide, no amount of defense work or any other will lift our whole population 
out of the income bracket this fits. It must not be overdone, but it should be 
adequate. 

Next, it seems practical that limited dividend corporations are the only means 
of supplying dwelling units at a cost between the low rent and the usual privately 
owned rental dwellings. 

In our urban areas remodelling buildings into apartments of the size now 
desired should be considered with a view of possibly extending insurance to these 
operations. This is a possible way of starting an urban revival and perhaps 
providing defense accommodations more quickly and cheaply. 

New construction, of course, should go on in all our municipalities, preferably 
of a stable type that will stand the test of time while supplying the need. 

Study should be made to determine the effect and advantage of a straight 
Government defense housing project in a completely urban area compared to an 
undeveloped area. 

Private industry is able, and I believe will continue, to make its very important 
contribution to this problem, but considerable effort must be expended by the 
Government to facilitate their work through cooperation, information and advice. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN E. SLOANE— Resumed 

The Chairman. Could you summarize what is contained in your 
statement for the committee, or would you prefer answering questions? 

Mr. Sloane. I think I would prefer answering questions, because I 
have covered the subject rather widely in my statement. 

The Chairman. In regard to the survey that your committee plans 
to make of housing needs, have the offices of the Defense Housing 
Coordinator, Mr. C. F. Palmer, collected any of this vital information? 

Mr. Sloane. Well, I certainly think they have collected a great 



5588 trp:ntox hearings 

deal of it. I don't know that the public is familiar with it. I think 
one of the greatest difficulties here is that the people do not under- 
stand what the problem really is and how it can be met. They get 
scared about "ghost cities" and too heavy taxes. 

Now, if we can present the actual situation to them and show them 
how it is going to affect them, and how some of these problems can be 
solved, I think we can help expedite this whole program, because I feel 
all housing is going to be "defense housing" pretty soon. I think 
priorities are coming in, not only there, but in nondefense industries, 
and you have got to put your whole effort on defense plus supplying 
the public with the things they need to get along on. 

WOULD SIMPLIFY FEDEKAL SET-UP 

The Chairman. Do you feel that the multiplicity of Federal agen- 
cies concerned with housing has served to delay the building of defense 
housing? 

Mr. Sloane. I think it makes it very difficult for the private builder 
to get started, because there are so many different places for him to 
go. When you start dealing with the Government, it is difficult be- 
cause you can spend so much time going around trying to find the 
right place and explain to the right person what you want to do and 
finding out what you can do. 

If that could be centralized to some extent, as Mr. Brophy said, 
through an office of the Government here in New Jersey, or as I 
suggested, through the F. H. A. in New Jersey and the State plan- 
ning board, we ought to be able to bring these facts together and 
really help these real-estate men and builders to do the job that they 
would like to do if they knew how to do it and where to do it. 

The Chairman. Do you think there is any tendency on the part of 
private operators not to build, in order to collect higher rents at the 
present time? 

Mr. Sloane. I rather doubt it. Of course, the private builder can- 
not build houses or apartment buildings to compete with the Gov- 
ernment low-rent houses, because the cost of the structure doesn't 
allow it. 

FEAR surplus OF HOUSES AFTERWARD 

The Chairman. Do you think they are afraid of a surplus of houses 
after the war period? 

Mr. Sloane. That is one of the fears, but I think if you take your 
whole housing program in New Jersey and properly allocate it, you 
may eliminate a great deal of that danger. 

AVe have been building about 20,000 houses a year here. Maybe we 
need to reallocate the houses that will be built this year, and maybe 
we can avoid a lot of that excess. 

The Chairman. Do you have any knowledge of the vacancy ratio 
in northern New Jersey at the present time ? 

Mr. Sloane. I am told it is very low. I am advised that in Essex 
County it is only 1 percent. 

The Chairman. Can you tell me how many units of low-rent houses 
have been built by private builders in New' Jersey in the past year? 

Mr. Sloane. I don't think any low-rental housing has been built, 
other than by the Government. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 55g9 

The Chairman. No low-rent buildings by private companies? 

Mr. Sloane. I don't think a private individual can put up an apart- 
ment building and rent it for less than $15 a room and pay his taxes 
and interest and expenses and make any money on it; and I don't 
think $15 a room is low rent. 

federal slum clearance 

The Chairman. Has the Government engaged in slum clearing? 

Mr. Sloane. Yes. There are several projects in New Jersey — low- 
rent projects that have been completed. 

The Chairman. How about Newark? 

Mr. Sloane. I am not familiar with all the locations. I live in 
West Orange. But I think something must be done for people in the 
low-income bracket. 

. The Chairman. Do you have any idea of what the percentage of 
increase in rents has been in the low-income bracket — say, $40 per 
month, or less? 

Mr. Sloane. No ; I haven't any figures on that. 

The Chairman. "Would you advocate freezing of rents to prevent 
any further increases? 

Mr. Sloane. Well, I would hate to make that flat statement. Can 
you freeze taxes and can you freeze cost of operation and so on ? In 
other words, can you freeze the whole cost of living and hold it at that 
figure ? 

Mr. Henderson is working on that, and the more that is done, the 
better it will be for all of us. We can't do it 100 percent but if we 
can go along in our normal ways and keep prices from skyrocketing 
I think we would all be better off. 

The Chairman. Do you have any recommendations in regard to the 
housing problem ? 

Mr. Sloane. Well, I just think it is a problem that the people as 
well as the Government have got to work at, and we have got to try 
to make the general public understand the situation ; try to get private 
industry to take hold and do what they can with this housing problem. 

The Chairman. I see the President has recommendecl another 
$300,000,000 for defense housing, in addition to money already pro- 
vided. Do you think it is the duty of the Federal Government to step 
in and take care of these situations in defense areas, just as it is for 
the Government to build up our defenses ? 

Mr. Sloane. Well, I would ratlier see private industr}^ do as high 
a percentage as possible of that work, but I presume the Government 
will have to come in and do some of it. I certainly don't want to see' 
the whole responsibility thrown on the Government when private 
industry can successfully do a job. I think we have got to help our- 
selves. I think we have been too willing to let other people help us. 

The Chairman. Mr. Osmers. 

defense in cities or towns ? 

Mr. OsMERS. Mr. Sloane, there are two schools of thought in Wash- 
ington concerning the defense program. One — the one 1 belong to — 
believes that we should place these defense contracts, geographically, 
as nearly as possible along the lines of our existing industrial centers 



5590 TRENTON HEARINGS 

in the United States. The other believes we should go way out in the 
country somewhere and establish an industry — in other words, to 
spread the money. I think the slogan of the second school of thought 
is "spread the money." 

Do you feel that we are making a serious mistake by going out into 
these areas that are not naturally industrial areas and creating these 
big industries and building these housing projects and perhaps other 
facilities they will need ? 

Mr. Sloane. Well, I think possibly you are, but I think the defense 
industry is getting to be such a huge problem that you will probably 
have to spread some of it out. 

Of course you can't put it all in the northeast here. 

Mr. OsMERS. No; but you can put an awful lot of it here. 

Mr. Si.OANE. And they have put an awful lot of it here. The ship- 
yards you can't move, and some other industries you can't move, but 
I think you will have to do a certain amount of spreading for the 
sake of tlie whole country. Condensing everything into one spot 
isn't healthy. 

Mr. OsMEES. Of course, if you follow the existing industrial lines 
of the United States, you wouldn't be putting it all in one spot; you 
would have it in the Middle "West and on the Pacific coast and in 
certain southern areas. But it seems to me that our experience in 
New Jersey, where I believe we have now about $1,500,000,000 worth 
of defense orders, indicates that the business must go where the 
facilities are. 

TIME-SPREAD OF CONTRACTS 

Mr. Sloane. But that $1,500,000,000 worth of business is spread 
over a number of years. 

Mr. Osmers. But the striking thing about it is the small degree 
of dislocation that has come to New Jersey as a result of that tremen- 
dous amount of business. 

Mr. Sloane. The Federal Shipbuilding Co. is supposed to have 
orders on hand that will keep them busy for 12 years; "W^right Aero- 
nautical has got about 5 years' work ; and the New York Shipbuilding 
Co. must have a number of years of work on hand. That is all in 
that billion and a half, so actually you are spreading that labor over 
quite a period. If you tried to do that all in 1 year, you might as well 
go home. 

Mr. Osmers. We are not trying to do it all in 1 year. I am pointing 
out that the Federal shipyard has increased its pay roll from approxi- 
mately 3,000 workers to 15,000 workers, and they expect to go to 20,000 
• workers in about 2 years. Because of the location, the labor was there, 
and most of the housing was there. They need some new units, yes ; 
but I think it has been a rather good example of the wisdom of 
following normal lines. 

Mr. Sloane. I think in general you should follow the lines of indus- 
try, but, as I say, in some cases you have got to spread out, and it is 
probably wise to do it. You are spreading your risk to a certain 
extent. I don't think you should go out in the prairies where there 
is nothing, of course, and try to establish a new industry. 

Mr. Osmers. Well, that is what is being done. 

Mr. Sloane. I suppose so. 

Mr. Osmers. That is all. 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5591 

EXPEEIENCE WITH HOUSING AGENCIES 

Dr. Lamb. You wrote in your paper, Mr. Sloane, about recent 
experiences in Washington with respect to the various Federal hous- 
ing agencies. Would you like to enlarge on that ? 

Mr. Sloane. Well, I think it is purely the difficulty of finding out 
which agency you ought to deal with. 

I was very much, impressed with the fact that the men running 
these agencies are all working very hard to do a good job. I have 
been back and forth to Washington a number of times, and I think 
that is the thing that is keeping things going. There seems to be 
many very excellent men who do everything they can to help 
straighten you out, but I do think the housing program is not organ- 
ized on a functional basis. You could have your heavy construction in 
one unit, and licfht construction in another, and finance in another. 

Dr. Lamb. What about representation within the State of New 
Jersev ? Do you find the same problem of looking for the right man 
to talk to? 

Mv. Sloane. Well, about the only office we know in housing is the 
F. H. A., and they have been here so long everybody knows them ; but 
it is the other agencies 

Dr. Lamb. Wliich are not represented here? 

Mr. Sloane. Well, Colonel Westervelt is in the State somewhere, 
but I haven't had occasion to contiict him, so I don't know where his 
headquarters are; but I think there ought to be one place where any- 
body can go and ask all the questions and get all the information 
that is avaihible to help guide his work. 

Dr. Lamb. Both in Washington and in each of the States? 

Mr. Sloane. Yes, sir; in the State particularly. I don't think we 
expect to cliange the set-up in Washington radically. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all. 

SINGLE federal OFFICE 

The Chairman. What do you think, Mr. Sloane, of this idea : Sup- 
pose in the State of New Jerse5\ as in other States where these defense 
agencies are and where the congestion is the greatest, there was a 
Federal office that represented all the various housing agencies. Do 
you think that would be of assistance in giving people a first-hand 
picture of the situation ? 

Mr. Sloane. I think it would be very helpful. 

The Chairman. And obviate the necessity of running down to 
Washington and looking them up? 

Mr. Sloane. Well, they are very nice in Washington, when you get 
there, but it is very confusing to find the right ones. If you could 
sit down at the table and lay out your plan to one man who was 
familiar with all the organizations in Washington and what their 
jobs were, he could clear it up for you and it would be a very great 
help. 

The Chairman. Of course, it should be borne in mind that this 
emergency came on us suddenly. The committee has held hearings 
in San Diego and Hartford, and now here, and I think, all in all, the 
leadership in defense is doing a pretty good job under the circum- 
stances. Of course, they had to establish themselves where they had 
a foundation on which to build, and that was also true in letting con- 



5592 TRENTON HEARINGS 

tracts. They had to take industries that were already established in 
order to do the work quickly. The "spreading" that Mr. Osmers men- 
tioned must come. But I think the bright S])ot is the way that the 
entire Nation, as well as the Government at Washington, is getting 
on top of these problems. 

This committee is attempting to bring to the attention of the Con- 
gress certain facts which it is gathering in the course of its investiga- 
tions, and through informing the Congress, to inform the public as 
well. When that is accomplished a very large part of our work will 
have been done. 

We thank you very much, Mr. Sloane, and appreciate your coming 
here. 

Our next witnesses are Mr. and Mrs. Wilbur Jones. 

TESTIMONY OF MR. AND MRS. WILBUR JONES, NEWARK, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Jones, will you give your full name ? 

Mr. Jones. Wilbur Jones. 

Tlie Chairman. And where do you live ? 

Mr. Jones. 76 Cameron Street. 

The Chairman. Where? 

Mr. Jones. Newark, N. J. 

The Chairman. How old are you ? 

Mr. Jones. Twenty-eight. 

The Chairman. How long have you been married ? 

Mr. Jones. Seven years. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Jones, what is your first name ? 

Mrs. Jones. Annie. 

The Chairman. You have two children, haven't you? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What is the name of the older ? 

Mrs. Jones. Daniel. 

The Chairman. How old is he ? 

Mrs. Jones. Five. 

Tlie Chairman. And the baby? 

Mrs. Jones. Twenty-one months ; Nancy. 

The Chairman. Mr. Jones, what are you doing now for a living? 

Mr. Jones. I am a janitor up at the Western Electric. 

The Chairman. How much money do you make ? 

Mr. Jones. Well, I was making $22 a week and now I am making $30 
a week. 

The Chairman, Mrs. Jones, where did the family live before you 
came to New Jersey? 

Mrs. Jones. Pennsylvania. 

The Chairman. What was your husband doing in Pennsylvania ? 

Mrs. JoisES. Working in the mines. 

The Chairman. In the coal mines? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How much money was he earning? 

Mrs. Jones. Well, they worked 2 or 3 days a week. 

The Chairman. Tliat was during slack times? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes; for years. 

The Chairman. And how much was he making ? 



NATIONAL DEFEASE MIGRATION 5593 

Mrs. Jones. $5.13 a day. 

The Chairman. And working 2 or 3 days a week ? 

Mrs. Jones. That is right. 

The Chairman. Where did you live there? 

Mrs. Jones. In my mother's house. 

The Chairman. With your mother? 

Mrs. Jones. No ; next door to my mother. We rented from her. 

The Chairman. How much rent did you pay? 

Mrs. Jones. $15. 

The Chairman. What kind of house was it? 

Mrs. Jones. A double block. 

The Chairman. And how many rooms did you have? 

Mrs. Jones. Four. 

The Chairman. One bedroom? 

Mrs. Jones. Two bedrooms and a living room and kitchen. 

The Chairman. Did you have a bath ? 

Mrs. Jones. No. 

The Chairman. A toilet? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes. 

The Chairman. Where did you bathe? 

Mrs. Jones. In one of those round tubs — they served the purpose. 

The Chairman. They work all right, do they? 

Mrs. Jones. You bet they do. 

The Chairman. Well, my wife's family had 12 children, and that 
tub was brought out every Saturday night. In those days they took 
turns. 

Mr. OsMERS. They got in line, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The only difference between her family and my 
family was that in my family we didn't make it every week. 

Mrs. Jones, where are you living in Newark ? Are you living in an 
apartment or in a detached house ? 

Mrs. Jones. No ; it is a single home, but the rooms upstairs are made 
over for another family. There are three up there. We are living on 
the first floor. 

The Chairman. And how many rooms do you have ? 

Mrs. Jones. Three. 

The Chairman. And what are they ? 

Mrs. Jones. Well, we don't have a livingroom here because we have 
two bedrooms and the kitchen. Tliere is a little room upstairs which 
we have made over into a bedroom because there is another man stay- 
ing with us, from Pennsylvania, and his brother just came out last 
week, and he got a job, too. 

Mr. Osmers. Where did he get a job? 

Mrs. Jones. In the Western Electric. 

Mr. Osmers. What is the- name of the man who is living with you ? 

Mrs. Jones. Frank Tokuski. 

INIr. Osmers. Where is he from — the same district in Pennsylvania? 

Mrs. Jones. He comes from a little distance away from us. 

Mr. Osmers. Is he paying you board ? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. Well, you are pretty crowded, aren't you; the five of 
you ? 

Mrs. Jones. Well, they are all on night shift. 



55^4 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. OsMERS. That is quite fortunate, isn't it? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes ; in a way it is, but during the day it isn't, because 
we all have to keep quiet. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you find many people from around your district 
coming into Newark and Trenton? 

Mrs. Jones. We haven't bumped into many people. I mean we 
haven't seen anyone yet that we know. 

Mr. OsMERS. What is the matter with the coal mines ? 

Mrs. Jones. They weren't working. So far there are 400 empty 
homes in Nanticoke. 

Mr. OsMERS. Nanticoke, Pa.? 

Mrs. Jones. That is right ; and when school was out, the man that 
moved us has been engaged to move 80 more families out. 

Mr. OsMERS. Where are they moving to ? 

Mrs. Jones. All over, wherever they can find work. 

Mr. OsMERS. How did you come here ? 

Mrs. Jones. My husband came here first with another man. 

Mr. OsMERS. Mr. Jones, you looked for a house, did you ? 

Mr. Jones. Not right away. You see, I was rooming at first, this 
other fellow and I. 

]Mr. OsMERS. Did you have a hard time finding a house ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. By the way, Mrs. Jones, what are you paying for the 
house you are in now ? 

Mrs". Jones. $20. 

Mr, OsMERS. Have you a bath ? 

Mrs. Jones. No. 

Mr. OsMERS. A toilet ? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes. It was $18 before we moved in, and he raised the 
rent $2. Rents have gone up everywhere. 

Mr. OsMERS. Rents have gone up all around there ? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you own an automobile ? 

Mr. Jones. No. 

The Chairman, Wliat about the children? Is there any place for 
them to play ? 

ISIrs. Jones. Yes ; we have a garden. 

The Chairman. How do you like it here ? Do you like it better than 
m Pennsylvania ? 

Mrs. Jones. I like it for the work part, because he is working. 

The Chairman. But if your husband could get back in the mines 
and get the same wages, you would rather be home? 

Mrs. Jones. In the mines ; no. I don't want him in the mines. My 
fatlier was killed in the mines. 

The Chairman. There is no strike on there now, is there? 

Mrs. Jones. No. 

The Chairman, They have closed down some of the mines, have they? 

Mrs, Jones. Well, from what I hear, I think they are beginning to 
work now. Now they have a vacation for 2 weeks. " Of course, I don't 
know for sure what is going on right now because we are not there. 

The Chairman (to Mr. Jones). This man who is working with you 
was a miner, too, was he ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5595 

The Chairman, Did he come here on account of slack work ? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes ; he wasn't working so good, either. 

The Chairman. Has he a family? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes ; he has a girl 5 years old. 

The Chairman. And a wife ? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes, sir. His wife is a trained nnrse. 

The Chairman, Does he intend to bring her here ? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes, sir; as soon as he can find a rent. 

The Chairman, What do you intend to do after this is over with, 
Mr, Jones? Go back home or stay here? Suppose this job gives out 
here, what would you do ? 

Mr, Jones, Well, I can ahvays go back home, I guess. 

The Chairman, To the mines ? 

Mrs. Jones. Yes. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Jones, do your folks still live there? 

Mrs. Jones. I have a mother and brother. 

The Chairman. And your folks, Mr. Jones? 

Mr. Jones. Mother and father. 

The Chairman. Are you able to save any money now on your 
earnings ? 

Mr. Jones. I think so. 

The Chairman. You are making $30 a week? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And you are saving? 

Mr. Jones. Well, I just started to make the $30. Today was my 
first day. This morning I got paid, and I was supposed to get a 7-cent 
raise, which will make it about $32 or $33 a week, I imagine that will 
start to come in about next week or the week after, 

Mrs. Jones. He was making $17 a week when he first came here, in 
the Central Stamping Co. 

The Chairman. Did you ever think about going to school to learn 
some craft? 

Mr. Jones. I expect to wlien the Western Electric school starts in 
Se])t ember. 

The Chairman. That would be a good idea. 

Mrs. Jones. He does no welding in the job he has now. He took 
that up. That is the reason he came out here. 

The Chairman. Are you a welder? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Can't you get a job at that? 

Mr. Jones. Not right yet, anyhow. Tliere is nothing open in tlie 
Western Electric right iiow. I tried the shipyard and I couldn't 
get in. 

The Chairman. I thought there Avas a great lack of welders. 
Wherever I have been I have been told that. You have made applica- 
tion, have you? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. sir. 

The Chirman. Have you made application to the State employment 
office? 

Mr, Jones, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. Mr. Jones, do you consider yourself a resident of Penn- 
sylvania or a resident of New Jersey? 

Mr. Jones, Right now, you mean ? 



5596 HARTFORD HEARINGS 

Mr. OsMERS. Yes. 

Mr. Jones. Well, I think I am a resident of New Jersey, but I think, 
of course, I am not here long enough. 

Mr. OsMERs. Is it your intention to vote in New Jersey ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. When did you move into the State? 

Mr. Jones. In April — well, I was here in April, and I brought my 
wife and family on May 3. 

Mr. Osmers. Of this year ? 

Mr. Jones. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you happen to be familiar with the resident laws 
of the State of Pennsylvania ? How long do you have to be in Penn- 
sylvania to be eligible for relief, and so on? 

Mrs. Jones. A year. 

Mr. Osmers. So, in other words, if you lost your job in Saptember 
you would consider yourself a resident of New jersey, but New Jersey 
would not consider you a resident of New Jersey, and Pennsylvania 
would not consider you a resident of Pennsylvania, so you would be 
without a State. Is that your understanding of it, too? 

Mr. Jones. I guess so. 

Mrs. Jones. We were born and raised in Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Osmers. Your husband considers himself a resident of New 
Jersey, however. 

Mr. Jones. Not right yet, I mean. But if I am here long enough 
I would like to be a resident and vote. 

Mr. Osmers. I just made that point for the record, Mr. Chairman — 
to illustrate the residence problem that we have been up against 
before. 

The Chairman. I understand that. 

We thank you very much, Mr. and Mrs. Jones, for your coming here. 

Our next witness is Mr. Parsonnet. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS PAESONNET, REPRESENTING MAYOR 
VINCENT J. MURPHY, OF THE CITY OF NEWARK, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Parsonnet, Congressman Osmers will inter- 
rogate you. 

Mr. Osmers. Will you please state your name? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Thomas Parsonnet. 

Mr. Osmers. And your address ? 

Mr, Parsonnet. 60 Park Place, Newark City Hall, Newark, N. J. 

Mr. Osmers. In what capacity are you appearing here today ? 

Mr. Parsonnet. I am here for Mayor Murphy, of Newark, who was 
unable to come on account of illness. 

I am first assistant corporation counsel of Newark and counsel for 
a large number of American Federation of Labor unions in the State. 

Mr. Osmers. And because of that dual capacity you will be able to 
represent the ma3'or, both in his position as mayor and as secretary- 
treasurer of the American Federation of Labor? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Yes, sir; Mayor Murphy submitted a very brief 
statement, and he has asked me to enlarge upon it. 

(The statement referred to above is made a part of the record, and 
is as follows:) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5597 

STATEMENT BY VINCENT J. MURPHY, MAYOR OF NEWARK, SECRETARY- 
TREASURER, NEW JERSEY STATE FEDERATION OF LABOR 

The question arising from migratory labor problems has always been regarded 
as an important one by trades viuion leaders. In South Jersey specifically, we 
have had such a problem for a period of years. 

However, the problems which arise today through migration of defense workers 
to important industrial centers, such as the Newark area, becomes our more im- 
mediate concern and I am glad to observe that the f^ederal Government regards it 
as such and a fact-finding congressional committee will be in Trenton next week 
to take the testimony of representative leaders in labor, industrial, educational, 
and kindred spheres. 

Perhaps the most significant feature at the moment is that this survey that 
is being made is Nation-wide in scope. The premise that the Federal Govern- 
ment has a definite responsibility in this matter is a sound one. The whole de- 
fense program is based upon national interest and concern. There are relative 
aspects of the situation, from one section of the Nation to another section which 
must be considered and then possibly coordinated. 

Certainly we in New Jersey, which is considered so vital in the whole defense 
program from an industrial point of view, should have some conception when 
this survey is over as to just how far and sti'enuous will be the demands upon 
housing facilities, our educational centers, our health institutions, to say nothing 
of labor and industrial personnel themselves. If the committee succeeds in 
getting this correlated information so that there may be planning accordingly, it 
will have accomplished a constructive job. 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS PAESONNET— Resumed 

Mr. OsMERs. I wonder if you will proceed in your own way?f I 
have read the mayor's statement, and it doesn't, shall I say, ^et 
down to cases; and I wonder if you w^ould care to enlarge upon it. 

Mr. Parsonnet. Mayor Murphy feels that this entire problem of 
defense migration and housing for the migratory workers is a mat- 
ter for consideration by the Federal Government, rather than either 
private industry or State government. 

I would like to refer to Mr. Sloane's statement that he would 
like to see private industry do as much of the housing work as 
possible, and point out the fact that he also suggested that low rent 
housing cannot be created by private industry, as no profits can be 
made upon it. 

The question of housing for defense 

Mr. OsMERs. I believe, if I may interrupt you, Mr. Parsonnet, 
a figure of $15 a room w^as stated by Mr. Sloane as an amount 
necessary for private builders to receive, but that he felt that $15 
a room was high rent. In other words, he did not believe that pri- 
vate capital could build rental houses to rent for less than $15 a 
room per month. 

Mr. Parsonnet. That is right. I think he is about correct in 
that statement, particularly in the industrial areas, which have 
rather stringent building codes. Certainly they would be unable 
to build housing for less than $15 a room rental. 

You suggested, in discussing the matter with Mr. Sloane, the "two 
schools of thought," relating first to the idea of spreading the 
money, and second to the idea of concentrating more or less in 
industrial areas. 

WARNED OF "gHOST TOWNS" 

I think that labor as a whole — and I am speaking on behalf of 
Mayor Murphy as an official of the city of Newark — would suggest 



5598 TRENTON HEARINGS 

this : We must be careful to watch the reaction at the end of this 
defense project, if we develop defense industries in sparsely pop- 
ulated and nonindustrial centers, because at the end of the defense 
boom we will have ghost towns left. 

Mr. OsMERS. I am glad you put that in the record. 

Mr. Parsonnet. Whereas if we keep our defense industries along 
and in line with the industrial centers, to a certain extent, the readjust- 
ment to nondefense industries will be much easier because tlie problem 
of moving will not again be involved. 

Mr. OsMERs. I think the city of Newark constitutes a shining 
example of that, don't you, Mr, Parsonnet? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Oh, yes. 

Mr. OsMERS. Because it is in probably the greatest concentration 
of industry, I believe, in the entire world. Without moving one 
block — I mean just staying right where he is — a man can apply 
to hundreds of industries for work. 

Mr. Px\RS0NNET. That is correct. 

Mr. OsMERS. Either in peacetime or in wartime. And if there 
is any possibility of being employed, he doesn't have to move. He 
doesn't have to get in a trailer. He can stay right where he is, 
and if they stop building ships at the Federal shipyard, he can 
go next door to the Western Electric and start making telephones 
or something like that. That is a theoretical case. 

Mr. Parsonnet. The readjustment would be less difficult if the 
defense plants were in the industrial areas. 

EMPLOYABLES ON RELIEF 

Now, I want to refer also to one thing that the mayor asked me 
to refer to specifically, and that is the fact that we have a very 
large number of employables in the State of New Jersey who are 
either on relief or on W. P. A. I think serious consideration should 
be given to the discouragement, as far as possible, of industrial 
workers moving into the State until we have at least taken up our 
own slack. I don't remember the exact figures, but something like 
70,000 workers who are employable are on relief or W. P. A. in 
the State. The Federal Government is causing the lay-off of a 
large number of W. P. A. workers right now. 

The encouraging of migration of workers into the State will only 
increase that problem until at least those whom we already have are 
employed. 

Now, the O. P. M. has recently set up a section on defense labor 
priorities. I understand it is under the supervision of Prof. J. 
Douglas Brown, and the problem of moving labor from one section 
of the country to the other is there under consideration. We feel 
that at least the local problem of unemployment should first be 
settled before too much moving is done. 

RENTS UP FROM .'?2 7 TO $40 

Now, the question was brought up as to increased rents. In sev- 
eral instances that has been brought to the mayor's attention. Rents 
have been increased during the past year from $27, for example, to 
$40 a month for two-, three-, or four-room unimproved dwellings. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5599 

Excuses have been given by landlords that taxes have increased, 
but investigation has shown that in a large majority of the cases 
the taxes have not increased, or if they have, they were increased from 
25 to 50 cents a month on those particular dwellings. 

We feel that some State legislation should be adopted, perhaps 
somewhat similar to the old emergency war-rent regulations, to pre- 
vent this unreasonable increase in rents. 

There is a very small number of vacancies in the lower-rent homes 
in Newark and in the entire industrial district. 

NEWARK HOUSING PROJECT 

There has been some improvement in conditions because of the 
U, S. H. A. developments in the vicinity, and there is one defense 
housing project in Newark at the present time. 

Mr. OsMERS. How many units, Mr. Parsonnet? 

Mr. Parsonnet. I am not sure, Congressman. I think it is 300, 
but I am not sure of that. 

Mr. OsMERS. What section of the city are they building in? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Along South Orange Avenue, in that general 
section. There was some local objection which was made to the mayor 
before the project started. 

IVIr. OsMERs. Neighborhood objections? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Yes, sir; but even that was eliminated when it 
was shown that the character of the neighborhood would probably 
be improved by that project. 

Mr. OsMERs. Now, in this defense-housing program in Newark, 
did they destroy any existing units of liousing and replace them? 

Mr. Parsonnet. No; they did not. This was vacant land. Mayor 
Murphy asked me to express particularly his belief that since the 
defense housing is probably for the purpose of housing workers who 
are only temporarily in the city, or making room for workers who 
are only temporarily in the city, the housing should be erected with 
the idea in mind of leaving it as a permanent low-rent housing 
project for the purpose of later elimination of the slum districts of 
the city. 

Mr. '^Osmers. What has happened to the population of Newark 
since 1940? Has it increased? 

Mr. Parsonnet. There are no figures, but there is no doubt that 
it has increased rather substantially. 

Mr. OsMERS. You would not hazard a guess? 

Mr. Parsonnet. I couldn't possibly. We feel that there is a 
great deal of "doubling up," due to the lack of additional space. 
The testimony of Mr. Sloane well shows that. We feel that housing 
is a prerequisite to the defense industries, but also we should bear 
in mind the reaction after the close of the defense boom. 

UNITED STATES HOUSING AUTHORITY BUILDING IN NEWARK 

Mr. OsMERs. There has been some U. S. H. A. building in Newark, 
hasn't there? 
Mr. Parsonnet. There has been much of it. 
Mr. OsMERS. Some slum clearance work? 
Mr. Parsonnet. Yes, sir. 



5600 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you know how many units, offhand? 

Mr. Parson NET. I couldn't give you the figures. You have the 
report of the Newark Housing Authority on the table. 

Mr. OsMEES. Have you anything to give us by way of figures on 
employment in Newark since the fall of 1939 ? 

Mr. Parsonnet. There are no figures available except through the 
unemployment compensation commission or the employment service 
division. I haven't those at hand. 

Mr. OsMERS. It is difficult to take one community in that area 
and pick it out, because it is really one big industrial area. 

NEWARK EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

Mr. Parsonnet. That is right. I might say that we did have an 
employment service of the city of Newark, which was discontinued 
upon the coming in of the employment service division, so we don't 
have any figures on Newark itself. 

Mr. OsMERS. A statement was made to the members of the com- 
mittee last evening that Newark had given up its employment service 
because it had failed. Is that true? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Well, it failed primarily because the unemploy- 
ment compensation commission took over, and before that the Fed- 
eral Government operated an employment service. 

Mr. OsMERS. Some of us questioned the validity of the statement 
that was made. That is why I repeated it to you. 

The chairman of this committee has introduced a bill in Congress, 
and you are probably familiar with it, to regulate labor contractors. 
Do you happen to know what Mayor INIurphy thinks of that 
legislation ? 

Mr. Parsonnet. I haven't discussed it with him. 

Mr. Osmers. What is your own opinion about it, Mr. Parsonnet? 

Mr. Parsonnet. You mean of the bill to regulate private employ- 
ment agencies? 

Mr. Osmers. Yes. 

Mr. Parsonnet. Thoroughly in accord with it. There is a bill 
pending also in the State of Mew Jersey of the same nature. 

Mr. Osmers. Does it appear to have any chance of passing? 

Mr. Parsonnet. It was just recently introduced. 

health and educational facilities 

Mr. Osmers. How are the health and educational facilities holding 
up in Newark? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Educational facilities are not holding up. There 
has been a large increase in public-school population. There are 
one or two of the high schools which could accommodate more 
pupils, but the other high schools are terribly overcrowded and 
practically all of the grammar schools are badly overcrowded. 

Mr. Osmers. Are there plans under way for new facilities? 

Mr. Parsonnet. They have been under discussion. Just how far 
along they are, I am not in position to say. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5601 

Mr. OsMERS. Is the credit of the city of Newark in such shape 
that it could go ahead with a school-building progi^am? 

Mr. Parsonnet. A school-building progi'am could easily go ahead 
as far as finances are concerned. The trouble is, the tax rate is 
$5.75 now. 

Mr. OsMERs. And your assessments, I believe, are pretty nearly 
100 percent? 

Mr. Parsonnet. They have been reduced during the past 2 years 
by approximately $100,000,000 by reevaluating the various proper- 
ties throughout the city. 

Mr. OsMERS. Newark, as I recall, is a member of the Passaic Val- 
ley sewerage group ; is that correct ? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. With those great increases in population up there 
at Paterson — in fact all through the Passaic Valley, as a result of the 
defense program — are those facilities going to hold up and prove ade- 
quate ? 

Mr. Parsonnet. They seem to, but I am in no position to give you 
a specific answer. 

I want to refer to one thing more, if I may. The question was 
raised earlier this morning as to discrimination, racial and otherwise, 
in industry. 

"TREMENDOUS-' RACIAL DISCRIMINATION 

I think reference to the Employment Service Division of the U. C. C. 
will indicate that there is a tremendous amount of discrimination — 
both in nondefense and defense industries, but particularly in defense 
industries — against the Negroes, and that two or three other nation- 
alities or religious groups are being discriminated against rather 
regularly by defense employers. 

Mr. O'sMERs. Would you "care to specify those for the record? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Yes ; the Jewish and the Italian. 

Mr. Osmers. They are being discriminated against ? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Yes. I might point out Mayor Murphy has taken 
the matter up with the Unemployment Compensation Commission, of 
which he is a member. The answer is that although the U. C. C. 
attempts to avoid discrimination, yet in the requisitions for new 
workers, specific recommendation is made by industrial firms that 
they do not want this or that or the other group, and as a result 
the Employment Service must furnish the type of workers that the 
employer wants. 

Mr. Osmers. You mean the employer is specifying what kind of 
help he wants, racially, and is excluding what he doesn't want? 
• Mr. Parsonnet. Yes, sir; and it is a very common practice. 

Mr. Osmers. I think it is a very dangerous practice, don't you, Mr. 
Parsonnet? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Oh, yes. 

There was one other point that I thought might be worth while 
to mention because you asked it of Mr. Holderman, and that is if there 
was any exodus of workers from New Jersey. 

Mr. Osmers. Is there any out-migration ? 



60396 — 41 — pt. 14- 



5602 TRENTON HEARINGS 

OUT-MIGRATION TO PANAMA 

Mr. Parsonnet. I find that in the building trades a substantial 
number of skilled workers have gone out of the State to work on 
cantonments, in the Canal Zone and such other projects. 

Mr. OsMERS. You haven't any figures on the numbers involved, have 
you? 

Mr. Parsonnet. No, I liaven't; but it is not a small number. They 
are limited, however, to the highly skilled building trades. 

Mr. OsMERS. These men are not giving up their residence in the 
State of New Jersey, are they? 

Mr. Parsonnet. No; nor have they given up their membership iu 
the union which sent them. 

Mr. OsMERS. And in many instances they leave their families iU' 
New Jersey, do they not? 

Mr. Parsonnet. That is correct. 

Mr. OsMERS. And then they go out on their own. and as you say^ 
have gone to the Panama Canal, or Alabama, or Louisiana, or some 
other place? 

Mr. Parsonnet. It isn't of their own volition, seeking work. As a 
matter of fact the work is here for them to do, but the Government 
has called upon the unions to send workers to other spots. 

Mr. Osmers, Would you say that that out-migration has caused a 
shortage of skilled building craftsmen in the State of New Jersey? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Not necessarily ; I would say, in the present status 
of building operations. If defense housing should expand to any 
degree, then there would be a shortage unless these men returned. 

Mr. Osmers. I believe nearly all of the building trades in New Jer- 
sey are organized with the A. F. of L., are they not? 

Mr. Parsonnet. That is right. 

PRIORITIES ON BUILDING MATERIALS 

Mr. Osmers. Some witness this morning expressed the opinion — 
I think Mr. Sloane — that if there was an increase in defense housing, 
there probably would be a decrease of private building because of 
priorities on material and labor. 

For example, in Bergen County today we probably have 5,000 under 
construction by private builders — one-family homes. Now, if the 
Government should do as Mr. Holderman suggested — go into northern 
New Jersey and build 5,000 defense housing units — the chances are 
that would curtail the construction of the others. Do you agree witli 
that ? 

Mr. Parsonnet. It may be on accomit of shortage of labor or ma- 
terial. I cannot answer that question, not knowing the availability of 
building materials. 

As far as labor is concerned, I would say that it would not liave a 
great effect in that direction. 

Mi-. Osmers. Are Negroes allowed, or do you have many Negroes 
in tlie A. F. of L., in the State of New Jersey? 

Mr. Parsonnet. There are not man3^ There are some unions, 
franklv. whicli do exclude them in spite of efforts of the leaders of 
the A. F. of L. to induce them to do otherwise. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5603 

There is, however, the other point of view, that very few Negroes 
seem to take up the skilled building trades as their trade. 

Mr. OsMEES. Well, would you say that that was a lack of desire 
on the part of the Negroes, or a lack of opportunity to do so? 

Mr. Parsonnet. I think it is both. Each contributes to the 
problem. 

Mr. OsMERS. I don't think anyone could support the contention 
that they do not make good craftsmen. 

Mr. Parsonnet. There is no intention to do that. 

Mr. OsMERS. There is too much evidence to the contrary on that? 

Mr. Parsonnet. That is correct. 

Mr. OsiviERS. This exclusion thing involves a whole set of industrial 
questions — apprentice training and such? 

Mr. Parsonnet. That is right. 

Mr. OsMERS. And at every point sihrng the line the Negro seems 
to be excluded? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Yes; where theie is a large number of Negro 
workers. You will find that in some of the A. F. of L. unions they 
constitute a substantial majority. The laborers' union and the ware- 
housemen's union are two very good examples. 

Mr. OsMERS. Does the leaders] lip of the A. F. oi L. constantly 
work on that problem and try to improve it? 

Mr. Parsonnet. Well, it is always present in their minds, and 
wheneA'er they find the opportunity to do anything about it they do; 
yes. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is all I have. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Mr. Parsonnet. Will you 
give our respects to the Mayor and tell him we hope lie gets well 
right away ( 

Mr. Parsonnet. Thank you. Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Our next witness is Mr. Burke, personnel director 
of the ITnited Aircraft Corporation. 

TESTIMONY OF MARTIN F. BTJKKE, PERSONNEL DIRECTOR, UNITED 
AIRCRAFT CORPORATION, HARTFORD, CONN. 

The Chairman. Will you please give your name and address for 
the record? 

Mr. Bfrke. Martin F. Burke, 140 Eidgewood Koad, West Hart- 
ford, Conn. 

The Chairman. And you are the personnel director of the United 
Aircraft Corporation? 

Mr. Burke. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. When we were in Hartford, Mr. Burke, you were 
away from the city, and I believe Mr. Downs appeared on behalf 
of the compan}'. 

Mr. Burke. That is correct. 

The Chairman. And made a statement in answer to questions. 

Do vou want to add to what he said, or correct anvthing that he 
said?^ 

Mr. Burke. Yes; I would like to clarify what he said. 

The Chairman. Do you have a prepared statement? 



5604 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



Mr. Burke. I will just testify orally, if it is all right with you. 
I would like to clarify the policy of the United Aircraft Cori^ra- 
tion as regards the employment of Negroes. 

Mr. Downs, I think, erroneously misstated the policy of the cor- 
poration regarding the employment of Negroes.^ 

I think you gentlemen saw^ the factory and have an idea of the 
high precision type of work that is done there. 

Back before this emergency started, practically all the machuiists 
or toolmakers in our shop were men who had had a number of years 
experience on certain types of machine, which qualified them as 
machinists. 

In those early days we had no Negroes as machine operators or 
machinists in the shop itself. The Negroes from Hartford and in 
that vicinity orginally came there as tobacco workers, and few, if any 
of them, ever had any machine-shop experience, outside of acting 
as sweepers and truckers. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you have a training program ? 

Mr. Burke. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. Are any Negroes admitted to it? 

Mr. Burke. They have never been excluded. 

Mr. Osmers. Well, let us not play with words. Have you got any 
Negroes in your training program ? 

Mi". Burke. No, sir. Mr. Hillman - wrote to us, I think in April 
of this year, regarding the wishes of the O. P. M. concerning the 
employment of Negroes, and at that time we answered him and told 
him we would be glad to cooperate. 

I have met several times since the 1st of April with the Con- 
necticut Congress of Youth, also the confederation of Negro youth 
organizations. 

"We had Negroes on our pay roll 5 or 6 years ago as sweepers, 
porters, and so forth. I explained to these Negro organizations 
the trouble we had 6 or 7 months ago, when a Neo;ro unwittingly 
got into the shop as a machine operator. The men objected to it, and 
threatened to quit in the department he was in. Rather than have 
the whole department quit, he himself quit. 

Now, that is something that management is concerned about, be- 
cause we have maintained a production record up there and we hate 
to do anything that will upset any of the men in the place. 

To these organizations that I met with, I promised to give the 
thing a try-out and suggested a schedule that we try to follow with 
them and see if we could overcome that hostility of the men in the 
shop. 

PUT negroes IX cafeteria 

The original suggestion was that in our cafeteria we would put a 
dozen or so Negroes. We had done that; and if they work out all 
right, we were to try them out as sweepers and janitors and so forth; 
and if that worked out all right, we would find some other jobs in the 
production shop which weren't actiudly on production machines; 
and if that hostility of the men was overcome by this gradually 

^ See prepared statement and testimony of T. R. Downs, employment supervisor, Pratt & 
Whitney Aircraft, Hartford hearings, pp. SSll-.^.Sirt. 

^ Sifiney Hillman, Associate Director General of the Office of Production Management, 
VVa.*hington, D. ('. See Exhibit 25, p. i'.HT".. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5605 

weaving of them in, we have no objection to taking them in. And, 
as I say, we have had Negroes on our pay roll in the past. 

Mr, "OsMERS. You say that it is the employees in the aircraft in- 
dustry who are excluding the Negro, rather than the employer? 

Mr. Burke. I will say that we had one example of the hostility of 
the employees. 

Mr. OsMERs. Negroes in the aircraft industry as a whole are prac- 
tically excluded, are they not? 

Mr. Burke. Well, I don't know if you have heard of the other inci- 
dent in the vicinity of Hartford. 

Mr. OsMERS. No; I haven't. 

Mr. Burke. I refer to an effort of the factories to bring Negroes 
in. One factory there has defense orders in connection with para- 
cliutes, and there was practically a strike on their hands when they 
tried to introduce Negroes into one of the weaving departments. And 
they tell me some of tlie airplane companies on Long Island have had 
some real hot trouble on their hands because of it. 

xeed ''four freedoms" at home 

Mr. Osmers. I would say, "Let them strike, let them stop produc- 
tion." I am speaking now my own opinion, and I am not asking a 
question. I can't see the use of preparing to defend democracy if we 
are not going to have it here. What is the use of going around to 
the rest of the world and carrying these "four freedoms" around on 
the end of our guns if we are not going to have them here? What 
is the use of producing airplanes if that is our philosophy? 

Mr. Burke. Well, our job is to get that stuff out the back door, 
and we are trying to do it in the best manner we can. 

Mr. Osmers. I appreciate your position in the matter. 

Mr. Burive. In meeting with these Negro organizations the policy 
outlined is perfectly satisfactory to them. In fact, I have another 
engagement with them Tuesday. 

Mr. Osmers. I don't know enough about your operation to say the 
policy isn't right. 

You don't happen to know the number of Negroes who are em- 
ployed in the aircraft industry in the United States, do you? 

Mr. Burke. No; I do not.' 

office of production MANAGEMENT LETTER A BEGINNING 

Mr. Osmers. Do j^ou think that the O. P. M. letter has been helpful 

to eliminate discrimination ? 

Mr. Burke. I don't know whether it has eliminated it as yet, but 
I think it has started some studies as to where and how Negroes can 
be introduced into industry. 

Mr. OsikCERS. Is there anything that you can suggest that the Gov- 
ernment can do to end this discrimination — I mean discrimination 
not only against Negroes, but others as well? We just had a man 
prominent in New Jersey's labor movement testify that Italians and 
Jews are also discriminated against in this State. Can you think 



5606 TRENTON HEARINGS 

of anything that we can put in the contracts that we write, or any 
laws that can be passed that will change that? 

Mr. Burke. I doubt if I could make any such suggestion. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you have a large Negro populaton in Hartford? 

Mr. Burke. Oh, I should say there are probably 10,000, and they 
have all been tobacco workers. 

Mr. OsMERS. In the Connecticut Valley there? 

Mr. Burke. That is right. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is all. 

Mr. Arnold. You say that you are meeting with these Negro or- 
ganizations and trying to work out with them satisfactory employ- 
ment for their group? 

Mr. Burke. That is correct. 

Mr. Arnold. And they are satisfied with that? 

Mr. Burke. I think the policy as outlined to them and which we 
are proceeding upon is satisfactory to them, and we are willing to try 
it out and so are they. 

The Chairman. We thank you very much. 

Mr. Arnold. I am sorry you had to come down here to correct the 
statement made at Hartford. Mr. Downs is a very fine young man. 

Mr. Burke. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. The committee will recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12: 30, the committee recessed until 2 p. m.) 



AFTERNOON SESSION 

The committee met at 2 p. m. 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 

I understand our next group of witnesses are to make up a State 
panel on migratory labor. I think the proper procedure is to identify 
the members of the panel. In the first place, there are eight members 
of the panel, and six are present. 

Mr. Krueger, you will be the first witness, and I wish you would 
give your full name and address and state in what capacity you appear 
here. 

TESTIMONY OF NEW JERSEY STATE PANEL ON MIGRATORY 
LABOR 

Mr. Kruecer. C. George Krueger, deputy commissioner of labor, 
department of labor, Trenton, N. J. 

The Chairman. And the gentleman to your right ? 

Mr. Kjjueger. H. J. Lepper, administrative assistant of the New 
Jersey State Employment Service. 

The Chairman. Mr. Lepper, I am doing this for the reporter, so he 
will know you when you speak. And the gentleman on your further 
right? 

"Mr. Krueoer. Lt. D. J. Dunn, New Jersey State Police, represent- 
ing Colonel Kimberly. 

The Chairman. And the next gentleman? 

Mr. Krueger. Mr. Ernest Harding, deputy commissioner of public 
instruction. 

This lady on my left is Dr. Ellen Potter, director of medicine, de- 
partment of institutions and agencies, representing William J. Ellis, 
commissioner. 

This gentleman is William H. McDonald, State department of 
health. 

The Chairman. You have named six. Who are the missing ones? 

Mr. Krueger. Mr. A. K. Post, of the municipal aid administra- 
tion, is representing Dr. Mudd,^ and I understand Mr. Allen, of the 
department of agriculture, is unable to be present. 

The Chairman. Mr. Krueger, the paper you have submitted will be 
entered as a part of the record. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY C. GEORGE KRUEGER, DEPUTY COMMISSIONER OF 
LABOR. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, TRENTON, N. J. 

The full impact of the defense program has not as yet manifested itself, 
although a sharp increase in persons employed in the area where defense 
production facilities are located in New Jersey, is reported by the State de- 
partment of labor. This increase in employment is approximately 20 to 25 
percent greater than for this time last year. 



Dr. Arthur Mudd, deputy director, State of New Jersey Municipal Aid Administration. 

5607 



5608 TRENTON HEARINGS 

The problems that appear to be taking form in the distinctly earlier change-; 
of an economical development concern : 

1. Decrease in availability of migrant farm labor. 

2. Employment facilities. 

3. Public health problems. 

4. Facilities for providing education. 

5. Defense housing. 

6. Industrial production. 

Following its testimony before the congressional commitee in New York City 
on July 29, 1940, the Conference of New Jersey Departments on Migratory 
Labor continued to function in its examination of the conditions created 
and maintained because of the employment of migrants in agriculture. As the 
present emergency developed, member departments were requested to be par- 
ticularly observant of any effects which might appear and be due to defense labor 
migration. 

MIGKATION FEOM SOUTH CUKTAILED 

Surveys undertaken by the New Jersey State Employment Service indicate 
that the defense program is tending to seriously curtail the number of migrants 
from the South and the Philadelphia area. Since a fair proportion of workers 
in the fruit and vegetable producing sections of the State have been obtained 
from these sources in the past years, the State employment service is making 
strenuous efforts to supply suflScient labor to the farmers to meet the need. 
The employment service is making every effort to comb the Work Projects 
Administration and relief rolls for eligibles to work on the farms but the re- 
sults are not promising. In some instances, a transfer to the farm and guar- 
anteed return to the Work Projects Administration or relief rolls has been 
the obstacle in securing the interest of such persons, and in other cases, the 
recipients of such assistance were not suitable for farm labor. Greater promise 
seems to lie in the younger personnel in the Civilian Conservation Corps camps 
and on National Youth Administration projects. 

The labor contractor is still to be reckoned with as a force and it can be 
definitely stated that the principles contained in H. R. 4675 have the full sup- 
port of commissioner of labor, John J. Toohey, Jr. As far as defense workers 
are concerned, it is apparent that the conditions under which migrant agricul- 
tural laborers have been recruited do not prevail in general. 

HEALTH RECOMMENDATIONS 

The New Jersey Conference has taken definite corrective measures and 
made certain recommendations concerning the public-health problems involved 
in the employment of migrants. The State department of health prepared 
specifications for housing facilities giving minimum requirements for farm 
laborers. These specifications follow and are utilized by the New Jersey State 
Employment Service as a promised requirement from a prospective employer 
of migrants. 

1. Use only of houses or special buildings for housing purposes, or of fully 
partitioned rooms or sections in farm buildings used for other purposes. 

2. A place or shelter for cooking should be provided in connection with 
each building used for quarters. 

3. Adequate privies or other toilet facilities should be provided convenient 
to each building used as quarters, separate facilities to be available for 
each sex, if both males and females of different families are housed at the 
quarters. Privies should conform to the State sanitary code. 

4. A water supply, adequately protected from pollution, should be available 
convenient to each building used as quarters. 

5. The floor of each building or room used as quarters should be of such 
material and condition that it can be readily cleaned. 

6. Bunks or beds should be provided in each quarters, elevated from the 
floor. 

7. Tight-covered receptacles for refuse and garbage should be furnished 
at each quarters and removed and emptied frequently. 

8. Each building and compartment used for sleeping or living quarters 
should be so constructed as to afford light and ventilation. 

9. Preferably, a room or shelter for bathing purposes should be available 
at each quarters, separate for each sex if males and females not members 
of the same families are housed at the quarters. 

10. When adult males and females are housed in one building, separate 
rooms, set off by substantial partitions of ceiling height, should be provlde^l 
for each sex and/or family. 



NATIONAL DEyKX.SK MKiRATION 5609 

11. A room or building used for sleeping quarters should not be overcrowded 
and should be occupied only by such number of persons that there is not 
le*js than 30 square feet of floor space per person. 

FINGER PBINTING AND BLOOD TESTING 

In cooperation with the State police, the department of health conducted 
a campaign involving voluntary finger printing and blood testing, social 
disease investigations, general public health problems, and living conditions 
uf migrants in the fruit and vegetable growing areas. Through effective 
regulation and local cooperation, tlie police problem, among migrants is 
under control and no cause for alarm. It is expected that minor crimes in 
I lie agricultural areas will be considerably less in 1941. 

Up to this time, the effect of the recently revised child labor law on the avail- 
ability of agricultural labor has not been adverse. All possible means to facili- 
tate legal employment have been exhausted by the child labor division of the 
New Jersey Department of Labor including the securing of wholehearted co- 
operation from the school authorities in Philadelphia, which city has been a 
large source of labor supply of the Italian family type. 

The foregoing presentation indicates the soundness of approaching the com- 
plex problems of migratory labor through cooperative action by State govern- 
ment departments that are affected by such labor. The New Jersey Defense 
Council has studied some of the problems concerning defense workers, notably 
in regard to defense housing. Some housing projects are now underway as a 
result of these studies. As previously stated, the New Jersey Conference has 
also been watchful of any significant developments. Several member de- 
partments have observed the initial emergence of several interesting problems 
in connection with defense migrants and although there do not appear to be 
any concentrations of such workers in which the problems are presently acute, 
a proper planning is necessary to effectuate the correct solution when the time 
is propitious. 

FIVE PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEMS 

For the blueprint stage, Dr. J. L. Mahaffey of the State department of health 
reports five public health problems resulting from increase in employment in 
defense industries, namely: 

1. Proportionate increase in basic public health problems existing in the 
•communities affected. 

2. Problems of child care resulting when mothers of young children obtain 
employment in factories and leave the care of their children to others. 

8. Increased loads upon public utilities as water supply and sewage collection 
and disposal systems. 

4. Increased problems in sanitation of food and drink vending establishments 
in the immediate vicinity of large industrial plants. 

5. Failure in some instances of Federal housing projects to comply with local 
ordinances regulating construction, drainage, etc. 

Dr. Ernest A. Harding of the State department of education, indicates the 
need for relief from Federal sources to provide educational facilities at points 
of large increases in residents where defense efforts in industrial production 
or activities of the military establishment bave created abnormal concentration. 
The existing educational structure was never designed to carry such a load, 
either physically or financially and relief is urgently required. 

EFFECT ON SCHOOL PERSONNEL 

The department of institutions and agencies outlines the effect of the defense 
effort upon personnel as follows : 

"1. To deplete very seriously both the professional, technical, and custodial 
personnel, because of — 

"(o) The high wages offered by defense industries. 

"(&) The patriotic appeal. 

"(c) The call into the services of Reserve medical officers and nurses. 

•'((/.) The steady rise of the census of inmates in correctional, mental, chari- 
table institutions* accelerates the disproportion as between personnel and 
inmate population. 

2. To hamper very seriously the recruiting of replacement personnel in all 
branches of institutional service, because — 

"(ff) The cream of all free available professional, technical, and custodial 
personnel in the community has been swept into industrial and defense services ; 
and 



5610 TRENTOX HEARINGS 

"(&) The civil standards of compensation (and State appropriations based 
on those standards) for institutional support make it impossible for civil 
governmental institutions to compete successfully in a competitive labor market. 

"3. The lack of coordination betvpeen the National Youth Administration and 
the Civilian Conservation Corps creates a competitive situation as between two 
very useful arms of the Federal services to the disadvantage of both; untU 
such coordination is realized there will be considerable loss of el^ectiveness in 
the defense effort. We believe that coordination would make for better utiliza- 
tion and training of manpower in the age grouping of 17 to 21 years and that 
an effective health and rehabilitation program is essential to an all-out defense 
effort. 

"4. In the light of these statements, it seems apparent that while the defense 
effort should not slacken, in terms of developing the arsenal for democracy 
and preparing men to fight for democracy, that the civil services needed by 
all the people should not be jeopardized because of failure to plan construc- 
tively and to appropriate intelligently to meet those needs.'' 

The initiation of the priorities program carries with it certain effects, espe- 
cially amongst industries engaged in nonessentials, that require immediate 
attention. For various reasons, such industries must curtail production, and 
feasibly, an initiating force leading to migration of workers is conceivable. 
To prevent such a dislocation in any community, it is proposed to arrange for 
transfer of product to defense work. Such a program may entail alterations 
to equipment and building. To eliminate any loss in time in recommending 
whatever alterations may be required, it is urgent that approval be secured 
to extend the operation of a current Works Projects Administration vacant 
building survey to include occupied industrial buildings. 

TESTIMONY OF C. GEORGE KRTJEGER— Eesumed 

The Chairman. Mr. Krueger, your paper states that the employ- 
ment service is making strenuous efforts to supply local labor for 
agriculture. 

Would you describe this work in detail for the committee? 

Mr. Krueger. Mr. Lepper will answer that question. 

(The prepared material submitted by Mr. Lepper, of the State 
Employment Service, is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY H. J. LEPPER, ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT, NEW 
JERSEY STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

June 17, 1941. 
To: Russell J. Eldridge, Director. 
From : H. J. Lepper, Supervisor of Contact and Clearance. 

Attached hereto find three reports on the farm labor situation which is 
broken down into three specific districts ; namely : 

1. Camden, Atlantic, Gloucester, Cumberland, and Salem Counties. 

2. Burlington, Mercer, and Monmouth Counties. 

3. Passaic, Bergen, and Essex Counties. 

After 3 weeks exhaustive study of the farm situation, I believe the attached 
reports give rather a comprehensive story of our fai'm situation : 

I wish to call your attention to the fact we have not made a survey because 
we believe the fanner has been surveyed to a point he is beginning to resent 
further questioning for statistical purposes. Mr. Seabrook of Seabrook Farms 
recently made the statement that the full time of five of his employees is con- 
sumed answering questionnaires submitted by various Federal and State 
agencies, who request various figures on production, labor, and market condi- 
tions. 

We have felt that the county farm agents are in close touch with the situ- 
ation and from them we have been able to obtain information which is very 
helpful. From this information my original estimate of a shortage of possibly 
15,000 harvest workers still stands. 

As you know, my recent visit to Richmond, at which time I conferred with 
representatives of the seaboard States from Florida to New Jersey, causes 
me to feel justified in saying that the number of Negro migrants who ordi- 
narily travel from Florida to New Jersey by way of Georgia, North and South 
Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and Pennsylvania, will be so reduced 
as to be ineffective. In past years the number of Negroes coming into New 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5611 

Jersey rau from 5,500 to 7,500. So far the indications are tliat not more than 
100 of these workers have found their way to New Jersey. While it is almost 
impossible for me to say just what may be expected when we come into the 
tomato or potato crops, I still feel there will be very few migrants available. 
There is also the question of providing labor for the canneries which is very 
largely female workers. Most of our large packers, or canuers, agree that 
unless we ai-e able to uncover large reservoirs of female workers who are able 
to take up this work there will be a problem so acute as to make it necessary 
to establish some new method of handling the crop. With this in mind some 
of the canners are planning to turn the tomatoes into pulp and pack them in 
5-gallon cans until such time as the actual handling of the crop is over, then 
to prepare them for other types of containers. This, of course, means that no 
attempt will be made to make up ketchup, tomato juice, etc., while tomatoes 
are coming in but that the ketchup will be made up later, using the pulp in- 
stead of the whole tomato. 

NEW LAW CUTS ITALIAN MIGRATION 

As to the peach and cranberry crop, where Italian families from Philadelphia 
are mostly used, we find that because of the child labor law very few of these 
Italians have been available. Just what will happen after the closing of the 
Philadelphia schools I am not in a position to predict ; but, from all indications 
most of the male members of the family are engaged in defense industries in 
Philadelphia and there is a question as to whether or not the families will 
consider working in New Jersey this summer. 

You will note we have tapped every possible reservoir of workers and had 
some success but the number of workers have only scratched the surface of 
the needed supply. 

In addition to the three reports I also attach a report from Dewi Evans, 
field supervisor, on contacts made with the Work Projects Administration, 
National Youth Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, financial assistance 
commission, and local relief organizations, which indicate cooperation but has 
not been very productive. 

RK COMMENDATIONS 

For the benefit of the House committee investigating national defense migra- 
tion, I would like to point out a few important facts which might be considered 
as recommendations : 

1. In previous years, because of the large number of migrants, as well as 
the great number of unemployed avaiable for this work, the farmer has more or 
less depended on these workers coming to his door for work. He has not been 
required to anticipate his requirements and, consequently, has given very little 
thought to the problem prior to the time he actually needed help. 

2. Because of the defense program and a universal shortage of farm workers, 
it becomes necessary for someone to do some definite planning to meet the farm 
requirements and certainly the farmer has not shown any indication or willing- 
ness to take on this additional responsibility. There are many farmers in 
New Jersey today, who admit they have not taken any steps to provide labor 
to pick crops which will be ready for harvesting within ten days to two weeks. 
In other words, he is waiting for something to fall out of the sky. 

3. The type of farmer referred to in paragraph 2 has been ready prey for 
certain types of racketeers who are now becoming rather active in our farm 
communities. It has been brought to our attention that certain men that we 
would normally call padrones are now circulating among the farmers offering 
to provide them with workers on a 10 percent basis. They are trying to boost 
the scale of wages and when they do receive orders they (the workers) are 
naturally distributed among those farmers paying the higher scale of wages 
bc-ause it means more to them in commissions. 

The w<n-kers are also assessed on the basis of their earnings. Many of the 
workers secui'ed by these so-called padrones could be supplied by the employment 
service without cost to either the employer or the employee. It has also been 
brought to our attention that in a few instances in the extreme southern part 
of the State some of these so-called padrones are collecting money from the 
farmer in advance of transporting the workers and the farmer has heard noth- 
ing from them since the money was given. 

4. Some Government agency must assume the responsibility and see that a 
full utilization of the available labor is carried out through the means of 
coordination. Heretofore, farmers have employed large numbers of harvest 
workers for one crop. After the harvesting of that crop was completed, a 



55^2 TRENTON HKAKlNixS 

lay-off of several weeks occurred before another crop was ready for harvesting. 
The Employment Service has undertaken to utilize these people during the 
period of lay-off, or route them to available work and return to the first farmer 
in time for his second crop. 

5. I do not feel there is any justification for the attitude which prevails 
among some farmers that this is a situation which must be reckoned with this 
year but that no future planning is necessary. All indications seem to point 
to the fact that this defense program embodies a 3 to 5 year period. It is, 
therefore, reasonable to expect that the condition will be more acute next 
year and any planning this year will be a step in the direction of meeting 
a future situation as well as the present one. 

Therefore, some Government agency must be responsible for recruiting, 
planning and organization of the labor market. 



Farm Labor Survky — Rkpokt on Cooperating Government Agencies. Junk 16, 

1941 

BY DEWI T. EVANS, FIELD SUPEItVISOR 
WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 

The New Jersey State Employment Service has made every endeavor to re- 
cruit farm labor from the Work Projects Administration rolls. Work Projects 
Administration workers have been called in by our local offices in all sections 
of the State and offered available farm work with practically no acceptances of 
such job openings. One of the reasons advanced by Work Projects Adminis- 
tration workers for refusing the jobs included lack of experience in farm work. 
It has been the experience of our local offices during recent months that farm 
efaaployers will accept inexperienced individuals and certain farm employers 
have said they would accept any person able to do physical labor. Other reasons 
for nonacceptance included physical inability to perform farm work although 
such individuals have been employed in laboring work during recent years on 
Work Projects Administration projects: ownership of home or family ties; 
minimum rates of pay, although farm wages in New Jersey have shown a de- 
cided upward trend during recent months: temporary nature of work and in 
this i-espect it is possible that interested applicants could secure from 8 to 6 
months' work in many areas: refusal to leave home locality; lack of transpor- 
tation facilities and hours of work. 

The New Jersey State Employment Service has a cooperative arrangement 
with the Work Projects Administration that our local offices will report to 
the Work Projects Administration all qualified Work Projects Administration 
employees who refuse suitable farm work. Such individuals are reported to 
district and State Work Projects Administration headquarters for investi- 
gation of the reasons for refusal to accept farm work and possible release 
from Work Projects Administration. Up to the present time we have no 
knowledge of the release of such individuals other than isolated instances. 
Work Projects Administration officials have announced at meetings of farm 
groups that any farm employers in need of help and who had knowledge of 
experienced farm labor curi-ently employed on Work Projects Administration 
projects should notify the New Jersey State Employment Service local office 
for the purpose of offering farm work to these persons and in the event of 
refusal that such individuals would be released from Work Projects Adminis- 
tration. 

NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION 

The National Youth Administration has approximately 11,000 enroUoes in 
New Jersey about equally divided between male and female youth. The aver- 
age enrollee is employed approximately 50 hours per month and is free to accept 
full-time private employment at any time or to engage in private employment 
at any time he is not engaged in project employment. The National Youth 
Administration has agreed to publicize to all enrollees and applicants that the 
New Jersey State Employment Service has available farm-job openings in all 
sections of the State and suggest that all enrollees contact our local offices 
and secure information about farm openings. The reaction of the National 
Youth Administration enrollees to farm work has not been favorable for the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5613 

reasous that it was temporary work and lack of transportation facilities, but 
primarily youths' desire for work experience other than agriculture and their 
desire and expectation of securing industrial employment with higher wages 
and regular hours of employment. 

Although many of such youth have no work experience of any kind and 
have not been able to become regular wage earners, they are not interested in 
farm work. The National Youth Administration also has advised enrollees that 
any person accepting farm work will be immediately eligible for reinstatement 
with National Youth Administration upon the completion of available farm 
work. 

The latest flgures available show that only about 1 percent of National 
Youth Administration enrollees who left for private employment were em- 
ployed by agricultural employers. 

(IVILIAN CONSERVATION COKPS 

The Civilian Conservation Corp.s has approximately 3.000 enrollees in some 
20 camps in New Jersey. The Civilian Conservation Corps has agreed to 
cooperate in publicizing to enrollees the need for farm help and to suggest 
that enrollees contact State employment service offices for information regard- 
ing farm openings. A recent study in New York State <leveloped the fact 
that farm youth were leaving farms for enrollment in Civilian Conservation 
(^)rps. 

The Civilian Conservation Corps has advised that some few youth have 
resigned for farm work and such youth will be eligible for reinstatement after 
M months have elapsed from date of release. The Civilian Conservation Corps 
is also interested in verifying the validity of farm orders and the actual place- 
ment of enrollees to prevent enrollees from using farm job openings as a reason 
foi" leaving camp l)ef(tre expiration of enlistment period. 

The New .Jersey State Employment Service has planned to visit the various 
Civilian Conservation Corps camps in the State for the purpose of registering 
enrollees and to keep the camps currently informed regarding the needs for 
f;iim workers. 

FINANC lAL ASSISIANCE COMMISSION AND IX>CAL KKMEF OKOANIZATrONS 

New Jersey State Employment Service offices throughout the State have co- 
operated with local relief organizations in endeavoring to fill farm job open- 
ings with pliysically able relief recipients. In some localities, the relief offi- 
'•ials have furnished lists of employables on relief for the purpose of offering 
them farm work and in the event of refusal the possiljle stoppage of relief 
funds. Also, in some localities, relief recipients, after accepting farm work 
and whose earnings were insufficient to meet their needs have been given supple- 
mental relief. 

It appears, however, that a very large proportion of the current relief loads 
in many localities can probably be classed as unemployables because of age and 
physical condition and are not acceptable by employers. 



Fakm-Luior Survky — Rkport Covering Atlantic, Camden. CuiiBERi and, 
Gloucester, and Sat.em Counties, June 16, 1941 

by grover p. heinzmann. assistant supervisor of contact 

Feeling that there would be a definite shortage of farm labor for the harvest- 
ing .season of 1941, the New Jersey State Employment Service inaugurated a 
farm survey with the express purpose of locating any potential labor reservoir, 
and thereby assist the farmers and growers in their problems, which all felt 
would be acute. 

With this idea in mind, a conference was held in the administration office 
of the employment service and a program of procedure was outlined b.v 
Maj. H. J. Lepper, administrative as.sistant and supervisor of contact and 
clearance. Stress was laid upon two phases of the problem: 

(a) Probable shortage, 
(ft) Reservoir of supply. 



^Q\4i TRENTON HEARINGS 

The probable shortage was to be ascertained by personal contact with the 
farmers and growers, as experience has shown that the farmer is rather 
reluctant in filling out any questionnaire, despite the advantage that might 
accrue therefrom. The average farmer has no personnel director and is too 
busy working himself to give much thought to the labor situation. 

All potential reservoirs of labor were to be exploited, which might prove 
of value to the farmer or grower. 

FIELD SURVEY 

When the survey was started, Mr. Carroll C. Adams was assigned to Cum- 
berland and Salem Counties, and was accompanied by Grover P. Ileinzmann, 
of the administrative office, for a couple of days. Mr. William F. Lehman 
was assigned to Camden, Gloucester, and part of Atlantic County and was ac- 
companied by Mr. Daniel McKim, of the Camden oflice, for a couple of days. 
Upon the resignation of Mr. Lehman he was replaced by Mr. S. C. Berry. 
This resume is a compilation of daily reports submitted by all field workers. 

The investigators kept in daily touch with the county agents, who readily 
offered the services of themselves, as well as of their personnel and office 
facilities. The following agents gave very helpful advice and assistance. 

Mr. F. A. Raymaley, Cumberland County. 

Mr. George E. Lamb, Gloucester County. 

Mr. Charles H. Gould, Camden County. 

Mr. George I. Ball, Salem County. 

Only a small portion of Atlantic County has been investigated at this date, 
due to the fact that the crops in the area will not be ready for harvesting 
until later in the season, at which time it is anticipated that labor will be 
available from other sections of the State, for cranberry picking. The Ham- 
monton area has been contacted and at the present time there is a very definite 
shortage of pickers for the raspberry crop, which shows signs of being a 
bumper crop. 

Daily contact was maintained with various auction and market masters, 
throughout this area, as these officials are in constant touch with the farmers 
in their district. The Vineland auction alone has some 800 accounts. 

Most of the largest farms and some of the modest size, more individual 
farms, were also investigated, as were the processing and packing establish- 
ments. The consensus of opinion was that at the present time there is a 
shortage of approximately 6,000 workers in various phases of the agricultural 
and packing industries. 

KECRITITINQ 

Contacts have been established with the Work Projects Administration, 
National Youth Association, local State employment offices, county agricul- 
tural agents, school, church groups. Young Men's Christian Association, Scout 
troops, city and county officials, relief agencies, chambers of commerce, granges, 
farm auctions, both public and private, men and women of varying faiths and 
nationalities, who were unofficially known as leaders, or known to be persons 
of some influence. 

The movement to help the farmers' labor problem seems to be meeting with 
universal approval. Without exception the investigators have been received 
freely and accorded every courtesy possible. In every instance cooperation 
or publicity has been freely granted and in several instances, far exceeded 
our requests. This has been notably so among the school authorities and city 
and county officials. 

In talks to school children the following was stressed : 

1. To work, when men are being drafted, is a patriotic duty. 

2. Work out of doors, brings health and can be made pleasure. 

3. By working for farmers, money can be saved for next year's school 
needs or can be invested in defense bonds to aid in the defense of America. 

4. It is not thrifty to allow crops to perish and, it will cause prices to 
become higher for everyone. 

Children were encouraged to devote at least a part of their vacation period 
to assisting some farmer or grower, as their part in the service of national 
defense. Hundeds of these youths have promised to work on the farms for 
a minimum of 2 weeks, but there is no yardstick by which the actual number 
who will report for this work, can be measured at the present time. 

Recruitment of some workers from other localities has been primarily 
through the clearance machinery of the public employment offices. 



NATIONAL DEFP:NSE MIGRATION 5615 

The radio has been used and a number of articles and advertisements have 
been printed in local newspapers, as well as placards placed in public gathering 
places. 

Very few people are available from the relief rolls, in the various municipali- 
ties in this area. In one town, no family groups or available workers; in an- 
other borough, only two old ladies and one old man on relief, all unemployable. 
One township, two men, aged 60 and 61 ; four persons aged 16 and 20 and local 
farmers had made provisions to take them. Another township one person 
aged 57 and sis aged 16 to 27 who were available and were placed. This was 
the general condition throughout the area. 

Approximately 300 help, exclusive of school children are available for farm 
labor at the present time. A large number of available help insist on return- 
ing to their own homes each evening, which is impossible on account of the 
distance and in some sections housing facilities are not available. 

It had been lioped that Pennsylvania would be a possible source of supply 
but this has not materialized to any great extent. Some few have been placed 
throughout the area but latest reports are that the Pliiladelphia situation and 
potential supply was greatly exaggerated and the number that will be avail- 
able is problematical. 

HOUSING 

Throughout the Viueland-Landis area, housing presents a difficulty, in that 
virtually none of the farms are equipped to either house or board any help. 
In general the needs of this area are less, but until some means of housing 
a group under a boss or padrone from which nearby farmers could draw their 
individual needs, little could be done by outside labor. These farmers have 
never hired large groups, and the induction service has taken a number of 
young men from their farms. 

In the Cumberland and Salem areas, as well as the Hammonton district, 
many of the larger farms are prepared to adequately house a considerable 
luimber with the proper toilet and cooking facilities. This is more or less 
true in the Camden area. In some of the farm houses, electric lights are 
provided. 

AVhere housing facilities are available, the farmer prefers that the workers 
dwell on the premises of the farmer who employs them. From the farmers' 
viewpoint this is very important. This local habitation makes them avail- 
al>le at all times. The general complaint against the local labor is that they 
return to their homes each evening and considerable time is lost. Whenever 
work must stop due to storms or showers or heat become unbearable, localites 
return to their homes and refuse to return to the farm after tlie shower. 
The children hie to the swimming hole, ball field, or movies, whereas laborers 
living on the premises immediately resume work in the fields where they had 
left off. 

WAGES 

The matter of wages is a factor in obtaining help. A great many of tlie 
former asparagus cutters and berry pickers are now employed in the shipyards 
of Philadelphia and vicinity, as well as on construction projects and various 
industries, where the hours are shorter and the pay considerable over what 
the farmer or grower can afford. 

Certain facts have become clear : 

1. The farmer is now paying higher wage rates than ever before — from 
3 cents to 5 cents per quart for strawberries, 25 cents per five-eighths bushel 
for peas, 20 cents per five-eighths bushel or 30 cents per bushel for beans, 
and $1.25 per hundredweight with bonus for full season for cutting asparagus. 
Growers and workers agree that a good worker can make from .$4 to $6 a day. 

2. In Gloucester County, male help receive $2.50 per day of 10 hours. In 
Camden County $2.50 is paid for male help and $2 for female help, but the 
workers must live out. In Hammonton day workers are paid 25 cents an 
hour and must board themselves or $30 a month with found. 

3. In many cases these wages are out of proportion to the farmer's profits. 

4. That with farm price levels as they are, he cannot compete with industrial 
wages. 

One farmer placed an order for .50 berry pickers, at 3 cents per box, which 
help was furnished by a State employment office, but when he received the 
help he only agreed to pay 21/, cents per box. This is the only case of unfair 
practices which has come to our attention. 



5616 



TUKNTOX HEAKlNdS 



OBDEBS 



The farmer himself is greatly to blame for not haviug the necessary help. 
In past years he has depended upon the padrone or leader to provide his 
help but under present conditions, this help is unobtainable. A check at the 
various ferries, show that very few migratory laborers are entering the State 
at the present time. 

With all the adverse conditions in the farm labor situation, the farmer^ 
has not made any exerted effort to better the conditions. Despite the request 
to make his wants known to the various employment offices, he still seems 
to trust to luck in having his wants satisfied. 

Maj. H. J. Lepper, supervisor of cuutacij and clearances has addresiied 
a number of farm gatherings, at which the importance of making their wants 
known were emphasized. These meetings were always attended by the county 
agricultural agents, the members of ti)e farmers' local committees, as well as 
numerous farmers and employment service personnel. 

It has always been stressed, that if they, the farmers, have any labor- 
difficulty, they should con.sult the local employment service manager, and then 
the service might be in a position to assist. Emphasis was laid on the fact, 
that the employment service could not and would not promise relief or any- 
thing definite, but would use every means in their power to fill the wants of 
the individual farmer. 

These meetings have been held throughout this and adjoining areas, such as 
Bridgeton, Woodbury, Mount Holly, and other sections. 

Throughout the entire area, few orders have been placed with the employ- 
ment service, but upon talking to individual farmers, they state they have- 
not placed orders but will take any help that might be available. This 
makes the task of the service unduly difficult, as we recruit workers but 
have no orders to place them. This condition, however, is being rapidly 
improved and by the efforts of the field workers, market masters, and others, 
the farmer is beginning to realize the service is his fi-iend and trying to help- 
him. 

Referral of help by tiie employment service direct to the farmer has not proved 
very satisfactory in the solution of the problem, due to two causes, namely.. 
lack of finances on the part of the laborer to reach his destination and to 
poor road directions. It has also been found that when a person who has 
been referred reaches the farm, he is told that help has been obtained from 
another source, hence the applicant is disappointed and suJfered financial 
loss and the employment service has lost a worker, as he generally attributes- 
his difficulty to the service. 

The most satisfactijry method has been found to have the applicant for 
work and the employer meet in the employment office, where all details can 
be arranged as to wages, hou.sing, and transportation and both parties dei>au 
satisfied. 

FACTORS IN PLACING OF ORDERS 

Two factors enter into the placing of orders : 

(a) Weather conditions. 

(b) Market fluctuation. 

Some commodities or produce may be left unharvested for a considerable time.. 
until market conditions are favorable, but this is not true with the great 
majority of farm products. They must be picked or harvested when i-ipe or 
mature, regardless of price. This necessitates quick action on the part of the- 
employment service to furnish tlie required help, if available. It seems next 
to impossible to get the farmer to anticipate his requirements by as much as 
2 days, in order to permit the service to function properly. 

The farmer anticipates his requirements for necessary equipment, such as 
crates, boxes, and equipment 6 months in advance but cannot seem to anti<-i- 
pate labor requirements 2 days in advance. They generally call up in the 
afternoon and state they want pickers the next morning. They liave even told 
investigators they had all the help they could possibly use and the next day 
want 20 or 30 pickers. 

It has also been found that a giadual readjustment of employer specifica- 
tions is evident. Skill and experience i-equirements are more lenient. !ior are 
racial characteristics the determining factor in obtaining labor. 

Another i-eason why more orders are not in the emi)loyment offices, is that 
a great many farmers do not yet know that su<-li a service is available. If is. 



NATIONAL DEIENSE MIGRATION 5617 

surprising the number of farmers and growers who have not heard of our 
sei-vice despite the i*adio, newspaper, and placard publicity. 

It has often been said tliat tlie farmers do not readily take up with new 
ideas, nevertlieless, they seem to be really pleased with the employment service 
assistance. Very generally they seem to feel that it is the one big boost that 
they need. A farmer who called at one of our employment offices, discussed, 
his problem with the manager and one of our field representatives ; uijon 
leaving he stated "Well, I didn't get exactly what I came for, but I'm going 
out feeling an awful lot better than when I came in. You know it makes a 
man feel good to know there is someone willing to help him, even if he can't." 

Another farmer when thanked for an interview, laughed and said "It's me 
who should thank you, and 1 hope you'll come back when you can. 1 was 
feeling pretty blue when you came in, now I feel like buckling down again." 

It has been quite customary in the past for itinerant workers to just travel 
tlie roads and be picked up when and where necessary. 

No definite figure is available at present of the number of people placed by the 
employment service, nor of the itinerants that may have been employed, but the 
chance of recruiting much common labor in the area is not very great, since there 
are no congested housing areas, excepting in the city of Camden. This district 
must receive help from outside sources in addition to .school children who might 
be available. 

CONDUCT AND EXPE3!IENCE 

Regarding relief clients, it seems that the farmers and growers are unanimous 
in their opinion that persons on relief and Wnrk Projecrs Administration work- 
ers are not interested in farm labor. I'articulai-ly is this true of Work Projects 
Administration, who feel that the work is of sTich an uncertain nature that if 
they were to leave Work Projects Adiiiiulstration jobs or go off relief there is 
always the question in their minds of being ivinstated. 

The National Youth Administration immediately reinstate any of their group 
who take temporary employment. 

A few farm* hands have been secured through the Pennsylvania Employment 
Service, and in a number of cases have proven very unsatisfactory. One fanner 
in Cumberland County was somewhat discouraged by his experiences with pickers 
drawn from Pliiladelphia. They reported without bedding, equipment, or supplies. 
He furnisiied all. After a big meal four left the first night, and only one now 
remains. This one is rated as "fair." They defecated all over the house when two 
outside "privies" were available within a few feet of the house, and broke nearly 
all the window glass. The few berries which they picked were so badly crushed 
that they all had to be repacked. The after school children wei'e also very unsat- 
isfactory. They romi>ed and played through the patch until they did more harm 
than good. He abandoned his .strawberry crop, will plow his fields under. His 
pepper plants are going to waste, waiting to be set, and he has beautiful fields of 
raspberries and blackberries to be picked in season. 

In isolated cases migrant workers have made application to farmers, bur no 
steady influx as in former years. 

The padrones have been unable to obtain lielp. A few farmers have families 
tliat they have employed for 10 to 12 years, but they are the exception. 

Some of the farmers are very well pleased with the help furnished them, but 
the ijeople who have been taken from relief rolls are not satisfactory, and cause 
considerable damage. 

WORK PKOJbX'TS ADMINISTRATION 

The Work Projects Administration is a bone of contention among the farmers 
and growers. As one farmer stated "the Work Projects Administration is build- 
ing a very fine road past my farm but I cannot get help to harvest my crops so 
That I might take advantage of the road." 

It is the contention among fanners that all AVork Projects Administration 
projects should be closed down during the harvest season. They may or may 
not distinguish between actual construction jobs and play w<»rk but nevertheless 
they resent seeing large groups of apparently able-bodied men doing things 
which they feel could, at least, wait until ijerishable crops are harvested. 

Resolutions have been passed and forwarded to county and city officials, ask- 
ing the sponsors of these projects to close them during the harvesting season. 

While the various civil authorities feel kindly toward the farmers' problems, 
they are also i-esentful against the various resolutions adopted by the farmers. 
At heart they appear to be with the farmer but politically with the Work 

60.396—41 — pt. 14 6 



5618 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Projects Administration worker. Farmers have pointed out any number of men 
working on projects, who formerly worked on farms. 

The mayor of one municipality feels the agitation over Work Projects Admin- 
istration rolls is overemphasized, that the men employed on Work Projects 
Administration in his city are doing useful work such :is extension of sewers 
and water mains. The farmers claim this can wait iTutil the harvest season is 
over. Also complaint is made of Work Projects Administration projects on the 
State highways. Weeding the gutters is one of the projects. Weeds have been 
in the gutters for years and could wait another 2 or 3 months. 

One farmer had six men employed on his farm and all were certified for 
Work Projects Administration work and left immediately and it was only 
through the efforts of an employment office manager that they returned to the 
farmer. 

Some of the city fathers claim that only a few men are engaged on city 
projects over which they have control, the majority are county and State-wide 
projects. As a rule it ends up by the city fathers stating they would have a 
conference with the Work Projects Administration officials and there the matter 
rests. 

CAIX ON WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION UNFRUITFUL 

At several meetings held throughout the area, officials of the Work Projects 
Administration were present and promised fullest cooperation with the employ- 
ment service. They promised that any person on Work Projects Administration 
projects who refuses to take suitable work, providing he is qualified, or who 
even refuses to call at the New Jersey State employment offices for an interview, 
would upon certification of the office manager be dropped from their rolls. To 
date this has not materialized excepting in a few isolated cases. 

In one of our offices, 50 Work Projects Administration workers were called 
in for an interview regarding farm labor ; about three showed up. In another 
office 200 were called in, and only a few showed up. The Work Projects Admin- 
istration authorities were imniediately notified, but as far as can be learned the 
men are still on Work Projects Administration. One manager was informed 
that 50 percent of the names submitted were of men no longer on Work Projects 
Administration and 60 percent of the remaining did not have any farm back- 
ground. Yet every card on file in the office showed a vei-y definite farm 
background. 

In various phases of farm work, exiDerience is not a requisite, but certainly 
a man who can handle a pick and shovel all day could do some of the farm 
tasks, such as picking berries or fruit. 

At one of the county meetings a large apple grower stated that last year he 
employed men with one leg or one arm. At least they could pick the fruit from 
the ground and put it in baskets and if necessary would do the same this year, 
if they only had one eye. 

At the present moment raspberry pickers are badly needed in the Hammonton 
area and 30 families could be placed immediately with first-class housing condi- 
tions. However, it is not anticipated that this help will be available. 

Onions are ready for picking and as the price is considered high, the farmers 
are anxious to take advantage of the rise in the market. 

In every case of certification to the Work Projects Administration officials the 
employment managers have carefully gone over the registration cards and elimi- 
nated all witli physical handicaps and the aged. Every effort has been 
made to comply with all the rules and regulations so that no hardships 
would fall on anyone involved. 

causp:s of labor shoet.vgf; 

The significance of the farm-to-factory movement can be more readily noticed 
each day. 

The shortage of farm help can be attributed to several causes, such as induc- 
tion of men into the Army and National Guard units and by migration to 
defense industries ; job seekers whose sole training and experience have been 
on the farm, are reluctant to accept farm wages while opportunities for higher 
pay in defense jobs are believed to exist. 

Large Federal defense construction projects, plant expansion, and building 
of housing facilities are probably the chief cause of farm shortage. Unskilled 
workers are reluctant to bind themselves to low paying jobs on farms where 
there are employment opportunities at better rate of pay in defense construc- 
tion projects an<l in the mills. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5619 

One farmer iu Salem County who had a large acreage of asparagus and 
formerly received his help from Philadephia was unable to get one person. He 
has used the same Italian families for the past 10 years but today the men 
are employed iu industry and the women will not come without their children. 
This farm adjoius a large Government project upon which laborers receive 90 
cents an hour, whereas the farmer pays 35 cents, hence no labor. Also, ad- 
joining or in close proximity tt) it is a large defense project upon which 600 
Work Projects Administration workers are engaged. In the immediate vicinity 
large asparagus fields were going to seed for lack of cutters. 

Other reasons for labor shortage are the child-labor law and the compulsory 
school attendance law. Families who would have liked to avail them.selves 
of the chance to make money picking strawberries, peas, and cutting asparagus 
could not bring their children, and of course, would not think of leaving them 
behind. I believe that many educators do uot feel that tlie law serves the 
purpose intended, but tif necessity must abide by it. 



The drought this season, while disastrous to the farmer, has nevertheless 
afforded a little relief to the New Jersey Employment Service. Daily could 
be seen the denumd for harvesters, principally strawberry pickers, wane, when 
of a normal season it would have been on the increase. Therefore we should 
not delude ourselves with any false idea of the farm-labor shortage. The 
shortage is acute and of very great import. 

Many threats to curtail plantings in the area, if labor does not become 
available. 

Throughout Cumberland and Salem Counties, there seems to be a little 
breathing spell right now. Much of the berry crops were destroyed by the 
hot, dry weather and some went unpicked for lack of labor. The pea crop is 
also seriously affected by drought and the bulk of the snap beans are not yet 
mature. However, the real problem still to be faced within the coming month 
is the tomato, sweetpotato, peach, and apple season. For both tomatoes and 
fruit picking an adequate supply of labor is necessary, as 1 day's delay may 
ruin the pick. 

Tliis shortage of labor will also be felt in the canneries, where a considerable 
shortage is anticipated. One cannery alone expects a shortage of .300 workers. 

One great potential loss lies in the fact that while available help is used to 
salvage a crop, the correct seasonable cultivation and crop care is neglected. 
Here again an abnormally dry spring with cold nights has been of some aid 
to us. Weeds have not been nearly so troublesome. 

One farmer in Salem County pointed out 100 acres of asparagus of which 
he had only cultivated 'Sy2 acres. He remarked that that was not his way of 
farming but he could do no better. He also stated that in all probability he 
would cut the acreage next year. 

Due to the drought the strawberi-y crop was a dismal failure. In one locality 
the market master stated that in 1940 the yield was $.50,000, whereas the 1941 
yield was only .$16,000. Only 25 percent of the acreage was available for 
marketing but the price was slightly higher. 

In Cumberland and Salem Counties, there was a very definite shortage of 
asparagus cutters and a large acreage had to be abandoned due to the short- 
age of labor. 

Cumberland County farmers claim they lost $30,000 in berries iu 1940 and 
it was anticipated that the loss would be greater this year due to drought. 

A large farm in Cumberland County with an annual pay roll of about $32,000 
lost all early "green crops," a loss of about $2,500. Very short handed on 
asparagus. Wages increased 20 percent this year, yet unable to get help. 
The manager states that the only solution will come from State or Federal 
Government supplying help from whatever means is possible. 

RESUME 

In checking daily notes and reports from all sources there is found such 
unanimity of opinion that it would be difficult to submit a lengthy report 
without much repetition. One fact seems to be in almost every mind and 
That fact is that the farm labor situation is so vital and complex, that to 
quote one farm manager: "If the State and Federal Governments dwsn't give 
the farmer manual labor, then he, the farmer, is licked." 



5620 



TRENTON HKA K INGS 



The idea of cuiTailiug planting to a hare minimum, hoping for higher- 
prices to help him out is a common subject of discussion. 

If the country wishes to continue to eat and feed its military forces, 
it seems that it may be necessary to organize an army of farm workers, to 
coordinate the States' efforts. . . ^ 

One example of the indifference of the farmer is found in his lack of under- 
standing of what the various agencies are trying to do. A county agent 
with 840 farms in his district sent out 875 cards asking for help data; 93 
were returned of which 46 needed no help then and 47 wanted help— 129 
for tomato, 24G berries. 186 peaches and apples, and 79 for other vegetables. 

One farmer placed an order with the employment service for 20 farm 
workers. The next morning, the office manager telephoned the farmer that 
24 workers were in the office ready to be taken to the farm, and the farmer 
replied that he was too busy to come for them. 

Much of the lower class labor in tlie cities if made available ro the farmers 
would become increasingly valuable: but to become useful it must be organ- 
ized and handled by an able organization. The farn^er left to his own 
resources could never handle the situation. 



Farm-Labob Survey— Rkpokt Covering Bergen. Morris, I'assaic, and Sussex 
Counties, June 17, 1941 

by grovfe p. heixzmann, assistant strpervisoe of contact 

In compliance with instructions from the administrative office of the New 
Jersey State Employment Service, a survey of farm-labor requirements was 
undertaken by Mr. Edward V. Donald, Mr. Lester Burns, and Mr. E. R. Torkel- 
son, employees of the service. 

Mr. James B. Fawcett, Passaic County agricultural agent, and Mr. W. Ray- 
mond Stone, Bergen County Agent, were contacted and were found to be 
100 percent in favor of the survey. They had tried to attempt something of 
this nature but witliout much success. Each was asked and submitted a list 
of key farmers in their territories. Of tlie 130 names submitted, approximately 
75 have been c(mtacted and in a majority of cases the farmers were rei-eptive 
to the idea and expressed their views in that there is a definite shortage of 
farm labor and in some cases were g'ing to plow crops under because labor 
was not available for harvesting. 

All office filei^ have been exhausted. Work Projects Administration men have^ 
been interviewed to uncover any potential farm help. Relief agencies have 
been contacted and all able men interviewed, finding very few able to do farm 
work. Meetings with National Youth Administration officials have been held 
and talks given to gatherings of National Youth Administration boys with a 
few showing a willingness to do farm work. 

In one instance, 21 youths were interviewed, 9 found willing to do farm work 
and referred. Of the 9 referred, 1 reported and worked 3 days. Following- 
that experience, any person able and willing to do farm work was delivered 
by the field representative direct to the farm, leaving no excuse such as not 
Iteing able to find the place, etc. 

Contact was made with Mr. S. H. Kneisel, field agent of the department of 
institutions and agencies, division of parole, and have placed one boy, the 
outcome of which at the moment looks none too good. Contact has been made 
with the Passaic County Boy Scouts. Principals of various high schools have 
also been contacted: 168 high school undergraduates who have all expressed u 
desire to work on the farms during the summer months have been registered. 

In Morris and Sussex Counties the living conditions upon most of the farms 
are very i)oor and the pay is far below that of other sections of the State. 
Many complaints have been received from persons referred to farm jobs of 
the poor food and irregular meals. On larger farms, such as the Ideal Dairy 
Co. at Branchville, have no difficulty in securing help, as their pay is very 
good — from $80 to $100 a month, room and board, with good housing c^mditions. 
Franklin Lakes Dairy is another large dairy farm that does not exix^r'ence any 
ilifficulty in obtaining good help. In Bergen and Passaic Counties there are few 
farms with housing facilities. The majority wanting to hire day workers. 
In most all cases, workers must furnish their own transportation. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5621 

FARM WAGES VAKY 

The wages throughout the area vary, and each individual farmer has his 
<own wage scale. In Bergen and Passaic Counties some farmers iiay from 
$2.50 to $3 per 11-hour day in the spinach and lettuce fields. Others pay $2 
to $3 a day in carrots and beet fields. One farmer pays $3 to $4 to high- 
school boys who work from 7 a. m. to 6 p. m. Another farmer will employ 
boys only at 25 cents per hour, working from 6 a. m. to 5 p. m. This farmer 
claims that older men know too miK-h us to how things should be done and 
wants boys to use his method; $2.50 per day is paid in rhubarb fields, working 
from 7 a. m. to 5 p. m., and $2 for general farm labor. Truck farmers receive 
$30 month and found. Others pay $3 to $4 a day for experienced men, but will 
not hire boys; $2.50 to $4 a day for vegetable pickers and bunchers. Will use 
girls for packing. In this area there is no uniform wage scale. 

In Morris and Sussex Counties the lowest pay for milkers is $20 a month, 
room and board ; highest pay is $60 a month, room and board. Nonmilkers 
lowest pay is $30 per month, room and board ; highest, $60 a month, room and 
board. None have provisions to take care of their families. 

One job at present is open — a job for a farm hand, no milking but the wife 
to do the housework; no children; r<ioms provided; the pay will be $40 per 
month. It will, therefore, be noted the pay scale is very low in comparison 
with the work required. 

In no case has an order foe labor been solicited, but openings for approxi- 
mately 75 men have been found; 24 men were referred and 13 secured jobs — 
1 a veteran. In Morris and Sussex Counties, very few orders are received 
for farm hands, most of the orders being for milkers and for single men. 
There are very many small dairy farmers who are not in a position to pay a 
wage in comparison with the larger farmers and they are the ones who are con- 
stantly in need of suitable help. This section has very little truck farming 
or fruit growing. In the harvest season, the situation is not very much intensi- 
fied, as these farmers only harvest fodder for their cattle and veiy little of 
that. 

As the crops i-ipen. the need for farm labor in Passaic and Bergen Counties 
will be greater. One fruit farmer contacted said he would need 50 to 75 pickers 
after August 1. From June 15 to November 1, every farmer in this area will 
need extra help. About the middle of July cabbage and tomatoes will come in. 
In the northeast section of the county the main crops are sweet corn, cabbage, 
and tomatoes. These farms run up to about 90 or 100 acres, but most of the 
heavy farming has been done and the farmer will not need any help until 
the sweet corn starts to come in. 

TKANSPCHJTATION OF DAY WORKERS 

Transportation of day workers presents a problem which may be solved by 
getting the young men to go to the farms in a car that belongs to one of their 
number. This has not always been successful because most of these 16- and 17- 
year-old boys do not own automobiles. 

A very definite shortage exists in Passaic and Bergen Counties and will be- 
come greater as the season progresses, when tomatoes and sweet com rii)en. 
However, there is no accurate figure as to what this shortage will be, but it 
will be at least 600 workers. 

Contact with Work Projects Administration workers has not proved very 
.satisfactory up to the present time, and no workers from this source are 
available. 

While the farm situation for the moment is not too critical, everything must 
be done to alleviate a threatened shortage of labor. Throughout the area, par- 
ticularly on the truck farms, the labor load is variable, that is, 1 week a 
farmer needs 10 men and only 2 the next. 

In some cases the farmers were skeptical as to the ability of the employ- 
ment service to secure labor for them, and in these cases to promote a kindly 
feeling to the service every effort has been made to fill their needs first. 

Several of the farmers have advised that unless they can get help iHunedi- 
ately they will be forced to plow their crops under. 

This resume is a compilation of daily reports submitted by field repreaenta- 
ttives of the employment service. 



5622 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Farm Labor Survey — Report Covering Burlington, Mercer, Monmouth, and 
Ocean Counties, June 16, 1941 

by john bugdal, assistant supervisor of clearance 

In the early part of April, it was realized that this year the employment 
service might be called upon to take a job which in the past was never a 
problem. This job would be the recruiting of farm labor for New Jersey 
farmers. The reason for this thought was the great expansion of private 
industry for the defense program which was being stepped up so rapidly that 
industry was taking on men over 40 and many other types who until 6 months 
ago hadn't the slightest hope of securing a fair job. 

Aside from industrial firms being confronted with labor shortage, it was 
also found that there was developing a shortage of the many types of service 
workers, such as, nurses, hospital attendants, cooks, kitchen workers, service 
station attendants, and beauty parlor workers. It was only a few mouths 
ago that the employment service files were chockfull of registration cards 
of applicants for service jobs but today the files have been completely ex- 
hausted in the search for service workers. 

Because of the shortages of labor in other fields, it was therefore assumed 
that a similar condition would prevail in the farm areas as soon as the 
harvest season was at its peak. It was felt that many factors would create 
the anticipated shortage. The influencing factors most likely would be the 
Selective Service Act and the defense program. 

To get a picture as to the anticipated needs of farm labor for this harvest 
season, the following temporary interviewers were assigned: James Jackson 
to Mercer County ; Howard S. Swann to Burlington County ; and David 
Shulman to Ocean and Monmouth Counties. These men were to first of all 
tap all reservoirs of available labor, such as, relief directors' rolls. Work 
Projects Administration rolls,, churches, schools, and neighborhood centers. 
They were to work with the county agent so as to get all the available in- 
formation about his respective county and to assist him in whatever way 
possible. 

QUESTIONNAIRE ON LABOR SHORTAGE 

Prom the beginning of the program, the county agents have welcomed the 
work of our people. Mr. Swann, who is covering Burlington County, gets the 
utmost cooperation from Mr. Van L. Kensler, the Burlington County farm 
agent. Mr. Kensler was positive that the farmers were going to have a 
problem and he was very glad to know that we were interested enough to 
come into the field and offer our services. In the early part of April, Mr. 
Kensler's ofiice made an effort to estimate the labor that will be needed to har- 
vest this season's crop. He sent out a questionnaire to every farmer on hi> 
mailing list asking that they write in the number of people they had working 
last year, this year, and how many more would be needed for 1941. Of a 
total of 800 questionnaii'es sent out, 96 were returned indicating a shortage of 
796 workers for the berry, vegetable, and fruit crops. 

Mr. Swann then concentrated his efforts into recruiting as many farm work- 
ers as possible. He made a visit to most of the relief directors and certifying 
agents in Burlington County. These people also welcomed our efforts in 
seeking farm help by coming to them. They, however, could not offer much 
as the relief rolls were down to almost nothing — with only aged and handi- 
capped people on their rolls. 

Most of the relief directors told Mr. Swann that farmers were already calling 
them or had been in touch with with them about securing farm help and what- 
ever physically able relief clients were on the rolls were referred to the farm- 
ers. In one case, the relief director advised Mr. Swann of two men who had 
been on Work Projects Administration until about 6 weeks ago but were laid 
off and since their lay-oft had not been to the relief office as yet for relief. 
Mr. Swann called on these men and found that both had found private em- 
ployment. 

In visiting the certifying oflScers of some municipalities, Mr. Swann had a 
little difficulty in getting lists of Work Projects Administration rolls but soon 
he had lists being forwarded to the Burlington office. These lists were checked 
with employment service files and all persons showing the least bit of farm 
experience were sent for by the Burlington office. From this activity 101 
names were sent to the Work Projects Administration headquarters advising 
that those listed refused to come in or if they came in refused to leave Work 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5623 

Projects Administration for a farm job. The reasons given by them in refil- 
ing farm jobs was that they were paid on a work basis and if it rained or if 
the crop wasn't ready, they would would lay around or go home. Further, 
they claimed that farmers could not promise steady work and if a crop went 
bad they found it almost impossible to get back on Work Projects Adminis- 
tratJon. 

CALL ON SCHOOLS FOR WORKERS 

In a further effort to seek farm labor, Mr. Swann received permission from 
Dr. Kaser, Burlington County school superintendent, to call at various county 
schools and to speak before the school children asking them to offer about two 
weeks of their vacation to help Burlington County farmers. From these con- 
tacts, Mr. Swann built a tentative supply of about 200 workers for Burlington 
County. 

He then started to call on the Burlington County farmers and found that 
most of them had never heard of the employment service and in some cases 
were reluctant to discuss their problem with him as they thought he was a 
labor contractor or "padrone." They had been used to dealing in the past with 
these labor scouts who received a flat hourly rate of from 25 to 35 cents an 
hour plus a percentage of the wages earned by the harvest hands. These labor 
contractors usually visited a farmer and contracted with him for his necessary 
help and then by using a bus or truck would go into the Camden district and 
round up these laborers. It is estimated that the padrones were making 
more than $100 per week on the labor they furnished the farmers. In many 
instances the padrones would get a load of people and deliver them to the 
farmer who offered the most for them and any surplus would be dropped off 
for the farmer who paid the next best rates. This method of distribution in 
some ca.ses left the farmer far .short of the necessary people needed to harvest 
his crops. 

FARMERS EXAGGERATED NEEDS 

Other farmers in the Burlington area exaggerated their needs. In one case, 
Mr. Swann had to travel to the far end of Burlington County to an.swer the call 
of a farmer there who had told the county agent that he would need 25 berry 
pickers for the next day. Mr. Swann found out that this particular farmer 
was crying before he was going to be hurt. It proved to be that the previous 
year he had been successful in getting in his crop with some 35 local people. 
This year he had noticed that articles were appearing in the papers about 
shortages of farm help so v/ithout contacting his source of supply from last 
year, he asked for help. Mr. Swann asked him to contact his local sources 
first of all and then to call on the Burlington office if he found he was going to 
be short. As the Burlington office did not receive any such request from this 
farmer, it was assumed that he was successful in getting local help or that 
his crop was burned up by the dry spell. 

Another farmer on being visited by Mr. Swann said he had sufficient help 
having secured them through his field foreman. He had about 65 people working 
and said he would get along very nicely through the harvest of his vegetable 
crops. Two days later this same farmer called the Burlington office stating 
that he needed 25 cherry pickers for the next day. Mr. Swann contacted this 
man and told him that it was unfair to mislead us with information he had first 
given and besides that to ask for labor for the following day when he had 
promised to give the office at least 48 hours' notice. 

It later developed that this same farmer also called the Camden office and 
placed the same order. By some very hard work, the Camden office had the 
required 25 pickers for this farmer who came in to take only 8 men. 

Further visits by Mr. Swann to the farmers in Burlington County developed 
that they were getting their labor by themselves at the present time but did not 
know how they could produce the necessary pickers for the tomato crop which 
should start during the first week of July. 

COMPL.4INT AGAINST REIJEFERS 

Although the farmers were going out and helping themselves to the extent 
of taking care of their present crops, they all complained about people on relief 
and Work Projects Administration rolls but at the same time would state that 
this type of labor was of no value as they could not and would not do farm work. 

A meeting was arranged with the Burlington County Executive Farm Board 
on June 10, 1941 in the offices of Mr. Kensler, the farm agent. The farmers 



5524 TRENTON HEAKlNGvS 

at this meeting appreciated our efforts in their behalf but at the same time were 
reluctant to talk about any problems. The attitude was that in some way or 
another they would bring in their crops. They all knew of certain shortages 
and of other anticipated needs but no farmer wanted to place definite orders. 

A Civilian Conservation Corps camp was visited at Chatsworth at which there 
were some 130 colored enrollees who should all be qualified for harvesting work. 
The camp commander, Garret H. Schufeldt, advised that contact would have to be 
made with both Mr. Charles Wilbur, State conservation and development direc- 
tor, and the Civilian Conservation Corps headquarters in Trenton for the release 
of any of the enrollees to farm jobs. To date suflScient orders have not been 
received by the Burlington office to warrant a request for the aid of Civilian 
Conservation Corps enrollees. 

The Burlington office tried to bring Work Projects Administration workers 
into contact with some of the farmers by arranging meeting dates at Mount 
Holly and Moorestown relief offices. On June 5, only 4 Works Projects Admin- 
istration workers made an appearance at the Moorestown relief office. They 
all turned down farm jobs. Another dozen men remained out in the hall and 
after overhearing that the jobs were on a farm refused to come into the office 
for an interview. On May 26, this same procedure had been followed at the 
Mount Holly office. Only 9 men showed up after 43 call-in cards had been 
sent out. Seven of the men who made an appearance were referred to farm- 
ers in the Mount Holly area. A check on the following day showed that only 
3 men made an appearance at the farms and stated they would report for work 
the next morning. They did not live up to this promise as of the visit to the 
farmer on the following day. 

A total of 101 names were sent to the Works Projects Administration head- 
quarters by the Burlington office. These names were of applicants who in 
the opinion of the Burlington office were qualified to do farm work and had 
been sent call-in cards but did not respond to them. A couple of weeks have 
elapsed since sending of this list to the Works Projects Administration head- 
^juarters, but the only reply to this was an acknowledgment of a first list of 
only 9 names which had been submitted after the meeting at the Mount Holly 
relief office. The Work Projects Administration had replied that 2 of the 
men listed were not on the Work Projects Administration and that the other 
7 did not show farm experience. 

Mr. Schulman, who is working in both Ocean and Monmouth Counties, ac- 
quainted himself with Mr. Herbert C. Bidlack and Mr. M. A. Clark, the county 
agents of Ocean and Monmouth Counties, respectively. 

SHORTAGE AMONG POULTRY GBOWEES 

The present shortage of farm labor in Ocean County is among the poultry 
growers. This has been a chronic problem in this county for some time. 
The main reason for this problem is the fact that poultrymen do not offer an 
incentive wage that can be compared with the wages offered by vegetable, 
berry, and fruit growers. The Toms River employment office has had many 
orders in the past for poultry hands. It was a real problem to get appli- 
cants to even consider such jobs, as the poulti-ymen wanted experienced 
hands for $3 to $5 a week. This season the Toms River office has also 
had similar requests, but in most instances they were successful in getting the 
employer to offer about $2.50 per day. They were able to point out that 
service workers in the seashore establishments were receiving .$3 and $4 a 
day and it would be impossible to find applieants for poultry jobs for anything 
less than $2.50 per day. 

The Ocean County agent advised that he had sent out 375 questionnaires 
in an effort to get a picture nf the farm help needed for this season. To 
date, Mr. Bidlack had not received a single reply to his questionnaires. 
This might be accounted for by the lackadaisical attitude of Ocean County 
farmers in general or because Ocean County produces a late season crop, such as 
cranberries and blueberries. It is quite likely that the failure of the county 
agent's survey up to the present is predicated upon the fact that a majority of 
the Ocean County farmers are cranberry and blueberry growers and that ir 
is still early for them to express concern about harvest labor since their crops 
will not be ready for harvest until a period beginning about the middle or 
latter part of July. 



NATIONAL DEI'^NSE MIGRATION 5625 

LABOR NEEDS IN CRANBERRY BOGS 

Mr. J. H. Hayes, the manager of the Toms River employment office, felt 
that the cranberry and blueberry growers would be able to meet their labor 
problem by the same methods used In the past, 1. e., by contracting for the 
cranberry and berry pickers with Philadelphia labor contractors. Mr. Bidlack, 
the county agent, had other views even though his survey showed no results. 
He said that it was true that the berry growers did not experience too much 
difficulty in securing pickers in the past as there were no restraining factors 
to prevent children from working with families in the bogs and fields. 

Mr. Bidlack felt that the child-labor law would prevent many farmer 
workers from coming into the area because the family could not make as much 
money as they did in the past if the children were prohibited from working. 
He further thought that because of the step-up in private industry it wa» 
very likely that families having one or two boys who formerly worked in 
the' cranberry bogs with their parents will not be available this year as the 
boys have gone into either defense industries or replaced i)eople in other 
industries in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. 

Very little recruiting was attempted in Ocean County as the problem did not 
seem as serious as in other counties. An attempt was made to recruit some 
strawberry pickers and it was found that 12 young people were available 
in the Lakehurst area who were willing to work as pickers provided that daily 
transportation could be arranged for them. The transportation of these people 
proved to be the obstacle in referring them to any Burlington Coimty farmers 
in time for strawberry picking. 

Mr. Sclmlman then concentrated his efforts in trying to get a picture of the 
farm problem in Monmouth County. His meeting with Mr. M. A. Clark, the 
county farm agent, was very enlightening as to what the Monmouth County 
farmer was going to need in the way of farm help. Mr. Clark offered all the 
resources of his office to Mr. Schulman. 

SITUAllON OF POTATO GROWEKS 

It was founil that farmers in Monmouth County are predominantly potato 
growers who had always relied on securing their farm labor from contact 
men in Virginia and Florida. They were found to be short of some farm labor 
now, but this shortage would not cause any immediate problem, as some 
migratory workers were drifting through and were taken on to take rare of 
the cultivating work. The shortage should become very serious in July, August, 
and September when potato and tomato crops would be coming through. 

The Monmouth County agent's survey showed a total response of 76 returns 
from approximately 500 questionnaires that were sent out. The response to 
the survey can be broken down as follows : 15 truck farmers need 68 workers 
and 9 general farmers needed 22 workers immediately ; 22 potato growers antici- 
pated a need of 219 workers starting July 20; 9 tomato growers anticipated 
a need of 64 workers starting August 15; 3 berry growers anticipated a need 
of 66 workers immediately and continuing until August 1 ; 10 tree fruit growers 
anticipated a need of 114 workers starting August 1 to October 1 ; and 17 farm- 
ers believed they could harvest their crops without any additional labor. Briefly, 
59 farmers need 553 workers, but it must be remembered that this figure only 
represents a small fraction of the entire Monmouth County farm mailing list. 

Mr. Clark definitely felt that although there is a present shortage of labor 
in Monmouth County, this shortage will be amplified very much as the season 
progresses. He said that farmers in this county were dependent upon migratory 
labor and that only a few of them have gotten some assurance from their 
labor contractors that they will furnish labor as they did in the past. Mr. 
Clark agreed that the farmers should be awakened to the fact that they will 
be confronted with a labor problem and that they should contact their source 
of last season's supply and if that source could not furnish the workers, they 
should immediately contact their nearest State employment office and a.sk for 
assistance. 

Mr. Schulman had suggested a meeting of either the farmers or their execu- 
tive board but Mr. Clark felt this would be futile. He based this on an ex- 
perience he had last season when he sent notices to his entire list of farmers 
about a meeting at which they could find out about a plan to market thelT 
potatoes at a better profit. Only 15 farmers came to the meeting which was to 



5626 TRKNTOX HEARINGS 

be of the utmost personal benefit to every farmer. Instead of a meeting, Mr. 
Clark suggested newspaper and radio releases in the farmer's columns and 
oyer WOR Farmers' Digest program which is listened to religiously by the 
farmers. He believed this would be the best medium of bringing to the atten- 
tion of the farmer the importance of his carefully considering his anticipated 
need and the possibility of his getting his help to harvest his crops. 

FARMERS IGNORE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

In a conference with Mr. J. C. Hendrickson, president of the Monmouth 
County Farmer's Association, Mr. Schulman found that farmers in Monmouth 
County had no idea as to why the New Jersey State Employment Service was 
operating nor what it could offer in the way of service to any employer. Mr. 
Hendrickson is probably one of the most progressive farmers in central New 
Jersey but he had never heard of the State Employment Service. He was 
amazed that there was no charge for the service and was glad to know of the 
location of the nearby offices. Even though Mr. Hendrickson was a large 
grower, he was in other respects no different than any other farmer. His crops 
were planted but "he had not given any thought to where he would get anyone 
to harvest them." He further expressed himself as willing to let any of his 
help leave him rather than pay a little more wages to keep his help. 

At Mr. Hendrickson's suggestion, a meeting of some of the growers in Mon- 
mouth County is being arranged so that they might discuss their labor needs 
and the possible sources of supply. Mr. Clark, the county agent, is arranging 
the meeting for Wednesday evening, June 23, at a place to be fixed by himself 
and Mr. Hendrickson. 

POSTERS CALL ON WOKKEBS 

In an effort to recruit applicants for farm work, posters, urging workers 
to apply at nearest employment office, have been posted in best possible 
spots in Monmouth and Ocean Counties, such as, post offices, stores, fire- 
houses, and relief offices. Further, Mr. Thomas Harper, Monmouth County 
.school superintendent, was contacted. Mr. Harper favored the idea of appeal- 
ing to the school students to sacrifice a part of their vacations by registering 
for farm work. A letter of introduction was prepared for Mr. Schulman 
allowing him permission to speak at Manasquan High School, Red Bank High 
School, Freehold High School, Broad Street School in Freehold, Court Street 
School (colored) in Freehold and Neptune High School. From these schools 
approximately 225 recruits were secured with more than 50 percent of them 
showing farm experience. These recruits would be available after June 15 
when school would close. 

Most of the relief directors in Monmouth County have been visited and they 
all reported their relief rolls at a minimum. Those on relief rolls are 
physically unable to do farm work. 

Mercer County to date presents only a small part of the problem that 
other counties are experiencing. James Jackson, who is covering Mercer, 
has made himself acquainted with Mr. A. C. McLean, the county agent for 
Mercer County, Mr. McLean has advised that the major crops in Mercer 
County are potatoes and tomatoes. He has not made a survey of the labor 
needs in his county but he feels, as do the county agents in Burlington, 
Ocean, and Monmouth Counties, that there will be a shortage of harvest 
workers after July 15. 

Mr. Jackson has called on a number of the larger growers (30 to 350 acres) 
in Mercer County. It was found that the major crops were potatoes and 
tomatoes followed by grain crops, wheat and rye, and some corn and beans. 
The average rates offered for this season are : Potatoes, 4 to 8 cents per bushel 
bag; tomatoes, 5 to 7 cents per basket; wheat, 25 to 85 cents per hour — $20 
to $40 per month. 

OKDEKS FOB HELP WITHHELD 

The farmers that were contacted gave information about their acreage, help, 
wages, etc., as comi)ared to last year, but would not give a definite order for farm 
help, as they were all prone to wait until they heard from either the padrone or 
labor contractor who had furnished them with workers last year. The padrones 
seem to have produced laborers from sections of Trenton and Hightstown, while 
the labor contractors furnished help from Virginia and Florida. 

The laborer contractors usually contact the farmers as early as December to 
contract with the farmer for his needs during the coming harvest season. It was 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5627 

found that in only one case a farmer was coutaeted by a Virginia labor contractor 
who promised to deliver 70 workers. The other farmers were still waiting to get 
Avord from their contact men. 

Inasmuch as the farmers seemed to be content for the px-esent it was decided 
to make a recruiting drive, as it was felt that before long the Mercer County 
farmers would be needing help, and if we were not prepared to meet their requests, 
at least in part, we would be pounced upon by every organization in the farmer 
groups. 

Mr. Jackson first called on Mr. Michael Commini, who is a leader in Italian 
circles in Trenton. Mr. Commini promised to acqviaint persons of his nationality 
to register at the Trenton Employment Office if they were interested in fai-m work. 
He also suggested that we submit copies about farm labor shortage to the several 
Italian-language newspapers that have an extensive circulation in Trenton. He 
further suggested that Mr. Francis A. Caputo, director of the Italian Social Center 
at 232 Hamilton Avenue, Trenton, be visited. Mr. Caputo was contacted, and 
promised to do everything in his power to direct applicants to the Trenton office 
for registration. He also promised to submit an article to the New York Corriere, 
an Italian-language newspaper. 

EECRUITMF.NT OF COLOHKI> WORKKRS 

Mr. Jackson also visited Mr. Hilmar Jensen, executive secretary of the colored 
Young Men's Christian Association, and sought his help in recruiting colored 
applicants tor farm help. Mi". Jensen was very cooperative. He sent a letter to 
all the pastors of colored churches in Mercer County asking that they bring to the 
attention of their congregations the need for farm labor, and to direct all inter- 
ested applicants to the Trenton Employment Office. 

Signs urging workers to register for farm work were posted in all of the 
colored neighborhoods in Trenton. Princeton, and Hightstown. From his 
visits to the colored sections of Mercer Coimty, Mr. Jackson found that many 
of the colored residents were reluctant to register at the Employment Service 
office, as they were accustomed to having farmers from various Mercer County 
districts, as well as from Morrisville, Pa., drive into central points, such 
as, the "stone bridge" in East Trenton each morning, pick up a truckload of 
woi'kers and then bring them back in the evening. The workers saw no need 
of registering for work when employers practically picked them up on their 
doorsteps each morning at 6 o'clock. 

A Mr. Henry Jones, of 42 Seward Avenue, was found to be one of the colored 
leaders in Trenton who has been instrumental in supplying farm help for Mr. 
Dilatush. Mr. Jones stated that he knew of agitation going on among his 
race to form a farm worker's union in an effort to harass the various farmers. 
He felt that this was a poor movement, as the workers had very little to com- 
plain about in either sanitary and housing conditions offered by such men 
as Messrs. Dilatush and Cubberley or in the wages offered by these growers. 
He added that he will not let down Mr. Dilatush this season as to producing 
farm help for him. 

It was found that Mr. H. P. Collins and Mr. Hill, principals of Junior High 
School No. 1 and the Lincoln School (colored), were also very coofterative. 
Mr. Collins sent a mimeographed letter to all the home-room teachers pointing 
out the need of farm help for New Jersey farmers. As a result of this 
activity, Mr. Jackson secured the registrations of 66 students who were inter- 
ested in giving up part of their summer vacations to work on farms in Mercer 
County. A similar number of recruits were registered at the Lincoln School 
through the efforts of Mr. Hill. 

Farm Labor Survey — RECRUiTiiNG Farm Labor June 16, 1941 

BV JOHN BUGDAL, ASSISTANT SUPERVISOR OF CLEARANCE 

After the interviewers, making the farm-labor survey, have been in the 
field for a few days, it was found that the need in the Cumberland and Salem 
Counties would be greater than the number which could be recruited by local 
employment offices. Therefore, to meet this need, it was decided to ask the 
help of the Philadelphia Central Employment Office in securing workers for 
south Jersey farmers. 

The Philadelphia office was contacted and offered its fullest cooperation con- 
tingent upon our offices giving them at least 48 hours' notice of any requests. 



5528 TRENTON HEARINGS 

It was agreed to first of all to make a preliminary search of the Philadelphia 
files to determine the possibilities existing there. 

On May 22, 1941, Miss Rosemary Liebhanser and Miss Alma Evans visited 
Mr. Daniel J. Littley, the manager of the Philadelphia Central Employment 
Office. They were given access to the files and after a study decided that it 
would be worthwhile to call in all persons showing a farm background. 
Arrangements were then made for such a program starting on May 29, 1941, 
at which time Philadelphia applicants were to be called in for referral to a 
representative of the New Jersey State Employment Service Administrative 
Office who would have orders from South Jersey farmers. It was further 
agreed that all call-ins would first be "screened" by the Philadelphia office 
interviewers. 

As per these arrangements, John Bugdal of the New Jersey Employment 
Service, visited the Philadelphia office. Mr. Don Bostock, supervisor of place- 
ments, and Mr. Postelle Vaughn, supervisor of Negro research and placement, 
stated that 200 call-in letters had been sent to persons with farm experience. 
Mimeographed circulars had been posted about the city and newspaper articles 
were released in some new.spapers having a circulation among the Negroes. 

From this activity, only 38 applicants came in and of this number only 30 
were interested in farm work and were advised to return on June 2, 1941, at 
1 p. m. at which time farmers needing help were to visit the office and make 
their own arrangements with the applicants. The reason for this arrangement 
was that it was found that it was impractical to give referral cards to applicants 
to an employer as they would not go to the farms because of difficult transporta- 
tion facilities. The New Jersey offices were to send letters to farmers from whom 
they had orders advising them that applicants would be on hand at the Phila- 
delphia office on Monday, June 2, 1941. 

On Monday, June 2, 1941, 35 more applicants were interviewed and were 
told to return at 1 o'clock. Of the entire number interviewed on this day and 
on May 29, only 33 were on hand at 1 o'clock. Four farmers made an appearance 
with the following results : 

Swan Lake Farm, Mrs. Swan who had placed an order for 10 asparagus cutters 
selected and took with her 12 inexperienced colored men. 

Samuel Mattson, Swedesboro, who had placed an order for three asparagus 
cutters, took two men, both inexperienced. 

Mrs. Harry Morrison, Hurflfville, who needed one man, selected one man. 

Santo Nicosia, Rosenhayn, had an order for 40 strawberry pickers. Only 10 
men were left who were willing to go with him. Another man promised to report 
to him the following morning. 

This made a total of only 26 placements. 

Arrangements were made with Mr. Vaughn to return again on June 6 to conduct 
a similar drive. The Bridgeton, Millville, and Woodbury offices wrote to farmers 
advising them to report at the Philadelphia office on this day to select farm 
laborer's. The Philadelphia office sent letters to 313 applicants to which there 
was a response of only 54 persons of whom only 30 were interested in farm 
work. At 1 o'clock, only 2 farmers made an appearance and selected only 4 
men, all colored. Twenty applicants waited a good part of the afternoon and 
had to be sent away when no other farmers made an appearance. 

On June 7, the Hammonton office advised they had immediate need for 4 or 5 
Italian families to pick strawberries. The Philadelphia office was contacted but 
they advised that only colored help was available. They further advised that 
they could only recruit about 4 colored families and about 100 single yoimg men 
with no experience. It was decided that this type of applicants would not be 
good for the Hammonton openings. 

New Jersey Unemployment Compensation Commission. New Jersey State 
EMPrx)YMBNT Service, Aptixiated With Social Security Board 

Office of the State DiREcroa. 

Trenton, N. J., July 23, 1949. 
C. Gbobgb Kbueger, 

Chairman, Conference of New Jersey Departments on Migratory Lah&r. 
New Jersey State Department of Lahor, Trenton, N. J. 
Dear Mb. Krueger: Your survey committee reports that arrangements were 
completed with Dr. Earl Beckuer of Farm Security Administration to pave 



NATIONAL DEI ENSE MIGRATION 5629 

the way for the field survey in the fruit and berry region of Burlington County 
by those investigators of Farm Security Administration vrho were scheduled 
here on July 16. This date was advanced to July 20, but up to the time of this 
writing no word further has been heard from this group. In other words, 
the survey apparently has not been started. 

Onsiderable groundwcn-k was done by Harry B. Weiss, Assistant Secretary 
of Agriculture and a member of this committee, to facilitate the work of this 
group through local officials. 

• «| * * 4c * * 

As to the count of migrant farm workers coming into New Jersey through the 
ferries from Wilmington, Del., and Chester, Pa., I have made arrangements 
to have available by July 24 the figures on workers who are now moving into 
New Jersey, there having been observed on New Jersey roads trucks with 
licenses from the State of Florida and other Southern States. 

Mr. Weiss, of this committee, from his full knowledge of the problem, has 
analyzed all available reports and has made a further partial field study and 
has presented a summarization of the man-hours required to harvest the 
various market crops grown in New Jersey. His summary is attached hereto. 

SUKVKT ON LAROR SUPPLY AND EARNINGS 

In our field survey of the commercial potato-growing farms we made a 
serious attempt to learn (1) the quantity of workers used, (2) rate of wages 
paid, (3) total earnings for periods of day, week, or crop coverage. We were 
not too successful at the time. Evidently Mr. Weiss has regarded as importpnt 
This factor of total man-hours necessary for any crop. With such knowledge 
there can certainly be determined importance of the migrant group, the possi- 
bilities of replacement with local labor, and the possibilities of keeping the 
volume of migration to a necessary minimum, thus eliminating the stragglers 
who would clearly be an increase to our relief load. 

You will find that Mr. Weiss" conclusion is that about 13 percent of the total 
liarvest man-hours required in just the fruit and vegetable harvesting necessitates 
The use of migrant labor. Thus the great majority of the manpower deiiended 
upon by farmers in these two crops seems to be from local sources. Further, the 
manpower for practically all other crop harvesting beyond fruits and vegetables 
would seem to be from sources other than the migrant groups. Incidentally, the 
use by Mr. Weiss of the phrase "commercial growers" should be interi>reted as 
farms on which the major crop for market purixises is in the fruit and vegetable 
category. 

Very truly yours, 

Russell J. Eldridge, 
Director, Neir Jersey State Emptoyment Serrwe Dlrision, 

Unemploymen t Compensation Commds.sioH. 



Hours of Man-Labor RkQiiked fok the Har\-esting of Certain Ne:\v Jerse\ 

Crops 



BY HARRY K. WEISS. CHIEF, BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY 

The following table shows the estimated number of man-hours required for the 
harvesting of specific crops in New Jersey. These estimates were based in part 
upon figures given in Agricultural Extension Publication 46, entitled "Trend of 
Farm Prices in New Jersey, Average Crop and Material Requirements Needed for 
Producing Agricultural Commodities," by J. W. Carncross and A. G. Waller, of the 
New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, and in part by a brief field survey 
by an agent of the New Jersey Department of Agriculture. 



5630 



TRENTON HEARINGS 
Hitnest labor /» Xew Jersen 



Asparagus. 



Beets, canhouse 

Cucumbers 

Eggplant 

Peas 

Peppers 

Potatoes, white 

Potatoes, sweet 

Corn, sweet 

Tomatoes, canhouse 

Tomatoes, market 

Silage corn 

Apples 

Peaches 

Strawberries...'. 

Snap beans 

Beets, market 

Cabbage 

Carrots 

Lettuce 

Onions 

Spinach 

Raspberries and blackberries- 
Cranberries 



Total. 



Hours of 

harvest labor 

per acre 

per crop 



14,000 
3,200 
100 
2,600 
1,200 
2,400 
6,700 
55, 000 
15,000 
26, 000 
28,600 
11,500 
36, 000 
43, 000 
17, 500 
4,000 
10,600 
2,000 
6,700 
2,000 
2,400 
3,000 
2,900 
3,400 
11,000 



310, i 



Total hours of 
harvest labor 
for each crop 



4,400 
228,800 
105, 600 
211,200 
335,000 
530,000 
365, 000 
598, 000 
030,600 
656, 000 
900,000 
865, 000 
050, 000 
356, 000 
272.000 
300, 000 
167, 500 
400, 000 
180, 000 
288,000 
87, 000 
102, 000 
176,000 



42, 381, 700 



! The harvest labor except for cranberries involves all labor connected with the crop from the picking to 
the time the crop is ready for shipment. 

2 Picking only. 

3 This figure i.'^ approximately 95 percent of the total acreage devoted to fruits and vegetables in New 
Jersey. The renmining 5 percent includes unlisleii miscellaneous veuetabic acreages in northern New 
Jersey. 

Estimated number of Negro migratory worljer.s (all ages) 4,000 

Estimated number of Italian migratory workers (all ages) 5,000 

Total 9, 000 

Estimated number of days worked in New Jersey by each worker 75 

Average time worked per day, hours 8 

Apiiruximate number hours worked, per worker 600 

Total man-hours by all migratory workers 5,400,000 

Total acreage in all crops in New Jersey 845,880 

Acreage of crops where migratory labor is employed in part or 

entire for harvest work 310,800 

Estimated number of man-hours needed for harvest work in fruit 

and vegetable areas of New Jersey (25 crops; see table I; acreage 

310,800) 42, aSl, 700 

Estimated number of man-hours furnished by 9,000 migratoi-y 

workers 5, 400, 000 

Percentage of total harvest man-hours supplied by migratory 

workers 12. 7 

Estimated number of potato growers employing Negro migratory 

labor 325 

Estimated number of growers employing Italian migratory labor 30O 

Total 625 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5631 



Wages of migratory labor in Middlesex, Mercer, and Monmouth Coimties, 
summer, 19. 'lO 



Pickers: 

Hours per week 

Dollars per week 

Cents per hour 

Reports 

C.raders: 

llours per week 

Dollars per week 

Cents per hour 

Reports 

Loaders; 

Hours per week 

Dollars per week 

Cents per hour 

Reports.,. 

All 3 (pickers, graders, loaders) 

Hours per week 

Dollars per week 

Cents per hour 

Reported 

Number of reports used 

Number of workers 



Average High 



35.6 

$10. 30 

28.9 

38 

35.2 

$11.22 

31.9 

24 

34.6 

$10. 89 

31.5 



35.2 

$10. 71 

30.4 

80 

38 

667 



10 
$3.50 



50 


10 


.$15 


$3.50 


71 


19 


50 


10 


$15 


$3.50 


60 


19 


55 


10 


$18 


$3.50 


71 


15 











Average High 



$9.41 

27.4 

31 

37.5 

$9.73 

25.9 

31 

34.3 

$9.34 

27.2 

26 

35.8 

$9.60 

26.6 

88 

31 

558 



i{6.00 
17.5 



$22 
62.5 


$3.50 
18.5 


55 
$15 
50 


8 
$4 
IS 


64 

$22 
02.5 


8 
$3.50 
17.5 











Pickers: 

Hours per week 

Dollars per week 

Cents per hour -.- 

Reports 

Graders: 

Hours per week 

Dollars per week 

Cents per hour 

Reports 

Loaders: 

Hours per week. 

Dollars per week 

Cents per hour 

Reports 

All 3 (pickers, graders, loaders) 

Hours per week 

Dollars per week 

Cents per hour 

Reports 

Number of reports used 

Num ber of workers 



Average High 



30.9 
40 

38.9 

$11.73 

30.2 



36.5 

$11.46 

31.4 



37.8 
$11.64 



60 


14 


$22 


$3. 50 


42 


13 


60 


14 


.$22 


$3. 50 


55 


20 


60 


14 


$22 


$3.50 


55 


13 











Middlesex, Mercer, Mon- 
mouth combined 



Average 



36.0 

$10. 56 

29.3 



36.9 

$10. 86 

29.4 

85 

35.2 

$10. 55 

30.0 

72 

36.1 

$10. 65 

29.5 



High 



$3.50 
15 



64 


8 


$22 


$3.50 


71 


13 


GO 


8 


$22 


.$3.50 


60 


18 




64 


8 


$22 


$3.50 


71 


13 











?ource: New Jersey State Department of Health. 

MiGKATORY LaROK NEEDED IN SOITHKRN NeW JeKSKY DtKING 1941 



April 2, 1941. 
A survey was made during March 1941, in cooperation with the New Jersey 
State Employment Service. This was designed to bring out the migratory labor 
needs of New Jersey farmers for the 1941 harvest season. It is believed that all 
large employers are included and that the figures represent approximately 90 
percent of the total needs. Six southern counties were covered and the following 
table presents the results on a county basis together with a total for the six 
counties. 



5532 TRENTON HEAlilXGS 

One hundred and ninety-five employers will need in 1941, approximately 
6,700 workers, which is the normal requirement. These same employers hired 
in 1940, approximately 5,800 workers, of which about half originated locally or 
in other pai'ts of southern New Jersey, and the other half mostly from Penn- 
sylvania- These workers were hired personally, and through agencies and 
padrones. Their pay ranged from $1 to $5 per day, and averaged $2.43. The 
number of hours worked ranged from 1 to 13 and averaged about 9. 

The 195 employers operated 27,900 acres of vegetables and 6,200 acres of 
fruit, or a total of 34,120 acres. Attention is called specifically to the comments 
of the employers relative to migrant labor and the difficulty of competing, in 
the labor market, with factories, etc. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5633 



Total 
acreage 
of fruits 

for 
harvest 
in 1941 


502 
3,442 

325 
1,564 

354 
32 




CO 


Total 
acreage 
of veg- 
etables 

for 
harvest 
in 1941 


309 

4,892 

37 

18, 579 

2,196 
1,892 


i 
?5 


11 

i! 


May to Nov. 10... 
Mar. 1, to Dec. 1-. 

Apr. 25, to Oct. 15 
Mar. 1, to Dec. 5. 

Mar.ltoDec. 10... 
Mar. 1 to Dec. 1.. 
Mar. 1 to Dec. 10.. 


Average 
hours 

per 
worker 
per day 


g or "". S o o 
00 c- ^ <^ 


o> 


Range 
in hours 
of work 

per 
worker 
per day 


5-12 
1-13 

8-10 
5-12 

8-11 
8-10 


7 


.\verage 
earnings 

per 
worker 
per day 


$2.24 
2.36 

1.95 
2.07 

2.23 
3.10 


^ 


Range in' 

earnings per 

worker per 

day 


$1. 50-$5. 00 
1. 50- 5. 00 

1. 50- 2. 25 
1. OO- 4. 00 

1. 50- 3. 20 

2. 00- 4. 00 


§ 


1 

o 
a 


213, Pennsylvania; 
123, New Jersey, 
and local. 

874, Pennsylvania; 
481, New Jersey 
and local; 15. Flor- 
ida. 

172, Pennsylvania; 
64, New Jersey; 10, 
Virginia. 

2,102, New Jersey and 
local; 1,113, Penn- 
sylvania; 50, Caro- 
linas; 34, Virginia: 
9, Delaware; 8, 
South; 2, Florida; 
1, Georgia. 

278, Pennsylvania; 42, 
New Jersey and lo- 
cal; 8, Virginia; 12, 
South; 3, North 
Carolina. 

175, southern colored; 
103, New Jersey and 
local; 80. Pennsyl- 
vania. 

2,730, Pennsylvania; 
2,915, New Jersey 
and local; 17, Flor- 
ida; 52, Virginia; 53, 
Carolinas; 9, Dela- 
ware; 195. southern 
colored; 1, Georgia. 


^1 


13, personally em- 
ployed; 5, agency; 
3, padrone. 

39, personally em- 
ployed; 26, padrone; 
9, personally and 
padrone; 3, not 
given; 1, agency and 
personal; 1, padrone 
and agency. 

2, padrone; 1, per- 
sonal; 1, Italian and 
colored boss and 
personal. 

34, personally; 6, pa- 
drone; 3, agency; 1, 
padrone and per- 
sonal; 1, padrone, 
personal, and agen- 
cy; 1, notgiven. 

30, personally; 2, not 
given; 2, agency; 1, 
padrone. 

8, personally; 1. pa- 
drone and personal; 
1, padrone. 

125, personally; 10 
agency; 39, padrone; 
12, personal and pa- 
drone; 1, agency and 
personal; 2, padrone 
and agency; 1, pa- 
drone, personal, and 
agency; 5, notgiven. 


Num- 
ber of 
workers 
hired 
nor- 
mally 


390 
1,473 

196 
3,922 

391 
380 


s 


Num- 
ber of 
workers 
hired 
in 1940 


336 
1, 3.50 

246 
3, 299 

215 

358 


m 


Intend- 
ed num- 
ber of 
workers 
to be 
hired 
in 1941 


400 
1,421 

196 
3,941 

402 
387 


o 




S R - ^ S 2 


2 


"5 

3 
O 


.\tlantic 

Burlington.. 

Camden. 

Cumberland 

Gloucester 




"So 

en" 



60396— 41— pt. 14- 



5634 



TRENTON HEARINGS 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5635 

COMMENTS 

Comments may be summarized as follows : 

(1) Growers receive low prices, therefore they cannot afford to pay higher 
wages. 

(2) Labor wages are going up, while farm prices remain at the same level; 
therefore farmers cannot compete successfully with shipyards, big factories, and 
so forth. 

(3) Work Projects Administration labor is inexperienced and practically 
useless. 

(4) Labor obtained through unemployment governmental agencies is fre- 
quently not satisfactory. 

(5) Children are the best pickers of berries. 

(6) If farm prices remain at the present level and factories absorb labor 
at high wages, some farmers will be forced to curtail production considerably, 
because they cannot pay factory wages, and workers are not willing to work 
for low farm wages. 

(7) Beside wages, workers on farms very often receive lodging, vegetables 
grown on the farm, light, fuel, and so forth. 

(8) General consensus of farmers' opinion is that future is dark, pregnant 
with surprises and unpleasant eventualities. That the outlook is dark is the 
general tone of comments. 

(9) Italian labor is most efficient and experienced, and adaptable to the 
situation. 

TESTIMONY OF H. J. LEPPER, ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT, NEW 
JERSEY STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

Mr. Lepper. We estimate in New Jersey that the shortage of farm 
labor is about 15,000, or will be at the peak, which w^ill be about the 
15th of July. This shortage is due to at least two things that we 
can put our fingers on. 

First, there have been very few migrant Negroes from the South 
coming into the State this year. Normally we have somewhere be- 
tween 5,500 and 7,500. 

The Chairman. You mean that migration has decreased from nor- 
mal to 

Mr. Lepper. To practically none. 

The Chairman. To what do you ascribe that? 

Mr. Lepper. The migratory workers have been absorbed in defense 
work in the South, largely construction work — Army camps and 
things of that sort. Some of them have gone into other inclustries 
such as shipyards, and we find — just to give you an idea how this 
thing works — that the superintendent of a barrel factory in Cape 
Charles left and went to the shipyards, and one of the leaders, or 
padrones, a leader of a migrant gang, stepped in and took his place 
and took his group right into this barrel factory in Cape Charles. 

In other words, it is a sort of step-up proposition. They can earn 
more money, too, than they could in farm work. 

In the early part of January the shortage of these Negro migrants 
was approximately 25 percent. They have had no direct bearing on 
the agricultural situation in Florida*!, because they had a freeze, and 
their crops were about 25 percent short, but from Florida they just 
simply disappeared out of farm work altogether. 

From there on there was practically no indication of any great num- 
ber of them being available, and up here we have had no indication at 
all of any numbers greater than 100 in all coming into the State. Sec- 



5636 TRENTON HEARINGS 

ondly, we have the situation involving the Italians, those coming from 
around Philadelphia. Those families normally come over here, usually 
somewhere around about 5,000 — five or six thousand. 

FACTORS CHECKING ITALIAN MIGRATION 

There are two things that are stopping those Italian families from 
coming in here this year. One is that the husbands or males of the 
family have gone into defense work. Secondly, we passed a law last 
year, a child-labor law, which prevents children from being taken out 
of school while school is in session. Italian mothers will not leave their 
children and come on to work. 

Unfortunately, our strawberiy crop here burned up before it ripened, 
but had it ripened we would never have been able to pick it. Our bean 
crop is taking a terrible licking right now because we can't get enough 
workers to pick the beans. 

We have gone over into Philadelphia, and we are enlisting relief 
clients from Philadelphia, moving them at the rate of 100 or 150 a day. 
They are being thrown off the relief rolls in Philadelphia. 

The Chairman. You mean the W. P. A.? 

Mr. Lepper. Not so much luck with the W. P. A. We haven't had 
the cooperation with the W. P. A. we should have had. 

The Chairman. How did the W. P. A. wage scale compare with the 
farm ? 

Mr. Lepper. A little bit better. In other words, the average farmer 
thinks the W. P. A. wage scale is in competition with him. That is the 
attitude of the farmer. 

Our tomato crop and our potato crop come in the 15th of July, and 
I have no idea how they are going to handle the situation. 

Mr. Curtis. May I ask a question at this point : You stated that there 
was a shortage of perhaps 15,000 farm hands? 

Mr. Lepper. Harvest hands. 

Mr. Curtis. Over how long a period of time would each one of those 
individuals get work ? 

Mr. Lepper. Pretty nearly 3 months. We could carry them on into 
the 1st of October, and then carry some of them into the 1st of No- 
vember in our cranberry crop. 

The Chairman, In other words, there is going to be a shortage, isn't 
there? 

workers unfitted for agriculture 

Mr. Lepper. Yes, sir; I don't know how we are going to be able to 
furnish the farmers their help. Possibly we will have to set up some 
control to see that there is a full utilization of every available person. 
But the type of labor we are trying to fit into the picture now is not 
fitting in at all. In other words, in south Jersey, where they normally 
use Italian help, we are trying to fill in with colored help. The 
colored people are better in the potato work but not so good in fruit. 
In other words, the farmer always prefers the Italian for that type 
of work. The colored workers whom we are placing in south Jersey 
are not producing as satisfactory work as the Italian workers; con- 
sequently, they can't earn as much, and they are getting somewhat 
iliscouraged. It is a question as to how long we are going to be able 
to feed them into south Jersey. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5637 

The Chairman. Has any of the W. P. A. projects been closed on 
account of the scarcity of farm labor? 

Mr. Lepper. I have not heard of any projects being closed. We 
have had a number of meetings with the W. P. A. In fact, the 
W. P. A. representatives have attended a number of the farmers' 
meetings, that I personally attended, and the farmers have been 
insistent that these projects be closed. But the W. P. A. in every 
instance has told the farmers that they must go to the sponsors of 
the project and get the sponsors to close the project, that that is 
the procedure. In some cases the general attitude of the farmere 
toward the W. P. A., because of its failure to cooperate with them, 
as they call it, has reached a point where they are almost belligerent. 

On one or two occasions I thought they were going to get into a 
riot. 

HOLDING BACK CHARGED TO WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 

Mr. Curtis. Do the farmers feel that the W. P. A. administrative 
officials are too anxious to hold onto their set-up and keep it going? 

Mr. Lepper. Definitely ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Do they appear to be justified in that or would you 
want to venture an opinion? 

Mr. Lepper. Well, it would only be an opinion, but I can say this 
for your information, and I think it may give you a fair idea : We 
have instructed our officers to call in every man who is on W. P. A., 
and if, in their opinion, he is capable of doing farm work, to offer 
him a farm job; if he refuses to accept the farm job, then we report 
it to the W. P. A. 

In almost every case in which we have reported a man as refusing 
to take a farm job, the W. P. A. has come back and said that, in the 
opinion of that agency, the man was not capable of doing the work. 
Consequently, the thing has got into a state where there is more or 
less controversy between the farmer and the W. P. A., as to the 
fitness of the man to do the work. 

The farmer says: "If the W. P. A. can put a shovel in a man's 
hand, I can put a hoe in his hand" ; or, "If the W. P. A. can put a 
shovel in his hand, I can give him a box to put strawberries in." 
That is the farmers' attitude. 

The Chairman. Mr. Krueger, are you familiar with H. R. 4675 ? ^ 

Mr. Krueger. To some extent; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. What is your idea about that? Do you think a 
law of that kind will be of assistance? 

Mr. Krueger. I am happy to say, Mr. Chairman, that the com- 
missioner of labor in the State of New Jersey is wholeheartedly in 
favor of it. 

The Chairman. A hearing is going to be held in Washington on 
that bill. I am glad to hear that. Now, in regard to the require- 
ments of health and housing for migrant labor, promised by employ- 
ers to the State employment service, is any check made to clarify 
whether such facilities actually exist? 

1 H. R. 4675. introduced by Congressman Tolan May 7, 1941, is described as a measure 
"to regulate private employment agencies engaged in interstate commerce." On August 7, 
1941, tiie bin was revised and renumbered H. R. 5510. See Baltimore hearings, exhibit 35, 
"Text of Employment Agency BOl."' 



5Q38 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr, Krueger. We have had surveys made in the field, Mr.' Chair- 
man, and I would like to ask Mr. McDonald, who is quite familiar 
with that, to explain it. 

The Chairman. He will be the next witness. Mr. Osmers, will you 
proceed with Mr. Lepper? 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE WORK 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you want to summarize before the committee the 
work of the employment service in meeting new defense demands? 

Mr. Lepper. Well, of course, the defense demands have set up a 
problem for us here that is pretty difficult to approach, and a satis- 
factory estimate of what is going to be required is impossible to make 
at this time. Monthly we have a report from all holders of defense 
contracts, as to what their immediate labor needs are, and we check 
those against what we have in our file. 

Now, when I say "what we have in our file," I definitely avoid 
saying "what we are able to furnish," because I don't want to say 
that. As an illustration, here we have an immediate need for 
1,284 machinists. We have in our files 60 names. I don't believe 
any one of the 60 are referable in the first place. I believe most of 
them are not citizens, and we can't refer them to a defense contractor. 

Mr. OsMERS. Are they machinists? 

Mr. Lepper. Probably machinists. Probably some of them may 
be good machinists, but not the type of machinists that can be used in 
defense work. 

Mr. Osmers. Because of their training? 

Mr. Lepper. Probably in some cases because of the distance from 
the job, but in most cases because they are not citizens. 

estimate of 1 5,0 00 SHORTAGE 

Mr. Osmers. You estimate there is going to be a farm-labor short- 
age of 15,000 workers. Mr. Lepper, how do you arrive at that 
figure ? 

Mr. Lepper. We based our conclusions on the fact that the mi- 
grants alone have entirely disappeared, and that in itself would give 
us somewhere around 12,000. 

The Department of Agriculture says that there are 75,000 people 
involved in harvesting work in this State, and their estimate of the 
shortage is 30,000. Their figures are even greater than ours. 

Mr. Osmers. What is the total figure ? 

Mr. Lepper. Seventy-five thousand people involved in harvest 
work, and they estimated a 30-percent shortage. 

The Chairman. May I ask a question right here: What was the 
condition last year at this time? 

Mr. Lepper. We had an abundance of labor. In fact, we probably 
had two or three thousand more migrants than we were able to use. 

Mr. Osmers. We had testimony here this morning that seemed to 
indicate both in-migration and out-migration as a result of the 
defense program. I believe the representative of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor testified that skilled building craftsmen were mov- 
ing out of the State in considerable numbers, and other witnesses 
testified that people were moving into the State, particularly for 



NATIONAL DEFENSE IMIGRATION 5639 

shipyard work and things of that sort, in the northern part. I won- 
der if you have any figures on that. 

Mr. Lepper. We have no figures on it at all, other than what we 
might try to estimate. The only way you can gauge the influx is 
by registrations in our office, and in most cases those people give a 
local address. But checking back previous occupations would indi- 
cate whether they came from some other State. As near as we are 
able to figure it out, through summing the whole thing up, we don't 
believe that the influx is any greater than the number going out, 
because we know definitely that we ourselves are shipping out prac- 
tically as many as are coming in. 

For instance, take the Wright Aeronautical Co. in Paterson, which 
is employing thousands of people. Because of the fact that it is en- 
gaged in aircraft manufacture, and because there seems to be a ten- 
dency among people to want to get into aviation, that attraction has 
been responsible for the influx of a great number of people, probably, 
into the northern part of the State. But by the same token, in the 
southern part, and even up as far as Trenton and above, too, a num- 
ber of our people have been going into Philadelphia and down to 
Chester. 

LOCOMOTIVE works' ADVERTISEMENT 

For instance, the Baldwin Locomotive Co. advertised in the local 
papers here last Sunday, and 65 answered their ad on Wednesday 
night, men who were able to build tanks, heavy-metal workers. 
Strange as it may seem, about 15 of those people came up here to 
answer the ad, and then they were shipped back to Chester. 

So, I believe that you would be safe in saj'ing that no matter what 
the figure may be of the in-migration, probably just as many go out. 

We are shipping people now to Cuba and Brazil, to put in run- 
w^ays down there. We also have orders for workers on the new 
naval bases. And what the gentleman from the union said is prob- 
ably true that many people in the construction and have gone out. 

]\Ir. OsMERS. Now, if a man from New Jersey secured employment 
at the Baldwin Locomotive Works, in the manufacture of tanks, he 
probably would not move out of New Jersey, would he? 

Mr. Lepper. He probably would. He may leave his family here 
for awhile, until he found out about his job there, but there are not 
so many commuting or making long jumps of that kind — that is, men 
who are doing hard work. 

FARM WAGES IN NEW JERSEY 

Mr. OsMERS. What is the situation in New Jersey with resj)ect to 
agricultural wages ? 

Mr. Lepper. Well, agricultural wages have never been anything 
worth talking about — I mean the earnings of a man on a farm — un- 
less he is exceptionally good. Necessarily the pay must be extremely 
low. 

Now, to give you some idea, we sent approximately 355 people to 
one farm in south Jersey. Fourteen returned to us last Tuesday 
morning in our office in Camden and said that they couldn't earn 
over 80 cents a day. At the same time I inspected the books of the 
company and saw the pickings of beans for that particular day, and 



5640 TRENTON HEARINGS 

about 300 people there picked between 8 and 25 baskets at 20 cents 
a basket. Very few of them picked 25, I admit. In fact, very few 
were above 15. Most of them were in the 8 and 10 class. 

Mr. Curtis. Was this farm owned by a canner ? 

Mr. Lepper. It was owned by a packer, not a canner. They don't 
pack in cans. 

Mr. Curtis. In reference to the wages paid by the individual 
farmer, there is no way he can raise those wages without taking them 
out of his own pocket, is there ? 

FARM PAY BY HOUR AND ON PIECE WORK 

Mr. Lepper. Well, you see, you have got to divide the farmers into 
two groups, to answer the question. Some few pay by the hour and 
some few pay by the day; but most of them pay on a piece-work 
basis. 

Now, we had the straw^berry crop coming up on certain farms 
where they had the water system — irrigated farms, as you call them. 
Their berries were in pretty good shape, but to get berry pickers 
they had to pay 5 cents a box. There are 24 boxes in a crate, and 
you can figure that out. That is $1.20. These farmers paid 51 cents 
for the crate, which makes a cost of $1.71, and those berries brought, 
on the market, $2. 

Mr. Curtis. In other words, by raising his labor costs the farmer 
cannot demand anything more for his berries or for his wheat or for 
his corn or beans, on the market, can he ? 

Mr. Lepper. Not at the present time. 

Mr. OsMERS. Tell me this: Do you think wages on farms have 
risen since last year? 

Mr. Lepper. In some cases; yes. Last year 2i/^ cents was tops for 
berry pickers; this year most of them got 3 cents, but they did go 
as high as 5 cents. 

Mr. OsMERS. In some instances wages have doubled? 

Mr. Lepper. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. You mentioned beans at 20 cents a basket, did you 
not? 

Mr. Lepper. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. What were they paying last year ? 

Mr. Lepper. Around 15 to 17. 

Mr. Osmers. I would call that a very sharp increase, as far as the 
cost of production is concerned. Now, do you think that the shortage 
in labor is directly related to low pay ? 

WORKERS GET MORE ELSEWHERE 

Mr. Lepper. Well, the shortage of labor is due to the fact that 
the worker can get better money elsewhere. Last year they were 
willing to do that work because they couldn't get better money, if 
that is an answer to your question. 

Mr. Osmers. That is the point. What do you think the future of 
this farm-labor situation will be? In New Jersey we are reflecting 
a national picture. They are having the same difficulties in Cali- 
fornia and elsewhere throughout the Union. Is it going to mean 
higher wages for farm labor generally? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5541 

Mr. Lepper. We believe — I say "we believe," because I am not a 
farmer, so please don't misunderstand me — that there is going to be 
a tremendous shortage of certain types of farm material. For in- 
stance, annually we raise around here for canning, 22,000,000 cans 
of tomatoes. Now, the Government has already commissioned 1 
man to buy 17,000,000 cans. 

Mr. OsMERS. In this area, or in the entire United States? 

Mr. Lepper. In this area. 

Mr. OsMERS. 17,000,000 out of 22,000,000? 

Mr. Lepper. Yes. Then they notified the farmers to increase the 
crop of tomatoes, but it was too late then, because the tomato plants 
had all been raised in the hothouses and they couldn't get the labor 
to put them in. So where we normally get 22,000,000 cans of tomatoes 
for public consumption, we will get this year 5,000,000 cans. Natu- 
rally the price of tomatoes is going to jump tremendously, and if 
the prices are high, of course, the farmer can pay more wages, 
and he is going to make more money, too; and some of them have 
even gone so far as to just simply forget certain types of perishable 
crops. 

In other words, some crops are perishable and have to be picked 
daily, while others could stay in the field for a few days and no 
harm done to them. 

MIGRATION TO NORTHERN NEW JERSEY 

Mr. OsMERS. Mr. Lepper, are you in a position to estimate the 
nimiber of workers who will migrate into northern New Jersey this 
year? 

Mr. Lepper. No; I am not. We know approximately what the 
needs will be if we put the industries on a 24-hour basis, but we 
don't believe that those needs will be filled by migration into the 
State. We think it is a training proposition. There is none avail- 
able now. We have cleared orders throughout the country, and we 
can't get certain workers. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you have any idea how many employers are get- 
ting employees through the Employment Service? 

Mr. Lepper. We made 17,000 placements last month. That is ap- 
proximately 12,000 more than in an average month in any other 
year. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is it true that all the defense manufacturers in New 
Jersey prefer not to use the Employment Service? 

Mr. Lepper. I wouldn't say that it is true that they prefer not to 
use it, but they have their own employment facilities, which they 
have been carrying on for years, and they are still sticking to hiring 
at the gates. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is the service doing anything to achieve better coop- 
eration with the employers? 

Mr. Lepper. Mr. Knudsen has sent out a letter to all employers, 
asking them not to advertise outside their own localities, and not to 
send out scouts, and, as a result, we have been in close touch with 
every employer on defense contracts. Most of them express a will- 
ingness to cooperate, but they still stick to their old methods of 
hiring people at the gate — the unskilled workers — and handing us 
the orders for the skilled workers, whom nobody can get. 



5542 TRENTON HEARINGS 

QUERY APPLICANTS ON RELIGION 

Mr. OsMERs. Tell me this: On your application form do you ask 
the religion of the applicant? 

Mr. Lepper. We do. 

Mr. OsMERS. Why is that ? 

Mr. Lepper. Well, there are two reasons: First, the employers- 
some of the employers — express a preference for persons of certain 
religion, and nationality, too ; and that works both ways. No matter 
which way somebody may want to argue this question, it will work 
just the opposite as well. 

Mr. OsMERS. You mean from the employee's standpoint ? 

Mr. Lepper. Yes; definitely. 

Mr. OsMERS. You mean the employee wants to know the religion 
of his employer? 

Mr. Lepper. We frequently have been asked by some of the minor- 
ity groups why an employer insists upon our not referring the 
Hebrews to him. On the other hand, we have Hebrews call us who 
want only Hebrews referred to them, and for that reason we have 
to be in a position to refer to them just what they want. 

refuse to take negroes 

Mr. Osmers. Now, tell us a little something about the situation 
with reference to Negro labor. Do you get many specifications 
against Negroes from the employers ? 

Mr. Lepper. Do you mean notice that they will not accept Negroes ? 

Mr. Osmers- Yes. 

Mr. Lepper. Yes; we do, and frequently they tell us why. 

They tell us their story, and we have never investigated to find out 
whether the stories are entirely true, but from our own knowledge we 
know that some of them are true. Some of the firms have said that 
the reason for their policy is that the white people who are employed 
in the plant object to Negroes because of toilet facilities and other 
things that are provided. Some of the plants have set up Negro 
sections, and others have employed Negroes in some capacities but 
not in others. 

Now, since the order that was sent out a week ago, or 10 days ago, 
by the President — that there be no discrimination — Washington has 
not told us how we can make an employer accept Negroes. But we 
have considered the Negi^o just as seriously as we have considered 
the whites in all our training programs. We propose to train Ne- 
groes, and then if the employer doesn't accept them, we believe that 
sooner or later he will have to. I mean he will have to because of 
the shortage. 

In other words, we cannot make the employer take Negroes, but 
we are training them right now on the basis of the population of 
the various centers. 

NO RELAXATION IN COLOR BARRIER 

Mr. Osmers. As the pace of the defense program quickens. Major, 
do you find any change, any more tolerance toward the Negro ? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5g43 

Mr. Lepper. Well, no ; I have not, to be truthful with you. I have 
not seen any such change. Some of the firms have taken some Ne- 
groes. We called a conference here and had all the large manufac- 
turers in the State represented, and also all the Negro organizations. 
We gave spokesmen for the Negro organizations an opportunity to 
talk to the manufacturers, hoping that that would solve the situation. 
But the problem seems to be with the workers as much as with the 
employers. 

Mr. OsMERS. You mean that the employer is not necessarily dis- 
criminating? 

Mr. Lepper. I would not say all the employers ; there may be some 
few. 

Mr. Osmers. But it is the workers themselves who are raising that 
point ? 

Mr. Lepper. There seems to be some opposition on the part of 
individual workers. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you feel that the rather strong position that the 
President has taken on the problem will help at all? 

Mr. Lepper. I am wondering. 

]\Ir. Osmers. I am wondering, too. 

Mr. Lepper. It is like everything else that they do in Washington. 
They issue orders and make somebody else stick out his chin. If 
they would stick their own chin out once in a while, it would be better. 

discrimination AGAINST ITALIANS 

Mr. Osmers. Do Germans and people of Italian ancestry suffer 
from disci-imination? 

Mr. Lepper. Yes; they do. 

Mr. Osmers. In defense industries, or all industries? 

Mr. Lepper. Particularly in defense industries, and I might say 
to you that I have checked that question with a few of our very 
large employers in this State, and I recall very distinctly that one 
of our employers^one of the largest in the State — made this state- 
ment to me in dealing with the question of hiring Italian people. 
He said they had a number of Italians in their plant and they were 
very good workers, but he said the trouble was that they were 
"excitable," and that they were "temperamental." 

He said, "When something would happen over on the other side 
they would all get their heads together," as he put it, "and you 
couldn't move them for all hell — they had to have their argument." 

Wliether that is true or not I don't know, but we do know they 
are temperamental. Nevertheless, some of the finest workers we ever 
had have been Italian, and in some places we would like to have more 
of them. 

Mr. Osmers. Of course, if what you quote that employer as say- 
ing were true, it would be a criticism of the ability of the Italian 
workers as such. I wasn't considering the problem in that light. I 
was thinking of the discriminations that have come as a result of 
the activities of Mussolini and Hitler. 

Mr. Lepper. I don't believe the discrimination is due to that. 



5644 TRENTON HEARINGS 

SENTIMENT TOWARD GERMANS 

Mr. OsMERS. I included in my original question Americans of 
German and Italian origin. 

Mr. Lepper. Well, most of the older Germans are citizens of this 
country, and have been citizens for many years. 

Mr. OsMERS. I am referring only to citizens of this country. 

Mr. Lepper. They are splendid workers and most of our plants 
have always been more or less willing to take them. But they are 
skeptical of people who have become citizens in the last 10 years. 
They are skeptical of them. 

Mr. OsMERS. Have they informed your service expressly what 
their attitude is on that score ? 

Mr. Lepper. No. The workers are knocked down when they get 
there. 

Mr. OsMERs. But the employers do not specify that taboo to your 
service ? 

Mr. Lepper. No, sir; they knock the applicant down on the I. Q. 
test or something else. 

Mr. OsMERS. In my position as a member of Congress I have had 
complaints and I have followed through as many of them as I could, 
and I find that sometimes the worker isn't fitted for the job, and 
sometimes there really is racial or national discrimination. 

2 0,000 JOBLESS EMPLOYABLES 

How near are we, in the State of New Jersey, to full employ- 
ment? In other words, how many employables do we have in New 
Jersey today without jobs? 

Mr. Lepper. We have in our files at the present time approxi- 
mately 200,000 "people who could be absorbed, but they are without 
special skills. 

Mr. OsMERS. They are out of work? 

Mr. Lepper. They are employable, but they don't have skills that 
meet the demands. 

Mr. Curtis. How recently have those people contacted your office? 

Mr. Lepper. No card in our file is over 90 days old. 

Mr. OsMERS. Tell me this, Mr. Lepper. Do you anticipate any 
considerable in-migration or out-migration in New Jersey in the 
next year ? 

Mr. Lepper. No, I don't. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is all. 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb. 

AGE or UNSKILLED EMPLOYABLES 

Dr. Lamb. What is the average age of these people whose names 
are in your files — these 200,000 unskilled employables ? 

Mr. Lepper. The larger group at the present time will be over 
40 and under 23, I presume. Among these are the white-collar 
workers and those who do not have any particular mechanical 
ability. If they had any mechanical ability they would be working. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5645 

The total number on our active file is 187,175. Of these, 120,579 
are male and 66,596 are female. Not more than 12 percent, or about 
20,000, are between the ages of 16 and 23. 

Dr. L.^MB. When yon say these people lack mechanical ability, do 
you mean that even if they were given training they would not be 
able to acquire sufficient skill to hold a job in the defense plants ? 

Mr. Lepper. In discussing mechanical training, you have to break 
that down again. First of all, you must break it down into the type 
of youth who has had no mechanical background, except probably 
vocational school. Give him a 2-month period of training, and you 
can probably send him to a shop, but he still would not be able to 
fill the type of jobs that are open. He would have to start down 
below, and they would have to up-grade him. But in the group 
between 40 and 60 you find many men — in fact the other day I found 
one 73 who had been a machinist, but had not worked at it for 19 
years, and yet we had no trouble in placing him in a position with 
the Baldwin Locomotive Co. 

Mr. OsMERS. Seventy-three years old? 

Mr Lepper. Yes, 73 years old, 

ESTIMATES OF THREE-SHIFT EMPLOYMENT 

Dr. Lamb. We heard it said today that if the defense industries 
alone in New Jersey, which at the present time are said to have 
310,000 workers, were to go on a three-shift, 7-day- week basis, they 
would require another 180,000 workers. More conservative esti- 
mates ranged from 90,000 to 100,000. Would you agree that the 
potential requirement is somewhere near the conservatively estimated 
level? 

Mr. Lepper. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. That would mean that you would have about 90,000 
to 100,000 trainees to find and put in at the bottom for upgrading, 
if possible, wouldn't it; and of such trainees, you have only about 
20,000 in sight — the young men now registered with you? 

Mr, Lepper. But you also have men over 40 who would have to 
have a refresher course, and they could fill that quota. We be- 
lieve we could fill the quota if we were put on a 24-hour basis, 7 
days a week, right now out of our files, if you will train them and 
upgrade them and give them refresher courses. 

Dr. Lamb. So you have just about enough supply in sight to take 
care of 24-hour, 7-day-week operation of existing plants? 

Mr. Lepper. I think, if I remember correctly, our statistician told 
us that it would about balance. 

Dr. Lamb. In other words, any increase in defense orders which 
would call for enlargement of the plant facilities in this area, or 
enlargement of production capacity, would tighten the situation 
beyond the producing capacity of the labor pool now in sight? 

Mr. Lepper. Yes; there still would not be any opportunity of 
getting the men from outside the State, because every other State in 
the East is practically in the same position. 



5646 TRENTON HEARINGS 

NUMBER NOW ON WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 

Dr. Lamb. How many are on the W. P. A. in the State at the 
present time? 

Mr. Lepper. I don't know. 

Dr. Lamb. We heard an estimate of 40,000 this morning, but I 
don't know whether that is accurate or not. You have a repre- 
sentative of the W. P. A', here ? 

Mr. Krueger. I wonder if I might interrupt and ask the W. P. A. 
representative to come up now. Mr. McCormack is here, represent- 
ing State W. P. A. Administrator Robert Allen. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN T. McCORMACK, STATE DIRECTOE, EMPLOY- 
MENT DIVISION OF THE WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION, 
APPEARING IN BEHALF OF ROBERT ALLEN, STATE ADMINISTRA- 
TOR OF THE WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION OF NEW JERSEY 

Dr. Lamb. Mr. McCormack, what is the number on the W. P. A. 
rolls at the present time? 

Mr. McCormack. At present there are 43,000. On the 1st of 
July the number will be cut to 27,500. 

Dr. Lamb. Of the 43,000, how many would you say are capable of 
doing agricultural labor? 

Mr. McCormack. That is quite a hard question to answer. 

Dr. Lamb. Well, how many would be acceptable, let us say, to the 
employers of agricultural labor? 

Mr. McCormack. That would vary by sections of the State. 

Dr. Lamb. And that would raise the question of their distribution 
throughout the State and their availability locally? 

Mr. McCormack. In answer to your first question, I don't sup- 
pose that of the entire load, 10 percent — probably around 7 or 8 
percent — would be acceptable to farmers. 

Dr. Lamb. Something in the neighborhood of 3,000 or 4,000? 

Mr. McCormack. I assume so. Somewhere near that figure. That 
may be high or low. 

wage on work projects administration 

Dr. Lamb. What is the average wage of these people on the W. 
P. A.? 

Mr. McCormack. Well, people on the program are paid accord- 
ing to zones, that is, some people in the southern part of the State 
receive $48 a month and some in the metropolitan area receive $60 a 
month. 

Dr. Lamb. The scale is graduated according to the presumed costs 
of living? 

Mr. McCormack. Cost of living ; yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. And what would you say a man could earn, a single 
man, in the agricultural regions at the present time? 

Mr. McCormack. Somewhere in the neighborhood of $44 to $48. 

Dr. Lamb. So he could earn approximately as much if he had 
steady employment off of W. P. A., in agricultural employment, as 
he could on the W. P. A.? 

Mr. McCormack. Oh, I would assume that is correct. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5547 

The Chairman. But agricultural employment is seasonal, isn't it? 

Mr. McCoRMACK. That is right. Agriculture is seasonal, and then 
of course quite a bit of the work is piecework, for which there is 
no guaranteed w^age. 

The Chairman. In other words, the metropolitan W. P. A. em- 
ployee receiving $60 a month wouldn't quit to go to work as a piece 
worker on a farm, where his employment is also seasonal? 

Mr. McCoRMACK. Well, you don't get much agricultural labor 
from a metropolitan area unless it is to be transported to some other 
portion of the State. The northern section of the State is pretty 
stable, that is, mostly dairy farming, like up in Sussex County, and 
in the other purely agricultural sections. 

Of course, some of that farm labor is employed practically all the 
year around, with some additional help put on at different seasons 
of the year. 

The Chairman. Thank you. Mr. Lepper and Mr. McCormack. 

Our next witness is Mr. MacDonald. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM H. MacDONALD, DEPARTMENT OF 
HEALTH, TRENTON, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Curtis will interrogate you, Mr. MacDonald. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. MacDonald, you are with the State Department of 
Health of New Jersey? 

Mr. MacDonald. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. INIr. MacDonald, we know something about the activ- 
ities of your department, but would you briefly outline for us the 
results of your surveys? 

Mr. MacDonald. Well, since the meeting of the committee in New 
Jersey last year the department continued a survey of migratory labor 
in the potato-growing area. 

You are interested in the progress of our program for the preven- 
tion of syphilis, which we discussed last year? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 

Mr. MacDonald. I am submitting for the record a prepared state- 
ment summarizing the results of the survey. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY WILLIAM H. MacDONALD, STATE DEPARTMENT OF 
HE.\LTH, TRENTON, N. J. 

A report submitted in July 1940 to the Special Committee Investigating Inter- 
state Migration of Destitute Citizens, as from the Migratory Labor Conference of 
New Jersey, included a separate section devoted to public-health problems.^ The 
report stated that the State Department of Health proposed to carry on special 
surveys along the following lines : 

(1) To obtain blood to be examined for evidence of syphilis from workers at- 
tracted to the potato-growing section of Monmouth, Middlesex, and Mercer Coun- 
ties. Those found to be affected with syphilis will have an opportunity to receive 
treatment from clinics established for that purpose if they are unable to pay for 
treatments privately. 

(2) In this same area to secure information by personal inspection as to the 
living quarters used by these transient workers and also information about basic 
sanitation at such quarters, including water supply and method of collection of 
human wastes. 

(3) In the vegetable- and berry-growing section it is planned to make a cross- 
section survey to determine in general the housing facilities used by transient 
laborers coming to this area and also to obtain information about basic sanitary 



See New York hearings, pp. 78 and 79. 



5648 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



conditions, iuchiding water supply and sewage collection and disposal at such 
premises. 

Such surveys have been made to the extent possible with personnel which could 
be assigned. There follows a brief summary of the results of these surveys. 

ANTISYPHILIS CAMPAIGN 

(1) The antisyphilis campaipi conducted among the migratory workers in the 
three potato-growing counties of central Jersey in the summer of 1940 simulated 
in most respects the program and the results obtained during the summer of ll 39. 
Both farmer cooperation and migrant cooperation were satisfactory. The farmers 
notified designated centers, by telephone, when they had employed migrants. 
Repi'esentatives of the State Health Department collected blood samples from 
the migrant workers at each farm. When the laboratory reports were available 
the persons reported to have serologically positive tests were instructed to come 
to one of three strategically located temporary clinics where proi)er histories 
were taken and physical examinations performed to permit proper classification 
and diagnosis. This was followed by treatment as long as the migrants re- 
mained in that area. When they left, patient referral forms, giving all essen- 
tial data, were presented to them. Copies of these forms were subsequently 
sent to the State Department of Health having jurisdiction in the home State 
of the migrant. 

In the summer of 1940, 2,529 such persons were blood-tested, of which 76 per- 
cent were colored males, 23 percent were colored females, and 1 percent were 
white pei'sons. It is noteworthy that the migrant group tested contained a ratio 
of 3.3 males to each female. The ages of this group varied from the early teens 
to over 60, with most ranging in age from 18 to 35 years ; 27.8 percent were 
found to have positive serology, and 7.5 percent had a doubtful response to a 
test for reagin on the first sample of blood tested. Upon questioning these 
migrants it was found that 64.6 percent had previously been given a blood test 
by someone somewhere, and 31.2 percent of this previously tested group de- 
clared that their previous test had been positive. 

During the summer of 1940, 31.8 percent of those tested claimed they were 
working in the same area of New Jersey during the summer of 1939, and of 
this particular group who returned in the year of 1940, 80.2 percent had been 
blood-tested by us during the preceding summer. During the summer of 1939 
approximately one-third of the persons diagnosed as having syphilis were found 
to have early infectious or potentially infectious syphilis. This ratio held true 
for the persons diagnosed as syphilitic in this migrant group during the summer 
of 1940. 

CONDITIONS IN POTATO AKEA 

(2) Survey of conditions under which colored migrants live in the potato- 
growing sections of Monmouth, Middlesex, and Mercer Counties was not com- 
pleted but revealed that, although some of these transients find housing accom- 
modations as roomers or boarders with resident families, most live in buildings 
on the potato-growing farms supplied by the farm operators. 

At 56 of these farms which were visited it was found that 708 Negroes were 
housed in 86 buildings. Sixty-seven percent of these persons were adult males, 
22 percent were adult females and 10 percent were children. 

The buildings utilized for housing included small tenant houses, specially 
constructed one-story frame buildings of the barrack type, and farm out 
buildings including wagon houses and barns. Only adult male were housed 
in 29 percent of the 86 buildings inspected : in 30 percent both adult males 
and females were housed but no children ; in 41 percent, both male and female, 
as well as children, were housed. 

Wood floors were provided in 76.8 percent of the buildings and concrete 
floors in 17.4 percent. The floor in 5.8 percent of the 86 buildings was 
of earth. 

In many of the buildings bunks of some type were built in as part of the 
building; in some there were separate beds; in others the laborers slept on 
the floor. In general, laborers furnished their own bedding. About one-half 
of the beds or bunks had a mattress or ticking stuffed with straw or hay; in 
about 44 percent of the sleeping places the laborers' bunks consisted of hay 
or straw covered with burhip bags, while in a few instances the bunks con- 
sisted of burlap bags only. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5649 

Cooking quarters were provided iu a place separate from sleeping quarters 
in 35 of the 86 buildings visited. In the other buildings, cooking was done 
in the sleeping quarters or over fires in the open air. When the cooking was 
done in sleeping quarters, oil stoves, mostly supplied by the farmer, were 
used. When separate cook shacks were used, the stoves were either of the 
oil- or wood-burning type. When the cooking was done outside, the stoves 
consisted mostly of pieces of sheet iron resting upon two stone slabs. When 
cooking was done in kitchens, the stoves were of either a wood or oil type. 

Toilet facilities consisting of privies were provided within 100 feet of each 
of 63 of the 86 buildings; at 10 buildings a privy was available from 100 to 
150 yards distant. 

A water supply was available at each of the 86 buildings listed, although 
not conviently located in all cases. Springs, dug wells, driven wells, and drilled 
wells made up such supplies, dug wells serving as a source of water in 64 
instances. 

INSPECTIONS IN BERRY TERRITOSY 

(3) In the vegetable- and berry-growing section of New Jersey inspections 
were made at a limited number of premises at which migi-ant labor was 
employed. Eighteen farms were included in the survey. Persons employed 
were chiefly in family groups, coming from points in Pennsylvania, and were 
housed temporarily on the farm at which they worked. 

Usually it was found one-story frame buildings are provided, divided into 
small compartments each of which has a separate entrance and is fitted with 
one or two windows. Bedding was generally supplied by the worker. Cooking 
quarters usually consist of a separate shelter open on one side with a wood- 
burning stove upon which each family did its own cooking. Some cooking is 
done on improvised fireplaces in the open. 

Toilet facilities are privies. Water for drinking and domestic purposes is 
generally obtained in the berry-growing section from driven wells about 35 feet 
deep, fitted with a pitcher type h'and pump. 

TUBERCULOSIS SURVEY 

Additional survey work performed during the summer of 1940 included chest 
examinations by fluoroscope of 999 persons, nearly all of whom were of the 
colored migrant group in the potato-growing section. In the examinations 
there was found : 

(a) An adult male, age 26 years, with no active symptoms of tuberculosis, 
but with evidence of an arrested lesion. 

(h) An adult m'ale, age 31 years, with an early lesion of tuberculosis. The 
patient is believed to have left the State. 

(c) An adult female, age 62 years, with active tuberculosis in an infectious 
stage. She had established a residence in New Jersey and is now receiving 
hospital care. 

LABOR IN DEFENSE INDUSTRIES 

There has been a definite increase in the number of persons employed in 
so-c'alled defense industries. Some families from other States have come to 
New Jersey to work in these industries. Most of the newly employed workers 
in such plants, however, are former residents of the State who live iu an area 
of many miles from the plant and commute daily by automobile or public 
transportation line. Aside from any hazard resulting directly from employ- 
ment in such an industrial plant, the public-health problems resulting from 
this incre'ase in employment include the following : 

(a) Proportionate increase in basic public-health problems existing in the 
communities affected. 

(b) Problems of child care resulting when mothers of young children obtain 
employment in factories and leave the care of their children to others. 

(c) Increased loads upon public utilities, as water supply and sewage collec- 
tion and disposal systems. 

((i) Increased problems in sanitation of food- and drink-vending establish- 
ments in the immediate vicinity of large industrial plants. 

(e) Failure in some instances of Federal housing projects to comply with 
local ordinances regulating construction, drainage, etc. 

60396— 41— pt. 14 8 



5650 TRENTON HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OP WILLIAM H. MacDONALD— Resumed 

Mr. MacDonald. The program was continued last summer, and a 
total of something over 2,500 people were given a blood test. I have 
some figures here. Out of that number there were found to be serologi- 
cally positive about 27 percent and approximatelj^ 7 percent in the 
"doubtful serological" column. By "serologically positive," I mean 
giving a reaction very suggestive of the presence of syphilis. 

Mr. Curtis. Only about two-thirds showed a negative condition? 

Mr. MacDonald. That is right, sir. That is approximately the 
ratio we have found before in this group which was discussecl last 
j^ear. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, these 2,500 persons were primarily transient or 
migratory people coming in ? 

Mr. MacDonald. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. Largely for agricultural work? 

Mr. MacDonald. Colored, in the agricultural sections of Middle- 
sex, Mercer, and Monmouth Counties, attracted to the potato-grow- 
ing area. 

Mr. Curtis. These 2,500 were all colored ? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. Can you break that down as to the States from which 
they came ? 

Mr. MacDonald. No; I cannot. 

Mr. Curtis. Did you test all the individuals falling into that class 
in a given area, or was your survey selective, picking out somebody 
here and there ? 

Mr. MacDonald. No ; headquarters were established, and then our 
workers went to the various farms and got as many farm laborers as 
they could at the time of their visit — all those whom they were able 
to reach with the organization as set up. 

Mr. Curtis. How did you go about making these tests? Did j^ou 
meet any resistance ? 

Mr. MacDonald. Surprisingly little. 

Mr. Curtis. Just tell the committee how you went about it. 

PROCEDURE IN MAKING BLOOD TEST 

Mr. MacDonald. Well, arrangements are first made to secure the 
cooperation of the farmer employing the persons, and then a visit is 
made to the farm, and the persons are asked to submit to this test. It 
is a thing which they do voluntarily. Sometimes we find the farmer 
has encouraged them to submit to this test when our workers arrive, 
but hi the main the colored people are not very strongly opposed to it, 

Mr. Curtis. What treatment do you give in cases you find to be 
positive? 

IVIr. MacDonald. The people have the opportunity to go to any 
physician of their own choice for treatment. 

Mr. Curtis. Without expense to them? 

Mr. MacDonald. That is at their own expense. If they prefer, 
however, they can come to free clinics which were established last 
summer in the area, where physicians employed by the State health 
department on part time give treatments without charge to these 
people. In some instances they come themselves, and in some in- 
stances the farmer transports them to the clinic to get the treatments 
at intervals jDrescribed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5651 

MOST POSITIVE CASES TREATED 

Mr. Curtis. About how many of them took some kind of treatment 
last summer ? 

Mr. MacDonald. Oh, I couldn't tell you the exact number, but it 
was a very high proportion of the positive cases. Of course, some 
were lost, you see. 

Mr. Curtis. Moved on? 

Mr. MacDonald. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. By the time the results of the tests were available? 

Mr. MacDonald. That is right. And some of them, when the na- 
ture of the tests was made known to them, moved rather than submit 
to treatment. Some of them were entirely lost, but we did have 
such records as we could obtain from these individuals as to their 
home addresses, and at the conclusion of the work, when these people 
presumably returned to their homes or went elsewhere, notifications 
were forwarded to the health departments of the respective States. 

Mr. Curtis. Did you find most States cooperative? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. Are other States treating this migrant labor situ- 
ation in the same way? 

Mr. MacDonald. I can't answer that. 

Mr. Curtis, How many of these 2,500 people were children? 

Mr. MacDonald. I should say — by "children" you mean persons 
below 15 years of age? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 

Mr. MacDonald. I should estimate about 10 percent of the whole 
group were below 15 years of age. 

Mr. Curtis. Was there a bigger percentage of positive cases among 
the children? 

Mr. MacDonald. No; among the adults. 

SYPHILIS among children 

Mr. Curtis. Did you find any syphilis among the children? 

Mr. MacDonald. Some. 

Mr. Curtis. Would you say it was a rate half as high as for the 
adults? 

Mr. MacDonald. I would hesitate to answer without going to the 
records, sir. We could find that out for you, but I would have to 
testify now from memory, and I would hesitate to do that. 

Mr. Curtis. What does your department do, if anything, to super- 
vise sanitary or housing facilities furnished migrant labor? 

Mr. Mac1)onald. Last summer, in this same area which we are 
discussing, we d"d this: A representative of the department, as time 
permitted, visited a cross-section of the farms at which some of the 
migratory laborers of this type were employed and housed. We were 
able to reach in that cross-section survey something between 50 and 
60 farms, at which were accommodated slightly over 700 workers. 
I mean housed on the premises. Those 700 were housed in something 
like 86 buildings. 

We do not actually supervise and detail the basic sanitation on 
these premises. In New Jersey we have a health administrative pro- 
gram which is legally based upon a municipality, as the basic health 



5652 ' TRENTON HEARINGS 

unit. It would be the obligation, theoretically, of the community, 
through its local health board, to control basic sanitary conditions 
within its jurisdiction.. Unfortunately that has not been very well 
done by the boards of health in the smaller townships in the rural 
areas, except on complaint or because of special necessity. 

The State health department in its survey did gather some basic 
information about the sanitary conditions on these premises, and that 
information has been made known to some of the leaders in the 
potato-growing sections particularly, and has residted m an encour- 
aging expression of a desire on the part of the persons who housed 
these laborers to improve, in any way practical, the basic sanitary 
conditions at these premises, and there has been, sir, a decided im- 
provement, I am sure. 

Mr. Curtis. The leadership and fine service you are rendering in 
the testing and treatment of syphilis tends to direct the attention of 
people toward better sanitation, isn't that true? 

Mr. MacDonald. Very directly so. 

NEED MORE MONEY TO CARRY ON 

Mr. Curtis. I think you are entitled to considerable credit from 
this State for the very fine work you have done. Does the depart- 
ment plan to continue this work ? 

Mr. MacDonald. This summer? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 

Mr. MacDonald. A week ago I should have said yes. However, 
much of the work is dependent upon an appropriation which the 
department has been receiving from Federal funds through the' 
United States Public Health Service. Under the bill known locally 
as the Bullwinkle bill, we have just been advised by the United States 
Public Health Service that the quota allotted to New Jersey for this 
year, beginning July 1, has been reduced $22,000. That means, of 
course, there will have to be a retrenchment m expenditures, and it 
has not yet been decided just where that retrenchment will take 
place, or whether it will be possible to carry on a program in this 
area as it was carried on last year. 

Mr. Curtis. Of these people who were found to have syphilis or 
indications of it, are they permitted to continue work and handle 
food articles? 

Mr. MacDonald. You mean potatoes? 

Mr. Curtis. Food. 

Mr. MacDonald. They are working in the potato-growing areas; 
yes. 

Mr. Curtis. With fresh vegetables? 

Mr. MacDonald. Well, as a matter of fact, expert syphilologists 
tell us that in the case of a person under treatment with the accepted 
drugs for syphilis, lesions are closed — that is, there are closed lesions 
which might enable the individual to transmit infection — and there- 
fore there would be practically no danger from them, even if they 
handled fresh vegetables. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5g53 

HEALTH WORK IN INDUSTRIAL CENTERS 

Mr. Curtis. Now, could you tell us about your survey or work in 
connection with industrial centers, particularly the defense centers? 
Could you tell us what you are doin^? 

Mr. MacDonald. In certain defense areas — I mean by that, in the 
immediate vicinity of some large defense industry — we cannot fur- 
nish very much additional help from our own resources. However, 
we are encouraging communities to furnish additional services in 
the field of public health wherever that is practicable. 

Mr, Curtis. That is being done in some places? 

Mr. MacDonald. It is. 

Mr. Curtis, How about the business concern themselves? Are 
some of them providing quite extensive health facilities ? 

Mr. MacDonald. Tlie industrial concerns themselves are providing 
health protection from the standpoint of industrial health within 
the plants. To the best of my knowledge, they are supplying very 
little outside the plants, in the line of facilities for personal health. 
They are in some instances supplying or furnishing, as a part of 
their plant facilities, certain sewage disposal facilities and certain 
water supply facilities necessary for the operation of their plant and 
for the use of their employees, if that is what you mean, 

Mr, Curtis. I mean in the way of any health treatment to their 
employees. 

Mr. MacDonald. Not in any general way, to the best of my knowl- 
edge, outside their own plants. 

Mr. Curtis. Can a nonsettled person who is without funds obtain 
medical care in New Jersey? 

Mr. MacDonald. There is no legal State set-up for it. However, I 
think it is fair to say that persons who are in need of medical care 
and cannot afford it can secure care at most of our hospitals and 
out-patient clinics, and a gi-eat many of our physicians of New Jersey 
are, according to information that we have available from time to 
time, furnishing a great deal of medical care in their offices gratis 
for persons who come in. 

Mr, Curtis. I am aware of that. 

NO STATE medical CARE FOR INDIGENT MIGRANTS 

Mr, MacDonald. There is, however, no State-wide medical care for 
the low wage, if that is what you mean, except through certain of 
the relief agencies which are set up to take care of the recipients 
of relief, as I understand it. 

Mr. Curtis. In an emergency, critical illness is always taken care 
of regardless of the question of legal residence ? 

Mr. MacDonald. Well, that is a matter of humanitarianism. There 
is no set-up specifically for that purpose. 

Mr. Curtis. But, in your opinion, does anyone suffer for lack of 
medical attention in New Jersey when he becomes critically ill or 
is the victim of an accident, if that person is at the same time with- 
out funds and a nonresident of New Jersey ? 



5654 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. MacDonald. I can give only a personal opinion on that. I be- 
lieve acute illnesses in such cases are cared for as a result of charity 
rather than out of municipal or Federal or State funds. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. MacDonald. Our next 
witness is Lieutenant Dunn. 

TESTIMONY OF IT. D. J. DUNN, STATE OF NEW JERSEY DEPART- 
MENT OF POLICE, TRENTON, N. J. 

The Chairman. Lieutenant Dunn, Congressman Arnold will in- 
terrogate you. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you state your name, address, and title for the 
reporter, please. 

Lieutenant Dunn. Lt. Daniel J. Dunn, New Jersey State Police, 
Trenton, N. J. 

Mr. Arnold. Your statement, lieutenant, is at hand and will be 
made a part of the record. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY LT. D. J. DUNN, STATE OF NEW JERSEY, DEPART- 
MENT OF POLICE, JUNE 18, 1941 

During the month of July 1940 members of the State police, in cooperation 
with the division of venereal disease control of the State department of health, 
started to fingerprint all migratory laborers who voluntarily submitted to be 
fingerprinted ; the results of this work were, as follows : 



Counties concerned 


Number 
of farms 


Number 
of persons 
printed 


Monmouth, Middlesex, and Mercer 


29 

108 


619 


August activities were, as follows' Monmouth, Middlesex, and Mercer 


1,360 


September activities were, as follows: Monmouth, Middlesex, and Mercer (farms 
remaining) 


301 









Of the laborers printed, it was determined that four were fugitives from 
other States. Furthermore, a large number had previous criminal records, al- 
though the majority of those having such . records were for minor crimes — 
assault, simple assault, assault and battery, breaking and entering, larceny, etc. 

The number of arrests of migratory laborers in the three counties above- 
mentioned, reported by the State police, was 96, for all types of offenses. 
Magistrates reporting cases brought before them and tried, showed there were 
91 cases. However, a number of those reported by magistrates and those re- 
ported by the State police were identical cases, and, so far as we can determine, 
there were only 137 arrests made by all agencies concerned, which, ultimately, 
were reported to the State police. There is a possibility that some local police 
authorities took cases before other magistrates but did not report the fact 
that they involved migratory laborers. However, in that event, they were 
for very minor cases of little value as a matter of statistical record. 

Beyond the foregoing the department established a new method of patroling 
the so-called potato belt area, whereby constant patrols were maintained at 
those hours and on those days when the workers were not kept busy, although 
during the interim trooper patrols did get in and out of the farm districts so 
that the workers could see the areas were under constant police check. The 
patrols and the fingerprinting of the laborers were, we believe, largely re- 
sponsible for keeping disorders to a minimum and did prevent, to a considerable 
degree, crimes which were prevalent in other years. Such things as gambling. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5655 

assaults, disorderly conduct, drinking and other minor disturbances constitute 
the greater majority of the arrests made. There was very little serious crime 
of any type reported. 

To date, there is no change in migratory labor activity, because of the defense 
situation, insofar as we can determine. 

TESTIMONY OF LT. D. J. DUNN— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. Would you summarize for the committee the work 
of the State police in regard to migratory labor during 1940 and also 
at the present time? 

Lieutenant Dunn. Briefly, during 1940 the department of State 
police cooperated with the New Jersey State Department of Health 
and with many of the farmers in our potato-growing area, in the 
matter of fingerprinting the laborers on those farms. The total num- 
ber of persons fingerprinted was 2,300. 

A search of the record of those fingerprinted indicated that four 
were fugitives from other States; that a large number had previous 
criminal records, although the majority of those having such records 
were for minor crimes, such as assault, simple assault, and assault 
and battery, breaking and entry, and larceny. There was no great 
police problem in the State last year as the result of the influx of 
migratory labor. We do not anticipate any this year. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't anticipate much migratory labor coming 
in, do you? 

Lieutenant Dunn. I might clarify that by saying we don't antici- 
pate any more of a police problem this year than we had last 
year. 

Mr. Arnold. Now, you are speaking of laborers who come in from 
outside the State, whom you fingerprinted. With this influx of labor, 
have you noticed in your State police department an increase in 
crime ? 

Lieutenant Dunn. There is an increase during the summer season, 
when the migrant laborers are in the State. 

Mr, Arnold. I think that is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Lieutenant Dunn. 

Our next witness is Dr. Potter. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. ELLEN C. POTTER, DIRECTOR OF MEDICINE, 
STATE DEPARTMENT OF INSTITUTIONS AND AGENCIES, TREN- 
TON, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Curtis will interrogate you, Dr. Potter. 

Mr. Curtis. You are Dr. Ellen C. Porter? 

Dr. Potter. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. And what is your official title? 

Dr. Potter. Director of medicine, department of institutions and 
agencies. 

Mr. Curtis. For the State of New Jersey ? 

Dr. Potter. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. You have prepared a statement for the committee. 
Your paper will be received and incorporated in our record. 



5656 TRENTON HEARINGS 

(The paper referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY DR. ELLEN C. POTTER, DIRECTOR OF MEDICINE, 
DEPARTMENT OF INSTITUTIONS AND AGENCIES, TRENTON, N. J. 

Shortage in Pejrsonnel of State Institutions 

The evidence of acute shortage of personnel in our State institutions became 
accentuated in March 1941. At that time an inquiry was addressed to all 
State institutions asking how many vacancies existed on the regular pay roll 
and how many additional employees were authorized but had not been ap- 
pointed, although funds were available, because they could not be secured. 

As a result of this inquiry the following statement is made : 

As of report rendered on March ISth — 

Vacancies on pay roll, nurses 25 

Positions autliorlzed and funds provided but no candidates avail- 
able, nurses 28 

Total nurses lacking, chiefly mental hospital 53 

Male Female Total 

Vacancies on pay roll, attendants 69 55 124 

Positions authorized, funds provided, but no candidates 

available 67 59 126 

Total lacking 136 114 250 

As of March 18, 1941, there were five vacancies among medical officers with the 
prospect of a steadily increasing deficiency. 

CAUSES OF SHORTAGE 

This reduction in personnel in State institutions is due to the following causes : 

Medical men. — Called up for Army service. 

Ghadiiate registered nurses — Called up to service with Red Cross, the Army, or 
Public Health Service, with higher salary than we can offer. 

Attendants. — Both male and female leave the hospital to accept positions in 
defense industries at wages very much higher than the institutions can offer, 
even when the value of maintenance is included. (Hercules Powder Co. and 
Arsenals, etc.) 

RECRUITING REPLACEMENTS 

All efforts made to fill up the ranks of institutional employees have been unsuc- 
cessful even with the full cooperation of the State employment service, which 
reported to us on June 11, 1941 (after making an exhaustive effort to secure 
nursing personnel), as follows: 

"From all these reports we feel that qualified nursing personnel is just as scarce 
as are machinists for industrial employers. We have tried to work out some 
arrangement with the Philadelphia State Employment Offices, but they advise 
they have their hands full recruiting for Pennsylvania institutions." 

We recognize that our personnel problems are not created by interstate migi'a- 
tion but ratlier by intrastate movement of people in search of work and for 
patriotic motives. 

In further explanation of our situation, the Division of Statistics and Research 
submits an analysis of labor turn-over in State institutions over the last 4 years. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The effect of the defense effort upon personnel in the Civil Public Welfare 
Institutional Services is — 

1. To deplete very seriously both the professional, technical, and custodial per- 
sonnel, because of^ 

(a) The high wages offered by defense industries; 

(ft) The patriotic appeal; 

(c) The call into the services of Reserve medical officers and nurses; and 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5657 



id) The steady rise of the census of inmates in correctional, mental, charitable 
institutions accelerates the disproportion as between personnel and inmate 
population. 

2. To hamper very seriously the recruiting of replacement personnel in all 
branches of institutional service, because— 

(fl) The cream of all free available professional, technical, and custodial 
personnel in the community has been swept into indiistrial and defense 
services ; and 

(&) The civil standards of compensation (and State appropriations based 
on those standards) for institutional support make it impossible for civil gov- 
ernmental institutions to compete successfully in a competitive labor market. 

3. The lack of coordination between the National Youth Administration and 
the Civilian Conservation Corps creates a competitive situation as between 
two very useful arms of the Federal services to the disadvantage of both; 
until such coordination is realized there will be considerable loss of effective- 
ness in the defense effort. We believe that coordination would make for 
better utilization and training of manpower in the age grouping of 17 to 21 
years, and that an effective health and rehabilitation program is essential to 
an all out defense effort. 

4. In the light of these statements it seems apparent that while the defense 
effort should not slacken, in terms of developing the arsenal for democracy 
and preparing men to fight for democracy, that the civil services needed by all 
the people should not be jeopardized because of failure to plan constructively 
and to appropriate intelligently to meet those needs. 



Labor Tubn-Ovek in State Institutions 



KEPORT BY DIVISION OF 



ATISTICS AND RESEARCH, STATE DEPARTMENT OF INSTITtT- 
TIONS AND AGENCIES 



The constantly improving employment situation in the industrial world is 
making itself felt somewhat adversely upon the institutional personnel; 

1. An increasing number of employees 'are being taken on and are separating 
from institutional services; and 

2. There are growing diflSculties in keeping the number of institutional posi- 
tions filled that are authorized under the budget. 

These facts mean that the institutions must operate with a staff that, with- 
out these further depletions, was already reduced to a minimum and tlint the 
unusually large shifting of the institutional personnel causes definite insta- 
bilities in running the institution and entails extra efforts to train the new 
employees who stay but a short while. 

Here are the labor turn-over figures for all State institutions combined : 



Fiscal year ending 


Total number 
of employees 
on pay roll 


Accessions 
during year 


Separations 
during year 


Turn-over rate per 100 employees 


June 30 


Accessions 


Separations 


1938 


41417 
4,539 
4,351 


1,947 
1,467 
1,742 
2,393 


1,971 
1,427 
1,620 
2,714 


44.7 
33.2 
38.4 
. 55. 


45.2 


1939 


32.3 


1940 

1941 ' 


35.7 
62.4 







1 Estimated on 



of 10 months' experience. 



During the last 6 months the cumulative number of individuals entering 
and leaving the institutional services were as follows : 



Year and month 


Accessions 


Separations 


Year and month 


Accessions 


Separations 


1940— July to November.. 


1,134 
1,329 


1,038 
1,212 
1,425 


1941— February 

March 


1,508 
1,733 
1,953 


1,630' 
1,889' 


1941— January 




2,164 







5658 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



As a consequence of the inability to replace adequately the separations from 
service, the ratio of the institutional population per employee is rising: 



Year and month 


Institutional 
population 


Number of 
employees 


Institutional 

population 

per employee 


2940 — September 


21, 332 
21, 660 
21,719 
21, 700 


4,569 
4,472 
4,412 
4,351 


4.7 


1941 January 


4 8 


March . - -.. 


4.9 


April 


5.0 







MBNTAT, HOSPITALS LABOR TURN-OVEB 



In the state mental hospitals the labor turn-over is largest among nurses 
find attendants, the group which is closest to the patient and where an exces- 
sive shifting has definitely deleterious influence upon the patients. 

Figures for the nurses' "turn-over" are given below: 



Fiscal year ending .Tune 30 


Total 

number 

of nurses 

on pay 

roll 


Hired 
during 
period 


Left em- 
ployment 
during 
period 


Turnover rate 

per 100 nurse.s 

on pay roll 




Hired 


Left 


1938 


156 
172 
142 

187 


89 
95 

85 


64 
73 
74 
91 


43.6 
51.7 
60.9 
45.5 


41.0 


1939 


42.4 


1940 


52.1 


19411 _ . - _ . 


48.7 







■ Estimated on basis of 10 months' experience. 
The attendants' turn-over figures are as follows : 



Fiscal year ending June 30 


Total 
number 
ofattend- 
dants on 
pay roll 


Hired 
during 
period 


Left em- 
ploy- 
ment 
during 
period 


Turn-over rate 
per 100 attend- 
ants on pay roll 




Hired 


Left 


1938 


1,065 

1,048 

1,091 

909 


939 

685 

884 

1,129 


985 

702 

842 

1,433 


65.' 4 
81.0 
124.2 


„,, 


1939 


67.0 


1940 


77.2 


1941 1 . . ... 


157.6 







I Estimated on basis of 10 months' experience. 

ACTUAL EMPLOYMENT VERSUS BUDGET AUTHORIZATION 

During the last 4 months 4,617 institutional employees were authorized under 
the Budget covering all institutions. The actual number employed has been 
decreasing, leaving a large margin of vacant positions : 



Month and year 


Number 

on pay roll 

at end of 

month 


Percent 
employed 
compared 
with Bud- 
get author- 
ization 




4,477 
4,412 
4,351 


99.0 


i94i; ' '"' ™^"" 


97.0 


March.... . ... 


95.6 


April 


94.2 







NATIONAL DEIFENSE MIGRATION 



5659 



The situation is somewhat more serious in State mental liospitals. Against an 
authorized number of 2,544 employees the trend in actual employment showed : 



Month and year 


Number 

on pav roll 

at end of 

month 


Percent 
employed 
compared 
with Bud- 
get author- 
ization 


1940: 


2,538 
2,459 

2,430 

21327 








1841: 




March 




April -.- . - -. . . -- . 


91 5 







ST«re new jtftjtr 



tCPItllTMeir OF INSTITUTIONS AND ACENClES 



TRENDS IN 
INSTITUTIONAL POPULATION AND EMPLOYEES 



STATE MENTAL HOSPITALS 



10,750 



POPULATION 



N4IW r: 




2,500 



10,500 





I 


MP 


LC 


)YE 


ES 


1 












; 


X 


S 


- 


•- 


■- 


•- 




■- 


■- 














1 BUDGET 1 




1 
1 
1/ 


> 
X 


y 




■^ 


k- 




s 


• • 


\^ 


■/ 


r 








«> 


s 


s 


— 






|_ACTUAL 1 J 


/• 


r 










































\ 



«AY iEPT. OiC 



JUNE SEPT. Oec. 

nra4ci X= 



The Effect of Defense Employment and National Youth Administration 
Training Program on Ciailian Conservation Corps in New Jersey 

The effect of defense employment and consequent movement of population 
has been seriously felt within this State in connection with Civilian Conservation 
Corps enrollment, as well as the effect on the average number of Jersey men in 
Civilian Conservation Corps camps. In addition, the preferential selection of 
candidates for the National Youth Adminstration program has diverted candi- 
dates from Civilian Conservation Corps enrollment. 

The number of New Jersey men enrolled in April 1939 was 2,849, and for 
April 1941 enrollment was only 1,299, a drop of 54 percent. 

The number of New Jersey men in camp in the Second and Ninth Corps 
Areas in January 1939, was 8,951, and in January 1941 was 4,030, a drop of 
54 percent. 

Our experience indicates great need for coordination and regularization of 
the selective process as it relates to these two programs. 



5660 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



tPA»TMEIIT Of (HJTITUTI 



AND AOCNCII 



TRENDS IN 
INSTITUTIONAL POPULATION AND EMPLOYEES 



ALL STATE INSTITUTIONS 



4,600 



4,300 



SEPT. 

=] 1939 c:: 



POPULATION 


"~ 


' 








r" 
















/ 








t 


— 


1 












X 






^ 


V 


/ 






*** 


" 


S 


'*«. 


^ 


/ 


X 




^ 


r 








1 

1 


i i 




\ 


J 






1 ' i 




















*.- ».i 


-Tl 


pq 


pq 


P- 


p- 


P-| 


EMPLOYEE 

1 ^ 1 M 




s 


S 












iiHin' 


- 


y^yy 


nil 












- 


\ 


^ 




1 i 1 


1 ACTUAL 1 






'^ 


1 

i 


1 

i 


! : ' ; ^ \ 

1 1 1 1 i 1 , : 1 




1 





22,000 



Zl,000 



20.500 
4.600 



4^00 



Bepartment institutions and agencies, Trenton — Civilian Conservation Corps, 
number requisitioned, number enrolled, and number in camp 





Number 
requisi- 
tioned 


Number 
enrolled 


Number 
in camp 




1939 


2,010 
2,849 
2,438 
2,822 

2,973 
2,480 

2,478 
2,459 

1,825 


2,004 
2,849 
2,438 
2,553 

2,734 
2,466 
2,344 
1,245 

1,375 


8,951 


April - 


8,882 


July - 


8,318 




8,252 




1940 


7,849 


April 


7,656 


julv 


6,810 




5,492 




1941 


4,030 







TESTIMONY OF DR. ELLEN C. POTTER— Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. I wish you would briefly summarize and stress a few 
of the high points in your paper. Just proceed in your own way, 
Dr. Potter. 

Dr. Potter. The paper is based on an inquiry that arose last 
March because our institutions found themselves so short of profes- 
sional and custodial staff. We made the inquiry then and found 
ourselves something like four-hundred-odd short in attendants, both 
male and female, and 52 short of nurses, and a small number of phy- 
sicians, and with the expectation of considerable more shortage as 
time went on. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5QQ1 

Also, we are including a study made by the director of our Divi- 
sion of Statistics and Research, covering the turn-over in personnel 
since 1938. Your representative who spoke to me said that he would 
like to have figures on 1939, which would be before the defense in- 
dustries went into operation, to see whether there was any correla- 
tion between our present situation and our situation then. 

It seems quite evident that there is a correlation, and our mental 
hospitals suffered chiefly in relation to it. 

SWITCH TO EMPLOYMENT IN AESENALS 

The male and female attendants in very considerable numbers 
have gone into the Hercules powder plant and the arsenals of the 
State and other defense industries. 

The State employment service tried to do us a very great service 
in an attempt to recruit nurses, because we had found ourselves ut- 
terly unable to locate any, and after a very comprehensive and vigor- 
ous search, they reported back to us that their experience indicated 
that it was just as difficult to find an available, qualified nurse as it 
was to find a skilled mechanic for industry. 

We still have this continuing shortage in all fields and we don't 
see how we are going to meet it because even with the attendants we 
have, we are now reduced to the point of going down to the gate and 
taking whomever we can find; and if they survive the first pay day 
and don't get drunk, we are thankful, because the level of quality of 
persons who come to the institutions for employment has distinctly 
lowered. Obviously, the supply we formerly drew upon has been 
picked up by industry, and the lower level of employable persons, 
from the point of view of both skill and morals, shall I say, is all 
that is now available to us. 

Mr. Curtis. How many people are being cared for in these insti- 
tutions that you refer to? 

Dr. Potter. We have approximately 20,000 people. 

Mr. Curtis. About how many male nurses and how many female 
nurses do you use? 

Dr. Potter. We have relatively few male nurses. I think the 
figure on the last pay roll was something like 183. 

Mr. Curtis. You use registered nurses? 

Dr. Potter. Registered nurses and graduate nurses. Of course 
in the attendant field we may get some practical nurses, and some 
persons who have no technical skill whatever but are good custodial 
officers. 

PAY or nurses 

Mr. Osmers. What do you pay them, Dr. Potter ? 

Dr. Potter. Attendants begin at $55 and maintenance, with civil pro- 
tection, retirement and so on, and the rate runs up to $80 and $90. I 
think the male charge attendants will get something like $100 and 
maintenance. Nursing begins at $75 or $80 plus maintenance and all 
the protection, and runs on up to the chief nurse in our largest hos- 
pital at something over $3,000 and maintenance. 



5662 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



ENROLLEES 

IN CC.C. CAMPS IN NEW JERSEY 
1939 - I9<»l 



9,000 



1,000 



3,000 



9,000 



7,000 



OANl'APRIL JULY OCT JAN APRIL JULY OCT JAN I" APR 

^■■■B 1939 ■■■^^■■■■l 19H0 ■■■■IM 19m ^ 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5663 



REQUISITIONS AND ENROLLMENTS 



FOR C.C.C. IN NEW JERSEY 

1939 - 1941 



3.000 



1,000 



i 




A 


.-' 


^ 


1 1 




/ 


\ 


-(requisitions I 

1 1 1 


/ 


\ 


P^ 




5 


^^ 


r 


\ 




1 


1 


a 








■| ENROLLMENTS 


•* 


\ 


\ 










\ 

\ 

\ 














\ 
\ 


.-•^ 


\ 


















\ 
\ 


















\ 



KttHBEK 
3,000 



2,000 



JAN APRIL JULY OCT JAN APRIL JULY OCT JAN APRIL 

^^^^m IS39 ^^i^tm^mmmtm 19*^0 ^■hm^^ id^u 



^QQ4: TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. I think you might be interested to know one of the 
Congress women. Representative Frances P. Bolton, of Ohio, who has 
interested herself in this problem and has done a great deal toward 
making the Congress aware of the shortage of nurses in this situa- 
tion. 

Dr. Potter. It is a terrific situation. 

Mr. Curtis. She has, as I understand it, her own school of nursing 
back in her home town in Ohio, and has been doing some excellent work 
and is giving some very fine information to Congress relative to this 
problem. 

You may proceed. 

Dr. Potter. We see, in New Jersey, the effect of the defense indus- 
tries, plus the training program of N. Y. A., reflected in the terrific 
reduction in the number of C. C. C. men whom our department has 
been called upon to enroll. I think the document that you have there 
has some charts that show, for the institutions, the relationship be- 
tween the ever-increasing population and this abrupt drop in per- 
sonnel. And the same thing is shown in relation to the C. C. C. men. 

Just yesterday we received our requisitions from Washington for 
2,400 men, 500 of them Negroes, which is the largest allocation they 
have ever given us, and the reports from our local selecting agent show 
they have only 300 men applicants for the enrollment that is to begin 
July 1. 

Mr. Curtis. That is in the C. C. C. ? 

LACK OF COORDINATION IN CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS, NATIONAL 
YOUTH ADMINISTRATION 

Dr. Potter. Yes. So that the whole thing seems to tie together; 
our qualified staff is being depleted, with no hope of recovering it to 
the standard level in the institutions ; and there is a lack of coordina- 
tion, at least, between those two types of Federal program, the C. C. C. 
andtheN. Y.A. 

The N. Y. A., while it is obliged to reduce its enrollment, is thinking 
at present of developing a ward-assistant type of project, which might 
conceivably bring some help into the institutions, but not on the nurs- 
ing level, just on the attendant level. 

Mr. Curtis. You feel there is somewhat of a conflict in the way it is 
working out here between the N. Y. A. and the C. C. C. ? 

Dr. l^OTTER. Yes, sir ; that has been true for a great many months. 

Mr. Curtis. Would you want to be more specific about that, as to 
what could be done to better the situation ? 

Dr. P(^TTER, Well, I would be very much interested in seeing, in- 
stead of two agencies competing for these young chaps between 17 
and 18 during the enrollment period, a channeling througii some 
classification and guidance into the kind of thing that would most 
quickly make them effective for industry or for agriculture or for what- 
ever it might be that was needed. But the fact that the N. Y. A. offer- 
ing preferential wages and the privilege of living at home, and being 
under less rigorous discipline than the C. C. C. camps, seems to induce 
quite a large group to choose the N. Y. A. in their youthful desire for 
greater freedom. 

Mr. Curtis. What does the N. Y. A. offer them ? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5gg5 

Dr. Potter. They have a number of resident centers for industrial 
training. They have also ont-of-school jobs, with working time of less 
than a half day and paying a sum of money in hand that is larger 
than the C. C. C. gives the boy in hand. 

Mr. Curtis. Have you made any observations as to the types of jobs 
the people who may be leaving j^our State are seeking? 

Dr. Potter. Skilled toolmakers and machinists and people of that 
sort, and the women, are going into the powder plants. Some are going 
into aircraft production up in north Jersey. I don't know all the 
things they do in arsenals, but it is reported to me they are going into 
arsenals. 

Mr. Curtis. I think that is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Dr. Potter. 

Our next witness is Mr. Harding. 

TESTIMONY OF ERNEST HAEDING, DEPUTY COMMISSIONER, STATE 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, TRENTON, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Harding, Congi^essman Osmers will interro- 
gate you. 

Mr. OsMERS. jVIr. Harding, will you give your name and title for 
the record? 

JSIr. Harding. Ernest Harding, deputy commissioner of education, 
State Department of Public Instruction. I might add that there 
;ire several other members of the department present this afternoon, 
inchiding Dr. Charles H. Elliott, our State commissioner of educa- 
tion, and also two other staff members who will be available for 
answering certain questions on which they have details. 

Mr. OsMERS. The prepared statement that you have submitted will 
be incorporated in the record of our hearing. 

(Tlie statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY ERNEST HARDING, DEPUTY COMMISSIONER, STATE 
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION, TRENTON, N. J. 

Critical need for increased school housing will be apparent for 1941^2 in 
the following school districts of New Jersey due to housing developments in 
defense areas for workers in defense industries : 

Clifton, Passaic County. Beverly, Burlington County. 

O'.ark Township, Union County. Wrightstown, Burlington County. 

Camden City, Camden County. Fort Monmouth, Monmouth County. 

Audubon, Camden County. Lakehurst, Ocean County. 

Extra available school facilities are available in large cities but not in 
smaller communities such as those mentioned above (except Camden). Such 
communities will need Federal or State aid or both if they are to properly 
provide school facilities for the children of migrant workers in defense areas. 

Bond-limitation laws in New Jersey make it illegal for a community to 
bond itself beyond 7 percent for municipal purposes and 8 percent for school 
purposes. The two most important bond limitation statutes for schools are 
Revised Statutes 18 : 5-84 and 18 : 5-85, which are quoted below : 

"18 : 5-84. On and after June twenty-sixth, one thousand nine hundred and 
thirty-six, it shall be unlawful for the board of education of any school dis- 
trict operating under the provisions of chapter 7 of this title (18:7-1 et seq.) 
to authorize the issuance of bonds which together with the bonds theretofore 
issued (and not redeemed) less sinking funds held for the payment of the 
same (which shall be known as the net debt), shall exceed six per cent of the 
average of the last three assessed valuations of real property (including im- 

60396 — il— pt. 14 9 



5666 TRENTON HEARINGS 

provements) of the municipality or municipalities included in the school district 
as shown by the last three published abstracts of ratables of such municipality 
or municipalities, except that a school district which has or may hereafter 
have an approved high school may bond not to exceed eight per cent of the 
assessed valuations. In any district in which there is not a high school, such 
eight per cent limitation shall apply to such district for the construction of a 
high school building. The limitations imposed in this section shall not afEect 
or apply to bonds heretofore or hereafter issued by any regional board of 
education. Nothing contained in this article shall apply to or afi'ect or limit 
the issuance of bonds by any board of education for the purpose of refunding 
outstanding bonds heretofore or hereafter issued by such board of educa- 
tion." 

"18:5-85. In event any municipality shall have unused borrowing power as 
shown by the supplemental debt statement, hereinafter prescribed, in which 
the coextensive school district is restricted by the limitation imposed by sec- 
tion 18 : 5-84 of this title and the net debt of such school district together 
with the bonds proposed to be issued exceeds the limitation fixed by said sec- 
tion 18 : 5-84, then and in such case the voters of the school district may 
authorize and the board of education may incur such further indebtedness and 
issue and sell such bonds in amount exceeding such limitation, provided that 
it shall be shown that the percentage of net debt of the municipality as 
shown by such supplemental debt statement, plus the percentage of the net 
debt (including the bonds proposed to be issued) of the school district com- 
puted as provided by said section 18:5-84, shall not exceed thirteen per cent 
of the average of the last three published assessed valuations of real property 
(including improvements) of the municipality, except that the net debt of any 
municipality coextensive with a school district which has or may hereafter 
have an approved high school, plus the net debt of such school district, shall not 
exceed fifteen per cent. Where the board of education of such school district shall 
propose to increase the indebtedness, by issuing bonds of such school district under 
this section, the board of education shall cause to be clearly and prominently 
printed as a part of the notice for the meeting of the voters of such school district,, 
as provided by this title, the following form with appropriate figures filled in 
blank spaces : 

"NOTICE TO VOTEBS 

"1. Unused borrowing power of the municipality $ 

% of unused borrowing power of the municipality % 

"2. Um.«;pd borrowing power of rhe school district $ 

% of unused borrowing power of the school district % 

"3. The amount of bonds to be authorized $ 

% of average valuation such bonds represent % 

"4. The amount of bonds that will be chargeable to the municipality's 

borrowing capacity $ 

"5. The per cent to be charged against the municipality's boiTowing 

capacity : %" 

Moreover, New Jersey has no law which provides any capital outlay money 
for constructing school buildings. 

Though some Federal legislation has been introduced to help with this prob- 
lem, none of it has yet become law. In the meantime, plans for temporary 
housing of these additional pupils in September must be made and carried 
out pending construction of additional school facilities. The problem presented 
the local community in financing the additional educational co.sts is more serious 
due to the fact that the small amount to be paid in lieu of taxes in the Federal 
tax exempt housing developments is much less than the added costs of providing^ 
public services. 

The New Jersey statutes provide a $45 annual apportionment per pupil from 
the State school tax 10-percent reserve fund to help defray costs of educating 
children living on Federal reservations. Because of the great number of such 
children who will be living on Federal tax-exempt property during 1941-42, 
such allotments would quickly be exhausted and would result in subtracting of 
State aid to other school districts since the gross total to be distribued among 
he several school districts would not be increased over previous years. 

It is imperative that Federal legislation be enacted along the lines of H. R. 
1313 and H. R. 4545 if the affected communities in New Jersey are to properly 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 56^7 

provide for the education of these large groups of children of defense workers. 

Inadequate local financial resources, State bond limitations laws, high existing 
tax rates, and the absence of capital outlay funds frona State revenues are 
among the factors which suggest the pressing need for Federal aid for added 
school constiuction and increased current expense costs. 

The congressional bills referred to above will not in our opinion provide suf- 
ficient moneys to meet the need. Additional supplemental Federal legislation 
is needed. 



Exhibit A. — Present Status of Federal Legislation Relating to Federal Aid to 
School Districts in Defense Areas 

Herein is presented a brief resume of the provisions and the present status of 
bills which have been introduced into Congress which, if and when passed, 
will aid materially in alleviating the severe hardships which would otherwise 
ensue in certain school districts in New Jersey which have received or will soon 
receive a large influx of defense-worker families. 

FEDERAL LAWS 

(1) Section 9, Public Act 849: "Annual sums in lieu of taxes." 

(2) H. R. 454.") (Lanham) : Provides for the acquisition and equipment of 
public works made necessary by the defense program. Bill designed to relieve 
shortage in congested areas of school buildings, health facilities, and other 
welfare and safety facilities for workers. Is now before Senate Committee on 
Buildings and Grcunds. Hearings were held on May 19-20. Passed the Senate 
with amendments on June 12 ; the bill is now before a joint conference committee.* 

(3) H. R. 4695 (Thomas), to Committee on Buildings and Grounds: To 
enable school districts in which real estate has been acquired by the United 
States for national defense purposes to maintain school facilities and other 
essential school services and to pay principal and interest on bonded indebted- 
ness. Subsidies are granted to the local taxing units to compensate for loss 
of revenue resulting fron.i acquisition of real estate by the Federal Government. 
(Congress onal Record, May 8, p. 3810.) 

(4) S. 1375 (McCarran), to Committee on Education and Labor: To provide 
for certain community facilities made necessary by the exigencies of national 
defense. During the emergency the President is authorized to acquire, trans- 
fer, sell, or lease any community facility needed by the States and political 
subdivisions. Under "conmnmity facility" is included buildings, grounds, and 
incidental equipment (including transportation) for elementary and secondary 
schools. One hundred and fifty million dollars is appropriated to carry out the 
provisions. (Congressional Record, April 25, p. 3375.) 

(5) S. 1410 (McCarran), to committee on Public Lands and Surveys: To 
provide a method for making payments to the States with respect to certain 
conservation, military, and naval lauds, and power projects. Funds paid to 
the States and apportioned to the counties shall be expended for public schools 
and public roads pending action of the State legislature to otherwise exi)eud 
the money. (Cong. Record, April 29, p. 3452.) 

(0) S. 1313 (Thomas), to Committee on Education and Labor: To strengthen 
the national defense and to promote the general welfare through the appropria- 
tion of $300,000,000 to assist the States and Territories in meeting financial 
emergencies in education and in reducing inequalities of educational oppor- 
tunities (Congressional Record, April 7, p. 3114). Hearings were held April 
28-30; the printed report will be available at the Senate Document Division. 

(7) H. R. 4761 (Ellis), to Committee on Education: To strengthen the na- 
tional defense and promote the general welfare through the appropriation of 
funds to assist the States and Territories in meeting financial emergencies in 
education and in reducing inequalities of education opportunities. Education 
Finance Act of 1941. Companion bill to S. 1313 (Thomas). (Congressional 
Record, May 15, p. 4234. ) 



This measure was approved, as amended, on June 28. See San Diego hearings, p. 5007. 



5668 



fesoe; 



TRENTOX HEARINGS 

§ S 8 S I 

CO o o 



S g CO S t: tJL— 
§ § § c s§ o S P 



d S t oo 






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^SJ26! 



tscsa — ;=pc3oo o«a)»Oo3aj 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5559 

Exhibit C. — Memorandum to Dr. Charles H. Elliott, State Commissioner of 
Education, on the National Defense Training Program, June 26, 1941 

What the vocational schools of New Jersey have done for training w^orkers 
for the national defense : Six thousand seven hundred persons who were totally 
unemployed or who were on Work Projects Administration projects were 
trained and placed in employment in the period July 1, 1910, to June 1, l&ll. 
This number will be 7,000 or more before the close of the first year of operat- 
ing the program. In addition, 3,750 different persons who were employed ia 
defense industries attended these schools to receive supplementary training. 
These persons participated in three or more courses and were intended to in- 
crease their skill or their technical knowledge. 

ORIGIN OF WORKERS 

From where these workers came and the miles they traveled : They came 
from areas surrounding the school district. Some lived in the community 
whei-e the school was located ; some lived 25 or more miles from the school 
where they received their training. The vocational schools of the State, those 
which pi-epare for the trades and industries, were organized long before there 
was any interest in or need for training for defense purposes. Some of these 
schools were organized in 1!)]3, 1914, and 1915. They were organized to serve 
the employment needs of the community in which they were located. The 
schools were made available for the training of workers for the national- 
defense industries by the boards of education which operate these schools. They 
were made available without regard to the residence of the trainees. Bus 
service is provided to transport persons from the outlying districts to the 
training centers 

The transportation of trainees to available centers of training : One bus 
brings a group from Dover and points east of Dover in Morris County to 
Bloomfield. Another bus starts at Hackensack and brings trainees from points 
south of Hackensack to the Essex County vocational schools. Another bus has 
been operating from Hoboken to schools located in Bloomfield and Newark. 
Tlie bus service was organized only when the supply of employable and train- 
able workers in the school district was exhausted. It was then the transpor- 
tation of trainees started. 

supply of trainees dwindling 

The supply of available trainees is being diminished: In some districts and 
practically all districts, we are reaching the bottom of the barrel in trainable 
material. We must either provide for bus service bringing people into the 
schools from areas where there are unemployed and trainable persons or we 
must organize area schools which will provide this training for an area in 
which there will be a minimum of transportation. The organization of these 
area schools will involve an expenditure of funds which are not available at 
the present time. There should be at least five such area schools organized 
in areas of the State which are not pi'ovided with facilities at present. 

The importation of trainees from other States: Trainees in the national- 
defense program conducted by the State in the local vocational schools have 
not been recruited from other States. The National Youth Administration is 
planning to bring about 500 youths from other States for training in New 
Jersey. It is likely many of these youth will remain in New Jersey and add to 
the youth adjustment problems of the State. Before we import people from 
other States into New Jersey for national-defense training, we should utilize 
existing supplies of trainable racial groups, and we may find it necessary to 
train female unemployed persons. The employers will have to develop a new 
attitude in accepting the racial groups which they now refuse to employ. 

The relationship of the long-term regular vocational program in New Jersey 
to the national-defense training program : The regular program of vocational 
education in New Jersey has been maintained. It is important that it should 
be. It is of a long-term character and provides training for living as well as 
for work. The national-defense program is an intensified program of a narrow 
character. It cannot be ju.5tified as a long-term program in which boys and 
girls are being prepared for occupational life. New Jersey has maintained .an 
outstanding program of vocational training in the field of industrial education, 
but this program needs to be expanded, and the need will be greater as the 
result of population changes which are likely to occur with the development 



5670 TRENTON HEARINGS 

and expansion of industi-y. This need can be met through regional or area 
schools in addition to these vocational schools now in operation. The expansion 
on this basis has been retarded by a lack of State and local funds. There is a 
need for Federal funds to help the State and local community in the organijza- 
tion of trade preparatory programs on a regional or area basis. 

John A. McCakthy. 

TESTIMONY OF EENEST HAEDING— Resumed 

Mr. OsMERS. I -svonder if you will briefly summarize your paper. 

Mr. Harding. Perhaps tlie best starting point might be to mention 
something already known to all the Congressmen present, and that 
is that on October 9, 1940, the Senate passed resolution 324, which, 
in effect, required the War and Navy Department Secretaries to 
make a survey. 

Briefly, in the wording of that Senate resolution, the Secretary 
of the Navy and the Secretary of the War Department were called 
upon to make a full and complete study and investigation of all 
school facilities at or near navy yards, and Army and Navy reserva- 
tions and bases at which housing programs for defense workers 
are being carried out or are contemplated. 

I mention that at the outset because it is out of situations of 
that type that the most immediate and critical school housing prob- 
lem has grown and is now in process of growing. 

In response to that Senate resolution, the Congressmen present 
will recall that the War and Navy Secretaries requested the United 
States Office of Education, in cooperation with State departments 
over the country, to survey this situation at once, and then make 
a continuing survey, because this whole matter of housing in defense 
areas is very much in process and is by no means completed at this 
date. 

Our State department of education has been making such a con- 
tinuing survey in cooperation with the United States Office of 
Education. 

You will recall further that the first report was made in January 
by the United States Commissioner of Education, and certain bills 
have been introduced in Congress — several of them the result, at 
least in part, of the findings of that survey. 

And I might at this time make this one point, that it seems to 
us in New Jersey, as we have studied our own State problem, that 
Congress has very wisely anticipated some of the overloads in local 
communities as to housing the school children — children of defense 
workers, many of them migrant workers — through the introduction 
of the Lanham bill, so-called — that is, H. R. 4545 i— and we think 
that type of bill is going to help this critical school housing situation 
which we have at the moment in 12 defense areas in New Jersey 
at this time. 

$150,000,000 INADEQUATE FOR NEEDS 

The Chairman. The trouble about that bill, though, Mr. Harding— 

if I may interrupt, Congressman Osmers 

Mr. OsMERs. Go right ahead. 

The Chairman. $150,000,000 was appropriated, as I remember. 

Mr. Harding. That is correct. 



See San Diego hearings, p. 5007. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5g71 

The Chairman. Now, this committee was in San Diego, Calif., 
which is probably the "hottest" spot in the United States as an over- 
loaded community in the defense program. Their population has 
been increased by about 100,000 people. San Diego alone is asking 
for $21,000,000, and California is asking for $50,000,000. There is 
only $150,000,000, and after New Jersey gets in its claim there will 
not be much left. I don't suppose your State would be any 
too modest about that, at least no more modest than San Diego. 

The situation is that these communities simply cannot absorb their 
added burdens without Federal help ; they cannot assume the financial 
burden of providing all the additional municipal services necessary. 
That is one of the reasons why these hearings are very important. 

In San Diego they have developed what is called the Kearney Mesa 
Project, wJiich is 6 miles away from the citj^ There are no schools 
there, no sewage disposal, no hospitals; but they are building 1,776 
housing units to take care of 10,003 people. It is absolutely impossible 
for the city to carry that financial load. And that is why I say again 
that these hearings are important; we are the only agency who can 
23ass the information back to Congress regarding your problems and 
what they really are along that line. 

I think you will agree with us that $150,000,000 will not take care 
of the Nation-wide situation. 

Mr. Harding. You have stated our own position in this matter. The 
Lanliam bill is desirable, but it will only go a part of the way. It will 
be spread, of course, too thinh^ over the country to meet the needs that 
exist, and other measures will be necessary. 

OTHER legislation FOR xUD TO COMMUNITIES 

I have filed with this committee a list of these bills (p. 5667), which 
are better known to you than to me, which are already in Congress, and 
in which we are interested because we think they will help in some 
measure, at least, even though, as the chairman well says, they will by 
no means meet the whole situation. 

The Chairman. You are taking a lot for granted when you say 
this committee knows about every bill in Congress. We are not mental 
giants. Once in a while, when we get a home newspaper, we find out 
about a bill passing Congress. 

Mr. OsMERS. Honest confession is good for the soul, Mr. Chairman. 
Since I am in my home State, I cannot make any such confession as 
that. 

The Chairman. You don't have to; you are a different kind of 
Congressman. 

Mr. Harding. Without taking the time of the committee now to 
go into detail, I am referring to this list, which is filed with you and 
enumerates the bills before Congress which seem to bear upon this 
school-housing problem in an important measure. 

Now, just a few brief points that I will try to discuss as concisely 
as possible. 

2 3 DEFENSE CENTERS OF NEW JERSEY 

First, we have these 23 centers of New Jersey. Four are in or near 
military reservations; two are in cities; and the others are not in cities 
but in suburban and rural areas. We have, in those dozen situations 



5672 TRENTON HEARINGS 

that have thus far emerged, high concentrations of new school popula- 
tion which we will have to provide for next year. In several instances 
these housing developments have been completed. People are now mov- 
ing in and the children will be knocking at our school doors in Sep- 
tember. 

In many instances the housing developments have not been com- 
pleted. One of the phases of this total problem of providing adequate 
school facilities for these children grows out of the fact that most of 
these housing developments are not in our largfe cities. 

Our large-city school sj^stems are in a better position than the small 
ones to absorb without very much, if au}^, added school facilities, a 
sudden influx of children of migrant workers or defense workers, or 
whatever you call them. But our problem is a little more difficult 
because we have these 10 situations in suburban areas or in rural 
communities. 

I am thinking of Audubon, for instance, as a community in Cam- 
den County. I am thinking of New Hanover Township in Burling- 
ton County, which is a rural community. We anticipate it will have 
about 300 pupils more in September than the 150 it now has, the 300 
representing, you see, a complete new influx of students. New Han- 
over is a small rural community with low assessed valuations, with 
much of its property having been taken over already for the military 
reservation there, and with a bonded indebtedness which is up to the 
State limit at the moment and which, without Federal aid, probably 
cannot take over the whole burden itself. 

Now, I mentioned first, then, the fact that most of these develop- 
ments are in small communities and in rural areas in the State, as 
one factor which makes the problem of financing school housing and 
school operation a difficult one. 

RESTRICTIONS ON SCHOOL OUTLAYS 

The second point I would make is that though I am quite sure 
that the State of New Jersey and the local school districts will be 
anxious to do everything that is physically possible and reasonable 
for them to do to provide quickly and adequately for the schooling 
of these children, nevertheless there are certain factors which restrict 
the extent to which they can provide these facilities of and by 
themselves. 

First, our State bond limitation act requires that municipalities 
not exceed 7 percent of the average assessed valuation for the last 
3 years for municipal purposes, and where there are high schools, 
they may not exceed 8 percent of their bonded indebtedness for school 
purposes. 

The fact of decreased property valuations in several of these areas 
also makes for added difficulty. 

As to the size of this problem at the moment, and as it will prob- 
ably be during the first few months of the fall, in our continuing 
study of the influx of new population in these 12 areas in the State, 
we expect in the fall that we will have to provide for 5,385 additional 
school pupils who will live in housing which we have estimated, and 
I think rather accurately, to be 3,365 units. 

The estimated cost of buildings and equipment that would need 
to be added to existing facilities totals, according to our present esti- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5573 

mates — and this is only a partial figure as some of these estimates 
in particular localities have been determined — $2,105,000. 

Detailed fio-ures on that have already been provided the committee. 

I might add that one feature of the educational program of the 
State which seems to us to have already produced results of interest 
to the committee grows out of the fact that beginning last July 1, 
pursuant to legislation passed by Congress, we have trained in this 
State up to date approximately 7,000 defense workers. 

We were not too concerned with where they came from, but their 
training was a part of the vocational-school program of the State — a 
phase of this whole problem in which I understand this committee 
is interested. 

I might add that in addition to the 7,000 who have been trained and 
who have been placed in positions, we have an additional 3,750 per- 
sons were were employed in defense industries and who attended these 
schools in order to supplement their training so that the training 
that they would have would better fit the kind of thing they are needed 
for in defense industries. 

I might, in concluding this very brief and sketchy statement, say 
that we look upon the problem of housing this large influx of new 
children in these defense areas from two points of view : First, it will 
take some time before permanent school facilities, in addition to pres- 
ent plans and in some cases new buildings, can be constructed to take 
care of the need. We do have that long term, more-or-less-permanent 
problem. In the meantime we have the second and immediate prob- 
lem of the first day of school next September, prior to the time when 
it will be possible through State and Federal aid to construct these 
buildings. Temporary })rovision must be made for these 5,000 young- 
sters. We will have to provide some sort of additional temporary 
facilities for some time during the coming fall months. 

I think I will stop at that point, Mr. Chairman. There are un- 
doubtedly some questions. 

INCREASE IN SCHOOLS, OR SHIFT? 

Mr, OsMERS. I was very much interested in one figure you gave — 
5,300 more pupils anticij^ated this September in the schools. I am 
not interested in the exact figure. 

Mr. Harding. That is correct, in the 12 communities only. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, what I am sure the committee will be interested 
in is to learn whether that is a net increase in the total school popu- 
lation of New Jersey or whether that is a shifting into the 12 com- 
munities from other places within the State. 

Mr. Harding. In the main. I would say that that represents a shift 
within the State. To some degree it will probably represent, in small 
measure, the children who come from outside the State — Philadelphia, 
for instance, into the Audubon development, which is a commuting 
town near Camden. We expect there will be an influx of about 500 
new pupils in that community, where 500 housing units have already 
been completed. People are living in them now. Some of these 
youno-sters undoubtedly will come from Philadelphia and other parts 
"of Pennsylvania because it is near to that area. And the parents 
of those children will work both in the Philadelphia Navy Yard and 
in the New York Shipbuilding Co. at Camden. But in the mam I 
would say most of these children will come from other areas in New 



5674 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Jersey. But they will be concentrated you see, in just these 12 situ- 
ations, and, that is where the maladjustment comes as to school 
provision. 

jSIr. OsMERs. Now, you mentioned a figure of something over 
$2 000,000 that would be required to build the physical properties 
necessary to accommodate these children. 

Mr. Harding. Yes ; and that tigure is one that I won't suggest you 
depend upon because 

Mr. OsMERs. That is a guess? 

Mr. Harding. Yes. 

FEDERAL AID FOR MAINTENANCE 

Mr. OsMERS. I appreciate that. Assuming that the $2,000,000 plus 
was spent for school facilities, would the communities where the money 
would be spent be able to maintain those properties out of their tax 
income, or would the Federal Government also have to help them with 
maintenance? 

Mr. Harding. The report that the War and Navy Secretaries passed 
on to the President and the Budget Coimnissioner anticipated that 
possibility and felt, as I recall it, that capital outlay costs represent 
something that the community would not otherwise have had to bear, 
and that the community should be aided with Federal funds and a 
portion of the current increased expense should come also from Federal 
funds. 

Now, as I said before, I am quite sure that the local school districts 
will be willing in New Jersey to do all that is within their physical 
and financial power. I don't believe they are disposed to look upon 
the Federal Government as a paternal something which will do every- 
thing and they nothing. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you yield to me, Mr. Osmers ? 

Mr. OsMERS. Certainly, Mr. Curtis. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, as I understand it, you are anticipating about 
3.585 additional pupils and something like $2,000,000 additional in 
plant and equipment by reason of the defense activities in 12 centers. 

Mr. Harding. That is correct. 

Mr. Curtis. How much in defense contracts have those 12 centers 
obtained from the Federal Government? 

Mr. Harding. I have no information on that. I would say, how- 
ever, that this list of 12 communities which the committee has is so 
representative of the industrial areas of the State that it represents 
almost 100 percent of the defense areas in the State. It must be 
added, however, that the figures I have given you represent only new 
housing. The bulk of the defense industry workers are housed in 
private homes in the cities and towns, you see, where these defense 
industries exist. 

local tax rolls reduced 

I should add one thing in response to Congressman Osmers' ques- 
tion : I think the reason why it will be difficult for local districts to 
foot the total increased maintenance costs is the fact that almost with- 
out exception in this list of defense areas, the property has been taken 
over and the local tax rolls — the assessed valuations — have been re- 
duced, and the only thing up to the moment that these communities 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5675 

■will get in the way of aid to compensate them for the withdrawal from 
those rolls comes from this payment by the Federal Government in 
lieu of taxes. 

The Chairman, Mr. Harding, you are discussing just one phase of 
the whole problem — education? 

Mr. Harding. That is correct. 

The Chairman. This Lanham appropriation of $150,000,000 isn't 
adequate. It will not take care of a third of the whole problem, so 
there will be, undoubtedly, another bill introduced. But don't you 
think the State of New Jersey might do well to go on record with 
something like this : 

These 12 communities have grown on account of this defense activity. 
They need so much money on account of increased educational respon- 
sibilities, on account of sewerage, on account of housing. This is what 
the different communities can do themselves, as a part of the program, 
and they can't go any further on account of the debt limitation. 

In other words, a picture from the State of New Jersey — just what 
your problems are in dollars and cents, broken down not only as to 
education but as to every other aspect. 

Mr. Harding. I think so. Of course our responsibility as a depart- 
ment is just for education, but I agree fully with what you have said. 

This migratory conference group which is represented here, it seemed 
to me as I worked with the representatives, is a splendid example of 
State departments articulating in ways that are very worth while. I 
would add this : That it may be of interest to this committee to know 
that, as for education, at least, those specific facts are being certified 
continuously by us to the United States Office of Education, which has 
made arrangements with various groups in Washington to be a clear- 
ing house for information on these matters. 

Mr. Osmers. I would say this with respect to the Office of Educa- 
tion's part in the Lanham bill : Colonel Gilmore, who will probably be 
in charge of spending this money at the Federal Works Agency, itold 
me that the Office of Education would sit in on every decision that was 
made, so that they will be properly represented, 

EXAMPLE OF INTERSTATE RESPONSIBILITY 

Dr. Potter. Mr. Chairman, may I add one item that ties in with 
this? Just 2 or 3 days ago our department had a communication 
from an agency in Pennsylvania, stating that one of their clients with 
his family had moved over into New Jersey to work in the shipyards 
in Camden County, and asked that three feeble-minded children now 
in Pinehurst State School in Pennsylvania be transferred to New 
Jersey. That would be a perfectly new item of cost that will be added 
to us ; and the consent undoubtedly has to be given because the legal 
residence of the family is being established here. 

Mr. Osmers. What can the State Department of Education do to 
help on this problem, other than to study and survey it? 

Mr. Harding. The big problem is money. New Jersey has never 
given State money for capital outlay. New^ York State is one of the 
very few States that gives any money for capital outlay for school 
purposes. Even in that State'^the amount is restricted to 25 percent 
for a few districts called "union school districts," so the procedure 
is not common. 



5676 TRENTON HEARINGS 

I think it should be added in the record also that in New Jersey 
approximately 95 percent of the cost of education — both the buildings 
and the equipment and operating expenses — comes from real-estate 
property taxes. 

Mr. OsMERS. I am glad you are putting that in. 

Mv. Harding. And the fact that these housing developments, almost 
without exception, are on tax-exempt property in itself reduces the 
base from which the school money comes. You see, almost 100 per- 
cent of the school dollar is obtained that way, and that makes it much 
more difficult for the local communities to take over this added 
burden. 

Mr. OsMERs. There is no serious division of opinion anywhere in 
the State, is there, with respect to the statement that this is a Federal 
responsibility, that the national-defense program has created it, and 
that the Federal Government will have to finance it ? 

Mr. Harding. No ; I don't believe so. I think the feeling is that it 
is primarily a Federal problem. However, there is this added thing 
to be said in anticipating costs, and it is a problem that we are 
studying carefully. Some of these developments may be very tempo- 
rary. They may exist 5 years from now, and they may not. Others 
may be permanent. Fort Dix, for instance, will be a permanent 
Army fort, and there are certain elements of that problem that will be 
permanent. 

TEMPORARY SCHOOL. FACILITIES 

Mr. OsMERS. Have you given any consideration to the possiblity of 
constructing temporary school facilities? 

Mr. Harding. That is exactly what I was leading up to. For those 
situations that seem as though they wouldn't exist for many years, 
it might be foolhardy to build large structures that would exist for 
50 or 60 years. Five years hence we might find them white elephants. 
We are trying to be discriminating in the studies that are being made, 
so we won't ask for money for buildings of a permanent character 
when those of a temporary character would be appropriate. 

Mr. OsMERs. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. We thank you very much, Mr. Harding. 

We will take a short recess. 

(Whereupon a short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

I understand Mr. Post is appearing on behalf of Dr. Mudd. 

TESTIMONY OF A. R. POST, MANAGER, MUNICIPAL SERVICE DIVI- 
SION, STATE MUNICIPAL AID ADMINISTRATION, TRENTON, 
N. J. 

The Chairman. I understand a report by your office has been filed? 
Mr. Post. Yes, sir ; you have mimeographed copies of it. 
The Chairman. We will incorporate that in the record and will ask 
you a few questions. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows :) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5677 



STATEIMENT BY A. R. POST, MANAGER, MUNICIPAL SERVICE DIVISION, 
STATE MUNICIPAL AID ADMINISTRATION, TRENTON, N. J. 

Relief figures have been compiled for the year 1940 and are compared with 
figures of 1939 indicating the changing trend. Figures on expenditures and 
cases for 10 large cities are also submitted for compari.son with the total State 
figures. 

Relief cost 





Popula- 
tion 


«a, 


1940 


Percent 
change 




4, 160. 165 


$19, 315, 000 


$13, 740, 002 








Camden 


117.536 
301, 173 
429, 760 
139, 656 
39, 467 
14, 171 
79, 198 
61, 394 
39, 714 
124, 697 


1, 093, 210 
1, 889. 270 
5, 869, 520 
616, 129 
254, 781 
226, 677 
734, 131 
260, 457 
179, 092 
791, 873 


648, 020 
1, 336, 860 
4, 561. 253 
539, 978 
113.884 
126.651 
399. 095 
208, 577 
149, 523 
496, 571 


—40 7 


Jersey City 


''9 2 






Paterson 


— 12 3 




55 3 






Bayonne 


—45 6 










Trenton 


—37 2 









December 
1939 


December 
1940 


Percent 
change 


State 


57, 312 


38, 606 


—32 6 








3,553 

7,059 
13, 620 

1,981 
502 
547 

1,793 
684 
613 

1,979 


1,729 

3,858 
11.2.36 

1,722 
278 
244 
914 
577 
571 

1,032 




Jersey Citv 


—45 3 


Mewark 


-17.5 




-13.0 


Kearny 


—44.6 




-,55.4 




-49.0 


Passaic 


— 15.6 




-6.8 




-47.8 







The New Jersey relief load and costs have decreased due to the defense in- 
dustries and related work. Tliis is evident in Camden where the New York 
Shipbuilding Corporation is located, in Kearny where the Federal Shipyards 
have large Federal contracts, in Harrison where there are many large plants 
engaged in defense work, and in Bayonne with its shipping facilities and oil 
plants. Jersey City with its railroad terminals, and Trenton which is affected 
by the work at Fort Dix, also show decided reductions. 

In contrast, however, such is not the situation in North Bergen located 
across the meadows from Kearny and close to Jersey City. In this municipality 
the load and costs have not diminished in the same ratio as the municipalities 
previously mentioned. Neitlier has the largest city in the State, Newark, 
shown a comparative decrease in costs or load. 

In the cities of Paterson and Passaic where the main industries have been 
silk, dyeing, rubber works, and woolen mills, relief figures do not show an aj>- 
preciable reduction when compared with the State as a whole. This notwith- 
standing the fact that the Wright Aeronautical plant is located in Paterson, 
where according to newspaper statements the employed personnel approxi- 
mates 14,000 current workers compared to 3,000 employees of 18 months ago. 
Many of these workers come from other cities, counties, and States. There is 
no information to substantiate this with actual figures. 



5578 TRENTON HEARINGS 

SETTLEMENT 

Since the State administration is vested with full authority for resettlement 
of nonresidents in other States when application is made for assistance in 
New Jersey, we are in a position to gage any trend in connection with this 
prohlem. There has been no decided change in the number of such cases 
referred to this administration. It seems obvious that should defense work 
terminate, New Jersey will be faced with a major problem. As an example, 
a large plant located in New Jersey several years ago and during a temporary 
suspension of work, a dozen or more cases were referred to State administration 
for resettlement action. 

Current New Jersey statutes require a 5 years' residence, but pending legis- 
lation, if passed, will reduce the required period to 2 years. Nevertheless, 
it seems probable that New Jersey will be faced with an acute legal settlement 
problem should the defense program end in a year or two. There are no figures 
or information to substantiate this opinion based simply upon impressions 
gathered through field contacts. 

HOtTSINO 

The housing situation in New Jersey has become very acute in the last year 
and has already affected the administration of relief due to increased rentals 
and deartli of vacancies. The situation will not improve. Local agencies have 
exerted a great deal of pressure on the State administration to increase its 
allowances resulting in two increases in the budget standards in the last 6 
months. Although the maximum relief allowance of $25 has been continued, 
the State has approved increments ranging from 7 to 39 percent in the inter- 
mediate scales. 

A chart is attached (p. 5682) .showing the increase in rental costs in New Jersey 
which indicate a rise from 97 "index" in 1937 to 118 in March 1941, or 21 points, 
of which 6 points of the rise occurred in the last 9 mouths. Chart figures have 
been obtained from "Cost of Goods Purchased by the Average New Jersey 
Family — Cost of Living" — New Jersey Department of Agriculture. 

Housing vacancies have reduced to a minimum and relief directors all over 
the State have complained that they are unable to obtain housing facilities 
for relief recipients. To illustrate this, figures are provided which were ob- 
tained from the State housing authority. The State housing authority con- 
ducted a real property inventory in 1934 and one of its reports indicated 77,775 
vacant dwelling units In the State at that time. Total figures for the State 
are not available at this time, but are far below the figure quoted. The city 
of Newark, with 89,226 units was included in the 1934 survey and 12,614, or 
4.1 percent, were vacant at that time. Current figures for Newark estimate a 
total of 118,000 dwelling units, of which 2.6 percent are unoccupied or approxi- 
mately only 3,000 units. Current figures for Kearny, Elizabeth, Irvington, 
Belleville, Paterson, Passaic, and Hackensack, indicate that the unoccupied 
dwelling units run only from 1 to 1.5 percent of the total units. 

Vacancies in Elizabeth for homes will; rents under $25 decreased from 
1,349 in 1934 to 257 in 1939, but 19 percent of the original figure. 

Average monthly rentals for dwelling units $24.99 or less, increased 16.6 
percent for Elizabeth and 19.2 percent for Perth Amboy, 1939 compared to 
1934 (source: State housing authority reports.). 

A copy of a memorandum to the writer, dated May 29, 1941, in connection 
witli an Essex County rent survey, is attached. Report was prepared in con- 
nection with a survey not directly related to this subject but containing 
information which may be of some value to the Tolan committee. 

MISCEIXANEOUS 

"The following information was received from Mr. Samuel Kramer, public- 
service-relation chairman of New York Ship Union ; Mr. Harry Andreas, chair- 
man of housing, New York Ship Union ; and Mr. Harry Parker, employment 
division of the New York Ship Corporation. 

"Five hundred defense homes now being completed in Audubon, Camden 
County, Federal project. 

"Five hundred defense homes contemplated in Camden area. Federal project. 

"Eighty-eight completed in the borough of Westville, Gloucester County, 
private owners. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5679 

"One hundred and five under construction, borough of Westville, Gloucester, 
County, private owners. 

"Sixty-seven contemplated, borough of Westville, Gloucester County, private 
owners. 

"There are now employed at the New York Shipyard 13,000 workers, 18 
to 20 percent of same are from Pennsylvania. It is impossible to give 
any data on how many come from other States because in applying for em- 
ployment they give a local address while those from Pennsylvania are com- 
muters. 

"There are at present 2,000 men in training in skilled trades and they will 
be employed as soon as training is completed. 

"Mr. Andreas estimates that 87 percent of the persons now buying the new 
defense homes will be unable to carry them when the defense program stops." 

memorandum 

May 29, 1941. 
To : Mr, A. R. Post, manager, Municipal Service Division. 
From : Mrs. Edna Herr. 
Re : Essex County rent survey. 

A thorough study was made of all Essex County low-cost rentals. The follow- 
ing data tend to prove that the rent situation in Essex County is very similar 
to the surrounding northern counties as Hudson, Union, Morris, and Bergen. 
(a) Tax rates, 1940 {from Municipal Aid Administration records). — 

Straight average: 

Bergen $4. 90 

Essex 3. 68 

Hudson 5.36 

Morris 4. 77 

Passaic 4.20 

Union 4.57 

In each case Essex County is lower than the surrounding counties. 

( b) Number of vacancies (see table I).- — Results of a State housing authority — • 
Survey of Vacancies in Dwelling Units of Northern New Jersey Cities — is as 
follows: 

Gross vacancy rates ranged from 4.1 percent to 1.0 percent in nine cities or 
groups of cities in northern New Jersey during the last part of January and the 
first part of February 1911, according to sample surveys made by the State 
housing authority at the request of the Division of Defense Housing Coordination. 

Highest vacancy rates, both in the over-all and the habitable rental percentages 
were found in the area comprising Jersey City and Bayonne with a gross vacancy 
rate of 4.1 percent and a habitable rental vacancy rate of 2.3 percent. 

Newark, the largest city surveyed, had a gross vacancy rate of 2.6 percent and 
a habitable rental vacancy rate of 1.9 percent. Four rooms was the average size 
of the rental vacancies in Newark. Average rent was $42 a month. This includes 
a cross section of all dwelling units, not just the low-cost rents. 

Orange and East Orange bad a gross vacancy rate of 2.4 percent and a habitable 
rental vacancy rate of 1.8. The rents were highest here. The vacancy rates in 
these two cities closely paralleled those in Newark. 

The lowest level of rentals was in Harrison. The average monthly rent asked 
there was $20 and almost none of the rentals were above $35 a month. 

Elizabeth, Irvington, and Belleville had from 1.4 percent to 1.5 percent gross 
vacancy rates and from 0.9 percent to 1.2 percent habitable rental vacancy rates. 
Average rentals varied from $40 in Belleville to $47.50 in Irvington. 

The results of the surveys are summarized in table I. There is not enough 
differential between Newark and Essex County as a whole and the surrounding 
North Jersev counties. . 

In addition to the dwelling-unit vacancies, about 8.000 rooms were for rent in 
occupied dwellings in these New Jersey cities. Approximately half of this total 
number of rooms for rent was available in Newark. 

Mr. Joseph Nevin, from the State housing authority, feels that the rent situation 
in Newark and most of Essex Countv is not any different than that of surrounding 
counties He feels that increasing the rent allowance will not answer the problem. 
He stated that the Governor mav appoint a committee to fix rents. The Emergency 
Fair Rent Act suggested to the States by the Consumer Division of the National 



5680 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



Defense Advisory Commission is designed to maintain fair rents without cliecliing 
construction of new dwellings. It provides two separate steps, the creation of a 
State rent commission with power to designate regions within the State as 
emergency areas and the actual application of rent control within these regions. 

(c) Rental costs. — 1. Comparison of rent study in five Now Jersey cities (see 
table I) : Five cities were selected for this study, three of which were representa- 
tive of North Jersey cities — Newark. Elizabeth, and Perth Amboj\ Survey of 1934 
was compared with the survey of 1939. In the units of less than $25 per month, 
Newark showed only 9.3 increase, while Elizabeth showed 16.6 percent increase 
and Perth Amboy showed 19.2 percent increase. In rent over $25 there was not 
such a marked difference. 

2. Sample of rental units in substandard condition, Jersey City : 





1934 


19411 


Rent 


Number of 

dwelling 

units 


Percent 


Number of 

dwelling 

units 


Percent 


Under $10 


232 
805 
519 
227 
79 
59 


12.1 
41.9 
27.0 
11.8 
4.1 
3.1 


1 
49 
305 
736 
475 
208 




$10-$14 99 


2 8 




17.2 


$20-$24 99 - 


41 4 




26.8 




11.8 








1,921 


100.0 


1,774 


100.0 







I Thi<! table shows that in 1934, 41.9 percent of the rents ranged from $10 to $14.) 
of the rents ranged from $20 to $24.99. 

Note.— Practically the same dwelling units that were studied in 1934. 



and in 1941, 41.4 percent 



Sixty -one and four-tenths percent of the above rental units fall within the 
present Municipal Aid Administration rent schedule. 

(d) New Jersey relief census, 1941 (table III) : A 10' percent sample of the 
relief census of 1941 was studied to determine what percent of the actual rent 
was met by the Municipal Aid Administration present rent schedule and to 
determine what percent was not met by these schedules. In municipalities 
where the largest number of cases were reported as Newark, Montclair, Bloom- 
field, Orange, and East Orange, the Municipal Aid Administration rent allow- 
ances met the actual rents from 75 to 90 percent. 

Table I. — Dioelling unit vacancies, northern 'New Jersey cities 



City 



Estimat- 
ed total 
dwelling 
units 



Percent of total 
units 



Unoc- 
cupied 



Unoc- 
cupied, 
not for 
rent 



Rental 
vacan- 
cies 



Rental vacan- 
cies in habit- 
able condition 



With 

all 
stand- 
ard fa- 
cilities 



Average 

monthly 
rental 
(median) 



Newark 

Kearny... 

Harrison 

Elizabeth 

Irvington 

Orange and East Orange 

Belleville 

Jer.sey City and Bayonne 

Paterson, Passaic, and Hackensack 



118,000 
11,000 
3,700 
29, 000 
17,000 
30, 000 
7,500 
104, 000 
65, 000 



$ 12. 00 
30.00 
20. 00 
45.00 
47.50 
50.00 
40.00 
30.00 
40.00 



' Standard faci 
unit. 



Installed heating, gas or electric light, running water, flush toilet, and bathing 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5681 



Table II. — Suiumary^ of tenant occupied and vacant dioelUng units in selected 

sample 

LESS THAN $25 UNITS 





Number 
of dwell- 
ing units 

in 
sample 


Total monthly rent 


Average monthly 
rent 


Percent 


Area covered 


Previous 

survey 

1939 


Current 

survey 

1939 


Previous 

survey 

1934 


Current 

survey 

1939 


change 
in rental 


Total 


5,367 


$91, 737. 30 


$102. 293. 65 


$17.09 


$19. 06 


+11.5 




Newark 


3,560 
400 
444 
174 
789 


61,887.80 
5, 940. 50 
8,017.00 
2,801.00 

13, 081. 00 


67, 606. 00 
7. 078. 00 
9, 507. 25 
2, 840. 40 

15, 262. 00 


17.38 
14.85 
18.06 
16. 10 
16.58 


18.99 
17.70 
21.41 
16.32 
19.34 


+9.3 
+19.2 
+18.5 

+ 1.4 
+16.6 


Perth Ambov 




Ashurv Park 









$25 THROUGH $29.99 UNITS 








Total 


2,086 


$53, 205. 75 


$25, 244. 50 


$25. 51 


$26. 48 


+3.8 




Newark 


1, 345 
74 
327 

72 
268 


34, 429. 50 
1,876.25 
8, 241. 50 
1,818.00 
6, 840. 50 


36, 374. 50 
2, 036. 00 
7,344.00 
1, 806. 50 
7, 683. 50 


25. 60 
25. 35 
25.20 
25.18 
25.52 


27.04 
27.51 
22. 46 
25. 02 
28.67 


+5.9 

+8.5 

-11.1 

g 


Perth An^bov 


Atlantic City 

Asburv Park 


Elizabeth 


+ 12.3 





1 Supplement to memorandum of Aug. 16, 1940, re comparison of rent study selected sample, 1934- 
(rcntals of $24.99 or less and $25 through $29.99). 

Table III. — Shelter data, Essex County 



Municipalities 



Number 
of cases 



10 percent rent 



Not met 
bvMuni- 
cipal Aid 
.A.dminis- 
tration 



Met by 
Munici- 
pal Aid 
Adminis- 
tration 



South Orange, village 

West Orange, town 

East Orange, city 

Orange, city 

Caldwell, township 

Caldwell, borough 

North Caldwell, borough 
West Caldwell, borough. 

Livingston, township 

Nutley, town 

Cedar Grove, township.. 

Belleville, town 

Verona, borough 

Maplewood, township... 

ISlilburn, township 

Roseland, borough 

Irvington, town. _. 

Bloomfield, town 

Newark, city 

Montclair, town 



Percent 
32 
30 
24 
16 



Source: New Jersey relief census, 1941. 



60396— 41— pt. 14- 



5682 



TRENTON HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF A. R. POST— Eesumed 



The Chairman. Are you familiar with the W. P. A. projects? 

Mr. Post. Well, only indirectly, as W. P. A. involves relief. 

The Chairman, Has any effort been made to close W. P. A. projects 
on account of the lack of farm labor? 

Mr. Post. I cannot say as to any general progi-am. Possibly in 
some isolated cases by municipal officers. 

The Chairman. Do you know anything about the housing and 
health conditions of local labor? 

Mr. Post. Well, I incorporated something in my report. I men- 
tioned the fact that rentals had gone up all over the State, and we 
are required to raise our standard from 10 to 39 percent within a 
range up to and including $25. There is a dearth of vacancies. 
Vacancies have decreased from 12 and 15 percent down to 1 percent. 

For example, in Newark, back in 1934, out of 89,000 units^ 14 



Cost of G<goDS Purch/^Sbo 






M«R Jur,c 5c 

K IB37 


CcsT or Livma /« /^J: ■ /V.U 



DiPT or liafi. 



percent were vacant. Recently a survey was made by the State Hous- 
ing Authority of 118,000 housing units and only 3,000 vacancies were 
found. That condition obtains more or less throughout the entire 
State in the large cities like Elizabeth and Bellville and Paterson and 
Passaic and Hackensack. The vacancies represent only 1 percent. 

The Chairman. What are those vacancies? Are they substandard 
houses ? 

Mr. Post. I presume some of them are. Of course, vacancies in- 
volve the relief administrations a great deal because it is necessary 
to place relief families in them. The fact that there are no vacant 
houses complicates the situation in view of the fact that relief 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5683 

agencies are required to adhere to a stringent program as regards 
expenditures. 

The Chairman. Is there any particular point you wish to bring 
out ? 

Mr. Post. Yes, sir. The Congressman mentioned something about 
hospitalization. Under the State law, municipalities are required 
to administer aid to non-State residents pending determination oi 
their residence in some other State, and possibly resettlement and 
relief, which includes medical care and hospitalization. And I 
might say that the cases referred to our administrator include some 
that do receive hospitalization; so the matter is taken care of, gen- 
erally, so to speak. Whether there are cases that are refused, I am not 
prepared to state. They haven't come to my attention, at any rate. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Post. 

I understand Mr. Allen is not present. 

Gentlemen, I want to say to you that we deeply appreciate having 
this panel here this afternoon. Thank you for your valuable 
contributions. 

Our next witness is Mr. Walker. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM WALKER, BLUE POINT, LONG 
ISLAND, N. Y. 

The Chairman. Congressman Curtis will interrogate you. 

Mr. Curtis. What is your full name, Mr. Walker ? 

Mr. Walker. William Walker. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliere do you live ? 

Mr. Walker. Blue Point, Long Island, N. Y. 

Mr. Curtis. And what is your occupation? 

Mr. Walker. Boat builder. 

Mr. Curtis. For whom do you work ? 

Mr. Walker. Elco, Navy division. 

Mr. Curtis. How old are you ? 

Mr. Walker. Thirty-two. 

Mr. Curtis. Where were you born ? 

Mr. Walker. England. 

Mr. Curtis. How long did you live in England ? 

Mr. Walker. A year and a half. 

Mr. Curtis. And then where did you live ? 

Mr. Walker. Long Island. 

Mr. Curtis. You have lived there ever since ? 

Mr. Walker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. How long have you been employed by this boat com- 
pany? 

Mr. Walker. Four months. 

Mr. Curtis. Where did you work before that? 

Mr. Walker. Camp Upton, Long Island. 

Mr. Curtis. In what capacity ? 

Mr. Walker. Carpenter. 

Mr. Curtis. What kind of work are you doing in the boat-building 
company ? 

Mr. Walker. Planking. 



5g§4 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. How many years' experience have you had in carpen- 
tering ? 

Mr. Walker. About 5. 

Mr. Curtis. How much education have you? 

Mr. Walker. Two years of high schooL 

Mr. Curtis. Are you a resident of tlie State of New Yorlv ? 

Mr. Walker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. AVhere is this Elco Boat Co. located ? 

Mr. Walker. Bayonne, N. J. 

Mr. Curtis. How far is that from your home in Long Island? 

Mr. Walker. Pretty near 70 miles. 

Mr. Curtis. You are still living in Long Island? 

Mr. Walker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. How do you get back and forth ? 

Mr. Walker. Train. 

Mr. Curtis. How long does it take you ? 

Mr. Walker. Over 2 hours one way. 

Mr. Curtis. What does it cost you each day to do that, approxi- 
mately ? 

Mr. Walker. It is a $1.10 one way on Long Island and then you 
have to take dilferent transportation to New Jersey. It is pretty 
near $3 a day. 

Mr. Curtis. Why do you do that? Why don't you live closer to 
your work ? 

Mr. Walker. I would if I could find a house and place for my 
family. 

Mr. Curtis. How much of a family do you have? 

Mr. Walioer. Five children. 

Mr. Curtis. And how old is the oldest one? 

Mr. Walker. Ten. 

Mr. Curtis. And the youngest ? 

Mr. A\ alker. Ten months. 

Mr. Curtis. What effort have you made to find a house around 
Bayonne i 

Mr. ^Valker. Why, considering the time, I haven't put in much 
effort outside of inquiring of people in the shop. I have been around 
somewhat. Always bought papers which advertise houses. 

Mr. Curtis. You said you had made inquiry of other men in the 
shop. Do you know of others who are meeting with the same problem 
that you are ? 

Mr. Walker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ( uRTiS. A number of them are unable to find homes? 

Mr. Walker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. How many people are working in defense industries 
around Bayonne, do you have any idea ? 

Mr. Walker. No. 

Mr. Curtis. Does it run into several thousands, or just a matter 
of hundreds? 

Mr. Walker. Why, in the plant I work in I have been told the 
number of men working there is 4,500. 

Mr. Curtis. How much rent do you pay at Blue Point, Long Island ? 

Mr. Walker. Pay $35 a month. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5585 

Mr. Curtis. If you could locate a place in or near Bayonne that 
would be comparable to that, do you know about what it would cost 
you ? 

Mr. Walker. No ; I don't. 

Mr. Curtis. What are your weeklj^ wages, approximately? 

Mr. Walker. $45 and a few cents. 

Mr. Curtis. And it takes $18 of that for transportation? 

Mr. Walker. About $13.50 a week. 

Mr. Curtis. You work just 5 days? 

JNIr. Walker. I am working 6 days. 

Mr. Curtis. Are you able to support your family on what you 
have left after you pay your transportation? 

Mr. Walker. Yes ; we make out. 

Mr. Curtis. Is there any evidence of a rise in the cost of living where 
your family is living? 

Mr. Walker. Oh. yes ; I believe so. 

Mr. Curtis. In what items ? 

Mr. Walker. Food especially. I notice it there because we keep 
tabs on the price. 

Mr. Curtis. I think that is all. 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb '. 

Dr. Lamb. What is your hourly wage? 

Mr. Walker. 90 cents an hour. 

Dr. Lamb. And how much overtime do you work? 

Mr. Walker. We are working 8 hours overtime, Saturday. 

Dr. Lamb. And you get for that 

Mr. Walker. Time and a half for that. 

Dr. Lamb. Or $1.35 an hour? 

Mr. W.ALKER. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. One more question: Are there any other people com- 
muting the same distance you are, or nearly so, that you know of? 

Mr. Walker. Why, there are very few commuting the distance I 
go, but there are a number coming from the Bronx, which takes them 
pretty near 2 hours to get home. 

Mr. Curtis. And is the expense about the same? 

Mr. Walker. No ; they travel by subway and the expense is very 
low. The time is the big item there. 

Mr. Curtis. Is the work that is going on at the boat company some- 
thing that is likely to be permanent after the defense activities are 
over ? 

Mr. Walker. No. The opinion of the men in the yard is that after 
the emergency is over very few men will be working there in propor- 
tion to what are working there now. 

Mr. Curtis. That is perhaps one of the things that discourages 
local people from putting up more houses? 

Mr. Walker. I believe so. 

Dr. Lamb. What time do you get up in the morning to go to work? 

Mr. AV.'LKER. I generally get up at 4:30, and I catch the train; 
leave the house at 5 : 10 to catch the train. 

Dr. Lamb. And what time do you get to work. 

Mr. Walker. A little after 8. 

Dr. Lamb. Are you on time? 



5686 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Walker. You mean on time for work ? 

Dr. Lamb. Yes. 

Mr. Walker. No ; I am 10 minutes late, so I get docked a half hour. 

Dr. Lamb. What time are you through work? 

Mr. Walker. Four-thirty. 

Dr. Lamb. What time do you get home ? 

Mr. Walker. Seven-fifteen. 

Dr. Lamb. So you leave home at 5 : 10 in the morning and you get 
home at 7 : 15 at night ? 

Mr. Walker. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. Six days a week; is that right? 

Mr. Walker. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Curtis. That is too much time spent in going to work ; I have 
some friends who take that long to get home at night, but it is too 
much time in the morning. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Walker. 

Our next witness is Mr. Shaffer. 

TESTIMONY OF THEODORE L. SHAFFER, VICE PRESIDENT, CON- 
GOLEUM-NAIRN, INC., APPEARING ON BEHALF OF THE NEW 
JERSEY STATE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

The Chairman. Mr. Shaffer, Congressman Osmers will interro- 
gate you. 

Mr. OsMERS. Mr. Shaffer, will you give us your full name and 
address and title for the record? 

Mr. Shaffer. My name is T. L. Shaffer. I am vice president of 
Congoleum-Nairn, Inc., manufacturers of linoleum and congoleum 
rugs, with our main office and linoleum plant located at Kearny, 

Mr. Osmers. You have submitted a paper, I believe, to the com- 
mittee staff? 

Mr. Shaffer. That is correct. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY THEODORE L. SHAFFER, VICE PRESIDENT, CONGO- 
LEUM-NAIRN, INC. ; REPRESENTATIVE OF THE NEW JERSEY STATE 
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

The New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce, at the request of the House 
Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, is pleased to submit 
this statement of its position and views on industry and industrial employment 
in New Jersey. To secure a true picture concerning New Jersey's capacity to- 
produce national-defense materials and supplies, it is necessary for your 
committee to have a clear outline of certain fundamental characteristics of 
the State's industrial position. 

New Jersey is an outstandingly important manufacturing State. Although 
it is but forty-fifth in area, and only ninth in population, it ranks sixth in 
its volume of normal industrial production. Its tremendously important part 
in the national-defense program may be measured by the amount and number 
of defense contracts which have been awarded to New Jersey business and 
Industrial concerns. (See summary attached.) (P. 5688.) The strength of our 
industry lies in the wide diversification of its output and the types of skill required 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5687 

of its manpower. This diversification of our manufactures accounts for the 
industrial stability which characterizes our State. It also accounts for New- 
Jersey's ability to undertake the manufacture of so large a proportion of the 
defense products required by our Federal Government at this time. 

While many other States have had difficulty in getting underway with the 
production of defense materials allocated to them by Government contracts, 
New Jersey, by virtue of its many well-built and efficiently managed plants, its 
large and widely diversified equipment, and the many skills possessed by its 
working force, was able to begin production, when the demands came, with a 
minimum loss of time and effort. 

BETWEEN TWO GREATEST CONSUMING MARKETS 

The reasons for this ability to swing into action almost at a moment's notice 
are obvious: We are located between two of the greatest consuming markets 
of the world and industrial development in this State has been at a high level 
for a great many years, with steady annual additions to our industrial struc- 
ture. The northern end of our State lies just across the Hudson River from 
Metropolitan New York and the southern end is just across the Delaware 
River from Metropolitan Philadelphia This means that more than 14,000,000 
consumers live within 60 miles of New Jersey's geographical center, and a 
market of more than 20,000,000 can be reached by motortruck on an overnight 
haul. This market, incidentally, represents 23 percent of the Nation's money 
income in normal times. 

New Jersey has everything to offer by way of highly developed transportation 
facilities. There are 8 trunk-line railroads with terminal facilities within the 
State, and we have more railroad trackage per square mile than any other 
State in the Nation. Our system of motor highways is unexcelled. There are 
over 26,000 miles of roads, of which 17,000 or more are in improved highways. 
And, furthermore, we share in the great harbor facilities of the ports of New 
York and Philadelphia. 

DIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY INDUSTRIES 

A survey of industrial plants in New Jersey resembles in its wide diversity the 
general pattern of industry throughout the Nation. The list of products manu- 
factured here is too long to be given in detail, but the United States Census 
Bureau lists 170 different classes of industry within the State. 

From a survey recently made by the New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce, 
with the cooperation of cojnmercial organization executives throughout the 
State, it would appear that industrial areas are experiencing little difficulty in 
connection with either in-migration or out-migration of workers in an interstate 
sense. Naturally, there is some movement of workers within the State from 
one industrial region to another but there is little, if any, evidence of wholesale 
movements of workers either into or out of New Jersey. In our judgment this 
desirable situation is largely the result of the excellent workers' training pro- 
grams instituted by many business concerns, by our vocational schools, and 
especially by the Federal Government through the Office of Production 
Management. 

The industrial development of New Jersey has been a major activity of the 
New Jersey State Chamber of Commerce for a good many years, and the number 
of industrial plants which have chosen to locate here is the result of united 
efforts by public, semipublic, and private agencies. Nevertheless, even with 
the steady increase of plants which has occurred each year, there is still a large 
opportunity for further industrial expansion, especially in the south Jersey 
region. 

Any efforts which might be made by the Federal Government or any other 
agency to remove ordei-s, plants, or workers from our State into other States 
or sections of the country can conceivably do New Jersey a great deal of harm, 
which would manifest itself not only at the present time but in the future when 
defense production comes to an end and a return to production for the normal 
needs of our country takes place. 



5688 TRENTON HEARINGS 

New Jersey awards and contracts, July 1, lO-'fO, to May 31, 1941 

Army contracts S469, 470, 305 

Navy contracts 890, 776,653 

Civil aeronautics 6r;4, 500 

Work Projects Administration, defense projects 9, 20 i, 475 

Defense housing 1, 400, 100 

U. S. Housing Authority, defense housing projects 1, 047, 000 

Pxiblic Buildings Administration, defense housing 3, 2.'9. GOO 

Office of Education, defense training 1,4' 8 121 

National Youth Administration (defense-training funds for 1941) _ 1. 676. 319 

Defense Plant Corporation 29,954,256 

Reconstruction Finance Corporation 33,140,850 

Total 1, 445, 122, 879 

TESTIMONY OF THEODOKE L. SHAFFEE— Eesumed 

Mr. OsMERS. I wonder if you will just summarize vonr paper for us, 
Mr. Shaffer? 

Mr. Shaffer. I shall be happy to. The purpose of submittinor this 
paper to the committee was, of course, to get on record the importance 
of New Jersey as not only a producer of defense materials, but as a 
producer of materials for our civil occupations. Many people don't 
appreciate this until they stop to recognize the compactness of our 
population — that is, something in the neighborhood of 20.000.000 peo- 
ple living within an overnight truck haul from the geographical center 
of New Jersey. Those 20,000,000 people represent approximately a 
quarter of the entire purchasing power of the United Spates. So, in 
peacetimes or in times when we are not preparing for war, we find that 
Jersey's industries are quite important. The forty-fifth State in size, 
it ranks sixth in industrial production under normal conditions, and 
under the defense program it has the No. 1 rating for defense contracts 
that have been placed with it — $1,500,000,000 in round numbers. The 
latest figure telephoned to me just before I left put in the last contract 
placed up to the 151:h of June, which makes it $1,452,000 000. of which 
amount Navv contracts account for about $890,000,000. and Army 
contracts for approximately $500 OCO.OOO. The remaining $100,000,000 
is scattered through K. F. C. defense contracts, and Civil Aeronautics, 
and various items of that character. 

TWO BIG SHIPYARDS AT CAPACITY RATE 

We have two large shipbuilding firms in the State of New Jersey, 
both of which have expanded very rapidly over the last 18 months 
in the number of people employed and in the amount of work turned 
out. They are going full blast. That probably accounts for the high 
value of Navy contracts placed in the State, One is at the up]:)er end 
of the State at Kearny, where our plant happens to be located, and 
the other is at the southern end of the State at Camden. 

Mr. OsMERs. Mr. Shaffer, it is obvious that this tremendous defense 
business that we are doing hi New Jersey is going to affect our econ- 
omy. Of course, the committee is primarily interested in how it will 
affect the movement of human beings from one State to another, and 
I wonder if you Avould care to express your opinion on that. 

Mr. Shaffer. I am here not only as a representative of a manu- 
facturing concern, but also as a member of the Chamber of Commerce 
of the State of New Jersey, a member of its defense committee. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 55g9 

The State chamber has conducted some surveys in that respect, and 
we find not a great deal of interstate dislocation or migration. We 
don't find a great deal of intrastate migration, as a matter of fact. 
Some people think that they can make a little more money if they go 
over to this job or that job. They hear that the shipyards are going 
strong and paying fabulous wages. We have experienced that in our 
own company. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is there much labor piracy going on in New Jersey? 

Mr. Shaffer. I wouldn't call it "piracy" as much as I would call it a 
result of somebody building false hopes in his own mind. I was just 
about to remark that in our own company men have quit their jobs 
because they were led to believe that in the Wright Aeronautical fac- 
tory over at Paterson, or in the Federal Ship at Kearny, or some other 
place where they were expanding very rapidly, they could practically 
write their own ticket as to wages. I think perhaps the most salutary 
happening has been that a number of them have come back and asked 
for their jobs back. 

Mr. OsMERS. But there was no evidence that any of these other con- 
cerns tried to take them away from you ? 

Mr. Shaffer. None. With the expansion that has come about under 
the defense program, the plants have in many cases sent notices to 
former employees that if they cared to reinstate themselves as active 
employees, they may ; but these notices were couched in such terms that 
they couldn't be considered "labor piracy." 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, do you know of any small concerns which have 
had to shut down because of shortages of essential raw materials^ 

Mr. Shaffer. None that I could specifically mention; nor are there 
any that have come to the attention of the chamber. In general we 
find that with priorities rapidly becoming the order of the day, a num- 
ber of people are likely to have some difficulties; but up to elate those 
priorities haven't interfered. 

"eclipse'" of little business 

Mr. Osmers. I want to read to you, for the purpose of the record, a 
little squib from the latest issue of Time magazine, under the heading 
of "Manufacturing last week" [reading] : 

Last week, as the IMay Federal Reserve uroduction index hit a new all-time 
high, a young O. P. M.-ite named Peter R. Nemhemkis, Jr., predicted that one- 
third of United States indi;stry might soon be shut down for lack of business. 
Because of defense priorities, he said, 10 industries are already facing eclipse. 
Chief victims, moreover, would be little businessmen. "It is one of the profound 
ironies of our defense effort that its total effect may well be to obliterate 
smaller enterprises." ^ 

Mr. Shaffer. May I just put something in the record at this point, 
voluntarily, which would in part answer this charge : We are depend- 
ent upon cork for the manufacture of linoleums. Let me qualify that 
by saying that cork is a critical commodity. It has been on the critical 
list, and the critical lists have been published as the shortage of cork 
became more acute. There are only five cork-producing countries on 
the face of the earth, to the best of our knowledge : The three cork- 



Time, June 30, 1041, p. 70. 



5690 TRENTON HEARINGS 

producing countries in northern Africa, and their African relatives on 
the European continent, Spain and Portugal. I say: "African rela- 
tives" because those countries more nearly resemble Africa than they 
do Europe. 

Cork comes from trees, which produce the cork bark. Since the 
collapse of France a year ago, the cork-producing countries in northern 
Africa have come under the doubtful list. 

We didn't know whether they were neutral, whether free French, 
or dominated by the Nazis, or whether they were pro-English. Con- 
sequently both England and Germany have kept blockades on them, 
so nothing has come out of there. 

It has been inferred in newspaper reports that Spain, a cork- 
producing country, has some obligations to Germany, and conse- 
quently any of her products that Germanv needs Germany gets 
first. So, the supply of cork coming out of Spain has been reduced, 
and it leaves Portugal pretty much carrying the burden now. 

Mr. OsMERs. Well, Portugal's supply won't nearly fill the world 
needs, will it? 

Mr. Shaffer. No; couldn't possibly. Therefore, cork has been 
put on the priorities, and we, as users of cork, are cooperating with 
the O. P. M. in working out our salvation and the needs of the 
Government and the needs of the defense program for cork. 

REDUCTION OF CORK CONTENT 

Now, we find that they are not trying to crowd men out of em- 
ployment because of a shortage of cork, nor are they trying to 
shut down either small or large industries that depend upon cork, 
but they are approaching the thing from the reasonable angle of 
inquiring into the cork content of each of our commodities to see 
how that cork content may be reduced and still preserve the charac- 
teristics in the products that were sought when cork was incorporated 
in them. 

Mr. OsMERS. Has it worked? 

Mr. Shaffer. It has worked to this extent — that today everyone 
who consumes cork in our industry is operating on approximately 
50 percent of the usage of cork that'he operated on 60 days ago or 90 
days ago. 

Now, to show how willing and anxious they are to keep from 
shutting down their plants by curtailing the use of cork, only 
day before yesterday representatives of our company and other 
linoleum manufacturers met representatives of the O. P. M. and 
of the Federal Specifications Board, in what we may call a "tri- 
angular meeting," to determine from the manufacturer's standpoint, 
from the specification writer's standpoint, and from the user's stand- 
point, how far they could go in the reduction of cork in our par- 
ticular commodities and still preserve necessary characteristics^ and 
we are presently to submit a recommendation as to how far we think 
we can go in that particular. 

TRANSITION, NOT SHUTDOWN 

Mr. OsMERS. Asking a hypothetical question, Mr. Shaffer, if you 
were cut off from all cork, what effect would it have upon your 
operations? Would you close down? Would you discharge men? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5691 

Mr. Shaffer. I tliink not. I think we ^youlc\ step out and make 
linoleum without cork and tell the public very frankly that we had 
been making large yardages of linoleum without cork for many 
years past to develop certain characteristics that the public chose, 
and that we were now doing it in all the linoleums — we were sacri- 
ficing something, yes, sir, resiliency in that particular commodity 
from which we took it, and the capacity of the linoleum to resist 
subtropical and tropical temperatures and humidity; but after all, 
we don't have too many of those areas in the United States. 

Mr. OsMERS. You would probably have a transition period? 

Mr. Shaffer. Correct. We would. 

Mr. OsMERS. Where your sales would drop and then work up again? 

Mr. Shaffer. That is right — as we learned how to use substitutes 
and found substitutes. 

]Mr. OsMERS. And how to sell the new product? 

Mr. Shaffer. That is correct. But I don't want to dwell on our 
problem. I would rather talk about the bigger problem. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, do you see any great shift of workers from non- 
essential industries into essential industries? 

Mr. Shaffer. To date there has been no great shift. 

Mr. OsMERS. Has the large number of unemployed in New Jersey 
contributed to that ? 

BROADENING SCOPE OF MANUFACTURE 

Mr. Shaffer. That has been one of the factors. There have been 
the unemployed who could be absorbed, and in the second place, many 
of the industries are anxious to continue operating v/ith their skilled 
crews by doing something for the Government or for the defense 
measures that they are not doing now. If I could illustrate that, I 
should like to show you that in our own industry we have what are 
called stoves. They are large buildings in which we maintain a tem- 
perature higher than the temperature outdoors. They are not stoves of 
the sort that bake biscuits at 400 degrees temperature, but they are kept 
at about 140 or 150 degrees. We maintain that to cure linoleum. 

Now, normally, we wouldn't manufacture gas-proof cloth, but our 
associate companies in London, England, and in Scotland have found 
they can be of great service to the British Government in using those 
stoves and their equipment to manufacture cloth which is im- 
permeable — gas-proof, resistant to mustard, phosgene, chlorine, and 
the other gases. 

Now, we have offered our services and have developed and had ap- 
proved by the Chemical Warfare Service, a product of that type and 
description. We are not currently making it because there is no cur- 
rent demand for it, but we will be delighted to use our skilled men, our 
equipment, and our stoves to produce that type of material rather than 
the type of material we are now producing that bears cork, if it comes 
to that. 

Mr. OsMERS. Has the chamber of commerce made any effort to go 
through all industries with that in mind ? 

ADDING DEFENSE ARTICLES TO MANUFACTURES 

Mr. Shaffer. Indeed they have. I am happy you have asked that 
question. About 11 months ago the State chamber organized a defense 



5692 TRENTON HEARINGS 

committee, of which Mr. S. B. Colgate is chairman, and of which I 
happen to be a member, and we discussed this very tiling. We have 
gone about the State seeking to find out the capacities of manufacturing 
concerns in the northern section especially, which is the most highly 
industrialized. We were examining the capacities those concerns had 
for manufacturing for defense purposes articles they didn't normally 
make. 

I use that as an illustration of what we have done in our own 
company. 

Mr. OsMERs. And I presume you found a good many of those plants 
could supply things that they probably hadn't realized they could 
make. 

Mr. Shaffer. Indeed we did. 

Mr. OsMERS. I imagine that would be the case. Now, have you had 
any experience, Mr. Shaffer, with the State employment service? 

Mr. Shaffer. Yes, sir. They have asked the State chamber to have 
its members cooperate in this particular : First, when anyone applied 
to our gates, if we were unable to employ him, that we learn his 
capacities and skills; secondly, that we learn where he lives; and 
thirdly, that we urge him to go to the nearest State employment 
office and register as to skill and location and place of residence, 
and all that information, so that he would be on tap for those who 
required skills of that character. 

Numerous bulletins have been put out, as a matter of fact, by the 
State chamber to its members, asking them to cooperate in that par- 
ticular, and we have followed through with it. 

SATS LABOR SUPPLY IS SUFFICIENT TO DATE 

Mr. OsMERs. Do you find that in all the normal operations of your 
plant you have enough men applying at the gate to answer your 
needs ? 

Mr. Shaffer. To date we have. 

Mr. OsMEES. That is also true, I believe, with a great many of our 
industries in New Jersey? 

Mr. Shaffer. It has, except where certain skills have been required, 
and again we are particularly fortunate in north Jersey, in that we 
have numerous feeder systems. 

First, we have an excellent training program that industry has 
worked out, of its own accord, for training its own people. 

Second, we have an O. P. M. training-within-industr}" office there, 
headed by a very able citizen who has developed a fine organization 
that is getting results. 

Third, we have a vocational-school system that is the marvel of the 
country, so I am told. 

I happened to have the pleasure of giving the commencement 
address to the graduating class on Tuesday evening of this week from 
the Essex County Vocational School, located on South Sussex Street, 
in Newark, and there were some 180 boys being graduated from that 
school. 

The question was asked how many of them had been employed for 
the past 3 months while they were completing their school course, 
and about 75 percent of the hands went up, showing that this voca- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5693 

tional-school system feeds industry to such an extent that the boys 
are employed before they actually' get out and get their diplomas. 

Mr. OsMEES. Throughout our tours of the country I have repeatedly 
stated that I believe the emphasis in our future educational system 
must be placed upon vocational subjects rather than the more or less 
cultural subjects that we have been instructing in for so many years. 
Now, do you agree with that? 

Mr. Shaffer. I not only agree that it is true, but we have cooperated 
in every particular with the vocational schools in our community to 
take their product, and have urged them to establish new schools, 
and have raised no voice about the added expense. 

Mr. OsMERS. It has been the experience of the committee that when 
a young man is through with the public-school system, he must then 
go out and get special training before he can get any kind of a job. 

Now, would you care to say just a word about sulDContracting ? 

SUBCONTRACTING "dOESN T WORk" 

Mr. Shaffer. Yes, sir ; I would be very happy to. 

By and large, subcontracting doesn't work. It doesn't work for this 
reason : A subcontractor can do only one of several things that must 
be done, and therefore the product must be sent to his shop to have the 
first operation performed, picked up from his shop and moved to a 
second shop, and so on through the series of operations required. The 
handling and transportation and delay are such that it makes that 
procedui'e impracticable. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you believe there is any truth in the charge that 
certain prime contractors are attempting to squeeze the small con- 
tractor? That charge, as you know, has been made. I wonder if you 
have seen any evidence of that. 

Mr. Shaffer. No ; I have seen no evidence of it. As a matter of fact, 
the only deterrent that actually exists to subcontracting is the one I 
have cited, so far as we have been able to learn from any studies 
we have made in the matter. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you feel that there is anything that can be done to 
improve or accelerate our training program here in New Jersey, or is 
it going along in good shape ? 

Mr. Shaffer. I have the distinct feeling it is going along in good 
shape. To' say there is nothing that we can do to improve it is to say 
we have reached perfection, and I don't believe that at all ; but I do have 
the distinct feeling that we will improve progressively under the sys- 
tem that we are now using. The one thing for a long-range program 
of defense training or training for industry, be it peacetime or defense, 
would be an extension, or a recommendation to extend, the vocational- 
school idea ; but our training-within-industry is progressing about as 
rapidl}^ as we are al)le to digest it, and those in charge are doing, in my 
opinion, an excellent job. 

FINDS NO RACE DISCRIMINATION BY EMPLOYERS 

Mr. OsMFJJs. There have been charges made before this committee — 
and, in fact, some evidence has been produced to back up the charges — 
that there is discrimination against Negroes, particularly in some of 
the defense industries. I wonder if you would care to discuss that. 



5694 trp:nton hearings 

Mr. Shaffer. I have found no discrimination, so far as the employer 
is concerned. I can speak not only from my observations but from 
our personal experience. 

We have employed in our plants a higher percentage of colored peo- 
ple than there are living in the State where the plants are located; so 
that definitely there is no prejudice from that experience. 

Mr. OsMERS. How do j'ou explain the fact that certain industries — 
and I will point my finger at the aircraft industry for the moment 
because that has come to our attention — employ hardly a single Negro ? 

Mr. Shaffer. I think the answer to that — and this is my opinion 
or surmise, because I have not made a study of it — is that in the air- 
plane industry nearly every task is a task that requires a skill, and 
the skills which they are seeking are those which are more innately 
developed by whites than by the colored race. That is the only opin- 
ion in the matter that I would have. 

Mr. OsMERs. Would you say that the employee or the employer 
had more to do with keeping the Negro out ? 

Mr. Shaffer. It would be my opinion, definitely, that it would be 
the employee. 

Mr. Osmers. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Curtis. About when did New Jersey begin its industrial ex- 
pansion intensively ? 

Mr. Shaffer. We have been an intensive industrial State for a 
good many years. 

Mr. Curtis. I realize that; but isn't it true that you have in recent 
years made an added effort to increase your industries ? 

Mr. Shaffer. Yes, we have, for the reason that this high concen- 
tration of buying power that I have mentioned exists right at our 
back door, and we like to take advantage of all that we can. 

Mr. OsMERS. I would like to inject a word there, if I may, Mr. 
Curtis. 

Mr. Curtis. Certainly. 

Mr. Osmers. The State of New Jersey has had an extremely favor- 
able tax situation compared with surrounding States. I think that 
has been one of the reasons for it; and another reason has been the 
large supply of skilled labor that resides within the borders of the 
State. 

I think those two factors should be brought out. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Shaffer. You have 
given us a valuable contribution, and we appreciate it. 

The committee will stand adjourned until 9 : 30 tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 4 : 45 p. m., the hearing was recessed until 9 : 30 
a. m., Saturday, June 28, 1941.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



SATURDAY, JUNE 28, 1941 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington^ D. G. 
The committee met at 9 : 30 a. m., in the Post Office Building, Tren- 
ton, N. J., Hon. John H. Tolan (chairman) presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of Cali- 
fornia ; Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois ; Carl T. Curtis, of Nebraska ; 
and Frank C. Osmers, Jr., of New Jersey. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; John W. Abbott, 
chief field investigator; Jack B. Burke and Edward B. Garside, field 
investigators ; and Ruth B. Abrams, field secretary. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 
Our first witness this morning is Mr. Sterner. 

TESTIMONY OF E. DONALD STEENER, STATE HIGHWAY COMMIS- 
SIONEK, TRENTON, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Sterner, will you give your full name and 
address and the capacity in which you appear before the committee? 

Mr. Sterner. E. Donald Sterner, New Jersey State highway com- 
missioner. 

The Chairman. Have you filed a paper or statement? 

Mr. Sterner. Yes. 

The Chairman. We will be glad to insert it in full in the record, 
Mr. Sterner. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY E. DONALD STERNER, NEW JERSEY STATE 
HIGHWAY COMMISSIONER 

New Jersey, for reasons many and varied, is cast very prominently in the 
national-defense program. Consequently the question of national-defense mi- 
gration is of the utmost importance in this State. 

Foremost attention in this matter must be focused on existing facilities af- 
fecting motor-vehicle transportation. It is my endeavor to furnish you with 
the facts concerning our most pressing highway problems, based on a 6-year 
study as State highway commissioner. 

New Jersey, because of its geographical location between New York and Phil- 
adelphia, the first and third largest cities in the United States, has rightfully 
been designated as the "hub of the north Atlantic seaboard." 

More recently, as the national-defense program has been furthered, this desig- 
nation has meant a great deal more than a mere geographical location. 

5695 



5696 TRENTON HEARINGS 

New Jersey is no longer the "gangplank" between two great metropolitan 
centers. It is a vital source of production for our armed forces, its manufac- 
turing output ranging from warships, planes, and ammunition to delicate instru- 
ments and uniform apparel. 

This is borne out by the vast amount of defense orders already awarded to New 
Jersey's unusually diverse industries by the War and Navy Departments and the 
OflSce of Production Management. 

In connection with this it is important to emphasize the great concentration of 
these defense industries in particular sections, such as metropolitan north Jersey, 
extending from the Raritan River as far north as the George Washington Bridge ; 
in the vicinity of New Brunswick and Trenton ; across State in the Camden- 
Philadelphia area ; and south along the east bank of the Delaware River with its 
many war industries and shipyards. 

Even before the war startea New Jersey had the greatest density of traffic in 
America, principally in the north Jersey and Camden metropolitan sections. With 
the sudden expansion of industry, plus the activities at various Army posts, air- 
ports, naval stations, and arsenals, these traffic problems have become mu-e com- 
plex than ever. 

THREE-SHIFT OPERATION CONGESTS TRAFFIC 

Undoubtedly the most impressive illustration of this unprecedented traffic con- 
gestion is to be found in the vicinity of the numerous defense industries. Before 
the national-defense program got under way, the great majority of these plants 
operated on an 8-hour basis. Furthermore, many new industries siiecializmg in 
war supplies have ciopped up in the past year. 

Under the present drive to speed aid to the Allies and bolster our own forces, 
these industries have been forced to operate on a full 24-hour schedule, necessi- 
tating three 8-hour shifts for workers. This naturally means three times as 
many persons are working at plants which were in operation even before the war 
plus the great influx of new woikers in new war industries. 

These workers have come from all parts of the United States. Their migration 
here has naturally added greater burdens to our transportation facilities. Besides 
the workers themselves we must take into consideration their families. They 
also add to the transportation problems. 

Traffic counts made at strategic locations over a period of a few years give 
positive proof of the ever-increasing congestion which creates bottlenecks. 

Route 25 (U. S. 1) in the vicinity of the Newark Airport is perliaps the most 
astounding example. A year ago the average daily volume on this stretch of 
highway was 6<3,000 vehicles of all types. Today the volume exceeds 65,000 and 
is increasing every day. As many as 103,000 cars, buses, and trucks have passed 
the Newark Airport in a 24-hour period. Is it any wonder this road has been 
called the worst point of traffic congestion in the United States? 

Another startling location is the junction of Routes 21, 25, and 29, just south 
of Newark Airport, where the average daily volume of traffic converging on this 
point from the three main highways is approximately 100,OCO cars a day, based 
. on the latest traffic counts. 

It is vitally important in quoting these figures to point out that New Jersey 
vehicles far outnumber those having other license plates. For example, at the 
Newark junction during May the total volume of traffic was 2,964,589 vehicles of 
all types. 

Traffic checks shovp that similar sharp increases in traffic volume are being 
recorded on all other roads serving defense industries and strategic military 
locations, in addition to the normal civilian traffic. 

MOVEMENT OF ARMY ITSELF REQIHRES MORE ROADS 

It is essential to remind ourselves at this time that our national-defense drive 
is far from being in full swing. Furthermore, -we must not overlook the fact 
that the war in Europe has been going on for 20 months and not a single dollar 
has been expended in New Jersey for vitally needed defense roads. Fort Dix, 
where 30,000 men are stationed, has turned a small town into a thriving com- 
munity. Troops are moving in and out daily with the result that local streets 
are jammed beyond all proportion throughout many hours of the day. 

Uninterrupted movement of war products in trucks and transportation of the 
tens of thousands of defen.se-industry workers in private cars and buses is of 
paramount importance in our national-defense program. Similarly essential is 
the proper movement of our modern streamlined mechanized Army divisions. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5697 

Nor can we lose sight of the huge fleets of trucks carrying New Jersey's agricul- 
tural products to market every day throughout the year. 

Existing highways are overcrowded daily many times beyond their prescribed 
capacity. Under present conditions, as the defense campaign is speeded up, 
we observe practically a stagnation of trafiic on some of our most important 
roads during rush-hour i>eriods in the morning and late afternoon. There isn't 
a community in metropolitan north Jersey whose streets and roads aren't 
clattered up daily because of this traffic. 

Besides the delays in transportation, huge money losses have been inflicted 
on industries and truck operators. Every delay due to narrow, inadequate 
roads, traffic lights, and local congestion, means money lost in time, gasoline, and 
labor because products have been standing in long lines of traffic. 

There is a great and immediate need for improvement in our highway system 
if we are to properly cope with the problems of national-defense migration. The 
present roads in metropolitan north Jersey are Inadequate for the massive 
volume of through traffic daily. The same is true in the vicinity of Camden. 

Access roads to defense industries. Army posts, airports, naval stations, and 
arsenals, connecting directly with a main trunk highway across the entire 
State, must comprise the backbone of an efiicient and adequate program of highway 
construction. 

The logical solution to this, as already endorsed by the War Department, the 
United States Public Roads Administration and trucking industrialists, is the 
New Jersey link of the Boston to Washington, D. C, superexpress highway. 

GREATER NEED FOR SUPEKHIGHWAY 

Whereas, this superhighway was necessary before the war, there is an even 
greater need now, as can bo emi>hatically testified to by the tens of thousands 
of defense workers, motorists, dtficials. and residents throughout north .Jersey 
in such communities as Kidgefield, Fairview, North Bergen, Jersey City, Bayonne, 
Newark, Elizabeth, Linden, and Woodbridge. The same can be said for Trenton 
and Camden. 

Various newspapers, in response to the urgent appeals of their tens of thousands 
of readers, have endorsed the construction of the superhighway. 

In conjunction with this trunk highway there must be a corresponding program 
of special access roads. In this way there will be avoided the stagnation of defense 
traffic across New Jersey from New York City to Philadelphia. 

By planning in advance certain connecting roads, this main trunk highway 
across New Jersey would be develoiied into a highly serviceable transportation 
facility for the residents of this State. This may be likened to a big river with 
many tributaries. Just as the smaller streams flow constantly into the giant 
body of water, eliminating danger of overflowing, the connecting roads would 
send traffic onto the main trunk route, reducing congestion in the business 
centers of comnmnities and guaranteeing ideal transpoortation within the borders 
of this State. 

TESTIMONY OF E. DONALD STERNER— Resumed 

The. Chairman, We have a pretty full list of witnesses today, so if 
you will briefly touch on the main points of your subject, we will 
appreciate it. 

You are conversant with the Fort Dix area, aren't you? 

Mr. Sterner. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Have you any idea how many people have moved 
into that area ? 

Mr. Sterner. You mean civilians? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

]Mr. Sterner. No; we haven't any figures on civilians. That in- 
formation should come from the commanding- officer: I imagine he 
would be better informed on that. 

The Chairman. How many people, civilians or otherwise, have 
moved into that area ? 

G039G— 41— pt. 14 11 



559S TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Sterner. Well, as I say, we get our figures only on the Army, 
and they say they expect to have 30,000 men during this month — 30,000 
soldiers — but, of course, our biggest problem is the great fleets of trucks 
that supply and feed those 30,000 men. 

The Chairman. I just wanted to get an approximation of the load 
there, and what you are up against. 

ABOUT 5,0 00 MORE CIVILIANS AT FORT DIX 

Mr. Sterner. I would say that there has been an influx of people 
there — carpenters, mechanics, and others working in the fort, civilian 
population which operates stores, and families of officers — in all, 
I would say roughly that population was about 5,000 additional. 

The Chairman. And over what period of time did that influx take 
place ? 

Mr. Sterner. That has all been within the last year — last 8 months 
particularly. 

The Chairman. You see. if the American people could only realize 
that this is an emergency program, they would understand it better. 
The load out there is terrific, and so it is with other defense centers. 

Mr. Sterner. Yes; you are right. 

The Chairman. And a great many problems are bound to arise — 
health problems, housing problems, and such. Isn't that true ? 

Mr. Sterner. Yes, sir; definitely. I might state that at the urgent 
suggestion of General Phillips, the commanding officer of the Second 
Corps Area, we prepared complete plans and specifications of access 
highways from our routes 39 and 25 at Bordentown into Fort Dix. 

The New Jersey Legislature passed a special act, under suspension 
of rules, for the adding of that route to our State highway system, so 
that we might construct it, and we were assured that Federal funds 
would be immediately available. That was in February, but I am sorry 
to report that the plans are still gathering dust up in our department. 

Mr. Curtis. "Wliat was your expectation as to financing? A match- 
ing basis, a complete Federal subsidy, 60-40, or what ? 

Mr. Sterner. Complete subsidy. It is an access highway. That 
is the thought embodied in all the present legislation which you are 
considering at Washington. In the Senate bill passed last week there 
was embodied a 100-percent contribution by the Federal Government 
for access roads, and the new House bill, 75 percent Federal and 25 
percent State, on the strategic military main-trunk routes. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

TROOP movement REQUIREMENTS 

The Chairman. Mr. Sterner, you must be some sort of road or high- 
way expert or you wouldn't hold your position. 

Mr. Sterner. I don't know that I would say I am an expert. 

The Chairman. As we have gone around the country, the thought 
has come to me — and this is my opinion only — that we would do well 
to look closely into our means of transportation from the standpoint of 
their effectiveness in a wartime emergency. What about our high- 
ways, what about our bridges and so forth? Suppose we had to have 
a movement of troops from the Atlantic coast to the Pacific. Would 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5699 

the bridges we have constructed bear the traffic, and are our roads 
capable of carrying such traffic? 

Mr. Sterner. My chief studies have been in the North Atlantic 
States. 

First, we should consider this fact: The military authorities may 
take complete jurisdiction over our highways, and when they want a 
highway, they can tell everybody else to get off the highway. 

What I have consistently argued with our military officers is the fact 
that anybody who has had experience at all in the last war, or in the 
present state of preparedness, knows that the services of supply are just 
as vitally essential to the support of the Army and Navy as are the 
combat units themselves. 

If they can't get their supplies they are helpless, and that is the 
reason I feel that we have waited too long in building a main-trunk 
highway to take care of the tributary highways. A great many Fed- 
eral-aid highways go into practically every area where there is any 
concentration of war industries or camps, and our larger cities, but we 
do not have a main-trunk-line artery along the North Atlantic coast 
from Boston to Washington — a superhighway, which we have advo- 
cated — into which all these tributaries of traffic can flow. 

That is vitally essential. Anyone who would say it isn't might also 
advocate, in the same vein, that it isn't necessary to have the main 
body of a river, all you need is the tributaries, and you don't have to 
worry about the main flow of the water. 

It is just as vitally essential in highway construction to have a main- 
trunk route, so that the big fleets of trucks carrying supplies and the 
great armies of industrial workers going to our war industries plus 
all our civilian traffic can get out on the main arterial highways and 
travel to their destination and save time and delivery cost. Thus we 
would avoid cluttering up the tributaries, as we might term them — 
the alternate routes and the feeder routes which feed into the main 
truck highways. That is the reason the Secretary of War and the 
Bureau of Public Roads have endorsed in particular this superhighway 
from Boston to Washington. 

HIGHWAY NEEDS AROUND FORT DIX 

The Chairman. Wliat is the highway situation around Fort Dix? 

Mr. Sterner. Well, it is in a very bad state of affairs; there is 
practically nothing but secondary routes with bituminous surface 
treatment. There is one old concrete pavement that runs from Mount 
Holly and connects with route 39, which was constructed in the last 
World War, but that is in pretty bad shape. There are practically no 
shoulders at all on it, so the parking of automobiles and trucks in the 
movement of troops and mechanized units is practically impossible. 

The Chairman. I have made about 10 round trips between Cali- 
fornia and Washington. I just returned from San Diego by auto- 
mobile, and I cannot see how the two-lane highways and some of 
the little, narrow bridges with deep ditches on each side of the road 
can handle the traffic that they will be called upon to handle. I don't 
know how much time a fleet of tanks could make, coming from the 
Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast. To me it is a deplorable condition. 

Mr. Sterner. Yes it is ; no question about that. 



5700 TRENTON HEARINGS 

We in New Jersey built our highways with wide shoulders, and 
maybe we will be penalized for it, because much of the Federal funds 
is going to be used for widening existing highways and putting 
shoulders on them so that when the big troop movements ancl mech- 
anized units stop they can get off the traveled portion of the highway. 

The Chairman. I heard Ambassador Bullitt testify on the Battle 
of France before our Judiciary Committee. He had been our Am- 
bassador to France, and knew what he was talking about. He stated 
that at no time did Hitler have any more than 75,000 motorized 
troops when the Germans went around the Maginot Line. They just 
went around without any effort. Now, although we have much more 
territory than France had to defend, and many miles of coastline, 
and although our own strategic position may be entirely different, 
still we have to think in terms of highways so that our own mecha- 
nized troops can move rapidly. 

We understand the capacity of route 25, from Newark south, was 
considered by the Bureau of' Standards to be from 14,000 to 20,000 
vehicles daily when that road was built. 

Mr. Sterner. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is it true that the daily average now is 70.000, 
and that on holidays it is approximately 100,000 ^ 

Mr. Sterner. That is true in the Newark area, at the Newark Air- 
port. Some of the peak loads at the Newark junction, which is south of 
the airport, have gone as liigh as 125,000 a day. That is better than a 
car every second in the entire 24-hour period. 

MANY workers COMMUTE 5 TO 10 MILES 

The Chairman. Can you cite any instances of workers commuting 
long distances? 

Mr. Sterner. When you speak of "long distances," how many miles 
do you mean? 

The Chairman. Well. I will put a range on it of from 5 to 10 
miles. 

Mr. Sterner. There are a great number of them. That is part 
of our migratory problem. While we speak of the daily average 
of traffic, it should be considered also that we have peak hourly loads. 
We have a terrific traffic problem during the rush hours when these 
factories change shifts. When you consider a plant like the Federal 
Shipbuilding Co. at Kearny, where there are employed, I believe, 
25,000 men claily as against 3,000 or 4.000 men normally on an 8-hour 
shift — when you consider just one plant of that type jumping to 
25,000 and at the same time going on a 24-hour basis, you can 
realize the great number of those workers who come in their own 
cars, ancl the traffic problem they create. 

They are arranging a scheme now to avoid congestion. If there 
are five workers going into the plant, or from five to eight, they 
will meet at some remote point away from the congested area and 
by prearrangement they will all pile into one automobile just to 
relieve the great congestion that exists nearer the plant. 

That plant is located in Kearny on route No. 1, north of the Newark 
Airport, where this great volume of congestion we speak of already 
exists. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5701 

The Chairman. Has the number of accidents increased on account 
of that congestion? 

Mr. Sterner. Well, it is a veiy hazardous situation. Mr. Vey 
would be a better authority on the question of accidents.^ He has 
made an extensive study of it as traffic engineer of the motor-vehicle 
department. 

The Chairman. We will not duplicate the testimony. What do 
you suggest as a remedy for that congestion? The superhighway 
that you mentioned? 

MUST HAVE TRUNK HIGHWAY 

Mr. Sterner. I maintain if you have hundreds and hundreds of 
tributaries you must have a trunk highway to carry away that 
traffic. A person might as well suggest there is no need for the main 
body of the Mississippi Eiver, only need for the tributaries. It 
is the same theory. The War Department and the Bureau of Public 
Roads have endorsed the project and say it is vitally essential. 

The Chairman. It is singular but true, that we often put more 
time in on tributaries than we do on the main stream. This com- 
mittee [lias been at work on the problem of migration for a yea-r 
and a half. We have been all over the United States, and we have 
found, so often, that people are exploring the tributaries, as you 
put it, Mr. Sterner, and losing sight of the main stream — that is, 
the great shifting of our population. 

Now, what do you think would be the probable cost of that super- 
highway from Boston to Washington that you have in mind? 

Mr. Sterner. Well, the completed highway would cost about $250,- 
000,000 for the entire distance. It would be a highway through the 
heavily congested areas, of 12 lanes — 6 for heavy traffic and 6 for 
light traffic. 

When you consider troop movements and the amount of roadway 
necessary for them, the problem seems staggering. Very few people 
appreciate the magnitude of those movements. One of these new 
panzer divisions that the Army is developing — and they have three 
equipped now and are arming tMo more — reaches from New York 
to 10 miles the other side of Philadelphia, with the mechanized 
units only 150 feet apart — just one division. 

When you add to that 75,000 to 125.000 cars and trucks per day 
that are already using the highway — and that condition has been 
developing over several years — when we consider the movement of 
those troops and that industrial traffic, we begin to realize the need 
for such highways. 

The Army could take over six of those lanes and use them ex- 
clusively for military movements in case of emergency, and in that 
way the great stream of industrial workers and the fleets of trucks 
that are carrying the products of these wartime factories wouldn't 
be interfered with at all. 

The Chairman. One can readily see that the United States might 
be attacked from many points, and if there is any country in the 
world that needs fast movement of troops, it is this country. 

Mr. Sterner. Definitely. 

1 Arnold Vey, State traffic engineer. See testimony, p. 5728 fif. 



5702 TRENTON HEARINGS 

STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF ROUTE 25 

The Chairman. We can't keep them in full force all over the 
United States. What do you consider the strategic military im- 
portance of New Jersey's Route 25 to be? 

Mr. Sterner. That is already designated as one of the strategic mili- 
tary routes through New Jersey by the War Department. 

The Chairman. And, of course, what you say is true. The ques- 
tion of getting supplies to these large troop concentrations is very 
important. 

Mr. Sterner. Yes, definitely. 

The Chairman. How long would it take to construct that super- 
highway from Boston to Washington? 

Mr. Sterner. Well, it could be rushed very rapidly. We are pre- 
pared, in New Jersey, to proceed at once. All the preliminary plans 
and surveys and studies have been filed with Mr. McDonald, head of 
the Bureau of Public Roads, and we have also secured the necessary 
data and preliminary estimates and surveys from all the States. Work 
on that highway could get under way within 60 days if the funds were 
available. 

The Chairman. And how long would it take to complete it ? 

Mr. Sterner. Well, the greater part could be completed within a 
year's time if we didn't have difficulty with the question of priori- 
ties. If it was given priority as a defense project, that would be 
one thing; but if it had to wait, that would be another. It would be 
a question of how long it would take to get the steel shipments. 
Most of the highway is over natural terrain and we are going to 
use existing bridges and existing interstate crossings, so it wouldn't 
be necessary to build any bridges over the Delaware River or the 
Hudson River; and north of that, of course, there are no bridges of 
any size to be constructed. 

Around Baltimore we will have some difficulties. It might take 
longer through the Baltimore area. 

The Chairman. It appears to me that there should be a highway 
of that kind, especially to the Capital of the United States. It may 
seem far-fetched to warn us here in this country that somebody might 
come over here and take Washington, but they did it in 1812, and 
at that time it took them 3 months to get over here. 

Mr. Sterner. Whoever controls the seas can go anywhere. We did 
it in 1917 and the British did it in 1812. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Sterner. 

Mr. Osmers? 

toll highways and free highways 

Mr. Osmers. Mr. Sterner, is it proposed to make this a toll high- 
way? 

Mr. Sterner. No. 

Mr. Osmers. A free highway ? 

Mr. Sterner. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. It may be a bit off the subject, but I would like to 
have your opinion about toll highways. Do you favor toll highways? 

Mr. Sterner. Well, we have taken the position in this State that 
when motor vehicles are paying $50,000,000 a year in gasoline taxes 
and license fees, even though our tax is lower than the adjacent States, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5703 

and when the total of gasoline and license-plate revenues is equivalent . 
to a sales tax on gasoline of almost 25 percent, they are really paying 
enough tolls, so to speak. 

Mr. OsMERS. Well, I was thinking of a highway such as we are 
talking about here, from Boston to Washington, at a cost of $250,000,- 
000. That would be a terriffic outlay from the Federal Government's 
standpoint because the military use of it might be very limited; it 
might never be used for military purposes, but it would always be 
there for use by the military if necessary. It would primarily be used 
by men like you and me. 

Mr. Sterner. It will be used by the great fleets of trucks carrying 
the products of war industries. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is right ; and it seems to me we would have more 
of them if there were some way of paying for them directly. 

Now, the people of Maryland are working on State legislation, are 
they not, to build a superhighway from Washington to Baltimore, 
and they are going to make that a toll highway, aren't they? 

Mr. Sterner. Yes. 

Mr. OsMERS. And it will amortize itself ? 

Mr. Sterner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. I know the other way is ideal, but you are familiar 
with the revenue situation in the State of New Jersey. We have 
limited sources of revenue, and such a highway will never be built 
if it has to depend on New Jersey's existing revenues. 

$75,000,000 IN GAS TAXES, $20,000,000 FOR ROADS 

Mr. Sterner. No question about that. The Federal Government 
collects in these States about $75,000,000 a year in the cent-and-a-half 
gasoline tax, and we get back about $20,000,000 in the Federal-aid 
highway program, so there is still a pretty good margin. We have 
felt the Government could amortize the balance of the total cost with 
the excess money collected from these North Atlantic States. 

Mr. OsMERS. I suppose it could. 

Mr. Sterner. And then we also, in the North Atlantic States, appre- 
ciate the privilege of being Santa Glaus for the rest of the country, 
because we in this little 400-mile strip contribute about 50 percent of 
all the taxes collected by the Bureau of Internal Kevenue. Of course, 
we have never had any public works projects, like dams and flood con- 
trol, and so forth, and we thought this would be a swell opportunity 
for Santa Claus to get a gift from the Federal Government out of the 
money which we give it. 

The Chairman. But think of all the great blessings you receive up 
in this country. 

Mr. Osmers. What do you mean ? In the form of taxes, Mr. Chair- 
man? I would like to say that we have a wonderful highway system 
in New Jersey, and if we were a State standing alone, if New Jersey 
were an island, we would be just the happiest people in the world ; but 
we are sort of transmission belt between two of the greatest industrial 
areas in the world, and I think it is very unfair to expect this State to 
maintain the type of highways that that kind of traffic demands. One 
answer to that situation is tliat we are collecting gasoline taxes from 
these people who go through, but we know that the mere payment of 



5704 TRENTON HEAKINGS 

tliose few pennies on the part of those using our higluvays does not 
make up for the extra cost of taking care of the traffic. 

Mr. Stekner. And, of course, we are a little guilty ourselves in New 
Jersey of trespassing on the highways of our neighbors with our great 
fleet of trucks carrying merchandise up and down the coast. I think 
many people have felt our neighbors are more guilty of trespassing 
on us than we on them, but our traffic count does not show that. 

Mr. OsMERS. The actual figures do not bear that out ? 

Mr. Sterner. No, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is all. 

The Chairman. Mr. Curtis. 

•'TRENTON MAKES AND THE WORLD TAKES" 

Mr. Curtis. I was interested in your remark about the great sums 
this area pays in Federal taxes. 

On the approach to your fine city of Trenton here from the railroad 
station, there is a sign : "Trenton Makes and the World Takes." 

I would like to know whether or not the business firms of New 
Jersey are paying their taxes out of their capital or whether they are 
adding them to the price that the rest of the world pays for these 
goods. Now, if they are paying them out of capital, and lose 1 percent 
a montli, in 100 months they are going to be out of business. 

Mr. Sterner. I am not an authority on that subject. 

Mr. Curtis. Frequently the Kepresentative in Congress from the 
district in which Winston-Salem, N. C, is located, boasts of the fact 
that his district sends great sums of money to the National Treasury 
by way of cigarette taxes. It is doubtful, however, if the smokers 
of that territory pay any more in taxes than the rest of the smokers 
in the United States. 

I do not want to bring on an argument and you do not need ^o 
answer my statement ; I simply Avanted to get it in the record. 

Mr. OsMERs. I would like — so that the record is completely cleared 
up — to point out to the gentleman from Nebraska, that while it is 
true that Treiiton makes and the world takes, the area mentioned 
by the Commissioner is also the greatest buying area in the United 
States, to about the same extent, so that while we sell the goods 
here — make and sell the goods — we also buy them and pay the taxes 
on them. Following through with the thought of the gentleman 
from Nebraska, we get it both ways; Winston-Salem only gets it 
once. 

The Chairman. After you gentlemen finish with New Jersey and 
Nebraska, I will pass over this excellent opportunity of saying a 
few kind words for California, in favor of speeding up our work 
at hand. Mr. Sterner, we thank you very much for appearing here 
and giving us your views. 

Mr, Sterner. I would like to leave a map of the State of New 
Jersey showing our highway system and other features. 

(The map referred to above is held in committee files.) 

The Chairman. Our next witness is Mr. Parker. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5705 

TESTIMONY OF H. E. PARKER, INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS MANAGER, 
NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING CORPORATION, CAMDEN, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Parker, Congressman Osmers will interrogate 
you. 

Mr. Osmers. Mr. Parker, will you state your full name ? 

Mr. Parker, Harry E. Parker, Camden, N. J., representing the 
New York Shipbuilding Corporation, 

Mr Osmers, Your prepared statement will be made a part of the 
record. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY H. E. PARKER, INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS MANAGER. 
NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING CORPORATION 

TRAINING OF SHIPYARD EMPLOYEES, NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING COKPORATION 

1. A program of employee training has been in effect at this yard for a number 
of years and is being expanded steadily to meet our demand for skilled and 
semiskilled mechanics. Briefly, the program may be summarized as follows: 

(a) Regular apprentices. 
(&) Learners: 

(1) Practical training on job for specific operations. 

(2) Collateral training in theory and blueprint reading at vocational schools. 

(3) Yard classes, as above, when facilities of vocational schools are inade- 
quate. 

APPRENTICE SYSTEM 

2. The apprentice system is well established and is closely administered. 
Special care is given to the selection of apprentices by means of examination, 
aptitude tests, and investigation of the boy's background. Shop work is ar- 
ranged to cover every branch of their resiiective trades and is supplemented by 
attendance at classes at the Camden County Vocation'al School. Systematic 
advancement is maintained with completion of the apprenticeship in 4 years 
with the rating of first-class mechanic. It is expected that the majority of lead- 
ers and subforemen required in the future will be selected from this group. 

Table I, below, gives the number and allocation of apprenticeships as of the 
present date. This number is being steadily expanded with the increase in force 
as well as the increase in percentage of apprentices to total force in certain 
departments by agreement with the union. 

Table I. — Apprentices as of May 26. 19)1 

Department number and name : apprentices 

26. Pattern shop 3 

27. Blacksmith shop 2 

29. Machine shop 30 

42. Engine installation 10 

43. Copi>ersmiths 11 

43. Pipefitters 12 

45. Turret shop 2 

46. Boiler shop ^ 

47. Sheet-metal shop 48 

54. Mold loft 12 

64. Ship carpenters 32 

66. Shipfitters 34 

68. Electricians 22 

"learner" SYSTESr 

3. The demand for the larger part of skilled and semiskilled mechanics is 
being met by the '•learner"' system. Essentially, this system provides for the 



5706 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



luring of men as helpers after careful selection by interview, giving preference to 
high-school graduates and to those with some degree of experience indicating 
mechanical aptitude. The work of these men is observed by their department 
supervisors, and, if warranted, they are advanced to the learners' classification and 
given intensive training in some branch or branches of a trade. At the same time, 
arrangements are made for attendance at classes at the Camden County Voca- 
tional School, principally in blueprint reading and shop mathematics. Where 
the facilities of the vocational school are inadequate, si^ecial classes are organ- 
ized and held in the shipyard out of working hours under instructors furnished 
by the corporation. 

COOPEIRATION WITH COUNTY SCHOOL 

4. Cooperation with the Camden County Vocational School is very close. The 
m!ajority of the instructors are supervisors or first-class mechanics from this yard 
and a large number of classes are composed entirely of learners from this yard. 
Close contact is maintained and vacancies filled as rapidly as men complete the 
course or drop out for any reason. The number of classes maintained for per- 
sonnel from this yard at the Camden County Vocational School are shown in 
table II, below. 

Table II. — Classes for New York Shipbuilding at Camden County Vocational 
School (exclusive of apprentice classes) 

Shipfitting and blueprint reading : 
Classes : 

2 nights a week each 7 

1 night a week each 3 

Electrical theory : Classes, 1 night a week each 2 

Sheet metal : Classes, 1 night a week each 8 

Mold loft and blueprint re'ading: Classes, 1 night a week each 4 

Pipe fitting: Class, 1 night a week_^ 1 

Engine installation : Classes, 1 night a week each 2 

Welding: Classes, 2 nights a week each (4 additional New York Shipbuilding 

classes as soon as regular day school ends) 5 

Note. — Classes average 18, except welders, previously 8, but recently 13. All 
classes are 2-hour periods. 

LABOR CONDITIONS AND REQUIREMENTS 

5. Since labor condtions and requirements vary in the individual departments, 
a complete picture can be obtained only by a departmental review of training 
methods. 

(1) Department No. 29 — Machine shop: This department depends principally 
upon their apprenticeships but has approximately 40 helpers and handymen under 
training in the shop. 

(2) Department No. 42 — Engine installation: At present, 57 learners on the 
rolls and increasing steadily. Two classes are maintained at the vocational school 
from which 40 men have been graduated to date. Complete records of learners' 
progress is kept and a waiting list is maintained for vacancies in the blueprint 
reading classes at the vocational school. The necessity for training expense in 
the yard is anticipated. 

(3) Department No. 43 — Copper and pipe shop: Copper work Is depending 
entirely upon apprenticeships at present. In the pipe shop, approximately 80 
helpers and learners are receiving shop training. Few are able to be placed in the 
vocational school, and training expense is anticipated. 

(4) Department No. 45 — Turret shop: This department now has 125 learners 
and helpers under training. One instructor is employed full time to arrange and 
direct class instruction and maintain complete progress records of these men. 
Instruction, out of hours, is divided into two groups; (a) elementary blueprint 
reading, and (b) advanced blueprint reading and lay-out. There are three classes, 
one for each shift, in both groups, meeting once a week. In addition to the full- 
time instructor, three additional instructors are employed during class hours. 
Demand has developed for additional classes in blueprint reading and shop mathe- 
matics for mechanics and classes dealing in shop practice are also anticipated. 

(5) Department No. 46— Boiler shop: At pre.-ient there are 40 learners under 
shop training in specific operations, 19 of which are also attending classes at the 
vocational school. Since more facilities are not available, it is anticipated that 



NATIONAL DEFENSE :MIGRAT10N 5707 

additional trainiug expense will be involved in this department in the near 
future. 

(6) Department No. 47— Sheet metal shop: The apprenticeship system in this 
shop i'S being expanded at the rate of 5 apprentices every 6 vpeeks until a total 
of 100 is reached. In addition, there are 150 learners on the rolls receiving shop 
instruction in some specific branch of sheet metal vpork. Only a limited number 
of this group are now able to attend classes at the vocational school but it 
does not appear that additional training expenses will be necessary in the near 
future. Complete records of the progress and status of each learner are kept. 

(7) Department No. 54— Mold loft: Due to having relatively few classes of 
ships under construction, the mold loft does not anticipate much expansion. 
There are 16 learners on the rolls, most of whom are attending vocational school 
classes, and additional training expense is not anticipated. 

(8) Department No. S.")— Plate and angle shop: The expansion of this shop 
to date has been accomplished entirely by advancement of helpers through the 
grades of handymen to mechanics without special expense and no further 
extension of training is contemplated. 

(9) Department No. 59 — Painters and pipe coverers : No shortage of painters 
is anticipated. In the pipe covering division it will probably be necessary to 
set up typical pipe installations, either in the yard or at the vocational school 
if space is available, and to train men. To date, such training has been largely 
accomplished on the job. 

(10) Department No. 62 — Chippers and tank testers: At present there are 41 
learners being trained on the job, while 18 have finished and been advanced to 
third-class mechanics. Approximately 150 more will be trained under the same 
system. Thirty-eight tank tester learners are being trained on the job, 8 com- 
pleted training, and approximately 60 more will be trained. 

(11) Department No. 65 — Fasteners: 43 learners being trained, 68 have com- 
pleted training since program was started, and about 100 more will be needed 
to complete. 

(12) Department No. 66 — Shipfitters and linermen : The heavy demand for 
this department has required the establishment of yard classes in addition to 
utilizing all vacancies in the vocational school. Men are hired as shipfltter 
learners of which there are at present 352 on the department's rolls, and of 
which 312 are attending classes either at the vocational school or in the yard. 
The yard classes consist of one group for each of the three shifts, meeting two 
nights a week with seven instructors furnished by the yard, plus one clerk whose 
full time is employed in maintaining complete records of the shipfltter learner 
group. Since establishment of these classes, 47 men have been rated third- 
class mechanics and it is anticipated that 600 more must be trained. 

(13) Department No. 67 — Welders and burners: The fact that welders must be 
fully qualified before doing any work on naval construction and that the tacker 
group must demonstrate a limited degree of skill, creates a special problem for 
this department. Due to the lack of suitable training facilities in this locality, 
the New York Shipbuilding Corporation maintained a welding school in the yard 
until 1938. With the growth of private or commercial welding schools, the 
plant school was discontinued and a policy of close cooperation with outside 
schools placed in effect. At present, men are required to obtain the necessary 
training required to qualify as lackers before being hired as welder learners. 
After demonstrating my test the ability to qualify as tackers, they are hired as 
learners with the written understanding that instruction must be coninued and 
that man qualify for welding within a reasonable period. The full facilities at 
the Camden County Vocational School (now 13 machines) are utilized for this 
advance training. The yard cooperates with approximately 12 private schools, 
laying out the form of training, furnishing adequate scrap and test plates, and 
exercising supervision over training methods. The increase in efficiency and the 
effectiveness of this system in reducing the hours of training over that of a 
plant or shipyard school has been marked. At this date, there are 410 tackers of 
which 160 are classified as learners although 90 percent of the entire list are 
attending schools or awaiting vacancies. 

In addition to the above which involves no expense other than the preparation 
of material, there are three full-time instructors who patrol the ships to assist 
and give further training to tackers and welders on the job under conditions 
which frequently cannot be approximated in any form of school training. An 
increase in this "group of traveling instructors is anticipated. Training expense 
is also involved in certain instances as at present in developing a force of 



5708 TRENTON HEARINGS 

welders and chippers for high-pressure steam piping. In order to meet the 
requirements for this class of work, it has been found necessary to take experi- 
enced first- or second-class mechanics and give them a period of several weeks' 
intensive training on this particular class of work. A text book for welder train- 
ing, and covering methods and equipment in this yard, has been prepared and will 
he published and distributed through schools and the yard to acquaint prospective 
men. as well as those now employed here, with our standard practice. 

(14) Department No. 68 — Electricians: Learners are selected from the helper 
group, there now being 24 learners on the rolls with a steady increase anticipated. 
These men are attending classes in electrical theory at the vocational school in 
addition to their shop training on the job. Complete records of their progress 
and status of learners are being kept. Additional training expense to supplement 
the vocational school is anticipated. 

(1.5) Department No. 64 — ship carpenters: This department is being built up 
by hiring laborers who are advanced through the ratings of stage builder and 
trained entirely on the job. No additional training expense is anticiapted. 

6. An experienced man also spends full time interviewing prospective learners 
and by questions, supplemented frequently liy tests, places these men in the 
departments where greatest aptitude is indicated. 

SALABIES OF TEAINING PEBSON^'EL 

7. For that part of the training program involving apprentices, or instruction 
at the vocational school, no special training expense is involved or anticipated. 
In accordance with paragraph 10 of reference (a), the supervisor of shipbuilding 
is requested to approve that part of the special program involving labor and 
material cost to the corporation for which reimbursement may l)e claimed, as 
follows : 

Wages or salaries of personnel acting as instructors while so engaged, time of 
learners or trainees when not on productive work, and incidental materials or 
supplies used directly in training. 

(1) Specific charges will be issued to each individual department engaged in 
training involving expense as above. 

(2) In the case of materials furnished the vocational school, or scrap and test 
plates prepared for welding schools, separate charges are issued for each activity. 

(3) Monthly reports will be submitted covering — 

(a) Form of instruction. 

( b ) Number of men in training. 
(0) Changes since previous report. 

(d) Number of classes and hours of instruction. 

(e) Number of instructors and instructors' time Involved. 

This report will be submitted for each department authorized to make charges 
at the end of each month when charges are made. 



Exhibit A 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation, 

Camden, N. J., June 13, 19^1. 
Mr. John W. Abbott, 

Chief Field Investigator. 

Trenton, N. J. 
Dear Sib: As per your request I am submitting herewith a report on labor 
conditions at this plant. 

1. Working force June 1938, 3,757 ; working force June 1939, 4,748 ; working 
force June 1940, 8,600; working force June 1941, 13,010. Estimated labor load 
December 1942, 24,000. 

2. This corporation has made an agreement with the Industrial Union of 
Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America, Local No. 1, Camden, N. J., a 
copy of which is enclosed with this report. 

3. The corporation places no restriction in employment on age, nationality, 
race, or creed. 

4. A program of emplo.vees' training has been in effect in this yard for a 
number of years and is being expanded steadily to meet our demand for skilled 
and semiskilled mechanics. A copy of this program is enclosed herewith. 

5. It has been the policy of this corporation to recruit labor within a radius 
of 40 miles of the plant and up to the present time, it has not been necessary 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5709 

to go outside of this area to obtain a sufficient supply. No solicitation has been 
made outside this area and spot checks of applicants show that 98 percent of 
applicants come within the 40-mile radius of the plant. 

An east coast wage stabilization committee has been meeting in Washington 
for the past month, and have now arrived at an agreement of wages, overtime 
pay, and shift pay. These findings have not been officially published, therefore, 
I cannot give you the details, but it is expected that they will be published 
before the end of this month. 

Up to the present time it has not been necessary to call on any employment 
service to supply labor to this plant. However, it is the policy of the corpora- 
tion that should this become necessary, they will deal directly with the State 
employment service. 

It is the corporation's policy to ask for deferment from draft under the 
Selective Service Act for all skilled, semiskilled, and men in training to become 
.skilled. The different draft boards have cooperated with us in this policy, it 
being understood by all of the boards that there are no available skilled people 
either for replacement or for the large expansion called for under our present 
Navy emergency program. This, I believe, covers the points you mentioned 
in your letter which I trust will be satisfactory. 
Very truly yours, 

New York Shipbuilding Corporation. 
H. E. Pakker. 

Industrial Relations Managei: 

TESTIMONY OF H. E. PARKER— Resumed 

Mr. OsMERs. Mr. Parker, will you give ii.s some of the details on 
your trainiiif^ program at the New York Shipbuilding Corporation? 

How long have you been training men within your industry? 

Mr. Parker. For the past 2 years. 

Mr. OsMERS. And you train only men? 

Mr. Parker. That is right. 

Mr. OsMERS. And do you set any requirements as to the type of 
men whom you train? 

Mr. Parker. Yes; we take men between the ages of 21 and 30 
J ears. 

Mr. OsMERs. Married or single or either? 

Mr. Parker. No restrictions as to that. 

Mr. OsMER.s. Any restiiction as to race or nationality? 

Mr. Parker. No. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you train any Negroes? 

Mr. Parker. In some parts of it ; yes. 

Mr. OsMERs. How long do you train them ? 

Mr. Parker. Fifteen months. 

Mr. OsMERs. And what do you pay them while training? 

Mr. Parker AVe take a helper, and in training we increase his 
rates. He works 3 months on that rate, which is approximately 69 
cents an hour. Then he goes on aji increased rate of about 74 cents 
and works for 6 months, and then he steps up to another increased 
rate of around 79 cents. He is there for 6 months, and then he steps 
out as a third-class meciianic and gets the third-class rate. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is after about 2 vears? 

Mr. Parker. That is after 15 months; 3, 6, and 6. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you train anyone that is not an employee of your 
company ? 

]\Ir. Parker. No; it is all done with employees. 



5710 TRENTON HEARINGS 

EXPANSION OF TRAINING FACILITIES 

Mr. OsMERs. Do you plan to expand your training facilities? 

Mr. Parker, We will have to expand them. We have in training 
now approximately 2,000 people. We will have to go to about 3,000 
and perhaps 3,500. 

Mr. OsMERS. How many men are employed at your plant? 

Mr. Parker. Thirteen thousand three hundred at the present tiins. 

Mr. Osmers. And how many were employed a year ago, approxi- 
mately, or what has your increase been? 

Mr. Parker. Somewhere around 5,000. 

Mr. Osmers. You have increased employment from 9,000 to 13,000, 
roughly ? 

Mr. Parker. Yes. I can give you the force in 1938. In June it 
was 3,756 ; in 1939 it was 4,748 ; iii 1940 it was 8,600 and at the pres- 
ent time it is 13,300. 

Mr. Osmers. Now, what relationship exists between the public- 
school system and your company? 

Mr. Parker, The vocational schools are filled up with our people 
and overflowing 24 hours a day. I am speaking of the Camden 
County vocational schools. We have to run some classes in the plant 
ourselves, on account of the overflow that the Camden County voca- 
J:ional schools cannot take. 

TRAINING essential IF PLANT IS TO EXPAND 

Mr. Osmers. Would you be able to go ahead with the great ex- 
pansion of your company without this program? 

Mr. Parker. No, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. You could not find the skilled mechanics? 

Mr. Parker. Oh, no; that would be impossible. We recognized 
that 2 years ago. There isn't any such animal any more. 

Mr. Osmers. Does anyone ever try to steal your workers away 
from you? 

Mr. Parker. No ; I can't say that they have. We have a slight flow 
away but not to any serious extent. 

Mr. Osmers. What do you think of the State employment service? 

Mr. Parker. I think it is the only answer if we are going to con- 
trol labor. We haven't had occasion to use it for the simple reason 
that we have a list of applicants in our own office at the present time 
of over 1,000. 

SHIPBUILDING STABILIZATION COMMITTEE 

Mr. Osmers. What do you think of the work of the Shipbuilding 
Stabilization Committee? 

Mr. Parker. Well, you are talking to one of the members. 

Mr. Osmers. So you think it is all right ? 

Mr. Parker. I think it is the only logical answer. There is no 
sense in a shipyard in Kearny, and a shipyard at Camden, and a 
shipyard at Newport News, having three different sets of rates. That 
is all poppycock. The rate should be fixed. 

Mr. Osmers. But that agreement hasn't been signed yet. 

Mr. Parker. Hasn't been ratified by all the plants yet. In my mind 
there is no question but it will be. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5711 

Mr. OsMERS. I agree with you. What would you say about the 
basic idea of the Stabilization Committee for an industry during 
the defense emergency? Do you think it should be carried 'out? 

Mr. Parker. It should be carried out through the entire defense 
industry. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, applying that directly to the work of this com- 
mittee, Mr. Parker, would you say that it would have a tendency 
to slow down the flow of migration from one State to another seeking 
work ? 

Mr. Parker. It certainly would. 

NO SKILLED NEGRO WORKERS IN PLANT 

Mr. OsMERS, How many Negroes do you have at New York Ship- 
building? 

Mr. Parker. Approximately 150. 

Mr. OsMERs. Out of 13,300? 

Mr. Parker. That is right. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you have any skilled Negro workers? 

Mr. Parker. No. 

Mr. Osmers. Is there any racial friction of a serious character 
there? 

Mr. Parker. Well, we haven't had it so far, but I would say there 
certainly would be if we didn't watch our step. 

Mr. OsMERS. The possibilities are there? 

Mr. Parker. Yes ; we are in a peculiar situation. You must recog- 
nize the fact that men in a shipyard work in very close proximity to 
each other, and you take a crew of people working in a compartment 
in a ship, and you undertake to mix them up, and you just can't 
do it. 

Mr. Osmers. Do- you take any interest at all in the housing of your 
employees ? 

Mr. Parker. No; we haven't taken any active part in it at^ all. 
There have been several housing projects put over, so we haven't 
any serious housing situation at the present time. 

With this increase of another 11,000 or 12,000 people, no doubt 
we will face that. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you feel that you have suffered an increased 
turn-over of labor as a result of bad housing conditions? 

Mr. Parker. No, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. Or rising rents? 

Mr, Parker. No, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you anticipate that your working force will be 
increased almost 100 percent in the future? 

PAY ROLL TO BE 2 5,0 BY DECEMBER 19 42 

Mr. Parker. It will be increased to 25,000 by December of 1942 — 
about a year and a half from now. 

Mr. Osmers. That, you anticipate, will be your peak? 

Mr. Parker. Yes, sir; that is the present program peak. 

Mr. Osmers. If tliey are putting in housing projects in your terri- 
tory now with 13,300, what will be, in your opinion, the housing 
situation when you get 25,000 men working there? 



5712 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



Mr. Parker. It will be tight. I mean there isn't sufficient hous- 
ing programs going on now to meet the needs of the 25,000. 

Mr. OsMERS. AVill the 12,000 new employees that you need to reach 
your peak come from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, or from other 
States? 

Mr. Parker. Practically all of them, I would say, will come from 
Xew Jersey. Up to the present time we have not gone out of a radius 
of 40 miles. The big problem we are faced with is the traffic prob- 
lem. That is a tremendous problem. 

Mr. OsMERs. You say you have more than a thousand names in 
your files of men who want to work for New York Shipbuilding? 

Mr. Parker. Yes, sir. 

HIRE AT GATE 

Mr. OsMERs. You haven't had to use the United States Employment 
Service or any other? 

Mr. Parker. That is right. 

Mr. OsMERS. The men come to your gate? 

Mr. Parker. That is it. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you know anything about the percentage of labor 
turn-over in your industry ? 

Mr. Parker. It is very small. I would say not over 8 percent. 
There is a definite reason for that. Of course, we pay about the 
Jiighest wages in the territory. 

Mr. Osmers. And your operations are the largest in that area by 
far, aren't they? 

Mr. Parker. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. There is no comparable industry? 

Mr. Parker. No. 

Mr. Osmers. During the World War you operated a large yard 
there, too, did you not? 

Mr. Parker. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. Did you have any housing problem at that time? 

Mr. Parker. Yes. They had tremendous difficulties. I wasn't 
there at the time. I was with the Bethlehem plant in Massachusetts 
at that time, in the shipyard there. 

Mr. Osmers. How did your present company settle the housing 
problem at that time? 

Mr. Parker. They built a large housing ]:)roject right next to the 
]>lant. At that time I believe it was called York Ship. It is now known 
as Fairview. The property was sold a number of years ago. 

Mr. Osmers. That is where Fairview is? 

Mr. Parker. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. That is one of the three Fairviews in the State of New 
Jersey. I have one in my district, and they are always getting tangled 

]Mr. Parker. That was a World AA ar housing proposition. The 
wliole town was built up. 

]\Ir. Osmers. Would 3'ou say something like that will have to be 
done again? 

Mr. Parker. Something more on the type of this Audubon Village, 
if you know what I mean. The Government came in there and built 
500 units. We call it Audubon Village. It probably wouldn't be quite 
as close to the plant as Audubon Village, but I am hoping they don't 
get too far away, because the traffic problem is terrible. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5713 

SHIPBUILDING OUTLOOK AFTER EMERGENCY 

Mr. OsMERS. At the conclusion of this emergency do you expect we 
will continue to build ships in some quantity i 

Mr. Parker. We will have to, because of the losses tliat have taken 
place in the war. This country will have to build ships even after the 
war is over. 

Mr. OsMERs. Then you think that your activities will taper off rather 
than be stopped immediately at the end of the war, such as will happen 
in the manufacture of ammunition and such war material as that. 

Mr. Parker. There probably will be a rather sharp stoppage of Navy 
ships. We are building nothing but Navy fighting vessels — cruisers 
and battleships for the Navy Department. 

I rather assume as soon as the war is over there will be somewhat 
of a sharp stop in that class of work. On the other hand you take the 
merchant stuff that is going to the bottom in this present war. That 
will have to be replaced because every country in the world is losing its 
shipping. 

Mr. Osmers. Don't you feel that foreign nations will build a great 
many of those future merchant ships ? 

Mr. Parker. No doubt of that, but we also bear in mind that while 
we are standing still now, so to speak, to a certain extent we are going 
along with the new improvements. 

]\Ir. Osmers. I have been told that there is hardly an undamaged 
yard in the British Isles; I don't know whether that is true or not. 

Mr. Parker. That is right. 

Mr. Osmers. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Parker. 

Mr. Parker. May I add one thing before I leave ? 

The Chairman. Yes; certainly. 

Mr. Parker. I spoke about traffic conditions. I believe that the 
town has asked for some relief, because we have got to have some 
extended roadway work done there to get our people away from the 
plant. 

need traffic outlets to main arteries 

I am faced with letting 8,000 automobiles out on the streets within 
15 minutes at closing time, and it is a tremendous problem. We haven't 
got the outlets there even to get on the main arteries. 

The Chairman. And you haven't the money to build them yourself? 

Mr. Parker. That is right. 

The Chairman. Instead of decreasing migration, this emergency has 
increased it. This committee Avas continued by the Congress so that 
we might go into the defense centers and find out just exactly what 
their problems were. 

The committee has visited San Diego, Calif., which is probably the 
"hottest" spot in the United States so far as migration is concerned. 
San Diego's population has increased about 100,000.^ Your situation 
here, so far as roads are concerned, is comparable. You also have the 
housing problem, the police problem, the fire-protection problem ; and 
there comes a time when communities, on account of their debt limita- 
tion and other obstacles, cannot handle the situation without Federal 
assistance. That is the ])roblem, isn't it ? 

Mr. Parker. That is right. 

The Chairman. So Congress passed a bill known as the Lanham 
bill, appropriating $150,000,000 to take care of those situations. Well, 

60396— 41— pt. 14 12 



5714 TRENTON HEARINGS 

that sum is just a drop in the bucket. You understand, I am speaking 
my own personal views now. San Diego alone wants $21,000,000, and 
California, $50,000,000. There wall come a time, shortly, when local 
communities simply cannot take on this emergency load. 

When we finish our hearing today in Trenton, we will go to Balti- 
more, and then we shall have hearings in Washington, and then report 
back to Congress on the situation in these defense centers. We are 
about the only agency investigating that, and it will be through us that 
the Congress will learn of these things. 

We thank you very much, Mr. Parker. 

Our next witness is Colonel Dow^ell. 

TESTIMONY OF COL. CASSIUS M. DOWELL, UNITED STATES ARMY, 
COMMANDING OFFICER, FORT DIX, N. J. 

The Chairman. I want to say at the outset. Colonel Dowell, that we 
deeply appreciate your coming here. I know you are a very busy man, 
and we shall not keep you long. 

You have heard me state the purpose of this committee and what our 
activities have been. 

Colonel DowELL. I did. And may I add that I have brought with 
me, for such help to the committee as they may be, Maj. John T. Daly, 
post judge advocate; Maj. Joseph C. Donoghue, post morale officer; 
Maj. Frederick D. Buttenbaum, post chaplain; Maj. Aage Woldike, 
post public- relations officer; and Lt. Kobert L. Montieth, post theater 
officer. 

The Chairman. Colonel Dowell, we deeply appreciate your bringing 
these gentlemen to our hearing. 

Congressman Osmers will interrogate you, Colonel. 

Mr. Osmers. Colonel Dowell, first I want to say that the members 
of the committee who were able to take advantage of your invitation 
to visit Fort Dix the other day were made very, very happy by their 
reception there, and were delighted with many of the things they saw. 
There is one thing that caused us a little worry, however — after firing 
a couple of rounds on that machine gun. I noticed the next day the 
press said there w^as an ammunition shortage, and I hope that we didn't 
contribute to that by our activities. 

Colonel Dowell. By no means, sir. I don't think the shortage is 
created by things of that kind. I think the more you people in high 
position know of what we are trying to do and what our problems are, 
the more you can contribute to rectifying those situations. 

Mr. Osmers. I think that is true. Colonel. Just for the purpose of 
the record, you are the commanding officer at Fort Dix ? 

Colonel Dowell. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. The material you have submitted will be incorporated 
as a part of the record. Colonel. 

(The material referred to above is as follows:) 

MATERIAL SUBMITTED BY COL. OASSIUS M. DOWELL, UNITED STATES 

ARMY, COMMANDING OFFICER, FORT DIX, N. J. 

Exhibit A. — Transfer of Properties in Expansion of Fort Dix 

MEMORANDUM BY MAJ. JOHN T. DALY, UNITED STATES ARMY, POST JUDGE ADVOCATE, 
FORT DIX, N. J. 

In September 1940, when the Forty-fourth Division came to Fort Dix, the area 
of the fort was something less than 7,000 acres, and in order to provide for train- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5715 

iug facilities, an artillery range, etc., the Government took in between 18,000 and 
20,000 additional acres of land, extending out to within a few miles of the Lake- 
hurst air field. On the property taken were approximately 15U farm houses with 
the farm buildings adjacent thereto. Some were large farms with modern equip- 
ment, but most of them were small farms, and in the artillery impact area were 
the very poor class of houses, occupied by the people known as the "pineys" who 
made their living picking cranberries and blueberries. Most of the houses are 
entirely unsuitable for use as quarters either by the officers or enlisted men of 
the post, but a few, such as the ones on the Atkinson, Bunting, and Meany prop- 
erties, can be used after being reconditioned. 

A board of officers, consisting of Lieutenant Colonel Tighe, Major Sexton, and 
Major Daly is putting in a report on these at the present time, and recommend- 
ing that the vast majority of them be either razed or salvaged, it being under- 
stood, of course, that everything in the artillery impact area will have to be 
razed. The people formerly residing in these buildings have moved elsewhere, and 
in many instances the rents and claims office provided transportation for these 
families and their household effects to other locations, some as far as 25 or 30 
miles from the post. The migration of these people was handled in a manner 
to cause the least possible inconvenience or annoyance to them. 

At the present time not more than a dozen families remain in the houses which 
were taken by the declaration of taking of October 3, 1940. However, these 
former owners have not yet been paid in full for their properties, and it would 
be a good thing if this matter could be expedited. There are difficulties of title 
and other causes for delaying these payments. 

In the new 1-B area, located in the Pointville-Browns Mills-New Lisbon tri- 
angle, consisting of about 2,480 acres of land, there are 180 separate owners. In 
this area there are 72 houses, most of which can be used for officers and non- 
commissioned officers after the Government has taken title and the owners have 
vacated. This is a matter which will probably be covered by condemnation pro- 
ceedings in the near future. A perimeter survey has been made of this tract, 
and 'a description of each parcel has been made up, and also three appraisals 
have been made of each parcel, with pictures of each of the houses. We have one 
complete set of appraisals and pictures in our office. The other copies are being 
sent to the Quartermaster General and to the Zone Constructing Quartermaster, 
120 Wall Street, New York City. 

Practically all the work, with the exception of the actual appraisals, has been 
done by the officers, enlisted men, and clerks in the Rents and Claims Section. 
One civilian, Mr. Eugene McCarthy, of the Zone Real Estate Office is also engaged 
in this work for the office of the Quartermaster General. The Rents and Claims 
Office has, of course, had the complete cooperation of the office of the post 
quartermaster. 

When the Government takes title to the properties in the new condemnation 
proceedings in the 1-B area, it is its intention to pay for the properties in 
full instead of making a down payment as was done in the first proceeding, 
and it will then be expected that the occupants of the 72 dwellings will vacate 
the premises promptly, so that the houses may be turned over to the use of 
Army personnel. In this connection, some of the owners are already looking 
around to get other places, but it is expected that there will still be some few 
cases where the owners will probably be permitted by us to hold over until 
such time as they can be permanently located in their new homes. 

When these 72 houses are available, it will mean a considerable saving to 
the Government in providing quarters for officers and enlisted men who at 
the present time are receiving money allowances in lieu thereof. 

One thing that must not be lost sight of is that, while we have a total of 
several thousand officers and enlisted men, the population of Fort Dix is actually 
very much larger, due to the fact that so many others are employed here, that 
is. Work Projects Administration workers, civilian clerical help, etc. I figure 
that this civilian population amounts to fully 10 percent of the militai*y popu- 
lation. If the number of troops at Fort Dix is to be doubled, as seems possi- 
ble, then all the facilities of the fort must be doubled accordingly. 



Exhibit B. — Additional Reqltirements at Fort Dix 

Housing for military personnel and families. 

Swimming pools. 

Additional transportation to beach. 



5716 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



Additional athletic fields (baseballs, hard and soft). 

Double sewage disposal. 

Adequate incinerator. 

Permanent military police buildings. 

(School facilities on post or Federal assistance for existing grade and high 
schools. ) ( Teachers. ) 

(Free coffee, cookies, cakes, etc., for troops at United Service Organizations 
houses as has been the policy of Fort Dix Community Service.) 



EXHIBIT C 

To ConinniiKling Office) 



Memorandum on Water Supply and Sewage Disposal 

Headquaeters, Fort Dix, N. J., Jmie 26, 19Jfl. 

WATER supply 



1. The present capacity of water through filtration plant is 2,000,000 gallons 
daily. Capacity of well No. 1 is 1,0(X).000 gallons daily, making a total supplv 
of 3,000,000 gallons a day. 

The post quartermaster reports that the filtration plant is now overtaxed by 
about one and a half million gallons a day, which tends to prevent proper filtra- 
tion of water. 

Well No. 2 is being drilled and is now down 1,002 feet but has not yet struck 
water. (Well No. 1 found water at 960 feet.) Date of completion and capacity 
of flow depends on depth water is found. 

Well No. 3 will be started when well No. 2 has been completed. 

SEWAGE DISPOSAL 

2. The present population service capacity of the sewage-disposal plant is 
22,000 persons. When pre.sent reconstruction and additions are completed the 
expected capacity should be about 40,000 persons. It is thought that this will 
not be adequate for a post of the size of Fort Dix, with the potential expansion 
which emergency may necessitate. 

The present project is divided into two subprojects, i. e., "Addition to sewage- 
treatment plant," which should and probably will be completed August 10, 1941, 
and "Improvements to sewage-treatment plant.'' which calls for completion 
October 10, 1941. 

C. A. Noble. 
Lieutenant Colonel, Infantry, S-4. 



Exhibit I). — Pro.jects Under Way, Authorized and Requested 
Office of the Quartermaster, Fort Dix, N. J., June 26. 19-'fl 

PRO.TECTS UNDER WAY 



Name of project 



Receiving and departure building 

Tables for receiving and departure 
building. 

Addition to recreation building, type 
RB-1. 

Alterations to reception center build- 
ings. 

Addition to new building at Beverly 
National Cemetery. 



Date contract 
started 



June 2.3, 1941 
do 

June 26.1941 

June 1,1941 

June 23, 1941 



Contract 
price 



Henry Puchall & Co., New York City. 

Frank C. Snedaker & Co. Inc., Phila- 
delphia. 

New General Construction Co., Tren- 
ton, N. J. 

Purchase and hire, post quartermas- 
ters' office. 

Edward Fay & Son, Philadelphia, Pa. 



LIST OF PROJECTS AUTHORIZED BUT NOT UNDER WAY 



Name of project 


Funds 
requested 


Date of 
request 


Date of au- 
thorization 


Reason for not starting 


Coal-storage track and unloading 

equipment. 
Additional railroad-track facilities. ___ 
Truck sheds 


$40, 000 

164, 975 
20, 000 


Nov. 12, 1940 
Nov. 7,1940 


Jan. 15,1941 

Jan. 29,1941 
June 1.3,1941 


No funds. 

Do. 
Drawings not complete 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5717 



Oflice of the Quartermaster, Fort Dix, N. J., June 26, 19U — Continued 

PROJECTS REQUESTED BUT NOT APPROVED 



Project name 


Date sent to 
2d Corps Area 


Work- 
Projects 
Adminis- 
tration 

share 


Sponsors 
share (War 
Depart- 
ment) 


Total 
cost of 
project 


7 new warehouses - . . . . - . 


June 14,1941 
.June 5,1941 
Mar. 5,1941 
Feb. 19,1941 
May 12, 1941 
May 22, 1941 
June 12,1941 
Apr. 1, 1941 
June 12,1941 
Feb. 4, 1941 
do 






$210 000 


Commissary and veterinary building 


$2, 300 

671 

13, 094 

624 

2, 650 

4,146 

120, 000 

18. 030 

4,848 

1,500 

14, 964 


$1,334 
1,140 
7,779 
993 
3,785 
5,953 
126,000 

29, 445 
7,310 

11,930 

11,612 


3 634 






Addition to post garage building No. 164 

Fence (2) 500,000-galIon water tanks 


20, 873 
1 617 




6,435 




10,099 
246 000 


Landscaping entire post 






Warehouse area fence 


12, 158 




13, 430 




Mar. 27, 1941 
May 27, 1941 
/Apr. 19,1941 
\May 22, 1941 
May 2,1941 
.June 23,1941 
Apr. 3, 1941 


26, 576 


Comfort stations 


36, 400 


Buildings for One Hundred First Military Police 






23, 620 






26, ,500 


Erection of 3 administration buildings, First Army 






30, 365 




3.914 

1,500 


2,542 
2,500 


6.456 


Gas instruction building 


4,000 







TESTIMONY OF COL. CASSIUS M. DOWELL— Resumed 

Mr. OsMERs. Now, what States do the selectees at Fort Dix come 
from? From every State, or from certain States? 

Colonel DowELL, Our reception centers receive the selectees from the 
States of New Jersey, Delaw^are, and New York. 

Mr. OsMERS. Anci liow^ long- clo you keep them there, Colonel ? 

Colonel DowELL. The average is 4 days. They just come in there 
from their induction stations elsewhere — are brought in either by motor 
or train. They come in there in civilian clothes and they are classified. 
Their I. Q.'s are obtained through very thorough classification 
efforts. Then they are put through the processing plant. They enter 
that building in civilian clothes and they come out with uniform and an 
extra uniform in a barracks bag, and guides are waiting there — other 
soldiers — to conduct them, first to a place where they receive their 
mess kits for living for about 4 days while -they get adjusted, and then 
to their organizations, w^here a group is formed and information in the 
form of orders received for sending them to their permanent organiza- 
tions, which may be a considerable distance. 

We have sent some as far as Arizona and others to Fort Bragg, and 
so on. 

Mr. OsMERS. From Fort Dix they go to what is known as a basic 
training center? 

Colonel DowELL. That is right. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, how^ many people do you estimate have moved 
into the Fort Dix area. Colonel ? 

Colonel DowELL. It would be difficult to state how many people have 
moved into the area. I take it you mean in addition to the soldiei-s? 

Mr. OsMERs. Yes. 

Colonel DowELL. We have about 26,000 soldiers and between 3,000 
and 4,000 civilian employees — not entirely the Government, but 
W. P. A. and the employees of the contractors engaged on the various 
construction projects. 



5718 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Now, of course, there was a considerable addition to the population 
brought in by people who are trying to meet the trade situation outside. 

Major Woldike, would you give an estimate of the number outside, 
approximately ? 

TESTIMONY OF MAJ. AAGE WOLDIKE, POST PUBLIC RELATIONS 
OFFICER, FORT DIX, N. J. 

Major Woldike. It would be purely a guess. 

Mr. OsMERS. What would your guess be, Major? 

Major Woldike. I don't think over 2,000 in the surrounding com- 
munities, more or less permanent. 

Mr. OsMERs. You say about 2,000 in the permanent population? 

Major Woldike. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERs. Now, I presume that a number of the wives and families 
of the men you have there have moved into the area ? 

Colonel DowELL. Not so many as you might suspect. One reason is 
that the principal unit at Fort Dix now training tactical units is the 
Forty-fourth Division, which comes largely from this community. 
For instance, the Seventy-first Infantry comes from New York and the 
One Hundred and Seventy-fourth Infantry from Buffalo, but a large 
proportion of it comes from Trenton and Camden, and they more or 
less maintain their homes. 

Mr. OsMERs. The New Jersey National Guard is a sort of backbone 
of the Forty-fourth Division, is it not ? 

Colonel DowELL. That is right. There have been a number of ad - 
ditions to it, of course. It was raised to war strength by adding 
people who came in by recruitment and also selectees. It is true they 
they are largely from New Jersey, and one field-artillery unit from 
the State of New York, the One Hundred and Fifty-sixth Field 
Artillery. 

NO HOUSING SHORTAGE IN FORT DIX AREA 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you have an acute housing shortage in the area 
at Fort Dix? 

Colonel DowELL. We do. not, and I will explain that this way: 
Not SO many houses ara desired, because so many of the men are 
near their own homes; but the Defense Housing Administration on 
June 1 opened 100 family-capacity homes there, especially designed 
or intended for the noncommissioned married officers of the first 
three grades and the permanent employees of the War Department — 
civilian workers, at or near Fort Dix. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is that the development in Wrightstown to whicli 
you directed us? 

Colonel DowELL. That is right; in the outskirts of Wrightstown, in 
the direction of the general hospital. Although it is open for occu- 
pancy by those people, it is only 49 percent filled right now — approxi- 
mately a half. 

Mr, OsMERs And it has been open since the 1st of June? 

Colonel Do WELL. Yes. Now, another factor which has helped us 
very much is that we have added a considerable area to the fort res- 
ervation. It was something like 7,000 acres last September. Now 
it is 25,725 acres. A considerable number of houses that were vacated 
M hen tliat added acreage was taken over are poor, no good, of nO' 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 57^9 

use, and particularly in the impact area of the field-artillery range 
which you saw,, the houses are very poor and will be of service prin- 
cipally for targets for the Field Artillery to shoot at. They will 
all have to be razed sooner or later. But the point I am making is 
that there were, however, a number of houses that were worth putting 
into condition for occupancy by people entitled to them — military 
people — and those have been, to some extent, made use of. Others 
could still be utilized if there was a shortage. 

We shall soon take over an additional area of 2,480 acres, in 
which there are 72 houses. They have already been photogTaphed. 
Major Daley here has the photographs with him today. 

They have been charted, and many of the families there have al- 
ready made arrangements to move out when the time comes. 

Mr. Arnold. Where did these families move. Colonel, when their 
liouses were taken into the camp? 

Colonel DowELL. Major Daly has handled that, with Judge For- 
man and the United States attorneys working with him. 

They moved to localities within 25 or 30 miles of where they were 
originally in the State. They all remained in the State of New Jer- 
sey, except for possibly 1 or 2, who may have gone to Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Arnold. And they were farmers? 

Colonel Do WELL. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Did they farm this land? 

Colonel DowELL. Yes, sir. Some of them were the poorer class. 
They were called "pineys." 

Mr. Arnold. It doesn't look like much of a farming area. 

Colonel DowELL. There are some beautiful farms in there, close in, 
but as you get out toward the impact area it is not so good. It was 
poorer land, cranberry bogs down there. 

Mr. OsMERS. I notice that all of the houses in the impact area are 
of poor quality. I believe. Colonel, your men had stripped them of 
anything that was useful. 

Colonel DowELL. Our men and some others who got to them in spite 
of our patrols that we had around there. They were not worth 
salvaging. 

The Chairman. Colonel Dowell, before we leave the photographs, 
will they be available for the committee ? 

Colonel DowELL. Yes, sir.^ 

The Chair:man. We are very much interested in the housing prob- 
lem because that is a pressing one throughout the United States. 

Colonel DoAVELL. This 2,480 acres that we will acquire has 72 houses, 
62 of which will be worth preserving. 

PLANS OF DISPLACED FARMERS 

We have not only photographed them, but we have detailed data on 
them — on all of the houses, everything about them. We have been 
able this time to do that in advance, working with the Federal authori- 
ties and through them and taking the farmers into our confidence. 

They know what is going to happen. They have had time to plan 
ahead, whereas before we lacked experience and had to give the time 
after the farms were required. We tried in every case to work just as 

^ See p. — . 



5720 TRENTON HEARINGS 

little hardship as possible on them, but this planning ahead is much 
better. 

jNIr. OsMERS. I can see that you have a very careful inventory of 
just what you are getting. Have rents gone up in this area ? 

Colonel DowELL. Yes; they have, but not as much as I have seen in 
other places during my service. 

A two-bedroom cottage with living room an_d kitchen in Browns 
Mills is available to an officer right now at %io a month, which is 
considerably more than they could have got for it last September. 

Mr. OsMERS. I dare say. Tell us a little more about your sewerage 
facilities at Fort Dix. 

SEWERAGE AT FORT DIX 

Colonel DowELL. Sewerage facilities at Fort Dix are in a pretty pre- 
carious condition right now for this reason : As I stated, we have a 
population of 26,000 military people and perhaps 3,000 or 4,000 civil- 
ians. That is an approximate figure. That is, a population of 30,000 
to take care of with a sewage-clisx^osal plant the capacity rating of 
which is a community of 22,000. So we are overloaded by 8,000. More- 
over, the visitor load over the week-end is tremendous, not only because 
the Forty-fourth Division is so near home, but also because the selec- 
tees coming in are from this vicinity. There are about 3,000 or 4,000 
of those, when it is running full capacity, and their people want to 
come in to see them, their friends and relatives, before they go far away. 
That adds a considerable load to our sewage-disposal plant during 
week ends. 

Mr. OsMERS. What are you doing about that problem. Colonel ? 

Colonel DowELL. Well, we have been working for some time on an 
improvement to our present sewage-disposal plant, which will make 
it take care of a population of about 40,000 permanent military 
people — a permanent military population of 40,000. 

Mr. OsMERS. When will those improvements come about? 

Colonel DowELL. August 10. That is the date when the additions 
are set to be completed. That will relieve the situation considerably. 
This is being done by contract and handled by the constructing quar- 
termaster under the Quartermaster General in Washington. Bids 
were called for, and it is proceeding on that basis. 

The improvements to the central heating chamber and other things 
will make that 40,000-capacity plant much more efficient, and they will 
be completed about the 10th of October. 

It isn't entirely because, the facilities are overloaded that the situa- 
tion is precarious right now, but in making these new additions and 
constructions we have to cut off a part of the capacity we already have ; 
so I feel — and I don't hesitate to advise the higher authorities when 
they inquire about it — that no further troops should be brought in 
there until that situation is taken care of, 

ROADS AT PORT DIX 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, what is your road situation? I noticed in going 
through part of the fort that you had a rather mixed road situation — 
you had paved roads and oiled roads and dirt roads and all kinds of 
roads. 

Colonel DowELL. That is right. We had to work during the winter, 
when it was pretty muddy, without oiled-surface roads or without the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5721 

black top, but the project is complete now, and the engineers and the 
State authorities are helping us in a very thorough and, I think, ef- 
ficient manner in improving that situation. 

There is work to be done on the roads, lots of work to be done, but 
it is being done according to plan, and it is moving now as well as I 
think we can expect. In fact, we are doing very well. It is moving 
very satisfactorily now, compared to what it was awhile back. 

It started with construction that had to be torn out. You will find 
concrete head walls lying all around there that had to be torn out when 
they finally got down to proper road construction. 

Mr. OsMERS. Last winter and early this spring there was some com- 
l)laint in New Jersey that emanated from there, because of mud. 
Would you say that will be largely eliminated this coming winter? 

Colonel DowELL. Oh, yes. Of course, the soldier has to take care of 
himself in the mud, and I find that he will do so and can do so, and can 
maintain a very high state of morale if you make him feel that he is 
necessary and that he has done a fine thing. That is the important 
thing — keep the soldiers feeling that they meet these things with a 
smile, and that they have done a fine thing in meeting them the way 
they do, and their morale will stay high. 

FORT DIX HAS GOOD HEALTH RECORD 

There was no threat to health there. I will say that the record 
of sickness is one of the finest that I have ever seen. AVith an 
expectancy noi'mally for that period of the year at thati place of 
5 percent then and 4 percent noAv, it got down as low at one time 
as 1.9 percent, and right now it is 2.2 as against a normal expectancy 
of 4 percent. That hasn't been accomplished without very fine 
work on the part of our medical personnel. 

Mr. OsMERs. Those figures are very "encouraging. 

Colonel DowELL. Very. When people complain of the dangers we 
point to that record. 

Mr. OsMERs. Now, we have covered sewage disposal and roads. 
I wonder if you would touch for a moment on what is being done 
to expand recreational facilities. 

Colonel DowELL. My morale and recreational officer is here. And 
may I ask the man who has charge of that — ^Major Donoghue, my 
morale and recreational officer — to answer that question? 

TESTIMONY OF MAJ. JOSEPH C. DONOGHUE, UNITED STATES ARMY, 
POST MORALE OFFICER, FORT DIX, N. J. 

Major Donoghue. The most recent authorization is a field house 
or gymnasium which will have portable bleachers and portable stage 
and two basketball courts. We have two service clubs and one 
guest house. We have four moving-picture theaters run by the 
United States Army Motion Picture Service. Two of those houses 
seat 1,038 persons each. The one in the reception center seats 350; 
the one in the colored troops area seats 388. 

We have a nine-hole golf course to which there is no restriction — 
no fees. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is it a reasonably good golf course ? 



5722 TRENTON HEARINGS 

13 RECREATIONAL BUILDINGS AT FORT DIX 

Major DoNOGHUE. It is in excellent condition. We have 13 regi- 
mental recreational buildings, each one seating 388. Each of those 
buildings is equippned with a stage, with stage lighting and projection 
room. 

We have two swimming pools on the post, one of which is quite 
old and very small, with no chlorination facilities. It requires 
daily filling and cleaning, and on account of fear of some infection 
we have determined to keep that closed. 

We have an up-to-date, 60-by-120-foot open pool, but because of its 
inadequacy for the entire fort, we are devoting the use of it to 
the ladies and the children and the nurses. 

Now, all fields for baseball, hard and soft, are improvised. We 
have blueprinted plans for the building of a baseball field and 
football field and a cinder track — a one-quarter mile cinder track — 
and also a Softball field. At the present time we have eight tennis 
courts, and we have projected sports centers scattered about the 
fort on the basis of one for each brigade or similar strength. There 
will be a double handball court, two or three tennis courts, a badmin- 
ton court, volley ball court, and a basketball court in each. 

There are authorized three additional theaters, and they will soon 
be begun. 

Mr. OsMERs. All these facilities are being constructed by the United 
States Army? 

Major DoNOGHUE. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERs. That is without any reference to what the U. S. O. 
may or may not do ? 

Major DoNOGHTJE. They are all on the post. We have an open-air 
boxing arena now seating 1,000 persons, which can be and I expect 
will be expanded to 3,000. 

We have an open-air theater which we will be ready to open on 
July 7, which will seat 2,000 persons. 

In each of the two service clubs we have libraries of about 5,000 
books. The new service club just completed and the guest house 
just completed will be open in about 1 week. 

CAFETERIA ON CONCESSION BASIS 

Colonel DowELL. ISIay I interject there that the new service clubs 
have been completed for some time, but we have been asking the War 
Department for authority to run the cafeteria in the club on a con- 
cession basis. One reason for this was inadequacy of construction, 
in many respects. The concessionnaire, a man of large experience 
and large business already in that line, is ready to install at once, but 
we had to wait to get permission because the policy was that each 
service club would run its own cafeteria. We felt that the conditions 
were not the same as in other parts of the country. We have people 
of large experience, like, we will say, Johnson, in that line. He has 
mass buying power; he has ways of getting employees and putting 
them in there that we haven't got. Many things make this project 
different from what it would be, say, out in the Mississippi Valley 
somewhere. 

Mr. OsMERS. Did they give you that permission ? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5723 

Colonel DowELL. They gave us that permission. We had to start 
in then to get the modifications made, which the War Department 
understands we are making. Those modifications will be completed 
so as to make this cafeteria usable in about a week. 

People are a little impatient, I understand, in the corps area, be- 
cause we haven't opened it yet; but they forget that we couldn't go 
to work making these modifications until we had received the 
authority. 

Mr. Curtis. May I ask at that point who is to be fed at this 
cafeteria ? 

Colonel DowELL. Well, we feed not only the soldiers who want to 
come in, but their families that come to visit them and their friends. 

Mr. Curtis. Civilian employees? 

Major DoNOGHUE. We feed some of the N. Y. A. girls. We have 
quite a few of those on the post, and at the old service-club cafeteria. 
Now they take their noonday meals there. 

Colonel DowELL. We have a number of the N. Y. A. youngsters, both 
male and female, on the post. We are cooperating to the fullest extent 
in that because it is a Federal effort. It is considered worthwhile if 
handled properly. Of course, they don't come in as experts, and it is 
a bit of a burden sometimes to instruct them in their specialities, to 
help them better fit themselves for the work they are in in civil life; 
but nevertheless we recognize the worth of that, the intention of it, and 
we are giving the fullest sort of help. They have a camp there in the 
camp — a Boy Scout camp that wasn't being used very much. I had my 
eyes on it myself, thinking we might make something of it, but the 
N. Y. A. representatives came along and I said, "Here is just the 
place," so they are out there now and I feel they are doing a lot of good 
for the youngsters and we are helping them. 

They are allowed to eat in these cafeterias. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, does that about sum up the recreational facilities? 

Major DoNOGHUE. No, sir; there are two more points. One is the 
^act each companj'^ has a day-room, with few exceptions, a day or 
company recreation room, so there are approximately 175 of those on 
the post. 

Now, I should add also there has been an authorization for the 
colored troops area for the erection of a service club, guest house, a new 
theater, which is one of the three I mentioned a few minutes ago, and 
also an officers' recreational building. There also has been authorized 
the erection of 10 day-rooms over the post for officers. 

I believe that covers it. 

FACILITIES AT ISLAND BEACH, N. J. 

Colonel DowELL. I think in that connection we might add that off 
the post we have arranged for beach swimming at Island Beach, N. J., 
out of Seaside Park. We have a half mile of beach there. The 
Phipps estate has turned it over for our use. 

Mr. OsMERS. Are there any facilities there now? 

Major DoNOGHUE. We took four tents down there a few days ago 
^nd yesterday we installed a latrine. We propose to erect three more 
tents for dressing and storage of equipment and a field range. 

The units of the fort will go down there this week end. There will 
be men from two regiments, perhaps as many as 400 men there, 



5724 TRENTON HEARINGS 

each regfiment self-sustaining with its own lifeguards. They will stay 
OA'ernight. This will continue as the summer goes on. We hope that 
other units will take advantage of this facility and that we will be 
able to put up more facilities and perhaps utilize the beach every day 
in the week. 

EDUCATIONAL PROBLEM 

Mr. OsMERS. Colonel Dowell, you must have a very serious educa- 
tional problem with this new population. 

Colonel DowELL. Yes, sir; we do have a serious educational 
problem. "We took away some of the lands from these townships, 
and they are pretty hard hit. They have their appropriations to 
provide, and they have to service their bond issues; they have to 
maintain their schools, and we have taken away one-third of their 
land, which deprives them of that much income. 

Then on top of this, 100 families have come into Wrightstown. 
The children will have to be sent to school somewhere. It is esti- 
mated that their present enrollment of primary pupils of 130 will 
jump to 600. That presents a problem for Congress to help them out 
with. New Hanover township particular^ is hard hit, and I feel 
very strongly that we either should construct school facilities on the 
post or in the vicinity to take care of that, or else they should have 
some help from the Federal Government, because it is Federal ac- 
tivity that has brought this situation about. 

HEALTH CONDITIONS SURROUNDING FORT AREA 

Mr. OsMERS. Is there anything being done on the part of the post 
authorities with respect to health in the surrounding territory? 

Colonel DowELL. Yes, sir; I first came here last September to take 
command of Fort Dix. No commanding officer can run the post 
properly unless he has the cooperation of the surrounding community. 

We needed the cooperation of the State health authorities. We 
needed the cooperation of the State troopers. And I want to tell you 
that we have had it, 100 percent everywhere. 

We talked the whole thing over and they got my ideas as to how 
they might be able to help. There w^ere two things that I sought 
their help on particularly, and got it. One was to keep the hidden 
army of females away from the community. They handled that situ- 
ation. And the other was the hot dog stands that are allowed to 
spring up and do spring up — eating places that are unsanitary, not 
fit for soldiers to go into at all. 

The health authorities of New Jersey have been grand on that, and 
I give them a lot of credit for their cooperation, because I feel that 
for its size it is the cleanest place from a sanitary and moral stand- 
point that I have ever served in. It is a boom city with clean sur- 
roundings, and we are working and struggling and they are helping 
to keep it that way. 

Things crop up now and then that have to be handled, of course, 
but they are handled with the finest sort of cooperation from the 
surrounding civilian communities and the State and county authori- 
ties. 

Mr. Curtis. May I ask one question in reference to the surrounding 
territory? You stated a moment ago that there were several thou- 
sand acregmore that vou are going to take over? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5725 

Colonel DowELL. Yes, sir; that is shown by these photographs here. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you happen to know — and I assume that it would 
be incidental — what the plans of the people are — the farmers and the 
villagers who might be displaced there ? 

Colonel Dow.ELL. Here is the man who has been working with 
them — Major Daly. 

TESTIMONY OF MAJ. JOHN T. DALY, UNITED STATES ARMY, POST 
JUDGE ADVOCATE, FORT DIX, N. J. 

Major Daly. The properties of those people in all probability will 
be taken, and they are prepared to move to other localities. Nobody 
has been moved out of the 1-B area yet, but in the other areas we have 
provided transportation and have moved them as far as 25 or 30 miles. 

Mr. Curtis. Are they farmers, for the most part ? 

Major Daly, Some of them. 

Mr. Curtis. Are they able to get other farms ? 

Major Daly. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you deal with them individually or do you con- 
demn the land ? 

Major Daly. The land has been condemned so far, and it will proba- 
bly be condemned in this area also. 

Mr. Curtis. But you have given individual attention to each man 
and his problem ? 

Major Daly. We moved a man no later than Thursday morning to 
a new house. 

Mr. Osmers. Is this called Pinehurst? 

Major Daly. No; this is some distance from Pinehurst. This is 
down in the triangle. 

NEW locations FOR DISPLACED POPULATION 

Mr. Curtis. Would you say these people who are being displaced 
are able to find new locations, with a minimum of hardship and 
handicap? 

Major Daly. Well, it will be a minimum of hardship in this case 
because the Government intends to pay for everything in advance. 

Mr. Curtis. I mean their ability to find some other place. 

Major Daly. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis., So they can make a living after they get there? 

Major Daly. Yes, sir. 

Colonel DowELL. I will add to that that we are working very closely 
with the United States attorney here and Judge Forman in an effort 
to help them find places. The United States attorney even goes to the 
backward ones, to the man that is not inclined to act in the matter for 
himself, and aclvises him and helps him find a place. 

We are trying to do it in such a way that if a man won't help him- 
self, it will be done for him and his family. 

Major Daly. In that connection, most of the people in the first area 
taken were supposed to get out by the 15th of April. Wherever they 
couldn't do it they came in to me and I checked with them and we 
extended their time, from time to time, and in nearly all instances they 
are pretty well cleared out now. But nobody was forced to get out 
by the 15th of April if he couldn't find a place to go to, or if it was 
inconvenient to move right then. 



5726 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. And the children continued in school ? 
Major Daly. Yes, sir. 

PROCEDURE IN REQUESTING FACILITIES 

The Chairman. Colonel Dowell, when you want any increased 
facilities, such as recreation or sewage disposal or anything of that 
kind, do you make requisition to the War Department in Washington? 
How do you handle that ? 

Colonel DowELL. We get out a blueprint and accompany it with a 
letter to the corps area commander, stating the need, and he usually 
sends that on to Washington if he approves it. Sometimes he wants 
a different location from the one we have proposed. But they send 
it on to Washington approved, and if it is approved there it comes 
back and is taken up in the form of a constructing quartermaster's 
project, directed by the quartermaster general to the constructing 
quartermaster, who is located right on the post, with the zone quarter- 
master up in New York City. 

That is a new agency which they have introduced into the arrange- 
ment. The zone quartermaster takes over a zone to watch the con- 
struction. They think it has helped to speed construction in the various 
areas, and I am in agreement with that. 

The Chairman. Colonel Dowell, that money comes out of the gen- 
eral War Department appropriation, does it? 

Colonel DowELL. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How do you find them in your requisitions? Are 
they pretty tight, or do they generally go through ? 

ColonerDowELL. They sometimes seem to have a mind of their own. 

The Chairman. We find them that way once in a while, too. 

Colonel DoAVELL. But I feel they have been fairly generous with us. 

I have brought a map showing the things that are under construction 
now or are authorized. 

The Chairman. Would you be able to leave that with us. Colonel ? 

Colonel DowELL. Yes, sir ; I will be very glad to. 

[The map referred to above is held in committee files.] 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you happen to have a map of the entire Fort Dix 
area ? 

Colonel DowELL. I might have known you would ask for that. We 
did not bring it along. 

Mr. OsMERS. We don't need it today. 

Colonel DowELL. This map which I have brought does not include 
the M^hole Fort Dix area, because it does not show the target range, 
miles away ; but this includes the Three Hundred and Seventy-second; 
Infantr}^, the colored area, and all of the immediate reception centers. 
It includes all of the immediate post, but it doesn't show the entire 
reservation. 

Mr. OsMERS. I was thinking of a map to show the total camp area in 
relation to the surrounding community. 

Major Daly. You mean a terrain map? 

Mr. OsMERS. Yes. You could send one in to the committee, and 
then we can study these towns around the camp. 

Major Daly. Yes. 

[The map referred to above was received subsequent to the hearing 
and is held in committee files.] 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5727 

Mr. OsMERS. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Colonel Dowell, we shall keep onr record open until 
probably the latter part of July, and if anything additional occurs to 
you that you might think would be of interest to Congress in setting 
forth the general picture of Fort Dix, we shall be glad to receive it 
from you. 

2,000 BUILDINGS AT FORT DIX 

Major Daly. There are 2,000 buildings at Fort Dix, approximately, 
and I think that fact should go in the record. 

The Chairman. Colonel, we want to express our deepest appre- 
ciation to you personally and to your staff for coming here. Your 
testimony has been a very valuable contribution. 

Colonel Dowell. My chaplain is here, if you would like to hear 
what the religious situation is at the camp. 

The Chairman. We should like to hear his testimony. 

Colonel Dowell. There are a considerable number of chapels to be 
constructed at the post. Wliat is the number now, Major Buttenbaum ? 

TESTIMONY OF MAJ. FREDERICK D. BUTTENBAUM, UNITED STATES 
ARMY, POST CHAPLAIN, FORT DIX, N. J. 

Major BuTTENBUAM. There are 12 chapels in contemplation. 

Colonel Do\^TXL. Construction has not started, but it will start 
soon. In the meantime we are having religious services at such 
places as we can. 

The Chairman. What is the present facility for services? Have 
you any chapels there now at all ? 

Major Bim-ENBAUM. There is none now. Religious services are 
held in the various regimental mess halls, recreation buildings, 
and theaters. The 12 chapels that are authorized will be scattered 
throughout the camp in the various regiments. 

At the present time there are 27 chaplains on the post. 

Mr. Curtis. What is your program of religious activities for a 
week ? 

Major Buttenbaum. That varies, sir, according to the outfit with 
which the chaplain may be serving. For instance, a regimental chap- 
lain will fit in his program with the program of recreation and other 
activities of the regiment, whereas we on the post fit our work in with 
the morale officer, and meet with the selectees when they come in and 
interview them, if they want to be interviewed, and quite frequently 
we are called upon to write letters to their parents. There are 43 
religious services each Sunday. 

Mr. Curtis. Xot 43 different kinds? 

Major Buttenbaum. Xo ; 43 services, more or less equally distributed. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is attendance at the services compulsory? 

Major Buttenbaum. No, sir. 

attendance at religious services 

Mr. Curtis. What does your attendance run ? What percentage of 
the boys attend some of these services? 

Major Buttenbaum. The attendance at service varies with the 
locality. At the reception center the percentage would be much 



5728 TKENTOX HEARINGS 

higher than in other areas, due to the fact the boys are in quaran- 
tine and thev can't get out, and consequently they go to the services. 

We have an average attenchmce there in the CathoUc service 
of approximately 350 to 400; the Protestant service attendance is 
anywhere from 125 to 200; the Jewish service will run in attend- 
ance anywhere from 50 to 125, depending, of course, on the number 
of selectees that are in the area on that given Sunday. 

Mr. Curtis. The figures you have just quoted are from how many 
available selectees? 

Major BuTTENBAUM. Well, I would sav, sir, between 2,000 and 
2,500. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, gentlemen. 

The committee will take a 5-minute recess. 

(Whereupon, a short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

Our next witness is Mr. Vey. 

STATEMENT ON HOSPITAL FACILITIES AT BERGEN 

Mr. Osmers. Mr. Chairman, before Mr. Vey proceeds, I would 
like to say for the record that Judge Lloyd, director of the Bergen 
County Chamber of Conunerce, who is schecluled to be our last wit- 
ness this afternoon, will not be able to come to Trenton because he 
is quarantined at home, due to sickness in his family. 

The Chairman. Well. Congressman Osmers, if Judge Lloyd has 
a statement to submit to the committee, we will be glad to receive it, 

Mr. Osmers. He has filed a statement with the committee. 

(The statement referred to above appears in this volume as exhibit 
20, p. 5844.) 

Mr. Osmers. I would like to say at this time that I have not read 
Judge Lloyd's statement, but I know that he had one salient point 
that he wished to bring to the attention of the committee, and with 
your permission, Mr. Chairman, at this time, I will just say a brief 
word on it. 

He wanted to call the attention of the committee to the shortage 
of hospital facilities in the Bergen County area of New Jersey. And 
it is his intention, I believe, to seek assistance in solving this problem 
under the Lanham bill. 

The hospital facilities in that community of 410,000 people at the 
present time are equal to about 1.4 beds per thousand, which is con- 
sidered inadequate by the medical profession. 

That is all I have to say. 

TESTIMONY OF ARNOLD VEY, TRAFFIC ENGINEER, MOTOR 
VEHICLE DEPARTMENT OF THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY, TREN- 
TON, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Vey, will you please give your full name and 
address and state in what capacity you appear here this morn- 
ing ? 

Mr. Vey. ISIy name is Arnold Vey and I am traffic engineer for 
the Motor Vehicle Department of the State of New Jersey. 

The Chairman. That makes you quite familiar with the road situ- 
ation in the State of New Jersey, doesn't it? 




Kitchen of a house in the slum district of Bayonue. \\ iiiie.^s ("arl C. Hdlderman at the Trenton hearing 
said, "I don't think there is an industrial area in New Jersey which doesn't have a large proportion of 
slums." (See testimony, p. ,5580.) 



Tho above photograph and those on following pages, taken in New 
Jersey communities affected by in-migration of national defense 
workers, have been selected from a group submitted at the hearing in 
Trenton. Those not reproduced in this volume are held in committee 
files. 






IP r ^^i-^fi:^.p^^^ , ■^: 




In Paterson, N. J., there has been "considerable resistance" to public housing for the past eight years, 
according to a witness at the Trenton hearing. The family above lives in one of Paterson's substandard 
houses. (See testimony, p. 5578.) 




WW^ i^ 




Another room in the same house. Air from the outside conies ihrmish the hole in the wall. 
5728-P. 




^*N ill''! ! I II * 




The slum area in which this photograph was taken is six blocks from Patcrson's City Hall. 




i - 

:his structure, in central Paterson, houses three privies which are used by ten families. 

5728-C 




This structure in the area taken over for additions to Fort Dix is described as "suitable for field oiTicers' 

quarters as is." 



^iTsWr'^r-w^ 




Photographs on these two pages illustrate four types of houses in the area being added to Fort Dix, N. J. 
They are samples of 73 such photos submitted to the committee by offlcers in charge of the expansion of 
the Fort. (See testimony, p. 5719.) The house shown above is described as "suitable for oflicers' quarters 
after slight expenditure for minor repairs." 



5728-D 




'Certain favorable factors concerning this property suggest addine rooms and improvements to make it 
suitable for ofticers' quarters," says the Army. "Due to location [it] should not be used for NCO 
(juarters." [Noncommissioned officers' quarters.] 




"Recommend razing." — U. S. Army. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5729 

Mr. Vet. Vf v much so. 

The Chairman. Has there been a great increase in the population 
of northern N.-w Jersey? 

Mr. Vet. Very much so, especially in the defense centers. I am 
not able to give the increase in population by sections, but there 
has, unquestionably, been an increase since the 1940 census. 

The Chairman. Has there been a considerable increase of out-of- 
State automobiles coming into New Jersey during the last year? 

Mr. Vet. The New Jersey State-wide planning survey last year 
conducted and completed this February a State-wide traffic survey 
of the entire State. Those traffic analyses are now being put to- 
gether and probably wi,. be completed in a few months; and that 
will specifically answer the question as to the number of out-of-State 
vehicles, and offer an opportunity for comparison with a similar 
survey that was made in 1932 and 1933. 

long-distance C0]MMUTING 

The Chairman. What have you to say about long-distance com- 
muting? Are many workers at these defense centers commuting for 
long distances? 

Mr. Vet. It is my understanding and my personal knowledge that 
there is some fairly long-distance commuting by private cars as well 
as by public transportation facilities. For instance, in the section 
in the State in which I reside, there is, 2 miles from us, a new air- 
plane-propeller factory. 

The Chairman, Has that increased the automobile traffic and 
caused congestion on the highways? 

Mr. Vet. Unquestionably it has. Congestion has been increasing 
for the past several years. Since 1930 the motor-vehicle registra- 
tions have increased some 30 percent and gasoline consumption has 
increased some 60 prcent. Undoubtedly there has been an increase in 
trave? , 

The Chairman. Is there nnich new highway construction in the 
State of New Jersey? 

Mr. Vet. There has been some recently, but we have been engaged 
primarily in reconstruction. The State highway department is in a 
better position to answer that than I am. 

NEED B^OR A SUPERHIGHWAY 

The Chairman. Are you an advocate of a superhighway down the 
coast, such as has been mentioned here this morning? 

Mr. Vet. There is unquestioned need for a type of roadway 
that Commissioner Sterner spoke of, a roadway that will not alone 
accomodate local travel from community to community in these con- 
gested areas, but also that will accomodate this through traffic across 
the State, which is tremendous because of our position between the big 
markets of the East and also because of our commercial and industrial 
activity. 

The Chairman. And in case of war, too, for troop movements, it 
would be absolutely necessary ? 

Mr, Vet. Absolutely necessary ; yes. 

The Chairman, Is there anything else you wanted to get before the 
committee, Mr. Vey ? 

60396 — 41 — pt. 14 13 



5730 tr?:nton heakixgs 

Mr. Vey. No; I have filed my report with the committee. 
The Chairman. I kiiow you have, and it is a very vahiable contri- 
bution, and we thank you very much and appreciate your being here. 
(The report referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY ARNOLD VEY, TRAFFIC ENGINEER, MOTOR VEHICLE 
DEPARTMENT, STATE OF NEW JERSEY 

New Jersey's unique location between aud partly within two of the Nation\s 
greatest commercial, industrial, and tinancial centers, together with its many 
popular recreational areas, explains to some extent the intense traffic problem 
which has confronted the State since the popularization of the automobile. 

A few pertinent, comparative facts concerning the State and the country as a 
whole might more readily exemplify New Jersey's position. For instance, New 
Jersey's area of 7.522 square miles places it forty-fifth in order of area of the 48 
States or slightly more than two-tenths of 1 percent of the total land area of the 
entire country. Within this comparatively small space there reside 4,160,165 
persons or 3.16 percent of the population of continental United States, placing 
New Jersey ninth in rank in population of the States of the Union. 

In population density, New Jersey ranks second to Rhode Island with a density 
of 553.1 persons per square mile or 12V2 times the population per square mile of 
continental United States. 

In motor-vehicle registration. New Jersey ranks eighth among the States of the 
Union with its 1,092,871 total vehicles registered in the year 1940 or more than 
3 percent of the total motor-vehicle registration of the counti-y. These vehicles, 
together with the tremendous influx of out-of-State cars, not only on normal days 
but particularly on summer weekends, are crowded upon approximately 27,000 
miles of total roadways, including State highways and county and municipal 
streets, representing less than nine-tenths of 1 percent of the total roadway 
mileage of the country. 

NEW JERSKY TRAFFIC PROBUCM CONSTANTLY GROWING 

New Jersey's traflSc problem, even through the recent depression years, with 
the exception of 1 or 2 years immediately following 1930, has been an ever- 
increasing one. At present, because of the step-up in industrial defense activity 
and the corresponding increase in all business and commercial activity of the 
State, the traffic problem is daily growing more complex. 

An indication of the increase in industrial activity may be seen in the 
official figures compiled by the New Jersey State department of labor showing 
increase in employment in concentrated industrial areas within the State. 

EMPLOYMENT INCREASE IN NEWAKK-HARRI80N AREA 

For example, in the intense Newark-Harrison industrial area comprising some 
230 plants, the increase in employment in the month of April during the past 4 
years was as follows : 

Percent increase in employment — Percent 

April 1939 over 1938 5.0 

April 1940 over 1939 8.2 

April 1941 over 1940 _-^ 21.0 

In the Camden area, with approximately 40 plants reporting : 
Percent increase in employment — Percent 

April 1939 over 1938 _" 18. 8 

April 1940 over 1939 25. 1 

April 1941 over 1940 22.5 

In the Paterson area, with some 56 plants reporting: 
Percent increase in employment — Percent 

April 1939 over 1938 10. 7 

April 1940 over 1939 27.5 

April 1941 over 1940 49.8 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5731 

In the Linden industrial area, with approximately 50 plants reporting: 

Percent decrease in employment— Percent 
April 1939 under 1938 0.7 

Percent increase in employment — Percent 

April 1940 over 1939 7. 1 

April 1941 over 1940 32. 

ITie foregoing percentages are considered by the Department of Labor to be 
fair average percentage changes based upon the plants reporting. Individual 
plants within these areas would, of course, show varying degrees of increase. 

In addition to the rapid expansion in industrial and commercial activities 
of the State, resulting in a more or less corresponding increase in vehicular 
traffic, there has been an increase in street and highway traffic due to military 
activities, including the enlargement of military reservations as well as 
ordnance depots. 

All of this new activity has not only brought about a general increase in the 
traflac problem throughout the entire State but has particularly intensified the 
traffic problem within and adjacent to the industrial and military areas. 

LABOR MIGRATION FROM OUTLYING PARTS OF STATE 

The demand for labor, particularly those of specialized skills, has resulted 
in the migration of workers from outlying sections of the State and from out of 
the State and in many instances has required these worker?: to travel long 
distances to and from their places of employment. Because of preference or 
convenience to avoid circuitous routes wliifh might he i-equirpd if public trans- 
portation facilities were used, many of these woi-kers, as well as those residing 
within shorter distances, elect to drive their personal cars to their places of 
employment. 

This increased use of personal cars for transportation to and from industrial 
areas has not alone expanded the traffic problem along already heavily traveled 
major through routes but frequently has created a particularly diflScult prob- 
lem at and in the vicinity of industrial plants and areas. It is the exception 
rather than the rule that adequate off-street parking facilities are available or 
provided and of necessity these vehicles must park all day on the public road- 
ways, thus further reducing the roadway space for moving traffic, and at times 
creating accident hazards. 

During the morning and evening rush periods, and especially at the evening dis- 
missal hour, .serious congestion is created at street intersections adjacent to large 
plants because of the simultaneous exodus of thousands of employees dispersing 
from a comparatively small area. 

This increase in traffic intensity during the rush hour in some industrial areas 
ha.s .slowed traffic to a pace of a few miles per hour. A survey in one instance 
showed a six^ed of vehicles of 3 miles per hour for extended distances. 

MOTOR-VEHIOLE REGISTRATION 

Motor-vehicle registration in New Jersey during the past 10 years as well as the 
first 3 months of 1941 compared with a similar period in 1940 is somewhat indica- 
tive of the growing intensity of New Jersey's traffic problem. 

A record of motor vehicles registered in New Jersey for the past 10 years is as 
follows : 





Total ve- 
hicles 
registered 


Percent 
change 




Total ve- 
hicles 
registered 


Percent 
change 


1930 --. 


852, 703 
869, 613 
860, 769 
856. 789 
876, 176 
900,180 




1936 - - 


956, 501 
1, 008, 909 
1,024,096 
1, 045, 604 
1,117,320 




1931 


1 2.0 

2 1.0 

2.5 

'2.3 


1937 


1 5 4 


1932 


1938 




1933 _ 


1939 




1934 


1940 


1 6 4 


193."; 

- 







Increase. 
Decrease. 



5732 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



The average increase in motor-vehicle registration in 1940 over 1930 equals 
31 percent. 

A comparison of motor-vehicle registration for the first 3 months of the 1941 
registration year with the 1940 registration year is indicated in the following 
tabulation : 





Total 
vehicles 
1940 regis- 
tration year 


Total 
vehicles 
1941 regis- 
tration year 


Percentage 
change 


March . . 


768,872 
163, 823 
38,406 


863, 761 
140,750 




April 


' 14 1 


May. - 








Total 


971, 101 


1,045,404 


1 7 7 







' Increase. 
' Decrease. 

A further indication of the increase in motor-vehicle registration and use In 
1941 over a similar period for 1940 is reflected in the new-car sales and used-car 
transfers and transactions recorded by the motor vehicle department. New-car 
sales increased 29.2 percent in the first 4 months of 1941 compared with 1940, and 
used-car transfers and transactions increased 25.7 percent during the same peiiod. 

GASOLINE CONSUMPTION 

The consumption of gasoline for motor vehicle uses is to some extent indicative 
of the car-miles traveled on New Jersey's streets and highways. A comparison of 
gasoline consumption for the past several years therefore illustrates to a degree 
the increase in traffic volume throughout the State. 

There is included a graph* showing gasoline consumption by months from 1932 
to April of 1941, inclusive, illustrating the increasing more or less straight-line 
trend in gasoline consumption. 

The record of taxable gallons of gasoline cousimied in New Jersey for the past 
10-year period is : 



Year 


Taxable 
gallons in 
millions 


Percent 
change 


Year 


Taxable 
gallons in 
millions 


Percent 
change 




546. 68 
570. 80 
554. 32 
546. 82 
567.84 
631. 60 




1936 - 


719. 57 
793. 97 
810. 95 
847. 81 
896. 95 


1 13.9 


1931 


14.4 
2 2.9 

2 1.4 

'3.8 
> 11.2 


1937 


1 10.3 


1932 




1 2.1 


1933 


1939 


1 4.5 


1934 


1940 


< 5.8 


1935 













I Increase. 
' Decrease. 

Gasoline consumption in 1940 increased 64.1 percent over 1930. 
The first 4 months of 1941 show an increase of 11.7 percent over the corre- 
sponding period for 1940 and by months is as follows : 

Gasoline consumption (taxable gallons) 





1940 


1941 


Percentage 
increase 




62, 060. 982 
58, 727. 503 
65, 316, 998 
69, 561, 616 


67, 044, 980 
64, 255, 010 
73, 810, 726 
80, 565, 233 


8.0 


February. 


9.4 


March 


13.0 


April - 


15.8 






Total 


255, 667, 099 


285,675,949 


11.7 







'Held in committee files. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

TRAFFIC VOLUME DATA 



5733 



Because of iusufflcient time and the scai'city of adequate comparative traffic 
census data, it has been impossible to obtain 1941 traffic data at a sufficient 
number of traffic count stations on the roadway system of the State to enable 
comparisons with traffic counts at the same locations during previous years. 

The State highway department, however, has maintained 16-hour daily traffic 
counts at seven rather important traffic points on the State highway system the 
first 4 months of 1941, enabling a comparison with a similar period for the year 
1940. The percentage increases in daily traffic at these seven points in 1941 over 
1940 are : 





January 


February 


March 


April 


Average 
increase 




12.40 
20.49 
25.50 
33.60 
15.56 
27.31 
31.08 


21. 58 
78.69 
36.48 
34.20 
20.82 
27.30 
31.23 


9.33 
39.23 
14.28 
21.46 

laso 

21.29 


22.40 
47.01 
38.83 
40,03 
18.79 
34.54 
51.92 


16.42 


Junction' routes ''5 and 39 Bordentown 


46.35 




28.77 


Intersection, route 25 and Slack Ave. near Trenton .- 
Junction routes 25 38 and 45 Camden 


32.32 
14.14 




27.11 


Junction routes 4 and 35 South Amboy 


33.63 






Average percent increase ... 


23.71 


35.76 


18.04 


36.22 


28.30 







Although there is, as indicated in the above table, considerable fluctuation 
between stations in percentage increase in daily traffic, the general increase in 
ti'affic flow at all seven stations in 1941 over 1940 equals 28.4 percent. 

It is probable that traffic counts at other points throughout the State would 
indicate similar trends. As a matter of fact, some sections of the roadway 
system of the State, particularly those sections within and adjacent to intense 
industrial areas, would undoubtedly show increases even greater than the 
average increase indicated In the foregoing tabulation. 

A comparison of monthly vehicular traffic using the three Hudson River 
crossings under the jurisdiction of the Port of New York Authority further 
indicates the increase in 1941 traffic volume over 1940 and is illustrated in the 
following tabulation : 

Percent increase, 19^1 over 1940 



Months of j^ear 


Holland 
Tunnel 


Lincoln 
Tunnel 


George 
Washing- 
ton Bridge 


January 


17! 1 

.1 

18.1 

12.2 


23.5 
30.2 
15.9 
30.7 
27.4 


8.2 


February 


20.6 


March.. 


4.0 


April . 


23.2 


May— 


20.0 






Average increase 


10.9 


25.4 


15.5 







It is noted from the above table that for the Holland Tunnel the average per- 
centage increase during the first 4 months of 1941 compared with 1940 is a lesser 
amount than the other two Hudson River crossings. This to some extent is 
not surprising, since the traffic volume during the rush-hour periods in the 
Holland Tunnel has for some time equaled capacity or near capacity. 

A further indication of the extent of the increase in traffic volume on particu- 
lar roadways of the State due to defense activities is contained in a special 
study by the New Jersey State-wide highway planning survey in the vicinity of 
Fort Dix, Burlington County. This survey concerned a study of the traffic pat- 
tern on a nuuilter of roadways in and about Burlington County, some of which 
are direct feeders to Fort Dix, while others do not provide direct access to this 
large military reservation. 

Briefly, the study showed that beginning with October 1940, there occuiTed a 
rapid increase in the volume of traffic on the feeder roadways to the fort as indi- 
cated in the following tabulations : 



5734 



T REN TO N H I-: A K I N<i S 



Percent average 16-hour weekday {6 a. tn. to 10 p. ni.) is of the 2'i-hour annual 

average 





County road- 
ways in vicin- 
ity but not 
feeders to 
Fort Dix 


County road- 
ways used as 
feeders to 
Fort Dix 


October 1940 


Percent 

88.2 
85.5 
80.8 
73.0 
64.5 


Percent 

94.5 


November 1940 _._ 


108.8 


December 1940- - . _ 


115.8 


January 1941 


116.8 


February 1941 _ 


114.0 







TRAFFIC ACCIDENT EXPERIENCE 

Traffic accident experience during the past several years in New Jersey shows 
some fluctuation from year to year as indicated in the following- tabulation of 
total accidents, number of persons killed, and number of persons injured : 



Year 


Total acci- 
dents 


Number of 
persons 
killed 


Number of 
persons 
injured 


1932 


45, 870 


1 180 


31 246 


1933 


33 812 1 1 1SS 


28 158 


1934 . 


33, 303 
30,611 

34, 349 
38,411 
33, 572 
36,290 
42, 542 


1. 227 

];io7 

1,278 
865 
814 
911 


27, 754 
25, 579 


1935 


1936. 


1937 


28 836 


1936 


24 918 


1939 


25, 214 
27 718 


1940 







There are attached on the following page two charts* — one graphically illus- 
trating the fluctuation from month to month and year to year in total accidents 
and number of persons injured and the remaining chart illustrating the fluctua- 
tion in persons killed. 

A comparison of total accidents, number of persons killed, and number of 
persons injured for the first 4 months of 1941 compared with a similar period 
for 1940 is shown in the following tabulation : 





1940 


1941 


Percent 
increase 


Accidents: 


3,039 
3,327 
3,243 
2,930 


4,022 
3,497 
3,671 
3,024 




February 


5 1 


March 


10.1 












12, 539 


14,114 


12.6 


Deaths: 
January 


61 
50 
52 
51 


65 
01 
49 


44 3 






March ... 


17.3 


AprU 


' 3 9 








214 


263 


22.9 


Injuries: 


1,654 
1,751 
1,943 
1,909 


2,229 
1.924 
2,034 
2,016 




February 


9 9 


March 


4.7 


AprU 


5.6 








7,257 


8,203 


13.0 



*Held in comiuittee files. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5735 



The degree of increase in industrial activity has not occurred uniformly 
in all sections of the State, as naturally those counties, including Bergen, 
Oamden, Essex. Hudson, Mercer, Middlesex, Passaic, and Union (which have 
for years been more or less the important industrial counties of New Jersey) 
luave had the greatest upward trend in industrial and commercial activities 
resulting from the defense program. 

It is interesting, therefore, to note from the map* the change in accident 
experience in those counties compared with the remaining counties of the State. 

A, summary analysis of such a comparison is indicated in the following 
tabulation : 

Percentage inf-rease. Occident experience, New Jersey, first J/ months of 19-'il 

over lyJ/O 





Accidents 


Number of 
persons 
killed 


Number of 
persons 
Injured 




11.2 
19.9 
12.6 


11.4 
52.9 
22.9 


10.8 


Reftiainder of State - - 


25.4 


Entire State 


13.0 







1 Industrial counties include Bergen, Camden, Essex, Hudson, Mercer, Middlesex, Passaic, Union. 
Burlington County has al.so been included in this group because of the location of Fort Dix within that 
■county. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

Tlie most positive and probably most lasting solution of the present day 
traffic problem from the viewpoint of expedition and safety is that of rebuilding 
existing roadway facilities or constructing new ones in and through the con- 
gested areas of New Jersey. To be serviceable to both local and through 
traffic such rebuilt roadways, and particularly new roads, should be so planned 
and designed to prevent as far as possible premature obsolescence. 

The reconstruction of existing roadways or the construction of new roads 
in the manner and to the extent necessary to relieve the existing traffic problem 
is not immediately possible because of the lack of necessary funds for a large- 
.•<cale program such as this. It is important, however, that wuthin financial 
means the necessary steps be taken to reconstruct or provide, as soon as possible, 
new roads in the more seriously congested areas of the State. 

To a large extent, therefore, the immediate traffic problem must be solved 
or curtailed through the adoption of such measures that will insure a more 
efficient u.se of existing roads ; that is, the application of traffic-control measures 
and traffic-engineering principles enabling increased traffic with safety. 

The application of the well-known three E's of traffic safety — engineering, 
enforcement, and education — together with an increase in manpower, par- 
ticularly enforcement officers where needed, will to a large extent provide the 
essential remedies. 

There is need, too, for a wholehearted cooperative spirit on the part of 
officials directly concerned with the traffic problem and highway users. 

More specifically, traffic-control measures and traffic-engineering principles 
which will result in improved traffic expedition with safety include : 



TRAFFIC CONTROL 

Improved traffic control not only at congested intersections lint also along 
heavily traveled important roadways within congested areas can be had through 
proi>erly directed increased enforcement activities as well as the application 
of proven traffic engineering principles such as : 

Cu7-t ailment of traffic congestion at hottlenecks. — Frequently congestion occurs 
at important, heavily traveled, grade intersections not alone because of inade- 
quate facilities but, too, because of obsolete or antiquated traffic-control methods. 
Oftentimes at such points traffic may be exi)edited with safety through the 
application of improved and up-to-date control measures. Each problem 
must be treated individually and the specific solution determined after factual 
studies of each location. 

In some instances it may be necessary to cause inconvenience to a relatively 
small percentage of motorists traveling through such intersections by the 



'Held in committee files. 



5736 TRENTON HEARINGS 

elimination, for example, of speeiflc conflicting: turning movements. However, 
despite this inconvenience, the greatest good is provided the largest number. 

Proper use of traffiC'Control signals. — Improvement where necessary in traffic- 
control signal installation and operation will aid in expediting traffic witih 
safety. 

This concerns not only the replacement of obsolete signal equipment with 
up-to-date traffic-control signals but also their proper operation in accordance 
with the needs at the particular location in question and especially the proi)er 
coordination of the timing schedule of adjacent signalized intersections along 
the same roadway. 

Application of one-ivay streets. — The adoption of one-way streets in congested 
areas where existing roadway facilities are inadequate and where the street 
pattern is such that one-way roadways may readily be established without too 
great an inconvenience to motorists, will likewise prove helpful in expediting 
traffic with safety. 

One-way streets not alone increase street space for moving traffic in specific 
directions but reduce vehicular conflicts, many times causing accidents and 
congestion at street intersections. 

One-way streets may be established permanently or temporarily ; for example, 
the one-way regulation to apply for the in-bound direction during the hea^^ly 
traveled morning rush period and the out-bound direction during the evening 
rush period, with two-way traffic permitted at all other times. 

Adoption of parking restrictions. — The adoption and enforcement of proper 
and adequate parking restrictions, including time limit as well as prohibited 
parking along heavily traveled congested roadways, will make available addi- 
tional street space for vehicular travel, thereby aiding in the expedition of 
traffic with safety. 

In congested business districts where time limit parking restrictions have not 
been adopted or are not enforced, it is general that a comparatively small pro- 
portion of the vehicles parked, park for long periods of time and consume a 
comparatively large percentage of the total available space hours. The adoption 
and enforcement of time-limit parking where necessary aids in expediting traffic 
flow. 

The prohibition of parking on roadways or sections of roadways in congested 
areas throughout the normal business day provides additional street space for 
moving traffic with little cost. 

On two-way roadways or sections of roadways used to capacity in the morning 
and evening rush periods but not to the same extent during midday periods, 
it is many times advantageous to prohibit parking along the curb of the in-bound 
side in the morning and the out-bound side in the evening. 

A regulation such as this placed into effect in the city of Newark several 
months ago along important radial roadways leading to the downtown district 
has proven most successful in expediting traffic flow. 

Need for off-street parking facilities. — The stopping and parking of a motor 
vehicle is an integral part of motor-vehicle transportation and without such a 
privilege motor vehicles would be of little value to most of us. However, the 
courts have ruled from time to time that the primary purpose of streets is for 
passage and travel and when the parking privilege becomes so extensive that 
it interferes with reasonable and free passage, then it is necessary to curtail and, 
in extreme cases, even to abolish the privilege of parking motor vehicles ui)on 
the public highways. 

Many roadways or portions of roadways in congested areas and business dis- 
tricts of communities in New Jersey have reached the place where permissible 
parking upon the public streets interferes with free passage of vehicular traffic. 
It is imperative, therefore, that convenient off-street parking facilities in these 
areas be provided. 

The need for off-street parking facilities is becoming more or less generally 
recognized in New Jersey. Some communities have acquired off-street parking 
areas, making unnecessary the use of public roadways for storage purposes. 
A wider application of this program will permit more efficient roadway use. 

SECONDARY-EOADWAY SYSTEM 

In some sections of the State, the secondary-roadway system may be inade- 
quate to accommodate present-day traffic volumes ; generally, however, such 
roadways are not used to capacity or near capacity. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5737 

A campaign of education encouraging greater use of secondary roadways where 
available would to a large extent alleviate congestion on primary roads. 

In most counties, secondary roadways are signed primarily for intracounty 
travel and through motorists driving across county lines are many times unable 
to determine their proper direction because of the lack of proper and adequate 
directional and destination signs designed for intercounty and cross-State travel. 
The proper and adequate signing of the secondary-roadway system of the State 
for intercounty and interstate travel would automatically encourage the use 
■of these roadways by through traffic. 

PTJBUC TEA N SPORT ATION 

Where convenient service to and from industrial areas is novp or can be 
provided by public transportation vehicles such as motorbusses, a more extended 
use of such vehicles by industrial workers, in lieu of the present practice of 
using personal vehicles, would I'elieve to some extent existing traffic congestion. 

An illustration of the inefficiency from a street-use standpoint of the prevailing 
practice is rather forcibly indicated when the square feet of street space re- 
quired per seated bus passenger is compared with the square feet of street space 
per passenger required when employees use private transportation facilities. 

If the seating capacity of the average bus is considered to be 35 passengers, 
the amount of street space used per seated passenger is slightly less than 7 
square feet, while slightly more than 40 squai'e feet per passenger is required per 
private automobile, assuming an average of 2.8 passengers per car when used 
for transportation to industrial plants. Jhe inclusion of standees in motorbusses 
would, of course, further increase the differential. 

It is apparent, therefore, that the greater use of motorbusses in place of private 
vehicles for worker transportation, which have the same flexibility as a private 
motor vehicle, with the exception that they may be confined to a specific route, 
■would greatly conserve street space. 

Incidentally, too, more extended use of mass transportation vehicles would 
further the conservation of motor fuel. 

For those plants where convenient public transportation facilities do not now 
exist or where such an arrangement would prove economically proper, chartered 
bus service would prove helpful. For example, chartered busses could be operated 
at specified times between the plant and previously agreed upon outlying points 
where workers might assemble via public transportation vehicles or the use of 
private cars. Such outlying points should naturally provide adequate off-street 
parking facilities for private cars, assuming a sufficient number of employees 
make use of their cars to arrive at such locations. 

staggp:ring hours of industry 

As previously stated, serious congestion now occurs at and adjacent to large 
industrial plants or industrial areas because of the more or less simultaneous 
dismissal of thousands of employees dispersing from a comparatively small area. 

The adequate staggering of working hours both within a single plant, where 
possible, and particularly between plants within the same industrial area, would 
materially reduce peak-hour flows of traffic, spreading the existing comparatively 
short rush periods over a longer period of time, producing more efficient roadway 
use. 

The results that may be obtained through the adoption of such a program of 
staggered hours would be similar to those obtained in Washington, D. C, through a 
system of staggered hours recently made effective in Government offices. 

Preliminary, unofficial, comparative "before" and "after" surveys indicate a 
favorable leveling of the hourly load curve of all traffic throughout the business 
day. The studies further show improved operation of mass transportation 
vehicles — trolley cars and busses — including: 

A reduction in the number of trolleys and busses in the rush period, resulting 
in a more uniform spread of these vehicles throughout the day, a more uniform 
passenger load curve, a larger number of total passengers carried despite the 
decrease in passenger volume during the peak 15-miute period, a reduction in the 
percentage of trips behind schedule, and a decrease in over-all trip time. 

CONCXUSIONS 

New Jersey's traffic problem has been an ever-increasing one, particularly in 
the densely populated and commercial and industrial areas of the State. 



5738 TRENTON HEARINGS 

The recent increase in industrial activity because of tlie defense program has 
further intensified the traffic problem to an extent that in some areas of the State 
immediate relief is necessary. 

Such relief can be had through improved highway facilities, including the re- 
construction of existing roadways or the construction of new roadways where 
required. Unfortunately, however, it is not possible to immediately reconstruct 
or construct new roadways to the extent necessary. 

The immediate solution may therefore be segregated into two categories : First, 
providing improved or new roadway facilities within financial means, and, second, 
the least costly of the two remedies, the promulgation and application of proper 
and adequate traffic control measures and traffic engineering principles that will 
expedite traffic with safety. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN GREEN, PRESIDENT, INDUSTRIAL UNION OF 
MARINE AND SHIPBUILDING WORKERS OF AMERICA 

The Chairman. Our next witness is Mr. Green. Mr. Green, Con- 
gressman Curtis will interrogate you. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you give us your full name? 

Mr. Green. John 'Green. 

Mr. Curtis. Where do you live, Mr. Green ? 

Mr. Greets\ Camden, N. J. , 

Mr Curtis. What is your official position in the organization you 
represent ? 

Mr. Green. I am president of the Industrial Union of Marine & 
Shipbuilding Workers of America. 

Mr. CuBTis. Affiliated with the C. I. O. ? 

Mr. Green. Yes; affiliated with the C. I. O. 

Mr. Curtis. How old are you? 

Mr. Green. I am 44. I will be 45 my next birthday, the loth of 
November. 

Mr. Curtis. How long have you served as president ? 

Mr. Green. Since 1934. 

Mr. Curtis. Is that a full-time job? 

Mr. Green. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis, Wliat was your craft or occupation before then ? 

Mr. Green. Sheet-metal worker. 

Mr. Curtis. How long have you been a sheet-metal worker? 

Mr. Green. I served my apprenticeship at ship-plating in the old 
country, and when I came here in 1923 I worked for a while as a ship- 
plater at Cramps, and when shipbuilding tapered off I went into the 
sheet-metal field and worked on airplanes and radios and experimental 
sheet-metal work. 

Mr. Curtis. You referred to the old country. What coimtry was 
that? 

Mr. Green. Scotland. 

Mr. ('uRTis. When did you take your citizenship papers? 

Mr. Green. I took my "first papers out on the 5th day of July 1923, 
the day after I landed in America. 

Mr. Curtis. And your final papers when ? 

Mr. Green. About 5 years and 2 months thereafter. 

Mr. Curtis. You have prepared a paper, and that will be received 
in our records in full. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows:) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5739 

STATEMENT BY JOHN GREEN, PRESIDENT, INDUSTRIAL UNION OF 
MARINE AND SHIPBUILDING WORKERS OF AMERICA 

Migration of workers, brouglit about by the present emergency, presents a 
number of serious problems which must be remedied in the immediate future to 
prevent them from impeding the national-defense effort. 

The tremendous expansion of many industries engaged in manufacturing 
defense materials has caused thousands of workers to migrate from their home 
communities to those liaving defense industries. Already this has brought about 
a great concentration of these migratory workers in a comparatively small num- 
ber of defense centers, and since very few, if any, of the various defense indus- 
tries have as yet reached the peak of their expansion, this tendency can be 
expected to reach even greater proportions in the near future. 

In the shipbuilding industry, with which I am most familiar, the greatest rise 
in employment will develop between now and the end of this year. From esti- 
mates by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we find that 309,1("K) new workers will 
be required between March 1941 and September 1942 for the construction and 
repair of United States Government, British, and private vessels. Of this num- 
ber, about 79 percent are expected to be hired within the next 6 months. 

In our industry, unlike many others, the ratio of skilled craftsmen to semi- 
skilled and unskilled men is very high. Almost half of the men in the industry 
are required to be qualified skilled mechanics. Shipbuilding couununities cannot 
possibly supply their local shipyards with the necessary thousands of machinists, 
electricians, sheet-metal workers, pipefitters, and craftsmen of more than a dozen 
other trades required to build ships made necessary by the national-defense pro- 
gram. As a matter of fact, the labor market in some of these localities was 
practically drained of skilled workers as early as last January. The New York 
Shipbuilding Corporation at Camden. N. J., was hiring skilled workers outside 
of the Philadelphia-Camden area as early as July of last year. 

EMPLOYMENT AT NEW YORK SHIPBUILDING 

Let Us take the New York Shipbuilding Corporation as typical of the industry 
and examine the available figures on employment at that shipyard. Their 
records of skilled workers hired in the i)eriod from July 1, 1940, to January 21, 
1941, show that 90 percent were gainfully occupied in other industries, a small 
percentage of them coming from other shipyards. A few of them came from 
the W. P. A. rolls, and only 2 percent were recruited from the ranks of the un- 
employed. It can readily be seen that there are few, if any, unemployed skille<I 
workers in shipbuilding communities at this time who can be used to build ships. 

Most of the skilled men hired by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation were 
from New Jersey and Pennsylvania, but about 11 percent of those hired origi- 
nated in other geographical locations, and you must remember that this was 
6 months ago. These out-of-town worker-.^ came from the South, the Middle West, 
and the New England States. Together they represented 11 States, plus the 
District of Columbia and the Canal Zone. 

It is to be regretted that similar figures are not available for the period 
between January and the pre.sent month. However, it can be safely assumed that 
the proportion of new workers brought into shipbuilding communities from other 
localities has increased tremendously since last January. 

A larger number of semiskilled and unskilled workers, as compared with those 
of the required skilled classifications, have no doubt been recruited from the 
ranks of the unemployed, but in shipbuilding areas even these workers have 
been absorbed by the industry. Additional workei-s for the shipbuilding indus- 
try will, as in the case of the skilled men 6 months ago, have to be drawn from 
other industries and other communities. In the near future, then, the propor- 
tion of these men who will have originated outside of the areas in which they will 
be employed can be exijected to equal that of migrating skilled workers. 

INtREAKKS IX PHIADELPHIA-CAMDEN AREA 

What will this great influx of workers mean to the various shipbuilding com- 
munities of our country? Let us take, for example, the Philadelphia-Camden area. 
The New York Shipbuilding Corporation is expected to almost double their 
present working force of 13,000 employees by the end of this year. The new 



5740 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Cramp Shipbuilding Co. expects an increase of 5,000 workers, and the Philadel- 
[Jhia Navy Yard also will enlarge its working force. Literally thousands of new 
workers, the great majority of them married, will thus pour into this area 
Itringing their families with them. This is no isolated instance -selected pur- 
posely to prove a point. The same situation exists at Kearny, N. J., where 
the Federal Shipbuilding Co. expects to hire an additional 8,000 employees, and 
iilso at Bath, Maine, and Quincy, Mass. Actually, any of our shipbuilding com- 
munities could be cited a^s examples of this trend. 

Getting back to the Philadelphia-Camden area, we find that this ever-increasing 
nrmy of migrating workers, together with their families, will swell the popu- 
lation of this locality by as many as 100,000 persons. This brings us to the first, 
and probably most important, problem caused by defense migration. 

HOUSING SHORTAGE IX SHTPBriLUING CENTERS 

The gravity of the housing shortage in shipbuilding areas, where housing 
facilities even 2 years ago were inadequate and unsatisfactory, is daily becoming 
more and more acute with the rapid expansion of employment brought about by 
the defense shipbuilding program. This is a problem about which something 
must be done — and it must be done quickly and adequately — to insure the success 
of the national-defense effort in the field of shipbuilding. 

Houses which were substandard and unsatisfactory even before the defense 
program now have to accommodate thousands of additional defense workers. 
Already there is talk of the residents of the communities opening their 
homes to these new workers, but this is only a temporary emergency 
measure, at best, and does not begin to solve the problem. Crowded houses, 
many of which are inferior to begin with, cannot possibly create the high 
morale and good health necessary for the efficient production of ships for our 
first line of defense. Any such arrangement, on the contrary, will end in 
a directly opposite result, creating a perfect environment for another flue 
epidemic, or worse, just as resulted from the same type of overcrowded, 
unhealthy, conditions in 1918 and subsequently. 

In a few shipbuilding communities, where the Government has recognized 
the need for housing facilities, a start toward alleviation of the situation has 
been made. However, in Camden and Kearney, N. J., only hundreds of 
dwelling units are built when thousands are needed. In many other areas 
the shortage of housing facilities has not yet been acknowledged.- 

KBXIANCE ON PRIVATE BUILDERS COSTLY 

In a large measure this failure on the part of the Government to meet the 
existing need is due to its reliance upon private interests to provide the 
necessary additional housing for defense workers. Private interests, how- 
ever, cannot, or will not, provide the urgently needed dwellings required by 
a continuously increasing, army of new workers into defense communities. 
In Bath, Maine, for example, where a large and important shipyard is located, 
real estate interests in the area have consistently opposed Government 
housing with the argument that private interests could very easily handle 
the situation. Their announced solution to the problem was to convert a 
number of idle antiquated shacks of world war vintage into dilapidated room- 
ing houses where shipyards workers could reap the questionable benefits of 
out-houses, and of sleeping four or five to a room. 

This is the type of solution to the housing shortage which we can expect 
to be offered by the real-estate speculators and rent profiteers. They are not 
so much interested in the success of the defense program as in renting or 
selling uninhabitable substandard properties at a nice profit. Such motives 
definitely should not be permitted to prevent the Government from providing 
decent living facilities for the workers who will build vital defense armament. 

Another housing problem brought about by the expansion of industries 
engaged in the national defense program is that of providing facilities for the 
unmarried defense workers. Even in the areas where the Government has 
excepted the responsibility of solving the problem of housing, the needs of 
unmarried workers are being ignored completely. Provisions are being made 
only for married personnel. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5741 

RATIO OF SINGLE TO MABMED MEN IN SHIPBUILDINQ INDUSTRY 

Available employment records, which cover skilled workers only, indicates 
a ratio of single men to married men, hired in the shipbuilding industry, of 
approximately 1 to 5. However, this ratio should be higher among the semi- 
skilled and unskilled workers since a much greater percentage of them will 
come from a generally lower age group and will have been accustomed to an 
income below that which is conducive to assuming the responsibilities of a 
family. Thousands of additional unmarried workers, therefore, can be ex- 
I)eeted to enter the shipbuilding industry and the various communities where 
shipyards are located. 

Another problem of national defense migration, which is also important, Is that 
of maintaining the morale and health of these new workers and their families, 
so that their efficiency will not be impaired. This problem is related, to a certain 
extent, to the problem of housing. The most difficult phase of it is not so much 
related to married workers as to those who are single. These men, in most 
cases, have severed their family ties and social acquaintances when they left their 
place of origin. Tliey will have to find new friends and new social and recrea- 
tional activities in a strange and seemingly unfriendly community. In their 
efforts to accustom themselves to their new environment many of them will 
drift aimlessly into barrooms, poolrooms, and bawdy houses, resulting in a rapid 
degeneration of morale and health. Witness the rapid increase in labor turn- 
over rates in the shipbuilding industry. According to reports of the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics, labor turnover attributed to quits and discharges in January 
1941 shows an increase of 440 percent over that of the same month 2 years ago. 
These activities, in addition to frequent wanderings into the red-light districts, 
can in no way contribute to the efficient production of ships, planes, munitions, 
and the thousands of other items which are vital to national defense. 

To combat these obstacles to efficient production the Government should, 
wherever the situation exists, make every conceivable effort to provide ample 
housing facilities rather than just token provisions, equal to about 10 percent 
of the actual need, as has so far been the practice. 

Housing facilities for defense workers, in order to adequately solve the prob- 
lem, must he more than 4 walls with a roof overhead. They should conform to 
certain standards that will enable them to become homes, rather than just 
dwellings. 

The shelter afforded defense workers must be adequate to their needs, well 
built, sanitary, and such as to develop a pattern of healthful living in pleasant 
surroundings with opportunity for the cultural development of the individual 
and the group. 

The projects should be integi-atetl with the communities in which they are 
erected, becoming a permanent and beneficial addition to the community. The 
rental structure must be such as to make occupancy within rhe reach of the 
workers for whom they are intended. 

HOUSING AS IT AFFECTS MORALE 

The difficulty of maintaining morale and health, in respect to married defense 
personnel, can be minimized considerably by the solution of the housing problem. 
However, the unmarried defense worker requires some form of club facilities, 
providing a lumiber of social and recreational activities, in addition to housing. 

Very few social or recreational programs conducted by private institutions are 
planned with a view toward enabling shift workers to participate. This should 
be overcome. 

Cafeterias, gymnasiums, and other recreational facilities should be operated 
"round the clock" in defense centers where plants are on a three-shift basis. 
Proper outdoor recreational activities should be made available, and movies 
and other places of amusement should stay open during hours when men on the 
night shifts can go to see them. 

A number of other smaller problems in connection with national defense 
migration may arise in the future, but if these that I have mentioned are 
properly taken care of, we will be well on our way to success in abolishing the 
most important barriers to efficiency in the national defense effort. 



5742 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Exhibit A — Union Qvbstionnaire on Housing 

Industrial Union of Marine and Shipbttilding Workers of Ambijica, 

Camden, N. J., Atigust 11, 1941. 
House Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, 

House Office Building, Washington, D. C. 
Gentlemen: This will acknowledge your letter of August 7. I have been un- 
able to secure a copy of the original questionnaire referred to in my testimony 
before the committee in Trenton, N. J., on June 28, due to the fact that all 
the material gathered at that time was sent to the National Defense Advisory 
Commission or the Office of Production Management. However, we had a copy 
of the enclosed questionnaire which was sent subsequent to the passage of the 
Lanham Act which is very similar to the original, with the exception that the 
original was more detailed than the one enclosed. 
Very truly yours, 

John GRha^N, President. 

(The enclosure referred to above is as follows :) 

Are you interested in a new house? 

"What size? 3 4 5 6 rooms. Check one.) 

How many in family? Adults Male Female 

Number of boys up to 5 years of age 

Number of girls up to 5 years of age 

Number of boys from 6 years of age to 16 years of age 

Number of girls from 6 years of age to 16 years of age 

Chief family supporter , 

Weekly income $ Do you own a car? 

Name 

(Please print) 

Address 

(Street) (City and State) 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN GREEN— Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. How much has employment increased in the Camden 
area in the last 2 years, according to your survey ? 

Mr. Green. In the last 2 years, over 100 percent in the New York 
Shipbuilding plant. 

Mr. Curtis. Will vou put that in the number of men working? 

Mr. Green. From ^ about 5,500 to between 12,000 and 13,000. 

Mr. Curtis. Noav, you are referring to the shipbuilding industry 
in the Camden area only? 

Mr. Green. That is correct. 

Mr. Curtis. What company builds ships there? 

Mr. Green. The New York Shipbuilding Co. 

Mr. Curtis. Have these workers come in from the immediate 
territory or have they been recruited from outside the Camden area? 

Mr. Green. From both, insofar as the skilled workers are con- 
cerned. We have tried to recruit them from outside the Camden 
area in Pennsylvania, and some from the south and some from other 
industries in the northern part of the State. 

Mr. Curtis. Northern pait of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Green. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. What is the greatest distance that some of these people 
have come, of your own personal knowledge ? 

Mr. Green. Well, I would say, from the State of Virginia. 

Mr. Curtis. In those cases do they bring their families? 

Mr. Green. Soni,e do and some don't. 

Mr. Curtis. Do they seem to consider their work as temporary or 
do they come to stay? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5743 

Mr. Green. We have found that some come to stay, especially the 
groups that come from around the mining districts in Pennsylvania. 
Mr. Curtis. Because of the let-up of the mines there ? 
Mr. Green. That is correct. 

UNION SURVEY OF HOUSING IN NEW JERSEY 

Mr. Curtis. Has your organization made any survey of the housing 
situation? 

Mr. Green. We have. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you tell us briefly what were the results of that 
investigation in the Camden area? 

Mr. Green. Almost a year ago I supplied to a Congressional com- 
mittee in Washington the data that we had at that time, which showed 
in the Camden area only 1,100 homes vacant, and I made a recommen- 
dation that a committee be set up to study rooming facilities for men, 
and we found out that those, too, were at the point of overcrowding. 

We found that if the Avorkers wiio would come into that area had 
to be taken care of, at least 2,500 new homes had to be built, and that 
was a very conservative estimate. The New York Ship, as I said, 
lias doubled and will go up to about 22,000 in the next 6 or 7 months. 

Mr. Curtis. That will be about four times as great as it was when 
you made your survey ? 

Mr. Green. Correct, sir ; and up to the present time very little build- 
ing has been done outside of 500 homes that are being put up in the 
Audubon section, which is just outside of Camden. 

Mr. Curtis. Who put those up ? 

Mr. Green. The Federal Government. 

Mr. Curtis. Wheie are the men living now ? 

Mr. Green. Some are living in the southern part, as far down as 
Atlantic City; some over in the northern part oi Philadelphia; and 
others in the city of Camden — those who at present have rooms. 

Mr. Curtis. They left their families behind ? 

Mr. Green. Families up-State in Pennsylvania — I am speaking 
mostly of men from Pennsylvania. 

WILL NEED 1.000 MORE HOUSES IN ("AMDEN AREA 

Mr. Curtis. How many houses do you think they need now or will 
need when they reach full capacity ? 

Mr. Green. Well, we understand that they are going to build an- 
other 600, but over and above that I would say at least another 1,000. 

Mr, Curtis. Now, when we get back to a peacetime status, are those 
houses going to be needed in that area ? 

Mr. Green. I would say, "Yes." 

Mr. Curtis. What makes you think so? 

Mr. Green. Well, let us take what happened during the last war, 
when they built what was known as the Fairview section. In that 
place at the present time you can't even buy a home. And it has been 
occupied all during the depression. 

Mr. Curtis. When you made this survey, did you use some sort of 
questionnaire ? 

Mr. Green. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Have you incorporated that in your written statement? 

Mr. Green. No, sir. 



5744 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have a copy with you ? 

Mr. Green. No ; but I can supply it to the committee. 

Mr. Curtis, We should like to have you send it to the committee.^ 

Mr. Curtis. What were some of the things you asked in that ques- 
tionnaire ? 

Mr. Green. Well, questions such as: "What type of home do you 
have ?" "Do you own it ?" "Do you rent it ?" "What are the facilities 
in the house ?" "If you rent, do you do your own repairs V 

Mr. Curtis. Now, was this conducted with the general public, or 
only with your members? 

Mr. Green. With a committee or our own. 

Mr. Curtis. But whom did you inquire of? To whom did you sub- 
mit the questions? 

Mr. Green. To our own members. 

HOMES in dilapidated CONDITION 

Mr. Curtis. What were some of the things that you found out in 
that survey? 

Mr. Green. We found that quite a large section of the homes they 
were living in were in a dilapidated state and that they had to do their 
own repairs. In other words they didn't have modern facilities. 
Some had a bathroom, but that is about all. 

Mr. Curtis. What was the wage scale in the Camden shipyard at the 
time you made this survey ? 

Mr. Green. About 86 cents was the average per hour. 

Mr. Curtis. Were many of the men buying their own homes? 

Mr. Green. Quite a few. 

Mr. Curtis. And some building? 

Mr. Green. Not building — they were buying them. 

Mr. Curtis. Buying existing structures? 

Mr. Green. That is right. 

rent increases in CAMDEN 

Mr. Curtis. Have there been any surveys made as to rent increases 
in the Camden area? 

Mr. Green. We are in the process of doing that, and let me tell you 
there is plenty of rent increasing going on ; and the reason we are going 
into this very thoroughly is the fact that our organization has been 
asked to go along wath the stabilization program in the shipbuilding 
industry. Certain increases were recorded last year in the Camden 
area, and what I say of the Camden area is true in all the shipbuilding- 
centers. A 7-percent increase in wages was granted last October, and 
a month thereafter our people were paying anywhere from 7- to 15-per- 
cent increase in the rents. 

Again that information is in the hands of the Government officials. 
Even payments to the Home Owners' Loan Corporation were increased 
by an amount that exactly equalled the increase the ship workers were 
asked to pay on their rents. 

Mr. Curtis. You mean the houses owned by the Home Owners' Loan 
Corporation that they had taken over in foreclosures ? 

Mr. Green. That is correct. 



See Exhibit A, p. :j742. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5745 

Mr. Curtis. How much did they increase their rents ? 

Mr. Green. Exactly 7 percent. 

Mr. Curtis. Did you understand why that was? 

Mr. Green. Yes. After we made a protest we. finally received a 
communication throug-h Mr. John Carmody's office, from some person 
in the Home Owners' Loan Corporation, stating that the normal rent 
for the structure was below par and that they felt 7 percent extra on 
the present rental structure was fair. 

Mr. Curtis. Did you agree with them ? 

Mr. Green. Disagreed with them, positively. 

Mr. Curtis. Why ? 

Mr. Green. Because the normal rents around that area were $25. 

Mr. Curtis. And what was the Home Owners' Loan Corporation's 
increase ? 

Mr. Green. They raised theirs to $35 at least when they put the extra 
7 percent on. But the other homes around there, the same type of 
structure, were renting for $25. 

Mr. Curtis. And you feel they raised the rents because they felt they 
could get it ? 

Mr. Green. Exactly. 

Mr. Curtis. In other words, human nature isn't any different in a 
Government agency than it is outside, is that right ? 

Mr. Green. It seems to work that way, no matter where you go. 

Mr. Curtis. To have the Government do it doesn't mean it is going 
to be perfect or free from bias or corruption or anything like that'i 

Mr. Green. If that eA'ei" comes, you and I will never see it. 

CONFUSION AMONG HOUSING AGENCIES 

Mr. Curtis. Has there been any confusion in the housing program 
as between the various Government agencies — the Federal Llousing 
and the Navy Division of Docks ? Have you experienced any confusion 
because the programs of the various agencies, such as the United States 
Housing Authority and the Farm Security Administration, have not 
been coordinated in the Camden area ? 

Mr. Green. My personal opinion is that there are too many agencies. 
If this job has got to be done, it has got to be done by a two-fisted, 
hard-hitting son-of-a-gun to push it over, and not what we have now. 
Now, you go first to this agency, and you talk to them; then you go to 
the next fellow, and they have got a different slant on how this thing 
should be done, and there are no two ways about it. There is too much 
friction between one administration group and the other. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think there is a spirit of competition between 
them? 

Mr. Green. I don't know whether it is a spirit of competition. 

Mr. Curtis. Are they anxious to do the job, or are they willing 
to step out of the way and let the other agencies do it? 

Mr. Green. Strange as it may seem, I disagreed with the coordi- 
nator on his handling of the whole emergency housing situation. 

Mr. Curtis. That is Mr. Palmer? 

Mr. Green. That is correct. And I feel that the Carmody section 
is the one that will do the job, but they are not allowed a free hand. 
It must be cleared through Palmer's office and Palmer is inclined to 
say : "Let private industry do the job." 

60396 — 41— pt. 14 14 



5746 TRENTON HEARINGS 

But unfortunately private industry has not done the job. 

Mr. Curtis. Is private industry retarded because of the announced 
policy that the Government was going to do it? 

Mr. Green. I don't think so, sir. If private industry wanted to 
do it, they could get the money for it ; but for some reason or other 
they will not go into it. 

Now, there is a feeling in the Camden area that if private interests 
had gone into it they would have had security, but they just won't 
doit. 

Mr. Curtis. For how long a time have the Federal agencies been 
dealing with the problem? 

Mr. Green. Well, that goes back to the question of the whole 
housing proposition. I think it was around 1934 when it was started 
by the P. W. A". 

Mr. Curtis. And representatives of the various housing authorities 
have been in the area looking the matter over? 

Mr. Green. Yes; made surveys. 

TWO PROJECTS BY FEDERAL HOUSING AGENCIES 

LIr. CuRiTS. Have they started any projects? 

Mr. Green. There are only two projects. One was by the Federal 
Works Administration, called Westfield Acres, which is now turned 
over as a low-cost-housing project; and secondly, a Negro project, 
which has just been completed, again under the United States Hous- 
ing Authority. 

Outside of that, the Federal Government has done no building 
other than this defense-housing project in Audubon, N. J. 

Mr. Curtis. Have any tentative plans been made for others? 

Mr. Green. Five hundred more, I understand, are to be added 
to the first 500 in Audubon. 

Mr. Curtis. By whom? 

Mr. Green. By the Federal Works Administration. 

Mr. Curtis. On what basis do they build their houses? 

Mr. Green. Practically on the same basis as any other group. 

Mr. Curtis. I mean, how does the Federal Works Administration 
housing project differ from the United States Housing Authority, 
for instance? 

Mr. Green. Oh, the United States Housing Authority is a sub- 
sidized housing project. 

Mr. Curtis. Do they build by contract ? 

Mr. Green. I understand it is on the open-market contract. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you favor that type of construction at this time ? 

Mr. Green. I certainly do. 

Mr. Curtis. You think it is more rapid ? 

Mr. Green. Exactly, and it will serve its purpose. 

Mr. Curtis. Who owns these houses? Are they sold or are they 
liuilt and just held for renting purposes? 

union housing co-op 

Mr. Green. Our group is trying to set up a mutual housing cor- 
poration.^ The local committee is in the process of drafting a contract 

' Sp.- testimony of John M. Carmorty, Washinsiton licariiiss, July 19. 1041. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5747 

between the Federal Goverimient and themselves, whereby over a 
period of years the corporation will nltimately be the owner of that 
project. The people themselves, through the corporation, will be buy- 
ing their homes while paying rent. The rent structure is so broken 
down as to include interest, amortization, and such items. 

Mr. Curtis. In other words, some of your union members want 
to form a sort of cooperative ? 

Mr. Green. That is correct, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Will that cooperative deal in individual houses, or 
apartment houses where all the cooperators live ? 

Mr. Green. It will be individual houses in the project, but they 
won't be individually owned. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, what advantage do you think that this coopera- 
tive would have over an individual bujang a house? 

Mr. Green. Well, it tends to bring out the cultural elements — 
education and a better spirit of community feeling. Wliere you 
place responsibility you always create a better understanding. We 
believe that through this plan we will educate the people as to how 
democracy operates. Democracy operates on responsibility. 

Mr. Curtis. Well, what type of education will they receive by 
owning their own houses that they wouldn't receive by owning them 
individually? 

Mr. Green. Well, that is hard to bring out. • A lot of that will 
depend on the make-up of the individuals who go into this collective 
group. 

I know it is a big job to break down the rugged individualism 
of wanting to own your own red brick and your own piece of land. 

Mr. Curtis. You are opposed to lliat? 

Mr. Green. I am not opposed to that, sir, but I say that there 
are certain people who think on the basis of cooperation, and here 
is a field I think that we ought to start just the same as we would 
for stores, cooperative stores, or what have you. The same field 
should be opened up in housing, where cultural facilities and educa- 
tional facilities can be provided by the group ; in other words, group 
education.^ 



1 The following letter was received subsequent to the hearing and, in accordance with in- 
structions from the chairman, was made a part of the record : 

Inddstrial Union of Marine 'and Shipbuilding Workers of America, 

Camden, N. J., June SO, IS',!. 
Congressman John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, Hou^e Committee Investigating/ Xational Defense Migration, 

House Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Mt Dear Congressman : In my appearance before your committee in Trenton, N. J., on 
June 28, some question was raised by a member of your committee regardinff "collectivism" 
in the defense housing projects. For the sake of the record, I would like to make my views 
clear on this aspect. 

I'nder the "Camden plan" which our organization has devised in collaboration with the 
Federal Works Agency, it is not collectivism, but individualism which is stressed. The 
plan itself is devised to facilitate the individual family's obtaining decent, adequate shelter, 
which it has been unable to obtain otherwise because of the housing shortage aggravated by 
the defense program. 

The defense-housing project such as Audubon Park where the Camden plan is first 
applied, is a planned community but it is not a collectivist community in any sense of the 
word. The individual family is free to conduct itself as it pleases in this community, 
restrained only by a proper regard for the rights of its neighbors. The community 
facilities provided by the project are those necessary in any well-planned housing develop- 
ment. They are the normal recreational facilities ordinarily provided by most urban 
communities in the normal course of events. No one can call a children's playground or 
a field for adult games collectivist. 

On the other hand, freed from the claws of the rent gougers, removed from the cramped 
and depressing squalor of the slums into which they have been forced by the lack of private 



5748 TREMON HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. I don't quite understand or agree %Yith the theory 
but I will not clutter up the record by asking further questions. 
That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Green. 
Our next witness is Mayor Ganser. 

TESTIMONY OF MAYOR ANDREW F. GANSER, OF AUDUBON, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mayor Ganser, Mr. Arnold will interrogate you. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Mayor, will you state your name and address 
for the record and your official title ? 

Mayor Ganser. Mayor of Audubon, N. J., and my name is Andrew 
F. Ganser. 

Mr. Arnold. Your complaint, or should I say concern, is that the 
Federal Government has gone into your city of 9,000 and built these 
561 defense units and added to your problems as a community? 

Mayor Ganser. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. The statement you have submitted on this subject 
will be made a part of our record. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY MAYOR ANDREW F. GANSER OF AUDUBON, N. .7. 

Our population is 8,900; area, 1 square mile. This is a strictly residential 
suburban community, containing no industries of any kind. 

The nearest public and private hospital facilities are at Camden, N. J., which 
is about 3 miles from our borough, and also at Philadelphia, Pa., about 7 
miles west of us, across the Delaware River. 

The area now occupied by the national defense housing project was pur- 
chased by private builders from private owners, and the builders had already 
prepared to erect about 400 homes, which were expected to sell at from 
.$4,000 to $6,000. The Defense Housing Agency then stepped in and took 
over the land by condemnation, on which they have erected over ,500 low-rent 
low-cost houses, with an average valuation of $3,000. On these housing units 
the housing agency has offered us a service fee of $65 per housing unit, 
based on a valuation of $1,800 per housing unit, while the tax income which 
would have been derived from the privately built and owned properties would 
have averaged over $100 per house, based on an average for the town at present 
of $3,000 assessment. 

The present I'esidents of this borough had provided certain community facili- 
ties, sucli as schools, sewerage disposal, and so forth, which were expected to 
take care of a normal growth for years to come. 



housing facilities, the morale of the defense worker will be greatly improved and will 
bring a direct benefit in efficiency to our defense program. 

It is not collectivism to enable the defense worker to come home after a day of heavy 
toil in the shipyard to a clean, adequate, and happy home; to be able to sit upon his own 
lawn after dinner, instead of upon the stoop of his former slum home ; to be able to putter 
about in his own little garden, instead of being forced to seek recreation in pool rooms and 
saloons. 

The same holds true for the defense worker's wife and family. The defense-housing 
project will have a woman's club facilities where they may meet in sewing circles and 
various other little social groups to enjoy a richer life and all the wholesome benefits of 
neighborliness. Children will play on the playgrounds in a normal, healthful environment, 
instead of upon crowded city streets. This is not collectivism, but shaping their minds and 
their physical welfare into becoming good Americans. 

I make these views known in the sincere belief that the charge of collectivism leveled 
against defense-housing projects is a shortsighted one ba-sed upon the prejudices encouraged 
by private groups which resent any activity by the Government which may impair their 
sacred right to charge exorbitant rentals, and profiteer upon the emergency needs of our 
Nation. 1 feel certain that an open evaluation of the defense-housing projects in which 
we are cooperating will prove beyond a doubt tliat the only "ism"' they will promote is 
good Americanism. 

In view of the possible misunderstandings which may have been created in my question- 
ing before the committee, I would appreciate it if these views of mine were inserted in the 
record. 

Very truly yours, 

JOHX Green, President. 



NATIONAT. DEFENSE :MI<;KATI0X 5749 

The building by the hoiising agency of over 500 units at one time, and 
taking by condemnation the right to enter this disposal plant has taken up the 
entire margin of unused facilities. This will require the municipality to provide 
an extension of sewage-disposal plant to take care of any additional houses 
erected by private persons, which is being done rapidly throughout this section 
at present. There would be no way for our citizens to secure this additional 
sewer plant except by increasing its bonded indebtedness, thus placing an addi- 
tional burden on the original residents. 

Our schools are in a like position. We could take care of normal growth by 
adding a teacher now and then, without providing new buildings. However, by 
the erection of over 500 homes at one time, which will mean a large number of 
new pupils applying for admission next fall, you can readily see that our school 
facilities will be overtaxed, and if we crowd them into the present rooms it will 
mean a greater load and a lessening of practical education for the pupils. 

We have in our schools at present about 8 empty rooms, and in addition 
a very old school building, practically condemned, containing 8 rooms. To 
put this old building in condition to be used for school purposes would require 
the expenditure of a large sum of money, including employment of a number of 
additional teachers to take care of the additional pupil load. 

If these houses had been scattered throughout the town this problem would 
not have been so serious. Situated as these houses are in a community by 
themselves, they will require extra services of every kind. 

Any community can handle a certain number of low-priced homes, but when 
•5G1 are erected at one time in a community such as ours, without any industries, 
you can readily see that it will be a heavy burden on the present taxpayers, who 
in years gone by have assumed the burden of bonded indebtedness to make our 
town what it is today. 

I fail to see the fairness of placing in a small suburban home community such 
as ours a large number of homes which are expected to be permanent, and are 
not subject to taxation, unless and until they are sold to private owners. Such a 
project can more easily be absorbed by a large industrial city, with many in- 
dustries from which taxes in large amounts can be secured, while in our com- 
munity the tax income is almost exclusively from privately owned small homes, 
with a limited amount from a small retail trade section. 

We feel that in building these houses to give defense workers low-cost, low- 
rent homes, the housing agency failed to take into consideration the fact that 
many of our residents are defense workers who own their own homes and pay 
taxes, and who will be compelled through i)ayment of such taxes to help to 
provide community facilities to new residents at less than cost. 

There must be some mistake in the minds of persons who believe that small 
suburban communities such as ours welcome these housing projects. This 
might be true if they paid their full share of the cost of maintaining the com- 
munity and providing additional facilities to take care of normal growth made 
necesssary because of sudden erection of such a large number of houses. Unless 
such facilities are provided it means that normal growth will be prevented. 

You have asked for suggestions for a solution of these problems. I believe 
the best solution would be for these housing projects to be set np as separate, 
self-governing, self-sustaining communities, purchasing what community services 
they require from surrounding municipalities, where possible. As this project 
is to be managed as a village, I see no reason why this could not have been done. 

TESTIMONY OF MAYOR ANDREW F. GANSER— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. Is your story a complaint or a concern ? 

Mayor Ganser. Not exactly a complaint ; but we feel that by add- 
ing 5G1 units to a small community such as Audubon, the facilities 
which the city has been building; up for 25 or 30 years, such as schools, 
sewers, police, fire, and everything else, are overtaxed. 

In the past 25 or 30 years Audubon has been a small community, 
and it went into debt to get these facilities; but the addition of these 
561 homes at one time and all of one nature practically eliminates 
the effectiveness of all the facilities which we have built up. 

The Chairman. What is your debt limitation ? 



5750 TRf:NTON HEARINGS 

Mayor Ganser. I don't know what the debt limitation is now. 

Mr. OsMERS. What is the assessed vahiation ? 

Mr. Ganser. $6,817,000. 

The Chairman. And your debt is how much? 

Mr. Ganser. Our debt now is $640,305 for schools. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arnold. 

Mr. Arnold. Are these units completed and occupied ? 

Mayor Ganser. They are being occupied now. I believe there will 
be 200 more families moving in in the course of the next week. I 
believe there are 50 or 60 families in the unit. 

Mr. Arnold. You are about 3 miles from Camden ? 

Mayor Ganser. Approximately. 

Mr. Arnold. And Philadelphia is 

Mayor Ganser. Just on the other side of the river. 

Mr. Arnold. And these people who occupy these homes work in 
Camden or Philadelphia principally ? 

Mayor Ganser. Principally in the Camden area. 

Mr. Arnold. Mostly in the shipbuilding concerns? 

Mayor Ganser. I would say yes ; but I understand this housing is 
supposed to be available for all defense workers. Those, of course, 
would include employees of R. C. A. or some of the other industries 
in the Camden metropolitan district. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have any complaint as to the type of houses 
they built there? 

Mayor Ganser. No; except in this respect: We figured taking just 
one unit of homes valued at a certain figure would give us a taxable 
house of about $1,800. which is about the average of the homes in 
Audubon — average about $3,000. 

Mr. Arnold. And you don't feel the Government has offered to 
make fair or adequate payment for each housing unit they have built ? 
They have offered to pay $65 and you feel $100 is about right? 

Mayor Ganser. That is what we figured. It would help our bonded 
indebtedness. We felt the people coining into the community ought 
to take it up the same as any other individuals building homes. 

Mr. Osmers. Wliat are they going to give you, $65 a unit? 

Mayor Ganser. I don't know what they are going to give us now. 
At the last conference we had we were offered so much for our sewers 
and other facilities, and they would be taken up as we came to them. 
We do not feel that Audubon citizens should pay additional taxes 
because of this housing project. 

NO ROOM TO EXPAND PRIVATE BFILDIXc; 

Mr. Arnold. Now, as I understand it, your sewage-disposal plant 
will take care of this additional housing but doesn't leave you any 
room for expansion in private building. 

Mayor Ganser. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. And you feel that the Fedei'al Government should 
recompense you for that? 

Mayor Ganser. We haven't asked for that. We only asked for 
the actual service charges, but that doesn't place us in a good posi- 
tion. If we do have a large building program we are going to have 
to build an additional sewer plant. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5751 

Mr. Arnold. Is there an inclination on the part of 3'oiir real-estate 
people and others to build private homes? 

Mayor Ganser. Yes, sir. At the present time we have 32 homes 
being started on the White Horse Pike, in addition to a small apart- 
ment building, which will give us about 54 additional homes, and 
which will be completed about October. There are also in the process 
of building about 20 other homes throughout the town. 

Mr. Arnold. Have rents gone up in your city? 

Mayor Ganser. That is hard for me to answer for the reason that 
Audubon in the last few years has decreased its taxes. If there were- 
any increase in taxes I ooukl see a reason for it, but there is no in- 
crease in taxes. 

Mr. Arnold. Perhaps supply and demand are taking effect. 

Mayor Ganser. That may be the only reason. 

SCHOOLS FACE OVERCROWDING 

Mr. Arnold. Will your schools take care of this additional load' 
with the present physical facilities? 

Maj'or Ganser. K'ot without overcrowding. In my statement T 
said we had about 8 rooms and they are divided among our schools.. 
Our school is about 3 miles from the project. The other is about, I 
would say, a mile and a half. And then we have a school building., 
which has practically been condemned, and which cannot be used 
unless it is fixed up. 

Mr. Arnold. You will have to have some additional teachers alsof 

Mayoi- Ganser. Well, we can't arrive at any figure about how 
many children we are going to receive, but we figure a teacher for 
every 35 pupils, and that will mean a heavy load. 

Mr. Arnold. Is that your present pupil load ? 

Mayor Ganser. The present is about 30. 

Mr. Arnold. No one connected with the Federal Government has 
been in a position to make definite statements to you as to what he 
could do, because the legislation wasn't yet passed; but if the Federal 
Government steps in and takes care of its proportion of the load, then 
you will be satisfied, will you not? 

Mayor Ganser. We want to do all we possibly can to help the 
project and the emergency. 

Mr. Arnold. According to the burden of testimony that we have 
had, this won't be a permanent growth, but may leave you a ghost 
town in the future. 

Mayor Ganser. That ]s our thought. 

Mr. Arnold. The shipbuilding industry will probably continue 
after the emergency is over because so many merchant ships will 
have gone to the bottom.^ and they will have to be replaced. Facili- 
ties abroad will be more or less out of existence or damaged, and it 
is supposed that this country's shipbuilding facilities will continue- 
after the emergency is over. In that case, will your homes be sold 
to private investors and continue to be occupied by them? 

Mayor Ganser. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mayor. We appreciate- 
your coming here. 

Our next witness is Col. Lawrence Westbrook. 



5752 TRENTON HKAKINflS 

TESTIMONY OF COL. LAWEENCE WESTBEOOK, FEDEEAL WOEKS 
AGENCY, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The CHAiRarAN. Colonel Westbrook. Mr. Arnold will interrogate 
you. 

Mr. Arnold. Colonel, will you state your name and official title? 

Mr. Westbrook. Lawrence Westbrook, Special Assistant to the Ad- 
ministrator for the Federal Works Agency. 

Mr. Arnold. And you are located where? 

Mr. Westbrook. In Washington. 

Mr. Arnold. Colonel, there has been some concern over this Audu- 
bon project, built in a community that has no factories. In your 
paper I noticed you have answered a good many of these objections 
to why the project was needed to be placed there. If you would 
summarize it for the committee I think that would be a fair way to 
approach the subject. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY LAWRENCE WESTBROOK, SI'ECTAL ASSISTANT TO 
THE ADMINISTRATOR, FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY 

The defense-housing project to be constructed in Clark Township has been de- 
signed by Messrs. John T. Rowland, Gilmore Clarke, and Michael Rapuano, 
who are among the outstanding architects in the United States. There will be 
some single houses, some double, some threes and some fours, but the lay-out 
of the project and the design of the houses is such that it will present a much 
better appearance than if the houses were a group of small one-story cottages. 

These houses are designed to fit the incomes earned by defense workers in that 
area. The best information available indicates that the income that these de- 
fense workers will have will be considerably above the average income of the 
present residents of the township. The housing itself should be proportion- 
ately better than the average of existing houses. 

It is contemplated that the occupants of the houses in this project will be 
largely made up of permanent employees of industries now engaged in defense 
activities; that is to say, these occupants will be those employees which will 
l3e retained by the plants concerned after the cessation of the existing emer- 
gency. 

It is recognized that the Federal Government will have to supplement exist- 
ing municipal and educational facilities, and plans have been made with this in 
view. It is contemplattHl that funds for the construction of facilities other than 
those authorized under the Lanham Act will be made available under H. R. 
4545, which has just passed Congress. Oi^erating expenses will be largely ob- 
tained from rental revenue. 

It has not been possible for representatives of this Agency to give citizens of 
Clark Township a guarantee of any specific sum that will be spent by the Fed- 
eral Government for two reasons: 

(1) That until the project is completed and actual requirements are known, 
the amount of money necessary to meet these requirements cannot be 
determined. 

(2) Until the passage of H. R. 4545 and the setting up of the necessary ad- 
ministrative machinery to carry out its provisions, no one in the Federal Gov- 
ernment has authority t<> make commitments to local municipalities 

It is the policy of this Agency that the residents of any community in which 
a project of this nature is con.structed will not be required to pay additional 
taxes by reason of the location in that community of the project concerned. 
This policy will be carried out within the limitations of funds provided by Con- 
gress, and it is believed that these funds will be ample to meet the situation 
fully. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE ]MIGIlATION 5753 

MUNK IPAL SERVICES, AUDXJBON PAKK DEFENSE HOUSING PKOJBOT 

It is expected that the additional muuicipal services required in the Borough 
of Audubon by reason of the location of this project vrithln the borough limits 
will be paid for in full by the Federal Government during the period of the 
existing emergency. Occupants of these houses will contract to purchase them 
from the Government, and after the expiration of the existing emergency they, 
as citizens of the borough, will, of course, be subject to the same taxes as any 
other citizens. They will also be voters in the borough, and will in this capacity 
participate in the running of borough affairs. 

With respect to the sewerage disposal plan which borough oflScials now claim 
cannot take care of the additional private building, it is desired to point out 
that the original plans of this agency contemplated the erection of a separate 
sewage disposal plant for the housing project. Attached hereto is a copy of 
letter from Mr. Burns Roensch, technical consultant of this agency, in which this 
situation is fully explained. 

With respect to the school situation, a survey made before the site was 
selected indicated that if the residents of the project added the expected average- 
of scholastic population, the school facilities within the borough would be ade- 
quite. Until the project is fully occupied and an actual scholastic census 
taken, It is impossible to know exactly what the requirements will be. If they 
should exceed the existing capacity within the borough, arrangements might 
be made with adjacent boroughs to take care of surpluses, or the Government 
might, under the provisions of H. R. 4545 recently passed by Congress, arrange 
to supplement the borough school facilities. In any event, it is not proposed 
that the present residents of the borough should have to pay any additional 
taxes to take care of this situation. 

SUBSIDIZED "federal ISLANDS" NOT WANTED 

It has been contended that the Federal Government should have locatetl 
these projects in large industrial cities where taxes accrue from industries 
which might be utilized to pay for additional municipal services required. This 
contention is sound only to the degree that satisfactory sites might be available 
in such cities and accessible to the defense industries in which the occupants 
of the projects should work. An exhaustive survey was made of sites within 
the city of Camden for this project and none was found which in the judgment 
of this agency was adequate for the required purposes. 

It has also been contended that these projects should be set up as separate, 
self-governing communities isolated from existing communities. It is believed 
that such a procedure would be contrary to public policy and deprive the de- 
fense workers of the rights of citizenship to which they are entitled. Obviously 
such small units of municipal government could not operate economically, and 
they would become artificial, heavily subsidized Federal "islands," very difficult 
to assimilate. 

There is no reason whatever for the citizens of the borough of Audubon to 
think that they would be assessed with additional taxes by reason of this loca- 
tion of the defense-housing project. On the contrary, it is believed that the 
spreading out of the total burden will have the effect of lessening the per capita 
cost of government within the borough. 

Negotiations will be conducted with borough officials on a factual basis to 
determine the cost of additional service required and it is hoped that satis- 
factory arrangements can be arrived at. 

(The letter referred to above, from Mr. Roensch, is as follows:) 

Exhibit A 

June 19, 1941. 
Col. Lawrence Westbrook, 

Special Assistant to the Administrator, 

Federal Works Agency, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Colonbx Westbrook : I would like to review for you briefly the matter of 
the sewage disposal for Audubon Village, Audubon, N. J. 

Serving in the capacity of your technical consultant, I made every effort to 
develop a disposal plant to serve this particular project in the early stages of 
development and reviewed this in detail with Mr. Marshall Hammon, borough 
engineer for Audubon, N. J., who was also retained by the Federal Works Adminis- 



5754 TRENTON HKA KINGS 

trator as his engineer. >Ir. Ilanimon was most emphatic in his opiuion that it 
would be a mistake for a separate plant to be set up for this service because the 
capacity of the borough plant was substantially more than this additional number 
of dwelling units would demand. 

Mr. Hammon and 1 abandoned all idea of a separate disposal plant and went to 
work to get approval of our distribution system based on the connection with the 
borough sewer lines. He and I went to Trenton on several occasions and dis- 
cussed this matter with the StJite board of health. They told us that they 
would investigate the situation and issue their approval for the system Mr. Ham- 
mon had designed based on connection with the borough disposal plant if their 
investigation showed adequate capacity in the borough plant. .Mr. Hammon 
assured them in our discussion that the borough plant was substantially more 
than adequate for the additional load that this would impose. A short time after 
this discussion the State board of healtli issued the permit to the Federal Works 
Administrator to proceed with the v.ork which we felt was absolute evidence of 
the adequacy of the borough plant. 

In brief, we planned originally on a separate plant and before this was aban- 
doned we completely satisfied ourst^lves that the beat interests of the project would 
be served by connecting with the borough sewer system and that such would in 
no way tax the capacity of that plant. 
Very truly yours, 

[se:al] Burns Roensch, 

Technical Conftultant. 

Subscribed and sworn to this 19th day of June 1941. 

CoBAi, W. Cat-HOXtn, Notan/ PuhUc. 

TESTIMONY OF COL. LAWRENCE WESTBROOK— Resumed 

Mr. Westbro(>k. In New Jersey generally we have quite a serious 
problem because most of the desirable residenti^il areas are in politi- 
cal subdivisions in which there are no factories. I think that is 
rather a general situation. And if we select a desirable site for per- 
manent occupancy, we are almost compelled to get outside of the taxing 
jurisdiction of these large industries. 

It is somewhat comparable to the Army situation. The military 
comes in and takes over a lot of property and thereby takes it out of 
taxation. Of coui'se, that reduces the reveime of the comnmnity con- 
<?erned and increases the burden. 

In our situation, however, these people will become citizens of the 
comnmnity and eventually will become taxpayers, so we think perhaps 
in the long run the addition of these projects to these communities 
will have the effect of actually reducing the over-all expenses, because 
there will be more people to bear those expenses. 

Mj\ Arnold. Then you feel that the communities have no real com- 
plaint on financial grounds since your agency has assured them that 
the Federal Government will undoubtedly meet the additional service 
charges? 

Mr. Westbrook. I don't see why they should have, and I don't 
believe they will. The people are now moving into that particular 
project, and I hope and feel sure that we shall be able to work out 
with the authorities the proper payment to them for the services that 
are required. 

Mr. Arnoij). Up to this time you haven't been in a position to tell 
them definitely what you could do? 

NO ASSURANCE AS TO IN-LIEU-OF-TAXES PAYMENT 

Mr. Westbrook. No ; we couldn't for the reason that the administra- 
tive machinery is now in the course of being set up to put that into 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MKIBATION 5755 

operation, and we couldn't give them any definite assurancCvS as to 
the amount of money that the Government would pay in lieu of taxes 
because we didn't l^now what we had and. furthermore, we didn't 
know what the cost would be. We had an estimate from the borough 
solicitor which he forwarded after our request, which we find is very 
much out of line. It represented an estimate of $150,000 a year for 
500 dwellings and we reduced that to the tax rate and we found that on 
the average valuation applied there, that would have represented a 
tax rate of $16.46 a hundi-ed that the borough solicitor thoueht we 
ought to pay on tliis property. But I hope we can get those things 
ironed out and I believe we can. 

Mr. Arnold. You made a survey with respect to the school situa- 
tion before placing this project there? 

Mr. Westfeook. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. You felt the school facilities within the boiough would 
be adequate ? 

Mr. West-brook. That is right, and since the families are moving 
in, we find they don't have nearly so many children as the average 
expectancy. I don't think we are going to have serious difficulty with 
j-espect to schools in that place, although we will in others. 

Mr. Arnold. I believe you made an exhaustive survey in Camden 
for a site and couldn't locate one? 

Mr. Westbrook. That is correct. 

Mr. Arnold. Some of these conmiunities are saying you should 
set up a separate commimitv out in the open country. "Wbat is your 
objection to that ? 

Mr. Westbrook. Well, we feel that these people are citizens of the 
State in which they work; that it would be bad polic}' and bad public 
relations to set up a Federal island in one part of the State. We 
feel they should bo assimilated in the general population of the 
community in which they live; they should have the free exercise 
of their rights, of voting and taking their place as citizens of the 
conununity where the^^ are; and also, of course, it would cost a good 
deal more money to run a small community than a large one. It 
would not be economical. 

I'UOJECT IX CLARK TOWNSHIP 

Mr. Arnold. Where is Clark Township located? 

Mr. Westbrook. That is in northern Ncav Jersey, not far fiom 
Elizabeth. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you started a project there? 

Mr. Westbrook. We have just started it. 

Mr. Arnold. Is that within an incorporated town ? 

Mr. Westbrook. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. What town ? 

Mr. Westbrook. Partly in Clark Township and partly in Linden. 
However, there is a move on foot, which I think will be consum- 
mated, that will bring it entirely within Clark Township. 

Mr. Arnold. Is there the same concern there over these added 
houses? 

Mr, Westbrook. Yes; and they have serious school difficulties there 
that are going to make it necessary for the Federal Government to 
construct some facilities. We undei-stand that. 



5756 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. Well, then, all in all, your agency realizes that the 
Federal Government must shoulder its fair proportion of these added 
expenditures because of these projects, just as it must pay for the 
cost of producing defense materials? 

Mr. Westbrook. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. And after it is all done, you feel there will be no cause 
for dissatisfaction ? 

Mr. Westbrook. I don't think so. 

Mr. Arnold. You are going to try to do the right thing by the-se 
communities? 

Mr. Westbrook. Yes, sir ; I would say, as far as my administrative 
responsibility is concerned — and it is complete with respect to the 
Audubon project and the Clark Township project — that the citizens 
of those communities will not have to pay out any additional money 
for taxes by reason of the location of these projects there.^ 

Mr. Arnold. To sum up your paper, would you say that this is an 
emergency defense situation and defense housing has to be built 
regardless of whether or not it changes the social or political char- 
acter of some sequestered New Jersey community ? 

Mr. Westbrook. Yes, sir; and we feel in selecting our sites, espe- 
cially where it is expected that the workers will continue to live, that 
we should select as attractive and desirable communities as possible. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Colonel Westbrook. 

Dr. Lamb, was there a question you wanted to ask Mayor Ganser? 

TESTIMONY OF MAYOR ANDREW F. GANSER, OF AUDUBON, N. J.— 

Resumed 

Dr. Lamb. I wanted to ask one question. Mayor Ganser mentioned 
32 units on White Horse Road. 

Mayor Ganser. Thirty-two homes on White Horse Road and an 
apartment house that will run about 16 apartments. 

Dr. Lamb. Plus the homes? 

Mayor Ganser. Yes; making about 56 new homes altogether. 

Dr. Lamb. What will the homes sell for ? 

Mayor Ganser. $4,650. 

Dr. Lamb. And the apartments? What would they rent for? 

Mayor Ganser. I can't tell you, but I judge around $40. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you vei-y much. 

Miss Dyckman and Mrs. Simmons, you are slated to appear later 
in the day, but we have a rather heavy schedule and if you don't 
mind, I think we will call you two ladies now. 

TESTIMONY OF MARY L. DYCKMAN, VICE PRESIDENT AND CHAIR- 
MAN, CHILD LABOR COMMITTEE, CONSUMERS LEAGUE OF NEW 
JERSEY, AND HELENA H. SIMMONS, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, 
CONSUMERS LEAGUE OF NEW JERSEY 

The Chairman. Congressman Curtis will interrogate you. 
Mr. Curtis. Miss Dyckman, will you give your full name? 
Miss Dyckman. Mary L. Dyckman, vice-president and chairman 
of the child labor committee. Consumers League of New Jersey. 

1 See Exhibit 8, p. 5810. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5757 

Mr. Curtis. What is the Consumers League? 

Miss Dyckman. Consumers League is a civic organization, sup- 
ported by dues and membership contributions, which is interested in 
living conditions of workers in New Jersey. 

We sponsor legislation when we think it is necessary to alter work- 
ing and living conditions. 

Mr. Curtis. Who constitutes most of your membership, the house- 
wives of New Jei-sey ? 

Miss Dyckman. Both men and women. It is a very varied mem- 
bership. Mostly individuals, but some organizations. 

Mrs. Simmons. It is a completely lay group. We take no contri- 
butions from interested persons, never do. 

Mr. Curtis. Do quite a number of social workers belong to your 
organization ? 

Miss Dyckman. Some, not a gieat many. I happen to be a retired 
social worker myself. 

Mr. Curtis. And you represent the child-labor committee of that 
league? 

Miss Dyckman. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. And your full name, Mrs. Simmons? 

Mrs. Simmons. INIrs. Helena H. Simmons, executive secretary of 
the Consumers League of New Jersey. 

Mr. Curtis. And your address? 

Mrs. Simmons. 902 Salem Avenue, Hillside, N. J. 

Mr, Curtis. Miss Dyckman, I don't believe we have your address. 

Miss Dyckman. 596 Berkeley Avenue, Orange, N. J. 

Mr. Curtis. You have offered a paper that will be printed in full 
in our report. In a moment's time I would like for you to mention 
some of the high lights of that paper, summarize it briefly for us. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY MARY L. DYCKMAN, VICE PRESIDENT AND CHAIRMAN 
OF COMMITTEE ON CHILD LABOR OF THE CONSUMERS' LEAGUE OF 
NEW JERSEY 

The Consumers' League is a voluntary organization of people who are con- 
cerned about the way the things we consume are produced and the working and 
living conditions of the workers who produce them. We sponsor the kind of 
labor legislation that seems desirable from the consumer's point of view, and the 
regulation of child labor has been one of the league's major interests throughout 
its 41 years of existence. 

As far back as our records go migrant labor, including a great deal of child 
labor, has been used to supply the extra help needed during the harvest season in 
New Jersey truck and berry farming, a season which extends from April, with 
the earliest asparagus, right through the summer and well into October for late 
cranberries. The district where this branch of agriculture is found spreads out 
fan-wise east and south of Philadelphia on the New Jersey side of the Delaware, 
and when we first began to study it, the practice of importing migrant labor 
from Philadelphia for harvesting was well established. These Philadelphians 
were always the type of migrants who came to New Jersey because they were 
hired to do so. They do work that is essential to the prosperity of agriculture 
and which the growers have always contended could not be done as well by local 
labor. And yet it has always been the custom to exclude these useful farm 
laborers and their families from sharing the benefits of important community 
services, such as public schools, health and welfare services, and up to a year ago 
there was no penalty in the New Jersey law for using their children's labor 
during school hours, though that had been prohibited by the law for all other 
children of school age in the State for many years. 



5758 



T REMON HKAK INU S 



Before disoussiug these coiiditious furtljer I wani to make it clear that the 
use of migrant labor aud the practice of excluding farm laborers and their 
families from the use of tlie public schools and other community services is not 
characteristic of New Jevsej' agriculture as a whole. It seems to be peculiar to 
truck farming and potato and berry growing. 

MIGRANTS FSOM PHILADfXPHIA AND THE SOUTH 

As you heard from previous witnesses, there are two distinct groups of migrants 
who are hired to come here for harvesting; those frum Philadelphia and vicinity, 
mostly white families of Italian origin, who migrate only a sliort distance from 
their waiter homes, aud the southern Negro iX)tato pickers, whu follow that crop 
very long distances, many of them coming all the way from Florida. Their 
numbers vary, but it is estimated that around 9,000 migrants in all are brought 
to New Jersey annually for harvesting. Something like 6,000 come in family 
groui>s from Philadelphia and vicinity, and the rest are the Negro groups. We 
know the Philadelphia group best because we have been trying for years to get 
our child-labor law extended to cover migrant children, and child labor has been 
a much more serious problem in that grotip. 

Our first study of them was published in 1905, aud similar studies have been 
made repeatedly since then, but so little progress has been made in finding 
a solution for their problem, that many of the conditions described in our 
study of 30 years ago sound very much like the evidence you heard from 
witnesses who appeared before this committee a year ago. It tells among 
other things of bad sanitary conditions in some of the temporary migrant 
labor camps, with typhoid in one place, and of the still common abuses of the 
interstate labor contracting system. Child labor was of course much more 
common everywhere than it is now, but even for those days it seems to have 
been particularly bad among these migrants. This particular study was under- 
taken on account of complaints from Pennsylvania that Philadelphia children 
were being encouraged to stay out of schools by New Jersey employers, who were 
using them during school hours. 

As time went on more and more people became distttrbed abotit these children, 
complaints continued to come in from Pennsylvania about their losing so much 
school time, and finally in 1930 the New Jersey Legislature appointed a commis- 
sion to study the problem oliicially. This coumiission found that the children were 
losing weeks of school time in spring or fall, or both, because of being employed 
with their parents in this State where school facilities were rarely provided for 
them. Some lost as much as 4 mouths, but the average was about 2 months out 
of the school year, and this loss they found was reflected in the children's 
progress in school to such an extent that there was more than twice as much 
retardation among the migrant children as among the nonmigrauts with whom 
they were compared. 

SCHOOLS FOK MIGRANT CHILDREN UKGKU 

The commission advised that "the State of New Jersey is under obligation to 
make good the loss of education suffered by children who work in an essential 
New Jersey indtistry, which is agriculture,"' and they recommended specifically 
that .schools be provided for them, that these children be covered by child-labor 
and school-attendance law regiUations, and that a housing and sanitary code be 
adopted for the camps where they were housed. 

The commission's findings about retardation of migrants as compared to non- 
migrants was confirmed again only 3 years ago in a study made by the National 
Child Labor Committee, in which they again compared the ofiicial school records 
and again found the average amount of retardation about twice as bad among the 
migrants. I menticm this particularly because I read in your report that you had 
heard a story which has been going around New Jersey that there was another 
study which challenged some of the commission's findings and actually proved that 
the migrant children not only do just as well l)ut even bettei- than the nonmigraut 
children who have not shared in the educational advantages of migrant life! I 
have been at some trouble to look up the source of this story, and as far as 1 can 
learn no one ever proved anything of the kind. The other study referred to is, 
apparently, one to which some cranberry growers contributed, that was made by 
a college stiideni 11 years ago. She was able to prove that some migrant children 
of Italian origin do better than some nonmigrauts, but that is all .she did prove on 
that point. She did not even attempt to study the whole situation, and included 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5759 

lt'.s.s than 1 percent of the total number of migrant ami uonmigrant children of 
Italian origin enrolled in the Philadelphia schools that year in her comparison 
(327 of a total of over 45,000). This, of course, was too small a sample to prove 
anything about the whole group. 

There is one piece of information in the appendix of that student's report which 
I think it would be helpful to add to your records. It is a letter from Prof. Daniel 
A. Prescott, then assistant professor of education at Rutgers University, telling 
the results of mental tests which he liad given to the cranberry pickers' children 
she was studying, who Avere in the migrant camp at Whitesbog, one of our biggest 
cranberry bogs, in tlie summer of 11)80. Although it is 11 years old, it is the most 
revealing connnent I have seen on the way migrant children's irregular school 
attendance may interfere with their mastering so important a subject as the 
mechanics of reading. (See Exhibit A, next page.) 

Meanwhile, the State commission filed its final report in 1932 with an estimate 
that $50,000 would be needed to provide the special schools they recommended for 
the migrant children, and it never went beyond that point. The depression was 
very bad, there was uncertainty about where the money could be found to support 
schools already in existence, and little enthusiasm for assuming additional 
l)urdens. 

CHILD-LABOR LAW 

Two years ago a group of interested people decided to try again, this time for 
the more limited objective of a child-labor law which would include the migrant 
children in agriculture, without asking the State to go to the extent of providing 
siiecial schools for them. Wo found widespread agreement with the suggestion 
that we could and should at least put a stop to the practice of encouraging Penn- 
sylvania children to disobey the school laws of their heme State by permitting them 
to be brought to New Jersey to work during school hours, and that is. I think, one 
of the most important things accomplished by the enactment of 1040 child-labor 
law. The regulations for migrants are quite simple, and based largely on the 
advice and suggestions of farm organizations, whose advice was sought in the 
drafting of the law. It provides that no child, migrant or resident, may work 
as a farm laborer away from home until he is at least 12 years old, and has secured 
a work -permit card from the local school authorities, showing that they think he 
can do stich work without injury to his health or interfering with his school 
progress. Children between 12 and 10 may be employed up to 10 hours a day in 
vacations and outside of school hours, but not during school hours, or, as in th<' 
case of migrants, when the laws of their home States require them to he in school. 
This last provision matches a similar provision in the Pennsylvania law and was 
put in by both States to make possible interstate cooperation in enforcing their 
.'jchool laws. Before these laws were enacted both States had long prohibited child 
labor for their own children during school hours, but there was no penalty in New 
.Jersey for employing Pennsylvania children or in Pennsylvania for employing 
New .Jersey children in school hours, and thousands of children were kent ont of 
school by employers who arranged to have them transixirted across the State 
boundary into the adjoining State, where their home State school attendance 
officers could not follow them to see that they went to school. It not only inter- 
fered most seriously with the children's education hut encouraged them to practice 
law evasion from their earliest years, and was a sore point between these two 
States tmtil an interstate conference was held at which this plan was evolved to 
put a stop to it. 

BAD CONDITIONS PERSIST 

That is as far as we have progressed to date. We «till have almost no schools 
that migrants may attend, no method of regulating the sanitaiT and health condi- 
tions in migrant-labor camps, and no means of regulating the abuses of the inter- 
state contract labor system, though all these problems seem to be getting an un- 
usual amount of study this year: the question of schooling for migrants is a 
rarticularly difficult one in this State, because they have been coming here in 
such numbers that it has not appeared practical to attempt to take care of them 
In our existing schools, and when we consider setting up special schools for them, 
as the commission did, for children who are in the State for only a few weeks 
spring and fall, the cost is a tremendous obstacle. One reason we decided to 
postpone making plans for schooling is that it seems possible that the child-labor 
law will discourage the migration of children of school age to some extent. 

We understand that when a similar law went into effect in Philadelphia the 
number of school children whom the adult migrants brought with them fell off 



5760 TRENTON HEARINGS 

considerably, and if that happens here, as already it seems to be happening, it 
would make the problem of providing schools for those who do come away very 
much easier to deal with in New Jersey. 

In studying this and all other problems of migrant labor, we are finding the 
reports of this committee a mine of useful information. 



Exhibit A. — Repoet of Mental Tests 

(Following is the letter referred to in the foregoing statement, from Dr. Daniel 
A. Prescott, associate professor of education at Rutgers University, reporting the 
results of mental tests given to migrant children at Whitesbog during the sununer 
of 1930:) 

RuiGEiRS University, 
New Brunswick, N. J., August 18, 1930. 

My Deak Miss Faib: Enclosed are the data resulting from the tests that we 
gave to your children at Whitesbog. You will see that the young children under- 
stand English so poorly that we were able to get practically nothing of value 
from them and the test will, therefore, be of no use in helping you to plan the 
school work for specific individuals. This very fact is significant, however, because 
it shows: First, that the children will be able to profit very little from form'al 
instruction and should instead be taught through story and activity ; second, that 
such formal instruction as is given should be of a very elementary type designed 
to increase their reading ability and their knowledge of the English language. 

Test results for the older children reveal some very interesting facts. The I. Q. 
range is from 70 to 117 with a number of children scoring zero. Psychologically 
those scoring below 75 would be classed definitely as feeble-minded children, while 
tlio.se scoring from 80 to 90 would be cMssed on the border line as dull, and those 
between 90 and 100 as below normal. The greater part of the group falls into 
this latter class as you can see. It is my feeling, however, that the lack of school 
experience and a language handicap have prevented these children from showing 
their true ability, and that the median I. Q. instead of being 95 as these test 
results show is much nearer the 100 mark of average American children. I have 
data from Italian children in other communities which would support this 
contention. 

The test results also .show that the children are definitely being penalized by 
their lack of regular school attendance. Every child except two reads with less 
comprehension than is to be expected from his mental age, and when one remem- 
bers that the mental ages as revealed by the tests are prol)ably too low, the 
retardation in reading appears more serious still. Since reading is a tool subject 
so necessary for the mastery of other school subjects, it is apparent how serious 
it must be for 10-, 11-, 12-, and 13-year-old children to be able to do only second- 
and third-grade reading. 

It is noticeable that the children almost all stand higher in arithmetic than 
in reading. This is doubtless due to the necessity of knowing arithmetic In their 
daily living and the skill which they showed is an indication that the English 
tests have perhaps rated them too low. Despite this, however, many of the 
children in 'arithmetic skill are far below what their mental ages would .lustify 
us in expecting of them, and here again we see that they are seriously penalized 
by their irregular school attendance and lack of interest. I wish that there was 
some way by which you could encourage the older children to do a little reading 
in the evening, but I can see that it would be extremely diflBcult. Almost any kind 
of light fiction material would be acceptable as a starter to get their interest 
because what they need is a lot of practice in reading to fix the fundamental 
mechanical habits. Lacking these, never in their lives will they ever turn to 
i-eading as an avocation or as a source of inft)rmation, and many of these children 
have only from 1 to 3 years left in which to master these miechanical habits. 
Frankly, the tests show that the children are seriously retarded in both reading 
and arithmetic not only in relation to the average American children, but in 
relation to their own mental abilities. 
Very truly yours, 

Daniel A. Prescott, 
Associate Professor of Education. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5761 

Exhibit B. — Memorandum Regakuing Senate Bill 298 ^ 

BY consumers' league OF NEW JERSEY 

This bill proposes to authorize the commissioner of labor to suspend certain 
safeguards against harmful employment of children in any locality in the State 
where an emergency is discovered in agriculture. 

The Consumers' League considers this bill undesirable for several reasons. 
First, it promises to create an unnecessary difficult and costly administrative 
problem by permitting different rules to "be applied to some communities than 
to others. These rules, being temporary, could never be counted on to remain 
the same for any length of time and the result would be a collection of vary- 
ing administrative orders making it practically impossible for anyone con- 
cerned to know what rules they were expected to comply with without an army 
of Labor Department inspectors to interpret them. 

We consider that the existing agriculural regulations are fair, moderate, 
and necessary to protect the intere.st of the children involved. We know 
they were considered necessary by an overwhelming majority of last year's 
legislature and we think it would be very desirable to wait and see how they 
work before crippling amendments are made. But if changes are to be made 
we earnestly request that the legislature take time to make sure that they 
are practical from an administrative point of view which we do not think 
would be the case if Senate bill 298 becauiC law. 

The existing regulations which such an amendment would affect are quite 
simple. School children between 12 and 16 in reasonably good health may 
be employed in agriculture 10 hours a day at any time when the school laws 
do not require their attendance at school. Even these limitations apply only 
to work done away from home — not to home chores which it was not con- 
sidered necessary to restrict at all except that they may not be allowed to 
interfere with school attendance. To make these regulatins effective the school 
authorities are made responsible for issuing agricultural work permits, valid 
for 6 months, to any child who may be legally employed, so all the grower 
needs to do is to receive these cards from children under 16 when he employs 
them and give them back when the children go on to the next job. 

P^armers, like all other employers, are forbidden to employ children during 
school hours, and there is a clause to prevent encouraging children from other 
States in law evasion by prohibiting their employment in New Jersey when 
the laws of their home State require them to be in school. This is matched 
by a similar clause in the Pennsylvania law, thus making possible interstate 
cooperation in enforcing school attendance. Before these laws were enacted, 
there was no penalty in either State for encouraging law evasion in children 
from other States by importing child laborers across a State line to work 
them under conditions not permitted for resident children in either New Jersey 
or Pennsylvania. 

ATTACK ON THREE CHILD-LABOB BEGLTLATIONS 

Senate bill 298 would permit suspension of three important regulations: 

1. Prohibiting work of children under 16 years during school hours. 

2. Prohibiting employment of nonresidents under conditions that encourage 
them to evade the laws of their own States. 

3. Requiring that children under 16 employed in agriculture secure work 
permits. 

To suspend the law making it illegal to employ children during school hours 
would bring the child-labor law and the school-attendance law into conflict, 
and might make the latter unenforceable and seriously disturb some of the 
public schools. The courts could hardly be expected to punish a child for 
violating the school attendance law if employers might encourage him to do 
so with impunity. 

We believe that any relaxation of child labor standards is unjustifiable, 
especially since the number of unskilled adult laborers seeking employment is 
still large and many of them might do the work the farmers require. W^hile 
making studies of "agricultural labor conditions prior to recommending the 
present child labor law to last year's legislature, members of the New Jersey 



1 rublic hearing on Senate bill 298 was held May 6, 1941, at Trenton before Assemblyman 
Samuel S. Ferster. chairman of the State Assembly Committee on Labor. A copy of the 
report of this hearing was submitted by Miss Dyckman, and is held in committee flies. 

60396 — 41— pt. 14 15 



5762 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



Consumers' League aud other interested agencies visited the areas where child 
labor existed aud consulted scores of farmers and farm organizations all over 
the State. The regulations in the present law are based upon their advice and 
suggestions. 

In addition we observed certain difficulties that affect the availability of 
the labor supply. These could not be dealt with in a child labor law but 
we believe they deserve consideration. It was found that the seasonal labor 
turnover is high and this apparently is due, in part at least, to the fact that 
seasonal workers found living conditi*ous offered them in New Jersey so unde- 
sirable that many, particularly the more intelligent members of the group, 
would not want to come back here if they could find other work. Althougii 
some growers have provided decent migrant labor camps and have apparently 
had a lower than average labor turn-over, they suffer from the bad reputation 
New Jersey has with seasonal workers as a whole because of the very bad 
housing provided by some growers. On these less desirable farms migrants 
were herded in abandoned chicken houses and other unused buildings unfit for 
human habitation. Overcrowding was worse than in the poorest slums of 
Philadelphia ; facilities for cleanliness and sanitation conspicuous by their 
absence. 

•But one of the most serious deterrents to self-respecting workers appears 
to be the fact that, although the harvesting for which they are needed extends 
well into the school year — from the earliest asparagus in the spring through 
cranberries in the fall — New Jersey makes no provision for their children's 
education. When the children try to attend school, they are often refused 
admission. Tiie inference is that seasonal farm workers' children are not 
good enough to atteud New Jersey schools. Even the humblest parent resents 
this. 

FAMILIES WITH LOW STANDARDS 

The combined effect of wretched housing and lack of school facilities is 
that families with the lowest living standards, who don't mind living in filth 
or care whether their children go to school, are being brought into this State 
while the more desirable kind apparently refuse to come. More than 10 years 
ago the situation was so serious that the legislature appointed a migratory 
child labor commission to study it and make recommendations. They made a 
most constructive report but thus far none of their recommendations has been 
put into ellect except the agricultural provisions of the child labor law which 
it is now proposed shall be suspended! before we even have a chance to see how 
they work. 

Most growers agree that child labor is inefficient and thoy would prefer 
to have all adult labor, if the adults would come without the children. It was 
hoped that, as a result of the new child Jabor law, Philadelphia families would 
find it possible to leave their children at home with friends or relatives until 
completion of the school year. But if, as some growers seem to feel, these 
workers will not come to New Jersey in sufficient numbers unless they can 
bring their children, would it not seem reasonable for the State to consider pro- 
viding school facilities for them? 

The New Jersey Migratory Child Labor Commission reported in 1932, after 
examining the Pennsylvania school records, that as a result of coming to New 
Jersey migrant children had great difficulty in keeping up with their classes. 
More than 60 percent were seriously retarded and the group as a whole showed 
about twice as much retardation as is found among children who do not migrate. 
It stated : 

"The commission believes that the State of New Jersey is under obligations to 
make good the loss in education suffered by children who work in an essential 
New Jersey industry, that is agriculture. The heads of migrant families share 
this view." 

If a sufficient number of farm workers are unwilling to come to New Jersey 
unless schools and decent housing are provided, would it not be of interest to the 
State, and especially the agricultural industry, to see that the workers' children 
are not discriminated against in the matter of education and that the housing 
offered them conforms with moderate minimum standards of decency? Would 
that not be a more constructive approach to the farm-labor problem than allowing 
einployment of children during school hours? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5763 

TESTIMONY OF MISS DYCKMAN AND MRS. SIMMONS— Eesumed 

Miss Dyckman. I gave you in the paper the background of this 
agricultural migration as we know it, especially the group that migrates 
between Philadelphia and New Jersey, whom we know particularly 
because we have been trying for years to get State legislation to cover 
those children in our child labor law. 

We just succeeded in doing it this last year after some 35 years of 
effort. 

We know that particular group of migrants through a series of 
stuc'ies beginning as far back as 1905. One of the outstanding facts 
of th. :ituation is that there has been so little change in their circum- 
stances in that period. 

The reports of our early studies in 1905 show bad living conditions 
for those people. There have been improvements made by some grow- 
ers, but still there is no standard for their housing, which is still very 
bad. 

Child labor has been one of the worst features of this migration. 
The children were allowed to work in New Jersey during school hours 
because they were nonresidents, and there was reason to believe they 
were brought into New Jersey from Pennsylvania deliberately because 
they would be nonresidents and would not have to go school. 

That same system used to be worked in other directions, and the two 
States finally got together in a conference and worked out a plan for 
putting a stop to it, because each was having its children exploited by 
the other. 

WORK DONE BY CHILDREN 

Mr. Curtis. What type of Avork did the children do? 

Miss Dyckman. Picking vegetables and berries. 

Back in the counties near Pliilaclelphia there is a big area there that 
spreads out like a fan from the city, just this side of Delaware, and 
that is where they worked. They came with their families — usually 
people of Italian parentage from Philadelphia. 

There were others, but that was the largest group. They have 
been coming for years — at least two generations and possibly longer — 
and the children were very badly handicapped in school. 

Mr. Curtis. How much school would they miss in the spring? 

INIiss Dyckman. The average loss was 2 months out of the school 
year, as shown in each study that has been made — about 39 school 
days out of the school year, partly in the spring and partly in the 
fall. It depended on which crops they came to pick. 

Mr. Curtis. You have recently corrected that by legislation in 
New Jersey, haven't you ? 

Miss Dyckman. We have corrected it as far as the child's not work- 
ing in school hours is concerned. We still have very inadequate school 
facilities, and they are not covered by attendance laws. 

Mr. Curtis. Aren't they admitted to the public schools? 

Miss Dyckman. Not always. Quite often they are refused admis- 
sion on the ground of being nonresidents. 

Mr. Curtis. In those cases what do they do — go to school or not? 

Miss Dyckman. They haven't been attending school. They just 



5764 TRENTON HEARINGS 

stay out of school. Up to this year they worked. Now it is illegal 
for them to work during the hours when the Philadelphia schools 
are in session. 

EFFECT OF 1940 CHILD LABOR ACT ON MIGRATION 

Mr. Curtis. What effect has the Child Labor Act of 1940 had on 
the importation of such labor from Pennsylvania ? 

Miss Dyckman. Thus far it appears to be sharply reducing the 
number of children who go, and I think possibly to some extent the 
number of adults, because some of the adults don't think it worth 
while to come without the children. It is very difficult to tell how 
much effect that law has had and how much the defense program 
has had. 

I understand the farmers think now it is mostly the defense pro- 
gram that is interfermg with their labor supply. 

Mr. Curtis. Is any effort being made to utilize school pupils of 
New Jersey in this agricultural work ? 

Miss Dyckman. Only insofar as the National Employment Service 
has tried to recruit them, and I haven't any figures or first-hand in- 
formation on that. 

Mr. Curtis. What checks are made on wages, hours, and working 
conditions of minors in agriculture? 

Miss Dyckman. The Department of Labor now has a staff of in- 
spectors, and the law limits the working hours to 10 a day maximum. 
There is no limitation on wages — no regulations at all. 

There is no check on w^orking conditions except that the schools 
must give permits to these children before they can work in agricul- 
ture, and if the work injures the child's health or interferes with his 
school piogress, the school can refuse to give a permit or can revoke 
a permit. But of course the schools are not in session, so there is 
^ery little check in summer except on the hours. 

Mr. Curtis. From your observation, are these youngsters required 
to handle complicated or dangerous machinery ? 

Miss Dyckman. I don't think so. 

Mr. Curtis. It is all outdoor work? 

Miss Dyckman. The work they do is almost all hand-picking, so 
there are very few machines used. The question has come up about 
tractors, but in this particular area not many tractors are used. 

Boys must be 16 years old to handle dangerous machinery. 

Mrs. Simmons. Under the law a boy formerly had to be 18 years 
old to handle a tractor, but that regulation was amended to allow 
a boy of 16 to drive a tractor if he does not drive it on the public 
roads. 

earnings op high school boys 

Mr. Cubtis. Do you know how much one of these high-school boys, 
say 17 years of age, can make on a farm in a day ? 

Miss Dyckman. It is a very difficult thing to say. The National 
Child Labor Committee's report, which you already have,^ is the 

' New York hearings, p. 318. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5705 

most authentic information we have on that, and that was back in 
1938. 

Mr. Curtis. And that was based upon studies here in New Jersey ? 

Miss Dyckman. Base on an interstate study of the Pennsylvania- 
New Jersey group, and most of it in New Jersey, in respect to wages; 

Mr. Curtis. That is the most recent study ? 

Miss Dyckman. That is the most recent study. 

Mrs. SiMBiONS. It is interesting to note that the whole wage scale 
for the agriculture worker has dropped very materially within tha 
past 5 or 6 years. Whereas the families used to make fairly good 
money, they now make very much less. Most of it is a family wage. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you know what it is for 1941 ? 

Mrs. Simmons. No. 

Mr. Curtis. You had a surplus of families coming in up until 
1940; didn't you? 

Mrs. Simmons. Yes, sir; that is true. 

INIr. Curtis. And I believe the representative of your employment 
bureau said that there were practically no migrant families coming 
in now — that is, colored families from the South — and the migration 
from Penns^dvania is also curtailed ? 

Miss Dyckman. Yes, sir. I was down there last week and I saw 
them, but there are more adults, and I think it is fair to say that this 
year they are probably getting better rates because of the scarcity of 
"labor. The farmers say they are, anyway. 

brought in by LABOR CONTRACTORS 

Mr. Curtis. Are these workers brought in by so-called labor con- 
tractors ? 

Miss Dyckman. Yes; or directly by farmers who know them. 
They come only when they are hired to work. They don't wander 
in. It is a definite contract either by the interstate labor contrac- 
tors— padrones they call them — or by the farmer himself. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think that the private labor contractors or 
padrones create abuses that do not exist where the farmers hire 
directly ? 

Miss Dyckman. I am inclined to think they do. I am delighted to 
know that your committee is planning Federal legislation to regulate 
the padrones, because I know that there has been a great deal of abuse, 
and where we have heard of abuses it is the padrone and not the 
farmer who causes them. 

There might be abuses that the farmer is responsible for, but, from 
what we hear about it, it is the padrones. 

Mr. Curtis. The padrones set the standard because they bring in 
large numbers? 

Miss Dyckman. They bring in large numbers and bring in the new- 
people, and that is where the bad exploitation happens — by misrep- 
resentating things to the new recniits and overcharging them; and 
that has been going on since 1905. 

Mr. Curtis. Those people cross a number of State lines, do they 
not? 



5766 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Miss Dyckman. Not the Pennsylvania group. They come only a 
short distance. 

Mr. Curtis. But the padrones bring colored people in ? 

Miss Dyckman. That is an entirely different group. They cross a 
lot of State lines. 

Mr. Curtis. And you favor the legislation to which this committee 
has given its attention, to control or regulate these private labor con- 
tractors or padrones? 

APPROVES FEDERAL CONTROL OF LABOR CONTRACTORS 

Miss Dyckman. We haven't yet said anything about that particular 
bill you introduced, but, in general, I think the plan of Federal legis- 
lation to control is very desirable. Our committee hasn't reported on 
it as yet. 

Mr. Curtis. Is the Italian migration into New Jersey declining? 

Miss Dyckman. Yes; I think it is, although it depends a great deal 
on the size of the crop. They come only w4ien they are hired. They 
just bring in the number they are going to need. If it happens to be a 
good year, there is a big migration; if it is a poor year, as in 1938, 
when the study was made, there aren't so many. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you know how it is this year ? 

Miss Dyckman. This year the migration is small. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliy? 

Miss Dyckman. Partly because they are able to get better jobs and 
are glad to have them because they have been dissatisfied with condi- 
tions in New Jersey for a long time, conditions under which they live 
and work over here. 

Of course, during the depression people had to take almost any- 
thing, but now they can get something better, and not so many are 
coming. 

WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION ATTITUDE TOWARD FARM EMPLOYMENT 

Mr. Curtis. Has it been your observation that individuals on 
W. P. A. will accept farm employment? 

Miss Dyckman. My own observation of that concerns northern New 
Jersey, Some little effort was made some years ago through the relief 
departments to get people on W. P. A. or relief to come down to south 
Jersey to the truck-farming area, but that was very unsatisfactory. 

Mr. Curtis. What made it unsatisfactory? 

Miss Dyckman. The living conditions, the reports they brought 
back about living conditions. My particular city did not send anyone, 
but one of the neighboring cities did. It got some people to go 
down to south Jersey, but the reports they brought back discouraged 
all relief departments since tlien from doing the same thing over 
again for south Jersey. There is anotlier difficulty there. Trans- 
portation is a big problem from north Jersey to south Jersey. 

Mr. Curtis. Was it the relief officials who objected to the living 
conditions, or the workers? 

Miss Dyckman. The relief officials felt that the working condi- 
tions were so unsatisfactory that it wasn't worth while to urge people 
to go down and take the long trip for the amount they would get. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 57Q7 

That was a general feeling. I don't think there was anything par- 
ticularly official about it, but I found the general feeling was that 
they did not think it worth while to urge their people to go to the 
truck area. 

We often placed people on nearby farms. 

Mr. Curtis. Did you meet any difficulty where the element of long 
travel did not come in ? 

Miss Dyckman. No. 

Mr. Curtis. Were W. P. A. people willing to take agricultural 
work ? 

Miss Dyckman. Those who knew anything about it went out quite 
regularly. We didn't urge it, but when suitable jobs were offered 
we had no great difficulty, 

Mr. Curtis. What do you mean by "suitable jobs"? 

Miss Dyckman. Well, the farmers wanted men who knew a little 
something about farming. They didn't want a tailor. Men who had 
had farm experience usually got jobs on a farm. 

Dr. Lamb. Are you speaking of individual jobs in the farm region 
in the north? 

Miss Dyckman. They were the individual type, yes. 

fear loss of security in switch to farm 

Mrs. Simmons. I think the real reason why W. P. A. workers are 
unwilling to do it is that they feel very greatly the sense of inse- 
curit}^ if they give up their W. P. A. jobs. They are always afraid 
they can't get back on again, and, of course, these jobs on farms are 
exceedingly seasonal. 

It depends, as Miss Dyckman has said, on the size of the crop, on 
the weather; and in addition to that, the pay is not veiT' good. So 
the W. P. A. people are rather unwilling to go off of W. P. A. and 
go on the farm. They are really awfully afraid they can't get back. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think they are justified in that fear? 

Mrs. Simmons. Yes, I do think so, because they never know how 
long they are going to be employed and what sort of occupation 
it will be. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think it is better to accept whatever employ- 
ment is available in private enterprise, even though conditions are 
bad, than to resort to relief ? 

Mrs. Simmons. I will have Miss Dyckman say what she thinks. 

Miss Dyckman. I am with the local board in Orange. As soon as 
real jobs opened up — jobs with a living wage — the employable people 
began to disappear from our rolls. We have almost no employable 
people left now. We have a few older people. We have a few aliens 
who cannot get jobs. But the younger employable group took jobs 
as soon as jobs became available, most of them. Of course there 
were some lazy ones and some alcoholics, but on the whole the people 
are glad to have a chance to work, and they take jobs as they come 
along. Perhaps that discouraged the lazier kind. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. We thank you very much, ladies. 

The committee will stand adjourned until 1 : 30 this afternoon. 

(Whereupon, at 12:30 p. m., the committee recessed until 1:30 
p. m.) 



5768 TRENTON HEARINGS 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

The committee met at 1 : 30 p. m. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

Our first witness this afternoon is Mr, Miller. 

TESTIMONY OF HEKMON I. MILLER, SECRETARY, STATE LAND USE 
PLANNING COMMITTEE, RUTGERS UNIVERSITY, NEW BRUNS- 
WICK, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Miller, Congressman Arnold will interrogate 
yon. 

Mr. Arnold, Mr. Miller, will you state your name and address for 
the record ? 

Mr, Miller, Hermon I, Miller, Rutgers University, New Bruns- 
wick, New Jersey, appearing as secretary of the Labor Subcommittee 
of the State Land Use Planning Committee, 

Mr. Arnold. The statement you have submitted will become a part 
of the record. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY HER:\I0N I. MILLER, SECRETARY, STATE LAND USE 
PLANNING COMMITTEE, RUTGERS UNIVERSITY, NEW BRUNSWICK, 

N. J. 

The New Jersey State Land-Use Planning Committee began activity in tlie 
first months of 1941 toward the preparation of a unified State program for 
agriculture to meet the impacts of the war and defense programs. One of the 
problems which this committee recognized when developing this program was 
an anticipated shortage of farm labor. 

LAND tlSE PLANNING ORGANIZATION 

The New Jersey State Land-Use Planning Committee is compo.sed of 25 
farm men and women and 13 agency representatives. The 25 farm men and 
women represent the various counties of the State with one or two representa- 
tives from each of the New Jersey counties. The nonfarm members of the 
committee represent such agencies as the State department of agriculture. 
Sate agricultural experiment station, State agricultural extension service. State 
planning board. State department of conservation and development, United 
States Bureau of Public Roads, United States Forest Service, Farm Security 
Administration, Soil Conservation Service, Surplus Marketing Administration, 
Farm Credit Administration, Bureau of Agriculural Economics, and the Agri- 
cultural Adjustment Administration. 

The New Jersey State Laud-Use Planning Committee is similar to planning 
committees which are organized in most of the other States in the Union. It 
was formed following the reorganization of the United States Department of 
Agriculture in 1938. Community, county, and State land-use planning com- 
mittees have been delegated the responsibility for coordinating the activities of 
the various action agencies of the United States Department of Agriculture. 

EFFECT OF SELECTIVE SERVICE ON FARM-LABOR SUPPLY 

At an early meeting, the committee spent considerable time discussing the 
Selective Service Act and how it affects the farm labor supply. The commit- 
tee rec[uested that the State director of selective service send a bulletin to 
the members of local draft boards for New Jersey, suggesting that these local 
draft boards contact county boards of agriculture whenever any question arose 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5769 

as to the advisability of deferring an agricultural worker. This request to the 
Director of Selective Service was made because farmer members of the State 
committee had experienced the loss to Selective Service of men they consid- 
ered to be essential farm hands. Also, they had observed similar experiences 
on other farms of their communities. Under present labor conditions, they 
find these essential and trained farm workers difficult or impossible to replace. 

LABOR SUBCOMMITTEE 

The State land-use planning committee in its meeting on March 18 suggested 
the appointment of a labor subcommitee composed of three farmer members. 
The chairman, L. A. Bevau, director of the New Jersey Agricultural Extension 
Service, appointed Herbert W. Voorhees, farmer, from Mercer Covinty ; Ernest 
B. Phillips, farmer, from Burlington County ; and Kenneth S. Roberts, farmer, 
from Cumberland County, as members of this committee. This statement is 
a report of the findings of this labor subcommittee. 

The labor subcommittee has cooperated very actively with all representa- 
tives of State and Federal agencies that are interested in working with farm 
labor. As a result, these agencies have decided to funnel all of their informa- 
tion and findings in farm labor through the State farm-labor subcommittee. 

SUPPLY OF FARM LABORERS 

Labor for carrying on farm operations in New Jersey comes from two sources : 
(1) migrants who come to New Jersey from the South and from Philadelphia and 
Chester, Pa., and (2) local residents who work at part-time jobs, and the families 
of workers receiving low pay. The mother and children of these families often 
spend the summer on farms helping to harvest crops. Tliere is a large number of 
migrants who commonly follow the harvest of certain fruit and vegetable crops 
beginning with the early harvest in the South and following it North along the 
Atlantic seaboard. Most of these migrants who come to New Jersey are Negroes. 
It is quite common for asparagus growers to employ this type of labor for cutting 
the asparagus crop. A large proportion of the white potatoes are harvested by 
Negro workers who come to the State for this purpose. Strawberry, blueberry, 
and cranberry growers commonly employ Italian families from Chester, Philadel- 
phia, and Norristown, Pa., in berry picking. These workers are also classed as 
migrants. 

There has been some indication that the usual number of migi-ants from the 
South will not be available for harvesting crops in New Jersey this year. The 
recently enacted child-labor law in New Jersey, wliich makes it illegal for the 
families from Philadelphia, Chester, and Norristown, Pa., to come to New Jersey 
before the close of the school year and after the school year is open in the fall will 
work a hardship upon berry growers. 

There is no statistical evidence as to the number of local residents who formerly 
were a part of the farm labor supply in New Jersey that have recently been drawn 
into other types of industry. Many of these local i-esidents have obtained work in 
defense industries at wages much higher than farmers are able to pay. In many 
cases local residents have taken the jobs that were left vacant by workers going 
into defense industries. The committee recognizes that not all of the local resi- 
dents who were formerly a source of farm labor are qualified to work in defense 
industries; however, the employment circle works in such a way that when a 
worker leaves a job someone else usually takes his place, and because of this many 
of the employables who formerly were a source of seasonal farm labor are now 
employed in year-round jobs. 

DEMAND FOB FARM LABOR 

In order to determine the actual farm labor demand situation and to get a pic- 
ture of how serious the shortage of farm labor would be, the subcommittee re- 
quested that a farm labor survey be conducted. This survey requested vegetable 
growers to indicate their anticipated need for farm laborers throughout the 1941 
cropping season. Questionnaires were returned by 925 farmers in 11 counties. 
Reports were received fi'om 686 farmers who needed labor and 239 who indicated 
that they already had arranged for their labor supply for the year. The informa- 
tion requested iii the questionnaire included : (1) a statement of the type of opera- 



5770 TRENTON HEARINGS 

tious for which labor was ueeded, (2) the number of workers used for different 
farming operations in 1940, (3) the number of workers the farmer anticipates he 
will need in 1941, (4) the number of workers he has already hired for 1941, and 
(5) the number of workers he had yet to arrange for at the time the survey was 
made. A copy of the card used to obtain this information is presented as exhibit 1. 

ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRES 

The returns from questionnaires were analyzed in early May, immediately 
before the beginning of the harvesting season for asparagus. An example of 
the type of information found follows : In Cumberland County, 11 asparagus 
growers reported that in 1940 they used 104 cutters and in 1941, they expected 
they would need 119 cutters. They had already hired 73 workers and had yet 
to hire 46. Similar information was reported in Salem County. At a meeting in 
these counties on May 12 after asparagus-cutting operations had been underway 
for several days, growers reported that they were carrying on their operations 
with a shortage of about one-fifth the usual labor supply. Evidently the difficulty 
in obtaining labor anticipated by these asparagus growers at the time of the 
survey was realized. There were reports that some of the fields of asparagus 
were going to seed. Most of the asparagus was being cut but it was not being cut 
at the proper time and much of it was going for a low price. 

In Cumberland County, 27 strawlterry growers indicate that they used 443 
strawberry pickers in 1940, that they would need 586 pickers in 1941, that 70 
pickers had already been arranged for, and that 516 were needed to complete their 
labor requirements. The labor for picking strawberries has, in former years, 
been supplied by families from Philadelphia, Chester, and Norristown, Pa., and 
from Camden, N. J. These families are largely of Italian extraction and have 
followed the practice of migrating to farms for harvesting strawberries, string 
beans, green peas, and other crops. 

In early May, it appeared that these workers would not come to New Jersey 
because of the newly created child-labor law^ which would affect this situation 
for the first time this year. A coml)ination of two factors helped to ease the 
situation this year, but tlie labor shortage will be acute with normal crops in 
following years. In many instances, Italian families came to New .Jersey this 
year as usual and simply transferred residence to the State for the time that they 
will be employed here harvesting the above-named crops. Also the dry weather 
conditions in New Jersey this spring cut the strawberry harvesting considerably 
below normal and made it possible for strawberry growers to get by with a 
smaller number of workers than they had anticipated they would need at an 
early date. However, there are numerous cases of crop losses because of the 
shortage of labor. An example is a case of a strawberry grower in Cri.'geton, 
N. J., who was unable to secure labor to pick any of the berries and was forced to 
let his crop rot on the vines. 

It should be pointed out that the above two exnmnles are for a limited number 
of farms and are only indications of the total anticipated shortage of labor for 
harvesting the crops mentioned. The 11 asparagus growers in Cumberland County 
cited, cultivate only a small percentage of the total acreage of asparagus grown 
in the county, and the 27 berry growers who reported are only about 10 percent 
of the strawberry growers in Cumberland County. 

REPOKT OF TOMATO GROWKKS IN EIGHT COUNTIES 

In eight south New Jersey counties, 129 farmers who grow tomatoes re- 
ported they used 744 workers in 1040 for picking tomatoes. They indicated 
that they anticipated a need for 807 pickers in 1941 and had only made ar- 
rangements for 77 of this number. As mentioned before, it should be borne 
in mind that 129 tomato growers are only a small percentage of the tomato 
growers in New Jersey. It should also be pointed out that the harvesting 
season for tomatoes was considerably in advance of the period when the ques- 
tionnaires were filled out and the number of workers needed at actual harvest 
time might vary considerably from the number indicated at this early date. 
A summary of the reports for each county is presented in exhibits attached 



1 Tho New .Jersey cliild-lnbor law limits the aec at which children can be employed. It 
also makes it comnnlsory for children to attend school so Ions as the school which they 
commonly attended is in session. Philadelphia and Chester, Pa., schools close in late June, 
thTis it is necessary for children from these schools to show attendance to this late date 
although schools in New Jersey close at a much earlier date. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGR.A-TION 5771 

to this statement as well as a compilation of these reports on a State- wide 
basis. 

The above statements illustrate the type of information found in the labor 
survey. The committee is of the opinion that it is difficult to arrive at a 
figure to indicate the total anticipated shortage or to indicate the number of 
workers that will be needed from outside the State to take care of these short- 
ages. The yields of vegetable crops are very sensitive to weather conditions 
and the number of workers needed to harvest any particular crop depends to 
consiilerable extent upon yields. For this reason, it is even difficult to fore- 
cast as much as a week in advance the number of workers needed to harvest 
any particular crop. This year, for example, dry weather just previous to 
the ripening of the strawberry crop cut the crop very short and the number 
of workers actually needed to harvest the crop was considerably below earlier 
estimates. 

It should also be pointed out that many of the operations in the production 
of small fruits and vegetables cannot be done by machines and in many other 
farming enterprises machinery can be used to alleviate the labor shortage 
problem. This is not the case with small fruits and vegetables. New Jersey 
farmers are continually searching for ways which they can use to improve the 
efficiency with which they use their labor, and in many of their farming 
operations they have succeeded in cutting down their labor requirements 
materially. However, it is not possible to make any material reduction in 
the amount of labor needed to harvest such crops as string beans and straw- 
berries. 

LABOR SUPPLY FEOBLEM OF DAIRY FARMS 

The committee recognizes that there is a serious labor supply problem on 
many of the general farms and dairy farms of New Jersey. They have not 
attempted to survey the labor needs on these types of farms. However, first- 
hand observations and reports from county agents and other residents in 
different parts of the State indicate the seriousness of this problem. The type 
of labor used on general farms and on dairy farms is difficult to replace if 
it is lost. 

The general farms and dairy farms of New Jersey are producing poultry 
products and dairy products. Both of these are protective foods and an 
expansion in their production has been requested by Secretary of Agriculture, 
Clauile R. Wickard. The anticipated shortage in transportation facilities might 
also make it beneficial for farms in the immediate vicinity of the large indus- 
trial centers to be kept in proiluctim so that foods can be furnished, even if 
transporiation facilities become clogged. If the production of these foods is 
to be maintained or increased in New Jersey careful consideration must be 
given to keeping a constant labor supply on such farms. 

In the metropolitan area of nortlieast New Jersey, there was early evidence 
of a serions shortage of agricultural workers. The large increase- in indus- 
trial employment in the area has resulted in the usual farm laborers being 
used in types of employment other than agriculture. A brief survey of farms 
in Passaic, Bergen, and Essex Counties indicated that lOS farmers in these 
counties were in need of G23 workers. By recruiting workers from such places 
as local high schools, local National Youth Administration projects and relief 
agencies, the farmers, through the cooperation of the State employment sei-vice, 
have met the situation this year. One source of labor on farms in this area 
is the aliens who are living in the cities of northeast New Jersey. These aliens 
cannot be employed in defense industries, but farmers are able to use them 
in carrying on their farming operations. However, if employment in defense 
industries continues to increase, there is a general feeling that the situation 
in this area may become more acute in future years 

FARMERS CANNOT COMPETE IN I^BOR MARKET 

There is a general recognition that one of the most serious problems in 
connection with farm labor is the fact that because farm prices are low, 
farmers cannot pay wages which will allow them to compete with industrial 
organizations for existing labor supplies. The purchasing power of the New 
Jersey farm price of vegetaldes is about 75 percent of their purchasing power 
in terms of farm wages during the 1910-14 period. The Agricultural Adjust- 
ment Administration's program in its present form does not provide much bene- 
fit to vegetable growers. Some method of improving farm prices so that these 
prices would be more nearly on a parity with the prices of goods which farmers 



5772 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



buy would be of great assistance to New Jersey farmers in meetug the labor 
problem. 

There Is some question in New Jersey as to the need for the extensive 
national and local relief programs which in many cases employ or make 
grants to able-bodied men and women. The committee recognizes and under- 
stands many of the intricacies of the relief situation. They recognize that 
many people who are on relief rolls and on Work Projects Administration 
would not make desirable workers on some jobs; however, they feel that 
many of these workers could find private employment. With this in mind, 
this committee as well as other committees who have been considering the 
farm labor problem have recommended Work Projects Administration projects 
in rural areas of New Jersey be closed down during the harvesting season. 



Report of farm labor survey — State summary for Gloucester, Camden, Burlington, 
Cumberland, Salem, Mercer, and Monmouth Counties 





Number 
farms 


Number of workers 


Kind of operation 


1940 


1941 


Already 
hired 


Have yet 
to hire 




19 
46 

9 
129 
71 
51 

4 
19 
89 


188 
1. 053 
246 
744 
946 
992 
70 
140 
343 


228 
1,306 
244 
807 
645 
991 
115 
59 
384 


135 
149 
54 

77 

173 

208 

4 

143 


93 


Strawberries 


1 157 




190 


Pick tomatoes 


730 


Misoellaneou-s vegetables 


472 




783 


Cranberries 

Dairv farms 


111 
39 




241 







GLOUCESTER COUxNTY 





37 
30 
16 

6 


162 
71 

393 
10 
69 


170 

359 
10 
91 


26 
37 
71 

10 


144 




51 


Fruit 


288 




9 


Strawberries 


75 







CAMDEN COUNTY 



Tomatoes 

Pick berries 

Tree fruits 

Miscellaneous vegetables. 

Sweetpotatoes 

General farming 



14 


106 


133 


j^ 




96 


131 


15 


g 


80 




5 


4 




106 


25 


1 
10 




4 
35 


'u 


36 



BURLINGTON COUNTY 





19 
15 
15 
9 
2 
3 


155 
236 
322 

23 
330 

60 


161 
249 
332 
29 
380 
105 


12 
71 
86 
12 
46 
3 


149 


Truck — sweet corn, etc 


178 




246 




17 


Blueberries 


334 


Cranberries 


102 



CUMBERLAND COUNTY 



Pick berries 

Cut asparagus 

Pick beans 

Harvest liraas 

Pick tomatoes 

Top onions 

Potatoes 

Apples 

Market frardening. 
General farming... 



27 


443 


« 


70 


11 


104 


119 


73 




246 


244 


54 


6 


32 


25 


5 


18 


85 


94 


7 


7 


90 


95 


4 


4 


34 


38 


2 




25 


25 


2 


15 


277 


295 


99 


13 


56 


55 


» 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5773 



Report of farm labor survey — State summary for Gloucester, Camden, Burling- 
ton, Cumberland, Salem, Mercer, and Monmouth Counties — Continued 



SALEM COUNTY 





Number 
farms 


Number of workers 


Kind of operation 


1940 


1941 


Already 
hired 


Faveyet 
to hire 


Pick tomatoes 


22 
8 
11 
13 


105 
84 
43 

48 


116 
109 
75 
46 


9 
62 


107 




47 




75 


General farming . 


14 


32 







MERCER COUNTY 



MONMOUTH COUNTY 





12 
10 
1 
3 
10 


90 

50 
18 
36 


102 
60 
50 
18 
35 


8 
3 


94 


Tomatoes -- 


67 


Strawberries 


50 




i 

8 


17 


General dairy 


27 









22 
9 
3 
10 
15 
9 


365 
65 
65 
154 
104 
28 


381 
73 
68 
164 
127 
33 


58 
9 
2 
43 
59 
11 


323 


Tomatoes 


64 


Small fruits strawberries, raspberries 


66 


Tree fiuits . .. -. 


121 


Truck crops 






22 







Exhibit A — Crop Losses Due to Labor Shortage 

report by hersion i. mh-ler, new jersey college of agriculture, 
new brunswick, n. j. 

July 23, 1941. 

I will not be able to give you any definite indication of the extent of crop 
losses because of farm-labor shortage. I will merely state that the acreage of 
crops lost entirely would be insignificant. However, the loss brought about be- 
cause crops were not harvested when they were of the highest quality would 
be of considerable cash value. 

For example, I have been informed that during the strawberry season it was 
impossible for growers to secure pickers to begin picking on time or they might 
have secured fewer pickers than they would normally require to keep the beds 
picked clean of ripe berries. The loss in this case would be due to pickers in- 
cluding in their baskets over-ripe berries which depressed the price received. 
You can understand that it would be difficult to measure the cash value of such 
a loss. 

In the case of asparagus, there were very few asparagus beds left uncut but 
asparagus brings the best price when it can be sold as all green. If it is not 
cut at a certain stage in its growth, it cannot be sold for this grade and goes at 
a lower price. Losses of this nature due to labor shortage are of a considerable 
value. 



Exhibit B — Sales of Farm Machinery in New Jersey 



report by hermon i. mixler, new jersey college of agriculture, 
new brunswick, n. j. 

July 24, 1941. 
Farm machinery dealers in the dairy and general farming areas of New Jersey 
support the general opinion that machinery sales this year have been greater 
than they were during the corresponding period of 1940. 

One dealer whose volume is around $130,000 annually indicated that his sales 
were 10-15 percent higher this year than last year and that they could have been 



5774 TRENTON HEARINGS 

considerably greater had it been possible to secure farm equipment, especially 
tractors. In all instances, machinery dealers report that it was not possible for 
them to fill all their orders for farm tractors and this resulted als^o in them 
being unable to place tractor equipment which they had sold to these same 
buyers. 

The dealers all indicated a recognition of the farm labor problem and expressed 
the opinion that this had increased the demand for farm equipment. 

In the dairy areas, they indicated some increase in the sales of milking 
machines to farmers who were short of milkers. 

TESTIMONY OF HEEMON I. MILLEE— Eesiimed 

Mr. Arnold. You Fay many valuable farm hands have been drafted 
into the Army from New Jersey, Do you have any idea of approxi- 
mately how many? 

Mr. MiLLTR. I have no idea of the mumber of those taken, except 
from the statements made by farmers. 

Mr. Arnold, You don't know v»hether deferment is being requested ? 

Mr, Miller. It is being requested, and I think the mater is being- 
handled adequately now by the local draft boards and by the State 
selective service. 

Mr. Arnold. Are they deferring them temporarily? 

Mr. MiiLER. Yes; 6-month deferments, with renewals if proof can 
be submitted that thoy are needed for agricultural work. 

Mr. Arnold. It appears that the State labor subcommittee is com- 
posed of three agriculturalists, all employers. Don't you think it 
necessary to see that the public and labor are also represented on this 
key committee? 

Mr. Miller, By the "public" you mean public agencies, and so on. 
The labor subcommittee as set up includes three farmers. 

Mr. Arnold. All employers? 

Mr. Miller. There are included nonf armers whose names appear in 
the first paragraph of the second section. 

Mr. Arnold. Well, that isn't the subcommittee? 

Mr. Miller. No. The members of the subcommittee — we call them 
ex-officio members — are from the State Employment Service, the 
Agricultural Marketing Service, the W, P. A, The State Department 
of Agriculture is working with us. 

Now, we have adopted this policy at the recommendation of the 
farmers: That the three farmer members assume the responsibility 
for determining work to be done, and policy, and so on, and work with 
the agency representative on the committee, 

migration from the solth reduced 

Mr, Arnold, I see that you ^tate that you don't believe that the 
usual number of migrants from the South will be available this year. 
Would you say specifically how you arrive at that opinion ? 

Mr. Miller. The earliest indication was a conference that I per- 
sonally attended in Richmond, Va, _ At that time we discussed the 
fact that the migrants were not working north as they had in previous 
years. This year, for examine, the as])aragus cutters are running 
about a fifth sliort of the usual number, and a lot of that labor has been 
miaratory workers. 

However, potato growers don't seem to be concerned at the present 
time. A good many of the potato growers have lined up their migratory 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5775 

workers. The ones who came last year are coming back and bringing 
new members. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't have statistical evidence as to the number 
of local residents who were formerly part of the farm-labor siqjply 
in New Jersey, and who have recently been drawn into other types of 
industry ? 

Mr. Miller. No. I tried this week to get information of that 
nature. I visited the New York Shipyard at Camden and the Cam- 
den Forge & Foundry and several other plants. They were unable 
to give any definite information, so I contacted the Camden Voca- 
tional School and their estimate at an earh- date was about 10 per- 
<:ent of their students, and they have handled about 2,200 in the 
last 10 months. These came from rural areas, and that percentage 
has increased to 16 and 17 percent at the present time. In other words, 
it seems to me that that is an indication that there is a tendency 
for the agricultural workers to be drawn more and more into indus- 
trial jobs. 

Mr. Arnold. The liigher wages will attract them? 

Mr. Miller. That is true. 

PURPOSE of labor SURVEY 

Mr. Arnold. Your labor survey attempted to ascertain the demand 
for labor. Was any independent check made by the subcommittee 
or by any agency on the statements made by the agricultural em- 
ployers? 

Mr. Miller. No. I think our figures might tend to be a little high. 
I think if you will look through those you will see that quite often 
the demand anticipated this year was a little higher than last year, 
which might be an indication that the need is a little higher than 
the number actually used last year. 

Mr. Arnold. If labor requirements depend on the weather, and it 
is impossible to forecast labor needs a week in advance, what value 
does the labor survey made by the subcommittee have for any prac- 
tical purpose? 

Mr. Miller. We made that primarily to help the State employ- 
ment service get acquainted with the farm problem. The State 
employment service in New Jersey has never had much experience 
with agricultural labor until this year and our labor subcommittee 
at a meeting in early April felt that if it was to function this year and 
help the situation any, it should have some basic information. So we 
got that and the individual cards were used as samples for them to go 
back and find labor. That was particularly true in the metropolitan 
areas of northern New Jersey. 

I think you will note I made no commitment as to any definite 
numbers on account of the surveys, and the committee recognizes 
that it wouldn't be a very safe thing to make definite commitments 
from a survey of that nature. 

Mr. Arnold. Your survey attempted to ascertain only the demand 
for agricultural labor? 

Mr. Miller. That is right. 



5776 TRENTON HEAEIXGS 

ORGANIZATION OF AVAILABLE LABOR SUPPLY 

Mr. Arnold. What was done to ascertain or organize the available 
supply? 

Mr. Miller. With the State employment service we worked out, 
for instance, in the metropolitan area of northern New Jersey, with 
the local schools, the possibility of registering students interested in 
farm work with the State employment service. 

The N. y. A. has been a good source of labor in the metropolitan 
area of northern New Jersey, and the W. P. A. and local relief have 
helped some — not too much. But by using that basic information, 
and working with the State employment service and other agencies 
which have a surplus of labor or which are possible sources — for 
example, Negro churches in some areas — we got registrations of 
people interested in agricultural work. 

Mr. Arnold. Do vou think the reduction in the W. P. A. rolls 
this year of from 41,000 or 42,000 down to 27,000 will aid some in 
the agricultural harvest? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. I think we should recognize that all W. P. A. 
workers are not good farm labor; but in my own opinion, if there 
is a need for employment those people will find employment some- 
where, and the employment circle will work in such a way that every- 
one will be as well off or perhaps better off. 

crop losses caused by labor shortage 

Mr. Arnold. Your paper indicates that some of the fields of 
asparagus were going to seed. Were these reports verified by any 
agency ? 

Mr.*^ Miller. You can see them as you drive through south Jersey. 
And I reported also that much of the asparagus had to go until it 
was beyond the prime stage, and brought a little lower price. There 
were several losses in strawberries. I was in Paterson day before 
yesterday, and there were people there who had let cauliflower and 
lettuce go because of the lack of labor. That is a very intensified 
type of farming. 

Mr. Arnold. You haven't prepared any report for the committee 
with reference to the crop losses because of a shortage of labor? 

Mr. Miller. No, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Could you do that ? 

Mr. Miller. Perhaj^s I could. I could do it in a very rough way 
by cooperation with the county agents in the State. 

Mr. Arnold. The committee would be glad to have you supply 
us with that information. 

(The material referred to above, received subsequent to the hear- 
ing, appears in this volume as exhibit A, p. 5773.)^ 

Mr. Miller. I would like to say in that connection that farmers 
this year, as I have noticed in the last 2 or 3 weeks, are getting along 
better than we anticipated they would. They are doing that by 
working harder than they thought the3^ ever would in their lives; 
probably some of them are working longer hours. That was espe- 
cially true of growers of asparagus. And there are other ways 
they" are getting by. 

1 See also paper by Coirington Gill, "Reported Farm Labor Shortage, Southern New- 
Jersey, May 1940," p. 5882. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5777 

The strawberry crop was only 60 percent of a crop ; the bean crop 
only about half a crop; and the potato crop looks short. So they 
have got by, this year. They are fearful of next year. That is 
their problem — to see that there won't be any large losses next year 
due to lack of labor. 

UTILIZATION OF LOCAL STUDENTS 

Mr. Arnold. Your report indicates that schools close much earlier 
in New Jersey than in Pennsylvania, and that you have been getting 
part of your labor supply from Pennsylvania heretofore. Wliat has 
been done in the past and what was done this year to utilize school 
pupils of New Jersey for harvesting ? 

;Slr. Miller. There wasn't much need for doing anything this 
spring. There probably will be something done this fall to utilize 
high-school labor in northern New Jersey. They did get some reg- 
istrations of high-school students interested in the w^ork. I was in 
Bergen County day before yesterday and they indicated they have 
more than they need of high-school students. They actually have a 
surplus of that kind of labor. Of course it isn't the best labor in the 
world. This fall there will probably be an effort made to perhaps 
hold school opening a little later than usual. 

I met with the governor of the Defense Council's agricultural 
committee and they made a recommendation to the governor to be 
passed on to the commissioner of education, along those lines, and 
there probably will be an effort made to i-egister students interested 
in farm work for Saturdays and after school. 

Mr. Arnold. You say the N. Y. A. clients are helping? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, in northern New Jersey. There isn't so much of 
that type of thing in southern New Jersey. 

Mr. Arnold. We should have asked Colonel Dowell this morning 
this question, but neglected to do so: What is the N. Y. A. doing 
down at Camp Dix ? What work do they perform ? 

Mr. IMiLLER. I am not familiar with that. 

Mr. Arnold. You mentioned that a shortage of dairy workers is 
anticipated. Would you be able to obtain for the committee's rec- 
ords a comparison of the machinery sales for the first 6 months of 
1941 as compared with the same period of 1940? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. Dr. Lamb wrote me about that, and I have 
that work under way, and I will put that in the record. We know 
they are higher. I inquired of some dealers yesterday and found 
they were higher but how much I don't know. 

(The report referred to above was received subsequent to the hear- 
ing, and appears in this volume as exhibit B, p. 5773.) 

NO WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION SHUTDOWNS 

Mr. Arnold. Have any W. P. A. projects in New Jersey been 
closed down this year at the request of the subcommittee? 

Mr. Miller. No. 

Mr. Arnold. Did you make such request? 

Mr. Miller. Yes, we had conferences with Mr. Voorhis, the chair- 
man, and I had conferences with Mr. Allen and Mr. McCormack, the 

60396—41 — pt. 14 16 



5778 TRENTON HEARINGS 

men who were here yesterday. They indicated it was up to the local 
sponsor and, of course, that is probably true. But in some cases, 
in a State such as New jersey, it is rather difficult to get the sponsors 
to see any need for farm help. 

Mr. Aknold. Well, it is pretty difficult, I have found, to close 
down any kind of public project without a great many protests that 
eventually reach the Congress. 

Mr. MiLLJER. That is right. There are, I think, 45,000 on W. P. A. 
and Atlantic County alone has somew^here in the vicinity of 3,500 
or 4,000. Of course, agriculture in Atlantic County is not impor- 
tant, but if we have to use migratory labor we might as well use 
those as migrants from the South. 

FARMERS NOT TAUGHT TO USE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

Mr. Arnold. Do agricultural employers prefer to recruit their own 
labor, or depend on private contractors, rather than on the United 
States Employment Service? 

Mr. Miller. They have never used the employment service. I 
think it is primarily a job of education. This year some of them 
are using it and finding it very satisfactory. Most of the large 
operators have either used padrones or farm bosses or have gone 
South and got their own migratory workers. 

Mr. Arnold. Does your subcommittee have any suggestions to 
make as to how the Farm Placement Service could be improved? 

Mr. MiLiiER. I think they have been very well satisfied with the 
way it has functioned in most instances. My personal observa- 
tion is that the three farmer members have not had a chance to 
observe conditions as I have, traveling around over the State. My 
personal observation is that where they have men who are acquainted 
with the farm problem and who know how to handle it, tliey are 
doing a good job. 

In other instances they may not be doing so well, but I think 
the agents in northern New Jersey have functioned very well. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all. 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb. 

ITALIAN MIGRANTS FROM PHILADELPHIA 

Dr. Lamb. You haven't said anything with respect to the problem 
of the Italian migrant from Philadelphia, at least in the testimony 
that you have just given. Have vou anything to say in regard to 
that? 

Mr. Miller. The new addition to the child labor law, prohibiting 
those children from being away from their residence while school 
is in session, has created somewhat of a problem, but in most cases 
the superintendents of schools, at least in Philadelphia and Chester, 
were very cooperative. This year the number of strawberry pickers 
who were needed was small, because there was a small crop. The 
number required, however, did migrate to the State. 

Dr. Lamb. Do you know what the labor needs in the strawberry 
fields were, say for last year? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5779 

Mr. Miller. No ; I wouldn't know that, Dr. Lamb. 

Dr. Lamb. Would the number be of the order of 5,000? 

Mr. Miller. No. 

Dr. Lamb. 2,500 ? 

Mr. Miller. That would be nearer. You see, there are only about 
4,000 Italian migrants who come to the State, and a lot of them come 
for blueberries, and cranberries, and so on, and for picking beans. 

Dr. Lamb. So there was no surplus of labor this year, and there was 
no shortage either? 

LABOR SHORTAGE IN ASPARAGUS FIELDS 

Mr. Miller. Well, the asparagus growers reported they were about 
a fifth short of labor. 

Dr. Lamb. How many would be required by the asparagus growers 
as a whole? Do you have that figure? 

Mr. Miller. The only thing I could do is refer to the statement here. 
They estimate 294,000 man-days for harvesting asparagus. I couldn't 
get it from that. 

Dr. Lamb. Did you circulate a letter to all the farmers in the State ? 

Mr. Miller. A letter was circulated through county agents' offices, 
informing them of certain types of information we wanted. 

Dr. Lamb. Soliciting information? 

Mr. Miller. In connection with this survey, yes. There were 9,850. 

Dr. Lamb. What percentage of the total number replied ? 

Mr. jMiller. About 10 percent. 

Dr. Lamb. Would you say that there was any statistical "skew'' to 
that sample? Were the replies drawn largely from the larger pro- 
ducers ? 

^Ir. Miller. I felt that the fact that about two-thirds of the number 
indicated they needed labor, and that one-third did not, constituted a 
l)€tter sample than I anticipated getting. 

Dr. Lamb. One-third indicated they did not need labor? 

Mr. Miller. Yes; and two-thirds indicated that they did. We an- 
ticipated receiving replies from just those who needed it, but we got 
one-third — half as many cards — who didn't need it. 

Dr. Lamb. A survey was made in Connecticut and reported to the 
committee at its hearings in Hartford which covered 10,000 farmers. 
Ninety-nine replies were received, which was considerably below your 
number. Half of those replies said that they did not need labor, 
whereas your replies were two needing labor for one not needing it. 

Mr. Miller. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. As against a one-to-one ratio there. 

Mr. Miller. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. It was found there that the replies came largely from the 
larger employers, and that is one reason I asked you about the ratio 
here. 

Mr. Miller. We made a small attempt to tabulate acreages, and 
I think it would be accurate to say that we had a fair sample of 
farmers, both large and small. 

Now, one reason why we got greater returns than they did in 
Connecticut was that we circulated just among vegetable growers, 
and not dairy or poultry men, and they are the ones who need labor. 



57gQ TRENTON HEARINGS 

AGE OP PEOPLE ON WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 

Dr. Lamb. With respect to the rural W. P. A. rolls, do you know 
anything about the age average of those on W. P. A. rolls in rural 
communities in the State? 

Mr. Miller. I was told they are something over 40 years of age. 
I have forgotten the exact figure. 

Dr. Lamb. So that most of these available w^orkers in rural areas 
would be perhaps too old to be the choice of the average farmer ? 

Mr. Miller. Yes. I think it would be fair to say that farmers 
would prefer not to hire that type of labor if they could get other 
types, but the farmers are in a seller's market this year — tliey have 
got to buy what they can buy. 

Dr. Lamb. What about the capacity for earnings of these workers 
who are available? 

Mr. Miller. The hourly wage would be lower on a farm. 

Dr. Lamb. And on a piece-rate basis? 

Mr. MiiXER. Well, the per hour earnings, either on the piece-rate 
basis or by the hour or by the day or by the month would be lower 
on a farm. But if they would work the regular farmer hours, the 
gross return for the month, I think, would be higher if they are 
willing to w^ork. 

Dr. Lamb. Higher than what? 

Mr. Miller. Higher than W. P. A. wages in the area. 

Dr. Lamb. How many hours a week would the farm worker have 
to put in in order to equal the W. P. A. wage ? 

Mr. Miller. Farmers are willing to pay from 25 cents to 35 cents 
an hour, and the W. P. A. pay, I believe, runs 47 cents an hour in 
the same area. 

vegetable harvesting by piece work 

Dr. Lamb. What proportion of the demand would be for piece 
workers, rather than hourly wage workers? 

Mr. Miller. A large part of the vegetable harvesting is done by 
piece work. 

Dr. Lamb. And what would you say these men on a piece-work 
basis could earn per week? 

Mr. Miller. Well, that is a variable figure, but I think that th"?v 
could earn between $15 and $18 a w^eek picking beans or picking 
peas. 

Dr. Lamb. Allowing for weather, what would you say the earnings 
would amount to monthly? 

Mr. Miller. I would say a range of $50 to $70, if a person is 
willing to work and work as farm laborers do. 

Dr. Lamb. 70 hours a week? 

Mr. Miller. Less than that. 

Dr. Lamb. 60? 

Mr. Miller. Yes ; and less — between 48 and 60. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Miller. 

Our next witness is Mr. Donato. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5781 

TESTIMONY OF THOMAS DONATO, FARM MANAGER, 
MORRISTOWN, N. J. 

The Chairman. Mr. Donato, will you give your name and address 
to the reporter? 

Mr. Donato. Thomas Donato, Morristown, N. J. 

The Chairman. Wliere were you born, INIr. Donato? 

Mr. Donato. Philadelphia. 

The Chairman. Have you resided there ever since? 

Mr. Donato. All my life. 

The Chairman. And what is your occupation at the present time? 

Mr. Donato. I am the foreman at the present time. 

The Chairman. Foreman on a ranch or farm? 

Mr. Donato. Farm. 

The Chairman. How large is that farm? 

Mr. Donato. Oh, I would say about 400 acres. 

The Chairman. What do they grow there? 

Mr. Donato. Why, we have cherries, apples, peaches, strawberries, 
potatoes, tomatoes, corn and rye and wheat. 

The Chairman. And how much farm help do you have on that 
farm? 

Mr. Donato. At present we have about 40. 

The Chairman. Have you been engaged long in that business, 
of hiring help for farms? 

Mr. Donato. For a number of years. 

The Chairman. And do you help supply the labor for the potato 
farm you are working on? 

Mr. Donato. Only on our farm. 

The Chairman. And did you ever engage in large-scale operations 
in supplying labor for other farms? 

Mr. Donato. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Is that the only work you do there now? 

Mr. Donato. No ; I am the timekeeper, the paymaster, and every- 
thing. 

The Chairman. Jack-of -all-trades? 

Mr. Donato. Yes, Jack-of-all-trades. 

The Chairman. How many laborers do you normally supply each 
year for this farm? 

Mr. Donato. Usually from 40 to 50, with the exception of this 
year. I had to gather my help from the neighbors. 

Mr. Chairman. How do you find conditions this year? Was there 
any labor shortage on farms? 

Mr. Donato. Well, from Philadelphia very much. 

The Chairman. Was it the national-defense expansion that caused 
the shortage? 

Mr. Donato. No ; it was partly for the defense and partly for relief 
and partly that people don't want to work, of course. 

The Chairman. From where do you get this supply of labor ? 

Mr. Donato. Well, my supply today is from Jersey and Philadel- 
phia. I usually get my supply right from Philadelphia, and, of 
course, I always had some men there to work with me. 

The Chairman. Both white and colored people? 

Mr. Donato. Yes, sir. 



5782 TREXTOX HEARINGS 

MONTHLY WAGES OF MICxRANT FARM WORKERS 

The Chairman. What is the average monthly wages of those 
people ? 

Mr. DoNATO. "Well, at the j^resent time it is hard to tell exactly. 
I do know, but I didn't bring figures with me. These last 4 weeks, I 
would say one person made as high as $25 or $28 a week. 

The Chairman, Was that on piece work ? 

Mr. DoNATO. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Of course, the pay of piece workers is variable. It 
is a question of the individual, isn't it? 

Mr. DoNATO. That is true. I saw a man yesterday pick 29 baskets 
of cherries at 25 cents a basket. 

The Chairman. He certainly is going some when he does that. 

Mr. DoNATo. And I had a boy about 17 that picked 18 baskets and 
none of them picked less than i4. 

The Chairman. What are cherries selling for? 

Mr. DoNATO. The market is very low at this time. I think it is 
something around 50 or 55 cents. Some of them bring a dollar, some 
90 cents. It doesn't have a stable figure. 

Mr. Arnold. A basket of cheiTies is about a gallon ? 

Mr. DoNATO. Well, we sell some at 20 pounds and some at 16 
pounds. 

Mr. Arnold. How many pounds in a gallon, do you know ? 

Mr. DoNATO. Well, that I couldn't say. I think it would be about 
10 pounds to the gallon. I wouldn't say that for sure, but I guess 
that. 

Mr. Arnold. I was trying to know" how proficient they are, because 
I know when I was a boy I used to pick 20 gallons a day at a nickel 
a gallon. 

The Chairman. Yes ; but that was a very long time ago. 

Mr. Curtis. Cherries are bigger now. 

Mr. Donato. We have some large ones too. 

The Chairman. Mr. Donato, how are you paid ? 

commission, salary, and bonus for managing workers 

Mr. Donato. Well, I am paid on three bases — one on commission, 
another on salary, and another as a bonus. 

The Chairman. I have particular reference to your work in sup- 
plying labor. Do you have a retainer? 

Mr. Donato. No, sir; never did in all our years — don't allow that. 

Tlie Chairman. Do you receive a commission? 

Mr. Donato. Don't get no commission from the boss. I only get the 
money that I work for. 

The Chairman. In other words you do not receive any separate 
compensation for labor hiring on the farm? 

Mr. Donato. No, no, I do not. Never engaged in that kind of work. 

The Chairman. Hiring is just part of your job, is it? 

Mr. Donato. Yes, sir. I take care of the entire picking of all crops. 
I am responsible for the entire crop, and I get so much when I work in 
the cherries and so much when working at strawberries and so much 
picking apples. I am responsible for all the crops and I get a bonus 
for that responsibility. If something goes w-rong, I have to pay it. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5783 

The Chairman. What about the supply of labor from the South — 
the colored people ? Do you import any up here ? 

Mr. DoNATO. No ; I never take anyone from there. I have colored 
people, but they are all neighbors. 

The Chairman. How do you get your supply of labor? By ad- 
vertising ? 

Mr. DoNATO. No, sir. The way we used to do, we get them on the 
farm ; for instance, there would be about 10 families on the farm, and 
one family would tell another, and they would gage themselves. Then 
they would give the addresses of ceitain ones and I would go to their 
houses and get them and bring them in. Of course, our people have 
been coming here straight for the last 20 years. We generally have 
the same people. We don't like to change. It is too much work to 
learn them. We do a lot of things and we like to have people who know 
how to do it. We don't like to change; and the same people will come 
here in the month of April. 

CONDITION OF HOUSING FACILITIES 

The Chairman. What do you do with reference to housing for the 
f ann laborers ? 

Mr. Donato. Well, we have two buildings, and made an apartment 
out of one building and we give that free — don't cost anything for 
that. 

The Chairman. Are they good, livable quarters? 

Mr. Donato. Well, I was going to say — I wouldn't say it was bad; 
it is not a good thing — it is not bad. Of course, we are not here to 
have parlor rooms and dining rooms and things of that sort, because 
we are here to make a dollar and work. We don't go there for sport. 

Now, if we want to sport we go elsewhere. Now, they are all 
contented. I have never heard any complaint. The only complaint I 
have had, to tell the truth about it, is they wanted electricity. We tried 
to get that, and they wanted so much money this year to put it in that 
we might as well give them the farm. AVe thought we would put it in 
next year if we had it right and there was enough people that come 
from Philadelphia. 

The Chairman. How is the housing on other farms around there? 

Mr. Donato. Well, there are some very, very good places and some 
very, very bad places. They have housed some of these poor people 
in the barns with the cattle and horses. Just took them there and left 
them. The foreman of that farm picked up 15 or 20 people 
and take them on the farm and dump them there in the barn and 
leave them there. Of course, they had large families and they had 
to take it or leave it. 

The Ch virman. Did j^ou say there is a decrease in the labor supply? 

Mr. Donato. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. About what percentage ? 

Mr. Donato. I would say about 80 percent. 

The Chairman. It is likely to become critical, isn't it ? 

Mr. Donato. It will, I am sure of that. 

The Chairman. Do you consider the Child Labor Act of New Jersey 
as it now stands a contributing factor to this shortage? 

Mr. Donato. Well, it is in some places. Now, in our place, of course, 
we don't allow children, but in a condition as of today we will take 



5784 TRENTON HEARINGS 

a child of 14 or 15 years old where other times we wouldn't have a child 
that young to work on our farm. It isn't hard work or anything like 
that, but nevertheless we never had children — alwaj^s had adults, 
grown people — but this year we did have some 16 and 15. We have 
had that size child work on the cherries. Of course, that is the only 
thing we can put them on. You can't put a child on anything else. 
Might pick a few strawberries for a couple of hours and leave — get 
tired. 

The Chairman. Do they have to go up into the tree to pick the 
cherries ? 

Mr. DoNATO. No; we have ladders and they pick the bottom cherries 
from the ground and then they get on the ladder and pick the top 
cherries and the side cherries what they can't reach from the ground. 

The Chairman, It is all hand-picking? 

Mr. DoNATO. Yes, sir. 

FAVORS FEDERAL CONTROL OVER FARM LABOR CONTRACTORS 

The Chairman. Mr. Donato, ^^ hat do you think about Federal regu- 
lations with respect to these so-called farm-labor contractors? 

Mr. DoNATO. I think it is a marvelous thing, and I think they all 
ought to be naturalized citizens too. 

The Chairman. And registered? 

Mr. Donato. Yes, sir ; and should pay a license and a good fee and 
a good, decent, responsible person to handle that job, because it is a 
responsibility if they get places like ours. We handle a lot of money 
for one thing, and we could have a lot of children that has to be taken 
care of. We are responsible for the families that come from Phila- 
delphia, and there is a lot of men that have these jobs and they think of 
nothing but making a lot of money — of course, we all like to make 
money. 

The Chairman. But there are different ways of making money ? 

Mr. DoNATO. That is right. Now, they will go out and charge them 
a dollar to get them a job — — 

The Chairman. I was very much interested in what you had to say, 
Mr. Donato, about some of these farm-labor contractors dumping them 
on a farm and putting them in barns with horses and cattle. 

Mr. DoNATO. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. This committee has been in existence for over a 
year. We first went into New York and then Illinois and Alabama, 
Nebraska, Oklahoma, and California, studying the general subject of 
migration of poor people from State to State. So we got a pretty 
good picture of it, and one of the things that all our witnesses seemed 
to agree on — mayors, Governors, and workmen — was that the regula- 
tion of these so-called labor contractors was a needed reform. Some 
of the things that were depicted in the testimony were really startling. 
From Texas and Oklahoma they have taken workers north by the 
truck load, clear to Michigan without any stops, no more than just to 
get a bite to eat. Of course they treat cattle better than that, because 
under the law they have to give them a rest and water and feed them 
at regular intervals. Isn't that true? 

Mr. DoNATo. That is true. 

The Chairman. So one of our first reconnnendations was the regu- 
lating and licensing of private employment agencies who take these 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5785 

poor people's money and then shoot them across State lines with a 
definite promise of jobs, whether there were really any jobs or not. 

This committee has introduced a bill in Congress.^ Hearings are 
going to be held on that bill and I am very pleased to have a man like 
you, who knows what he is talking about, say that regulation is neces- 
sary. 

POVERTY AND DISEASE IN SOUTH JERSEY GROUP 

. Mr. DoNATO. I have seen this much: In 1936 I had another farm 
with a man by the name of Little, and some of my people got sick and 
went home, so I asked a cousin of my wife what he was doing. He 
said he wanted to get away from the place where he Avas and that there 
were four or five other families there. I said, "All right, I will send 
a truck," I said- "and we will go up and get your families." 

We went up rhere in south Jersey and the people I picked up there — • 
children and women — had big sores all over their bodies. I had to 
take them in here and have tliem treated medically before we could 
put them to work. It was right in the town of Medford. We had 
a good home for the pickers right in the town and we had to have 
pretty good, clean people there, and I am telling you they weren't 
fit to go anywhere. 

The Chairman. Where were they living? 

Mr. DoNATO. They were living in a barn — that is the one I am 
talking about — and some of these buildings have no windows or 
nothing. These buildings have been there maybe for 75 years. Those 
fellows would get these people and run them in there and then go to 
the farmer and say, "Do you need any help." The farmer would 
say, "Yes; give me 10 people." He would say, "Here is the people 
in the house," and sometimes the farmer wouldn't know^ that these 
people were in the house, 

I wouldn't altogether blame a farmer, because these people take 
these families and put them there on the farm without even him know- 
ing it. They would say, "We have the families over here in a good 
house and they will come and work for you here." 

Maybe the farmer would only want them for 2 or 3 hours and 
would tell them they are through, and they would say, "He brought 
us here to work." The farmer would say", "I don't know anything 
about that — I just wanted you for a couple of hours — I don't want 
any pickers." And that is the way they have been doing right along 
until one of the men was run out of the State. In fact they are after 
him. I think there are about — I wouldn't say accurate, but I think 
there are 25 or 30 warrants issued for him. 

The Chairman. Where did he get his pay? 

Mr. DoNATO. Why, he got his pay by selling the people to these 
farmers — getting a family and going there and getting five or six or 
seven dollars for the family and dumping the family there. 

The Chairman. Would he collect anything from those people ? 

Mr. DoNATO. Get a dollar from each person — every grown up — 
and get a dollar from the farmer — $2. 

The Chairman. Do you know of any cases where they transported 
people from Florida or the Southern States up into your country ? 

Mr. DoNATO. No : I wouldn't know. 



Text of the measure, H. R. 5510, appears as Exhibit 35, Baltimore hearings. 



5786 TRENTON HEARINGS 

The Chairman. But you are in favor of legislation restricting and 
regulating and licensing labor contractors, Mr. Donato? 

Mr. DoNATO. I am very much in favor to have men, who do this 
kind of work, that must be on the "up and up." 

The Chairman. Their activities reflect on people like you, who 
want to do business in the right way ? 

Mr. Donato. That is true ; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. That is all. 

SAYS many labor CONTRACTORS ARE NOT CITIZENS 

Mr. CuPvTis. You said you thought all of these labor contractors 
should be citizens ? 

Mr. DoxATO. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you mean to infer that quite a number of them 
are not citizens ? 

Mr. Donato. Exactly. 

Mr. Curtis. Why do aliens get into this kind of work? 

Mr. Donato. Well, do you mean how do they get in the work? 

Mr. Curtis. How does it happen there are so many aliens doing 
that sort of thing? 

Mr. Donato. They are men that have been aliens — don't become 
citizens. There is one man in particular that I have had work for 
me the last few years — didn't have a job in the city of Philadelphia 
for 25 or 30 years and this year he got a job at 80 cents an hour, 
and he has been working on the farm and is now getting big money 
over there. He went there in Philadelphia and he is not a citizen 
and his whole family is getting big wages there now. 

Mr. Curtis. But I was referring particularly to the contractor him- 
self. 

Mr. Donato. The contractor himself? There are two that quit 
here, that couldn't get any more pickers. They had to leave the place — 
they -^veren't naturalized. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, these people who were living in the barn that you 
referred to, were they colored or white? 

Mr. Donato. White. 

Mr. Curtis. And where did they come from? 

Mr. Donato. From Philadelphia. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

Mr. Abrott. ]Mr. Donato, if I understood you correctly, you esti- 
mated that the labor shortage would be about 80 percent. 

Mr. Donato. Exactly. 

Mr. Abbott. Did you mean to say it would be 80 percent less than 
last year? 

Mr. Donato. That is right. 

Mr. Abbott. Have you talked to growers, or is that from State offi- 
cials, or just your own observation? 

Mr. Donato. No ; I haven't talked to anybody. 

Mr. Abbott. I was wondering how you arrived at that particular 
estimate. 

Mr. Donato. Well, I will tell you how I arrived at that. I always 
engage from 45 to 50 people, and this year from Philadelphia I only 
bring in 14. You see, I lost 2 out of that 14, which left me with 12, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5787 

and under that I figured it wouldn't be any more than 80 percent less 
than last year. It will probably be more or less in tomato season. 

Mr. Abbott. Your opinion on the shortage is based on your own 
particular experience? 

Mr. DoNATO. Yes ; and on the other farms that surround me — 10 or 
15 different farms that I know always hire 40 or 50 or 60 people, that 
they only will have 10 or 12 or 14 or something like that, and some 
only have 6. 

Mr. Abbott. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Donato. We appreciate 
your coming here. 

Our next witness is Mr. Vaughn. 

TESTIMONY OF POSTELLE A. VAUGHN, SENIOR INTERVIEWER, 
FARM PLACEMENT SECTION, PENNSYLVANIA STATE EMPLOY- 
MENT SERVICE 

The Chairman. Mr. Vaughn, Congressman Curtis will interrogate 
j'-ou. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you please give your full name to the reporter? 

Mr. Vaughn. Postelle A. Vaughn, senior interviewer, Farm Place- 
ment Section, Pennsylvania State Employment Service. 

Mr. Curtis. How old are you, Mr. Vaughn ? 

Mr. Vaughn. 40. 

Mr. Curtis. Where were you educated? 

Mr. Vaughn. University of Illinois. 

Mr. Curtis. How long have you been an interviewer for the farm 
placement service? 

Mr. Vaughn. Well, I have only been interviewing for the farm 
placement section about a month. ' Up until this year our service has 
had very little farm work to do. I think we placed on an average of 
about 15 or 20 people a year up until April this year. 

Mr. Curtis. Where is your office located? 

Mr. Vaughn. 253 North Broad Street, Philadelphia. 

Mr. Curtis. How long have you been with the State employment 
service in some capacity or other? 

Mr. Vaughn. I have' been with them since December 12, 1938. 

Mr. Curtis. What was j^our business before that ? 

Mr. Vaughn. Well, I worked for the W. P. A. as an interviewer; 
I worked for public assistance as relief investigator ; been principal of 
a school ; and I have taught school. 

Mr. Curtis. In your work with the W. P. A., and as a relief inter- 
viewer, were you primarily dealing with colored people ? 

Mr. Vaughn. I handled everybody. 

Mr. Curtis. That was in Philadelphia? 

Mr. Vaughn. Philadelphia. 

Mr. Curtis. You have a prepared statement for the record which 
will be printed in full in our hearings. 

(The prepared statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY POSTELLE A. VAUGHN, SENIOR INTERVIEWER, FARM 
PI^iCEMENT SECTION, PENNSYLVANIA STATE EMPLOYMENT OFFICE 

In pi-evious years the Pennsylvania Employment Service did very little in the 
way of farm placement. "We were aware of the large migration of workers into 



5788 TRENTON HEARINGS 

New Jersey, but this had been handled for a long time by padrones who contracted 
with the farmers to supply a large number of families, chiefly Italians. In addi- 
tion to these, a smaller number of Negroes moved up the Atlantic coast following 
the harvest season and were available when the peak was reached. 

This year, probably because of the expansion of the defense program, the 
sources vs^hich formerly supplied this farm labor seem unable to do so. 

On April 25, 1941, we received a letter from H. J. Lepper, administrative assis- 
tant suprvisor, contact and clearance. New Jersey Employment Service, asking 
our assistance in recruiting farm workers. With this letter Mr. Lepper attached 
2 orders for harvest hands from the Kings Farms Co. and the Starkey Farm's, 
both of Morrisville, Pa. The number of workers needed was 750. Mr. Lepper 
noted that these workers in previous years had been recruited in and around 
Trenton, N. J. However, due to an existing shortage in farm workers, the New 
Jersey office would not be in a position to furnish the number. 

These orders were referred to Mr. Edwin C. Bair, Jr., manager of the 
Doylestown, Pa., office which services the Morrisville area. He advised that 
there was no possibility of finding this number of farm workers in his district. 
The Philadelphia Central Placement Office then offered to assist in recruiting 
the necessary workers in and around Philadelphia. Mr. Bair contacted the 
two employers and discussed this suggestion. Both employers were reluctant 
to come to Philadelphia with trucks or provide any other transportation for 
workers from Philadelphia to Morrisville. They did not feel at that time 
that shortage was acute enough for such measures. 

CALL FOR 2,000 FAMILIES TO PICK STRAWBERRIES 

On May 15 we received clearance order No. 41-835 from the New Jersey State 
Employment Service. This order called for 2,000 families to pick strawberries 
for various employers ; and noted that strawberries would be ready between 
May 20 and 26. We were instructed to notify the administrative office in 
Trenton giving full information regarding the families, number available, and 
whether or not they were experienced. We at once made a survey of our 
active and inactive registration files to ascertain how many persons were 
registered in all the farm classifications. Although there were 1,500 p^^rsons 
in our active and inactive files this number proved far from adequate. It was 
then decided that if our oflice was to be able to handle the order, a recruiting 
program was necessary. The radio, the newspaper, the department of public 
assistance, and the Negro research unit cooperated in this program. 

On May 29, Mr. John W. Bugdal, interviewer in the New Jersey State Em- 
ployment Service, reported to the Philadelphia Central Placement Office to 
assist us in recruiting and referring farm workers to New Jersey employers. 
Arrangements were made at that time to have wokers available on June 2, 
so that employers could pick them up at our office. Six employers reported 
on that date and 28 workers were hired. In each case, the employer either 
transported the workers himself or furnished some other means of trans- 
portation. 

Arrangements were discussed with INIr. Bugdal for referring additional farm 
workers on June 6. He had been assured by the local offices of New Jersey 
State Employment Service, that between 15 and 20 farmers would be in 
Philadelphia at 2 p. m. on June 6 and would need approximately 100 men. 
Between June 2 and June 6, we recruited a number of workers telling them 
to report at our oflice with whatever clothing they wished to take since they 
would be transported directly from the office. 

At the appointed time about 75 workers reported, many with their clothing 
in bags or bundles. However only 2 of the employers reported. One of these 
employed 1 man, the other 3. The remainder of the group were decidedly 
disappointed, and some remained for at least 2 hours hoping the employers 
would still arrive. They wei'e all assured that opportunity would be ofEered 
them later. 

On June 9, representatives of the Philadelphia office of the Pennsylvania 
State Employment Service attended a conference called by Robert S. Eunstein, 
chief, Educational Section, State agricultural conservation office, of the Agri- 
cultural Adjustment Administration. Attending this conference were farm 
leaders, persons from National Youth Administration, Department of Public 
Instruction, State employment service, Work Projects Administration. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5739 

FARM LEADERS WORRIED ABOUT HARVEST 

The farm leaders were very much coucerned about where they would be 
able to secure workers to harvest their crops. One stated that even while the 
conference was in session, his alfalfa crop was being spoiled because of his 
inability to secure persons to cut it. Another mentioned strawberries rotting 
on the vines because of a scarcity of pickers. So acute was the problem that 
draft boards were being petitioned to consider as a reason for deferment 
the fact that a selectee might be a key man on the farm. 

To these farm leaders the State employment service offered its cooperation 
in recruiting workers for them. 

On June 23 our oflice received clearance order No. 3-274, asking that we 
recruit 500 snap-bean pickers for a farm in Bridgeton, N. J. We began immedi- 
ately to plan to fill this order. 

During the week of .June 16, the Philadelphia Department of Public Assist- 
ance issued a release stating that all nonfaniily persons on the relief rolls 
would be dropped by July !.">. This would mean that approximately 1,800 men 
and 700 women would be affected. This group represented to us a possible 
source of labor supply. Arrangements were made with relief authorities to 
call in for an interview, the men affected by the July 15 deadline. These men 
would be told of the opportunity of employment in the bean fields. The accept- 
ance of this employment was left to the men. No coercion was used whatsoever, 
and the men who chose to accept the work were referred. It is interesting to note 
that 2 out of 3 of th«s persons interviewed the first day were hired. One hundred 
and fifty persons were to be ready to report Thursday, June 26. 

Interviewing of workers was to be continued on Thursday and Friday and 
indications were that we would be as successful as on Wednesday. 

Probably an added incentive for the workers was the fact that the employer 
is willing to transport them between Bridgeton and Philadelphia each morning 
and evening. 

This order is the first large one with which we have been confronted. Our 
experience with it convinces us that we will be able to handle others of similar 
size. 

POTENTIAL LABOR MARKET 

In considering the labor supply serious consideration should be given the 
large number of young men between IS and 25. Many of these persons still 
interested in school are now on vacation. Many of them need money to con- 
tinue their education in the fall. They are enthusiastic about any type of 
work over the summer months. In handling the order for the bean pickers, we 
were surprised at the number of these young men who were willing to go. 
Some had been referred by boys' groups, others had heard of the opportunity 
through their friends. In no instance did the idea of farm work have to be 
sold to them. In every case they were very anxious to go. 

We feel that there is a large number of these, whiling away their time on 
city streets because of lack of job opportunities. The supply has hardly been 
touched. 

The Negro labor market also furnished a large potential supply. This is 
true of the group 18-25, and 45-.i5. Many of the older group are originally 
from the South and have had experience on farms. This group is largely 
unskilled and probably will not be materially affected by expansion in the 
defense Industries. At present they make up at least 50 percent of the relief 
rolls in Philadelphia. They are for the most part conscientious workers, and 
would welcome an opportunity to find employment. 

FACTORS AFFECTING PHILADELPHIA LABOR SUPPLY 

If the Philadelphia labor supply is to be utilized, several factors must be 
considered. 

I. Time factor : Farmers needing harvest hands must plan far enough ahead 
of their peak season and advise us of those needs. This will allow ample 
time for recruiting. 

II. Transportation : If possible, arrangements should be made to transport 
workers daily to and from Philadelphia. Since a large number of persons 
prefer not to give up their living quarters in Philadelphia this arrangement 
would enlarge the source of supply. 



5790 TRENTON HEARINGS 

III. Living quarters: Those farmers who expect to furnish living quarters 
must furnish comfortable ones. Army cots would be adequate for sleeping 
facilities, but stories of one farn>er having his workers sleeping on the floor 
may result in a "souring" of workers toward living on the farm. 

IV. Types of workers: Farmers who have used families before, may have 
to adjust their plans to use single men, since families will be much harder 
to obtain. This same condition is true when considering the race of the 
workers. Farmers who have heretofore used mostly Italian families, may have 
to use Negro boys and men. 

V. Wages : Farmers must also bear in mind that labor costs are increasing. 
Most people would prefer remaining at home if they can secure employment 
at the same pay. Industry is a large competitor for the same workers that 
the farmer needs. Hence he may have to increase the price to be paid. 

The Philadelphia Central Placement Office feels that if these things are 
taken into consideration, we will be able to help alleviate the farm labor short- 
age. To this end we offer our facilities and cooperation. 

Exhibit A. — Fakm Labor Referrals 

report by guy h. bloom, execxmve direotor, phii^\delphia county board of 
assistance, philadelphia, pa. 

July 2, 1941. 

On Monday, June 23, 1941, the Pennsylvania State employment office made 
known to this agency that it had in its possession an order calling for l.CGO to 

1,500 farm hands from ■ , a farm located north of Bridgeton, N. J. 

These persons were required immediately, and the first assignment would be as 
bean pickers. 

The State employment office advised that a slow worker would have little diffi- 
culty in earning at least $2 per day, the average worker $4 per day, and the good 
worker $6 per day. It was stipulated that free transportation would be provided 
by truck from Philadelphia to the farm and return. 

In view of the recent ruling by the State board concerning persons between the 
ages of 20-40, it was decided to offer this work to those persons, and steps were 
immediately taken to interview and make referral for job placements. In addi- 
tion to persons in the age group 20-40, notices were sent to lone persons up to 
55 years of age. 

The first interviews were scheduled for 2 p. m., Wednesday, June 25, and con- 
tinued until 10 p. m. that day. On Wednesday 204 persons responded, of whom 
133 agreed to accept jobs. Persons accepting were instructed to meet the truck at 
Delaware Avenue and South Street at 6 a. m.. Thursday, June 26. Approximately 
80 per.sons reported and were transported to the farm. 

"JHELDS AIREADY PICKED," EARNINGS CO CENTS 

On Thursday. June 26, 261 persons were interviewed, of whom 152 were 
selected. These persons were instructed to report to the truck on Friday. 
June 27, at 6 a. m. Approximately 100 men reported on Friday and were taken 
to the job. However, on the same day, we commenced to receive reacfioiis of 
persons taken to the job on Thursday. Their complaints were all similar, 
namely: "Fields had been picked previously and the average worker could not 
earn more than 60 cents per day." These complaints continued throughout 
l^idav. 

D; finite arrangements had been made for one or two trucks to pick up persons 
on Saturday and Monday, but the farmer was dissatisfied with results and 
failed to send out the trucks. Consequently, men reporte<l both Saturday and 
Monday mornings, and no truck was there to meet them. 

Arrangements were made for Mr. John J. Fitzgerald, of the relief work program 
to meet the truck on Monday morning, to make a survey to determine how 
many in the group had worked on the previous Thursday and Friday. In 
questioning the men, it was learned that none of them had previously reported. 
When the truck did not arrive, these men were told to return to their homes 
and await further instructions. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5791 

INVESTIGATION AT THE FARM 

Contact was immediately made with the State employment service outlining 
reactions of the workers, and arrangements were made to make an investiga- 
tion at the farm of actual conditions. A meeting was held 9 a. m., Tuesday, 
July 1, 1941, in the office of Mr. Roland Kirchoff, manager of tlie New Jersey 
Employment Service. 20-22 Commerce Street, Bridgeton, N. J. In attendance 
were: Mr. John W. Bugdal, field representative, New Jersey State Employment 
Service, Trenton ; Mr. Donald Bostoek, manager, Pennsylvania State Employ- 
ment Service, Philadelphia : Mr. Grover Heinzmann, agriculture field contact 
man, New Jei-sey State Employment Service ; Mr. Stephen Adams, interviewer, 
New Jersey State Employment Service; Mr. Roland Kirchoff, manager. New 
Jersey State Employment Service, Bridgeton ; Mr. Fitzgerald, acting assistant 
manager, R. W. P., Philadelphia ; Mr. Raymond Klauser, acting manager, 

R. W. P., Philadelphia; and , general manager, farm, 

Bridgeton. 

The reason for the meeting was outlined to Mr. by Mr. Bugdal, 

after which numerous questions were asked of Mr. concerning 

tlie men sent from Philadelphia. 

SAID MEN WERE NOT QUAIIFIED 

Mr. stated that as far as he is concerned, the type of men supplied 

by us was a detriment to the farmer rather than a help. He first felt that there 
might be some persons in a large group of this type who have had a peasant 
background, or who migrated from the South, whom they might use to advantage. 
He stated that out of approximately 200 persons, there were only 4 or .5 that 
he would consider qualified as bean pickers. However, he found that only one of 
tliese was able to earn as much as $1.40 during the day. 

When questioned as to why this person, who was supposedly qualified, was 
able to earn only $1.40, he was reluctant to say more than "possibly the man was 
not too anxious for work." He admitted that the fields in which these persons 
worked had been previously picked, but at the same time insisted that it has been 
their experience that second yields have been greater than the first, and third 
yields better than the second. This was rather questioned by the New Jersey 
State Employment OflJce representatives who were in attendance. 

LESS USEFUL IN TOMATO FIELDS 

Mr. was also questioned concerning the possibility of using this 

type of farm lab(»r for tomato picking, corn, etc., and his reply was that they would 
be less useful for that type of work, inasmuch as it required more experience and 

knowledge of just what was ripe for picking. Mr. ■ stressed the fact 

that there is a very acute shortage of farm labor. Inquiry was made as to just 
what steps the farmers were taking to overcome this shortage, it being pointed 

out that this condition may exist for several years to come. Mr. 's 

reply was that the solution, as he saw it, would b^ to plow under, and in future 
years, to plant less. He agreed that farm labor was far less attractive than that 
of other industries, but could mention nothing that the farmers were doing in 
order to make the work more attractive. I believe there is little doubt in the 

minds of all persons who attended this meeting that farm has its 

regular corps of migratory workers that do this type of work, year after year, and 
that these persons are given the cream of the crop, and the additional persons, 
such as we were supplying, would be used to clean up. 

I have personally talked to from 10 to 15 workers who went to the job on 
Thursday. There is no doubt in my mind that these persons were all sincere 
and willing to work, liut the limit of earnings was so small that they were fully 

within their rights in not returning. It was suggested to Mr. that 

some of these persons be scattered among experienced workers where they could 

actually see tlie so-called earnings of others. Mr. • claimed this to be 

impracticable. Such an arrangement would break down the morale of the ex- 
perienced worker rather than build up the morale of the unskilled worker. He 
flatly refused to consider such arrrangeiuent. This was considered by persons 



5792 TRENTON HEARINGS 

in attendance as additional evidence that the cream of the crop was going to a 
certain group, and the additional persons furnished were used to clean up. We 
understand that the supply of persons for this type of work from Camden is now 
exhausted. 

After the meeting a brief inspection was made of some of the fields and several 
members of the New Jersey State Employment Service, who are familiar with 
this type of work, were quite ready to agree with the workers that a fair wage 
would be impossible. 

EMPLOYABLES WILUNG TO WORK 

I believe that this mass referral has indicated a definite willingness on the part 
of employables on the assistance rolls to accept employment. It must be re- 
membered that it was necessary for persons accepting this work to meet a truck 
in downtown Philadelphia at 6 o'clock in the morning. From the average location, 
this would require that a person arise at 4 : 3.0 a. m. After meeting the truck, 
these men were required to ride approximately 2 hours before tliey reached the 
job ; no conveniences in the way of seats were provided. Even under these con- 
ditions, there was not a single complaint registered by the recipients concerning 
transportation facilities or the long number of hours from the time of leaving 
home in the morning until arriving home at night. It is my firm conviction that 
had there been an opportunity to enjoy earnings anywhere approaching those men- 
tioned, that plenty of help would have been available for farm labor. 

The following table will give a brief analysis of recipients' response concerning 
this order : 
Notices sent 2, 273 

1. Interviewed 1, 728 

Accepted 909 

Rejp'cted, refused, or unable to accept for various reasons — 819 

2. Letters returned for better address 54 

3. No response M91 

1 On Friday, .Tune 27, after notices had been mailed, a half holiday was declared in 
memory of Dr. Shaw, State director of health. It is possible that a number of per.sons 
reported on Friday afternoon but were not interviewed, due to office being closed. Further- 
more, due to hot weather, the State employment office was closed at 4 p. m., instead of 
the usual 5 p. m. on .Tune 30, July 1, and July 2, waich, no doubt, accounted for additional 
persons not interviewed. 

TESTIMONY OF POSTELLE A. VAUGHN— Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. Just briefly stress the high points at this time, please. 

Mr. Vaughn, I have already mentioned the fact that farm place- 
ment to us is a new thing. We don't claim to know a lot alwut it, 
because we are just going into it. 

We were brought into it by a letter from Major Lepper, of the 
New Jersey State Employment Office, telling us of the shortage of 
labor on farms which is expected during the year. He first wrote 
to us on the 25th of April. He sent us two orders from farmers 
around Morrisville, who said they needed 750 laborers. 

Heretofore they had recruited the.se laborers in and around Tren- 
ton, but because of the expansion in the defense industries, they said 
they Avould be unable to do that this year and would need some as- 
sistance in finding the workers. 

We immediately sent that order to our branch office close to Mor- 
risville, and asked them to investigate. 

We also offered to recruit labor in Philadelphia for these farmers 
on condition that they would transport them to Morrisville. 

The farmers at that time did not feel that the shortage was going 
to be acute enough, and for that reason they turned down our propo- 
sition. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5793 

Some time later we had another communication from New Jersey, 
telling us of an expected shortage of strawberry pickers. They sent 
over a young man to assist us in recruiting strawberry pickers for 
the State of New Jersey, and we circularized people in "Philadelphia. 
We took their names from our inactive and active files and wrote 
letters to them, inviting them to come in so we could discuss with 
them the matter of working on the farm. 

The man from New Jersey and some of his people were to come 
back at a subsequent date, accompanied by a number of farm- 
ers who were to take these workers from the floor and bring them 
over to New Jersey, where they would stay. On June 2 they made 
their first trip, and I think 6 farmers showed up, and we were able 
to send approximately 50 people. The farmers were to come back 
again on the 6th, bringing with them about 20 other farmers, and 
they would need at least 100 workers. 

We recruited during the intervening time the 100 workers the 
farmers had said they wanted. We had told the men the amount of 
money they could earn, and we even advised them to come in at a 
certain time with their clothing and whatever other facilities they 
needed, and be ready to go. 

FARMERS FAILED TO TAKE WORKERS 

It so happened, however, that after these people came in with 
their bags and suitcases, and so forth, only 2 or 3 farmers showed up. 
One man took 1 person, and another one took 3, which meant we had 
over 70 people sitting around, waiting to be transported to jobs that 
the State employment office had promised them existed. 

Mr. Curtis. How do you account for that? You don't infer that 
anybody willfully wanted to deceive these workers, do you? 

Mr. Vaughn. I don't know^ why they didn't show up. 

Mr. Curtis. It was seasonal work? 

Mr. Vaughn. Seasonal work; yes. Here in New Jersey the State 
employment office had talked to the farmers and had been promised 
by the farmers they would be there at the time to pick up the work- 
ers and bring them to New Jersey. 

INIr. Curtis. How far would they have to travel, approximately? 

Mr. Vaughn. Appi-oximately 40 miles. They weren't to go back 
and forth each day, but they were willing to come to New Jersey 
and stay for the duration of the picking season. 

Mv. Curtis, Have you made any inquiries with reference to crop 
conditions, to learn whether or not any unexpected event had affected 
the crop ? 

Mr. Vaughn. No ; we haven't any information on that. We under- 
stood at the time we were sending the workers that if the farmers 
didn't get them, the crops would be lost. 

Mr. Curtis. I have no reason to defend anyone who might willfully 
deceive people who want jobs. But I believe it was Major Lepper 
who yesterday made reference to the fact that a great many of the 
strawberries burned up and were never harvested this year. Now, 
I don't know whether he was speaking concerning the area in which 
vou had your experience or not. 

Mr. Vaughn. Well, that is probably true. It was very hot about 
that time. That could have happened. 

60396— 41— pt. 14 17 



5794 TUENTOX HEARINGS 

CONFLICTING VERSIONS OF FARM EARNINGS 

Since that time we have been asked by another farmer in New 
Jersey, a very large farmer, to assist him in getting some bean 
pickers. He told us that it was possible for men to earn somewhere 
between $2 and $6 a day at the rate of 20 cents for % bushel basket ; 
that anybody could earn $2 a day, and a good man could earn $1 a 
day, and an exceptionally good man $6. On the basis of that infor- 
mation we went into the matter of recruiting workers, and beginning 
on Thursday, we recruited 100, and about 50 on Friday, and some 
more were supposed to come down today. 

However, our work was a little bit handicapped because we had 
some of the men who returned from the farm, and their story was 
entirely different. There were at least 15 men who came back to the 
office, after having been down to this farm. Their chief complaint 
was against the manner of transportation. They had been trans- 
ported 41 miles in a truck in which they had to stand. Those who 
stood around the edge of the trurk had something to hold on to, 
and it wasn't so bad, but those in the middle had to do a balancing 
act in order to keep from falling down. 

In fact, one of the men said that had it not been for one of the 
young men, who noticed that the coupling of the trailer was about 
to work loose, there might have been a serious accident. He was 
able to attract the attention of the driver, who stopped the truck 
and fixed it. 

The second complaint was about the amount of money that they 
made. Insteacl of $2 to $6, the men to whom I talked yesterday 
earned from 20 cents up to 60 cents. They said that in the first place, 
those persons who were transported had been placed in a field that 
had been thoroughly picked before, and what beans were left were 
very small. One man said it took him 314 hours to pick one basket. 

The little money they did earn they spent, because someone came 
around in the heat of the day selling hot dogs at 10 cents each, and 
soda pop at 10 cents a bottle. That meant that at the end of the day, 
instead of having actually earned money, some came up with a loss. 
One man borrowed a dollar in order to get to the place of transporta- 
tion and to buy his lunch during the day. He had earned 80 cents 
that day. 

You can imagine the success we might have had trying to sell these 
other people in the office the idea of coming to New Jersey when we 
had 15 people in the office at the time telling of such experiences. 

CLAIM OTHERS EARNED $3 DAY 

Mr. Curtis. How many of that crowd, altogether, had you sent over? 

Mr. Vaughn. On that particular trip there were 77. 

Mr. Curtis. Have you ever talked to the other 62 ? 

Mr. Vaughn. No ; we only talked to those who came back in volun- 
tarily. 

Mr. Curtis. How long have the other 62 been over there ? 

Mr. Vaughn. We sent the first group on Thursday of this week. 

Mr. Curtis. Have you communicated with the New Jersey office? 

Mr. Vaughn. Yes, sir ; we called Major Lepper, and he in turn called 
the farmer, and the farmer said, according to their records, that the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5795 

men had earned on an average $3 that day. It may have been that this 
particuhir gronp which came back to us had been placed in a field that 
had been thoroughly picked before, and for that reason had been unable 
to earn more money. 

Mr. Curtis. You don't know whether the 62 found it satisfactory 
or not? 

Mr. Vaughn. No ; we don't know. I do know, however, that yester- 
day a reporter from one of the newspapers came to our office, as they 
were expecting a picket line out there because of the large number of 
these people who had come back from New Jersey and were protesting 
against being sent over to New- Jersey on a farm when the wages were 
about 40 cents a day. It so happened that the office closed at noon 
yesterday, and the picket line was supposed to form around noon, so I 
don't know whether it actually formed or not. 

TO CHECK UP ON RESPONSIBILITY OF FARMER 

The Chairman. Where does the actual blame lie for sending those 
men over there under those circumstances? 

Mr. Vaughn. You see, when an employer gives us an order we accept 
it at its face value. We accept it as a bona tide order, and when they 
say a man can earn from $2 to $(> a day we assume that that is true. We 
told that story to the men — that we expected them to earn at least $2, 
and that if they worked hard we expected them to earn more than 
that. 

I don't know who is to blame for it. I don't know whether the story 
was willfully told to us or not. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think Major Lepper was inaccurate in his state- 
ment that the average picker earned $3 that day? 

Mr. Vaughn. I wouldn't say that, but Major Lepf)er got his informa- 
tion from the farmer himself. I wouldn't say Major Lepper was in- 
accurate. It may be possible by those who were put in a good field. 

Mr. Curtis. Does your office expect to drop in on the farmer and find 
out what the situation actually is? 

Mr. Vaughn. Yes, sir ; I plan to make a trip myself next week so I 
can get some first-hand information as to living facilities and the 
crops and the amount of money a man can actually earn. I would like 
to talk to the men themselves, in the field, and get their story. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you expect to inspect the books of the farmer ? 

Mr. Vaughn. We could hardly do that . If we were in Pennsylvania 
we probably could, because we have a right to go into and look at the 
wages paid to the workers ; but coming into New Jersej^ we couldn't 
do it. 

We may be able to get the New Jersey Employment Service to do it 
for us. 

Mr. Curtis. Well, it seems to me that in fairness to the workers and 
the farmers both, that should be done. 

Mr. Vaughn. We have definitely decided to investigate before send- 
ing this large group of woikers over there. We don't think it is fair 
to the workers to have them come over on our story that they can 
make a living wage, and then come back at the end of the day with 
their efforts absolutely wasted. 

Mr. Curtis. Where do you get all these workers you send over there? 



5796 TRENTON HEARINGS 

WORKERS FROM PUBLIC-ASSISTANCE ROLLS 

Mr. Vaughn. At various places. The group we sent over this week 
was made up of a large number of families registered with the depart- 
ment of public assistance. They have decided in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania to eliminate from the relief rolls everyone between 20 and 40. 
They are to go off on July 16. 

They made the announcement 1 week before we got the order from 
New Jersey that all these bean pickers were needed. We felt that these 
men, who were getting from $2.40 to $4.80 a week, if they had an oppor- 
tunity to earn from $2 to $6 a day, would gladly accept it. So, we went 
out to these people. We sent letters to them, and invited them into the 
office and explained this opportunity. 

I think at least 66% percent of the men were willing to come over 
and give it a trial. 

Mr. Curtis. Had they had any farm experience ? 

Mr. Vaughn. Some had and some hadn't. 

Mr. Curtis. How about the 15 who came back ? 

Mr. Vaughn. I would say for the most part they had not had experi- 
ence. 

Mr. Curtis. What had they been doing? 

Mr. Vaughn. Various things. For the past 5 or 6 years they have 
probably been doing nothing. 

Mr. Curtis. Have people of that same type been going over and 
getting New Jersey farm work in years gone by ? 

Mr. Vaughn. No. These people, for the most part, had never been 
in New Jersey. 

Mr. Curtis. You were tapping a new source ? 

Mr. Vaughn. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. How does it happen that farmers haven't used your 
placement service in the years gone by ? 

farmers have used labor contractors 

Mr, Vaughn. They have always dealt with labor contractors, and 
in the past, for the most part, they have used families. 

Of course we don't deal with people as families, but as individuals. 
They have used, for the most part, I think, Italian families, and 
then there has been a large group of Negroes who w^ere transported 
up from Virginia and North Carolina into the State. 

They may not, for that matter, have known much about the service. 
I was surprised when I attended a conference not long agO' and the 
fanners actually didn't know the Employment Service would help 
them. 

Mr. Curtis. Have you ever had any farm experience ? 

Mr. Vaughn. No ; t have worked in a garden, but I never have had 
any farm experience. 

Mr. Curtis. Farming presents some problems that other employ- 
ment does not; isn't that true? 

Mr. Vaughn. Yes; it does. There are several reasons for that. 
If we get an order from an industrial plant, we know what we are 
offering the men. They tell us that they will pay a man 35 cents an 
hour, or 80 cents an hour, and that he can earn a definite amount 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5797 

of money each week. He also doesn't have to leave his home. He 
probably gets up in the morning and catches a trolley and goes to 
work and comes back at night. 

Now, with these farmers, in the first place most of them work on 
a piece-work basis. If it rains, the man is out of luck. If he doesn't 
produce the amount of work necessary to earn a good living, of course 
he doesn't earn it. 

In the first place they don't give us enough time to fill the orders. 

Mr. Curtis. Can the farmer gage the time exactly when beans or 
berries will be ripe ? 

Mr. Vaughn. They may not be able to gage it exactly, but it 
seems to me that there is an approximate date when the berries and 
beans are ready to be harvested. Hence they could tell us within a 
period of 2 weeks. 

If we were told, for example, their needs on the 25th of July — that 
between the 25th day of July and the 8th of August a certain number of 
workers would be needed — we will proceed to plan for supplying those 
workers. The farmers must not do as a man did the other day who 
called me at 11 o'clock and said that at 2 o'clock he would be in our 
office and would want 15 cherry pickers. That was absolutely im- 
possible. 

It happened, though, that with a little scouring around and scout- 
ing around after office hours, we were able to give them to him the 
next day. 

Mr, Curtis. Do you think the farmer should be compelled to pay 
for waiting time if he can't judge exactly when these people are 
going to commence work? 

Mr. Vaughn. No; I don't think that. 

Mr. Curtis. He is not able to do tliat, is he ? 

Mr. Vaughn. No ; he couldn't do that. 

Mr. Curtis. We had some testimony yesterday in reference to 
strawberry picking. It developed that it cost $1.20 to pick a crate 
of strawberries, and the cost of the crate was 51 cents, and the farmer 
sold the berries for $2. That creates a unique problem, because the 
farmer is helpless to do anything about it and therefore he can do 
nothing to increase his income. He can't pay additional wages or 
pay waiting time while waiting for the crops to mature or ripen. 

Mr. Vaughn. No; he can't do that. You see, a great many of these 
people are already out of work, so they really haven't lost anything 
while they are waiting to go to a farm. It is just a matter of getting 
them together and having them read}^ at the time they are needed. 
If the farmers plan their requirements intelligently, then I think 
they would be much better off. 

Mr. Curtis. "Well, a labor shortage is a new experience for the 
farmers, isn't it ? 

Mr. Vaughn. Yes, sir ; I am afraid it is. They have had a rather 
full market in the last eight or ten years. They could pick up what 
they wanted when they wanted it. 

400 workers placed on farms this summer 

Mr. Curtis. About how many workers have you placed on the 
New Jersey farms this summer? 



5798 TRENTON HEAIilNGS 

Mr. Vaughn. Including the ones we are placing this week, I would 
say approximately 400. 

Mr. Curtis. Did any come back, other than these 15 you men- 
tioned ? 

Mr. Vaughx. Yes; it so happened that most of the 400 have been 
placed in the past week. Of the small number we placed before, I 
have had at least one complaint on housing. 

This man had been taken down to pick strawberries and he came 
back and said he was housed in a barn and he was given just a pile 
of straw on which to sleep. The barn was very airy and it hap- 
pened to rain and the water blew through the cracks in the barn. 

There were three others who came back — three out of four we sent 
to a farmer — and they complained in the first place against the living 
facilities and in the second place because they were not able to earn 
very much money. 

Mr. Curtis. About how many could you have placed, had the 
demand been made? 

Mr. Vaughn. I suppose we could have furnished three or four 
thousand. Of course there are some conditions to that. I mean the 
labor supply would have been there, but there were several things 
the farmers would have had to have done. One of them was to pay 
them something like a liveable wage, and if they were to live on the 
farm they would have had to furnish them at least clean and com- 
fortable quarters — not luxurious quarters, they don't expect that — 
but at least a cot, rather than a bundle of straw on which to sleep. 

They would also have to provide some sort of cooking facilities, 
and not, as one man told me, a cook stove out of doors. I don't 
know how they cooked if it happened to rain. But they must give 
them something that is decent to live in. If they are going to trans- 
port them back and forth each da}^ they have got to furnish them at 
least comfortable facilities. You can't expect a man to ride 82 
miles a day standing up and be able to produce a full day's work the 
next day. He would be worn out before he got to the farm, riding 
on the truck. 

Another thing is they must give us time. We must send letters 
out to these people, or we have to go out and recruit them in other 
ways. We just can't pick them up oil the floor. We can't furnish a 
man 300 men tomorrow. We may be able to furnish him 300 men 
next week, but we must be given the time in which to do our own 
planning, and we must be perfectly sure that the story which the 
farmer gives us and which we relate to the workers is a true story. 

Mr. Curtis. Of course, that goes for everybody's story, doesn't it? 

Mr. Vaughn. Yes ; I am sure of that. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arnold. 

ABILITY TO WORK QUESTIONED 

Mr. Arnold. How can a farmer give you a true story? You say 
these men who came back had been on relief maybe 5 or 6 years, and 
hadn't worked, and of course they went out there to do pretty diffi- 
cult work, bending over, picking beans. This farmer told you they 
could earn from $2 to $6 a day, but maybe he didn't realize he was 
getting men who had not been accustomed to working. 



NATIONAL DEB^ENSE MIGRATION 5799 

Mr. Vaughn. But as we understood it, rather poor workers could 
earn $2 a day, and good workers could earn from $4 to $6. I don't 
see where we would have had so much complaint had these men been 
given an opportunity to earn more money. 

Now, I am inclined to believe the story that these men told me 
because it came from so many different sources. 

Mr. Arnold. Maybe some of these men didn't know what beans 
looked like. 

Mr. Vaughn. I doubt that; they buy them in the market, you 
know. But to jDut a man in a field that has been picked over isn't 
very conducive to have him stay down there, especially when it 
happens the first day he goes there. 

The Chairman. Do you know of any other instance, Mr. Vaughn, 
where workers were sent into fields that had already been picked ? 

Mr. Vaughn. No, sir ; that is our first experience with that. That 
is our first large experience in farm placement at all. 

The Chairman. What is the average size of these farms? 

Mr. Vaughn. This particular farm is 10,000 acres. They employ 
at the peak season about 2,000 workers. 

The Chairman. And what housing facilities are there for these 
workers ? 

Mr. Vaughn. I don't know. This particular group of workers 
were to be transported to and from Philadelphia each day. I think 
they do have some housing facilities. Next week I intend to see 
what they are. 

can anticipate need for housing 

The Chairman. It seems to me that these farmers who employ sea- 
sonal workers can anticipate each year that they will need some reason- 
able housing facilities. 

Mr. Vaughn. That seems to me especially true of a farm where they 
have anywhere from 500 to 10,000 acres, and where tliey know they 
are going to need anywhere from 50 to 2,000 workers. They are not 
farmers who began work this spring ; they are men who have been in 
business for a long time. 

The Chairman. Do you know anything about the situation involv- 
ing the oyster shuckers ? 

Mr. Vaughn. No ; I don't know anything about that. 

The Chairman. I think you might well look into that situation. 

Mr. Vaughn. And we are going to do that. 

The Chairman. These are times when we want to keep up our 
national morale. We just can't afford to fool people. Those housing 
conditions are deplorable, no question about that. 

introduction of exhibits 

Mr. Abbott. Mr. Chairman, I have material which has been submit- 
ted to the committee by various parties. One file contains statements 
and material by expert witnesses, which I would like to submit for the 
record. 

(The statements and material referred to above appear in this volume 
in the order of testimony of the respective witnesses.) 



5800 TRENTON HEARINGS 

In addition, Mr. Chairman, I have a file of material from sources not 
represented in the testimony which I should like to submit for the 
record. 

As exhibit 1, I submit a report by Mr. John L. Irwin, executive 
director of the Trenton Community Chest, concerning the effect of the 
national-defense program on Trenton community facilities. 

(The letter referred to above is as follows :) 

Exhibit 1. — Effect of Defense Program on Trenton Community Faoxities 
report by john l. irwin, executive director, trenton community chest 

June 26, 1941. 

The Family Service Association, through its travelers' aid division, works 
with moving people and its experience shows that the national-defense pro- 
gram has increased and magnified the problems of people in transit. This is 
especially true of Trenton, by reason of the fact that it is an industrial city 
and is located near a fort area. 

Migration has its positive side in that it brings to a community a number 
of people who are adequate in every respect and are able to make a valuable 
contribution in service and leadership to the life of the community. On the 
negative side, there may be enumerated the following problems resulting from 
defense migration : 

(1) Workmen stranded because of lack of funds until first pay is received, 
or because they have not understood terms of contract before coming to the 
community. 

(2) Individuals and families find difficulty in securing adequate housing. 
This affects residents and nonresidents alike. 

(3) Women and their children come to Trenton to be near their husbands 
at Fort Dix and are not economically secure. 

(4) Children of families on the move are often malnourished because of 
improper diet. Also, they often present school problems. 

(5) Our recreational facilities are taxed to the limit. When used by 
transients, it often means that regular residents are barred because of inade- 
quate facilities. 

(6) Shortage of houses has a tendency to increase rents which, in turn, 
increases the budgetary needs of people known to social agencies as well as 
those who are not known to social agencies. 

(7) hysical health problems are exaggerated because the migrant resorts 
to medical treatment only as a last resort. Even then health agencies often 
hesitate to assume responsibility for nonresidents. 

(8) Young and old are lured to an industrial center to seek woi'k or to 
affiliate themselves with defense programs, without sufiicient money to cai'ry 
them until permanent connections are made. 

ANALYSIS of PROBLEMS 

In analyzing the above problems, it is the finding of the Family Service 
Association that — 

(1) Tlie community is reluctant to assume responsibility for those who do 
not belong. 

(2) The lack of uniformity of State laws and municipal procedures in public 
and private agencies has a tendency to create problems of assistance. In 
some cases the law is ill-adapted to the existing economy and in other cases, 
the interpretation of the law may vary between States and municipalities. 

(3) Failure of individuals to orient themselves properly to new environ- 
ments. 

(4) Health organizations, because of limited funds, are hesitant abovit ac- 
cepting nonresidents as their responsibility. 

The organization makes these suggestions for a well-rounded program related 
to health, welfare, and recreational aspects of the defense program: 

(1) Migration and transiency must be recognized as a permanent character- 
istic of our society and discriminations must be eliminated. 

(2) Cooperation and coordination of Federal, State, and local agency services 
should be created to direct and influence migration. 

(3) Uniformity in State settlement laws and their interpretation should be 
a part of the cooperative effort. (New Jersey has statutes stating that a 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5801 

person must reside in the State for 5 years to gain residence, but anottier law 
directs welfare agencies to assist needy persons pending their removal to the 
State of their residence.) 

(4) There should be a means of providing adequate relief for migrants. 

(5) There should be available facts concerning the number of people moving 
throughout the country. From these facts there may develop a future construc- 
tive action relating to the problem of migration. 

JEWISH FAMILY WEUAKE BUREAU 

The Jewish Family Welfare Bureau has this to say in regard to migration : 

"Because of the influx of people our own clients are having a great deal of 
difficulty, not only in finding suitable quarters but also in finding flats within 
a price range that may be paid by either a family or a social agency. 

"Many of the clients have had to double up with other families or with 
relatives because they have been unable to pay the increased rentals and in a 
number of instances, they have had to take in roomers in quarters which are 
already crowded in order that they may meet the increased cost of housing. 
In addition to this, we find that the increase in food prices is a problem which 
can only be met by increased relief standards. Our clients are unable to cover 
all their minimum needs because of the increase in prices of commodities. This 
will, of course, definitely affect them physically as well as mentally. We have 
also had several requests from soldiers from Fort Dix to help them secure 
employment for members of their families who wish to reside in Trenton- in 
order to be near the fort. 

"All this means that, as a social agency, we have had to increase our range 
of services as well as extend our responsibility." 

MOUNT CAEMEL GUILD 

"We find there is a need for small homes for families of four or less who 
are in the low- wage bracket." 

YOUNG women's CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 

"During the construction of Fort Dix, there was an acute housing problem, 
the demand being mostly for light-housekeeping rooms. The residence of the 
Young Women's Christian Association was full and we could only help them 
to find cheaper rooms for light housekeeping. 

"Cases of problems of stranded girls and women developing from our prox- 
imity to Fort Dix have increased. Some of these have been sent to us by 
other agencies who appealed to us to give emergency housing. While there 
has been no apparent increased demands for recreation resulting from migration, 
there has been an increased demand from girls working on night shifts in 
several plants. There has been a great increase in boy and girl recreation 
for the teen age. Consequently it has been necessary for our organization to 
arrange for more dances, carnivals, parties, and other activities than ever 
before." 

RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS 

Submitted herewith are two statements from prominent religious leaders in 
Ti-enton. 

First leader. — "I think that in setting forth a measurement of the problems 
caused by the dislocation of population, I would say that, first, the general 
morale of the community is affected by the type of person that is a migrant. 

"To the person belonging to the community, it might cause him to become 
neglectful when he finds that these migrants are permitted to come into the 
city and be taken care of, the psychological effect being a serious problem. 

"Secondly, as far as housing is concerned, I understand there is a shortage 
of houses here in Trenton, that is, houses of small rental and I should think 
it would increase, very definitely, the problem, even if buildings were put up 
for immediate housing problems. After the national-defense problem is met, 
we may have areas that may develop into slum areas. 

"Regarding the increase of various kinds of people in the community, it 
would bring with it a health problem. Already, the clinics in the city are 
overworked by our citizens who are unable to pay for their medical attention. 
Our nurses work double time. 

''As to family care, the dislocation of populations in connection with national 
defense or otherwise, is a very serious one. In many cases, the acquisition of 



5802 TRENTON HEARINGS 

a family has a tendency to lower the moral, physical and spiritual qualities of 
permanent families." 

Second leader. — "In our particular congregation there has been no perceptible 
increase of population due to defense industry. However, we have three promi- 
nent families, all of whom are executives, who have very suddenly been moved 
away, greatly disrupting their homes and disturbing their plans. 

"Two of these families were active in this church and they had built per- 
manent roots in this community. Their removal created new problems for the 
children. 

"In the case of another family, the father was just made an elder in our 
church. Their three boys are in our Sunday School and Boy Scouts. 

"Their mother is active in welfare work. Due to the increase of business 
as a result of war industries, this family, after only 4 years in Trenton, is 
being moved to another locality. The parents are very much concerned al)out 
the new problems this removal has created in the education of their boys. 

"My feeling in regard to this whole matter is that it is hard on the morale 
and especially hard on the character development of children." 



Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 2, I offer a letter from Mr. A. T. Warner, 
general manager in charge of traffic, of Pnblic Service Coordinated 
Transport, concerning increased use of their services since the begin- 
ning of the national-defense program. 

(The letter referred to above is as follows:) 

Exhibit 2 

PuBUc Service Coordinated Transpokt, 

Neicark, N. J., June 2^, 19^1. 
Mr. John W. Abbott, 

Chief Field Investigator, 

House Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, 

Trenton, N. J. 
Deab Mr. Abbott: Further answering the questions raised in your letter of 
May 21, our May 1941 figures are now available. 

Question No. 1 : "The increase in passenger traffic load, if any, between May 
1940 and May 1941." 

Answer: Passengers carried during May 1P41, 38,127,685; passengers carried 
in May 1940, 35,404,294 ; increase, 2,723,391, or 7.7 percent. 

Question No. 2: "How your service acted to meet the Increased load, if such 
there was." 

Answer : In 1940 we operated a maximum of 2,717 vehicles ; in 1941 we operated 
a maximum of 2,847 vehicles. 

In May 1940 we operated 8,377,790 miles ; in May 1941 we operated 8,703,991 
miles. 

The increase in vehicles, therefore, was 130 in 1941 over 1940, and the increase 
in miles was 326,201 for the same period. 

These figures are for the entire public-service system, including the interstate 
operations between north Jersey and New Yoi'k City and between south Jersey 
and Philadelphia, as well as all the local lines operating purely intrastate within 
New Jersey and serving 371 municipalities. 

I attach two maps showing our system, one for northern New Jersey and one 
for southern New Jersey. 
Yours very truly, 

A. T. Warner, 
General Manager in Charge of Traffic. 

(The maps referred to above are held in committee files.) 



Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 3, I offer a report by Thelma McKelvey, 
special assistant. Labor Supply and Training Division of the Office of 
Production Management, with attached tabulations showing to'tal and 
current enrollments in defense-training courses in Connecticut and 
New Jersey. 

(The letter and enclosure referred to above are as follows:) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5803 

Exhibit 3. — Eneolxments in Defense Training Courses 

REPORT BY THELMA M'KELVEY, SPECIAL ASSISTANT, LABOR SUPPLY AND TRAINING DIVI- 
sion, office of production management, washington, d. c. 

June 18, 1941. 
In accordance with your request, there are attached hereto tabulations of the 
total and current enrollments as of March 31 in defense-training courses for the 
States of Connecticut and New Jersey. The tabulations are as follows : 

1. A preemployment-refresher summary for Connecticut. 

2. A preemployment-refresher summary for New Jersey. 

3. A supplementary summary for Connecticut. 

4. A supplementary summary for New Jersey. 

5. An engineering training summary for both Connecticut and New Jersey. 
For your information, preemployment-refresher courses are for unemployed 

persons from Work Projects Administration rolls and referred from the registers 
of the State employment services, and are for the purpose of preparing these indi- 
viduals for employment in defense occupations. Supplementary courses are inten- 
sive training courses for employed workers designed to supplement their on-the-job 
experience in order to prepare them for up-grading in the plant, and the assump- 
tions of additional responsibilities. Defense engineering courses are given by 
engineering schools whose properties are tax-exempt and which have been approved 
by the United States Office of Education as eligible for providing intensive courses 
of college grade to prepare individuals for defense employment, or to supplement 
their plant experience. 

The figures with reference to ijlacements in private employment do not reveal 
the total placements which have resulted from the defense preemployment-re- 
fresher training. An undetermined number of the drop-outs have undoubtedly 
received employment but have not reported back to either the vocational schools 
in which they were enrolled or to the local public employment service office. Un- 
doubtedly, the placement figures are higher than reported. 

The tables show total enrollment since the beginning of the defense-training 
program on July 1 through March 31, 1941. The current enrollment as of March 
31 is given for each type of training, the known placements in private industry, 
and the drop-outs from the course which occur for a variety of reasons. Tables 
are also broken down by sex and show the number of Negroes which have been 
enrolled, by towns. 

These tables were prepared by the United States OflSice of Education, Federal 
Security Agency. 

Summary of enrollment data in engineering defense training courses, hy institu- 
tions, in Connecticut and New Jersey, as of Apr. SO, 1941 



state and institution 



Total 
enroll- 
ment 



Ending 
net 



Total 
enroll- 
ment 



Ending 



Male, colored 



Total 
enroll- 
ment 



Ending 
net 



Female, white 



Total 
enroll- 
ment 



Ending 
net 



Connecticut, total 

University of Connecticut.-. 
Yale University 

New Jersey, total 

Newark College of Engineer- 
ing 

Princeton University 

Rutgers University. 

Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology 



2,604 



1,454 
2,248 



1,235 
1,378 



1,451 
2,242 



1.232 
1.372 



5804 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



1 




o 




1 > <CO 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 




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If 


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ill 


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i i'^ ; i ; i i°° ! 




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ooo 1 


i i° i i i i i'^'^ i 




Is 


to 


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; ;0 i 1 1 1 |oo 1 


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s 

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00 


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1 1 
1 


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Essex 

Greenwich 

Hartford 

Manchester 

Meriden 

Middletown 

New Britain 

New Haven 

New London 

Norwich 

PnfnnTTi 


Eockville— 

Stamford 

Thompsonville 

Torrinston 

Watertown 

Waterbury 

Wlllimantic... _. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5805 



f 
s 




' 










?: 








^ 
















Is 


2 








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11 


1 








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1 


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is 




































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■36 
^1 




































2 


3 

9 

& 

a 


S 


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5 
e 


3 
1 


g 


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go 
h2 


5 

to 






1 

i 
.a 

c 


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t 
ti 


1 
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r 
1 




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2 


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c 


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1 


1 





5806 



TRENTON HEARINGS 



i 




^ 






















t^ 
















Si 




if 


S 






















» 














s 




s 






















^ 














2 


111 


s 






















g 














5 


1 
1 


If 


. 


oo 


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o 






Ea 


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oo 


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11 


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-HO 


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o 


















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111 


^ 


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M. 


















^ 










1^ 

TO 


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IS 
5 B 


TO 


"S^IS^SS-^glJSSS^ISSSS 




li 


? 


^S"§°SS*°^i^^2"^°° 




ill 










If 




::;S = gg§|S22gS5e||8g!^gS 


Ea 


1 


"«°i^8^i"^S"*i^"»^^ 


.a« 


! 


J5K2g§g2S°5|^S«S^gg2 


111 


s 

2 


^i"i2iii°ii§isliii2 




1 


"3 
1 


i 
'C 




3P 




n 

5C 


1 j: 

P 


3 C 

H 


i 




;i 

jp 

3 

3:^ 


3 


3? 


i 


H 


i 


^ 

(S 


5 ^ 




1 





NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5807 



s 

i 


Drop- 
outs 

1 






























Hi 






';« 1 










. i : 
p.i2 i ; 
Ss J ; 

1 ; 
















1 


1' 1 
















11 M 
















1 

1 


" 1 2 


i-li§siiS" 


« 1 


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Total en- 
rollment 

11, 003 


731 

41 

1,772 

1,163 

753 

624 
3,222 

947 
1. 550 

200 


3 
^ 


Q 1 


i-lii-si5» 


1 

W 1 


i^i2iS|o§° 


Total en- 
rollment 

11,015 


731 

41 

1,772 

1,175 

753 

624 
3,222 

947 
1,550 

200 




Training center 
Total 


1 




2^ 

iJ 

1.2 

5k 






3 
1^ 





5808 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 4 I offer information on mis^ration of de- 
fense workers submitted by the Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. 
(The material referred to above is as follows :) 

Exhibit 4. — Repobt by Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. 

Kearny, N. J.> June 12, 1941. 
1. Origin of labor force, check of applications: Based on May 1941, applica- 
tions were received as follows : 
Intrastate : 

Number 

Northern New Jersey ^ 16,887 

Central and southern New Jersey 610 

17, 497 

Interstate : 

New York — 

New York City 2,385 

Outside New York City 4,284 

Total 6,669 

Pennsy'.vania 256 

Connecticut 132 

Massachusetts 123 

Maryland 71 

Virginia 63 

Ohio 58 

Rhode Island 31 

Various 245 

Total 7,648 

Grand total 25, 145 

2. Total working force in 1939, present working force, and anticipated expan- 
sion covering whatever period is called for in the company's present plans in 
this connection. 

Total working force, 1939 : 

Minimum 5,223 

Maximum 7,173 

Average 6, 197 

Present force, June 1, 1941 15,082 

Anticipated working force, first quarter 1942 20,000 

3. Type of training program for new employees, any agreements with respect 
to competition for labor with other concerns: 

(a) We have two types of training pi'ograms, as follows: 

1. The recognized apprentice training plan wherein the young employee serves 
a stipulated period of time. 

2. Training on the .lob wherein the unskilled employee is instructed in methods 
of performing the job. 

(&) This company has no agreement with other concerns with respect to 
competifon for labor. We do not solicit employees from concerns now engaged 
on national-defense work. 

4. Policy on employment specifications, age, nationality, race, etc. — Employees 
are selected on the basis of their ability to perform the tasks assigned to them 
witliont regard to their nationality, race, or religion, and provided they are 
not over f!5 years of age. 

5. Any agreement with unions : This company has in effect an agreement with 
Local 16, Industrial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers of America 
(C. I. O.). 

6. Any comments with respect to present efforts on the part of the Office of 
Production Management to stabilize the Atlantic coast shipbuilding industry with 
regard to wages, hours, and working conditions. No comments. 

7. Company's policy with regard to deferments requested under the Selective 
Service Act : The policy of the company has been only to request deferments 
for those employees whom it considers necessary and difficult to replace. 



NATIONAL DEi^ENSE MIGRATION 5809 

Mr- Abbott. I offer as exhibit 5 a report on defense problems in the 
city of Paterson, by Dr. Frederick P. Lee, health officer. 
(The report referred to above is as follows :) 

Exhibit 5. — Defense Problems in Paterson, N. J. 

report by dr. frederick p. lee, health officer, city of paterson, n.j. 

June 6, 1941. 

The Wright Aeronautical Corporation has been the largest source of national 
defense migration in the city of Paterson. Its help increased from 3,500 in 1939 
to 18,C0O as of tlie present. Tlie methods at hand to meet these increases from a 
public health standpoint are as follows : 

Tliere are three hospitals in tlie city of Paterson aggregating 600 beds. These 
hospitals for the most part treat acute medical and surgical cases. There is also 
a city hospital of 100 beds given over to the treatment of contagious and infectious 
diseases. 

The health department functions under a board of seven members appointed 
by the mayor and is made up of the following divisions : Administrative, sanitary, 
food and drug, plumbing, communicable diseases, public-health nursing (bedside), 
child welfare, venereal disease control, tuberculosis control, immunization clinics, 
vita] statistics, laboratory. 

There are 00 employees with a chief at the head of each division. There are 
seven child-welfare stations situated throughout the city which supervise the 
health of the new-born child through 5 years of age. We also maintain a tubercu- 
losis clinic with three sessions a week and a venereal-disease clinic with three 
sessions a week, including one night session. 

In the venereal disease clinic we have s'x attending physicians, a social worker 
and two nurses. All new cases of veneral disease are investigated and put 
under supervision. Our tuberculosis control is carried out by wholesale fluoro- 
scopic examinations of apparently well persons. The known cases and all con- 
tacts are also under our supervision. 

The vice problem is handled in the following manner: 

All prostitutes or lewd persons arrested are subject to a physical examination 
by a physician of the board of health before being admitted to bail. If these 
persons are infected, they are held for immediate trial. The results of the 
physician's examinations are presented in court and the presiding judge commits 
the infected person to a reformatory for 1 year where they may receive pi'oper 
treatment. There is very good cooperation between the board of health, police, 
and the prosecutor's office. 

Following are the vital statistics for the year 1940: 

The annual birth rate was 22.7. 

The annual death rate was 10. 

Maternal mortality was 1.6. 

Infant mortality rate 80 per 1.000 living births. 

There were no deaths during the year 1940 from typhoid fever or diphtheria and 
the tuberculosis death rate was 36 per 100,000. 

Incidentally, through our board of recreation, the families and especially 
the wives of these men coming to Paterson, have met through social gatherings. 
There has also been bowling, soft ball, and basketball leagues developed for 
the pleasure and enjoyment of these men workers. 

It is my belief with the present set-up, the local board of health can handle any 
emergency which may develop in Paterson of a public health nature. 



Mr. Abbott. I submit as exhibit 6 a letter from Mr. Ernest D. 
Easton, executive secretary. New Jersey Tuberculosis League, Inc. 
(The letter referred to above is as follows :) 

Exhibit 6 

New Jersey Tuberculosis League, Inc., 

Newark, N. J., Jwie 10, IdU. 
Mr. John W. Abbott, 

Chief Field Investigator, National Defense Mifjration, 

Post Office, Room R-2, Trenton, N. J. 
Dear Mr. Abbott: In reply to your letter of June 2, may I say that a recent 
canvass of our 22 local associations would seem to indicate that no very serious 

60396— 41— pt. 14 18 



5810 TRENTON HEARINGS 

complications have arisen on account of defense activities. In a few places 
there has been some housing shortage but the use of the automobile in most 
instances has adjusted this. In several places where rents have shown a 10 
to 20 percent increase a fair rental committee is on the job to prevent too much 
skyrocketing of rents. An effort to get fair play is meeting with results. 
I am sorry I cannot give you a more complete report. 
Very truly yours, 

Eknest D. Easton, 
Executive Secretary. 



Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 7 I offer a report submitted by Mr. Harry 
I. Luftman, secretary of the New Jersey Defense Council. 
(The report referred to above is as follows:) 

Exhibit 7. — Repoet of New Jersey Defensje Council, Newark, N. J. 
by harby i. luftman, secretary 

June 16, 1941. 

Figures or statistics tliat would indicate the net migration into areas of the 
State of New Jersey where defense contracts have been let ai-e not po.ssessed by 
us. We have learned, however, through our field Investigations and contacts with 
employers of defense workers, that there has been some migi-ation of heads of 
families who return to their home and families over week ends or holidays. 

Also, we have learned that many employed in defense industries commute daily, 
mostly by auto, from distances within the boundaries of adjoining States. 

There has been some complaint of long auto drives and traffic jams, causing 
anxiety of getting to work on time, which in turn creates nervousness in the worker, 
and increases hazards in employment and slackening of production. 

Industrial plants moving to the seaboard from the Middle West will each present 
its own migration problem. 

It is recommended that when considering the construction of homes for defense 
workers that every effort be made in the planning to be sure that the buildings 
be for permanent use. 

It is further recommended that the construction be in areas where the houses 
can be used in the slum-clearance or low-rent-housing program after the emer- 
gency. If not, these houses be constructed in separated areas where they can 
create their own community. 

Workers flock to the larger cities. Accordingly, it is deemed that rehabilitation 
and reraodernization of the better class of dwellings of oiir cities is essential, and 
that ways and means of financing such rehabilitation and remodernization is 
recommended for congressional study and action. 

We believe that housing for defense should be rental units, since uncertainty 
of the duration of the emergency precludes private capital from building for 
rental. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 8, I offer a report on the Clark Town.ship 
Federal Housing project by Mr. A. L. Johnson, superintendent of 
schools of Union County, N. J. 

Exhibit S.^Report on Clark Township Fedeiral Housing Project 
by a- l. johnson, superintendent of schools, union county, n. j. 

Clark Township is a small rural community with a population according to the 
census of 1940 of 2,081. 

The inhabitants consist chiefly of industrial workers and others employed in the 
trades. 

The character of the community is gradually changing due to several real-estate 
developments which have brought into the community a different element consist- 
ing of ofiice workers, engineers, chemists, and others of similar occupation. 

Nearly all of the residents of Clark either own their own homes or are in the 
process of buying them. The average wage earned by citizens of Clark is $30 
per week. 

PRESENT SCHOOL FACILITIES 

The children of school age in the township receive their instruction in a 
centrally located school consisting of two buildings adjacent to each other. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE .AIUiKATION 5811 

The present enrollment is 294 with a possible accommodation for 20 more pupils. 
Should the school enrollment substantially increase, it would necessitate the 
erection of a new building. 

In addition to the elementary school, the district has entered into a combination 
with five other districts for the education of their high-school students and main- 
tain a regional high school located in Springfield. 

The regional high school has a future capacity for only a normal increase in 
school population. 

LOCATION 

The location for the Federal Housing project is immediately adjacent to one 
of the units of the Union County park system and is a particularly desirable 
location for one-family dwelling houses of a desirable type. Such a development 
which is altogether probable in the near future would aid materially in solving 
the economic problems of the community. The present project as planned would 
be tax-exempt with no definite arrangement made up to the present time for 
adequate reimbursement in lieu of taxes. 

It is reported that the occupants of the proposed housing project will be workers 
employed in the Kearny Shipyards which are 17 miles away, requiring the use of 
automobiles and busses over a busy transportation highway. This will be at an 
hour of the day when the roads are congested and will not only delay but greatly 
increase the hazard of transportation. 

THE HOUSING PROJECT 

It is proposed to build suflScieut housing for 700 families on 100 acres of land. 
If this plan is carried out, many of the houses will of necessity be of the barrack 
type inasmuch as the limited acreage will no.t permit the erection of single houses 
of the cottage type of construction. 

If the project is to be a duplication of the Audubon plan, it will not be a 
satisfactory addition to any community. Public sentiment is antagonistic for 
the following reasons : 

1. The citizens and taxpayers had no knowledge of the implications of the 
project until all arrangements had been practically completed. 

2. I have attended three conferences with a Federal representative present. 
At everyone of these meetings no definite promise of reimbursement was 
indicated. It was presumed the Federal Government would make a suitable 
return to the community in lieu of taxes. These general statements, however, 
were founded entirely upon presumption. It is perfectly natural for intelli- 
gent citizens who listened to all of the discussions to arrive at the decision 
that there was no definitenes^s in any of these proposals, and hence were left 
in doubt as to the sincerity of the statements. 

3. In answer to the question. "What reimbursement, if any, will be made 
by the Federal Government V" the answer was "when" and "if" the bill now 
before Congress passes, fhe Federal authorities will probably make a suitable 
return to the community in lieu of taxes. 

4. The citizens in Clark are concerned about the final disposition of the 
buildings at the termination of the present war emergency. Will it become a 
ghost town or develop into a cheap rental section with all the attending unde- 
sirable consequences? 

5. No explanations have been forthcoming regarding the type of construction 
or provisions for sewage disposal, police and fire pi'otection, and education ; 
the assumption being that such arrangements must be made at the expense of 
the municipal government. 

6. The potential voting population living in this Federal area, will outnumber 
the normal local voting citizen.s. The board of education is concerned regard- 
ing the possible result, if this new element should propose increased and 
excessive expenditures for expanding school facilities for their own particular 
area. 

EDUCATIONAL PROBLBTMS 

1. Special provision must be made for the education of the children in 
this Federal area. 

2. Unless substantial reimbursement is made by the Federal Government for 
additional school facilities, it will be impossible for Clark to provide in.struc- 
tion for the children of the families livhig in the new Federal homes. 



5812 TRENTON HEARINGS 

3. Inasmuch as the Federal Government is paying for construction, material, 
labor, and equipment 100 percent, similar provision should be made for the 
costs of all municipal services including education. 

4. If no reimbursement is provided by the Federal Government, the tax rate 
in Clark Township will be doubled. 

5. The proposal to return to the municipality from o to 15 percent of the 
amount collected in rentals in lieu of taxes, would be an entirely inadequate 
compensation for education alone. 

6. Our taxing system is based on the principle that industry share the cost 
of government. Therefore, to bring operations from one industrial section to a 
residential section is inconsistent with democracy's plan of taxation. 

7. Multiple family dwellings are not as desirable in a residential situation 
as the individual-cottage plan. In consequence of this fact, the residents who 
occupy these houses are not as desirable as individual home owners. 

8. The Federal authorities have made no definite statements regarding the 
exact share of the cost to be borne by the community. They have evaded 
every single request for guaranties. 

9. The citizens of Clark were so incensed over the project that they have 
voted at a special election to establish a commission form of government by 
a large majority. 

10. The present population is 2,081. The present assessed valuation is 
$2,899,918. There are approximately 550 families. It is proposed to house 
7C0 families on this project with an approximate cost of $2,501,000, and 
$SO0,OU0 in addition for streets and sidewalks. The present registration of 
voters in Clark is approximately 1,245. If 700 families become residents of 
Clark, that will mean a potential voting power of 1,500 which will result in the 
new citizens voting en bloc. Being tax exempt, they will have no interest in 
economy or in the general welfare of the community and will propose and 
support budgets only which will provide additional services for themselves. 

11. There is no business section in Clark Township to take advantage of the 
purchasing power of the new residents. Their shopping must be done else- 
where. 

12. It is reliably reported that the workers who will occupy these houses 
in the project are receiving an average of $50 per week. 



PROBABLE COSTS OF EDUCATION 

1. In order that the congressional committee may have an adequate concep- 
tion of the additional costs of pupil education, the following itemized state- 
ment is submitted for consideration. The probable cost is an approximate one 
based upon the generally accepted estimate of 1.4 children per family. If as 
is stated by the Federal representatives the project is to house 700 families, 
the probable number of children will be 1,050. Based again upon the state- 
ment made by Federal authorities that the workers employed at Kearny 
selected to live on the reservation are men who have been employed for several 
years in that industry, practically all of their children will be of school age. 
Probably at least 100 of these children will be of high-school age and so will 
apply for admission to the regional high school. The remainder of the children 
will be enrolled in the elementary school. 

Estimate of increased cost of educating pupils at grade school 

[Bases— 1936-40 costs and 279 pupils] 





Actual 


Estimated 
increase 




$850 
2,200 
16,000 
4,000 
1,000 
2,000 
2,000 
400 
3,000 
3,200 






$2, 200 


Total instrnction costs 


16 000 




4,000 




1,000 


Total coordinated activities 


1,000 


Transportation 






400 






Interest 










M, 6.W 


24,600 






At 279 pupils 


124 


88 




15 








Total estimated increase in cost per pupil 


103 









NATIONAL DEFENSP;: MIGR.\TION 



5813 



Estimate of increased cost of furnishing services to new families 
[Estimated on 550 families, present number of families in Clark Township] 



Estimated 
increase 



Audit 

Election 

Department of finance- 
Legal 

Fire 

Hydrant- 

Police 

Streets and roads 

Street lighting 

Sanitation services 

Regional high school— 



$850 

575 
1.345 
1, 050 
5,420 
1, 500 
6,500 
3,500 
2,300 
10, 622 



Total cost. 
At 550 fa.'i.ilies— 



267 

575 

600 

1,050 

5,420 

750 

6,500 

2,000 

4,000 

10. 622 



Built up cost of furnishing services to new families 
[Basis = 1.4 school children per family] 

Cost of education, 1.4 X $103 $144 

Local purposes 60 

Total 204 

$204 X 700 new families 142, 800 

100 percent valuation, $2,500,000 X 4/100 100,000 

Deficit 42, 800 

50 percent valuation, $1,250,000 X 4/100 50, 000 

Deficit 92,800 

CONCLUSIONS 

Unless Clark Township receives a reimbursement of approximately 100 percent 
of the cost of puljlic services including education from the Federal Government, 
the financial condition of this community will become intolerable. 

If adequate provision is not made to relieve the taxpayers, the tax rate will 
be doubled. 

It is the feeling of the citizens of this community that the contemplated 
housing project is too elaborate for a small community and that it will 
entirely disorganize the whole civic structure. 

The Federal Housing Authority has given, insufficient attention to the 
subject of services including education. 

Insufficient consideration has been given the State department of education 
to worl: out an intelligent plan of coordination with the Federal authorities. 

In the final analysis, the problem of costs of education is the major financial 
consideration for any community, where housing projects are to be established. 

Hoping tlie statements given in this presentation meet with the desires of the 
committee, I am 

Yours very truly, A. L. Johnson, 

County Superintendent of Schools. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 9 I offer a paper on the subject, "Training 
of Industrial Personnel," by Mr. Allan R. Cullimore, adviser, region 
No. 5, United States Office of Education. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows:) 



Exhibit 9.— Training of Indttstrial Personnel 

report by allan r. cullimore, adviskr region no. 5, united states office of 
education, newark, n. j. 

The question of training industrial personnel as at present set up is organ- 
ized under three ratlier distinct heads. A general vocatioal program com- 



5814 TRENTON HEARINGS 

prising pieemployment, full-time courses and upgrading courses as well, given 
by or through the United States Office of Education and functioning in the 
public vocational schools of the Nation. This vocational educational program 
is being administered in every State under the State board of Vocational edu- 
cation and is carried on mainly in secondary schools and trade schools. 

In addition to that, there has been organized under the Office of Production 
Management, under the leadership of Sidney Hillman and the immediate 
directorship of C. R. Dooley, the so-called training within-industry plan. It 
was suggested, I think, by Owen D. Young and takes the fundamental, sound 
point of view that no matter how much vocational or other training must be 
done, training within industry to develop the specialized technical skills re- 
quired is of basic importance. The New Jersey representative is Mr. Glenn 
Gardiner. 

In addition, there has been set up, through the United States Office of Edu- 
cation under what is called the Federal Security Agency, a program of engineer- 
ing defense training, this training being directed specifically in training engi- 
neering personnel in courses detinitely above the high-school level. For this 
purpose, $9,000,000 has been set aside during the fiscal year. It is with this 
latter program that our particular discussion is concerned. 

It might be said in passing that both the other programs seem to be ably 
administered and are basically necessary, but that they alone do not provide for 
the direction, control, and management of advanced technical skills, which are 
usually associated with the proper title of engineer. In a word, it is perfectly 
possible to load your plant to the point of refusal with competent workmen 
specializing within their own field and yet have the production capacity of the 
plant very low. I think one man said he could get boys in from the green 
hiills of Vermont and teach them tow to run a lathe in 4 months, but that 
didn't get out the product. The problem, then, is to furnish trained engineer- 
ing personnel on what might be called a collegiate level. 

CANNOT PRODITCE SKILLS INSTANTLY 

Basically, our problem is to furnish well-trained men instantly, and as this 
is impossible, the essence of the problem is to strike a reasonable compormise 
or composite between time and technical performance — to get as many well- 
trained men in as short a time as possible. Evidently, in analyzing this situa- 
tion, the raio of time to training or time to ability to perform varies in difter- 
en industries over a very wide range, and the first point which we must con- 
sider is that the problem is specific with respect to certain industries or certain 
types of training. 

Practically, the situation divides itself into four major phases or four broad 
divisions. We must immediately meet the specific, definite, specialized needs 
of defense industries, that is, present needs. Second, we must build up, insofar 
as is possible, something of a reserve if we are to meet the ever-increasing needs 
as they beconie evident. Third, we must use such a plan to recruit the highest 
pos:^ible type of technical personnel because if we are careful to choose only 
the men with one, two and three years of technical college training, the time 
involved in the supplementary training will be as short as possible. And, 
fourth, we must set up at least a skeleton organization so integrated with the 
vocational training picture and the training within industry picture and in- 
dustry itself as to be able to deliver in increasing quantities the type of trained 
engineering personnel desired, when and if it is desired. 

The weights of these various factors change from day to day. The most 
important phase at the beginning was the developing and setting up of a func- 
tioning organization capable of meeting an ever-increasing demand. The second 
phase was recruiting the proper technical personnel with as much training 
and experience as was jiossible. Even if these two things had been done and 
these two things only had been done, a tremendous step forward would have 
been accomplished with respect to the national-defense program, but in addition 
to this, we have reason to believe that wc are meeting the immediate needs in 
the engineering field and that it is possible — or perhaps better, will be possible — 
on the basis of our experience in the past 8 months, to build up a certain 
reserve on the basis of our experience gathered in this primary period. 

STRESS UPGRADING IN INDUSTRY 

Specifically, it seemed that the first thing we should do was to spend a 
maximum of effort in the general upgrading of men already in industry, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5815 

expanding the administrative, management, and supervisory and technical staffs 
so as to take care of as many operators as could be possibly trained by the 
other two divisions. This, we felt, would come nearest to solving the first phase 
of the problem which had to do with the immediate specialized needs of the 
defense industries. The following program was, therefore, put into operation 
in this district: 

Men 
Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point, Hoboken, N. J. : Introduc- 
tory engineering,^ engineering drawing, elements of machine design,^ 

and introductory engineering ' 400 

Newark College of Engineering, 367 High Street, Newark, N. J., Engi- 
neering drawing, machine design, production supervision, materials 

inspection and testing and engineering drawing and basic procedures 586 

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J. ; Machine design, industrial 
supervision and engineering techniques, engineering drawing, materials 

and metallurgy, electrical communications, and metallurgy 406 

Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. : Advanced inspection techniques__ 65 

Total , 1, 457 

1 Indicates courses given full time during day. All others given in the evening. 

Out of this group of approximately 1,500 trainees, it was noticed that a com- 
paratively small number are in training for full time during the day. At the 
present writing, approximately 1,100 of these men have graduated. All the 
students in the introductory engineering drawing courses have been introduced 
into a more advanced course so that their training is still proceeding, and they 
cannot, in that sense, be judged as having been trained in the sense of their 
course completed. 

It is interesting to note that of those starting the courses who failed to 
finish, about 65 percent found it necessary to drop their courses on account 
of industrial overtime ; 10 percent of the studenis withdrew on account of 
voluntary change in position which made further pursuance of the courses 
impossible ; 5 percent dropped out on account of illness ; and 20 percent of 
the drop-outs were from miscellaneous causes or causes undetermined. 

There has been as yet, of course, with this group, no question of placement 
as all the men have been placed either with respect to future training or 
positions in industry. 

The tentative program for the summer is as follows: It will be understood 
that this program is very much heavier on the side of the day courses, that 
is, the full-time day courses, which are almost without exception preemploy- 
ment courses intended to furnish new trained technical men instead of old 
held upgraded. 

Men 
Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N. J. : 1 

Evening: Engineering drawing, advanced engineering drawing 1 -05 

Day : Introductory engineering, elements of machine design, produc- ( 

lion, supervision, and control J 

Newark College of Engineering, Newark, N. J. : 

Evening : Production supervision, materials inspection and testing, "1 
tool design, drafting-room calculations, production supervision, I g^Q 

electrical drafting and calculations | 

Day : Elements of drawing and computation;?, I and II J 

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J. : 

Evening: Elementary engineering, principles of radio engineering, "l 
communication engineering, D. C. and A. C. circuits, high-frequency I 

measurements, high-frequency engineering > 460 

Day : Introduction to engineering 

measuremeuts, high-frequency engineering J 

Princeton University, N. J. (day) : Building construction surveying, 
chemical engineering manufacturing methods, elementary electrical 
engineering and radio, engineering drawing 160 

Total 1,795 



Mr- Abbott. As exhibit 10 I offer a report on migration into Pem- 
berton, N. J., by Mr. M. Gregg Hibbs, Jr., supervising principal, 
Pemberton borough public schools. 

(The report referred to above is as follows:) 



5816 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Exhibit 10. — Migration in Pembkbton, N. J. 

EEPORT BY M. GEEGQ HIBBS, JK., SUPERVISING PRINCIPAL, PEMBERTON BOROUGH PUBLIC 

SCHOOLS 

PEMBERTON, N. J., Jufie 17, 19^1. 

We have the high school of the Fort Dix area. Our school is 6 miles away from 
the fort. The zone from which our pupils come is an area of 125 miles. 

Ill prepariug this general statement the following divisions have been made: 

A. Housing. E. Iniluence on schools. 

B. People forced to move. F. Disease. 

C. Employment. G. Uncertain future. 

D. Soldiers. 

A. HOUSING 

The Fort Dix expansion was a slow one. The scarcity of homes was realized 
around September. Rents were increased. Men were willing to sleep any place. 
These were mostly men building barracks and doing other construction work at 
the fort. At one time a request came into the school to find 800 rooms for car- 
penters for that evening. The school cooperated in finding approximately 300. 
When the National Guard took charge of the fort the uoueoininissioned officers 
were compelled to leave the fort grounds. All of these actions caused a housing 
shortage throughout the area. 

B. PEOPLE FORCED TO MOVE 

Many of our students were unable to do normal school work because of worry 
at home. This disturbance was caused by the uncertainty of whether or not the 
Government was going to purchase the farms these students had lived on their 
entire lives. After months of uncertainty, many farmers moved. The few that 
did not comply were compelled to move. Throughout the entire year students 
have been disturbed by troubles at home. As you know, the fort has expanded 
and has taken tresjiass rights on many thousands of acres of farms. Many 
farmers would not plant their entire farms as they were uncertain as to the 
future plans of the Government concerning their land. 

C. EMPLOYMENT 

With the great expansion of Fort Dix the chances for employment were 
increased. This expansion caused many men to leave their jobs nearby for 
more lucrative employment at the fort. At the same time, many who had 
worked on farms heretofore also went to the fort for work. This loss of farm 
labor caused some of the fathers of our high-school students to withdraw their 
children from school to help at home. At the same time the thousands of 
workers coming into Peniberton area, the increase of many jobs being open, 
and all other factors caused many other opportunities for high-school students 
to find work. The school placement bureau was kept busy. School enrollment 
constantly changed. 

D. SOLDIERS 

As would be expected, the thousands of young men stationed at Fort Dix 
have made many female acquaintances in the nearby communities. 

It should be added that the conduct of the men at the fort has been of the 
highest. Many of our young girls, whose parents allow them complete free- 
dom, have been reported as acting in an unladylike manner. This particular 
condition has caused the school to spend more time for home visitation. In 
1940 the State department of health was requested to furnish a nurse and 
social worker. This person was to have aided the schools in controlling this 
problem. This action was taken after one of our girls was placed in the New 
Jersey Home for Girls due to immoral conduct with a soldier from Fort Dix. 

E. INFLUENCE ON SCHOOLS 

As this is being prepared by a teacher, it is natural to have emphasis upon 
the school situation. Enrollment in our high school is the highest it has ever 
been. There are too many at the present time for the building. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5817 

The anticipated enrollment for September 1941 is greater than the enrollment 
of the past year. This increase does not include new pupils from Wrights- 
town wliich may bring our enrollment as high as 300 more. This additional 
enrollment from Wriglitstown is based upon 2,500 hospital bed facilities, two 
Federal housing programs of 200 apartments, and 540 more houses to be built 
at Wrightstown. 

Fort Dix or Wrightstown additional pupils will force us to use the local 
grange, church buildings, etc., to house our students. Our net valuation 
in Pemberton Borough of $508,727 will not permit us to build additions or a 
new high school. 

Eighty-nine percent of our enrollment is from the sending districts which 
means we must depend upon tuition money for paying our bills. The law 
does not permit us to build additions or a new school with tuition money. 
It would be impossible anyway. 

Pupils from Fort Dix pay a tuition rate of $45 each. Otir regular tuition 
rate is $130 per pupil. 

The unsettled condition in the area has caused the attendance of our pupils 
to be irregular. 

The shortage of farm help may cause us to either lose some students next 
year to help on their own farms or to conduct evening classes for them. 

All information given in the paragraphs so far refer to the Pemberton 
Borough High School. Lately enrollment at the Pemberton Township school 
has caused the township to employ two extra teachers not planned for in 
their budget. This was caused by an unexpected increase in enrollment in 
both the township's elementary schools. 

As we have the township seventh- and eighth-grade students in our high 
school, this increased elementary enrollment has caused Pemberton Borough 
to add one new teacher to the high school faculty. 

In February the Federal Department of Education had two investigators 
here who requested a survey to prove that our increase in Pemberton Town- 
ship elementary schools and Pemberton Borough High School enrollment was 
due to the Fort Dix situation. Our survey revealed that people were moving 
and people were uncertain as to what was going to happen. In other words, 
the parents' lives have been changed by the national-defense work. No proof 
could be found for the increased enrollment being directly due to the Fort 
Dix expansion. 

F. DISEASE 

The unusual amount of sickness in the schools and other health problems 
cannot be definitely connected to the Fort Dix expansion. The assumption is 
made, however, that the health conditions of the area were disturbed by the 
fort. Mumps, measles, and other diseases were prevalent. An unusual num- 
ber of cases of scarlet fever caused the Pemberton Township school at Browns 
Mills to be closed two times, the Pemberton Township elementary school in 
Pemberton, one time; and grades 7 and 8 in the Pemberton High School were 
later sent home for a week. The attendance of the three schools has been 
the poorest it has ever been. 

Sixty-three high school students were quarantined from 4 to 42 days. 

In October three cases of gonorrhea were discovered in three girls all younger 
than the age of 9. These cases were completely checked and completely cured. 
The State department of health gave immediate help. Where these cases started 
could not be found. 

It should be added that other elementary schools in the Fort Dix area had more 
sickness than usual, too. 

The migratory problem is a serious one. The schools are unable to accept the 
increased enrollments anticipated. In the borough we definitely must have 
assistance. If conditions remain as they are next year a social worker should 
be furnished and a nurse, in addition to a trained person from the school. Home 
contacts should be made. It should be emphasized that the spirit of this area 
is not one of complaining but one of being willing to assist in any way with the 
national-defense program. 



Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 11, I offer a report on effects of defense 
migration on the schools of Burlington County, N. J., by Mr. Louis J. 
Kaser, county superintendent. 

(The report referred to above is as follows :) 



5818 TRILNTON IIEARINOS 

Exhibit 11. — Migbatiox in Mount Holly, N. J. 

REPORT BY LOUIS J. KASER, SUPERINTENDENT, BURLINGTON COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS, 
MOUNT HOLLY, N. J. 

As far as the schools are concerned, the problems thus far have been one of 
continual moving. The Wrightstown school's total enrollment during the jear 
was 224 yet the average enrollment is only 151. This means that more than 70 
children of this enrollment were movers. 

As yet tiiere has been no large increase in enrollment in any of our schools. 
The 100-family housing project has .lust been completed and people are now 
moving in so that the enrollment during the coming year will undoubtedly be 
a great deal higher. 

We estimate that in the Wrightstown school, there will be approximately 600 
elementary children due to two causes (1) the housing unit; (2) the large num- 
ber of employees that are bound to be used in the hospitals. Of course, there 
will be some additional increase due to additional civilians in the Wrightstown 
area. 

I question whether the high-school enrollment will increase very much as I 
am informed that the average Army officer is older when he marries than the 
civilian. The result is thnt when the officer's children reach high-school age, the 
officer is about to retire. In the last war, this fact was borne out in the area of 
Fort Dix. Mr. Hibbs has given you a rather detailed account of conditions. 
As far as the Pemberton schools are concerned. I fear he is anticipating a con- 
siderably larger incrciise in enrollment than is apt to happen. 

In my opinion, the Fort has not in any way caused a spread of or an addi- 
tional number of cases of mumps, measles, or scarlet fever. These diseases 
were all over the county, in fact, all over the State. They caimot in any way be 
assigned to conditions around Fort Dix. * * * 

It is true that the housing situation within a radius of 15 miles of Fort Dix 
has been upset and is very much overcrowded, however, it is fast being adjusted. 
People are changing houses into small apartments, or making double houses out 
of large houses, and changes are occurring rapidly. By the first of the year, it is 
my guess, that things will be pretty much adjusted. 

The very serious problem so far as schools are concerned in this county is 
the Wrightstown area. Forty percent of the valuation and 90 percent of the 
area has been taken by the Government and unless the Government gives us 
financial help we cannot operate the school. However, the investigators, who 
have been here, Dr. Alves and Dr. Powers, assured us that aid would be 
forthcoming. 



Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 12, I offer a report on the Camden Homes 
Kegistration Office, by William H. Iszard, director. 
(The report referred to above is as follows:) 

Exhibit 12. — REa-ORT of Camden Homes Registration Office 

BY WILLIAM H. ISZABD, DIRECTOR 

Maximum defense production cannot be brought about by the Federal Gov- 
ernment alone. Such a great variety and complexity of problems are involved 
that action is required of the individual citizens, comminiity organizations, 
cities, counties, regions, and States. One of the many problems bearing upon 
the efficiency of defense production is adequate housing for defense and related 
workers and their dependents. If satisfactory dwelling places are not available 
within reasonable commuting distances of employment production efficiency 
will be reduced materially. 

One means of dealing with the housing problem is the establishment of homes- 
registration offices to be operated for the following principal purposes : 

(a) To refer applicants for dwelling accommodations directly to vacant rooms 
or to family dwelling units either directly or through realtors with whom 
listed. 

(ft) To furnish information to the local defense council and other appro- 
priate agencies for proper local action which will result In the development 



NATIONAL DEFENSE xMlGRATION 5819 

of every dwelling place which cau be made available either for temporary or 
pei-maneut use. 

{(•) To furnish regular reports to the Office of the Coordinator of Defense 
Housing through the division of homes registration and to the regional or 
local defense council so that necessary action can be taken to assure the 
construction of additional dwelling units which may be essential. 

To serve these purposes effectively it will be necessary — • 

(a) To secure and maintain current in a central file information on all 
available vacant dwelling places, by location, type, rent, and condition. 

(&) To secure by the use of coutinuous publicity the listing of rooms in 
private homes which can be made available but are not ordinarily rented, and 
to secure the listing of all other possible dwelling places which are usable 
but not ordinarily available. 

In order to aid the home-registration ollice program throughout the Nation, 
there has been established in the Office of the Coordinator of Defense Housing 
the division of home registration. Its principal purposes are : 

(a.) To provide a manual for the organization and operation of home- 
registration offices. 

(&) To assist localities in the organization and operation of registration 
offices by making available the services of its field representative. 

(c) To provide all the basic forms necessary for the operation of homes- 
registration offices. 

((/) To suggest appropriate publicity programs. 

(e) To provide from time to time material designed to aid homes-registration 
offices in the improvement and the perfection of their operations. 

(/■) To keep the Office of the Defense Housing Coordinator informed of the 
exact nature of the housing shortage by type, rent, and condition. 

Recaintnlation 
Registrations : 

Camden City 284 

Suburban 249 

Total registrations 533 

Listings: Listings on file of single and double rooms, apartments, and 
houses, showing number of bedrooms available as of May 12 : 

Camden City — total bedrooms 409 

Suburban — total bedrooms 396 

Total bedrooms, Camden city and suburban 805 

Accommodations : An average of two persons to a bedroom : 

Camden city 818 

Suburban 792 

Total accommodations for 1-610 

Rental trends : Averaging one person to a bedroom : 

Per week 

Camden city $3 to $4 

Suburban $4 to $5 

Placements — approximately, 110; Camden city, 75 percent; suburban, 25 percent. 

MIGRATION 

Applications for rooms and family dwelling units were received from ap- 
plicants who applied in person at the Camden Homes Registration Office, and 
who are now employed in defense production plants in Camden. 

Applicants stated thev formerly lived in the following cities and States prior 
to coming to Camden : Burlington. N. J. ; New York. N. Y. ; Washington. D. C. ; 
Long Island, N. Y. ; Scranton, Pa. : Pittsburgh. Pa. ; Pottsville. Pa. ; Philadelphia, 
Pa. ; York. Pa. ; Georgia ; Harrisburg, Pa. ; Baltimore, Md. ; West Virginia ; Cape 
May, N. J. ; Chicago, 111. 



5820 TRENTON HE.\JRINGS 

PRESENT NUMBEB OF EMPLOYEES AND ESTIMATED INCREASE OF WORKERS AS OF MAT 
28, 29, AND JUNE 10 

Nmo York Shipyard, Camden Forge Co., Radio Corporation of America, John 
Mathis Shipyard Co., and Penn Jersey Shipyard, all of Camden, N. J. 

New York Shipyard : 

Number of workers on pay roll as of May 28, 1941 12, 856 

With additional workers in yard with private contractors, and 
United States Navy 1, 300 

Total number in yard 14, 156 

This shipyard estimates they will require 5,000 additional workers by March 
1, 1942, for a total of 17,856 by March 1, 1942. 

These figures showing present-day and estimated number of workers are 
based only on present-day contracts, and do not take in anticipated contracts 
from the $7,000,000,000 lend-lease bill. Therefore, it is quite possible that 
between 28,000 to 30,000 workers may be employed by and during 1943. 

Radio Corporation of America : 

Number of employees as of May 29, 1941 11,691 

Estimated increase of workers by Dec. 31, 1941 2, 750 

Total by Dec. 31, 1941, estimated at 14,441 

These figures are based upon present contracts. Future contracts are antici- 
pated. 

John Mathis Shipyard : 

Number of employees as of June 6, 1941 450 

Estimated increase by Dec. 31, 1941 100 

Total by Dec. 31, 1941, estimated at 550 

These figures are based on present contracts. Future contracts are antici- 
pated. 

Penn Jersey Shipyard: 

Number of employees as of June 10, 1941 100 

Estimated increase by Dec. 31, 1941 400 

Total by Dec. 31, 1941, estimated at 500 

Present and anticipated extra workers are only for work on present-day 
contracts. Future defense contracts are expected. 

Camden Forge Co. : 

Number of workers as of June 10, 1941 800 

Anticipated increase by Dec. 31, 1941 125 

Total by Dec. 31, 1941, estimated at 925 

Present and anticipated workers are only for work on present-day contracts. 
Future defense contracts are expected. 

There are 12 plants in the city of Carmlen that have received and are now 
working on defense contracts. 

No data have been given to the Camden Homes Registration Office as to the 
present number of employees or anticipated increase of workers of the seven 
other plants. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5821 

Recapitulation 

New York Shipyard, Camden, N. J. : 

Employees as of May 28, 1941 12, 856 

Estimated increase by Mar. 1, 1942 5,000 

Total by Mar. 1, 1942 17,856 

Radio Corporation of America, Camden, N. J. : 

Employees as of May 29, 1941 11, 691 

Estimated increase by Dec. 31, 1941 2, 750 

Total by Dec. 31, 1941 14,441 

John Mathis Shipyard, Camden, N. J. : 

Employees as of June 6, 1941 450 

Estimated increase by Dec. 31, 1941 100 

Total by Dec. 31, 1941 550 

Penn Jersey Shipyard, Camden, N. J. : 

Employees as of June 10, 1941 100 

Estimated increase by Dec. 31, 1941 400 

Total by Dec. 31, 1941 500 

Camden Forge Co., Camden, N. J. : 

Employees as of June 10, 1941 800 

Estimated increase by Dec. 31, 1941 125 

Total by Dec. 31, 1941 925 

Estimated increase of workers of 5 defense production plants, Camden, 
N. J., on present-day Government contracts: 

New York Shipyard 5,000 

Radio Corporation of America 2, 750 

John Mathis Shipyard 100 

Penn Jersey Shipyard 40O 

Camden Forge Co 125 

Total 8, 375 



Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 13, I offer a report on employment pro- 
cedure and training program of aircraft workers by Dr. David Mack, 
employment manager of the Wright Aeronautical Corporation. 

(The report referred to above is as follows:) 

Exhibit 13. — Employment op Aircraft Workers in New Jfjisey 
rii3>0et by david mach, employment manager, weight aeronautical corporation 

Patp:bson, N. J., June 2//, 19^1. 

At the end of 1939 this company had 6,600 employees. At the end of 1940 there 
were 15,000 employees. At present there are somewhat more than 17,000, and our 
anticipated increase in total pay roll is less than 1,000. 

The minimum age among our employees is 18 years. There are no specifications 
with respect to country of birth or with respect to race of our employees ; there 
are certain physical specifications as established by our hospital, and these vary 
with the job for which the applicant is being considered. 

In concurrence with the expressed desire of the OflSce of Production Manage- 
ment, this company is making a concerted effort not to hire away from other 
industries on Government contract work any individuals employed on defense 
projects. Each employment supervisor in this company (our eniployment super- 
visors have charge of hiring) has for reference a list, furnished at our request 



5822 TRENTON HEARINGS 

by the OfBce of Production Management, of all industries in the immediate neigh- 
borhood as well as those in the metropolitan area of New York which are on 
Government contract work: it is the policy of these employment supervisors to 
make no offers to any applicant presently employed with any one of these firms. 
There are rare exceptions when the employment supervisor wishes to make an 
offer to such an applicant, but this he never does without first asking the 
permission of the personnel department of the company concerned. 

This company has on its pay roll many women in the capacity of clerical workers, 
stenographers, cafeteria help, etc. Also, there are approximately 200 women 
employed on small-parts inspection. There is at present within this company a 
committee actively at work considering the possible employment of women on 
jobs now held by men in event that the national emergency should warrant such 
an undertaking. 

POLICY IN ASKING DEFERMENTS 

It is the policy of this company to ask for determents from duty in the armed 
forces only in the cases of individuals presently employed in occupations for 
which it is diflBcult to hire or train. 

For the past several years, and entirely independent of the present emergency, 
this company has made each year a recruiting trip to the various colleges and 
universities throughout the country for the sole purpose of recruiting graduating 
engineers. With this single exception, it is not the policy of this company to make 
recruiting trips. One recruiting trip was made in 1939 into New England for the 
purpose of hiring skilled machinists ; but the results of this recruiting trip were 
highly unsatisfactory since it resulted in the hiring of men who soon left the 
employ of this company to return to their homes ; labor turn-over among this 
group was conspicuously high. Furthermore, for purely unselfish reasons, this 
company has not made any such recruiting trips recently because of the avowed 
desire of the OfBce of Production Management for defense industries not to do so. 

This company has hired applicants who live an appreciable distance from 
Paterson only in cases when local help has not been available, and only when 
such help has not already been employed on Government contract work. 

We are operating under an agreement with an independent union known as the 
Wright Aeronautical Employees' Association. 

Enclosed is an article entitled "Industry's Need of Skilled Help for the 
National Defense Program," which describes in some detail the training program 
in this plant. 

(The article referred to above is as follows :) 

Industry's Need of Skilled Hei.p for the National-Defense Pkogbam 

At the beginning of 19.39 unfilled orders of the aircraft industry amounted to 
approximately $200,000,000; by January 1, 1940, the total had risen to .$021,930,- 
000; and by January 1, 1941. the total backlogs had increased to $3,700,000,000, or 
about six times the level of the preceding year. 

Tliis enormous backlog of orders has created a number of extremely serious 
problems: (1) The necessity for tremendous expansion of manufacturing floor 
space; (2) the procurement of machine tools and equipment; (3) the hiring and 
training of requisite personnel. 

A study of the aircraft industry reveals that a major part of those producing 
airplanes are located along the Pacific coast, and that the engine industry is con- 
centrated on the eastern seaboard ; also that the propeller manufacturers are 
located in the eastern States of Connecticut, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. It is 
likely, however, that this geographical concentration will not continue for long. 
Because of the desire of military authorities to locate vital industries in locations 
more easily protected, there is a tendency for new factories to be built in the 
interior of the United States rather than near the sea coasts. 

MUST double pane PLANTS 

It is estimated that in order to meet the new demands for planes, the airplane 
industry will be compelled to more than double its physical plant facilities or from 
9,164,430 square feet to 22,170,304 square feet of floor space. 

Engine plants will be increased from 4,967,115 square feet to 11,123,567 square 
feet of floor space, propeller plants will increase from 398,720 square feet to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5823 

1,153,900 square feet, or the aircraft industry as a wliole will increase from 
14,530,265 square feet to 34,447,771 square feet of floor space. It should be noted 
approximately 100 square feet are required per worker for airplanes and 
approximately 150 square feet for airplane-engine manufacturing. 

Many estimates of future labor requirements have been made, and all are 
subject to a wide margin of error. The figures presented here have been compiled 
from reports of individual manufacturing companies. The report of these com- 
panies show the number of each model to be made each month and the man-hours 
of work required to prodtice each model. From this data has been estimated the 
number of man-hours which must be applied each month to fulfill the schedtiled 
operations. 

AIKCKAFT EMPLOYMENT AT PEAK 

At the present time, employment in the aircraft industry is at the highest point 
ever reached. Employment has steadily increased for the past 2 years, and must 
expand more rapidly if the program is to be executed. In October 1940, the esti- 
mated number of workers in the aircraft industry was 203,600; by August 1041. 
the estimated workers will be 455,500. This means that between October 1940 and 
August 1941 a quarter of a million new workers will have to be hired and trained 
to meet the exacting requirements of the aviation industry. Translating these 
figures into monthly requirements it would njean 25,000 workers would be added 
each month between October 31, 1940, and August 31. 1941. 

The above is an estimate of the number of employees who will be required to 
meet oT-ders for aircraft, but this is insufficient. It is necessary also to examine 
the skills which are needed in airplane manufacture. Unfortunately, current 
figures on this are not available. However, on the basis of a field study made in 
June 1939 by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, it is estimated that in the airplane 
industry skilled workers comprise 41.3 percent of the total ; semiskilled, 46.5 
percent ; unskilled, 7.7 percent ; and others, including clerical, 4.5 percent. In 
the e'lgine plants, 37.4 percent of the workers are skilled; 46 6 percent are semi- 
.skilled ; 9.9 percent as unskilled ; and 6.1 percent clerical and other. 

In Paterson is located the main plant of the Wright Aeronautical Corporation. 
This plant builds radial-type air-cooled aircraft engines. These engines represent 
what is probably the highest degree of precision and accuracy ever built into a 
power plant 

WRIGHT AERONAUTICAL CORPOUATION EXPANSION 

With the advent of the war, and the gx'eatly increased demand for high- 
powered aircraft engines, the Wright Co. was faced with a problem of ex- 
pansion, the Imit of which has not yet been I'eached. This expansion began 
in 1939. and with it have been associated all of the problems incident to 
engineering, production, and personnel. It is with this phase that I proiX)se to 
deal with briefly in this paper. 

During the year of 1936, th s corporation had 2 800 employees on its pay roll; 
1937 they had 3,393 employees, an increase of -193; 1038 they again increased to 
4,342 employees, an increase of 949 ; 1939 they had 6,661 employees, an increase 
of 2,319; 1940 their pay roll showed 14,957 employees, an increase of 8,296. 
This increase in 1940 being more than two and one-half times the total pay 
roll 'n 1936. Of course, plant facilities had to inci'ease along with the 
personnel. 

PROCEDURES IN SOLVING PRODUCTION PROBLEMS 

■ In solving any engineering or production problems, est^ibllshed procedures 
have been developed. These procedures are well known, and they have been 
accepted generally by executives of manufacturing establshments. In the case 
of problems dealing with personnel, the engineering approach has seldom been 
recognized or adopted. When we were faced with the problem of a tremendous 
and rapid expansion of our personnel, we realized that it cotdd not be solved 
through some ht or miss procedure. Rather, we were convinced that, if it were 
to be solved at all, engineering techniques would have to be followed. When 
I say "engineering techniques," what I have in mind is a critical analysis of the 
problem that is faced, a careful survey of the facilities immediately at hand to 
meet it, the availability of raw materials that can b^ utilized, and a production 
schedule that will serve as a control for carrying through the program that is 
adopted. 

As early as 19.36, the Wright Co. recognized they were facing a market that 
would require a con.siderable expansion of their manufacturing facilities. After 



5824 TRENTON HEAKIXCxS 

experimenting with the labor that was available in the open market, it was 
decided that better results could be obtained through selecting green workers, 
and training them in what might be called an operators' apprenticeship program. 

The labor that was available had not been trained to meet the production 
techniques, and tolerances and precis on that was required for the manufac- 
turing of the Wright engine. It was also discovered that the reconditioning of 
this so-called available skilled help involved more effort, and production loss, 
than would be the case through taking green help and conditioning it from the 
start to meet the standards that were required. 

The personnel that was enrolled in this operator apprenticeship program 
was classified as trainees. The avowed objective of this program was to pro- 
duce competent machine tool operators. The training given these men was lim- 
ited in scope to the operations and machine tools found in a particular 
department of the plant. While no effort was made to limit the training to 
a single type machine tool, neither was any effort made to transfer men from 
department to department. However, the foremen in the individual depart- 
ments were introduced to the program that had been decided upon, and they 
gradually were trained to the point where they carried it on most effectively. 
In addition to the actual operating experiences provided for this trainee group, 
the local vocational school was asked to provide related technical training in 
such subjects as shop mathematics, shop science, drafting, and industrial 
economics. 

VOCATIONAL SCHOOL IN PATERSON 

The vocational school in Paterson is a school operated by the board of educa- 
tion of the city. It is a public school. The administrative organization of 
this Paterson Vocational School is rather novel. Ever since the school was 
first organized there have been assocated with it, trade advisory committees, 
and a board of trustees. For each industry represented in the school there is 
a trade advisory committee. From each trade advisory committee one member 
is nominate<l to act on a board of trustees. These advisory committees and the 
board of trustees are lay bodies, and the board of education deijends on them 
entirely for advice for the proper development and operation of the school. 
On the metal trades advisory committee, the Wright organization is represented 
by three men. 

One is our production tool supervisor, one is our production methods super- 
visor, and I, as supervisor of training, am the third. This advisory organization, 
made up of practical men from industry, has resulted in the development of a 
most practical type of vocational school for Paterson. When faced with the 
problem of providing related technical instruction for the trainees' program for 
the .school, it was simply a matter of following recommendations made by the 
metal trades advisory committee. 

In presenting the foregoing picture of the trainee program, and the contact 
with the vocational school, I have been endeavoring to lay the ground work so 
you will be able to understand how it was possible to meet the problems of our 
recent rapid expansion of personnel. In the fall of 1939, when it became ap- 
parent that the Wright Co. would be faced with a tremendous increase in its 
pensonnel, our critical study of the whole situation indicated that, while our 
trainee program had served admirably for a normal expansion, it would be too 
slow to cope with the situation that was developing. Our study of this situation 
indicated that a modified form of trainee program could be developed to meet the 
new condition. In place of having a man become a trainee, a])prenticed to a 
department, it was felt that it would be more effective to substitute a system 
that would train a man to operate a single type machine tool. It was also felt 
that, in place of a program extending over a period of 2 or 3 years, during 
which time actual shop operating experiences and related technical instruction 
would go hand in hand in the plant, some form of intensive preemployment 
training should be developed. 

TR1.\L OF PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING 

In view of the facilities already existing in the vocational school, and of the 
willingness of the Wright Co. to supplement the existing school equipment with a 
number of additional production type machine tools, it was felt that an intensive 
preemeployment training program, involving both related technical instruction, 
and shop experiences on a single type machine tool, could be carried on in the 
school. After careful study, I proposed such a scheme to the school authorities, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5825 

and on recommendation of the metal trades advisory committee, and the approval 
of the board of education, it was decided to make a trial of this new venture. 
This preemployment training program, that had been suggested to the voca- 
tional school, resolved itself into a 4-week course. The first week of the course 
has been developed for a period of intensive class work. This class work consists 
of four subjects, namely, shop arithmetic, shop science, reading operation sheets, 
and the use of measuring tools. The hours that were set for the school training 
program were from 4 in the afternoon, until 11 :15 at night, with a 15 minute 
lunch period from 7 :30 to 7 :45 o'clock. This clock schedule gave a total of 35 
hours per week, or S% hours for each of the four subjects listed. In order th.it 
there would be no wasted motion during this week of intensive class work, 
mimeograph lesson and home worksheets were prepared for each night for each 
subject. Each night each teacher is required to grade each student on his 
progress. Those who fail to maintain a satisfactory standing are dropped from 
the program. At the close of this week of intensive class woi'k, the student's 
record is compiled, and on the basis of his accomplishment he is arbitrarily as- 
signed to a single production type machine tool. In the class subjects, a teacher 
is given 20 men. In the shop units, a teacher is given 10 men. As is the case 
with the work in the classroom, each shop teacher is required each day to chart 
the progress of each student, and to check the operations that he has been 
taught. There is a cumulative record kept for each student, and this folder gives 
a complete history of the student's progress and ultimate disposition. 

GRADES AFTER 4 WEEKS OF TRAINING 

At the completion of the 4 weeks of training, the shop teacher is required to 
make an average grade for each student. It might be well to note here that, as 
the shop teacher dis^covers that a student does not have the ability to master the 
manipulations involved in his shop experience, he is dropped from the program. 
From these grades that are submitted by the shop teacher, lists are prepared 
giving the name, machine on which the student has been trained, the rate he 
attained, his date of birth, his height, and his weight. 

These lists are forwarded to nie, and on the basis of the jobs that are 
available, the school is notified when to have the individual man report. 
The school then sends the graduate to our employment office with an intro- 
ductory card, on which is entered his name and his machine classification. 
The man is then started as an employee of the company, and assigned a num- 
ber which indicates he has a status as a learner. 

An exception to this particular routine is concerned with the training of 
inspectors. In order to meet the demands for inspection service, a program 
was developed that would take a certain number of the graduates from the 
4-week program jusr described, and superimposing an additional 2 weeks of 
training in inspection techniques and in routine paper work. For this par- 
ticular group, the training period is 6 weeks, and on the comijletiou of the 
training they are earmarked for the inspection department. 

VALUE OF FOREMEN TRAINING 

Previously I mentioned that the foremen had been familiarized with the 
technique of caring for beginners. It is here that this early foreman training 
demonstrates its value. The foremen recognize as beginners these men who 
have been graduated from the training program in the vocational school, and 
have been assigned to them. There was no bluff involved, and no attempt 
on the part of the new worker to cover up any deficiencies or to carry through 
any false statements that are sometimes associated with beginning workmen. 
These graduates are assigned by the foremen to work alongside of experienced 
operators on the type machine, and on the specific operation, that they are 
eventually to handle. This period of partnership with an experienced oper- 
ator usually lasts from 2 to 6 weeks. As soon as it is felt that the learner 
is competent to be given the responsibility for operating a machine of his own, 
the transfer is made, and the new worker is on his own. In the rate structure 
that is in effect in our organization, allowances are made to accommodate 
the limited production of the beginning worker. His percentage of unit pro- 
duction is set up on a graduated scale, and at the end of a fixed period he 
is required to come up to the production set for the particular operation. 
60396 — 41— pt. 14 19 



5826 TRENTON HEAKINGS 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPLICANTS 

In developing this program with the vocational school officials, many specifi- 
cations that would have to be met by beginning applicants were provided by 
the company. 

These specifications include such elements as citizenship, age, height, weight, 
education, previous work experiences, and standards of health such as are 
currently required by our medical department. In order to make the screen- 
ing process still more effective, a standard intelligence test, and temperament 
test, have been introduced. Through being required to meet the man specifi- 
cations that have been set, and to have all applicants pass a physical examina- 
tion comparable to that required by the company, there is every assurance 
that those who are admitted to the vocational school program would be eligible 
for employment, could they meet the training requirements set up in the 
school. 

When the program was first introduced, all applications were handled through 
the vocational school office. This procedure lasted from January 2, when the 
first class began its sessions, until July 1, when the national defense vocational 
training program was introduced. On July 1, all referrals to the program were 
made through the New Jersey Employment Service. The only changes that 
resulted from the program coming under the national defense oi'ganization were, 
first that the Paterson Board of Education would be reimbursed 100 percent 
from Federal funds for moneys it expended for the program, and second that 
any restrictions as to residence were eliminated. 

TWO POLICIES ON CONTINUITY OF TRAINING 

In view of the intensive nature of the program, and the evident need for 
continuity of both school training, and learner observer, and learner operator 
status, two definite policies were adopted when the program was approved in 
the latter part of 1939. The first was that no training would be given in the 
vocational school unless there were a specific job for which to give the train- 
ing, and the second was that no training would be given unless there were 
prospects of employment immediately upon completion of the training. The 
purpose of these two policies was to insure that there would be no general, or 
hit and miss training given, and that no public funds would be wasted on a 
training program that did not result in immediate employment for those 
admitted to the school. 

To carry out such policies required very close cooi)eration between my office 
and the vocational school. As our needs for this type of beginning operator were 
worked out, the .school was notified of the schedule, and asked to produce men 
from the different machine classifications at a fixed rate. As the employment 
situation changed in the plant, the training program was modified to meet it. 
Thus, if it were evident that 10 external grinders, 10 internal grinders, and 4 
tool and cutter grinders could be absorbed per week, then the school schedule 
was adjusted to turn out that number. This same situation existed throughout 
all the other machine classifications. 

MONTHLY REPORT ON CLASSIFICATIONS 

E;'ch month a report is prepared giving a cumulative picture of the different 
classifications under which men have been trained, and placed in employment. 
A copy of this chart is available to those who may be interested in securing it. 

One of the highly important elements that has been responsible for the out- 
standing success of the program is that dealing with the teaching staff. When 
the program was proposed to the vocational school in the fall of 1939, and the 
training schedule laid out. the company agreed to release cf)mpetent operators 
who could act as shop teachers. These men were engaged as full-time employees 
by the Patersou Board of Education, which paid them a salary, while at the 
same time the company continued them on its pay roll, paying them a nominal 
wage in order to preserve their seniority, and other privileges. 

As the need developed for increasing or decreasing the output of the voca- 
tional-school program, these shop teachers were returned to the plant, or sent 
back to the school, in terms of the requirements of the schedule. Through hav- 
ing competent operators from the plant act as teachers in the school, it has been 
possible to indoctrinate the beginning workers with the ideals and the standards 
that are in effect in the plant. Furthermore, through following such a pro- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5827 

cedure, the transition from school to shop was made with a full knowledge of 
the t.j-pe of experience with which they would be faced when they became em- 
ployees of the company. 

For teachers for the class subjects, the vocational school relied upon its day 
school staff, and on the production-engineering department of the plant. The- 
teachers for this particular phase of the school program were not engaged as 
full-time teachers, as is the case with the shop units. Teachers in the class 
subJL'cts teach 1 week out of 3. While such a plan necessitated the development 
of three groups of teachers for this particular phase of the work, it made it 
possible for the men selected to continue with their regular work in the pro- 
duction engineering department, or in the day school. 

Through the success of this particular innovation in the field of employee 
training, it has been demonstrated that, with proper planning and organization, 
idle manpower can be trained and conditioned to meet available employment. 
On the operator level, our plant in Paterson does not face any problem dealing 
with shortage of labor. It is our earnest conviction that this scheme which we 
have developed, and which has proved so successful, can be modified to meet any 
demand that may be made upon us. 

SUCCESS FORMXn-A FOR TRAINING PROGBAM 

In conclusion I would like to take the liberty of offering a formula that wiU 
insure the success of such a training program in any community. It revolves 
itself around the principle that industry must be aggressively cooperative in its 
community. Industry must be willing to cooperate in every possible manner 
with all agencies responsible for supporting and administering the educational 
program within its district. 

This may require time on the part of management, donations of equipment, 
and supplies, lending plant personnel to act as teachers, encouraging the city 
and school administrations, or any of a number of similar factors. In any 
case, industry must be willing to give generously whatever help is required. 
Since the Wright organization was first developed in Paterson, our management 
has consistently followed through such a policy of cooperation. That such a 
coperative policy cnn produce results has surely been proved in our present 
situation. In spite of the stress and the strain of the tremendous expansion 
through which we have been passing, this policy of industry cooperating with 
local government and school oflicials has made it possible for the Wright plant 
to engineer a most important phase of our personnel problem to a most satis- 
factory conclusion. 



Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 14, I offer a report on the activities of the 
Fort Dix Community Service of Pointville, N. J., by Mrs. William 
Grobler, chairman. 

(The report referred to above is as follows:) 

Exhibit 14. — Fort Dix CoiXMUNiTY Service, Pointville, N. J. 

REPORT BY MRS. WILLIAM GROBLER, CHAIRMAN 

The Fort Dix Community Service was organized September 26, 1940. All 
agencies doing social work were invited to join in a cooperative movement to 
meet the needs of health, welfare, and recreation, as well as housing and em- 
ployment in the Fort Dix area, with the result that 19 agencies participated. 
They are actively associated and working in this project supported entirely by 
voluntary contributions. This is an outstanding example of the ability of 
individuals and agencies to work together harmoniously for one great objective ; 
a real democracy at work. The commanding officer of the fort cooperated by 
appointing a liaison cfhcer to represent the United States Army on our executive- 
board. The. Fort Dix Community Service is a local community defense council 
chartered by the State defense council, January 1, 1941. 

Our first project was an information bureau at Wrightstown dispensing infor- 
mation as to transportation facilities, timetables, housing facilities, movies, 
church services, etc., in the surrounding towns. This service is available to- 
civilians (principally construction workmen) and soldiers seeking accommoda- 
tions for visiting families. Over l.GOO placements have been made through this 
bureau to say nothing of all the other services rendered. 



5828 TRENTON HEAJIINGS 

Our next venture was to find adequate headquarters. Whenever opportunity 
afforded, soldiers were asked "What is the most desirable thing that could 
be planned for you for your leisure time off the post." In every instance the 
reply was first "A place as near like home as possible," and second, "A good 
cup of coffee." These requests resulted in our securing a portion of the Meth- 
odist Parish Hall in Pointville through the very generous cooperation of the 
Methodist Church. A room 23 fee,t by 48 feet was comfortably furnished and 
opened for service on January 26* 1941. This is a place where soldiers may 
come to read books and current magazines, write letters (we furnish the sta- 
tionery), play chess, checkers, ping-pong, darts, quoits, badminton, tune in their 
favorite radio station, play the piano or victrola. Our library now numbers 
1,500 volumes. 

HOUSE MOTHERS 

House mothers are always there from about four in the afternoon until 
10 oclock closing time. These women are trained volunteers and chosen for 
their ability to understand young men, to inspire confidence and listen to any 
soldier when he cares to talk about his interests or his worries. There are 
cookie jars fil'ed with home-made cookies to which the boys help themselves. 
Each evening between 8 :30 and 9 o'clock coffee is served with the cookies. 

A fully equipped sewing basket is always handy so the house mother can 
sew on buttons or sew up a seam or do a bit of mending. 

The soldier takes great pride in bringing in the family or his best girl on 
Sundays when they visit him so that they may see where he spends his time 
"off the post." To sum it all up "A substitute for home." 

Policy and program are being developed to meet the needs as they arise. 
One point of policy has been definitely established and that is the soldier does 
not pay for any service rendered in the building. The soldiers help very 
materially in building program. They have established checker, chess, and 
camera clubs, dramatic clubs, and are now having talent nights. Various 
civilian groups are bringing in evenings of games and music. There is a 
Methodist church next door which has cooperated wholeheartedly and allowed 
the church auditorivmi to be used for glee clubs and concerts, following which 
they come into the center for fellowship and refreshments. 

Another very important phase of the work is hospitality in the homes. 
There are several thousand soldiers who cannot go home when they have a 
week-end pass because of the distance. An invitation to come home for the 
week end or for Sunday dinner is a great thing when a fellow is homesick 
or blue. 

RECORDS OF ATTENDANCE 

It is sometimes difficult to keep accurate records of attendance with three 
entrances so we know our count is low, but our records show 7,099 soldiers 
and 3,750 civilians used the building during May. This record surely proves 
a definite need. Our aim and desire is to help these young men have an 
experience which will be of real value in their lives beyond military training. 
A soldier will learn to know his neighbor, to have a sympathetic understand- 
ing, to be able to look deeper than the surface for real worth and strength of 
character. From our conversations with them we know this is happening 
and we are sure they will return home with a greater faith in mankind. 

Young INIen's Christian Association. Women's clubs. 

Young Women's Christian Association. Parent-Teachers' Association. 

Salvation Army. Family Service Bureau. 

Jewish Welfare Board. County Library. 

Travelers Aid. W. C. T. U. 

Officers' Wives. W. P. A. 

Veterans' organizations. State Troopers. 

Welfare and social organizations. Board of Freeholders. 

Religious groups. State Board of Health. 

Red Cross. Alcoholic Beverage Control. 

Grange. 

Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 15, 1 offer a report by Mr. Charles L. Kofke, 
director of research and statistics of the New Jersey Unemployment 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5829 

Compensation Commission, to which is appended material excerpted 
from the pamphlet Labor Supply and Demand in New Jersey During 
April 1941. 

(The report and other material referred to above are as follows:) 

Exhibit 15. — Report of Unemployment Compensation Commission on Migration 
TO New Jersey 

by charles l. kofke, director of eesearxh and statistics, state of new jersey 
unemployment compensation commission, trenton, n. j. 

April 2, 1941. 

We have made a survey of the Newark, Jersey City, Camden, and Dover areas 
In New Jersey in order to determine the extent of any worker migration which 
exists. 

Our report on this subject is quite negative in that to the best of our ability 
we have been unable to discover that any abnormal worker migration exists 
at all in New Jersey. We are attaching a list of the persons of various agencies 
with whom we have consulted in order to arrive at this conclusion. Without 
exception, all of these persons have advised that they know of no local problems 
that have arisen because of worker migration in connection with defense em- 
ployment. This is not to say, of course, that the incrense of employment in 
certain areas has not aggravated the need for housing which has existed for 
some time. The vei-y increase in employment and income of workers resident 
in a locality in itself is bound to aggravate housing needs, since all workers 
naturally desire to better their housing facilities as increased income makes the 
payment of higher rentals possible. Thus, without any migration, the more 
habitable dwellings become increasingly scarce, and whatever vacancies exist 
tend to become more and more unirih;d)it.nble. 

Unquestionably, in areas such ns Kearny, Dover, and Camden there has been 
a considerable increase in employment. Without considerable research which 
will involve questioning of the employees of the employers in these areas, it la 
not possible to determine how much of this increased employment is made up 
of each of the three components listed as follows: 

1. Those already resident in the area. 

2. Those newly resident in the area. 

3. Those newly employed in the area, not resident, but commuting from distant 
points. 

Only through a study aimed at an analysis of the employers' pay rolls in 
accordance with the above can reliable data be obtained. However, there is 
much evidence, particularly with regard to the Keai-ny and Dover areas, that 
many workers who account for the increase in employment commute by per- 
sonal auto from distant points. For example, we have been advised that many 
workers at the Picatinny Arsenal near Dover commute by driving from distances 
up to 50 miles from Dover. A number of workers commute daily to the Pica- 
tinny Ar.senal from Easton, Pa. Again, for example, officials of the Western 
Electric Co. in Kearney advised us that their workers commute from 187 d'fferent 
municipalities in New Jersey. It is also known that workers in the New York 
Shipbuilding Co. in Camden commute daily from distant suburban points of 
Philadelphia in Pennsylvania. 

The volume of this intercounty and even interstate commuting is both a 
result and a cause of housing shortages in the areas of expanded employment. 
Workers, upon finding new employment at distant points, first use private cars 
for commuting and then endeavor to find suitable housing facilities; they con- 
tinue to conunute. Thus housing needs and highway congestion are but two 
phases of the same problem. 

In summary, then, increase of employment in certain defense manufacturing 
localities in New Jersey has not created any problems of the types that arise as 
a result of mass migrations. Rather, at this time such increases in employment 
in New Jersey localities have only intensified the twin problems of housing 
and highway transportation. 



5830 TRENTON HEARINGS 

Repoet on Labok IVIigration in New Jeksey — Persons Interviewed 

Henry C. Von Wiegen, employment service, Newark district supervisor. 

James L. Wall, employment service, Newark local office manager. 

George T. Zachary, employment service, Bloomfield local office manager. 

John Rapp, employment service, Harrison local office manager. 

Joseph Kelly, employment service, Jersey City local office manager. 

Ben Rabinowiiz, employment service, Hoboken local office manager. 

William W. Lawrence, employment service, Union City local t;ffice manager. 

Henry Boissevain, employment service, Bayonne local office manager. 

Edgar R. Torkelson, employment service, interviewer in charge. 

Augustus E. Lilley. employment service, Camden local office manager. 

Harold Letts, executive director. Urban League of New Jersey. 

Mrs. William Glatt, secretary. Travelers' Aid Society, Newark. 

E. W. WoUmuth, executive vice president, Newark Chamber of Commerce. 

Capt. P. Butler, Salvation Army, Newark. 

Mrs. Robert Whelan, director. Mount Caimel Guild, Newark. 

Harvey Harris, Bloomfield Real Estate Board. 

J. Schaffer, secretary, Jersey City Chamber of Commerce. 

Mr. Berla, president, Dover Chamber of Commerce. 

Robert G. Wall, field manager, Dover Chamber of Commerce. 

Robert Schwartz, Dover Real Estate Board. 

M. L. Day, secretary. United States Civil Service Commission, Picatinny 
Arsenal. 

P. H. Porter, mayor of Wharton, N. J. 

W. P. Partenkeimer, general secretary, Camden Young Mens' Christian Associa- 
tion. 

Francis J. Hill, secretary, Camden Chamber of Commerce. 

Ma.i. William Harrison, Camden Salvation Army. 

Horace Dickson, executive director, Camden Housing Authority. 

William W. Logan, director of welfare, Camden. 

George W. Griffiths, Unemployment Compensation Commission advisory council. 

Exhibit 15-A. — Excebpts From Labor Market Report, ES-274, for New Jersey, 
FOB Period March 27 to April 26, 1941 

(Below are excerpts from a mimeographed pamphlet appended to Mr. Kofke's 
report. As the material contained therein was of a confidential nature, intended 
for internal administrative use of unemployment-compensation agencies, names of 
coi-porations and other identifying matter have been deleted.) 

New Jersey's labor department reported construction for the month of 
March to be nearly five times the March average for the last 22 years. Only 
4 other similar months exceeded March 1941 during that entire period. Build- 
ing plans approved numbered six times the average for the last 22 years. 

Employers in 27 New Jersey communities received 90 percent of the total 
of $1,600,000,000 in contracts let through the 15th of Marcli for defense prepara- 
tion, thereby reflecting a potential, employment demand for this month and 
for many succeeding months. Contracts for, roundly, ten million were awarded 
for the period March 16 to 31. Last month's contracts included reciprocating 
engines of the old style, 2,500-horsepower type, which will be used in emergency 
cargo vessels of 10- and 11-knot speed. Aviation continues to receive potential 
work demands in contracts for engines and maintenance parts. During the 
last half of March, six New Jersey firms were certified to build plant facilities 
deemed necessary to the defense program. During the week ending April 12, 
over 1114 million dollars in contracts were awarded New Jersey clothing fac- 
tories and textile mills for the manufacture of coats, jackets, trousers, and 
serge cloth. One contract for the last item amounts to over $4,000,000. Other 
contracts announced for that week amounted to slightly more than $1,000,000. 
Miscellaneous contracts for a wide variety of products have continued to flow 
into this State. 

Favorable weather conditions have accelerated farm activities within the 
State, and farmers are said to be having difficulty in keeping up with the 
season. Long hours are needed to prepare the soil for spring planting. 

Some addition to the labor market is expected when the W. P. A. projects 
now being brought to completion are terminated. Further additions to the 
labor supply are expected as a result of the resettlement program for refugees. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5831 



BUYING EXTRA FAEM MACHINERY 

Labor shortages in agriculture, both farm and dairy, are being met by the 
purchase of extra machinery, automatic equipment, and the like. The attitude 
of the owners is that they will produce what they can with what they have, and 
that if labor shortages prevent them from completing their harvest, they will 
have to leave the rest go. Truck farmers in meadowland areas will be par- 
ticularly hit because the soft ground does not lend itself to the use of ma- 
chinery. Likewise, in the dairy industry, labor shortages prevent the pro- 
cessing of milk produced ; cows will have to be sold. It is thought that help 
for the canneries and other highly concentrated production operations will be 
almost impossible to get. Because of the competition by defense activities for 
workers, it is expected that labor is going to be "tough to get at any price." 
Army inductions are also contributing to the difficulty, removing 5,300 em- 
ployables from normal occupations this month. It is expected that there will 
be a demand for family men between 40 and 50, not likely to be called into 
service. On the whole, the shortage is estimated by the State labor department 
to be about 28 percent in spite of a 10-percent increase in wage rates. 

Clearance activity for the month indicates a series shortage of institutional 
service help. The shortage of trained nurses is so severe that arrangements 
have been made with the department of institutions and agencies for a complete 
survey of all known professional and attendant personnel within the State. 
The employment service is requesting interviews with such persons for the 
purpose of informing them of the need in State institutions. Expected shoi't- 
ages in skilled and semiskilled industrial occupations continue. The following 
table gives an analysis of clearance activity for the month : 



Occupation group 


Orders 


Numbers 
needed 


Unfilled 
shortages 


Place- 
ments 


Professional and managerial 


33 
24 
11 
6 

38 
6 


110 
40 
■ 244 
10 
431 
256 
60 


126 

148 

279 

4 

al- 
ios 

42 


9 










Agricultural forestry fishery etc 




Skilled industrial .. 


91 




61 


Unskilled 









Mainly institution attendants. 



Demand for workers in the clothing industry is being made more acute by 
the addition of new firms to the roll of covered employers solely for the purpose 
of ob:aining Federal conti'acts. 

Automobile repair operations may be seriously curtailed if defense industries 
continue to pull mechanics away from that type of service. Conditions in 
southwest area are said to be "alarming" because men are "leaving in droves." 
A committee of the Camden Automotive Trade Association has been appointed 
to study the problem. 

During the latter half of the month of April, the Co. continued 

their reciuitment campaign throughout the State of New Jersey for tool-room ca- 
pabilities, production-shop skills, production-control experience, white-collar 
men, brass molders, and engineering draftsmen, designers, etc. Local offices 
combed the active and inactive files for the second time. Because of their 
willingness to pay higher starting rates for both fully .skilled and partly skilled 
applicants, they were able to obtain 140 mechanics and trainees in various parts 
of the State. These results were obtained by almost complete removal of age 
restrictions and acceptance of partly skilled applicants for further training at 
the plant. Extensive advertising continues and will be follwowed up by 
recruitment activities in the Asbury Park and Newark areas during the week 
of May 3. Their clearance orders, initiated last month, continued over the 
present period. 

TRAINING IN HIGH GEAR 



Training for defense in New Jersey continues in high gear, centering around 
activities of the employment service acting in liaision capacity between employers 
and educational authorities. The task of coordinating training with industrial 



5832 TRENTON HEARINGS 

demands is made more complicated by conflicting specification patterns with 
respect to national origin and race, causing oversupply in some areas and short- 
ages in others. This is being overcome by spreading the loads within com- 
mutation areas rather than confining them to jurisdictional boundaries. Where 
rigid specifications exist, there is an oversupply, and where liberal employer 
specifications are in force the supply cannot satisfy the demand. An instance 
illustrates : Because of peculiar machine-operating requirements, shorter trainees 
are not acceptable to the Co., while employers in the Newark in- 
dustrial area do not find such specifications necessary. 

The new crop of high-school graduates and undergraduates is being registered 
in the public schools in anticipation of their absorption, either for the summer 
or permanently into the defense program. In this connection, negotiations 
have begun for inclusion of Civilian Conservation Corps boys in the training 
program. Employers are being encouraged by the employment service and the 
New Jersey supervisor of training within industry to push their personnel to 
higher skills in order that full advantage may be derived from the training of 
recent graduates. In the Camden area aptitude testing in conjunction with 
training will assist materially in filling the demand for over 1,000 production 
workers. 

REHABILITATION OF DELINQUENT YOUTHS 

Rehabilitation of delinquent youths is contributing considerably to the train- 
ing program for national defense. Cooperating with the State board of chil- 
dren's guardians, the National Youth Administration is finding good material 
which might otherwise be lost. Employment service is anticipating the avail- 
ability of high-schools' plant facilities for daytime use during the normal 
summer vacation, particularly in those areas where vocational schools are nor- 
mally operating. 

Organized labor continues to strive for betterment of its position with de- 
mands for closed shop, increased pay, better working conditions, and protest 
against speed-up. Some strikes which began during the last reporting period 
have continued over into this period ; some have been settled. New strikes 
have arisen ; some expected and others without warning. A no-strike, no-lock- 
out agreement was arrived at during the early part of the month between 
associated building contractors and Essex County American Federation of Labor 
locals after 6 months of negotiations. 

The pressure of defense activity is again squeezing heavy industrial activity 
out into the urban residential areas where obsolete plant and equipment are 
being brought back into use. In some instances, these moves have resulted 
in protests from residents of the surrounding areas where noise of operations 
has continued throughout the night. If operating permits are refused on these 
grounds, temporary curtailment of production and employment may be expected. 

A legislative measure creating a State labor mediation board became a law 
of this State when signed by Governor Edison on April 30. Wages and hours 
bill now in the legislature was amended to (1) increase the maximum work- 
week from 40 to 48 hours; (2) exempt individuals earning $200 or more per 
month from its provisions ; also persons now affected by the Federal wages 
and hours law. But provisions are included for a shorter workweek down 
to 40 hours by a wage board named for any specific industry. Scheduled for 
Tuesday, May 6, a public hearing will be given to a measure introduced in the 
State senate to waive the i-estrictions of the 1940 child-labor statute against 
the employment of children between the ages of 12 and 16 in agricultural pur- 
suits during emergencies. (The present shortage in agricultural labor is con- 
sidered such an emergency because it may prevent the harvesting of perishable 
farm products.) The waiving of restrictions could be ordered by the State 
commissioner of labor upon petition of farmers. 

Representative Sutphin is seeking a public hearing in the farm area by the 
Farm Security Administration on the question of establishing migratory labor 
camps in the central and southern agricultural districts in order to ciear up 
alleged misunderstanding of the purpose of such camps and to obtain an index 
of public sentiment. 

CHANGES IN SUPPLY AND DEMAND 

The summer season preparations at the seashore resorts of this State are 
reflected in demands for service occupations by hotels and restaurants. If 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRA'J'ION 5333 

wages offered are reasonable, no difficulty in supplying the demand is anti- 
cipated. The pressure of defense activity is being felt as far south as 
Wildwood and the Cape May peninsula where clothing manufacturers with 
Federal contracts are reemploying garment workers for contracts which are 
expected to carry employment through the summer, provided deliveries of 
material can be obtained. * * * 

Farming activity is having its seasonal upswing in that area, but the farm- 
ers are greatly concerned over the reduced supply of labor, not so much at 
present but certainly when the crop yields arrive. Canneries have begun to 
pack asparagus and are concerned over the probable shortage of help during 
midsummer. In Hammonton, the garment industry is now working at full- 
time capacity, and is in need of experienced single-needle operators. The 
congressional representative in that district is assisting local defense indus- 
tries committee in advoating the reopening of a munitions-loading plant at 
Amatol as a means of preventing the drift of workers from that locality to 
activities in other defense centers. Demand for agricultural help in the 
Millville area is about as expected with apparently no shortage in supply. 
Lay-offs in gaiment industry are attributed to temporary lack of materials. 

Salem reports an estimated need of from 1,500 to 2,000 workers for agricul- 
tural, canenry, and summer amusement service occupations. Expansion in 
the glass industry and defense activity in that area is exepcted to require 
from 150 to 300 more. Housing projects near Penns Grove, to accommodate 
local-defense workers, are expected to draw union carpenters, bricklayers, 
and laborers from the Camden area, since there is a shortage of union mem- 
bers locally. The construction of a modern plant for the Co. 

will draw construction workers either from Philadelphia or Camden for the 
sanie reason. Upon the completion of the plant, tomato cutting, peeling, and 
sorting hands will be required as crops mature. The demand is expected to 
cover a wide range of skills in both sexes, white and colored. Only 200 to 
4U0 are expected to be available. Recruitment from out of the State among 
Italians, and from the Southern States among the colored, may make up the 
need, but opinion is not optimistic. * * * 

ALL BIG FACTORIES ON THREE SHIFTS 

All of the large manufacturers around New Brunswick are now working on 
three shifts. The demand for machinists and machine operators still persists; 
satisfied to some extent by the employment of defense vocational graduates. 
An Army contract * * * has created an additional need for clothing oper- 
ators and may require a Government permit to employ beginners. Several 
other clothing manufacturers in this area have already made such applica- 
tion. Cigar workers are available for part-time work beyond their present 
operations (2 to 21/2 days). Draft age leaves some of the defense graduates 
available. Other trainees refuse low wages and manufactures require more 
experience. The supply of defense trainees is diminishing; candidates plead 
incapability of self-support while training or the expense of travel. Building 
con.«truction workers are available beyond demand. 

One hundred and more employees such as foremen, millwrights, and laborers 
are required by the opening of a zinc and nonferrous processing plant * * * 
at Metuchen in the Perth Amboy area. Two hundred more will be needed 
* * * within the next 60 days as a result of plant expansion f<n- the manu- 
facture of .iewelry. Twenty-five machinists, laborers, radial drill operators, 
and boilermakers will be required * * * in the manufacture of boilers. If 
a contract is received * * * at Perth Amboy, as is expected, they will need 
approximately 1,000 boat-building workers. * * * 

Federal Housing Administration construction in Shrewsbury on 208 homes 
has absorbed local construction workers, 100 percent union. The demand for 
domestics, gardeners, and nursery workers is heavy and difficult to fill because 
of low wages oft'ered ($2.50 per day). 

United States naval base at Bayonne is rapidly getting under way. Informa- 
tion available is conflicting in detail and, therefore, will not be submitted in 
this report. It is expected that the job at the graving dock will require a 
great number of construction workers of all kinds on a closed-shop basis. No 
estimates are available. * * * 

Previously reported expansion programs * * * are now under way, with 
an estim.ated need for 900 steel workers, 1.000 machine workers, 4-50 small parts 
bench workers; some already hired. Occupations listed include operators of 



5834 TP^ExroN hearings 

lathes, shapers, milling machines and radial drill presses, machinists, tool- 
makers, foundry men, coremakers, molders, patternmakers, furnacemen, rollers, 
roller tenders, and heat treaters. 

Hoboken reports a sudden spurt in ship-repair activities along the water 
front, including repair of sabotage. Shipbuilding experience is at a premium 
and restrictions are "all off" in specifications. Blanket orders are the rule. 
Lack of shipping has restricted stevedore employment to part time. 

Jersey City reports urgent need * * * of sheet metal workers and layout 
men to the extent that specifications on ability have been considerably waived. 
Operators on dress goods, underwear, knitwear, neckwear, and leather products 
are badly needed. Laundry workers and silk pressers are in demand. White- 
collar shortages include * * * bookkeeping, full charge bookkeepers, male 
stenographers, office machine operators, tool crib attendants, draftsmen, electrical 
engineers, and mechanical engineers. 

AGE SPKCinCATIONS NOT EEXAXED 

Employers in the Jersey City area have not relaxed specifications on age suf- 
ficiently to absorb the older men of former skill, many of whom have not worked 
for 15 years. Workmen in nondefense industries have naturally drifted to 
defense activity when laid off because of lack of material. Trainees continue to 
be available because of prohibitive employer specifications. Some garment manu- 
facturers have reached their slack season. General factory help without specific 
skill, clerical help, and truck drivers are available. Approximately 5,000 building- 
trades workers of all grades contribute to the active file. The supply of guards, 
watchmen, cooks, waiters, chauffeurs, and textile fabrication workers is plentiful. 

The demand for skilled and semiskilled workers is extreme in Newark. * * * 
The expected installation of four electric steel furnaces * * * will require 
200 or 300 men, 12 of whom will have to be experienced in the operation of such 
furnaces. * * * 

A small supply of machine-shop trainees is available at this time. Available 
skilled workers are negligible in umber and higher-type unskilled workers arj 
no longer available. 

In the Clifton area, existing plants are being expanded. * * * Addi- 
tional shifts are anticipated in the woolen industries requiring winders, warp- 
ers, and weavers who are now in training (numbers not given). Tliree hun- 
dred and fifty workers were laid off in the clothing industry, in insulation man- 
ufacture and in can manufacture because of the shortage of materials ; but 

since reemployed. The Co. will open a branch requiring 150 

operators for the manufacture of house dresses. Because of the low wages 
offered, the openings are difficult to fill. Other industrial influx is taking place 
but numbers and occupations needed are not available. The demand for sew- 
ing-machine operators continues. 

Vocational-school graduates are available because local employers are not 
absorbing them. 

HACKENSACK NEEDS MACHINE 0PEKAT0R8 

Orders have been received for machine operators and helpei's * * * in 
the Hackensack area (numbers not given). * * * Labor in unknown quan- 
tities will be required for the construction of a highway bridge on Route 1 
at Fairview, through the Federal Works Agency. Other construction indicates 
future demand not estimable at this time. 

In the Morristown area, semiskilled and skilled workers are in slight demand 
and available. Young males with radio assembly experience are required 
• * *. Unskilled, semiskilled, and clerical workers are required for con- 
struction, arsenal work, and nursery operations (numbers not given). * * * 

The textile industries, both manufacturing and dyeing, continue to remain 
active beyond the normal seasonal period. * * * 

In Burlington, * * * sewing-machine operators * * * ai'e still needed 
(numbers not given). Foundry molders, still available after the closing down of 

the — plant, are refusing to accept placement outside that area 

(numbers not given). Plenty of material is reported as available for defense 
training. 

Camden reports the beginning of operations ♦ * * for the manufacture 
of surface grinders requiring 10 workers. Future expansion is inevitable but 
estimates are not available at this time. Shipyards continue to expand opera- 
tions ; 100 in skilled machine trades are needed ; loftsmen, ship fitters, and other 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5835 

shipbuilding occupations are in demand. The radio manufacturing industry is 
in great need of technically trained young men Plans are in progress for ex- 
pected graduates to enter training courses between now and the time of their grad- 
uation, thus making them available for full production immediately upon the 
completion of their last school term. * * * While defense activity in this 
area is nil, employers are receiving the backlog, not produceable where defense 
activities are in priority. There is a distinct trend of workers away from this 
area : attracted by higher wages. Farm labor is badly needed. Forty dollars 
Tier month, living on the farm, and $50 to $60 for married men, is being 
refused, even though the rates are 25 percent above accepted pay last year (no 
estimate of numbers). 



HIRING IN PHnXIPSBUBG 

Phillipsburg continues hiring at the rate of about 50 per week, probably to 
July 1, to fill heavy machine-shop occupations. The local office expects to meet 
the demand of plant expansion for semiskilled occupations as well as machine- 
tool operators. Estimates are not given. Approach toward completion of tlie 
• * * plant at Belvidere is providing a surplus of construction workers in 
this area. The process is gradual. Although 1.600 workers are involved, no 
problem is anticipated. Two hundred textile dye workers, presumably of the 
unskilled type, formerly employed in this area, have been absoi'bed * * *. 

The probability is strong that will absorb 200 or more of the 

remaining idle textile workers upon the opening of that plant around July 1. 
The process uses the new color screen-printing technique. 

The Co. in Trenton is resuming operations on a contract calling 

for * * * 35 airplanes per week. All machine-tool operations in this area 
lack manpower. Brass molders, mold makers (presumably steel), electrical and 
mechanical engineers, male and female stenographers, cooks and short-order men, 
countermen and waitresses, rubber-mill men, and rubber calender operators are 
all in demand (numbers not given). There is a distinct demand in this area for 
vocational trainees, not of the beginner type, but more of the kind who are 
already working and need further training. Need is expressed for evening voca- 
tional courses. Through advertising and recruitment drives, defense workers 
have been discovered to be available both in quantity and quality (occupations 
and numbers are not given). Because of a lack of raw materials (made scarce 

by fuel shortages at the smelters), the Co. has been compelled to lay 

off temporarily about 250 of its employees, pending the receipt of more material. 
Thirty-two vocational machine-shop gradutes are still available out of 197 train- 
ees; the probability of placement is high. Sheet-metal workers are available. 

The Corporation has begun occupying a plant reported purchased 

in the last report. White-collar workers have already been placed. Two hun- 
dred workers with storage-battery experience will be required initially. The 
plant starts with 350 and soon 1,000 will be needed. This estimate is calledi 
conservative. 

A unique request has been received by the Woodbury office * * * at 
Gibbstown, seeking high-school teachers to fill the places of men who are expected 
to go on vacation during the summer. 

LABOR STRINGENCIES 

Severe stringency in farm labor and cannery occupations (now and through- 
out the harvest season) in the Bridgeton area is attributed mainly to long hours, 
low wages, and competition of defense activities. Stringency in the garment 
trades continues around Hammonton where employment has continued beyond 
the normal season. Therefore, usually expected berry pickers will not be 
available from among those workers. There is a shortage * * * in the 
Salem area of white boys 5 feet 10 inches and weighing 160 pounds for shipping- 
department labor; the "turn-over is heavy. * * * As to nonskilled agricul- 
tural labor, unless a supply becomes available stringency will become acute within 
the summer. 

STRINGENCIES IN ELIZABETH AREA 

In the Elizabeth area, stringencies continue as previously reported. Restaur- 
ant workers are difficult to find. Defense openings are paying more for shorter 
hours. New Brunswick reports difficulty in semiskilled and unskilled occupa- 



5836 TRENTON HEARINGS 

tions because workers are refusing to accept 33 to 35 cents an hour in lamp 
manufacture, clothing manufacture, cigar manufacture, and box manufacture. 

Orders for (from 75 to lUO) laborers cannot be tilled for the Co., 

becauiie of nationality, education, and marital status specifications. Sewing- 
machine operators are scarce; manufacturers contemplate seeking licenses for 
the training of beginnners as operators. Skilled machinists and machine opera- 
tors continue to be scarce. Specifications avoiding certain nationalities and 
draft ages are contributing to the acuteness of the general sliortage. The same 
restrictions hold in the Perth Amboy area and, in addition, strict medical re- 
quirements. Machinists, tool and die makers, draftsmen, and skilled machine 
operators are needed. 

In the Plainfield area, tool makers, lathe operators, and all types of ma- 
chinists continue to be scarce because of certain foreign extraction limitations 
together with citizenship specifications. Even laborers who can satisfy rigid 
physical specifications are almost impossible to obtain. Neither resident nor 
out-of-town laborers can be induced to work in the Somerville area because the 
rates paid are not attractive. The local communities are not large enough to 
supply the necessary labor for their large plants. Sharp stringencies exist in 
this area. 

The construction of the Graving dock at Bayonne is expected to cause 
stringency in all construction occupations. Skilled metal trades also are 
needed. Necktie operators are not to be found in this area and the shops manu- 
facturing for the Army are badly in need of them. Because the seasonal slump 
has not occurred in the garment industry in this area, the demand cannot be 
met. Employers are resorting against their desire to the employment of be- 
ginners as trainees. Earmarking of trainees is handicapping placement in the 
Harrison area. The local office is unable to supply demand for workers in ship- 
building, telephone, and radio manufacture, roller bearing, pump and machinery 
manufacture, and steel manufacture. 

HOBOKEN NONDEFENSE INDUSTRIES SUFFER 

Because defense industries are absorbing at higher rates stringencies exist 
in the Hoboken area. For noudefense industries, where skilled workers have 

quit, skilled and .semiskilled are difficult to obtain. A division of 

Corporation is still unable to obtain help at $1 an hour because the prevailing 
rate for machinists is between .$1.10 and $1.25. The present shortage of ship- 
yard workers is expected to be aggravated in the near future when natives of 
northern New England return to that area upon the opening of shipyards there. 
Acute shortage of sheet-metal workers, machinists, and tool and die makers 
exist. If employers, who are depending upon Government underwriting of 
their expansion neetls, decide to expand, the present shortages will become 
more acute. Union City reports a shortage of young factory workers for light 
operations. lieferables to the National Youth Administration training courses 
are diminishing in number. 

Laborers willing to work in the Irvington area for 35 cents an hour are difficult 
to obtain. One cause of labor stringency in the Newark area is the unwilling- 
ness of employers to relax specifications. Several industries report that they 
are unable to add additional shifts. Experienced steel rolling-mill workers 
are scarce and the demand for machine set-up men is general and unfilled. 
It is reported that the Corporation (aeroplane specially manu- 
facturers) will pay almost any price for qualified draftsmen. In Summit, Anglo- 
Saxon junior male and female workers are noticeably unobtainable. 

ACUTE SHORTAGE OF WEAVERS 

There is a dire shortage of weavers, winders, and menders for the woolen 
industry in the Clifton area (estimated to be about 100). Spanners in the 
handkerchief industry are scarce. Skilled machinists and machine-tool opera- 
tors are placed immediately upon referral, when found. Stringency is increas- 
ing in the following occupations : All male restaurant help, male stenographers 
(18 to 21), female industrial learners, comptomeier operators, bookkeeping- 
machine operators, and white farm and horticulture labor. Shortages are said to 
apply to nondefense industries where the rates paid are not attractive enough 
to hold workers in competition with defense wages. Because of better wage 
rates than local employers have heretofore paid, Picatinny has drained the 
Dover labor market, affecting occupations such as store clerks, sewing-machine 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5837 

operators, factory laborers, farmers, and especially machinists. The situation 
is becoming acute. The same condition is spreading into the Morristown area. 
Shortages in the Paterson area are definite (but not given) especially in defense 
skills. Not even an adequate supply of laborers is available. The present 
stringency of skilled machine hands in the Burlington area gives indications 
of becoming more acute. The radio-manufacturing industry in ihe Camden 
area is concerned over the shortage of technically trained youth who are 
needed in si^ecial instrument production for the Government. Stringencies ap- 
parent in shipbuilding occupations, machine-tool trades, and through all grades 
of machinisis are expected to become more severe in proportion to increases 
in p:ant facilities now in the making or contemplated. Unless employers in the 
Flemingtcm area are soon willing to pay higher wages, it is believed that they 
will be unable to hold their employees against the inducements developed by 
stringencies in other areas. 

Farmers in the Phillipsburg area are reported to be actually disposing of 
their properties because of the scarcity of dairy-farm labor. Where possible, 
milking machinery is being bought in hasty attempts to forestall the time when 
total lack of hired labor will make the operation of dairies little more than 
family affairs. Causes are said to be: absorption in the armed forces, enroll- 
ment in Civilian Conservation Corps, and competition with manufacturing and 
construction industry. Piracy is said to be the cause of limited stringencies 
of machine-tool operators around Phillipsburg and Hackettstown. Shortages of 
arc welders, electricians, draftsmen, and defense occupations are considered 
very likely in the Trenton area. An acute shortage of auto mechanics of the 
better type exists because of defense wages offered and because those in the 
active file do not meet up with specifications submitted by employers. The 
stringency of farm labor in the Woodbury area is increasing and threatens to 
become serious as the season advances. 

PROVISIONS FOB ADEQUATE LABOR SUPPLY 

1. Greater utUizntion of qualified laior. — Throughout the State, newspaper 
advertising, both by employers and by the local offices, has not prodviced expected 
results. Local managers in agricultural and dairy districts report that even 
the farmers are advertising. The defense registration program has not pro- 
duced desired results. The State-wide use of local and interstate clearance 
procedures has had a marked increase. Managers are resorting to every con- 
ceivable device for attracting applicants. As a result of individual effort on 
the part of the local managers, there will be practically 100 percent enrollment 
of graduates from the pubic schools by the time the present school term is 
ended. Local conferences in connection with the change in unemployment 
compensation law have served as a means of bringing the Employment Service 
before the general public. 

In the Toms River area, an experience cited is typical of reaction in other 
local areas. An order for skilled mechanics in the plumbing and heating trades 
was served in the usual manner. Five applicants sent succeeded in obtaining 
other jobs at higher rates before the employer could make up his mind. The em- 
ployer was glad to be able to accept a less skilled applicant at a much higher 
rate than he had offered. In the Somerville area employers have begun 
to refer to each other applicants at their own doors whom they cannot 
use. * * * 

DEFENSE SCHOOL IN HOBOKEN 

The defense school at Stevens in Hoboken, has proved to be an effective 
means of developing technical qualifications. Within .3 days after the first term 
ended on April 7, 18 trainees out of 30 had been placed. Up to the present, 
only 2 remain unplaced, 1 because of nationality and the other because of 
personal characteristics. An elaborate system of employment procedure and 
testing was tried out in cooperation with the Corporation, includ- 
ing self-administered tests in the local ofiice. Failure of the procedure to pro- 
duce results, is attributed to lack of speed and to the low rates offered the 
applicants. 

INIost offices throughout the State remain open until 10 o'clock at least two eve- 
nings a week for the registration of applicants who are seeking better jobs than 
they now hold. * * * in that [Newark] area employers are offei'ing bonuses 
and other similar encouragement to attract applicants. Little success is reported 
in discouraging the practice. Employers in the Morristown area are olfering 



5838 TRENTON HEADINGS 

higher rates to keep local labor. In the Burlington area an Increase of 10 cents in 
rates offered has not produced appreciable results. The Camden oflBce is using a 
testing program to find qualified trainees and candidates for direct referral. In- 
creased use of the employment service is reported. A special recruitment program 
was conducted during the last month. The initial success of tlie national-defense 
drive for enrollment in the Phillipsburg area has since lagged. * * * Em- 
ployers are reported to be sending personnel representatives into the Trenton area 
for interview at the local hotels. In an attempt to meet the demand for farm help 
the Woodbury local oflice obtained the cooperation of local relief administrators 
but without appreciable results. That office has registered the graduates of the 
Glassboro Normal School. Irvington reports that newspaper notice of night inter- 
views at the local oflice produced applicants from a distance of 50 miles. 

2. Utilization of related occupations. — In the Elizabeth area some employers 
who have reviewed the qualifications of their own employees have in many in- 
stances discovered unknown qualifications. In the Perth Amboy area employers 
have succeeded in holding together in their agreement to rigidly refrain from 
interplant recruiting. * * * 

3. Modification of skill requirements. — The shortage of applicants in the Eliza- 
beth area is so great that employers have completely relaxed their requirements 
and are accepting any who show promise of ability. 

In the New Brunswick area employers are beginning to relax their specifications. 

The Co. in Pertli Amboy is now accepting lathe operators without 

recent experience. But in the Somerville area employers continue to require rigid 
medical examinations and strict adherence to job specifications. Modification of 

skill requirements is not yet apparent in the Harri.son area. [four 

companies] in the East Orange area will now accept applicants with some ma- 
chine-shop background for brush-up training. Other employers, though adver- 
tising for skill, are accepting semiskilled applicants. * * * gome relaxation 
on age and experience requirements is reported around Clifton, though employers 
hesitate to reduce requirements. Morristown age specifications are relaxing, and, 
to some degree, skill requirements also. Hoboken reports further reduction in 
specification requirements, including broadened age limits, less skill, and a com- 
plete relaxation of recent experience. The scale of wages for unskilled labor 
varies from 50 to 62i/^ cents, having risen in 2 mouths from 45- to the 50-cent 
range. 

4. Training. — Atlantic City reports continuation of gas and electric welding 
training but with few placements. High-school classes in woodworking and 
sheet-metal craft and rural-youth classes are the only training being done 
in the Bridgeton area. An additional cour.se in slieet-metal working is con- 
templated at the Elizabeth vocational school. Applicants for defense-training 
courses are falling off in that area. The explanation is that boys are un- 
willing to sacrifice opportunities in jobs which they can obtain without train- 
ing. Advanced training for day workers is being continued at the New 
Brunswick vocational night-school courses. Similar supplementary training 

is being given in Perth Amboy and in-training is continuing. The 

of South Amboy, is planning to train beginners on single and double needle 
sewing machines. More and more employers in the Plainfield area are in- 
stituting in-training for younger workers to an extent which has caused a 
shortage of candidates (numbers required are not given). Fifteen boys are 
taking an 8-week National Youth Administration machinist training course 
in the Red Bank area. * * * 

Harrison reports 102 trainees in school for the Co. in a pro- 
gram which must provide 1,200 by the 15th of October. Hoboken again re- 
ports that trainess for the Stevens Institute defense course have practically 
been absorbed and that similar shortages are being felt of trainees for ma- 
chine-shop courses. None of the Hoboken industries thus far contacted by 
the representative for training-within-industry have signified a desire to use 
the facilities of the service in that respect, preferring to try the outside mar- 
ket. During the past month, Jersey City has referred over 100 trainees 
for defense under a plan to replace each graduate immediately with a new 
candidate. 

In Irvington, so few graduates of high schools appear to be available that 
the recruitment of defense trainees has become a problem. Out of 518 in 1 
graduation class, .slightly more than 78 percent are planning to continue studies. 
Of the remaining few, not many are interested in vocational training, mainly, 
becau.se they do ont need the money. Another high school in a different 
residential area listed 100 of its graduates as interested in Army or Navy 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5839 

training schools; 99 in engineering and shop trades; 23 in law and medicine 
(the lowest in their experience). A small percentage of the graduates are 
not continuing studies and are being registered. Employees in the Newark 
area are reluctant to make commitments on advance needs of trainees, giving 
their reasons as inability to control their sources of material supply. Fed- 
eral restrictions prevent advanced training of defense graduates on specific 
machines, thereby, reducing the opportunities for placement of desirable in- 
dividuals. Selective service is beginning to pull out of defense industries 
trainees who have already received further in-training, thereby, creating an 
extra turn-over and adding further load to the training program. 

Woolen and machine manufacturing industries in the Clifton area 
have adopted in-training methods, using beginners and vocational school 
traintees. * * * During the past month, 10 girls haye started apprentice- 
ships in the school of the — Co. and, to date, 7 have finished their 

courses. Learners are being supplied as needed for this course, which is 
reported to be a forward-looking policy. About May 1, the Work Projects 
Administration power sewing room and the N^itional You:h Administration 
sewing project are reported to be starting in the Paterson area on recom- 
mendation of the local office. The entrance requirements for vocational train- 
ing were broadened to 50 years of age and down to 5 feet 7 inches in height. 
In spite of these changes, acceptable materia] becomes more difficult to 
find. 

******* 

5. Recruitment of workers from other localities. — Hammouton reports that 
Company's recruiting produces no eligibles. The 



Co. is planning recruitment in Pennsylvania if the drive for cannery and agri- 
cultural workers in this State is not successful. 

The ■ — -^ — — Co., of Rahway, continues out-of-State advertising. * * * 

New Brunswick clearance orders, probably because of high specification stand- 
ards, have not produced satisfactory results. Red Bank clearance activity is 
lieavy. Somerville is using clearance to induce workers of lower skills to 
migrate into that area. A special drive has been put on through the local 
Negro preacher to recruij^ colored persons for industries in Bound Brook. The 

Co. continues to advertise in and draw skilled and unskilled 

workers from Pennsylvania. * * * 

in the Newark area are advertising in Pittsburgh for experi- 
enced roll turners and receiving many applications but few from those with 
experience. Employers continue to advertise in New York papers and trade 
magazines. Out of 150 referrals in clearance, Ilackeusack reports six placed by 
other offices. Clearance orders in the Paters-on area are not bringing results 
{although extremely heavy), because the market is practically dried up. 

Little success has rewarded the efforts of farmers in the Woodbury area in 
their attempts to recruit out-of-State labor. Representatives sent to Virginia 
have had no success whatever. This experience seems to be typical of all of 
south Jersey. 

TRENDS IN HIRING PRACTICES 

The Co. at Bridgeton has adopted aptitude tests for packing 

•department applicants. Competition among employers in that area has not 
developed to a point where better wages or working conditions are offered. A 
slight breaking down of age restrictions is attributed to avoidance of draft 
ages rather than broadening of specifications in the Millville area. 

AGE UNSPECIFIED IN ELIZABETH 

In the Elizabeth area, age is no longer a factor in specifications. Competi- 
tion is developing within that area and with adjoining areas where better 
hourly rates and extra time paid cause workers to transfer from one employer 
to another. In the New Brunswick area, age restrictions on skilled machinists 
and mechanics have eased off. Skill requirements also have eased off but race, 
color, and sex specifications still hold. Physical examinations continue to be 
required. Rate competition among employers continues to develop turn-over. 
Rapidly vanishing supply of qualified labor in the Plainfield area is causing em- 
ployers to lower hiring standards. The ceiling on age no longer exists. Negroes 
are now accepted for unskilled labor where formerly excluded. The possibility 



5840 TRENTON HEARINGS 

of the employment of women is advanced. Outside competition is being felt 
although wage rates are not being generally raised to meet it. 

In the Jersey City area, employers are more readily accepting less experienced 
applicants and relaxing on age and skill. In the Bayonne area, employers are 
driven by necessity to relax age and skill requirements. Not so in the Hoboken 
area, where employers are reluctant to relax their job specifications. Competi- 
tion appears to be limited to recruiting practices and has not yet extended to 
wage inducements. Negro cooks and kitchen help are now accepted at Forts 
Monmouth and Hancock, where heretofore, only whites had been taken. Thirty- 
five years continues to be the top hiring age in the Somerville area. The 
Co. is now accepting Negro laborers liaviug high physical qualifi- 
cations. Employer competition has not yet developed. 

East Orange employers are depending more and more on the judgment of the 
local office than upon their own specifications for the matching of applicants 
to their openings, in some instances, furnishing their own application blanks 
for that purpose. The Irvington office reports an insurance qualification pre- 
venting the continuance of an SO-year-old patternmaker in an otherwise com- 
pletely satisfactory placement. The case is not cited as tji)ical, however, but 
indicates complete relaxation of age specifications. Newark reports instances 
of complete investigation of applicants by employers before hiring. Unions are 
beginning to seek applicants through the local office. Private agencies in New 
York are increasing their advertisement in this area, and some employers are 
using those agencies in attempting to fill commercial and professional vacancies. 
The effectiveness of routine calls on defense contractors is shown by their in- 
creased use of local office facilities. Employers are avoiding the draft ages in 
their specifications and are accepting lesser skills than they specified. Large 
plants continue to pirate skilled help with inducements such as premiums, added 
bonus rates, and guaranteed employment, both within and outside the area. 
Summit employers are relaxing, sex, race, and creed specifications. 

CLIFTON ADVERTISING IN NEW YORK FOR LABOR 

Employers in the Clifton area continue to advertise in New York papers and 
trade magazines with poor success. The local office reports almost 100 percent 
coverage of all employer openings for skilled help in that area. While they 
continue to hire unskilled labor at the gate, they generally report that the 
number applying is decreasing. Age and skill specifications are relaxing but not 
so in race, color, and sex. Competition of wage rates has practically ceased, 
evidently, because employers have reached their limits under present conditions. 
National defense vocational training in the Hackensack area now includes 
trainees up to 50 years of age. Local applicants in the Morristown area are being 
placed outside that area but competition is developing in that area for domestics. 

Burlington reports no limits on specifications other than physical ability. Com- 
petition is developing in wage rates. The number of employers served by the 
Camden testing program is increasing. Occasionally, employers are accepting 
applicants over 60 years of age when qualified ; that age appears to be the ceiling 
at this time. Applicants with lower than specified skills are being hired, but 
little progress is being made in the placement of negroes on skilled jobs. Outside 
competition though attempted, has not been successful in this area. Flemington 
reports inquiries from employers who heretofore have refused to use this service. 
Some competition of farmers and employers of small numbers is reported. Em- 
ployers outside the Phillipsburg area have been moderately successful with local 
newspaper advertising. 

The unions in the Trenton area are placing the recruitment problem of certain 
local employers before the Employment Service with blanket orders for sewing- 
machine operators. Defense industry employers' specifications have been con- 
siderably relaxed. Otherwise satisfactory applicants are accepted at 65 years 
of age and physically handicapped are given opportunities. Keen local competi- 
tion is developing. Small shops are losing out to large plants with defense 
. contracts. Applicants to the latter get higher wages by denying local employ- 
ment. Unsatisfactory wages are the cause. Outside employers are advertising 
locally for hotel room interviewers. As a result, local machinists' rates have 
risen from the 60- to 70-cent range to the $1 to $1.20 range. * * * While 
employment in this area has increased (in some instances, over 100 percent) in 
the last year, even keener competition is expected among employers within and 
from outside the area. * * * 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5841 

MISCELLANEOUS COMMENT 

Belief' is expressed that tlie problem of uuemployment in the Atlantic City 
area could be practically eliminated if the defense activity recommended by 
congress onal representatives reopened mmiition plants at Belcoville and Ama- 
tol used during the last war. A survey in the Bridgeton area is being made 
privately to determine idle machine-time. The object is to utilize such time 
by the development of subcontracts sufficient to provide 24 hours' continuous 
operations. In the event that the plan does not mature, there is a strong 
possibility that idle time will be used for vocational or refresher training. 

Employers in the Perth Amboy area continue to advocate inci'eased voca- 
tional training facilities for both male and female workers. Bayonne reports 
lack of material to be causing temporary layoffs. The same condition is reported 
at Red Bank. * * * 

In the Newark area, finished material is piling up in defense plants — par- 
ticularly that awaiting shipment abroad. This condition, together with lack 
of material, as in other locations, is contributing to temporary layoffs and 
hence toward increase in partial unemployment benefits. In some instances 
employers continue to pay for nonproductive time for fear of losing their per- 
sonnel. Primary defense contractors meet difliculty when subletting because 
priorities are not extended to their subcontmctors. It is said that if the method 
of letting defense contracts could be improved more employers would accept 
them and provide greater employment. * * * 

The training school in Clifton for menders was closed down during the 
month of April due to dispute between Federal and local authorities. Serious 
objections were raised to the deft-nse housing project in that area. The at- 
traction of higher wages is reaching vocationnl-school instructors in Passaic. 
Housing construction is expanding rapidly in Bergen County. Labor shortages 
in the Camden area are causing one dress manufacturer to seek an available 
supply in Cumberland County with a possibility of moving the plant to that 
area. 



Mr. Abbott. I offer as Exhibit 16 a report on ptiblic health needs 
by Dr. A. L. Stone, director of the Department of Ptiblic Health, 
Camden, N. J. 

(The report referred to above is as follows:) 

Exhibit 16. — Public Health Service Needs in New Jersey 
bkport by a. l. stone, m. d., director, department of public heai.th, camden, n. j. 

June 19, 1941. 

1. Communicable disease control (including venereal disease and tuberculosis). 

2. Sanitary control of food and water supplies ; also environment. 

3. Maternal and child welfare. 

4. Hospitalization and laboratory facilities. 

Regardless of location, the above four divisions of public-health activities 
must be maintained. If local authorities do not provide the same, and the 
State has no organization, surely the United States Public Health Service, a 
Department of the Federal Government well prepared by past experience to 
establish a health service, should be given the problem. 

My own experience, which includes extra cantonment zone work in the last 
war, leads me to believe that the migration of defense workers thus far, and in 
many places, they have not found sufficient nearby housing and they have located 
anvwhere within automobile distance (even up to 40 miles), which places them 
in "small communities who have no funds for health work. These small places, 
and even larger, almost bankrupt cities, cannot further tax real estate to 
obtain the funds to conduct health work for the increased population. Hence, 
I believe it is a Federal problem to be charged to the defense of the Nation. 
With added personnel and generous travel allowances, many established health 
organizations could be enlarged to do this work if supervised by the United 
States Public Health Service. 



Mr. Abbott. As exhibit 17, I offer a letter from Kalph A. Felton, 
Department of Kural Church, Drew Theological Seminary, Drew 
University, stating his views on certain practices affecting farm 

60396— 41— pt. 14 20 



5842 TRENTON HEARINGS 

laborers, and particularly children employed on farms in New Jersey, 
(The letter referred to above is as follows :) 

ExHiiiiT 17. — Chld Labok Standabds 

Drew Theological Seminary, 

Drew University, 
Madison, N. J., May 27, 19J,1. 
Mr. John W. Abbott, 

Trenton, N. J. 

My Del\r Mr. Abbott : I was very much interested in your letter of May 24 
which came this morning. There seems to be quite a movement throughout the 
country to break down child-labor stanrlards this year. As you know, during 
the first World War the number of children under 16 years of age leaving 
school for work increased in some communities by more than 100 percent. These 
children are not employed in defense induL-itries, but in all sorts of unskilled 
occupations that have no training value. It has been my own feeling that to 
encourage children to curtail their education does not promote national defense 
but rather weakens it. You know, of course, the different States that have 
bills pending before them for the purpose of breaking down the present child- 
labor standards. Bills are pending now in the following States; Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, California, and Florida. 

One of my graduate students, Mr. John Fetzer, worked last year among the 
seasonal laborers in New Jersey. This year he will have similar work with the 
States of Delaware and Maryland added. I am not sure what his address will 
be. but I tliink it will be Whitesbog, N. J. You are also acquainted, no doubt, 
with Miss Edith Lowiy, whose address is 21)7 Fourth Avenue, New I'ork, who 
represents the church organizations interested in migrant workers. 

I have lived in New Jersey for 11 years and I might give you a slant on this 
if you are not a New Jersey resident that might be of help to you. Nobody 
seems to believe anybody else regarding conditions here. A Yale student re- 
cently made a study of conditions among the seasonal workers and none of the 
employers liked his report so they called him a Communist. When some of 
the employers found out that INIiss Lowry was gathering some statistics they 
prohibited her workers to come onto their farms. 

There is another interesting situation here in New Jersey which I think is 
different than in any other State. I used to be connected with Cornell State 
College of Agriculture, and our Farm and Home Week and other farm programs 
there were mass meetings. We would have five or six thousand persons there 
a day for Farm and Home Week. They came to learn. We would have some 25 
or more lectures every hour of the day and people would take their choice as to 
what they would hear. That same situation is true in practically every State. 
Indiana builds its Farm and Home Week program more around its farm organi- 
zations. 

New Jersey is different than any others, however, in that its Farm and Home 
Week is largely a meeting of its farmers' organizations. In other words, the 
cannery people will meet, the vegetable growers will meet, the cranberry people 
will have their meeting, etc. Similarly, when you hear that the farmers want 
some bill changed and are lobbying at Trenton to get this change, it is really not 
the farmers of New .Jersey at all l)ut a small number of representatives of some 
of these organizations. A half dozen cranberry growers will organize an associa- 
tion and their officers will all appear. The same will happen with the people who 
raise asparagus or anything else. You may have a large number of farm or- 
ganizations represented at a hearing, and a most auspicious group of organiza- 
tions, yet they will not represent more than a hundred farmers all over the 
State. This is true all over the United States. People who employ labor and are 
interested in these child-labor standards being changed are in a very small 
minority. Only two one-hundredths of the farm population of the United States 
employ six or more laborers. The great mass of farmers in New Jersey and of 
every other State want to maintain a high standai'd of social legislation and do 
not want to exploit children in the name of tomatoes or aspa)"agus or of national 
defense. 

I am sorry that I cannot get down to Trenton to see you or to this hearing. I 
am leaving in 10 days for Mexico where I shall be teaching for 10 weeks. I am 
anxious to keep in touch with you, however, on these matters. 
Sincerely yours, 

Ralph A. Felton. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5843 

Mr. Abbott. I offer, as exhibit 18, a report by L. Van D. Chandler, 
health officer of the city of Hackensack, N. J., on the dangers inherent 
in overcrowding of the housing facilities of that city. 

(The report referred to above is as follows :) 

Exhibit 18. — Housing Conditions in Hackensack, N. J. 

BY Z,. VAN D. chandler, HEALTH OFFICER 

May 29, 1941. 

While thus far the city of Hackensack has not, to any appreciable degree, 
felt the impact of national-defense migration, we are watching the situation 
with considerable concern, particularly after the experience of Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, this past winter. 

Inevitably, unless we take immediate steps to prevent doubling up of families 
and overcrowding in rooming and boarding houses, we can expect serious out- 
breaks of communicable disease similar to those experienced by Halifax. If 
this migration of workers were from one urban community to another, the 
public-health problem would be no more serious than tliat experienced period- 
ically by the city of Detroit, resulting from the changing activity of the auto- 
mobile industry, but this migration is different. It is the movement of men 
and families from small towns and rural areas into urban centers. These 
people come in with very little immunity acquired from multiple contacts with 
cases or carriers of communicable disease, and in consequence provide perfect 
fuel for epidemics. Serious strain is thus placed upon sanitary and medical 
facilities and the train of evils thereby set in motion have far-reaching conse- 
quences not readily discernible by observation of the immediate problem. 

Being fully cognizant of the extraordinary industrial effort that national 
rearmament is demanding and tlie inevitable ct)mpetition for men and material, 
I am deeply convinced tliat proper housing, together with the necessary munici- 
pal sanitary services will result in immediate measurable savings of time, 
money, and effort not to mention the avoidance of human suffering. 

In thinking of housing for these people I am not thinking in terms of costly 
permanent buildings but of simple temporary structures similar to those built 
by the Du Pont Co. during the last war. These, if my memory serves me 
right, cost between $1,000 and $1,200 per family unit. 

I believe that your committee is working on a problem of national defense of the 
very first importance and one about which there has been given, at least to my 
knowledge, far too little thought. 

Mr. Abbott. I offer, as exhibit 20, a statement by Mr. Hilmar L. 
Jensen, executive secretary of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion of Trenton, in regard to a migration within recent months of 
Negroes to that city. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

Exhibit 19. — Migration of Negroes to Trenton 

KEPORT BY hilmar L. JENSEN, EJXECtrTIVE SECRETARY, YOUNG MEn'S CHRISTIAN 
association of TRENTON, N. J., JUNE 27, 1941 

From my observation during recent months, it is my opinion that there has 
been and is now going on a migration of Negroes, among others, to Trenton. 
This, I believe, is caused by the fact that there has been an upturn' in the 
output of industries in the city due to defense orders. 

Because of this, many problems are being created. 

First, there is a strange situation of a demand for employees on the part of 
m.any industries and the refusal on the part of some of them to employ Negroes 
apparently, solely because of the fact that they are Negroes. But we are hoping 
that this situation will end because of the President's recent order to the Office 
of Production Management in which he asks for the end of racial discrimina- 
tion against employees in industries meeting defense needs.^ 

Second, there is an acute need for housing on the part of the Negro popula- 
tion and this includes those who are working in those defense industries which 



1 See p. 5875. 



5g44 TRENTON HEARINGS 

do employ Negroes. Recently a United States Housing Administration housing 
project was erected with a capacity of 118 families, all of whom are Negroes. 
Upon completion, this was immediately fi.led and there is a long waiting list 
of applicants. In addition to more of this type of housing, there is also a 
need for another type for tho.se Negro workers in industry who can purchase 
or rent at a higher' price level because tliey are on a higher income level. 

Third, the community is in need of recreational facilities that will be avail- 
able to the Negro population su< h as a swimming pool, gymnasia, and a com- 
munity center, all of which are essential to the building of morale through 
providing for the wise use of leisure time and the assisting of newcomers to 
adaptation to the life of the community. 



Mr. Abbott. I offer, as exhibit 20, material on the defense-housing 
needs of Bergen County, by Mr. Francis V. D. Lloyd, chairman of 
the defense-housing committee of the Bergen County Chamber of 
Commerce. 

(The material referred to above is as follows:) 

Exhibit 20. — Housing Needs of Bergen County 

eeport by francis v. d. lloyd, chairman defense housing committee, bergen 
county chamber of commerce, hackensack, n. j. 

June 20, 1941. 

We have been making a survey to determine the . defense-housing needs of 
the county of Bergen since many of the defense industries are located in 
Bergen County. While our committee's investigation is by no means complete, 
I am enclosing herewith a copy of the supplemental report made on May 21, 
1941, which may be of some interest to you. One dense-housing project has 
been commenced in East Paterson, Bergen County, and it is our understanding 
that others are under consideration. We have not yet assembled the data as 
to the effect on the utilities or schools located in that community. Our first 
consideration has been to determine what additional housing is necessary to 
care for the population increase, due to the expansion and operation of the 
various defense industries in the county. 

I do know and can unqualifiedly state that Bergen County is suffering an 
acute shortage of hospital accommodations. The three general hospitals — 
Hackensack Hospital, Englewood Hospital, and Holy Name Hospital — are oper- 
ating at over 100 percent capacity and there is a great need for additional 
hospital beds in this county. Bergen County is the most under-hospitalized 
of any of the large counties in the State of New Jersey, having only about 
IY2 hospital beds per thousand population, and the population is steadily 
increasing. 

I am fully familiar with this situation since I have recently been asked to 
serve as chairman of a campaign to raise funds for the purpose of erecting 
an addition to Holy Name Hospital in Teaneck, Bergen County, N, J., of 
sufficient size to provide 100 extra hospital beds. Neither the Hackensack 
Hospital nor Englewood Hospital is in a position to construct an addition 
since they have not the funds to maintain it, even though they were able to 
build such an addition. 

The hospital situation in Bergen County is really acute and, in the event 
of any sort of a catastroplie, particularly in the large defense industries 
located within Ihe county (such as the Hercules powder explosion at Dover, 
N. J.), it is entirely problematical how the hospitals would be able to care for 
those requiring hospitalization. It is unlikely that the campaign which is 
presently being conducted for Holy Name Hospital will be successful in rais- 
ing funds sufficient to permit the construction of the proposed addition. 

(The supplemental report referred to above is as follows:) 

Supplemental Report on Defense Housing Needs in Bergen County 

by francis v. d. lloyd, chairman, defense housing committee, bergen county 
chamber of commerce 

May 21, 1041. 
At a recent meeting of the committee on housing a subcommittee was in- 
structed to ascertain the viewpoint of industrial plant management relative to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5845 



existing housing conditions in the county. For this purpose a questionnaire 
was prepared and submitted to 28 industrial plants throughout Bergen County. 
Twenty-one replies have been received to date and an analysis of the answers 
obtained is herewith submitted. 

The 21 plants whose answers are the basis of this study employ a total of 
18,223 persons ; 15 of these report an increase in personnel of 5,656 since 1937, 
while 4 have reduced their working forces by 6G7. 

Of the total number employed, 15,799 are residents of New Jersey, 2,049 live 
in New York, 11,272 live m Bergen County, 1,.506 in Passaic County, 1,326 in 
Essex County, 1.305 in Hudson County, 92 in counties not bordering on Bergen, 
and 2,123 Bergen County residents live within the town in which they are 
employed 

One plant in Bendix reports that the employees' domicile has undergone a 
decisive change s;nce 1937. No such radical changes have been noticed by the 
other 20. 

Buses and privately owned automobiles are designated by practically every 
plant as major means of transportation, only two establishments being without 
access to a bus line. Railroad transportation appears to be of no use to any- 
body with the exception of two individuals, one employed in East Rutherford, 
and one in Hackensack. 

Only two plants confess to the absence of adequate parking space, and it is 
remarkable that one of the two Bendix plants and one in Hackensack should 
make up this extremely small group. 

With the exception of Bendix no other area seems to consider transportation 
a major issue in the recruiting of additional personnel. 

Home ownership is noted by five plants. The percentage of employees living 
in their own homes ranges from 10 percent to 50 percent, with an average 
of 28 percent. 

Only two instances of company owned houses are on record. The number of 
dwellings in both ca.ses is small, 5 and 10, with 5 rooms and bath available to 
each tenant family. The rentals for these houses is about one-third less than 
average rentals in the same localty. 

The question of the advisab lity of low-cost hoiising projects was answered 
in the affirmative by six employers, with nine in the negative, and six con- 
sidered it of insuffic ent interest to answer. 

Bendix plants are the only ones who have received employee complaints on 
the housing situation. The complaints in both cases are identical: Rentals 
are too high and there is a lack of available dwellings. 



Analysis of 21 questionnaires — Employment statistics in Bergen County principal 
industrial areas 





Number 

em- 
ployees 


Increase 


In 

New 
Jersey 


Out- 
side 


Bergen 


Passaic 


Hud- 
son 


Kssex 


In 

town 


Bendix 

East Rutherford and Rutherford.. 
Hacksensack 


5,300 
1.740 
1,762 
7,537 


3, 500 
358 
222 

1,150 


4.fi30 
1, 734 
1,746 
5, 825 


670 

6 

16 

1,337 


3.060 
1.330 
1, ."^45 
3,826 


500 
319 

223 


100 

30 

47 

1,092 


800 

54 

9 

454 


200 
165 
510 




574 







Note.— .^ 11 figures are based on 75 percent return of questionnaires sent out. Total figures for the county 
therefore will have to be doubled to be approximately accurate. 



Bekgen County Chamber of Commerce, 

Hackensack, N. J., June 26, 1941. 
John W. Abbott, E'-q., 

Chief Field Investigator, House Committee Investigating Islational 
Defense Migration, 

Trenton, N. J. 
Dear Mr. Abbott: * * * i can supplement to some extent the report that 
was sent to you under date of June 20. 

Since the preparation of thi't report, we have received one additional reply 
to the questionnaire sent to the various defense industries in this country, 
namely, that of the Wright Aeronautical Corporation. The questionnaire of the 
Wright Aeronautical Corporation indicates that they are presently employing 



5846 TRENTON HEARINGS 

5,100 people in plants Nos. 3 and 4 which, I understand, are Bergen County 
plants. 

I have taken 10 industrial concerns located in Bergen County that I know are 
engaged in national-defense activities. They are as follows : 

Aluminum Co. of America. 

Ford Motor Car Co. 

National Sugar Refining Co. 

Archer Daniels Midland Co. of Edgewater. 

Samuel Hird & Sons of Garfield. 

Wright Aeronautical Corporation of East Paterson. 

Elipse Aviation Division of Bendix Aviation Corporation. 

Air Associates, Inc., of Bendix. 

Flintkote Co. 

Beckton Dickinson & Co., of East Rutherford. 

I find, according to the questionnaires received from the above companies, 
that they employ a total of 20,.513 people. The increase in the number of 
their employees since 1937 is 10,955, or a 53-percent increase. Practically 
all of this increase is very recent and due entirely to defense activities. 
For example, the recent increase in the following companies is as follows: 

Aluminum Co. of America 1,000 

Wright Aeronautical Corporation 5, iOO 

Eclipse Aviation Division of Bendix Aviation Corporation 3, 500 

Air Associates, Inc 700 

Almost all of the aforesaid plants are stepping up production, and with 
that, of necessity, the number of employees will increase. I am also in-i 
formed that substantial increases are contemplated in Bendix, Bergen County, 
where the Eclipse Aviation Division of Bendix Aviation Corporation and Air 
Associates, Inc., are presently located. 

There is enclosed herewith, for your information, clipping from Tuesday's 
edition of the Bergen Evening Record, which indicates new and greater activities 
along defense lines in that area. 

Outside of Bergen County, but within close proximity thereto, such as Kerny, 
where the Federal Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Co. is located, there are thousands 
of men being employed on defense projects, and I think an investigation of 
defense orders on the part of the Government will show that millions of 
dollars worth of orders have been given to the industries I have mentioned 
in Berg n County and those immediately adjacent to Bergen County. 

As I mentioned in my letter to you, I do know that Bergen County is under- 
hospitalized, and there are insufficient accommodations to take care of the 
normal hospital needs of the increased population. In the event of any sort 
of disaster or catastrophe where an abnormal number of persons would have 
to be hospitalized, the question of their being cared for is a grave one. There 
are three general hospitals in Bergen County, namely, Hackensack Hospital, 
Englewood Hospital, and Holy Name Hospital, all of which are nonprofit 
organizations, having a combined number of 617 hospital beds, excluding bassi- 
nets for new-born children. This is approximately 11/2 beds per thousand 
of population, as compared with a State average of 3.1 beds per thousand of 
population. It is admitted by all medical and hospital authorities that tho 
ratio of hospital beds in Bergen County is far too low. The population of 
Bergen County is 409,646 according to the last census. 

A campaign is just drawing to a close for the pvirpose of raising $^50,000 
to enable the construction of an addition to Holy Name Hospital, which would 
provide 100 additional beds, nurses quarters, etc., but up-to-date only $1.50,000 
has been raised, although subscriptions have been received from over 10,000 
individuals and business concerns toward this building fund. I am satisfied 
that the sum necessary to construct the addition to relieve the hospital situation 
here in Bergen County will not be forthcoming, but every effort will be made 
to make it a success. I am particularly well acquainted with the hospital 
situation in Bergen County, since I was asked to accept the chairmanship of 
the Building Fund Drive. 

I hope that the foregoing information will be of some aid to the members 
of your committee. If tliere is any other information they wish, we will be 
very glad to obtain it for them. 

Assuring you of our fullest cooperation, I am 
Very sincerely yours, 

Feancis V. D. Lloyd. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5847 

Mr. Abbott. I offer, as exhibit 21, a statement b}'^ Mr. Horace R. 
Dixon, executive director. Housing Authority of the City of Cam- 
den, on housing and employment conditions in that city. 
(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

Exhibit 21. — Sukvey of Housing and Employment Conditions in Camden 

by horace r. dixon, exectjtn'e director, housing authority of the city of camden 

Pursuant to your request to submit a paper to your committee on liousing 
conditions in Camden and reasons why they exist, I am glad to submit a survey 
of the housing and employment conditions in this city, beginning with the 
last inventory of housing in 1934 until the present inventory just compiled. 
These statistics speak only too eloquently of the need of housing in Camden. 
This stufly, unfortunately, did not include any attempt to tabulate w^here a 
worker came from. But we do know some of these are driving in from as far 
as 90 miles away. 

We can state with a reasonable degree of accuracy that an acute shortage 
of homes has prevented any great migration of workers to this city up to 
the present time. We can definitely assume, however, that anticipated expan- 
sion will cause a serious housing problem. Unless solved, this expansion will 
seriously retard national defense, particularly naval and merchant shipbuild- 
ing, since we have shipyards within the city limits, another across the river 
within ea.sy reach by ferry, and the Philadelphia Navy Yard, also within 
easy reach by ferry from a point only G miles from the center of the city. 

Private interest has made no attempt to provide enough homes to meet 
the normal needs of the community, much less the enormous anticipated in- 
crease in workers who must come here to work. Private interests will not 
build for rent, fearing that they may have houses on their hands. What they 
do build they force the worker to buy, in order to shift the burden and risk 
to the worker. What few homes have been built or are being built in Camden 
are so priced that the buyer must earn a minimum of $3,500 per year. This 
means he must earn about $70 per week over a long period of years. Normal 
earnings after the emergency would mean the Inevitable loss of the home. 

The worker should not be compelled to underwrite the cost of emergency 
housing. It remains, then, for the Government whicli asks him to come into 
these dense defense areas to subsidize his home while he works f ; r the 
defense i>rogram. These should be of a permanent yet economical construc- 
tion, and built in such a manner and laid out in such a way that they may 
eventually become a part of the community. The difference between what 
they cost and what the workers can pay must be written off as part of the 
national defense program. 

This will serve three purposes: (1) It will prevent ghost towns or areas; 
(2) it will help rebuild communities that are now destined to collapse due to 
the unwillingness of private interest to take this risk; (3) it will aid the 
community to readjust itself after the emergency by having adequate homes 
and workers as an inducement to converting a part of the defense producing 
space into peacetime production, which is bound to lag due to defense concen- 
tration. 

The following statistics prove that not only Camden but any community sa 
situated must deal instantly and courageously with its housing problem, and 
must have the aid of the Federal Government if it is to he solved at all. 

EMPLOYMENT TRENDS 

Camden, N. J., is an industrial city of 118,000 population. Principal industries 
are New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Mathis Shipyard, Radio Corporation of 
America, and Campbell's Soup Co. Small industries are: Esterhrook Pen Co., 
Himt Pen Co., wool scouring and s^pinning mills, Camden Forge and several large 
machine-tool concerns, Haddou Press (large book bindery and printing house), 
Warren Webster Steam Specialty Manufacturers, R. M. Hollingshead Co., 
automobile specialities, several large leather works, Armstrong Cork Co., and 
many other smaller plants which are all, directly or indirectly, working on 
national defense. This does not include Public Service which employs about 1.200^ 
workers. The Philadelphia Navy Yards and Cramp's Ship Yards are within 
easy reach of workers living in Camden, many of whom work there. 



5848 TRENTON HEARINGS 

The last estimate of Camden employees was about 40,000 and it is estimated 
that this will increase about 20 percent within the next 2 years. New York 
yard expects to employ 20,000 by 1944. 

HOUSING CONDITIONS 

The vacancy at the last inventory in 1934 was 7.4 percent; recent complete 
survey places this vacancy at 0.055 percent. During this time 1,543 dwelling 
units have been vandalized and demolished. Private builders have replaced 102 
in the same period. 

The Work Projects Administration survey, 78 percent completed, uncovered 
3,856 extra families. The low vacancy ratio is responsible for this and the 
30 percent rent increases reported during the last 3 months. Reports reach the 
authority daily of repeated increases of 10 to 15 percent. This survey listed 
7,472 dwelling units needing major repairs. A recent survey of one bliglited 
area in the city, covering 478 residential structures, developed an annual operat- 
ing loss to the city of .$68,273.67. The area had anticipated tax revenue of 
$42,113.50; only $27,061.63 was collected. Another similar area comprising 428 
residential structures had a total anticipated tax income of $32,395.24 ; tax 
actually collected, $17,661.51. 

Tax delinquencies are for the 1 year and may well reach a staggering figure 
when accumulated. 

In an area recently acquired for a low-rent project in Cnmden, the total 
delinquent taxes the city collected represented 16 years taxes on the total area. 
One parcel assessed at $100 had delinquent taxes amounting to $720. When it is 
remembered that 75 percent of structures are 50 years old, we can understand 
the mounting delinquent taxes. 

A comparison of one enumeration district comprising 863 dwelling units — 
the first one completed in the survey — i-eveals the following interesting figures as 
compared with the same survey in 1935 : Rental occupants increase, 24 percent ; 
owner occupants decrease, 12 percent ; population increase, 4 percent ; extra 
family increase, 41 percent; vacancy decrease, 80 percent; dwelling units on 
which rent has been increased 34 percent within the last 4 months. 

We list here a few of the housing conditions as culled from the recent survey. 
♦ »**** * 

At 67 Penn Street, a nine-room apartment house; eight families, two toilets, 
one bath, one room apartment, four living in one room, $16 ; rent three in one 
room. $20; number four condition. 

At 63 Penn Street, eight-room apartment house, one toilet, one bath ; families 
of two to five people living in two rooms, $15 rental ; one family of three living 
in one room, $15. 

On Penn Street, a ten-room house, one toilet, one bath ; one family of five 
living in two rooms. $15; one family of five in two rooms, $18; one family of 
four in two rooms, $20. 

At 714 Walnut Street, six rooms, ten people; three roomers, three extra 
families, one toilet, one bath, one room vacant. 

At 716 Walnut Street, thirteen rooms, twenty-one people; five roomers, eight 
extra families, two toilets, two baths; number 7 type. 

At 903 Federal Street, north side, four rooms, eleven people (nine children) ; 
toilet in yard, no bath, and no heater ; $15 rental. 

At 315 Kaighn Avenue, store and residence; number 9 type; six rooms, ten 
people; two families living in two rooms. 

At 409 Mount Vernon Street, four rooms, ten people, one extra family, toilet 
in yard, no liath. no heat, unfit condition ; rent, $11. 

At 817 Cherry Street, five rooms, ten people, toilet in yard, no bath, no heat; 
rental. $12. 

At 229, stores and residence; nine rooms, 23 per.cons; total rental, $80; unfit 
condition, seven per.sons in one room, $10; five persons in one room. $10; three 
persons, two rooms, $14: three persons in one room; the plnce is a fi-etrap; it is 
evident that there is no water as one family was bringing water in a bottle, 
stating that the only water they got was through the roof. 

At 2.31 Kaighn Avenue, ten rooms and store; total i-ent, $54..50 ; unfit to live in. 

At 227 Kaighn Avenue, eight rooms, eleven people ; four in two rooms, five 
in two rooms; shared toilet, no bath, no central heat; rental $38; unfit living 
conditions. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5849 

At 237 Kaighn Avenue, ten rooms, rent collected $59 ; five persons in two rooms, 
$15 ; six persons in two rooms ; no extra toilet, no bath, no central heat, no 
water in rooms. 

At 830 Spruce Street, 5 rooms, 15 people, colored ; 2 extra families ; $17 rent ; yard 
toilet, no bath. 

At 260 Pine Street, 6 rooms, 10 people ; 2 extra families ; rental, $16. 

At 402 Sycamore Street, 7 people, 4 rooms ; toilet in yard ; 1 extra family ; owned 
by the city. 

At 200 Burns Street, 6 rooms, 12 people ; 2 extra families ; toilet in yard, no bath, 
no heat ; $20 rental. 

At 340 Cherry Street, 11 people, 5 rooms ; 1 extra family. 

At 342 Walnut Street, 11 people, 6 rooms ; toilet in yard. 

At 225 Kaighn Avenue, 6 i-ooms, 12 people; 1 extra family; no bath, no heat; 
toilet in yard ; rental, $15 ; unfit condition. 

^i * * * * * * 

It is my hope that your committee will find in these reactions and those of other 
cities inforniiition which will be used to support what I believe should be your 
recommendation, that is, that housing for this emergency should not only be built, 
but wherever possible be of a permanent nature, easy to convert to smaller owner- 
ship, and that after the emergency public work should be, to a large extent, devoted 
to assisting local communities, such as Camden, to rehabilitate and rebuild its 
housing to conform to modern living standards and planning trends. It is my 
opinion that most cities whose housing is over 50 years will be bankrupt unless 
Congress makes some provisions to assist them back on their feet. I see no other 
way out. 



INIr. Abbott. I offer, as exhibit 22, a statement prepared by the Labor 
Division of the Farm Security Administration, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, entitled "The Farm Labor Supply Situation in 
Southern New Jersey." 

(The statement referred to above is as follows :) 

Exhibit 22. — The Farm Labor Supply Situation in Southern New Jersey, 1941 

peea?aeed by the labor division, farm security administration, united states 
department of agriculture 

source and evaluation of inquiry 

This statement represents the findings of a reconnaissance survey made by 
members of the Labor Division of the Farm Security Administration in June 1941. 
The findings are based on interviews with both large and small farmers, county 
agricultural extension agents, employment service officials, packing house op- 
erators, industrial employers, school oflicials, and other interested and informed 
persons on agricultural and farm labor problems. The territory covered was 
chiefiy Cumberland County in southern New Jersey, one of the leading agricultural 
regions of the State. 

This countv contained practically all the elements necessary for witnessing 
the farm labor supply situation at first hand and for intelligently appraising it. 
It offered an opportunity to view actual as well as anticipated shortages of farm 
labor during the 1941 season. The strawberry crop had been harvested and thus 
presented an experience in handling at least one important crop in the county. 
The asparagus harvest was under way. and beans were about ready for picking. 
The question of an adequate labor supply to meet the large tomato harvest which 
lay a month ahead was one of the major concerns of the growers, while the 
laiior required for the late summer vegetables, orchard and small fruits, was too 
remote a proposition to be a current problem. 

Concurrentlv with the demand for field labor, Cumberland County requires a 
considerable number of "shed" workers for its food packing and cannery estab- 
lishments. In addition, a number of cities in the county contain industrial plants 
some of which have defense orders to meet, while the production and employment 
of others have been stimulated by the general rise in the economic activity of the 
State and Nation. 



5850 TRENTON HEARINGS 

THE CONDITION OF THE FABM LABOB MAKKET AS OF JUNE 15, 1941 

The canvass of the farm labor supply situation in the southern counties of 
New Jersey revealed that farmers are finding it more difficult to obtain suflBeient 
and experienced labor, particularly of the short seasonal variety, from local and 
nonlocal sources which in former years were their mainstays. Only in recent 
years.'these labor markets were so plentiful that the farm employer was forced to 
exert little or no effort to satisfy his labor requirements. Today, he is unable to 
tap these sources with the same facility. The customary indifferent recruiting 
methods have failed because an over-supply of labor does not exist. Workers are 
not coming up to the farm house seeking work as in the past. It is thpse experi- 
ences which, in the eyes of the farm-operator, spell out "labor-shortage." The 
smaller farm operator, particularly, is psychologically unprepared as well as 
financially unable to adjust himself to a labor market which is not characterized 
by a surplus of workers willing to accept the traditional wages and the customary 
conditions of farm work. 

The labor shortage on the farms of this region of the State was reflected in a 
number of ways. They ranged from the necessity of increasing wages to attract 
workers and to prevent them from leaving farm employment to absolute inability 
to get sufficient numbers. For the first time in the history of operations of one of 
the large farms in Cumberland County, for example, seasonal laborers were 
guaranteed a minimiun wage of $3 per day. Wages of regular farm hands were 
rai.sed from 20 and 25 cents to 30 and 35 cents an hour. Even with these in- 
creases, the manager of this farm reported that they were able to harvest only 
140 out of 2(!0 acres planted to asparagus largely because, it was alleged, of 
inability to obtain a sufficient number of asparagus cutters. 

Strawberry growers who for many years liad paid their pickers the traditional 
2y2 cents for a quart basket found it necessary to increase the rate to 3 cents 
and more during the 1941 season. A number of farmers, it was found, were com- 
pelled to have their smaller crews of available pickers harvest their berries in the 
afternoons as well as in the mornings, a procedure which is usually avoided be- 
cause afternoon-picked berries bring lower prices on the market. Were it not for 
the fact that the output was about 40 percent below normal because of early 
drought and late precipitation, the labor shortage would have been more acute. 

Farmers, also, were offering 20 to 30 cents a hamper for picking string beans, or 
an increase of 5 to 10 cents over 1940 rates. According to growers, wage rates for 
topping onions were to be increased from 8 to 10 cents per bushel, if yields were 
abundant, and from iV^ to 7 cents for picking a bushel of tomatoes. As a result 
of higher rates for picking canhouse tomatoes, canneries raised their tomato 
contract prices to farmers from $11 to $19 a ton to $13 and $21, 

Some farmers stated they had refrained from planting more tomatoes because 
of fear of inability to obtain sufficient harvesting labor. A few of these growers 
were basing tlieir action on the experience they were having with the asparagus 
crop. Others with late tomatoes in the Cedarville area were apprehensive of what 
the labor supply situation will be around September 1 when those laborers re- 
cruited for farm work from the oyster fishing region in the lower part of the 
county would return to their jobs as oyster shuckers. The situation may be 
aggravated still further in September, according to some of the farmers, if the 
child-labor law succeds in driving the Italian migrants back to Philadelphia and 
other cities in Pennsylvania in time for the opening of school for tlieir children. 
An agricultural official in Cumberland County estimated that even for the early 
canliouse tomatoes, the supply of pickers will be about 25 percent below normal. 

An extreme case illustrating the condition of the tightened farm-labor market 
is one involving a dairy farmer. This farmer, with no family workers, had a herd 
of 15 cows and was unable to replace his hired man whom he lost. The work 
consisted of milking cows and performing the other customary chores around the 
barn. He was offering $35 per month with room and board, and was willing to 
step up the monthly wage to $40 for a reliable man. He stated that he has had 
an order for a hired man "soaking at the (State) employment office for over a 
week," with no success. He contended that he was ready to give up his farm. 

Other manifestations of farm-labor shortages were reflected in the necessity 
of small- and medium-sized farmers and their families to work long hours in order 
to harvest their crops on time. An appreciable number of farmers were employing 
types of seasonal workers never used before. One of them, for example, having 
failed to obtain his usual number of Italian migrants from Philadelphia, dipped 
into the oyster-shucking colony in the vicinity of Port Norris. Others tapped 
labor sources in the States south of New Jersey An officer of a production credit 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5851 

association stated that more farmers were requesting loan renewals this year 
than in tiie past few years. One of the explanations for these increased renewals, 
according to him, was the inability of tliese farmers to harvest their crops on 
schedule because of labor shortages. All other factors remaining equal, it appears 
that farmers with comparatively small acreages or poor crops have had more 
•difficulty in obtaining and retaining labor than the larger ones, or those with good 
yields. There is also evidence that a few farmers are leaving their farms for 
industrial employment, 

FACTORS CONTKIBUTING TO LABOR SHORTAGES 

Expansion of industrial activities under the stimulus of the national defense 
program has been the most powerful single force draining the local farm labor 
supply in New Jersey in recent months. This expansion has exercised its 
influence in two ways: (o) a shifting of local workers from areas of lesser 
to areas of greater industrial importance; {b) absorbtion by industry of appre- 
ciable numbers of both city and rural workers formerly unemployed or under- 
employed. In addition, there has been an upgrading movement all along the 
occupational line with the result that unskilled and semiskilled workers, par- 
ticularly in the rural regions where mechanical skills are more likely to be 
acquired without formal training, have been able to find openings heretofore 
■closed to them. As conditions of fuller employment are approached, workers 
who were formerly available for intermittent work characteristic of seasonal 
employment in agriculture are accepting industrial jobs whenever the latter 
afford higher standards of employment. Vocational training programs in the 
interest of national defense production are also siphoning off the youth from 
the farms and rural areas and thus depleting the potential farm labor supply. 

From Cumberland County, for example, one of the leading agricultural areas 
in the State, there has been an exodus of workers to Camden, Philadelphia, 
Wilmington, and other nearby concentrated defense production centers. The 
growth of industrial and semiindustrial production and employment within the 
county itself, has caused further reduction in the supply of laborers usually 
available for crop harvesting operations. One plant at Bridgeton, mantifactur- 
ing glass, increased its labor force by 500 since October 1940, another in Vine- 
land has added 600 workers in a comparatively short time, others which for a 
number of years have been on a 4-day operating basis are today on a 7-day 
week. About 100 students of the 1941 high school class at Bridgeton were re- 
cently recruited by a large manufacturing concern in that city. It is conserva- 
tively estimated that industrial plants in Cumberland County have added 
between 2,0.;0 and 3,000 workers since the fall of 1940. Many of these workers, 
it is reported, have rural and farm backgrounds and the majority of them are 
unskilled or semiskilled who had to be trained for the jobs they were asked 
to fill. 

These current employment trends are gaining momentum. It is generally 
acknowledged that the peak of industrial defense activity has not been reached 
as yet. Further industrial expansion is in the offing, especially at the shipyards 
^t Camden where, it is reported, several thousand additional workers are to be 
taken on very shortly. A number of other nearby i.ndustrial centers are also 
in a position to dip into the agricultural regions of New Jersey for their labor. 
Moreover, as the competition for industrial labor heightens among the indus- 
tries located in the State itself, wages will be raised in order to preveni workers 
from leaving their immediate localities. One plant at Bridgeton, for example, 
employing more than 1,200 persons has already announced a pay increase of 
3 to 5' cents per hour effective on July 1. As industrial wages increase, farmers 
will be more seriously handicapped in their bid for regular and seasonal farm 

Selective Service and voluntary enlistment have had but slight effect on the 
farm labor supply in South Jersey. In Cumberland County, for example, about 
750 men including selectees, volunteers, and national guardsmen have been 
withdrawn for military service. Less than one-third of this number were m 
the agricultural class. There seems to be a more or less universal practice to 
defer a farm operator or farm family member essential to the management 
of a farm or a farmhand holding a key position. 

In Cumberland County, as well as in other parts of the State where farm 
labor is not as abundant as in former years, many fanners are blammg the 
Work Projects Administration for their difficulties. A number of them who 
were interviewed expressed the opinion that Work Projects Administration 



5852 TRENTON HEARINGS 

projects should be discontinued in the summer and resumed after harvesting. 
Some are in favor of closing down Worli Projects Administration projects not 
as a direct source of farm labor but as a means of easing general labor market 
conditions, and thus diminishing the rate of absoi-ptiou of farm and rural 
workers into industry. Still others are criticizing the Work Projects Adminis- 
tration not because it is allegedly responsible for labor shortages on the farm, 
but because hourly earnings on Work Projects Administration are in competi- 
tion with those that farmers could afford to pay. 

Not all farmers, however, are aggressively in favor of closing down Work 
Projects Administration work as a device for relieving the labor supply situation. 
There are some who take the position that Work Projects Administration labor 
is generally inferior and incompetent to perform the hard and sustained work 
required on farms. Very few farmers in the Cedarville area of Cumberland 
County, for example, were found willing to employ such labor. If Work Projects 
Administration labor was compelled to accept farm employment, they maintained, 
such workers would resent it and consequently prove to be indifferent and IncfB- 
cient in their work. 

In any event, farmers who are informed or have thought about the potential 
supply of qualified farm laborers are not very eager to tap this source. An 
analysis of the composition of workers on Work Projects Administration in at 
least one important agricultural region demonstrates the extreme shallowness of 
this source as a labor potential. A review of the age distribution of the 594 
persons on Work Projects Administration projects in Cumberland County as of 
June 23. 1941 (reduced from 929 as of May 28), showed that about two-thirds 
were 51 years of age or over and about one-quarter were 61 years of age or over. 
If this county is typical of the rest of the State, Work Projects Administration 
can be written off as a serious factor in the present farm labor supply situation 
in New Jersey and as a possible source of employables for harvest operations. 

THE MIGEATOEY LABOR SUPPLY 

The volume of migratory labor in New Jersey has shrunk this year. Six 
Italian labor contractors (padrones) who have been recruiting family labor from 
Philadelphia for New Jersey farmers for more than 20 years stated, when ques- 
tioned about their supply of workers, that it was never so difR'ult before to 
find harvest workers. Last year, all of them combined supplied iibouti 800 
workers. This year they have been able to recruit scarcely 200. They attiibuted 
this difficulty primarily to defense-stimulated employment in the cities of Phila- 
delphia, Chester, and Camden. Even those without jobs were remaining Isome in 
anticipation of getting work. It is reported that those Italian migrants wlio are 
available this year, are for the most part, women and small children. There is a 
perceptible decline in the number of men and older children among these 
families. 

A byproduct of the shortages of local and Italian migratory labor in south 
Jersey this year has been the appearance of Negro migrants from the South and 
from Pennsylvania in larger numbers than ever before. In past years. Negro 
migrants have represented a minor portion of the migratory labor supply in 
Bouth Jersey. Since it has been generally observed that the stream of Negro 
migration up the Atlantic seaboard h:s diminished this year, it is clear that the 
appearance of southern Negro harvest workers in south Jersey i