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Full text of "National defense migration. Hearings before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, first[-second] session, pursuant to H. Res. 113, a resolution to inquire further into the interstate migration of citizens, emphasizing the present and potential consequences of the migraion caused by the national defense program. pt. 11-[34]"

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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BETOBE THE 

SELECT COMMIHEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 

HOUSE ar EEPRESENTATIVES 

SKVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 



H. Res. 113 



A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 

DEFENSE PROGRAM , J l tk ' io 



PART 15 
BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

JULY 1 and 2, 1941 



ir-n 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE mVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 

HOUSE OF EEPRESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

FIRST SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 



H. Res. 113 



A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 15 
BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

JULY 1 and 2, 1941 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 






UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1941 



^Ii-yft^ 



U, S. SlIPfRINTfNOENT OF DOCUKENT? 
OCT 21 1941 

)-r-i7 



SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING NATIONAL DEFENSE 
MIGRATION 

JOHN H. TOLAN, California, Chairman 

JOHN J. SPARKMAN, Alabama CARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska 

LAURENCE F. ARNOLD, Illinois FRANK C. OSMERS, JR., New Jersey 

Robert K. Lamb, 8taff Director 

Mary Ddblin, Coordinator of Hearings 

John W. Abbott, Chief Field Investigator 



Harold D. Cdllen, Associate Editor 
JosEJF Berqer, Associate Editor 



CONTENTS 

Pafi« 

List of witnesses v 

Tuesday. July 1, 1941, morning session 5883 

Testimony of Hon. Howard W. Jackson 5883 

Testimony of Dr. Abel Wolman 5888,5892 

Statement by Dr. Abel Wolman 5888 

Testimony of Dr. Robert H. Riley and Dr. Huntington Williams— 5906, 5938 

Statement by Dr. Robert H. Riley 5906 

Testimony of Harry W. Isner 5947 

Testimony of Thomas J. S. Waxter .'5952,5956 

Statement by Thomas J. S. Waxter 5952 

Testimony of Dr. David E. Weglein and C. G. Cooper 5964,5988 

Statement by Dr. David E. Weglein 5964 

Statement by C. G. Cooper 5978 

Tuesday. July 1. 1941, afternoon session 5991 

Testimony of Maryland Industrial Panel 5991 

Statement by G. H. Ponder 5992 

Testimony of G. H. Ponder 5997 

Statement by W. Frank Roberts 6003 

Testimony of W. Frank Roberts 6004 

Statement by W. F. Perkins 6006 

Testimony of W. F. Perkins 6009 

Statement by S. J. Cort 6012 

Testimony of S. J. Cort 6014 

Statement by Glenn L. Martin 6018 

Testimony of Glenn L. Martin 6020 

Statement by H. Findlay French 6033 

Testimony of H. Findlay French 6035 

Testimony of Dana Hugh Cramer 6036 

Testimony of Joseph P. McCurdy 6040 

Wednesday, July 2, 1941. morning session 6043 

Testimony of Cleveland R. Bealmear, Yewell W. Dillehunt, and Charles 

Loomis 6043,6047 

Statement by Cleveland R. Bealmear 6044 

Testimony of Yewell W. Dillehunt 6050 

Testimony of Charles Loomis 6051 

Testimony of Maj. A. H. Hollandsworth 6054,6058 

Statement by Maj. A. H. Hollandsworth 6054 

Testimony of Frank J. Bender 6061,6063 

Statement by Frank J. Bender 6061 

Testimony of Edward S. Lewis _• 6067,6084 

Statement by Edward S. Lewis.— 6067 

Testimony of D. L. B. Fringer 6095,6108 

Statement by D. L. B. Fringer 6096 

Testimony of Dr. S. H. De Vault 6116,6129 

Statement by Dr. S. H. De Vault 6116 

Testimony of Dr. A. W. Hedrich 6136 

Wednesday. July 2, 1941, afternoon session 6140 

Testimony of P. C. Turner 6140.6142 

Statement by P. C. Turner 6140 

Testimony of S. Lee Englar and F. B. Gambrill 6146 

Statement by F. B. Gambrill 6149 

Testimony of William Harrell 6150 

Testimony of James Roberts 6154 

Introduction of exhibits 6166 

Exhibit 1. Unemployment compensation registrations and claims 6166 

Exhibit 2. Migration of workers arising from defense activities 6172 

m 

60396 — 41 



IV CONTENTS 

Page 
Introduction of exhibits — Continued. 

Exhibit 3. Work Projects Administration report 6173 

Exhibit 4. Maryland industrial activity and the need for Work Proj- 
ects Administration employment, June 1941 6209 

Exhibit 5. Baltimore industrial activity and the need for Work Proj- 
ects Administration employment, June 1941 6210 

Exhibit 6. Western Maryland industrial activity and the need for 

Work Projects Administration employment, June 1941 6211 

Exhibit 7. National Youth Administration employment 6213 

Exhibit 8. Campaign for public support of production defense mate- 
rials 6213 

Exhibit 9. Farm labor and the labor supply situation on the Eastern 

Shore of Maryland, 1941 6215 

Exhibit 10. Changes in employment and pay rolls, May 1940 through 

April 1941 6224 

Exhibit 11. Contribution of the public library to defense 6226 

Exhibit 12. Industrial accidents in Baltimore 6236 

Exhibit 13. Economic developments in Baltimore and Maryland June 

1, 1940, to May 31, 1941 6237 

Exhibit 14. The citizen looks at defense housing in Baltimore 6237 

Exhibit 15. Baltimore housing from the realtor's viewpoint 6242 

Exhibit 16. Defense homes registration 6245 

Exhibit 17. Housing shortage as viewed by the social worker 6248 

Exhibit 18. Rent increases on Negro housing in Baltimore 6249. 

Exhibit 19. Statement by Division of Defense Housing Coordination-- 6253 

Exhibit 20. Medical care for increased iwpulation in defense area 6255 

Exhibit 21. Trends of in-patient and clinic service in Baltimore 

hospitals 6257 

Exhibit 22. Health problems among migrant defense workers 6259 

Exhibit 23. Public welfare aspects of migration into Maryland 6259 

Exhibit 24. Travelers' Aid report 6262 

Exhibit 25. Children's Aid Society reports 6263 

Exhibit 26. Effect of defense activities on traffic in Baltimore 6266 

Exhibit 27. Check on vehicle volume at three intersections in Balti- 
more 6267 

Exhibit 28. Effect of defense activities on State road system 6272 

Exhibit 29. Current transportation problems in Baltimore 6273 

Exhibit 30. Statement of county commissioners, Baltimore County 6274 

Exhibit 31. Enrollment in defense training courses by counties 6275 

Exhibit 32. Enrollment in defense training courses by centers 6277 

Exhibit 33. Religion as a factor in employment 6279 

Exhibit 34. Reported farm labor shortage. Eastern Shore of Maryland-- 6290 
Exhibit 35. Text of employment agency bill, introduced by Hon. John 

H. Tolan 6292 

Index 6301 



LIST OF WITNESSES 

Baltimore Hbiarings Juia' 1 and 2, 1941 

Page 

Bealmear, Cleveland R., chairman, Housing Authority of Baltimore, Md 6043 

Bender, Frank J., regional director, Maryland Congress of Industrial Or- 
ganizations, Baltimore, Md 6061 

Cooper, C. G., superintendent of schools, Baltimore County, Baltimore, Md_ 5964 
Cort, S. J., general manager, Maryland plant, Bethlehem Steel Co., Balti- 
more, Md 6014 

Cramer, Dana Hugh, ship carpenter, Bethlehem Steel Co., Fort Howard, Md_ 6036 
De Vault, Dr. S. H., department of agricultural economicts. University of 

Maryland, College Park, Md 6116 

Dillehunt, Yewell W., executive director, Housing Authority of Baltimore, 

Md 6043 

Englar, Lee S., manager. State employment service, Salisbury, Md 6146 

Fi-ench, H. Findlay, director, industrial bureau, Baltimore Association of 

Commerce, Baltimore, Md 6035 

Fringer, D. L. B., director, Maryland State Employment Service, Baltimore, 

Md 6095 

Gambrill, F. B., field supervisor, Maryland State Employment Service, 

Baltimore, Md 6146 

Harrell, William, mechanic, Salisbury, Md 6150 

Hedrich, Dr. A. W., chief, bureau of vital statistics, State department of 

health, Baltimore, Md 6136 

Hollandsworth, Maj. A. H., labor relations ofiicer, third zone. United States 

Army, Baltimore, Md 6054 

Isner, Harry W., pipe fitter, Bethlehem Fairfield plant, Baltimore, Md 5947 

Jackson, Howard W., mayor of Baltimore, Baltimore, Md .j883 

Lewis, Edward S., executive secretary, Baltimore Urban League, Balti- 
more, Md 6067 

Martin, Glenn L., president, Glenn L. Martin Co., Baltimore, Md 6020 

McCurdy, Joseph P., president, Maryland and District of Columbia Fed- 
eration of Labor, Baltimore, Md 6040 

Perkins, W. F., vice president, Koppers Co., Baltimore, Md 6009 

Ponder, G. H., executive vice president, Baltimore Association of Com- 
merce, Baltimore, Md 5997 

Riley, Dr. Robert H., director, Maryland State Department of Health, Bal- 
timore, Md 5906 

Roberts, James, farm laborer, Pocomoke City, Md 6154 

Roberts, W. Frank, chairman, Maryland Counsel of Defense 6004 

Turner, P. C, president, Maryland Farm Bureau, Baltimore, Md 6140 

Waxter, Thomas J. S., director of public welfare, Baltimore, Md 5952 

Weglein, Dr. David E., superintendent of city schools, Baltimore, Md 5964 

Williams, Dr. Huntington, commissioner, city department of health, Bal- 
timore, Md 5906 

Wolman, Dr. Abel, chairman, Maryland State Planning Commission, 

Baltimore, Md 5888 

V • 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



TUESDAY, JULY 1, 1941 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. G. 
The committee met at 9 : 30 a. m., in the Federal Court Building, 
Baltimore, Md., pursuant to notice, Hon. Frank C. Osmers, Jr. (acting 
chairman), presiding until arrival of the chairman. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman) of Cali- 
fornia; John J. Sparkman, of Alabama; Frank C. Osmers, of New 
Jersey; Carl T. Curtis, of Nebraska; and Laurence F. Arnold, of 
Illinois. Also present : Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director ; Mary Dub- 
lin, coordinator of hearings; John W. Abbott, chief field investigator; 
Eugene Hurley, field investigator ; Josef Berger, associate editor ; and 
Sylvia Braslow, field secretary. 

Mr. Osme:rs. The committee will please come to order. Our first 
witness is Mayor Jackson. 

TESTIMONY OF HOWARD W. JACKSON, MAYOR OF BALTIMORE, MD. 

Mr. Osmers. Mayor Jackson, will you please give your full name and 
address for the record ? 

Mayor Jackson. Howard W. Jackson, mayor of Baltimore. 

Mr. OsMER. INIayor Jackson, I wonder if you would summarize for 
us the principal strains on municipal facilities that have arisen as a 
result of the migration of national-defense workers to the city of 
Baltimore. 

Mayor Jackson. In response and in compliance with your request, 
I have had compiled the kind of information that I think you want. 

I have asked the health department, the public-welfare department, 
the department of education, traffic department, housing authority, and 
recreation department to reduce to writing their views, so to speak, 
on the subjects represented by their various departments. 

That information has been prepared in the form of separate reports 
covering the following departments : Health, public welfare, educa- 
tion, traffic, housing, and recreation.^ 

If there are any questions you want to ask me, I will be very glad 
to answer them to the best of my ability, but very frankly I must rely 
upon those separate sources of information. 

1 These reports appear in the order of testimony of the respective authors on pages 
following. The inclusive document submitted by Mayor Jackson is held in committee files. 

5883 



58§4 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. OsMERS. I would like to have you discuss, if you will, in a gen- 
eral way, the total number of people who have come into the city of 
Baltimore and into the Baltimore area because of national-defense 
activities. Are you familiar with the statistics ? 

Mayor Jackson. I couldn't answer the question unless it is in one of 
the reports. 

Mr. OsMEES. You feel that the city of Baltimore will be able to 
finance the new public services that will be needed as a result of this 
increase in population? 

rUNDS FOR SEWEKS 

Mayor Jackson. We have available public funds for sewers in the 
amount of $5,000,000. That $5,000,000 is being expended in accordance 
with the generally adopted program looking to the need of sewers 
whether we have the defense problem or whether we don't have it. 

Mr. OsMERs. That was a peacetime proposition ? 

Mayor Jackson. Yes, sir ; but we have that money available and it 
is being spent at this time and is largely affected by the defense situa- 
tion ; that is, by the situation down in the neighborhood of Sparrows 
Point and the so-called Glenn Martin area, in that immediate section; 
in other words, almost in the extreme southeastern section of the city. 
That, of course, is within one of the neighborhoods in which we have a 
problem. 

Then we have a $10,000,000 loan for public-school buildings. We 
have authorized the expenditure necessary for one project and that is 
the Boys' Vocational School. We have held up, more or less, further 
projects on account of the emergency problem that might be presented, 
and for the further reason we felt we ought not to do any construction 
that we could possibly postpone, as the materials and labor are needed 
in defense activities at this time. So, we have more or less suspended 
our school program. 

Mr. OsMERS. You have mentioned the term "loan." Are those bank 
loans ? 

Mayor Jackson. No; we haven't issued the stock but in order to 
make a loan in Baltimore we must have an act of the legislature author- 
izing us to borrow a certain amount of money for a certain term. 
Then we must submit the loan to the people for their approval or 
disapproval, as the case may be. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is in a referendum ? 

Mayor Jackson. Yes, sir ; and that has been done in the case of the 
$5,000,000 sewer loan and the $10,000,000 public-school loan. 

Mr. OsMERS. So those funds are available when needed ? 

Mayor Jackson. That is right. 

HOUSING SITUATION 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, what is the situation with respect to housing? 

Mayor Jackson. That has been left to the private operators and to 
the Housing Authority. 

I have a report here from both the Real Estate Board and the 
Housing Authority on that subject. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you have any housing projects under construction 
at the present time in the city ? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5885 

Mayor Jackson. Under the Housing Authority ? 

Mr. OsMEES. Yes. 

Mayor Jackson. Yes, sir; we have several of them. In fact, we 
have under contract here about $20,000,000. Two of the projects 
have been finished. I think there are four unfinished. 

Mr. OsMERS. It will be hard to answer this question in figures, but 
do you consider that you have a housing shortage in the Baltimore 
area at the present time? 

Mayor Jackson. Well, so far as my information is concerned, I 
would say there is some condition of a shortage, as evidenced by this 
report of doubling up — more than one family in a single dwelling, 
and so forth. 

That is all set out by the health department, set out by the public 
welfare, and set out by the information supplied by the Real Estate 
Board — the president of the Eeal Estate Board is here — and by Mr. 
Dillehunt, of the United States Housing Authority. 

OVERCROWDING IN LOCALITIES 

Mr. OsMERS. You said there was some overcrowding, and from the 
way you stated it I should imagine the overcrowding was in localities 
rather than spread over the entire city. 

Mayor Jackson. Quite so. 

Mr. OsMERs. Would you say that you have an over-all surplus of 
housing as compared to the needs ? 

Mayor Jackson. I wouldn't like to say there is a surplus, but cer- 
tainly up to this time we have been able, in my judgment, predicated 
on the information I have here, as well as my general observation, 
to meet the need. 

Mr. OsMERS. In housing now 30U are meeting the need. Are you 
meeting it insofar as the lower-income group now coming into the 
citv is concerned? 

We have had hearings in New Jersey and we found a situation 
where there were ample housing units if the families could be dis- 
tributed around, but the difficulty was that the housing units that 
were available were too expensive for the family income. 

Mayor Jackson. That I couldn't answer unless it is in these reports 
here. 

My best barometer is my own desk. That is where trouble always 
comes and I haven't had much complaint of that. 

Mr. OsMEEs. Well, I know that generally every trouble in the city 
gets to the mayor's desk. 

Mayor Jackson. It is a trouble-shooter's desk, all right. 

RELIEF PROBLEM 

Mr. OsMERs. Maj^or Jackson, what has happened to your relief 
problem in Baltimore? 

Mayor Jackson, That is set forth by Judge Waxter, who is the 
director of public welfare, very explicitly in his report. 

Mr. OsMERs. Is your relief load going down ? 

Mayor Jackson. As far as general public assistance is concerned, 
not appreciably. 

Mr. OsMERS. Despite more jobs? 



5886 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mayor Jackson. We had it pretty well weeded out by taking them 
off general public assistance and putting them on old-age pensions, 
and so forth, and we were well down to the unemployables. We 
anticipate the situation is going to be more or less serious when they 
reduce the number of people on W. P. A. 

Mr. OsMERS. That will throw a strain on the city's relief budget, of 
course. 

Mayor Jackson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMEEs. Now, would you say that one of the reasons for that 
continuing problem in the city of Baltimore is discrimination against 
races and nationalities? 

Mayor Jackson. I wouldn't say so. 

Mr. OsMERS. You don't know the approximate number of people 
who are living on public assistance in the city ? 

Mayor Jackson. It is in this report. 

FEDERAL ASSISTANCE 

Mr. OsMERS. In most of the defense centers that the committee has 
visited in the past few weeks there has been an ever-increasing demand 
that the Federal Government assist the community in providing these 
public services. Is it contemplated that Baltimore will also seek 
Federal assistance? 

Mayor Jackson. I don't contemplate it. As a matter of fact, in 
general principle, I am opposed to it; but if it is necessary, of course, 
the Federal Government has to help meet a situation if the community 
can't do it. 

Mr. OsMEEs. And if the situation is a result of activities of the 
Federal Government, you feel it is the Government's duty to provide 
for them? 

Mayor Jackson. There is no question but that a great many cities 
will not be able to meet these situations by virtue of the fact the 
moneys are not available, together with the fact there are certain 
processes of law that have to be complied with in order to make them 
available, whereas the Federal Government, of course, can appro- 
priate money without restrictions where local communities can't. 

Mr. OsMERS. You mean they don't have to raise the money by 
taxes? 

Mayor Jackson. All they have to do is appropriate it, the same 
as our State. For instance in the State of Maryland, if the State 
wants to borrow money, all the legislature has to do is pass an act 
authorizing the Governor and the board of public works to do it. 
They don't have to have a referendum. Baltimore has to have a 
referendum when we want money. We can't borrow money except 
by referendum. 

PROPOSED SUPERHIGHWAY 

Mr. OsMERs. I think most of the cities in the United States are in 
that position. 

I read in the newspapers sometime ago. Mayor Jackson, about a 
proposed superhighway. Is that project going through from Balti- 
more to Washington ? 

Mayor Jackson. That was a matter for the legislature. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is it proceeding? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5887 

Mayor Jackson. It is a State roads proposition and just what the 
status of it is I don't know. 

Mr. OsMERS. That project completed would assist your traffic prob- 
lem in the city of Baltimore, would it not? 

Mayor Jackson. That was contemplated whether we had the de- 
fense problem or not. 

Mr. OsMERS. There is, however, a defense project which was brought 
to our attention by the highway commissioner of New Jersey, which 
contemplates the construction of a superhighway from Washington 
to Boston, Mass. 

Mayor Jackson. Yes. 

Mr. OsMERS. A very expensive proposition — $250,000,000, 1 think. 

JNIayor Jackson. We have just opened a dual superhighway from 
Baltimore to the Delaware State line. That was opened last week. 

Mr. OsMERs. Yes; I travel that very frequently in going to mj 
home in New Jersey. 

Mayor Jackson. That is route 40. 

NO BIG INCREASE IN CRIME 

Mr. OsMERs. Have the city officials in Baltimore found that these 
national-defense migrants brought with them any police problems — 
vice problems and crime ? 

Mayor Jackson. Nothing unusual has come to my attention. 

Mr. OsMERS. There hasn't been a crime wave as a result of these 
new people coming in ? 

Mayor Jackson. If so, it hasn't come to my attention. 

Mr!^ OsMERS. Well, I am sure it would have. Newspaper editors 
generally keep mayors advised. 

Mayor Jackson. The fact is that I would not necessarily have that 
information, because the police department does not come under the 
mayor's office. The police department in Baltimore comes under the 
Governor of the State. The Governor appoints the commissioner, 
who is head of the departmentj and all of the police officers are State 
officers. If the Governor so desired he could transfer our police officers 
to the city of Cumberland. The only thing the city of Baltimore 
does is pay the bill. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is a rather unusual arrangement. 

Mayor Jackson. As I say, all we do is pay the bill. It is a rather 
unusual arrangement. We have to pay the bill and provision is made 
in the law that if we don't appropriate enough money for the de- 
partment, the police commissioner can issue script; so we haven't very 
much jurisdiction over the police. 

Mr. OsMERs. To me that is a most amazing arrangement. 

Mayor Jackson. Both the '■commissioner and myself are nonparti- 
san, so we have no trouble. 

Mr. OsMERS. Well, Mayor Jackson, unless you have something fur- 
ther that you would like to submit to the committee 

Mayor Jackson. Dr Williams is here. Dr. Williams is the com- 
missioner of health. Mr. Waxter of the department of public welfare 
is here. And Charles W. Sylvester, the director of vocational educa- 
tion, is present this morning. The president and secretary of the 
real-estate board are also here. And the witnesses of the Housing 
Authority will bo here later. 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. OsMERs. Thank you very much for your contribution, Mr. 
Mayor. 

(At this point Mr. Tolan, chairman of the committee, presided over 
the hearing.) 

The Chairman. Our next witness is Dr. Abel Wohnan, chah-man 
of the Maryland State Planning Commission. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. ABEL WOIMAN, CHAIRMAN, MARYLAND STATE 
PLANNING COMMISSION, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Chairman. Dr. Wolman, the committee appreciates your com- 
ing here this morning. Mr. Osmers will interrogate you. 

Mr. Osmers. For the record, will you state your name, address, title, 
and the organization which you represent? 

Dr. Wolman. My name is Abel Wolman. My official address is 
Baltimore, Md. I am chairman of the Maryland State Planning 
Commission. 

Mr. Osmers. Now, Dr. Wolman, as chairman of the State Planning 
Commission, I presume you have had to deal with many of the prob- 
lems arising from the increase in the national-defense activities in 
Maryland and in the Baltimore area. 

Dr. Wolman. That is true. 

Mr. Osmers. I wonder if you would summarize, for the committee 
and for the record, some of these problems that have arisen and some 
of the solutions that have been suggested or undertaken. 

Dr. Wolman. I can do that most rapidly, I think, by reviewing the 
brief outline which I shall leave with your committee, which in turn 
is supported by a series of much more detail — memoranda by indi- 
viduals far more competent in their specialized fields to set forth these 
details. 

(The outline referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY DR. ABEL WOLMAN, CHAIRMAN, MARYLAND STATE 
PLANNING COMMISSION, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Consideration in these notes is given to the foUowing facilities as they are 
or may be affected by defense activities. Tliese activities are largely located 
in central Maryland. 

I. BOADS, HIGHWAYS, AND TRANSPORTATION FACIIJTIES 

Deficiencies in transportation facilities in the State and Baltimore City offer 
the No. 1 problem recently greatly aggravated by increased defense activities. 

A. State (Mr. William F. Childs, director of traffic division, State roads 
commission ^) : A number of Maryland roads have shown unprecedented tr;iffic 
increases, one as much as 540 percent for llMl over the same period in 1940. 
The Edgewood Road, for example, shows an incx'ease of 250 percent in the 
same period. 

The following will indicate some of the reasons. The Glenn L. Martin plant 
at Middle River and the Bethlehem Steel Co. at Sparrows Point stand out 
as two of the greatest origins of present traffic congestion on our major State 
highways. In the summer of 1939 the number of employees at the Glenn L. 
Martin plant was estimated at 12,000 which increased to 13,076 by actual 
count in September 1940. An estimate of over 20,000 are now employed, with 
a predicted growth to 42,000 by 1942. 

The Bethlehem Steel Co. reported 8,000 employees in December 1937, an 
approximate pay roll of 26,000 persons on June 16, 1941, with prospects of no 
fewer than 30,000 employees by 1942. 



1 Statement appears on p. 6272. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5889 

The estimated cost of the strategic network prepared by the State roads 
commission in April and submitted to the Public Works Administration for 
War Department approval was $49,249,200, while the estimated cost of military 
access roads, exclusive of extensions through reservations, was $14,842,000. 
These estimates were based on defense requirements covering the programs 
submitted and applied to the systems as laid out at that time. These estimates 
do not reflect the cost of improving or widening of highways on either of 
these proposed systems, which is attributed to the defense load. 

An approximate estimate has been prepared of the increased cost of the 
improvement of the high-ways in the proposed systems due to defense require- 
ments : 

Strategic network $10, 154,991 

Military access roads 10,249,500 

Widening of roads outside defense systems affected by defense load- 1, 500, 000 

Total 21, 904, 491 

This estimate of $21,904,491 is intended to show the increased cost of im- 
provement for defense needs over normal requirements. 

B. Baltimore City (Mr. George L. Cobb, chief engineer^) : The Baltimore City 
picture as presented by Mr. George L. Cobb, chief engineer, discloses increased 
defense activities centered in the central business district of the city and in 
the area to the south of this district. Access to Baltimore City is restricted 
because of the northwest branclr of the Patapsco River and the main lines of 
both the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The only 
thoroughfares to this area free from railroad grade crossings are Eastern 
Avenue and Philadelphia Road. The most serious traffic congestion occurs 
during the morning and afternoon rush hours on Eastern Avenue. Eastern 
Avenue at the underpass carries most of the traffic destined to Chevrolet 
Motors, Western Electric Co., Bethlehem Steel Corporation at Sparrows Point, 
and Glenn L. Martin, plus a heavy flow of traffic in the opposite direction, 
consisting of workers living in this industrial area and working in the central 
business district. 

Plans are being prepared for the extension of Ponca Street north of Eastern 
Avenue to Lombard Street and the construction of a viaduct on Lombard Street 
over the Pennsylvania Railroad, as well as the improvement of Lombard Street 
from Ponca Street to Haven Street. This improvement will relieve congestion 
at the En stern Avenue underpass. Also, the construction of a dual-drive thor- 
oughfare and underpasses under the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad on North Point Road from the city line to the intersection of 
the Philadelphia Road and Erdman Avenue woidd divert appreciable traffic 
destined to and from Glenn L. Martin and the Bethlehem Steel Corporation. 
Further improvement in widening Eastern Avenue from the city line to Ponca 
Street and the completion of a dual drive on Dundalk Avenue at the inter- 
section of Eastern Avenue will facilitate traffic movement from Baltimore City 
to and through concentrated industrialized areas in Baltimore County. 

n. HOUSING 

The shortage of housing facilities in Baltimore City to accommodate workers 
of the lower-income bracket offers the No. 2 problem of the State. 

A. Baltimore City (M. C. D. Loomis, Baltimore Housing Authority") : Accord- 
ing to Mr. Loomis, who has attempted to make a study of the situation from 
the best available housing data, which are both meager and poor, approximately 
4,000 living units suitable for defense workers are available in Baltimore City, 
both for rent and for sale. This does not fake into consideration available hous- 
ing facilities in such suburban areas as Guilford, Homeland, and other high- 
priced neighborhoods. To these 4,000 units may be 'added an estimated 3,000 
units presently being planned by various Federal agencies which, in all, would 
provide approximately 7,000 housing units for defense workers. If this is com,- 
pared with the present estimated demand of 16,000 defense units, the housing 
problem becomes an acute one. Although these are approximate estimates, 
they seem to be well within the realm of probability. 

Mr. Loomis seems to think that this will encourage, to a marked degree, the 
demand for rebuilding a good bit of our present substandard housing dwellings 



Statement appears on p. 6266. 

See statement by Cleveland Bealmear on p. 6044. 



5890 BALTIMOKE HEARINGS 

and perhaps a final squeezing out of tenants from substandard dwellings with 
no provision for housing of these people. 

(Miss Frances Morton, of the Citizens Housing Council of Baltimore:^) Miss 
Morton states that as a result of her council's contact with the people evicted 
from their homes, with social agencies and with the people's court, she is con- 
vinced that our greatest housing shortage is in facilities for the colored people. 
She believes that in many instances unreasonable rent rises have occurred for 
dwellings inhabited by people of the lower-income group. Because of restric- 
tions and other social factors, the problem is more acute with Negroes. 

Miss Morton's views with respect to housiug-facility shortages and unwar- 
ranted rent rises are not shared by the real-estate group. The latter tend to 
minimize the gravity of this situation. 

B. Baltimore County (Mr. H. Streett Baldwin, chairman of the Baltimore 
County Commissioners) : The housing situation in Baltimore County is not 
expected to present an acute problem. They are more concerned with assuring 
themselves that the type of housing facilities now being constructed will meet 
the prescribed minimum standards. They are waiting for the passage of the 
revised Baltimore City building code, after which they expect to model their 
own code and to add a building engineer to their staff to administer these 
regulations. 

ra. EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES 

A. Baltimore County (Mr. H. Streett Baldwin, chairman of the county com- 
missioners ^) : The county is faced with an acute lack of school facilities because 
of increased defense activities. 

Provisions have been made for some 3,000 additional housing units in Balti- 
more County. Mr. Baldwin roughly estimates that this has created a potential 
additional load of 4,500 to 5,000 children of school age who will be without 
school facilities. Plans have been prepared and submitted to the Federal Works 
Agency to construct added school facilities which will amount to $1,500,000. 

B. Charles County : With an estimated increase of 5,000 persons re.sulting 
from defense activities at ludianhead, the lack of proper school facilities has 
brought about an acute situation. 

Nowhere else in the State does there appear to be a similar problem, or 
perhaps it is not sufficiently pressing to warrant attention. While it might be a 
problem in Baltimore City, additional school children could more readily be 
absoi-bed into the Baltimore City school system than in the counties. 

IV. EECRE.\TIONAL FACILITIES 

A. State : Based primarily upon our recreational areas study and with a 
working knowledge of the efforts by individuals from the Federal, State, and 
county agencies to provide additional recreational facilities for civilian and 
military needs, it is more apparent each day that the findings and recommenda- 
tions made in our recent report represent an urgent present State need. It 
is particularly pertinent to call attention to the great need for a coordinated recre- 
ational program to meet the present military needs of the United Service Organiza 
tions and the civilian needs after the emergency is over. This is important unless 
we are to find ourselves with disjointed and uncoordinated recreational facili- 
ties relatively useless after the present emergency ceases. Mr. Pfeiffer, of the 
Department of Forestry, and the Federal agencies strongly stress this important 
consideration. 

The State Department of Forestry is cooperating with the Federal agencies 
in developing its State parks and forests to provide for present militai-j' recre- 
ational needs. But with limited State funds, they are more than usually handi- 
capped in their efforts. 

v. SEWERAGE FACILITIES 

A. Baltimore County : Baltimore County feels that, next in importance (o 
its problem of additional school facilities, added sewerage facilities to the 
people coming into this area as a result of defense activities offer the greatest 
challenge. Their proposed program to cope with this problem calls for expendi- 



Statement appears on p. G274. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5891 

tures of approximately $300,000. A program for these improvements has been 
submitted by the county to the Federal 'Works Agency for possible Federal 
assistance. 

B. South Baltimore and Anne Arundel County: Increased activity in the 
south Baltimore area and rapid settling of people in Anne Arundel County 
contiguous to Baltimore City may require expanded facilities. 

C. Baltimore City: In Baltimore City the situation is well in hand and with 
some supplementary support should be ready for action. 

VI. WATERWORKS 

A. Baltimore City : The city of Baltimore will have to augment its present 
water supply by 1945 to take care of its normal water-supply demand. In- 
creased industrial activity in the Baltiaiiore metropolitan area will intensify 
the acuteness of this problem. 

B. Baltimore County : Increased industrial activity in Baltimore County has 
produced a lowering of the water table of its underground water supplies 
with appreciable infiltration of chlorides. This problem is rapidly becoming 
a serious one, particularly in the light of expanded defense activities within 
this area. 

VII. MEDICAL CAKE AND FACILITY NEEDS 

A. State (Mr. J. Douglas Colman, member of the State planning commission's 
committee on medical care ^) : As pointed out in air. Colman's paper to the in- 
vestigating committee, they are concerned with further withdrawals of young 
physicians from the counties for which they are now carrying a great portion 
of the load of actual patient care. Such further withdrawals further increase 
the already high percentage of practicing physicians over 60 years of age. A 
somewhat comparable situation, the effects of which are far less direct, exists 
among the hospital and privpte-duty nur.<es in Maryland counties. 

In some areas the number of physicians available for the general population is 
scarcely sufficient, but here, too, conditions approach normal as physicians move 
from one section of the State to another. 

In a few areas in the State further depletion of the number of available physi- 
cians would seriously curtail tlie amount of medical care available to civilian popu- 
hition. The following suggestions are made by our committee on medical care, 
concurred in by the State department of health : 

1. There should be more rigid supervision, than is now possible with existing 
personnel, of housing construction ; with greater attention paid to the auxiliary 
facilities, .such as water supply, sewage disposal, and other sanitary provisions, as 
well as to the construction and placement of the housing unit it.self. 

2. With the exception of the problem of the rapidly increasing subux'ban popula- 
tion surrounding tlie District of Columbia, the committee knows of no need for the 
organization and construction of new general hospitals. In several instances there 
is a real need for enlarging the capacity or modernization of the facilities of exist- 
ing general hospitals. In addition, small temporary hospitals for emergency use 
may be needed in a few areas. However, such construction, if found desirable, 
should anticipate the possible future use of the.se units as out-patient and preven- 
tive centers to care for the needs of the normal civilian population. In the interests 
of efficiency, undoubtedly the administration of such isolated units should be 
delegated to competent existing institutions. 

3. Some expression of opinion should be secured from someone technically com- 
I^tent in the field of hospital administration concerning tlie degree to which exist- 
ing hospital facilities could adequately care for the results of a major industrial 
catastrophe by temporarily postponing general civilian population care of a purely 
elective nature. A plan for such an emergency measure would involve the use of 
facilities other than those of the hospital itself, and should have the support of the 
general community as well as of the hospitals. 

4. Several committees responsible to different authorities are now actively en- 
gaged in reviewing the field of medical and hospital facilities with regard to their 
adequacy for and adaptability to the needs of various phases of the national- 
defense program. In order that no important areas of the entire field may be over- 
looked, and in the interests of avoiding duplication of effort, the committee 
suggests that some coordination of the work of these groups would be desirable. 



Statement appears on p. 62-55. 



5892 • BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Vin. PXnBLIO HEALTH 

A. State : The conditions of inadequate liousing and sanitary facilities constitut- 
ing a serious potential hazard are gradually becoming adjusted. The health 
departments in each of the counties have been very active in meeting the added 
load imposed by increased housing construction. 

The addition of increasing numbers of trailer-camp facilities adjacent to large 
industrial establishments may create sanitation problems, but it is believed that 
the counties, particularly Baltimore, Harford, Anne Arundel, Prince Georges, and 
Charles, through their health officers, will be able to cope with these problems as 
they arise. 

IX. EMPLOYMENT 

A. state : While there is an unprecedented shortage of workers in the skilled 
trades, it is believed that the various training programs being undertaken by 
industry, the Work Projects Administration, the National Youth Administration, 
and the State Employment Service will go a long way toward minimizing predicted 
deficiencies in the skilled trades. 

With the Federal Government's ix)licy of spreading defense contracts over wide 
areas, the problem of migration to and from the State for workers seeking employ- 
ment on defense jobs will be materially reduced. 

While there obviously will be some shortages in farm labor, it is believed that 
these shortages which occur annually during the harvest season from June to 
September will not present an acute labor problem in Maryland. 

With increased employment possibilities in the South, migration northward into 
Maryland has not been quite as rapid, but the employment service has made 
arrangements to bring in farm labor to help during the harvesting season. With 
an early dry season delaying the crops, the labor situation, particularly on the 
Eastern Shore, has not been as acute as originally anticipated. Records of the 
employment service indicate that approximately 3,000 migratory workers have 
already come into the State. 

TESTIMONY OF DH. ABEL WOLMAN— Resumed 

Dr. WoLMAN. Many of the gentlemen who are responsible for these 
memoranda will appear before yon during the next 2 days and will 
elaborate on the high spots which I have attempted to cover here. 

Obviously all of the com.ments which I have to make — certainly with 
respect to factual data — rest on the observations and details that 
come from the official documents and official statements of the authori- 
ties of the city of Baltimore and the remaining parts of the State of 
Maryland. 

I have listed, roughly in the order of their importance, the prob- 
lems which appear to us to be acute in the State, either because of the 
emphasis on defense or because they have reached a peak and are 
intensified by defense measures. 

The Chairman. Dr. Wolman, this committee was designated to 
investigate the interstate migration of destitute citizens and during 
the Seventy-sixth Congress we traveled over the United States. We 
went to New York, Alabama, Illinois, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and 
California to get an idea of the extent and character and the prob- 
lems of migration from State to State. 

The Seventy-seventh Congress saw fit to continue us as a com- 
mittee because the national-defense program meanwhile had ac- 
celerated and broadened this migration and had aggravated the 
problems connected with it. So what we are interested in. Doctor, 
is migration on account of national-defense activities and the effect^ 
it is having on communities. We are a fact-finding committee. We 
are not showing anybody up or cross-examining any witnesses. We 
are just trying to determine what load the communities of this coun- 
try are having to carry by reason of the national-defense program. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5893 

AREA AFFECTED BY MIGRATION 

Dr. WoLMAN. I shall try to focus on that, Mr. Chairman, although 
I am sure you have found, throughout the country, that it is difficult 
to isolate some of these facts and obviously difficult to estimate the 
migratory numbers insofar as our own State is concerned. 

First, as to centering the problem in the State of Maryland — ^be- 
cause it is not distributed throughout the State — the area affected by 
this migration is largely centered in what I would call the central 
portion of the State of Maryland, with the major center, of course, in 
the Baltimore metropolitan area, and running approximately north 
and south from the upper counties in the central area, down to and 
including Calvert County in the southern end of the State — that belt 
running virtually through the middle of the State of Maryland and 
carrying perhaps 95 percent of all the major industrial defense opera- 
tions of the State of Maryland. 

The western counties include part of the defense industries, but a 
very small part, and the Eastern Shore has virtually none of any great 
importance. 

Now, the problems which have been created, particularly in the 
Baltimore region, I might illustrate by the fact that two major defense 
industries in the Baltimore region represent the type of increased 
population and increased labor with which we are concerned. 

AIRPLANE MANUFACTURE 

The first is the Glenn L. Martin Co., manufacturing airplanes, as 
you are probably aware. In 1938 they had a pay roll of about 12,000. 
It had increased to 13,000 and a fraction in 1940, and now the pay 
roll is perhaps 20,000. 

Mr. 5lartin is going to be here this afternoon and he can give you 
the figures. He predicts the growth to 42,000 by 1942. 

^Ir. OsMERS. May I ask right there, Dr. Wolman, whether, of the 
anticipated 22,000 increase in employees at that plant, many workers 
are expected to come from the present population of the State of 
Maryland, or will those people come from the outside? 

Dr. WoLMAN. I would suppose that a fair proportion of those will 
come from the outside. 

TRAINING PROGRAM 

Mr. OsMERs. Do they have a training program? 

Dr. WoLMAN. They have a training program which they are carry- 
ing out within their own industry and also with the Johns Hopkins 
University, the University of Maryland, the Work Projects Admin- 
istration, the National Youth Administration, and other groups. 
They are handling in-training in the universities alone almost 1,000 
men of the younger technical groups. 

Now, I suspect that the increase will parallel the experience of the 
increase during the past year, where part has come from the Baltimore 
area and no inconsiderable part from outside of the Baltimore area. 

]Mr. OsMERS. The reason I put my question about this training pro- 
gram is that in other areas where we have visited, we find that the 
situation with respect to skilled workers is getting tighter all the time, 
and there just isn't an available pool of skilled workers somewhere 
else in the United States that we could draw on. As a result that has 

60396— 41— pt. 15 2 



5894 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

become a problem — the problem of developing skills in the po])ulation 
surrounding the defense industries. 

Dr. WoLMAN. I think detailed observations on that certainly will 
come about through Dr. Sylvester.^ They have already established 
a preliminary system of training for the skilled trades and I am sure 
that his experience will disclose how successfully he has been able to 
keep up with the demand. 

FIFTY THOUSAND NEW WORKERS IN TWO PLANTS 

I have mentioned the Glenn L. Martin plant and now I will mention 
the Bethlehem Steel Co. as the other type, because those two alone 
represent an increase over 1939 of about 50,000 workers — just the two 
plants ; and this perhaps may be an important place to point out, Mr. 
Chairman, that from our standpoint, although the problem of today 
is exceedingly acute and will become more so during the defense period, 
we are equally if not more concerned about the problem after the 
defense program is over. 

I don't know that I can overemphasize that for your committee — 
not that we have any solutions, but that we have tremendous fears as 
to what will be the fate of these very large infiltrations from other 
parts of the State or outside of the State, after the defense xerogram 
collapses. 

Mr. OsMERS. May I ask you, Dr. Wolman, what the residence re- 
quirements are in the State of Maryland — how long does one have 
to live here before he becomes a citizen of the State of Maryland? 

Dr. WoLMAN. My impression is 1 year. 

Mr. OsMERS. One year? 

Dr. WoLMAN. I think so, but I am not positive about that. 

With respect to the Bethlehem Steel Co.. I merely want to report, 
although Mr. Cort will appear this afternoon, the number of their 
employees has risen from 8,000 in December of 1937 to 28,000 as 
of today, and a probable 30,000 by the first of 1942. 

THE TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM 

The first and perhaps most j^ressing financial problem of the State 
and the Baltimore area has to deal with transportation facilities. 

Our general road system, although it is not directly related to the 
migratory labor problem, is directly related to the opportunity of 
workers to get to and from work, and their opportunity to do busi- 
ness in the central part of Baltimore city and the adjacent areas. 
We are in an exceedingly tight place with respect to transportation 
facilities in two key areas in the Baltimore central downtown area, 
and in virtually all the access roads to and from this heavy industrial 
belt in Baltimore County, in the southern part of Baltimore itself 
and in Anne Arundel County. 

The Chairman. And that traffic load has been increased on account 
of the defense activities? 

Dr. WoLMAN. That has been increased, as some of the later wit- 
nesses will show, to as much as 500 pe'rcent in certain of the more 
heavily traveled roads. 

^riiai-les W. Sylvester, diroctor. Citv of BaUiniore Division of Vocational Education. 
See p. 5965 fl. 



NATIONAL DEPENSE MIGRATION 5895 

HEAVY COST OF ACCESS ROADS 

The Chaiemax. It is tied in more or less with national defense 
industrial program ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. It is entirely tied in with that, although we may 
have had a difficult situation with respect to transportation and 
did have; but we had nothing like the present situation, where people 
literally cannot move from the place of work to their place of 
residence. 

Under our present system of highways, it takes perhaps 5 to 
10 times as long to travel to work as it should take over first-class 
highways. The expenditures necessary in that undertaking are 
astronomical in size, but we haven't been able to discover any easy 
way of reducing them, because the access roads for defense purposes 
run into a great many millions of dollars. 

You will have before you a memorandum by Mr. Childs, the head 
of the State highway planning survey, which sets forth in detail 
what that bill is.^ For defense |)urposes alone the liighway program 
is in the neighborhood of $22,000,000. That does not inclucle an addi- 
tional $40,000,000 to reinforce and extend major tributary highways 
tliat are desirable and should have been built, perhaps, before the 
period. 

FEDERAL Am AWAITED 

We are still Avaiting for the passage and ratification of the highway 
finances by the Federal Gove^-nment, which we hope will supply some 
money, at least, for these immediate access roads, particularly in 
the neighborhood of the Glenn L. Martin plant and the Bethlehem 
Steel Co., and the Baltimore city area. 

Mr. OsMERS. You call an immediate access road one which terminates 
at the point of concentration ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. That is right. It is the only highway, perhaps, by 
which thousands of men at 4 o'clock in the afternoon and at 7 : 30 
in the morning can get to their place of work. 

Those highways today are so congested that the automobiles move 
inch by inch, literally, which makes a difficult problem of holding 
labor and obviously increases the workiiio- day by several hours at both 
the Bethlehem Steel Co. plant and the Glenn Martin plant. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, is it contemplated that the Federal Government 
should finance all of this new highway construction or the State of 
Maryland? 

Dr. WoLMAN. It is hoped that certainly the minimimi Federal 
financing should be for what I call the immediate defense-access 
highways to places like Camp Meade, to Edgewood, to Aberdeen, 
to our industrial areas, because they are entirely contingent on these 
defenses necessities. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you have the cost of those roads lumped together 
in one figure ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. Those roads add up to something like $22,000,000, of 
which we have a little over $10,000,000 for what we call militarv 
access roads as distinct from the industrial roads, and another $10,000j- 
000 or so over on the industrial highways. The road program within 

^ See p. 6272. 



5896 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

the Baltimore region alone runs somewhere betAveen three and five 
million dollars. 

Mr. OsMERS. Out of the $22,000,000 ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. Yes ; out of the $22,000,000. 

FINANCE PROBLEMS IN ALL DEFENSE CENTERS 

The Chairman. Dr. Wolman, the details vary a little in the various 
defense centers, but the problems are all much the same when it 
comes to financing the load. They are simply not able to carry the 
load by themselves. The committee visited San Diego, whose popu- 
lation has jumped 100,000 people. We just returned from Hartford, 
Conn., and Trenton^ N. J., and they have identical problems. The 
health problem has increased, the housing problem has increased, the 
transportation problem, the sewage problem — ^they have all increased, 
and there comes a time when those local communities cannot handle the 
load on account of their debt limitations and for other reasons. In 
view of that, an act was passed by Congress, called the Lanham Act, 
providing $150,000,000 for utilities to answer these needs. It is neces- 
sary that Congress be informed as to the extent of the needs, and the 
adequacy or inadequacy of such a sum to meet those needs. And we 
are the only congressional agency to report back to Congress on these 
matters. 

Now, there have been applications submitted for three times the 
total of $150,000,000 appropriated to take care of just such vital 
problems as you have here in Baltimore, San Diego alone wants 
$21,000,000, and the State of California $50,000,000. You can see how 
far that appropriation is going to go. 

We find it a Nation-wide problem, and when you detail your situa- 
tion here you are simply giving the picture of the entire country. 

Dr. Wolman. I don't mean to imply, Mr. Chairman, that the State 
of Maryland, if I may speak for it temporarily, has any intention of 
stampeding the Federal Government into tremendous financial ex- 
penditures. But Maryland is a very small State, It has a population 
of approximately 1,800,000 people. And it is confronted with a series 
of expenditures, primarily for defense purposes, which it cannot meet 
out of its normal budgetary operations. As you will see from the 
figures that I enumerated, beyond the road system, these expendi- 
tures would represent, perhaps, a normal State financial outlay over 
a period of 25 or 30 years, confronting us in a period of 1 or 2 years. 

I can see no way in which that could be financed through the normal 
resources of the ^tate or of the city of Baltimore, although I should 
want to make very clear that we don't intend to include operations 
and structures which the State would have to build if there were no 
defense program. 

DEFICIT OF 9,000 DEFENSE HOUSING UNITS 

The second item has to deal with housing, on which likewise you 
T\ill have a detailed memorandum or a series of memoranda by Mr. 
Loomis and others who are familiar with the housing situation, par- 
ticularly in the Baltimore region. 

Witli respect to Baltimore city, Mr. Loomis estimates that we may 
have, with additional units planned by the Federal Government ag- 
gregating about 3,000 housing units and with an availability in the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5897 

Baltimore city area of about 4,000 units, approximately 7,000 hous- 
ing units for defense workers. He compares that with the probable 
estimated demand of about 16,000 housing units in the city, leaving a 
possible deficit of 9,000. 

That will be elaborated upon in more detail by Dr. Fales, Mr. 
Loomis, and Miss Morton. 

The Chairman. I will say for your information the status of hous- 
ing legislation is simply this : $300,000,000 was appropriated by Con- 
gress for that purpose. Every dollar of that sum has been allocated, 
but in the President's special message the other day he recommended 
$300,000,000 more be appropriated for that purpose. 

Dr. WoLMAN. I should point out that this estimated deficit of de- 
fense-housing units in Baltimore is not agreed to by the real-estate 
group in the city. In justice to them, I feel that I should say that 
they would perhaps point out that the need is not as acute as is 
indicated here. 

SHORTAGE AFFECTS NEGROES MOST 

It should be pointed out likewise that there is a distinction which 
I am sure others will point out — that the Negroes, as always, suffer 
most acutely from these shortages because of their economic status or 
because of restrictions as to locations within the area, or because they 
are the first to have difficulty finding reasonable facilities at a reason- 
able price. Those details, as I say, will be made clearer as we go on. 

Mr. OsMERS. I have a question right there, Dr. Wolman. Are 
Negroes employed in the Martin plant and in the Bethlehem Steel 
Co. plant? 

Dr. WoLMAN. They are employed in the Bethlehem Steel Co. plant, 
but I don't think they are employed in the Martin plant, or if they 
are, it is to a very, very limited extent. 

Mr. OsMERS. But they are employed by the Bethlehem Steel Co.? 

Dr. WoLMAN. Yes, sir; and they always have been. This com- 
pany employs them in occupations where apparently they have been 
found useful. 

Mr. OsMERS. What is the Bethlehem Steel Co. making in its Mary- 
land plant? 

Dr. WoLMAN, Ships, rails, tin plate — it runs practically the 
gamut — steel pipe, and so on. It is running today at little over 100 
percent of rated capacity and is building new furnaces and probably 
will be running twice its normal capacity within the year. 

With respect to Baltimore County, which I ought to mention, it 
is the feeling of the Baltimore County commissioners that their 
housing shortage is not very acute, largely due to the fact that they 
are building a great many new houses. Their problem is one of 
control, technical building control, and I am glad to report that 
yesterday they appointed a new building engineer who will adopt, I 
believe, the major features of the Baltimore City housing code and 
building code. Their problem, therefore, is not a pressing one, al- 
though they are building a great many new houses. 

EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES 

With respect to educational facilities, perhaps the most acute areas 
are in Baltimore, Charles, Harford, and Prince Georges Counties. 
Mr. Baldwin, the chairman of the Baltimore County commissioners, 



5898 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

estimates that they will need new school facilities for between 4,500 
and 5,000 children, entirely due to the defense operations. He esti- 
mates that those facilities will cost about $1,500,000. He points out, 
as perhaps most public officials have pointed out to you, that they 
have zero dollars for the purpose. How they will build these schools 
and where they will get the money is one of the major problems. 

In Charles County, with an estimated increase of 5,000 people due 
to defense operations, and at Indian Head, where their increased 
operations are entirely due to the operation of a naval construction 
base, the school problem is likewise acute. 

With respect to Baltimore City, it is doubtful whether they will 
have a very acute problem because their capacity for absorption of 
new school children is much greater than in any of the surrounding 
areas and, secondly, they have available a bond issue of some $10,000,- 
000 out of which they could from time to time construct new buildings 
and replace old ones. 

RECREATIONAL FACILITIES 

With respect to recreational facilities, I have only one comment 
to make. The State is fairly well provided with desirable recrea- 
tional areas. It has very, very little money for new capital invest- 
ment in that field. The State Department of Forestry has always 
been and still is handicapped seriously. It is cooperating with the 
U. S. O., and there, too, I would like to emphasize what is apparent 
elsewhere — that there is lacking the desirable degree of coordination 
between the new recreational proposals of the U. S. O. and the exist- 
ing or future recreational developments of the State and of the city. 

We are much concerned about the development of such recrea- 
tional facilities in Baltimore City and in adjacent areas, for military 
purposes. Unless they are carefully synchronized with civilian pur- 
poses after defense is over, we will find ourselves with vast recrea- 
tional undertakings financed out of the existing voluntary funds, 
which we will not be able to maintain or operate or use to advantage 
later. 

SEWERAGE 

With respect to sewernge, the demands in Baltimore County will 
aggregate about $300,000, for Mdiich they do not have the money — a 
direct result of defense undertakings. That will include sewers as 
well as sewage facilities. 

In Baltimore City the situation is very much better. I think 
Mayor Jackson pointed out that we passed last year a bond issue 
of $5,000,000 for sewerage extensions and for improvement in treat- 
ment. 

Mr. OsMEES. Those funds, as I understand it, are now being ex- 
pended. 

Dr. WoLaiAN. Those funds are being expended— that $5,000,000. 
The designs have been made, some of the construction is already 
under way, and more will be done during the coming 12 to 18 months. 

Mr. OsMEES. Is that money to be used mainly for disposal facilities? 

Dr. WoLMAN. No; it is largely for the extension of sewers to new 
areas ; to a secondary extent for an increase in the disposal facilities. 
We are better off in disposal facilities than we are in service in a 



NATIONAL DEFIvNSE MIGRATION 5899 

great many Baltimore areas. We have some 50.000 people unpro- 
vided with sewer service in the city. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is it contemplated that with this $5,000,000 appro- 
priation these people will be provided with sewer facilities? 

Dr. WoLMAN. That is the purpose of the $5,000,000. It will not 
finish the job, but it will do a great deal. 

Mr. OsMERS. Has the lack of sewer facilities caused any epidemics 
or sickness? 

Dr. WoLMAN. No. The typhoid record of the city has been re- 
markably good for at least 10 or 15 years. 

BALTIMORE WATER SUPPLY 

Mr. OsMERs. What is the source of Baltimore's water supply ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. It comes from the Gunpowder River in the upper 
area surrounding the city of Baltimore County. It is a very good 
source, well stored and very capably filtered and treated. It is safe. 
I would like to comment on that problem when I get to the water 
supply problem, w^hich is a much more acute and larger enterprise. 

The $300,000 sewerage appropriation for Baltimore County is 
needed largely for extending into areas that are being newly built up 
but that as yet have no facilities, where the expenditure will be both 
for sewer lines and for disposal. The situation in Baltimore County 
is a good deal worse, not only because of the lack of funds, but because 
of the lack of any facilities. 

With respect to water, we have two major difficulties. We are 
paralleling the 1917-18 jjeriod. The water consumption in the Balti- 
more area is consumed by a population of about 1,000,000 people. 
You see, the city furnishes all of Baltimore County and all of Anne 
Arundel County adjacent to the city and part of Howard County. 

The city has been experiencing, during the last 8 months, and con- 
tinuing today, a tremendous increase in the rate of water consump- 
tion. 

Mr. OsMERs. How do you account for that? 

Dr. WoLMAN. The only way we can account for it is either through 
larger industrial use, or — more important — a tremendous increase of 
the development of new housing within the city. The number of 
new services requested and actually being constructed in the city 
during the last 6 months is almost twice as great as in the previous 
6 months or in the first 6 months of 1940. The curve of increased 
use is almost exactly paralleling a similar experience in 1917 and 
1918 when the consumption increased, over a period of 18 months, by 
almost 75 percent over the normal. That means that we will be 
confronted with something approaching a water restriction or short- 
age by 1942— in 1942 and 1943. 

SEEK NEW WATER SUPPLY SOURCES 

Mr. OsMERs. What is contemplated to correct that situation? 

J)r. WoLiNiAN. We are now in the j^rocess of seeking and determining 
upon the construction of entirely new sources of water supply, in- 
volving an expenditure of anywhere between 12 and 24 million dollars. 
The wide limits are due to the fact that the source will determine 
the total that will be expended. 



5900 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. OsMERS. Is the water system of Baltimore municipally owned ? 
Dr. WoLMAN. It is municipally owned and operated. 



Mr. OsMERS. As I understood the Mayor's testimony this mor 



ning, 
it would be impossible for Baltimore to construct those facilities or 
any facilities without bringing the matter before the people of the 
city in a referendum. Is that correct? 

Dr. WoLMAN, That is correct, and that referendum cannot be held 
until the latter part of 1942, and construction could not begin until 
thereafter if it is favorably voted upon. Completion could not con- 
ceivably be before 1946, or at best 1945. 

Mr. OsMERS. So with everything in its favor, the solution to that 
water problem will not be possible until 3 years, at least, after the 
problem has reached its peak? 

Dr. WoLMAN. Three years at least, unless, as we are now consider- 
ing with the water department of the city, we could make temporary 
emergency extensions to certain sources, which could be put in, we 
hope, within a year. Even there we are up against another problem. 
If such a thing were necessary today, we do not know where to find 
money for such an enterprise, which might be from 5 to 9 million 
dollars. 

WATER SHORTAGE IN 1917 

Mr. OsMEES. You mentioned several times in connection with the 
water problem the situation in 1917 and 1918. Was there an acute 
water shortage at that time? 

Dr. WoLMAN. Yes. 

Mr. OsMERs. Did it lead to rationing? 

Dr. WoLMAN. It led to restrictions, but no major ones. We were 
better off at that time in that respect because our resources showed a 
wider range between the possible yield and the demand. Today our 
sources have a yield of 148,000,000 gallons a day, and we ended up last 
year using 130,000,000. We will end up this year using, perhaps, 
135,000,000 to 140,000,000 gallons a day, with a great many of the days 
in the preceding 3 months running as high as 156,000,000 gallons per 
day, so that our factor of safety or area of safety between the yield and 
the requirement is getting so slim that we don't believe a population 
of 1,000,000 people can rest easily with that in mind. 

A more serious, and perhaps more immediate, problem is the declin- 
ing of a water supply of another source. The whole industrial belt gets 
its water from underground sources — wells. They do not obtain water 
from Baltimore City. They are using today approximately 50,000,000 
gallons a day. Through that increased use in the last year, and through 
long use — a period of 25 years — that underground reservoir is being 
very rapidly depleted. As a matter of fact, the water level in this area, 
pretty much over the whole territory, has dropped from 100 to 115 
feet over the period of the last 24 months. 

Mr. OsMERS. Have any new areas of subsurface water supply been 
explored ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. There is none available to that industrial belt, so that 
we will be confronted during the next few years with determining 
where to get an additional 40 or 50 million gallons a day that have 
hitherto never been supplied by the Baltimore City water system, part 
of which — not all of it, but part — will have to come from some new 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5901 

sources. Those underground sources are not available elsewhere 
except at tremendous distances. 

Some of the industries are moving rapidly toward other alterna. 
tives — the extension of lines from Baltimore City into areas for emer- 
gency purposes; the use of sources of a surface origin that are not 
quite so^ood, or of other types to be thrown into operation. For exam- 
ple, the Bethlehem Steel Co. will have to begin construction this summer 
of a new source of water supply that will cost about $2,000,000, and it 
is hoped that it will be completed by the end of the year or in the early 
part of 1942. 

MEDICAL CARE AND HOSPITAL NEEDS 

With respect to medical care and liospital needs. Mr. Colman, who 
is a member of the State planning commission's committee on medical 
care and hospital facilities, will supply, or has already supplied, to 
you a detailed memorandum. 

The findings are not unsatisfactory, although there are indica- 
tions of a possible shortage in physicians, and in certain areas a 
possible shortage of hospital facilities. But they are not of such 
an acute nature that they cannot be controlled and solved. They 
do insist, however, as you will note in the memorandum, that any 
extension in hospital facilities of a capital nature should be very 
carefully coordinated with the existing hospital facilities and under 
the same administrative functions, again with the idea that after 
defense measures are over those hospital facilities will have a major 
salvage value and will not be isolated in their operations and in 
their general function. Perhaps they can be made useful after the 
events of these 2 or 3 or 4 or 5 years. 

Dr. Riley, who will appear before you this morning, has prepared 
a detailed memorandum on the public health aspects.^ Fortunately, 
the State is exceedingly well organized in its major metropolis, in 
Baltimore City, for health purposes. It is meeting the emergency 
pressure in its stride. It is true, as Dr. Riley will point out, that they 
could use more people, and could certainly use a larger budget. I 
imagine Dr. AVilliams will indicate the same, but they are accustomed 
to handling emergency situations as they arise with their current 
forces. 

DISPUTE ox FARM LABOR SUPPLY 

I want to point out to this group in advance of the presentation 
verbally by two of your witnesses, that there is a distinct difference 
of opinion as to whether we have a major labor shortage in the 
farm area or whether we don't. You may draw your own conclu- 
sions from the two witnesses as they appear. 

Mr. OsMERs. We had about the same contradiction in New Jersey, 
which has an agricultural situation somewhat comparable to yours. 

Dr. WoLMAN. One group feels, as their memorandum will indicate, 
that the shortage is there, but not important, and not one which 

1 See p. 5906 ff. 



5902 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

cannot be practicably adjusted. The other feels that the shortage 
is very acute and a very large one. It estimates the migratory farm 
group as about 3,000 people. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is that up to about its usual size — that figure? 

Dr. WoLMAN. From the indications it is about its usual size. The 
drought of the early spring has deferred some of our farm operations. 
The anticipated labor shortage in certain areas hasn't occurred, but 
I frankly wouldn't want to pass on the relative merits of the two 
claims. 

Mr. OsMERS. Without getting into a problem that may not be 
within your scoj^e or sphere, has there been any noticeable change 
in farm income or farm wages? 

Dr. WoLMAN. I couldn't say, but I imagine Dr. De Vault or his 
representative could answer that question. I have no evidence on it. 

Mr. OsMERS. We have found in other parts of the country that 
as a result of increased employment opportunity in industry, the 
farmer has to pay more for his workers in order to keep them. 

LACK or YOUNG DOCTORS IN RURAL AREAS 

Now, there is one section in your memorandum. Dr. Wolman, that 
I would like to inquire about a little more in detail. On page 7 
(p. 5891) under Medical Care and Facility Needs, you raise a rather 
interesting question, to me at least, about the withdrawals of young 
physicians from the counties for which they are now carrying a 
great portion of the load of actual patient care. 

Now, will you explain that withdrawal of young physicians? 

Dr. WoLMAN. I can explain that this way: I don't think it is 
peculiar to our State, but our medical care committee has uncovered 

in its survey so far an interesting problem ^both peacetime and 

defense — with respect to physicians and also with respect to hospital 
facilities. I say it is not peculiar to the State of Maryland because 
I think it occurs elsewhere. 

The young physician as a rule does not tend to move toward the 
rural areas or toward the counties. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is that largely because of the low-income oppor- 
tunities ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. No ; I would say it is partly that, but perhaps to a 
greater extent it is the lack of scientific hospitals and laboratory 
facilities which they find in the metropolitan areas, in those communi- 
ties which have first-class hospital and laboratory services. 

Mr. OsMERS. Would you say that an increase in specialization in 
the practice of medicine has also tended to keep men out of the gen- 
eral practice of medicine? 

Dr. Wolman. It either keeps them out of the general practice or 
they have been taught, and wisely taught, that they need facilities of 
the laboratory and of the hospital and of the clinic and of the dis- 
pensary and, therefore, they dislike going into areas where those 
facilities and the contact for" discussion and for observation are lack- 
ing. The result is that we find in many of the counties in this State 
and elsewhere a very high proportion of the older physicians, who 
are above the age of 60, and in some instances 70, which simply means 
that we have no infiltration of the new, young and alert, well-trained 
physicians. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5903 

Now, as the Army and the Navy picks more and more of those 
young men out of the field, even where they are in practice in the 
counties, that situation is made even more acute. 

Mr. OsMERS. I presume that a considerable proportion of the young 
doctors have been mustered into the service as Reserve officers. 

NEED OF CLEARING HOUSE FOR SER\^CES 

Dr. WoLMAN. I don't remember the exact number that have gone 
out of Maryland but it is an appreciable number. It would not 
create a very serious problem if we were able by sleight of hand to 
redistribute those we have and be selective in those who are released, 
which again points to the desirability of some central clearinghouse 
designed to insure maintenance of civilian necessities in time of 
enlarged Army and Navy necessities. 

So far the situation hasn't been very acute in Maryland but it 
could become so, if they were indiscriminate in selection. 

Mr. OsMERs. Maryland has a medical society ; does it not ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. A very good one, and a very powerful one, and a very 
enlightened one. These data have come largely through the coopera- 
tion of that group of medical societies. 

Mr. OsMERs. Now, from the standpoint of the State planning com- 
mission, are you anticipating that the men and women who are moving 
into Maryland as a result of these defense industries will become per- 
manent residents of the State of Maryland after the emergency is 
over ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. No; I should anticipate that a considerable portion 
of them will return to their former homes. I think it would be a 
little hazardous for me even to guess what proportion it would be, 
but my guess is that no considerable part of them will remain as per- 
manent residents. What we will do with that increment of population, 
as well as our normal increase through the duration of the defense 
program, I haven't the slightest idea. 

FUTURE or DEFENSE INDUSTRIES IN THE AREA 

Mr. OsMERS. Has the State planning commission made any study 
of the future of your very large defense industries, with the view of 
finding what they may do at the conclusion of the emergency? 

Dr. WoLMAN. Not yet. We have talked about it a good bit, and I 
think by this fall we will start a major study of that problem. 

Mr. OsMERS. I was w^ondering about the adaptability, let us say, 
of the Glenn Martin and the Bethlehem Steel Co. facilities for peace- 
time use. 

Dr. WoLMAN. We haven't made the study, and therefore I wouldn't 
want to try to foresee what the findings would be. For one, I would 
be tremendously surprised if those facilities, in their present extent, 
could be easily absorbed without a great deal of dislocation, after this 
period. 

Mr. OsMERS. I don't think there is a chance in the world that they 
would be used. 

Dr. WoLMAN. We have been looking at it from a slightly different 
point of view — as to what we would do with those dislocated people, 
rather than with the dislocation of plant capacity. It is that type of 
review and inventory that we hope to initiate in the fall. 



5904 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES IN AGRICULTURE 

Mr. OsiNiERS. Is there any part of the State of Maryland that might 
conceivably lend itself to the agricultural settlement of these people 
at the conclusion of the emergency ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. We doubt that very much. Our economic studies up 
to this time, of which we have made quite a number in the last 3 years, 
would indicate that we have a solid and well-supported agricultural 
group, but one which would not stand any tremendously large in- 
filtration. 

Mr. OsMERS. I was thinking of the subsistence type of homestead. 

Dr. WoLMAN. Again I would like to leave that with a number of 
reservations — until we have reviewed it. 

Mr. OsMERS. My personal opinion is that farm land in the State 
of Maryland is too expensive for such operation. 

Dr. WoLMAN. It is expensive. It is limited. It acts as a service 
unit largely for the metropolitan areas of Baltimore, Hagerstown, 
and Cumberland, and that combination has worked out quite well 
in the past 25 or 30 years. Maryland is peculiar in that sense — over 
half of the population, you see, is in the industrial area of Baltimore. 

Mr. OsMERS. Over half ? 

Dr. WoLMAN. Yes, sir; of the entire State. If you add to that 
the metropolitan regions of Cumberland, Hagerstown, Frederick, 
and Salisbury, you have a very small remaining rural population. 

BIG POST-DEFENSE MIGRATION? 

Mr. OsMERS. Is it your opinion, Dr. Wolman, that at the con- 
clusion of this emergency we wdll see a great migration of people 
throughout the United States seeking opportunities which possibly 
will not exist at that time? 

Dr. WoLMAN. I would suspect you will see that — plus a wide- 
spread collapse — unless we find some new solutions in most of 
the metropolitan areas, which happen to be most of the defense 
areas. 

Mr. OsMERs. This committee, of course, has probably been closer 
to the migration of people for well over a year than any other 
group in the country. 

We started off with what was a farm-to-city problem, and as the 
defense effort began, this movement of people became accelerated. 
The country is actually getting on wheels. The number now runs 
into the millions. Thousands of families are living in trailers, and 
it seems to me that at the conclusion of the defense emergency a 
great many areas in the country, and Baltimore may be one of 
them, will chase these people out, and they will start to go from 
place to place seeking some opportunity to settle. That was the 
reason I questioned you before about the residence requirements 
in the State of Maryland. I think that is going to be a dominant 
factor in future migrations. 

NO RIGID EXCLUSION POLICY 

Dr. WoLMAN. If I could speak historically, neither Baltimore nor 
the State of Maryland has ever done any "chasing" in the past. As 
a matter of fact, the contrary has been the case. We have never had 



NATIONAL DEFEASE MIGRATION 5905 

a rigid exclusion policy. Remember that our geographical location 
with respect to Washington gives Baltimore City and Maryland a 
series of acute problems. This is on the line of transit toward the 
Capital City. Dr. Riley will remember the problem of the army of 
unemployed that visited Washington and were chased out of there. 
They came into Maryland and we handled them, we believe, more 
humanely and with more skill than thev were handled in Wash- 
ington. At least, the results seemed to indicate that. 

I would say that Maryland and Baltimore will be confronted with 
the problem of handling, not a declining population, but one either 
comparable with our present population or an increased one. 

Mr. OsMERS. If your State is not restrictive you will have a tre- 
mendous burden. 

Dr. WoLMAN. It has not been restrictive. 

Mr. OsMERS. And if it is not at that time I should imagine that 
you would get vast numbers of people coming to Maryland. 

MIGRATION or NEGROES FROM THE SOUTH 

Dr. WoLMAN. We had a great migration from the South during 
the last depression period. 

Mr. OsMERS. Largely Negroes? 

Dr. WoLMAN. Yes, sir. There were no restrictive measures set 
up. I am not prepared to say whether it might have been wise or 
not wise, but I do say that the policy of Baltimore City and Mary- 
land was not to be restrictive in the handling of the problem. 

Mr. OsMERS. What is the percentage of Negi^oes in your total 
population now? 

Dr. WoLMAN. In Baltimore City I think it runs close to 20 per- 
cent. 

Mr. OsMERS. And does that follow throughout the State? 

Dr. WoLMAN. No. For the State as a whole. I would say about 
17 percent. Some of the counties have virtually no Negroes and 
some have over 50 percent, in the southern part and along the 
Eastern Shore. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is all. 

POST-WAR PUBLIC WORKS PLAN 

The Chairman. Dr. Wolman, for fear of becoming too pessi- 
mistic in our outlook, you will still have your beautiful Maryland 
hills. 

Dr. WoLMAN. And we take great pride in them. 

The Chairman. During the World War people were not thinking 
in terms of what was going to happen afterward, as we are now. 
This congressional committee is addressing itself to the problem. 
The National Resources Board is issuing an executive order calling 
for a survey, as to the possibility of public works after the defense 
program is over. I am not criticizing the plan, but the weakness of 
it, to my mind, is that after the war is over this country may find 
it necessary to retrench financially, and then the survey might not 
do us very much good. 

Our vast army of employed — many of whom were unemployed for 
a long time — are now busy and are making money where they 
didn't before. Everywhere we go we are trying to sell them the 



5906 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

idea of saving money. In some of the shipbuilding plants they 
have a voluntary saving plan. Now, to my notion, that is the real 
cushion against the shock that is bound to come, because nobody 
knows, at the end of this period, what the country's fiscal position 
will be. 

If these employees will save a few hundred dollars, that wdll give 
the Government a chance to get its breath and help toward a solu- 
tion. 

Dr. WoLMAN. I would agree with you entirely, Mr. Chairman, that 
the fiscal problem will likely be the major issue, because when we 
enter a period of retrenchment it is difficult to persuade people that 
they should begin to construct public works or the like. I haven't 
any illusions about it nor do I have any solutions. 

The Chairman. Dr. Wolman, we would like to interrogate you 
further, but we have so many witnesses to hear today that we must 
conserve our time. 

We appreciate what you have given us, and I know it is joing to 
be a very valuable contribution to the work of the committee. 

We will take a short recess. 

(Short recess.) 

The Chairman. The ^'^ nittee will please come to order. 

Dr. Williams and Dr. ' are our next witnesses. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. E .iiERT H. RILEY, DIRECTOR, MARYLAND 
STATE DEPARTMENO: OF HEALTH, AND DR. HUNTINGTON WIL- 
LIAMS, COMMISSIONER, CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, BALTI- 
MORE, MD. 

The Chairman. Gentlemen, Congressman Arnold will interrogate 
you. 

Mr. Arnold. Dr. Riley, will you state your name and address and 
title and the organization which you represent ? 

Dr. Riley. Dr. R. H. Riley, director of health. State Department of 
Health of Maryland, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arnold. And I suppose your testimony will be interrelated 
with that of Dr. Williams. 

Dr. Williams, will you state your name and address and the organi- 
zation which you represent? 

Dr. Williams. Dr. Huntington Williams, commissioner of health, 
Baltimore City. 

Mr. Arnold. Gentlemen, your prepared statements will be made a 
part of the record. 

(The statements referred to above are as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY R. H. RILEY, M. D., DIRECTOR, MARYLAND STATE DE- 
PARTMENT OP HEALTH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Maryland State Department of Health was established by law in 1874. 
Responsibility under the law for the public-health service carried on for the 
residents of Maryland, with special reference to activities in the counties, is 
vested in the State board of health. 

The nicnihcrs of the board are appointed by the Governor and the director of 
the Maryland State Department of Health is appointed by the board for the 
duration of life. 

The board exercises executive, legislative, and judicial functions. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5907 

FULL-TIME COUNTY HEALTH SERVICE 

Each of the 23 counties of Marylaud has a full-time county health department, 
the staff varying as to the population of the county. In the least populated 
county of ld,<X)0 there is a full-time county health othcer, three nurses, a 
sanitarian, and a clerk. In some of the larger counties, the health officer has 
one or more assistants, 10 or more nurses, at least 2 sanitarians, and the neces- 
sary clerical assistance. 

The functions of the bureaus of the State department of health are discussed in 
detail and an organization chart is attached. 

As a special effort in the national-defense program, 7 of the counties have been 
designated as defense counties, owing to the fact that military reservations or 
industrial projects are located within or adjacent to these comities. The counties 
in which military reservations or national-defense projects are located are: 
Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Charles, and H'lirford. Prince Georges County is in 
the immediate vicinity of Fort George G. Meade and the largest settlements near 
the fort are located in this county along the Washington Boulevard. Howard 
and Montgomery Counties are related to the national-defense program, owing to 
the overflow of workers into these counties for housing. A map showing these 
locations is attached.^ 

PUBLIC-HEALTH PERSONNEL 

All 7 defense counties have a full-time health officer and, in addition, two of 
these counties have assistant health officers. These counties are provided with 
public-health nurses and sanitarians and also the necessary clerical help. In 
addition to the regular iiersonnel, local physiciar hv.^ employed for work in the 
venereal diseases clinics. 

There has been some additional personnel ished each of the defense 

•counties during the present emergency. Additu. nurses are most desired at 
the present time, and it is desired that the reconliit-.iided ratio of one nurse to 
5.()0() population should at least be reached in ,^1 the counties. In Anne 
Arundel County at the present time the ratio is one nurse to 3,654 of the popu- 
lation, in Howard County the ratio is one nurse to 8,000 persons, while in 
Baltimore County the ratio is one nurse to 12,000 of the population. 

COMM MTY SANITATION 

The community sanitation program consists of providing premises with approved 
types of earth-pit privies constructed by labor allotted by the Work Projects Ad- 
ministration. The object of the program is to eliminate insanitary conditions by 
the construction of sanitary privies in areas where sewer systems are impracti- 
cable. An area of approximately 10 miles around each of the military reserva- 
tions and defense projects was established for the activities of the community 
sanitation project. It is estimated that approximately 7,413 privies will be re- 
quired to properly provide adequate sanitation. The community sanitation pro- 
gram was submitted to the Army and was certified as a priority project to the 
Work Projects Administration. 

COMMUNIG\BLE DISEASES 

Typhoid fever for the State of Maryland has shown a steady decrease from 1907 
to the present time. In 1907 the death rate per 100,000 population was 41.1 and 
in 1940 the death rate was 0.6. This decline may be attributed largely to installa- 
tion of public water supplies, sewage disposal systems, sanitary improvement of 
dairies and milk products, wider use of pasteurized milk, the improvement of 
environmental sanitation, and the prompt investigation of all cases of typhoid 
reported. 

The mortality rate for diphtheria has shown a most gratifving decline, the rate 
per 100,000 population being 0.4 for the year 1940 for the State of Maryland. 

Other comminucable diseases have also shown a satisfactory decline, esijecially 
tuberculosis. The mortality rate for tuberculosis for 1940 was 70.6. The death 
rate among the white population was 44.9 and among the colored 204.0. 

In the defense counties the morbidity and mortality rates compare mo.st favor- 
ably with the State as a whole. During 1941, there has been no great increase 
in the number of cases of communicable diseases and in this year only 2 cases of 
typhoid fever have been reported from the defense counties : One in Montgomery 



See p. ."i93<5. 



5908 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

County and one in Baltimore County. Table of statistics for these counties is 
attached/ 

The defense counties showed an increase in measles during the State-wide 
epidemic and also a slight increase in the number of cases of influenza during 
the past winter season. 

Seven cases of meningitis have been reported from these counties during 1941 ; 
Four from Baltimore County and three from Harford County. These cases were 
not closely associated one with the other. 

The communicable-disease program throughout the State consists of field visits 
by the nurses and health officers to cases of diphtheria, scarlet fever, typhoid fever, 
tuberculosis, and syphilis. This phase of the program also includes health educa- 
tion in the homes, quarantine, immunization, and epidemiological investigations. 
Diagnostic consultations are provided on the request of the physicians. Diphtheria 
immunization is conducted yearly in all the schools and smalliwx vaccination is 
compulsory before a child can attend school. 

The control of tuberculosis and syphilis is further augmented by regular diag- 
nostic clinics for tuberculosis and assistance to the physician for early hospital- 
ization of these cases. 

CLINICS 

Each of the counties holds the following clinics : Tuberculosis, venereal disease, 
crippled children, maternal and child health. Specific data relative to the clinics 
in the defense counties are shown in the tables. 

The tuberculosis clinics afford complete physical examination for all cases 
referred and all known contacts. It also provides X-ray examinations, and 
epidemiological investigations are started from this point. The venereal-disease 
clinics afford not only diagnostic service but complete treatment. 

BACTERIOLOGICAL LABORATORY m 

The demands upon the Bacteriological Laboratory have been considerably 
increased owing to the national-defense program. The largest increase has been 
due to the examination of blood specimens and other specimens from the selectees. 
From January through April 1941, 3,869 draftee blood specimens were examined. 
This constituted 33.6 percent of the blood specimens received in the central 
laboratory for examination for syphilis. Forty-two percent of all blood speci- 
mens from January 1 to June 23, 1941, have been from draftees. 

There are nine branch laboratories located in the several counties of Maryland. 
One of these is located in Anne Arundel County, one in Charles, and one in 
Montgomery County. 

HOSPITALIZATION 

The military and naval rservations have ample medical and hospital facilities 
for their personnel. The hospitalization of the civilian population living around 
military reservations and industrial plants depends entirely upon the hospitals 
located in Baltimore City and Washington, D. C. Beds for free patients are 
always at a premium. 

Montgomery, Charles, and Harford Counties each have a small hospital. These 
hospitals could not be depended upon for the care of any material increase over 
their normal-bed capacity. However, the hospital at Charles County has shown 
an increase of approximately SO percent during the present year over 1940. 

Increase in population has not as yet made itself felt in demands for hospital- 
ization in tuberculosis sanatoria. Tuberculosis cases discovered among recently 
arrived population would be afforded the same privileges of hospitalization, on 
the basis that they would be returned to their home State as soon as proper 
arrangements could be made. This general arrangement would also hold true 
for crippled children. 

The Bethlehem Steel Co. at Sparrows Point maintains a small industrial hos- 
pital. Their major cases are hospitalized in Baltimore City. 

Ambulances for transportation of patients to Baltimore are available in the 
counties. 

In Baltimore City there are 18 general ho.spitals with a total of 5,914 beds 
and 561 bassinets. 

There are 4 State-owned tuberculosis sanatoria, 1 private and 1 semiprivate. 
and 1 operated by Baltimore Citv. These instutions have a total bed capacity 
of 1,683—1,162 for white and 521 for colored. 



See p, 5917. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5909 

Sanatoria treatment is entirely free at the State Sanatoria and the Baltimore 
City Tuberculosis Hospital for those who cannot pay. The bed capacity for 
tuberculosis patients now is approximately 1.5 for each death that occurs in 
the State. 

State mental institutions and penal institutions also have a small number of 
beds for the care of tuberculosis patients. 

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE 

Industrial hygiene and sanitation has been conducted by the bureau of sanitary 
engineering, assisted by the county health officers. The last general assembly 
appropriated a certain amount of money and authorized the organization of an 
industrial hygiene division in the State department of health. In January 1941 
a medical officer and a public health engineer were detailed to the State 
department of health by the United States Public Health Service for the purpose 
of making surveys in industrial plants, especially those connected with national 
defense. This activity is set forth in a special section.^ 

SANITARY ENGINEERING 

The increased number of housing projects, surrounding the defense area proj- 
ects has materially increased the work of the sanitary engineers. The Bureau 
of Sanitary Engineering has been called upon to do the planning and negotiation 
looking forward to a solution of sanitary problems in all the housing areas. 
This activity is temporarily handicapped due to the shortage of personnel. 

FOOD AND DRUGS 

The major increase in the activities of the Bureau of Food and Drugs are 
inspections of the many eating places which have been developed in the several 
defense areas. There is an adequate milk supply in all the counties and 
pasteurized milk is available. 

VITAL STATISTICS 

A tremendous increase of demands for birth certificates on the part of workers 
in national defense industries has occurred during the past year. Applications 
for l)irth records have increased more than G times during the present year and 
applications for delayed birth registration by about 1,3 times. This work takes on 
an average of about 2.5 hours of clerical time for each registration. This has 
necessitated the increase of personnel within 1 year from 11 clerks to an average 
of 19 or 20. Mortality statistics for the defense counties are attached. 

Organization and Activities 

Maryland was one of the first States in this country to organize a department 
of health covering the entire State. Legislative efforts in the dii-ection of sanitary 
and health government were begun in 1865 and the department was established 
by law in 1874. It has had a history of which the residents of the State can 
justly be proud. The department administers the sanitary and health laws of 
the State. It is charged by law with the duty of preventing disease and of 
promoting the health of the people of Maryland. 

Responsibility under the law, for the public health services carried on for 
the residents of Maryland, with special reference to activities in the counties, is 
vested in the State board of health. In accordance with the Maryland law, the 
board consists of eight members, six ap]X)inted by the Governor and two — the 
directer of health and the commissioner of health of Baltimore City — who are 
ex officio members by virtue of their resi^ective iwsitions. The law requires that 
three of the Governor's appointees shall be physicians, one a civil engineer, one a 
certified pharmacist, and one an experienced doctor of dental surgery. Tlie board 
exercises executive, legislative, and judicial functions. 

Activities approved by the board are put into effect by the State department 
of health. The department is the executive branch of the service and operates 
mainly in the counties. There are certain exceptions for which there is State- 
wide responsibility. 

The director of health is appointed by the State board of health and holds 
office so long as he performs his duties in a competent manner. He also serves 

1 See p. 5924. 

60396 — 41— pt. 15 3 



5910 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

as chairman of the State board of health. The law requires that the director be 
an experienced pliysiciau skilled in public health and hygiene. The director is 
the executive officer and administrative head of the State department of health. 
The director of health is represented in the field by the deputy State health 
officers, one in each county, who also serve as county health officers. These 
State and county health officers are all on a full-time basis. In addition to 
their training as physicians, the law requires that all full-time State and 
county health officers shall have special training and experience in all phases 
of public health. They are appointed by the county commissioners after they 
have qualified before the State employment commissioner. Through these 
health officers, the director exercises supervision over all matters affecting 
public health in the counties of Maryland. 

DEVELOPMENT OF FUIJ>TIMB COUNTY HEALTH SERVICE 

Provision was made by law in 1914 for the establishment of 10 sanitary dis- 
tricts, each to consist of 2 or of 3 counties in charge of a full-time deputy 
State health officer, with residence in the district. Increased function gradually 
made it necessary to reduce the territory covered and a permissive law 
enacted in 1922 opened the way for the establishment of full-time health de- 
partments in individual counties ; the exception to this is Allegany County 
which has a compulsory law. A third law passed in 1981, changed the number 
of sanitary districts from 10 to 23, corresponding to the number of counties 
and gave the necessary sanction for State-wide full-time health service. By the 
close of 1934 every county in the State was on a full-time basis. 

Each county has a health officer, at least two or more public health nurses, 
a secretary, and a sanitary inspector. In addition, Baltimore and Carroll 
Counties have a part-time health officer for each election district. The head- 
quarters of the county health departments are at the county seats. 

The board of county commissioners in each county constitutes the local board 
of health and appoints the county health officer. The county health officer 
makes daily reports of the notifiable diseases occurring in his county to the 
bureau of communicable diseases of the State department of health. The 
director of health or his representative administers the oath of office to the 
county health officers. 

The office of the director and the headquarters of the bureaus and divisions 
of the Maryland State Department of Health, are at 2411 North Charles Street, 
Baltimore. 

FUNCTIONS OF BUREAUS AND DIVISIONS 

Bureau of vital statistics. — The State department of health, through its 
bureau of vital statistics, registers births and deaths by aid of local and county 
registrars ; receives from clerks of circuit courts duplicates of marriage and 
divorce certificates for safety storage and for study ; tabulates and publishes 
vital statistics in the annual report of the department, in the monthly bulletin, 
and in mimeographed form ; makes studies to aid planning and administration 
of the public health activities of the State ; and, licenses midwives. 

An important feature of the bureau's work consists of periodic surveys for 
the purpose of discovering and recording births of children previously un- 
registered. Educational work is conducted to stress the necessity of registering 
every child immediately after the birth. 

Unregistered adults may obtain from the bureau a circular which suggests 
substitute methods of establishing age when the individual was not registered 
at birth. 

The bureau mails immediately after registration a certificate of birth registra- 
tion to the parents of each child born in the counties of Maryland. Age state- 
ments are also issued in the State and county offices for school or work permits, 
etc. 

Certified copies of birth and death certificates are issued only by the State 
oflSce. 

Bureau of communicable diseases. — Through its bureau of communicable 
diseases, exercises administrative control over communicable diseases ; receives 
daily reports from health officers of such diseases ; investigates outbreaks of 
diseases and directs measures for their control; enforces the laws on notifi- 
cation of reportable diseases and smallpox vaccination law ; aids in maintain- 
ing tuberculosis clinics and keeps a separate and confidential record of all 
cases of tuberculosis and of venereal diseases; maintains venereal disease 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5911 

clinics, directs medical inspection of public schools, and investigates nuisances. 

Division of epidemiology?— Throx^gh its division of epidemiology, makes epi- 
demiological investigations as to the occurrence, distribution, and tyi^es of 
communicable diseases in individuals and communities in the counties of Mary- 
land, in order that measures for the control of such diseases may be instituted. 
The division studies the sources and routes of infection, assists local health 
authorities or family physicians in diagnosis of communicable diseases, assists 
in finding unrecognized or unreported cases, and advises in regard to the 
proper method for the collection of laboratory specimens. It also assists in 
diphtheria, typhoid fever, and smallpox immunizations when the latter cannot 
be done by private physicians or by local Health officers, receives and tabulates 
the reports of occupational diseases. 

Services for crippled children. — Through its services for crippled children, 
aids in maintaining clinics for crippled children, arranges for hospitalization, 
transportation of patients to and from their homes to hospitals, purchases 
braces, shoes, and other orthopedic appliances as prescribed by the orthopedic 
surgeons, provides orthopedic nursing service and physiotherapy treatment 
by physiotherapists stationed in several parts of the State. 

Pasteur division. — Through its pasteur division, administers treatment for 
prevention of rabies (hydrophobia) to persons unable to pay for the service. 

Btircan of bacteriology. — Through its bureau of bacteriology, assists physici- 
ans and health officers in the diagnosis and prevention of communicable dis- 
eases; assists in the prevention of maternal mortality by the examination 
of urine specimens from prenatal cases ; determines the bacterial quality of 
drinking water, milk, and other foods; examines annually many samples of 
water and oysters for the protection of public health and the oyster industry 
of Maryland ; carries on practical research to keep the efficiency of the bureau 
at the highest point possible. 

Central laboratorg. — The central laboratory is located at 2411 North Charles 
Street, Baltimore city. There are branch laboratories at Cumberland, Hagers- 
town, Frederick, Rockville, Annapolis, Cambridge, Elkton, Salisbury, and La 
Plata. 

Bureau of chemistry. — Through its bureau of chemistry, determines the sani- 
tary quality of waters, milk and other dairy products, fruits, vegetables, meats, 
and all varieties of food substances offered to the public ; determines the 
purity, potency, and legality of all official drug products and other pharmaceu- 
tical, medicinal, and proprietary preparations ; assists in testing the efficiency 
of operations conducted for the purification of water or for the treatment of 
sewage, aids in the control of stream pollution by the examination of trade 
wastes and other contaminants ; supplies data required in preventing the 
adulteration or misbranding of foods ; conducts investigations from time to 
time which have for their object the improvement of analytical methods 
applicable to drugs, foods, waters, and sewage ; cooperates with health officers 
in the preparation of clinical and diagnostic reagents. 

Bureau of foods and drugs. — Through its bureau of foods and drugs, investi- 
gates food and drug products manufactured or sold in the State, for tlie purpose 
of determining their purity, honesty of labeling, and compliance with the food 
and drug law. Holds hearings, inspects dairies, canneries, pharmacies, stores, 
markets, seafood establishments, slaughterhouses, and other places where foods 
and drugs are produced, manufactured, or stored. Examines food products and 
submits specimens of foods and drugs to the laboratories of the department, 
cooperates with Federal and with other State agencies for the purpose of effec- 
tively controlling the purity of food and drug products. It also enforces the phar- 
macy laws relating to the conduct of drug stores and the poison laws. Bottling 
plants, canneries, and cold-storage plants are subject to an annual license. 

Bureau of sanitary engineering. — Through its bureau of sanitary engineering, 
exercises supervision over the sanitary quality of public-water supplies through- 
out the State ; examines all water supply, sewerage, refuse disposal, and indus- 
trial-waste-treatment projects, approves or amends them ; can require the installa- 
tion of water and sewerage systems and industrial-waste-treatment plants or the 
alteration of construction or operation of existing works; exercises supervision 
over stream pollution from sewage or industrial-waste discharges and aerial pol- 
lution ; and prepares plans and specifications and supervises the construction and 
operation of water and sewerage works at the State institutions. 

Bureau of child hygiene. — Through its bureau of child hygiene, assists health 
officers and public-health nurses in their services for women and children. In 
cooperation with the county health officers and with the approval of local physi- 
cians, organizes prenatal and child-health conferences for mothers, infants, and 



5912 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



young children in the counties ; maintains obstetrical and pediatric consultant 
services for local physicians for patients in need of such care ; in three counties, 
carries on a nurse-midwife service for indigent women. Furnishes an instruc- 
tive and advisory service to the public-health nui'ses and county health officers; 
supplies instruction in nutrition for nurses, teachers, clinic patients, and various 
lay and professional community groups. Assists physicians in securing the serv- 
ices of specialists and hospirai accommodations for women and children from 
low-income groups. Distributes information on maternity and child hygiene, nu- 
trition, etc., to physicians, county organizations, parent-teacher associations, and 
other groups, through pamphlets, bulletins, lectures, lantern slides, and moving- 
picture films. Furnishes instructions to licensed midwives and to women apply- 
ing for license to practice midwifery. Itinerant child-health conferences, con- 
ducted by specially trained personnel, are maintained by the bureau, in selected 
counties, during the summer months, through the use of a health trailer. The 
trailer is equipped for physical examinations ; for children's dentistry ; and also 
carries a movie outfit for educational activities. 

Division of personnel and accounts. — Through its division of personnel and 
accounts, accomplishes all departmental accounting of both money and property, 
does most of the departmental printing, purchases all supplies, materials, and 
equipment for all the bureaus of the d^^partment ; directs the distribution of sup- 
plies, and exercises general supervision over employees of the department. The 
chief of the division is the recording secretary of the State board of health. He 
is the official property custodian and is responsible to the board for all property 
and supplies owned by the department. He is also concerned with the financial 
aspects of full-time county health units and works with county and town officials 
in the preparation of joint budgets for such projects. 

Division of legal administration. — Through its division of legal administration, 
investigates and prosecutes violations of health laws and regulations, and enforces 
the law relating to the manufacture and sale of bedding and upholstered 
furniture. 

Division of public-JieaUh education. — Through its division of public-health edu- 
cation, issues a weekly news release on health promotion or disease prevention, or 
on some phase of the activities of the department with special reference to the 
control of communicable diseases, maternal and child hygiene, and important 
statistical information. Such bulletins are prepared primarily for publication in 
the county papers, but are available, on request, to teachers, parent-teacher asso- 
ciations, clubs, and other lay or professional groups. The department also pub- 
lishes a monthly bulletin containing statistical data and other material of interest 
to professional health workers ; and, an annual report, which contains the report 
of the director to the Governor of Maryland, the statistical record of health con- 
ditions in the State as indicated by data assembled, tabulated, and analyzed by 
the bureau of communicable diseases and the bureau of vital statistics concerning 
sickness in the State from the notifiable diseases, births, deaths, and deaths by 
cause and age groups ; and detailed reports of the services and activities of the 
other bureaus and divisions of the department. Special bulletins, reports, cir- 
culars, and other printed matter are also issued, as occasion arises, on seasonal 
problems, communicable disease control, environmental sanitation, the sanitary 
supervision of food supplies, laboratory procedure, maternal and child hygiene; 
statistical data, and on birth and death registration requirements. 

Division of oral hygiene. — Through its division of oral hygiene, organizes, super- 
vises, and aids in the maintenance of county school dental clinics wherein pre- 
school and school children are examined and, either referred to a family dentist, 
or, in the case of indigent children, given free care at the clinic. Educational 
material, pamphlets, posters, lectures, and moving-picture films .are offered, stress- 
ing the importance of mouth hygiene, and teaching how it may be obtained. 



XATIOXxVL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5913 



Maryland was admitted to the United States deatli registration area in 1006, to 
the United States birth registration area in 1916, and to the morbidity registration 
area in 1931. 

Public He^^lth Personnex in the Defense Cotinties 

In the personnel of Anne Arundel County there was an increase of three since 
January 1, 1941 : One social worker, one public health nurse in obstetrics, and a 
clerk. In Charles County thi-ee additional personnel have been added to the stafC 
for work in the bacteriological laboratory in connection with the hospital : One 
bacteriologist, one laboratory helper, and one clerk. In Montgomery County one 
additional public-health nurse was employed. 

Some additional personnel could be used in all the defense counties, especially 
sanitarians and public-health nurses. In Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Prince 
Georges, and Montgomery Counties, an additional physician assigned to each could 
render valuable service as assistant to the health officer. 

Public health personnel in defense counties 



Counties 


Popula- 
tion 


Health 
officers 


Assistant 
health 
officers 


Public 
health 
nurses 


Sanitar- 
ians 


Venereal 
disease 
physi- 
cians 


Clerks 


Anne Arundel -- . - 


68, 375 
155, 825 
17, 612 
35, 060 
17, 175 
83, 912 
89, 490 




1 

1 


18 
13 
3 

2 
11 
5 


1 
1 


5 
3 
4 

1 
1 
4 
3 








Charles 




















3 
2 


3 






a 









In addition to the above personnel, the United States Public Health Service 
has assigned one physician as assistant to the county health officer, one public- 
health nurse, and one sanitary engineer to Baltimore County. One nurse has 
been assigned to Harford County to assist in the public-health program. 

There are at the present time 23 full-time county health officers in the counties 
of Maryland. In Anne Arundel and Baltimore Counties the health officer has a 
full-time assistant. There are at present approximately 110 nurses on duty in 
the 23 counties. The physicians conducting the venereal-disease clinics are 
selected from the practitioners in the counties who have had special training 
In venereal-disease work. 

It may be necessary in the future to bring the following counties into the 
defense program: Allegany County, where large celanese factories are located; 
Washington County, where the Fairchild airplane plant is located ; and Frederick 
County, where a small airport has been developed for the National Guard Air 
Service. 

State appropriation : 

October 1, 1939 to September 30, 1940 $490, 623. 00 

October 1, 1940 to September 30, IWl 490, 623. 00 

State funds to match services for crippled children funds : 

July 1, 1939, to June 30, 1940 49, 000. 00 

July 1, 1940, to June 30, 1941 49, 000. 00 

Federal appropriation : 

July 1, 1939, to June 30, 1940 348, 028. 93 

July 1, 1940, to June 6, 1941 420, 018. 00 



5914 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 
Appropriation for the 7 defense counties 



Anne Arundel: 
Oct. 1, 1938, 
Oct. 1, 1939, 

Baltimore: 

Oct. 1, 1938, 
Oct. 1, 1939, 

Char'es: 

Oct. 1, 1938, 
Oct. 1, 1939, 

Harford: 

Oct. 1, 1938, 
Oct. 1, 1939, 

Prince Georges: 
Oct. 1, 1938, 
Oct. 1, 1939, 

Montgomery: 
Oct. 1, 193J 
Oct. 1, 193t 

Howard: 

Oct. 1, 1938, 
Oct. 1, 1939, 



to Sept. 30, 1939, 
to Sept. 30, 1940. 



to Sept. 30, 1939. 
to June 30, 1940. 



to Sept. 30, 1939. 
to Sept. 30, 19;0. 



to Sept. 30, 1939. 
to Sept. 30, 1940. 



to Sept. 30, 1939. 
to Sept. 30, 1940. 



to Sept. 30, 1939_ 
to Sept. 30, 1940. 



to Sept. 30, 1939. 
to Sept. 30, 1940. 



State 



$12, 924. 81 
12, 309. 68 



8, 301. 93 
9. 443. 74 



12, 584. 79 
12, 488. 37 



9, 796. 67 
8, 107. 88 



County Federal 



25. 680. 56 

26, 211. 25 



8, 196. 15 1, 527. 40 
8, 409. 20 1, 417. 89 



5, 350. 28 
5, 829. 33 



6, 241. 36 
9, 765. 02 



22, 551. 70 
24, 697. 15 



4, 832. 
4, 882. 



$24, 900. 17 
44, 352. 20 



11,684.28 
9, 809. 92 



13,856.87 
10, 930. 35 



10, 565. 55 
9, 517. 37 



3, 753. 05 

4, 522. 98 



Annual ap 
propriation 



$45, 138. 10 
64, 758. 81 



43,511.53 
44, 078. 87 



21, 669. 13 
20, 127. 88 



20,114.66 
22, 882. 16 



29, 187. 18 
34, 278. 62 



45, 702. 04 

46, 702. 89 



Total for 

1939 and 

1940 fiscal 

.years 



Community Sanitation 

Tilt community-sanitation program consists of providing premises with ap- 
proved types of earth-pit privies constructed by labor allotted by the Work 
Projects Administration. All units are constructed and installed in accordance 
with specifications prepared and adopted by the State department of health. 

In April 1941, a special Work Projects Administration community-sanitation 
program was submitted to the Third Corps Area headquarters for certification 
as a priority project to be inaugurated in the following counties : Anne Arundel, 
Baltimore, Charles, Harford, Howard, Montgomei-y, and Prince Georges. 

The object of this program is for the elimination of insanitary conditions by 
the construction of sanitary pit privies in areas where sewer systems are im- 
practicable. An area of approximately 10 miles surrounding each of the military 
reservations and defense projects was established for the activities of the special 
community-sanitation project. 

A survey of Baltimore County surrounding the Glenn Martin Aircraft Co., the 
Sparrows Point shipyard and Fort Howard, indicated that 600 privies would be 
needed surrounding these locations. 

In the area surrounding Fort Meade, Anne Arundel County, it was estimated 
that 4,488 privies would be required, and along the road leading from Fort 
Meade to Baltimore City, 745 privies were found to be needed. 

In the ai-ea surrounding Edgewood Arsenal and Aberdeen Proving Ground in 
Harford County, 1,200 privies were estimated as being required, and at Indian- 
head, in Charles County, 450 privies were estimated as being necessary.' 



BuREATT OF Communicable Diseases — Policies and Service 
The bureau covers a broad field of work in which there are several activities 
varying widely in character, one from the other. The State Board of Health of 
Maryland has kept work and activities in the bureau of communicable diseases 
which are commonly conducted under separate divisions in other States: these 
are — epidemiology, tuberculosis, and venereal diseases. Separate divisions have 
not been created for these activities. 
* See map, opposite page. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5915 




5916 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

The bureau's responsibilities are to record, tabulate, and study official reports 
of communicable diseases within the State ; to check the completeness of official 
reports ; to Investigate unofficial and all other reports reaching the bureau ; to 
make analysis of morbidity statistics, whether these are collected directly or 
through some other division ; and to submit annual and special reports and 
furnish the United States Public Health Service with data pertaining to com- 
municable diseases. 



The Venereal Disease Program 

Clinic centers are located in the near vicinity of all the industrial plants 
and military reservations. It is planned to establish new night auid day 
clinic centers, should this appear to be necessary. Special emphasis has been 
placed on finding early cases of all venereal diseases through contact investiga- 
tion. The military authorities have extended their full cooperation in endeavor- 
ing to locate sources of infection. 

The number of cases of syphilis reported in the counties of Maryland for 
the year 1940 showed a slight decrease over the number reported in 1939 — 
4,836 cases were reported in 1939 and 3,458 in 1940. There was a slight 
increase in tlie number of cases of gonorrhea reported in 1940 over the 
number reported in 1939. Twenty-five percent of the syphilis patients reported 
were white and 75 percent colored. More than half of the cases of syphilis 
were reported by State clinics. 

There were 64 clinic centers operating throughout the State during 1940. 
Bus service is provided for transportation of venereal-disease patients to and 
from the clinics in which transportation is a problem. Clinic sessions numbered 
3,301 and 83,896 treatments were administered. 

In 1940 the bureau of bacteriology reported that 64,128 blood specimens were 
examined, which is an increase of 10 percent over 1939. Examinations were 
made of 1,021 spinal fluid specimens for the diagnosis of syphilis. 

In November 1940 military selective service examinations began, and during 
the last 2 months of 1940 a total of 2,766 selective service blood specimens were 
examined. Seven percent of the negro specimens and 1.7 percent of the white 
were positive. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



;;^?3 = 



1 i-H lO CO '-' CO »o "^ o o 



i - 



DtCOi-H-«J"ClC0OcDO 



I 2 



Ot^ 'CO-H 






^CO O t^«0 



1 CI .1 C^ O rt o c 



!SS 



S I- 



H 05 i-H *0 I »r2 CO O 



'5 Oc5u 



1 O ■# M M OS •»< •* to Cq ■* t- O e? 00 lO •* 



OCOiO 00 --» — < O l^ r-l CD t>- i-H Ol CD to 



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:ss 



a ti ^ — S b: a.-=i S— ?■'-' ac^ i^^ 



5917 



5918 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Towns in defense areas, Maryland, January to May, inclusive, WJfO and 1941 





Typhoid 
fever 


Measles 


Scarlet 
fever 


Diphtheria 


Influenza 


Meningitis 




1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 

14 
1 


1940 
2 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


ANNE ARUNDEL COUNTY 

Annapolis 






4 


14 






6 


17 




1 














Benfield 
















1 








Chesterfield 




1 


























2 
2 
2 
























1 












157 

1 


1 




Davidsonville 
















2 








4 














Eastport 






5 
1 
11 
10 
13 


1 


3 
3 

1 








1 






Ferndale 










1 






















J 


Gambrills 














7 

1 






Glen Burnie 








1 








1 
























Hanover 








4 

1 














Jessups 










1 

2 


































Linthicum 








2 








1 

1 


1 






















Marley Park 








2 

3 
19 










1 






Mayfleld 








._..-. 


1 












Millersville - 






4 














Odenton 






13 






1 


2 
6 






Parole 


1 


















3 


...... 


2 
3 
2 
2 












Pasadena 




























4 

1 

4 

7 

1 










1 






















St Margarets 












































Waugh Chapel 
























BALTIMORE COUNTY 

Chase 


' 














2 


























1 


Dundalk 


1 






14 
2 


12 
"J 


7 
4 

3 


1 


2 


7 
3 
20 


3 




1 


Essex 


1 








1 










Middle River 








4 
6 
1 
2 






















19 
























Sparrows Point 






2 


3 


2 
4 


1 




2 






2 








1 






Turners Station 










1 




3 


1 






CHARLES COUNTY 

Chicamuxen 








12 

8 

6 
15 

4 

1 
18 

8 




































Hill Top 
























Indianhead 








4 


1 


































La Plata 


















20 






Marbury 






















Marshall Hall 
















































Pisgah 


















1 
2 






















1 






Port Tobacco 








2 
4 
9 






































Welcome- 

























NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5919 



Towns in defense areas, Maryland, January to May, inclusive, 1940 and 19'il- 

Continued 





Typhoid 
fever 


Measles 


Scarlet 
fever 


Diphtheria 


Influenza 


Meningitis 




1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


1940 


1941 


HARFORD COUNTY 








2 


1 










6 




1 










1 










Bel Air 








2 


1 






1 


2 
2 




2 
























21 
2 
















Fallston 








1 


1 


























1 


11 


1 












3 

1 

1 
2 

1 








Van Bibber 






















HOWARD COUNTY 

Dorse V 
























Elkridge 








6 


._.__. 


































Highland 








1 








1 














2 














Montivedeo 










1 
3 
























1 






















2 
3 














MONTGOMERY COUNTY 










































1 






Forest Glen 








2 

1 








































Lay Hill 


















17 

28 

17 






Silver Spring 




1 


2 


37 
17 

9 
18 


6 

4 

1 








3 
1 










19 

1 










PRINCE GEORGES COUNTY 

Beltsville 










2 


















Bladensburg 




















1 
















3 






1 
1 






Brentwood 






























22 
10 
16 
2 

1 

3 


3 
1 

8 


1 
44 
4 






16 












1 












Hyattsville 






1 


1 




14 


















Laurel 












1 




2 
















■ 4 




2 






Takoma Park, rural dis- 
trict 














1 



























Services for Crippled Children 

The increase in population in the defense areas has not to date thrown 
any additional load on the clinic facilities or the hospitalization for crippled 
children. Clinics for crippled children are held in all the counties throughout 
the year. In addition to hospitalization, after care and follow-up care by 
the physiotherapists and public-health nurses is afforded all crippled children. 



5920 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Activities and cost of hospitalization and appliances for period 1939, 19^0, and 
first 5 months of 1941 



County 



Anne Arundel- 
Baltimore ' 

Charles 

Harford 

Howard 

Montgomery... 
Prince Georges. 



Total - 



1939 
1940 

1 1941 
1939 
1940 

1 1941 
1939 
1940 

1 1941 
1939 
1940 

1 1941 



1940 
1 1941 



Number 
of clinics 



Clinic 
attend- 



Hospital 
days 



1,116 
1,109 

846 

2,188 

678 

1,164 
206 

1,131 

1,786 
464 

1,169 
430 
444 

1,782 
872 
451 

2,032 

2,382 
832 



22, 943 



Hospital 
cost 



$3, 842. 50 
4,501.50 
2, 187. 50 
4, 877. 87 
2, 607. 80 

1, 550. 00 
2, 085. 00 
1, 440. 00 

322. 50 

2, 614. 00 
4, 365. 00 
1, 040. 00 

2, 510. 00 
1, 990. 00 

972. 50 
2, 408. 00 
1, 068. 00 

675. 00 
4, 894. 00 

3, 586. 00 
1, 012. 50 



50, 549. 67 



Cost of 
appli- 
ances 



$468. 60 
306. 10 
138. 75 
681. 30 
894. 30 
158. 70 
119. 00 
73.40 
21.80 
425. 30 
237.00 
157. 95 
580. 05 



107. 50 
200. 90 
277. 45 
105. 50 
593. 10 
311. 15 
82.85 



I Jan. 1. 1941, to May 31, 1941. 

' Children in Baltimore_County report to hospital dispensaries i 



Baltimore City. 



The following figures indicate the number of children on the active State 
register as of January 1, 1941: Anne Arundel County, 180; Baltimore County, 
148; Charles County, 67; Harford County, 135; Howard County, 45; Mont- 
gomery County, 97 ; and Prince Georges County, 109. 

Tuherculosis clinics — Clinics held, physical examinations, 1939-.'i0, and January 
to May, inclusive, 19^1 





1939 


1940 


1941 (5 months) 


County 


Clinics 
held 


Physical 
examina- 
tions 


Clinics 
held 


Physical 
examina- 
tions 


Clinics 
held 


Physical 
examina- 
tions 




20 
20 
12 
12 
12 
29 
16 


469 
305 
256 
171 
161 
341 
267 


20 
20 
12 
12 
12 
30 
21 


395 
293 

168 
166 
129 
351 
468 


8 
9 
5 
4 
6 
16 
11 


160 




136 


Charles 


58 




57 


Howjird ... - 


94 




345 




190 







Venereal disease clinics — Clinics held, treatments given, patient visits, 1939-40, 
and January to May, inclusive, 1941 





1939 


1940 


1941 (5 months) 




Clmics 
held 


Treat- 
ments 


Patient 

visits 


Chnics 
held 


Treat- 
ments 


Patient 

visits 


Clmics 
held 


Treat- 
ments 


Patient 
visits 


Anne Arundel 


105 
208 
104 
51 
271 
156 


8,694 
3,788 
3,426 
2,012 
1,181 
4,953 
4,705 


31994 
4,035 
2,158 
1,356 
5,379 
5,717 


275 
104 
208 
96 
51 
310 
,47 


5,422 
3,495 
2,373 
1,861 
1,015 
5,792 
3,239 


6,653 
3,815 
2,937 
2,102 
1,092 
6,113 
4,259 


86 
43 
87 
42 
22 
109 
64 


2,369 
1,660 
1,058 
798 
488 
1,673 
1,533 


2,658 




1,862 


Charles 


1,407 


Harford- 


911 
493 


Montgomery 


2,419 




2,046 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
Bube:au of Child Hygiene 



5921 



The Bureau of Child Hygiene conducts regular clinics in all the counties of 
Maryland and the following tables represent the activities in the counties 
designated as defense project counties. 

Child-health conferences 





1940 


1941 (first 5 months) 


County 


Num- 
ber of 
climes 


Num- 
ber of 
patients 


White 


Colored 


Num- 
ber of 
clinics 


Num- 
ber of 
patients 


White 


Colored 




64 
144 
28 
26 
70 
23 
24 


2,216 
1,500 
227 
550 
462 
1,074 
335 


1,0S9 
1,323 
19 
383 
317 
610 
260 


1,127 
177 
208 
167 
145 
464 
75 


128 
30 
22 
12 
36 
26 


1,586 
251 
347 
178 
337 
259 


915 
223 

84^ 
179 
157 


671 




28 


Charles 


347 




94 




158 




102 

















Prenatal clinics 





1940 


1941 (first 5 months) 


County 


Num- 
ber of 
clinics 


Num- 
ber of 
patients 


White 


Colored 


Num- 
ber of 
clinics 


Num- 
ber of 
patients 


White 


Colored 


Re- 
turn 
cases' 


Anne Arundel 


202 


441 


112 


329 


72 


203 


33 


170 


182 


Charles 


70 
12 
12 
54 
12 


238 
77 
81 

108 
76 


15 
54 
15 
61 
13 


223 
23 
16 

47 
63 


29 
5 
5 

18 
5 


131 
38 
12 

38 
42 


6 
29 

8 
11 
11 


125 
9 
4 

27 
31 


96 




50 




7 




42 




36 







> Return cases for 1941 are not included in number of patients. 

In Anne Arundel and Charles Counties there are nurse-midwives and deliv- 
ery service is offered to indigent patients. In Anne Arundel County a dental 
clinic for expectant mothers and preschool children has been established. The 
53 nurses working in the 7 defense counties are engaged in a general public- 
health program. 

Mental-hygiene clinics 





County 


1940 


1941 (first 5 months) 




Number of 
clinics 


Number of 
patients 


Number of 
clinics 


Number of 
patients 


Anne Arundel 

Charles 


10 
2 
4 
9 
9 

10 


50 

17 

6 

112 

27 


5 


23 
















MMtgomery 


4 


17 









Clinics are held in centers adjacent to the military reservations and indus- 
trial plants engaging in defense production. The increase in population due 
to national-defense projects has not materially increased the attendance at 
the clinics. 

The public-health nurses in each of the counties make home visits for the 
promotion of proper care of infants and young children. Preschool children 
are given complete medical examinations throughout the year and particularly 



5922 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

in the so-called summer round-up. The attendance at the child health con- 
ferences has increased from year to year. 

In the field of education regarding child-health problems, special bulletins 
dealing with phases of the work of the Bureau, and with some aspect of 
individual or community health, are released to the newspapers each week. 

Competent pediatricians are employed on a clinic-day basis to conduct the 
child-health program in the counties. The pediatricians are assisted by the 
staff of the local county health department. 



BACTERIOLOGICAL LABORATOKY WOKK FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE 

Additional work for national defense in the bacteriological laboratories has 
been confined largely to blood specimens for syphilis and urine for chemical and 
microscopic examination. Other specimens have been examined to some extent, 
such as specimens for gonorrhea, a few for tuberculosis and other disea.ses but it 
would be very difficult to differentiate these specimens from others routinely re- 
ceived. Probably certain samples of water and milk have also been examined 
from new areas adjacent to camps. 

In the period of January 10, 1941, through April 1941, 3,869 draftee lilood 
specimens were examined. This constituted 33.6 percent of the blood specimens 
received at the central laboratory for syphilis. In the period March 1 
through April, 8,141 of a total of 18,517 blood specimens or 44 percent, were 
draftee specimens while for the period May 1 to June 23, out of a total of 16,264 
specimens 7,456 or 45.8 percent were from draftees. Forty-two percent of all 
blood specimens from January 1941, to June 23, 1941, have been draftees. Due to 
extra work on draftee reports, this has about doubled the work in syphilis 
serology at the central laboratory and it has been necessary to expand the staff 
for the preparation of mailing outfits, the washing and handling of glassware, 
typing of reports, registration of specimens as well as the technical examinations. 

Since all the syphilis serology on draftees is done at the central laboratory the 
work in the branch laboratories has been mostly urinalysis and miscellaneous 
samples of sputum, blood for agglutination tests, samples of water, milk, etc., 
attributable to camps. The work in urinalysis has been felt particularly in the 
Frederick, Annapolis, and Rockville branches though all the laboratories have 
had this type of work to some extent. This work at Frederick has already in- 
creased the total work of the laboratory beyond the personnel-capacity so that an- 
other laboratory assistant is needed. 



Hospital Facilities in the Defense Counties 

The military and naval reservations located within Maryland have ample 
medical and hospital facilities with provisions made for crisis expansion. The 
hospitalization of civilian populaton living around the military reservations and 
industrial plants depends almost entirely upon the hospitals located within 
Baltimore City or Washington, D. C. Beds for free patients in Baltimore city 
are always at a premium and the present increase in population in the territory 
in the vicinity of Baltimore has not improved this situation. 

Montgomery, Charles, and Harford Counties each have one small hosf)ital. 
However, these hospitals could not be depended upon to care for any material 
increase in hospitalization, especially for those who would not be able to provide 
funds out of their own income. All of these small local hospitals are planned 
and constructed to supply the anticipated hospital requirements of the normal 
population within the immediate vicinity. 

The health officer of Charles County estimates that the increase of population 
in that county is approximately 5,000 with the immediate result that there has 
been an unforeseen demand for hospitalization. The records of the hospital 
show that the patient days for INIarch, April, and May of 1941 have increased 
more than 80 percent over the same months for the previous year. 

The increase in population has not as yet made itself felt in demands for hos- 
pitalization in the tuberculosis sanatoria. Out-of-State patients would be af- 
forded hospitalization in tuberculosis sanatoria on the basis that they would 
be returned to their home State as soon as proper arrangements could be made. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5923 



This general arrangement would also be true for crippled children who may be 
brought to the attention of the official State agency. 

The Bethlehem Steel Co. of Sparrow.s Point, located in Baltimore County, con- 
ducts a well developed industrial hospital. However, they only care for accident 
cases on the premises and hospitalize their major cases in Baltimore city. Ade- 
quate ambulance facilities are provided for the transportation of patients from 
the plant to Baltimore city. 

Ambulances are also available in the counties for the transportation of patients 
to hospitals at distant points. 

To date there has been no evidence submitted indicating that there is an acute 
shortage of medical attendance for the civilian population in any of the defense 
counties. 

Hospitals located within the defense area 



Hospital 


Type 


Owner 


Number 
of beds 


Number 
of bassi- 
nets 


Station Hospital, Aberdeen Proving 


General ... 


Army . 


12 

400 

95 

192 

56 

113 

500 

42 

40 

30 

24 

103 
144 




Grounds, Harford County. 
New Station Hospital, Aberdeen Proving 


do 

do 

do 

....-do 

do 

do- -.. 

do 


do.- 

Nonprofit 




Grounds, Harford County. 
Emergency Hospital, Annapolis, .A.nne 


15 


Arundel County. 
U. S. Naval Hospital, Annapolis, Anne 

Arundel County. 
Station Hospital, Edgewood, Harford 


Navv - 




Army 




County. 

Station Hospital, Fort Meade, Anne Arun- 
del County. 

New Station Hospital, Fort Meade, Anne 


do 

do 

Nonprofit 


5 


Arundel County. 
Hartford Memorial Hospital, Havre de 


g 


Grace, Harford County. 
MontgomervCountv General Hospital, 01- 
ney, Montgomery County. 


do 

.... do 


do 

County.-- 

Nonprofit 

do 


14 


Charles County. 
Sparrows Point Hospital, Sparrows Point, 


Industrial 

Orthopedic 

do 




Baltimore County. 
Kernan's Hospital (Baltimore, Md.) 




Children's Hospital (Baltimore, Md.) 


do 









Note. — Information pertaining to hospitals is according to the American Medical .Association Journal, 
Mar. 15, 1940. 

There are located in Baltimore City 18 general hospitals with a total of 5,914 
beds and 561 bassinets. 

Practically all hospitals in counties and Baltimore City have beds for both 
white and colored patients. 



Tuberculosis sanatoria in Maryland 



Number 
of beds 



State Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Sanatorium, Md. (Frederick County) 

(white). 
Branch of State Sanatorium for Colored, Henryton, Md. (Carroll County) 

(colored) . 

Branch, State Sanatorium, Mount Wilson (Baltimore County) (white) 

Branch, State Sanatorium, Eastern Shore, Salisbury, Md. (Wicomico County) 

(whitel. 
Mount Pleasant Sanatorium, Reisterstown, Md. (Baltimore County) (white) 

Hospital for Consumptives, Eudowood (Baltimore County) (white) 

Baltimore City Tuberculosis Hospital, unit of City Hospitals, Baltimore, 

Md. (white, 135; colored, 143). 



State owned. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Private. 
Semiprivate. 
Baltimore City. 



Sanatoria treatment is entirely free for those who cannot pay, and for those 
with some means very moderate charges are made. The State and Baltimore 



V. 



State Department oi 



Former Presidents of the Maryland 
State Board of Health . - - - 
Dr. Nothan R.Smith_...I874-1876 

Dr. E. Lloyd Howord 1876-1831 

Dr. Jos Robert Word 188M884 

Dr. RicWd McSherry 1884-1885 

Dr. Jockson Piper. 1886-1693 

Dr.John Morris 1893-1895 

Dr J.M.H.Bjteman 1895-1897 

Dr.SCbosdcKroft. 1897-1899 

Dr.WmH Welch.. Jan.I900-JonI923 
- Chairmen of the- Boord - 
Dr.Jchn S.Fulfon, Jaal,I923-MovZ6,l928. 
Dr. Robert HRilpy, Moy26,l928--- 
The Board consists of 9Meml!er5,m-fol!ows: 
■4Phy«iCK)n9, ICiwil unginotr, 1 Pharmocist, 
1 Docfor of Dtntol Surgjry or.dfhe Commis- 
sioner of Health of Baltimore City Ux-oP~ 
fino). 

The County HeaHh Officers arccppoin+ed 
with +h2 advice and consent of the State 
Boord of Heaf+h. CActof Leqislature.igSl). 



Morylond State Boord of HeoUh 

is SIXTH in Point of Age. 

Admitted to Area of Death 

Registrotion in 1906. 

Admitted to Area of Birth 

Registrotion in 1916. 



STATE BOAREH 

ORGANIZED, 
ACT PASSED, JANUARY SESs|f 



DIRECTOR OF Pit 

• clanuarl! 



DIVISION OF LEGAL 
ADMINISTRATION 

Investigates viclotions 
and enforces 
Health Laws- 



istersBeddii 



STATE ADVISORY n\jRSe| 




BUREAU OF 
VITAL STATISTICS 
LodislativeActofieeS 

Amended, 1398,1900,1920. 

Reqisfnil-ion bijan in 1633 
Seporals Bureau { 
ac+horized in IQtO. I 



BUREAU OF ] 
COMMUNICABLE 
DlSEiASES 

Acts of Legislature, 
18i>O,189C,ie0L19i0. 
Authorized by Low, !9 10 



BUREAU OF 
BACTERIOLOGY 

Legislative Acts of 

1898,1910 and 1939. 

Bureau organized 

in 1912. 



BUREAU OF 
CHEMiSTRY 

Legislative Acts of 

I887fl908ondl910. 

Bureau authorized 

by Law In 1910. 



Reqistra^-icn of 
j Morbidity oP all 
Reportable Discoses 



Ait^iceo.'.J Assistance I 
to cnreaisterc<i Persons 



Administrotive 

control of 

Com niuni coble 

Diseases. 



Examination cP 

Specimens for 
Physiciansand 
Health Officials 



the Diagnosis 
and Control 
of Diseases 



Examination of 
Foods, Drags.Water 

and Sewage; 
also Trade V/astes. 



Q(.'ery,ccrrectia,-i and 
indexin<) of Certificates 



IssoQnceofrBg'stration 
Stofsments ond 
Certified Copies. 



Tobulating, Computing 
and Analysis of 
Morbidity Data. 



Filing Duplico+es of 

Morrioge and Divorce 

Certificates. 



EPIOEMlOLOeiST 

Janaor-/l,1930. 
Epidemiological end 
DiagnosticServices. 



Examination of 
SomplesorWater^ 

Milk, Shellfish 

and other Foods 

to determine 

freedom from 
Infectious Agents 



Tabulation and 

Publication oP 

Statistics. 



PASTEUR. 
TREATMENT 



V.D. CONTROL 



Development of 
new analytical 
Methods f^r Foods, 
Drugs, Water ond 
Sanitation Products 



Analyst provided 
by the State Board 
ofHeoIth in 1887 



Establishment of 
Minimum Stcndords 
and Quolificotions for 
Laborotory V/orkers 
in the Counties oP 
Marylond.(ActoPI939) 



TUBERCULOSIS 
CONTROL 



[ Licensing of Midwives] 



SERVICES FOR 
CRIPPLED CHILDHES 



Central Loboratory 

Baltimore. 

Bronch Laboratories 

at Cumberland, 



sRc 



lurlocU 
:kville. 



Salisbury, Elkton. 
Annopolis and LaPlato 



Chronology of inouqurotionof full+im 
CoWf rt o.d Corroll 1924 , Pr.nct Geor,,': 
Anne Arundel 1930, Garrett, Dorchester 



5923a 



if Health of Maryland 



^ OF HEALTH 

2m AY 6, 1874 

' ON OF GENERAL ASSEMBLY 



IjBLiC HEALTH 

M,1923 • 



Sta+e Boards of Heolth-.- 

Mossochuset+s J869 

Colifornia. 1870 

Minnesota -.1872 

Virginia... 1872 

Michigan (873 

Moryland 1874 



NUTRITIONIST 




EDUCATIONAL 

County and Connmijnity 
Organization for School 

Dentol Clinics. 
Undcraraduote Instruclion 



I Dentistr 



SecretoriesondSto+eHeoIfh Officers 
Moryland Slate Boord of Health 

• exeC'JTIVE SECBtTARIES 

Or E Lloyd Howord... 1874. 1876 
DrChosW.Chan«Mor..ie76 1693 
Or Jam86S+euart.._.)893 1896 
*Dr Johns. Fulton 1896 1907 

• Sept n 1896 to May 1 . 1907, - 

"on Tub«rcul05i5. 1907 <c. 1909. 

Secretar y.Generol, International Con()r#i3 

on Hygi«n« ond Demogrophy. 1909-1913. 

DrMarshollLPnce. 1907-1913 

DrJohnS Fulton 1913-1923. 

(Secretory to the Boord and State 
Heolth Officer from 1914 to 1923 
Olrechjr of Health and Chairmonof the Board 
•O.John S.Fulton. jQn1,1923to Moy?6,192a 
♦ Appointed Director Irntnto,, Moy 26, 1928 
Dr. Robert H. Riley. Director of Health 
ond Chairman of the Board, Moy26,19Z8 



DIVISION OF 

PERSONNEL 

AND ACCOUNTS 

Orocn'ized by the 

Board in 1910. 



BUREAU OF 
FOOD 5r DRUGS 

Legislative Acts 
or 1890-1910 

Bureau outhorized 
by Law in 1910. 



Money 
Accounting 



BUREAU OF 

SANITARY 

ENGINEERING 

Bureau authorized 
by LawoflvlOand 
orgonired io1912. 



BUREAU OF 
CHILD HYGIENE 

Authonied by Low 
and or^onize^ in 1922 



STATE FOOD AND URU6 
COMMISSIONER, 1910 



Property 
Accounting 



DEPUTY DRUG 
C0MMISSI0NER.1922 



Prin+im 



EnTorcernent oP 
Food, Drug and 
Pharmacy Lav/3. 



Supervision ond Control 
over Water on d IceSupplifi, 
Sewage ond TradeWost"; 

Refuoe Disposol; 

Stream Pollution, 
Shellfish Investigations. 



Consultation Service 

Pediatric; 

Obstetrical. 



Clinics; 
Prenotal, Postnatal, 
Jnfijnt ond Preschool. 



Purchase and 

Distribution oP 

oil Supplies and 

Equipment. 



Food and Drug 
Inspection." 



Sonitory Inspections 

of Food ond Dcug 
Hondlinq Establishtnenh; 



Supervision ond Control 

over Instollotion, 
Extension, Alteration, 
Maintenance and 

Operation oP 
Water ond Sewerage 
SystemsondWorki. 
1 



Public Health 

Nursing Service, 

Moternity and 

Child Hygiene. 



I Ncitrition Service. | 



Educational and 
constructive measures 



Approval of Plons: 

Design of Sanitary 

Works for Stote 

Institutions 



Orgonixction oP 

Volunteer Service 

for Mothers 

and Children. 



Cold storoge jupervisicm 

Inspection of Dairies 

and Pasteurisation 

Plants. 



Inspection oP 

Canneries, 
Grobmeat and 
Oyster pocking 
Establishments. 



Investigation of 
operation and 
maintenance of 
Sanitary Works. 
Research on Water, 
Sewage ond Trade- 
Waste Treotment. 



instruction in 
Maternity ond Child 
Care.- Lectures, 
Demonsh-ations, 
Conferences 
and Literature. 



Pronnoting 

installotlon of 

Sanitary Works 

throughout the State 



Maintoins Health 
Trai 1 erTravelling 
Clinics for Children. 



|:e.-AllcqaTf 1922, Montgomery 1923, Fr(!(ienc]<,Bol1imore, 
l|.fordl928;Cecilo«d Wicomico 1929. Kent, Wa^Vimqton o"d 
i'ter 1931, 5t.Mor/s.Chorle.. Howard «vl Somerwt 1 932| CotdIIi 



Supervision over 
training of Midwives 



5y23b 



60396— 41— pt. If 



^g24 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

City combine their problems in this field of the progi-am, hence hospitalization 
must be considered on that basis. The ratio up to one bed per death has been 
reached. 

Each county averages six clinics a year. The clinics acord consultation serv- 
ice for the general practitioner and facilities are available for X-ray and fiuoro- 
scope examinations. 

Industrial Hygiene 

Industrial hygiene and sanitation has been conducted by the bureau of 
sanitary engineering assisted by the county health officers. The last general 
assembly appropriated a certain amount of money and authorized the organ- 
ization of an industrial-hygiene division in the State department of health. 

The law requires that the State department of health and the Baltimore 
City Health Department receive reports of occupational diseases from physi- 
sians who have knowledge of such cases. The purpose is to study occupa- 
tional diseases and ways and means for the control and prevention, and to 
make the necejssary rules and regulations for such control and prevention. 
Such rules and regulations foil the control and prevention of occupational 
diseases shall have the force and effect of law. 

In January 1941 a medical oflicer and a public-health engineer were detailed 
to the State"^ by the United States Public Health Service for the puriwse of 
making surveys in industrial plants in the State, especially those connected 
with the national-defense program. 

Surveys have included a sanitary inspection of all workrooms, a job analysis 
in all manufacturing processes, and an appraisal of whatever health hazards 
were present in connection with these processes and present means for their 
control. In addition, the surveys included a general appraisal of the adequacy 
of medical facilities, safety provision, and general sanitation. Following each 
survey, industrial-health problems were discussed with the management, and 
recommendations were made for the control of occupational diseases due to 
noxious dusts, fumes, and gases. Following are the most important industries 
connected with national defense and which have to date been surveyed. 

THE FAIRCHILD AIRCRAFT DIVISION 

The Fairchild Aircraft Division at Hagerstown, employing approximately 
1,230 workers, manufactures small aircraft for training purposes. Engines, 
made elsewhere, are installed here. Also wing flaps and tail portions of large 
airplanes are made for other aircraft companies. This company at present 
has three plants. The main plant makes the fuselage, assembles the plane and 
installs the motors, another plant makes the wooden framework for the wings 
and covers them with fabric, while the third plant is not yet on a produc- 
tion basis but is to make wings for large bombers. 

Sanitary facilities at this plant seem adequate. The rules of good house- 
keeping are generally observed, considering crowded conditions due to in- 
creasing production. A first-aid room is provided with a trained worker in 
attendance. Records are kept of all injuries and their treatment. Illness 
records are also kept. 

THE VICTOR PRODUCTS CO. 

The "Victor Products at Hagerstown employs approximately 190 workers. 
There are two distinct processes : one is the reclaiming of old rubber or rubber 
scrap, such as automobile tires and tubes, and rubber trimmings from other 
factories; and the other process is making rubber valves for gas masks. In 
the latter process the rubber is molded at one of their other plants and here 
the two portions are pressed and vulcanized together, trimmed and tested to 
make the finished product. 

THE BETHLEHEM STEEL CO. 

At the Bethlehem Steel shipyard. Sparrows Point, Baltimore County, determi- 
nations were made of the atmosphere contamination caused by electric-arc weld- 
ing in closely confined spaces aboard ship, by welding galvanized iron in the 
sheet-metal shop, and of carbon monoxide in the air of the blacksmith shop. At 
the H. T. Campbell Sons' Co., atmospheric and settled-dust samples were taken 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5925 

for silicious-dust analyses in the calcite and dolomite plants, and tentative plans 
were made for X-ray study of the chests of workers in dusty processes. The 
collected samples were analyzed at the National Institute of Health. This com- 
pany maintains a full-time medical staff and a small industrial hospital for 
the care of accident cases among the employees. 

THE EASTERN ROLLING MILLS 

The Eastern Rolling Mills, situated on Rolling Mill Road off Eastern Avenue 
near Colgate, Baltimore County, employs approximately 235 workers. Origi- 
nally steel plate was rolled here hut at present only stainless steel is being 
rolled. Billets of stainless steel of varying widths and thicknesses are purchased 
elsewhere. These billets are heated, rolled, sheared, annealed, pickled, and finally 
polished to make the finished sheets. At this time machinery is being installed 
to manufacture casings for 5-inch shells. 

The sanitary facilities provided are excellent. Model toilet and lavatory pro- 
visions were found. Illumination seemed to be adequate. Lifting of heavy ob- 
jects was minimized so far as pos.sible. The assembly line was so planned as to 
minimize unnecessary lifting and strain. Good housekeeping is the rule through- 
out the plant. 

The safety program in this plant has been progressive, and several safety 
awards have been won. Monthly meetings of the safety committee are held 
with the representative of the insurance carrier at which all accidents are dis- 
cussed and steps are taken for preventing further accidents. Responsibility is 
placed for each accident, and there is competition between departments to main- 
tain an accident-free record. The plant is represented in the Baltimore Safety 
Council. 

A well-equipped first-aid room is provided with a trained nurse in attendance 
on each of the three working shifts. Records are kept of all Injuries and their 
treatment. Records of illness are made when the workers visit the first-aid 
room, but if workers are absent because of illness they may not report to the 
nurse concerning their illness. 

Owing to the importance of making industrial surveys of arsenals and powder 
plants, the representatives of the United States Public Health Service who made 
these surveys have discontinued their work in Maryland temporarily. 



Bureau of Sanitary Engineeiring 

As a result of the Federal housing program which is being carried on in the 
State, exclusive of Baltimore City, by the Public Buildings Administration, the 
following Federal housing projects are now uearing completion : 
Location : Num her of homes 

Clymont, Charles County 650 

Odenton (Fort George G. Meade) 115 

Dundalk 85 

Edgewood (Edgewood Arsenal) 200 

Aberdeen (Aberdeen Proving Ground) 248 

Havre de Grace 530 

These homes are being erected for the purpose of providing living accommoda- 
tions for the employees in the near-by defense areas. In each instance the prob- 
lem of obtaining safe and adequate sources of water supply ami for the collec- 
tion and proper disposal of sewage has been studied by the Bureau of Sanitary 
Engineering. With the cooperation of the Public Buildings Administration, 
Federal Works Agency, it is believed that the above-mentioned problems are 
being taken care of in a satisfactory manner. 

Where available, we have endeavored to have provided water and sewerage 
services to the housing developments from the local municipal sanitary systems. 
Such arrangements were possible for Odenton, Dundalk, Havre de Grace, and 
Aberdeen, but for each of the other projects it was necessary to develop a sepa- 
rate source of water supply and to construct sewage-treatment plants. 

If it had been possible to obtain the cooperation of the War Department, the 
construction of sewage-treatment plants for the Edgewood and Aberdeen develop- 
ments and providing a separate source of water siipply for Edgewood would not 



5926 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

have been necessary, since all of these sanitary systems could have been made 
available to the housing areas from the existing systems which have been 
greatly expanded on both tbe Aberdeen Proving Ground and Edgewood Arsenal 
properties. I have been reliably infonned that Public Buildings Administration 
negotiated with the War Department on the above, but unsuccessfully. 

In the case of the Aberdeen housing project, through the efforts of the Bureau 
of Sanitary Engineering, an agreement was entered into by Public Buildings 
Administration with the Aberdeen municipal authorities whereby a new sewage- 
treatment plant is to be built of adequate capacity to take care of sanitary 
sewage from both the housing area and the town. Complete treatment of the 
sewage with chlorination is necessary since the plant effluent will empty into 
Swan Creek which has been used for bathing by the enlisted personnel at the 
Edgewood Arsenal at a point about 4 miles downstream. The town of Aber- 
deen has agreed to pay its portion of the cost for constructing the sewage treat- 
ment plant as the existing municipal plant, constructed in 1918, is greatly over- 
loaded and cannot readily be enlarged. 

So far as it has been possible to ascertain, up to the present time, no responsible 
Federal authority has been delegated to maintain and operate when completed 
the sanitary systems and appurtenant works now being constructed at the de- 
fense-housing areas. It is highly important that some Federal agency be given 
responsible charge of the utilities to assure the delivery of a safe and potable 
water at all times and to maintain satisfactory operation of the sewage-treatment 
plants. 

The present defense program has resulted in large increases in population in 
other areas of the State with the consequent rapid building up of housing develop- 
ments unprecedented in number, particularly in Montgomery and Prince Georges 
Counties within the Washington Suburban Sanitary District and adjacent to the 
city of Washington, and in the Baltimore County metropolitan district in the 
Middle River area in the vicinity of the aircraft factory of the Glenn L. Martin 
Co. and adjoining Sparrows Point where the plant of the Bethlehem Steel Co. is 
located. 

It is not possible for the responsible authorities in the two districts to keep 
abreast of the demand for water and sewer services and sewage-disposal facili- 
ties. Because of legal limitations under which the commissions in the districts 
function, with respect to raising funds for the construction of sanitary systems, 
they cannot under the present laws raise sufficient money for the prompt construc- 
tion of necessary trunk sewers, sewage-pumping stations and treatment works 
without special legislative authority. These limiting restrictions have resulted 
in serious delays in providing adequate housing facilities in certain portions of 
the districts. In the Middle River area of the Baltimore County metropolitan 
district, furthermore, the inability of the county commissioners to raise adequate 
funds for sewerage improvements has seriously interfered with the aircraft pro- 
duction at the plant of the Glenn L. Martin Co. 

In the present emergency, if means could be provided to make sufficient funds 
available to responsible municipal agencies in the State for defense projects or 
those directly related thereto, and for furnishing additional engineering personnel 
where needed for the preparation of plans and specifications for necessary 
sanitary construction, many of the delays already experienced could be easily 
overcome and the whole defense program expedited. 

The Bureau of Sanitary Engineering has been called upon to supervise and 
direct the planning and negotiations looking toward the ultimate solution of 
sanitary problems in all of the housing areas in the State and to review plans 
and specifications- prior to the construction of the necessary sanitary systems and 
works. These activities are in addition to the routine operations of the bureau 
which exercises control over all public water supply and sewerage systems and 
water and sewage-treatment plants in the State. This increase in responsibilities, 
therefore, has been undertaken with a diminishing technical staff resulting from 
Army service and resignations. Even though attempts have been made to main- 
tain the engineering personnel to its normal strength, this has been found im- 
possible because of our inability to obtain suitably trained sanitary engineers. 
Under such conditions, therefore, and with four of the present staff within the 
age limit of the Selective Service Act, it will hardly be possible for the small 
engineering staff to maintain much longer its present high level of efficiency. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5927 

Bureau of Food and Drugs 

The major increase in actiivties of the Department would naturally fall into 
Inspection of many eating places which have been developed in the several de- 
fense areas. These inspections in most instances have been conducted by the 
county health department personnel. The cooperation of the managers of these 
places has been secured for the promotion of better sanitary conditions in and 
around the premises with special reference to the proper storage and mainte- 
nance of food supplies. 

There is an adequate milk supply in all the counties and pasteurized milk is 
available not only from local pasteurizing plants but from the larger milk dis- 
tributors whose lieadquarters are in Baltimore or Washington, D. C. 

Pasteurized milk supply 

Percent 
County : Pasteurized 

Anne Arundel SO 

Baltimore 60 

Harford 60 

Howard 75 

Montgomery 90 

Prince Georges 85 

Charles l '32 

1 Probably considerably higher when you include Indianhead and Government reservations. 



Bureau of Vital Sta.tistic8 

Within the last year there has been a tremendous increase of demands on this 
Bureau for birth records on the part of workers in national-defense industries. 
Applications for birth records have been multiplied by more than 6 during the 
year, and applications for delayed birth registrations by about 13. Whereas we 
had been receiving, during the first half of 1940, approximately 600 applications 
for birth records and about 35 applications for delayed registrations per month, 
we have, during the last 6 months, averaged over 3,700 applications for birth 
records and over 400 delayed birth registrations in the counties of Maryland 
(State exclusive of Baltimore). 

The registration of the birth of an adult requires the examination on an 
average of three to four records such as baptismal records, insurance policies, etc., 
and the preparation of a detailed abstract. This work therefore takes on an 
average about 2.5 hours of clerical time for each registration. 

Largely as a result of demands of this type, the personnel of this Bureau has 
been increased within 1 year from 11 clerks to an average of 19 or 20. Six of the 
worlvers have come from Work Projects Administration and 1 or 2 from National 
Youth Administration. As Work Projects Administration projects for assistance 
in current work have been limited to 6 mouths, our operating conditions have been 
extremely unsatisfactory, and an appeal to Congress is contemplated on behalf of 
State bureaus of vital statistics for a special grant to meet this phase of national- 
defense requirements. 

The demand for birth records comes from natives of Maryland in national- 
defense industries, whether residents of Maryland or elsewhere. The problem 
has been intensified somewhat by migration of these workers from Maryland to 
centers like Detroit, Los Angeles, and Cleveland, but the migratory aspect cannot 
properly be considered the sole source of the difficulty. 

From the statistical angle, the migration of workers makes the estimation of 
populations more difficult and the calculated birth, death, and morbidity rates 
undependable in some areas. It would be helpful if the Bureau of the Census or 
a similar agency could make population estimates on a sampling basis in the 
critical areas during the period of rapid change. These estimates could probably 
be tied up to the estimates of similar surveys which have already been planned or 
are under way. 



5928 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Resident live birth and death rates in Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Charles, Har- 
ford, Montgomery, and Prince Georges Counties of Maryland, 1939 and 1940 



Rate ' 


Anne 
Arundel 


Baltimore 


Charles 


Harford 


Montgom- 
ery 


Prince 
Georges 




1939 


1940 


1939 


1940 


1939 


1940 


1939 


1940 


1939 


1940 


1939 


1940 


Live birth 

General death 

Infant mortality 

Maternal mortality 

Typhoid-fever death 


20.1 
10.2 
62.7 
1.6 


19.0 
10.3 
54.4 
3.9 


14.6 
8.7 

41.0 
4.5 
.6 
2.4 

36.2 


18.6 
9.8 

40.3 
2.1 
1.3 
1.3 

42.3 


29.1 
11.9 
70.1 
2.1 
6.2 
6.2 
99.0 


26.1 
12.3 
75.4 
4.3 


17.9 
10.8 
44.7 
1.7 


18.5 
11.9 
36.5 
3.0 


25.8 
12.5 
34.3 
3.7 


20.1 
9.1 

46.9 
2.3 


24.3 
10.8 
50.0 
2.7 


20.0 
8.6 

51.9 
2.1 
2.1 


D iphtheria death 

Tuberculosis 


1.6 

52.8 


48.' O" 








1.6 
51.5 


1.1 
40.8 


1.3 
54.8 




45.0 


35.6 


53.5 


60.4 



1 Live-birth and general death rates are per 1,000 population; typhoid 1 
death rates are per 100,000 population; infant and maternal mortality rat 



'er, diphtheria, and tuberculosis 
1 are per 1,000 live births. 



Anne Arundel County — Statement of Heia.lth Officer 

The United States Naval Academy is located at Annapolis and the militarv 
reservation, Fort George G. Meade, is also located in this county. The next 
largest settlement to Fort Meade is Laurel, which is in Prince Georges County 
and is located on the Washington Boulevard. Fort Meade is approximately an 
equal distance from Baltimore City and Washington, D. C. 

In the Annapolis area, where the Naval Academy is located, actual congestion 
of population has not taken place. The increase in personnel, incident to the 
increase in the numher of midshipmen, has not been great enough to. cause a 
problem, though it is true that there are very few accommodations unoccupied 
in and around Annapolis, but so far there have been enough places so that every- 
one could find a home. 

In the upper end of the county near Baltimore City, thei-e has been a considera- 
ble infiltration of individuals working in Baltimore industries, which has resulted 
in the construction of a consideralile number of small homes in that area. This is 
especially noticeable in the Glen, Burnie section. This expansion, however, is a 
very healthy one and is not causing congestion. 

In the Fort IMeade area, during the construction on that military reservation, 
there was a sudden influx of a large number of workmen. For the most part 
these workmen came from the surrounding territory and went back to their homes 
at night. A few, however, came from a distance and brouglit their families with 
them ; however, the number was not great and pre.'^entcd no special problems 
in .sanitation. With the increa.'-e of residents in this vicinity, problems did de- 
velop due to the establishment of eating and drinking places which often spring 
up overnight, consisting usually of board shacks with little provision, or at the 
best the crudest provision, for sanitation. This situation was promptly handled. 
Sanitary privies were constructed and sanitary arrangements for handling eat- 
ing and drinking utensils were installed. Some of the worst places were closed. 
With the cooperation of the military authorities it was possible to have many 
improvements made, as in instances where the proprietors declined to make the 
necessary improvements the military authorities declared such places "off 
bounds." This procedure always brought about a prompt compliance with the 
instructions of the health department. 

Owing to the increased number of troops at Fort Meade, a shortage of housing 
facilities was experienced around the camp for families of both connnissioned 
and noncommissioned officers, e.special]y in the Odenton section. The women and 
children found accommodations in rooms or small private residences near the 
reservation. This crowded situation still exists to some extent. It probably 
includes between 500 and 1,000 people. This increase in population makes the 
situation a little more serious, since the normal situation in this area was none 
too good. 

The Government has constructed 11.5 units for one- and two-family homes con- 
tiguous to Fort Meade for the use of families of noncommissioned officers. 
These units will house approximately 500 people and will relieve the congestion 
in private homes around this reservation. 

The Increase in military activities has not to date resulted in an increase in 
communicable diseases. The county has been particularly free from communi- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE AIIGRATION 



5929 



cable diseases other thau the minor ones, such as measles. The venereal diseases 
have not increased so far with the exception of a normal rise in syphilis ovs^iug 
to the picking up of positive blood at draft board examinations. Both the area 

ANNE fMKUND^L COuMTY 



N 

/K 




Area Surrounding 



1. Annapolis and the 
Naval Academy 



2. Camp Meade and vicinity 



Population 68,375 
Square miles 630 



Maryland State Department of Health 



surrounding Fort Meade and Annapolis have so far been kept relatively free 
from venereal disease. Full cooperation has been obtained from the military 
and naval authorities in securing histories as to contacts. Prostitution has not 



5930 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

developed in these areas. The area surrounding Fort Meade is one which makes 
the harboring of prostitutes difficult. 

Maternal and child-health centers are held at Odenton, and the attendance at 
the clinics has gradually increased during the period corresponding to the period 
of increase of activities at Fort Meade. 

The nurses in these areas have not reported any particular problems or any 
extraordinary increase in calls for their services. 

Recently Fnrt Meade expanded its territory, taking in a large area. This 
necessitated the moving of approximately 100 families to new homes, many of 
these located outside of the county. Others have found places somewhere in the 
county and have been absorbed quite naturally without disturbance of economic 
or social conditions. 

The sanitai'y problems in the area of Fort Meade and Annapolis have increased. 
Even with the limited personnel, sanitary improvements have been very satisfac- 
tory. Owing to the continuance of the activities at Fort Meade there will be 
undoubtedly an increase in population both around Fort Meade and Annapolis. 
This will naturally increase the work of the nurses and more sanitary problems 
will arise which will have to be handled as they develop. The same clinical 
facilities will be offered to the incoming population as exists for the permanent 
population, and communicable disease control will be the same. The parents 
will be urged to have their children immunized against diphtheria and all will 
have to be vaccinated against smallpox to comply with the school requirements 
for admission. 

The building permits in Anne Arundel County outside of Annapolis total 1,248. 
Up to June 1, 1941, there were 654 permits issued in that area. For Annapolis 
there was a total of 106 permits issued for 1940 with a cost of buildings totaling 
$202,904. Permits for 1941 up to June 1 were 23 and the cost $27,800. 

A map of Anne Arundel County is attached which shows the defense areas in 
which housing projects are under construction. 

Baltimore County — Statement of Health Officer 

The public health personnel of Baltimore County at this time consists of 
1 health officer, 1 assistant health officer, and a physician detailed by the 
United States Public Health Service to act as assistant to the health officer; 
1 public health nurse supervisor, 11 public health nurses, 2 sanitarians, and 3 
stenographers. 

The major firms, all of which are located in the southeastern section of the 
county, (see attached map showing hatched area), devoting themselves to Gov- 
ernment defense contracts are the Bethlehem Steel Co. at Sparrows Point, the 
Glenn L. Martin Go. at Middle River, and within the past 3 months the Bendix 
Radio Corporation at Towson. On the basis of inquiries made of the officials 
of these firms, there is given below the approximate number of workers now 
employed or to be employed. 

Employees at major defense corporations 



Corporation 


As of June 
16, 1941 


As of Oct. 
1, 1941 


Glenn L Martin Airplane Co 


22,000 

26, 000 

650 


42,000 




(?) 


Bendix Radio Corporation 


1,200 







From June 1940 to June 1941, there has been a sharp increase of migration 
of workers and their families into this county as a result of defense activities. 
The majority of the workers in the plants devote a major portion of their 
time to Government defense contracts and have taken up residence in Baltimore 
County. However, the majority of such workers and their families have located 
in Baltimore City. It is estimated that about two-thirds of the employees at 
Glenn L. Martin Co. live in Baltimore City. 

The influx of workmen has created several acute problems in regard to county 
sanitation, particularly in the area where the defense projects are located. 
The industrial and population expansion has progressed with speed which has 
far exceeded the estimate made for sanitary facilities that would be needed 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGKATION 



5931 



under normal conditions of county population growth. The Glenn L. Martin 
Co., which has been disposing of its own sewage, will, by September 1, 1941, 
secure a connection with the sewer trunk line leading to Baltimore City dis- 
posal plant. The increase in population and building surrounding this plant 
gives rise to sanitary problems in the area adjacent to the sanitary sewer. 



BALTIMORE COUNTY 




Area Surrounding - 



Location of Glenn Martin Aircraft Company Development 
at Middle River and The Bethlehem Steel Company 
at Sparrows Point. 



Maryland State Department of Health, 1941 



Population 155,825 
Square miles 702 



The sewage-disposal problems around the Bethlehem Steel plant are not so 
serious with respect to the plant itself. The surrounding areas have always 
presented difficulties with resi)ect to providing adequate dwelling-house sani- 
tation. The resulting problems will be magnified as a result of an increase 
in the number of residents who are to occupy the houses of the area. 



^932 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

In addition to the building of private homes, trailer camps have been estab- 
lished far and wide within the southeastern section of the county. There are 
11 licensed trailer camps surrounding the Glenn Martin Co. This is an in- 
crease of 8 such camps during the past year. There is also a trailer camp of 
approximately 200 trailers to be established by the Farm Security Administra- 
tion on the Martin property. These trailers are now in place but are not to be 
occupied until sewage-disposal systems are completed. 

Many enterprises have been established in the vicinity of these projects, 
such as restaurants, stores, filling stations, and beaches for recreation. Also 
several new milk producers and a number of distributors of milk and milk 
products have been drawn into this area. 

The following tabulation shows the increase in the amount of building permits 
and proposed expenditures. The increase has been higher in the .southeastern 





Areas in which defense 
projects are located 


Other areas in Baltimore 
County 




Permits 


Cost 


Permits 


Cost 




562 
2,175 
2,083 


$912, 621 
11, 030, 575 
5, 450, 384 


625 
1.529 
1,120 


$3, 105, 440 


Jan 1 to Dec. 31, 1940 


5. 780. 302 


Jan 1 to June 20 1941 


4.1.56.832 






Total 


4,820 


17, 393, 580 


3.274 13.042.634 









Communicable diseases have not presented a serious problem. There was an 
increase in the number of cases of German measles which occurred as shared 
with the Nation-wide increase. There has not been any noticeable increase in 
the major communicable diseases such as typhoid fever, meningococcus men- 
ingitis, diphtheria, or scarlet fever as compared with corresponding periods 
of previous years. The regular routine preventive measures are available to 
all of the population of the county, including transit of migratory labor. 

A map of Baltimore County is attached which shows the defense area in 
which housing projects are under construction. 



Charles County — Statement of Health Officer 

The only defense activity located in this country is the United States naval 
re.servation at Indianhead, where the naval powder plant is located. Here, 
as elsewhere, there has been an increase in population surrounding this area 
and it is estimated that 5,000 persons have been drawn to this section of the 
■county. 

In what is known as the Glymount section, located near the reservation, 
there is a Federal Housing project under development amounting to about 650 
individual homes. Adequate water supply for these additional homes has been 
provided and the sewage treatment and disposal plant is under construction. 
There have been 350 new homes built within the reservation and it is reiwrted 
that the untreated sewage from these homes is being dumped into the river. 

One of the most acute situations developing as a result of the new construc- 
tion is the lack of proper school facilities, and some means should be taken 
by the Federal Government to provide adequate housing for school children. 

The town of Indianhead, which is located between naval reservation 
and the Glymount development, is experiencing an acute inroad in the way 
of population increases. Indianhead is the business section patronized by all 
the so-called Indianhead area. There is no garbage incinerator available, ex- 
cept the one on the reservation, which is not available to the civilian inhabi- 
tants. There are no fund.'^ in the community availalile to construct an 
incinerator. 

Owing to the rapid increase in population in Charles County, hospitaliza- 
tion is becoming an acute problem. The only hospital in the county is a small 
hospital, modern in equipment and design, and located in the town of La 
Plata. This hospital has increased its patient days 80 percent so far this 
year as compared with the records of the previous year. It is felt that to 
meet the deniaiids which will develop in this section, it will be necessary to 
have funds allotted to enable this hospital to double its present capacity. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5933 



The completion of the Potomac River bridge during the year 1940, which 
is a link in the north-south defense highway and which passes through Charles 
County for a distance of about 30 miles, together with the defense project at 
Indiaiihead and the housing developments in this county, have brought about 
an increase in the population of the county by an estimated 5,000. The im- 
mediate result has been an unforeseen demand for hospitalization as well as 
a demand for school facilities and other public utilities. 

There has been no appreciable increase in the communicable disease situa- 
tion in Charles County. There is conducted in this county, a well-organized 



CHARLES COUNT> 




Population - 17,17; 
Square miles - 641 



Maryland State Department of Health 



public-health program which includes public-health education, services to the 
physicians of the county, and there are conducted in the county venereal dis- 
ease clinics, tuberculosis clinics, crippled children clinics, prenatal clinics, and 
school examinations are carried out. The school examinations consist of nursing 
visits, school conferences, school health talks, and physical examination of 
children. 

A map of Charles County is attached which shows the defense area in which 
housing projects are under construction. 



5934 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Harfoed Coxjnty — Statement of Heialth Officer 

There are two military reservations located in this county, Aberdeen Proving 
Ground and Edgewood Arsenal, which are located a short distance from one 
another and are near the towns of Bel Air and Havre de Grace. 

It is estimated that the defense activities have brought into the county 2,500 
people who now live near the Government reservations. About 500 of this group 
are living in trailers and the remainder in apartments and boarding houses. 

In previous years there were no trailer camps in this section and in 1941 seven 
have been established. The number of permanent tourist camps has also in- 
creased. By and large, overcrowding has been noticed in some areas owing to 
the shortage of available houses and rooms, and in some instances dilapidated 
houses and out buildings have been reconditioned to some extent, but not made 
in a livable condition. 

The poor housing condition will soon be eliminated owing to the three Federal 
housing projects now under construction. These projects will provide about 
1,200 homes and will house approximately 4,000 people. 

The Susquehanna Bridge which spans the Susquehanna River at Havre de 
Grace forms the northern connecting link of the north-south defense highway. 

A considerable number of new restaurants and stores have been opened in the 
defense area and there has been noticed an increase in dairy farms producing 
milk for local consumption and for sale on Government reservations. One local 
pasteurizing plant has increased its sales from 250 gallons daily to 600 gallons. 

This increase in population has very materially increased the work in the local 
health department, particularly in respect to sanitary conditions in and around 
the trailer camps and temporary housing facilities. There has been an increase 
in the amount of building permits resulting in an increase in money expended for 
building purposes in the defense areas. 



Building permits 



in Harford County 





Bel Air 


Aberdeen 


Havre de Grace 


Remainder of 
county 




Permits 


Cost 


Permits 


Cost 


Permits 


Cost 


Permits 


Cost 


June 6 to Dec. 31, 1939 


9 
26 
7 


$40, 500 
97, 200 
24,500 


13 

18 
8 


$46, 100 
91, 500 
33, 900 






28 
100 
54 


$62, 200' 


Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1940 

Jan. 1 to June 24, 1941 


1 


$30, 200 
62,400 


234, 800 
131,400 



There has not been an increase in communicable diseases, and the general 
public-health program clinics have been carried on and the new residents of the 
county are eligible for attendance at these clinics. Immunization for diptheria 
and smallpox has continued as in previous years and this service is also extended 
to the migratory group coming into the county. 

The personnel of the county health department consists of one health othcer, 
two regular public-health nurses, a sanitary inspector, and a clerk. One addi- 
tional nurse has been assigned to the county for temporary duty by the United 
State Public Health Service. 

The attached map of Harford County shows the defense areas in which housing 
projects are under construction. 

Montgomery Cottnty 

Montgomery County, because of its proximity to Washington, increased in 
population 70 percent during the last 10 yeai'S. This is 20 percent more than 
any other Maryland county. The suburban part of the county is not large in 
area. Some places, such as Takoma Park, are completely urban. While many 
people who come into Montgomery County move into healthy, attractive homes, 
there are a large number who crowd into parts of old houses, which are crowded 
beyond capacity. This is done in an attempt to obtain inexi)ensive living 
quarters. 

Out beyond the suburban area populations are increasing on the outskirts of 
town. In some of these subdivisions the houses are placed on small lots out 
of reach of sewers and incapable of proper absorption of sewage. A case of 
typhoid on the edge of Rockville last January is a direct result of this. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRu\TION 



5935 



Our record showed increasing proportion of new tuberculosis cases among new 
residents of tlie county. This is not because of unliealthy conditions but because 
of the change in population. The danger is that infection is apt to be spread 
before the health department discovers the case. 

In the rural parts of the county there is a rapid influx of low-income families 
from Virginia and Tennessee in order to replace farm labor which moves away 
to secure higher wages. Some of our worst health problems occur in these 

HARFORD COVPtry 




Areas surrounding 

Bel Air 

Edgewood Arsenal 

Havre de Grace and Aberdeen 



Maryland State Department of Health ,1941 



Population » 
Square miles 



35,060 
• 539 



immigrant families. Another problem in the rural areas is the large number 
of boarding children placed by District of Columbia families or agencies in 
Montgomery County foster homes. 

Still another problem is the disposal of garbage and rubbish from the suburban 
area. The county in greatly in need of a modern incinerator. 

Further information concerning the county's health needs are shown in the 
attached annual report.^ 



Held in committee files. 



5936 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 




*. 


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■"J 


fc> 


l^ 


s.| 


si? 


^1 


^11 




>• "i^ 


A. 4/ 


kI 




•5^• 




. ■« t 


•^ 


•^^b 
^€^ 






^ 


J 





NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5937 

STATEMENT BY HUNTINGTON WILLIAMS, M. D., COMMISSIONER OF 
HEALTH, BALTIMORE CITY HEALTH DEPARTMENT, BALTIMORE, 
MD. 

The Baltimore City Healtli Department has felt an increase in the demand 
for smallpox vaccination of in-migrant workers arriving in Baltimore during 
the past 6 months; from January 1 through June 26, 1941, 168 such vaccina- 
tions were recorded as compared with 6 for the corresponding months in 1940 
and 4 in 1939. 

During the first 4 months of 1941 there has been an increase of 16 percent 
meningitis in the city as compared with 13 cases for the entire year 1940 and 
18 cases for the year 1939. Increases in this disease are periodic but may 
result from overcrowding in sleeping and housing conditions and there is 
no doubt that this situation has become somewhat hazardous in Baltimore 
during recent months. In May 1941 an investigation of a reported case of 
meningococcus meningitis showed that 21 persons were living in one household 
and that 5 were sleeping in one room, and similar overcrowing has been noted 
on city health department inspections of rooming houses during recent weeks. 
A special public warning in this matter was issued by the commissioner of 
health of the city through the Baltimore Sunday Sunpaper on May 11, 1941. 

INCREIASING BIRTH KATE 

During the first 6 months of 1941 there have been 35 cases of meningococcus 
in the number of birth certificates filed in the bureau of vital statistics of the 
Baltimore City Health Department as compared with the same period for the 
year 1940. It is not possible to attribute all of this increase to in-migration. 

HOUSING 

In addition to the above, there has been, during the first 5 months of 1941, 
a continuing increase in the number of rooming house licenses issued by the 
city health department ; for this period in 1941, 149 new ijermits were issued 
and 402 old permits were renewed ; as compared with the first 5 months of 
1939 when only 49 new permits were issued and 298 were renewed and during 
the first T) months of 1940 there were 64 new permits issued and 362 renewals. 

A comparison of the houses and apartments for rent advertised in a June 
Sunday morning Sunpaper for 1939 and 1940 and 1941 shows a very consider- 
able decrease in the number of houses and apartments advertised for rent in 
the city, but at the same time, during this 2-year period, there has been some 
Increase in the number of single rooms advertised for rent. However, the 
same study reveals that there has been a decline in the number of houses for 
rent in the city. For the day studied there were 92 in 1939, 48 in 1940 and only 
16 in the Sunday Sunpaper for June S, 1941. Likewise the figures for apart- 
ments for rent in the city were 574 on June 11, 1939, 428 in a June Sunday 
paper for 1940, and only 290 in the Sunday paper for June 8, 1941. Single 
rooms for rent indicating possible housing shortages, as advertised in these 3 
Sunday papers were 82 on June IJ, 1939, 10.3 on June 9, 1940 and 157 on June 8, 
1941. 

While other statistical information is difficult to obtain, there is every indica- 
tion through city health department inspections that rooming houses and mul- 
tiple-family dwellings are overcrowded in some instances with an attending 
lack of adequate sanitary facilities and an increase in the use of basements for 
dwelling units. 

The new Armistead Gardens for defense housing families, M'hen completed, 
will necessitate the establishment of additional services by the city health 
department for the occupants that will probably reach a total of 3,.500 persons, 
which will require additional city health department budget and appropriations 
of about $1 per capita or $3,.50O for health officers, communicable-disease con- 
trol, school-hygiene and public-health nursing and other related services, includ- 
ing child-health and prenatal clinics. 

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE 

While it is difficult for the city health department to secure statistics of 
significance on the matter, there is, of course, a marked increase in industrial 
employment particularly in defense industries and this is presenting problems 



^g38 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

to the staff of our industrial-hygiene services, which is asked and expected to 
study actual or potential health hazards in such industries. It is important to 
note that new processes, new materials, and expansion of activities have revealed 
the need for the Baltimore City Health Department to carry on many technical 
studies of exposure to such materials as benzene, lead, silica, manganese, carbon 
monoxide, nitrous gases, selenium and radium emanations, and the division of 
Industrial hygiene and the bureau of occupational diseases and the bureau of 
laboratories are busily engaged in advising industrial managers on important 
health-protection method of major significance. 

COMMUNITY SANITATION 

Complaints pertaining to such conditions as poor housing, inadequate and 
defective plumbing facilities, rat infestation, garbage and refuse disposal, weeds, 
drainage defects, and atmospheric pollution have been increasing in numl)er, 
but the city health department staff has been fairly successful so far in handling 
these complaints in accordance with their public-health significance. 

The bureau of food control has had to increase its supervision and educational 
program among food handlers in restaurants and other such serving places be- 
cause of new food-handling establishments being opened in industrial areas of 
the city, and because of labor turn-over among food handlers. 

GENERAL 

It is not possible to include in this report any material dealing with the 
metropolitan area of Baltimore outside of the city limits but the city health 
department has been in touch with the Baltimore County Health Department 
and with industrial groups located outside the city limits with residents often 
living within the city, or near its borders. Close cooperative efforts have been 
made by the Baltimore City and Baltimore County Health Departments near 
the southeast boundary of the city in securing toxoid inoculation for young 
children for protection against diphtheria in families in defense industries 
located both inside and outside the city limit 

The commissioner of health serves as a mber of the important State ad- 
visory committee for the conservation of maj ->wer in defense industries under 
the chairmanship of Mr. L. A. Helfrich an. n. s participated in the work of 
this committee in connection with industrial-health surveys and recommenda- 
tions. The first meeting of this committee was held November 29, 1940. 

The commissioner of health also serves as a member of the district council 
for the City of Baltimore of the Maryland Council of Defense, organized early 
in June 1941. 

The city health department is in close cooperative relation with the medical 
staff of the third corps area for the purpose of interchange of reports of com- 
municable diseases occurring in and around Baltimore City. 

The city health department has completed plans for securing postcard reports 
of the arrival of new families in Baltimore needing health services from occu- 
pants of the city housing authority projects, including the Armistead Gardens 
area ; and similar post-card reports from families re.,'ently moving to the city 
for industrial employment and has prepared* a special appeal to the latter's 
families in the form of an article to be published in various industrial plant 
publications with the approval of the managers of these industrial organizations. 

In addition there is under way a Work Projects Administration housing survey 
sponsored by the Baltimore Housing Authority in collaboration with the city 
health department and the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health 
and, at a later date, there may be available from this survey more exact informa- 
tion in regard to in-migration of defense workers in the city. 

TESTIMONY OF DRS. RILEY AND WILLIAMS— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. Dr. Riley, what are the national defense areas in 
Maryland that need special attention in regard to health? 

Dr. Riley. We have more or less arbitrarily set aside about 7 
counties: Baltimore County, which adjoins Baltimore City; Harford, 
Anne Arundel, Howard, Prince Georges, Charles, and Montgomery 
Counties. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5939 

Mr. Arnold. What is your department doing in regard to the 
health needs of these areas ? 

HEALTH SERVICE PERSONNEL 

Dr. EiLEY. We are concentrating in those areas. We are not only 
putting our own personnel in but we are asking the Public Health 
Service to aid us. We have already received some personnel from 
the orientation class of the Public Health Service. 

Each of the seven defense counties has a full-time health officer, and 
two have assistant health officers. These counties are provided with 
public-health nurses and sanitarians, and also the necessary clerical 
help. In addition to the regular personnel, local physicians are em- 
ployed for work in the venereal-disease clinics. 

In the last war we had only 10 men in the whole State whom we 
could call upon. We had no State nurses; we had no sanitary officers; 
we had no clinics. Today we have over 100 nurses; we have a health 
officer in every county of the State and an assistant health officer in 
some of the counties adjoining Baltimore or in other strategic sections. 

Mr. OsMERS. How many counties are there in Maryland? 

Dr. Riley. Twenty-three. We also have other sanitary officers and 
other personnel, so that when we saw this thing coming, we began 
to get ready. We have staffed up our clinics. We have facilities 
for venereal-disease examinations, laboratory tests, and treatment in 
every county in the State. whi'"'\ I think ample for our present needs. 

We have clinics for tuber^i|osis, prenatal care, infant and child 
health, immunization, and wt ,ria'rry on health services in the schools. 
We might be accused of pr?" dicing State medicine, but if we are, we 
have the full support of theii^^dical profession in those services. 

NOT DEPENDENT ON EEDERAL AID 

Maryland needs other things for these particular areas, and I don't 
know that we can supply them from the State funds or local sources. 
Maryland organized the counties on a full-time basis long before any 
Federal funds were available, so that today, if Federal allotments 
were withdrawn, Maryland would still have a nucleus in every county 
and still carry on — con;:nderably handicapped, of course. 

Since new money has .)een made available to the counties of Mary- 
land, we have amplified and extended our activities, but we haven't 
interfered with our organization and we haven't added any new 
bureaus or divisions or departments from Federal funds. We have 
only supplemented what we already had. We might boast a little 
in saying that IVIaryland was the first State in the Union to have a 
full-time health organization in each county of the State from its 
own funds. 

Other States have accomplished these things since Federal money 
has become available, but not before. We appreciate the Federal 
aid and we are making use of it and could use still more, but if and 
when the time comes that Federal money is not available, I think 
Maryland would still have a fairly complete program. 

Mr. OsMERS. And before the Federal Government furnished funds, 
Maryland took care of those things ? 

60396— 41— pt. 15 5 



5940 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Dr. EiLEY. Maryland has liad full-time health service throughout 
the entire State since 1914; Baltimore City has its own independent 
set-up and has been on a full-time bases for many years. In 1914 
the counties were organized into 10 sanitary districts, each under the 
charge of a full-time health officer. Full-time health service in 
individual counties followed and by the close of 1934 every one of 
the 23 counties of the State was on a full-time basis. A full-time 
health officer is one who does not engage in private practice, but 
devotes his entire time to public health. 

We have the merit system in Maryland. We don't take just any- 
body who comes along. Appointments are made on the basis of com- 
petitive examination, and appointees are certified to the department 
by the State employment commissioner. To be eligible for such an 
appointment a health officer must have been graduated from an ac- 
credited medical school and must have had experience or special 
training in public health. 

When such persons are appointed to positions in the State health 
depai-tment in Maryland — the merit system applies to the director 
as well as to all others — they are appointed because it is believed 
that they are qualified to do the work. Politics does not enter into 
it. And there is no such thing as a politician coming along and 
displacing another person so long as that other's work is properly 
done. 

HOSPITAL FACILITIES CROWDED 

Mr. Abnold. Well, that is a fine system, I must say. Are your 
clinical and hospital facilities pretty well crowded at the present 
time? 

Dr. Riley. Very much crowded, particularly the hospital facilities. 
We have listed in this memorandum the hospitals that are available 
in the defense area, but they are entirely inadequate. 

Mr. OsMERs. How many beds per thousand clo you have, Doctor? 

Dr. Eilet. I am not able to give you the rates for hospital beds 
per thousand of the population. If you will refer to our memoran- 
dum you will see that provisions for hospitalization for medical, sur- 
gical, and obstetrical cases are concentrated largely in Baltimore 
City where there are 18 general hospitals with a total capacity of 
5,914 beds and 561 bassinets. Of the 7 defense counties, 4 — Anne 
Arundel, Montgomery, Charles, and Harford Counties — each has a 
small general hospital, all privately owned, with a total capacity for 
all 4 of approximately 230 beds. The State and privately owned 
tuberculosis sanatoria have a total capacity of approximately 1,700 
beds, supplemented by provisions for 278 'cases in the tuberculosis 
unit of the Baltimore City hospitals. In addition there are several 
small hospitals connected with industrial plants, and Army and 
Navy hospitals under Government charge near Army or Navy bases. 
There is also provision in Baltimore City for the care of approxi- 
mately 250 orthopedic cases. 

Local hospitals scattered throughout the rest of the State, for gen- 
eral services, and State hospitals for mental cases are not included in 
the totals given above. 

We know that the provision for hospital care in the defense area 
IS totally inadequate. The hospitals in Baltimore City are doing 
the best they can, but they have about all— and more— than they can 



NATIONAL DEP^ENSE MIGRATION 5941 

take care of. We have to appeal to Dr. Williams and to the Balti- 
moi^ City hospitals every day and sometimes many times a day for 
the hospitalization of patients from the counties. They are generous 
and very cooperative but the hospitals are operated to the very limit 
of their capacity and all need additional facilities. 

HEALTH I^VBORATORIES 

A thing that disturbs us very much, and of which Dr. Wolman 
spoke, is the fact that so many of the younger medical men are 
leaving the counties to engage in practice in the larger centers, and 
that so few of the recent graduates settle in the counties. We are 
trying to make it more attractive in the counties by using local men, 
when recommended by the county medical societies for the county 
clinics, and by furnishing bacteriological services without charge, as 
aids to local physicians in the diagnosis of disease. We have a net- 
work of bacteriological laboratories covering the entire State, which, 
are equipped to make any tests a doctor requires for accurate diag- 
nosis that will be of benefit to him in handling his patient. Our 
present facilities include the central laboratory at the headquarters, 
of the department in Baltimore City and nine branch laboratories, 
with a tenth soon to be opened. Three of these branch laboratories 
are in the defense area. 

DECLINE IN COMMUNICABLE DISEASES 

Mr. Arnold. I notice that there has been a decline in the com- 
municable diseases and in other diseases. 

Dr. Riley. We have made a special effort in the direction of typhoid 
fever and diphtheria, pneumonia, and the venereal diseases, and the 
diseases of early infancy, and the result has really been marvelous, in 
my opinion. In 1907, the typhoid rates were something like 41 deaths 
for each 100,000 of our joopulation. That means at least 410 cases in 
each 100,000 each year. Last year the death rate for typhoid fever in 
the State of Maryland was well below 1 per 100.000. 

Mr. OsMERS. How does that compare with the national average? 

Dr. RiLEY. I think it is pretty close to the national average. 

EQUIPMENT FOR MAJOR EMERGENCY 

Mr, Arnold. Does your department have any plans for handling: 
major disasters of any type should they occur? 

Dr. Riley. We are all set up to take care of a communcable-disease 
outbreak. We could help in some other types, but we haven't or- 
ganized with that in view. 

The Chairman. You are not quite ready for bombs yet? 

Dr. Riley. No. 

Mr. Osmers. How about a catastrophe in one of our defense plants — - 
an explosion or a building collapse or something of that nature? 
Suppose you have 500 hospital bed cases overnight. What would 
happen ? 

Dr. Riley. We have in the counties of Maryland over 100 nurses. 
We could rush those 100 nurses to that locality. We w^ould have 
something like 30 medical men, full time, who could be put on that 
sort of thing and then we have the biological products for immuniza- 



5942 BALTIMOHE HEARINGS 

tion against tetanus; but as for bed care, I am back exactly where I 
started. We would be very deficient in that. I don't think we could 
meet it at all except tlirough Baltimore city. 

Mr. Arnold. Meningitis has been on the increase somewhat in Balti- 
more ? 

Dr. Riley. Yes, sir. Dr. Williams can speak of it. We have had, 
I think, one or two cases reported from one of the camps, but that is 
just a very slight increase. But it is a thing we have got to keep an 
eye on all the time, when we have that number of men together from 
as many different parts of the country. 

CHECKS ON SANITARY CONDITIONS OF HOUSING 

Mr. Arnold. Does your department make checks on sanitary facili- 
ties? If so, what is the current situation? 

Dr. Riley. We have made checks chiefly on the control of sewage 
and on provision for a safe water supply. We do not have any State 
department of health housing division, but we do have an industrial 
division that has just been set up by our last legislature. We have 
no money for it, l3ut the Public Health Service has lent us an in- 
dustrial engineer and a medical man, who have made surveys. In 
• our engineering bureau, we have men who have carried on that work 
in a routine way for a good many years and we can do quite a little, 
but we don't have a large, strong division, such as Dr. Williams has 
in "Baltimore City. We are going to build that up. 

Mr. Arnold. Dr. Williams, would you tell the committee the experi- 
ence of your department with the present overcrowding in the city ? 

Dr. Williams. I have in tliis report, gentlemen, a section on hous- 
ing, because for the last 2 or 3 years the city health department, quite 
in advance of any defense problem, has felt that housing was properly 
within its sphere. We have a bureau or division of housing in our 
general sanitary section, and a qualified staff that is at work in that 
connection with the city housing authority, real-estate board, the 
Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and the city housing council and 
other interested groups, in tying together, fi-om the point of view 
of public health, the efforts that should be made. 

increase in rooming houses 

Now, in this report, so far as the defense migration aspect is con- 
cerned, we have been particularly anxious to see what facts we could 
l)ring to you. We started by seeing what our own records showed in 
regard to the increase, if any, in the number of rooming-house licenses 
that were issued. That has gone up for the past 3 years. 

As indicated here in the statement, for the first 5 months of 19-41 
we issued 149 new permits for rooming-house licenses; we renewed 
402. These figures compared with 04 new permits and 362 renewals in 
the first 5 months of the year before, and with 49 permits and 298 
renewals in the corresponding period 2 years before. 

Those facts are in your report as presented. But they show that 
we are at present expected to inspect and check on the health situation 
of a good many more I'ooming houses than prior to the defense 
program. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5943 

I don't know whether you want me to go into these figures or not, 
but we made some other figures in regard to houses for rent, apart- 
ments for rent, and single rooms for rent, comparing the last 3 years. 
I don't know whether you would like me to detail that or not. 

PROPORTION OF SUBSTANDARD HOUSING 

Mr. Arnold. I was trying to determine j^our check on the sanitary 
facilities of housing and what percentage of housing is substandard. 

Dr. Williams. We are unable to give you exact figures, although 
there is now a W. P. A. project at work trying to get us that in- 
formation. That is sponsored by the city housing authority. Mr. 
Loomis will probably mention it. The city housing authority, the 
city health department, and the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene 
are in close association with those studies. There are a great many 
rough estimates, but no one has set up exactly a standard for sub- 
standard housing, because we know that there are some thousands of 
houses that couldn't meet any standard and right away, if an official 
set up a standard, those houses are out of order. 

The health department is at work on those houses actively. The 
jDublic is conscious of it. The press is very helpful and in the past 2 
years the health department has done more than it has ever done 
before in having them demolished or repaired. 

]\Ir. Arnold. The rapid influx of Negroes into Baltimore, I sup- 
pose, has caused quite a housing problem insofar as they are con- 
cerned. 

Dr. Williams. We find in certain sections of the city, as the nurses 
go on their regular home visits, and the doctors as well, that there are 
crowded living conditions in certain areas where apparently the men 
are at work in defense industries and other industrial works. It is 
very difficult to get exact figures. 

health conditions in factories 

Mr. Arnold. Does your department make any regular check on 
health conditions in Baltimore factories? 

Dr. Williams. We have a very active industrial hygiene service 
which has been at work for more than 10 years, and we have surveys 
and studies in industrial plants by categories and by invitations. 
There is some mention of that in the prepared statement. 

I think we were the first city health department to have an active 
full-time staff work on industrial hygiene, and while we haven't cov- 
ered all the industries, we have covered the main categories, and we 
have a very active consultation service that is tied in with some of the 
defense committees which are mentioned in the statement. Par- 
ticularly I have in mind the State advisory committee for the con- 
.servation of manpower in defense industries, under the chairmanship 
of Mr. L. A. Helfrich, health department commissioner. Our tech- 
nical staff is at work with their inspectors for the purpose of seeing 
that industries with defense contracts meet real health standards. 

Mr. Arnold. Wliat is the rate of industrial accidents? Has it in- 
creased in Baltimore in the last year? 



5944 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Dr. Williams. I am told so. We haven't any facts in the city health 
department at the present time to verify that, but that is the general 
impression. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Chairman, that is all. 

The Chairman. Dr. Riley, I want to say that this committee is 
simply a fact-finding committee," and we attempt to show up no com- 
munity. Lest that be the thought, I would like to say. Dr. Riley and 
Dr. Williams, that Surgeon General Parran testified at one of our 
Washington hearings that we have 6,000 outside privies in the capital 
of the United States, which are not connected with any sewer facilities 
whatsoever. We are not a bit proud of that. 

\^NEREAL DISEASE AND TUBERCULOSIS 

Dr. Riley. And we are trying to take care of that here too. 

I think we should say just a word about venereal diseases and 
tuberculosis. Maryland has sanatoria provision for every case of 
tuberculosis that needs care at this time, without any delay. I think 
that is true even for the colored people now. And I don't Ijelieve that 
obtains elsewhere. We believe the way to control tuberculosis is to 
isolate the open case and put that case under the care of competent 
men and we have sanatoria for white and colored in Maryland. 

The Chairman. I suppose you have read recently about the great 
campaign Chicago is putting on in its fight against syphilis. 

Dr. Riley. Yes ; I know Dr. Bundesen very well. 

Mr. OsMERS. Dr. Riley, will you tell us something of the situation 
so far as venereal diseases are concerned in the Army camps? 

Dr. Riley. We can take care of all the cases of venereal disease 
which may occur in the defense areas and other parts of Maryland. 
We have 64 clinics in the counties in Maryland. Dr. Williams' or- 
ganization is well set up. He hasn't mentioned it, but in the city 
he can do the same thing and probably better, so that there is no 
question about being able to take care of syphilis and gonorrhea in 
the defense areas of Maryland, 

The State department of health furnishes the material for treat- 
ment and provides clinics, treatment, and follow-up care in the 
counties. 

SYPHILIS REPORTING L.VW 

Mr. OsMERS. Dr. Riley, the question I have in mind is on the sub- 
ject of syphilis rather than on venereal diseases generally. Do you 
have in the State of Maryland, as many States have, a syphilis re- 
porting law? 

Dr. Riley. Yes. 

Mr. OsMERS. If an infected person goes to a doctor for treatment, 
does he report that case to the State? 

Dr. Riley. That is the law. 

Mr. Osmers. And are treatments followed up? 

Dr. Riley. They are, and the patients are followed up. 

Mr. OsMERS, I wonder if you would tell the committee what the 
State department of health does if an infected jDerson moves from 
the State of ]\Iaryland to the State of Pennsylvania, say, before his 
treatment is completed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5945 

Dr. Riley. We notify the State of Pennsylvania of that case and 
let the authorities know just what stage of syphilis the patient has 
and how much treatment he received here. It is a reciprocal thmg. 
The States do that with one another. 

Mr. OsMERS. I know they do, but in our experience — I come from 
New Jersey — when these migratory agricultural workers return to 
the South, and we notify the Southern States, we find that they do 
not follow up the cases. I don't know whether your experience with 
the Southern States has been the same. I am not including Maryland 
as a Southern State in this instance. 

Dr. Riley. Well, we don't always know. We notify them and 
then we let it end there. After that it is in their jurisdiction so we 
don't have any responsibility, but they do get the information if 
we have had the case in any of our clinics. The Southern States, 
or whatever State the patient may live in, will be notified if that 
man has gone through our clinic. 

Mr. OsMERS. It will be notified, but you don't have any way of 
checking up on whether they continue the treatment or not? 

Dr. Riley. No. 

Mr. OsMERS. We have checked up and found that in many in- 
stances they did not. 

Dr. Riley. Maybe they didn't have the facilities, but we have nurses 
and sanitary officers and health officers and we follow them up. 

BLOOD TESTS FOR MIGRANTS 

Mr. OsMERs. Has the State of Maryland attempted to blood test its 
migratory farm workers who come into the State ? 

Dr. Riley. No ; we have not. 

Mr. Osmers. We did in New Jersey, and we got very interesting 
results. We found that 40 percent of the women were infected with 
syphilis and 33 percent of the men. 

Dr. Riley. Were they colored? 

Mr. OsMERs. Largely colored. 

Dr. Riley. Well, we would expect that here. We have made group 
tests here. 

Mr. OsMERs. Of course, it is a great health hazard to have these 
people by the thousands moving through these various States. We 
have started to correct it. 

BALTIMORE BUILDING CODE 

Now, I would like to direct a question to Dr. Williams. You men- 
tioned that a great deal of the existing housing in Baltimore is sub- 
standard. 

Dr. Williams. I didn't say a great deal. I said there were some 
thousands of houses that probably would be rated that way on any 
basis. 

Mr. OsaiERS. Now what laws exist in Baltimore for correctin.<r 
that? 

Dr. Williams. The city just last week passed a new building code. 

Mr. Osmers. Will that affect existing homes or just new ones? 



^g^g BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Dr. Williams. That is for new liomes. For existing homes there are 
three important ordinances, two of which were very recently enacted 
and in part the result of this program of the last 2 years that I 
mentioned to you. 

One is an older ordinance which is a general health nuisance-abate- 
ment ordinance on which we recently won our test case in a housing 
situation where the owner refused to do what he was ordered to do. 
That was under the general nuisance-abatement law that goes back 
many years. 

The second one was passed by the city council and approved on 
March 6. We call it the ordinance on hygiene and housing, which 
allows the health commissioner to go into a house. In other words, it 
rewords the nuisance-abatement provision specifically for the sani- 
tation of housing. We call it the hygiene of housing ordinance. The 
third one, which we call the rooming-house ordinance, was just ap- 
proved last Saturday. These two have grown out of the recodifica- 
tion of the city's building code, which was just passed this week, and 
that was after 2 or 3 years' work of the committee. 

ROOMING-HOUSE ORDINANCE 

This third one, the rooming-house ordinance, amends and strength- 
ens a previous ordinance authorizing the health department to inspect 
and issue licenses to rooming houses and boarding houses. The or- 
dinance was very weak, and it has been very gi^eatly strengthened. 
That was approved by the mayor last Saturday, June 28. 

Now, under those ordinances the Health Department may go into 
what it considers a house unfit for human habitation from the health 
point of view and order the owner specifically to make corrections 
as indicated, and if he doesn't do that in a certain length of time 
he may order the house vacated, and if that isn't done, he may 
order the house demolished, if necessary. 

Mr. OsMERS. You now have ample power to condemn property 
and even to destroy property that is a health hazard ? 

Dr. Williams. Yes, sir. 

NEGRO SEGREGATION 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, another question I want to ask Dr. Riley. In 
your public-health program in Maryland, do you segregate Negroes 
from whites in the clinics and hospitals and public facilities? 

Dr. RiLET. We do in our clinics. We take care of them, we give 
them every facility, but we try to keep them in separate waiting rooms. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you feel that the colored people of Maryland are 
getting care equal to that for the white people ? 

Dr. Riley. Yes; I have had the complaint from some places that we 
were giving the colored people more attention than we were giving 
the whites. 

Mr. Osmers. That is all. 

The Chairman. We thank you very much, gentlemen. You have 
been of great assistance to us ; and Dr. Riley, the committee believes 
your report is one of the most complete that has been filed with us. 

Dr. Riley. We appreciate that very nuich, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Our next witness is Mr. Isner. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5947 

TESTIMONY OF HAKRY W. ISNER, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Chairman. Will you give us your full name, please ? 

Mr. IsNER. Harry W. Isner. 

The Chairman. 'How old are you, Mr. Isner? 

Mr. Isner. 38. 

The Chairman. And where are you living now ? 

Mr. Isner. I live at 4616 Curtis Avenue, Curtis Bay, Md. 

The Chairman. You are married? 

Mr. Isner. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And have three daughters ? 

Mr. Isner, Yes; three daughters. 

The Chairman. Are they all here ? 

Mr. Isner. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How old are they ? 

Mr. Isner. They range from 3 to 14 — 14, 5, and 3. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Isner is not here? 

Mr. Isner. No ; she didn't come today. 

The Chairman. Where were you born, Mr. Isner? 

Mr. Isner. I was born in Elkins, W. Va. — Randolph County. 

The Chairman. And you were married in what year? 

Mr. Isner. Married in 1922. 

The Chairman. And you worked and lived in West Virginia for 
a good many years, didn't you ? 

Mr. Isner. Practically all my life. 

The Chairman. What did you do there ? 

Mr. Isner. Followed plumbing. 

The Chairman. And what sort of wages did you get there, Mr. 
Isner ? 

Mr. Isner. Well, it ranged anywhere from 60 cents an hour to 
$1.25 an hour. Depended upon the jobs that we did. 

The Chairman. Wliat rent did you pay there ? 

Mr. Isner. I paid $15 a month for a house — six rooms and a bath 
and a large garden and large lawn. 

The Chairman. You would pay more than that for the same thing 
here, wouldn't you? 

Mr. Isner. I am paying at the present time for three small rooms 
$10 a week. 

The Chairman. Were you ever on the W. P. A. ? 

Mr. Isner. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. In West Virginia ? 

Mr. Isner. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How long? 

Mr. Isner. I was on it altogether about 2 years, I would say, off 
and on. 

The Chairman. Were you on the rolls when you left there ? 

Mr. Isner. I was. 

The Chairman. And of what State do you consider yourself a 
resident ? 

Mr. Isner. Well, I consider myself a resident of Maryland now. 

The Chairman. And you have been here how long? 

Mr. Isner. Well, I have been here 2 months this last time. I 
worked up at Camp Meade from the first of October to the 14th of 
February and then I came back in March of this year. 



5948 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

The Chairman, How much money did you earn at Camp Meade? 

Mr. IsNER. Just offhand I couldn't tell you. 

The Chairman. Approximately? 

Mr. IsNER. I would say $1,200 or $1,400. 

The Chairman. And when did you bring your family here ? 

Mr. IsNER. It was a week last Sunday. 

The Chairman, How did you happen to come to Baltimore? 

Mr. IsNER. Well, I have some cousins that have been here a good 
while. They work down at the Maryland Drydock Co. and they in- 
formed me work was pretty good here — I would have no trouble get- 
ting a job. 

The Chairman. Hoav long were you out of work after j^ou arrived 
here in Baltimore ? 

Mr. IsNER. I was out of work about 6 or 8 days before I got on. 

The Chairman. Were you out of work for any long period of time 
in West Virginia before you came here ? 

Mr. IsNER. I was out of work about 2 or 3 months. 

The Chairman. During that time I suppose what savings you had 
were spent? 

Mr, IsNER, Practically exhausted, yes, sir, I had $13 when I left 
West Virginia. 

The Chairman. What sort of work did you do when you did get a 
position here in Maryland? 

Mr. IsNER. Why, I work in the pipe-fitting department, over here 
in the fabricating shop. 

The Chairman. For what concern? 

Mr. IsNER. For the Bethlehem Fairfield plant. 

The Chairman. How much money do you get ? 

Mr. IsNER. I get 621/2 cents an hour. 

The Chairman. And where did you live when you first came here ? 

Mr, IsNER. I stayed down on the corner of Curtis Avenue at a 
hotel. I don't know the name of the hotel — a rooming house. 

The Chairman. How much rent did you pay ? 

Mr, IsNER. Six of us paid $3 a week to sleep in a room and then we 
had our meals over at the lunchroom. It run us anywhere from $12 
to $14, depending on what you ate. 

The Chairman. You all slept in the one room ? 

Mr. IsNER. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. On cots? 

Mr. IsNER. Yes, sir; two double beds and two cots. 

The Chairman. And did you have a bath or toilet ? 

Mr. IsNER. Had one bathroom but no hot water. 

The Chairman. After you brought the family here, where did you 
live? 

Mr. IsNER. At No. 4814, right down the avenue, in three furnished 
rooms. 

The Chairman. Did you leave your furniture in West Virginia 
when you came here? 

Mr. IsNER. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Why didn't you bring it here ? 

Mr. IsNER. Well, the transfer man wanted $125, and to start with. 
I didn't know where to get a house to move it in. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5949 

The Chairman. And you didn't happen to have $125 and that is the 
reason you are living in furnished rooms ? 

Mr. IsNER. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Is it a furnished house or apartment? 

Mr. IsNER. Where I am staying? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. IsNER. It is a furnished apartment. 

The CjiAiRMAN. How many rooms? 

Mr. IsNER. Three. 

The Chairman. And the five of you live there ? 

Mr. Isner. That is right. 

The Chairman. How many bedrooms ? 

Mr. Isner. We have two. 

The Chairman. Any bath? 

Mr. Isner. Yes ; we have a bath on the second floor. Another fam- 
ily also uses it. 

The Chairman. And what are you paying for that ? 

Mr. Isner. $10 a week. 

The Chairman. Have j^ou experienced any trouble in getting a house 
since coming here? 

Mr. Isner. Well, I looked around all over Baltimore, practically. I 
could find rooms and things way out, but by the time you put in 2 or 3 
hours to ride the streetcar to get to your work it is too long and I didn't 
have no machine. 

The Chairman. How close are you living to the plant at which you 
are employed? 

Mr. Isner. I live within three blocks of it at present. 

The Chairman. What about the children ? Do they have a place 
to play ? 

Mr. Isner. Well, they have a little privacy in the back. 

The Chairman. Is it noisy there ? 

Mr. Isner. Well, the streetcar is only 15 or 20 feet from the door. 

The Chairman. Are you still looking for other quarters to live in? 

Mr. Isner. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Have you any other relatives here? 

Mr. Isner. Yes, sir ; I have some cousins here. 

The Chairman. Your wife has a brother here? 

Mr. Isner. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Is it your brother? 

Ml'. Isner. My brother. 

The Chairman. Where is he employed? 

Mr. Isner. He is employed at the fabricating shop there, the same 
place I am. 

The Chairman. Where is he living? 

Mr. Isner. He stays down at this restaurant where I did before I 
came to this place. 

The Chairman. How many are living with him ? 

Mr. Isner. I think he told me last evening there were only five in 
the room now. 

The Chairman. They are paying the same amount of money ? 

Mr. Isner. Same amount, $3 for their bed. 

The Chairman. Have you talked to other employees at the plant 
about the difficulty of getting houses here ? 



5950 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. IsNER. Several of them from my home town. 

The Chairman. Are there many people here from your home town, 
looking for employment? 

Mr. IsNER. I would say, at the present time, there must be 50 or 75 
w^orking over here now. 

The Chairman, You are receiving about $32 a week now, aren't 
you ? 

Mr. IsNER. $32.11 after Social Security is taken out. 

The Chairman. And you are paying $40 a month rent — a little 
better than $40 a month ? 

Mr. IsNER. Yes, sir ; it runs $43, anyway. 

The Chairman. Will you be able to save any money ? 

Mr. IsNER. I don't see how I can. Groceries are so high. 

The Chairman. You find prices going up? 

Mr. IsNER. I paid 38 cents a pound for chicken Saturday at a 
little store up above me. Meats of all kinds I find are twice as high 
as they were in my home town — any kind of meats. 

Mr. OsMERS. Mr. Isner, did you ever use the United States Em- 
i:)loyment Service ? Did you ever apply there for work ? 

Mr. Isner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. Did they direct you to your present job in Balti- 
more or did you come upon the advice of your brother? 

Mr. Isner. I asked them and they didn't have no calls from Balti- 
more, they said. 

Mr. OsMERS. They had no calls from Baltimore, but you came to 
Baltimore and got a job? 

Mr. Isner. That is right. 

Mr. Osmers. If this defense emergency should end, and you should 
lose your job, would you be likely to stay in Baltimore or return 
to West Virginia. 

Mr. Isner. I would figure on going wherever the work is. 

Mr. Osmers. Well, assuming there wasn't any work, here and 
there wasn't any in West Virginia, would you go back to West Vir- 
ginia or stay here ? You may have to make that decision, you know, 
one of these days. 

Mr. Isner. To answer you truthfully, I wouldn't want to go 
to any other place or to stay there if there wasn't any work. 

Mr. Osmers. I appreciate that, but do you own a home or have a 
family or place where you could go to live in West Virginia if you 
did go back? 

Mr. Isner. I do not. 

Mr. Osmers. And you are not able to save any money at the 
present time ? 

Mr. Isner. Not at the present time I am not. 

Mr. OsiviERS. Now, if you should become unemployed you would 
probably receive some unemployment compensation for a limited 
period of time. 

Mr. Isner. That is right. 

Mr. Osmers. Do you have any accumulation of money or re- 
sources that would carry you on beyond the end of that unemploy- 
ment compensation period? 

Mr. Isner. I don't have a thing to go on at present. 



NATIONAL DEFETsSE MIGRATION 5951 

Mr. OsMERS. And at your present rate of pay there is no way of 
accumulating any ? 

Mr. IsNER. No; there is not. I think that I have a chance for 
advancement. I am taking up tooling and later on I feel that I 
will have a chance for advancement. 

Mr. OsMERS. Where are you studying? 

Mr. IsNER, In the fabricating shop. I am studying pipe fitting. 

Mr. OsMERS. Has any attempt been made to raise your rent since 
you have been in your present place ? 

Mr. IsNER. No, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do your fellow workers report that their rents are 
being raised? 

Mr. IsNER. Well, they do. They say they went up 100 percent in 
the last 60 days. I have talked to several in the shop and they say 
that. 

Mr. OsMERS. That is probably something of an exaggeration, but 
I was wondering whether men like yourself, who are living in apart- 
ments, have been notified by their landlords that their rent would be- 
increased in the future. 

Mr. IsNER, I know of several that told me in the last couple of 
weeks that they had raised their rent. 

Mr. OsMERs. That is all. 

The Chairman. The three rooms you occupy are part of a house^ 
aren't they ? 

Mr. IsNER. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Were you ever told what the whole house formerly- 
rented for? 

Mr. IsNER. Well, the people who live up on the second floor said 
befoi'e this work started they had lived there for 4 years and the 
apartment I have now rented for $8 a month before this work came. 

The Chairman. The committee is deeply interested in what is going 
to happen after this defense program is over with, and whether the 
people will go back to their original homes or not. Your idea is that 
it all depends on where you can get work. Your first thought will 
be to go where you can get work. Is that your idea? 

Mr. IsNER. That is right. That is my idea. 

Mr. Osmers. The point is, Mr. Chairman — and I am not addressing- 
Mr. Eisner now — the situation that he will face may tie in very closely 
with his residence at that time. If he is not considered a resident oJP 
the State of INIaryland, he will have no resources when his unemploy- 
ment compensation is over. The authorities may attempt to deport 
him from the State of Maryland and send him back to West Virginia, 
and AVest Virginia may adopt the attitude, "You left West Virginia 
without any intention of returning and therefore you are not a resident 
of West Virginia," and he will be floating, like a good many others in 
the country. 

Mr. IsNER. Well, my intentions are, if I can do so, to buy me a 
home and locate here permanently, if I get some money ahead. 

The Chairman. In the State of Maryland ? 

Mr. Isner. That is right. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Isner, for coming here. 

Our next witness is Judge Waxter. 



5952 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF JUDGE THOMAS J. S. WAXTER, DIRECTOR OF 
PUBLIC WELFARE, CITY OF BALTIMORE 

The Chairman. Judge Waxter, Mr. Sparkman will iiiteiTogate you. 

Mr. Sparkman. Judge Waxter, for the benetit of the record, will you 
give your name and the capacity in which you appear before us ? 

Judge Waxter. Thomas J. S. Waxter, and I am the director of 
public welfare of the city of Baltimore. 

Mr. Sparkman. You have filed a statement with us. I have read 
the digest of it with much interest. It will be made a part of the 
record. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY THOilAS J. S. WAXTER, DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC 
WELFARE, CITY OF BALTIMORE 

The home relief load iu Baltimore i.s comprised almost entirely of unemployable 
Ijersons. As of June 1, 1941, there were 3,.j46 eases receiving home relief, known 
in Baltimore as general public assistance. A break-down of these cases reveals 
that over 2,400 of the entire number of cases receiving assistance consist of single, 
unattached men and women whose mean age is a little over 55. In addition to 
ihis the break-down shows that approximately 600 additional are cases in which 
there are only 2 individuals, usually a man and his wife, the mean age being 
-over 50 years. This means that there are only approximately .5(X> fjtmily groups 
.comprised of more than 2 people in a family unit receiving home relief from the 
Baltimore Department of Welfare. 

The home relief load represents, primarily, the group of older, handicapped 
individuals who are nut yet old enough for old-age assistance but are without 
resources and for one reason or another are incapacitated for work. 

There is a table attached (p. 5956), showing the total relief obligations 
expended iu the 13 major cities of the United States for January 1941. This 
shows the expenditures in the 13 largest cities of the country for general public 
assistance, old-age assistance, aid to dependent children, aid to the blind, and 
Work Projects Administration. In other words, it shows the entire home-relief 
load as represented by the four categories of public assistance. The work-relief 
load is represented by the Work Projects Administration. This chart shows 
that the gross expenditures iu Baltimore are less than one-half of those incurred 
in any other major city of the Nation. The reasons for this are that, primarily, 
Baltimore is a city of small industries, widely diversified in character, and that 
in the past it has not felt the full effect of an industrial depression to the same 
extent as the other major cities of the Nation. In this connection it is well to 
note that while Baltimore has relatively small expenditures for relief, its stand- 
ards of assistance are quite high. By this is meant that the actual grants per 
individual case compare favorably with the highest in the country. 

CURTAILMENT OF WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 

The home-relief load in Baltimore is, however, to be vitally affected in the 
next several weeks by the curtailment on the part of Congress of the Work Proj- 
ects Administration program. The Work Projects Administration in Baltimore, 
in the latter part of June 1941, was down to approximately 3,300 certified men 
and women from Baltimore city. Many of these represented light work and 
older people who were seriously handicapped in obtaining work. The Work 
Projects Administration has been forced to curtail this program to the extent of 
over 1,000 positions. Many of this thousand men and women who will be laid 
off from the Work Projects Administration are handicapped physically and men- 
tally in competing in the free labor pool for jobs and will, of necessity, have to 
tipply for public assistance to the department of public welfare. 

One of the vital problems that faced the Work Projects Administration Iti 
making the cuts necessary throughout the several States was to decide upon the 
group of individuals who were to be cut from the respective State programs. 
In Baltimore the department of public welfare stressed with the Work Projects 



NATIONAL DEFE^ISE MIGRATION 5953 

Administration that if the cuts were necessary that the most employable group 
should be released from he program, as it was this group that would be most 
likely to find jobs in private industry. The inability of light-worli and handi- 
capped people to find positions was stressed. In other words, the Baltimore 
Department of Welfare stressed that the Work Projects Administration should 
maintain as long as possible the group least able to compete for jobs. We do 
not know at this point what attitude the Work Projects Administration finally 
adopted in making the cuts in Baltimore. However, we do know that many 
light-work people have been cut from the Work Projects Administration as a 
result of the recent action and that the relief load in Baltimore will be vitally 
affected. It is not as yet known how large the proportion of families cut from 
the Work Projects Administration will apply and be entitled to public assistance. 
The department is maintaining a check on this, however, and over a period of 
time will have the exact figure. 

It is the impression of the Baltimore Department of Welfare that the relief 
load in Baltimore is now down to a residual group of unemployables. It is felt 
that this is also true of a large numerical percentage of the Work Projects Admin- 
istration load. It is not felt that an increase in employment opportunities in 
Baltimore will greatly affect the present relief load nor a large portion of the 
present Work Projects Administration load. 

NONRESIDENT FAMILIES AND EEUEF IN BALTIMORE 

There are various estimations as to the increase in population in the Baltimore 
area since the advent of the defense program. How many people have been 
added to the Baltimore population is conjectural, but it is known to be large. 
Curiously enough, the relief program in Baltimore dealing with nonresident 
families has not, to any extent, reflected the migration of individuals and 
families into the Baltimore area. Baltimore accepts an application for relief 
from stranded nonresident families and gives relief until such time as the 
stranded nonresident family can be returned to its proper place of domicile. 
The number of cases has not increased during the past year. It was anticipated 
that an increase would take place but up to this time the facts are that there 
has been no increase. This may be due to the fact that work in the Baltimore 
area has been easy to find and steady once it has been secured. The heavy 
li'.igration into Baltimore, however, of new families will unquestionably affect the 
relief program in the future, and change the Baltimore picture drastically. 
While it cannot be pretlicted with any degree of certainty how large the 
increase may be, it undoubtedly will drasiically affect any future program of 
public assistance that Baltimore may have. 

SINGLE ADULT MALE TRANSIENTS 

Baltimore has no program for assistance to the unattached, adult male tran- 
sient other than to subsidize a local branch of the Salvation Army in maintaining 
the Red Shield Lodge at 603 North Calvert Street. The lodge sleeps approxi- 
mately 90 different men each night, the number increasing in the wintertime and 
growing less in the summer. The men are given only 1 night's lodging and a 
small breakfast and instructed to leave Baltimore. There has been no notice- 
able increase in the number comprising this group in the last year. The group, 
however, points up one of the most grievous social problems on the American 
scene. At the moment that the men each day are thumbing rides on the 
Philadelphia road to Philadelphia and the Washington Boulevard to Washington, 
an equal number of men in Philadelphia and in Washington are leaving those 
cities, bumming their way to Baltimore. There has been a very real fear on the 
part of the Baltimore authorities that to give adequate care to unattached, adult 
male transients would bring an added load to Baltimore. In other words, if 
Baltimore gave better care than its neighboring cities, the habitual ti'ansient 
would tend to gravitate to this city. This, certainly, was the Baltimore experi- 
ence in 1934 and 1935 under the Federal Emergency Relief Administration tran- 
sient program. 

Nonresident, unattached women are given care by the local Travelers Aid 
Society until they can be sent back to their place of proper domicile at the 
expense of the department of public welfare. This also applies to children 
under 18 years of age. both male and female. Here again, no sharp increase 
in numbers has been noted during the past year. 



5954 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

MEDICAL CAEE 

In Baltimore the health program is sharply divided, as it is in many other 
cities, between the local health department and the local department of public 
welfare. The health department accepts responsibility for preventive medicine 
and the department of welfare accepts responsibility for medical care or cura' 
tive medicine. This division is extremely difficult to define in certain areas, 
but basically it is the situation that has obtained in Baltimore for generations. 
The city anticipated a strain on its health services, both in the fields of pre- 
ventive medicine and in medical care, as a result of the migration of large 
numbers of additional workers to the Baltimore area. From the local health 
department can be secured information as to the preventive field. In the 
curative field evidences of strain have certainly been noticed, strains that are 
serious and immediate, as a result of the defense program. 

(a) Even with the vast influx of new workers into the Baltimore area, tht 
hospitals of the community have had increasing difficulty with personnel. This 
is particularly true of the large municipal hospital known as the Baltimore 
City Hospitals. The municipal hospital has had actually to close beds because 
of nonavailable personnel. Lack of a sufficient number ol graduate nurses is 
appallingly evident. Serious difficulty has been occasioned in securing domes- 
tics and orderlies as the individuals in this group have found infinitely bettei 
economic opportunity in industry and with the Government than by working 
as domestics and orderlies in the municipal hospital. An example may be 
taken from the municipal hospital as to what has happened. The normal staff 
of the hospital, as provided for by the city budget consists of approximately 
775 employed persons. At the present time there are ISO vacant positions 
that cannot be filled under prevailing conditions and salaries. The public 
hospitals, of course, have a more difficult time with the problem of personnel 
than the private general hospitals. This is due to many reasons, perhaps the 
most important of which is the fact that as positions in this service are cov- 
ered by civil-service requirements, changes in classifications and salaries are 
extremely difficult to arrange. The defense program is also making increasingly 
difficult the securing of doctors, though in Baltimore this must be said to be 
more in anticipation than in the actual present. 

(b) The need for ho.spital beds, for dispensary service, and for home medical 
service has increa.sed throughout the past year, though this increase in demand 
is by no means as evident as one might expect. The sharpest increase in 
acutely ill patients would seem to have taken place in obstetrics. The depart- 
ment of public welfare, with the health department, arranges for prenatal care 
in health department clinics and for delivery service in the Baltimore city 
hospitals, for pregnant women who are unable to pay for private medical care 
and for delivery in a private general hospital. Until recently, prenatal care and 
hospitalization could be secured in private general hospitals in a ward bed for 
a sum varying between $35 and $50. Individual women whose families could 
pay this sum were denied the public service. In May the department of welfare 
was notified by the several private general hospitals with ward beds for colored 
women that they could no longer accept new women, as they were entirely filled. 
This, necessarily, means tliat a larger number of women are being delivered in 
their own homes than was formerly the situation. 

The migration has been sharply felt in the obstetrical division. For the 
month of May 1941 the department of welfare rejected approximately 120 appli- 
cations from pregnant women for prenatal service and for delivery at the Balti- 
more city hospitals. Approximately half were rejected because of the fact that 
they were nonresident, meaning that their families had not maintained them- 
selves independent of public assistance in the city of Baltimore for a year prior 
to application, and approximately half were rejected because of financial ability 
to secure private service. Ability to secure private service means that for a 
large number of colored cases they will be delivered 'at home. 

Actually, the hospital situation for acute illnesses is that administration has 
become increasingly difficult because of a dearth of personnel at a time when a 
demand for service is increasing due to the number of people in the community. 
This tension can be expected to Increase with the passing months and present 
many serious problems in the future for the city to solve. 

In the matter of dispensary service, the department knows of no study that 
has been made to determine whether or not there has been a sharp increase in 
the number of visits generally. The bulk of dispensary service in Baltimore is 
rendered by the private general hospitals without subsidy from the city or the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5955 

State. The department of public welfare itself administers eight small clinics 
located geographically throughout the city. There has been an appreciable in- 
crease in the number of visits made to these clinics during the past year. This 
increase has been gradual but has tended to mount month by month. 

There has been an increase in the demand for home visits by physicians during 
the past year. It is difficult, however, to charge this increased demand to mi- 
gration. The city has never rendered a very adequate home service in the 
past and migration has merely sharpened up the prevailing inadequacy. 

Baltimore, like most cities, has wide gaps in its medical care program. The 
most prominent of these is the situation of the chronically ill. The city has a 
large chronic hospital administered by the department of public welfare with a 
capacity of 600 chronically ill patients. There is a waiting list of over GOO 
individuals for care in this hospital which is always crowded to capacity. The 
last legislature considered the matter of chronically ill patients in the 23 counties 
of the State and in Baltimore City, in view of the very real need for an increase 
in this service. Nothing was accomplished by the legislature, however, as they 
deferred any action on the chronic program. 

Practically nothing is done about supplying dental service to marginal groups 
of people in Baltimore. This has been a sore problem for many years. 

The very real need for an increase in various medical services, a need that has 
always existed, will be brought into much sharper focus as a result of the 
defense program and the enlarged population of the community as a result of the 
migration. 

These are only some of the health problems. Others would be the shocking 
lack of any facilities whatever for convalescent care for Negro children and 
the increasing demand by the private general hospitals for larger public subsidies 
as the demands upon them grow. 

One word about mental health. So far the migration has not evinced itself 
in any large increase of patients applying for care in public mental hospitals. 
Baltimore city, through the department of public welfare, is now paying for 
approximately 5,000 Baltimoreans in State mental institutions. The migration 
is unquestionably going to show an increase in this group and the need for addi- 
tional beds for mental patients. Here, too, there are inadequacies that will be 
pointed up by the migration. Maryland has no special institutional facilities 
for defective delinquents, for psychotic children or for alcoholics or narcotics. 
It has been suggested that the health department of this city begin a real pro- 
gram of preventive medicine in the field of mental health. This has been barely- 
touched upon in Baltimore by the local health department. 



Baltimore has for years faced a real housing problem. The migration, as a- 
result of the defense program, has certainly affected this situation. The extent 
of the effect that the migration has had upon the general problem of housing i& 
at present unknown. It can be said, however, that there is more and worse 
congestion than has been the problem heretofore. 

One of the most difficult problems for individuals and families in Baltimore 
with marginal incomes is that of housing. This is particularly trne of Baltimore's 
large Negro population. The Negro must live in one of the Negro areas. These 
areas are well defined and represent, for the most part, deteriorated neighbor- 
hoods which in former years were occupied by whites. Fortunately. Baltimore 
has few tenement houses which were built for that purpose. The typical tene- 
ment house in Baltimore is the structure originally built for white occupancy 
from which whites have moved because of the deterioration of the neighborhood 
and the desire to move away from the center of the city. The Negro areas are 
limited in size and the growing number of Negroes have considerable difficulty 
in obtaining decent houses. Suitable quarters are at a maximum, rents are high 
and in innumerable instances houses originally designated as single-family units 
are used as tenements for more than one family. 

In referring to Negro housing, the extent of the Negro population becomes 
important. The 1940 Negro population was 166,567: the 1930 Negro population 
was 142.706. and the 1920 Negro population was 108,322. This meant that the 
Negro population grew 34.384 between 1920 and 1930 and grew 23.861 between 
1930 and 1940. Actually, the figures show that the growth in the Negro popula- 
tion declined one-third between 1930 and 1940 under the increase for 1920 and 
1930. This was due in large measure to the fact that as there were not economic- 
60396 — il— pt. 15 6 



5956 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

opportunities in Baltimore, the Negro from the South did come in in the same 
numbers. It is also largely due to the fact that relief and Work Projects Admin- 
istration were during the depression on a national basis. The Work Projects 
Administration was available in one State as in another. 

The Negro forms about 20 percent of the entire population of Baltimore city 
and about 50 percent of the entire public assistance load. When industrial 
activity picks up and the relief load begins to decline, it is found that the Negroes 
go back to work much more slowly than the whites. This may reflect some 
prejudice on the part of employers. 

In the matter of housing the Negro is in an extremely difficult position. The 
areas in which he is permitted to live are strictly limited in size, and the growing 
number of Negroes have considerable ditficulty in obtaining decent housing. 
Suitable quarters are at a maximum, rents are high, and in innumerable Instances 
houses originally designated as single dwelling units are used as tenements for 
more than one family. 

The Department of Public Welfare is now conducting a survey to determine the 
extent to which rents have been increased throughout the various sections of the 
<-ity, particularly with reference to public-assistance clients. This survey is not 
complete, but diere is sufficient information on hand to show that there has been 
fin increase in rental values which has been general throughout the city but which 
lias been more sharpl.v indicated in the Negro areas. 

It has been the practice of the Department of Public Welfare to take an index 
•of food prices at the end of each month ; when prices advance more than 5 percent 
the food allowance is increased by 5 percent ; when the index decreases more than 
S percent the food allowance is supposed to decrease fi percent. In the matter of 
rents, the Department has not been so fortunate. It allows 8 percent of the 
assessed value of the property, divided by 52, as the weekly allowance for rent. 
In various studies that have been made in the past it has been found that over 
'60 percent of the assistance families pay more for rent than that computed in their 
budget. From time to time increases and deductions have, however, been made in 
the rent allowances as rents, supposedly, have either advanced or decreased. The 
last such adjustment was to reduce the rent allowance from 9 to 8 percent of the 
assessed value. This was several years ago. The present survey is to give 
material upon which, if any, increase or decrease may be justified. 

The endeavor has been made merely to submit a few comments upon some of 
the more important problems in the city affected by the problem of migration. 
We should be very glad to go more fully into the entire matter, should you desire 
us to. 

Total relief obligations expended in 13 major cities of the United, States for 
January 19^1 



City 


1940 
census 


Total 


General 

public 

assistance 


Old-age 
assistance 


Aid to de- 
pendent 
children 


Aid to 
blind 


Work 
Projects 
Admin- 
istration 


New York 


7, 3S0, 259 

3, 384, 556 

1, 935, 086 

1,618,549 

1,496,792 

878, 385 

854, 144 

813, 748 

665, 384 
629, 553 

589, 558 
575, 150 
769, 520 


16,142,444 
7, 975, 856 
4, 166, 560 
3, 140, 526 
5, 587, 525 
2, 273. 234 
666. 155 
1, 436, 788 

2, 676, 770 
1,471,020 

1,849,920 
1,121,598 
2,478,827 


6, 370, 304 

2, 449, 812 

1, 442, 573 

876, 333 

1,105,712 

604, 201 

167, 533 

143, 872 

809, 785 
211,517 

447, 047 
587, 251 
440.991 


1,614,595 

1, 281, 653 
526, 730 
263,211 

2, 346, 650 
259, 299 
163,215 
294, 108 

301, 287 
437,025 

250, 836 
124, 973 
485, 053 


1, 095, 955 
78, 604 
552, 283 
379, 645 
256, 803 
107, 022 
128,901 
92, 132 

296, 395 
58, 666 

114, 962 
60,676 
273, 110 


44, 671 
69, 936 
75, 687 
5,834 
166, 038 
8,997 
9,415 
15, 102 

39, 106 
26,829 

9,632 
3,857 
8,002 


7,016,919 


■Chicago - 

Philadelphia 

Detroit .-. 


4, 095, 851 
1,569,287 
1,615,503 
1,712.322 


Cleveland 

Baltimore 


1,293,715 
197, 091 


St. Louis 

Pittsburgh (Allegheny 
County) 


891, 574 

1, 230, 197 
736, 983 


Milwaukee (MUwaukee 


1, 027, 443 


Buffalo 


344, 841 


Boston- 


1, 271, 691 



TESTIMONY OF JUDGE THOMAS J. S. WAXTER— Eesumed 



Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if you might briefly summarize for us 
the present public welfare situation in Baltimore. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5957 

Judge Waxter. I have tried to show in my statement that Balti- 
more has been singidarly fortunate in having a relatively low relief 
load. The over-all relief load in Baltimore today is approximately 
3,500 individual cases in a city of 859,000. Over 2,400 represent cases 
of single, unattached men or women whose mean age is between 55 and 
56. A group of approximately 600 are cases of two people, usually 
childless couples, so that we have only about 500 cases in Baltimore on 
home relief, of families composed of more than two people. 

The reason for the situation in Baltimore we don't quite know. On 
the back of the statement I have compared the relief load of Balti- 
more with the last statistical data we could get from the Social Se- 
curity Board on every city in America of over 500,000. This shows our 
problem in Baltimore, over all, is probably a half to a third of that 
faced by any other large city in the Nation, We don't know what 
to attribute that to, except that we are a city of small industries and 
that they are Avidely diversified, and we never feel the impact of a 
depression as other cities do. 

Our standard of relief — the amount of money that we give for 
food, the amount we give for rent — is not abnormally high, certainly, 
but it does represent one of the higher standards of relief in the 
country. I mean the standard that we give, the amount of money 
that we give to the individual family, compares favorably with that 
given in any other city. 

You immediately think that because the city has a very low relief 
load, it is probably due to the fact that Baltimore is not giving as 
much per family as other cities give, hence it has fewer families on 
relief. Well, that isn't the situation in Baltimore. 

NO BIG TRANSIENT LOAD 

Now, with reference to transients. We have noticed in the last 12 
months no pick-up in the applications that we have had for aid to 
the Department of Welfare from nonresident families. From June 
1, 1940, to June 1, 1941, we had approximately 500 to 550 nonresident 
families applying to us for aid in Baltimore. We will accept such 
families for aid pending the verification of residence elsewhere, to- 
gether with the agreement of the family actually to return to their 
place of domicile, and we are actually shipping them back. As a 
result, of the five hundred-odd cases of nonresident families applying 
to us for aid, we accepted fewer than 100, or fewer than 20 percent 
of the cases that applied to us. 

NO PROGRAM FOR SINGLE MEN 

For the single, unattached male Baltimore has no relief program. 

We subsidize the maintenance by the Salvation Army of a shelter. 
The individual male unattached transient is given lodging over night 
in that shelter and he is asked to get out of Baltimore the next day 
and he goes usually by the Philadelphia road to Philadelphia or 
by the Washington road to Washington or by the Cumberland Pike 
to some place in the Middle West. 

We sleep an unduplicated load of approximately 90 individuals 
each night and the next day they go on their way to these various 



5958 BALTIMORE HEADINGS 

other cities at the same moment that the other cities are sending 
approximately the same number to Baltimore. In other words, we 
do not keep them in Baltimore. The result is they are just traveling 
back and fotth. 

The local Travelers' Aid Society accepts responsibility for unat- 
tached women. They are taken care of until they can be sent back 
to their proper places of domicile, and that also applies to the case 
of minors under the age of 18. 

CUT IN WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION ROLLS 

The W. P. A. in Baltimore is also down. As of yesterday, you 
know, they had the big cut-off. As of yesterday there were approxi- 
mately 3,300 certified people from Baltimore working on the W. P. A. 
That has been cut by approximately 1,100 people today. They have 
decreased their load in Baltimore by approximately 1,100 because 
the W. P. A. had to make this cut. Congress had reduced the ap- 
propriation, and it was necessary to make this cut of approximately 
33 percent of the Baltimore load. We asked them to make the cut 
of their most employable people because, if there are jobs available 
for people in the Baltimore area, we felt that logically the people 
who should be cut from the W. P. A. should be the most employ- 
able people on the W. P. A. But we don't know whether they have 
cut the most employable people or the least employable, because we 
don't know in the Department of Welfare who has been cut. In 
any event, we feel that we will get from 60 to 70 percent of the group 
cut on the relief rolls. 

We also find, as the relief rolls reduce themselves, both on W. P. A. 
and on straight home relief, that the white group on relief reduces 
much more rapidly than the colored group. We feel that that is 
due mainly to the fact that work opportunities in Baltimore are 
open more readily for the whites than for the colored. The detailed 
data on that, however, I am not in position to give you. You will 
have to get information from the State Employment Service. We 
find that the colored man on relief is just as eager to get work as the 
white man; that there is no more malingering on the part of the 
colored than there is on the part of the white. But it seems apparent 
to us that job opportunities open up much more rapidly and in 
greater numerical proportion for the whites than for the colored. 

FROM WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION INTO INDUSTRY 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, I think that is a very fine summarization. 
Let me ask you this: You asked the W. P. A. to cut off the most 
employable. Assuming that they followed that suggestion, do you 
think most of those people could get employment in the defense 
industries ? 

Judge Waxter. I don't know. Of course, the W. P. A. supposedly 
has been combed to supply workers for the defense industries and 
for the farms. There is a shortage of farm labor throughout Mary- 
land, particularly in Baltimore County, on the outskirts of Balti- 
more, and they have already combed the W. P. A. rolls to take care 
of that. 



NATIONAL DEFEJs'SE MIGRATION 5959 

My own opinion is — and this is a personal opinion with me — that the 
majority of the people working on W. P. A. in Baltimore today are 
people who cannot compete in the free labor pool for jobs, they are 
handicapped in one way or another. 

Mr. Sparkman. Therefore, you think the number furnished to the 
defense industries in the W. P. A. reduction will be rather insignifi- 
cant? 

Judge Waxter. In Baltimore I feel that is true; you must realize 
how light our load is in Baltimore compared to what you usually find. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have many workers left the W. P. A. during 
the last year to take private employment ? 

Judge Waxter. Yes, sir. I am not sure of these figures but I 
think they are roughly accurate. The W. P. A. at this time last 
year had, from Baltimore, approximately 7,000 people working on 
their program. I don't stand by the exactness of that figure. 

Mr. Sparkman. We understand that is an approximation. 

Judge Waxter. And now they have 3,300, or did have before the 
cut. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, do you think the reduction from 7,000 to 
3,300 is largely accounted for by defense employment? 

Judge Waxter. That is right. 

Baltimore's industries diversified 

Mr. Sparkman. Now, do you think that the defense work in this 
city and in this State might be very largely accountable for your light 
relief load generally? 

Judge Waxter. Oh, yes ; but it is also true that all the way through 
the depression Baltimore ran well behind other cities, fortunately 
for us. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, that has been a continuing condi- 
tion? 

Judge AVaxter. Yes, sir. That is right. We have never had the 
problem that other cities faced. 

Mr. Osmers. To what do you attribute that ? 

Judge Waxter. I started off by saying we didn't know, but our guess 
is that because we are a city of small industries and because our activi- 
ties are pretty widely distributed, industrially, we do not have at one 
time the tremendous load of unemployment that other cities face. 

Mr. Osmers. You mean the city does not depend upon a few 
■extremely large operations? 

Judge Waxter. That is right. That has been the case in the past. 

Mr. Osmers. That has been the case in the past, but I want to ques- 
tion you regarding the present situation and the possibility of a future 
depression. 

It seems now that a great many of your employment eggs ate going 
to be placed in the Glenn L. IMartin and Bethlehem Steel baskets, and 
you may not have as favorable a situation when it is over. 

Judge Waxter. From the point of view of the administration of 
relief and public assistance in Baltimore, we view with a great deal of 
alarm the increase in our population to take care of the defense indus- 
tries, because we feel that they are going to be a tremendous drag on 
the community after the war is over. We don't know what is going to 



5960 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



hapi)en. We can only guess, but we can see it affecting us very sharply 
if our forecast is right. 

Mr. Spaekman. In other words, your light relief load has, you think, 
been accounted for very largely by the diversity of employment ? 

Judge Waxter. Plus the fact that we are a city of small concerns. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, that within itself would give you the diversity. 

Judge Waxter. The two things together. 

POPULATION OF BALTIMORE 

Mr. Sparkman. What is the population of Baltimore ? 

Judge Waxter. The population of Baltimore last year, according 
to the census, was eight-hundred-and-fifty-nine-thousand-odd people. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have any idea what the increase is going to 
be by reason of the defense program ? 

Judge Waxter. Well, we have heard all kinds of estimates. Dr. 
Fales from the health department would probably guess it better 
than anyone else. Our guess in the situation is that the increase over 
the last year has been around 35,000 to 40,000 people. 

Mr. SipARKMAN. Already? 

Judge Waxter. That is right — in the last year since the census was 
taken, in April of 1940. It is increasing more rapidly now than it was 
before, and it is increasing, so far as we can see any evidence of it, 
much faster in the white than in the colored group. In other words, 
the people we have taken in in the last year have been heavily weighted 
with white migrants as against Negro migrants. 

ATFITUDB OF INDUSTRY TOWARD WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 

Mr. Sparkman. Now, getting back to the W. P. A. problem. Has 
private industry been showing a willingness to hire W. P. A. workers ? 

Judge Waxter. Yes, they have when there are openings in industry 
for unskilled people, which has been our main problem on W. P. A. 
in Baltimore. We have found no real reluctance on the part of em- 
ployers to help out and employ the W. P. A. group. In other words, 
being on W. P. A. has not blocked a man from getting employment. 

Mr. Sparkman. You think, however, that practically all of the em- 
ployable people on W. P. A. have already been taken off ? 

Judge Waxter. I don't say all the employables, because I think we 
still have a considerable number of unskilled Negroes on W. P. A. 

Mr. Sparkman. I should have said, those who are able to compete in 
industry. You think they have been pretty well absorbed ? 

Judge Waxter. The majority of people on W. P. A. are people who 
are handicapped in one way or another in competing in the free-labor 
pool, plus a number of unskilled Negroes who haven't been absorbed 
in the program yet. 

Mr. Sparkman. You feel definitely that a good portion of this reduc- 
tion that is coming about today is going to shift over to you ? 

Judge Waxter. That is right. Our guess has been that in the next 
2 months we will have 60 to 70 percent of this number come to us. 

STRAIN ON health SERVICE 

Mr. Sparkman. You make this statement in your paper : 
"The city anticipated a strain on its health services as a result of 
the migration of large numbers of additional workers to the Balti- 
more area." 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5961 

Would you develop that a little more in detail ? 

Judge Waxter. Yes. In Baltimore the health needs of the city, 
insofar as public moneys are concerned, are broken down between the 
health department and the department of welfare. And that is pretty 
conventional throughout the cities of America. 

The health department has responsibility for all preventive medi- 
cines and the welfare department has responsibility for curative medi- 
cine — medical care — and we had anticipated that a lot of people com- 
ing in would cause an increased demand for hospitalization. We 
would face a demand for more clinic service, out-patient clinics from 
the hospitals; we would have a larger demand for physicians and 
nursing service in the homes of people acutely ill. 

Well, up to this time it just hasn't happened in any great volume. 
We have noticed a slowly increasing demand on all our services, but 
there hasn't been any great increase except in the one field in obstetrics. 
Perhaps we don't know the reason for these things, but we think that 
the selective service is one cause. Migration is another cause. We» 
noticed that the number of pregnant women coming to us for prenatal 
care and delivery service has sharply increased, and for the colored 
women we cannot give the hospital service that we gave in the past. 
We gave prenatal care and delivery in the hospitals through the me- 
dium of the department of welfare to women wdio could not pay for 
private care in a private hospital, and if they could pay between $35 
and $50 we would not accept them because that was the amount for 
which they could buy service from a private institution. 

Now, we have been told, in May and June, that they cannot give that 
service any more. We still have been rejecting the colored women in 
that gi'oup because they can pay for service and those women now, 
rather than being delivered in a hospital, are being delivered in their 
ow^n homes and paying the doctor for that extra service. 

We have noticed a slowly increasing demand on the public clinics 
that we have and we have noticed a slow^ increase in the demand for 
urgent bed cases, but it has not been anything like the proportion we 
anticipated. 

SHORTAGE OF HOSPITAL PERSONNEL 

Mr. Sparkman. Will you discuss the shortage of hospital personnel ? 

Judge Waxter. As a result of the defense program we have a real 
problem in keeping open some of our hospitals. For instance, in the 
municipal hospital, we are authorized to have something over 750 
people to run the hospital. As of today we are 180 people light. In 
other words, we have 180 vacancies in our personnel. 

ISIr. Sparkman. How does that come about ? 

Judge Waxter. It comes about in two ways. The most important 
reason is that there are not enough registered nurses to go around. 
We can't compete with the Government in what they are paying for 
nurses in the armed forces and what some of the cities in the North 
pay for nurses. This drains them away from Baltimore and the South. 

We feel that there are just not enough registered nurses to go around 
and as a result we are building up a subordinate personnel. We are 
relying more on practical nurses and nursing aids, who are reallj^ 
domestics. We are relying on them more sharply for nursing service 
than ever before. In other words, we are building up a subordinate 
personnel under the nursing group. 



5962 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

WAGE DIFFERENTIAL, FOR NURSES 

Mr. Sparkman. Yon say you cannot compete with the Government. 
What is the difference in the price they pay ? 

Judge Waxter. I don't know what the Government pays. We have 
raised the wages that we pay to the registered nurses $70 a month 
and maintenance. We understand that the Government pays any- 
where from $70 a month up. Seventy dollars is their lowest pay. 

Mr. OsMERS. I believe the Army pays $75 a month and maintenance. 

Judge Waxter. And they need nurses. We don't believe there are 
enough registered nurses to go around. 

Mr. Sparkman. You think there is a natural shortage of nurses? 

Judge Waxter. Yes, sir; and that industry is taking them or the 
Government is taking them and the private hospitals and the public 
hospitals are left without sufficient nurses. 

Mr. Sparkman. Has there been any increase in the training program 
for nurses and hospital personnel ? 

Judge Waxter. On the contrary ; most of the hospitals in Baltimore, 
Avith one or two exceptions, report they are having difficulty getting 
girls to make up the complement that they need for their next class of 
training. 

Mr. Sparkman. What are the girls doing — studying typing instead 
of taking up nursing? 

Judge Waxter. Yes, sir ; and going into all kinds of industries and 
making a little more money. Some are going to college but the 
small hospitals have all noted that they are having difficulty in get- 
ting enough girls to go into the schools and complete their training. 

The same situation obtains with reference to orderlies. We pay 
orderlies $45 a month and maintenance. He can go down to Glenn 
Martin or the Bethlehem Steel and get a job at the going rate in those 
places. I don't know why we have any left. 

NEGRO HOUSING SITUATION 

Mr. Sparkman. Let us turn to another phase of the situation. 
You discuss in your paper the Negro housing situation. I was inter- 
ested in reading your remarks on that subject. What are the results 
of your recent rent survey ? 

Judge Waxter. We are conducting a survey now to find out, if we 
can, whether rents have increased in all areas of the city where 
public assistance and W. P. A. clients live. We find that rents have 
gradually increased. Our survey is not complete. We find generally 
throughout the middle lower class area of the city and in the areas 
occupied by marginal industrial groups, there has been an increase in 
rents. The percentage of that increase we are not in a position now 
to say. 

Mr. Sparkman. When do you anticipate completing the survey? 

Judge Waxter. Within the next 2 weeks. 

Mr. Sparkman. When that is done will you furnish the committee 
with a copy of it? 

Judge Waxter. We will be glad to do so, sir.^ 



The survey referred to above was not completed as this volume went to press. 



NATION AI. DEFENSE MIGRATION 5963 

RENT RISE SHARPER FOR NEGROES 

Judge Waxter. We find that rents have increased more rapidly in 
the Negro areas than the white areas, which is as you would expect. 

Mr. Sparkman. "Wliy would you expect that? 

Judge Waxter. The reason for that is the areas in which Negroes 
live in Baltimore are well defined areas. Fortunately in Baltimore 
we do not have any tenement districts as other large cities have. 
The bad housing in Baltimore is the type where white people orig- 
inally lived and then moved out. The houses were built for one 
family and occupied usually by one family. They have moved out 
and the colored people have moved in. There are these well-defined 
areas that are protected on all sides against spreading, by joint 
agreements between white property owners, surrounding the Negro 
areas, and there is no place for the Negro community to expand, 
and when they move in it is just moving them in on top of each 
other. With the white group, we can expand with new building, but 
the colored group cannot. They are limited to the areas in which 
they now live. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, it is made worse because of the 
restricted area? 

GROWTH IN negro POPULiVTION 

Judge Waxter. Yes, sir; and in the last 10 years I think the Negro 
population has grown 37,000. 

Mr. Sparkman. How do you account for that heavy increase in your 
Negi^o population ? 

Judge Waxter. Actually the increase in our Negro population be- 
tween 1930 and 1940 is only about 60 percent of the Negro increase 
between 1920 and 1930. In other words, the rate of migration or the 
increase in Baltimore in the Negro population has gone sharply off in 
the last 10 years. 

Mr. Sparkman. But even in spite of that it is sharper, isn't it, thai} 
your white increase? 

Judge Waxter. Yes; I think that the increase for the Negro popu- 
lation between 1930 and 1940 is 23,000, and the increase in the whites 
is slightly over that. In other words, it is almost the same ; there is a 
larger increase in the whites than in the colored, but not propor- 
tionately. Twenty percent of the population is Negro, and that pop- 
ulation is growing almost as rapidly in numbers as the white popu- 
lation, which is at a rate four or five times as fast as the white. 

reasons for negro migration 

There are many reasons for that. Baltimore is, as you know, a 
border city. It is the first city that the migrant strikes going north ; 
and if he can find a job opportunity in Baltimore, he stays here. It 
may be that the fact that we have been historically an open-shop town 
has something to do with it. I don't know whether that is true or not. 
We have always felt that might have some bearing on it — the fact 
that the Negro can come in and go to work because we have an open 
shop and he doesn't have to be a member of the union. 

There is also the fact that we are a low-wage town. Because of 
that, we may have drawn the Negro of the South rather than the white 



^9g4 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

of the North and West. I am not in position to answer those questions, 
but they are all possibilities. 
Mr. Sparkman. That is all. 

RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT 

The Chairman. Judge Waxter, I just want to ask you one question 
regarding employment. Do you find any racial discrimination here? 

Judge Waxter. I don't know the answer to that except for the fact 
that on relief and on the W. P. A. employment opportunities are 
found much more readily for the white than for the colored. That is 
particularly true in the more skilled groups. As you get into the 
higher skills you find that it is much more difficult to move your able- 
bodied Negro than it is to move your white. That would lead us to 
believe, as a relief agency, that there are infinitely more opportunities 
for the white than there are for the Negro. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Judge Waxter. We appre- 
ciate your kindness in coming here. 

Our next witnesses are Dr. Weglein and Mr. Cooper. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. DAVID E. WEGLEIN, SUPERINTENDENT OF 
CITY SCHOOLS, BALTIMORE, MD. ; AND C. G. COOPER, SUPERIN- 
TENDENT OF SCHOOLS, BALTIMORE COUNTY 

The Chairman. Gentlemen, Congressman Osmers will interrogate 
you. 

Mr. Osmers [to Dr. Weglein]. Will you give your name and posi- 
tion to the reporter for the purpose of the record ? 

Dr. Weglein. David E. Weglein, superintendent of public instruc- 
tion in Baltimore City. 

The Chairman. Mr. Cooper, will you sit in with Dr. Weglein ? 

Mr. Osmers. Mr. Cooper, will you please state your name and with 
whom you are associated ? 

Mr. Cooper. C. G. Cooper, superintendent of schools, Baltimore 
Count J' Md. 

Mr. Osmers. You have submitted. Dr. Weglein and Mr. Cooper, 
very fine analyses of your situation here. I have been going over them 
with regard to the situation which has arisen in Baltimore as a result 
of these migrants coming into the city. 

(The analyses referred to above are as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY DR. DAVID E. WEGLEIN, SUPERINTENDENT OF CITY 
SCHOOLS, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Up to the present time we have not felt the fall impact of the large number 
of families coming to Baltimore due to employment in the various industries. 
It is expected that during the next few months the addition to the city's 
population will be quite large. The Glenn L. Martin Co. is expecting to employ 
2;"),()()0 additional people during the coming year; the shipbuilding industry 
will probably add 24,000 employees; and the many other varied industries 
will add still more. 

In.sofar as school facilities are concerned, the white elementary schools 
throughout the city can take care of additional pupils, provided the residences 
of these pupils are not concentrated in one or two places, but are distributed 
fairly evenly throughout the city — similarly with junior high school and senior 
high school facilities. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5955 

There are several parts of the city in which there will probably be a 
congestion of the additional employees, and I wish to call particular attention 
to these : 

DEFENSE HOUSING AREA 

In the buildings constructed by the Housing Authority at Philadelphia Road 
and Homers Lane, besides the 700 family units already available, we have 
been informed that a total of 1,000 additional family units will be constructed, 
making a total of 1,700 family units. 

There are no school facilities in this particular location, and it is necessary 
that the United States authorities take steps at once to provide elementary 
school facilities for white pupils at that location. An area of not less than 
5 acres should be allocated, and an elementary school building to accommodate 
about l,orK) pupils should be built. Necessary provision should be made for 
the equipment of the building and the payment of the salaries of teachers 
and the cost of supplies. 

This area, being developed for defense purposes, and not being subject to 
city taxation, should have the necessary educational facilities provided by 
funds from the Federal Government. A letter bearing upon this point was 
sent by the board of school commissioners to Hon. John M. Carmody, Admin- 
istrator, Federal Works Agency, Washington, D. C, under date of June 6, 
1941, and another communication bearing upon the same matter was sent to 
the Housing Authority in Baltimore, since that organization is operating the 
housing units for the Federal defense agency. 

CAMP HOLABIBD 

It is reported that the Federal Government will increase considerably the 
number of employees at Camp Ilolabird in southeast lialtimore. We have 
received no definite information in regard to this, but we wish to call attention 
to the fact that if a considerable increase in the number of children who wish 
to attend school take place in that area additional school facilities will have 
to be provided. 

CURTIS BAT-FAIRFIELD 

Mention has been made above of the probable large increase in the number 
of employees in the shipbuilding plants in the Curtis Bay-Fairfield area. 
Suitable provision should be made for elementary school facilities for children 
who are members of the families of the new employees. 

HAMILTION AREA 

It is reported that housing facilities in the Hamilton area in northeast 
Baltimore have all been absorbed by additional employees who have come 
to Baltimore in connection with defense industries. If such is the case, and 
there is added a large number of families in the northeast section of Baltimore, 
suitable provision for elementary school purposes will be needed. 

Appended hereto is a copy of a report prepared by Mr. Charles W. Sylvester, 
director of vocational education. 



National Defense Training 
report by charles w. stlveste3?, director, division of vocationax, education 

Baltimore, Md., June 17, 19Jfl. 

The division of vocational education of the Baltimore public schools opened 
classes for the training of workers in industries essential to national defense 
on July 8, 1940. This program began as a result of the action by Congress in 
June of that year, authorizing an appropriation of $15,000,000 for such training. 
As early as 1937 Baltimore was conducting classes in blueprint reading for the 
skilled workers in the aeronautical industry and special courses in airplane 
riveting and sheet metal work were opened on July 5, 1939. 

Baltimoi-e made available all of the facilities which could be used for the 
training of skilled and semiskilled workers. The equipment in the shops used 
is valued at nearly $400,000. The original plan provided for the use of 74 
shops in 16 schools, including the vocational schools, and the junior and senior 
high schools. We have worked closely in cooperation with the State department 



5966 BALTIMORE HEARI^'GS 

of education uuder whose guidance all defense training work is carried on 
in Maryland. We have worked closely with the State employment service as 
well as all of the local industries. 

ENROLLMENT TOTALS 9,138 

Since the opening of the present defense-training program in July 1940, 9,138 
men and women have been enrolled in the various training classes. Of this 
number, 2,4.58 have pursued preparatory or refresher courses. At present, there 
are approximately 800 enrolled in the preparatory courses and 2,500 in the 
supplementary or trade-extension classes. 

Eighteen training centers have been used since the opening of the fourth 
training period in April IMl. Some of these centers have only 1 class while 2 
centers have more than 30 classes each. There are a total of 138 classes in 
all centers. 

We know that there have been a number of trainees coming to Baltimore 
from other sections of Maryland. We have not kept this, however, as a matter 
of record, and it is impossible to give the exact number, but probably not more 
than 10 percent of the trainees have been from out of the city. Some trainees 
have come to us from out of the State, but at the time of registration, they have 
given a local address ; consequently, it is impossible for us to know the exact 
number. We are reasonably sure, however, that it does not represent more than 
5 percent of the total number who have been enrolled in the various courses. 

ENTRANCE BEQUIEEMENTS 

The requirements for entrance into the national-defense training courses have 
been set up by the United States Office of Education. Originally, students were 
to be at least 18 years of age. This has recently been lowered to 17 for the non- 
hazardous occupations. There is no upper limit, but all trainees must be citizens 
of the United States. No restriction has been placed on the trainees from the 
standpoint of residence. There has been no educational requirement. 

No definite budget has been placed at our disposal. Since the opening of 
classes in July 1940, the total expenditures have amounted to $140,000. The 
monthly expenditures, at present, amount to appi'oximately $28,000. In addition 
to the operating expenses, approximately $200,000 has been allotted to Baltimore 
for equipment to be used in the national-defense-training program. 

All trainees must be registered with the State employment service, the majority 
of the trainees being sent to us by that service. No effort is being made to bring 
into the State out-of-State workers. Some interest has been shown on the part of 
vocational schools in North Carolina and Virginia to set up training courses for 
the Baltimore industries, particularly the airplane industry. Trainees are scarce 
in this city. We could accommodate several times the number now enrolled in 
the available shops. Any trainees brought to us from other States will be handled 
by the State employment service. 

WORKERS WANT SITPPLEMBNTAEY COUESES 

There seems to be an increasing desire on the part of workers in the defense 
industries to take the trade extension or supplementary courses. Out of the 
3,200 now enrolled in classes, more than 2,400 are taking supplementary training. 
We do not know the exact number who have been advanced in the industries as a 
result of training, but a large number of cases have been brought to our attention. 

All placement of trainees is the responsibility of the State employment service, 
but we do know that many trainees at the time of completion of courses, and many^ 
before the completion of courses, find their own places in industry. 

By working in close contact with the employment service and the various 
industries, we keep our training program closely coordinated with industrial 
needs. The only difficulty encountered is the .shortage of trainees at present. We 
have rendered some assistance to industry by carrying on foremenship training^ 
and leadership conferences. We have also organized a large number of special 
courses for the workers in the various industries. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGR.\TION 
Schools used, with nuniber of classes 



5967 



Schools 


July 1 to 

Aug. 30, 

1940 


Sept. 23 
to Dec. 
20, 1940 


Jan. 1 to 

Mar. 31, 

1941 


Mar. 31 
to May 
20, 1941 




2 
5 
5 
3 
3 
21 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 


20 
2 
3 

1 

24 
3 
34 

2 


21 
2 
3 

1 

27 
3 
37 

2 
2 






2 


Southern Senior High Schoo, No. 70 


fi 




1 


Boys Vocational School, No. 293 - -- 


31 




37 






Baltimore Citv College No 408 - - 


2 


Colored Vocational School Annex No 454A 


2 








National Defense Vocational Training School, No. 250 








20 


Samuel Coleridge Tavlor School No 122 








1 












Douglass Senior High School No 450 








2 










2 
























48 


91 


100 


138 







Classes with trainees enrolled 



Trade 


July 1 to Aug. 
30, 1940 


Sept. 23 to Dee. 
20, 1940 


Jan. 1 to Mar. 
31, 1941 


Mar. 31 to May 
20, 1941 




Classes 


Roll 


Classes 


Roll 


Classes 


Roll 


Classes 


Roll 


Preparatory or refresher classes: 


3 
3 


96 
66 


3 
6 


48 
132 


4 
6 


64 
132 


2 

8 
5 

3 

9 
3 
5 
2 


32 


Aircraft riveting 


160 


Aircraft metal 


100 


Auto mechanics (assembly train- 
ing) 


2 


42 


1 


20 


3 


60 


60 




20 




1 


24 










22 


Assembly small parts 










20 




15 


300 


9 


180 


9 


180 


180 






Sheet metal 


5 
3 


100 
GO 


3 


60 
20 


3 


60 
20 


100 




40 






Total 


32 


688 


23 


460 


26 


516 


40 


794 






Trade extension classes: 

Vfvlvli'Ilc welding 


3 
3 


96 


4 


80 
20 


6 

1 


128 
22 
20 


1 

1 

2 
2 
20 

7 

2 

4 

27 
2 
1 
2 
2 
14 
1 


80 


Aircraft inrlal 


40 




20 


Electric laboratory 






20 








2 


40 


2 


40 


40 










Machine shop 


7 


140 


15 


300 


15 


300 


400 




140 








1 


20 


i 

2 

1 


20 
40 
20 




Sheet metal 


2 

1 


40 
20 


40 




1 


20 


20 


General blueprint 


120 


Aircraft blueprint reading 






43 


1,316 


45 


1,508 


810 








40 


















Related welding 














32 
















60 


















Toolmaking 














20 


















Total 


16 


362 


68 


1,818 


74 


2,098 


98 


2,402 






Total all classes 


48 


1 nw) 


91 


9 978 


100 


9 KM 


138 


?! IQfi 


Total instructors employed 

Work Projects Administration 


48 


105 


111 
3 


163k 
fiU- 





















5968 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 





Preemployment-refresher 
courses 


Supplementary courses 


State 


July 1 to 
Aug. 31 


Total 

from 

July 1 to 

Mar. 31 


Rank by 
State 


July 1 to 
Aug. 31 


Total 

from 

Julv 1 to 

Mar. 31 


Rank by 

State 


Alabama 


324 

75 

44 

6,437 

1,572 

1,104 

220 

1,088 

930 

91 

5,814 

2,955 



524 

1,111 

577 

138 

1,583 

2,725 

4,473 



220 

598 







282 

3,572 



10, 334 

580 

178 

3,722 

400 

1,765 

10, 771 

1,139 

1,494 

179 

1,683 

797 

595 

1,092 

4,296 

1,280 

4,400 

196 

627 

197 

260 


1,060 

411 

508 
22,504 
3,027 
7,745 

544 
3,514 
2,418 

757 
14, 654 
6,934 

838 
3,444 
3,048 
2,233 

693 
5,306 
1,664 
5,922 
17, 166 
1,842 
1,598 
2,852 

509 

274 
16 

828 
11.577 

113 
48, 204 
1,733 

442 
10,412 
1,243 
5,342 
26, 750 
1,275 
2,797 

546 
4,182 
2,969 
2,309 

299 
2,208 
6,555 

n, 689 
826 

1,523 
346 

1,014 




482 



91 

6,483 

26 





301 

67 



5,726 

1,314 



200 

1,554 

753 



1, 454 

362 

241 

593 



153 

.324 







109 

1,620 

79 

12, 346 

85 



2,390 

379 

202 

1,627 

70 





70 

452 

666 

49 

1,082 

1,446 

720 



97 





76 


3,045 
319 

27! 158 
1,777 
4,970 

3,026 

3,687 

fiO 

15, 333 

8,066 

1,654 

624 

4,746 

1,857 

435 

10, 022 

4.278 

5,767 

10, 510 

1,866 

1,536 

2,331 

51 



487 

814 

9,113 

848 

61,613 

677 



5,646 

2,679 

2,346 

15, 070 

469 

1,655 



350 

3,163 

2,437 

351 

8,481 

8,265 

3,156 

2,103 

515 

1,027 

1,565 

4,066 










Arkansas - - - 


3 




California ' 


2 






Connecticut - 


9 




Delaware 




Florida ' .- 






Georgia ' - - 






Idaho 






niinois 


5 
10 




Indiana - - 


10 












Kentucky • 


















Maryland 


14 


6 




12 
4 






5 






Mississippi 
















Nebraska ' 






Nevada 














7 


7 






New York 


1 


1 


North Carolina 










Ohio ' 


8 










13 
2 




Pennsylvania ' 


4 


Rhode Island - 










South Dakota 












Texas ' 






Utah 


















Washington 


11 


9 


West Virginia 1 










Wyoming ' 












Hawaii ' 






Puerto Rico ' 













I Report to end of February only. 

Maryland during the period July 1 to March 31 ranked fourteenth among 
States in the number of trainees enrolled in preemployment-refresher courses. It 
ranked sixth in the supplementary courses. Baltimore has been handicapped, due 
to a shortage of trainees in the preemployment-refresher courses. With our 
facilities, we could have trained at least 6,000 instead of 1,664 in such courses. 
We need trainees badly at present. 



Report of AcrmxiEs Since Report of February 20, 1941 

May 20, 1941. 
A very complete report, dated February 20, 1941, gave the history of the develop- 
ment of all work leading to employment in the present national-defense industries. 
It also gave in detail the progress which has been made since the enactment of 
Federal legislation in June 1940. This report covers a period for the last 3 
months.^ 



See p. 5970. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGR.\TION 5969 

NATIONAL DEff^ENSB VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL, NO. 2 50 

This school has been in operation since February 10, with trade-training courses 
in aircraft sheet metal work, aircraft riveting, electric welding, and small parts 
assembly. It has been impossible to open the special machine shop, due to the 
very great difficulty in getting machine tools. 

One of the most serious problems facing this training project is the shortage of 
trainees. We have just now reached the largest number w^e have ever had in this 
school at one time, and that is 404 trainees. We could easily accommodate 1,500 
working on a 24-hour basis, if men were available for training. We are running 
the electric-welding classes for the 24-hour period, due to the fact that we have 
more men applying for that type of training than for the other types offered. On 
the other hand, trained airplane riveters and airplane sheet-metal workers are in 
greatest demand. 

4 -HOUR PREPARATORY COURSES 

At our request, the United States Office of Education granted special permission 
to operate courses in aircraft riveting and aircraft sheet-metal work in Baltimore 
on a 4-hour basis each day, for 5 days per week. This makes it possible for men 
working 8 hours a day to take training for 4 hours. The following schedule is in 
effect : 

Aircraft riveting: 

4 to 8 p. m.. School No. 250, Baltimore and Aisquith. 

8 to 12 p. m.. School No. 250, Baltimore and Aisquith. 

4 to 8 p. m.. School No. 293, Howard and Center. 

8 to 12 p. m.. School No. 293, Howard and Center. 
Aircraft sheet metal : 

4 to 8 p. m., School No. 250, Baltimore and Aisquith. 

8 to 12 p. m., School No. 250, Baltimore and Aisquith. 

This scheme has increased our enrollment to some extent, but we have not yet 
filled these courses to capacity. 

TRAINING FOB FOUNDRY WORKERS 

With the cooperation of the Chesapeake Chapter of the American Foundrymen's 
Association, 2 classes with a total enrollment of 60 have been organized in related 
foundry work for those now engaged in that occupation. These classes will meet 
every Monday and Wednesday for 2-hour sessions. The length of the course will 
depend upon the achievement of those enrolled in the work. 

It is hoped to start a class in preparatory training as soon as a sufficient number 
of young men can be enrolled. There is a great need for beginning workers in 
this industry. 

SPECIAL TRAINING FOR THE ARMY 

At the request and with the cooperation of Major Billingsley and Captain Daniel, 
of the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, a course has been organized for 22 selected men. 
These men will be given special training in electrical science, elementary elec- 
tricity, and principles of motors, generators, and electrical equipment. With this 
background they will receive intensive training on the motors, generators, and 
other equipment on the special machine-shop truck. 

The first part of the course runs from May 21 to June 24. The second part of 
the course, which will be devoted exclusively to actual field equipment, will run 
from June 25 to July 18. Trainees will be in class G hours every day. It is quite 
likely that other classes will be organized following this initial program. 

LEl:\DERSHIP AND FOREMANSHIP TRAINING 

Fourteen leadership and foremanship training classes are now in oi)eration. 
Thirteen of these have been organized for employees of the Glenn L. Martin Co. 
There is one general foremanship training course for men engaged in other 
industries. 

There is a great demand for this kind of training, and other courses will be 
organized just as fast as it is possible to work out details of the training program. 

EXPERIMENTAL COURSE FOR TOOL MAKERS 

There is a great need for toll and die makers. One class is being carried on at 
present for A-1 machinists in the theory and practice of tool making. This will 



5970 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

include a certain amount of shop practice, and it is quite likely that the program 
will expand because of the very great need. 

WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION AND NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION TRAINEES 

We have been advised by the Work Projects Administration authorities that 
there are no additional trainees who can be sent from their rolls to our classes. 
There are at present two classes for white and four classes for colored workers. 
These will, naturally, ,«oon pass out of existence. 

It has been impossible to do much for the trainees on the National Youth Ad- 
ministration rolls. Only three classes of related subjects for project workers 
have been organized — one for white girls and two for colored girls. It is very 
difficult to keep these filled. Many types of work have been offered to the 
students on mechanical projects, but not more than a dozen boys have taken ad- 
vantage of such training. 

COURSES FOR WOMEN 

While it is believed that there will be a need for trained women workers 
before we are through this en rgency, there is no great need apparent at this 
time. We have been conducting one class in small-parts assembly for white 
women. While a number have finished the course and been placed in employ- 
ment, we will not extend this type of training until there is a greater need for 
such workers. 

NATIONAL-DEIENSE VOCATIONAL -TRAINING SCHOOL FOR COLORED 

This school will be housed in a building at 775 Waesche Street. Electric lights 
are being installed this week in the space to be devoted to such training. 

Much of the equipment has been purchased and a great deal of it has already 
been delivered. Machine tools, of course, are the slowest items to come in. It is 
hoped that some classes will start on June 2. 

The courses to be offered are small-parts assembly, machine-shop occupations, 
electric and acetylene welding, airplane " '^ting and sheet-metal work, radio 
servicing, and electrical work. 

PLACEMENT OF NEES 

The report from the State employn ice indicates that trainees are 

placed about as fast as they complete -vam of training. In addition, 

however, to those placed by the Marylai.. e Employment Service, many 

young men find their own jobs. As a matter of fact, many leave our classes as 
soon as they have a sutficient amoiuit of training to hold a job. 

We feel reasonably sure that a ve' • large i^ercentage of those finishing the 
preemployment courses are satisfactorily placed in industry. The records of the 
employment service, as of May 20, indicate a total placement since July 1940 
of 1,352 men and women. 

CONTINUANCE OF DEFENSE-TRAINING PROGRAM 

As estimated United States budget for national-defense training for 1942 has 
been approved by President Roosevelt and submitted Congress for their action. 
This budget includes an item of $52,400,000 for natioi .lefense vocational courses 
of less than college grade. There is also an item of $12,000,000 for the purchase 
and rental of equipment. Additional funds are being provided for the college 
grade courses totaling $17,500,000 and $10,000,000 for the use of school rural 
youth. Ten million dollars will also be made available from the National Youth 
Administration funds for training to be carried out by the public schools. All of 
the new funds being appropriated for defense training will be for the Federal 
Security Agency rather than the Ofl5ce of Education. 



Report of Activities to February 20, 1941 

For many years there has been an increasing demand for trained skilled 
and semiskilled workers in Baltimore. Youth who have been well trained to 
carry on effectively and efficiently in business and industrial and trade occupa- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5971 

tions have had little difficulty in finding employment. Thousands of adults 
with ambition and a desire to get ahead have bettered their positions as a 
result of satisfactory achievement in properly selected trade extension courses. 
There is hardly ever a sufficient supply of good workers and especially is this 
true in business vocations. These good workers now hold the key positions 
in this great emergency. There are not enough leaders to say nothing of those 
needed to take the leaders' places. There is a great demand, almost frantic 
demand, for untold thousands of new workers in all occupations essential to 
national defense. 

We are now in an unprecedented emergency. Workers are being trained. 
It has been proven that men can, through intensive training, go into productive, 
operative, and process jobs immediately. Many more thousands are needed 
and they must be made available through training if we are to do all things 
essential to national defense. 

Our Baltimore schools were ready when the national call for defense training 
came and we will go on. 

THE BEGINNING 

The day vocational schools have over a periof^of more than 20 years trained 
hundreds of young men and women as beginners in the skilled occupations, and 
it is now more apparent than ever that this contribution, even though compara- 
tively small, has been intensely worth while, because many of these vocationally 
trained workers are now skilled craftsmen in leadership positions of more than 
average responsibility. The vocational classes for adults have also made contri- 
butions which are now recognized as definitely beneficial to the defense cause. 

As early as 1937, classes were organized in blueprint reading for skilled workers 
in the aeronautical industi'y. Through classes every Saturday morning for S5 
weeks each year since 1937, hundreds of workers have been up-graded and made 
more capable and efficient and thus more valuable to industry. These workers 
consequently have greatly increased their earnings. 

In Baltimore we anticipated the national-defense-training program by develop- 
ing a specific trade-training course in cooperation with the aeronautical industry 
in July 1939, to prepare workers in^ajfrplane metal work including lay-out, drilling, 
and riveting. 

There was not only a great ne for trained workers, but there were many 
young men who had graduated .' ) high school out of employment. It was 
felt that these jobs and the yc len should be brought together. Part of 

the equipment was furnished by ; lautical industry and the balance of it by 

the Department of Education, is were set up in the boys' vocational 

school. The course opened on ., , i.)39. During the summer there were 167 
high-school graduates enrolled, l(u of whom completed the intensive program of 
training and were, consequently, placed at work in the building of airplanes. At 
least 400 young men were trained and p.laced through this program before the 
defense program got under way. u. 

PLANS FOB THE NATIONAL-DEFENSE PR0GIL\M 

Leaders in industry, representatives of labor, and Government officials, early 
in 1940 became aware of the serious shortage of trained workers for the trades 
and occupations essential in a program of national defen.se. The need for train- 
ing new workers and the "n-grading of men already employed was very apparent 
to the Division of Vocati. 1 Education of the United States Office of Education. 
As a result of many confluences of vocational educators under the direction of 
representatives of the Office of Education, a study of facilities throughout America 
was made and plans were worked out to provide an extensive national-defense 
program. Maryland and Baltimore were represented in all of these deliberations. 

There was great interest everywhere in America for such a program of train- 
ing as well as a willingness on the part of vocational educators to make their 
contribution in this emergency. The Director of Vocational Education of Balti- 
more prepared a plan for the city under date of June 17, 1940, setting forth that 
they were ready with schools, equipment, and trained experienced personnel to 
conduct classes so essential to national defense. The plan involved the use of 74 
shops in 16 schools, including the vocational schools and the senior and junior 
high schools, where equipment was available. An offer was made to provide 16 
specific courses which had been proposed for the national-defense-training pro- 
gram. Furthermore, Baltimore offered to provide other facilities as the need for 
other types of workers arose. 
60396 — 41— pt. 15 7 



5972 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

It was estimated that the value of the equipment in the shops to be used in 
Baltimore was nearly $400,000. Including the building space occupied by these 
shops, the total value was more than $1,000,000. As one of the most important 
factors in any vocational training program is trained personnel, it was very 
obvious that training should start as quickly as possible. This made it possible 
during 8 or 9 weeks to use the full time of more than 50 occupationally compe- 
tent vocational instructors who are employed regularly by the Baltimore schools. 
It was pointed out that the school facilities would also be available for full time 
during the summer. 

NATIONAL DEFENSE CL.\SSES GET UNDER WAY 

As a result of the plans which were so carefully prepared by national and local 
committees, and because of the urgent need for many new workers, Congress 
authorized an appropriation of $15,000,000 for a specific and intensive program 
of preemployment and refresher training, as well as supplementary training for 
workers and men with some trade experience to be carried out under the direc- 
tion of the United States Office of Education. The funds were allotted to the 
various States and the State programs were directed by the State boards of voca- 
tional education. With remarkable speed, programs of training were established 
almost everywhere in America. Baltimore was one of the first cities to get going 
under this new national program. Classes opened on July 8, 1940, which was 
only a few days after the President signed the bill authorizing appropriations 
for this purpose. 

THE BALTIMORE PROGRAM 

The first period of training was carried on from July 8 to August 30, 1940. The 
preparatory or refresher courses were given to 32 classes in 7 different trades. 
The enrollment in these classes totaled 688 men. 

Trade extension classes for employed workers and for men with previous 
trade experience were given in 5 different trades with an enrollment of 362 in 16 
classes. The total enrollment, therefore, for the summer was 1,050 in 48 classes. 

The second period of training was from September 23 to December 20, 1940. 
During this time, 23 preparatory classes were in operation in 6 different trades. 
The enrollment totaled 460. During this same period, 43 trade-extension classes 
were held for men in 8 trades with an enrollment of 1,818. This made a total 
of 91 classes with a gross enrollment of 2,278. 

The third period of training which is still in operation began on January 1, 
1941, and there are 26 preparatory classes in 6 different trades with an enrollment 
of 516. New classes are being opened as rapidly as possible. There are now 
74 trade-extension classes distributed over 9 trades with an enrollment of 2,098. 
The total program as of this date, includes 100 classes with a gross enrollment 
of 2,614. 

SOURCE OF TRAINEES 

A general announcement in the summer, of the organization of training classes 
for the essential industries in the national-defense program brought in an origi- 
nal registration of about 4,000'. The men who had not registered with the em- 
ployment service were required to do so in order to complete their registration 
for training. 

A large number of trainees during the three periods have been sent to us by 
the State employment service. Others have come from personnel managers of 
industry, friends of trainees, and through such sources as the Work Projects 
Administration and the National Youth Administration. During the past few 
weeks, a lai'ge number of young men have been brought in from the counties of 
Maryland, and this source will continue to provide a large number of men needed 
in the Baltimoi'e industries. 

TIJAINEK QUALIFICATIONS 

While the minimum entrance age to the national-defense courses is 18 years, a 
large number of older men have been prepared for w(nk in industry. All persons 
who have had th(> proper backgi'ound to profit by the courses of training have been 
accepted. The only requirement foj- the trade-extension classe.s is that they must 
be employed in such an occupation or have had considerable experience in that 
occupation. Inasnuich as the preemployment classes operate on a full-time basis 
of 8 hours per day for 5 days each week, every trainee must be able to put in that 
amount of time; consequently, he cannot, naturally, be emplo.ved on a full-time 
basis. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5973 

Wherever possible, we have attempted to establish through interviews the apti- 
tude and ability of students necessary to succeed in the courses desired. While 
assignments are made through the central office of the Division of Vocational 
Education, the assignment is always in line with the desire of the applicant. 

It is becoming more necessary as time goes on to give greater attention to the 
selection of trainees. For this reason, it is proposed to establish a testing 
service in connection with registration, as soon as personnel can be secured. 

INSTRUCTIONAL STAFF 

As it was necessary for all shop instructors to possess qualifications as to educa- 
tion and trade experience which meet the standard requirements for vocational 
teachers in Baltimore, all of our fully (lualifii'd vocational teachers were given 
an opportunity for work during the sunnuer sessitm. There were not enough to 
meet the demand; consequently, it was necessary to pick other instructors from 
industry. 

Since the opening of our day schools in September our regular vocational 
teachers have been used only in a limited way. If the program of instruction fol- 
lows their day assignment immediately, they have been permitted to teach each 
day for 2 hours, or 10 hours per week. For night hours of assignment and for all 
of the trade-extension classes, they have been permitted to teach not more than 
6 hours per week. We have been very fortunate in securing a great many capable' 
men from industry to assist with the program. 

One of the fine features of the premploymnt training is that our qualified voca- 
tional teachers start off the 8-hour class each day, by handling 2 hours of the' 
period. In this way, all planning of instruction has been adequately taken 
care of. An exiierienced craftsman, who naturally is without teaching expe- 
rience, completes the s-liour period of work each day. In other words, such men 
have an assignment of G hours per day. A number of older skilled workers who 
have retired from the trade have fitted into this program admirably. 

The supervisors of the program have been engaged in the improvement of 
teachers in service during each of the sessions the program has been in operation. 
Furthermore, some supplementary teacher-training work is now being given to. 
men who have not had such preparation. 

FINANCING THE PROGRAM 

The national-defense training progi-am was authorized by act of Congress the 
latter part of June 1940, with an appropriation of $15,000,000. The money pro- 
vided in the act was siiecifically for a national-defense training program to be 
administered under the provisions of a State plan duly approved by the United 
States Office of Education. 

The entire cost of training in Baltimore, which has been paid from Federal 
funds provided in the act, includes the following items : 

1. Salaries of approved personnel employed specifically to carry out the provi- 
sions of the act. 

2. Travel expenses for personnel specifically assigned to the defense training 
program. 

3. Maintenance and operation of training plants, including heat, light, power,, 
and janitorial supplies. 

4. Instructional supplies and materials. 

7t. Maintenance, repair, and replacement of damaged or deteriorated equipment. 

6. Communication, such as postage, telephone, and telegraph service. 

7. Necessary printing, mimeographing, duplicating, and blueprinting. 

8. Office supplies and limited amount of equipment. 

The first Federal allotment to Maryland was sufficient to pay for the cost of the- 
training prognun until January 1. 1041. An additional Federal appropriation to- 
be allotted to the vari(ms States of $26,<X)0,(X)0 has made it possible for our program 
to continue without much interruption. 

No money was available in the first appropriation of .$15,00O,0fK) for equipment, 
although it was greatly needed. In order to extend the defense-training program 
to meet new national-defense needs, $8,0(10,000 was appropriated by Congress late- 
in 1&40 for equipment. Baltimore has been allotted more than $100,000 from this 
fund for equipment in the new National Defense Vocational Training School- 
Funds for equipment to supplement the present equipment now in use for national- 
defense training have been requested. Over $50,000 has been requested for equip- 
ment for the national-defense classes for Negroes, a large part of which is needed 
for classes to be established in a building to be rented by the Board of School 
Commissioners for this purpose. 



5974 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



COURSE COMPLETION AND CERTIFICATION 



The trade preparatory courses are in session for 5 daj^s each weeli for S hours 
each day with the exception of acetylene welding where the time is only 30 hours 
per week. TTie length of the preparatory classes ranges from 4 to 8 weeks, 
depending upon the amount of training needed for each trade. Courses are 
planned on a unit basis. Trainees during the specific training period will com- 
IDlete a series of units in one occupation, thus fitting him for employment — for 
example, lathe operator in a machine shop, or a beginning welder or pattern 
maker, and similar work in other occupations for which training is offered. 

Upon the satisfactory completion of a course, each trainee is given credit for 
a definite number of hours, ranging from 160 to 320. Each man is given a card 
certifying him as satisfactorily completing such training, which means he is 
capable of entering employment in an occupation. 

The trade preparatory courses are also arranged on a unit basis and are 
for the purpose of up-grading workers in skills. While the majority of such 
trainees are employed, a number in the past have enrolled in these courses 
because of past experience in the trade or occupation. The courses are for 
6 hours each week for a i>eriod of approximately 12 weeks. A man who com- 
pletes his work in accordance with trade standards is properly certified to 
that effect. Such training is definitely of value to him in securing advance- 
ment in his occupation. 

COURSES FOB WOMEN 

There is a growing need for trained white women in several of the occupa- 
ftions essential to national defense. As employment conditions grow more acute, 
it is most certain that a large number of women workers will be needed in 
industry. 

Two courses have been planned for women in the Girls Vocational School 
Ibuilding. The following will be ready to open soon: 

1. Small parts assembly. This type of work requires finger dexterity, 
good eyesight, alertness, and .speed, as well as considerable trade skill. 

2. Coil winding. Active, alert women with mechanical aptitude should 
be rather easily and quickly trained for this work. 

A course in Mechanical Drafting is being considered as calls are being rc^ 
ceived for young women who can do tracing, lettering, and detailing in draft- 
ing rooms. Other courses will be planned for women as the need for additional 
trained workers arises. 

More than 300 women have already registered for these courses. 

TEAINING FOR NATIONAX YOUTH ADMINISTRATION YOUTH 

The new legislation for national defense which was approved Oc-tober 9, 1940, 
made provision for the necessary instruction for young people employed on work 
projects of the National Youth Administration ; $7,r>00,000 was specifically author- 
ized for expenditures in carrying out this program of training. The allotment 
for Maryland was $97,267.50. 

Plans had been made to organize courses for the N. Y. A. youth in Baltimore 
to provide training which may be supplementary to the work experience and to 
give preparatory training as an aid to the occupational adjustment of N. Y. A. 
workers. Other necessary instruction will be given to enlarge the civic or 
vocational intelligence of young people employed on the N. Y. A. work projects. 
The first of these courses will open in Baltimore during the week of February 
24. This program of training will be open to several hundred young men and 
women and will include both white and colored youth, ranging in age from 16 
to 25 years. 

PROBLEM OF TRAINING NEGROES 

The proposed plan of training for national defense in Baltimore, which was 
issued on June 17, 1940, included the use of training facilities for Negioes in 
Douglass High, Dunbar High, and colored vocational schools. With the exception 
of airplane metal work, riveting, and acetylene welding, for which there were 
neither facilities nor funds to provide equipment, the courses were the same 
as for white trainees. 

Under the original appropriation, it was specially stated in tlie federally 
approved State plan : 

"There must be reasonable assurance that upon completion of the training, 
persons enrolled in these courses will be employable in jobs which are essential to 
national defense and for which training is being given." 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5975 



111 addition to contacting e^ery industry essential to national defense, the 
State employment service, the agency responsibile for the placement of all 
trainees, cooperated with us by making a carefvil study of the need for skilled 
and semiskilletl Negro trade workers. It was impossible to find any places 
where they could be employed ; consequently, it was impossible for us to offer 
defense training courses for Negros during the first periods of the program. 

There was a desire, however, on the part of the schools to be of assistance to 
Negroes if there was even a remote chance for work. One course in basic auto 
mechanics training for the pui'pos^e of training assembly workers, was started 
in the summer session, when it was learned that a probable opportunity for 
employment did exist. Because of a lack of interest or possibly the question- 
able opportunity for employment, there was such a continuous withdrawal of 
trainees, that it was practically impossible to keep the class filled. Only 41 
Negroes registered prior to September 23, and there were not enough desiring 
any cue course to give any training in the fall of 1940. 

CHANGES IN POLICY 

The second appropriation act which was passed by Congress in October 1940, 
making additional funds available about January 1, 1941, broadened the scope 
of the defense training program. It provided : 

"No trainee under the foregoing appropriation shall be discriminated against 
because of sex, race, or color ; and where separate schools are required by law 
for separate population groups, to the extent needed for trainees of each such 
group, equitable provisions shall be made for facilities and training of like 
quality." 

Upon receipt of a letter from the United States Office of Education on Novem- 
ber 22, 1940, asking the State to "provide for Negroes a sufficient number of 
courses and adequate equipment to give them training in a proportion, against 
all persons taken into training during the I'emainder of this fiscal year, equal 
to the ratio of Negroes on the rolls of the State employment service as of April 
1940," irrespective of employment opportimuities. plans were made to offer 
training for Negroes as soon as possible. 

COUBSES PLANNED FOK NEtiROES 

It was decided to offer courses similar to those which had been in operation 
during the summer and fall, as certain traning facilities were available. Such 
courses were advertised through the press, the employment service and all other 
known avenues. Registration was continued because there had never been any 
discrimination in registration, but registration facilities were greatly extended^ 
Hours and days were advertised for registration at the colored vocational school 
and counselors were assigned to the job. 

The registration from January 1 to date for trade courses, is indicated as 
follows : 





Day classes 


Night classes 


Courses 


Pre- 
employ- 
ment 


Trade 
exten- 
sion 


Pre- 
employ- 
ment 


Trade 
exten- 
sion 


Acetylene welding ._.. 

Airplane metal .-. ..... 


4 




208 
3 
10 
56 
9 
21 
19 
22 
16 
26 
29 
13 










2 
1 












Blueprint reading 








f 

1 
6 












Machine-shop occupations 




2 






1 




2 




Small parts assembly 



















The courses already planned are : 

1. Machine-shop occupations : To be given in the machine shop at Douglass 
High School and at school No. 133. if an additional shop is needed. 

2. Sheet-metal work : to be given in the sheet-metal shop at Douglass High 
School. (Can include airplane metal.) 



5976 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

3. Anto mechanics: For the purpose of training assembly workers: two 
classes have been started, one of which is for Work Projects Administration 
workers, in the shops of the colored vocational-school annex. 

4. Woodworking, including cabinet and pattern making : To be given at the 
colored vocational-school wood shop, and, if necessary, in the wood shop at the 
Douglass High School. 

5. Acetylene welding and electric welding : New shop to be set up in a part 
of the space devoted to auto mechanics in the colored vocational-school annex. 
A request for equipment for this purpose has already been sent through to the 
State department of education. 

Additional courses desired and suggested by representatives of the Negroes 
for which recommendations have been made are : 

1. Power machine operation, men and 7. Cement finishing. 

women. 8. Roofing. 

2. Machine-shop occupations. 9. Plastering. 

3. Electrical work. 10. Bricklaying. 

4. Aircraft — lay-out, metal, and rivet- 11 Carpentry. 

ing. 12. Painting. 

5. Radio work. 13. Small parts assembly, men and 

6. Plumbing. w^omen. 

Equipment for new courses will cost approximately $".0,000. At least 25.000 
square feet of floor space will be needed to house the new courses if they are 
approved. 

NATIONAL DETENSE VOCATIONAL TRAINING SCHOOL 

(School Building No. 250) 

The pressing need for a large number of skilled and semiskilled workers in 
certain occupations in essential defense industries, has made it necessary for 
Baltimore to provide additional training facilities. This has been made possible 
through Federal appropriation for equipment. The board of school commission- 
ers has authorized the use of an old school building at Baltimore and Aiscpiith 
Streets for this purpose. This building was used a few years ago for vocational 
training, and consequently is well adapted for training workers for the defense 
occupations. Building changes have been made to provide suitable space for 
each type of work and also to insure economic and efficient operation. It is 
well heated, can be easily ventilated, and has good natural light. 

The building has been rewired for satisfactory electric lights and the neces- 
sary power for the shop tools and machines has been provided. Equipment has 
been purchased and much of it has been delivered. Shop benches of standard 
design have been constructed by the boys vocational school through the com- 
bined efforts of the students in woodworking, welding, and painting. 

The new plant has a floor space of about 15,000 square feet. By operating 
the school 24 hours per day, approximately 1.500 students can be accommodated 
in the various courses. The major part of the program will be devoted to full- 
time trade preparatory or refresher courses of 8 hours per day for. 4 to 8 or 12 
weeks, depending upon the type of work and achievement of the students en- 
rolled. The plans include a few supplementary classes in electric welding in 
addition to the preparatory type. 

The courses to be offered with the number of training stations for each 
trade are: 

Stations 

1. Aircraft sheet metal work including lay-out 138 

2. Aircraft riveting, including knowledge of tools and materials 226 

3. P^lectric welding and related technical information ^ 40 

4. Machine-shop practice, special production machines and related subjects-.. 60 

5. Small parts assembly 36 

The first cla.sses opened in airplane .sheet metal work on February 10, to be 
followed the following week with classes in riveting. These two types of 
training will be immediately expanded to full capacity. The other cour.ses. 
with the exception of the machine shop, will open very soon. The delay in 
providing special machine-shop training is due to the difficulty in securing 
delivery of the machine equipment. Electric welding and small parts assembly 
classes will be operating very soon. 



NATIONAL DEFI:NSE MIGRATION 5977 

PLACEMENT OF TRAINEES 

Every trainee registers witli tlie State employment service before he enters 
training. Upon the completion of this course of training, he is certified to the 
employment service for placement. The majority of the trainees have, there- 
fore, secured employment in this manner. As of February 10, 1941, there is a 
definite record of the placement of 1,025 men by the Maryland State Employ- 
ment Service. A great many of the trainees secure employment because of 
their own personal contacts. Up to date, from 90 to 95 percent of the men 
finishing preemployment courses have been employed in the industries essential 
to national defense. In addition to those completing courses, many trainees 
have withdrawn in order to enter employment at various times during the 
poi'iod of training. Very few trainees secure less than $20 per week, as a 
beginning wage, and many are paid wages considerably in excess of this 
amount. 

Sample Registration Form 

DIVISION OF vocational EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDtTCATION, BALTIMORE, MD. 

(Fill in and return within ^ days) 

Case No Hours M. to B-N. D. T.-l 

Assignment Entered Withdrawn 

School Dropped 

Course Failed to appear P E 

Department of Education 

DI^^SION OF vocational education 

3 East Twenty-fifth Street 

baltimore, md. 

Registration Sheet — National-Defense Training Pkogram 

(1) Name (2) Date 

(3) Address Telephone 

(4) Sex (5) Age (6) Date of birth "(7) Race 

(8) Place of birth (9) Citizen of U. S.? 

(10) If naturalized citizen, when and where were final papers issued? 



(11) Place of birth of father ; mother 

(12) Education (give by school years) 

(13) Previous special vocational school training: years months. 

In 

(Name and address of .school) (Trade) 

(14) Industrial experience : 

Job Name and address of employer No. months 



(15) Is applicant on the pay roll of the W. P. A.? ; N. Y. A.? 

(16) If employed, give name of present employer j 

(a) Hours of employment M. to M. 

(17) Last date on Maryland State card (18) Soc. Sec. No 

(19) Are you handicapped in any of the following: 

Eyesight Flearing Physically 

(20) Remarks by interviewer: 

(2l>-a) Height Weight 

(21) Course desired : Day Night Select 1st, 2d, 3d choice. 

Acetylene welding Cabinet making Machine-shop occupation : 

Wood pattern Bench hand 

Airplane metal Electrical work Drill press operator 

Aircraft riveting Electric welding Lathe operator 

Assemb. of small Radio service Milling machine 

parts Sheet metal work Shaper operator 

Auto mechanics Blue-print reading Automatic lathe 

Secure a copy of your birth certificate as soon as possible. 



5978 BALTIMOIJE HEAUIXGS 

STATEMENT BY C G. COOPER, SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS, BALTI- 
MORE COUNTY, MD. 

Public School Botlding Needs in National Defense Areas of Baltimore 
County, Md. 

I. middle ri\'er school 

(a) Located ou Middle River Road about one-half mile from the Gleim Martin 
aircraft factory. 

(6) Building has 8 classrooms and 310 pupils enrolled May 1, 1941. 

(c) School and site should be abandoned because of the proximity of the air- 
craft plant and hazardous traffic conditions. 

(d) New highway to the Martin plant will be within 35 feet of front door of 
the present school building. 

(e) Only two classrooms can be added to present building because of inade- 
quate school lot. 

if) Three hundred houses are now under construction at Stansbury Manor. 

Ig) Stansbury Manor, Inc., builders, will begin construction of 300 additional 
homes on August 1, 1941, on site adjoining Middle River School. The same 
company will build 400 additional homes just west of the school in the early part 
of 1942. 

(h) The occupancy of more than 1,000 new houses will necessitate the build- 
ing of a new elementary-junior high school to accommodate 2,100 pupils. 

(i) The new building should contain 50 classrooms, library, study hall, audi- 
torium, industrial shops, household arts rooms, gymnasium, and cafeteria. 

(;■) Tlie approximate cost of the new site and the proposed building will be 
$600,000, and the estimated cost of equipment will be $100,000. Tlie total cost 
will be approximately $700,000. 

n. patapsco neck school 

(a) Located on Trappe Road near Camp Holabird. 

(b) Building has 12 classrooms and auditorium. 

(c) Present enrollment, 510 pupils. 

id) Federal Government has erected 95 family units within 2 blocks of the 
school. 

(e) Sixty-three new homes to be completed at Holabird Park by September 1, 
1941, and 55 to be erected during school year 1941-42. 

if) Eighty homes under construction at Gray Manor, and 190 additional homes 
to be built in 1942. 

(ff) Thirty new homes will be completed at Inverness by September 1, 1941; 
36 apartments will be finished by September 1, 1941, and 60 additional homes will 
be constructed by June 30, 1942. 

(ft) Two hundred and thirteen homes will be completed by September 1, 1941, 
and 320 additional homes to be finished in 1942. 

(i) Twelve additional classrooms, library, and a cafeteria should be built at 
once. 

(;■) The approximate cost of building and equipment will be $115,000. 

in. north point-edgemepe school 

(a) Located on Sparrows Point Road about 3 miles from the Bethlehem Steel 
Co.'s plant at Sparrows Point. 

(&) Building has 16 rooms, and the enrollment is 741 pupils. 

(c) School badly overcrowded at present; capacity only 640 pupils. 

(d) Extensive building program in progress and more than 200 new homes 
have been completed. 

(e) Ten additional classrooms, library, cafeteria, and gymnasium auditorium 
needed. 

(f) Approximate cost of building and equipment, $115,000. 

rV. ESSEX SCHOOL 

(a) Location on Eastern Avenue about 3 miles from the Glenn Martin aircraft 
factory and about 7 miles from the Bethlehem Steel Co.'s plant. 
(&) Building has 22 classrooms, and the enrollment is 959 pupils. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5979 

(c) Several hundred houses have been built in Essex during the past year, and 
200 or more houses will be erected on property adjoining the school building. 

(d) Sixteen additional classrooms, library, gymnasium, and cafeteria needed. 

(e) Approximate cost of school addition and equipment, $180,000. 

V. COLGATE SCHOOL 

(ff) Located on Eastern Avenue about midway between the Glenn Martin 
aircraft factoi-y at Middle River, and the Bethlehem Steel Co.'s plant at Spar- 
rows Point. 

(&) Building has 12 classrooms, and 330 pupils in attendance. 

(c) Community has not grown during past 2 years. 

(d) The Eastern Heights Development Co. will build 700 separate residences 
on the North Point Road opposite Moffett Avenue. 

(<?) Two hundred and twenty-three separate residence units will be built on 
property adjoining the school. 

if) Approximately 1,600 additional children will be enrolled in the Colgate 
School. 

iff) Thirty-six additional classrooms, auditorium, gymnasium, library, and 
cafeteria will be needed. 

[h) Cost of building and equipment, $395,000. 

VI. DUNDALK ELEMENTAEY-JUNIOE HIGH SCHOOL 

(a) Dundalk is the residential center for the Bethlehem Steel Co. 
(&) Unprecedented growth of school population during past 10 years, 
(c) School is badly overcrowded. 
id) Building has 80 classrooms. 

(e) Nine hundred and sixty-three elementary pupils enrolled and 504 junior- 
liigh school pupils. 

if) Total enrollment, 1,467. 

ig) Two temporary buildings erected in 1917 used as industrial arts and 
household arts classrooms for 500 pupils. 

ih) Three hundred and seventy-four houses and one hundred and eighty-four 
family units were built on the property of the Dundalk Co. at Dundalk in 1940 ; 
158 houses were started by this company from January 1-May 1, 1941. The 
Dundalk Co. is now planning to start the construction of 180 additional family 
units within the next month. 

(i) New junior-high school building needed at once. 

(;■) Twenty additional classrooms, auditorium, gymnasium, library, study hall, 
and cafeteria required. 

(fc) Approximate cost of building and equipment, $350,000. 

VII. CHASE CONSOLIDATED SCHOOL 

(a) Located on Eastern Avenue about 2 miles from the Glenn Martin aircraft 
factory. 

( &) Building has 8 classrooms, and enrollment is 405 pupils. 

(c) Trailer camp of 200 or more trailers owned by the United States Farm 
Security Administration about 1 mile from the school. 

id) Hundreds of homes under construction in the five or six waterfront de- 
velopments in the vicinity of Chase and Bengies. 

(e) Eight additional classrooms and cafeteria needed. 

if) Approximate cost of building and equipment, $100,000. 

\'III. BAYNESVTLLE 

(a) Located on Joppa Road about 1 mile from the Bendix Corporation, and 
about the same distance from Black & Decker Manufacturing Co. 

(&) Two-room school with 88 pupils. 

(c) Two hundred or more houses will be built on tract adjoining the Bendix 
property. 

id) The Better-Housing Corporation has built 200-family units in Towson 
since January 1, 1940, and will erect 105 separate residences between Hillen Road 
and Linden Avenue before January 1, 1942. 

(e) Several hundred additional homes have been erected by other contractors 
during the past year. 



5980 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

(f) The Towson elementary school and the Baynesville School cannot accom. 
modate the new pupils who are commg into these communities. 

(fir) The old school buildings should be abandoned, and the Baynesville and 
Towson Elementary Schools consolidated. 

(/() A new building consisting of 20 classrooms, auditorium, gymnasium, 
library, cafeteria should be erected on a site that will serve Towson and Baynes- 
ville. 

(!) The approximate cost of the building, site, and equipment, $350,000. 

IX. BACK RIVER 

(a) Located on Back River Road about 4 miles from the Glenn Martin plant. 
( ft ) Two-room school building, and two frame portable buildings. 

(c) Enrollment 182 pupils. 

(rf) Many persons employed at the Glenn Martin factory at Middle River, and 
the Bethlehem Steel Co. at Sparrows Point live in the vicinity of the school. 

(e) Building with 8 classrooms, auditorium, gymnasium, library, and cafeteria 
should be Jmilt at once. 

(f) Approximate cost of building, site, and equipment, $135,000. 

Negro Schools 
I. turners negro school 

(«.) Turners is a residential center for colored workers at Sparrows Point. 

(ft) Two hundred and fifty new homes will be built by the Federal Government 
for colored meii who work at the nearby Bethlehem Steel Co.'s plant at Sparrows 
Point. 

(o) Turners has a negro school with 8 classrooms, and an enrollment of 235 
pupils. 

(d) Ten additional classrooms, auditorium, gymnasium, library, and cafeteria 
will be needed. 

(p) Had planned to add the 10 classrooms to the present building. Find it 
impossible to do so. 

(f) A new building and site costing approximately $200,000 will be needed to 
meet the requirements. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5981 



< o 
o .. 



a -- <i 

Ed W -, 

I OS 



o o 



< Z 

« 5 



r^ 1-' 



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W O 

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lii 


May !. 
1941 

13 




~ 


s 


i^ 




iJ 




s 




* 






r 




Z S " 


1= -l 


.1 

1 

1 


l-riTj. 


fe 


Number of 
additional 
pupils that 
can he accom- 
modated (as 
of May 1, 
1941) 


High 
school 

11 










i 
i 




1 

1 

1 












Ele- 
men- 
tary 

10 


None 
None 
None 
None 
150 
None 


s 


None 
None 
None 

150 


11 




310 
510 
743 
959 
330 
1.467 


2 ' 

:-j 


i^s 


i 


Hay 1, 
1940 

8 


285 
396 
671 
909 
354 
1.324 


il 

cc 


|fe| 


i 


Seat- 
ing 

capac- 
ity < 


280 
480 
640 
880 
480 
1,200 


il 

ccl 


320 
80 
160 

4,520 


Num- 
ber of 
rooms 3 

6 


-2£?5Z2g 


^1 


1 " 
1 


(irades 

in- 
cluded 

5 


rnns 








1 


Kind of school - 


High school 
4 


1 

p 










1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

1 








(N 


Ele- 
men- 
tary 

3 


Mt^XXXX 


<c 1 

1 


XXX 


J» 


1 
o 

1 

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1 

c 
1 


1 

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5982 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



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» X 03 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



5983 



Table 3. — Estimated number of children, in addition to those enrolled in school 
May 1, 1941, of personnel connected and to he connected with a Federal Oov- 
ernmeut reservation or project of the defense program that cannot he 
accommodated in school with building facilities now available, and the esti- 
mated number of teachers that will be needed for such children, as of January 
and September 19^2 (white) 

NAME OF AREA: PROJECTS OF THE NATIONAL DEFENSE PROGRAM IN THE COUNTY 
OF BALTIMORE, STATE OF MARYLAND 



Probable place of residence of children 


Estimated number 
of families 


Esti- 
mated 
number 
of chil- 
dren per 
family 

4 


Estimated number of pu- 
pils to be accommodated 
January 1942 


1 


January 
1942 

2 


Septem- 
ber 1942 

3 


Elemen- 
tary 

5 


High 
6 


Total 

7 




1,050 
1,400 


685 
400 


2 
2 


1,400 
1,900 


700 
900 


2,100 
2,800 


Not on a Federal Government reservation '— _ 




Estimated number of 
pupils to be accom- 
modated September 
1942 1 


Estimated number of teachers needed 


Probable place of residence 
of children 


January 1942 


September 1942 


1 


Elemen- 
tary 

8 


High 
9 


Total 
10 


Elemen- 
tary 


High 
12 


Total 
13 


Elemen- 
tary 

14 


High 
15 


Total 
IS 


On Federal defense projects. 
Not on a Federal Govern- 
ment reservation 


920 
400 


450 
250 


1,370 
650 


35 

47 


20 
25 


55 

72 


in 


12 

7 


35 

17 























I Excludes children reported in columns 10 and 11 of table 1. 

' Includes all additional children of school age except those reported as residing on Federal defense 
projects. 



Table 4. — Estimated number of children, iri addition to those transported to 
school, tvho ivill need transportation and number of vehicles needed for this 
purpose, as of January and September WJ/l (white) 





Number of children and vehicles 


For children residing— 


January 1942 


September 1942 


1 


Children 
2 


Vehicles 
3 


Children 
4 


Vehicles 
5 


On Federal Government defense projects 


1,150 
600 


2 10 

5 


600 


5 









' Includes all additional children of school age except those reported as residing on Federal Government 
defense projects. 
> Each will make 2 or more trips in morning and in afternoon. 



.3984 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 






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60396— 41— pt. 15 8 



5988 P.ALTI.MOIJE HEAKINGS 

TESTIMONY OF DR. WEGLEIN AND MR. COOPER— Resumed 

Mr. OsMEKS. AVould I be fair in making- this statement : That there 
isn't anythin«x about the school problem in the city of Baltimore that 
cannot be corrected througli financial assistance? 

Dr. Weglein. Yes; if sufficient funds are provided by the Federal 
•Oovernment. we can take care of the situation. 

Mr. OsMEKS. You have the plans and you have the places and every- 
thing else. You are ready to go ahead ? 

Dr. Wegleix. Yes; but I want to add to this: That if the workers 
who come into Baltimore from elsewhere concentrate in certain areas, 
that will make a very difficult propositifm. 

I am gcjingto give you one instance which I mentioned in the report. 

Armistead Gardens is a development of the Housing Authority. 
It was taken over by the Defense Authority, and is being managed 
by the Housing Authority. 

Originally that project contained TOO family units. They are build- 
ing now, I understand, 300 more units and we have been informed that 
the idea is to add another 700 units. All that together would make 
1,700 family units at one spot. We have no school facilities at that 
one spot to take care of that situation. 

IRANSPORTATION OF PUPILS 

Mr. OsMERS. Would it be possible, Dr. Weglein, if you had facilities 
•elsewhere, to put these pupils on busses and take them there? 

Dr. AVe(jlein. If the transportation were paid for. 

Mr. OsMERS. That would have to be paid for by someone, of course. 

Dr. Weglein. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. And the parent would not be expected to ])ay for it? 

Dr. Weglein. No. 

Mr. Osmers. Now, what is the pupil load per teacher in Baltimore? 

Dr. Weglein. Between 35 and 40. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is that high for the Nation? 

Mr. Weglein. It is higher than the ratio in most large cities. It 
runs now between 37 and 38. 

Mr. Osmers. Tell me the situation Avith respect to your teachers. 
Are you having any difficulty in holding them? Are they going into 
industry or leaving the profession ? 

Dr. Weglein. We are losing some teachers and it is difficult to fill 
their positions. They are men, teachers of shoj) subjects. But we 
haA'e a sufficient supply of the regular grade teachers and junior and 
senior high school teachers. 

Mr. OsMERS. Your defense industries and vocational schools have 
taken away your manual training teachers? 

Dr. Weglein. To some extent ; yes. I may say that a good many 
of these families that have moved into Baltimore recently haven't yet 
enrolled their children in school but expect to do so in September, so 



XATIOXAI. DEFENSE MIGRATION 5989 

the picture that we shall have in September may be quite different 
than what we had in June. 

Mr. OsMERS. When you say "different" you mean it is likely to be 
much worse rather than better? 

Dr. Weglein. Yes. 

.$10,000,000 SCHOOL LOAN 

Mr. OsMERS. I believe Mayor Jackson this mornino- mentioned that 
the city had approved an appropriation for sch()f)l facilities. Is that 
correct? 

Dr. Weglein. In 1939 the people aj^proved a school loan of $10,- 
OOO.OOO. 

Mr. OsMERS. Has that been used yet ? 

Dr. Weglein. Xo. 

Mr. OsMERS. Will that be sufficient to cover the needs? 

Dr. Weglein. Yes; if it is available soon enough. We are an- 
ticipating; a scarcity of labor and material which would slow up 
tiuit buildino: pro<2:ram. 

Mr. OsMERS. You do not antici})ate needing any further financial 
assistance? 

Dr. Weglein. Not for that particular building program, but if 
some special problem is set up by the concentration of workers as, 
for instance, at the Armistead Gardens, then we will need financial 
assistance. The same is true in the Curtis Bay-Fairfield area, if, as 
i-eported, there will be 24,000 additional employees in the shipbuild- 
ing industry there. There are no school facilities at all there now. 

Mr. OsMERS. As a matter of policy.. Doctor Weglein, w^ould you say 
that the Federal Government would have to assist Baltimore in 
some of. that new building ? 

Dr. Weglein. Certainly, because this is due to the defense indus- 
tries which are operating for the Federal Government. 

BALTIMORE COUNTY SCHOOL SITUATION 

Mr. OsMERS. Xow. Mr. Cooper, I wonder if you Avoiild give the 
committee your views on the situation? 

I have gone over your statement and you get right down to places 
iind cases and amounts of money required. 

What is the total of these amounts that vou have? 

Mr. Cooper. $2.6-40,000. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is it i)r()posed that those schools can be built out 
of -the nppro])riation that Dr. Weglein and I have just been dis- 
cussing, or is this outside the city? 

Mr. Cooper. Baltimore County is a separate and distinct political 
unit. 

Mr. OsMERs. What financial arrangements have been made for this 
amount of money? 

Mr. Cooper. Xone, other than application to the Federal Govern- 
ment for aid. 

Mr. Osmi:rs. Has that application been made under the recently 
<enacted Lanham law? 



5990 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Cooper. Well, it was filed with the United States Office of 
Education. Forms were submitted on June 9 to the United States. 
Bureau of Education. 

Mr. OsMERs. Have you had any reply? 

Mr. Cooper. Acknowledgment only. 

Mr, OsMERS. Wlien do you anticipate receiving acceptance or 
rejection ? 

Mr. Cooper. I don't know. 

Mr. Sparkman. May I interrupt there? Mr. Cooper, the act has 
just become law, has it not? 

Mr. Cooper. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Within the last week? 

Mr. Cooper. Yes.^ 

Mr. Sparkman. So they really haven't had time to pass on that? 

Mr. Cooper. Yes, sir. 

NOT A LANHAM ACT APPLICATION 

Mr. OsMERS. I would like to say this, that certainly the application 
that was made on June 9 was not made under the bill signed by the 
President. 

Mr. Sparkman. Was it made in anticipation of the bill ? 

Mr. Cooper. No, because in conversation with Colonel Gilmore at 
the W. P. A., they were not receiving applications under H. K. 4545 
until within the last 48 hours. 

Mr. Sparkman. Let me ask you this: As a matter of fact, there 
hasn't been any such Federal aid until this bill, has there ? 

Mr. Cooper. No; but we were requested by the State Department of 
Education, and in turn the State Department was asked by the United 
States Bureau of Education, for information in all school areas 
affected by the national defense projects, and we were also asked to 
tile immediately our claims or need. 

Mr. OsMERS. The point I am trying to clarify among the three of 
us is that no formal application has been made by Baltimore County 
under the Lanham Act. 

Mr. Cooper. This is really the report of a survey. 

Mr. Osmers. That is correct. Now, is it your intention, Mr. 
Cooper, to make such an application ? 

Mr. Cooper. It is. 

Mr. Osmers. Judging from the amounts of the applications already 
in prospect, I wouldn't clelay very long in making it. 

Do you care to make any further observations on the situation, Mr. 
Coo]:)er ? 

Mr. Cooper. No ; I think the report fully covers all I have to say. 

Mr. Osmers. That is all I have to say, thank you very much. 

The Chairman. We thank you very much for coming here this 
morning. 

The committee will stand adjourned until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12:40 p. m., the committee recessed until 2 p. m.) 

iThe Lanham Act was approved June 28, 1941. For text of the act, see San Diego 
hearings, p. 5007. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5991 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

The committee met at 2 p. m., Hon. John H. Tolan (chairman) 
presiding. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

We have an industrial panel this afternoon, consisting of Mr. W. 
Frank Koberts, Mr. Walter F. Perkins, Mr. Glenn L. Martin, Mr. 
S. J. Cort, Mr. G. H. Pouder, and Mr. H. Findlay French. 

TESTIMONY OF MARYLAND INDUSTRIAL PANEL 

The Chairman. Gentlemen, I would like to say to you collectively 
that this is not an inquisitorial committee. We are simply a fact- 
finding committee from the Congress of the United States. The com- 
mittee was in existence last year, when we toured the country investi- 
gating the subject of interstate migration of destitute citizens. Then 
the Congress saw fit to continue us on account of this defense 
migration. 

In fulfillment of our duties we have been to San Diego, Hartford, 
^md Trenton, and now we are in Baltimore. 

We have no intention of "showing up" any particular community. 
It isn't our idea to cross-examine witnesses. Our purpose is to get the 
facts, to find out just what the pressure is on these defense centers at 
the present time. Following that, we shall report back to Congress. 
One of our primary purposes is to ascertain what can be done about 
safeguarding the standards of your community and of those who 
come into it, both during and after this emergency. 

Mr. Sparkman. Before proceeding further, I would like the record 
to show that Congressman D'Alesandro is with us as a guest examiner 
for the committee today.^ 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Sparkman. Congressman D'Ales- 
andro is here today by invitation of the entire committee, and we 
deeply appreciate his being here because we know that he has been 
very helpful to this congressional district in his work at Washington, 
where he is a highly esteemed Member of the Congress. 

Mr. D'Alesandro. Thank you very much. 

Mv. Pouder. Your field agent asked me to serve as moderator of the 
panel, if you care to follow that procedure. 

The Chairman. Yes. Will you be kind enou<^h to indicate to the 
reporter just where the members of the panel are sitting and what their 
names are? 

]\Ir. Pouder. This is a panel of six, consisting of Mr. Frank Roberts, 
chairman of the Maryland Council of Defense [indicating] ; Mr. 
Glenn L. Martin, president of the Glenn L. Martin Co.; Mr. S. J. 
Cort, general manager of the ISIaryland plant of the Bethlehem Steel 
Co. ; Mr. W. F. Perkins, vice president of the Koppers Co. ; and Mr. 
H. F. French, director of the industrial bureau of the Baltimore 
Association of Commerce. 

My name is G. H. Pouder. I am executive vice president of the 
JBaltimore Association of Commerce. 

The Chairman, Who do you desire to speak first? 



'Representativ-e Thomas DAlesandro, Jr., of Maryland, Third Congressional District. 



5992 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. PouDER. I thought I might muke a very brief general statement, 
Mr, Cliairman. 

The six members of this ):)anel have prepared advance written state- 
ments, and copies have been sent to the connnittee. 

The Chairman. And they will all be incorporated in onr record. 

(Tlie statements appear below, in the order of testimony of the 
respective witnesses. ) 

STATEMENT BY G. H. POUDER, EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT, BALTI- 
MORE ASSOCIATION OF COMMERCE, BALTIMORE. MD. 

This report comments brieliy on Baltimore aspects of the national-ilefense 
program, and the community's efforts to adjust its commercial and industrial 
operations to the i-apid changes resulting from the European war and the ijre- 
paredness effort of the t^jjited States. 

The summary traces in a general way the impact on the community of emer- 
gency devehjpmcnts, ])articuhirly as these relate to the direct and indirect 
problems of industrial production, and the functioning of business. In discussing 
the composite picture, brief reference is made to factors developed in more 
detail by other witnesses on the industrial panel. 

The Baltimore Association of Commerce through the period of emergency has 
attempted to integrate the commercial and industrial operating picture with 
related community factors, to help produce the most effective and expeditious 
performance. To this end the association also has cooperated closely with the 
Maryland Council of Defense and with State and city departments. Fields 
covered by this coordinating effort have included industrial surveys and services ; 
adjustment of port and shipping facilities, operations and safety; trade controls; 
vocational training: hou.sing; highway and street t rathe; I'ates and transporta- 
tion services; labor supply; priorities and purchasing: publication of defense 
reference data. Niunerous public and private discussions of these and related 
issues and problems have been sponsored by the association. 

BUSINESS CONDITIONS, SEPTEMBER l!t::9 TO .TUNE l!t41 

The outbreak of European war in September 1939 found Baltimore's business 
situation substantially better than at the same time in 1938. The community 
had been enjoying a broad upturn in industry and trade for some months before 
the outbreak of hostilities and the beginning of war merely produced a further 
rise in general business volume. 

The local statistical record for the first 8 months of 1939 was more favorable 
than for any other year since 1931, except for the recent peak year of 1937. In 
the final quarter of 1939, stimulated by the war and by further improvements in 
domestic conditions, the over-all results exceeded the average for any similar 
period since 1930, including 1937. December 1939 established a 9-year record 
for that month. 

Business expansion in the fall of 1939 continued into the first quarter of 1940. 
The city's industrial diversification, deep-water port, and network of strategic 
transportation services were immediately utilized in connection with contracts 
awarded by the allied governments, and for new and vital communication needs. 
These factor.s, with a generally improved domestic situation, kept business 
operations here at a good level through the second quarter of 1940, although 
gains were smaller than for the first 3 months. 

The last half of the year was dominated by the far-reaching efforts of our own 
preparedness program, which brought the volume of factory production in the 
Baltimore area well above the good record of the first 6 months. Most of the 
community's large manufacturing firms closed the year with a heavy backlog of 
unfilled order.s. Advances occurred in merchandising and in financial and trans- 
portation operations. The port of Baltimore reached new high levels of activity. 
It was apparent that the city's fundamental advantages in manufacturing, trade, 
and shipping had been recognized by those in control of emerirency situations. 

Industrial and commercial activities in the Baltimore area during 1940 aver- 
aged better than in any year since 1929. Total sales of electricity, industrial 
and commercial gas consumption, industrial pay rolls, new passenger-car sales, 
post-ofl3ce receipts, export valuations, and new commercial-car sales made the best 
annual showing in 12 years or more. In industrial employment and department- 



NATIONAL DEFEASE MIGRATION 5993 

store sales the year was the best since U)2d; and in bank clearings, bank debits, 
and building permits, it was the best since 1930. 

The stimulation of the preparedness program continued to be indicated by 
sharp gains in many lines of Baltimore's industry and trade during the first 
4 months of 1941. Most of the 17 statistic^ indices compiled by the association 
of commerce in the first 4 months of 1941 established the best records for any 
similar period in at least 13 years. Available statistics for May and the early 
part of June reveal a continuation of this upward trend. Prospects for the re- 
mainder of the year point to still higher levels in many departments of local 
business. 

MAXUFACTimiNG EXPANSION, DEF]<:NSE CONTKACTS 

The development of Baltimore industry since 1914 has come largely through 
the establishment of new industries which chose this city because of its funda- 
mental manufacturing advantages. In addition, many of the industries pre- 
viously located here have substantially increased the scope of their operations.. 
The city's industrial growth has been particularly apparent since the World War 
of 1917-18, and during this period large investments have been made here in the 
construction of new factories and in the expansion of existing jilant facilities. 
The result has been a well-balanced industrial structure, which has jHayed -a 
part in the city's early and intensive participation in production and other phases 
of the piesent emergency. 

In assuming their share of ivsponsibility for the Nation's defense, Baltimore 
factories hastened t(» adjust tlicir oi)erations to the production of military and 
naval supplies and ocpiipmcnt and other essential materials. By the end of 1940 
some 150 Maryland fli'nis and institutions, situated mainly in the Baltimore area, 
had received primary defense contracts aggregating ■$3<).">.(i24.198. The value of 
primary contract awards has since risen to over hidf .-i liillion dollars. A large 
luimber of concerns in the area are participating in primary and subcontracts, 
although by the nature (tf the "farming out" .system there is no real balance 
between the actual volume of mainifacturing and the dollar total of defense 
contracts earmarked for this area. 

Although a large part of the com,munity's defen.se activities is centered in the 
steel, aircraft, and shipbuilding industries, a number of other Baltimore indus- 
trial organizations have received important defen.se awards. These include gun 
carriages, cartridge cases, cotton duck, mattress covers, clothing, ammunition 
l)arts, and a wide range of other equipment. 

It should be emphasized also that Baltimore was an important center for the 
production of war materials for the democratic nations abroad, prior to the begin- 
ning of our own preparedness program. The Glenn L. Martin Co., for example, 
greatly expanded its Baltimore factory to manufacture airplanes for the French 
and British Governments. Other companies were similarly engaged in war shii> 
ments. Visualizing future demands for power requirements in this area, the 
("onsolidated Gas, Electric Light & Power Co. of Baltimore in this jieriod made 
substantial additions to its steam-electric generating facilities. 

The backlog of primary defense contracts, and the sizable volumie of subcon- 
tracts, required the employment of appreciable numbers of additional workers and 
the investment of substantial sums in new mainifacturing facilities. Increased 
consumer buying also nec(^ssitated sizable expansion in many plants whose pro- 
duction was not included directly in the defen.se program. 

In 1940, .34 new manufacturing establishments located in the Baltimore indus- 
trial area and 98 existing concerns expanded their local plants. The coni^bined 
new labor requirement for the 132 new factories and expansions was nearly 
16,500, while the estimated capital investment in new buildings and equipment 
amounted to approximately $32,280,000. Compared with the corresponding totals 
for 1939, the 1940 figures indicated a gain of 33.2 i)ercent in the number of 
workers and an increase of 63.0 i^ercent in the aggregate plant investment. Dur- 
ing the first 5 months of 1941 industrial developments in the Baltimore area pro- 
duced a prospective new labor requirement of 25,820 workers and an estimated 
j)laut investment of $32,907,150, represented by 11 new plants and 56 expansions. 

AIRCRAFT — STEEJI. SHIPS 

In considering the defense program impact, these three divisions of industrial 
activity are outstanding in the Baltimore area. The Glenn L. Martin Ck)., 
which is now employing about 18,000 at its aircraft factory on the outskirts or 



5994 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Baltimore, is exi^ected to have a peak employment of 42,000 during; 1942. New 
manufacturing space being erected at the present plant will bring total floor 
space to over 2,200,000 square feet, and the company is building a large plant 
about a mile east of its present location at Middle River. Together the 2 plants 
will contain nearly 90 acres of floor space. The company has backlog contracts 
for aircraft and parts valued at more than $400,000,000. 

The Sparrows Point plant of the Bethlehem Steel Co. employs a total of 26,000 
workers in its steel and shipbuilding divisions. The plant is operating at the 
highest level in its history. The Martin and Bethlehem operations here are 
principal factors in all of the aspects and problems of the defense picture in the 
area, and officials of those companies will present further details on individual 
phases of their operations. 

As in the last World War, Baltimore is rapidly expanding its shipbuilding 
activity. The Sparrows Point yard of the Bethlehem Steel Co. is being used to 
capacity for construction, and the 2 shipbuilding ways it had in 1936 have been 
expanded to 7 ways. In 1940, the Sparrows Point yard built 8 ships and in the 
present year is expected to complete 14, many of them deep sea carriers of tlie 
largest type. Bethlehem Steel's ship-repair yard on Key Highway in the upper 
harbor has also been considerably augmented to handle a greater volume of 
repair work. This operation now employs 4,700 workers, and plans further 
expansion. 

The Bethlehem-Falrfield Shipyard, Inc., is a newly organized concern being 
operated by the Bethlehem Steel interests, and has been awarded contracts 
by the United States Maritime Commission for the construction in Baltimore of 
€2 emergency cargo vessels at an estimated cost of more than $94,000,000. A 
total of 16 ways will be operated, and when completed late this summer approx- 
imately 8,500 workers will be employed at the yard and at the nearby fabricating 
plant. 

The Maryland Dry Dock Co., a subsidiary of the Koppers Co., is spending 
$4,500,000 on its Fairfield plant in an effort to meet the increased demands for 
ship repairs. The company is now working 3 shifts, employs about 4,000 workers, 
and is planning a considerable expansion in facilities and employment. 

An expansion program of the United States Coast Guard boat-liuilding and ship- 
repair yard at Curtis Bay was inaugurated in April 1941. Two building ways 
and a drydock will be constructed there at a cost of about $3,000,000 to provide for 
the building and di-ydocking of small and medium sized naval craft. Approxi- 
mately 2,000 persons are currently employed at this yard, and expansion is 
anticipated. 

In addition, there are numerous smaller shipbuilding and repair yards in Balti- 
more, many of them participating in emergency work. 

DEFENSE EMPLOYMENT AND MIGRATION 

To supply the committee with a specimen picture of the employment and labor 
migration ijhase in the Baltimore area, the Association of Commerce in June sent 
questionnaires to 8 of the largest concerns holding defense contracts. Inquiry 
was made as to employment as of June 1, 1940 and 1941, age and marital status 
of employees as of June 1, 1941, plant and employee experience in Jlay 1941. 
and the estimated labor requirement for the period from June 1, 1941, to January 
1. 1942. To indicate the migration aspect, information was requested as to loca- 
tion of last place of employment. The aggregate results were as follows : 

1. Total number of employees, June 1, 1940 40, 018 

2. Total number of employees. June 1, 1941 59,250 

3. Estimated number of employees on June 1, 1941, whose last place of 

emplovment was beyond reasonable commuting distance from 
Baltimore 9, 603 

4. Estimated number of married employees, June 1, 1941 33,637 

5. Estimated number of employees under 25 years of age, June 1, 1941 — 19, 926 

6. Number of employees lured during May 1941 5.707 

7. Estimated number of employees hired during May 1941 whose last 

place of employment was beyond reasonable commuting distance 

from Baltimore 2, 061 

8. EstiniMtcd number of married employees hired May 1941 2,586 

9. Estimated lumiber of employees under 25 years of age hired during 

May 1941 2, 644 

10. Estimated number of new employees that will be required betv/een 

June 1, 1941. and Jan. 1, 1942 32,430 



NATIONAL DEFENSE JIIGRATION 5995 

The eight companies furnishing the above information were the Bethlehem 
Steel Co. ; Bethlehem-Fairfielcl Ship Yard, Inc. ; Baltimore yard, Bethlehem 
Steel Co. ; the (Jienn L. Martin Co. : the Koppers Co. — Bartlett Hayward divi- 
sion ; Maryland Dry Dock Co. ; Bendix Radio Corporation ; Westinghouse Electric 
& Manufacturing Co. 

The number of workers employed by the eight firms expanded 48.1 percent 
between June 1, 1940, and June 1, 1941. As the general level of all manufac- 
turing employment in the Baltimore area rose only 26.6 percent in May, com- 
pared with the same month in 1940, it appears that the principal defense indus- 
tries are increasing their labor forces much more rapidly than the average for 
the community as a whole. 

Of the .59,liriO persons employed by those concerns on June 1, 1941, only about 
16 percent reported that their last place of employment was beyond a reason- 
able commutin.ij; distance from Baltimore. The ratio among individual com- 
panies, however, varied widely, suggesting that some firms might find it easier 
than others to obtain their labor requirements from local sources. This seems 
to be borne out by the fact that companies already having the largest per- 
centage of employees drawn from other places were the ones that hired the 
greatest number of such workers in May 1941. 

Single persons comprised 54.7 percent of the 5,707 new employees hired by 
the 8 companies during May. This is in contrast to a ratio of 43.2 percent 
obtaining for single workers in relation to all employees on the rolls as of 
June 1, 1941. The hiring of a larger proportion of immarried persons during 
May might be traceable in part to the fact that 46.3 percent of the new workers 
given employment in that month were under 25 years of age. The proportion 
of all employees under 25 years of age on June 1, 1941, was equivalent to 33.6 
percent. 

PORT E^FFECTS 

As this proceeding relates primarily to industrial and labor aspects of the 
defense program, little reference has been made to the extremely active partici- 
pation by the port of Baltimore in the war and preparedness emergency. As 
this advanced from stage to stage, the port of Baltimore reacted immediately 
and was the city's outstanding barometer of the changing times. 

As one of the principal foreign trade harbors of the world, handling the third 
largest volume of water-borne commerce among United States ports, the impact 
of the situation was strong and immediate on local marine facilities and serv- 
ices. Baltimore became a leading factor in the routing of shipments to aid 
the democracies, and for the equipment and supplying of this country's new 
offshore defense bases. It became a leading harbor for the assembly and storage 
of strategic and critical materials required for defense and stock piles of such 
commodities were accumulated. Tliese developments influenced the port labor 
factor, which normally stands at about 15,000 workers, including approximately 
6,000 longshoremen. Involved in the port picture are a total investment in 
facilities of approximately $150,000,000, including large Federal investments in 
channels and anchorages; an annual water-borne business of approximately 
25,000,000 tons of cargo, valued at $1,000,000,000, and the movement of approxi- 
mately 5,000 deep-draft vessels yearly. 

While the port continues to handle a fair volume of emergency tonnage, it 
has suffered severe losses in established lines and services, from war develop- 
ments, particularly from the Federal program of vessel requisitions and diver- 
sions. Severe labor effects are resulting and shippers are being placed at a 
disadvantage in merchandising operations built up on the basis of water 
transportation. 

It may not be inappropriate also to state that this port looks with concern at 
the trend toward increased concentration of emergency maritime business at 
New York, involving shipments under the Lease-Lend Act and similarly con- 
ti-olled traffic procedures. Based on the lessons of the last World War, we be- 
lieve this should be a matter of Federal attention as to the policy involved. It 
is a situation which may lead to the bottlenecking of essential water-borne busi- 
ness at one port, when other harbors, such as Baltimore, are fully equipped for 
all services to ships and cargoes and offer considerable economies of freight 
movement and transfer. 

HOUSING 

Baltimore has always been properly considered one of the best housed large 
cities from the standpoint of the needs of the workingman. At the beginning 
of the defense emergency, there were perhaps 7,000 to 10,000 vacant housing 



5996 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

units in the Baltimore industrial area, and during the last 18 months over 
10,000 new housing units have been built or are in the course of construction 
in this area. AVhile there has been a large decrease in the number of vacancies, 
and emergency situations have arisen in individual cases, there is as yet no 
acute shortage in the area as a whole. Looking ahead, the Glenn L. Martin 
Co. plant has certain urgent housing needs in its immediate vicinity which 
must be provided for, and there are also special housing requirements in the 
Fairfield-Curtis Bay shipbuilding district. New surveys of vacant accommoda- 
tions must be continually made in the next few months to serve as a basis for 
such future action as may then be indicated. While the Baltimore housing 
situation has, in the main, been adequate to the demands made upon it, con- 
stant attention must be directed to this vital problem. Further comment on 
the housing problem, including reference to the Defense Homes Registration 
Office established by the Association of Commerce in May 1941, will be made by 
another witness. 

VOCATIONAL TRAINING 

While other witnesses will comment on this subject in detail, it should be 
referred to in this conununity review as an extremely vital problem, and one 
to which the Association of Commerce and other private and public agencies 
have given close attention throughout the emergency period. As a matter of 
fact, the association, in cooperation with the Engineers; Club of Baltimore, and 
the department of public education, 15 years ago initiated a contiiuiing study of 
the progress of public vocational education and training. This was undertaken 
to coordinate the courses of instruction in vocational schools with the indus- 
trial and commercial needs and activity of the community, and to train and 
prepare the youth of Baltimore for specific job opportunities! available in local 
business establishments. 

Through the years this program has been flexible and adapted as far as 
practicable to the changing conditions in the Baltimore area. Special attention 
has recently been given to the present needs of defense production, methods, 
and procedures have been sharply adjusted, and courses intensified. Steps 
have been taken by the public-school authorities and industrial leaders, which 
have resulted in the establishment of special courses to train high-school grad- 
uates in the fundamentals of good industrial workmanship, use of hand tools 
in metal shops and, in particular, the making and assembling of aircraft parts. 
For example, the Glenn L. Martin Co. has taken a leading part in sponsoring and 
conducting educational projects; of this nature. The success of these efforts 
to date has been most gratifying and the activity is being broadened and ex- 
tended. Close cooperation with the public-school program has been extended 
by a number of other industrial plants and an attempt has been made to coor- 
dinate both of these factors with the placement and analytical work of public 
employment agencies. 

In addition to the vocational training offered by the public schools, a growing 
number of industrial establishments, including the Bethlehem Steel Co. and the 
several divisions of the Koppers Co., are carrying on with notable success their 
own specialized programs of in-plant training courses intended to increase the 
skill and efficiency of employees. This! phase of vocational training also will 
be more fully discussed by other witnesses. 

TRAFFIC CONDITIONS 

The problem of street traffic in Baltimore, as it relates both to downtown 
business sections and to movements between the city and outlying industrial 
sections, is growing more acute with the steady advance of defense production. 
This condition has been recognized and attacked by Federal, State, and city 
intei'ests, and measures for relief are being actively preslsed. It is a complex 
problem, and its solution requires comprehensive planning and coordinated 
action on the part of all interests. 

The Association of Commerce has endeavored in this field to serve as a coordi- 
nating agency on behalf of business. It feels that the most pressing need at pres- 
ent is for adequate access roads and highways leading to important defense- 
production establishments. In this respect luimerous studies have been made 
and appropriate legislation is pending before the Federal Congress, the passage 
of which, it is believed, will make available sufficient funds to alleviate many 
of the worst features of the present situation. Relief measures are under the 
general jurisdiction of the Federal Public Roads Administration and the Mary- 
land State Roads Commission. 



NATIONAL DP]FENS:E MIGRATION 5997 

The flow of street trattic within the city proper has likewise felt the impact 
•of the increased production activity in this area. Street congestion has been ma- 
terially increased and the movement of vehicular tratlic retarded. To relieve 
this condition, municipal oflicials have recently formulated far-reaching plans 
for street-traffic control and have embodied them in new ordinances. These 
are intended to expedite the movement of all forms of street traffic, especially 
during rush-hour periods on all arterial streets carrying intercity traffic and 
Intracity traffic from residential sections to and through the central business 
district,' connecting with vital plant-production facilities located in outlying areas. 

The problem is by no means solved by these plans, although they represent 
progress. A new ordinance, passed by the city council on June 19, provides for 
radical changes in the present method of controlling and regulating street traffic 
in the central business section. This prohibits all parking of passenger vehicles 
on practically all main streets in this district from 7 : 30 to 10 a. m. and 4 : 30 
to 6 p. m., reduces the parking limit fiom 2 to 1 hour in this area from 10 a. m. 
to 4 : 30 p. m., and gives si>ecial treatment to peculiar traffic conditions on Sat- 
urday. It prohibits the loading and unloading of all merchandise on principal 
arterial streets in this area from S to 9 a. m. and prohibits angular loading and 
unloading on all streets in this area during this 1-hour period. 

Another ordinance before the council deals specifically with the movement 
of traflic on 17 arterial streets connecting the residential section with the 
central business district. It is intended to prohibit all forms of parking, both 
of passenger cars and commercial vehicles, on such streets during the morning 
and afternoon rush-hour periods, and places a prohibition on loading and unload- 
ing of merchandise during such periods on those streets which constitute U. S. 
No. 1 Highway, connecting Baltimore with other important population centers. 

The problem of free and expeditious traffic movements constitutes, in our 
opinion, one of the most urgent factors in connection with efficient defense pro- 
duction. 

FUTURE READJL'STMENTS 

The As.vjociatioii of ('(unnierce and other agencies of Baltimore are mindful of 
the vital problems of readjustment which will confront the Baltimore area in 
the period following the present emergency. While detailed conmient on measures 
to be taken would be speculative at this time, the need for careful long-range 
planning is recognized. Such planning must be considered as an integral part of 
the present picture. 

TESTIMONY OF G. H. POUDER 

Mr. PouDER. The report vvliicli I made for yon undertook to .show 
the im]iact of tlie whole war and preparedness program from Septem- 
ber 1. 19.'59, to date, on tlie commnnity of Baltimore as a whole. 

It embraces the fluctuation of business which has occurred during 
the 18 months and the effect of the program in a general way on such 
matters as housing and vocational training and street traffic. 

There is a specific reference to industrial activities in shipbuilding, 
steel manufacturing, and aircraft manufacturing. 

I am not going into the details of that statement unless the committee 
desires it. 

It might be said that Baltimore is a very diversified industrial com- 
munity — a deep-water port and the principal financial and merchan- 
dising center of the State. 

The committee has been furnished a well-rounded picture of the 
impact of the defense program on this city as a typical American 
community. 

EIGHT REPRESENTATI\-E INDUSTRIES 

The field of defense migration, in which you are particularly inter- 
ested, we have tried to cover — speaking for the Association of Com- 
merce now — with a specimen survey of eight industries which we 



5998 BALTLMOIfE HEARINGS 

consider representative in respect to the effects of the defense program. 

Those eight industries are the Bethlehem Steel Co. ; the Bethlehem- 
Fairfield shipyard; the so-called Baltimore yard of the Betlilehem 
Steel Co., which is commonly known as the Key Highway yard; 
the Glenn L. Martin Co.; the Koppers Co.; the Bart lett -Hay ward 
division of the Koppers Co. ; the Maryland Drydock Co. ; the Bendix 
Eadio Corporation; and the Westinghoiise Electric & Manufacturing 
Co. 

We inquired of these eight companies as to their employment on 
June 1, 1941, as compared with June 1, 1940, with a break-down as to 
marital status of their emploj'ees and as to age. 

We then inquired as to how many of the new employees had come 
from points beyond reasonable commuting distance of Baltimore. 

We then took a specimen month, ]\Iay 1941. and asked the same 
questions. 

For the purpose of this brief summarization I will mention two 
or three totals which resulted from these inquiries. 

EMPLOYMENT IN EIOHT COMPANIES 

These 8 firms employed 59,250 persons on June 1, 1941, against 40,018 
persons on June 1, 1940. That expansion was 48 percent, compared 
with a total expansion for the community as a whole of 21 percent 
in that period, which indicates how much faster the employment factor 
gained for these 8 companies than for the community as a whole. 
" Of the 59.250 employed on June 1, 1941, 9,603, or 16 percent, might 
be described as migrants, if you mean by that term that the place of 
their last employment was beyond reasonable commuting distance of 
Baltimore. 

Of the 59,250, 33,637 were married ; and 19.926 were under 25 years 
of age. 

Now, in the one specimen month. May 1941, indicating what the 
problem is at the present time on a monthly basis, 5,707 employees were 
hired. Of these, 54.7 percent were single, 46.3 percent were under 25 
years of age, and 36.1 percent came from points beyond reasonable 
commuting distance. 

That is a total for 1 month. There was a higher ratio of single work- 
ers employed in the month of May 1941 than obtained as to total em- 
ployees on June 1, 1941, indicating that the hiring ratio of single men 
is increasing. 

The ratio of men under 25 years of age also was 46 percent in May^ 
as against 33 percent for everybody on the rolls as of June 1, 1941. 

FUTURE REQUIREMENTS 

Now, as to the future requirements: We asked for an estimate of the 
labor re<iuirement from June 1, 1941, to January 1, 1942. The com- 
panies estimating gave us figures that total 32,430. We have no way of 
saying what that represents as to the total problem of the community. 
I should say, as a guess, that it would be within 10 percent or less than 
10 percent of the total new requirements — the total requirement of new 
labor for local industries. However, that is pure speculation. 

While this figure does not represent the community migration prob- 
lem as a whole, in our opinion it is a good representative specimen of 
the problem. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5999 

Mr. Curtis. I notice you estimate that by the end of 1941 there would 
be something over 32,000 people hired. I take it that is in addition to 
those employed now. 

Do you anticipate that a greater percentage of those will be from 
outside Baltimore or within a reasonable commuting distance? 

Mr. PouDER. That is difficult to answer, Mr. Congressman. I think 
a reasonable percentage will come from outside, but because of the voca- 
tional-training program in the public schools and the in-plant training 
programs of these industries I believe an increasingly large percentage 
will come from the Baltimore area. 

REASONABLE COMMUTING DISTANCE 

Mr. Curtis. About what distance do you consider a "reasonable com- 
muting distance" ? Would you say Washington was a reasonable com- 
nuiting distance ? 

Mr. PouDER, For an industrial worker we would not consider Wash- 
ington a reasonable commuting distance. We would consider 25 to 35 
miles as the limit. 

Mr, Curtis. Have any nondefense industries curtailed their employ- 
ment here, either by choice or as a matter of necessity ? 

Mr. PouDER. Not to any appreciable extent, to our knowledge, sir. 
We don't know what is ahead of us in that field with respect to both 
labor supply and the operation of priorities, but thus far there has been 
no appreciable activity in that line. 

Mr. Curtis. I believe you say all industries have increased about 27 
percent in employment, while defense industries have increased 48 
j^ercent, is that right ? 

Mr. Poi7DER. Yes, sir ; 27 percent was for the community as a whole — 
all industries as between May 1940 and May 1941. 

RAW MATERIAL SUPPLIES 

Mr. Curtis. What is the situation in regard to raw materials? Have 
you had any close-down of nondefense industries, large concerns or 
small, because of a shortage of raw materials ? 

Mr. PouDER. There has been a good deal of parceling out and a good 
deal of pinching in respect to some raw materials, but on the whole, up 
to this time, the flow has been fairly even. 

Mr. Curtis. Have you made any survey as to the total amount of sub- 
contracting that has iDeen done in the Baltimore area ? 

Mr. PouDER. It is very difficult to arrive at that. We have an 
aggregate in defense contracts awarded to this area of something 
over $500,000,000. Some of that is parceled out outside of the State, 
and it is impossible to strike a balance between what is actually 
manufactured within the State and the total volume of defense con- 
tracts awarded since the program started. 

We have no figui-es, no definite figures, on the amount of sub- 
contracting. We know it is extensive, however. 

Mr. Curtis. Has it been your observation that the same fii'ms 
that are receiving prime contracts are also, in many instances, sub- 
contractors for other contractors? 

Mr. Pouder. I prefer to have one of the manufacturers answer 
that question. Most of these gentlemen hold prime contracts and 
will be able to answer that question, Mr. Congressman. 



gQQQ BALTIMORE HI:A KINGS 

Mr. Curtis, The point I have in mind, and I will be glad to have 
any of you speak up, is that when subcontracting is done, does it 
necessarily mean a spread to different concerns, or are the same 
concerns that are doing prime contracting also receiving a good 
number of subcontracts ? 

Mr. PouDER. Mr. Roberts is coordinator for defense contracts in 
this area and perhaps he can answer that. 

PRIME CONTRACTS NOT FILLING SUBCONTRACTS 

Mr. Roberts. Again I will say, as Mr. Pouder said, we have three 
large contractors here on the panel — three large prime contractors — 
and I think you should ask them that question. 

But I will say, in a general sort of way, that most of the prime 
contractors are so occupied with their own prime contracts they do 
not have any facilities to take on subcontracts. If you want to 
ask these gentlemen — Mr. Martin or the other men here — they will 
tell you. They are all large contractors, not only large for Balti- 
more, but for the country. Maybe they can answer clitt'erently, but, 
generally speaking, I believe the prime contractors are doing very 
little subcontracting. 

Mr. Curtis. Do any of you gentlemen have anything further you 
want to add to that^ If you do have, I wnll be glad to have you 
clear the point up. 

Mr. Perkins. Congressman, I don't think it is feasible for prime 
contractors to do much subcontracting because their facilities are 
so completely occupied in getting out their own contracts. It would 
be perfectly ridiculous for them to take subcontracts from another 
prime contractor. 

Mr. Roberts. I think that is generally true. 

SUBCONTRACTS IN CONNECTICUT AND NEW JERSEY 

Mr. Curtis. At our Hartford hearing there was one gentleman who 
contended it was more or less the same firms who were getting both 
subcontracts and prime contracts, and therefore some of the objec- 
tions were that subcontracts were not benefiting anyone.^ 

Mr. OsMERS. At the New Jersey hearing we had some testimony 
there that led us to believe that some subcontracting was highly 
impracticable;- that it made a better talking point than it did a 
practical matter, because of the dispersion of activities which caused 
additional shipping and assembling and handling, and as a result 
most prime contractors were trying to do all they could under their 
own roof. I don't know whether that reflects the views of the 
prime contractors here this afteinoon or not. 

SUBCONTRACTING IN BALTIMORE 

Mr. Roberts. Mr. Martin told me in the last 2 weeks that sub- 
stantially 35 percent of his work was being subcontracted. 

Mr. Martin. Twenty-eight percent of the operations in the Balti- 
more plant are subcontracted, in dollars, and 60 percent of the 
Omaha plant will be subcontracted, in dollars. 

1 See testimony of Norris W. Ford, manaser, Manufacturers Association of Connecticut, 
Hartford liearings, p. 5271. 

2 See testimony of Tlieodore L. Shaffer, vice president, Congoleum-Nairn, Inc., Trenton 
hearings, p. 5693. 



NATIONAL DEP^ENSE MIGRATION 6001 

Mr. Roberts. And the INIartiii Co. lias the reputation of doing all 
the subcontracting; they can possibly do. 

We know that is true in our office, so I do not agree with your 
findings. 

Mr. OsMERS. I was repeating the testimony that was given to us 
in Trenton. 

Baltimore's position as a port 

Mr. Curtis. Mv. Ponder, I notice by your paper that a great deal 
of the lease-lend shipments have been concentrating in the port of 
New York. 

Would you care to give a reason for that or make any statement 
in connection with it? 

Mr. Pouder. Well, that statement was a little removed from the 
tenor of your hearing, but I thought it was proper to bring it in. 
The port labor here is approximately 15,000, of which some 6,000 
or 7,000 are stevedores. They are dependent upon a continuous flow 
of cargo and ships through the port. 

The (xovernment's ship-requisition program has materially harmed 
the port in removing its regular connnercial line and services, and 
what is apparently a new trend of concentrating the lease-lend ship- 
ments at the port of New York threatens to become an even more 
important factor. It seemed to me to be a matter of Federal policy 
not to forget the lessons of the last World War when concentration at 
New York threatened to bottleneck the success of our operations. 

We now find that there is a rather complete concentration of through 
shipping business and general merchandise at the port of New York. 

^Ir. Curtis. That trend is increasing rather than getting better. 

Mr. Pouder. Yes, sir; the trend is increasing. We have from the 
start of this war been a factor in supplying cargoes to aid the democ- 
racies, the supplying of ofi^-shore bases, and the assembly of strategic 
materials. Baltimore has had a tremendously increased volume of 
business. 

We now see a change. We are handling some of the volume, such as 
steel, but the bulk of the lease-lend shipments are concentrated at 
New York. 

Mr. Curtis. Well, is that due to a change in the buyers of these 
articles, of buying agents, or has it come about because our War and 
Navy Departments established it as a principle? 

Mr. Pouoer. It is hard to say, sir. AVe are not familiar with the 
reasons. I think it is for the purpose of coordination and efficiency 
in one administration through one port. 

Mr. CoRT. I think I can answer that. It is to save cargo space 
and to get it in in the least amount of time and to get the boats 
into a convoy as quickly as possible. In other words, th.ey have been 
loath to send their boats down any distance and take up more time 
than need be. They try to load them at the nearest port so they can 
get the convoys assembled as quickly as possible and also to get the 
maximum cubical content in the boats by putting it in a certain port. 

Mr. Curtis. You mean the port nearest Europe? 

Mr. CoRT. Yes. In other Avords, instead of the boats coming down 
to Baltimore they save several hundred miles and save a couple of 
days time in assembling cargoes. 



^QQ2 BALTIMORE HKAKINGS 

We have shipped a good deal of stuff to Nova Scotia to get into 
convoys. 

VACANCY RATIO IN BALTIMORE 

Mr. Curtis. Now, in reference to these people ^yho are coming in, 
I would like to ask a question or two about the housing. Do you know 
what the present vacancy ratio is? 

Mr. PouDER. Mr. French has made a study of the housing situation, 
and I believe he would be in better position to give you the present 
ratio. 

It is considerably less than in ordinary times. 

Mr. French. About 10,000 permits were issued for new housing 
during the last 18 months, although there are bad situations existing 
in several places, particularly near the Martin plant and in the Fair- 
field section. 

Mr. Curtis. Those 10,000 new permits are for private building? 

Mr. French. In the last 18 months. 

Mr. Curtis. Ten thousand private building permits plus the Fed- 
eral programs. 

Mr. Roberts. Including defense housing and Federal housing. 

Mr. Curtis. You don't know what percent of each, do you ? 

Mr. French. 2.4 percent of vacancies as of September 30 last year, 
which was the last survey that was made. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, coming back to these 10,000 permits that have been 
issued in the last 8 months. Approximately how many of those have 
been private enterprises? 

Mr. French. I have no break-down on that. Five thousand of 
them have been built or permitted within the corporate limits of 
Baltimore City. The other 5,000 were permitted in Baltimore County 
and the Baltimore industrial area. 

We have had a recent check made of that and building has been 
^'ery active. Of course, permits do cover some of the public housing 
authority's plans, but the total, whether public or private, is backed 
up by Federal guaranty. 

Mr. Curtis. I didn't make my question very clear. What I meant 
was more or less individual planning and building rather than a 
projected community of houses. 

Mr. French. The vast majority are private buildings. Certainly 
three-quarters of them or more, as a rough guess, are purely private. 

DANGER or acute HOUSING SHORTAGE 

Mr. Curtis. Do you anticipate an acute situation in regard to hous- 
ing here within the next year? 

Mr. PouDER. I think it will have to be watched very carefully. We 
don't anticipate an acute situation at the moment, but housing is a 
very complex subject, and once it changes it will change rapidly. We 
are making continuous surveys. 

Mr. French will tell you that the Association of Commerce has 
established a defense homes registration service within the last 2 
months, in an effort to discover all living space usable by defense 
workers and coordinate that with the industries as they bring the 
workers in. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6003 

Mr. Curtis. It will be related to your previous estimate as to how 
many of these 32,000 additional people that are going to be employed 
^•ome from outside Baltimore, too, would it not? 

Mr. PouDER. Yes, sir, which we cannot estimate accurately now. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman (to Mr. Ponder). Mr. Moderator, who is next? 

Mr. PouDER. I want to introduce Mr. Roberts, chairman of the Mary- 
land Council of Defense. 

The ChxMrman. Is that the order in which you want to proceed? 

Mr. PouDER. Yes. 

The Chaieman. Mr. Roberts, your paper will be entered as a part 
of the record. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY W. FRANK! ROBERTS, CHAIRMAN, MARYLAND COUNCIL 
OF DEFENSE 

For the general informat=-^.i of the committee, I would like to outline very 
briefly the plan of organization of the Maryland Council of Defense. While all 
the members of the council are interested in the defense program, several of the 
(Subcommittees are particularly interested in production problems Involving 
labor. 

The Maryland Council is broken down into 7 subcommittees as follows: 
Industrial resources and production ; human resources and skills ; agricultural 
resources and production; health, welfare, and consumer interest; housing 
works and transportation ; civil protection ; legislation. 

It will be noted that two of these committees are particularly interested in 
industrial production problems, and one in the agricultural production problem, 
which of course involves farm labor. 

During the past 6 or 8 months the proper subcommittees have been doing what 
they can to assist in solving some of the pressing problems related to industrial 
production of defense materials. Such activities have included vocational train- 
ing work in the public schools of the city and State; training within industry; 
the free movement of workers to and from plants, principally involving traffic 
<.'ongestiou on roads leading to the major industries ; housing of industrial 
workers ; development of new sources of labor supply ; and similar matters. 

There does not appear to be any serious shortage of labor as yet in this district, 
but it seems quite clear that in the very near future the additional requirements 
of various large defense industries will make the problem of labor supply much 
more acute. Certainly every effort should be made by training within industry, 
and vocational education in the schools, to prepare our young men and women 
for this work as far as this is practicable, and to explore every remaining source 
•of labor supply. 

EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN DEFENSE INDUSTRIES 

During the last war female labor was used to a very large extent in the de- 
fense industries. At the present time female labor is used on defense production 
to only a very small extent in this community, excluding, of course, the textile 
and clothing industries. Female services can, and should be, used in light as- 
sembly work and light production work, as was done in the last war. 

In a similar manner, Negro workers should be used in defense industries 
wherever it is possible to do so. 

The question of working more than 40 liours a week is important from the 
standpoint of the continuous use of machines, and also to get more production 
per worker. This is important. It is obvious, however, that if a 7-day week 
24-hour day production is planned, it will require additional workers operating 
in some form of a staggered system. 

For the Maryland area we have established an office of the defense contract 
service here in Baltimore, of which service I am the coordinator. Its principal 
purpose is to increase the number of subcontractors, by putting to work, wherever 
possible, existing manufacturing facilities. Of course the defense contract 
service desires to assist prime contractors in every way, not only in increasing 
-41— pt. 15 9 



gQQ4 BALTIMORE HEA KINGS 

the amount of their subcontracts, but in helping them get out the maximum 
production and correcting matters which impede their operations. The primary 
purpose of our branch of the defense contract service' is to get maximum produc- 
tion of defense materials, and to bring about the use of all labor of all kinds 
which is available in our district. 

LACK OF HOUSING AND HIGHWAY FACILITIES 

Our council feels that in several sections of the city, particularly the eastern 
part, defense manufacturing industries are at present seriously handicapped by 
the lack of housing facilities in the immediate neighborhood, and by inadequate 
highway facilities for workers to get to the plants from more distant parts of 
the city's residential districts. With better highway transportation facilities, 
the housing facilities in other sections of Baltimore can be used to the fullest 
possble extent, which is probably not the case today. 

By coordinating the defense work of the principal local, civic, commercial, and 
governmental agencies, as well as of individuals, by planning and by assigning 
responsibilities, the Maryland Defense Council is attempting to bring about the 
handling of the vital emergency tasks in this area as effectively and expeditiously 
as possible. 

TESTIMONY OF W. FRANK ROBERTS 

The Chairman. Mr. Roberts, I iiiiderstaiid you are very much 
interested in tlie employment of local female labor. 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I made the statement in my printed report 
that I thought female labor can be used and should be used, as it is 
needed, to a much greater extent than it is at present. 

I went through the last war and I was pretty active in the produc- 
tion of war defense materials, aiid I know that female labor was 
used to a ver}^ considerable percentage at that time, and it can be 
used again if it is needed. 

The Chairman. How much is it being utilized here now? 

Mr. Roberts. Not to a very great extent. 

The Chairman. Is it being encouraged? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, our Maryland Council of Defense, if you will 
permit me to make a general statement about it, has broken the 
work down into seven subcommittees, and I will read you some of 
the things in reference to it. It will be very brief. It is in the 
report, but I want to give you an idea of what Ave ai-e trying to do. 

We said in our report: 

Such activities have included vocational-training work in the public schools 
of the city and State, training within industry, the free movement of workers 
to and from plants, principally involving traffic congestion on roads leading 
to the ma.lor industries, housing of industrial workers, development of new 
sources of labor supply, and similar matters. 

We have been having committee meetings and meeting with manu- 
facturers and other people interested to follow up those items, 

NEW SOURCES OF LABOR SUPPLY 

Now, the item that you asked the question about : Have we de- 
veloped any new sources of labor sui)ply? We have been particu- 
larly interested in that because while there have been a niunber of 
new employees coming to this community from outside, as stated 
by Mr. Ponder, and there will be more, we feel that every available 
source of labor supply within a range of these industries should be 
utilized to the fullest extent. That is the reason that I say female 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6005 

labor, when it is needed, shonld be nsed to a greater extent than 
it is today. The same thing applies to Negro labor. 

The Chairman. I was just thinking, when the question was asked 
about housing, there is going to come a time in this country when 
we shall have used up the labor supply. Isn't that true ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes. Incoming, migratory labor which is all in- 
coming to us — nobody is leaving this section — means additional hous- 
ing facilities and all the services a city has to furnish. But every- 
thing else should be done first to utilize the available labor supply 
in the community, and that means a need for vocational training and 
everything that goes with it. 

The Chairman. What about the utilization of Negroes? 

Mr. Roberts. I said a moment ago that comes in in exactly the 
same category as female labor. It ought to be used wherever 
possible. 

As Judge Waxter said this morning, there is a much larger per- 
centage of Negro labor in the W. P. A., which indicates there is an 
excess quantity of Negro labor available, to be used where it can 
be used. 

0\TRTIME WORK 

The Chairman. Are many of those employed in industry in this 
area working overtime? 

Mr. Roberts. I have a memorandum of that in my paper, to the 
effect that in most companies engaged in defense, more than 40 hours 
should be worked, I said in my paper that the question of working 
more than 40 hours a week is im])ortant from the standpoint of the con- 
tinuous use of machines, and also to get more production per worker. 
It is obvious that if a 7-day- week 24-hour-day production is planned, 
it will require additional workers operating in some form of a stag- 
gered system. As a matter of fact, a number of the industries are 
working their men more than 40 hours. The purpose of that, as I say 
in m}^ paper, is to increase production per worker who is already 
available, rather than bring in a lot more people who would be ineffi- 
cient and would have to be trained and go all through the process of 
being installed in the city and serviced and all that sort of thing. 

I don't think employees should be limited to 40 hours per week and, 
of course, they are not limited, because you can work them by paying 
them time and a half. I am in favor of utilizing the services of good 
men who are on the job, utilizino- them to a great extent, maybe 10 or 
25 ]3ei"cent more than they are being used today. 

The Chairman. Do you know anything about the attitude of private 
real-estate operators as to the Federal construction of houses? Are 
they blocking it in any wa}^ ? 

Mr. Rop.ERTS. Mr. Chairman, I have heard a great deal, but if you 
don't mind, I would rather not quote hearsay. I think there will be 
other ])eople who will appear before you before the session is over who 
can tell you all about that. Personaily, I do not know. 

coordination IN THE HOUSING FIELD 

The Chairman. What about coordination in the housing field at the 
present time ? Is there any confusion about it ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, Mr. Chairman, Mr. Martin has had a problem 
down there. He will tell vou about that. He is somewhat isolated. 



^006 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

His plant is some 10 or 12 miles out. Housing facilities in that section 
of metropolitan Baltimore are quite limited. He is building houses 
himself. I think he feels very strongly that defense housing should be 
built, that the Defense Housing Authority should build more liouses 
within reasonable distance. And when I say "reasonable distance" 
I don't mean 20 miles. I mean a mile or a mile and a half or 2 miles — • 
walking distance, if necessary — and I think that is important in con- 
nection with what I said awhile ago — that we want to keep the people 
who are available in the city today, working. 

The Chairman, At San Diego, Mr. Roberts, in one project at Kear- 
ney Mesa, 1,766 housing units are being built to take care of 10,000 
people. They went out about 6 miles from San Diego. The people 
didn't relish that particularly, but the authorities went right out in the 
cactus and sagebrusli and built those houses. Well, of course, they had 
the problems of sewerage, of health, of water supply, of police pro- 
tection, and of fire protection. 

In Hartford and Trenton we found some confusion as to just who 
was the real man to see. Do you think we need a sort of a clearing 
house for all these Federal projects ? We are interested in that, and we 
are glad that Mr. Martin is here and may be able to give us some 
typical examples that he has in mind. That is one of the matters we 
intend to report on to Congress. 

Mr. Roberts. My point, Mr. Chairman, about houses being built 
close to the plant, is based on the fact that the highway transportation 
facilities are pretty badly congested, and as soon as j^ou get away from 
the plant any distance, you have difficulty in getting to work. There 
is a waste of time and men — taking an hour or hour and a half or 2 
liours to get to work when they live only 12 or 15 miles away, which 
is far too much. 

The Chairman. And it is all a part of the national-defense pro- 
gram, isn't it? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. In other words, we must safeguard civilian morale 
just as much as military morale. 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. 'Who is the next witness, Mr. Moderator ? 

Mr. PouDER. I want to ask Mr. W. F. Perkins, vice president of 
the Koppers Co., to say a word. 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold will interrogate Mr. Perkins. 

Mr. Arnold. You have submitted a statement, Mr. Perkins, which 
the committee considers a very good one. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY W. F. PERKINS, VICE PRESIDENT, KOPPERS CO., 
BALTIMORE, MD. 

During the year June 1, 1940, to June 1, 1941, employment at the Bartlett 
Hayward Division of Koppers Co. increased 280 percent. From a worliing 
force of about 500, the division grew to about 1,400 employees. This growth 
was gradual, and distrilnited fairly evenly over the entire year. 

Immediately after the granting of the first major defense contract to the 
-division, in July 1940, a very large number of people aiiplied at its personnel 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6007 

department for work. At that time it was, of course, too soon to do any large- 
scale employing, but in anticipation of future demand the personnel department 
interviewed,' and got applications from, about 15,000 applicants. Most of these 
came into the office during a 2-week period early in July. In 1 day during that 
period nearly 1,200 people applied for work. 

All of the applications received were classified, chiefly by occupation, but also 
by other qualifications, such as "under 21 years of age," and "obviously unfit 
for our type of work." This file of applications has served, and is still serving, 
as a major source of additional employees. 

The second major way in which the division has reached candidates for 
employment is through the Maryland State Employment Service. This agency 
has been extremely cooperative, and while it has not been able, in some instance, 
to refer applicants for jobs of certain kinds, such as supervisory or technical 
positions, it has been extremely helpful on general employment, and has per- 
formed special services of value, such as preemployment testing of prospective 
apprentices, and referral of graduates of national defense training courses. 

Other sources from which employees have been gotten are private employment 
ngenries, and labor unions, but numbers employed through these are relatively 
small. 

A few figures applicable to the increase in employment follow : 

For year June 1, 1940, to June 1, 1941 : ^ 

Employees on roll June 1, 1940 500 

Employees on roll June 1, 1941 1, 400 

Net increase in employment for j'ear : 900 

Number employed from State but out of Baltimore 40 

Number employed from out of State 60 

Number of employees who are married (as of June 1, 1941) 800 

Number of employees who are under 25 years of age (as of June 1, 

1911) 650 

For month of May 1941 : ' 

Number employed during month 135 

Number from State but out of city 10 

Number from out of State 5 

Number married 73 

Number under 25 years of age 57 

* Approximate. 

It should be noted that the figures of 900 and 135, as additions to the pay roll 
for the year and month are not exactly comparable in that the 900 represents net 
increase in pay roll, while the 135 represents accessions during the month. Turn- 
over has, of course, been greater than normal, and has included factors over which 
little or no control can be exercised, such as "called under selective service," and 
the "shopping around" that workers are doing. A slight indication of the nature 
of current turn-over can be gained from the figures for May 1941, during which 
there were 135 additions to the pay roll. Daring that month about 55 people left 
the division, distributed as follows : 

For better jobs (shopping around) 25 

Released for inefficiency or nonattendance 9 

Drafted 7 

Death ; physically unable to work 5 

Miscellaneous personal, including family conditions, leaving city, discharged 
for stealing, failed to report, etc 9 

Total 55 

The subtraction indicated makes the net addition to the pay roll for the months 
80 persons. 

As a concluding item regarding labor supply, it is estimated that the division 
will make a net addition to its pay roll of 350 to 400 people by January 1, 1942, 
assuming present amount of work on hand to remain largely unchanged. 

PITBLIC EMPLOYMENT SEEA^CES 

As has already been mentioned, the Maryland State Employment Service has 
played a significant role in recruiting labor for the division, and has been helpful 
and cooperative. It is our impressions, however, that this agency has not had the 
opportunity to play as large a part in organizing the entire labor supply of the 



QQQg BALTIMORE HEADINGS 

community as might be desirable, from the staudpoint of the best interests of the 
national defense. 

SBH-ECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM 

The division has consistently attempted to be guided by the spirit as well as the 
letter of the Selective Service Act, and aside from the large amount of clerical 
activity involved in control and requesting of deferments, has experienced no 
major difficulties. Local boards have been reasonable, and the Army adviser has 
been extremely helpful and cooperative. The division has so far made a total of 
165 requests for deferment of which 39 have been granted in class II, occupa- 
tional ; 16 have been granted in class III, dependency ; 110 are in process (of this 
110, nearly 100 were requested in the past month ) . 

lEAlNING AND UPGRADING PERSONNEL 

The division is conducting direct training or upgrading programs of the follow- 
ing main types : 

1. Regular supervisory training. 

2. Subforeman upgrade training. 

3. School for welders. 

4. School for machine operators. 

5. Regular apprentice training. 

6. Junior engineer upgrade training. 

In some of these, local educational institutions and the public employment 
service have participated either directly or in an advisory way. Prosi)ective 
machine operators, for instance, come through the employment service from 
the national-defense training courses of the school system and are given 
classroom instruction and on-the-job training at the plant. The junior engineer 
upgrading program was conducted on the premises, and under the auspices, 
of Johns Hopkins University. A special course in blueprint reading has been 
arranged with the vocational schools. It is our opinion that short-course en- 
gineering training, and vocational-school training in the use of metal-working 
machinery, should be developed further, as the products of both of these types 
of activity are in greater and greater demand. 

SPECIAL PROBLEMS 

The central city location of the Bartlett Hayward Division has created spe- 
cial problems regarding parking facilities for employees. A city ordinance 
banning midnight to 6 a. m. parking, and the objections of people living in 
the neighborhood, as well as stealing from parked cars, have provided major 
irritations. The division has rented, improved, and fenced it, a small but 
convenient plot for parking, but there is ahnost no more room available for 
expansion of this kind. 

Although we are not able to comment on the personal problems faced by 
all of the workers who have come from out of the city to work at Baretlett 
■ Hayward, the following cases seem to indicate tlie existence of a severe short- 
age of adequate housing facilities at a price which industrial workers are 
able to pay. 

A meclianic, married, with one child, came to Baltimore from Winchester. 
Va., about 9 months ago. He found it extremely difficult at that time to find 
a furnished apartment at a reasonable rental. He finally obtained a fairly 
satisfactory apartment, but the rent is being raised and he must move. He 
has been actively seeking new quarters for the past month but so far has 
found nothing suited to his needs. 

An electric welder, married, with no children, came to Baltimore from 
Pittsburgh, Pa., about 6 months ago. He spent considerable time in seeking 
a furnished apartment in various sections of Baltimore but found notliing 
satisfactory. His wife's family is from Baltimore and he has found it neces- 
sary to board with them. He claims that his search revealed that rents were 
extremely high and that available living quarters were unsanitai-y and gen- 
erally inadequate. 

An electrician's helper, married, with no children, came to Baltmore from 
Minden, W. Va., in January 1941. He and his wife obtained what they hoped 
would be temporary living quarters in a borading house. Since their arrival 
in Baltimore they have been trying to find a satisfactory furnished apartment. 



NATIONAL DEFP:NSE MIGRATION 5009 

Tliey feel that rents are higher than they are able to pay and that available 
furnished apartments are generally inadequate for comfortable living. 

TESTIMONY OF W. F. PERKINS 

Mr. Arnold. You mentioned that last summer your company had 
15,000 applications for employment in the short period of 2 ^yeeks. 

Can you tell us what percentage of these 15,000 were from outside of 
the Baltimore commuting area ? 

Mr. Perkins. Yes, sir; 5 percent. 

Mr. Arnold. And that was last July ? 

Mr. Perkins. That was July 1940, when we got our first defense 
contract. 

There was considerable publicity, and, of course, everybody in Balti- 
more wanted to come to work for us, because we have been in business 
100 years here and have gone through three wars and had a certain 
amount of glamor, so they all immediately flocked to us for positions. 

ITEMS OF BALTIMORE MANUFACTURE 

Mr. Arnold. What do you manufacture ? 

Mr. Perkins. My company operates many companies in the United 
States. We operate coal mines, run coke and gas plants, tar and 
chemical plants, make wood preservatives, iron and steel, operate 
steamships in coastwise trade; we repair ships, we make machinery, 
and we conduct an engineering and construction business. Outside of 
that I don't think we do much else. 

In Baltimore we have three divisions of the company. One is the 
Bartlett-Hayward division, which has been operating here for well 
over 100 years, and is in the general engineering, construction, and 
machinery business. We operate the American Hammer Piston Ring 
Division, which produces something over 100,000 piston rings for 
internal combustion and steam engines each day, and we supply by 
far the largest proportion of piston rings that are used in airplane 
engines. That division, consequently, is an important factor in 
national defense. 

Another division of our company here is the ]\Iaryland Drydock Co., 
which is engaged in the conditioning and repair of ocean-going vessels, 
both merchant marine and naval vessels. We employ about 7,000 
l^eople in Baltimore. 

]VIr. Arnold. ISIuch of your statement has to do with the Koppers Co. 

Mr. Perkins. Yes, sir. As I was about to say, I have confined all my 
factual information to the oi)erations of the i3artleit-Hayward Divi- 
sion, whioh is quite typical of the other three, and if you so desire 
I will briefly summarize. 

Mr. Arnold. Very good. 

SOURCE OF LABOR FOR KOPPERS PLANTS 

Mr. Pfjjkins. We have obtained, without undue difficulty, the labor 
we required to take care of our expansion; 29 percent of these new 
workers came from Baltimore, 5 percent from other parts of Maryland, 
and 5 percent from other States. 



QOlO BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

About 75 percent are married, well over 50 percent are under 25 
years of age. 

There is an ever-increasing amount of turn-over due to floating from 
one job to another, selective-service induction and dismissal for ineffi- 
ciency and other causes. 

Due to lack of trained applicants, training is absolutely essential. 
The national-defense trade-school training courses are very helpful 
but inadequate both as to quality and quantity. Such training should 
be improved and must be supplemented b}' intensive training within 
industry itself. 

It is my personal opinion that the housing and transportation 
facilities of this community are hopelessly inadequate and I believe 
the morale of defense workers is being very seriously affected, to 
say nothing of the morale of the civilian population which you spoke 
of, Mr. Chairman. And it is my further opinion — and this is my 
personal opinion — that with the rigid control of materials through 
Government priorities, production of goods for other than defense 
needs must and will be substantially curtailed. 

This will release many workers in nondefense industries. They 
will seek and secure employment in defense plants. 

The only obstacles to that successful shift are training, transporta- 
tion, and housing. I believe that intelligent cooperation on the part 
of the Federal and State Governments and local governments, civic 
organizations, and industry itself can certainly solve that problem. 

Those are my conclusions. 

The Chairman, In other words, you believe that in addition to 
making guns and bullets we have got to keep the morale of our 
people up at home b}^ providing adequate and proper housing facilities 
and supplying other needs? 

Mr. Perkins. I think it is perfectly obvious, Mr. Chairman. 

LABOR POLICIES IN BALTIMORE 

Mr. Arnold. You indicate that a large percentage of younger 
workers have been employed. T>6es that imply limitations on the 
employment of older workers ? 

Mr. Perkins. There is no limitation on the employment of older 
workers, Mr. Congressman. I have employed men who are 75 years 
of age and I would like to get some today if they had the proper 
skill. They just aren't available. They have all been taken up. 

Mr, Arnold. In other words, skilled workers who are physically 
able have been called back to work ? 

Mr. Perkins. They have been pretty well combed, 

Mr. Arnold. You mention that quite a number of workers leave 
for better jobs. Is there any stealing of labor in Baltimore? 

Mr. Perkins, Mr. Congressman, I think we larger employers in 
Baltimore have a perfect understanding with each other. We have 
made up our minds we are not going to steal each other's labor and I 
think everybody has been very faithfully hewing to that determina- 
tion. 

Mr. Arnold, It is just natural for some of them to go elsewhere? 

Mr. Perkins. Oh, they hear of a more intriguing job somewhere 
else and they quit their jobs and in 2 weeks they are back again. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION gOll 

Mr. Arnold. But the reemployment is in this area in Baltimore, 
for the most part ? 

Mr. Perkins. Yes, sir. 

ROLE OF STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

Mr. Arnold. You state that the State employment service does not 
play as vital a role as it should in the Baltimore area. To what do 
you attribute its relative inefficiency? 

Mr. Perkins. Well, that is rather difficult to answer. Congress- 
man. I thinlc they are perfectly willing to do all they can, but 
naturally there are certain limitations upon their operations. 

They are a rather new organization and they haven't become prop- 
erly established or have not secured the respect of the various em- 
ployers. It is just a thing that will have to develop over the course of 
time. 

Mr. Arnold. I am representing a district out in Illinois that has 
no defense industries, and where there are many skilled and semi- 
skilled workers. I am urging those who write me about positions to 
register with the employment services, and the employment service 
in Illinois seems to be placing many thousands of workers each month 
throughout the country. There is a large reservoir of skilled men 
in that area of southern Illinois that has not been touched, as I 
understand it. 

Mr. Perkins. Wlien you go back, sir, I wish you would send some 
more down here. We will be glad to get them. 

Mr. Arnold. Well, I always hesitate to advise men to leave home. 
I would rather the employment service handle the situation. 

But we do face a situation in areas where there are no defense in- 
dustries that may become serious if priorities sliut down nondefense 
industries. If that occurs, our workmen will have to leave home to 
secui'e employment, and none of the money earned will come back to 
that section of the country. 

I believe Mr. Curtis finds the same situation in Nebraska, We 
don't see where the defense program is going to do us much good. 
Perhaps, after it is over with, we will get those workmen back on 
our hands — broke — and in the meantime we shall not have gained 
anything from this defense effort. 

COMPANY TRAINING PROGRAM 

You have a training program in your company. How many 
workers are being trained at the present time? 

Mr. Perkins. At the present time we have 150 young men of less 
than 25 years of age who are in our training class. They work 8 
hours a day and attend the classroom for 1 hour after they have 
finished their 8 hours' work, for which we pay them one hour and a 
half overtime. 

Mr. Arnold. You plan to extend the training program ? 

Mr. Perkins. We plan to extend it just as fast as we can get quali- 
fid men to put in the course. 

Mr. Arnold. The primary difficulty at the present time is the lack 
of qualified men ? 



gQ12 BALTIMOKE HEARINGS 

Mr. Perkins. Well, there are two lacks, Mr. Congressmaii. One of 
them, of course, is the complete lack of skilled men. They are just 
not available. The other is the lack of boys who have been trained 
in schools in this State and city. 

Nineteen years ago a survey was made in Baltimore. The school 
authorities were implored to start trade training courses, which they 
absolutely neglected to do, and we find ourselves now in a woeful 
position of not having young men and young women trained to use 
their hands in this community. 

Mr. Arnold. Thank you very much, Mr. Perkins, not only for your 
splendid statement but for your splendid summary. 

That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Moderator? 

Mr. PouDER, Our next witness is Mr. Cort. 

The Chairman. Mr. Cort, Congressman Sparkmau will interrogate 
you. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Cort, I have read the abstract of the statement 
which you prepared. You understand your entire statement will go 
into the record. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY S. J. CORT, GENERAL MANAGER. MARYLAND PLANT, 
BETHLEHEM STEEL CO. 

The subsidiary companies of Bethlehem Steel Corporation with facilities at 
Sparrows Point, occupy a rather favorable position with respect to employment. 
The steel plant and shipyard here have been in operation for over 50 years, and, 
while the trend of employment has not always been upward, there has been over 
this period a general expansion and increase of employment. 

As a result of the company's own real-estate developments and of develop- 
ments by others, there is, in additon to the town of Sparrows Point, a rather 
thickly populated community within commuting distance of our plant and ship- 
yard. People living within this area have naturally looked to the Bethlehem 
Steel Co. for employment. 

As far back as 1937 our total employment had reached a peak of 22,500. In 
193L) the peak was within a few hundred of the same figure ; in 1940 it was ap- 
proximately 24,000. Our peak employment so far this year, as represented by 
our June 1 figure, is 26,000. 

These figures indicate that we have not been faced with any unusual employ- 
ment problem in the present emergency. 

ORIGIN OF L.\B0B SUPPLY 

Our labor supply, as indicated above, comes largely from the local area. For 
the past 2 years there has been some shortage in a few of the skilled trades, par- 
ticularly machinists. We have employed some machinists from outside our 
local area, but they all are men who come to us voluntarily, from other indus- 
trial areas of the Middle Atlantic States. We have done no out-of-State 
recruiting. 



We have had a long-range program for training men to the needs of our indus- 
try. Practically all of our employees for the steel-plant operations are hired aa 
unskilled and receive in-service training for the job ahead, gradually working 
their way up to positions requiring the higher skills. 

Our shop forces for maintenance and shipbuilding include all classes of me- 
chanics up to the highest skilled. To meet these needs, we have for a long 
period of years conducted apprenticeship courses. We have long had a well- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6013 

organized training department carrying out a long-range program, which we feel 
is meeting tlie pi-esent situation and planning for the future. The work of this 
department may for convenience be broken down into four divisions: (1) Ap- 
prentices, (2) learners, (3) college training program, (4) in-service program. 

The apprentice courses cover a period of 8,000 hours, and at the present time 
include 16 skilled trades. 

The learners' training program is designed to short-cut the helper up-grading 
method and, by means of special training and classroom instruction, to train an 
inexperienced man to operate a specific machine or handle some other skilled job. 

Under the college training program technical graduates are selected each year 
from universities in ditlerent parts of the country and given a 9-week course ir. 
observation and operating participation, largely for the purpose of orientation 
before being placed on definite assignment. 

The in-service program has been broadened during the past year to include 
short coui'ses of about 12 weeks" duration, which provide classroom instruction 
during working hours by instructors who are tlie actual supervisors of the same 
men on the job. These cour.ses are conducted particularly in connection with 
shipyard work, as it is felt that in this way considerable time can be saved, 
and the efficiency of new employees improved much more rapidly than by the 
Usual procedure of helper training. 

EFFORTS MADE TO UPGRADE LABOR WITHIN PLANT 

As previously mentioned, this has always been our policy. Inexperienced men 
are employed and trained for the job ahead. Encouragement is given to em- 
arranged with this in view. At present many of our employees are taking night 
ployees who wish to study on their own time and whenever possible schedules are 
arranged with this in view. At present many of our employees are taking night 
courses offered by the various institutions around Baltimore. Over 600 employees, 
to mention just one group, are registered in International Correspondence 
courses, and reports of the progress of these men are received by their respective 
superintendents every 3 months. 

TRAINING AND BRINGING IN LOCAL LABOR 

We are cooperating fully with the various educational institutions in Baltimore 
City and with the Baltimore City and County public-school systems, keeping 
them advised as to the courses that provide the best preparation for jobs in our 
industry. For several years our personnel has been supplying both instructors 
and a majority of the students for the night school training courses conducted 
under tlie public-school program at the Sparrows Point High School. We both 
give and receive exccIhMit cooperation from the various high schools of Baltimore 
city and Baltimore County in the selection of high-school graduates for employ- 
ment. We have been greatly benefited and expect to be further benefited in 
future by the help of Johns Hopkins University and the University of Maryland in 
furnishing students and instructors for the national-defense training program. 

PROBLEMS DUE TO HOUSING 

We have no acute problems due to housing. Our proximity to the large city 
of Baltimore makes it readily possible for new employees to house themselves 
within commuting distance of the plant. A check of our employment records, 
as of June 1, 1941, indicated that only about 3 percent of our present employees 
had a last previous place of employment beyond a reasonable commuting distance 
from our plant. 

We encourage to the fullest extent home building in the Sparrows Point terri- 
tory. We have gone ahead on the assumption that many of our employees would 
take advantage of modern housing located clo.?er to the job. We feel that we 
have fully cooperated with and encouraged builders and real-estate developers to 
utilize any of our suitable available property and construct homes under the 
Federal Housing Administration program. Baltimore and the towns of Dundalk 
and Sparrows Point are well taken care of with respect to sewerage systems 
and water supply. There are some areas in Baltimore County that now lack 
sewerage and water supply systems, but we feel that the comity government is 
properly meeting these problems and development is going ahead in these areas. 

The traffic situation is good in the immediate local area, but for those employees 
going toward or into Baltimore City, the highways at present are entirely 
inadequate. Employees' cars from our plant and shipyard with cars driven by 



^Q]^4 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

employees from other plants pour into the highways, and there is a serious 
blocking of trafBc during periods of shift change. This problem has been 
thoroughly studied by the proper agencies. We .cannot stress too strongly the 
need for helping these agencies in carrying out the plans that have been made. 

SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT 

The Baltimore City and Maryland State draft boards have cooperated with us 
fully with respect to draftees. The men are either inducted into the service or 
deferred, entirely on the basis of where they will do the most good for national 
defense. 

TESTIMONY OF S. J. CORT 

Mr. Sparkman. Your statement indicates that employment at your 
Sparrows Point plant lias increased about 4,000 in the past 2 years. 
Mr. CoRT. Yes, sir. 

EXPANSION AT SPARROWS POINT 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if you could give us some idea as to 
what expansion you anticipate over the next 8 months? 

Mr. CoRT. I think I can answer that for you. Bethlehem now has 
four units here in the Baltimore district. We have the steel ]Dlant. 
which employs about 21,000 people; we have our shipyard down 
there, that employs about 5,100 people; then we have our repair 
yard in the upper harbor, which employs about 4,500 ; and then we 
have the new plant, the Bethlehem-Fairfield plant, which is building 
these boats for the Maritime Commission, and that has about 1,300 
men today; so it gives us a total of about 32,000. Now, by the end of 
the year we will need about 2,000 more men at the steel plant and 
the shipyard. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are those skilled workers or semiskilled ? 

Mr. CoRT. They are skilled and semiskilled. I will get to that 
in a minute. And our upper yard we will have to expand, of 
course. The yard is just under construction and we will need about 
6,000 men by the end of the year, so that will be about 4,700 more, 
and about 2J000 down below, so that will be a little over 6,000 by the 
end of the year. 

I think that we will be able to get those men out of this territory 
and we will be able to train them. 

APPRENTICE TRAINING COURSE 

Our business is a specialized business and we have to train our men, 
outside of the skilled trades. We have an apprentice course of 
training. We train 16 different skilled trades in our apprentice 
course. Now, we have run that for 50 years. And in that time we 
have trained about 4,000 skilled mechanics. 

In addition to that, we train men for the specific jobs which they 
are to do. Now, if we start a construction job, a new building or 
something, we start to train the men for that job as soon as we 
start the drawings, almost, so we have a group of trained men in 
.our organization to take over that operation. 

For instance, let us consider electric welding. In the last few years 
■electric welding has come in very largely to take the place of 
riveting. We have trained over 1,000 welders in our welding school. 

In our shipbuilding we have to train men. What we do is take 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6015 

the likely men and have the foreman give them a couple of houvs of 
class work and then put them on the job. We pay them while they are 
being trained and in that way we build up the nucleus. We try to take 
all employees from the Baltimore area. 

RECRUITING OF LABOR 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, in what way is most of your recruiting 
done? The point I am wondering about is, How are you going to get 
these 6,000 new laborers on this labor market when we understand it is 
tight right now ? Just how are you going to get those 6,000 initially 
on your pay roll ? 

Mr. CoKT. Well, so far we haven't found that the labor market is 
very tight. First, I would say there are 400 men at our employment 
(office every day. There were at least 400 men there yesterday morn- 
ing trying to get employment. 

Mr. Sparkman. Were these people unemployed? 

Mr. CoRT. Some of them were unemployed and others were people^ 
from nondefense industries who want to get into a defense industry.- 

Mr. Sparkman. How do you select the ones you do take ? 

Mr. CoRT. First we try to take fellows who have a high-school edu- 
cation, if we can get them, because it is much easier to train a person 
who has had a high-school education. 

Mr. Sparkman. You have certain specifications? 

Mr. CoRT. Yes. 

an even distribution of "headaches" 

Mr. Sparkman. In your paper you state that the out-of-State skilled 
workers, primarily, are from the Middle Atlantic States. One question 
that I have been greatly concerned with — and I believe the entire 
membership of the committee is too — is, what is going to happen to 
these people when this great defense program comes to an end ? I am 
wondering, naturally — coming from one of those out-migration sec- 
tions myself, just as Mr. Arnold and Mr. Curtis — why it wouldn't 
be better for the economic welfare of the entire United States, instead 
of building up great defense areas such as is being built up here in 
Baltimore and drawing people from all these other sections, to decen- 
tralize the plants, and go to the points where the labor is, so that when 
this is over, your "headaclies," at least, will be fairly distributed 
throughout the country. 

Mr. Cort. Well, we have had that very definitely in mind and that 
is the reason we have stuck to local labor, so that the problem wouldn't 
be so great when the thing is over. 

For example, after the depression set in, we didn't hire a soul wha 
wasn't from this area. We always gave the local man the preference. 
We didn't hire any from out of this district. 

Mr. Sparkman. I have no quarrel with you about that, and I think 
you are exactly right, but I am assuming that you are now or soon will 
be at the point where your local labor supply will not be sufficient. 

WAGE differential — DEFENSE AND NONDEFENSE 

Mr. CoRT. I don't think that is going to affect us for this reason : It 
is going to affect a lot of firms in nondefense industries, because we? 



g016 BALTIMORE HEAKIKGS 

can't help but draw their labor, at the wages we are paying in our 
industry. 

Mr. Sparkman. How much better are your wages than wages in 
nondef ense industries ? 

Mr. CoRT. Well, I happen to be in an industry that pays a very high 
wage, and it attracts labor from a lot of other employers. Now, for 
instance, our minimum wage is 72^/2 cents an hour. That is the 
minimum. Of course, in this area the starting rate is very much 
lower in other industries, and our rate therefore attracts labor from 
a great many nondefense industries. 

Mr. Sparkman. Your reasoning is plausible when you restrict it 
to your one industry ; but you can tell from the remarks of the panel 
here today that a great amount of labor is being siphoned in here, and 
as a result you have a housing shortage and a school shortage, as testi- 
fied to by the school men who were here this morning. The other 
witnesses anticipate a tremendous unemployment problem on their 
hands when this emergency is over. 

Mr. CoRT. I hope not. 

Mr. Sparkman. I shall not say "hope"; I can only say I wish we 
might not. 

Mr. Cort. We are in an industry that is well established in this 
section. It is an advantageous location for both distribution and 
export. 

Mr. Sp^ujkman. Let me understand you on one point : I am not 
talking about your particular company, nor the steel industry. I 
realize what you say is true of them. But I am speaking about defense 
industry generally. 

INDIVIDUAL HOUSING THROUGH FEDERAL HOUSING ADMINISTRATION 

Mr. CoRT. So far as the housing situation is concerned, we have been 
working on that. We have been working on it for a long period of 
time, trying to get our employees housed closer to the plant. We had 
in our territory last year 1,200 single units built, and this year the rate 
at which they are building there will be 2,000. A lot of them are 
financed by the F. H. A., but they will not be Government housing. It 
is individual housing built by the individual for his own use. And 
the city and county have been very cooperative. We are fixed so we 
can give all the services they will need, as far as sanitation, sewerage, 
water, streets, and fire and police protection. But we have one situa- 
tion that is not so good, and that is at our Fairfield yard, where the 
new industry is going to sit down in that territory. There will be a 
lot of people coming in there who wdll not be able to get housing and 
probably the Government will have to provide some housing in that 
territory. 

Mr. Sparkman. I notice in your paper you are very encouraging 
in your statement about housing; that, as a matter of fact, you encour- 
age your workers to live near your plant. 

Mr. CoRT. Right. 

Mr. Sparkman. And do everything you can to encourage them to 
build their own houses. 

Mr. CoRT. We help them in every way we can. 

Mr. Sparkman. I believe your paper shoAvs that only about 3 percent 
of your workers live beyond a reasonable commuting distance of the 
plant. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6017 

PROBLEM OF TRANSPORTATION 

Mr, CoRT. Our real problem today is transportation. The road 
system has not been improved since we had 14,000 people down there, 
and a great deal of industry has moved out to the southeastern district. 

Mr, Martin's plant is going u]) down there, and General Motors 
built a big plant, and Western Electric and several others, in that 
(erritory, and the arteries of transportation haven't been increased. 
It is very difficult to get in and out. Our big problem is transportation. 

There is a bill before Congress which I hope will be acted on, because 
this problem throws a tremendous load on the local governments to 
open up those arteries. I would say our biggest labor turn-over is due 
to the time it takes men to get to and from their work and their home. 
They get jammed in traffic and it takes them an hour or an hour and a 
lialf to get out. 

I had one man come in the other day who said : "I like it here and I 
don't want to leave, but I am working 8 hours a day and I am away 
from home 12 hours. It takes me 4 hours to come and go." Unless 
that situation is straightened out we are going to be seriously handi- 
capped. 

BILL FOR ACCESS ROADS 

Mr. Sparkmax. I think that gives you a fine opportunity to do a 
little lobbying on that bill. I think you should tell us what the bill is. 

Mr. CoRT. I had a very good chance to give a little demonstration. 
The naval committee asked to come over to our yard one day, and I 
was glad to have them over. I took them down there and showed them 
the yard, and we talked over some of our problems, and I told them 
our transportation problem was a real problem. At a change of shifts 
they saw what we are faced with, and they were so thoroughlj^ con- 
vinced of the need for improvement that they told me afterward they 
were going to do everything they could. 

Mr. Sp^vrkman. Some of them told me that, too. I presume you 
refer to the building of access roads. 

Mr. CoRT. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. I think that legislation is coming up after the holi- 
days. 

You speak of 10 or 11 or 12 miles as being a reasonable commuting 
distance. But under those circumstances that is a very long distance, 
is it not ? 

Mr. CoRT. The 11 miles into Baltimore takes you an hour and a half. 
Normally I should say you could make it in 25 minutes. You don't 
want to have all your employees living outside the city. It wouldn't 
be fair to the city of Baltimore or to the schools or anything else. 

RENTS IN BALTIMORE AREA 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you experienced any loss of your employees 
because of their failure to get low rents? 

Mr. CoRT. Well, I don't know whether I could answer that. There 
is some hiking of rents, I know, in the territory. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, your employees will not feel it so keenly 
because of the fact they have been pretty well housed over the years, 

Mr. CoRT, Yes, sir. ' We went in and built around 600 apartments, 
and those ajDartments, as a matter of fact, are able to take care of 



5018 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

people who come in until they know where they want to locate or 
build houses themselves. It has been a big help in the last two years. 

Mr. Spaekman. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr, Cort, 

Now, Mr. Moderator, who is your next witness ? 

Mr. PouDER. Mr. Glenn L. Martin, president of the Glenn L. Martin 
Co., who is on my left. 

The Chairman. Congressman Osmers will interrogate you, Mr. 
Martin. 

Mr. OsMERS. Mr. Martin, I have been reading your statement. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY GLENN L. JIARTIN, PRESIDENT, THE GLENN L. MARTIN 
CO., BALTIMORE, MD. 

In order to fulfill its assignments under the national-defense program, the Glenn 
L. Martin Co. must raise its employment rolls from its present 18,000 men to 42,000 
men within the next year. This increase will represent more than 55 percent of 
the needs of all employers within the Baltimore area. 

The problems arising from this increase will be many, and they will not touch 
the Martin company alone. Federal, State, county, and city governments and the 
civic interests of the community will be affected. The solutions of these problems 
will depend upon their early recognition by all concerned and the coordination 
of agencies which must deal with them. 

Ever since the company moved to Baltimore in 1929 it has looked largely to the 
local labor market for its skilled workmen — to the aircraft mechanics' courses it 
helped establish in the Baltimore vocational and technical high schools, and, in 
lesser measure, to certain reliable training centers in nearby States. In 1939,. 
when the Middle River plant was almost doubled because of heavy contracts with 
the French Government and the employment rolls quadrupled in a few months,^ 
it still drew principally from the Baltimore area and instituted up-grading and 
quick-training courses to meet the situation. 

More recently the proi>ortion of out-of-State woi'kers has grown until now it is 
around 30 percent of the total, and as the plants expand to 4,030,000 square feet 
of floor space, that proportion will continue to grow. 

SKILLS KEQUKED IN AIRCRAFT 

The aircraft industry has always required high degrees of skill in its workers. 
There has been almost no common labor. Normally the vocational and trade- 
schools have been able to supply the bases on which much of these skills has been 
built by Martin, and as the national-defense effort created greater demand the 
educational efforts of both the local and Federal Governments were expanded 
accordingly. However, even the extended facilities cannot match the hiring rate. 

Anticipating this dearth the Glenn L. Martin Co. began early to simplify Its 
manufacturing processes and tolls, until already it has lowered its skill requisites 
in many operations. This naturally increases the labor reservoir. Meanwhile 
the company has extended its school cooperation to neighboring States in coopera- 
tion with the Federal and State employment services. Increasing numbers of 
out-of-State workers are applying to Baltimore industries. The up-grading of 
men for supervisory positions is moving forward systematically and satisfactorily. 

As it becomes apparent that more and more workers will be employed, the 
colateral problems loom larger — housing, roads, social control, price control, 
education, recreation, etc. 

NEED .".,000 HOUSES AT MIDDLE RIVER 

Until the national-defense expansions began, the Martin plant, established for 
many excellent reasons in a nonresidential section some 11 miles from the cetiter 
of Baltimore, has had little difficulty from a housing standpoint. Its personnel is 
scattered through many residential sections of the city and Baltimore County. 



XATIO^•AL DEFENSE MIGilATION 6019 

Apartments, rooming and boarding places are still available in limited numbers. 
But it became apparent sometime ago that with the in migration of defense 
workers established housing facilities would not be sutHcient. 

It appears that around '6,000 houses, i^lus certain dormitory facilities, will be 
needed in the vicinity of Middle River. These houses will be forthcoming (some 
are already being built), partly through housing projects of the company and 
partly through similar projects of the Federal Government. Meanwhile the Farm 
Security Administration has established temporary housing by sending in several 
hundred trailers, which shortly will become available on a site near the plant 
when sanitary facilities are ready. 

Although the housing problem at and near Middle River will be settled to .a 
marked degree by present projects there is a conviction among Martin personnel 
officials that a strong bureau of registration is badly needed to make full use of 
available housing and rooming space in Baltimore and its environs. This bureau 
should serve in every possible way as a central clearing house between house- 
holders and defense workers, and it is strongly felt that it should exert super- 
visory powers in matters of prices, sanitation, and morals. 

The housing shortage, it appears, will touch especially single men and married 
men who come to Baltimore without their families. Since fewer than 40 percent 
of Martin employees are married, the problem is likely to become acute. It is 
felt that dormitories, carefully regulated, will be the ultimate answer. 

ACCESS-ROAD PKOBLEM ACUTE 

The problem of roads serving the Martin plant is already acute — has been for 
2 years. As employment increases, traffic congestion will become intolerable 
unless road impro\ ements are forthcoming promptly. Begun too late, their con- 
struction will soiiously hamper defense work. Concerted action by the major 
industries and the civic organizations of the Baltimore industrial area, coordi- 
nated by the industrial bureau of the Baltimore Association of Commerce, has 
already gained recognition of the problem by both the State, local, and Federal 
Governments, and the building of long-needed industrial highways now awaits 
the appropriation of Federal funds, since State and local roads funds are limited. 

The social aspects of the influx of workers might be serious, indeed, unless 
a cooperative program involving both governmental and civic organizations is 
developed quickly. 

The local governments are faced with the necessity of providing sufficient 
educational facilities for the newcomers. Recreational needs must be answered. 
There is a manifest need for a bureau, with a number of branches through the 
community, which wiU list churches, schools, social programs, recreation points, 
etc. There should be an extension of such services as those rendered by the 
Travelers Aid to take careful interest in the new, and often impecunious, arrivals. 

There is a public-relations job ahead in behalf of the defense worker. It is 
clear that the importance of his position in the national defense effort is not 
fully recognized. The splendid social endeavors of the United Service Organiza- 
tions in behalf of American soldiers need their counterpart in behalf of the men 
who must supply the Army and Navy their weapons. The recreational and 
social requirements of the migi'ant in defense work are just as pressing as those 
of the uniformed soldier — perhaps more so, since there are definite morale pro- 
grams on all military reservations. 

CROWDING IN BALTIMORE HOSPITALS 

Some alarm might be taken at the crowded condition of the Baltimore hospitals. 
So strained are they that, even under present conditions prior to the expected 
influx of new residents, it is extremely difficult to secure beds. The possibility 
of new hospitals or adaptations should be considered very seriously at once. 

The tendency of suddenly growing communities toward unwarranted price 
inflation is well recognized and has many precedents. Therefore, it would seem 
advisable to consider all possibilities of price control in the Baltimore area. An 
agency to study constantly the basic factors governing prices and to exert 
whatever means can be provided to protect the wage earner against unreasonable 
increases would perform an outstanding service. 

Because of the large number of youthful men being hired, a considerable bur- 
den will fall upon the office of the commissioner of labor and statistics of Mary- 
land. This office should be surveyed for assurance that it has sufficient space and 
force to take care of age verifications and other work without inconveniencing 
60.396— 41— lit. 15 10 



6020 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



industry aud employees. This is also true of the bureau of vital statistics, whicn 
is called uiM)n to establish citizenship of workers. 

MARTIN HIKING RATE Sdij PER WEEK 

The Glenn L. Martin Co. is working closely with the Federal and State employ- 
ment services. These agencies are doing everything in their power to stabilize 
labor conditions. It will be necessary in the present effort for all of these units 
to work together to preserve the coordination that will be needed. 

The present hii ing rate at the Glenn L. Martin Co. is close to 800 a week. There 
is a likelihood that there will be a steady increa.se in personnel at Middle River 
throughout the next 10 to 12 months, not counting the hiring of men at the new 
Omaha (Nebr.) assembly plant, which will be ready next fall. Against this 
hiring rate is a normal quit-rate aud a loss of approximately a hundred men 
a month to the armed services and other Federal departments. 

TESTIMONY OF GLENN L. MARTIN 

Mr. OsMERS. Will you tell us what the dollar value of the contracts 
is that your company now holds ? 

Mr. Martin. Our company and its subsidiary companies have about 
$6r)0,000,000 in contracts. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, what employment increase do you anticipate in 
Baltimore in the next year? 

Mr. Martin. We are now employing 20,000 people, and by June of 
1942 we should have 42,000 people,'sir. 

Mr. OsMERs. How many of that 22,000 increase do you expect to 
be able to get in the Baltimore labor market? 

Mr. Martin. From 70 to 75 percent. 

Mr. OsMERs. That means you will need about 5,000 or 6,000 men 
from outside the Baltimore territory? 

Mr. Martin. That is assuming that our present pattern continues. 
About 75 percent of our new employees now are Baltimoreans. That 
is true of the last 2,000 we put on, in the last 4 weeks. And 25 percent 
were from out of Baltimore. 

Mr. OsMERS. Have you any reason to believe that you are getting 
near the bottom of the well so far as the supply of Baltimore area 
aircraft workers is concerned? 

Mr. Martin. Our daily applications have run somewhere near 1,000 
a day. The lowest number of applications for any 1 day for many 
weeks has been 300. We have over 9,000 applications on file. Out of 
the thousand a day we are only employing 120 to 125. We have put 
on 2,000 people in the last 4 weeks and' there has been no diminishing 
in "the line," as we call it. The daily applications are just as far 
ahead of our needs as they were 4 weeks ago. There has been no 
depletion at all in "the line." 

character of applicants 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you notice any change, as your employment in- 
creases? Do you notice any change in the character or quality of 
"line," to use your own expression? 

Mr. Martin. The character of the citizen remains about the same. 

Mr. OsMERS. Are they younger, older, less skilled, or more skilled? 

Mr. Martin. In our particular industry we find mostly young men. 

Mr. OsMERs. Young, single men? 

Mr. Martin. I think 40 percent of our employees are unmarried. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6021 

BALTIMORE TRAINING SCHOOLS 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, I wonder if you would describe briefly these 
Baltimore training schools. 

Mr. Martin. We have had complete cooperation from the various 
training groups and they have undertaken to carry out related train- 
ing. Their night classes and the like have been coordinated with our 
employment and welfare offices, so that the kind of training they get 
will be useful to us. 

]\Ir. OsMERS. Are you training any men in the plant ? 

Mr. Martin. The in-plant training is the largest percentage of all 
the training. We have 4.000 men at the present time in training, prin- 
cipally to upgrade their usefulness, and we have found it quite bene- 
ficial to take men who have an aptitude for our kind of work. If they 
have taken this in-plant training and sometimes related training on 
the outside at the same time, they are able to upgrade themselves rap- 
idly in the more important jobs. 

DAYLIGHT SA\1NG AS DEFENSE AID 

Mr. D'Alesandro. I would like to ask the gentleman, how do you 
feel about national daylight saving? Would it help in defense pro- 
duction ? 

Mr. Martin. We don't pay any attention to daylight saving as such. 
We have our hours and schedules, and our method of shifting or stag- 
gering our work doesn't seem to have any relation to daylight saving. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you think the institution of national daylight sav- 
ing — not with reference to your industry — would save electric power 
that might be useful in defense? 

Mr. Martin. I don't believe that it will have any bearing, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. You don't feel it would cut down on the civilian con- 
sumption of electric lights ? 

Mr. ISIartin. It would only require a staggering of work. Instead 
of going to work at 8 o'clock, why not go to work at 7 o'clock — instead 
of moving the clocks up? 

Mr. OsMERs. You are applying the discussion to your own industry. 
I am applying it to the country in general. Take the New York area. 
People go to work at 9 o'clock in the morning, and they put in daylight 
saving. They still go to work in the morning, but they have one more 
hour of daylight than they do under tlie standard time. 

Mr. Martin. They simply go to work at 8 o'clock instead of 9 o'clock. 

Mr. Osmers. By God's time, yes; but the point I am making is this: 
That instead of illuminating their houses at 8 o'clock at night, they 
don't turn their lights on until "9 o'clock" because they have an addi- 
tional hour of daylight. Consequently, their consumption of elec- 
tricity during the time that daylight saving is in vogue is less. 

Mr. Martin. I don't believe there will be any material saving. Thar. 
is my personal opinion. 

saving in residential lighting 

jNIr. D'Alesandro. Mr. Perkins, how do you feel about it? 

Mr. Perkins. I personally think it conserves electricity used for 
lighting, which is only a small portion of the electricity that is con- 
sumed in the country, in operating industries 24 hours a day and 6 



5022 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

days a week. The electricity you would save by turning over to day- 
light saving would be infinitesimal. I see no reason for it. 

Mr. Roberts. That is true of industry but in residential lighting there- 
is a definite saving. In industry they work three turns anyway, so the 
saving would not be there ; but in the residential service there would 
be a saving of light because you work more in daylight under such a 
plan. If you get up at 6 o'clock and the sun rises at 4 : 45, you have 
lost an hour or hour and a half of daylight already. You can't get 
away from the fact that that means a saving, in the evening. How 
big a factor it is I am not prepared to say. 

SAVING IN Dlf^PLAY LIGHTING 

Mr. Sparkman. Isn't that true also with reference to the bright 
lights — display advertising, show windows, and such ? 

Mr. Roberts. Of course, it is true. They would run an hour less in 
the evening. I am talking about other than industry. The saving in 
industry may not be any at all, but I feel there would be considerable 
saving so far as residential lighting is concerned. 

Mr. OsMEES. You would have to consult your power index to find 
that out. 

Mr. Roberts. Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. I was just thinking that if there is a shortage of 
power in the United States, as some indicate there is 

Mr. RoBi rts. In Alabama and Georgia there is a shortage. 

Mr. Osmers. We are going to have to turn to these trick meth- 
ods — if we may call them that — to save whatever power can be 
saved. 

Mr. Roberts. In Alabama they have already changed their work- 
ing period at the request of the Georgia Power Co. 

Mr. Sparkman. I might, say in eight of the Southern States,, 
power has actually been rationed. 

Mr. Roberts. By staggering the working hours? 

Mr. Sparkman. First, on a voluntary basis; but a few days ago 
they started in actually to ration power. 

extent of call on other states FtR TRAINING 

Mr. Osmers. Mr. Martin, to what extent do you call upon out-of- 
State schools for training? 

Mr. Martin. We do not contact out-of-State sources for schooling 
or for men. We have never advertised to the outside areas. Stu- 
dents from out-of-State schools quite often apply for work at our 
plant but we have no particular plan, with out-of-State schools to 
furnish us with employees except for aeronautical engineers who 
have to come from professional schools. 

Mr. Osmers. And of course they come from anywhere in the world, 

Mr. Martin. That is right, sir. 

restrictions on negroes 

Mr. Osmers. Now, what requirements do you specify in the matter 
of application for employment as to race, nationality, and marital 
status? Do you have any restrictions at all I 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5023 

Mr. Martin. There are no restrictions other than the man's ability 
to do a job. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you employ Negroes at your plant ? 

Mr. Martin. We have practically no Negroes; we have a few. 

Mr, OsMERs. I have noticed, as I am sure you have, recent pro- 
nouncements by the O. P. M. and by President Roosevelt urging the 
employment of Negroes in defense industries. Does your company 
plan to do anything about that? 

Mr. Martin. We are making a study of the methods that we 
might employ to train and use Negroes, but it is in the course of 
study. 

At the present time we have no need for the labor. We have all 
of the labor we can use. We are also making a careful study of the 
use of women, in case the time should arise when we need them; 
but at the present time we do not have that need. 

POSITION OF NEGROES IN TRAINING PROGRAM 

Mr. OsMERS, Are Negroes admitted to the training programs in 
Baltimore for skilled workers? 

Mr. Martin. We understand that the schools do not have sufficient 
Negroes to fill the positions that can be filled if the Negroes would 
take the training. There are jobs open for colored men, but there are 
not sufficient colored men taking the training to fill the jobs. That 
is our advice from some of the schools in Baltimore. 

Mr. Roberts. There are training courses for colored people, but 
as Mr. Martin says, they are not used extensively. The courses, 
however, are available. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you mean that if a colored man goes to one of 
these schools and becomes proficient in some skill that is used in your 
plant, Mr. Martin, he would not be able to get a job there ? 

Mr. Martin. We haven't yet devised a proper and efficient way to 
use the colored man in our skilled jobs. I am pointing out that there 
are schools for training of colored men, and they have calls for jobs 
for colored men, but there are not sufficient Negroes taking the courses 
to fill the calls for colored men with training. 

DECLARES SEGREGATION NECESSARY 

Now, we haven't a thing in the world against the Negro. You and 
I have read stories about Negroes wanting work in the plant. We 
have nothing against the Negro. If he is a good citizen, he is all 
right; but we would have to have segregation and the organizations 
who have been promoting the Negro question do not wish to accept 
segregation. 

Mr. OsMERs. You say you would have to have segregation ? 

Mr. Martin. We believe so. 

Mr. OsMERs. 'Wliy? 

Mr. Martin. Because Baltimore has segregation. The Negro does 
not go to the white man's theater, nor does he go to the white man's 
restaurant or hotel. There are no colored people in the legislature 
in Maryland. The schools have segregation. 

We are willing to help with any social reform or change, but we 
do not feel that we have time to lead in such a reform at this time. 



QQ24 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

When Maryland undertakes to place the Negro on the same basis with 
the white man, without segregation, I believe that our organization 
would be ready to absorb such a relation. But at present we have 
segregation, and when we employ the colored man, I believe that we 
will have to segregate liim, as is the custom in every other instance in 
the State. 

Mr. OsMERS. We have bumped into this problem in States where 
they do not have segregation, and we have found evidence that the 
employees are holding back on the use of Negroes in some of the 
plants, rather than the employers. 

WOULD EXPECT WORK STOPPAGE 

Well, I don't know whether I have correctly gauged your attitude, 
but I think your attitude is one of absolute neutrality so far as the 
question is concerned. But you anticipate, do you, that there would 
be a work stoppage if you attempted to put Negroes throughout 
your plant? 

Mr. jMartin. If we undertook to put Negroes in there without seg- 
regation, there would be an immediate stoppage. We know that. 
The organizers who have proposed our emplo3'ing Negroes without 
segregation have had some publicity in the INIaryland papers. We 
have said nothing about it — made no reply, but a number of our 
employees who became concerned for fear we might consider such a 
thing have let it be known that they, the skilled men in the plant, will 
walk out when the Negroes walk in; and so we are, in the interests 
of national defense, not going to do anything to disturb a social 
problem until someone else has straightened it out. 

Mr. OsMERS. Are your workers organized into unions ? 

Mr. Martin. No, sir. 

NEED for housing AND ROADS IS ACUTE 

Mr. OsMERs. Now, with respect to housing in the Baltimore area. 
You have had a particularly acute problem, I gather from many of 
the statements that have been made here. 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; we have not only a housing problem but a prob- 
lem of roads. 

Mr. OsMERs. Or the problem of the absence of roads. 

Now, I think that everyone who is interested in this defense program 
is interested in keeping our economy on an even keel, and in trying to 
prevent as much as possible the almost inevitable spiral that comes with 
the raising of rents. In other words, the landlord raises his rent, the 
workers come to you for more pay, you charge more for your product, 
and the circle starts. 

Mr. Martin. That is right. 

LAYS responsibility FOR RENT TO GOX'ERNMENT 

Mr. Osmers. Now, do you see a need in the Baltimore area for some 
legislation that will control the increases in rent — some fixing or freez- 
ing of rents? 

Mr. Martin. It would seem to me if the Federal Government would 
do its part and carry out its promises for housing there would not be 
much tendency or opportunity on the part of landlords to raise their 
rents, because the Government could build enough houses to do the job. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6025 

IVIr. OsMERS. You feel that if the Government housing program car- 
ried out its original promise of providing houses for defense workers 
the problem would be largely solved? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir; I do. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, a great many of j^our workers are living near the 
plant, are they not? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. I suppose you have trailers out there? 

Mr. Martin. We have no Government trailers in operation, but there 
are trailers privately owned, and we have boys on the night and day 
shifts living in the same room, sleeping in the same bed. When one 
gets out the other gets in, which is not good. Now, we would like to 
improve the home conditions of that group of people. 

Mr, OsMERS. I am thinking of the need for hospitals and school 
facilities. 

Mr. Martin. We believe it would be sound if there were a village in 
our locality. We would like to see housing and schools, with all of the 
services necessary for a village. 

LONG-TERM AIRCIUFT PROSPECTS 

Our business is one of the growing businesses of the country. Our 
curve of growth would, in ordinary language, constitute a boom, re- 
gardless of the defense problem. 

We ai'e now superimposing on top of a boom era in aircraft some 
national-defense orders. We will go up to 42,000 people to do the de- 
fense program, but we will be building airplanes immediately the 
defense program is over, and we will employ from 18,000 to 20,000 
people in the Baltimore area constantly, and from that on up. 

Now, it will not be long until we will have absorbed the defense facili- 
ties. Within 10 years we will employ from 40,000 to 50,000 people in 
the Baltimore area in the normal course of the aircraft business, so we 
will absorb everything that is being done today for defense within 10 
years. 

Mr. OsMERS. I had some notes on that and I wanted to get into 
that question with you just a bit because the primary purpose of 
this committee and of your coming here this afternoon is to deal 
with the migration of people. 

At the conclusion of the defense emergency, do you think it is a 
possibility that you may go from 42,000 employees to 50,000 em- 
ployees ? 

Mr. Martin. 42,000 employees are now scheduled for the present 
program, and certainly that will not be curtailed, but will be en- 
larged. 

Mr. OsMERS. If you drop back to a peacetime employment of 
20,000 there will be 30,000 discharged Martin employees. Now, in 
your opinion, what will those people do? Will they start to move 
or will they stay here? Will they go on a permanent relief basis 
and wait until your activities start again? 

SHIFT to other INDUSTRIES 

Mr. Martin. Wlien we have absorbed up to 40,000 men, we will 
have a number of men then working who are not really suited to 



gQ25 BALTIMORE HEAllINGS 

the aircraft business. They are only able to carry on in an emer- 
gency. They perhaps belong on the farm or in other industries. 

While we are going to the 40,000 men and while we have gone 
to the 20,000 men, there are many small manufacturers who normally 
employ two or three hundred men, who have fewer than 100 men 
today. They will wish to have their men back if they survive the 
national defense — which is sometimes a question. As I say, if they 
survive the national defense, they will w^ant to put their men back 
to work when the normal peacetime operations begin again. Now, 
these men will flow back into those peacetime jobs and the country 
around Baltimore will not have much trouble absorbing from 40,000 
to 60,000 men — even 75,000. They scatter out into other industries 
that are not now on defense and to the farms and various other jobs, 
jobs which are not so remunerative, perhaps, but they are their old 
jobs back again. 

NUMBERS FACING POSSIBLE UNEMPLOYMENT 

Mr. OsMERS. I am looking at it in a broader way than that. You 
take the State of Maryland or the city of Baltimore or the Balti- 
more area as an island. 

Mr. Martin. Yes. 

Mr, OsMERS. And because of this emergency we send 50,000 work- 
ers to this island. Now, after it is over, I think it is only fair to 
assume that those who were normally employed in the State of 
Maryland will get their old jobs back, assuming that we go right 
back to good times and not to depression times. But you would 
still have 50,000 more employees than can be given employment. 

Mr. Martin. I beg to differ with you. Out of the 50,000, 75 per- 
cent of them are local men. You have only a quarter of that 50,000, 
or a mere 10,000 or 12,000 people, who came from outside, which is 
a very small amount. 

Mr. OsMERS. I was only using 50,000 as a hypothetical number of 
people who come into the whole Baltimore area, and not to your 
industry or any particular industry. It is obvious that men are 
coming from States that have no defense contracts. The.y are lured by 
the possibility of high pay and steady employment and overtime, 
and so on. 

LURE OF SUCCESS 

Mr. Martin. Well, there is more lure than that. I would like to 
go a little further. In my case I can speak from experience. 

This country became successful because men were allowed to go 
where they wanted to go to get the jobs they wanted to do, and they 
were permitted to do the things they wanted most to do. Now, we 
have got young men who come a good ways to go to work for us, 
first, because they are determined to be a success in aircraft and, 
secondly, they would like to work for our particular company, maybe 
because they have heard that we have the kind of organization we 
do have, with the merit system, under which they would like to work. 

Now, a man makes a good employee, and if he is from some other 
State than Maryland, he is entitled to seek a better position and go 
to it and stay there, and that has been the case. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6027 

We have had some very interesting cases of boys who have done 
right well. They have come a good ways but they are so determined 
to make good in aircraft they hew themselves out a place. 

Mr. OsMERs. And those are the men who will stay there. 

Mr. Martin. They will stay ; yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMEEs. Because they are essentially aircraft men and not 
farmers or agricultural workers temporarily working in an airplane 
factory. 

Mr. Martin. That migration is exceedingly helpful and healthy, 
and they wouldn't leave when the war is over because they belong. 
The man who doesn't quite fit, whom we employ in an emergency, 
is the first one to be let out, and he is the fellow who doesn't belong 
any how. He goes back to his farm or to the foundry, or to the 
garage or some place. He takes a cut in what he is earning and goes 
back to his old job. 

Mr. OsMERS, I am sure you know, as everyone does, that this de- 
fense program has torn out a lot of roots all over the country. We 
have built trailers by the thousands and people are traveling all over 
the country, and the numbers are starting to approach millions traAel- 
ing around to the various construction camps and moving from one 
place to another. One of the main purposes of this committee is to 
endeavor to find some answer to the problems that will come after 
the war, so that we may be able to get back to a normal economy with 
as little disturbance as possible. There is going to be a lot of dis- 
turbance, but I said "with as little disturbance as possible." 

FORESEES EELII:F FEGIM OAERCROWDING 

Mr. Martin. There are a number of our workers who are living 
as many as four families in a house. When the war is over, there 
will only be one family in that house. We don't think they should 
stay four deep. We think they should be properly accommodated, 
because uncomfortable home conditions break down a man's effi- 
ciency at the plant. But nevertheless, if the man chooses to double 
up or quadruple up — and there are such cases that we know of — 
that is really his affair. But as soon as the pressure is lifted and 
people are left out and begin to vacate homes, there will be a thin- 
ning out of these double and triple and quadruple families. 

ISIr. OsMERS. That presumes that a number of people would leave 
the area. 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir: going back to the farm or going into their 
little villages and scattering out. And I hope the hundreds of small 
businesses will survive until they get their men back. 

They haven't complained to us a great deal, but we have had 
owners of small businesses who have had their employees taken away 
from them. They are now looking for men, but they can't pay 
the wages that we pay and still live because their income is fixed. 

mortality of FIXED-PRICE BUSINESS 

Now, that to my mind is one of the most serious problems we 
have: The mortality among the small-business people whose prices 
are fixed, but whose labor costs are pushed up underneatli them. 



gQ28 BALTIMOKE HEARINGS 

Mr. OsMEBs. The chances are that the capital structure of some 
of the small businesses will not permit them to carry on through a 
long emergency, and even if they should hang on "by the skin of 
their teeth," as people say, they would not be able or in condition 
to start with a large pay roll at the end of the emergency. 

Mr. Martin. It is a problem^ and you are cjuite right; but that 
is the potential labor market for these people when we let them out. 

Mr. OsMERS. You see, we have an unusual situation here. When 
we started this effort we had 10.000,000 people unemployed in peace- 
time and, in fact, a lot of people were not even talking about the 
depression any more. We had 10,000,000 people unemployed. Now, 
we are moving into a priority in employment, almost, where we 
will probably reach what can be called full employment by the turn 
of the year, or reasonably full employment, with nearly every em- 
ployable busy. 

Mr. Martin. I wish to point out there does not appear to be a 
limit to employment except in some of the highly skilled trades. 
In the past 10 or 15 years we have not had apprentices on tool mak- 
ing and in certain skilled machine jobs. There is a vast number 
of men looking forward to those jobs, men who are good citizens; but 
they haven't had an opportunity to learn the more skilled opera- 
tions. 

RESPONSE TO ADVERTISING FOR MEN 

Now, I want to go a little further and say that there have been 
occasions when certain publicity that came out from our company 
indicated that we were doubling our employment beginning, say, 
Monday. We have had to have guards take care of the cue that 
would be out there a long distance. We have had from 3,500 to 
5,000 people applying for work in 1 day because of something that 
appeared in the papers. 

Mr. OsMERS. That must be an important department in its own 
with you — taking care of the applications. 

Mr. MARTIN. It is. In all our contacts with the newspapers we 
try to have them be careful not to say something that indicates 
we are putting on a fresh supply, because that always brings a 
fresh group of men, spending their money and time to come out to 
the plant, standing in line ancl looking for work. 

Mr, OsMERS. We have been studying this problem for nearly a 
year and a half, and one of the salient awakenings that has come 
to me has been the absolute failure of the American free public school 
system to prepare young men and women to serve an industrial 
nation. 

Mr, Martin. That is right, 

LA.CK OF PROPER TRAINING IN SCHOOLS 

Mr. OsMERS. I am speaking about the high-school graduate. The 
American high-school graduate comes out of school and is not pre- 
pared to take his or her place in the life of the country. If he 
wants to become a secretary or stenographer he must take a secre- 
tarial or stenographic school course; if he wants to work in your 
plant he lias got to go to a vocational school. At the moment the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6029 

Oovernment is providing that training. It is a kind of makeshift, 
hurry-up program. 

Would you care to comment on the general educational system 
in the United States? 

Mr. Mautin. I would like to make a few remarks on the subject. 
Wo are interested in boys and girls who are coming up in life, 
and we have been interested in that line that forms every day. 
We study that line to determine the class of citizens that is in the 
line. 

That line, in the past 15 j^ears, has improved tremendously as 
to the character of the citizen, but it has always an increased num- 
ber of men who are not fitted for work of any kind. They wear 
cleaner shirts than they used to wear; they are better citizens; but 
not over 10 percent of the people who are in the line really know 
how to work, so there is no question but what the entire school 
system of the whole United States has fallen down on the type of 
training that a man ought to have to go out in life. 

That is my opinion. 

Mr. OsMERS. I am glad to hear you point that out. I know some- 
thing about that myself. I live in the suburban area of New York 
City, and about the only employment that our high-school graduates 
are fitted for is some — 1 might call it clerkship — that maj^ be ofi'ered 
in boom times. But when competition arises they are unfitted for 
anything. 

LABOR CONDITIONS IN OMAHA 

Now, you are building a plant in Omaha? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you anticipate difficulty in obtaining labor there? 

Mr. JNIartin. No. 

Mr. OsMERS. Are you going to send men from this plant to Omaha ? 

Mr. JMartin. We will have to send a small skeleton organization 
of experienced personnel. For every man we send from Baltimore 
we can hire from 35 to 40 men locally. 

Mr. OsMERS. In Nebraska? 

Mr, Martin, Yes. 

Mr. OsMERS. There was a little discussion here, I believe, between 
Mr. Perkins and Congressman Sparkman, about the decentralization 
of industry, I have a contrary opinion with respect to that. It has 
l3een my impression that the program has gone ahead faster and better 
with less up-set, where they gave out the contracts along existing 
industrial lines. 

Mr. Martin. We have had a number of applications for employment 
in the Nebraska plant. Some of these applications have come from 
boys who are now working outside of Nebraska and who would like 
to go back to Nebraska, and we can furnish those men employment at 
Omaha, 

labor supply in western AREA 

From the applications received for the Omaha plant, we do not an- 
ticipate a lot of difficulty in manning the plant. It will be done grad- 
ually — so many a day — and it will grow, and the adjustment, I think, 
will come along without any particular disturbance. 



gQ30 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. OsMERS. What do you anticipate will be your peak employment 
at the Omaha plant? Have you estimated that yet? 

Mr. Martin. It wouldn't be over 10,000 people, I believe. 

Mr. OsMERS. There are other aircraft plants in that area, are there 
not? 

Mr. Martin. At Lincoln, Nebr., there is an aircraft plant. 

Mr. OsMERS. And Wichita, Kans.? 

Mr. Martin. That is south of us, and we won't draAv the Wichita 
labor. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do they have any diflficulty at Wichita ? 

Mr. Martin. I don't believe they have, sir. 

I mio;ht point out that some of the companies which appear to have 
had difficulty, in our opinion, have not had the correct labor policy or 
correct management policy, and this has made it a little more difficult 
for them to work out their employment problem. Other companies 
have had a better labor-management policy and consequently have had 
little difficulty. 

Mr. OsMERS. Of course, you have had a longer history in the aircraft 
industry than most manufacturers. Today a firm 10 years old is sort 
of an old-timer at the business. 

Mr. Martin. We began building airplanes in 1908, so we are not a 
youngster. 

Mr. OsMERS. Well, they built me in 1907, so I am 1 year older than 
your first airplane. 

SHIFT to PEACETIME ECONOMY 

In your opinion, Mr. Martin — and this is my last question, Mr. 
Chairman — what do you feel the Government can do, if you care to 
express yourself, to establish a shift from a wartime economy back 
to a peacetime economy ? 

Mr. Martin. They should have a survey today of all of the non- 
essential industries that are not now engaged in defense production, 
and be prepared to lend aid to the readjustment of the companies that 
are practically out of business at the present time. 

The normal businesses in peacetime should be rehabilitated and 
thus start business flowing again. Some of these companies will need 
liberal loan arrangements and assistance in order that tliey can begin 
to do business again. They have lost their men and they have lost their 
trade to the industries engaged in war. 

Now, when we are through with this, these men should go back to 
the little companies they have left and those little companies should 
be in a position to employ them again and begin to turn out their 
normal peacetime products. 

I think that is a very important thing. 

FEDERAL AID FOR NONDEFENSE BUSINESS 

Mr. Egberts. And they should be helped to finance themselves by 
the Government, as the Government is helping the defense industries 
to finance themselves. Perhaps there should be some means of financ- 
ing the resumption of their activities after the war is over. 

Mr. Martin. I think it is the Government's res]:)onsibility to work 
out the financial program for the small, nonessential company. 



NATIONAL DEFENSP: MIGRATION 0031 

Mr. OsMERS. Taking both of your remarks together, you would say, 
first, an industrial survey ; and second, the development of a Govern- 
ment financing j^lan to aid these companies that are going to be hurt 
by the war, to get back on their feet after the war? 
' Mr. Roberts. That is right. 

Mr. Martin. That is right. 

Mr. OsMERS. I think there is a great deal in such a proposal. 

Thank you very much, Mr. Martin. 

PLANS FOR OPERATIONS IN OMAHA 

The Chairman. Mr. Curtis. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Martin, as one Nebraskan, I want to express my 
gratitude for your decision to locate your plant in Omaha. 

I hope you will always find it both profiiable and pleasant. 

"V^^len do you anticipate it will open up there ? 

Mr. Martin. November 1, we will open the Omaha plant, sir. 

The Chairman. And I believe you will see the Congressman there 
at that time. 

Mr. Curtis. That is not quite my district, but you are getting in some 
very fine territory. I think a lot of your troubles and tribulations will 
be over when you get to Nebraska. 

Mr. Martin. Might I ask the Congressman if there are some new 
troubles that I don't know about in Nebraska? 

Mr. Osmers. You must always remember it is the Dust Bowl, and 
your plant may not be there the next day. 

Mr. Curtis. That is not true now; it has been raining since about 
the 7th of January. 

Will there be a training school at Omaha? 

Mr. Martin. In-plant training and cooperation with the existing 
schools in Omaha and Lincoln, whose representatives have already 
been to Baltimore. They understand our problems and they are pre- 
jjaring their schooling so it will relate to our needs. 

I believe we are going to enjoy the relations Avith the training pro- 
gram in Omaha. 

Mr. Curtis. The training school at Lincoln has sent you some boys, 
has it not ? 

Mr. Martin. Yes; there have been some coming in from Lincoln. 
Some of those will go back home when the plant is ready for them, 

Mr. Curtis. Now, are you referring to another private school in 
Omaha — a private trade school ? 

Mr. Martin. No ; the public-school system. 

Mr. Curtis. But the Lincoln School is a private school? 

Mr. Martin. Yes ; the Lincoln School is a private school. 

Mr. Curtis. The Lincoln School of Aviation, I believe, or something 
of that sort? 

Mr. Martin, Yes, sir ; that is right. 

Mr, Curtis. And they train these boys in sheet-metal work and a 
great many other things. 

Mr. Martin. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. And you will cooperate with those agencies, and the 
balance of your training will be within the industry, among your own 
employees ? 



5032 BALTIMOKE HEARINGS 

Mr. Martin. In-plant; yes. 

Mr. Curtis. Will this factory be so constructed that it can be used 
for the production of peacetime aircraft ? 

Mr. ]\Iartin. 60 percent of the production of the Omaha plant will 
be done by subcontract ; the other 40 percent will be done in the plant. 

Mr. Curtis. I think that is all. 

JOB OPERATIOXS SIMPLIFIED 

Mr. OsMERS. Mr. Chairman, there is just one question about the fu- 
ture of the aircraft industry I would like to put to Mr. Martin. 

Do you feel that the requirements of aircraft manufacturers are 
going to be for more skills as we go along or for fewer skills? I 
noticed in your statement, I believe, that you are employing a great 
many in simplified steps. 

Mr. Martin. We have increased the volume or increased quantities 
of a given type, so there will be a larger percentage of less-skilled men 
employed. 

Mr. OsMERS. And that will probably progress as the industry grows 
older? 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. I notice in the manufacture of motors that there seems 
to be a great deal of room for that kind of improvement. 

Mr. Martin. Yes, sir ; there can be. As we really get into mass pro- 
duction for commercial needs after the war, there will be a still fur- 
ther simplification of operations, so that the average man can more 
quickly carry his load without so much training. 

Mr. OsMERS. I am sure from what you said before that you see as 
bright a future for the aircraft industry as I do. It is not one of the 
industries that I am worrying about. 

Mr. Martin. No; there is really a boom in aeronautics without any 
consideration of the war. The world use of aircraft when the war is 
over will be rather large. It is going to be a really tremendous 
business. 

Mr. Osmers. I don't think it will take 10 j^ears either, for the peace- 
time aircraft industry to employ every man it will be employing for 
defense and more besides. 

Mr. Martin. I have made the statement and I believe within 10 
years our normal business will utilize all of the present emergency 
plant expansion that is taking place. 

Mr. Osmers. I don't think it will take 10 years. 

That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

LABOR PIRATING IN AIRCRAFT 

The Chairman. I just want to ask you one question, ISIr. Martin : 
Have you had any difficulty with other aircraft plants, or any other 
industry, trying to take your employees away from you? 

Mr. Martin. Not in recent times. There have been occasions when 
certain specialized men were needed, and a competitor, to accomplish 
a quick growth, would let it be known that lie would use 50 or 100 of a 
certain type of workmen out of our plant and would get some of them. 

The Chairman. But it is not a pressing i)roblem ? 

Mr. Martin. No, sir. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6033 

The Chairman. We thank you very much, Mr, Martin. 

Now, Mr. Moderator. 

Mr. PouDER. Mr. French, of our industrial bureau, is our witness 
on housing and traffic. 

The Chairman. Mr. French, I wonder if you could just oive us the 
high lights of the information which you want to contribute. We 
have your paper and it will be made a part of the record. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY H. FINDLAY FRENCH, DIRECTOR, INDUSTRIAL BUREAU, 
BALTIMORE ASSOCIATION OF COMMERCE, BALTIMORE, MD. 

There are two industrial areas in the Baltimore district where mauufacturiug 
for national defense is already being impeded b.v grave traffic congestion at peak 
periods which congestion will grow to intolerable proportions within the next 6 
months unless improvements, many of which are already planned, are promptly 
begun. 

The first and largest area is the eastern Baltimore industrial district, which 
includes the plants of the Glenn L. Martin Co., now employing 20,000 workers in 
aircraft construction, and the Bethlehem Steel Co. and the Bethlehem-Sparrows 
Point Shipyard, now employing between 25,000 and 30,000 workers in the produc- 
tion of steel and ships. Major expansions of the Martin Co. plant are now under 
construction, which, when completed and in full operation, will require 22,000 
additional workers. A number of other large defense industries are also located 
in this district. 

The second industrial-defense area where traffic congestion is acute is the 
Curtis Bay-Fairfield district, where the Maryland Drydock Co. and the Bethlehem- 
Fairfield Shipyard will shortly be employing from 12.000 to 20,000 workers in 
the construction of ships, etc. Other important defense industries are also 
located in this area. 

FUNDS FOR ACCESS ROADS EXPECTED 

The traffic situation in the.se two areas has been the subject of much study, 
not only by Government and State agencies, but also by the industries, and the 
business and civic groups primarily affected. The Public Roads Administration 
of the Federal Government and Maryland State Roads Commission have prepared 
plans to remedy most of the major needs of this situation, and it is expected that 
Congress is now on the point of passing legislation which will provide funds for 
defense access roads on a national basis to permit sufficient sums to be allocated 
to the Baltimore industrial area to insure the needed facilities. 

Aside from what can be done locally toward improved traffic controls in these 
congested districts, the sole, innnediate question is whether Congress will appro- 
priate adequate funds, and how soon the required improvements can be com- 
pleted. There has ali-eady been a 5 months' delay before bills providing for 
access defense roads reached Congress, so that necessity foi- prompt action is 
doubly important. 

BALTIMORE HOUSING 

As of July 1. 1941, there were approximately 300,000 dwelling units in the 
Baltimore metropolitan area (U. S. Census count, April 1940, 289,379) and a 
population of approximately 1,050,000 persons. While the area from which 
workers of Baltimore industries are daily drawn is somewhat different in its 
physical outline from that of the metropolitan area, nevertheless, a reduction of 
5 percent in the metropolitan figures, as stated above, would place them on an 
approximate industrial area basis. 

The latest Government housing survey covering the Baltimore metropolitan 
area was made by the United States Census as of April 1940, which showed 
12,401 vacant dwelling units for sale or rent in the Baltimore metropolitan district, 
8,531 of these units being located within the corporate limits of Baltimore city. 



6034 



baltimokp: hearings 



Of the remaiuing 3,870 vacaut dwelling units in the metropolitan dis-trict, over 
2,000 were located well witLiu the industrial area of Baltimore. 

The latest comprehensive survey of Baltimore housing was made by the Real 
Estate Board of Baltimore as of September 1, 1940. This survey, the basic data 
for which were secured through the cooperation of the local Post Office Depart- 
ment, shows a total of 7,&'<J4 vacant dwelling units (incuding units under con- 
struction) out of a total 241,885 housing units covered by this survey, which was 
necessarily confined to the various districts served by postal employees assigned 
to the Baltimore po.st office. 

Based on these two recent surveys and making allowance for vacant units 
unsuitable for occupancy, it would seem certain that during the year 1940 there 
were somewhere between 7,000 and 10,000 dwelling units available for occupancy 
in the Baltimore industrial area, or a vacancy ratio of not much less than 
2^4 percent and not much more than 3 percent of the total number of units in the 
area. 

BUILDING ACCELETJATED 

The building of homes and, to a much less degree, apartment units has been 
particularly active during 1940 and the first 6 months of 1941. During 1940 there 
were permits issued for 2,839 housing units in Baltimore City and, while the final 
figures are not yet available, similar figures for the first 6 months of 1941 will 
amount to approximately 2,000 units, making a total of approximately 5,000 new 
housing units for this 18-month period, all within the Baltimore City limits. 

Permit figures for Baltimore County, covering territory well witliin Baltimore's 
industrial area, show house building activities substantially equal, last year, to 
the amount of house building within the limits of B iltimore City during the same 
period, and, for the first 6 months of 1941, the permits for liouse building in 
Baltimore County are expected to exceed those within tlie city. 

DEFENSE HOUSING yiCTIVITIES 

In addition to private building operatidhif^'.'^v.OLense hou.'^ing activities by the 
Federal Works Agency has provided 700 housing units through the purchase of 
same from United States Housing Administ; .; .^on and is now building 300 addi- 
tional units at the same location. Two other projects, one for 750 and the 
secojid for 250 housing units were approved by Public BuildiuTs Admini-Lration 
on February 3, 1941, but it is not definitely known wh"r s^icfr construction will 
be begun. The Farm Security Administration has also furnished 300 trailers and 
is providing emergency barracks adjacent to the (41enn L. Martin plant No. 2, all 
of which will be shortly in operation. The Public Buildings Administration is 
also constructing 85 housing units in connection with the quartermaster depot 
at Camp Holabird. At least one other public housing project for 500 homes is 
definitely planned for Negro defense workers. 

Aside from housing needs for defense workers in the Immediate vicinity 
of the Glenn L. Martin Co. plant and the need for housing in the reasonably 
near vicinity of the Fairfield-Curtis Bay district, where greatly enlarged shii)- 
building operations are in process of accomplishment, it does not appear, under 
the present program, that any large amount of Federal emergency housing, 
elsewhere in the Baltimore industrial area, will be required. 

SHORTAGE OF FURNISHED APARTMENTS 

At the present time, the housing situation in Baltimore and its environs is 
reasonably ample, the principal shortage being in the continuing lack of low- 
priced, furnished apartments for rent. 

As an indication that the present general situation, in regard to housing, is 
holding up well, it may be cited that in a very recent Sunday edition of one 
of Baltimore's daily papers, advertisements appeared offering 285 separate 
unfurnished apartments, 93 furnished apartments, and 130 furnished rooms. 
In the same newspaper, 767 houses were offered for sale, in addition to adver- 
tisements' covering 34 group developments, in most of which a very substantial 
number of houses were available. The above figures exclude offerings in the 
higher-priced districts, both from the standpoint of houses and apartments. 

To assist defense workers to secure housing accommodations, the Baltimore 
Association of Commerce, at the request of the Maryland Council of Defense, 
has set up at its Tourist Information Bureau, 20 West Franklin Street, a Homes 
Registration Office, which maintains! a central file of information on available 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6035 

vacant houses, apartments, and rooms. Up to the present time, its normal 
amount of listings has been more than sufficient to take care of the demand, 
but later on, if and when the pressure to find accommodations becomes much 
more active, as seems likely, then this bureau is prepared to make a public 
campaign to obtain additional listings. It is believed certain that such a cam- 
paign will produce a very substantial increase in available units, particularly 
a large number of furnished rooms which heretofore have not been placed 
upon the market, 

year's IN-MIGRATION forty to SE^'ENTY-FIVE THOUSAND 

No close approximation can now be made as to the total number of new 
out-of-town defense workers who must be provided for at the peak. Apparently, 
the probable minimum number of new workers in defense industries will amount 
to 40,000 persons and the probable maximum, certainly within the next year, 
is not apt to exceed 75,000 persons. Such figures, however, do not indicate 
a corresponding demand for housing accommodations for a large percentage 
of these workers now live within the Baltimore industrial area and are now 
employed on nondefense jobs, or are in training here for the new defense jobs. 

All things considered, the requirements from the outside may amount to from 
15,000 to 25,000 workers within the next year to 18 mouths. Assuming a 
continuation of the present rate of building, and a public campaign directed 
to obtain furnished-room accommodations, it seems reasonable to assume that 
these new workers from the outside can be accommodated without serious 
difficulties which cannot be overcome. 

While the figure of 25,000 new out-of-town defense workers looks large, it 
should be borne in mind that the Baltimore industrial area now houses 1,000,000 
persons and that the relative problem is no greater in ratio than if an area 
housing 100,000 persons were required to take on 2,500 new defense workers. 
It also must not be overlooked thnt the Army, Navy, and other branches of 
Government service have take 'vill continue to take away from Baltimore 

many thousands who normally vf>j .d be living here. 

Under the circumstances, as '^i^tjined, it would seem highly desirable that 
a new survey covering the number of available vacancies be made within the 
next UO- days. If ^uch survey covers house and apartment vacancies, in line 
with similar sui \ »i.. ^ in recent years, it can be arranged for provided the Post 
Office Department is in a' position to offer the same cooperation it has extended 
in the past. If, however, an attempt is also made to secure data as to the 
total number of rooms available for rent, then a large number of eflSciently 
managed workers will be I'equired to produce prompt results, suflSciently accu- 
rate to be useful. 

CONCLUSION 

The present housing situation in the Baltimore industrial area is reasonably 
satisfactory although additional housing is needed in the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the Glenn L. Martin Co. plant and also in the vicinity of the Fairfield- 
Curtis Bay shipbuilding area. Some of this housing is already in the course of 
being provided for. Considering the Baltimore area as a whole, the vacancy 
ratio is sufficient to provide a fair range of choice. However, the new defense 
workers, shortly to be employed, make it necessary that changes in the situation 
be carefully watched at all times, and any substantial stepping up of employ- 
ment beyond the program now contemplated will be apt to require a similar 
stepping up of the building of new housing units, over and above the present 
excellent rate of progress. A factual survey of the vacancy situation should 
be made within the next 90 days, and subsequent surveys should be carried 
out as may be later indicated. 

TESTIMONY OF FINDLAY FRENCH 

Mr. French. I think there is no use discussing the traffic problem, 
because this bill referred to earlier apparently is scheduled to come 
up. We hope for its passage around the middle of the month. We 
hope very much that the money will be appropriated. Of course, that 
has been delayed and holds up the situation. 

60396 — 41— pt. 15 11 



gQ36 BALTIMORE tIEAKIN(iS 

I am not going into the housing question. My paper covers it fairly 
fully. But I want to point out that while it is tight, it is not as tight 
as it has been in previous times. 

The last report, September of last year, shows vacancies were about 
2.4 percent. Back in 1921 the vacancy rate was 1.75, and back in 
1918, in the last war, it was 1.5. 

We have conducted vacancy surveys for a great number of years. I 
think the situation is one that can be taken care of. 

There is that area of Mr. Martin's down there that needs attention. 
In connection with Mr. Cort's problem at Fairfield, I understand 
building is going forward rapidly; and if the present rate of building,^ 
which is 10,000 houses in the last 18 months, keeps up, and we keep at 
it over here the way we are trying to, it looks as though we will 
work out. 

It doesn't mean there won't be a lot of headaches. There are always 
headaches in getting houses. But I think we can get through from 
the standpoint of the emergency, and I think our situation under 
these emergency circumstances is quite good. 

Mr. Chairman. Mr. Moderator? 

Mr. PouDER. That completes our panel. 

The Chairman. I want to express, on behalf of the committee, our 
sincere thanks for this very valuable contribution. 

Your statements are going to be very helpful to us, and we ajjpre- 
ciate them very much. 

Our next witness is Mr. Cramer. 

TESTIMONY OF DANA HUGH CRAMER, FORT HOWARD, MD. 

The Chairman. Mr. Cramer, Congressman Arnold will interrogate 
you. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Cramer, will you state your name and address and 
occupation to the reporter? 

Mr. Cramer. Dana Hugh Cramer, Fort Howard, Md. 

Mr. Arnold. And your occupation? 

Mr. Cramer. Ship carpenter, Bethlehem Steel, up in the Bethlehem 
yard in Baltimore. 

Mr. Arnold. And these are your children, Mr. Cramer? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes, sir; two of the oldest. 

Mr. Arnold. What ages are your children ? 

Mr. Cramer. The oldest child here will be 10 years old the 29th of 
December. 

Mr. Arnold. And your youngest? 

Mr. Cramer. She was born February 1940. She is dead now. The 
youngest child was 10 months old. 

Mr. Arnold. You have six children living? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you describe the house you occupy in Fort 
Howard ? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes, sir. It is a 4-room house. Two rooms down and 
two rooms up. Got a flat roof on it and it has no running water in it 
or anything like that. Have to carry our water — I will say, 100 yards 
from the well, where we get our water. 

Mr. Arnold. Any toilet or bath ? 

Mr. Cramer. There is a toilet outside — no inside toilet or bath. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6037 

Mr. Arnold. What rent do you pay for that ? 

Mr. Cramer. $20 a month. 

Mr. Arnold. Is there a yard for the children to play in ? 

Mr. Cr.\mer. Yes, sir; there is a yard with a fence around it. 

Mr. Arnold. What kind of a house did you live in back in Preston 
County, W. Va. ? 

Mr. Cramer. I lived in my own house. A 6-room house. I built 
it myself. Had 4 acres of ground with it. 

I "started to build me a home and due to the conditions of work, 
I lost my job that I worked on for 14 years, and it put me on W. P. A. 
I just started the house when I got put off my general work and that 
kind of handicapped me, and I, therefore, couldn't finish the house 
to any advantage, and I just kept going in debt and in debt to live. 
My brother has been working at Fort Howard for Glenn L. Martin — 
it will be 2 years this August. 

He told me that conditions were good here, due to the work, and 
things were picking up, and for me to come down here. 

He was up at our home Christmas during the holidays. I came 
down with him here the 14th of January and I located a job up on the 
Key Highway at the Bethlehem Steel. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Cramer, what is your salary? 

]Mr. Cramer. I make 82 cents an hour and we get 5-percent bonus 
on that and time and a half overtime. 

Mr. Arnold. And you make how much on the average? 

Mr. Cramer. The last couple of months I just can't recall the days 
it was. We started on our 11-hour days some time ago and there are 
3 hours of overtime each day. The 3 hours that are overtime we get 
time and a half for, which amounts to $53 a week and some-odd cents 
over. 

Mr. Arnold. You have no complaint about the salary ? 

Mr. Cramer. Xot a bit in the world ; if I could sleep in the daytime. 

Mr. Arnold. But you would like to have a more adequate house? 

Mr. Cramer. I would ; yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. And you would be willing to pay more rent? 

Mr. Cramer. I am willing to pay more rent for better convenience. 

Mr. Osmers. How long does it take you to get to work? 

Mr. Cramer. From an hour and a half to two hours. 

Mr. OsMERS. Each way? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. How many miles is it? 

Mr. Cramer. Fifteen miles. 

Mr. Osmers. An hour and a half to two hours each way? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes, sir. Where we live at Fort Howard, I leave 
there at 4 o'clock of an evening and go to work at 6 in the shipyard 
and. due to the traffic jams and everything of that kind, the best we 
can do is an hour and forty-five minutes going in to work. 

Mr. Osmers. And how far do you say it is? 

Mr. Cramer. Fifteen miles by the speedometer on a '36 pick-up 
truck. 

Ml". Os:mers. You and your family of eight are not the only occu- 
pants of that house at the present time, are you? 

Mr. Cramer. No, sir. 

Mr. Osmers. That 4-room house? 

Mr. Cr-amer. No, sir. 



6038 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. Who else lives with you? 

Mr. Cramer. My brother. He came down without work and we 
took him in. He couldn't find a house anywhem. He is willing to 
get one if he can find one empty. We took him in on account of his 
getting a job to tide him along — until he can find a house. 

Mr. Arnold. How many children does he and his wife have? 

Mr. Cramer. Two. 

Mr. Arnold, Anyone else? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes ; my mother. 

Mr. Arnold, That makes 5 adults and 8 children in a -i-room 
house? 

Mr. Cramer, Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Are those large rooms? 

Mr. Cramer. Well, they are not so large. They are maybe 12 by 15 
or something like that — standard size rooms. 

]\Ir, Arnold. Is your other brother working? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes; he works at the Owens Yacht Co., down there 
where they build those yachts, and then he got an application 
when he got his papers to come to Glenn Martin to go to work, 
where my other brother works, the same place he goes to work. 
Their work is the first shift there in the evening, starting to work 
at 6 o'clock. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you saved any money or are you saving any 
money ? 

Mr. Cramer. Well, I could save some money if it wouldn't be that 
I owed so much money back home that I pay out of the savings. I 
pay it on the debts to reduce the interest, 

Mr, Arnold, After you lost your job back home that you had had 
for 13 years with the State road commission, then you found it 
necessary between 1938 and 1941 to be on the W, P. A. ? ' 

Mr. Cramer. Yes, sir; I did, 

Mr. Arnold. At an average of about $17 a week, which put you 
behind? 

Mr. Cramer, Yes, sir; and it would be the aggravatinest work I 
ever had. You could get along with it — you could exist — but you 
had to go along without a lot of things you needed. 

Mr, Arnold, Is Fort Howard much of a residential community ? 

Mr, Cramer. Yes ; pretty thickly settled. 

Mr. Arnold. You can't get a better home in that town ? 

Mr. Cramer. Well, it is not available right now. 

Mr. Arnold. And Baltimore wouldn't be any better? 

Mr. Cramer. No ; I would rather not live in the city. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you or your family experienced any trouble in 
getting hospital care since coming to Baltimore ? 

Mr. Cramf:r, Yes, sir; we have, 

Mr. Arnold. For what reason ? 

Mr. Cramer, Well, they said they was full up and had no room to 
take care of us and we come out of the State too — hadn't lived here 
long enough, 

Mr. Arnold. You are expecting another arrival in the family in 
Jidy ? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes, sir, 

Mr, Arnold. And your wife can't get assurance of hospitalization ? 

Mr. Cramer. No ; not in the hospital we were up to. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6039 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have the money to pay for it ? 

Mr. Cramer. I have the money and everything ready to take care 
of her. 

Mr. Arnold. Well, I should think that some hospital in Baltimore 
would be able to provide that hospitalization if you have the money 
to pay for it. 

Mr. Cramer. Well, that is what I thought but money don't seem 
to be no object. 

Mr. Arnold. You mean they claim they have to take care of local 
people ? 

Mr. Cramer. They are overloaded with patients. That was what 
they told me. 

Mr. Arnold. Have to take care of the local load first? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Those who have been residents here longer — those who 
established their residences in Baltimore ? 

Mr. Cramer. That was their excuse. 

Mr. Arnold. How do you like it here ? 

Mr. Cramer. I like it. 

Mr. Arnold. How do the children like it ? 

Mr. Cramer. They like it fine. I like Baltimore all right as long 
as I have work. 

Mr, Arnold. You have a little trouble sleeping? 

Mr. Cramer. No trouble at all for me to sleep. I can sleep just as 
good in daytime as nighttime, but I don't get the proper amount of 
rest — the time to. 

Mr. Arnold. I think that is all. 

The Chairman. Mr. Curtis. 

Mr. Curtis. Are there quite a number of felloAvs you work with who 
have come from out of this State ? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes, sir ; quite a few of them. 

Mr. Curtis. Do most of the fellows feel that this is temporary work, 
and that they are trying to make their wages go as far as possible, either 
in paying back debts or in saving, or do they think that this employ- 
ment and high wages will last ? 

Mr. Cramer. No, sir ; they don't have any idea of that at all, about 
the wages lasting. 

jSIr. Curtis. It is more of a sober attitude than was the attitude in the 
last World War? 

Mr, Cramer. Yes, sir ; everybody seems to be thinking that they are 
reaping a harvest. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you find that some of them are looking ahead and 
trying to make their plans to go back to their home communities when 
this is over i What do they feel about that when this work runs out ? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes, sir; I have heard them make statements. My 
buddy, from Pennsylvania, owns his little home in Pennsylvania, but 
he is stajTUg here. He said he figured when this national defense was 
over he wanted to have his home and have it paid for when it was over. 
That is what he was arranging, and I am figuring on finishing my home 
in West Virginia, 

Mr, Curtis, That is all. 

The Chairman. How large is this house that you are living in ? 

Mr. Cramer. Four rooms. 

The Chairman. And how many people are living in it? 



gQ40 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Cramer. There are eight children and five adults. 

The Chairman. Thirteen altogether? 

Mr. Cramer, That is what the total is — an odd number. 

The Chairman. Are they large rooms? 

Mr. Cramer. About standard-size rooms. I would say they are about 
12 by 15. 

The Chairman. But you have no running water in the house ? 

Mr. Cramer. Xo, sir ; no running water. Have to cany it. 

The Chairman. From a well? 

]\Ir. Cramer. Get it from a well — a pump. It is cool water, all right. 

The Chairman. How many get their water at the pump ? 

Mr. Cramer. Oh, I don't know. There must be 10 families use the 
same Avell. 

The Chairman. Do you have a bath? 

Mr. Cramer. No ; no bath ; only the Bay right in the back yai-d. 

The Chairman. What do you do, go out Saturday nights to the 
pump? 

Mr. Cramer. We bathe in the washtub or something like that. Just 
take what you call a semibath. 

The Chairman. I understood you to say that you didn't really 
want a home in Baltimore. Is that your idea? You want to live in 
the country? 

Mr. Cramer. I don't like to live in the city. I wouldn't mind own- 
ing a house out in the outskirts. I like the country out there all right. 

The Chairman. Did you look around very much before you picked 
this house ? 

Mr. Cramer. I did. I looked at every opening that I saw and 
every time I saw an ad in the papers I followed it up and traced it 
down to see whether the house was empty or not. Ajid another big 
difficulty with, me in getting a house is the large family of children 
I have. 

The Chairman. Do you find any people whom you aj^plied to ob- 
jecting on account of your large family? 

Mr. Cramer. Yes; I did. 

The Chairman. It used to be quite an honor to have a large family. 
I guess we are getting away from the old-fashioned ideas. 

Mr. Cramer. That must be right. And when a lot of them said, 
"Too large a family," I wondered if they had ever been children 
themselves or not. 

The Chairman. That was a long while ago for some of them, I 
guess. 

Thank you very much, Mr. Cramer. 

Our next witness is Mr. McCurdy. 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH P. McCURDY, PRESIDENT, MARYLAND 
STATE AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA FEDERATION OF LABOR 

The Chairman, Mr. McCurdy, Congressman Curtis will interrogate 
you. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you give your full name to the reporter? 

Mr. McCuRDY. Joseph P. McCurdy. 

Mr. Curtis. And whom do you represent here today ? 

Mr. McCuRDY. I am president of the Maryland State and District 
of Columbia Federation of Labor. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6041 

Mr. Curtis. What is your home address? 

Mr. McCuRDY. Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have an office here ? 

Mr. McCuRDY. 702 Emerson Tower Building. 

Mr. Curtis. How long have vou been president of vour organiza- 
tion? 

Mr. McCurdy. Ten years. 

Mr. Curtis. Does that include the District of Columbia also ? 

Mr. McCuRDY. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Is that a full-time position ? 

Mr. McCuRDY. No, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. What is your other work? 

Mr. McCuRDY. I am connected with the unemployment compensa- 
tion board of the State of Maryland. 

UNION HAS BROUGHT IN 15,0 SKILLED MEN 

Mr. Curtis. What efforts have the American Federation of Labor 
unions made to bring workers to Baltimore to help meet the defense 
labor needs? 

Mr. McCuRDY. Well, to my knowledge the Federation of Labor 
in this community has brought in approximately 15,000 skilled work- 
ers for use in defense industries. 

I would say, in construction work, they were brought preparatory 
to the defense program, in the building of Army cantonments and 
housing and other projects. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, you say that your union has brought them in. 
Just briefly tell us how do you get word around and what is your 
system ? 

Mr. McCuRDY. Well, the unions work for contractors and when 
the local unions are unable to supply the necessary help they contact 
the unions in other localities who have unemploj'ed and they in turn 
send those unemployed to the communities where there is work. 

Mr. Curtis. About how many members do you have now em- 
ployed in defense activities in the greater Baltimore area? 

Mr. McCuRDY. Well, that would all depend on what we term 
"defense industries," There would have to be some line of demar- 
cation. 

Mr. Curtis. I will put it this way : In all industries, I will say. 

Mr. McCuRDY. I would say between 65,000 and 70,000 people. 

Mr. Curtis. Are any of your members suffering from lack of 
adequate housing? 

Mr. McCuRDY. No. 

Mr. Curtis. All of your members have a satisfactory place to live, 
you think? 

Mr. McCuEDY. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have any suggestions as to why your people 
have been more fortunate in the housing situation than some of the 
other folks who have complained about it? 

SAYS UNION finds HOUSES 

Mr. McCuRDY. Well, for instance, let us just take the Carpenters 
LTnion. The Carpenters Union has about 6,000 men. When all the 



5042 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

men in this locality are employed, they brought in approximately 
2,000 carpenters from other sections. Now, 95 percent of those car- 
penters found no trouble finding rooming houses. The union itself 
looks around and makes reservations. 

We have possibly about 2 percent of those men who slept in 
trailers that they brought along with them. 

The same thing would apply to electrical workers. We had ap- 
proximately 2,000 electrical workers, many of whom are now here. 
I was in contact with them this afternoon prior to coming here, and 
they informed me that they have had absolutely no trouble with the 
housing problems. 

Mr. Curtis. Is the raising of rents quite noticeable? 

Mr. McCuRDY. That would be very hard to give a factual answer on, 
because I have no definite information as to whether there has been 
any sizable increase in rents. 

Mr. CuETis. Have you received any complaints of Negro activities 
on the part of property owners ? 

Mr. McCuRDY. Not from the unions — not from our union members — 
not from the people I represent. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, have you noticed any unemployment by reason of 
shortage of materials in nondefense industries or priority rulings ? 

Mr. McCuRDY. Well, in the beginning there might have been a slight 
unemployment. For instance, at Camp Meade they had to wait for 
lumber and other materials. There may have been a little delay, but 
it hasn't been so noticeable. 

Mr. Curtis. Is it your view that there has been or has not been an 
excessive labor turn-over in defense industries in Baltimore? 

Mr. McCuRDY. Well, now, as I said a moment ago, in the highly 
skilled trades, trades such as electrical workers, carpenters, sheet-metal 
workers, steam fitters, plumbers, and so on, there have been approxi- 
mately 10,000 or 15,000 migratory workers who have come into Mary- 
land. Now, there have been instances where certain jobs have been 
completed and those men have gone off to other jobs located in other 
States, contact being made through the respective unions in those 
localities. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. McCurdy, you have dealt for the main part with 
perhaps some of the better types or better trades and skilled workmen 
than, jDerhaps, many who have been seeking work ; isn't that true ? 

Mr. McCuRDY. Weil, Congressman, those are the type of men that 
have been in demand in the defense industries — the skilled workers. 

Mr. Curtis. And they are somewhat accustomed to rush periods and 
areas where they need a lot of work and to adjust themselves and to be 
able to take care of themselves ? 

Mr. McCuRDY. That is correct. I have been 30 years in the labor 
movement, and there has always been a certain percentage of migratory 
labor among the skilled workers, particularly on construction projects. 

Mr. Curtis. And they are accustomed to it, and they can adjust 
themselves far better than the individual who is not skilled? 

Mr. McCuRDY. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. McCurdy. 

The committee will stand adjourned until 9 : 30 tomorrow morning. 
(Whereupon, at 4 : 20 p. m., tlie committee adjourned until 9 : 30 a. m. 
Wednesdav, Julv 2. 1941.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



WEDNESDAY, JULY 2, 1941 



MORNING SESSION 



House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C . 
The committee met in the Federal Courthouse, Baltimore, Md., at 
9:30 a. m., pursuant to notice, Hon. John H. Tohm (chairman) 
presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman) of Cali- 
fornia ; Carl T. Curtis, of Nebraska ; Frank C. Osmers. of New Jer- 
sey ; and Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; IMary Dublin, 
coordinator of hearings; John W. Abbott, chief field investigator; 
Eugene Hurley, field investigator ; Josef Berger, associate editor ; and 
Sylvia Braslow, field secretary. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 
Our first witness this morning will be Mr. Bealmear. 

TESTIMONY OF CLEVELAND R. EEALMEAR, CHAIEMAN, YEWELL 
W. DILLEHUNT, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR, AND CHARLES LOOMIS, 
TECHNICAL DIRECTOR, HOUSING AUTHORITY OF BALTIMORE 
CITY, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bealmear, will you give us your full name? 

Mr. Bealmear. Cleveland R. Bealmear. 

The Chairman. And you are appearing before the committee in 
what capacity? 

Mr. Bealmear. I am chairman of the Housing Authority of Balti- 
more; I am also in the real-estate business. 

The Chairman. "Where do you reside ? 

Mr. Bealmear, 6 East Lexington Street. 

The Chairman. And you have two gentlemen with you. Will you 
give us their names ? 

Mr. Bealmear. This gentleman is Mr. Charles Loom is and to his 
left is Mr. Yewell Dillehunt. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arnold will interrogate you gentlemen. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Bealmear, you have submitted a statement which 
the committee considers very fine indeed — one of the best thus far 
submitted. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

6043 



gQ44 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

STATEMENT BY CLEVELAND R. BEALMEAR, CHAIRMAN, HOUSING 
AUTHORITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 

From all available data it now appears that Baltimore City, excluding the 
adjacent territory in Baltimore County and in Anne Arundel County, faces a 
shortage of houses available for employees in the national defense program of 
approximately 9,000 dwelling units. Including the counties, this shortage may 
be reduced to about 8,000 dwellings. 

Expected demand by immigrant defense workers : 

Workers 30,000 

Commuters to District of Columbia 2, 000 

Total 32,000 

At least 50 percent of these should represent household or family units to be 
cared for — 16,000 dwellings. 

In order to determine roughly the amount of potentially available vacancy 
for defense workers^ we are dividing the city into three main districts based on 
suitable rent levels, reasonably decent living conditions, availability of com- 
munity services, and fairly convenient locations. These districts are discussed 
in detail hereafter. 

Available at rents, condition, and locations suitable to workers in program 

From district A (central) : 15 percent of vacancies (all others are below 

minimum decency) 1,653 

From district B (suburban) : 15 percent of vacancies (all other rents too 
high or locations unsuitable) 581 

From district C (east and west) : 100 percent of vacancies 1, 586 

Total 3, 820 

Assumed (approximately) 4, 000 

United States (Federal Works Agency, etc.) housing program (about) 3,000 

Total 7. 000 

Demand 16,01-0 

Less 7,000 

Shortage 9,000 

The data for the counties is not in the possession of the Authority so geo- 
graphically broken down as to make assumptions possible. 
Howevei-, total vacancies are — 

Baltimore County 2, 171 

Anne Arundel County 4, 143 

Total 6,314 

If we assume that 15 percent of these are available for defense workers on ac- 
count of suitable rent, location, and condition, this would add 950 additional units 
available. Certainly we cannot count on more than 1,000 dwellings in the nearby 
parts of the counties. 

Assuming that private interests can and will undertake true responsibility 
for doubling the dwelling capacity of 2,000 of the existing 8,000 vacant structures 
by alteration to multiple dwelling conditions, this would reduce the shortage to 
6,000 units which is double the present Federal program of Government housing 
now proposed. The feasibility of this operation by private interests is dubious 
because of a first cost of $2,000,000 at $1,000 per structure and because of the 
present precarious condition of the building industry where material priorities 
and labor shortages are making even large-scale housing operations slow and 
expensive. 

The program of the Baltimore Authority for low-rent housing cannot be con- 
sidered as affecting the situation, as in dwelling unit count, the dwellings being 
built practically balance those demolished on the sites. Until all these new 
dwellings can be tenanted in the coming spring, the program will slightly aggi'a- 
vate existing conditions. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6045 



Three thousand three hundred and ninety-eight families were moved olT the 
sites. The same sites improved will accommodate 3,509 families. The difference 
is only 111 family units. 

Data available to this authority which may be relevant consists in — 

1. A city-wide survey of dwellings by postal carriers for the Real Estate Board 
of Baltimore in August 1934. 

2. A second postal survey under the same auspices in October 1940. 

3. The United States census of 1940 in April 1940. 



FindtHys of survci/ in Baltimore by postal carriers in August 193Jf 





Occupied 


Total 


Available 
vacant 


Unfit 
for use 


Percent 
of total 
vacant 




137, 423 
29.624 
22, 164 
10, 516 


144, 292 
30, 257 
23, 356 
12, 204 


5,624 

592 

1,174 

1,678 


1,245 
41 
18 
10 


3.9 


Detached 1-famiIy houses 


1.9 


Altered, multiple and duplex 

Apartments .-- 


5.0 
13.7 




199, 727 


210, 109 


9,068 


1,314 


4.3 







Findings of surveij in 


Baltimore 


by postal 


carriers 


/}( October 1940 






Occupied 


Vacant 


Total 


Percent 
vacant 


l-familv houses 


152, 537 
81, 484 


2,845 
2,967 


155, 382 
84. 451 


1 8 


Apartment units (S. I. C.) .-_ 






3.5 


TotaL 


234,021 


5,812 


239, 833 
2,052 


2.4 


Under construction 
















Available 






241, 885 













Results of 3 



Total dwelling units 

Vacant, for sale or rent (3.7 percent). 



Total 

Less not available vacant- 



236, 975 

8,768 



228, 207 
396 



Occupied 227,811 

These figures taken together show some interesting facts : 

1. The vacancy rate in apartments and converted units is about double that 
in single-family dwellings. 

2. That the net increase of dwellings from 1934 to October 1940 is only 
29,724, or about 2.3 percent per annum. New construction is 2,052 but average 
annual demolitions are about 775 dwelling units. 

3. That available vacancies have numerically decreased, period by period: 
August 1934, 9,068; April 1940, 8,768; October 1940, 5,812, or including new 
construction, 7,864. 

Baltimore population changes from 1930 to 1940 are particularly interesting: 
Increase in total population, 11.6 percent; increase in private households, 21 
percent. 

The average number of persons per family has changed thus: 1930, 4.24 per- 
sons ; 1940, 3.91 persons. 

All of tliese things are normal to the city without any impact from the 
influx of defense workers which has occurred since the census taking. 

It becomes evident from the above that there is a stabilized supply of avail- 
able vacancies over a long period of .years in face of a startling increase in 
families demanding dwellings. And, that if we take the present population 
of Baltimore — 859,100 — and assume an annual increase of 2.1 percent of 
families and a family size stabilized at 3.9 persons, we can expect about 4,500 
new families per annum requiring individual dwellings of some sort, without 
reference to defense. 



gQ46 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Even the best production of private builders can do little more than keep 
up with this demand alone, and they may be entering a building market pro- 
hibitively high with a great shortage of labor and materials. 

Private industries' contributions to defense housing can be forecast at about 
2,900 for the calendar year ahead. 

This is based on the expectation of a total annual production of dwellings 
in all price classes of 12 times the monthly production to date — 810 dwelling 
units, totaling 9,720 units. Of these, close examination of building department 
cost reports show that 43.7 percent fall in a builder's cost price of $3,600 or 
less. This price would mean a total cost, including land and improvements, 
at or below $4,800. An economic rent on this capital is derived as follows : 

Per annum 

Amortize in 80 years $160 

Taxes at about $2 per C 96 

Average annual interest on capital at 2 percent 72 

Repairs and maintenance at 1 percent 36 

Vacancy allowance at 1 percent of rent 5 

Profit on investment at IV2 percent 72 

Total 441 

Or per month 36.75 

This is certainly a ceiling for defense workers' rent charges. 

Forty-three and seven tenths percent of 9,720 means that 4,247 dwelling 
units are within the rent range, but of these at least 1,400 must reasonably go 
to that same percent of the normal family increase, of 4,500 families, wh.o 
can be expected to pay this rent, leaving a balance available of about 2,900 
for defense workers if they are rentable. 

It should be noted that probably 90 percent of all new dwellings are built 
for sale and not for rent and can only be rented under unusual conditions. 
Hence, defense workers may obtain the vacant quarters of those who move 
into new houses. The totals will remain the same. 

In the face of these facts there is expected during the next year an increase 
of employees in defense industries conservatively estimated at 13,000 immi- 
grating from outside the State. Seventeen thousand have already been imported. 

Expected immigration 13, 000 

Accomplished immigration 17, 000 

Total new employees 30,000 

Estimated new commuters to District of Columbia 2, 000 

Total L ^___ 32,000 

There is no sound data in hand as to balancing losses to other defense areas. 

The geographic distribution of available dwellings for defense workers and 
the quantity thereof is based on the ward figures from the United States Cen- 
sus of 1940 as follows : 
District A. Central wards containing a ma.ioritv of substandard houses. 

Wards 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 14, 17, 18. 19, 21, 22, 23 : 

Dwelling imits 75, 485 

Vacant for rent 3, 306 

Percent vacant 4. 38 

District B. Suburban wards containing a majoritv of rental values over 
$35 per month. Wards 9, 12, 13. 15, 27, 28 : 

Dwelling units 90, 239 

Vacant for rent 3,876 

Percent vacant 4. 3 

District C. In-town wards containing a majority of standard dwellings at 
rents under $35 per month. Wards 1, 8. 16, 20, 24, 25, 26 : 

Dwelling units 71, 248 

Vacant for rent 1,586 

Percent vacant 2. 23 

District A lies roughly at the center of the city from North Avenue to the water 
front and from Fulton Avenue on the west to Chester Street on the east. 

District B extends to the north and west roughly from North Avenue to the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6047 

city line aud from the Frederick Road on the west to the Belair Road on the east. 

District C is in two sections west and east lying between district B on the 
north aud the water front on either side of district A and including or adjacent 
to nearly all the heavy industry in the city. 

It should be emphasized that these ward divisions are too large and diversified 
to be accurate measures of availability and must, therefore, be discounted to a 
reasonable extent, as has been done above where 50 percent of vacancies in dis- 
trict A have been considered available, 15 percent of district B aud 100 percent 
of district C. This is acknowledged to be inaccurate but is felt to reflect the truth 
very closely in general. 

The general vacancy rate for Baltimore has decreased by half in 6 years; 
and this decrease in vacancy is more than double in low rent, decent houses, than 
in either slum dwellings or in dwellings at $40 or more rent per month. For 
instance, wards 1 and 24, typical of good housing for workers, the vacancy rate 
of 1.1 percent vacancy means that homes are practically not available. 

As all the figures are previous to defense immigration it is apparent that defense 
workers must force the lowest income group out of their. rented homes to make 
way for renovations and improvements and a change of rent levels in what are 
now substandard homes at $4 to $7 a week to dwellings of reasonable decency at 
$25 to $35 a month. Tlie occupants of substandard dwellings are inevitably going 
to be crowded and overcrowded, to the point of finding themselves on the sidewalk. 

Region A contains 32 percent of all dwellings in the city with a vacancy rate of 
4.4 percent. 

Region B contains 38 percent of all dwellings with a vacancy rate of 4.3 percent. 

Region C. suitable for defense workers, contains 30 percent of all dwellings 
with a vacancy of 2.2 percent. 

The city as a whole has a vacancy rate of 3.7 percent as of April 1940 and 
there can be no reasonable doubt that this has either remained or decreased with 
the influx of industrial employees and those who serve them. 

Any attempt to forecast the results of this situation are In the realm of more 
or less intelligent guesswork, but it would appear inevitable that with some 
20.000 substandard dwelling units in Baltimore, the obvious potential Increase in 
rents from $20 to nearly $40 a month would .stimulate owners to modernize to 
some extent and, at no cost to themselves, at least have better structures in their 
possession. An average expenditure of $1.0W would amortize in 20 years and 
pay 5 percent interest and upkeep at an additional rent of $120 a year. 

If this takes place, present dwellers in substandard housing will be forced 
out by rentals beyond their means, and a critical condition will arise in view of 
the fact that very low rental housing, particularly for Negroes, is available in 
only very inadequate supply. Even a wave of evictions, even rent strikes may 
well be the outcome of this condition within the next few months. 

As to the possibility of conversion to workers' use of the higher valued suburban 
property by alteration to apartments and crowding the land, equities and tax 
valuations on such properties plus cost of such alteration would put rents above 
a reasonable bracket for industrial workers. If we add to this the distance from 
work, amusements, retail merchandising and other services, and the probable 
inadequacy in many cases of utilities, the hope of a substantial supply from this 
source seems remote. 

It is the impression of this Authority that sudden increase of population with 
accompanying rise in rents inevitably hits the poorest people the most seriously, 
and that at all such times in the past the pressure for housing is always down- 
ward in the rent scale, never upward. 

It is regretted that this statement cannot be more factual but it is given for 
what it is worth, the reaction by close observers of the Baltimore urban scene, to 
these conditions which are without precedent. During the last war the condition 
of substandard dwellings had not reached the wholesale dilapidation that exists 
today, nor had we been through a great depression with the resulting stoppage of 
normal construction replacement for a term of several years. 

In the opinion of this Authority the housing situation in Baltimore is becoming 
acute with an actual shortage of any sort of shelter for the lowest income fami- 
lies perfectly apparent for the immediate future. 

TESTIMONY OF CLEVELAND R. BEALMEAR— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. If j-oii or your associates wish to make any further 
statement to enlarge upon what is inchided in your paper, the com- 
mittee will be glad to have you do so. 



g048 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Bealmeae. I think the statement pretty well covers the matters 
that we were asked to report on. If you want to ask us any questions I 
am sure one of us will be glad to answer them. 

Mr. Arnold. I shall ask the questions and then whoever wishes to 
answer may do so. 

You say here that a shortage of at least 9,000 units is imminent and 
that private building cannot take care of the situation; tliat in your 
opinion the situation can only be met by expanding the public housing 
program. 

Mr. Bealmear. In my opinion, it has to be done, either that way or 
by a subsidy to {private industr}^, whereby money will be made avail- 
able for the building of houses for investment. In other words, 
money at a low rate of interest. 

HOUSES ARE BUILT TO BE SOLD 

In Baltimore, and I guess this is true all over the country, the houses 
that are built are built mainly, you might say entirely, to sell, and 
when those houses are rented it is due only to the fact that the builder 
is unable to sell his houses and therefore, instead of carrying them at a 
loss, is willing to rent them. 

I don't think the private builder, as we would term him, would be 
interested in building homes — that is, modest-priced homes — that 
would take care of this situation unless he had some inducement, such 
as cheap money, to do it, 

Mr. Arnold. It is also true that the private builder cannot build 
and compete with the Government in low-cost housing, is it not? It 
is impossible for the private builder to do that even with cheap money ? 

Mr. Bealmear. Unless the money made available was very cheap. 

The Chairman. Isn't it also true that large-scale cheap-house con- 
struction, after this emergency is over with, would leave the builder 
with a problem on his hands ? 

Mr. Bealmear. That is true if those employed now are not able to 
secure work after this thing is over. 

Mr. Arnold. You anticipate that private building of low-rent houses 
will not expand because of labor and material shortages ? Are private 
builders obstructing in any way the attempt to obtain public housing? 

attitude or private builders 

Mr, Bealmear. I don't think that private builders will go into the 
field of constructing low-rent housing unless there is some subsidy, or, 
as I stated before, a very low interest rate that would justify a builder 
over a term of years to build houses to rent. As a matter of fact, none 
of our builders during the period of time that I have been in the busi- 
ness — more than 30 years — has ever built row houses in quantities to 
rent. There is always more money in building houses to sell as homes 
and keeping money turning over all the time, rather than having that 
money locked up for a term of years as an investment. 

Mr. Arnold. In some places, Mr. Bealmear, we have found that 
private builders object to the public-building program. Do you find 
that the case here in Baltimore? 

Mr. Bealmear. We found that when we first started out, in cases 
of buying vacant ground and building houses on vacant ground. We 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6049 

didn't find so much objection, although there was a little, but very 
little, to what we termed "slum clearance," where we tore down prop- 
erties that had outlived their usefulness and improved them with 
slum-clearance houses. 

In other words it is the same story in the real-estate business as in 
other lines of business : They didn't want to see the Government buy- 
ing vacant land and becoming a competitor in building houses. 

CONTACT WITH FEDERAL AGENCIES 

Mr. Arnold. Has your authority had contact with the Federal agen- 
cies in Washington with reference to securing public housing in Balti- 
more ? 

Mr. Bealmear. Well, we already have a number of areas in Balti- 
more that are slum-clearance projects, and we are also handling the 
defense housing for the Government in Baltimore. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you observed any lack of coordination of the 
Federal agencies at work in the housing field ? 

Mr. Bealmear. No ; we have not. 

]\Ir. Arnold. You haven't had any trouble in getting to the right 
man and getting what you wanted in the way of public housing? 

You understand there are several different agencies building houses, 
and the testimony at Hartford and other places indicated that it was 
difficult to get anything done on account of the confusion. One agency 
would come in and make a survey, and go out, and they would never 
hear from them again; and then another agency would come in and 
make a survey, and they would think something was going to be done, 
and nothing would develop from that ; and they had real difficulty in 
getting any type of housing. Have you run into that ? 

delay in starting defense housing 

Mr. Bealmear. We have found the Federal agencies very coop- 
erative, and that is especially true in what we term "slum clearance." 

I personally have found that, because my first connection with 
the Housing Authority was as a supervisor in obtaining property 
for the building of these homes. I did find, however, that they 
would come over to Baltimore and whatever information they 
wanted — for instance, the appraisals and options obtained — they 
wanted at once. In other words, it had to be gotten together within 
24 hours, and in some of those cases, after supplying the informa- 
tion, we did not hear from them for a number of months afterward. 

We didn't find so much delay in what we termed "slum clearance," 
but we have found it, or at least I have found it, in reference to 
defense liousing. There would be a delay after we furnished them 
with options and a survey and valuation of the property; there would 
be a delay before we would hear from them again. 

Mr. Arnold. But you would say you haven't had so much diffi- 
culty in that regard as is indicated by the testimony taken at other 
places ? 

Mr. Bealmear. No ; I don't think, in Baltimore, that we could say we 
have had the same amount of delay that has been testified to in other 
places. 



gQ^Q BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

RENT INCREASES IN BALTIMORE 

Mr. Arnold. Haven't rents increased in Baltimore among the low- 
rent groups ? 

Mr. Bealmear. They have; yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you any idea of the percentage of that increase? 

Mr. Bealmear. I don't believe I can answer that question in terms 
of percentage. I find that there are certain groups of people who 
are taking advantage of the demand by increasing their rents to a 
greater extent than the average real-estate broker or investor. The 
colored people here are paying for what they get, in my judgment, 
a greater increase than are the whites. 

I should say that while in some cases there has been quite an 
increase by way of percentage, if you take the average you find 
that the increase over the city for both white and colored hasn't 
been anything like the increase for the colored. 

Mr. Arnold. The increase lias b: en in the cheapest type of housmg 
and the lowest grades'^ 

Mr. Bealmear. That is correct. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you any information of evictions being made 
because of inability to pay rent? 

Mr. Bealmear. Well, I don't think there have been very many real 
evictions, but of course in the low-rental gi'oup there is always a 
certain amount of eviction, a certain number of notices that have 
lo be served from time to time to keep rents up to date. 

Maybe you would like to hear Mr. Dillehunt on that question. 
He has just given me some information which I didn't hav^e and 
which may be of interest to you. 

Mr. Arnold. We would like to hear from him. 

TESTIMONY OF YEWELL W. DILLEHUNT 

Mr. Dillehunt. In the low-rent operations in Baltimore we find 
recentl3% I will say particularly in the past month, wherever the 
owner of the property finds that his tenant is going to become a 
tenant in a low-rent, slum-clearance or defense project about to be 
occupied, he immediately serves him with an eviction notice. 

Mr. Arnold. In Hartford the committee was told that many 
farnilies are being broken up because of housing shortages, and es- 
pecially large families. Their rents are raised for the purpose of 
getting rid of them and replacing them with families of smaller 
number. Is there any comparable situation in Baltimore? 

Mr. Dillehunt. We have had no experience along that line, of 
breaking up families because of their size. We have had difficulty 
in getting large families into a unit, but once they are in we have 
had no difficulty. 

Mr. Arnold. They don't raise the rents just to get rid of a large 
family? 

Mr. Dillehunt. We have had no such experience. 

Mr. Bealjmear. That might come under the case histories of some 
charitable organization. I might be able to answer that question 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6051 

from a retil-estate standpoint: I haven't heard of any cases where 
people have been forced to move due to large families. 

Mr. Arnold. What percentage of the total housing in Baltimore 
is substandard? 

Mr. Bealmear. We have a survey on that. Mr. Loomis may be 
able to answer that. 

TESTIMONY OF CHAELES LOOMIS 

Mr. LooMis. We would like very much to know. I mean, we 
can guess — and make fairly close guesses — but that is about the best 
we can do. It all depends on how you are going to define a sub- 
standard house. Measuring the substandard situation by the stand- 
ards that we use, my general guess is that we would have, out of 
some 290,000 dwelling units, somewhere around 17 to 18 percent 
which would be rated as substandard. Most buildings in downtown 
Baltimore are used by more than one famil}^, and they have changed 
the yardstick in the census report, which makes a comparison be- 
tween 1930 and 1940 almost impossible. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all. 

DEFENSE coordinator's RECOIMMENDATIONS 

Dr. Lamb. I have a statement here which was submitted to the 
committee by Mr. C. F, Palmer's office for release today.^ You 
might like to look at it. I have one or two questions I would like 
to ask with respect to it. This covers the whole State, but the first 
two pages have to do with Baltimore. 

You will notice that he says in the second paragraph [reading] : 

In the must recent honsing program for the Baltimore area the Coovdhiator 
of Defense Housing has recommended the provision of 12,200 additional dwell- 
ings to accommodate the families of defense workers, 300 dormitory units to 
accommodate single workers in the aircraft industry, and 325 trailers to accom- 
modate the families of defense workers until the completion of a part of the 
permanent homes. 

Of these 12,200 permanent dwellings the Coordinator has recommended that 
9,000 be provided by private sources. It is recommended that these be provided 
at rentals of fF35 to $50 per month, or at equivalent purchase cost. A total of 
3,000 dwelling units have been recommended for provision with Federal funds 
by the Federal Works Agency. The tentative and approximate rentals recom- 
mended for these units are from .$25 to $35 per month. 

Now, that means approximately 3,000 units for Federal Works 
Agency development, and leaves 9,000 for private development at $35 
to $50 per month or at equivalent purchase cost. What would you 
estimate the "equivalent purchase cost" of those to be ? 

Mr. Bealmear. I don't think I could answer that question intelli- 
gently. 

Dr. Lamb. The specified range of rentals is from $35 to $50. On that 
level can you base an estimate of the range of purchase price? 

Mr. Bealmear. Do you mean the construction cost? 

Dr. Lamb. No ; the probable sales price. 

1 See Exhibit 19, p. 62.53. 

60396— 41— pt. 15 12 



gQ52 BALTIMORE HEAKI^'GS 

Mr. Bealmear. A rental of from $35 to $50? 

Dr. Lamb. Yes ; allowing the going rate of profit on a house of that 
size. Would it be, say, a $5,000 house ? 

Mr. Bealmear. Of course, we have something in Baltimore that you 
have in very few places in this country, and that is a ground-rent 
system, by which the house is sold subject to a ground rent. 

I should say the prevailing price of houses that would rent from 
$20 to $40 a month in the present market would be someAvhere between 
four and five thousand dollars. Mr. Loomis seems to think that the 
rate per unit ought to be higher. 

Dr. Lamb. Would it be nearer five or six thousand dollars, Mr. 
Loomis ? 

Mr. Loomis. You are asking me now on a high-rental basis. If you 
would ask me the average cost of houses renting for between 35 and 
40 

Dr. Lamb. I am only giving the figures which Mr. Palmer gave in 
his statement, which are $35 and $50 per month rental. 

Mr. Bealmear. What I am trying to explain is that in a period when 
rentals are high, your cost of producing would be equally high in pro- 
portion. You would have to increase your costs, due to the fact that 
the cost of construction is higher. I think you could put it in a range 
of from forty-five hundred to six thousand dollars. 

Dr. Lamb. How many houses of the forty-five hundred to six thous- 
and dollar class would you say were built in this area in the year ending 
January 1, 1941? Do you have any estimate? 

Mr. Bealmear. We have the estimate of how many houses were 
built, but we would have to break that down to get that rental range. 

GROUND rent A FACTOR 

Mr. Loomis. Our reports on that are not complete in the past with 
respect to capital value, on account of the fact you have to base it on an 
estimate of the land cost as well as the building cost. The building cost 
is something we can arrive at, but the land cost is based on a ground 
rental which is subject to varying conditions of capital value, and on 
that score it is hard to figure capital value. It is very hard to get that. 
My personal feeling is that we might build, in a calendar year, as 
many as 3,000. 

Dr. Lamb. In this price range ? 

Mr. Loomis. No. I think we will do better than that. Probably on 
account of the immediate demand, the speculative prospect may lead a 
lot of people to overbuild in certain price ranges. 

Mr. Bealmear. I think your question is as of the year 1940. 

Dr. Lamb. I am trying to learn what the situation has been in the 
past, to get a basis of comparison for the future. At the bottom of 
page two of his statement, Mr. Palmer says : 

Private construction in the area produced about 7,000 dweUings in aU price 
classes during 1940. 

Now, he is calling for 9,000 units in this restricted price class during 
1941 and 1942. I think this presupposes building from the 1st of July 
1941, to the 1st of July 1942, and I am concerned with how much of 
that stated need is likely to be provided for under the circumstances. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5053 

CONSIDER palmer's PROGRAM UNLIKELY 

Mr. Bealmear. I don't think there is any chance that private indus- 
try is going to be able to build 9,000 houses in the next calendar year 
in the price range that you mention. 

My experience with the builders is that they are beginning now to 
stop, look, and listen on account of the cost of construction. In other 
words a lot of these houses that have been sold in that price range have 
been sold at a small profit, and it wouldn't take very much increase in 
labor and material costs, plus the delay in getting that material, to 
carry the cost of those houses beyond what they are selling such houses 
at today. 

Dr. Lamb. That will make the rental situation that much worse, in 
a sense ; will it not ? Let us suppose you build a house which in normal 
times would cost, let us say, $4,000. Now you have to pay five 
thousand for the construction. You have to rent that house, not only 
now, but well into the future. Owing to the high initial cost, you are 
going to have difficulty when prices of materials come back to normal 
and rents follow them; are you not ? 

Mr. Bealmear. That is correct. 

Dr. Lamb. That is what you are up against ? 

Mr. Bealmear. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. Then as a result you are caught both ways. In an in- 
flated market is it not true that people are much less likely to want 
to buy these houses, with the knowledge that later they will shrink in 
value? And on the other hand, is it not also true that your builder 
will be reluctant to build the house for rental purposes without the 
assurance that later he will be able to maintain his rents? 

Mr. Bealmear. If j'ou are speaking about the private builder, build- 
ing for rental purposes, I think that is entirely out of the question. I 
don't think he would do so unless it was, as I stated before, a develop- 
ment by the Government. I don't think jou w411 find a private 
builder who would attempt, in this very speculative market, to build 
houses at the cost today for the purpose of renting them, even with the 
liigh rents he could get due to the current demand. That demand 
may only last for 2 or 3 years; nobody knows just how long it is 
going to last, or whether it would last long enough for him to write off 
that additional cost due to the high cost of construction. 

new federal housing administration plan 

Dr. Lamb. What about the amendment to title 6, under the F. H. A., 
which allows for 100 percent instead of 90 percent? 

Mr. Bealmear. Well, even on the 90-percent basis a great many 
people have been able to buy homes with practically no down payment. 
You Avill find a lot of people will take a chance, saying, "Well, we have 
nothing to lose, and we can't rent a house, so we will buy this house." 
But what I am thinking about is what is going to happen when things 
start to readjust themselves. Are we going to have a repetition of the 
Home Owners' Loan proposition? 

Dr. Lamb. Let us assume that 9,000 houses were built in this price 
class, under the F. H. A. arrangement, with this new adjustment to 



5054 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

allow for no down payment. The people would be largely from outside 
the area, having come in to take defense jobs. Then would not a prob- 
lem arise afterward, in that the F. H. A. type of guaranty would be 
called in question all the way down the line? 

Mr. Bealmear. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. And you might feel you were jeopardizing the whole 
system by any such forced draft at the present time ? 

Mr. Bealmeak. Right. 

Dr. Lamb. Then there would be the possibility that those people 
might have to have their commitments riveted around their necks in 
some way, in order to bail out the F. H. A. guaranteed institutions ? 
Isn't that the danger? 

Mr. Bealmear. That is the danger, yes. 

Dr. Lamb, I tliink that pretty w^ell covers the points raised in Mr. 
Palmer's paper that I wanted to cover. 

The Chairman. The committee thanks you very much, gentlemen, 
for your valuable contribution to our record. 

Our next witness is Major Hollandsworth. 

TESTIMONY OF MAJ. A. H. HOLLANDSWORTH, UNITED STATES 
AEMY. LABOR RELATIONS OFFICER, OFFICE OF THE CONSTRUCT- 
ING QUARTERMASTER, THIRD ZONE 

The Chairman. Major Hollandsworth, you have filed a statement, 
haven't you? 

Major Hollandsworth. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And I am sure it is going to be very valuable to us. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows :) 

STATEMENT BY MAJ. A. H. HOLLANDSWORTH. UNITED STATES ARMY, 
LABOR RELATIONS OFFICER, OFFICE OF THE CONSTRUCTING 
QUARTERMASTER, THIRD ZONE 

The effect of in-migration of workers into the Baltimore metropolitan area has 
passed insofar as this office is concerned. The peak of employment in this area 
was reached during the period January 15 to March 15, 1941, and since that time a 
continual reduction in the forces of workers has been in progress. The migratory 
workers laid off either left this area in search of employment elsewhere or 
were absorbed by other local defense projects, as there is no visible indication that 
any of these workers have been left stranded or unemployed in this area. 

Projects under the control of this office effecting the Baltimore metropolitan 
area would include Fort George G. Meade, Edgewood Arsenal, Aberdeen Proving 
Grounds. Holabird Quartermaster Depot, and Curtis Bay Ordnance Depot. The 
Fort George G. Meade project is now virtually complete, and will not be a con- 
tributing factor to migratory workers from this time on, as the small amount of 
work yet to be done can easily be completed with local labor. 

As the work on these projects was of a temporary nature the married workers 
who came into this area seeking work would not, as a rule, bring their families, 
so no increased burden was placed on schools or other civic facilities by the families 
of these workers. 

The following is a summary of the employment figures covering all the above- 
mentioned defense projects in the Baltimore area under the control of this office : 

FORT GEX>RGE G. MEL4J)E, MD. 

This project, at its peak in January, employed approximately ^,000 workers, 
"0 percent of which came from over 50 miles away from the project. Present 
employment, about fiOO workers, mostly obtained from local unions. There is a 
possibility this number might be increased from 1,200 to 1,500 in the next few 
weeks. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6055 

HOLABIRD QUARTEEMASTER DEPOT 

All the work doue thus far at this site has been done with Goverument forces 
by hired labor. Total employment here is between 800 and 900, all of which have 
been secured through local employment agencies, mainly from civil-service rolls 
and the Maryland State Employment Service. 

ABERDEEN PROVING GROUNDS 

At the peak of operation in March there were approximately 8,200 workers 
employed at this site. This has been gradually reduced until at present there 
are about 2,000 employed, 50 percent of which are considered to be migratory 
workers. Most of these live in the near vicinity of the job in the small towns 
and in some cases board in the surrounding country. The other 50 percent are 
believed to be local people who live in or near Baltimore. This project will be 
practically completed within the next GO days. 

EDGEWOOD ARSENAL 

This project employed about 8,400 workers during the peak period betw'een 
January 15 to March 15, 1941. and has been gradually reduced since that time to 
its present force of about 3,400 workers. A large percentage of the present force 
are local people securing their employment through the local building-trades 
imion. 

CURTIS BAY ORDNANCE DEPOT 

At present only about 20O workers are employed at this depot on construction 
work. It is estimated that about 50 percent of these are local people. There are 
some migratory workers on this project that were transported in here by a local 
employment agent who furnishes the workers transportation and supplies board 
and lodging until he places them on a job. It is understood that he collects the 
worker's first week's salary for this service. It is believed that most of these 
workers are being obtained from the mountainous and rural sections of Tennessee. 

EMPLOYED FIFTEEN THOUSAND TO TWENTY THOUSAND MIGRATORY WORKERS 

It is estimated that somewhere between 15,000 to 20,000 migratoi-y workers were 
used on the foregoing projects during the peak periods of construction. During 
this period it is believed that approximately 50 percent of all the carpenters used 
on these projects were migratory workers. This was because of the scarcity of 
that craft in the Baltimore area. 

Migratory workers in general are only used for a comparatively short period, 
usually from about 25 percent before the peak is reached until about 25 percent 
after the peak is reached, then apparently local workers get preference from the 
union because they are the older members. 

Another factor in the migration of workers is the completion and decline of 
projects in certain areas and the expansion and beginning of new projects in other 
areas. Fort Dix, N. J., for instance, was finished early in the defense progi-am, 
and surplus workers from that project drifted to other defense projects located in 
Pemisylvania and Maryland. 

In summary, it might be stated that the number of migratory workers now 
employed on our defense projects in the Baltimore area are relatively few and 
will continue to get smaller in number in the future. 



(The following material was submitted with Major Hollandsworth's 
statement:) 

Exhibit A 

Cantonment CAiip, Aberdeen Proving Ground, 

3Iarch 21, IP.'fl. 
Constructing Quartermaster, Baltimore, Md., and Vicinity^ 

Baltimore, Md. 
Dear Sir: Regarding your letter dated March 17, 1941, we have a compila- 
tion of figures and data gathered from the constructing quartermaster (con- 
sisting of the working field force); Irwin & Leighton, general contractors; 
Albright & Friel, architect engineers; Riggs Distler and Ligon and Ligon, sub- 



gQ56 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

contractors ; and in conformity with the request of the letter of March 12 
from the Interstate Migration Investigating Committee, we herewih submit the 
following information in answer to the questions stated on page 2 : 

1. Workers employed at peak of operations, 7,809. 

2. Applications made for employment on the project, 17,191. 

3. Approximate number of applicants coming from more than 50 miles away 
from project, 10,655 (62 percent). 

4. Percentage of workers migrating from similar construction projects, 67 
percent; percentage moving on to similar projects — information not available. 

5. Percentage of workers single men, 21; percentage of workers married 
men, 79. 

6. Percentage of workers routed from State employment service, 3; from 
building construction unions, 57; 40 percent own initiative. 

7. Percentage of applicants from rural or farm areas, 36. 

8. Percentage of applicants between 18 and 25 years of age, 16. 

Very truly yours, 

Ikwin & Leighton, 
By Frank Rollke. 

Project Manager. 

Office of Constkiicting Quartermaster, 
Fort George O. Meade, Md., March 25,19^1. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, Committee Investigating Migration, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. O. 
Sir: In reply to your letter of March 12, 1941, we present the following report 
from this project, arrived at through an examination of one group of roughly 
300 employees of each classification, and applying the percentage to the whole of 
that particular classification. 

(1) Q. How many workers were employed at the peak of operations? — A. 
18,900. 

(2) Q. Ho wmany applications were made for employment on the recent or 
continuing construction project? — A. 47,600. 

(3) Q. How many of the applicants came from more than 50 miles away from 
the construction project? — A. 30 percent. 

(4) Q. Approximately what i)ercentage of the construction workers had mi- 
grated from similar construction projects? — A. 15 percent. 

Q. Apjiroximately what percent do you estimate moved on to similar construc- 
tion projects? — ^A. 30 percent. 

(5) Q. What percentage of the construction workers were single men? — A. 37 
percent. 

Q. What percentage were married men? — A. 63 percent. 

(6) Q. What percentage of the workers were routed from the State employ- 
ment service? — A. 3 percent. 

Q. What percentage of the workers were routed through the building-con- 
struction unions? — A. 18 percent. 

Q. What percentage simply came on their own initiative? — ^A. 79 percent. 

(7) Q. What percentage of the applicants were from rural or farm areas? — 
A. 38 percent. 

(8) Q. What percentage of the applicants were between 17 and 25 years of 
age? — ^A. 26 percent. 

Respectfully, 

J. A. NoxoN, 
Major, Quartermaster Corps, 

Constructing Quartermaster. 

July 2, 1941. 
(Note to Major Hollandsworth :) The present construction contractors (lump 
sum) will hire approximately 1,200 to 1,500 men (at peak) (present employment, 
600). 

C. Meyers. 

Edgewood Arsenal, Md., March 20, 19 4i. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

House of Representatives, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Congressman Tolan : It is a pleasure to be able to assist you in your 
forthcoming investigation of the valued aspect of interstate migration of desti- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5057 

tute citizeus by the compiitation of whatever figures we can supply as pertaining 
to the growth and make-up of our rolls of construction workers. 

The figures, as furnished us by our contractors and including the construction 
projects at Edgewood Arsenal (chemical warfare manufacturing plant facilities, 
storage-magazine facilities, and group-housing and hospital areas), and at Aber- 
deen Proving Ground (ordnance facilities), are as follows: 

1. At the peak of operation 8,380 workers were employed. 

2. Approximately 9,375 applications have been received from those desiring 
work. 

3. Approximately 2,200 or 23 percent of these applicants came from more than 
50 miles from the project. 

4. About 32 percent of construction workers migrated from similar construc- 
tion projects to these projects. About 20 percent have moved on to other similar 
projects. 

5. Forty-seven percent of the workers were married, 53 percent were single. 

6. Records indicate that 3 percent of the workers were sent here from the 
State Employment Service. Seventy-four percent were routed through the 
Building Construction Union. Twenty-three percent came on their own initiative. 

7. Seventeen percent of the applicants came from rural or farm areas. 

8. Twenty percent of the applicants were between 17 and 25 years of age. 
It is hoped that this information will prove helpful in your investigation. 

With kind regards, 

S. W. McIlwain, 
Lieutenant Colonel, Quartermaster Corps, 
Constructing Quartermaster, Baltimore, Md., and Vicinity. 



Exhibit B 

(The following letter was received subsequent to the hearing and 
was made a part of the record, pertaining to testimony on p. 6060 :) 

United States Army, Third Zone, 
Ob^fice of the Constructing Quartermaster, 

July 8, 19Jfl. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

House of Represcntatlres, Washinf/ton, D. C. 

Dear Congressman Toij^n : Mr. Frank J. Bender, regional director, Maryland 
Congress of Industrial Organizations, during the course of his testimony at the 
hearings of the House committee investigating national-defense migration, held 
on July 2 in Baltimore [submitted a paper in which he] made the following 
statement : 

"A Congress of Industrial Organizations cari>enter working for Lloyd B. 
Mitchell, Inc., the electrical plumbing and heating subcontractor at Camp Meade 
was requested to join the American Fei^eration of Labor union. He told them he 
was a member of the Congress of Industrial Organizations and did not want to 
join any other union. He was then summoned to appear before the United 
States officer in charge and explain his reason. He did this, and was informed 
that unless he join the American Federation of Labor he would not be permitted 
to work on that project." 

I have checked this statement with the constructing quartermaster. Fort 
George G. Meade, Md., and I would like to submit his reply for the record: 

"1. There are several unfortunate discrepancies in this testimony, as follows : 

"(rt) Lloyd E. Mitchell, Inc., were not subcontractors on this job for electrical 
work, but were subcontractors for pliuubing, heating, and ventilating. 

"(6) Lloyd E. Mitchell, Inc., did not normally employ carpenters, all such 
classes of labor being supplied by the general contractor, Consolidated Engineer- 
ing Co., Inc." 

"2. The office of the constructing quartermaster has no function whatsoever in 
the handling of labor or labor difficulties except to assist the contractor insofar 
as possible. The contractor employs such labor as he needs to perform the work 
and labor conditions and difficulties are his responsibility. 

"3. Early in the job this office prepared a mimeographed sheet, triplicate copies 
of which are attached hereto, which exiilains to all concerned the attitude of the 
Consolidated Engineering Co. on their fixed-fee project at' Fort Meade. Un- 
questionably, if this man spoke to the United States officer in charge, he was 
informed of the substance of the attached mimeographed sheet, and certainly 
received no advice as to membership in either the American Federation of Labor 



5058 BALTIMOHE HEARINGS 

or Congress of ludustrial Organizations. It so hapiiens that the carpenters' local 
under which this project was constructed was a member of the American Fed- 
eration of Labor." 
Sincerely, 

Maj. A. H. HoLLVNnswoRTH. 

Labor Relations Officer. 
[Enclosure] 

Office of Constkucting Quartermaster, 

Fort George G. Meade, Md. 

1. When the Consolidated Engineering Co., general contractors on this project 
(Fort George G. Meade, Md. ), were interrogated regarding their ability to handle 
this project they stated that they were union contractors, and that if the job was 
awarded to them that they would handle it with union labor only. This prior 
to award of the contract to them. 

2. The various unions have supplied the job with mechanics so far as they 
were able and in some instances, notably that of the carpenters union, they 
made an agreement with the general contractor whereby, when the union could no 
longer supply men the contractor might employ anyone whom he might see fit, 
with the understanding that if a man stayed on the job he would secure a permit 
from the union or would join the union. The contractor has operated on the 
principal that he would hire any man who represented himself to be a mechanic. 
Such men are turned over to the foremen and if they prove themselves capable 
mechanics they are continued in employment. If, however, after a maximum 
3-day trial, they do not show promise in the trade for which they were hired, 
they are discharged. Neither the contractor nor the union gives assurance to 
anyone as to the possible length of employment. 



TESTIMONY OF MAJ. A. H. HOLLANDSWORTH— Resumed 

The Chairman. What projects are covered in your statement, 
Major? 

Major HoLLANDSwoRTH. I covered only the projects which I thonojht 
would affect the Baltimore area; that is, Fort Meade and Aberdeen 
Proving Ground, Edgewood Arsenal, Curtis Bay Ordnance Depot, and 
the Holabird Quartermaster Depot. 

The Chairman. And to what degree of completion have they been 
carried ? 

Major Hollandsworth. Fort Meade, as far as the main canton- 
ment project is concerned, is completed. There will be certain addi- 
tions from time to time — more ironing out of overlooked items than 
anything else. 

Aberdeen Proving Ground is within 30 or 60 days of completion. 

Edgewood Arsenal is well along toward completion. However, 
some of that work will probably run as long as 6 months. 

The Chairman. This committee is concerned with defense migra- 
tion. We were originally appointed by the Congress to investigate 
the interstate migration of destitute citizens, and then we were con- 
tinued in the belief that this migration had increased, rather than 
decreased on account of the national-defense program. 

We have been visiting the so-called "hot spots" in the defense 
centers, so as to get a clear idea of just what the problems are. 

PEAK or in-migration 

With that in mind, when would you say your peak of in-migra- 
tion for workers on these projects was reached ? 

Major Hollandsworth. The period from about January 15 to 
March 15. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6059 

The Chaieman. 1941? 

Major Hollands WORTH. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And where did the workers come from? 

Major Hollandsworth. It is hard to tell where the most of them 
did come from. I would say principally from New York and New 
Jersey and the Philadelphia area; that is, most of the skilled workers 
came from there. However, there were probably a few who came 
from all over the country; nearly all the States were represented. 

The Chairman. Was there any lack of supply of these workers ? 

Major Hollandsworth. Well, in some few instances, skilled work- 
ers were a little scarce, temporarily, but we were always able to 
secure them after a certain length of time. 

The Chairman. Is that migration practically at a standstill now? 

Major Hollandsworth. I wouldn't think so, because the type of 
worker we use is naturally a migratory worker. I would say that 
a certain percentage of the workmen on these projects move around 
all the time. It is not a lack of work on the projects. Their feet 
get itchy, and they move on. 

housing for construction workers 

The Chairman. Do you have any housing problem in connection 
with them? 

Major Hollandsworth. The housing problem is quite acute, or was 
at the peak of construction ; but they all seemed to find places to stay 
in the surrounding country. Some of them stayed in trailers. Most 
of them didn't bring their families with them, so they had only the 
problem of finding places to sleep for themselves. 

The Chairman. Will your supply of local labor be sufficient for the 
work still to be completed ? 

Major HoLLiVNDSWORTH. I believe it will. We don't seem to have 
any difficulty at the present time in getting all the help we want 
through the local employment agencies, such as the local labor unions 
and the State employment agency. 

The Chairman. Does the Army exercise any sort of supervision or 
control over the housing for these workers? 

Major Hollandsworth. Not officially. In very acute cases we did 
try to secure places for them to sleep and eat. But that didn't happen 
on any of the projects in the Baltimore area. 

The Chairman. Have you many complaints registered with you 
on account of poor housing facilities for your workers ? 

Major Hollandsworth. No, sir; very few as far as this area is con- 
cerned. We have had some in other sections of this zone. 

The Chairman. The fact that you testified to-^that they leave their 
families at home — has a tendency to minimize that problem, has it not ? 

WORKERS EXPECT TO MOVE ON 

Major Hollandsworth. Yes, sir. Of course, our work is tempo- 
rary. These cantonment projects are temporary. The peak of the 
work only lasts, sometimes, from 30 to 90 days, and naturally a man 
coming from some far-distant State, knowing that he would be only 
here 30 to 90 days, wouldn't bring his family along. He had an idea 
that when this job was over he would move on to the next job. There 
was quite a lot of that. We found many of them going on, even during 



^QgQ BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

the construction peak, to other jobs. In other words, a man might quit 
here and move over to another job even before this job was completed. 
There was quite a lot of movement from one job to another due to 
various rumors about better wage rates. I know we had quite a lot of 
that even between Ikleade and Aberdeen up here. A rumor would 
get out that Aberdeen was working more overtime, and paying pre- 
mium rates, above those at Meade, for instance. Well, men would hear 
that and would quit at Meade and run over to Aberdeen and work a 
day or two, until they found out the story was probably not true, and 
then they would go back to Meade. 

The Chairman. There is no way to prevent workers from keeping 
their ears to the ground, is there ? 

Major HoLLANDSwoRTH. We have never tried to do that. They are 
perfectly at liberty to move on any time they want to. 

CONTRACTOR ADOPTS OWN LABOR POLICY 

As far as the workers being discriminated against on these jobs, we 
don't enter into that picture at all after the job is turned over to the 
contractor. The contractor is a free agent to operate his job in any 
manner that he sees fit. If he elects to operate as a closed shop under 
the A. F. of L. or the C. I. O., as the case might be, he is at liberty to do 
so. We make the contractor solely responsible for his relations with 
labor; in other words, we try to stay out of the picture as much as 
possible. We have tried to emphasize to the contractor that it was 
his problem to secure the labor and complete the job; that is why he 
was selected, in most cases — because he was considered a man who could 
do that. 

Now, that is the only comment I would want to make on discrimina- 
tion. The contractor elected to operate his job one way or another, 
either open shop or closed shop or a preferential shop ; and that was 
left entirely up to him. 

Dr. Lamb. Do you have any comment you care to make on the sec- 
ond paragraph of this statement ? [Handing statement to witness.]^ 

Major Hollands WORTH. I don't have any knowledge of that state- 
ment. However, I will say I don't know whether the man was sum- 
moned before the officer in charge or not. But it is against our policy 
for the officer in charge to have anything to say about that sort of thing. 

This is the first time anything like that ever came to my attention. 

Dr. Lamb. We don't want a statement like that to go into the record 
without asking you to reply. That is why I wanted to give you a 
chance to make any comment you saw fit. 

Major HoLLANDSwoRTH. This is the first time it has come to my 
attention. I can investigate it and make a reply later on. 

Dr. Lamb. It might be a good idea — for the record. 

1 The statement was that of Frank J. Bender, regional director of tlie Maryland Congress 
of Industrial Organiations. It appears in full on following pages, in connection with 
Mr. Bender's testimony before the committee. The paragraph to which reference is made 
in the testimony aljove is as follows : 

"A Conq:ress of Industrial Organizations carpenter working for Lloyd Mitchell, an 
electric, plumbing, and heating subcontractor at Camp Meade, was requested to join the 
American Federation of Labor union. He told them he was a member of the Congress of 
Industrial Organizations and did not want to join any other unions. He was then sum- 
moned to appear before the T'nited States officer in charge and explain his reasons. He 
did this and was informed that unless he joined the American Federation of Labor he 
would not be permitted work on that project." 



NATIONAL DP:FENSE MIGRATION 6061 

Major HoLLANDSwoRTH. I wouldn't be in position to answer this, 
yes or no, at the present time; however, I am inclined to say that, 
as a matter of policy, we do not do that sort of thing. 

Dr. Lamb. But you will check on it and let us have a report? 

Major HoLLANDSwoRTH. Yes ^ 

The Chairman. Major, we thank you very much for your contri- 
bution to our record. 

Our next witness is Mr. Bender. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK J. BENDER, REGIONAL DIRECTOR, MARY- 
LAND CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS 

The Chairman. Mr. Bender, will you please state your full name 
and connection for the record? 

Mr. Bender. Frank J. Bender, regional director, Maryland Con- 
gress of Industrial Organizations, Baltimore, Md. 

The Chairman. You have filed a statement, haven't you, Mr. 
Bender ? 

Mr. Bender. I have, sir. 

The Chairman. We will insert that in full in the record ; and we 
will ask you to touch on some of the high spots. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY FRANK J. BENDER, MARYLAND REGIONAL DIRECTOR, 
CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS 

Late last fall or early winter, a young man reared in Baltimore made appli- 
cation for employment at the Glenn L. Martin plant. He was told there were 
no johs open. He answered, "Well, your company issued a statement yester- 
day to the public through the newspaper article dealing with a labor shortage, 
and now you tell me there are no jobs open." 

This applicant was then told that a group of young men were being sent 
in from the Eastern Shore of Maryland which would supply their present re- 
quirement. This young man finally secured employment with the Martin Co. 

During April and May of this year, I passed a number of plants having 
large Government defense contracts. I saw many men in line at the employ- 
ment ofiices who were turned away without securing employment. These 
same companies were paying for advertisements for help wanted. 

Employees for the Glenn L. INIartin plant are brought from vocational schools 
in the following places : Clarence Chamberlain School and Casey Jones School 
in New Jersey. I am also informed that they receive emiiloyees from schools 
in the State of Pennsylvania, although I do not have any concrete information 
on them. 

We have many Negro youths graduating from our Baltimore high schools. They 
have frequently made application for employment at the Martin plant, and each 
time they are told, "We do not employ Negro labor." They enlist and are drafted 
into the Army and Navy, where they will use these implements of war, but at home 
they are denied the opportunity of working in plants where they are manufactured 
or assembled. And at the same time the employers who refuse the idle Negro 
employment will have statements published in our papers telling all "John Citi- 
zens" of a labor .shortage, when none exists. 

There is not a day within the recent past that unemployed men have not come to 
our office seeking information on securing employment in the Baltimore industries. 
They include all crafts, creeds, color, and nationalities. They come from as far 
west as St. Louis, as far east as Boston, from all sections of the South, and many 
from States north of Maryland. 

DISCRIMINATION 

Members of labor unions are being discriminated against by corporations having 
millions of dollars in Government contracts for our country's defense. 

1 See p. 6057. 



gQg2 BALTIMOKE HEARINGS 

Young men making application at the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft plant are given 
a slip of paper which enters them in vocational training schools. 

Late last November or early December one Mr. Wright was an instructor in the 
vocational school located at Centre and Howard Streets, of Baltimore City. He 
asked a class of new students if they were members of either the Amei'ican Fed- 
eration of Labor or the Congress of Industrial Organizations, and if they were he 
would immediately accept their resignation. 

Tlien there was a moment of silence. When no one spoke up on the question, 
Mr. Wright continued, "If you are a member of one of these two unions, and Mr. 
Martin finds it out, you will be out of the plant within a week." 

On other occasions Mr. Wright told his class of students that he was a member 
of the Middle River Aeronautical Employees Association, Inc., better known to the 
Martin employees as "the Martin Co. union." Mr. Wright further stated he was 
on the pay roll of the Martin Co. and that he was expecting his Christmas 
vacation pay. 

Two brothers employed by the Glenn L. Martin Aircraft Corporation, doing the 
same kind of work in the same department, found the Martin Co. used the draft 
question, a fine method to keep a labor union out of their plant located at Middle 
River. Prior to April 23 of this year one Hyman Kessler received his questionnaire 
from the draft board. The Martin Co. lost no time in requesting that Mr. Hyman 
Kessler be placed on the deferred list because of his employment. On April 23, 
1941, a controversy arose in the drop-hammer department of the Glenn L. Martin 
plant resulting in 27 men being ejected from the plant, among whom was Mr. 
'Samuel Kessler, brother of Hyman Kessler. The day following the adjudication 
of the controversy on the 26th of April Mr. Kessler took his questionnaire to the 
Martin management, hoping to receive the same consideration that was given to 
his brother, Mr. Hyman Kessler, because they were performing the same kind of 
work, in the same department, under the same foreman. To his sui-prise, he was 
informed by the management that the company would not make the deferment 
request in his case. 

To be wage earners and members of a labor union neither decreases, increases, 
or in any other manner modifies or changes citizens' rights. Their rights are 
identical with their rights as citizen-s — of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happi- 
ness. Certain employers who derive their business from our Government violate 
every prerogative to their employees in their efforts to form a labor union in 
compliance with our Federal laws. While their employees are producing ma- 
terials for the defense of our country and world democracy, these employers 
violate one of the major principles of a democracy — the right of labor to organize 
and bargain with their employers on wages, hours of labor, working conditions, 
and other conditions of employment. They cannot blow hot and cold at the same 
time. 

Members of the Congress of Industrial Organizations construction workers 
have been discriminated in each of the following projects financed by the United 
States Government; Camp Meade, Camp Holabird, United States Coast Guard 
depot, all of the projects coming under the slum clearance, Baltimore Municipal 
Airport, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds. Our people were idle and could not 
get employment on these projects. 

When the Glenn L. Martin Co. was contemplating a building extension to 
their plant, a Congress of Industrial Organizations contractor was low bidder 
and financially able to complete the job. But one Mr. Kahn, who was the architect 
for this building extension at the Glenn L. Martin plant, would not give this build- 
ing contract to the Congress of Industrial Organiztaions contractor unles he 
would sign an American Federation of Labor contract. Such discrimination is 
unwarranted, unfair, and un-American. 

A Congress of Industrial Organizations carpenter working for Lloyd Mitchell, 
an electric pumping and heating subcontractor, at Camp Meade was requested 
to join the American Federation of Labor union. He told them he was a member 
of the Congress of Industrial Organizations and did not want to join any other 
unions. He was then summoned to appear before the United States officer in 
charge and explain his reasons. He did this and was informed that unless he 
joined the American Federation of Labor he would not be permitted to work on 
that project.^ 

HOUSING 

Due to the migration in the defense industries, the housing situation in eastern 
Baltimore and Baltimore County is very acute. In the Dundnlk area, approxi- 



See letter from Maj. A. H. Hollandsworth, p. 6057- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6063 

mutely 1,000 additional families have moved in. The sewerage system has never 
been enlarged to take care of these additional families. At the present time, 
a small pnmping system pumps the sewage into a cesspool approximately 16 feet 
in diameter and 12 feet deep, which is much too small. This cesspool is open 
on top. When the wind is blowing from the cesspool toward the homes, the 
stench from it is so strong that it is almost imixtssible to endure it. The drains 
from many of the homes run into the alleys and streets and then into the sewers. 
This also ceates a very unhealthy condition. 

Instead of going into the housing situation from my own observation, I am 
herewith submitting photographs and newspaper articles published on investiga- 
tion made of the housing problem as found by the writers of the articles. (The 
material referred to is held in committee files.) 

PRIORITIES 

I cannot at this time say what effect priorities will have on the industries 
affected in the Baltimore area. I have talked to a number of employevs. The 
printing and lithographing companies may be severely affected. Many ingredients 
are used in the Ink they use, and many different kinds of metal in the making 
of type. They use bronze, copper, aluminum, and other metals. Inability to 
purchase the needed amount of any one ingredient or metal would affect the 
entire plant. 

Again, paper is becoming diffcult to get. A large order will come in for labels, 
but shipments of the finished product are to be made at four different times for 
a period of a year, due to the shortage of paper, which makes it impossible to 
print the entire order and store it until the order is to be shipped. They think 
they will bo compelled to make up the type four different times, which will increase 
their production costs and decrease their metals. As often as they are used they 
are remelted, because they do not have sufficient space that would be required 
for storage of this type. 

There is likely to be considerable unemployment in the Baltimore General 
Motors plant. In the automobile industry, we are told that fewer cars will be 
assembled this year. This will also mean fewer workmen to be employed in the 
automobile plants. This will affect other industries producing tires and auto 
parts. 

I am also advised by the Lock Insulator Corporation that they are having a 
difficult time in getting certain material needed in making insulators used in 
erecting electric lines. Some 600 employees are employed by this company. 

I have talked to a number of employers of labor not directly connecied with 
the defense program. All of them are worried concerning the priorities, and 
feel that the production in their plants may be materially reduced because of the 
priorities given to defense industries on materials needed by them to operate as 
they have been heretofore. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK J. BENDER— Resumed 

The Chairman. Have there been any difficulties here, to your 
knowledge, regarding the hiring of Negroes? 

Mr. Bender. There have. 

The Chairman. And what are the difficulties? 

Mr. Bender. You just can't get employment for Negroes in the 
skilled trades or an opportunity to acquire the necessary knowledge 
in any of the training schools conducted by the defense employers. 

The Chairman, Are Negroes permitted to take the training 
courses ? 

Mr. Bender. They are not. 

The Chairman. We had a witness at Hartford, a colored man, who 
testified he took the full course and then was unable to secure 
employment. 

Mr. Bender. I understood j^ou to mean the training schools where 
the employers send them for the purpose of preparatory training. 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Bender. That training they do not get. 



5064 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

The Chairman. Is there anything in the make-up of the Negro, in 
your opinion, which unfits him for skilled work ? Is he qualified to do 
skilled work ? 

Mr. Bender. Yes, if he is given the opportunity. As mechanics 
the Negroes are just as good as the whites. 

The Chairman. Can you tell us anything about the housing situa- 
tion in eastern Baltimore and Baltimore County? Is it adec^uate? 

"hot bed" housing 

Mr. Bender. It is not adequate. If it was adequate, families would 
not be living in trailers ; they would not be taking turns sleeping in 
the same bed; the day worker would not be sleeping in the bed at 
nighttime, and the night worker would not be sleeping in the same 
bed in the daytime ; that is not adequate housing. 

The Chairman. And does that condition exist in this area? 

Mr. Bender. It does. 

The Chairman. Does a man with a large family have greater 
difficulty in securing housing? 

Mr. Bender. It is almost impossible for him to find a house. 

The Chairman. That was what our testimony indicated in other 
defense centers, in many instances. 

Mr. Bender. It is almost impossible for a man with a lai'ge family 
to get a house that is fit to live in. 

RENTS are higher 

The Chairman. "\Yliat about the rents? Are they going up around 
here ? 

Mr. Bender. They are. People are registering complaints at our 
office that their rents have been increased $5 a month, and when they 
wanted to move and made inquiries, they found that they would be 
charged as much as $8 more than the person who previously lived in 
the house. 

The Chairman. Yesterday one of our witnesses testified that he 
was paying $45 for a part of a house, and the whole house formerly 
had rented for $8 a month. 

The complaints registered with your office indicate, then, that 
there has been considerable increase in rents? 

Mr, Bender. That is true. 

The Chairman. And discrimination against large families? 

Mr. Bender. That is true. 

The Chairman. What is being done in this community, to your 
knowledge, to remedy that situation? 

Mr. Bender. I don't know of anything except registering com- 
plaints with the landlords — that is, the owners of the buildings — 
that a penalty is put on a person who has a family. 

I have heard owners and real estate people who have properties 
to rent state that they would not rent to families with children. 

The Chairman. Do you have any questions to ask. Congressman 
Arnold? 

LAYS RACE DISCRIMINATION TO EMPLOYERS 

Mr. Arnold. I want to ask you, Mr. Bender, is the failure to 
employ Negroes in skilled defense industries because of employer 
objections or employee objections? 



NATIONAL defense: MIGRATION 6065 

Mr. Bender. I would say, from the knowledge that I have, it is 
because of employer objections; and I base that on the experience 
we have had with skilled mechanics in the building trades. In the 
C. I. O. Construction Workers Union there is no discrimination be- 
tween colored and white, and we find that where labor is given an 
opportunity, both the Negro and the white man, as carpenters, 
brick masons, and so forth, will work on the same scaffold without 
any objection. 

Mr. Arnold. And is the Negro as highly paid, as a carpenter or 
a brick mason, as the white man? 

Mr. Bender. Equal pay. The pay is for the job, regardless of 
who performs the labor. 

Mr. Arnold. Is that true in cement finishing ? 

Mr. l^ENDER. That is true in all the building trades. 

Mr. Arnold. Carpentering? 

Mr. Bender. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Plastering I 

Mr, Bender. Yes, sir. 

Mr. ilRNOLD. But when it comes to factory employment the 
situation is entirely different ? 

Mr. Bender. It is not. 

Mr. Arnold. I mean, you don't find Negroes in the factories. 

Mr. Bender. Where the C. I. O. has a factory under contract the 
Negro is given an equal opportunity without objection from the 
whites. We have them as watchmen and all of the other crafts. 
They advance to better positions, better-paid positions, through 
seniority. If a Negro has seniority in a plant under contract with, 
the C. I. O. that Negro gets the position if he is qualified, 

]\Ir. Arnold. And you don't find any objection from your white 
C. I. O. people? 

Mr. Bender. We have not to this day, 

Mr, Arnold, Are there private schools where colored people are 
able to go for training? 

Mr, Bender. I have no knowledge of them, 

Mr. Arnold, That is all. 

The Chairman. Mr, Osmers. 

Mr, Osmers. ]Mr. Bender, is the C. I. O. building-trades union a 
large organization in the Baltimore area? 

ALLEGES UNION DISCRIMINATION 

Mr. Bender. It is not. And I may amplify that by pointing out 
that the reason is discrimination against the contractors in the Balti- 
more area. We have had contractors who are under contract with the 
C. I. 0., who would be low bidders on large jobs — especially the exten- 
sion job at the Glenn L. Martin plant — where the architect insisted 
that although the C. I. O. contractor was the low bidder, he could not 
get the contract unless he would sign a contract with the American 
Federation of Labor building trades. In all the defense projects the 
C. I. O. contractors have not been given an opportunity to bid or to 
get those contracts; therefore, C. I. O. labor could not be employed 
on those, and naturally the organization is not as strong as we would 
like to see it. 

Mr. Osmers. Who received the contract for the Martin plant exten- 
sion ? Did the low bidder get it and use A, F, of L, labor ? 



QQQQ BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Bender. The low bidder did not get it. 

Mr. OsMERS. Are you familiar Avith the set-up of building-trades 
unions throughout the country ? 

Mr. Bender. Some of them. 

Mr. OsMERS. You are probably aware that some of tiie A. F. of L. 
building-trades unions exclude Negroes. 

Mr. Bender. I know that to be a fact. 

Mr. OsMERS. I am quite sure that in my own State of New Jersey 
the A. F. of L. building-trades unions discriminate against colored 
workmen. 

doubts threat or stoppage at martin plant 

The statement was made here yesterday, and I believe it is in the 
record, that a great many skilled mechanics at the Glenn L. Martin 
plant served notice on their employer that if any Negro labor should 
be brought into the factory to work alongside the white workers, there 
would be trouble and a work stoppage. Do you agree with that state- 
ment ? 

Mr. Bender. I do not agree with it. I think it is fundamentally 
wrong. And at the same time I suspect that the statement originated 
with the contractor and the business agents of the unions. 

Mr. OsMERS. I wonder if you would clarify that a little, Mr. Bender. 
You say you think the statement is fundamentally wrong. I will agree 
that the principle is wrong. But is the statement true or untrue — 
that white workers would quit their jobs in the plant? 

Mr. Bender. I say it was based on 

Mr. OsMERS. May I interrupt you ? Dr. Lamb has called my atten- 
tion to the fact that you may have misunderstood me. I meant the 
workers in the plant who are making airplanes, not the workers on the 
construction job. 

Mr. Bender. I don't think there is any truth in that story anyhow. 
Our experience has been if any worker in the plant of the Glenn L. 
Martin Co. would raise much objection, he was soon without a job. 
So I don't think there is any complaint such as that. 

Mr. OsMERS. Well, granting the truth of your statement for the pur- 
pose of argument — that the worker would be out of a job — let us 
say that 10,000 skilled workers raised objection to skilled Negro workers 
alongside them and quit their jobs or were fired from their jobs. Do 
3'ou admit that such a thing would stop production in that plant ? 

Mr. Bender. I don't think the men would quit work. We have other 
defense industries, not making airplanes, where the Negroes work, and 
they are seasoned workers. In the Martin plant, the majority of them — 
the overwhelming majority of the employees — are 21, 22, and 23 years 
old. The great bulk of them are on the first job they ever had, and 
they would not be so indoctrinated or prejudiced against the Negro 
race. 

SOLUTION IS employment 

Mr. OsMERS. This question of discrimination is rapidly becoming 
one of the major problems of our defense effort. You would agree 
with that, I thiuk, would you not, Mr. Bender? 

Mr. Bender. T agree that as hmg as Ave don't give them an oppor- 
tunity to work, it is a genuine problem; but I think tlie problem could 
be easily solved by giving them employment. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6067 

Mr. OsMEKS. I agree with you absolutely. But the committee had 
some experience in Hartford with the same problem in another air- 
craft plant and it would seem, from testimony received from labor men 
in Hartford and elsewhere, that the objection of the workers was just 
as real as the objection of the employer. I am not defending the 
workers in that connection, but there certainly is a feeling there. 

Mr. Bender. In the C. I. O. unions every member of every affiliated 
organization, on becoming a member of the union, takes an obligation 
that he will not discriminate against any other member on account 
of creed, color, or nationality. We, as leaders, put that principle in 
effect in every plant that is under contract with the C, I. O. 

Mr. OsMEEs. Is there any racial discrimination other than against 
Negroes in the State of Maryland ? 

Mr. Bender. I don't quite get your question. 

Mr. OsMERS. Well, is there any discrimination against elews, for 
example ? 

Mr. Bender. I think not. 

Mr. OsMERS. You would say that it is the Negro problem solely, 
in the State of Maryland ? 

Mr. Bender. Yes. 

Mr. OsMERs. That is all. 

The Chairman. We thank you very much, Mr. Bender, and we 
appreciate your statement. 

Our next witness is Mr. Edward S. Lewis. 

TESTIMONY OP EDWARD S. LEWIS, EXECUTIVE SECEETAEY, BALTI- 
MORE URBAN LEAGUE, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Chairman. Mr. Lewis, the gentleman from Illinois — Congress- 
man Arnold — will interrogate you. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you please state, for the record, your name and 
official connection? 

Mr. Lewis. Edward S. Lewis, executive secretary, Baltimore Urban 
League, Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arnold. Who is the gentleman with you? 

Mr. Lewis. Mr. Furman L. Templeton, the industrial secretary of 
the Baltimore Urban League. 

Mr. Arnold. We have your paper, Mr. Lewis, and it will be made 
a part of the record. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY EDWARD S. LEWIS, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, BALTI- 
MORE URBAN LEAGUE, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The migration of 1,500,000 Negroes froin soutliern agrorian areas to nortliern 
cities between 1910 and 1939 is one of the most significant population move- 
ments in the history of this country. While Baltimore cannot he said to represent 
one of the centers of heaviest migration, it can be considered one of the border- 
line cities that has definitely felt the effects of this migration. 

The purpose of this statement is to present a brief review of some of the 
problems incident to the migration of Negroes to Baltimore during the past 20 
years and especially during the present crisis to the House Committee Investi- 
gating Natiional Defense Migration. 

NUMBERS 

First, there is the matter of numbers. There are, according to the 1940 
census, 16i,567 nonwhite people in Baltimore. The proportion of Negroes in 
60396—41 — pt. 15 13 



6068 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Baltimore's population is not so large as that found in cities to its south, but 
it is larger than the proportion in all cities to its north having a population of 
100,000 or more. Furthermore, the proportion of Negroes remained rather con- 
stant until 1920-bO, when it increased five times as rapidly as the white popula- 
tion. The "City Fathers" are frequently alarmed about this increase but it is 
significant that Baltimore showed an average increase iier decade since 1890 
of 29.5 percent in its Negro population. This rate does not compare with cities 
such as New York, Philadelphia, Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland, and Pittsburgh. 
The increase in these cities ranged from 5 percent to over 300 percent. 

There is also considerable loose discussion pbou' the large number of Negroes 
who supposedly migrate to Baltimore from M-iryland counties, especially when 
the relief budget is being considered by the city and State governments. Suf- 
fice it to say there is no adequate evidence to indicate that such a movement is 
taking place. In fact, most of the fears about the "terrible increase" of the 
Negro population here are entirely unjustified. 

With the exception of 150 carpenters and severnl hundred building construc- 
tion laborers who have come to Baltimore from Maryland counties and from 
cities along the Atlantic coast, there has not been any noticeable influx of Negro 
workers since the initiation of the defense program. 

PK03LEMS OF EDUCATION 

One of the reasons given by Negro migran^^s f' r leaving the lower South is 
that of increasing educational opportunities for their children. Baltimore's 
school system has a good reputation, but the statement must be qualified with 
reference to Negro schools. 

In June 1940 a representative committee on cu'-(>nt educational problems pre- 
sented data to the board of school commissio'iers, showing glaring inequalities 
in the property evaluations of colored and white schools. For example, it was 
pointed out that a total of $7,805,854 57 was need d for the equalization of the 
colored with white schools. Evidence submi* te ' " this body on pupil-teacher 
ratio showed that on every level of instruct'on the ra'io is higher in the colo'-ed 
schools than in the white. With reference to vocational training, it was indicated 
that only half of the total number of cours-^s '> "'^red in several white voca- 
tional schools are given to Negro children in the colored vocational school. 

It is an accepted fact that most of the Negro s^ho is are overcrowded. 

pui>il-te:.\che:i r'tt- 
These data are based on an arithmetic average 



Level of instruction 



City-wide (all children; all teachers). 

Elementary 

Junior high school 

Senior high school 

Occupational 

Vocational 



30.4 

34 

27 

26.89 

21.8 

21 



34.9 

38 

30 



Differ- 
ence 



These data show that, based on a city-wide average, there are four and five- 
tenths more children per colored teached than per white teacher. Similarly, 
there are four more children Tpev colored teacher on the elementary level; three 
more on the junior-high level ; one and one-tenth more on the senior-high level ; 
three and nine-tenths more on the occupational 1< • 1 ; ai:d one more on the voca- 
tional level. 

It is significant to note that on every level of ins*^ "uction the pupil-teacher ratio 
is higher in the colored schools than in the white schools. This is especially 
noticeable on the elementary, junior high school, and occupational levels of 
instruction. 

EQUALIZATION OF TEACH':RS 

This analysis does not assume that there are too many white teachers. Rather, 
it shows the number of additional colored teachers needed at the several levels 
of instniction in order to have a teacher-pupil ratio equal to the white teachers. 
If these additional teachers were added, then the inequalities shown in the 
"pupil-teacher i-atio" would disappear, namely, there would be the same number 
of pupils per teacher at eacli of the several levels cf instruction. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6069 



The following data show the number of additional teachers needed in order 
to achieve this equalization : 



Level of instruction 


We now 
have- 


We 
should 
have— 


Addi- 
tional 
teachers 
needed 




so? 

150 
79 
25 
32 


661 
169 
82 
27 


64 




19 




3 




2 




6 








>883 


977 


94 







1 Exclusive of 6 normal-school teachers. 

We have 6 normal-school teachers which whites do not have at a comparable 
level. Assuming that we need a normal school and the whites do not, then 
we would have a total of 983 teachers to secure equalization. 



VALUATION OF PR0PE31TIES 

(Land and structures, as of June 30, 1938) 

Combined valuations (land and structures) for the several cate- 
gories shown on chart : 

White $41, 758, 685. 58 

Colored 6, 826, 560. 61 

Total amount additional needed for equalization (after de- 
duction of "excess" cases) 7,805,854.57 

Elementary schools : 

White valuation 21, 466, 610. 50 

Colored : 

Total amount if equalized at level 9, 996, 426. 70 

Present valuation 3,421, 568. 25 

Additional funds needed for equalization 6, 574, 858. 45 

Senior high schools : 

White valuation 9, 340, 629. 20 

Colored : 

Total amount if equalized at level 1,512.784.67 

Present valuation 1, 711, 116. 27 

Excess valuation above equalization 198, 331. 60 

Junior high schools : 

White valuation 7, 879, 346. 55 

Colored : 

Total amount if equalized at level 2, 057, 478. 15 

Present valuation 1, 355,299. 09 

Additional funds needed for equalization 702, 179. 06 

Work in progress : 

White valuation 1, 627, 582. 60 

Colored : 

Total amount if equalized 601, 128. 00 

Present valuation 

Amount needed for equalization 601, 128. 00 

Vocational schools : 

White valuation 986, 984. 00 

Colored : 

Total amount if equalized at level 287, 027. 40 

Present valuation 315, 262. 00 

Excess valuation above equalization 28,234.00 

Administration buildings : 

White valuation 371, 037. 73 

Colored : 

Total amount if equalized 136, 930. 50 

Present valuation 23, 315. 00 

Additional funds needed for equalization 113, 615. 50 



6070 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Occupational schools: 

White valuation $104, 495. 00 

Colored : 

Total amount if equalized at level 40, 639. 74 

Present valuation 

Amount needed for equalization 40, 639. 74 

DEIFENSE-TEAINING PROBLEMS 

These obvious inequalities in the schcool system were never more apparent than 
in the present defense crisis. Although several thousand white workers have 
already been trained in white vocational schools and placed in defense industries, 
fewer than 100 Negroes to date have been trained and none of them placed in 
defense industries. 

After a long siege of negotiations by the committee on current educational 
problems, the school board was finally persuaded to offer 12 new defense-training 
courses for Negroes. Forty thousand dollars has been allotted by the Govern- 
ment for this work, and it is hoped that classes will be under way in July. 

There are included with this statement for the attention of the committee two 
reports of the board of school commissioners by the committee on current 
educational problems of Negroes, which cover in detail the educational problems 
of Baltimore Negroes.^ These reports give conclusive evidence of the difficulties 
which our group has experienced in securing defense training and school facilities 
that remotely approximate those provided for white citizens. 

INDUSTRIAL PROBLEMS 

The key to most of the social disorganization problems which beset migrants as 
well as other native-born Negro workers in Baltimore is job discrimination. The 
job, to the mass of Baltimore Negroes, means only three types of work : Common 
labor, personal service, and domestic service. Since this investigation is largely 
concerned with defense migration, the writer will limit the discussion to sps- 
cific problems of Negroes in this field. 

A total of approximately $"00,000,000 of defense contracts have been awarded 
to Maryland. One of the questions which is usually asked our office is. What gains 
have been made by Negro workers in the industries allotted these contracts? 
The record will show that, with few exceptions, steel and building construction, 
the progress made by Negro workers in finding defense employment has been 
negligible. 

The following facts secured by the industrial secretary of the Urban League 
give some measure of the extent of Negro employment in defense industries : 

1. Out of 2,000 employees in the textile industries, there are 75 colored em- 
ployees. 

2. In the chemical field, there are 10 out of 20O workers. 

3. A total of 258 out of 6,800 shipyard workers are Negroes : 240 of this number 
are unskilled. 

4. Approximately one-third of the workers employed in the metal industries are 
Negro workers. 

5. Two hundred Negro carpenters have been employed on nine different con- 
stmction projects. 

6. There are no Negroes employed in the aircraft industry in Baltimore. 

7. In machine shops there are some 5,700 employees, of which 27 are Negroes. 
An analysis of the factors responsible for the elimination of Negro skilled and 

semiskilled workers from the defense effort would include the following : 

1. PREJUDICE DUE TO BLIND ADHERENCE TO TRADITIONAL OCCUPATIONAL PATTERNS 

As indicated in the first paragraph of this discussion of industrial problems, jobs 
for Baltimore's Negro citizens mean domestic, personal service, and unskilled 
work. 

Employment offices, both public and private, adhere to this tradition and handle 
clients accordingly. 

The city and State governments also follow this i)attern with precious few 
exceptions. 

Private employers insist that Negro and white skilled workers simply will not 
work together. 



See pp. 6073 and 6077. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION g071 

Our experieuce in the Urban League, however, indicates that these traditions 
can be broken down without serious complications. Before December 1939 sliiHed 
white and colored construction workers had never worked together on large proj- 
ects. With the advent of the United States Housing Administration projects, guar- 
anteeing 4.6 percent of the pay roll to Negro skilled workers, the league began 
its negotiations with contractors and labor unions to integrate Negro skilled 
workers into the low-rent housing construction picture. We have been successful 
in placing Negro skilled workers on projects in the following crafts : Cement fin- 
ishers, roofers, carpenters, equipment operators, plasterers, rodmen, bricklayers, 
and sheet-metal workers. In each case these Negro craftsmen have worked beside 
white skilled workers in peace and harmony. 

2. MISCONCEPTIONS HELD BY WHITE EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYEES RESPECTING NEGRO 
CHARACTEKISTICS WITH REFERENCE TO HEALTH, SKILLS, WORK HABITS, HONESTY, 
ETC. 

No Negro nurses had ever been employed in the city hospitals, not even to serve 
patients of color in all of its wards. It was argued by board members of this insti- 
tution that to employ them would disrupt the morale of the hospital. After 3 
years of negotiations by members of the Urban League board and representatives 
of the Colored Graduate Nurses Association, it was finally agreed to give 19 Negro' 
nurses a trial in the tubercular ward. Suffice it to say these nurses have made 
good, and none of the predictions made about the hazards involved in employing, 
them have come time. 

One of the industries holding large defense contracts recently agreed to i-everse 
its policy of complete exclusion of Negro workers and has hired 19 Negro employ- 
ees in its maintenance department. These workers have also established good 
records of pei-fonnance and have been accepted by white <^mployees in the plant. 

The stereotype thinking and attitudes about Negroes' work habits, honesty, and 
inability to master skilled operations will not stand up under an impartial 
investigation of the facts of the case. 

3. EXCLUSION POLICIES OF LABOR UNIONS 

Skilled Negro workers have uot only to contend with discriminatory policies 
of employers but also with these same practices in labor unions. 

We could place Negro painters on two defense housing jobs immediately if we 
could get the local Painters Union No. 1, American Federation of Labor, to 
admit Negro members.^ But this organization has refused to admit Negro 
members. It will not permit Negro painters to charter a separate local and no 
working permits have been issued. Since all of the defense housing jobs are 
100 percent union, it is impossible for qualified Negro painters to secure work on 
them because of their inability to get union clearance. 

Although the local bricklayers union will issue a permit to a Negro workman 
who already has a union card, it too has refused to take in Negro members. 
This means that local Negro bricklayers cannot work on any defense or United 
States Housing Administration projects, in spite of the fact that the contracts 
provide there shall be a definite quota of Negro skilled workers included on all 
of these public tax-supported projects. 

On the plus side of the picture, the League has made significant progress in 
getting the local carpenters and plasterers unions to remove color bars. 

4. BIASED LEGISLATION, WHICH BY REFERENCE IF NOT BY APPLICATIONS, SERVES TO 
RESTRICT NEGRO EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES 

Regulation No. 2G of the health code for Baltimore provides that : 

"Water closets are to be constructed in such manner as to provide separate facili- 
ties for each sex and color in all buildings used as workshops, factories, hotels, 
schools, institutions, and all places where persons are commercially employed." 

This biased legislation often provides employers in defense industries with 
excuses for not hiring Negro workers. The expense item of providing separate 
facilities, as they see it, is prohibitive. 

The fact that Maryland keeps on its statute books an antiquated Jim Crow law 
provides at all times a psychological barrier to the employment of skilled Negro 
workers. 



See correspondence, pp. 6083-6084. 



gQ72 BALTIMORE HEAKINGS 

It would certainly seem a part of wisdom to eliminate in our present crisis 
outworn traditions and discriminatory employment practices which prevent the 
complete unity of purpose in an "all out" program for the common defense of our 
country. 

HEALTH AND HOUSING PROBLEMS 

In all cities where the migration has been felt, there have been difficult prob- 
lems of health and housing among the Nogro population. Baltimore has been 
no exception to this rule in the past, nor during the present emergency. There 
is at present an acute housing shortage in the Negro community of Baltimore. 
Is there any wonder at this condition when one-fifth of the city's population is 
housed in one-fiftieth of the city's space for living? This area is approximately 
1 square mile and has 90,000 Negroes living in it. 

A graphic description of the effects of overcrowding in the Negro com- 
munity was given by a recent bulletin issued on May 16, 1941, by the health 
department. 

"Two additional cases of meningitis were reported during the week. * * * 
One case was a 17-year-old colored girl living in the Druid Hill health district. 
This case occurred in a family where there was excessive overcrowding. Of a 
total of 20 persons in the household, 10 slept in 2 rooms." 

Since February there has been a marked increase of meningitis cases among 
Negroes. It is a well-known fact that this serious disease is always associated 
with overcrowding housing conditions. 

Another serious problem growing out of the housing shortage is that of rising 
rents, especially in the poorest sections of the city inhabited by Negroes. The 
Afro-American has collected some i>ertinent evidence on this subject.^ 

The most difficult aspect of this problem is that Negroes are hemmed in on 
all sides by the white population and any amount of expansion, on the basis 
of past experiences, is going to be bitterly opposed by restrictive covenants 
and in some cases by violence. When the housing authority proposed a vacant 
land project for Negroes in the vicinity of Montgomery Ward & Co., there was 
such a storm of protest from white inhabitants of this area that it had to be 
abandoned. 

Housing projects now being constructed for Negroes cannot possibly relieve 
present congestion, and very little attention is apparently being given to the 
erection of defense housing units for Negroes. 

While there is no particular sign of acute health conditions outside of the 
increase in meningitis cases referred to, the stark fact remains that the rates 
of communicable diseases are out of all proportion to the size of our popula- 
tion. Research studies carried on by the United States Public Health Service 
and by the Department of Labor indicate a close correlation between sickness 
and economic status. If it were possible to give Negroes more opixjrtunities 
for work, there would undoubtedly be a corresponding improvement in both 
health and housing conditions of the Negro population in Baltimore. 

Some immediate measures should be taken by the Government and by private 
agencies to relieve the acute housing shortage and to curb rising rents. 

PROBLEMS OF DELINQUENCY 

One of the sorest spots in the community is that of disproportionate crime 
and delinquency rates. Most of the persons who talk glibly about the Negro 
being an inherent criminal have never had courses in criminology, but they do 
have real influence in molding unfavorable opinions on the subject. 

The homicide, arrest, and juvenile delinquency rates of Negroes in Baltimore 
are inordinately high. But they are symptomatic of social disorganization in 
the total community where Negroes are systematically shut out of jobs. Recre- 
ational facilities in the most congested areas are nonexistent. All of the 
police (with tlie exception of three not in uniform) and the law-enforcement 
personnel is white. Police brutality is rampant and nothing is done about it. 
These factors enumerated above are only a part of an exceedingly complex 
picture. 

The Work Projects Administration, Department of Public Welfare, Criminal 
Justice Commission, and the Urban League are joint sponsors of a compre- 
hensive juvenile delinquency study being directed by Mr. Earl R. Moses, of 
Morgan College. When this study has been completed it will throw new light 
on the delinquency problems of our group. 



See pp. 6250-6253. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6073 

There is no short cut to the solution of these complex delinquency problems. 
The writer would recommend the following as practical remedial suggestions : 

1. Provide more employment opportunities in private industries and the city, 
State, and National Governments. 

2. Set up a crime-prevention bureau, similar to the Friendly Service Bureau 
in Columbus, Ohio, and man it with colored personnel. 

3. Integrate competent Negroes in all of the law-enforcement bodies. 

The fo. lowing quotation is taken from a survey made of the Urban League 
by an expert, C. White Pfeiffer. director of the Kansas City Charity Fund, 
who directed the study. Mr. Pfeiffer's concluding paragraph on "Needs" is 
particularly pertinent to the problems discussed in this paper. 

''Needs. — There is much evidence to indicate that the outstanding unmet 
social problem in Baltimore is the Negro problem, which is manifested in many 
ways — its excessive crime rates and juvenile delinquency rates, its excessive 
mortality rates — especially tuberculosis — its excessive relief rates, the unusual 
difficulty of job opportunities, housing problems and others, all of which, of 
course, interact upon each other and tend to create a vicious circle. These 
problems, of course, have been aggravated by the depression and period of 
prolonged unemployment. It is now axiomatic in Baltimore, as elsewhere, that 
in times of decreasing employment, the Negro is the first to go, and in times 
of increasisg employment is the last to be taken back. It is probable that that 
fact is the largest single causative factor in the other problems of crime, delin- 
quency, health, and housing. * * * " 

In conclusion it should be pointed out that the purpose of this paper is not 
to present a comprehensive survey of the iiroI)U'ms of Negro migi'ants in Balti- 
more. Rather, an attempt has been made to present some of the key issues 
that should be of vital concern to the whole community of Baltimore and espe- 
cially to our representatives in the Congress who will probably introduce 
remedial legislation to deal with some of these challenging problems. 



(The folloAving material was submitted in connection with Mr. 
Lewis's report:) 

Exhibit A — Findings and Recommendations, Conference on Pakticipation of 
Negroes in National Defense 

REPORT BY COUNCII, OF NEGRO ORGANIZATIONS, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Council of Negro Organizations sponsored the Conference on the Partici- 
pation of Negroes in National Defense, March 21 and 22, 1941. * * * 
The purix»ses of the conference as outlined were : 

1. To present the facts concerning the participation of Negroes in defense. 

2. To stimulate public opinion in favor of a larger participation of Negroes in 
defense activities. 

3. To stimulate Negroes to apply for jobs on defense projects. 

4. To recommend appropriate group action. 

Realizing the importance of securing wide participation, the conference plan- 
ning committee was set up to include a cross section of organizations in the 
community. There were 43 organizations represented on the committee. 

There were five subcommittees : Program, publicity, finance, registration, time 
and place. 



HEALTH, HOUSING, AND RECRE1A.TI0N 

Dr. George B. Murphy, member of the Baltimore Housing Authority, gave a 
comprehensive picture of the low-rent housing program as it has developed under 
the Public Works Administration and the United States Housing Authority. 

Some of the high points of his address were as follows : 

1. From 1933-37 the Public Works Administration constructed 51 housing proj- 
ects in the United States. Of this number 14 were for colored people. A total 
of $28,989,877 was spent for the construction of these projects which gave shelter 
to 5,750 colored families. 

2. In 1937 the public-housing program was shifted from the Public Works 
Administration to the United States Housing Authority ; $800,000,000 was appro- 



gQ74 BALTIMOKE HEARINGS 

priated by the Congress to be loaned to local housing authorities for the con- 
struction of housing projects. 

3. The Baltimore Housing Authority came into being in 1937. A $26,000,000 
building program is now under way. When completed there will be six projects 
for colored occupancy and three for white. 

4. The provision in the contracts that 4.6 percent of the skilled-labor pay roll 
shall go to Negro workers has made possible the employment of 77 Negro skilled 
workers in 11 different crafts. 

.5. The Edgar Allen Poe project at Lexington and Fremont has been completed 
and is now occupied. It cost $1,829,405 and houses in its 298 units, 319 children 
and 471 adults. 

The range of income from the occupants is from $360 to $1,033 per year. 

HEAI.TH 

Recommendations : 1. That the council urge its members to report health 
hazzards to the Negro population at the nearest health center. 

2. That Provident Hospital and Henryton be asked to dramatize through 
motion pictures the beneficial effects of early diagnosis and treatment of 
tuberculosis. 

3. That the council urge its membership to give active cooperation to defense 
health measures initiated by the local and national public-health officials. 

TRAINING FOR DEFENSE 

Discussion of this topic was concentrated on four major points, namely : 
(1) The purpose of the program, (2) agencies which will administer it, (3) 
procedures to be employed, (4) cooperation and coordination of training 
resources. 

It was agreed that the purpose of program launched by the advisory com- 
mission to the Council of National Defense was to train workers for defense 
industries to meet growing labor shortage. A total of $15,000,000 has been 
appropriated by the National Government for this purpose. 

With reference to administrative agencies and procedures employed it was 
explained that the Office of Education receives proposals from the State de- 
partment of vocational education for training programs to be offered in 
conformity with national policies rather than with local restrictive practices 
in the field of vocational education. 

Recommendations: (1) That local administrators of defense programs be 
urged to follow national policies and regulations rather than local customs. 

2. That special efforts be made by the council to secure the largest partici- 
pation possible of Negro workers in the defense training program through: 
(a) Mass meetings, (6) house-to-house canvass, (c) special centers handle 
applications. 

3. That a diligent search for qualified Negro instructors and supervisors 
should be made for proposed training courses and in case they are not available 
whites may be used. By all means, however, the approved courses should be 
put into operation at the earliest possible moment. 

4. That Negro workers should be instructed to participate in all types of 
training offered in the defense program regardless of whether or not there are 
immediate placement opportunities. 

5. That individual agencies in the council continue to bring to the attention 
of the Office of Production Management and to local authorities any cases of 
discrimination in the defense training program. 

EMPLOYMENT IN DEFENSE INDUSTRIES 

In his presentation, Mr. Templeton pointed out that the Negro has faced 
three crises in his occupation history. These were pointed out because they 
affected large numbers of colored wage earners. 

The first occurred at the end of the Civil War when the Negro faced new 
occupational horizons. He was free to exercise his talents indiscriminately. 
A lack of preparation for this transition prevented him from utilizing his 
opportunities to the utmost. 

The second crisis occurred during and just after the World War. There 
was an exodus of Negro Labor from the South to the northern industries 
centers. Negroes found an opportunity to enter new industries and trades. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6075 

Most of his social and economic progress to date can be attributed to the 
activities of the 1918-29 period. 

Today we find ourselves at the beginning of the third crisis. Asiatic and Euro- 
I)ean conditions today are such that the United States deemed it wise to provide 
an adequate defense for this country. Here in the State of Maryland, according 
to the February 25, 1941, release of the N. R. A. C. $315,166,580 have been spent 
or contracted for defense construction, manufacture, education, and purchases. 
This represents millions of man-hours of work. 

These man-hours can be translated into the conclusion that thousands of wage 
earners have been newly employed by Maryland concerns. Estimates place the 
number of wage earners added to Maryland pay rolls since the inception of the 
defense at 50,000. About 20,000 of these workers are to be found in defense plants 
alone. Some of the most active plants in the defense program are Glenn L. Martin, 
Bethlehem Steel Co., Rustless Iron & Steel Co., Maryland Drydock, Bendix Radio, 
Revere Copper & Brass, Bartlett-Hayward Co., S. Rosenbloom, Block & Decker, 
Crown Cork & Seal Co., Western Electric Co., and Eastern Rolling Mills. 

The question of how the Negro has fared in this employment expansion was next 
considered by the delegates. Accurate statistical material covering these points 
was not available. 

The speaker stated that from his personal survey these are his findings in con- 
struction work appreciable gains have been made. Thousands of Negroes have 
been drawing union wages as laborers and about 20O carpenters were employed at 
the Fort Meade project at wages of $1.25 per hour. 

In the metals Negroes enjoy wide participations. They constitute approxi- 
mately one-third of the workers in industry. 

The textile industry is important in that it provides the only opportunity for 
colored women to enter the defense program. Out of 2,000 employees in 8 plants 
contracted there were 75 colored employees. 

In the aircraft industry no Negroes are employed. 

In the chemical field there are 10 colored out of 200 workers. Some chemicals 
plants not engaged for defense purpose do employ a considerable number of 
unskilled and semiskilled Negroes. 

A total of 258 out of 6,800 shipyard workers were Negroes; 240 of these were 
unskilled. The defense commission is concerned about a shortage of shipyard 
workers. 

In machine shops rhere are approximately 5,700 employees of which 27 were 
Negroes. 

The following basis problems for Negro workers were listed : 

1. Prejudice due to blind adherence of traditional patterns. 

2. Misconceptions held by white employers and employees respecting Negro 
characteristics with reference to health, skills, work habits, honesty, etc. 

3. Exclusion policies of labor unions. 

4. Lack of adequate vocational guidance and training. 

5. Biased legislation, which, by inference if not by applications, serves to re- 
strict Negro employment opportunities. 

Negroes must begin to think and act on these problems. The defense program 
itself, together with the passage of the lend-lease bill, will make it very probable 
that Negroes will share in employment in due time. However, we cannot afford 
to wait for that time if we desire any permanent expansion in our occupational 
structure. Mr. Templeton closed his speech with these remarks : "It is with that 
thought in mind that I express the hope that this conference will go beyond the 
stage of mere academic interest in the problem and that from this meeting will 
stem a sincere, intelligent, and effective campaign to gain full participation for the 
Negro in the defense program." 

Recommendations : 1. That fundamental workers education should be encour- 
aged by the council in view of our special employment problems growing out of 
the defense crises. 

2. That more interest should be taken in the integration movement. It was 
suggested that the council take steps to disseminate information on trade-union 
problems and practice in Baltimore. 

8. That the council should work to remove certain legislative barriers such as 
the Jim Crow health code for Baltimore City, which tends to make employers in 
defense industries. 

4. That more emphasis should be placed on the vocational guidance and place- 
ment problems of Nefiro youth in Baltimore. 

5. That the council and the members use all of the resources available to remove 
prevailing discriminating policies in defense industries. 



gQ76 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

CONSUMEES' EDUCATION 

The purpose of consi;mers' education is to learn how to secure better values for 
our money. 

A discussion followed as to what the Government proposed to do in the present 
National Advisory Commission of the National Council of Defense ; for in the plan 
of total defense the well-being of each civilian is most important. The morale of 
the people must be kept up. It is the job of the National and State advisory com- 
missions to do this by protecting the consumers' interest. 

All defense orders that could effect the consumers come through the division of 
the National Consumers' Council. Plans to stagger defense orders over a year are 
found effective because, if defense orders are not allowed to limit the supply of 
goods to civilians, prices can be couti'olled and war profits limited. 

The council publishes every 2 weeks bulletins entitled "Consumer's Prices," 
which can serve as a guide for buying and checking on prices. Free pamphlets 
may be secured from the Government by writing for them. Letters from people 
complaining of the rising prices in local communities are welcomed in Washington. 
The letters and cards sent to Washington written in pencil and full of poorly 
spelled words often get most attention, for the represent the people. 

The ways by which the Government serves the low-income group are (1) food- 
stamp plan, (2) school-lunch plan, (3) the cotton-stamp plan will be used soon, 
(4) the new-mattress program. 

Since we are all consumers, we should be interested in the consumers' problems, 
especially in securing better values for our money. The following practical sug- 
gestions were made: 

1. Secure all free and inexpensive pamphlets that the Government distributes on 
this subject. 

2. Develop management skill, that is, take care of what you already have. 

3. Develop at least one area of improvement as an individual consumer by study- 
ing prices, better planning, and by studying labels. 

More successful group projects can be entered into by joining consumers' coun- 
cils, credit unions, and consumers' cooperatives. 

Consumers' education is relatively new and offers great possibility for study and 
action, especially in the fields of food, clothing, and shelter. 

Recommendations : 1. Tliat an investigation be made of the participation of 
Negroes in the services that the Government offers to the low-income groups in the 
food-stamp plan, and the hot-lunch program in the public .schools. 

2. That we visit the cooperative store in Baltimore individually or collectively. 
The address is 715 Calvert Street. 

3. That we request another Negro be appointed to the Maryland Consumers' 
Advisory Council, preferably a woman, who has had good experience in consumers' 
problems. 

4. That a committee be appointed to study credit unions for the purpose of pro- 
moting the formation of these groups wherever possible. 

5. That a committee be appointed to investigate the services of rural Negro 
people in Maryland through the county agents, the mattress program, and the 
school-lunch program. 

6. That a committee be appointed to study the proposed "model rent law" as a 
possibility of controlling the rising rents in Baltimore. 

RELIGION AND MORALE 

The first question considered was that of "morale." The United States Army 
has recognized the fact that morale is so important that a special department 
has been set up for it. Religion and morale are closely allied, and are closely 
interlocking, but there are some things that go into morale which are not the 
primary interest of the chaplain. 

The following charges are the direct responsibility of the morale officer 
not necessarily the chaplain : 

1. Community Corps : Develops comradeship, recreation, etc.. for the soldiers. 

2. Regimental activities : Provides for athletic and non athletic recreation. 

3. Post activities : Provides movies, censored newspapers by and for the 
soldiers of the post, cafeteria services, library, and other forms of entertainment. 

The work of the Red Cross in the Army camp was then discussed. This 
organization is active with soldiers who need advice, money for emergencies, 
and hospitalization. 

The Army store or post exchange, carries on trade with the soldiers and 
gives credit up to 33% percent of the soldier's pay. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6077 

Other activities carried on are as follows : 

1. In case the different posts raise any money or have any cash on hand, 
they may buy special apparatus or equipment for their own amusement. 

2. Hostess houses: In this building, visitors to the garrison are received. In 
case of an emergency, guests who cannot find accommodations in the nearest 
town, are lodged here. A cafeteria and library is also provided. 

* ***** * 

The next major consideration was the part played by a chaplain in the 
Army. He is the representative of various religious in the Army, and is there 
by order of the War Department. The chaplains come from different denomi- 
nations, one of every four is Catholic, and colored chaplains are over colored 
soldiers as far as possible. The greatest problem is that of getting qualified 
colored preachers to become chaplains. At present there is a request for 10, 
but only 2 are available. 

The post chaplain also maintains close contact with the local rellg'ious groups 
in case he needs a choir or in case the soldiers want to go to a local church. 

The soldiers are encouraged to go to community churches but also to attend 
chapel services in the garrison. Now, for the first time in history. (i()4 churches 
are to be built in the regimental garrison. They will be constructed at a cost 
of $22,000 each and will seat 400. They will be equipped with a built-in organ 
and movable altar, pulpit, and cabinets. 

The chaplain is responsible for formal and informal baptisms, Sunday schools 
and Bible classes. His secular responsibilities include : Lecturing, checking 
on the general interest of soldiers in the libraries, checking on the type of 
reading material, entertainment and recreation of the soldiers, establishing 
schools for the educational benefit of the enrollee. 

Recommendations : 1. That churches maintain a courtesy committee to welcome 
soldiers at week ends or any time they come to the city. 

2. That churches collaborate with other agents in urging the proper authorities 
to erect an adequate social center for Negro soldiers in Baltimore. 

3. That the churches have special committees on correspondence to write letters 
to the soldiers and that each pastor send a certificate of membership to the camp 
with each selectee that leaves his church. 

4. That the churches make special efforts to interest soldiers who are in the 
city on leave. 

5. That there be a close cooperation of ministers, churches, and colleges offering 
religious education in their curriculum ; and in locating competent and experienced 
ministers for the chaplaincy in the United States Army. 

6. That the ministers and churches so arrange their church program of activi- 
ties, both social and otherwise, so as to include soldiers and selectees spending 
week ends in Baltimore. 

7. That the churches in cooperation with the Council of Churches and Christian 
Education demand that a staff of several clergymen and capable laymen be 
organized on a full-size basis if necessary to see to it that the i-eligious needs of the 
soldiers be adequately met. 

8. That we heartily endorse the suggestion to establish Reserve OflBcers Train- 
ing Corps and junior Reserve Ofiicers Training Corps divisions in Baltimore high 
schools. 



ExHBiT B — Suggested CuRRicttLUM for New Negro Vocational High School 

EEPOET BY THE COMMITTEE ON CURRENT EDUOATIONAL PROBLEMS OF COLORED PEOPLE, 
BALTIMORE, MD. 

To the Honorable Board of School Commissioners, Baltimore, Md.: 

Ladies and Gentlemen : In response to your recent invitation, we are presenting 
to you this petition requesting that the facilities for vocational education offered 
in the colored schools of Baltimore be improved and expanded so as to bring 
them to approximate parity with those offered In the white schools. 

We believe our committee to be amply justified in making this request on 
behalf of the Negro people of this city for several reasons. 

1. In all dual school systems where separate schools are maintained on the 
basis of race, we find that inequality of opportunity exists, always to the dis- 
advantage of the weaker race. Baltimore is no exception to this rule, as has 
been amply pointed out several times in the past. Under such conditions, mem- 
bers of the disadvantaged group are duty-bound to bring these inequalities and 



,g078 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

deficiencies to tlie attention of the governing oflBcials and to request their cor- 
rection. In doing so we are not only following the practice of every other group 
iu America alert enough to be interested in its own welfare, but we are con- 
tributing to good will and better understanding between the races at a time 
when these attitudes are of fundamental importance to the national welfare. Our 
petition, therefore, is necessary not only in the interest of the colored people of 
Baltimore, but as a patriotic duty. 

2. We differ with those who believe that the public schools should withhold 
from Negro pupils the opportunity of learning skills because there seems to be no 
immediate demand for trained Negroes in the adjacent area of commerce and 
industry. We consider such a position unjustified from three viewpoints; namely, 
the ethical, the economic, and the legal. 

(a) Ethical considerations. — However prejudiced and discriminatory the im- 
mediately surrounding industrial community may be on the question of using 
Negroes in skilled occupations, we would consider it very unfortunate for the 
school authorities to follow this unethical and un-American example by denying 
proper training to colored people. The basic principle upon which education in 
this country rests is that children should be educated in accordance with their 
aptitudes and capacities. Just because a misguided and hard-boiled steel manu- 
facturer does not like colored people enough to employ them is certainly no reason 
why those guiding the educational destinies of the city should deprive a Negro 
child of the right to learn to work skillfully in steel. Such hard-fisted and 
.prejudiced industrialists cannot be permitted to set the ethical standards for 
education, thus usurping the function of our educational leaders. 

(&) Economic consideration.— Such a position is economically unsound also. 
Because local industrialists do not desire Negroes in skilled trades is no reason 
to assume that this prejudice exists everywhere in America and in the world. 
The Negro youth of Baltimore, like the white youth, are being trained for life 
and not for merely Baltimore life. In this democracy, labor, both skilled and un- 
skilled, moves rapidly to fill industrial shortages and is not bound to one locality. 
The necessity for universality of training naturally follows. 

Further, no one knows how soon America will be glad to use every skilled hand 
available, regardless of petty racial bias. At the present time the Negro is ex- 
cluded from skilled employment on two counts ; namely, he is black and he is un- 
trained. If the schools refuse to train him, he cannot be used, no matter how 
much the industrialists may reform, as they probably will in the near future 
under the pressure of national defense. We ask your honorable body to train 
Negro students in all the crafts now available for white students. That is the 
first and most important step as we see it. After being trained, we believe that 
their employment, through their own efforts and those of the placement officers 
of the public schools, will be easier than if they remain untrained. 

(c) Leffal considerations. — There is nothing clearer than the provision of the 
Constitution that a citizen cannot be discriminated against by a municipal 
agency on account of race or color. The decision of the United States Supreme 
Court in the Gaines v. Canada case in 1938 specifically includes public-school 
facilities under the provision of this law. The Court there held that "The 
admissibility of laws separating the races in the enjoyment of privileges afforded 
by the State rests wholly upon the equality of the privileges which the laws 
give to the separated groups within the State." 

According to this decision, a Negro student legally has the right to receive 
instruction in any course, vocational or otherwise, given to a white student. 
It does not have to be in the same place, but it must be equal and it must be 
given within the State. 

Nor should the provision of courses for Negroes depend upon the number of 
persons who apply. For the Court goes on to say, "Here petitioner's right was a 
l>ersonal one." It was as an individual that he was entitled to the equal protec- 
tion of the laws, and the State was bound to furnish him within its borders 
facilities for legal education substantially equal to those which the State then 
afforded for persons of the white race, whether or not other Negroes sought the 
same opportunity." 

In view of what has been said above, we consider our petition fully justified 
and pass on to more specific items. 

SUGGESTED CURRICULUM FOR NEW NEGRO VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL 

We herewith submit a brief description of and justification for proposed 
courses to be offered in a new Negro vocational high school. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6079 

1. Welding. — A 2-year training course in all types of acetylene and electric 
welding. Tlie shop work consists of torch manipulation and practice welding of 
coupons leading up to the welding of various kinds and shapes of metals. Weld- 
ing of such metals as steel, bronze, cast iron, malleable iron, sheet aluminum, and 
cast aluminum is a regular part of the course. Additional practice is given as 
occasion allows in general welding of machine parts in the repair and upkeep 
of equipment, such as torches, tips, regulators, and any machine parts from other 
shops. In addition to welding, the use of the torch in cutting is taught. Related 
work and general safety instructions of importance to the welders are also 
taught. 

Justification: (a) Electric welding is increasingly employed in marine con- 
struction and great importance is attached to American shipbuilding program. 

(b) Auto indu-stry uses welders in manufacture, assembly, and repair of 
products and equipment. 

(c) Aircraft industry is a fertile field for welders. 

id) Large-scale construction, i. e., steel building frames, bridges, tanks, 
boilers, etc., shows increasing use of welding process. 

(e) Construction of a defense housing project for Negroes at Sparrows Point 
indicates increased employment of colored workers in shipyard. 

if) Rapid growth of welding schools in Baltimore is an index of the expanding' 
imiwrtance of the trade. 

2. Plmnhing. — A 3-year course in sanitation and heating. It consists of soil 
and screw pipe work, soldering, preparation and wiping of lead pipes, fixture 
installations of all kinds, repairs and servicing, hot-water tank and circulating 
heating systems, wells and pumps, gas appliances, combustion, thermostatie 
controls and adjustments, and boilers and radiators. The related work is based 
on information and training received in the shop. It includes mathematics, 
science, English, blueprint reading and sketching, and experimental laboratory 
work. 

Justification: (a) A large field for work lies in the Negro community of 
Baltimore. 

(&) There is a dearth of licensed plumbers. 

(c) Public-heaith hazards resulting from illegal plumbing work make it un- 
wise to deny training any longer. 

{d) Quotas for Negro skilled workers set up in the United States Housing 
Authority and the Public Buildings Administration construction contracts prcK- 
vide definite plumbing opportunities. 

(e) Plumbing provides a permanent field of employment. 

3. Electrical wiring and motors. — A 3-year course in the theory and practice 
of the electrical trade. Training is given in signal wiring and general wiring. 
Signal wiring includes work on bell annunciator, burglar alarm, telegraph, and 
apartment-house telephone circuits. General wiring consists of installing and 
maintaining light and powei circuits for homes and industrial plants. The 
second and third years are taken up with work on direct-current machinery 
and alternating-current machinery. These include such work as armature 
winding, general motor repaivs, operation and testing of control devices, 
switchboard wiring, care and operation of motors and generators, testing and 
trouble shooting. Related subjects include mathematics, drawing, and science. 

Justification: (a) Like plumbing, electrical work is a missing link in the 
occupational structure of Negro workers, and the justification is the same as 
that for plumbing. 

4. Aenoitavtical sheet metal. — A 2-year coui'se in sheet metal, welding, draw- 
ing, and machine-shop work with sheet metal as a major subject. The first 
semester's work consists of elementary bench work with emphasis on the funda- 
mentals of airplane sheet-metal work. The remaining year and a half is 
devoted to the actual fabrication and assembly of full size all metal ships. 
Work is done in aluminum alloy. This consists of working the metal over- 
forms and dies to required shapes. Completed parts such as fuselages, hulls,, 
wings, and tail surfaces that are assembled in jigs involve many skills. Re- 
lated subjects include mathematics, drawing, and science. 

Justification: (a) Ofiice of Production Management announced May 1 that 
one airplane manufacturing corporation will train and employ immediately 
],200 skilled colored workers. In view of obvious labor shortages, other plants-- 
can be expected to follow this lead. 

5. Radio-equipment service. — ^A 3-year course in the theory, construction, 
and servicing of all types of radio receivers, from the simple crystal set to 
the modern short-wave radiovision receivers; the correct use and analysis of 



5080 BALTIMOKE HEARINGS 

testing equipment ; the study of motion-picture and sound equipment ; ttie prac- 
tical operation of light-sensitive cells, and the theory of sound recording. Re- 
lated work consists of laboratory experimentation, mathematics, and drawing. 
The instruction is designed to develop specific abilities in the projjer use of 
tools and in the assembling, wiring, testing, and installmg every known type 
of radio receiver ; the managing of service shops ; the erecting of aerials to 
conform to local regulations ; and the construction, operation, and service of 
public-address systems. 

Justification: (a) Almost every home has at least one radio. Obviously 
there is a large field for radio technicians. 

(ft) Use of radio equipment in military service together with marine and 
aerial transportation, presents employment opportunities. 

6. Machine-shop practvce and tool making. — A 3-year course in the manipu- 
lation of tools and machine-shop equipment. It is designed to prepare per- 
sons to make, repair, erect, assemble, or dismantle machines or parts thereof. 
A wide variety of work, including bench and floor work, blueprint reading, 
sketching, lay-out of machine parts, assembly and adjustment, lathe, drill 
press, shaper, planer, and milling machine operation, is covered. General 
repairs to machines are made when required. Mathematics, mechanical draw- 
ing, physics, and subjects basic to the trade are taught. 

Justification: (o) Defense program found this country woefully deficient 
in machinists and toolmakers. 

(ft) Inability of small machine shop to retain employees presents oppor- 
tunities for colored workers. 

(c) Ford Motor Co., with 18,000 skilled Negro employees, is an example of 
what can be done with and for Negro artisans and apprentices. 

(ri) Emphasis on continuous technological production demands skilled 
mechanics. 

7. Wood patternmakiuff. — A 2-year course in the making of all types of patterns 
from wood. The shop work includes the use of modern hand tools and woodwork 
machinery with emphasis upon accuracy in getting dimensions and forms. Many 
of the patterns cut are used in the foundry division of the shop where molds 
are cast from lead. Related subjects, such as mechanical drawing, science, 
and mathematics, are taught. 

Justification: (a) Negroes are already found in industries where the trade 
is used, such as shipyards, foundaries, machine shops, etc. Hence, it is merely 
a matter of upgrading the worker. 

(b) This trade is essential in machine tooling and metal-work production. 

8. Commercial art or graphic design. — A 2-year course for girls and boys with 
ability in art and design. It is planned to teach "art as a paying profession." 
Instruction is given in drawing, principles of design, illustration techniques, the 
formation and study of letters and lettering, the media and methods of repro- 
duction for illustration and decoration, and photographic art. Emphasis is 
placed upon art in advertising. 

Justification: (a) Development and expansion of Negro business present im- 
mediate field of employment. 

(b) Advertising program expansion provides work opportunities. 

(c) Increased use of Negro employees by business concerns allows for absorption 
of trained persons. 

9. Blueprint reading and draicing. — A 3-year course in mechanical and archi- 
tectural drafting. The course includes freehand sketching, lettering, drawing 
from models, isometrics, sections and auxiliaries, cabinet drawing, elementary 
machine, small fixtures, tool design, and redesign of machines, blueprint machine 
operation, architectural type detail, construction design, and wash work. Related 
subjects include mathematics, elementary mechanics, and machine-shop practice. 

JustipcatiO)i: (a) Opportunities for Negro workers lie in the expansion of 
industry and construction and the increasing number of Negroes found in those 
areas. 

10. Business machines and office practice. — A 2-year cour.se for boys and girls 
designed to give training in the use of modern office machines, equipment and 
practice. The work includes instruction on the mimeograph, mimeoscope, ditto, 
I. B. M., multigraph, and various types of calculating machines. Additional train- 
ing is provided in filing, banking, telephoning, inventory, typing, and stenography. 
Related subjects include business English, mathematics, and the study of com- 
mon business forms. Spelling and handwriting are stressed. 

Justification: (a) Expansion of Negro business provides opportiinities. 
(b) Increasing number of jobs available in city. State, and Federal depart- 
ments. The Social Security Board hired a number of stenographers recently. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION gQgJ 

11. Printing. — A 3-year course including hand composition, platen presswork. 
job layout, stereotype, linotype, monotype, and Ludlow operation, engraving 
r.nd photostatic work. Related work includes English, trade mathematics, history, 
lettering, social studies, trade technology, and trade publications. 

Justification: (a) The printing needs of Negro churches, clubs, business con- 
cerns, etc., constitute a field of opportunities in local job and newspaper plants. 

(b) A trained person can set up his own shop. 

{(■) City, State, and Federal departments employ Negroes through examination. 

12. Salesmanship. — A course including retail selling, salesmanship technique, 
merchandising, study of store systems, and related subjects such as industrial 
geography, business English, mathematics, spelling, handwriting, the social stud- 
ies, music, and art. This course is open to girls and boys. 

Justification: (a) Baltimore's Negro market has a value of $50,000,000 and 
constitutes a fertile field for commercial enterprises. 

(ft) Wholesale and retail concerns are employing Negro salesmen. Examples 
are Kermisch's Standard Oil Co., Pepsi-Cola Co., D. S. D. Motor Co., Howard 
Cleaners, Fuller Products Co., Waller Oil Co., as well as neighborhood groceries, 
drug stores, etc. 

(c) Such instruction, through its close association with consumer education, 
would serve to protect the interests of the Negro customer. 

((Z) The continued development of Negro business will offer increasing oppor- 
tunities for Negro salesmen. 

13. Novelties and millinery. — A 2-year course including hand work and special 
power-machine operation in the required trade. Arithmetic, English, spelling, 
design and trade terminology, along with the social studies, music, and art form 
the related subjects. 

Justification: Trained persons can find employment in or can open shops. 

14. Poircr machine operation. — A course that may extend from 1 to 2 years, 
depending upon the age and grade of the pupil. This course provides training 
on various types of power equipment, such as, straight stitcher, serging, felling, 
binding, and buttonhole machines. Related subjects include textiles, indiistrial 
geography, mathematics, English, art, and social subjects. 

Justification: (a) Baltimore is an important garment manufacturing center 
and the school should train for local needs at least. 

(ft) Negro operators are already in the trade as evidenced by the employment 
of 300 at Edgewood Arsenal and others at S. Rosenbloom, Comfort Spring Co.. 
Iron King Overall Co., and numerous other garment factories, laundries, and 
tailor shops. 

15. Tea room service. — A 2-year course involving instruction in the prepara- 
tion of sandwiches, salads, and light meal.s, the serving of food, the management, 
care, and attractive planning of tea rooms. Related subjects include food study, 
hygiene, mathematics, English, art, and social subjects. 

Justification: (o) Growth in numlier and size of Negro restaurants demands 
trained persons. 

(b) Increasing tendency to use colored in white tea rooms. 

16. Child care. — A two-year course offering instruction and practice in the care 
of young children, involving proper habit formation, health and sanitation, correct 
diet, and child play. Relateti subjects include food study, preparation of food, 
hygiene and first aid, elementary child psychology, nuisic, mathematics, English, 
art, and the social subjects. 

Justification : («) There is a growing specialization in the field of domestic and 
personal service. One of these specialties is that of child care, and there is an 
open market in this field for Negro women. 

ADDENDA 

We recommend — 

1. The retention of all courses now being given in the vocational school for 
Negro students. 

2. All applicalnts, aside from iwssessing specific qualifications for each trade, 
shall be required to have completed the ninth grade. 



Exhibit C — National Defense Colored Vocational Schools 

REPORT BY division OF VOCATIONAL EDUCATION, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The National Defense Colored Vocational School located at 775 Waesche 
Street- — near Fremont Avenue — will operate under the Department of Voca- 



gQ§2 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

tional Education and provide opportunity for training in six or more essential 
trades. 

All instruction is free to citizens between the ages of 18 to 55. 

All interested persons should register at Maryland State Employment Office, 
39 Hopkins Place, or National Defense Office, 3 East Twenty-fifth Street. Fol- 
lowing registration the applicant will be notified by mail as to when to report 
to class. 

For the unemployed person the following preparatory (P) courses are 
recommended and are available for entrance. 

I. Rfidio service (P). — The following theory will be offered in this course: 
Electric theory, electrical units, Ohm's law, circuits, magetism, electromag- 
netism, inductance ajid induction, condenses and capacitance, resistors, theory 
of alternating current and direct current, aerial and ground systems, detectors, 
receivers, and a study of the vacuum tube. In additional to the theory the 
trainee will be given an opportunity to do practical construction and service 
work which will include blueprint reading of radio diagrams, assembly and 
wirirg of radio sets, tube and set testing, and construction of complete receivers 
from the simple crystal receiver to the superhetrodyne set and also the modern 
alternating current-direct current receivers. 

II. 8ninll parts assembly (P). — In this course assembly of radio parts, com- 
plete sets, and electrical instruments will be stressed. In addition to the prac- 
tical work received the trainee will be given related work covering the reading 
of radio diagrams, types of parts used in this work, facts on soldering, stripping 
wire, kinds of wire, necessary hardware, reading of micrometers, lay-out of 
templates, and methods of planning an assembly of a complete unit. 

III. Acetylene and electric welding (P). — This combination course will pro- 
vide the trainee with fundamental knowledge of both types of welding. 

Acetylene welding: This will give training in adjusting flame, preliminary 
lorch practice, welding L's (corner welds), butt welding, vertical welding, 
lap welding, horizontal seam butt welding. In addition to this practical weld- 
ing each trainee is given related welding covering — welding and cutting equip- 
ment, care and operation of torches, characteristics of metals and alloys, 
defects, inspection and testing welds, brazing, blueprint reading, safety and 
lay-rut of welding problems. 

E'ectric welding: Practical work consists of flat welding, horizontal weave, 
verticil 45°. vertical 90°, overhead 45°, overhead 90°, pipe welding. Related 
work will cover all theory and blueprint reading necessary to make the trainee 
an intelligent and competent electric welder. 

IV. Machine shop occiipatiori (P) .■ — At the present time this course is divided 
into five operative skills, the training in which everyone is selected is intensive 
with the put-pose of turning out a highly skilled machine operator. The five 
divisiors are as follows with a few of the processes which are covered: 

1. rj^rch work: Chipping sawing, filing, threading, lay-out, tapping, etc. 

2. Drill press : Drill to lay-out, spot drilling, reaming, countersinking, etc. 

3. Lnthe: Centering, facing, straight turning, shoulder turning, taper, etc. 

4. Shjiper: Horizontal planing, vertical and angular planing, grooving, key- 
ways, etc. 

5. Mi'lirg machine: Plain, face, slotting, sawing, gearcutting. etc. 

V. Aircraft sheet metal and riveting (P). — This course is divided into three 
parts: Airci-aft lay-out. aircr;)ft metal, and aircraft riveting. 

Aircraft lay-out: Mathematics, bend allowance charts, spacing, blueprint 
reading, aluminum and its alloys, riveting hints, glossary of terms. 

Aircraft metal: Factory rules, materials, tools, aircraft equipment, tolerances 
flan.<jing. shrinking, stretching, tonch-iap filing, joggling and assembly. 

Aircraft riveting: Lay-out and spacing. dr'Uing, countersinking and dimpling, 
hand riveting, air hammer work, peining, driving and removing rivets, one-shot 
hammer and squeezer, fabrication, assembly handling and working aluminum 
and aH'-ys. shop routine and safety. 

VI. Elrcfrical vork (P). — A general electr"cal course with specific training 
toward the end of the training period according to evidences of ability. The 
following will be included: Splicing, so'dering, circuit tracing and inst^allation, 
signal wiring, open wiring. B. X. cable, rigid conduit, molding (wood and metal), 
electrical (alcu'ations. testing, instrument reading, maintenance and trouble 
shooting. iTiot^ors. generators, trouble-shooting code rules (national and city), 
power production and transmission, blueprint reading, batteries, and circuit 
controls and sufficient related electrical theory will be given as needed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION g083 

In addition to the training explained above the following schools are available 
for the training of colored men and vpomen : 

School No. 122 : Sheet metal work. 

School No. 450: Sheet metal worli: Home management and cooking (females). 

School No. 454: Wood work: Home management and cooking (females). 

School No. 454A : Auto assembly work. 

Following is a list of colored schools being used for the national-defense 
training program in Baltimore. 

No. 122: Preston Street, between Druid Hill and Pennsylvania Avenues. 

No. 340 : Baker and Calhoun Streets. 

No. 454 : CarroUton and Lafayette Avenues. 

No. 454A : Carey Street near Cumberland. 

National Defense Colored Vocational School, 775 Waesche Street. 

GENER.\X INFOBMATION 

1. The length of a preparatory course is usually 8 weeks, 8 hours per day, and 
5 days per week. Exceptions to this are the aircraft courses, which run 
4 to 6 weeks. 

2. Upon satisfactory completion of training, each man or woman will receive 
a national-defense vocational record card which will show type of work, num- 
ber of hours of work, and grade received. In addition to this, all trainees are 
eligible for a large national-defense certificate showing work completed and 
other necessary information. 

3. The length of a supplementary course is usually 2 hours per night, 3 nights 
per week for a period of 12 weeks. This may also be given 2 nights, 3 hours 
per night, or on Saturday for 6 hours, 8 a. m. to 2 p. m. 

Note. — Supplementary are only made available for those people already 
engaged in a particular trade or related trade. The purpose being to afford 
them the opportunity of getting additional skills, thus increasing their value to 
local industry. 

4. Anyone interested in a preparatory course must have a Maryland State 
employment card before registering. (This card may be obtained at 39 Hop- 
kins Place.) 

5. Anyone interested in a supplementary course must be working in the trade 
in which they want additional training and must have a social-security card. 

6. Any information regarding national-defense training may be secured 
from Mr. J. O. Proctor, room 107, 3 East Twenty-fifth Street, or call Un. 6300. 



Exhibit D — Correspondence on Union Charter 

April 24, 1941. 
Mr. M. A. Orlowe, 

Business Representatives, Painters' Local Union No. 1, 

Baltimore, Md. 

Dear Mr. Orlowe: As spokesman for the Colored Painters' Association, I once 
again address you on the subject of our request for the consent of local No. 1 
to the awarding of an A. F. L. charter to our group. 

Reference to your correspondence files will reveal the fact that I first wrote you 
on March 26, 1941. In that letter, I included a copy of the communication we 
had received from the international headquarters, Lafayette, Ind., directing us 
to secure the written consent of your local to our application for a charter. 

My second letter to you, dated March 27, 1941, reminded you of the fact that 
discrimination was forbidden on defense construction and that since your local 
refused to accept Negro applications for membership, our only recourse was to 
secure a charter for ourselves. In a subsequent telephone conversation, you 
advised me that the matter had been referred to a subcommittee for study and 
that we might expect a definite answer within a fortnight. Since that time I 
have telephoned your office on several occasions to check the progress of our 
request. Each time I have talked to Mr. Ugenfritz, but he has not been able to 
give me any information other than the fact that the matter was still under 
consideration. When I talked to him yesterday, he informed me that the matter 
is to come up for discussion at your meeting on April 29. 

I do not need to remind you that a month has passed since our problem was 

first submitted to your office. The Colored Painters' Association feels justified 

in assuming that some concrete action should have been taken on its request 

within the past month. We feel that our application has been unduly delayed 

60396— 41— pt. 15^—14 



gQ84 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

and we strongly urge, in view of the fact tliat work is progressing rapidly on con- 
struction projects now underway, that local No. 1 act upon our request without 
further delay. 

An early reply will be appreciated. 
Sincerely yours, 

FURMAN L. TeMPLETON. 

Industrial Secretary. 

BKO'rHERHOOD OF PaINTEKS. DECORATORS AND PAPERHANGI':JIS OF AMERICA. UNION 

No. 1 

Affiliated With the American Federation of Labor and the Baltimore Building 
Trades Council 

Baltimore, Md., April 30, 1941. 
Mr. FuRMAN L. Templeton. 

Indvstri<il Secretari/, Baltimore Urban League, 

Baltimore, Md. 
Dear Sir : In reference to your communication of April 24. to Mr. M. A. 
Orlowe, business representative of Painters' Local Union, No. 1. 

I have been instructed to notify you that the executive board of local union 
No. 1 will be pleased to meet a committee composed of colored contracting master 
paintei's and their autlKnlzed representative, who desire to unionize their shops 
in Baltimore city and vicinity. Tuesday evening, May 6, 1941, at 8 p. m., in our 
hall. ;:!(J(» North Gay Street, second floor. 

If the above date meets with your approval, kindly call me on the phone, so 
that I can make definite arrangements for this meeting. 
With best wishes, I remain, 
Very truly yours, 

William D. IlCxENFritz, 

Recording Secretary. 



Brotherhood of Painters. Decor-\tors and Paperhangers of America. Union 

No. 1 

Affiliated With the American Federation of Labor and the Baltimore Building 
Trades Council 

Baltimore. Md.. June 5. 1941. 
Mr. FuKMAN L. Templeton, 

Industrial Secretary, Baltimore Urban League, 

Baltimore. 31 d. 
Dear Sir : In reference to your letter of April 24, to Mr. Max Orlowe, and the 
attached copy which you received from our general office at La Fayette, Ind.. 
concerning the question of local union No. 1, granting its consent for our general 
office to issue a charter to a group of colored painters who you represent here in 
Baltimore : 

This is to advise you that a special meeting was called on June 2. 1941, and 
the union voted as not being in favor of our general office granting a charter 
at this time to anyone for the purpose of organizing a new local union in the 
jurisdiction of local union No. 1. 
With best wishes, I remain, 
Very truly yours, 

William D. Ilgenfritz, 

Recording Secretary. 



TESTIMONY OF EDWARD S. LEWIS— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Lewis, what is the Baltimore Urban League? 

Mr. Lewis. The BaUimore Urban League is a community organi- 
zation which seeks to improve the conditions under which Negroes 
live, work, and play. The league makes studies of problems in the 
community as they reflect on the Negro population. It trains Negro 
social workers, and it publishes a journal of Negro life. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6085 

There are 45 branches in the United States, of which this is one, the 
Baltimore branch; and we carry on remedial programs wherever 
necessary, especially in industry. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you work with legislative bodies? The Maryland 
Legislature ? 

Mr. Lewis. Yes, sir; we do. Our branch, for example, took a very 
active part in lobbying at Annapolis for low-rent legislation — house 
bill 6970 and 6971, to provide for adequate housing for Negro fam- 
ilies. That is one specific instance where we took an active part. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you endeavor to secure more of an equality in 
Maryland for the Negroes? 

Mr. Lewis. Yes, sir ; we do whenever possible. We try to carry on 
programs which will build up the social and economic status of the 
Negro group. 

Mr. Arnold. You didn't have much success with the Maryland Leg- 
islature with reference to doing away with segregation. 

CAMPAIGN AGAINST TRANSPORTATION LAW 

Mr. Lewis. No, sir. We have had to fight for a period of years. We 
have campaigned against a specific bit of legislation which discrimi- 
nates against Negroes, particularly in intrastate transportation; we 
have tried to get removed the old law that has been on the Maryland 
statutes since the nineteenth century, but we have been unable to do 
so. That has been one of our real handicaps — in having an outworn 
type of legislation on the books. We have had no success in that 
effort at all. 

Mr. Arnold. Are any Negroes elected to either branch of the legis- 
lature? 

Mr. Lewis. No, sir; we have not had any members elected. We 
have had 1 or 2 candidates for representative who have come within 
2,000 or 3,000 votes of being elected from our heaviest Negro-populated 
district, namely, the fourth district, but thus far we have not been 
successful and do not have any representatives at Annapolis. 

Mr. Arnold. But you do have one in Congress ? 

Mr. Lewis. Yes, sir ; we do have one in Congress. 

Mr. Arnold. And a very able man. 

I would like to say at this juncture that in Illinois I served in the 
Illinois Legislature for 8 years, and we found that the Negroes who 
came down there in both houses, the senate and the house, were a very 
high type of citizen; they were hard workers, and their constituencies 
apparently were well satisfied with the representation given them. 

In addition to that, everyone knows of the ability of Arthur 
Mitchell, who represents an Illinois Congressional district in the 
Congress of the LTnited States. 

discrimination in defense industries 

Now, would you tell the committee briefly what the situation in 
the Baltimore area is in regard to the employment of Negroes by 
defense industries ? 

Mr. Lewis. Yes. I think, as I have indicated in this statement, 
one of the most serious problems that the Negro population faces in 
this community, as well as other communities of the country, is this 
matter of discrimination in defense industries. 



gQ85 BALTIMORE HEARI^•GS 

There are only two fields where we have what I should term 
reasonable representation. In steel, out of the total of some 20,000 
workers, as indicated here in yesterday's panel, I think we have 
9,000 Xeoro workers. And we have some representation in the tex- 
tile industries. 

But with the exception of those two groups, the Negroes have not 
been given opportunities to work. 

I think I have given the break-down here in the various fields: 
In the chemical field, 10 out of 200 workers ; 258 out of 6,800 ship- 
yard workers; one-third of the workers in the metal industries; 
we have gained some representation in the construction group. We 
have been able, during the past 2 years, to place some 200 skilled 
Negro construction workers ; and I think that indicates that Negroes, 
when given an opportunity, can perform efficiently. 

NO NEGROES IN AIRCRAFT PLANT 

We have no Negroes employed in the aircraft industry in Balti- 
more. 

I think it was reported in yesterday's panel that there were a 
few. If there are some, they are probably working in the yard, 
because they are not employee! in the plants. 

In that instance, certainly, we feel that there is a sharp discrimi- 
nation so far as Negroes are concerned in the defense industries. 

In the machine shops there are 5,700 employees, of whom 27 are 
Negroes. I have tried to indicate that there are a number of factors 
responsible for this discrimination, and if the gentlemen wish, I 
would like to comment on some of the observations that were made 
in yesterday's panel dealing with restrictive policies in these defense 
industries. 

Mr. Arnold. We will be very glad to have you proceed. 

SAYS ELIGIBLE NEGROES ARE AVAILABLE 

Mr. Lewis. I refer to one of the remarks made yesterday by Mr. 
Martin. That remark was that there were no skilled Negro work- 
ers available, or, rather, that the school system had indicated that 
there were no trained workers who came out of our school system 
and who could be used. I think he indicated his basic requirement 
was a high-school diploma. As a matter of fact, we have high- 
school graduates who compare quite favorably, from any point of 
view, with the high-school graduates who are now taken in the Glenn 
L. Martin plant. We have also had graduates from our colored 
vocational schools, who have some mechanical aptitude, and if they 
were given an opportunity to w^ork, could be taken into this plant. 

Also, as I see it, there is no basis at all for the statements which 
were made that the white workers would object to Negro workers 
being emploj^ed. We know there is a sort of vociferous minority in 
all groups which will raise some objections; but I do not feel that 
the majority of the skilled workers, as it was asserted, would walk 
off the job if Negroes were employed. 

cites housing project experience 

The reason for my making that statement is this: When we ap- 
proached contractors and asked them to take Negro skilled workers 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6087 

on the housing projects, we Avere told that skilled workers — white 
bricklayers and carpenters — would walk off the job; but we told 
them, "Give us an opportunity to place some of our skilled workers." 
We asked them, rather, to mve us an opportunity to place the workers 
on the job. The result is that we have some 81 skilled Negro workers 
on the job at this time on seven housing projects. 

With specific reference to the nine defense-housing projects, we have 
Negro carpenters working on practically all of those projects; and 
thus far there has not been an incident — that is, no white workers on 
any of these projects have walked off because these skilled Negro 
workers came on the job. 

On the contrary, the reports which we got from these Negro skilled 
workers show that they have received the finest kind of treatment from 
the white skilled workers on the projects. x\nd that is the reason why 
we do not believe that that argument will really stand the test of 
application and experience. 

Another observation which was made here yesterday was that the 
employer could not be expected to solve the problem of discrimination, 
because we had a pattern of racial discrimination in this community 
which made it impossible to work colored and white workers together. 

As I have indicated, on these construction projects colored and white 
workers have worked together. There were representatives in the 
panel here yesterday who operate defense industries in which colored 
and white workers are working together. 

NEGROES NOW IN KOPPERS PLANT 

One particular representative in the })anel yesterday said to me, 
after the panel, that if I wanted to comment on it to the committee 
today, it was perfectly agreeable to him. I refer to the gentleman who 
represented the Koppers Co.^ 

His company had never used Negro employees, but within the past 
2 months they have taken on some 20 workers; and we learned from 
him yesterday that the services of these 20 workers had been excellent. 

Out of the 20 workers, 7 or 8 are college graduates, and they are 
now in the maintenance department; but I think the fact he has tried 
the experiment and it has worked successfully is an indication that 
it will work in other plants. 

DEFTICTJLTT WITH CRAFT UNIONS 

I do not feel that the argument that workers will not work together 
is sound. As I have indicated with reference to discrimination in the 
trade unions, we have had no difficulties at all with the C. I. O. unions 
as far as racial discrimination is concerned. We have had some acute 
difficulties with the American Federation of Labor craft unions. At 
this very moment, for example, it is impossible for us to get a Negro 
painter placed on a defense-housing job, because all the work is 100- 
percent union. The painters' local — Local No. 1 — refuses to grant 
our men a separate charter, and it will not take them into its local and 
it will not give them working permits. That means that we are 
completely frozen out of the job of painting. 



Walter T. Perkins, vice president, Koppers Co., Baltimore. 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Now, we have a group already organized, some 33 skilled painters, 
who could hold their ov/n on any construction job. They have done 
it on jobs that were not 100-percent union. But we cannot get the 
local painters' union to grant us a charter or even give us working 
permits. 

In the case of the bricklayers' union, American Federation of Labor, 
it is possible for us to get jobs for out-of-town Negro bricklayers. 
They will give any Negro bricklayer a card if he comes from another 
community; they will give him a permit ; but we have had applications 
on file for membership on the part of Negro bricklayers for 2 or 3 
years, and they have not as yet been admitted in the local bricklayers' 
union. 

I think those are the outstanding examples of discrimination on the 
part of trade unions. 

I also want to point out that there are some unions with which we 
have made definite progress. The cement finishers' and plasterers' 
unions have taken Negro workers into their memberships and given 
them opportunities to work. The carpenters' union has given us the 
privilege of setting up a separate local, and, as I indicated, those 
workers are at present functioning on some nine defense projects. 

DEFENSE TRAINING COURSES FOR NEGROES 

Now, I want to make just one more observation with reference to 
the problem of training. It was indicated here that we do not have 
trained workers available, although several thousand white workers 
have been trained for defense industries since last July or August, I 
think, when they started out. 

Very few — fewer than 100 — Negroes have been trained for defense 
industries since that time. We had great difficulty getting the school 
board to ask the Government to provide additional funds to set up 
defense training courses. I think some time this month the defense 
training courses for Negroes will be open. Forty thousand dollars has 
been appropriated by the Federal Government for this purpose. 

We pointed out as early as June 1940, when the defense crisis was 
impending, that the vocational education in Baltimore should be 
improved so that Negro workers would have opportunities to acquire 
certain basic skills for defense industries. We had to threaten suit 
before we could finally get the school board to go along with our request 
for more defense courses. 

One of the arguments given by the school board, for example, is that 
there are no job opportunities for Negro workers; and the argument 
given by the employers is that we have no skilled persons, no trained 
persons ; so it puts the Negro in a hopeless dilemma : He cannot get a 
job because he has not the training, and he cannot get the training 
because he could not get a job. 

RELATIONS WITH STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

Mr. Arnold. Has the State Employment Service made any attempts 
to overcome racial discrimination in industry? 

Mr. Lewis. I think tlie employment service recently has added a 
Negro to the white-collar division. The director has invited me to a 
number of conferences and given me an opportunity to talk to the 
heads of defense industries, requesting them to lower the color bar. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6089 

There has been some work done in that connection. I think, how- 
ever — and this observation may be made of all the Federal employ- 
ment offices in the country, with a few exceptions — ^that so far as they 
pertain to Negroes, their primary assistance has been in the field of 
unskilled and domestic-service workers, but they do not carry on a 
promotion job in the field of skilled workers; that is, they do not try to 
promote the interests of Negi-o skilled workers; and I think that is 
unfortunate because it helps to keep us excluded from industry. 

We did have the support of Mr. Fringer in securing an industrial 
secretary whose job it is to try to promote the interests of Negro skilled 
workers, and for that we have been quite thankful. 

Mr. Arnold. I want to say, before we leave this phase of the ques- 
tioning, that the committee thought very well indeed of the testimony 
of the panel yesterday, and especially that of Mr. Glenn L. Martin. 

It is my belief, from the testimony he gave here and from what he 
said afterward to the members of the committee, that it is his inten- 
tion to try to work out a plan whereby Negroes will be employed in 
the factory. 

I rather think the trouble has been simply that Negroes have been 
considered largely ineligible for occupations other than personal serv- 
ice, and haven't been inducted into industry, just as women haven't 
yet been inducted into the defense industries to any great extent; so 
I feel that the opportunities are going to be greater in the future than 
they are at the present time. 

SCHOOL PROBLEMS OF NEGROES 



NoAV let us get along to the school problem of Negroes. How does 
the Negro teacher-pupil load compare with the white teacher-pupil 
load? And you might tell us of the facilities for Negroes. 

Mr. Lewis. As I indicated in my paper. Congressman, we submitted 
a report in June of 1940. The data which form the basis of that report 
were taken from statistics published by the school board and appearing 
in an issue of the Sun papers. We pointed out, with reference to 
valuation of properties, that it would take $7,805,000 to bring the 
Negro schools up to parity or equality with the white schools. 

I have the break-down with reference to elementary schools, senior 
high schools, junior high schools, and vocational high schools. That 
has been presented to the committee. But I think what should be 
pointed out is this tremendous differential, although the law specifically 
states that school facilities shall be separate but equal. They are 
separate, but by no means equal ; and this property valuation, I think, 
is striking evidence on that point. 

NEGRO SCHOOL PROPERTY VALUATION 

Mr. Arnold. What is your present property valuation ? 

Mr. Lewis. The present property valuation of colored schools is 
$6,826,560. in contrast to the white property valuation of $41,758,000. 

Mr. Arnold. In other words, the property value of Negro schools 
needs to be a little more than double? 

Mr. Lewis. That is right. Now, with reference to the first ques- 
tion, about the pupil-teacher ratio, we pointed out that there are 4.5 
percent more children per colored teacher than per white teacher. 



5090 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Similarly, there are four more colored children per teacher on the 
elemental-^'' level, three on the junior high, one and four-tenths on the 
senior, and three and nine-tenths more on the occupational level, and 
one more on the vocational level. 

I think this information indicates that the pupil-teacher ratio is 
in all instances greater for colored than it is for whites. 

The difference of 4.5 percent is city-wide. Our biggest differen- 
tial is in respect to the vocational schools, where we have some 11 or 
12 vocations or trades offered to Negro schools, as against 20 or more 
offered in the white schools. 

We have a polytechnic high school which trains young white men 
for technical occupations. There is no counterpart at all in the 
Negro community. 

We have occupational schools for girls and boys in the white 
group, and we only have one colored vocational school in our group. 

DISCRIMINATION IN CITY JOBS 

Mr. Arnold. Is there any discrimination against any Negro em- 
ployees in the facilities of the city, for example, health and other 
facilities offered by the city ? 

Mr. Lewis. I should say there is discrimination on the part of 
the city so far as the employment of Negroes is concerned. 

In the health department we have Negro nurses and some Negro 
physicians. We were fortunate in getting some 19 Negro nurses 
added to the staff last year. That is tlie first time we had any repre- 
sentation of Negro nurses on the staff in the city hospital. 

Negro physicians are not allowed to practice, however, in the city 
hospitals, even on Negro patients in Negro wards. 

Particularly in the white-collar brackets of the city government 
there is a striking lack of representation of Negroes. 

OVERCROAVDING IN NEGRO COMMUNITY 

Mr. Arnold. Is overcrowding a problem among the Negro popu- 
lation in Baltimore? 

Mr. Lewis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. What are the effects of this overcrowding? 

Mr. Lewis. Overcrowding is prevalent in the Negro community. 
As pointed out in this memorandum, one-fifth of the population lives 
in one-fiftieth of the area of the city. In this particular section 
some 90.000 Negroes are crowded, and there is no question that it 
makes for a very acute condition. 

I have cited one of the cases of meningitis, reported by the health 
department, where 10 persons were living in 2 rooms; and I think all 
the gentlemen of the committee recognize that meningitis is fre- 
quently related to the problem of overcrowding. 

The density per acre for the white population in the community is 
about 33 ; for the Negro population in these heavily concentrated areas 
that we studied back in 1933, the density ranges from 87 to 124 per- 
sons, which shows you the crowded condition which prevails in the 
Negro communities, and which, of course, is reflected in the proportion 
of sickness and crime. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 5091 

NEGRO AREA CANNOT EXPAND 

I think the most difficult aspect of this problem is the fact that there 
is so little room for expansion. Whenever you get a movement of 
population in any direction — north, south, east, or west — you are apt 
to get real opposition. You get opposition which is reflected in 
restrictive covenants; you get opposition such as that faced by the 
housing authority, when it pro]30sed to build a project for Negroes 
near a large mail-order store. There was such a community uprising, 
literally, that the city council and the housing authority withdrew the 
proposal to erect the housing unit there. That makes the problem 
of congestion for Negroes especially difficult. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Osmers. 

FOR THE promotion OF DEMOCRACY 

Mr. OsMERs. T have several questions which I would like to ask Mr. 
Lewis. 

As I understand it, it is a part of our national policy today to bring 
the four freedoms to a lot of people in a lot of places through the 
world — at the point of a giui. Don't you think that it would be wiser 
to try to bring some of these freedoms to some of the people here in 
America ? 

Mr. Leavis. Yes: I do, ]\Ir. Osmers; decidedly so. I think that is 
the reasoning of the colored population all over the country. We feel 
if we can promote democracy here, then we have the basis for real 
fighting for the preservation of democracy elsewhere. 

Mr. Osmers. Can you see any purpose in the present armament pro- 
gram which is designed to secure and restore freedom of speech, free- 
dom of worship, and freedom from want, and freedom from fear, if we 
don't provide at least a large portion of our own citizens with those 
freedoms? Do you see any point in building the bombers that we 
are talking about here unless we do this at home? 

Mr. Leavis. I don't see any point at all in it, Mr. Osmers. I think 
it has been pointed out that the European experience indicates they 
not only fight with materials. Morale is a very definite part of any 
warfare, and I think the type of discrimination which I have been 
depicting to this committee breaks down the morale of one of the most 
loyal groups of citizens in this country. 

'Mr. OsiMERS. I don't think there is any question about that at all, 
and I think the recent activities on the part of Negroes throughout the 
United States and the proposed march on Washington is an expres- 
sion of it. I think the President realizes the seriousness of it, as 
suggested by some of his utterances in recent days. 

Do you feel that your organization is making progress in the 
Baltimore area? 

Mr. Lewis. I think we have made some definite progress, par- 
ticularly in construction — in getting Negroes skilled workers' jobs — 
and I think they have proved their mettle. 

I think our progress in the defense industries, however, has been 
very slow — very, very slow. We haven't made many significant dents. 



5092 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

MORE OPPORTUNITIES TO ENTER INDUSTRY 

Mr, OsMERS. Would you say, Mr. Lewis, that the fact that an emer- 
gency such as we are now passing through, which leads to an upgrad- 
ing generally of all sorts of workers, has made more opportunities at 
the bottom for your group to enter? Would you say that that has 
provided better employment opportunities and has helped your cause 
a little? 

Mr. Lewis. I think so. I think we have had some indication that 
Negroes are getting jobs now — jobs in nondefense industries, that other 
workers have left. 

Mr. OsMERS. To go into defense industries ? 

Mr. Lewis. Yes; to go into defense industries. 

Mr, Osmers. Now, this committee, as you know, is primarily con- 
cerned with the migration of human beings as a result of the defense 
program. 

Mr. Lewis. Yes. 

Mr. OsMERS, And discrimination is, shall we say, a side issue so far 
as the resolution which created this committee is concerned. 

Mr. Lewis, Yes. 

Mr. Osmers. But I think it has a bearing on the work of this com- 
mittee to this extent : As near as I can understand or find out from our 
witnesses, there are large numbers of people still unemployed in the 
Baltimore area. 

Mr. Lewis. Yes. 

Mr. OsMERS. It seems that a large proportion of those still unem- 
ployed are Negroes. 

Mr. Lewis. Yes. 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, getting back to the work of this committee : If 
the employers fail to employ those available in the Baltimore area, it 
will mean that workers will have to leave their homes in other parts 
of the country and go to places where it is obvious to all of us there 
are no facilities to take care of them — no schools, no water, no sewers, 
and no hospitals — and thereby create new problems for the community. 

Mr. Lewis. That is right. 

Mr. Osmers. So that discrimination in the Baltimore area becomes 
a very important matter. 

Mr. Lewis. Eight. 

CHECK ON unnecessary MIGRATION 

Mr. Osmers. We haven't adopted — and I am sure our chairman will 
agree — we haven't adopted an attitude that we either want to stop 
migration or keep people home, or anything like that ; but we do want 
to stop this useless wandering around the country for jobs and placing 
great strains on communities, particularly if there is labor available 
in the area concerned, 

Mr, Lewis. Riglit, 

Mr, Osmers. Now. I want to go back to something Congressman 
Arnold said a few minutes ago. I think tliat you are going to see a 
better day in some of these industries. Such hearings as we have had 
here today and yesterday will shed a little light on the problem and 
will open the eyes of some people and call the situation to the attention 
of the public. 

Mr. Lewis. Yes. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6093 

Mr. OsMERS. And I also want to say something I said to a preceding 
witness — that the discrimination isn't all on the part of the employer. 

Mr, Lewis. No ; I indicated we had had some trouble with the trade 
unions. 

Mr. OsMERS. And the trade-union situation is very serious now. Do 
you think that any union which discriminates against workers because 
of race, color, or creed should be allowed into contracts with employers 
who are doing national-defense work? 

W OULD BAR CONTRACTS FOR DISCRIMINATING FIRMS 

Mr. Lewis. No, sir ; I do not. I think no union which has exclusion 
policies should be granted defense contracts. I think that is decidedly 
un-American, and it is just as un-American for labor unions as for 
employers. 

Mr. OsMERS. Would you favor having that clearly written into every 
contract that the Government issues? 

Mr. Lewis. Well, I should hesitate to answer that question, although 
I think the President's proclamation has implied that, both in the case 
of the employers and labor. I assume that on the basis of that procla- 
mation all new defense contracts which come out will more or less carry 
(hat provision, and I think that is sound. 

Mr. OsMERS. We know that there is a great deal of radio speech- 
making to mollify groups in the population, but under the law you 
know you have absolutely no legal recourse if some employer or some 
labor union violates a proclamation. 

Mr. Lewis. That is true. 

Mr. OsMFJ?s. In other words, if you had no legal recourse you would 
have no recourse at all except to write a letter to the editor of your 
newspaper. 

Mr. Lewis. Yes. There are two States in the Union — New York 
and New Jersey — where legislation has been instituted to prevent 
unions which do discriminate from getting defense contracts, or public- 
works jobs, and I think that law is proposed also for Illinois. That has 
been necessary because of some of the discriminatory policies of unions. 

Mr. OsMEES. In New Jersey we do not have segregation in the sense 
you have it here in Maryland, and I would say that we do not have 
employer resistance to Negro labor as you have it in Maryland. Our 
trouble there is pretty much confined to the unions — that is, our big 
discrimination problem — and it is almost exclusively in the American 
Federation of Labor unions. 

JOB REPRESENTATION MUST BE SPECIFIED 

Mr. Lewis. I would like to make this point, Mr. Osmers — that in 
addition to what you have indicated should go into these contracts to 
prevent discrimination on the part of both employers and labor unions, 
I think from the point of view of our experience it is necessary to 
specify a certain percentage of this work should go to Negro workers, 
because that is the only basis on which we can get real representation. 

For example, in the housing contracts for this area, 4.6 percent of the 
pay of the housing project should go to Negro skilled workers. That 
figure is based on the census of 1930 of occupational skilled workers. 

We have secured the compliance of both unions and of contractors 



5094 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

in getting them to employ Negro skilled workers, but miless you have 
that specification in the contract, it is very difficult to get compliance. 

RENTS PAID BY NEGEOES 

Mr. OsiiEES. I Tvant to go back now to the housing situation. Wliat 
is the rent situation in Baltimore with respect to Negro occupancy ? 

Mr. Lewis. As has been indicated by a number of witnesses who ap- 
peared before the committee, the Negro community has suffered be- 
cause of rising rents. They are hemmed in, as I have indicated, and 
a number of persons are taking advantage of this defense crisis to 
raise rents. Some cases have come to our attention. 

Mr. Osmers. Would you favor rent -freezing or rent-fixing legisla- 
tion ? 

Mr. Lewis. I feel that we should have some sort of fair rent legisla- 
tion coming from the National Government. 

Mr. Osmers. Here is a more basic problem : We found, particularly 
in Chicago, where they have a similar situation but a more serious one, 
with respect to limits on the area in which Negroes can live, that the 
rent per square foot paid by Negro tenants was out of all proportion 
to the figure for white tenants and, of course, the quarters themselves 
were far inferior. Does such a situation also obtain here ? 

negroes pay rent "bonus" 

Mr. Lewis. I think that is true of all urban cities where Negroes 
live in large numbers. In our own parlance we say we have to pay a 
"bonus" when it comes to renting or buying a house. For example, I 
live in an area where Negroes have to pay from 5 to 10 thousand dollars 
for a home. We ride through white areas where we see homes that are 
superior to those we can buy for sale at $4,900 to $6,500. 

We have two large apartment houses here, for example, which were 
originally inhabited by white people. Our check-up indicated that 
the white people in all instances had paid $10 or $15 less per month for 
the same facilities. 

Mr. Osmers. And I presume that at the time they were occupied by 
white people they were newer and better. 

Mr. Lewis. That is right. 

Mr. Osmers. Which, of course, applies to any building. As it ages 
it becomes obsolete and, therefore, less valuable. 

Mr. Lewis. That is true. 

DANGER OF SPREAD OF SLUMS 

Mr, Osmers. If migration from the southern part of the United 
Sates — Negro migration to the North — continues as in the past 5 
years, let us say, what do you feel the answer to that situation is going 
to be in cities like Baltimore? Are they not just about reaching the 
point wliere they have more Negroes than can be contained in these 
areas, and thus causing them to develop into slums ? In other words, 
they might not have been slums 3 years ago, but they are becoming 
slums because of this pressure and overcrowding. Do you feel that 
that would indicate an agricultural future is necessary for the Negro ? 

Mr. Lewis. I don't think that it would particularly indicate an agri- 
cultural future. The reaction we get when the question comes up — 
of Negroes being sent back to the fann — is not favorable. In fact, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6095 

we are apt to be thrown out the window, I suppose that is true of 
white and Negro migrants. There is no anxiety to go back to the 
farm. They ask, quite frankly, "What is there to go back to?" 

In a number of instances they do not have anything at all to go 
back to. They represent the floating population, 

EMPLOYMENT THE REAL SOLUTION 

I think the migration of one million and a half Negroes from the 
South to the North has presented a number of serious issues — the 
question of disproportionate relief rolls, delinquency, health, and 
housing. I feel, however, it could be remedied if we could get better 
representation when it comes to employment. That is essentially the 
real solution to these problems, 

Mr. OsMERS. You feel that if the Negro has a job that pays him a 
decent American wage, a great many of these other problems will 
eliminate themselves ? 

Mr. Lewis. Absolutely, Mr. Osmers. Take, for example, the 200 
carpenters whom I have had very close contact with, who are making 
$50 or $60 a week. Those men are no trouble. They are not on the 
relief rolls. There is no health problem, so far as they are con- 
cerned; no delinquency problem at all. These people are maintaining 
a decent standard of living, I think if we could get jobs, even jobs 
in the proportion of our population basis, we could progress rapidly. 
For example, we are 20 percent of the population here. If we could 
get 20 percent of the jobs, in both public and private enterprises and 
even in the Government service; if we could get representation on the 
basis of population, I think many of these problems which are very 
acute now would simply pass out of the picture. But so long as we 
have a sharp discriminatory policy in employment, we are going to 
liave a problem on our hands. 

PREFER WORK TO RELIEF 

I think the defense emergency illustrates perfectly what we say 
to a number of people who criticize Negroes for being on the relief 
rolls. The reason why we are on the relief rolls is that we can't get 
jobs. 

Judge Waxter, in his testimony here, for example, said that all the 
Negroes that he had contact with on his relief rolls were anxious and 
eager to have work, and I think that is 100 percent true. 

Mr. OsMERS. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. We thank you very much, Mr. Lewis. 

Our next witness is Mr. Fringer. 

TESTIMONY OF D. L. B. FRINGEE, DISECTOE, MAEYLAND STATE 
EMPLOYMENT SEEVICE, BALTIMOEE, MD. 

The Chairman. Congressman Osmers will interrogate you, Mr. 
Fringer. 

Mr. Osmers. Will you give the reporter your name, address, and 
the name of the organization you represent? 

Mr. Fringer. My name is David L. B. Fringer, Baltimore, direc- 
tor of the Maryland State Employment Service. 



gQ96 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. OsMERs. Your prepared statement has been filed with the com- 
mittee, Mr. Fringer, and will be made a part of the record. 
(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT OF D. L. B. FRINGER, DIRECTOR, MARYLAND STATE 
EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Impact of the Defense Program on Employment in Maryland 

The passage of the Wagner-Peyser Act by Congress in 1933 marked the first 
major milestone in the progress of the public employment service in this 
country. Although a public employment service of sorts had existed in several 
States for many years prior to that date and had received governmental sup- 
port since 1918, very little progress had been made in perfecting the organiza- 
tional struc.ure or in improving the service rendered. The United States Em- 
ployment service, reorganized in 1933, was almost entirely concerned with 
Public Works employment during the depression. 

The passage of the Social Security Act in 1935, followed by the State enabling 
acts during the next 2 years, gave the employment service its first real oppor- 
tunity to find its place in community life. Inadequate staffs were strengthened 
with additional funds provided by the Social Security Board, and the provision 
in I he State and Federal acts making registration in a public employment 
office a mandatory step in the unemployment compensation procedure brought 
thousands of qualified applicants to the doors of employment offices for the 
first time. Adequate staffs and merit system appointments caused a gradual 
increase in public confidence, so that the employment service came to be recog- 
nized in many States as the logical place for the unemployed worker to go 
for a job, and for the employer to apply for workers. So far, the phrase 
"labor shortage" had not been coined. The employment service had hundreds of 
applicants for every job, and other hundreds were at plant gates clamoring for 
the new jobs available. In Maryland, the files of 14 local offices contained the 
names of 124,000 persons actively seeking work in June 1938. Eighty-nine 
thousand of these were in Baltimore. 

IMPACT first FEI.T IN AUTUMN, 1939 

The impact of the defense program on employment was first felt in Maryland 
during the fall of 1939. but it was not until the end of 1940 that its full force 
became apparent. In September 1939 the State active files contained the names 
of roughly 65 000 persons. This figure is at present 37,000. Corresponding figures 
for Bal'imore are respectively, 36,000 and 21,000. An analysis of the latter figure 
for Baltimore shows the following sex and color break-down : 

Male, white 9, 153 I Female, white 6,162 

Male, colored 3, 54") | Female, colored 2,424 

Inc'udrd in these 21,284 applicants are 1,085 service workers; 4,236 commercial 
and professional workers; 2,(i7f) hotel and restaurant workers; 7885 industrial 
and construction males; 2,810 female industrial workers; and 2.592 juniors with 
insufficient work experience for definite occupational classification. The Work 
Projects A'lministration in Maryland has reduced its rolls from a high of approxi- 
mately 25 3! to 8 270 at present. All of these individuals are registered with 
the Marylard State Employment Service and are included in the above totals. 
With the exception of Negro construction laborers in Baltimore and unskilled 
farm laborers in the counties, the majority of those remaining on the Work 
Projects Administration may be considered unemployable as far as private industry 
is concerned. 

WILL NEED 15,000 NEW WORKERS BY NOVEMBER 

It is estininted that approximately 15 000 workers will be required for defense 
indus'ry employment in Maryland by No-ember 1941. Of these, about 7 500 are 
available. Shortages now exist in the metal trades in practically all skilled and 
many .semi- killed cla.ssifications, and these shortages are expected to become more 
acute by fall. 

Inasmuch as the shortage of skilled workers is almost Nation-wide in scope, 
we can hope for little assistance from other States in meeting this need. Balti- 
more personnel managers in the defense industries have made a "gentlemen's 
agreement" not to hire workers away from each other, and this agreement has 
been largely responsible for the absence of "labor pirating" here. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION Q097 

Well organized training programs conducted by industry itself and the 
national-defense training courses in the schools throughout the State have 
done much to offset the need for skilled workers. More than 200 youths 
were referred from the Eastern Shore to Baltimore for training because of 
a lack of facilities on the Shore, and are now employed in Baltimore indus- 
tries. To date, the vocational schools in the State have graduated over 3,000 
national-defense trainees. More than half of these graduates have been placed 
in defense-industry employment by the employment service and numerous 
others have found employment through their own efforts. The Glenn L. Martin 
Co. has made by far the greatest use of these trainees. This company has 
worked closely with the schools for several years in the conduct of a train- 
ing program designed specifically to fit their needs. 

Anticipating a shortage of potential trainees in the State, the employment 
service made arrangements recently for setting up training courses in Dis- 
trict of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, and North Carolina. These courses 
are being conducted according to Glenn L. Martin Co. specifications, and the 
graduates will be offered jobs by that firm when their training is completed. 

In spite of the fact that $576,081,144 worth of defense contracts have been 
let in Baltimore to date (additional contracts amounting to $41,013,680 have 
been let in Maryland counties) this city has been fortunately free of a large 
undirected influx of workers. 

IMPORTATION OF HARVEST HANDS 

For many years it has been customary for migratory workers from the 
South to come to the Eastern Shore of Mai'yland during the incking season 
to assist in harvesting the crops. Due to increased employment in the South, 
it was feared that these workers would not come to Maryland this year, and 
the employment service made arrangements through its clearance system to 
bring in workers for the harvesting season. Areas of immediate clearance 
were established between Maryland State Employment Service's Salisbury oflSce, 
and Norfolk and Exmore, Va., but the migratory labor has so far come in 
without need for this additional effort. Because of this, and also due to the 
dry season which delayed the crops, the labor situation on the Shore has 
not yet become as acute as it was expected to be. Employment-service records 
indicate that so far approximately 3,000 migratoi'y workers have come into 
the State. 

The employment service established a temporary office on the main road from 
the South near the Virginia line, and by acting as a clearing house for the 
workers and farmers was able to schedule the jobs to good advantage and 
thus eliminate lost time between jobs. A great many Work Projects Adminis- 
tration and some National Youth Administration workers have been utilized 
on the Shore. Both of these agencies have agreed to remove from their rolls 
any individual who refuses to accept employment and have cooperated fully 
with the employnient service. Qualified farm laborers applying for unemploy- 
ment-compensation benefits in the Eastern Shore counties are not j^ermitted 
to file claims if jobs are open for them. 

Arrangements have been made to recruit workers for the truck-farming area 
around Baltimore from among those Baltimore residents, principally those on 
Work Projects Administration and National Youth Administration, who are 
not qualified for industrial employment. 

NO SKILLED LABORE3?S AVAILABLE LOCALLY 

In order to determine the need for skilled farm labor for the dairy and grain 
farms in the State, questionnaires were sent by county committees to nearly 
14,000 farmers. Less than 2,000 replies have been received to these questionnaires, 
so that it is not possible to make any estimates from them on the probable short- 
age of this type of farm labor. However, it is known that practically no skilled 
farm laborers are available from local sources, with the exception of a few who 
are still on Work Projects Administration and National Youth Administration 
rolls, and who are being used as rapidly as orders from farmers are received. 
How serious this situation may become can only be determined as the summer 
advances. 

The employment service files in Baltimore contain the names of approximately 
6.000 colored workers. Although the large majority of these are unskilled labor- 
ers and domestics, it is estimated that approximately 1,500 male an,d 1,000 female 
Negroes are available for national-defense training. The Baltimore school authori- 
ties are now equipping a school to train this group. 



6098 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

The Baltimore schools have established training courses for women, and a 
number of these graduates have been placed in defense work such as small parts 
and radio assembly. 

Women have also done much to relieve the shortage in subsidiary employment 
caused by loss of men to the draft and to defense jobs. They are beginning to 
find employment as elevator operators, shipping clerks, and in other occupations 
formerly reserved to men. 

If they are accepted by industry, women and Negroes form a potential group 
who can relieve to a large extent the labor shortage with which Baltimore is faced. 
It is, of course, highly desirable that local labor sources of all types be completely 
exhausted before workers are brought in from the outside, but the extent to 
which these two groups can be employed depends upon the degree of their 
.acceptance by other workers and by employers. 

(A statement, The Influence of the Defense Program on Employment in Balti- 
more, is attached, as are also the following: Information on Labor Needs in 
Maryland for the Period May 1 to November 1, 1941; National Defense Voca- 
tional Training Report as of May 31, 1941.) 



Exhibit A — The Influence of the Defense Peogeam on Employment in 
Baltimore 

report by d. l. b. fringer, director. maryland state employilent ser\ace, 
baltimore, md., may 15, 1941 

Baltimore is rapidly becoming a "boom town." The impact of the European 
war on our industrial economy was first felt during the fall of 1939, when the 
Nazi war machine was put into gear. The growth in industrial activity since 
then has been so rapid that many Baltimoreans are startled to realize how 
important a role their city is now playing in the total defense program. 

Industrial expansion is almost Nation-wide in scope, but Baltimore has felt 
its effects to an unusually large degree, due perhaps to several factors. Its 
unusually good rail facilities make supplies and products from the interior 
of the country readily available. Its status as the second largest port in the 
United States reflects the fact that supplies from foreign countries and east 
and west coast ports are unusually accessible. The compact industrial ai'ea, 
climatic conditions, adequate and easily obtainable fuel supply, all increase 
the importance of Baltimore as a manufacturing center. One of the most 
important factors is the advantageous position of the city for an adequate 
supply of labor. Our nearest competitor for industrial labor is Wilmington, 
70 miles to the northeast. Thus, we have been able to call on almost the entire 
State of Maryland, as well as parts of Virginia, West Virginia, and Pennsyl- 
vania for labor reserves. This potential supply is augmented by the majority 
of the Southeastern States which do not possess industrial cities of any size. 

CITY FACED WITH ACUTE LABOR PROBLEM 

In spite of this favorable position with respect to labor supply, Baltimore, 
along with other large industrial cities, is at present confronted with an acute 
labor problem. During the latter part of 1940 the strange term "labor short- 
age" came into being. Not very popular at first, it became increasingly used 
daily, until at present it is on every employer's lips. In the spring of 1938 
the Baltimore office files of the Maryland State Employment Service contained 
applications of nearly 90,000 men, women, boys, and girls who were "actively 
seeking work." On May 1, 1941, that number had dwindled to less than 30.000. 

What has happened to these workers? For the most part, they are working 
in shipyards, steel mills, airplane manufacturing plants, and in subsidiary em- 
ployment involved in the production of guns, gun mounts, ships, airplanes, 
munitions, clothing, and all the other needs for defense of this country and 
for shipment abroad. The Bethlehem Steel Co. in January 1938 employed 
20,640 men. Today it has 26,800 on its rolls: the Glenn L. Martin Co. 
in January 1938 had a total pay roll of 2-370, which has risen to 18.000 
todny and is expected to reach 40.000 before the end of 1941. These, our two 
largest industries, account for our greatest absorption of workers. But there 
are many smaller plants, which employed 300 or 400 persons 2 years ago, that 
have now doubled or tripled their previous employment, with more to be added 
in the future. The shipbuilding industry alone will require approximately 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6099 

8,500 new employees before the end of the current year and the airplane industry 
another 20,000. 

All this has radically changed the role of the employment service as a com- 
munity agency. Instead of having from 10 to 100 qualified workers for every 
job, our files are entirely bare in all of the skilled and many semiskilled 
classifications. We are unable to obtain qualified workers by clearance with 
other States, as we could in the past, because the other States are faced with 
similar conditions. Shortages of machinists, tool and diemakers, draftsmen, 
engineers, and other skilled workers have established a new milestone in indus- 
trial history. But the employer must have his men, and the ships and planes 
and guns must be built. 

GOVERNMENT ACTION TO MEET SHORTAGE 

To meet this shortage of man power, the Government has done several things. 
Through the Office of Production Management there has been organized a 
"Committee for Training Within Industry." This committee, composed of 
leading industrial personnel men loaned to the Government by their firms and 
serving without compensation, advises employers on the best use to be made 
of the available labor supply and the best wajf to train inexperienced workers. 
In consultation with these experts a defense employer completes plans for 
accelerating on the job training and up-grading of workers in his plant so that 
employment needs can be met for the most part by the addition of beginning 
workers to take the places of those who ai*e fitted for promotion. 

Through funds provided by the Federal Department of Education, the Balti- 
more City school system has bought equipment and initiated short, intensive, 
vocational training courses designed to fit workers, not to become skilled 
mechanics in 6 or 12 weeks, but to enter an occupation with at least a basic 
knowledge of the craft. These trainees, many of them going to work for the 
first time, will release more highly skilled individuals for more important 
work. As soon as the training courses are completed the graduates are re- 
ferred to the Maryland State Employment Service, which, as a clearing house 
for industry, refers them to suitable employment. Since the inception of this 
program in July 1940, a total of about 1,800 persons have graduated from these 
national-defense vocational training courses. About two-thirds of them have 
been placed in defense industries by the employment service and all but 100 of 
them have obtained employment. At the present time about 700 are in 
process of being trained. 

SUPPIA' OF ELIGIBLE TRAINEES DWINDLING 

Although we still have available a supply of unskilled workers probably 
sufficient to meet the need, we are already running shy of sufficient workers 
who can be trained to take even entry occupation jobs in industrial plants. 
The influence of the fallacious dictum that education should inevitably lead 
toward white-collar jobs is discernible in the difficulty of recruiting the number 
of young men needed to fill these training classes. It is already apparent that 
Maryland will have to depend on recruiting trainees from outside the State to 
man the thousands of jobs which will demand this type of worker within the 
next few months. In the face of this problem, arrangements have already 
been made with several neighboring States to the south to initiate national- 
defense vocational training classes which meet the specifications established by 
Baltimore employers. Thus North Carolina boys who take this training in 
their own State will be eligible for employment in Baltimore industries after 
the local supply has become exhausted. 

It is undoubtedly true that most of the school graduates and drop-outs this 
year, boys and girls alike, can be offered jobs through the employment service. 
Those IS and over can be assigned to jobs immediately in national-defense 
industries, or be referred back to the schools for the short vocational training 
courses, with jobs assured upon the completion of the courses. Those under 
18 can be referred to jobs in subsidiary industries which have also begun to 
feel the pinch of the labor shortage because of men lost to the draft and to 
the better paying jobs in national defense. 

WOMEN AS ASSEMBLY-LINE WORKERS 

Women have begun to play an active part in this problem of labor supply. 
In the industrial front-line trenches they are assembly-line workers, buffers, 

60.^96— 11— pt. In 15 



glOO BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

polishers, and machine-tool operators on small parts ; in secondary jobs they 
are taxi drivers, elevator operators, and shipping clerks. They will undoubtedly 
fill many other jobs as the male labor ranlis are further depleted. Although 
to date Baltimore plants have not seen fit to employ women to any large degree 
for jobs ordinarily filled by men. The schools stand ready to offer the 
necessary training to equip girls and women for factory employment when 
they receive the signal that industry is willing to employ them in these jobs. 
Negro workers represent another potential source of labor which has not 
yet been fully utilized. Some national-defense vocational training courses for 
Negroes have been initiated, and others will be forthcoming if these graduates 
are successful in finding their industrial niche. Aware of this untapped source 
the Office of Production Management has written to all holders of defense 
contracts encouraging them to make full use of available Negro workers. 

WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION AND NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION AS 
LABOR SOUECES 

The Work Projects Administration and the National Youth Administration 
have indirectly served as source^ of labor supply. The Work Projects Admin- 
istration employment in Baltimore has dropped from a high of 15,200 in January 
1936 to a present load of 3,500, indicating that those persons who are em- 
ployable in terms of industry's specifications have, for the most part, been 
absorbed in private employment. To facilitate this trend. Work Projects 
Administration has a cooperative plan with the school system providing for 
vocational training and retraining of those workers who can be fitted by this 
method for return to industrial employment. About 79 percent of persons cur- 
rently employed on Work Projects Administration are working on defense 
projects in connection with airports and military cantonments. Since this is 
essential work and would have to be performed by the Government through 
some other provisions if Work Projects Administration workers were not 
available, these particular project workers can be counted in with those who 
are privately employed in defense work. 

The National Youth Administration is organized to equip young people for 
gainful employment by providing them with work experience where they can 
learn necessary work habits and disciplines which will make them fit into their 
first real jobs with a minimum of friction for themselves and their employers. 
In addition to providing work experience through part-time employment, the 
National Youth Administration requires its project employees to avail them- 
selves of the national-defense training courses offered by the city schools. 
National Youth Administration workers so trained thus become a part of the 
labor pool upon which defense employers can draw. 

Some estimate of the number of new jobs can be obtained from the yearly 
placement figures of the Baltimore office. In 1939, this office placed 17,178 
individuals; the total increased to 23,415 in 1940, and in the first 4 months 
of 1941 the local office found jobs for 12,796. During April 1941 over 4,300 in- 
dividuals were placed, with indications that the May figure will be even higher. 
At the present monthly rate, 1941 's record will be around 50,000 or about twice 
as many placements as made in 1940. 

NEW PROBLEMS CREATED BY MASS EMPLOYMENT 

Many new problems have been created by this mass employment. The news 
that skilled workers can easily find employment in Baltimore has spread far and 
wide and has been picked up by many unskilled workers as their cue to come 
to Baltimore. Fairly large numbers of these persons have migrated here from 
other sections only to be disappointed in their search for employment. In 
addition to the fact that these persons represent a potential if not an actual 
dependency strain on the community, they have, in many instances, walked 
away from farm jobs where they are critically needed. The higher wages of 
industrial employment offers a strong attraction in contrast with the long hours 
and low pay of farm employment. This trend is not peculiar to Maryland, and 
unless some effective way is found of holding these farm workers in their own 
communities, America may fail in her efforts to be the "Larder of Democracy." 
Highways which were inadequate in 1939 have been called upon to handle 
three times the traffic which formerly congested them. Although housing has 
not yet created a serious problem, rents have risen with astonishing speed, 
and building permits have increased more than 250 percent over previous periods. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6101 



Government-housing projects have done much to alleviate housing problems 
while trailer camps have assisted in relieving temporary shortages in some 
sections. Employers are concerned over the hazard of fire, particularly in con- 
gested areas with inadequate access highways. 

BALTIMOEE FKEE OF LABOR PIEATING 

Baltimore has so far been singularly free of the labor-pirating and skyrocketing 
wage rates which were such unfortunate accompaniments of our last defense 
boom in 1917. Although out-of-State employers have endeavored to entice some of 
our skilled men away by glowing descriptions of better wages and working condi- 
tions, our own personnel people have made a "gentlemen's agreement" to refuse to 
hire workers now employed by other local defense industries. This cooperation 
has done much to prevent disturbances in production schedules, and to overcome a 
tendency to outbid other employers by boosting wage rates out of all relation to 
a fair returu for services performed. 

We must accept the fact that Baltimore will have more jobs in 1941 than it 
has qualified workers to fill them, even assuming that all of our potentialities are 
exhausted. What to do with the workers who must inevitably be imported after 
the boom is over will be a problem about which it is not too early to devote some 
thought. But the difliculties of this problem will be lessened considerably if we 
can assure ourselves that every qualified Maryland worker is employed in a, 
Maryland industry before we give our jobs to outsiders. 



Exhibit B — Information on Labor Nefj)s in Maryt^and foe Period May I tct 

NO\'EMBFJS 1, 1941 



Table 1. — Number of tcorkers needed by 11 Maryland employers by Nov. 1, I941 





May 
1-15 


May- 
June 


July- 
August 


Sep- 
tember- 
October 


Total' 




2,462 
395 


3,031 
601 


3,211 
64 


6,127 
18 


14, 83r 
1 078^ 


Counties 






Total 


2,857 


3,632 


3,275 


6,145 


15, 90&- 





Table 2. — Number of icorkers, by occupation, needed by 51 elected Baltimore 
employers in the next 6 months, for whom shortages either exist or are 
anticipated 



Occupation 



Number of workers needed in the indicated periods 



r-?r 


May- 
June 


July- 
August 


Septem- 
ber-Oc- 
tober 


Total 


3 











3: 


5 











5 


3 











3 


50 








50 


100- 


10 











10- 


18 











18 


3 











3 


5 











5 


101 





50 


50 


201 


8 











8 





20 








20- 


4 


15 








19 


1 


3 








4 


7 


3 








10- 





5 








e 





20 








20. 


4 











4 


4 


3 








7 


2 











2 


20 











20 


432 


100 


200 


200 


932 


53 











53 


132 











132 



Electrical engineer 

Mechanical engineer 

Meciianical engineer, juuior.. 

Aeronautical engineer 

Draftsman: 

Electrical--. 

Marine 

Mechanical- 

Structural... 

Tool designer 

Chemist assistant II 

Clerk, general office 

Production clerk II 

Calculating machine operator 

Stenographer. 

Clerk-tvpist 

Stock cierk II 

Oateman IV (any industry).. 

Watchman (any industry) 

Janitor I (any industry) 

Platerl 

Machinist II 

Machinist: 

Bench.. 

Marine 



6102 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Table 2. — Number of workers, by occupation, needed by 51 elected Baltimore 
employers in the next 6 months, for whom shortages either exist or are 
anticipated — Continued 



Occupation 



Number of workers needed in the indicated periods 



May 
1-15 


May- 
June 


July- 
August 


Septem- 
ber-Oc- 
tober 


Total 


2 











2 


23 


200 


300 


35 


558 


55 











55 


41 


10 


60 


138 


239 


97 


95 


190 


210 


592 


25 











25 


9 











9 


15 











15 


12 











12 


30 


200 





400 


630 


58 











58 


3 











3 


4 








2 


6 


9 








4 


13 


3 








3 


6 


12 











12 


3 











3 


10 











10 


4 











4 


1 











1 


65 


1 


3 





69 


4 











4 













3 


37 











37 


10 











10 


2 











2 


1 
















200 








200 


30 











30 


15 











15 


62 











62 


1 











1 













2 


5 











5 


10 











10 


28 











28 


15 











15 








4 





4 


41 











41 


8 











8 


10 











10 


6 











6 


1 











1 


1 











1 


2 











2 


10 











10 













2 


1 













20 











20 


2 











2 


22 











22 













2 


Q 











6 


2 








4 


6 


18 











18 


20 











20 


45 











45 


15 











15 


10 











10 













6 


4 











4 


57 


6 


2 





65 


17 











17 


27 











27 


4 


3 


3 





10 





1 










25 











25 


24 











24 


3 


1 


3 







6 


3 


3 





12 





35 








35 


2 













50 











50 


2 


4 








6 


15 











15 



Die setter I 

Toolmaker _ 

Engine lathe operator _.. 

Turret lathe operator 

Milling machine operator. 

Boring mil! operator- . _ 

Shaper operator I 

Planer operator II 

Surface grinder operator 

Inspector _ 

Sheet metal worker II _ 

Sheet metal lay-out man 

Molder: 

Bench 

Floor 

Coremaker I.. 

Boilermaker., 

Structural steel worker 

Assembler (ship) 

Structural steel lay-out man 

"Template maker, structural steel 

Welder: 

Arc. 

Acetylene 

Blacksmith II -.. 

Electrician: 

Ship 

Shop 

Machine shop 

Electrical repairman 

Radio equipment assembler 

Ship rigger. 

Loftsman II .., 

Sbipfltter 

Carpenter, rough, II, construction 

Bricklayer, refractory brick. 

Carpenter, finish 

Boatbuilder, wood 

Carpenter, ship 

Joiner VI 

Carpenter, maintenance... 

Pipefitter, construction 

Electric bridge crane, open 

Millwright : 

Auto body repairman, wood 

Maintenance mechanic II 

Foreman: 

Machine manufacturing 

Auto manufacturing... 

Buffer, machine leather 

Galvanizer 

Bench grinder 

Turret lathe operator (automatic) 

Multiple spindle drill press operator 

Single spindle drill press operat(>r 

Screw machine operator, semiautomatic. 

Machine molder, jarring 

Chipper., foundry 

Riveter, pneumatic I 

Steel plate calker 

Chipper, metal 

Welder, spot 

Acetylene burner operator 

Drop hammer operator I 

Angle puncher and shearer 

Punch press operator I 

Punch press operator, hand 

Forming press operator. 

Body maker III (tinware^ 

Fence making machine operator.. 

Etcher, hand-cut tools. . . 

Sheetmetal worker helper 

Sheet metal fabricating machine operator 

SUtting machiner operator II 

Coil winder I 

Painter, spray I 

Bricklayer, firebrick 

Wire fsnce erector (construction) 

v-Gas appliance serviceman 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6103 



Table 2. — Numbe?- of workers, by occupation, needed hy 51 elected Baltimore 
employers in the next 6 months, for tchom shortages either exist or are antici- 
pated — Continued 





Number of workers needed in the indicated periods 


Occupation 


S 


May- 
June 


July- 
August 


Septem- 
ber-Oc- 
tober 


Total 


Laborer: 


11 
38 
30 
25 
20 


20 









725 

5 






s 

300 









2,000 

2 


ll 




38 


Process, foundry 


30 




25 




20 


Aircraft manufacturing 


3,025 




20 


Double seamer operator can 


7 






Total - - . - 


2,201 


1,658 


1,108 


3,098 


8,065 









Table 3. — Number of workers, by occupation, needed by 57 selected Baltimore 
employers in the next 6 months for whom no shortages are anticipated 





Number of workers needed in the indicated periods 


Occupation 


May 
1-15 


May- 
June 


July- 
August 


Septem- 
ber-Oc- 
tober 


Total 




3 



20 
2 
3 


65 
66 
66 
15 
10 
7 
4 




1 
1 

I 

2 




168 

1,200 


I 




1 
1 
1 

2 




98 

2,000 







1 
1 
1 

2 


6 


3,000 





3 




3 


AVelder, arc. - - 


3 




3 




20 




8 


Electric truck operator . 


3 


Laborer: 


6 


Process iron and steel 


65 




350 


Process metal 


66 




6,215 




10 


Tinsware 


7 


Nonferrous metal alloys and products 


4 






Total 


261 


1,373 


2,103 


3,029 


6,766 







Table 4. — List of the 57 Baltimore employers included in the survey 



Maryland Drydock Co. 

The Balmai- Corporation. 

Jnlien P. Friez & Son. 

Edward Katsinger Co. (A. & J. Kitchen 
Tool Co.) 

Continental Oil Co. 

Leonhardt Wagon Manufacturing Co. 

Miller Metal Products Co. 

American Hammered Piston Ring Co. 

Cherry-Burrell Corporation 

Bartlett-Hayward division of Koppers 
Co. 

Ellicott Machine Co. 

Revere Copper & Brass Co., Inc. 

Quiet May Oil Burner Corporation. 

F. X Hooper Co., Inc. 

Standard Gas Equipment Co. 

Charles T. Brandt, Inc. 

Chesapeake Marine Railway and Ma- 
rine Engine & Boiler Co. 



National Can Co. 
Steel & Tin Products Co. 
Western Electric Co. 
Kennedy Foundry Co. i 
American Electric Welding Co. 
Continenal Can Co. 
General Motors (Chevrolet division). 
C. M. Kemp Manufacturing Co. 
Spedden Shipbuilding Co., Inc. 
Westinghouse Electric Co. 
American Brake Shoe & Foundry Co. 
Maryland Glass Corporation. 
Owens Yacht Co. 

National Enameling & Stamping Co. 
American Radiator & Standard Sani- 
tary Manufacturing Co. 
Owens-Illinois Can Co. (Tindeco plant). 
Flynn & Emrich. 
Maryland Steel Products Co. 
Wolfe & Mann Co. 



6104 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Table 4. — List of the 51 Baltimore employers included in the survey — Continued 



Rustless Iron & Steel Corporation, 

Davidson Chemical Co. 

Doughnut Corijoration of America. 

Southern Galvanizing & Plating Co. 

Crown Cork & Seal Co. (machinery 
division). 

American Smelting & Refining Co. 

General Elevator Co. 

Procter & Gamble Distributing Co. 

Crown Cork & Seal Co. (Crown divi- 
sion). 

James J. Lacy Co. 



Comfort Spring Manufacturing Co. 

Mutual Chemical Co. 

Anchor Post Fence Co. 

Dietrich Bros. 

Eastern Rolling Mills Co. 

Monitor Controller Co. 

Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Sparrows 

Point. 
Bethlehem Fairfield Corporation. 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corporation. 
Glenn L. INIartin Co. 
Bendix Radio Corporation. 



Table 5.- 



-Estimated laior needs for aircraft manufacturing in Baltimore by 
Nov. 1, IDIfl 



Milling-machine operators. 

Machinists II 

Tool designer 

Aeronautical engineer 

Tool makers 



545 
700 
200 
100 
535 



Hired as detail assembler assistants. 



Laborers ' 

Inspectors 

Turret lathe operators. 



025 
600 
203 



Total 5,908 



Table 6. — Estimated labor needs for shipbuilding in Baltimore by Nov. 1, W-'fl 



Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corpora- 
tion : 

Marine machinists 100 

Machinists II 15 

Boilermakers 2 

Shipfitters 10 

Sheet metal workers 25 

Marine draftsman 10 

Loftsman 10 

Chipper, metal 15 

Electrician, ship 25 

Total 212 



Bethlehem Fairfield Shipbuild- 
ing Co.': 

Shipfitters 15 

Pipefitters 6 

Chipper, metal 15 

Carpenter, ship 12 

Laborers 6,200 



Total 6,248 



Table 7. — Number of workers, by occupation, needed by 14 selected county 
employers in the next 6 months for ivhom shortages eiist or are anticipated 





Number of workers needed in the indicated periods 


Occupation 


May 
1-15 


May- 
June 


July- 
August 


Septem- 
ber-Oc- 
tober 


Total 




15 

16 
6 

19 
8 
5 

15 




5 
10 
10 



85 
3 


5 





45 
4 
5 




10 







25 


Machinist bencii 


26 




26 




19 




8 


Looperll 


5 




145 




7 


Punch-press operator I 


8 


Total 


84 


116 


59 


10 


269 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6105 



Table 8. — Number of loorkers, hy occupation, needed by 14 selected county 
employers in the next 6 months for ichoin no shortage exists 





Number of workers needed in the indicated periods 


Occupation 


May 
1-15 


May- 
June 


July- 
August 


Septem- 
brr-Oc- 
tober 


Total 




5 
25 
75 



6 
200 





6 

5 
475 







6 







8 





5 




25 




75 




13 


Laborer: 

Process (paint and varnish) 


16 




676 






Total 


311 


485 


5 


8 


809 







Table 9. — LiM of the IJf county employees included in the survey 



Engineering Research Corporation. 

Triumph Explosives, Inc. 

Price Bros., Inc. 

Secretary Pants Factory. 

Charles Briddell, Inc. 

Jamison CoUl Storage Door Co. 

Air Track Manufacturing Co. 



Martin & Schwartz, Inc. 
Hagerstown Hosiery Co. 
National Fireworks Co. 
Anchor Shirt Co. 
Dorchester Pants Co. 
Mineral Pigment Co. 
Pangborn Corporation. 



Exhibit — Report of Vocational Training Program — No. 1, Pbeemployment 
Courses, May 31, 1941 

[Source: Maryland Unemployment Compensation Board, Maryland State Employment Service, aflSliated 
with Social Security Board] 

COUNTY OFFICES 





Pi 


3 

3« 




"3 

11 

r 

Pi 





|| 




li 
3 a 

li 


1 


II 
1 


ANNAPOLIS 

Welding, acetylene 







28 
27 
15 


19 
20 
6 


2 





3 



17 
17 
6 


1 
6 



6 



1 
6 





Machine shop 

















70 


45 


2 


3 


40 


7 


7 


7 




CUMBEELAND 









30 
30 


16 
65 
45 
16 
31 
17 





3 

18 
11 

2 
21 

3 


















3 








3 

18 
8 
2 

19 
3 





3 

21 
17 
4 
8 
14 

I 


2 
11 
15 
1 
6 
3 





2 
11 
15 

5 
3 







Welding, acetylene 




Machine shop 








Blacksmith 








Aircraft: 

Riveting 








ELKTON 

Aircraft sheet metal 


60 



190 
5 


58 
5 






5 
5 


53 



67 



37 



37 







— ■■ — : — 



QIQQ BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Exhibit C — Report of Vocationai. Training Program — No. 1, Preemploymknt 
Courses, May 31, 1941 — Continued 





11 


Is 






II 


h 

So 


< 


1^ 


•a 

r 


5 

S 

11 


FREDERICK 

Welding, acetylene 


8 
9 


18 
11 

40 




3 
5 













2 




3 
3 


3 

3 
6 


3 

3 
6 

""12" 


3 
3 

6 
12 


15 


Aircraft: 




Woodwork 











28 


8 


2 


6 


12 


23 


HAGERSTOWN 

Machine shop 


56 
59 

8 
8 
9 

140 

26 





214 
219 

144 
45 
195 


77 
135 

81 
3 
65 


45 
135 

61 
3 
59 











1 








20 

6 


101 

63 
50 
109 


























Welding: 
Acetylene 





Electric 





Aircraft woodwork 


21 








817 


361 


303 


58 


421 








60 


HYATTSVaLE 

Aircraft sheet metal 


47 
73 
48 
16 

184 


42 
48 
15 
14 

119 


17 
21 
8 

7 

53 


24 

27 

7 


5 
25 

2 

40 


5 
9 

21 


5 
9 
6 

1 








25 


Aircraft woodwork.. ... 







26 


1 


65 


21 


25 


TOWSON 

Machine shop 



14 


31 
26 


31 
26 


18 







13 
26 

















WESTMINSTER 










RECAPITULATION OF COUNTY OFFICES 



Machine shop 

Aircraft: 

Sheet metal , 

Riveting 

Welding: 

Acetylene 

Electric 

Patternmaking, wood. 

Aircraft woodwork 

Mechanical drawing.. 

Blacksmith 



Total. 



56 


365 


154 


71 


6 


74 


129 


27 


27 


124 


282 


185 


152 


6 


27 


97 


8 


8 


30 


























30 


354 


187 


84 





103 


113 


24 


24 


8 


45 


3 


3 








42 













3 








3 


14 


3 


3 


20 


253 


93 


66 


2 


25 


120 


9 


9 





16 


2 








2 


4 


1 


1 





31 


21 





2 


19 


8 


5 


5 


268 


1,363 


648 


376 


16 


253 


527 


77 


77 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



Exhibit C — Report of Vocational Training Program — No. 
CtoUKSES, May 31, 1941 — Continued 



BALTIMORE CITY 



6107 

1, Preemployment 





Present 
enroll- 
ment 


Total 
gradu- 
ates 


Total 
place- 
ments 


Place- 
ments, 
county 
appli- 
cants 1 


No infor- 
mation 


Available 

for 
referral 


MALE WHITE 


150 
260 

32 
60 
60 
20 
20 



20 


498 
865 

96 
6 
174 
46 
49 
15 

24 
16 


316 
644 

60 

140 
10 
11 
6 

6 



7 
120 

1 











151 
199 

23 

6 
10 
33 
29 

8 

18 
12 


31 




22 


Welding: 


13 


Electric 





Sheet metal 


24 




3 


Auto mechanics 


9 




1 


Electric instrument adjustment and re- 







4 








622 


1,789 


1.193 


128 


489 


107 


MALE NEGRO 


40 
20 
40 

























Patternmaking. wood 
















100 

















FEMALE WHITE 


20 


22 








20 


2 






Total 


742 


1,811 


1,193 


128 


509 


109 







Included In total placements. 



6108 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Exhibit C — Report of Vocational Training Program — No. 1, Preemployment 
Courses. May 31, 1941 — Continued 

RECAPITULATION OF BALTIMORE AND COUNTY OFFICES 



MALE WHITE 



Machine shop 

Aircraft: 

Sheet metal 

Riveting 

Woodwork 

AVelding: 

Acetylene 

Electric 

Sheet metal general 

Patternmaking, wood 

Auto mechanics 

Cabinet making 

Electric instrument, adjustment and re- 
pair _ 

Small-parts assembly _ _ 

Mechanical drawing. 

Blacksmith 



MALE NEGRO 



Sheet metal, general.. 
Patternmaking, wood. 
Auto mechanics 



FEMALE WHITE 

Small-parts assembly 

Total 



22 
3,174 1,841 




,193 648 130 



Available 
for referral 



s « s 

o o 

D O 



1 Included in total placements. 





Referred 


Placed 


Referred to vocational training course at Baltimore from— 
Salisbury 


104 
95 
7 
37 
5 
2 


75 


Cambridge 


30 


Elkton. . 




Westminster 


5 




5 


Towson 








Total.. 


250 


120 







TESTIMONY OF D. L. B. FRINGER— Resumed 

Mr. OsMEES. I wonder if you will give the committee your estimate 
of the labor needs during the next 4 months, and of what labor is 
available to fill those needs ? 

Mr. Fringer. We estimate that defense industries will need, by the 
end of this October, wdiich is a little longer than 4 months, a.p])roxi- 
mately 15,000 people, of whom we have approximately 50 percent 
available. 

Mr. OsMBRS. You have about 7,500 of the 15,000 available? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6109 

Mr. Fringer. Yes. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you imairine that industry will use the local 7,500 
before calling upon outside territory '< 

Mr. Frinoer. Of course, that is highly desirable, and I think it is 
generally true that employers are interested in employing Maryland 
labor first if it is possible to do so. 

I think there are difficulties in the way of doing that 100 percent, 
and I also think that a fairly good number of migrants are beginnings 
to come to Baltimore now Avho. if they are qualified, may get jobs 
before the nucleus of our 7.500 here are employed. 

DrRATION or RESIDENCE 

IMr. OsMERS. In the applications that are made to these large indus- 
trial plants, how do they determine whether a man is from Maryland- 
or not ? 

Mr. Fringer. They do not necessarily determine that. 

Mr. OsMERs. Let us assume that I come to Baltimore, engage a; 
furnished room somewhere, and go over to the Glenn Martin plant- 
They ask me my address and I give a Baltimore address. Would that 
make me a Marylander ? 

Mr, Fringer. It is my opinion that in the majority of cases, as far 
as the employer is concerned, it would, and, as a matter of fact, as far 
as our own offices are concerned, we don't make a particular effort to 
find out how long a man has been here. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you have a question on your form as to the resi- 
dence of the applicant a year prior to his application? 

Mr. Fringer. No. That is generally brought out in the work his- 
tory. We record the work history for as far back as it would be 
pertinent. 

Mr. OsMERS. That should give that information. 

Mr. Fringer. So that would give it. I mean, generally speaking. 

Mr. OsMERS. If a man said he was unemployed for the past year or 
two it wouldn't necessarily give it. 

JSIr. Fringer. That is right. 

SERVICE FILLED 25 PERCENT OF. NEW JOBS IN 1940 

Mr. OsMERS. "Wliat percentage of the defense workers in Baltimore 
in the last year were hired through your service ? 

Mr. Fringer. I am making a wild guess. 

Mr. OsMERS. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Fringer. I would say possibly 25 percent. 

Mr. Os:nERs. We had a witness in here yesterday who came from 
West Virginia. He had a brother working in the Baltimore area. 
The brother informed him that there were jobs available in Baltimore. 
He came to Baltimore and he got a job almost immediately — in 3 or 4 
days. I put the question to him as to whether he had applied at the 
employment service in West Virginia. He said that he had, and 
thev had no jobs listed for the Baltimore area. 

Now, would that indicate that you had enough Baltimore people 
on the rolls to fill all needs ? 

Mr. Fringer. No. As a matter of fact, we do have jobs listed in 
West Virginia for the Baltimore area. We have particularly a num- 
ber of jobs listed in Baltimore for the Glenn L. Martin Co. Now, it 



^IIQ BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

is possible that that man's qualifications might not meet the Martin 
specifications. 

Mr. OsMERS. This man is not employed in Martin's — for your in- 
formation. 

Mr. Fringer. Possibly he might not have been informed on that 
clearance. But there are clearance orders in West Virginia and sev- 
eral other Southern States for a number of workers. 

IMPORTATIONS BY EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

Mr. OsMERS. To what extent has the employment service brought in 
workers from other States for defense jobs? 

Mr. Fringer. In the past 3 months we have brought in approxi- 
mately — only about 300. 

We have started training courses for airplane workers in three 
Southern States and in the District. They haven't been completed 
yet, so that we have no eligible trainees on those particular orders, 
but we do anticipate within the next several months we will get quite 
a few from them. 

Mr. OsMERS. What improvements could you suggest in the State 
employment service? 

Mr. Fringer. (No response.) 

Mr. OsMERS. You wouldn't say it is perfect, would you? 

Mr. Fringer. No ; I would say it is far from perfect. 

Mr. OsMERS. Maybe this will help a little bit. At our previous hear- 
ing at Trenton we had employers who testified they wanted to use 
the employment service. They thought it was a good thing, but said 
that they had enough applicants at their gates to fill all normal needs. 
They told everyone who applied to register himself also with the 
State employment service if they could not employ him. But they said 
that when they called upon the employment service for certain special 
skills, the employment service was unable to supply them, so it had 
the effect of excluding the employment service from the openings in 
Iheir plants. Is that a local experience? 

REFERRAL, TO SERVICE AN "UNNECESSARY STEP" 

Mr. Fringer. It is a local experience in several cases and in one 
particular case of a very large employer here. I imagine this is a 
rather unorthodox statement, but if the employer can get his men at 
the gate in sufficient quantities, I can see no reason why he should 
first refer those people to the employment service and then have them 
go back to him. 

I mean, it looks like an unnecessary step. However, if the employee 
is at a loss to know where the jobs exist, I think then it is the em- 
ployment-service function to try to spot him in the most appropriate 
job. 

One of the big difficulties we have had recently is staff turn-over. 
Our people have been leaving in quantities to get more money in de- 
fense industries. 

Mr. Osmers. You mean your own trained personnel ? 

Mr. Fringer. Yes, sir. 

Mr. OsMERS. Your trained personnel is leaving to go into industry? 

Mr. Fringer. Trained personnel is going into private industry. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6111 

Personnel work has been a very difficult problem because we cannot 
find new trained people. They are simply not available. 

SAYS MARTIN GIVES SERVICE PREFERENCE 

Mr. OsMERS. I believe Mr. Martin yesterday stated that they have 
made it a policy to give first opportunity to Baltimore people, but it 
is obvious from his testimony and from other figures that a great 
many people from outside the Baltimore area have been employed in 
the plant. I am not referring to men of any special skills. 

If all of the men who appeared at the gate of the Martin plant had 
to clear through your service and, shall we say, be certified as local 
residents, would that have a tendency to cut* down migration and 
would it give the Martin plant a sufficient supply of ordinary labor? 

Mr. Fringer. I would say, so far as the Martin plant is concerned, 
that they have in almost every instance where it was possible to do so 
taken referrals from us in preference to people applying at the gate. 
However, when we don't have enough people to refer, naturally they 
will take what is there. 

Mr. Osmers. Quite naturally. If there is no one available in the 
State of Maryland to perform a certain job, someone has to migrate 
from some other State. We appreciate that. But if there are people 
available in the Baltimore area, does it seem to be the proper thing 
to bring them from the Middle West or from New England or the 
South or some other part of the country ? 

Mr. Fringer. No. 

CONTROLLED LABOR MARKET 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, can you suggest any way wherein your service 
might participate that would eliminate that migration back and 
forth — that needless migration? 

Mr. Fringer. Well, of course, in a controlled labor market we could 
absolutely control migration in the State. 

Mr. OsMERS. Would you describe or define what you mean by a 
"controlled labor market"? 

Mr. Fringer. Well, if, for example, the Glenn L. Martin Co. were 
instructed to obtain all employees from us, we would, of course, ex- 
haust our available supply first and then go to the locality where there 
was a surplus or a pool of available labor. 

Mr. Osmees. And that, of course, would be the nearest pool ? 

Mr. Fringer. The nearest pool ; yes. 

Mr. Osmers. Now, under your idea of a controlled labor market 
you would give the plant the opportunity of rejection upon applica- 
tion? 

Mr. Fringer. Yes ; that is done now on all clearance orders. 

utilization of negroes 

Mr. OsMERS. I suppose it is. 

You were here during the testimony of the previous witnesses. 
Wliat has your service done to bring about a utilization of Negroes? 

Mr. Fringer. Mr. Lewis' testimony was correct, in that we have not 
endeavored to promote Negro labor above other classes. We have 
called to the attention of employers the fact that we have Negroe,-^ 



^112 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

available, but we feel it isn't our function to promote Negroes particu- 
larly, or any other particular race over and above another group. 

Mr. OsMERS. If there is local Negro labor available do you clear — ■ 
certify or clear or whatever your term is — white workers from other 
States before utilizing the Negroes^ 

Mr. Pringer. We have been clearing from other States white and 
Negro workers on our specifications. If they don't specify white 
workers only, we do that. But we have not had referred to us from 
other States any Negro workers so far. 

Mr. OsMERS. I am not thinking of Negro workers from other States. 
I am thinking of any worker from this State. 

Mr. Fringer. We do issue clearance orders in spite of the fact that 
we do now have in Maryland some Negro workers w^ho are available. 

OTHER DISCRIMINATORY REQUESTS 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you ever get discrimination requests from employers 
against any other races besides Negroes? 

Mr. Fringer. We frequently have requests for American citizens, 
^particularly in defense plants. We have had some requests from em- 
:ployers : "Don't send me a Jew,'' "Don't send me a Catholic." "Send 
}me a Jew," or "Send me a Catholic.'' We have had that type of request. 
I think probably those requests in the city equalize themselves pretty 
vwell, in that there is no particular i-acial or religicjus discrimination. 

Mr. OsMERS. I traveled down through the Chesapeake Bay area — 
down through Annapolis and that way — and I noticed at many of the 
resorts they had huge signs at the entrances that said in letters a foot 
high, "Gentiles only." One sign I saw said, "Gentiles and north Euro- 
peans only." 

Is such a sign legal in the State of Maryland ? 

Mr. FniNGER. I am not sure. I would say that it probably isn't, al- 
though I don't know. 

Mr. OsMERS. I thought that was a prime example of discrimination — ■ 
one of the worst I had ever seen in my life. I think it is a very dis- 
graceful exhibition. If there has been just one it would have been bad 
enough ; but they had them lined u}) for a good distance. 

.Mr. Fringer. I don't think there is any particular racial discrimina- 
tion in Baltimore and in Maryland. Outside of Baltimore the other 
racial groups are so scarce that there isn't a likelihood of much dis- 
crimination. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you feel that the practice of putting up these signs 
.Should be stopped? 

Mr. Ft^nger. Absolutely. 
Mr. Osmers. Well, I do too. 

QUALIFICATIONS FOR MARTIN EMPLOYEES 

What are the qualifications that the Glenn L. Martin Co. gives you 
for employees ? 

Mr. FriVger. The qualifications are not at all strict. They have no 
age limit. They have a minimum age of 17, but no maximum. Only 
for the skilled jobs, in special eases, are they rather strict as to schooling, 
and so forth. There is no physical qualification. The men imist be 
American citizens. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6113 

Mr. OsMEKs. There is no physical examination even after they are 
employed ? 

Mr. Fringer. No ; apparent physical defects are noted. 

Mr. OsMERs. Do they give their employees a Wassermann test ? — 

Mr. Fringer. Not to my knowledge. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR OUT-OF-STATE TRAINEES 

Mr. OsMERs. What are the specifications of the out-of-State trainees 
for Glenn Martin now being trained in Virginia and West Virginia 
and North Carolina, and other States? 

Ml-. Fringer. We brought into Maryland from those three States 
and from the District an employment-service representative and voca- 
tional-school representative to go into our vocational schools and into 
the Martin plant in order to determine the type of training to begin 
with, and except for the details of the training, the specifications are 
jiist the same as I stated. 

Mr. OsMEKS. How many people are involved in those ont-of-State 
training programs? 

Mr. Fringer. So far? 

Mr. OsMERS. Yes. 

Mr. Fringer. I would say not a particularly large number. I don't 
have any definite figures on it. 

NO T.ABOR PIRATING 

jNIr. OsMERS. Is there much labor piracy in the Baltimore area ? 

Mr. Fringer. No; practically none. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is there much labor piracy by Baltimore employers 
outside of the Bahimore area? 

Mr. Fringer. No ; I can say practically none there also. There was 
some, possibly 6 months ago, but that has dwindled down to practically 
nothing. 

SHORTAGE OF FARM LABOR 

Mr. OsMERs. Is there a shortage in farm labor in the State of 
Maryland ? 

Mr. Fringer. There is a shortage of skilled farm hands. 

Mr. Osmers. How big a sliortage? 

Mr. Fringer. Again I am guessing. I would say that we have a 
shortage here of approximately 2,000 of the regular farm hands on 
grain and daii-y farms. 

Mr. Osmers. How much does a regular farm hand get in the State 
of Maryland, on the average? 

Mr. Fringer. He would probably average, at day work, around $3 
now. 

Mr. Osmers. And that is 6 days a week? 

Mr. Fringer. Yes, sir; and sometimes 7 days. 

Mr. Osmers. That does not include maintenance ? 

Mr. Fringer. No; but it sometimes includes certain things, such as 
a quart of milk a day. and vegetables, and so forth. 

Mr. Osmers. There was an announcement made, was there not, some 
short while ago. that there was to be a shortage of 15,000 farm laborers 
in Marvland? 



g]^14 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

MIGRATORY WORKERS FOR HAR\T:ST 

Mr. Fringer. Yes. That was the reason J was rather reluctant to 
quote that figure. I didn't include, however, in the figure I gave you, 
the harvest hands that would be needed. 

Mr. OsMERs. Do they generally come from outside the State? 

Mr. Fringer. They are, generally speaking, migratory workers. 

Mr. OsMERS. Has your service any indication as to whether the 
migratory workers will be available this year ? 

Mr. Fringer. We at first thought we would have a very serious short- 
age. I am speaking of the Eastern Shore of Maryland now. But we 
had a rather dry spring down there, which retarded the crops some- 
what, and the migratory workers have come in considerably in excess 
of our expectations, so that I would say today the shortage, while it 
exists, isn't particularly serious. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you feel that low farm wages contribute to that 
shortage ? 

Mr. Fringer. Yes ; I do. 

Mr. OsMERs. Might the surplus of labor in the Baltunore area be 
induced to turn to farm occupations if the wage incentive were suffi- 
cient ? 

Mr. Fringer. Well, there is a section around Baltimore where we 
expect to be able to use quite a few of the surplus people in the city. 

Mr. Osmers. On neighboring farms around the city ? 

Mr. Fringer. Yes, sir. Those people are not skilled farm laborers, 
you know ; they are the picking hands. 

Mr. Osmers. Field hands and pickers ? 

Mr. Fringer. Yes. 

state agricultural survey 

Mr. Osmers. Did the Agriculture Department in Washington make 
any review of that situation? 

Mr. Fringer. State agricultural committees have been set up in each 
county and have been headed up by a State committee. It endeavored 
to make a survey. It sent out, I believe, around 14,000 questionnaires 
to farmers and received back only about 10 percent of the question- 
naires, which indicates to me, theoretically, at least, that the farmers 
are not too concerned about the problem. 

Mr. Osmers. What effect will the curtailment of the W. P. A. have 
upon the farmers? 

Mr. Fringer. I don't think it is going to affect the situation one way 
or the other. I think the W. P. A. has cooperated excellently with us 
and with the farmers. 

Mr. Osmers. Does anyone check wages and hours of farm laborer? 
in the State of Maryland? 

Mr. Fringer. No. 

bar unemployment-compensation claims if jobs are offered 

Mr. Osmers. Do you anticipate farm wages will be higher this year 
than they have been heretofore? 

Mr. Fringer. Well, they are already higher. 

Mr. Osmers. To what extent? 

Mr. Fringer. That $3 rate which I quoted compares, I would say, 
with $2 to $2.50 last year. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6115 

Mr. OsMERS. Now, in your statement you say this : 

Qualified farm laborers applying for unemployment-compensation benefits in 
the Eastern Shore counties are not permitted to file claims if jobs are open to 
them. 

Mr. OsMERS. Are you authorized by law to take that action? 

Mr. Fringer. I think maybe we stretched a point in taking that ac- 
tion. 

You see, the majority of the people on the Eastern Shore have had 
farm experience at one time or another, and they probably earned their 
benefit credits either on the county roads or in one of the canning fac- 
tories or oyster tonging or something like that. 

Now, if a farm job opens up, we take the position that that is suit- 
able employment for them, which entitles us to refer them. 

Mr. OsMERS. Do you check the wages paid and the hours worked in 
these jobs? 

Mr. Fringer. No. 

Mr. Osmers. You take the word of the employer? 

Mr. Fringer. Yes. 

IVfr. OsMERS. How many workers have been denied unemployment 
compensation on that basis? 

Mr. Fringer. I can't even guess. 

Mr. OsMERS. Is it a large number ? 

Mr. Fringer. I would say it probably isn't over 100. I don't know. 
That is a very wild guess. 

Mr. Osmers. That is al] 

The Chairman. Mr. Curtis. 

POSITION OF THE FARMER 

Mr. Curtis. I would like to ask a question or two. I am vitally in- 
terested in this farm-labor situation. I come from a district where 
everybody is a farmer. We are not accustomed to the ways of the 
money changers, as they are in Congressman Osmers' district. 

Aren't the farmers paying about all they can pay now ? 

Mr. Fringer. It is my personal opinion that they are. I think they 
are up against a very serious problem, and the only obvious answer to 
it is that they must pay more money; but I don't think the farmer is 
able to pay more money. 

Mr. Curtis. Even if he does pay more money for his labor, he can- 
not demand more for his crop ? 

Mr. Fringer. No. 

Mr. Curtis. What kind of crops do they raise in the area which you 
have been discussing ? 

Mr. Fringer. Ordinary truck farming, strawberries, peas, beans, 
corn, tomatoes, potatoes. 

Mr. Curtis. According to testimony we heard in New Jersey last 
week, ordinarily they pay about 2 cents a box for picking strawberries. 
They raised it to 5 cents. It cost the farmer $1.20 to get them picked 
and 51 cents for a crate, and he sold the berries for $2. Now, it 
is generally true, isn't it, that if the farmer's labor costs are raised, 
it comes out of the farmer's pocket ? 

Mr. Fringer. For the most part. My personal opinion is that it does. 
I think the farmer is up against a very serious problem. 

e0396— 41— pt. 15 16 



g|26 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Our farmers also have raised the piece-rate price on picking. 

Mr. Curtis. These 100 people who have been denied unemployment 
compensation because they refused to work on the farms : About what 
could they have earned if they had worked on the farms? 

Mr. Fringer. I understand those pickers get from $3 to $5 a day. 

Mr. Curtis. Would you say that for the 100 people who were denied 
unemployment compensation because they wouldn't take a job in 
agriculture, those jobs would have paid at least $3 a day? 

Mr. Fringer. Oh, very definitely; yes. I don't think very many 
pickers earn less than $3 a day and continue to work at picking. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. That is all, Mr. Fringer. We thank you very 
much for your contribution. 

Our next witness is Dr. De Vault. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. S. H. DE VAULT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL- 
TURAL ECONOMICS, UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE 
PARK, MD. 

The Chairman. Dr. De Vault, Congressman Curtis will interrogate 
you. 

Mr. Curtis. You are Dr. S. H. De Vault? 

Dr. De Vault. Yes, sir, 

Mr. Curtis. What is your residence address, Dr. De Vault ? 

Dr. De Vault. Two hundred University Drive, Hyattsville, Md. 

Mr. Curtis. And what is' your position with the university ? 

Dr. De Vault. Professor of agricultural economics. 

Mr. Curtis. Dr. De Vault, I have gone over your statement here, 
for which we are very grateful. It will be printed in the record 
in full. It is a very fine statement. It touches upon some of the 
things that we have gone into in other hearings, 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY DR. S. H. DE VAULT, DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS, 
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND, COLLEGE PARK, ]\ID. 

The farm labor situation in Maryland was becoming quite serious by April 
1, 1941. The ratio of supply to demanrt in April was the lowest for that month 
since records were started in 1926. The number of hired workers on farms in 
Maryland on April 1 normally is about 40.000. The ratio of the supply of to the 
demand for farm labor on April 1 was 74 percent. A reduction in the ratio of 
26 percent below normal indicates a probable shortage of farm labor in Mary- 
land on April 1 of this year of about 10,000. 

In April 1941 an estimate was made of the probable ratio of the supply 
of to the demand for farm labor for July 1941. This ratio was forecast at 63 
percent, a reduction of 37 percent below normal. Applying this reduction of 
37 percent to the anticipated needs of 42.(100 indicates a reduction of about 1.5,000 
farm laborers on July 1, 1941, below the normal number required. 

Much of the work of harvesting and packing truck and canning crops on the 
lower Eastern Shore is done by migratory workers. These workers follow the 
successively ripening crops up the Atlantic coast beginning with the strawberry 
and truck harvests in Florida, then through the Carolinas, Virginia, the 
Eastern Shore of Maryland, and Delaware and New Jersey. It is estimated 
that last year from 4,500 to 5,000 migratory workers moved into the lower 
Eastern Shore of Maryland. Up to June 1, 1941, approximately 3.000 migratory 
workers came into Maryland and the number is gradually being augmented. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6117 

The indications are at present that the farm labor situation on the lower 
Eastern Shore is not as serious as previously anticipated. 

Through the cooperation of the Maryland State Employment Service, the Se- 
lective Service System, the Work Projects Administration, and the efforts 
of farmers themselves, considerable progress has been made in alleviating the 
farm labor situation, particularly with respect to seasonal help. The Maryland 
State Employment Service has placed, or directed to farms, at least 5,000 
laborers. The Selective Service System has also cooperated by keeping over 
1,300 laborers on farms through occupational deferment. 

On July 1, 1941, it is estimated that there was a shortage of about 8,700 
farm laborers in Maryland. This estimate is borne out by returns from approxi- 
mately 2,000 questionnaires which were filled out by farmers in all parts of 
Maryland, indicating their needs for farm labor. 

Several factors have been responsible for the labor shortage. Defense activity 
has attracted large numbers of laborers. With increased employment in defense 
industries has come an increase in consumers' purchasing power which has 
stimulated activities in nondefense industries. Army and Navy construction 
projects are employing numerous workers. Farmers in many parts of Maryland 
report that the Work Projects Administration has competed for farm labor. 
The wages paid and hours of work required by Work Projects Administration 
are more attractive to workers than those farmers can afford. Farm wages 
throughout Maryland have increased materially, although not accompanied 
by corresiwnding increases in farm income. Farmers are compelled to employ 
inexperienced and incompetent help because they cannot compete favorably with 
the wages paid by industry. 

The farm-labor situation may become more acute next year if additional 
workers are drawn into defense industries. The demand for farm labor may 
be greater next year because of the emphasis being placed on the need for an 
increased production of certain farm products. Indications are that farmers 
may not be able to expand production to meet anticipated needs unless an adequate 
supply of farm labor is assured. 

ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDTRE 

A rather comprehensive plan for alleviating the farm-labor shortage has 
been prepared by the farm-labor subcommittee of the Maryland State Land 
Use Planning Committee. In order to show the widespread cooperation of 
agencies and farm people in developing and carrying out this plan a brief outline 
of the organization follows. 

The Maryland State Land Use Planning Committee has the functions of de- 
veloping agricultural policy, planning for the solution of farm problems, and 
arranging for the coordination of the activities of all agricultural agencies op- 
erating in the State. 

The State committee is composed of a majority of farm people from every 
major type of farming area in Maryland. In addition the membership includes 
one representative ^)f each State and Federal agency having responsibility for 
the management of agricultural programs, .such as the extension service, experi- 
ment station. State forestry department, State game and inland fish commission. 
Agricultural Adjustment Administration, Soil Conservation Service, Farm 
Security Administration, State roads commission. United States Forest Service, 
Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Marketing Service, and Farm 
Credit Administration. 

Likewise, county land use planning committees are oi>erating in every county 
in Maryland and about one-third of the counties have community committees 
elected by the farm people. 

In January 1941 the State land use planning committee began the develop- 
ment of an agricultural program to meet the impacts of war and defense activi- 
ties. A State subcommittee on farm labor was appointed by Chairman T. B. 
Symous, director of the extension sei'vice, to develop this phase of the State 
program and at its suggestion similar subcommittees were established in every 
county. P. C. Turner, farmer from Baltimore County, is chairman of the 
State farm labor committee and S. H. DeVault, head of the department of 
agricultural economics. University i»f Maryland, is secretary. 

A survey of the farm-labor situation was made by the State and county farm- 
labor subcommittees to determine the amount of present labor on farms, the 



gllg BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

amount of additional labor needed, wages paid, and problable sources of obtaining 
farm labor. Approximately 15,000 questionnaires were sent to employers of farm 
labor in all parts of the State. The results of these questionnaires conJBrm the 
farm-labor situation as described in other parts of this report. 

In addition to the extensive survey, each county farm-labor subcommittee sub- 
mits a monthly report on changes in farm-labor conditions, which information 
aids in determining the necessity for further action to alleviate farm-labor 
problems. 

RECOMMENDATIONS 

The following recommendations, as a means of alleviating the farm-labor prob- 
lem in Maryland, were made by the subcommittee on farm labor and approved 
by the State land-use planning committee : 

1. That the State employment service shall be responsible in acting as a clearing 
agency in carrying out all action programs pertaining to farm labor. It shall 
cooperate in ascertaining the demand for and the available supply of farm labor 
in each county in Maryland ; in studying the migratory labor problems ; in giving 
consideration to ways and means of housing such labor and in making it available 
for farm work. It shall be the agency designated to receive orders for farm labor 
and to supply the labor for these orders. 

2. That the State employment service shall develop a classified file of agricul- 
tural workers including (1) present registrants who are, or may be, clas.sified 
as farm workers; (2) Work Projects Administration, National Youth Adminis- 
tration, and Civilian Conservation Corps workers who are capable of doing farm 
work; (3) students from colleges and high schools who might be available for 
farm work; (4) female workers who are qualified for special types of agricul- 
tural employment; and (5) recipients of public assistance who do not qualify 
for Work Projects Administration or are not on Work Projects Administration 
rolls. 

3. A plan should be devised for recruiting and directing migratory workers 
to production areas where needed. 

4. That an attempt be made to secure the cooperation of the Selective Service 
system in the deferment of farm laborers essential to agriculture. 

5. The State employment service should continue to facilitate the movement of 
surplus labor to the areas of serious shortage through its interstate clearance 
system. 

6. That relief be refused to all male persons not willing to accept farm employ- 
ment. That a plan be devised whereby when persons accept farm employment 
that they would be returned to their original status on relief as soon as the 
employer states that the farm work is completed. 

7. That camps be established where needed to house migratory farm workers 
and their families. Such camps would be inspected and approved by the State 
department of health. 

8. That consideration be given to the problem of transporting workers from 
camps to production areas by the use of school busses or other means of transpor- 
tation. 

9. That special consideration be given to the use of prison labor on roads to 
release men for farm work, and that the possibilities of using prison labor for 
farm work be studied. 

10. That a subcommittee of the land use planning committee be set up in each 
county for the purpose of coordinating the farm-labor program on the county level 
through the local agencies working in the county. It is suggested that this com- 
mittee be composed of the county agricultural agent, the county representative of 
the State employment service, the county rural rehabilitation supervisor, the 
president of the county farm bureau, the master of the county grange, the chair- 
man of the county land use planning committee, and any others desired. 

11. That a special questionnaire be prepared and sent to each county agent for 
the use of the county land use planning committee in obtaining information on 
the amount of present labor on the farms, the amount of additional labor needed, 
wages paid, and probable sources of obtaining farm labor. 

BcrommoKlatkms cmicerning farm. pra<-ticefi.—l. That farmers could minimize 
the harmful effects of a farm-labor shortage by introducing new, or changing 
existing, farm labor practices. The following are suggested: (1) Farmers should 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6119 

maintain production through such means as the use of additional feed and fertil- 
izer ; (2) farmers should adjust the size and type of business to make the maximum 
use of labor; (3) farmers should utilize labor-saving machinery such as tractors, 
combines, milking machines, etc., where consistent with economic farm opera- 
tions; (4) farmers should use livestock for harvesting feed crops when practical; 
(5) farmers should plan a rotation of crops that do not compete for labor at 
the same time; and (6) that farmers cooperate by exchanging labor during 
rush seasons, such as threshing and harvesting crops. 

ACTION TAKEN 

A subcommittee on farm labor of the State land use planning committee has 
been appointed and at its suggestion similar subcommittees have been estab- 
lished in every county in IMaryland. 

The State employment service has added county personnel to assist in acting 
as a central clearing agency for receiving orders for farm labor, to recruit labor 
for such orders, and to explore possible sources of additional farm labor. 

The subcommittee on farm labor is doing everything possible to assist farmers 
in getting sufficient labor to plant, harvest, and care for crops and livestock. 
The committee prepared a questionnaire to be sent to farmers in each county in 
the State. The county committee, through the county agent, has mailed these 
questionnaires out to farmers in each county and returns are now being analyzed. 
In addition, the subcommittee has sent a questionnaire to all of the schools in 
Maryland, and to certain colleges outside of the State, to have students register 
who are interested in securing farm employment this summer. 

The Work Projects Administration, the State department of welfare, the Na- 
tional Youth Administration, and the Civilian Conservation Corps Director have 
been contacted with respect to releasing enrollees for farm employment. These 
four agencies have agreed to cooperate insofar as they have registrants who could 
be released for farm work. The number of enrollees in both tlie Work Projects 
Administration and the State department of welfare is small at the present time, 
but there are possibilities of securing some people from these agencies for 
emergency work on the farm. 

A cooperative agreement has been worked out between the Maryland selective 
Service system and the Maryland State land use planning committee relative 
to occupational deferment of laborers essential to farm work. A letter was 
prepared and sent to all employers of farm labor in Maryland to acquaint them 
with the procedure to follow in asking for occupational deferment of farm labor. 
A letter similar in nature was prepared and sent to each county agent in Mary- 
land explaining a plan for the county farm labor subcommittee to follow in 
border-line cases for occupational deferment in the farm-labor class. 

At the suggestion of the subcommittee on farm labor, a study is being made 
of the migratory labor situation, particularly with reference \o the Salisbury 
area. The information obtained through the local study will be sent to the 
Maryland State employment service in Baltimore. Additional studies will also 
be made of the migratory-labor situation during the coming year, and the local 
employment offices will be advised of any further developments. 

Farm-labor subcommittees of each county land use planning committee are 
furnishing a monthly statement on the farm-labor situation to the secretary of 
the State subcommittee on farm labor. These county reports are being con- 
solidated Into a monthly State report on farm labor. 

As a result of the action indicated above, and the wholehearted cooperation of 
such agencies as the Maryland State employment service, the selective service 
system. Extension Service, and Work Projects Administration, more than 6,000 
farm workers have been placed or retained on farms. In addition, some farmers 
have been able to maintain their production with less labor by following some 
of the practices suggested above, including labor-saving machinery, exchange of 
labor, and by working longer hours. 



There are appended to this report certain documents, letters, or forms, which 
have been used in Maryland as an aid in alleviating the farm-labor problem. 



0120 BAI/riMORE HEARINGS 

Exhibit A — Cooperative Extension Work in AcBicuLTrRE and Home Economics, 

State of Maryland 

University of Maryland Extension Service 

United States Department of Agriculture cooperating 1941 

Dear Friend: Our county farm-labor committee is desirous of knowing the 
exact situation relative to farm labor. Will you kindly fill out this question- 
naire for your farm? We are not assuming any responsibility of supplying or 
guaranteeing labor, but we shall do our best to help you. Please return at once 
in the accompany envelope, which requires no postage. 
Thanking you for your cooperation, I am. 
Very truly yours, 

, County Agent. 

FARM labor survey 

Name: Address: 

Telephone: Location of farm : 

1. Type of farm : Number cows milked , number milked by hand ; 

number milked by machine ; acres of corn ; acres of .small 

grains ; acres of vegetables ; acree of tobacco ; acre* 

in orchard 

2. Amount of labor employed on farm last year : 

(a) Regular or yearly : Number 

(6) Seasonal labor (day and month) : 

Number From to For what work? 

Number From to For what work? 

Number From to For what work? 

3. Have you lost help? To industry, number To draft, number 

Help in draft, class 1, number Have you been able to replace help 

lost? 

4. Are you going to need additional help this coming spring, summer, and fall? 

(a) Regular help (day and month) : 

Number From to For what work? 

(6) Seasonal help: 

Number From to For what work? 

Number From to For what work? 

Number From to For what work? 

5. Is anything furnished in addition to wages? 

6. Have you any facilities for housing farm labor? 

7. How and from what source do you now obtain workers? 

8. How can the Maryland State Employment Service be of assistance to you in 

securing qualified farm workers? 



CiEGULAR Letter No. 256 

Selective Service, 
Maryland State Headquarters, 

Fifth Regiment Akmoet, 
Baltimore, Md., May 20, W^l. 
Subject : Plan for the Prevention of Farm Labor Shortages. 
To: All Local Boards, Government Appeal Agents, and Appeal Boards. 

1. Recent demands for labor for construction purposes, and by industry to 
fill unprecedented orders, have resulted in a serious farm-labor problem. Agri- 
culture, as one of our key industries, must have an ample supply of workers if 
this important phase of our defense economy is to provide an adequate supply 
of food and fiber for the total population during this period. 

2. As a result of a survey condiicted by the Agricultural Economics Depart- 
ment of the University of M;iryland and Mr. C. E. Burkhead, of the Agricultural 
Marketing Service, it was found that on April 1, 1941, the ratio of the supply 
of farm lalior to the demand for farm labor in Maryland was 74 percent, indi- 
cating a prdbalilc shortage of about 10,(X)0 farm workers. The indications are 
that this ratio will be considerably lower by July 1, 1941. 

3. In an effort to assure an ample supply of labor needed for agriculture, 
a cooperative agreement has been worked out between the Maryland Selective 



NATIONAL DEFP]NSE MIGRATION 6121 

Service System aud the Maryland State Laud Use Planning Committee relative 
to occupational deferment of laborers essential to farm work. 

4. In effect, this agreement provides that the local draft boards refer border- 
line cases for occupational deferment in the farm-labor class to the farm-labor 
subcommittee of the laud use planning committee, through the country agent, 
for detailed information about the particular cases. A list of county agents 
is enclosed herewith. When the draft boards refer such cases to the farm-labor 
subcommittee, it will be the responsibility of this committee, if it does not have 
full information about the farm and the registrant, to contact persons who are 
in a position to provide this information and submit a full report to the local 
draft board immediately. 

5. Farm -labor subcommittees of each county land use planning committee will 
furnish a monthly statement on the farm labor situation to the secretary of 
the State subcommittee on farm labor. A consolidated reiwrt will be prepared 
for the use of the State selective service headquarters, who in turn will make 
available this information to each local board. 

6. The State land use planning committee, in au effort to help Selective 
Siervice with the farm-labor problem, is sending lettlers to approximately 
35.000 farmers in Maryland, explaining when and how deferments should be 
requested and the information needed by local boards in order to make a 
decision on each case. 

7. Each county agent has been instructed by Dr. R. B. Corbett, acting chair- 
man, Maryland State Land Use Planning Committee, to cooperate with the local 
boards so that information requested will be furnished as soon as possible. 

8. It is necessary that each case where occupational deferment is under 
consideration be treated on the basis of its individual merits. Wherever there 
are any questions about border-line cases, they may very advantageously be 
referred to the county agent for further detailed information. The decision 
with respect to deferment must, of course, in its finality, rest with the local 
boards. 

9. The State land use planning committee has done a splendid job in drawing 
up this plan and it should prove a great help in aiding you solve the farm- 
labor problem. All local boards are directed by the State director to use this 
service and contact the county agent at once in order to become more familiar 
with this plan and how it may be used to the advantage of all parties con- 
cerned. 

For the State director : 

Paul K. Kxaesius, 
Major, Ordnance, State Adviser on Occupational Deferments. 



Exhibit B — Joint Statement of the Maeyl-\nd Selective Service System and 
THE Subcommittee on Farm Labor of the State Land Use Committee Rela- 
tive TO Occupational Determent of Farm Labor 

introduction 

Providing an adequate defense for the United States would seem to demand 
the most efficient mobilization of the Nation's manpower that is possible at 
this time. This requires an effective distribution of workers among all key 
industries as well as in the armed forces. Agriculture, as one of these key 
industries, must have an ample supply of workers if this important phase of 
our defense economy is to provide an adequate supply of food and fiber for 
the total population in this period of emergency. 

THE general situation 

Recent demands for labor for constructing military camps, and by industry 
to fill unprecedented orders, have resulted in a serious farm-labor problem. 
This problem is most serious in the eastern industrial areas and near military 
reservations. In Maryland, the higher wages on construction work at Camp 
Meade, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Arsenal, and at the Indian- 
head Naval Powder Factory have resulted in the migration of thousands of 
wokers, many of whom were from Maryland farms. 

As a result of a survey conducted by the Agricultural Economics Depart- 
ment of the University of Maryland and Mr. C. E. Burkhead of the Agricul- 



^122 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

tural Marketing Service, it was found that on April 1, 1941, the ratio of the 
supply of farm labor to the demand for farm labor in Maryland was 74 
percent, indicating a probable shortage of about 10,000 farm workers. The 
indications are that this ratio will be considerably lower by July 1, 1941. 

The increasing seriousness of the farm-labor situation is not only the result 
of the movement of farm workers from the farm into industrial activity, but 
also in part to the conscription of farm labor into the selective training corps. 

STATE-WIDE OKGANIZATION FOB PLANNING AND CABEYING OUT THE FAEM-LABOB 

PBOGBAM 

There is set up in Maryland a State land use planning committee whose 
general function is to develop in cooperation with farm groups and State 
and Federal agencies an agricultural program for Maryland and to coordinate 
within the State. As one phase of its program, the State land use planning 
committee has set up a subcommittee on farm labor to devise ways and means 
of alleviating the scarcity of farm labor resulting from war and national- 
defense work. This committee has made a study of the farm-labor situation 
in Maryland and has developed a coordinated plan for carrying out the farm- 
labor program on the county level. A subcommittee has been set up in each 
county composed of the county agricultural agent, the county representative 
of the State employment service, the county rural rehabilitation supervisor, 
president of the county farm bureau, the master of the Pomona Grange, 
chairman of the county land use planning committee, and other persons 
familiar with the farm-labor situation in the county. 

The county committees have assumed the responsibility for assembling 
information on the amount of farm labor needed, the time when such labor 
will be needed, and the probable sources of obtaining such labor. They will 
also report changes in the local farm-labor situation which may occur from 
time to time. 

The Maryland State Employment Service has agreed to act as a central 
clearing agency in carrying out all action programs pertaining to farm labor; 
more specifically, to receive orders for farm labor, to recruit labor for such 
orders, and to cooperate in exploring possible sources of additional farm labor 
to meet the present demand. 

The plan contemplates obtaining workers from the relief rolls of the State 
Department of Welfare and the Work Projects Administration, the Civilian 
Conservation Corps, and the National Youth Administration, in cooperation 
with these agencies. 

The farm-labor program also includes certain things which farmers may do 
to help during the present emergency, such as the greater use of labor-saving 
machinery, the exchange of larm labor among farmers, better rotation of crops 
so as to avoid as much competition for labor as possible on individual farms, and 
the possible pooling of purchases of farm supplies and equipment. 

SUGGESTED PROGRAM OF COOPERATION BY THE SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTi:M TO AIXE- 
VIATE THE FARM LABOR SHORTAGE 

The State Land Use Planning Committee wishes to cooperate fully with the 
Selective Service System and does not ask any special privileges for any 
class or group of people. It is believed, however, that farmers are without 
knowledge of how and when deferment may be granted for essential farm work. 
In view of the fact, it is suggested that all information possible relative to the 
Selective Service, and particularly that phase pertaining to deferment, should be 
disseminated among the farmers. Likewise, all occupational groups probably 
do not fully realize the significance of the farm-labor shortage ; therefore, it 
is suggested that more information concerning the gravity of the farm-labor 
shortage be made available to all occupational groups. 

Farm-labor subcommittees of the county land use planning committees will 
be requested to furnish a monthly statement on the farm-labor situation in each 
county and send it to the secretary of the State subcommittee on farm labor. 
A consolidated report will be prepared for use of the State Selective Service 
System, which may in turn make available such information to the local draft 
boards. 

It is necessary that each case where occupational deferment is under con- 
sideration be treated on the basis of its individual merits. Wherever there 
are any questions about border-line cases of occupational deferments in the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 612S 

farm-labor class, such cases may very advantageously be referred to the county 
land use planning labor committee through the coimty agent for further de- 
tailed information about the particular cases. The decision with respect to the 
deferment of farm laborers must, of course, in its finality, rest wilh the local 
draft boards and appeal boards. 
Approved : 

April 26, 1941. 

Henry C. Stanwood, 
Lieutenant Colonel, Director Maryland Selective Service System. 
May 1, 1941. 

P. C. Turner 
Chairman. Subcommittee on Farm Labor. 
May 2, 1941. 

R. B. CORBETT. 

Acting Chairman, Maryland State Land Use Planning Committee. 



Exhibit C — Faem Placement Program for Maryland 

report of maryland unemployment compensation board, maryland state em- 
ployment se21vice, affiliated with social security board 

While the efforts of the employment service are now being directed mainly 
toward the national-defense industries, it must not be overlooked that the agri- 
cultural industry constitutes one of the most important in the country, and must 
be so considered by the employment service. 

Many agricultural workers are now leaving the farms to accept employment in 
industrial ureas where more attractive wages are offered. As a result of this 
migration, a shortage of farm labor is anticipated, and much heavier demands will 
be made upon the local employment offices than heretofore. 

The State Land Use Planning Committee has apiwiuted a subcommittee to study 
the farm labor situation in cooperation with the Maryland State Employment 
Service. The membership of this committee is as follows: 

P. C. Turner (chairman), president, Farm Bureau; S. H. De Vault, head of 
department of agricultural economics. University of Maryland; John M. Pohl- 
haus, commissioner o-f labor and statistics; M. H. Davis, Director of Employ- 
ment, Work Projects Administration ; Ryland Dempster, Director of National 
Youth Administration ; F. B. Gambrill, field supervisor, Maryland State Employ- 
ment Service ; H. M. Carroll, county agent, Harford County ; Stanley Day, county 
agent, Anne Arundel County ; R. C. F. Weagley, county agent, Washington County ; 
P. D. Brown, county agent, Charles County ; Russell Adkins, and Francis G. Shil- 
linger. 

At a recent meeting this committee made many recommendations that placed a 
large responsibility on the employment service. These recommendations, together 
with the suggestions received from several of the lotal offices, have been studied 
and the following program adopted. 

LOC^VL FARM LABOR COMMITTEE 

A farm-labor committee is to be appointed for each county, consisting of the 
manager of the local employment office, the county agricultural agent, and such 
other persons as may be designated by the land-use planning committee. This 
committee will act in a supervisory capacity and assist the manager in coordi- 
nating the program at the county level. The offices will be advised of the 
membership of the committees as soon as they are appointed. 

INFORMATIONAL SURVEY 

One of the problems confronting the Employment Service in their relationship 
with the farmers is that of obtaining workers where low wages and poor housing 
are offered. At a recent meeting of several of the local office managers, it was 
suggested to conduct an informational survey among the represented group of 
influential farmers to obtain their opinion and advice as to how this problem 
could be met. 

This survey is to begin immediately. The information is to be recorded on 
form MSES 419, sufficient copies of which are enclosed. The information 



5124 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

obtained will be used in discussion with local farm-labor committees for further 
development of the program. 

CROP PLANTING AND LABOB REQUIREMENTS 

Before making any plans for recruiting workers, each office must obtain infor- 
mation as to the number of farmers in its territory ; the kind of crops planted 
and the acreage of such crops ; the length of the cultivation and harvest season ; 
and the number of workers needed. 

The land-use planning committee is preparing a questionnaire to be sent to 
each farmer by the county agent to obtain this information. When the ques- 
tionnaires are returned, the county agent will collaborate with the Employment 
Service manager and assist him in summarizing the information for each county. 
The data thus summarized will be recorded in duplicate on a seasonality chart, 
MSES 421, for each county. A sample of this form, showing the method of 
recording this information, is attached. (See p. 6120.) Sufficient copies will be 
forwarded to the offices for their use. One copy of the form is to be retained in 
the local office, and the other sent to State headquarters. As the response to the 
questionnaire may not be complete, personal contacts with groiips of farmers may 
be made for estimates supplemented by information already available to the 
-county agent. 

COOPERATION WITH THE FARMERS 

For the success of the program, it will be necessary to obtain the farmers' 
cooperation in answering the questionnaires and notifying the local offices when 
workers are required. Therefore, it will be the responsibility of each manager 
to give as much publicity as possible to the details of the program. This should 
be done by publication of news articles, radio announcements (if facilities are 
available), talks td farm organizations, and by individual visits when possible. 

It is understood that the local farm-labor committees will assist the managers 
with this publicity. Managers are cautioned, however, not to commit themselves 
in guaranteeing to furnish labor for any order received. The farmer should 
be informed that the program is one of cooperation, and that the Employment 
Service will make every effort to assist him in obtaining workers. 

RECRUITING FARM WORKERS 

Workers should be recruited as much as possible from the files In the regular 
manner. With the present registration drive now being conducted, it is hoped 
that many workers will be registered who can be recruited for farm work. Post- 
■ers are now being prepared by State headquarters which will be forwarded to 
the local offices as soon as they are received. These posters will show, in 
addition to the advertising material, the location of the main office, as well 
as the itinerant points and the days they are visited. Posters are to be 
placed in stores and public buildings throughout the territory. 

In view of the anticipated shortage of farm labor, other sources of labor 
supply should also be considered and thoroughly canvassed as the occasion 
warrants. The following sources are suggested as having possibilities. 

Contacts should be made with the Civilian Conservation Corps camps as well 
as the local welfare boards, high-school superintendents, and project supervisors 
of the National Youth Administration to thoroughly canvass enrollees in these 
organizations to interest them in accepting farm work. Close cooperation should 
also be maintained with the project supervisors of the Work Projects Administra- 
tion to recruit farm laborers from the Work Projects Administration rolls. At a 
recent meeting with Major Williar, of the Work Projects Administration, he as- 
sured us the full cooperation of his organization for releasing Work Projects 
Administration workers for farm work, both for regular and seasonal employ- 
ment. However, he stated that he would be reluctant to release Work Projects 
Administration workers who are now engaged on defense projects and who are 
working on a 48-hour-a-week basis. 

Adjacent offices and the offices in the areas of immediate clearance should 
.also be canvassed to obtain workers when the occasion warrants. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6125 



CONTACT POINTS 

Local offices are to establish as mauy contact points as thought necessary in 
strategic locations in their territory, preferably at general stores where telephone 
facilities are available, and obtain the cooperation of the proprietors in assisting 
the offices to recruit labor. A list of such points, when established, is to be 
sent to State headquarters showing the name of the proprietor and the location 
-of his store. 

MIGRATORY LABOR 

For the present, a study of the inigratory-labor situation will be confined 
mainly to the Salisbury office. After the demands for labor have been estimated 
and it is found that migratory labor will be necessary, it is to be determined 
what percentage of this demand can be filled by migratory labor. This informa- 
tion is to be sent to State headquarters, and a further study will be made as to 
what sources can be used in obtaining this labor. Additional studies will be 
made of the migratory labor situation during the coming year and the offices 
advised of any further developments. This situation could also be discussed 
at the farm-labor committee meetings, and their suggestions sent to State head- 
<iuarters. The offices are to thoroughly study the registration form for migratory 
labor suggested on page 826 of the State Operations Bulletin No. 10, part VIII. 
and send in their recommendations for any modification of the form. If it 
is found necessary to use this form, it will be printed at State headquarters. 

Copies of the recommendations made by the Land Use Planning Committee 
are attached for your information, and also a list of the county agents. Any 
additional information and changes made by the Land Use Planning Committee 
will be forwarded to the local offices as soon as received. 

F. B. Gambrill, Field Supervisor. 



Exhibit D — Monthly Report on the Farm Labor Situation in Maryland for 

May ISWl 

(Prepared by the secretary of the subcommittee on farm labor, in cooperation 
with C. B. Burkhead, of the Agricultural Marketing Service for Maryland 

FABM LABOR 

Farm labor in most sections of Maryland is difficult to hire. That available is 
very inefficient and ordinary. There was a crescendo tone in reporters' com- 
ments this month that Work Projects Administration and National Youth Admin- 
istration should be abolished in farming sections, especially during times when 
farming is at its height. Most farm labor demand Work Projects Administration 
hours and pay, while younger laborers demand National Youth Administration 
hours and pay. One reporter in southern Maryland made this remark: "It is 
worse than awful." 

Draft and defense work have taken almost three-fourths of farm labor in many 
sections of Maryland, especially in sections adjacent to defense work, such as all 
southern Maryland, around Washington, D. C, Baltimore, Md., and farther 
northeastward from Baltimore city. In many sections of Maryland labor is not 
to be had. Able-bodied men are seeking employment in industry, and farmers say 
that they cannot pay defense wages for farm labor at prevailing prices now being 
received for farm products. To one traveling in the vicinity of defense activity, 
it is easy to see where available farm labor is going. On roads leading to and 
from Baltimore, toward Indian Head, Md., and northeastward from Baltimore 
toward Elkton, Md., and Wilmington, Del., traffic morning and night is packed 
and jammed ; so packed at times that traffic may be at a standstill for as long as 
a half hour. Every kind and condition of motor vehicle crowds the highways. 
Much land is being left idle because of labor shortage. In general farming sec- 
tions harvest labor is already causing farmers concern, while in the truck and can- 
ning regions the shortage is causing more apprehension for producers feel that 
they may not be able to harvest and market their mature crops at harvest time. 



5126 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

BPECIAL COMMENTS ON FAEM I>ABOE BY CBOP BEPOBTERS IN DIFFERENT CXHJNTIES OF 

MABYXAND 

Allegany County. — "In general, there is sufficient number of ordinary farm 
laborers, but few of them know much about real agriculture. There is need of 
training in this line." 

Baltimore Co'unty. — "No help to be had, and much ground will be idle." 

Carroll County. — "Labor is almost impossible to secure. Labor seems to be our 
largest problem just uow. Hired help very scarce and unsatisfactory. Wages 
are too high, based on prices of crops. Labor is so scarce that there will be crops 
not saved." 

Cecil County. — "Farm help bids fair to be scarce and wages high. Labor con- 
ditions have not improved. There .seems to be no extra labor available for this 
harvest. More tractors are being used to offset scarcity of farm labor." 

Frederick County. — "Farm labor very scarce. Draft and factory are taking our 
labor." 

Harford County. — "Farm labor is scarce, and many farmers will be handicapped 
in getting help for harvesting and threshing." 

Howard County. — "The labor problem for our coming harvest is our great con- 
cern now. Labor is short and, to make it worse, what we have is practically 
worthless." 

Kent County. — "Farm labor is very scai-ce, and it is almost impossible to get 
good men." 

Montgomery County. — No comment. 

Queen Amies County. — "Everyone is complaining about the shortage of hired 
help. Labor is very scarce and those available will not work hard and are 
lazy. Why is W. P. A. continued? Labor is out of the question." 

Washington County. — "The labor shortage is serious. Do not think many 
people are considering W. P. A. labor, as it could not be depended upon." 

Anne Arundel County. — "Labor threatening to leave, saying that they can 
get $3 to $4 a day working on defense work. Farmers cannot compete with 
wages of that type." 

Calvert County. — No comment. 

Charles County. — "Farm labor demand is about 150 percent of normal; sup- 
ply is about 50 percent of normal. Most farm labor wants W. P. A. hours and 
pay. Younger workers want N. Y. A. pay and hours. It is worse than awful. 
Regarding farm labor, there is hardly any left except bums who want ta 
work for a few days to get a little pocket money and then they only w^ant to 
work from about 9 a. m. to 4 p. m. If the W. P. A. and N. Y. A. and such 
don't close shop, I think most farmers will soon have to. Draft and defense 
work have taken about 75 percent of the farm labor that is worth anything." 

Prince Georges County. — "Labor is not to be had." 

St. Marys County. — No comment. 

Caroline County — "Labor seems to be getting more scarce and the common 
expression, to do less for more money, seems to be their motto." 

Dorchester County. — "Cannot get farm help at this time." 

Somerset County. — "Labor is uncertain and the most worrying factor at 
present." 

Talbot County. — No comment. 

Wicomico County. — No comment. 

Worcester County. — No comment. 

SPECIAL EEPORTS RECETV^D FROM COUNTIES FOR MAY 1941 

Charles County. — "The supply of farm labor is short. The situation is worse 
than April. Farm labor is leaving the country to work for industry in Wilm- 
ington, Aberdeen, etc. Farm wage rates have increased slightly during the 
month. Industry and draft have removed a large portion of our farm labor; 
also, there has been a condition of estate operators paying a higher rate for 
labor than the average farmer can afford to pay." 

Harford County. — "There is a shortage of farm labor in Harford County. 
The situation is more favorable than during April. There will probably be 
a very short supply of seasonal labor to take care of the truck, canning, and 
other seasonal crops. The defense industries at Aberdeen, Edgewood, and 
Glenn Martin are expanding. There has been a slight increase in farm wage 
rates during the month. The county situation is not as bad as originally pre- 
dicted, but is quite serious. Some help is in sight from the W. P. A." 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6127 



GENERAL SITUATION WITH KESPECT TO MIGKATOEY WORKEKS 

Comments from the Maryland State Employment Service indicate that the 
strawberry crop on the Eastern Shore was reduced in size by the drought and 
that the number of migratory laborers who eventually entered the State was 
greater than anticipated. The employment agency states that it does not know- 
just how many came up from Virginia, but that they placed the number at 
something over 3,000. 

SUGGESTED OUTLINE OF FARM-LABOR REPORT 

I. Points to be included : 

A. Observations on current labor situation : 

1. Adequacy of farm labor. (Is it adequate, short, or is there a 

surplus?) 

2. Is the farm-labor situation better or worse than last month? 

3. Is there an adequate supply of seasonal labor to take care of 

the truck, canning, and other seasonal crops in your locality? 

4. Explain any change in the expansion or decrease in nonagricul- 

tural industries that affects the farm-labor situation in your 
area 

5. Changes in farm-wage rates 

B. Comments on other pertinent developments : 

Students ivho tvould he available for farm work this summer (not on home farm) 



Name 


Address 


Years previous farm 
experience 


Type of 
farm 


Date avail- 
able 


































(The following letters, received subsequent to the hearing, pertain 
to the testimony of Dr. S. H. De Vault, pp. 6132 and 6134 :) 

Exhibit E — Correspondence on Deferment of Farm Labor 

United States Department of Agriculture, 

Bureau of Agricultural Economics. 

College Park, Md., July 3. 19.',1. 
Miss Mary Dublin, 

Coordinator of Field Hearings, 

House Coinmittee Investigating National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Miss Dublin : I am attaching some recent correspondence from the Mary- 
land State headquarters of selective service indicating how the plan for deferment 
of farm labor which was formulated by our subcommittee on farm labor of the 
Maryland land-use planning committee and the Maryland selective-service system 
is operating. 

You will note that the cooperation of the land-use planning committees in the 
counties with the local draft boards has not only helped to defer farm labor, but 
in some cases has developed information indicating that deferment of the individ- 
ual is unwarranted. This correspondence is cited as an indication of the coopera- 
tive efforts of these organizations in alleviating the farm labor problem. 
Very truly yours, 

.James W. Coddington, 
State Bureau of Agricultural Economics Representative. 



6128 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Selective Service, 
Maryland State Headquaeters, 

Fifth Regiment Akmoby, 
Baltimore, Md., July 1, IdJi-l. 
Dr. James W. Coddington, 

State Represevtatire, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 
United States Department of Agriculture. 

University of Maryland, College Park, Md. 
Dear Dr. Coddington : As mentioned to you previously, we submitted the farm- 
labor plan to national headquarters. Evidently, the plan has been submitted to 
the Department of Agriculture, for we received a request from national head- 
quarters the other day to give them some idea of how the plan was working, 
mentioning some specific cases. 

Attached you will find copy of our report of this date to national headquarters 
in compliance with their request. If there are any other specific cases that you 
know of, we would be glad to hear about them. 
Kindest regards. 

Very truly yours, 

Paul K. Klaesius, 
Major, Ordnance, State Adviser on Occupational Deferments. 



July 1, 1941. 
Director, Selecti\'e Service System, 

National Headquarters, Washington, D. C. 
Attention : Lt. Delbert Haynes, occupational deferments. 

Dear Sir: Pursuant to phone conversation of recent date regarding the plan 
for the deferment of farm labor which was formulated by the subcommittee on 
farm labor of the Maryland State land-use committee and this headquarters, we 
wish to state that fi'om reports received from various counties that the plan is 
working satisfactorily. 

The plan has not only helped to defer farm labor, but in some eases has brought 
to light instances that have not warranted deferment and which the local board 
working alone would probably not have uncovered. 

(fl) One case in particular was a farmer who came direct to State headquarters 
with a farm hand and stated that it was absolutely essential that the man be 
deferred for the proper operation of the farm. He mentioned that this man had 
been with him for some time and that the local board had placed him in 1-A. This 
headquarters referred the farmer to the appeal agent and suggested that the appeal 
agent get in touch with the county agent The results proved that the farmer 
had not told the truth and that the man for whom he was claiming deferment had 
held six different jobs in the past few months and was of a type that would not 
keep any job more than a few weeks. Investigation also showed that the farmer 
had sufficient help on which he could rely. Information regarding the employ- 
ment of the registrant was received from the Maryland State employment service 
by the county agent and the local land-use committee. 

(6) Other cases have been brought to our attention by individual farmers who 
claimed that if their help was inducted it would seriously handicap the proper 
operation of the farm. These cases were also referred to the county agent who. 
with the local land-use committee, investigated and submitted evidence to the local 
board which proved conclusively that the farmer was in need of the man for whom 
he claimed deferment. Consequently, the local board did grant deferment. 

Our records show that to date the local boards in Maryland have granted 
approximately 1,350 deferments to farm labor and refused 149. Deferments 
and refusals for each month follow : 

Granted : 

Prior to January (about) 260 

January 88 

February 90 

March 159 

April 329 

May 424 

1,350 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6129 

Refused : 

Prior to January 30 

January 22 

February 15 

March 34 

April 26 

May 22 

149 
This plan has only been in effect since May. It will be noted from the above 
figures that the refusals for May compared to deferments granted is compara- 
tively smaller than in previous months. 

Maryland State headquarters believe that the plan is working advantageously 
as far as selective service is concerned. The main problem is to prevent the 
men from leaving the farms to get jobs in defense industries. This is something, 
of course, which is beyond the control of selective-service administration. 

We trust that the above information will be helpful in reaching the proper 
sohition of this problem. 
For the State director : 

Paxjl K. Klaesius, Major, Ordnance, 
State Adviser on Oecupntional Deferments. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. S. H. DE VAULT— Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. There are a few questions that I would like to ask you 
orally for the record. 

When you speak in terms of farm-labor supply, are these figures 
taken from the Agricultural Marketing Service in Washington ? 

Dr. De Vault. They are taken both from the Agricultural Market- 
ing Service and the United States Bureau of tlie Census. 

May I just discuss that briefly to give you an idea of how those 
figures are arrived at ? Many people have asked me that same question. 

Normally, on Maryland farms, in January about 23,000 farm 
laborers are employed. That is taken from the census. That is the 
shortage month of employment on farms. Then the census of April 
will give us the number of persons gainfully employed in agriculture, 
the number of farmers, the hired help and the foremen, and the farm 
tenants and the farm operators and owners. That indicates that in 
April there are about 40,000 hired hands em])loyed on Maryland f anns. 

Now, the figure for April and June is also checked with the Agri- 
cultural Marketing Service figures on the supply of farm labor in 
relation to demand. In other words, in July there are normally about 
42,000 or 43,000, and that is nearly the peak of farm employment in 
Maryland. 

MIGRATORY WORKERS ON EASTERN SHORE 

Mr. Curtis. About how manv migrant workers come into Mary- 
land? 

Dr. De Vault. You mean from outside of the State? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes; how many people come to get those 42,000 jobs? 

Dr. De Vault. We get migratory workers principally on the East- 
ern Shore. Normally about 4,500 come into the lower Eastern Sliore 
of ISIaryland to harvest strawberries and truck crops. 

Mr. Curtis. Are there many who come in and do not get employ- 
ment? 

Dr. De Vault. Certainly not in a normal year, and certainly, not 
this year. In some years in the past there may have been more coming 
in than were able to get employment, largely because of the lack of 



Ql^Q BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

adequate housing facilities. I think that is a problem. If housing 
facilities are not available to accommodate them, they may move on 
to some other area where they can get adequate housing. But I don't 
think we have been disturbed with a surplus, even of migratory 
workers this year. 

DEFINITION or "nORMAL" SITUATION 

Mr. Curtis. Now, according to the system that the Marketing 
Service follows, what do you mean by a 74 percent normal situation 
or an 85 percent normal situation ? 

Dr. De Vault. That word "normal" is a kind of relative term that 
the Bureau of Agricultural Economics has accepted as a basis on 
which farmers report the condition of crops or the labor supply and 
demand. It isn't an average, but it is the usual supply of farm labor. 
In other words, 100 percent would be normal, 120 percent would be 20 
percent above normal and 80 i^ercent would be 20 percent below 
normal. 

Mr. Curtis. Based upon the supply? 

Dr. De Vault. Based upon 100 percent; yes. They take into ac- 
count both the supply and the demand for farm labor. I think the 
April figure there, as I recall it — your supply — was about 80 percent, 
and your demand was 90-some-odd percent; and dividing 80 by 90, we 
get the 74 percent ratio of supply to demand. 

Mr. Curtis. Wlio sends the reports into the marketing service? 

Dr. De Vault. The crop reporters from every community in Mary- 
land. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, are those crop reporters observers, farmers, or 
workers ? 

Dr. De Vault. They are practical farmers, and they are supposed 
to size up the situation, not on their own farms but for the community 
in which they live. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, a current criticism — if not voiced, then inferred — 
is that those figures are not accurate and that farmers enlarge the 
statements of the shortages so that they will get more people there 
and have them when they want them and perhaps at a cheaper price. 

Do you think that that system is abused and inaccurate statements 
given out? 

ACCURACY or CROP REPORTERS 

Dr. De Vault. I don't think so, because these farmers are con- 
scientious, and they are told to report the situation as it is and not to 
magnify conditions. I have had a lot of experience in working with 
the State statisticians, the men in charge of the work in the different 
States, and I really think that they come as near getting an unbiased 
opinion as it is possible to get. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think it is true that the farmers have no desire 
lo bring in a lot of people who couldn't get work? 

Dr. De Vault. I don't think they would. 

FARMER cannot PASS HIGHER COST TO BUYER 

Mr. Curtis. Now, I do not want to make this record argumentative, 
but a number of questions have been asked by various witnesses who 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6131 

have appeared here on other days. As head of the Department of 
Agricultural Economics, is it your opinion that an increased cost in 
farm labor can be passed on by the farmer to the purchaser of his 
product, generally speaking? 

Dr. De Vault. Generally speaking, no. Labor, of course, makes 
up a varying proportion of the farmer's total cost, depending upon 
the type of agriculture. In dairying labor makes up 25 percent of 
the farmer's cost and feed 50 percent. 

Those two items make up 75 percent. But in truck-crop farming 
labor may make up as much as 60 percent or even two-thirds of the 
farmer's total cost, and the farmer isn't able to pass an increase 
thereon to the consumer. 

Mr. Curtis. Did you hear the testimony of the gentleman who just 
left the stand ? 

Dr. De Vault. I couldn't understand him very well. I got only a 
little of his testimony. 

Mr. Curtis. Are you familiar with the facts about certain indi- 
viduals — I believe about 100 of them — being denied unemployment 
compensation because they refused work on farms ? 

Dr. De Vault. No. 

FARM WAGES IN MARYL.VND 

Mv. Curtis. What do farm wages run in Maryland ? 

Dr. De Vault. There again I would have to answer that in terms 
of the different sections of the State or different types of farming. 
The average wage rate paid in April, without board, was $2.20 a day. 
Now that is the average for the wliole State of Maryland. 

Mr. Curtis. Without board? 

Dr. De Vault. Yes. Now, in the dairy areas of Maryland the 
farmer will get $60 a month plus a house in which to live, some vege- 
tables, a garden and fruit. In other words, he practically gets his liv- 
ing in addition to the cash Avages paid him. 

You just can't arrive at a single figure because often the perquisites 
may amount to as much as the cash Avage. 

PIECE rates for seasonal WORKERS 

Mr. Curtis. Now. how about the seasonal workers — vegetable work- 
ers and berry pickers and such : What wages do they get ? 

Dr. De Vault. They are based on a piece-work basis. 

I understand in Maryland they are paid 3 or 4 cents a quart for 
picking strawberries. They are paying somewhere between 22 and 25 
cents a hamper for harvesting string beans. And the tomato season 
has not come on yet, but they will probably pay about 8 cents a basket 
for picking tomatoes, maybe a little higher. The piece-work wage 
has gone up this year. 

EARNINGS AT PIECE RATES 

Mr. Curtis. How much can an average individual, in good health 
and willing to work, make? 

Dr. De Vault. Well, it depends, I think, on the skill. We made a 
study of the canning industry in Maryland a year ago and I found 
the Polish workers were able to earn from $7 to $7.50 a day, whereas 

603!>6 — 41— pt. 15 17 



g]^32 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

the other workers who were not skilled probably wouldn't earn over 
$3 and $3.50. Polish women are particularly adept in canning plants. 
They get a pretty good wage. 

Your question is pretty difficult for me to answer but if you want 
something of an average 

Mr. Curtis. The average, and the high and low. 

Dr. De Vault. A person probably would earn, we will say a low of 
$1.50 a day, and as high as $7.50. An average would be somewhere 
between $3 and $4. 

FIELD QUESTIONNAIRES 

Mr. Curtis. You have made some field studies by sending out ques- 
tionnaires ? 

Dr. De Vault. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you briefly tell us something about what you 
studied in your questionnaires and what returns you got? 

Dr. De Vault. Well, we thought we would like to have a check on 
those figures that we get from the Census and from the Agricultural 
Marketing Service. We wanted to know from farmers what their 
labor requirements w^ould be this year, when they would need the 
workers and for what type of work. So we sent out schedules. I think 
about 15,000 were sent out in the different counties in Maryland. 

Briefly they were to report on the amount of labor they needed, 
when they needed it, the wages that they ordinarily pay, and the 
number of workers they had lost to the draft and to the defense 
industries. 

Now, I have been able to make only a partial tabulation of that. 
But so far as we have tabulated them they check closely with the 
estimate in my report of the shortage of labor. 

Mr. Curtis. How does it check with the marketing service? 

Dr. De Vault. It checks very, very closely. I will say that there 
was an estimate that we made early in the season that was based on 
a ratio of supply to demand of 63 percent, which would be a 37 
percent decrease in the ratio under the normal. Applying that to 
42,000, 37 percent of 42,000 would just about give you 15,000. Since 
this estimate was made my understanding is that the agencies that 
we have knowledge of have placed 6,300 laborers on Maryland 
farms. The Maryland State Employment Service has placed 5,000 
or a little over, and we have been instrumental through the selec- 
tive service system of getting deferment for some 1,300 essential 
farm labor. 

"essential farm labor'' defined 

Mr. Curtis. Just tell us what the essential farm laboi-er is, as 
defined for purposes of the Selective Service Act. 

Dr. De Vault. Well, if I were on one of those county commit- 
tees I would consider an essential farm laborer as a farm laborer 
whose services are almost indispensable, one who is essential to caiTy 
on the operation of that farm. 

Mr. Curtis. It is skill plus a certain knowledge of the particular 
farm he is on, would you say? 

Dr. De Vault. Yes; and then maybe you will have a farm with 
only one man working on it. and if he were lost to the farm it would 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6133 

be a serious thing. But over here is another farm, where the farmer 
has three sons, and if he loses the hired man he can still carry on 
the operation with his boys. 

WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION SHUTDOWN TO SUPPLY FARMS 

Mr. Curtis. How about the Work Projects Administration situ-, 
ation? Have any projects been closed- to take care of the demand 
for farm laborers? 

Dr. De Vault. Yes. Frederick County closed a project. The 
general tendency is to close down on nonessential projects to release 
workers for the farms. 

Mr. Curtis. Ordinarily are W. P. A. people willing to take farm 
work if they can get it ? 

Dr. De Vault. If they have had previous farm experience I think 
that is true, but some of them have not had any previous farm 
experience, and they may not be satisfactory or they may not like 
farm employment. 

SALES OF FARM MACHINERY 

Mr. Curtis. What do the indexes show on the sale of farm ma- 
chinery for the first 6 months of this year as compared with 1940? 

Dr. De Vault. I don't have exact information on that, but farm- 
ers have been buying more farm machinery and have been spending 
more money on repairing old farm machinery. There has been a 
tremendous change there. I think the repairing of the machinery 
now on the farm makes it more efficient. There is no question but 
what there has been a trend toward the mechanization of agri- 
culture. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you feel that that trend is unlimited, or how far do 
you think it can go ? 

Dr. De Vault. I think that will depend a great deal on the prices 
of farm machinery in the next year. If the prices of farm machinery 
are held down, I think probably farmers will buy a good deal more 
machinery. 

farm OWNERSHIP IS indi\t:dual 

Mr. Curtis. Are most of the farms in Maryland individually owned, 
or are they corporate-owned farms? 

Dr. De Vault. We don't have many corporate farms in Maryland. 
It is almost entirely an individual farm ownership. 

Mr. Curtis. Are those that are not owned by individuals those that 
have been lost through foreclosure and the like? 

Dr. De Vault. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. You say you have practically no corporations operat- 
ing farms? 

Dr. De Vault. We have a few. I call them, rather, "chain farms," 
instead of corporations. On the Eastern Shore, in the canning in- 
dustry, there are a few, and in southern Maryland, growing tobacco; 
but for the State as a whole, I don't know just the exact number. 

A number of years ago I attempted to study that, and I had a 
record of some 30 corporation farms at that time. 

Mr. Curtis. Dr. De Vault, we would like to have also in our 
record, in addition to your statement, copies of your correspondence 



5134 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

with the Selective Service Administration, the W. P. A., the N. Y. A., 
the State Department of Welfare, and the C. C. C. 

Dr. De Vault. Very well, I shall supply that to the committee. 

[The correspondence referred to above was received subsequent to 
the hearing, and appears in this volume, pp. 6127-6129.] 

Mr. Curtis. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb wishes to ask you a few questions. 

NUMBER AND DISTRIBUTION OF CROP REPORTERS 

Dr. Lamb. Dr. De Vault, have you any figures on the number of 
farmers in the State of Maryland? 

Dr. De Vault. 42,110, according to the 1940 census. 

Dr. Lamb. How many would you say were crop reporters? 

Dr. De Vault. There are about 400 in the State of Maryland. 

Dr. Lamb. Have you any idea how many of those 400 are on the 
Eastern Shore? 

Dr. De Vault. Not offhand; but there is one in every "rural com- 
munity" in the State. 

Dr. Lamb. How were these crop reporters chosen ? 

Dr. De Vault. Well, it is done on a voluntary basis. They don't 
get paid for that. They just are willing to render that service of re- 
porting on the crops, free of charge. 

Mr. Curtis. But what agency chooses them ? 

Dr. De Vault. The Marketing Service. 

RELATION OF CROP REPORTERS TO EMPLOYMENT 

Dr. Lamb. Do you know anything about the relationship of those 
farmers to employment? Are they in an especially good position to 
know about employment situations because of the number they 
employ ? 

Dr. De Vault. Well, they are just supposed to be typical farmers 
in the community. Beyond that they are supposed to be men who 
are willing to send in these reports monthly. I wouldn't say that they 
are more than slightly above the average. They are certainly not 
the best farmers in the community, but probably a little above the 
average in intelligence. 

"supply" of farm labor DEFINED 

Dr. Lamb. Your figure on the "normal" is based on the feeling of 
the farmer with respect to local supply and demand ? 

Dr. De Vault. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. Is that figure for supply based on the number working ? 
Is that how they estimate the supply ? 

Dr. De Vault. No ; it isn't on the basis of the number working. 

Dr. Lamb. Then how do they know what the local supply is? Do 
they say there are so many workers at the present time and therefore 
that is the number available ? 

Dr. De Vault. No; you see, you are getting back to the normal 
figure. If you had a normal situation, you would just have the 
number of farmers in that community who would be able to take care 
of the crops and livestock in that community. They base it on that 
norm. 



XATiOxNAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6135 

Dr. Lamb. Suppose a number of residents of a nearby village were 
not working. Would you add that number to the number of those 
who actually had jobs at the time, and would that total be your labor 
supply? 

Dr. De Vault. No ; not those in the local village. They wouldn't be 
a part of your supply. 

Dr. Lamb. So that only those who are actually at work are consid- 
ered to be "supply" ? 

Dr. De Vault. Or immediately available for work. 

Dr. Lamb. How do you estimate those immediately available? 

Dr. De Vault. The reports don't give consideration to those who 
can be obtained from villages or from other sources — ^W. P. A. and 
the like. They are not figured in the supply. The supply is the 
number in that community available for farm work, as compared 
with the number normally needed to take care of the agricultural 
operations.^ 

NEW SOURCES OF SUPPLY 

Dr. Lamb. At the time this estimate was made, therefore, in April, 
the crop reporters figured that the numbers available, in the terms that 
you have just stated, were below normal by a considerable amount? 

Dr. De Vault. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. But the original figure, based upon that estimate of 
16,000. is now said to be 8,700? 

Dr. De Vaut.t. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. Then the supply has been augmented by women or others 
who create an available supply by approximately 7,000 or 8,000? 

Dr. De Vault. That is due to the work of our Land Use Planning 
Committee, and of all of us in trying to find labor for the farmer. I 
think that is entirely due to the organization and the cooperation of 
the W. P. A. and the N. Y. A.; the Maryland State employment serv- 
ice, Selective Service System, and high schools. We have surveyed 
the high schools and colleges here in the State and have made available 
a certain number of workers for farmers. 

Dr. Lamb. Were those workers resident in your rural areas? 

Dr. De Vault. Just which ones are you referring to ? 

Dr. Lamb. The ones who have more recently augmented your 
su})ply. 

Dr. De Vault. Well, some came from rural areas, yes; and some 
of them from towns and cities throughout the State ; but most of them, 
of course, are people who naturally have had some farm experience 
and came from local sources, I would say. In other words, it has been 
our policy to get this labor from local sources, to exhaust all possi- 
bilities of local supply of labor before we attempt to bring it in, even 
from one county to another. That has been the basis on which we 
have attempted to operate. 

Dr. Lamb. Now, you say the Maryland State employment service 
has placed at least 5,000 laborers for this year? 

Dr. De Vault. That was to June 1. 

Dr. Lamb. Do j'ou know what their figure was for last year? 



1 For comment on this method of ascertaining labor supply, see statement, "Reports on 
Farm Labor Shortages and the Work Projects Administration," by Corrinston Gill, Wash- 
ington hearings, July 16, 1941. See also exhibit 34 in this volume, p. 6294, and testimony 
of F. B. Gambrill, p. 6146. 



5136 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Dr. De Vault. No; I do not know, but at a guess I would say it 
would be just a fraction of that — a very small percentage. 

Dr. Lamb. You haA^e recently sent out, you say, about 15,000 ques- 
tionnaires to farmers and have received returns on them? 

Dr. De Vault. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. How many returns have you received? 

Dr. De Vault. About 2,000. 

Dr. Lamb. When these are tabulated, will it be possible to ascertain 
the various types of farming these workers are engaged in ? 

Dr. De Vault. I don't know whether they all put that in or not. 
We asked that the type of farming be shown, but sometimes the 
farmers fail to fill that in. It may be possible, however, to break 
that down pretty well. 

Dr. Lamb. If that were available before the committee's records are 
closed, I am sure the committee would like to have it. Will there 
be any indication on these questionnaires of the size of farm 
operated ? 

Dr. De Vault. We ask for the main crop acreage and the niunber 
of dairy cows. We get the acreage of important crops. 

Dr. Lamb. And in terms of labor needed, that is a pretty good 
indication? 

Dr. De Vault. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all, Mr. Chairman. You will supply the com- 
mittee with that information. Dr. De Vault ? 

Dr. De Vault. Yes, sir.^ 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Dr. De Vault. 

Our next witness is Dr. A. W. Hedrich. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. A. W. HEDRICH, CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF 
VITAL STATISTICS, MARYLAND STATE DEPARTMENT OF 
HEALTH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Chairman. I understand. Doctor, you wish to present infor- 
mation that is of interest to this committee. Please proceed. 

Dr. Hedrich. I am coming to you, Mr. Chairman, and gentlemen 
of the committee, at the suggestion of Congressman Cole,^ and I 
represent also the committee on delayed birth registration. The Con- 
ference of State and Provincial Health Authorities invited me to 
speak to Congressman Cole about what we have in mind, and, as I 
say, he in turn referred me to you. 

The subject concerning which I want to report is that of delayed 
birth registration. As you know, certain Army and Navy require- 
ments make it necessary that all workers in defense industries estab- 
lish their citizenship. I understand there is a $10,000 penalty for any 
industry which places an alien in a strategic position. 

The industries, therefore, demand a birth certificate of each of these 
workers. 

Now, many of these workers were not registered at birth because 
birth registration in many States is only 15 or 20 years old. Even in 
Maryland, where it was organized in 1898, it was only 50 percent 
complete by 1910. The result is that about half of these national-de- 

^ Not received as this volume -went to press. 

2 Representative William Purington Cole, Jr., of Towson, Baltimore County, Second 
District. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6137 

fense workers who come to us were not registered at birth and some 
form of substitute must be employed. 

STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR BIRTH REGISTRATION 

With the cooperation of the Bureau of the Census and some 20 
other Federal agencies that are interested in birth registration, a 
standard procedure was set up whereby these people can establish the 
fact of their birth, the date of birth, place of birth, and parentage by 
means of Bible records, insurance policies, baptismal records, and a 
considerable number of other records. 

That is a very new procedure. It is only about 2 years old, and 
yet it has received enough trial to be considered standard by these 
20 Federal agencies. 

In a few States that procedure is in effect, but in the great majority 
it is not, for the reason that the States have not sufficient funds to 
put the thing through. It takes about 21/0 hours to file a delayed birth 
registration. Frequently we have to spend a half hour explaining to 
a man what is necessary and we spend another 20 or 25 minutes ex- 
amining Bible records and so on, and first and last it takes well over 
2 hours. That work has increased tremendously within the last year. 

I have a chart here which shows that whereas in Maryland a year 
ago we were filing about 10 of these a week, last week we filed 140. 
In other words, that work has increased tenfold within 1 year. 

Mr. Curtis. May I interrupt you ? 

Dr. Hedrich. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. We have such a law in my home State of Nebraska. 

Dr. Hedrich. I know your law very well. 

COURT PROCEDURE ELIMINATED 

Mr. Curtis. Here in Maryland do you go into a court of record, a 
probate court, and submit your evidence, and does the court issue a 
delayed birth certificate ? Is that how it is handled ? 

Dr. Hedrich. No. The evidence is submitted directly to the State 
registrar. We considered the court procedure and decided against it, 
partly because the experience has been that most of the courts do not 
want the job. 

In Michigan, for example, where it has been done for a long time, the 
State registrar says they would like to get rid of it, and so would the 
judges. 

In California — your State, Mr. Chairman— it costs upward of $25. 
I think the average is closer to $50 to file a delayed birth registration. 
It costs us around $2 to $2.50 to do it. We can do it very much more 
pronwtly our way, and the Federal agencies tell us they much prefer 
the State registrars because they make an abstract of the evidence, 
which is put right on the certificate, and anyone who uses that certificate 
can see what is behind it. 

Now, when it comes from a judge, the judge gives you a decision, and 
frequently he does not go into the evidence deeply enough. As I say, it 
is just part of the day's work with him. I know your law very well. 
I think it is being administered better than in most States. 

Mr. Curtis. Accompanying the decision of the judge, there is also 
an abstract of the evidence. 

Dr. Hedrich. An outline. 



5138 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. It is spread through all the counties, and I am sure the 
cost is no such figure as tliat for us. 

Dr. Hedrich, If it is done properly it is excellent. A judge can 
probably do it better than any of us, because he has the power to swear 
people in and administer fines, and so on. But the actual experience 
has been that it hasn't worked out very well. 

LETTEE AS EXAMPLE OF DELAY 

I don't know whether you have heard the history of it in your State, 
but it isn't working out satisfactorily in California. It is very expen- 
sive and it takes a long time. 

Yesterday I received a letter from a man in California. I am just 
going to read you the opening and closing paragraphs. He says 
[reading] : 

Well, I am fully exasperated at the birth-certificate business. I have been 
waiting and waiting, and all the time I have a $1.50-per-hour job waiting for me 
as soon as I get the birth certificate. 

At the end he says : 

In the meantime my family and I are living on soup and beans. 

Now, there the industry wants the man, and the man wants the 
job, and they can't connect because he hasn't been able to get a birth 
certificate. In his case the trouble is that we have had to deal through 
the mails. He should be able to talk to someone in California who 
can tell him what to do and help him get the evidence together and 
send it in, and then file that registration. 

REGISTRATION OFFICE UNDERSTAFFED 

Now, the States have done the best they could with this problem, 
but we are mobilized for a peacetime task. 

In Maryland, for example, a year ago we had one clerk. The State 
Legislature at the last meeting did provide two extra clerks, and the 
Budget Director managed to give me another one; but it takes eight 
people for us to do this work at the present time. We have got assist- 
ance from W. P. A. and N. Y. A., and they have been a boon to us, 
but that assistance is very haphazard and uncertain. 

For example, 2 months ago I approached the W. P. A. for an ex- 
tension of our project, and the local people first told me it couldn^t 
be done; there was a rule against extending aid for current work 
beyond 6 months. 

More recently I have heard that they will consider applications. 
But it is now July 2 and our fund will run out on July 15, and at 
this moment I don't know whether those six people will be taken away 
from us or not. If they are taken away from us I don't know what 
we are going to do because we are all working overtime. 

Last night even my wife helped me with this. We were at work 
until midnight trying to get the work out of the way before the 4th 
of July. 

ASKS AID THROUGH UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 

Mr. Curtis. What do you propose as a solution ? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6139 

Dr. Hedrich. We propose that Congi'ess recognize this as a na- 
tional-defense emergency and supplement the assistance given by the 
States by a congressional grant to be distributed preferably through 
the United States Public Health Service. As a very rough estimate, 
we think that in the neighborhood of 600 or 700 clerks would be 
needed for allocation to the different States. 

I think the money should be allocated to the States directly, and 
let them employ the people at the existing wage rates, in order to 
eliminate just as much red tape as possible. 

Mr. Curtis. What do you charge the applicants ? 

Dr. Hedrich. We charge the applicant nothing for the registra- 
tion, which costs us in the neighborhood of $2; but under the law 
we are at present required to charge 50 cents for a certified copy. 

Now, if a man can't pay we have a way of bridging that. We are 
trying to help the people, and I bought some certified copies myself, 
and at this moment the State owes me $500 for money that I advanced 
for clerical assistance to try to help these people out. 

But in Maryland and most of the States there is a charge of only 
50 cents for a certified copy, and an uncertified copy, if it will do, 
in most States is given for nothing. 

Now, if the thing costs $2 or $2.50, of course, these 50-cent payments 
won't do. In many States that must go directly into the State Treasury, 
and in the absence of a legislative appropriation, the money cannot be 
used for delayed registration. 

INTERSTATE ASPECT POINTED OUT 

Now, Congressman Cole was good enough to say that he would 
entertain this idea very seriously, and would consider the preparation 
of a bill. He asked us to give him evidence that there was support for 
it, and he sent me down here in the hope that your committee would get 
this matter in the record, and if possible, give the movement an en- 
dorsement, because it has a definite interstate angle to it. 

We get quite a number of requests from Detroit, Cleveland, Co- 
lumbus, Los Angeles, and so on, for birth records, and these people 
at a distance must frequently sit and wait and wait, sometimes for 2 
or 3 months, for a birth certificate to enable them to accept a national- 
defense job. 

I thank you. 

Mr. Curtis. If you have any further facts you wish to mail in, I am 
sure the chairman will be glad to have them. 

The Chairman. I don't know. Doctor, whether or not you could get 
some money out of this $150,000,000 that was appropriated by the Con- 
gress, but here is an article out of the New York Times which says 
that that money is going to be administered by the Public Works Ad- 
ministration and is to be used for schools. Federal roads into fac- 
tories and camps, and for many other purposes, and it might be that 
some of it could be allocated for such a purpose as you outline. 

Dr. Hedrich. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. The committee will recess until 1 : 45. 

( Wliereupon, at 12 : 40 p. m., the committee recessed until 1 : 45 p. m., 
the same day.) 



5140 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

ATTERNOON SESSION 

The Chairman. The committee will come to order. 
Our first witness is Mr, Turner. 

TESTIMONY OF P. C. TURNER, PRESIDENT, MARYLAND FARM 
BUREAU, BALTIMORE, MD. 

The Chairman. Congressman Curtis will interrogate you, Mr. 
Turner. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you give your full name to the reporter? 

Mr. Turner. P. C. Turner. 

Mr. Curtis. And where do you live? 

Mr. Turner. I live at Parkton, Md. 

Mr. Curtis. And you are a farmer? 

Mr. Turner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. And also president of the Maryland Farm Bureau ? 

Mr. Turner. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. What type of farmer are you ? 

Mr. Turner. I am a dairy farmer. I might say I am chairman of 
the labor committee trying to solve the farm problem in Maryland. 

Mr. Curtis. We have your prepared statement, Mr. Turner, and it 
will be made a part of the record. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY P. C. TURNER, PRESIDENT, MARYLAND FARM BUREAU, 
BALTIMORE, MD., JUNE 30, 1941 

As a farmer, president of the Maryland Farm Bureau, State committeeman, 
Agricultural Adjustment Administration, and a member of the Governor's 
defense council, I feel that I am qualified to comment on the farm-labor 
situation. 

Last fall we visualized that with America's all-out defense program, there 
would be a steady drain of agricultural labor from the farms to defense in- 
dustry, attracted by high wages and shorter hours. We also knew that the 
draft would take its toll on agricultural labor. 

In December 1940 we wrote Dr. H. C. Byrd, president of the University 
of Maryland and also a member of the Governor's defense council, asking that he 
have Dr. DeVault make a survey of the State farm-labor situation, which 
he did in his usual competent manner. He has kept that survey up to date 
and is here today to give you, in detail, the results of his findings. 

Later, the United States Department of Agriculture decided to use its 
State and county land-use committees to mobilize all forces dealing with agri- 
culture to meet the impact of defense and war. At the same time, the Fed- 
eral Government has asked for a large increase in the production of dairy, 
poultry, pork products, and canned goods for the democracies and our people. 
This is a challenge to our farmers that we are trying wholeheartedly to meet, 

CONTACTED FEDERAL, AND STATE AGENCIES 

The State land-use committee of vphich Dr. T. B. Symons, dean of the 
University of Maryland, is chairman, appointed subcommittees to deal with var- 
ious subjects, one on farm labor. I was named chairman and Dr. DeVault was 
made secretary of this committee. Our subcommittee, with the sanction of 
the State committee, went into immediate action and appointed a subcommittee 
on farm labor in each of the 23 counties in Maryland. We then contacted the 
heads of the following agencies : 

1. Col. Henry C. Stan wood, United States Army, in charge of the draft in 
Maryland. Colonel Stanwood has visualized the problems to the fullest extent, 
recognizing that food is vital to defense, and, in accordance with the War 
Department rules, is instructing draft boards that where it can be shown that 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6141 

key farm labor cannot be replaced, deferment should be granted. The draft 
boards are also referring border-line cases to our county labor committees for 
investigation and recommendation. 

2. Maj. Harry D. Williar, in charge of Work Projects Administration in Mary- 
land : Major "Williar has been willing to drop men from his forces whenever an 
employer asks for them. Work Projects Administration, July 1, will cut their 
forces drastically, which will help the situation. 

3. Gov. Herbert R. O'Conor of Maryland : We have written the Governor asking 
that convict labor be used to the utmost on roads, thereby releasing free labor. 
We asked that nondefeuse road work be stopped for short periods at the peak 
of harvest in respective counties. 

4. Judge Thomas J. S. Waxter, director of public welfare for Baltimore : We 
are assured there are no ablebodied men on relief in Baltimore or the counties. 

5. Mr. J. J. McEntee, in charge of the National Civilian Conservation Corps: 
Mr. McEntee assured us that any farmer can contact and employ any Civilian 
Conservation Corps worker. The rule was that any worker leaving Civilian 
Conservation Corps could not get back for a 6-month period, but he thought that 
might be modified to a 3-month period. 

G. Mr. Ryland Dempster, then in charge of the National Youth Administration : 
In the spring there was much complaint about young men being employed on 
National Youth Administration from the farms. We feel that a change has 
recently taken place that will stop all adverse criticism. 

7. Mr. William Milues :Maloy, chairman of Maryland Unemployment Compen- 
Siition Board, Mr. David L. Fringer, and Mr. F. B. Gambrill, Maryland Em- 
ployment Service : We cannot say too much in appreciation of the cooperation we 
have had from all three of these gentlemen as well as their employees in the 
counties in their efforts to solve this farm-labor problem. 

FARMEISS EAGER TO AID DEFENSE 

Conclusion: Early in the spring the farm-labor shortage was not as acute as 
expected, due to severe drought conditions that caused a failure of the earlier 
truck crops. Maryland has had abundant rains and we are starting the harvest- 
ing and threshing of grains which will be followed by silo filling and the real 
problem of harvesting and canning the tomato and beau crops. Many farmers 
are mechanizing their farms by milking machines, tractors, etc., to cut down 
labor. Thought should be given to putting farmers on a preferred list should 
there he a rationing of gas or electricity. 

Our farmers are anxious to cooperate fully in making the increase in production 
asked by our Government to feed England and our own people. They and their 
families are working long hours. We farm people want to do our bit and we 
will never forget the sympathy and desire to help from the agencies mentioned 
in this statement. 



Exhibit A 

Maryland Agricultural Society, 

Maryland Farm Bureau, Inc., 

Baltimore, Md., June S, 1941. 
Hon. Hkrbert R. O'Conor, 

Annapolis, Md. 

My Dear Governor O'Conor: Please note enclosed copy of letter I have 
written Dr. Roger B. Corbett in regard to the farm labor shortage in Maryland. 
You will note I am chairman of a subcommittee on farm labor set up by the 
State Land Use Commitee, which was organized at the suggestion of the 
United States Department of Agriculture to meet the impact of defense on 
agriculture. 

You will note we have secured the cooperation of the various State and 
national agencies dealing with labor and relief. 

We respectfully ask that you instruct the State roads commission to utilize 
prison labor on rural roads to the fullest extent of the appropriation, thereby 
releasing free labor for farms. 

Would you consider suggesting to the roads commission and the county com- 
missioners in each county that they consider laying off road forces in rural 
areas for short periods at the peak of harvesting in the respective counties? 

Our committee will be glad to cooperate with either of those agencies to 



Q142 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

arrive at a workable program. We feel that with the utmost effort we will 
ouly partly alleviate this labor shortage. 
Yours sincerely, 



[Copy] 



P. C. TtTBNEE, 

Chairman Labor Committee. 



June 3, 1941. 



Dr. T. B. Symons, Chairman, 

Dr. RoGEK B. CoERETT, Acting Chairman, 

College Park, Md. 

Gentlemen : As you know, last December we visualized that with the draft 
and the steady flow of laborers from the farm to war industries, the labor 
situation on the farms of Maryland would become acute. With this in mind, 
acting as a member of the Governors' defense council for agriculture, and as 
president of the Maryland Farm Bureau, I wrote Dr. Byrd asking that he 
have Dr. DeVault make a survey of the farm-labor situation. This he did 
in his usual competent manner and has kept this survey up to date. 

The preliminary survey in December showed a shortage of 4,000 in the State 
and he estimates there will be a sliortnge of 15,000 by July 1.^ Since that date 
the Federal Government has utilized its State Land Use Planning Committees 
to mobilize all forces dealing with agriculture to meet the impact of defense 
and war. At the same time the Federal Government has asked for a large 
increase in the production of dairy, poultry, pork products, and canned goods 
to feed the democracies and our people. 

This is a challenge to our farmers that they must meet. The State Land 
Use Committee set up a number of subcommittees, one a labor committee. 
I was named chairman and Dr. DeVault as secretary of this committee. We 
have contacted the following agencies to help us solve this vital question of 
farm labor. 

Col. Henry C. Stanwood, United States Army, in charge of the draft ; Maj. 
Harry D. Willliar, in charge of W. P. A. ; Judge Thomas J. S. Waxter, director 
of Department of Public Welfare for Baltimore; J. J. McEntee, in charge of 
National C. C. C. ; Ryland Dempster, charge of N. Y. A. ; Judge John M. Pohl- 
haus, Maryland labor commissioner; William Milnes Maloy, chairman of Mary- 
land Unemployment Compensation Board ; David L. Fringer and Mr. F. B. 
Gambrill, Maryland Employment Service. 

All of these gentlemen and their subordinates have recognized the gravity of 
the situation and are cooperating to the fullest and will partly solve this 
problem. 

All of our county labor committees as well as all of our farmers should be 
informed as to just what the above agencies can do and also informed of the 
wonderful cooperation all of these gentlemen have shown. 

In addition to the above Dr. DeVault has written numerous schools and colleges 
in this and other States and has submitted to the county labor committees lists 
of student volunteers for summer work on the farms. 

I am writing Governor O'Conor to request all use possible of prison labor 
on roads in rural Maryland thereby releasing farm labor for farm work. I am 
also requesting he use his influence toward asking county commissioners to give 
thought to laying off road forces for a short period during the peak of harvest 
in the various counties. 

I want to thank you as acting chairman of the Land Use Planning Committee 
in the absence of Dr. T. B. Symons, chairman, Mr. Coddington, secretary of 
land use in Maryland, as well as members of the State committee, the county 
committees, and especially the county agents for the wonderful help they have 
given the labor committee. 
Sincerely, 

P. C. Turner, 
Chairman, Labor Committee. 

TESTIMONY OP P. C. TURNER— Eesiimed 

Mr. Curtis. Were you here this morning to hear Dr. DeVault's 
testimony ? 



* For comment on this reported shortage, see Exhibit 34, by the Work Projects Admin- 
istration, p. 6294. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6143 

Mr. TuKNER. No, sir; I was not. He is secretary of the same or- 
ganization. 

Mr. Curtis. Well, we went into considerable detail with him. 

SEES FARM-LABOR SHORTAGE REACHING NEW ENGLAND 

In your opinion is there a shortage of farm labor right now in 
Maryland ? 

Mr. Turner. Very much so ; and could I go a little further ? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 

Mr. Turner. I attended, this week, a meeting of the Northeast Dairy 
Conference — about 30 representative dairymen from all over the 
Northeast — and I would say, while our shortage is greater here, from 
their reports it is more acute to the north of us and all the way to 
New England — a farm-labor shortage. 

Mr. Curtis. Among dairies? 

Mr. Turner. All kinds of farmers to the north. That was the 
picture I got from them. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, is it a complete shortage or a shortage of skilled 
help or people with an adaptability for farm work? 

Mr. Turner. Well, I would say both. The dairy farmer and other 
farms are getting b}^ by working long hours by themselves and by 
their families. They can get some skilled and have some unskilled 
labor. You have to put up with some very unskilled labor — just 
a makeshift. 

ACTION TO prevent SHORTAGE 

Mr. Curtis. What has the Farm Bureau been doing to prevent the 
anticipated shortage? 

Mr. Turner. Back last fall I was appointed on the Governor's 
defense council. With the defense program all around Baltimore, 
we visualized what was going to happen, and I wrote to Dr. Byrd, 
of the University of Maryland, and I asked him to have Dr. DeVault 
make a survey of the farm-labor situation of Maryland. 

At that time that survey showed about 4,000 short, and he has kept 
that survey more or less up to date to the present. I suppose he 
spoke to you about it this morning. 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 

Mr. Turner. Now, you want to know what we have been doing? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 

Mr. Turner. In January or February the land-use people started 
out to meet the impact of war on the farm, and they set up various 
committees. Among them was a committee on farm labor. I was 
made chairman of that committee and Mr. De Vault was made secretary. 

ONE THOUSAND THREE HUNDRED AND FIFTY DRAFT DEFERMENTS 

We called on the head of the draft. Colonel Stanwood, and told 
him our troubles. He was very sympathetic. He sent out instruc- 
tions to the draft boards to scrutinize very closely and investigate 
very closely any man who was needed on the farm — a farmer's son or 
a hired man. 

I would say there have been 1,350 deferred after we made that 
plea. 



g]^44 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

We called on the W. P. A. and asked them to defer their work in 
rural communities because they were taking a great deal of labor 
off the farm. Kecently there have been material cuts in the W. P. A., 
and I think that is going to be very helpful in the rural com- 
munities. 

We called on Mr. McEntee of the C. C. C. at Washington, and he 
said that the farmers could go at any time and get boys off of the 
C. C. C. if they were willing to go, but that they couldn't get back 
for 6 months. He took under advisement a request that he reduce 
that to 3 months if they would go off and work for a summer. He 
said he thought he could do that, but we have not heard from him. 

Then we went to the State Labor Service. They increased their 
personnel to work on this farm labor situation, and I want to say 
that they have done a grand job and have placed something like 
5,000 men on farms through the State employment service. 

Now, all these actions have been helpful. We can't solve the prob- 
lem, but I thoroughly believe that we are going to manage somehow 
by working long hours and working what labor we can get. We are 
going to try to save the crops and keep the cows milked in the State of 
Maryland. 

MORE TRACTORS AND MILKING MACHINES 

Mr. Curtis. Has this shortage caused an increase in the amount of 
farm machinery purchased? 

Mr. Turner. It has. A great many farmers have mechanized their 
farm by the use of tractors and milking machines. I would like to 
draw attention to one thing there : There is some talk of curtailment 
of gasoline and electricity. Now, after a farmer has mechanized, we 
liojDe he will be put on the preferred list for gasoline and electricity. 

Mr. Curtis. A portion of your territory suffered a drought this 
year, didn't it? 

Mr. Turner. Yes, sir; it was worse in Virginia and North Caro- 
lina. The lower Eastern Shore was very hard hit and the central 
section of Maryland would have been hard hit but we have had 
abundant rains lately. 

Now, I want to draw your attention to one thing : The Government 
is asking for an increase in dairy products, poultry production, 
canned goods — especially canned tomatoes — and all those things are 
crops of Maryland. The farmer has every desire to comply, but the 
shortage of farm labor is going to mitigate against those increases 
that we would like to make. 

CROPS AFFECTED BY DROUGHT 

Mr. Curtis. Coming back to this drought business : How long did 
the drought last? 

Mr. Turner. Well, I would say all the first of this year up to a 
month ago. I do know that in the southern end of this county large 
crops of spinach went to seed because of the lack of farm labor. 

Now, the demand for farm labor in the trucking areas has not been 
as great as it would have been if it hadn't been for the drought. The 
strawberry crop and the spinach crop and all those were cut short, 
and there was a period there when there would have been a big mar- 
ket if it hadn't been for the failure of crops because of the drought. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6145 

Now, we have had abundant rains and the fall crops, especially 
tomatoes, are going to create a great demand for farm labor. 

Mr. Curtis. You think during the balance of the summer and this 
fall there is going to be a continued shortage ? 

Mr. Turner. It will be worse ; yes, sir ; when it comes to silo-filling 
time, cutting corn, picking beans, getting tomato crops out, and the 
work in the canneries. There is going to be an acute situation ; yes, sir ; 
with reference to farm labor. 

HIGH-SCHOOL BOYS ON FARMS 

Mr. Curtis. Are many of the high-school boys of Maryland working 
on farms this summer? 

Mr. Turner. I know of some cases of the employment service allow- 
ing those boys to go into factories at pretty good pay when the em- 
ployer agrees that he will not work in any hazardous jobs. 

Mr. Curtis. I mean on your farms. 

Mr. Turner. And they are taking boys — I know of some boys I tried 
to get myself. One of the boys got a job, and he had a special permit 
to work in a nonhazardous occupation in a factory. There will be a 
lot of boys who will work in the harvest during the school vacation, 
no question about that. 

Mr. Curtis. How much do you think the wage of farm workers 
comes into the picture as a cause of the shortage? 

Mr. Turner. Why, it is obvious that industry is paying such wages 
for short hours that the farmers are at a great disadvantage to meet 
that competition. Those short hours are a great inducement. If it 
wasn't for that we would have no farm-labor shortage in Maryland. 

Mr. Curtis. The wages paid by industry are so attractive they don't 
want to take farm work because they will miss out on something? 

"no room for national youth administration" 

Mr. Turner. That is right. Even the W. P. A., up until recently, 
was taking them out and working them on made jobs. I am glad to say 
that the W. P. A. reduced its force ver}^ much in Maryland, which is 
going to help the situation. The same way with the N. Y. A. They 
were paying boys $16.50 a month to do little "made" jobs, but we had 
a change of administration, and I think that practice is going to be 
cut off in the rural areas, where the youth have plenty of work to do. 

As a matter of fact, there is no room for N. Y. A., with industry and 
agriculture demanding the labor. I can't see where N. Y. A. comes in 
the picture at all. 

Mr. Curtis. And it is not as simple for farmers to raise wages as it 
is for industry, is it? 

Mr. Turner. Absolutely not ; certainly not. At the prices we get for 
what we have to sell, if we undertook to pay the same wages that indus- 
try pays, we would all go bankrupt in a very short time. 

Mr. Curtis. An increase in your wage scale does not mean an in- 
crease in what you get for your crops? 

Mr. Turner. Absolutely not. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all, and thank you very much, Mr. Turner. 

The Chairman. Our next witnesses are Mr. Englar and Mr. Gam- 
brill. 



5X46 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF S. LEE ENGLAE, MANAGER, STATE EMPLOYMENT 
SERVICE OFFICE, SALISBURY, MD. ; AND F. B. GAMBRILL, FIELD 
SUPERVISOR, MARYLAND STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, BALTI- 
MORE, MD. 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold will interrogate you, gen- 
tlemen. 

Mr, Arnold. Mr. Englar, will you please state your name and 
official connection? 

Mr. Englar. S. Lee Englar, manager, State Employment Service 
Office, Salisbury, Mel. 

Mr. Arnold. [To Mr. Gambrill.] And you, sir? 

Mr. Gambrill. F. B. Gambrill, field supervisor, Maryland State 
Employment Service. Baltimore, Md. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Englar, what is your impression with regard to 
the relation of farm labor supply to the demand at the present time? 

Mr. Englar. I will speak of harvest hands, because any difficulty 
we do have is in the harvesting of the local crops. 

Migrant labor enters into that picture more than the local farm 
hand. Up to the present time we have had no serious difficulty, no 
handicaps which we couldn't overcome. 

Mr, Arnold. What do you say, Mr. Gambrill? 

Mr. Gambrill. I look at it from a little different standpoint. As I 
see the farm labor picture, it may be divided into sections. One is 
your harvest hands for these trucking crops, and the other is your 
qualified farm hands in your grain and dairy areas. 

I haven't any figures on the relationship of the supply and de- 
mand. We have endeavored to get an estimate of that shortage, 
but the figures are not thought very reliable. I would say at the 
present time about 2,000, judging from the questionnaires we have 
sent to the farmers over the areas in the State. Just what they 
could use I don't know. I would say if we had 2,000 qualified 
farmers we could put them to work. If we had many more than 
that I don't know. I mean regular farm hands. But that is purely 
an estimate, on some very sketchy information. It is very difficult 
to get a true estimate of the actual shortage. 

Dr. Lamb. But that estimate is on the basis of the best available 
information ? 

Mr. Gambrill. That is right, judging from what the farmer could 
use. Now, that is from information we have been able to gather 
through our questionnaires, which were very poorly answered. Only 
about 10 percent of those sent out were returned, and it is difficult 
to form an opinion upon that. 

Dr. Lamb. They were sent out by the State Employment Service? 

Mr. Ga:mbrill. Jointly by the JExtension Service and the State 
Employment Service. 

Dr. Lamb. With reference to the matters that were discussed here 
this morning? 

Mr. Gambrill. Probably so. 

Mr. Arnold. Your impression is that there hasn't been any shortage 
up to the present time for those who have used migrant labor in the 
past? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6147 

INTERCHANGE OF HARVEST HANDS 

Mr. ENGLi\R. I would like to limit that observation to harvest hands. 
We haven't had any difficnlties because we have been able to handle the 
situation quite advantageously. The farmers have been most coopera- 
tive in permitting the use of certain harvest hands who had come to 
them when they didn't have need for them. 

As I say they were most cooperative and permitted us to transfer 
them to other farms. The plan has worked out most satisfactorily, 

Mr. Arnold. Do you anticipate shortages during the remainder of 
the season? 

Mr. Englar. Yes, sir ; we are very much afraid of them when pota- 
toes and tomatoes come on, and when the processing season comes in 
at the same time. 

Mr. Arnold. What do j'ou say, Mr. Gambrill, in your field ? 

Mr. Gambrill. I will liave to bear out Mr. Englar's statement there, 
because he gets that information before me from the local office. 

Mr. Arnold. Don't you cover a larger territory? 

HOPES TO recruit ENOUGH BALTIMORE LABOR 

Mr. Gambrill. Yes ; but the trucking area he is speaking of is prac- 
tically by itself. They do anticipate some shortages. In addition to 
that I might say we expect some shortages of the same type of worker 
in our lower, southeastern part of Baltimore County. But I believe 
we have set up machinery now whereby we can recruit sufficient labor 
out of Baltimore City, which will be transported back and forth to 
take care of any shortage down there. 

They estimate that now to be about 600 to 1,000, but I don't know 
that you would want to call it a shortage. We may be able to satisfy 
that demand without any difficulty. 

Mr. Arnold. As you knoAv, a recent estimate of a 16,000 farm-labor 
shortage has been made as of April 1. Does this figure square with 
what you know about the situation, Mr. Englar? 

Mr. Enoi,ar. I don't know whether that is supposed to cover the 
entire State or not, but it doesn't apply to the three counties that I 
know anything about, sir. I mean, it is entirely too large. That may 
be a general State estimate. 

Mr. Arnold. It is a general State estimate. 

Mr. Englar. Then I couldn't verify those figures. 

estimated SHORTAGE OF 1G,0(»0 "\T:RY HIGH" 

Mr. Gambrill. Judging from the orders that our service receives 
over the State, and leaving out Mr. Englar's territory, I believe that 
estimate is very high. I think if we had 16,000 w^orkers here now we 
wouldn't know what to do with a lot of them. 

Mr. Arnold. Are farmers inclined to estimate their requirements 
too high so they will be sure to have an oversupply ? 

Mr. Gambrill. I don't believe that estimate came from the farmers, 
judging from the orders we received in our offices. I don't think we 
could use anything like 16,000 farm hands. 

60396 — 41— pt. 15 18 



gl48 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. Do you think farmers are inclined to report their re- 
quirements too high so they will have a good supply of labor ? 

Mr. Gambrill. I wouldn't know that. 

Mr. Englar. From personal contact, I haven't found that to be the 
case, sir. We have found this: Where a farmer has said he wanted 
probably 60 people in his bean patch this morning, maybe we were able 
to get 35 or 40 in there, and he was satisfied, and got his beans picked. 

Now, had he got the 60, they may have got off a little earlier, but he 
got his beans harvested and was entirely satisfied with the crew that 
worked in that patch for him. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

CONTACT WITH WASHINGTON 

The Chairman. Mr. Englar, there isn't any question that produc- 
tion of food is part of the national-defense program. Food won the 
last war, and food will probably win this present war. Now, that be- 
ing so, what do you do with reference to contacting Washington in 
regard to your problems ? Suppose the labor shortage were to become 
critical here. What can you do at Washington in order to have work- 
ers released so they may help you out? 

Mr. Englar. I would have to ask Mr. Gambrill to answer that, be- 
cause that is a State-headquarters problem. 

Mr. Gambrill. I can only answer it this way: We have discussed 
meeting the farm-labor shortage when it got that acute through our 
clearance procedure in our employment service. In other words, our 
orders would go out to the surrounding States, to locate surplus labor 
that could be transported into Maryland in these areas where labor 
was short. So far, we haven't had any occasion to attempt to use that. 

talk of shortage in all states 

I attended a conference in Richmond about 2 months ago, and dele- 
gates from all the States represented there testified that they had a 
shortage themselves, and it wasn't likely that orders sent to those 
Sates for labor to come to Maryland would meet with any degree of 
success. 

Now, we haven't had a test on that to see just what would happen if 
there was a real, actual shortage of farm labor. 

The Chairman. I noticed an Associated Press dispatch today about 
two or three airplanes taking off from Chicago with thousands of 
pounds of yeast for Oklahoma and some of the Southern States. That 
suggests a little warning as to the urgency of situations that might 
come about because of a shortage of food which may be caused by a 
shortage of farm labor. 

I think, Mr. Gambrill, some forehanded attention should be given to 
this matter. It may become more acute than we think. 

Mr. Gambrill. That is possible. We have endeavored to anticipate 
such a situation. I think Dr. De Vault may have testified to that. We 
made some inquiries in the southern colleges for students to work on 
the farms in Maryland. We have had several lists of those, and they 
have been offered to the farmer, but in each case the farmer said he 
would not pay the transportation from these areas to Baltimore. That 
may be a further indication that the shortage is not critical. For, if it 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6149 

were, he would have to take some real action. I believe there is enough 
surplus labor, irrespective of whether it is qualified, available here in 
Maryland for the farm work if the men could be transported to the 
farms and taught how to do the work. 

There is a surplus of that type of labor in Baltimore. Just how much 
I don't know, but that is my own opinion. 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb. 

EMPLOYMENT SERVICE FARM PLACEMENTS 

Dr. Lamb. The figure of 5,000 was mentioned as having been placed 
through the State employment service for farm jobs this year. Do 
you happen to know what the comparable figure was for last year ? 

Mr. Gambrill. No ; I don't think it was over 1,000. 

Dr. Lamb. So you have greatly increased the number of placements ? 

Mr. Gambrill. Yes; but that difference also could be explained. 
Those figures include the recruiting of migratory labor. We didn't 
do that last year. We hadn't set up the machinery to coordinate and 
direct the migratory labor coming from Virginia. This year we were 
able to do that. 

Dr. Lamb. Some of those same laborers who had come without 
direction in 1940 may have been moved this year through your service? 

Mr. Gambrill. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. And that would explain the larger figure ? 

Mr. Gambrill. It would ; yes. 

Dr. Lamb. Rather than any increase in the actual supply ? 

Mr. Gambrill. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, gentlemen. 

(The following statement was received from Mr. Gambrill subse- 
quent to the hearing, and in accordance with instructions of the chair- 
man, is made a part of the record :) 

STATEMENT BY F. B. GAMBRILL. FIELD SUPERVISOR, MARYLAND 
STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, BALTIMORE, MD. 

I do not know how much I can add to the information which I gave you at the 
hearing regarding the shortage of farm labor in Maryland. I believe that in 
my testimony I stated the shortage existing at that time could be estimated 
around 8,000 ; 2,000 of these workers being for harvest hands which require little 
or no previous experience. 

We have been experiencing considerable difHculty in supplying individual 
farmers here and there who desire experienced hands. However, judging from 
reports I have received, some of this shortage is being taken care of by the use 
of machinery and by more members of the family engaging in farm work than 
heretofore. I would not want to say that this condition existed on every farm, 
as there will be farmers who will be seriously affected by their inability to obtain 
qualified people. No information has reached me lately of any serious situations, 
although it is possible that they may not have been reported. 

With regard to the harvest-hand situation, the majority of these workers were 
needed on the lower Eastern Shore, and have been supplied by our office mainly 
through the use of migratory labor. As I informed you, this is the first year 
our service has established any definite program for migratory labor. We added 
four people to the staff of our local office, and established a suboffice on the 
Maryland- Virginia State line in Worcester Country. 

These four men have been recruiting and directing the migratoi'y labor coming 
up from Virginia, and, in addition, they visit the farmers to whom this labor is 
assigned and endeavor to move them to other farmers as the croiJS are picked 



5150 BALTIMORE HEAIilNGS 

over. Normally, these workers would remain idle after a crop was first picked 
over and before the farmers needed them again. Our arrangement provided 
that these workers, instead of being idle, could be used by other farmers and 
then transferred back as necessary. 

By this method, we were able to make much more efficient use of the workers* 
time than heretofore. This has been very helpful in alleviating the conditions 
caused by a shortage of workers. The recent reports received from this area do 
not indicate any serious situations. One or two farmers in the Dorchester County 
area have had some difficulty in obtaining labor, and in some instances we have 
not been able to help them. There have been only a few of these cases, and they 
do not seriously affect the whole situation. 

We exiject to have some difficulties when corn-harvest season starts, and we 
are now endeavoring to prepare for that eventuality. One of the methods we will 
use will be to organize corn-cutting crews which can be sent around to the 
farmers. 

As you probably know, the Work Projects Administration has drastically cut 
its rolls in Maryland, and, through our cooperation with them, this reduction 
has been made with the view toward releasing, as far as possible, all the qualified 
farm labor. By this action criticism formerly made by the farmers with regard 
to Work Projects Administration labor has been practically eliminated. 

The Chairman. Our next witness is Mr. Harrell. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM HARRELL, SALISBURY, MD. 

The Chairman. Will you please state your full name and age, Mr. 
Harrell? 

Mr. Harrell. William Harrell. I am 35. 

The Chairman. Where were you born? 

Mr. Harrell. Georgia. 

The Chairman. And what was your occupation there? 

Mr. Harrell. Mechanic. 

The Chairman. What kind of mechanic ? 

Mr. Harrell. Automobile. 

The Chairman. How long did you work at that? 

Mr. Harrell. Well, I have been following it up until about 3 years 
ago. 

The Chairman. All your folks live there, do they ? 

Mr. Harrell. No, sir ; they live in Tallahassee, Fla. 

The Chairman, Are they farmers? 

Mr. Harrell. No, sir ; garage work— run shops. 

The Chairman. Are you married? 

Mr. Harrei.l. No. 

The Chairman. When did you leave Georgia? 

Mr. Harrell. I left there in April. 

The Chairman. This year? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes. 

The Chairman. Where did you go ? 

Mr. Harrell, I came to Baltimore. 

The Chairman. How did you happen to come here? 

Mr. Harrell. Do you mean looking for work ? 

The Chairman. Did you come here to work after hearing that work 
was available? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes. 

The Chairman. While in Florida you heard work was available 
here? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes. 

The Chairman. Who told you about it? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6151 

Mr. Harrell. Well, it was advertised in the paper. 

The Chairman. What did the advertisement say? 

Mr. Harrell. Shipyard workers. 

The Chairman. And yon felt that yon wonld like to get into that 
work? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you get employment ? 

Mr. Harrell. I got 1 week. 

The Chairman. Where? 

Mr. Harrell. Over here on Key Highway. 

The Chairman. How much did yon earn ? 

Mr. Harrell. 75 cents an hour. 

The Chairman. Where did you live? 

Mr. Harrell. I lived on Barnes Street. 

The Chairman. What sort of house was it? 

Mr. Harrell. Well, it was an apartment house. 

The Chairman. How much did you pay? 

Mr. Harrell. $8 a week. 

The Chairman. Now, you only worked at that job one week? 

Mr. Harrell. That is all; and I got laid off. 

The Chairman. And then what did you do? 

Mr. Harrell. I went down here to the Reemployment Bureau, 
down here on Pratt Street. They advertised for berry pickers and 
I went down there and there was no berries down there and I made 
45 cents. 

The Chairman. Who told you there were berries to be picked? 

Mr. Harrell. This reemployment place on Pratt Street. 

The Chaikman. How did you get down there? 

Mr. Harrell. Took us on a truck. 

The Chairman. What did you pay for transportation? 

Mr. Harrell. We didn't pay anything for transportation. 

The Chairman. But they told you that there was employment 
down there in berry picking? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes, sir; we got hired out of this place to go down 
there, 65 of us. 

The Chairman. And how maiiy trucks? 

Mr. Harreli.. One truck. Had us jammed in there like cows. 

The Chairman. How long did it take you to make the trip? 

Mr. Harrell. Eleven hours to Concordia, Va. 

The Chairman. And you stopped how many times? 

Mr. Harrell. One time. No eats or nothing going down. 

The Chairman. How many States did you cross? 

Mr. Hari!Ell. Well, I can't exactly tell you how many States we 
crossed but we went on out Delaware Street, Baltimore, and right on 
down. I don't imagine more than two. 

The Chairman. But you stopped only once during the 11 hours? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes, sir; stopped only once. 

The Chairman. They do better than that with cattle under the 
law. 

Mr. Harrell. I figured they should do it. 

The Chairman. And you had how many in the truck? 

Mr. Harrell. 65 of us; combined white and colored, mixed. 

The Chairman. How many miles was that? 



0152 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Harrell. I don't know, sir, how far it was. I wasn't up there 
and I couldn't tell, but I can tell you how long it took me to get back 
to Salisbury. It took me 2 days hitch hiking back. 

The Chairman. Did you work down there at all ? 

Mr. Harrell. About 2 hours' work. 

The Chairman. How much did you get for that? 

Mr. Harrell. 45 cents for the 2 hours. That is how many berries 
I picked at 3 cents a quart. 

The Chairman. Wliy didn't you pick more berries ? 

Mr. Harrell. There wasn't none there to pick. 

The Chairman. Do you think the employment agency here got the 
wrong information? 

Mr. Harrell. No; they didn't get wrong information. They were 
getting so much a head for shipping us down there. 

The Chairman. You mean the employment agency was paid for 
sending you down ? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes. 

The Chairman. Wliat did the man get who drove you down there! 

Mr. Harrell. Well, he had the truck. I don't know what he got 
but the employment agency got a dollar a head for us. 

The Chairman. Did you pay a dollar? 

Mr. Harrell. No, sir; Mr. Dumas paid that. 

The Chairman. So you got 2 hours' work down there in Virginia? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes, sir. That completed the work. Two hours 
for 65 men down there completed all the berries. We lived off of tin 
cans and slept under the trees down there. 

Tlie Chairman. You didn't sleep in a house ? 

Mr. Harrell. No, sir; there was no house down there. 

The Chairman. What month was that? 

Mr. Harrell. It was in May, the 1st of May when we got dovni 
there, right at the beginning of the strawberry picking. 

The Chairman. Did you clean up all the strawberries? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes, sir ; cleaned them up. 

The Chairman. Where did you go from there? 

Mr. Harrell. I came back to Salisbury. 

The Chairman. What did you do there? 

Mr. Harrell. I got in with the State employment bureau down 
there and they shipped me back to Marion Station. 

The Chairman. Where is that? 

Mr. Harrell. Paul Dumas. 

The Chairman. Did you get employment there ? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes. 

The Chairman. What did you do? 

Mr. Harrell. Picked berries. 

The Chairman. How long did you pick berries ? 

Mr. Harrell. Two weeks. 

The Chairman. What did you receive? 

Mr. Harrell. I received 3 cents a quart. I was making around $5 
a day. Berries was good there. Our living quarters was good. 

The Chairman. How many employees were there? 

Mr. Harrell. I guess there was around 35 or 40 of us there. 

The Chairman. Where did you live ? 

Mr. Harrell. We stayed in what we call a bunkhouse out there. 

The Chairman. And after that where did you go ? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6153 

Mr. Harrell. After that came up to Princess Anne. 

The Chairman. What did you do there? 

Mr, Harrell. I was farming, cutting wheat and threshing wheat. 

The Chairman. What wages did you receive? 

Mr. Harrell. 15 cents an hour — supposed to be. 

The Chairman. Did you actually receive it? 

Mr. Harrell. No, sir ; I got $7 a week. Supposed to get $7 a week 
and room and board. I got the $7, but the room and board wasn't 
there. I slept in a barn. Living quarters was no good. 

The Chairman. How many fellow employees were with you ? 

Mr. Harrell. Seven of us there. 

The Chairman. "WTiere did you sleep, in the hay loft? 

Mr. Harrell. I slept in a feed house out there. There was no hay 
there. Had a cot out there. 

The Chairman. And the food was not good, you say? 

Mr. Harrell. It wasn't anything that anyone could feed a dog. 
You would feed a dog better than they treated us. 

The Chairman. For instance, what did you have to eat? 

Mr. Harrell. Well, breakfast there, I got one egg and two pieces of 
bread and a cup of coffee. Lucky to get that. 

The Chairman. W^iat about the rest of the meals ? 

Mr. Harrell. Well, we would snatch it when we could get it and 
work 14 or 15 hours a day. 

The Chairman. But you got the $7 a week? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You stayed there 2 weeks? 

Mr. Harrell. Not quite 2 weeks. 

The Chairman. Wliere did you go from there? 

Mr. Harrell. I came back to Salisbury. 

The Chairman. And then what did you do? 

Mr. Harrell. I went out on another farm, which I am on now. 

The Chairman. How much do you receive there? 

Mr. Harrell. 20 cents an hour and good living quarters. 

The Chairman. And you are satisfied with that job? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes, sir. I give the reemployment bureau in Salis- 
bury credit for what they have done. 

The Chairman. What improvements would you like? 

Mr. Harrell. Better living quarters. 

The Chairman. We have been all over the United States and we 
find that quite a general complaint. 

Mr. Harrell. That is it, and the food. 

The Chairman. We have heard a great deal of complaint about 
housing. 

Mr. Harrell. The food where they give you and so much a week 
and room and board — there isn't anything to it. A workingman 
can't stand up to it. 

Mr. Englar. May I make a statement in connection with this 
man? We have kind of had him under our wing in Salisbury after 
his unfortunate experience on the truck. I couldn't hear all his 
testimony, but I hope he didn't say that that employment agency in 
Baltimore was a State agency. 

The Chairman. He didn't say that. We understand it is a private 
agency. 



gX54 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Englar. I have sent Glenn L. Martin his application for work 
there. I haven't heard anything^ from it. He seems to be satisfied 
in his present job, but I am hoping that we might get him in Glenn 
L. Martin Co. because, frankly, while he has been drifting around, 
he seems most anxious to work and will do most anything, and I 
believe he is more or less qualified for work down here in a plant 
like the airplane plant. I am hoping we might have a favorable 
reply from them. I am keeping track of him and I am going to try 
to do better for him than put him on a farm if he is qualified for 
other work. 

The Chairman. Will you tell us the agency it was that sent him 
on this wild-goose chase into Virginia ? 

Mr. Harrell. I don't know what it was, but it is down here on 
Pratt Street. 

The Chairman. It was a private employment agency? 

Mr. Harrell. Yes, sir; I guess that is what you would call it. 
They had a sign out there : "Wanted, 100 berry pickers." 

The Chairman. Well, we thank you very much, Mr. Harrell.^ 

Our next witness is Mr. Roberts. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES EGBERTS, POCOMOKE CITY, MD. 

The Chairman. Mr. Roberts, Congressman Arnold will interrogate 
you. 

Mr. Abnold. Will you give your full name to the reporter ? 

Mr. Roberts. James Roberts. 

Mr. Arnold. And what is your age ? 

Mr. Roberts. 29. 

Mr. Arnold. And what is the extent of your education? 

Mr. Roberts. Eighth grade. 

Mr. Arnold. And your occupation? 

Mr. Roberts. Farm labor now. 

Mr. Arnold. And your place of birth ? 

Mr. Roberts. June' 7, 1912. 

Mr. Arnold. Where? 

Mr. Roberts. Florida. 

Mr. Arnold. Where is your permanent home now? 

Mr. Roberts. I am now in Pocomoke City, Md. 

Mr. Arnold. Are you single or married? 

Mr. Roberts. Married. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you a family? 

Mr. Roberts. Wife and one child. 

Mr. Arnold. Are your wife and child with you ? 

Mr. Roberts. My wife is, but my child is not here. 

Mr. Arnold. Where is your child ? 

Mr. Roberts. Home with my wife's mother. 

Mr. Arnold. Where do you live at the present time and for whom 
do you work? 

Mr. Roberts. G. M. Sturgis, Pocomoke City, Md., route 2. 

Mr. Arnold. Wliat do you do ? 

Mr. Roberts. Lreader over a gang of farm help. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have to work in that capacity or do you just 
see that the others work ? 



1 Text of H. R. 5510, "a Mil to regulate private employment agencies engaged in inter- 
state commerce," introduced by Mr. Tolan, is reprinted in this volume as exhibit 35. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6155 

Mr. Roberts. See that the others work. 

Mr. Arnold. How many in the gang ? 

Mr. Roberts. Forty-two. 

Mr. Arnold. You brought this crew of men to eastern Maryland for 
harvest work? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

]Mr. Arnold. And you brought 42 with you this year? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Where did you get them ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I got the 42 that I brought from Florida, some 
of them from the southern sugar farms and some from around different 
places. 

Mr. Arnold. Are these workers mostly single or married ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, there is about equal part married and equal part 
single — about half and half. 

Mr. Arnold. Are their families with them? 

Mr. Roberts. Some are and some are not. 

Mr. Arnold. Some are at home? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. How did you transport these workers up here? 

Mr. Roberts. By truck. 

Mr. Arnold. Trucks or truck? 

Mr. Roberts. Truck ; one truck and a driver — a hired truck. 

Mr. Arnold. You say some of them brought their families with 
them. How many were there in the truck? 

Mr. Roberts. Forty-two, forty-three, or forty-four, including the 
driver and myself. 

Mr. Arnold. Then the wives who are with their husbands are 
workers, too? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you charge them for the transportation? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir; 1 had to charge them on account of the 
fellow charged me. 

Mr. Arnold. How much? 

Mr. Roberts. Six dollars each and 50 cents for crossing the ferry. 

Mr. Arnold. Does your employer pay you for bringing the 
crew up ? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir; he does not. 

Mr. Arnold. The workers themselves have to stand that? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir ; I pay it and they pay me. 

Mr. Arnold. How did you get in touch with your emploj^er, or 
how did he get in touch with you? 

Mr. Roberts, Well, this fellow by the name of Henry Martin has 
been working for Mr. Willis Hall, a neighbor of Mr. Sturgis. He 
has been coming up for about 3 or 4 years and he got in touch with 
Mr. Sturgis by picking beans for him and Mr. Sturgis asked him if 
he could get him some responsible person to bring him a crowd to 
take care of his farm and he recommended me to him. Mr. Sturgis 
wrote me and through the transaction of the mail that is the way 
I got in touch with him. 

Mr. Arnold. This is your first year up here ? 

Mr. Roberts. My first year with him. 

Mr. Arnold. You have been up here before? 

Mr. Roberts. That is right. 



6156 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr, Arnold. How long have you been bringing workers up here? 

Mr. Roberts. This is my ninth year. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you bring them up for the same employer each 
year? 

Mr. Roberts. This is the first year for Mr. Sturgis. 

Mr. Arnold. Does the same farmer have you bring them year after 
year, or do you work each year for a different farmer ? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir; never have. 

Mr. Arnold. Always work for a different man? 

Mr. Roberts. Different man. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you recruit labor for any other farmers? 

Mr. Roberts. When we don't have anything to do at home we work 
out any place else we can. If we don't have beans or anything to 
keep us working all the time we go elsewhere to work. 

Mr. Arnold. Under what arrangement do you work for those other 
farmers ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, the same as I do for him ; 50 cents an hour. 

Mr. Arnold. Did you come to the Eastern Shore directly from 
Florida or did you and your crew stop to work at some place between 
here and there? 

Mr. Roberts. Direct from Florida to the Eastern Shore. 

Mr. Arnold. Wasn't there any work to do on the way up? 

Mr. Roberts. I suppose there was, but it was disagreeable to stop 
on account of if they make anything they take it all foT transporta- 
tion. It would be better if we could get some place and stay until 
the season is out and then go back. 

Mr. Arnold. You just got this word to recruit a crew in time to 
get them together and get them up here ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. When do you usually leave Florida? 

Mr. Arnold. Well, we usually leave Florida along about the 10th 
or 20th of May. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you stop on the way up and work usually? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I never worked up, not in the last 3 years, I 
haven't. About 4 years ago I worked through. 

Mr. Arnold. Wliere? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, we stopped in North Carolina — well, all the 
way through from west Florida on the way up — North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Virginia, and through the State of Maryland. 

Mr. Arnold. What work is there to do on the way up here ? 

Mr. Roberts. Potatoes and beans — first one thing and another. 

Mr. Arnold. How long do you usually stay at each of these places? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, since I have been coming to the Eastern Shore 
and around this section I usually comes and stays until I get ready to 
go back in about the last of October. 

Mr. Arnold. How long did it take you to come from Florida up 
to the Eastern Shore this time ? 

Mr. Roberts. Two days and two nights. 



NATIONAI. DEFENSE MIGRATION 6157 

Mr. Arnold. Were there any stops en route ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, no more than just to relax. 

Mr. Arnold. Did you eat on the run ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir ; we did. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you say you stopped every 12 hours for a few 
minutes ? 

Mr. Roberts. Stopped less than that. Would stop practically— 
anyway from every 5 or 6 hours. 

Mr. Arnold. Was it comfortable riding in the truck? Did you 
have seats? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir; we had seats. Each one was seated. 

Mr. Arnold. Did the truck driver, after he had taken your money, 
try to get you up here in any manner that he could, or did he look 
after the comfort of those in the truck? 

Mr. Roberts. Sure. 

Mr. Arnold. Did you recruit all the labor that your employer said 
he wanted? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir; I did not. He wanted 75 head but I only 
brought 42, but since I have been here some more have come to him 
and then some have left, but I have got some others in their place. 

Mr. Arnold. Are you told in advance how much you and your 
crew are going to be paid for your work ? 

Mr. Roberts. I was. 

Mr. Arnold. What did you say you get? 

Mr. Roberts. Fifty cents an hour. 

Mr. Arnold. What do the men get? 

Mr. Roberts. Twenty-five cents a hamper. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't work by piece work? 

Mr. Roberts. Not in this State ; I do in Florida. 

Mr. Arnold. The men work by piece work ? 

Mr. Roberts. Picking beans and gathering potatoes. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you contract to stay with this farmer during the 
entire season? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir; until he is finished. But it was under- 
stood that when he don't have work I could work elsewhere. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you just draw your own pay and the men draw 
theirs, or do you draw all the pay and pay them ? 

Mr. Roberts. I draw the entire pay roll and have to pay the gang 
off. 

Mr. Arnold. Can you tell the committee how much you yourself 
earn a day, a week, and a season? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I usually earn on the Eastern Shore anywhere 
from $5 to $7 or $8 a day — on the average anywhere from $6 to 
$6.50 a day. 

Mr. Arnold. How much do you average a week? 

Mr. Roberts. Around $36 a week. 

Mr. Arnold. How much will you make in a season? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, just depends on how the season will be. 



g258 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. Could you make an estimate of what you are going 
to earn this year — from January to Januai-y? 

Mr. KoBERTS. Well, I haven't any check. I would be afraid to say 
because I wouldn't be positive of it and I wouldn't like to say some- 
thing I wouldn't know positive of. 

Mr. Arnold. About how many months in the year will you work? 

Mr. Egberts. Well, the time I am not working in Florida I come up 
here, and I only lose about a week's time coming up. 

Mr. Arnold. Then you have work most of the time ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you average $36 a week throughout the year? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes ; average $36 a week. 

Mr. Arnold. So you make about $1,800 a year? 

Mr. Roberts. I suppose right around there, but that is not clear. I 
have lots of losses. 

Mr. Arnold. You have to take losses ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes ; I have lots of loss. 

Mr. Arnold. How can you lose money? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I have to bear all the expense of my employees, 
and lots of them sneak out on me, and I don't get any pay back from 
them, and when I advance money on them I am responsible, and if they 
don't pay it I have it to pay. 

Mr. Arnold. They borroAv money from you ? 

Mr. Roberts. Sure. 

Mr. Arnold. And sometimes you have to advance their transpor- 
tation ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Are you allowed in addition to your salary so much 
per person for their work ? I mean are you allowed so much per hour 
for these other men? 

Mr. Roberts. Not anything at all. I am just paid by the man. 

Mr. Arnold. But you draw the money and pay them? 

Mr. Roberts. I draw the money and pay them ; yes. 

Mr. Arnold. When do you usually come to the Eastern Shore, and 
when do you leave? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, we come around the 10th of May until the 20th, 
and we leave anywhere from about the middle of October to the last. 

Mr. Arnold. You are here about 5 months ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. And you have steady w^ork all the time you are here? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I wouldn't say we have steady work — not up 
here we don't. Some days we have off. 

Mr. Arnold. Wliere do you go when you leave Maryland ? 

Mr. Roberts. Florida. 

Mr. Arnold. Straight back to Florida? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes; straight back to Florida. 

Mr. Arnold. Now, what type of shelter do you and your crew have 
at the farms on which you are employed ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, it is not fit where we are now. 

Mr. Arnold. It is not what ? 

Mr. Roberts. It is not fit. 

Mr. Arnold. What is the matter with it? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6159 

Mr. Roberts. Well, we don't have no beds, no cooking ntensils, 
and no place for a bath, or nothing. It is just unsanitary all the 
way around. 

^Ir. Arnold. Is it a bunkhouse.? 

Mr. Roberts. Just a straight bunkhouse — I might as well say a 
dag house. 

The Chairman. It is the bunk — is that what you mean ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. You have seen dog houses that were better ? 

Mr. Roberts. I sure have. 

INIr. Arnold. What kind of beds do you have ? 

Mr. Roberts. Just something resembling a table like this — made 
out of a board, and it has got a strip around it and on each side 
and the ends with some hay on it. 

Mr. Arnold. Is the hay in a ticking? 

Mr. Roberts, Don't have no ticking at all. 

Mr. Arnold. Just lie on the hay? 

Mr. Roberts. If they don't make some arrangements for it you 
don't have it and I think that is one reason why they don't have any 
more help than they do, on account of the stay places— doesn't have 
sufficient places to stay and I don't think that a man can go out and 
work a day all day long, hard work, and go in and take any kind of 
bed and not get any rest and work. It is necessary to have a place 
to sleep if you are going to work hard. If they had more comfort- 
able places to stay I believe we would have more help and better 
satisfaction all the way around. 

Mr. Arnold, You say it is not very clean ? 

Mr, Roberts, No, sir ; it is not sanitary at all, 

Mr, Arnold. You have to clean the place yourself? 

Mr. Roberts. Don't have much time to do that because we are out 
in the morning anywhere from 4 to 4 : 30 and 5 o'clock and hardly 
ever get in under 7 : 30 or 8 o'clock. 

Mr. Arnold. Well, do you have a cook or do you cook your own 
meals? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, those that has wives, they cook for them, and 
them that don't have to cook their own meals. 

Mr. Arnold. Wliere do you cook? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, we have a stove to cook on — have a couple of 
stoves. 

Mr. Arnold. Outdoors or indoors? 

Mr. Roberts, Outdoors. 

Mr Arnold. What do you do when it rains ? 

Mr. Roberts. Just have to wait until it stops. 

Mr. Arnold. Then you have to cook after dark when you get in at 
night? 

lilr. Roberts. Sure, we cook after dark, after we get in. 

Mr. Arnold. You have to get your supper after dark? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. And have to get up and get your breakfast pretty 
early ? 

Mr, Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Arnold, What do you do for the noon-day meal ? 



gJgQ BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. Roberts. They usually sneak out one at a time and go home and 
get something when we are close home, and when we are not we go to a 
store some place and get something. 

Mr. Arnold. How far do you have to carry your drinking water? 

Mr. Roberts. Drinking water — well, sometimes we just be right 
at the water and then again have to go 2 or 3 miles for it. 

Mr. Arnold. I mean do you have drinking water there at the house? 

Mr. Roberts. Oh, yes ; we have a pump there at the house. 

Mr. Arnold. Any toilets there? 

Mr. Roberts. No toilets. 

Mr. Arnold. No outdoor toilets ? 

Mr. Roberts. Oh, we have one. We built it our ownselves. 

Mr. Roberts. What furniture is there in these bunkhouses besides 
the beds? 

Mr. Roberts. Not any at all. 

Mr. Arnold. No bed, no furniture, or anything ? 

Mr. Roberts. No. 

Mr. Arnold. Does any farm employer ever advance you money for 
transportation, food, and so forth, coming up ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, on the terms of my paying it back. 

Mr. Arnold. He advanced you that money sometimes? 

Mr. Roberts. Sure. 

Mr. Arnold. And then when you get up here he takes it out of your 
wages ? 

Mr. Roberts. Sure, I am responsible for it all. 

Mr. Arnold. And you have to advance money to the workers? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. What are you harvesting at this time ? 

Mr. Roberts. Tomatoes, beans, strawberries — all over cutting 
turnips — such as that. 

Mr. Arnold. It is an average season, is it? 

Mr. Roberts. Not as usual. 

Mr. Arnold. Too dry ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes ; too dry. 

Mr. Arnold. "V^^lat crops are short? 

Mr. Roberts. All the way around on everything. 

Mr. Arnold. Are the members of your crew satisfied — happy ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, to a certain extent they are and then they are not 
in a way. They are not making enough money to hardly pay expense, 
and then too the farmers are not organized. Some will pay one price 
and some will pay another price. It is just disagreeable in that way. 
If they would organize themselves and all pay the same thing it would 
be more agreeable. 

Mr. Arnold. Are they happy enough to sing at night like they do 
down South? 

Mr. Roberts. Not as much as they do down South. 

Mr. Arnold. Don't have much music around there ? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have time for that? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, not much. It is more work and less money. 

Mr. Arnold. Did you find it more difficult to round up a crew this 
year than last vear? 



NATIONAIi DEFENSE MIGRATION 6161 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir; certainly was. 

Mr. Arnold. How do you account for that? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, there is a different story to each one. Some 
don't like the place they have to live and some think they can't make 
as mucli money as they can in Florida. Some have come up here 
and work and don't make enough money to get back home with. It 
is just from one to another — just different all the way around. 

Mr. Arnold. Has the draft taken some of your men ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I suppose so. 

Mr. Arnold. Is there the amount of labor supply down there there 
was last .year, or is it short ? 

Mr. Roberts. I believe it is short. 

Mr. Arnold. How can conditions for you and your workers be 
improved ? You may answer that question in your own way. 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I think if it was organized between the farm- 
ers — it should be a farm association and they should organize and 
agree to a certain price between all of them, and if they are going to 
plant they should plant enough to support the help and they shouldn't 
require any more than they can use. At the present time they don't 
have enough help to take care of what they have on account of 
conditions. 

I reckon some of them in years back didn't make enough money to 
pay expenses to get back to Florida and were disappointed and they 
disappointed others, and so forth. One thing about it is really they 
don't pay enough. It should pay a little bit more because a man 
going over the beans the first time can make some money, but the 
second time in going over the beans he doesn't make any money. 
They pay the same j^rice for the second and third and fourth pickings 
here as they do the first picking. 

In Florida they pay 25 cents for the first picking and 35 cents for 
the second picking and the fourth picking and fifth picking they pay 
40 and 50 cents, but on the Eastern Shore they pay you 25 cents for 
the first and 25 cents for the fourth. A man makes a dollar and a 
half or two dollars on first picking but he can't do it on the second or 
third or fourth. You can only make about 50 or 75 cents. That don't 
mean any living to him. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all. 

The Chairman. You got these people from the sugar plantations 
in the Everglades of Florida? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir ; part of them. 

The Chairman. Were they employed there? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir ; part w^as and some was got discharged. 

The Chairman. But were the employed ones dissatisfied with their 
work at the sugar plantation ? 

Mr. Roberts. They was. 

The Chairman. What were their complaints? 

Mr. Roberts. Too many hours and not enough money. 

The Chairman. Did they have any complaints about their housing? 

Mr. Roberts. No complaints about the housing. 

The Chairman. They have pretty good housing conditions ? 

Mr. Roberts. Sure. 

The Chairman. We heard testimony at Montgomery, x\la., last year 
on the same subject by one of the owners of the plantation. They had 



QIQ2 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

gone in there and reclaimed thousands of acres of those Everglades 
and put them into sugar, 

Mr, Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How much were they paying them down there? 

Mr. Roberts. I think they cut it to 80 cents a ton for cutting the 
sugarcane. 

The Chairman. How much can they make a day at that ? 

Mr. Roberts. Oh, they average anywhere from $45 to $60 a month, 
working anywhere from 12 to 14 hours. 

The Chairman. Does that include board and room? 

Mr. Roberts. Not include board and room. 

The Chairman. They board themselves? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, some do and some don't. 

The Chairman. Are they charged anything for their houses? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir ; don't charge for the house. 

The Chairman. But they have got to board themselves out of that 
money ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Now, were these all colored people you brought up 
here, all of the 42? 

Mr. Roberts. All colored. 

The Chairman. And how many men were there? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, around about — I had about 10 women. 

The Chairman. Were those women all married? 

Mr. Roberts. Sure, all the women were married. 

The Chairman. In other words, you had about 32 men in the truck 
and 10 women? 

Mr. Roberts. Thirty-two and 10 women ; yes. sir. 

The Chairman. How large was the truck? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, it is a long-base truck, cab over engine, a Ford 
truck. It is 8 feet wide and 16 feet long, the body. 

The Chairman. And in that you had 42, and then the driver, and 
yourself, and who else? 

Mr. Roberts. Just the driver and myself — 44 in all. 

The Chairman. Eight by 16. Weren't they pretty crowded ? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, they had room to be seated and room for all 
their luggage. 

The Chairman. I imagine 44 people in an 8-by-16 room would be 
rather crowded, wouldn't they? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, they wouldn't have any room to lay down or 
anything like that. There was only 42 in the body of the truck and 
two in the cab. 

The Chairman. Was the weather pretty hot? 

Mr. Roberts. The weather was pretty warm. 

The Chairman. How many miles from the point in Florida where 
you loaded these 42 to the point on the Eastern Shore of Maryland? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, I couldn't say. 

The Chairman. Have you any idea? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir ; I have no idea. 

The Chairman. How many States did you go through ? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6163 

Mr. Roberts. We left out of the State of Florida and crossed the 
State of Georgia and South Carolina and North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia into Maryland. 

The Chaikman. Do 3^ou have any license to go through these States 
with a truck — anj- special license? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir ; they have ; the driver has. 

The Chairman. And you pay the driver ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How much did you pay him? 

Mr. Roberts. $6 each — a head. 

The Chairman. You had two drivers or just one driver? 

Mr. Roberts. One driver. 

The Chairman. And you paid him $6 each ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. I am talking about the driver himself. Did you 
pay him independently? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. But you paid the driver? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. The driver got the $6 times 42 ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes; 6 times 42. 

The Chairman. That is what I was trying to get at. You didn't 
get anything out of that $6 yourself, did you ? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir; I don't get anything whatever out of that. 

The Chairman. And the driver got all the $252, didn't he? 

Mr. Roberts. That is right. 

The Chairman. How long did it take him to make that drive? 

Mr. Roberts. Tavo days and two nights. 

The Chairman. Now, did these 42 people, when they left Florida, 
put anything down on their transportation? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir; I was responsible for it. They have to pay 
me. 

The Chairman. Did you pay the driver as soon as you arrived on 
the Eastern Shore? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And then you collected back from the workers? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir; as they work and earn it. 

The Chairman. Well, how do you do that? Do you extract so 
much a week? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir; so much a week, just as they are able to 
pay, whatever they are able to pay. 

The Chairman. Now, you have been in that sort of work for a 
period of 9 years? 

Mr. Roberts. 15 years. 

The Chairman. But you have never worked for the same employer? 

Mr. Roberts. Not up in this part, I haven't. 

The Chairman. Well, during the 9 years you have had a different 
employer every year; is that right? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes. sir. 

Tlie Chairman. Why is that? 

60396— 41— pt. 15 19 



5164 BALTIMORE hp:arings 

Mr. Roberts. Well, when I work for one man 1 year, another will 
offer me a little better price the next year. Where I can make the 
most money, that is where I work at. 

The Chairman. Do you know of any instances of the contractors 
recruiting these laborers and bringing them into States where there 
is no employment ? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir ; I do not. 

The Chairman. Now you collect from the employer the wages for 
all these people, don't you? 
Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do they keep track themselves as to how much 
money is coming to them? 
Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And you check with them? 
Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Did you ever have any difficulty about that? 
Mr. Roberts. Never have. 

The Chairman. Do these employers who have these seasonal crops 
get different crews each year ? 
Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Inasmuch as they know a certain number of people 
are coming in there, why don't they have decent housing conditions 
for them? 

Mr. Roberts. Well, the way I see it is they are unable to do it. I 
figure they are unable to have them fixed like they should be. I don't 
think none of the farmers are alile to prepare the place for ])eople — 
a comfortable place like they should have. 

The Chairman. But the places you have seen are really not livable^ 
is that right ? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir; they are not. Down in my country, down 
there in the Southern States where I am from, it is comfortable down 
there and the people don't mind coming and staying because they 
get comfortable living quarters. 

The Chairman. Wliat time does your crew go to work in the 
morning? 

Mr. Roberts. Anywhere from 4 : 30 to 5 o'clock. 
The Chairman. And they work until what time ? 
Mr. Roberts. Just as long as they can see, from 7 to 8 o'clock. 
The Chairman. And what will they average a day ? 
Mr. Roberts. Well, they average, since they have been working 
here, anywhere from a dollar and a half to two dollars, 14 or 15 
hours, because they don't stop for anything at all. 

The Chairman. They go out at daybreak and work as long as 
they can see ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How long do they take off at noon ? 
Mr. Roberts. Don't take any time. Maybe one will sneak out and 
get a bite, but work never stops. 

The Chairman. And out of that dollar and a half they have to 
board themselves? 

Mr. Roberts. HaA^e to support themselves ; yes. 

The Chairman. How lone; did that crew of 42 work at that place ? 

Mr. Roberts. Riffht around 60 davs. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6165 

The Chairman. Then where did they go? 

Mr. Roberts. To different farms around — one and then the other. 

The Chairman. They go from one farmer to the other? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are the living conditions about the same as you 
indicated ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. All of them the same? 

Mr. Roberts. Just on an average; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. They have no toilets? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir. 

The Chairman. And no baths? 

Mr. Roberts. No. 

The Chairman. And you have to haul your water ? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir; we don't have to haul the water — not at home. 
We have a pump, but it is not fit, hardly. 

Tlie Chairman. And then you build these outside privies, is that 
the idea ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And they all use the one privy ? 

Mr. Roberts. All use the one ; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Were there any additional employees on that par- 
ticular farm? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How many more ? 

Mr. Roberts. I think it is 27. I picked up part of them at Norfolk 
and brought them across, and some came to me since I have been 
there. 

The Chairman. Now, those people who came away from Florida 
get a few days' work, don't they, picking crops ? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Then at the end they are nearly always broke, isn^t 
that true? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir; just able to go back. 

The Chairman. They have just enough money to go back? 

Mr. Roberts. That is just about it. 

The Chairman. And sometimes they haven't, because you have in- 
dicated tliey borrow money from you ? 

Mr. Roberts. That is right. Most generally I have to carry them 
back just like I bring them. 

Tlie Chairman. Did you ever borrow money from them ? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir — they don't have anything for me to borrow. 

The Chairman. How did vo.i come out on that $6-a-head proposi- 
tion? 

Mr. Roberts. I haven't so far. I am about $300 stuck so far. You 
see. I have got to get groceries and everything else. I have to stand 
for the groceries. Have nearly a $200 grocery bill to pay for besides 
the transportation. 

The Chairman. But the truck driver came out all right? 

Mr. Roberts. Sure, he always comes out. 

The Chairman. He never gives you a kick-back of any kind? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Where did you get the truck? 



5155 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Mr. KoBERTS. In Florida. 

The Chairman. You rented it ? 

Mr. Roberts. No, sir; I didn't rent it. I just hired it. At least he 
told me he would bring them for $6 a head, and that is what they 
usually pay to come up, and pay the ferry toll. 

The Chairman. How much did you pay for the use of the truck? 

Mr. Roberts. Not anything at all, no more than just the $6 a head. 

The Chairman. You got the truck and driver for that? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir; that is right. 

Dr. Lamb. Will that same driver drive up and pick you up and 
take you back again? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. With the same arrangement? 

Mr. Robert. Same arrangement, for $6 a passenger. 

Dr. Lamb. Does he own the truck? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. Is he a colored man or white man? 

Mr. Roberts. White fellow. 

Dr. Lamb. And he is a permanent resident of Florida? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. Does he do this for other people? 

Mr. Roberts. Sure. 

Dr. Lamb. You have no idea how many other groups like yours 
he takes back and forth? 

Mr. Roberts. I don't, but if I remember I know he brings as much 
as five. 

Dr. Lamb. At least five? 

Mr. Roberts. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all. 

The Chairman. Well, thank you very much, Mr. Roberts. 

INTRODUCTION OF EXHIBITS 

Mr. Abbott. Mr. Chairman, I should like at this time to introduce 
into the record certain material received from sources not represented 
by witnesses at this hearing. 

The Chairman, Very well. 

Mr. Abbott. The material is in the form of expert papers on various 
subjects in connection with national-defense migration, and these are 
marked as exhibits and numbered 1 to 35, inclusive. I now offer these 
exhibits, Mr. Chairman, for the record. 

(The exhibits referred to above are as follows:) 

Exhibit 1 — Unemployment Compensation Registrations and Claims 

REPORT KY O. O. YOUNG, ACTING DIBECTOR, RESEiARCH AND STAItTSTIOS. STATE OF MARY- 
LAND UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION BOAKD 

Baltimore, Md., June SO, 19^1. 
The number of workers covered by the INIaryland Un employment Compensation 
Board cannot be exactly determined. We estimate, however, that 450,000 work- 
ers were covered in 1938, 475,000 in 1939. and 570,000 in 1940. The sharp 
increase in the nmber of covered workers from 1939 to 1940 is, in part, 
due to a difference in the method of estimation used for these years. Approxi- 
mately 7.9 percent of these workers had out-of-State social-security numbers 
in 1938, 10.6 percent in 1939, and 11.7 percent in 1940. We believe, therefore, 
on the basis of these data, that from 15,000 to 2."),000 workers came into 
the State during the year 1940. It should be evident that this estimate cannot 
be considered to have been derived from accurate measurements of the inmi- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6167 

gi'ation ; on the contrary it represents no more than our best opinion on the 
matter. 

We are imfortunately unable even to estimate roughly the number of 
workers who came into the State during the year 1941. It is believed that 
the prevailing opinion concerning the extent of this inmigration represents very 
considerable underestimation as a result of ignoring the undirected migration. 

The number of original claims filed reflects the number of persons who become 
unemployed at a particular time. The data are, however, very greatly subject 
to fluctuation purely as a result of the benefit structure in Maryland and in the 
State concerned, and as a result of variations in administrative practices among 
the States. The number of original claims received by Maryland as liable 
State reflects the extent of out-migration from Maryland and the number of 
original claims taken as agent State reflects the extent of in-migration into 
Maryland. The data for the years 1940 and 1941 are not precisely comparable 
since the increase in the number of original claims filed is partially attributable 
to improvements in the administration of interstate benefit agreements. It 
would seem reasonable to assume that the relative number of original claims 
received as liable State and as agent State indicates the direction of the migra- 
tion at a particular time. 



6168 



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6172 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Exhibit 2 — Migration of Workers Arising From Defense Activities 

REPORT BY JAMES H. WOODALI., EMPLOYMENT SECURITY REPRESENTATI\Ta SOCIAL 
SECURITY BOARD, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Reports from the local State employmeiit offices indicate that the movement 
of workers out of the Baltimore-Annapolis area has decreased to negligible pro- 
portions since the institution of the national-defense program. The immigration 
of workers has, however, reached appreciable levels ; from 15,000 to 20,000 work- 
ers are estimated to have moved into the area in search of defense jobs, primarily 
on construction projects. These mass movements have not, however, created 
as yet any social problems of serious proportions. 

BALTIMORE 

On the basis of the data available it is estimated that from 10,000 to 15,000 
workers have moved into Baltimore and the immediate vicinity during the 
period of defense expansion. For the 2-week period ending March 1, 1941 ap- 
proximately 12 percent of the registrants in the Baltimore local office were non- 
residents of Baltimore. Of these approximately 18 percent stated that reix>rts 
of defense activity had attracted them to this area ; 35 percent were transients ; 
and 47 percent came on the advice of friends and relatives. The advertising of 
Baltimore employers in out-of-town papers was considered an important stimu- 
lant. The greatest single factor, however, was the publicity surrounding the 
building program at Fort George G. Meade ; in particular the great majority of 
skilled workers came in response to rumors they had heard about opportunities 
there. 

The nonresident group of registrants showed an increased percentage of 
native male whites and of skilled and semiskilled workers over the normal 
social and occupational distributions for this area. Of 194 cases analyzed 5 
percent were Negroes ; 3 percent aliens, and 15 percent females. Nearly 60 
percent were heads of families and nearly all were within employable age 
limits. Nearly 14 percent were skilled workers and nearly 28 percent semi- 
skilled ; of the 112 in other groups 54 were classified as clerical and professional ; 
15 as domestics ; and 48 as unskilled labor. 

There is no indication that any considerable number of workers have become 
stranded without work. The majority of the migrants is reported to have been 
engaged on the construction project at Fort George G. Meade. Of the registrant 
group of nonresidents the majority of the skilled workers and a few of the 
clerical and professional group have been placed by the employment service, and 
it is believed that the remainder have found work through other sources. 

For the registrant group of in-migrants 19 percent came from the outlying 
counties of this State and the majority of the remainder from New York, 
Virginia, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina in this order. It is probable, 
however, that the percentage of county-migrants is somewhat higher in this 
group than for the migrant group as a whole. 

In general, no social problems have been created by this migration ; housing, 
health, educational, and recreational facilities seem currently to be adequate. 
Around the Glenn L. Martin plant living conditions are not considered satis- 
factory. Many persons are living in trailers, garages, and summer cottages 
because of the lack of housing facilities in the immediate area of the plant 
and their apparent unwillingness to seek better living quarters at greater 
distance from the plant. 

ANNAPOLIS 

In the city of Annapolis in-migration is negligible. It is believed, as a result 
of interviews with the few out-of-State workers who have applied for registra- 
tion, that the lack of overtime on local projects has discouraged the "drifters." 

About 1,200 skilled building craftsmen, recruited by the union locals in Balti- 
more and Washington, are employed on projects at the United States Naval 
Academy. These workers, however, commute daily from their homes by auto- 
mobile. They, therefore, create none of the problems associated with in- 
migration. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6173 

HARFOED COUNTY 

As a result of the construction projects at Edgewood Arsenal and the Aber- 
deen Proving Grounds and of the expansion of the permanent force, in-niigration 
of workers has been relatively important in this area. At Edgewood approxi- 
mately 1,C00 carpenters and 1,000 laborers have been recruited from other 
States since the latter part of 1940, and at Aberdeen about 900 carpenters and 
1,000 laborers since the first part of 1941. In addition about 1,000 migrants have 
obtained civil-service jobs during the period of expansion. 

In the construction field there were in addition some workers who came in 
"on their own" and did not find work. Although the number of such cases 
cannot be determined, it is believed to be small. There were only two cases 
in which the welfare agencies assisted stranded workers. In the civil service 
jobs, of course, the problem did not arise. 

Very few of these workers brought their families with them in spite of the 
fact that nearly two-thirds were married. Both white and colored are em- 
ployed, but no aliens, and no more than 5 percent women. The group was 
characterized by a wide range of ages. In addition to the carpenters and la- 
borers, a few plumbers, sheet-metal workers, and equipment operators were 
employed in construction. The civil-.service jobs w6re distributed among ma- 
chinists, welders, pipe fitters, assemblers, and sewing-machine operators. 

In this area the work is completely unionized. Recruitment was, therefore, 
carried on through union locals in other States under the impetus of high 
wages, in particular of the possibilities of much overtime at time-and-a-half 
and double-time pay. In the carpenter and unskilled out-of-State locals, in 
particular, the imion business agents recruited labor which was formerly non- 
union. 

The housing condition is acute. Every tourist camp within a 25-mile radius 
is occupied by these workmen ; at least 25 percent are compelled to commute to 
their homes in Delaware and Pennsylvania : and large numbers are boarding 
with families in the 25-mile area. Sanitation and other health services and 
the water supply seem to be satisfactory. There are no recreation facilities 
within 35 miles, and it would seem probable that some provision for such 
facilities is necessary to prevent the development of serious social problems 
in this area. 



Exhibit 3 — Woek Projects Administration Report 

bt harry d. wilijar, jr., state administrator, work projects administratton, 
baltimore, md. 

June 26, 1941. 

The following outlines the policy of the Maryland Work Projects Administra- 
tion in the placing of certified persons in private employment and gives some 
general comments with reference to the farm labor situation in this State. 

The Maryland State Employment Service is recognized by the Work Projects 
Administration as being the official placement agency in the S'tate of Maryland, 
and all persons certified for Work Projects Administration work are required to 
keep an active registration with this employment agency. All Wo-rk Projects Ad- 
ministi-ation workers are thus available for placement by the Maryland State 
Employment Service in any job they are capable of performing. Any refusal on 
the part of a certified i^erson to accept any offer of private employment within 
the limits of the Work Projects Administration regulations is immediately re- 
moved from Work Projects Administration employment, if such refusal is brought 
to the attention of the Work Projects Administration. 

The Work Projects Administration, while not assuming the role of a placement 
agency, will release workers direct to private employers if a certain individual is 
requested by name to take private employment under conditions set up in Work 
Projects Administration regulations. 

The above policy applies to all industries, including farm employment, and is 
understood by the Maryland State Emplo-yment Service and by all employers who 
have had contacts with the Work Projects Administration. 



0174 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



The farm-labor shortage does not appear to be as acute as has been reported on 
numerous occasions. Tliis opinion is based upon the fact that the Work Projects 
Administration Division of Employment has received very few requests to release 
VForkers direct to farmers, and comparatively few definite direct requests for farm 
labor from the Maryland State Employment Service. 

Several weeks ago, on the basis of reports received from truck farmers in Balti- 
more County as to their prospective needs of labor, a tentative arrangement was 
made by the Work Projects Administration with the Maryland State Employ- 
ment Service to release gi'oups of laborers for farm employment in Baltimore 
County. To date, no such requests for groups of laborers have been received. 

While there may be a serious farm labor shortage some time in the future, there 
is no evidence to the Work Projects Administration that such a problem exists at 
present. 

There are attached hereto three (3) reports as listed below : 

1. Report of the number of workers employed on Work Projects Administration 
and other Federal agency projects, by district, on the basis of county of residence 
and by sex, monthly, for the period July 1940 through May 1941. 

2. Weekly report of employment under the work program in Maryland, monthly, 
for the period June 1940 through June 1941. 

3. Estimated number of persons in need in Maryland, monthly, for the period 
March 1940 through May 1941. 

In regard to the report listed in item 3 — "Estimated number of persons in need," 
there is also attached a statement explaining the contents of column 4, headed "Dis- 
trict's estimate of unmet need." May I request that at any time this figure is 
used it be clearly indicated that it is used only as an estimate. 

No separate count was maintained showing the employment of persons by race. 
A State- wide survey was made of persons employed by the Work Projects Adminis- 
tration in Maryland on February 10, 1941, and atabulation as shown below of the 
figures obtained was prepared in two sections, one for Baltimore City and the 
other State-wide: 





Persons assigned 


Persons awaiting assignment 




Total 


White 


Negro 


Total 


White 


Negro 




4,794 
6,664 


2,224 
4,511 


2.570 
2,153 


244 
313 


113 
211 


131 


state-wide 


102 







WoBK Projects Administration of Martiand 

June 25, 1941. 
The monthly estimate of unmet need is an estimated number of employable 
persons who would be considered as in need and eligible for Work Projects 
Administration employment if application were made to the local referral 
agency and the number of persons who have applied for Work Projects Admin- 
istration employment whose applications are pending investigation and referral 
to Work Projects Administration. This estimate is over and above those 
certified persons awaiting assignment or currently employed on Work Projects 
Administration projects. The estimate is made by the district managers in 
cooperation with the district employment officers and district social workers. 
The basis for developing the estimate of unmet need is through contacts made 
with the local public relief agencies, the Maryland State Employment Service 
and other local, State or Federal agencies such as the Commissioner of Labor 
and Statistics for Maryland, Farm Security Administration, and the Maryland 
Unemployment Compensation Board, for the purpose of forming conclusions 
as to the general conditions in the several counties. In order to obtain the 
best possible estimates, special consideration is given to such factors as employ- 
ment opportunities in both the industrial and agricultural fields and the fish- 
ing, oystering, and crabbing industries ; expansion of industries in connection 
with the national-defense program ; separations from the Work Projects Admin- 
istration because of 18 months continuous employment and other important 
seasonal employment conditions affecting the unmet need situation within 
the State. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
Estimated number of persons in need in Maryland 

MONTH OF MAY 1941 



6175 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment 


Awaiting 

assign- 
ment and 
review 
May 28, 
1941 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 1: 
Baltimore City 


3,313 

72 
102 


432 
2 


1,000 
25 
25 
20 


4 745 


Baltimore County 


' 38 


Cecil - .. -- 




Harford 


7 


129 








3,498 


441 


1,070 








District No. 2: 


1,437 
199 


82 
12 


275 
25 
20 
10 
15 
75 

125 
20 
20 
20 
30 

100 








Calvert 


20' 






27 
37 

20 

7 
1 
6 
68 
58 




Charles 




52' 


Frederick 


736 
504 
41 
44 
165 


839' 






Howard 


68 


Montgomery 


65 










Washington 


955 


1 113 






Total 


4,081 


346 


735 


5,162 




District No. 3: 


58 
76 


24 
19 


30 
50 
15 
25 
55 
15 
50 
35 




Dorchester 


145 


Kent 






62" 
91 
13 
171 
102 


4 
25 

2 
17 
16 




Somerset 


171 


Talbot 




Wicomico . 


238 


Worcester 


153 






Total 


573 


107 


275 








Grand total.... _ 


8.152 


894 


2,080 









MONTH OF APRIL 1941 



District No. 1: 

Baltimore City 


3, .502 
22 
77 
112 


572 
3 
4 
5 


1,300 
80 
60 
35 


5,374 




Cecil 


141 


Harford _ 


152 


Total 


3,713 


584 


1,475 








District Nc. 2: 
.\llegany 


1,603 
249 


221 
19 


325 
25 
20 
20 
15 

103 

150 
20 
20 
25 
30 

125 


9 049 


Anne Arundel 


293 


Calvert 


20 


Carroll 


71 
40 

549 
47 
46 

188 
70 

999 


10 


101 


Charles. 




Frederick.. . 


78 
82 
8 
3 
10 
11 
160 


1 014 


Garrett 


781 






Montgomery 


69 






St. Marys .. . 


111 


Washington 


1 284 






Total 


4,598 


602 


875 


6,075 




District No. 3: 


67 

104 

2 

64 
117 

16 
225 
140 


35 
16 


50 
65 
15 
30 
80 
20 
70 
40 




Dorchester 


185 


Kent . 


17 




4 

30 

11 
14 




Somerset 


227 


Talbot 




Wicomico . . 


306 










Total . 


735 


112 


370 








Grand total.. 


9,046 


1,298 


2,720 


13,064 





6176 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Estimated number of persons in need in Maryland — Continued 

MONTH OF MARCH 1941 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment 
Apr. 30, 
1941 


Awaiting 

assign- 
ment and 
review 
Apr. 30, 
1941 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 1: 


4,038 
25 
85 
125 


302 
1 
5 
6 


1,300 
100 
100 
50 




Baltimore County 


126 


Cecil 




Harford 


181 






Total 


4,273 


314 


1,550 








District No. 2: 


1,676 

277 


154 
9 


350 
25 
20 
20 
20 

125 

150 
20 
20 
30 
40 

150 




Anne Arundel 


311 


Calvert 


20 


Carroll 


81 
45 
375 
617 
42 
49 
212 
81 
1,163 


14 


115 


Charles 


65 


Frederick 


41 
3 
1 
13 
10 
105 


1 077 






Howard 


65 


Montgomery 


70 






St. Mary's 


131 


Washington. 


1,418 


Total 


5,118 


427 


970 


6 515 






District No. 3: 
Caroline 


78 
121 

46 
113 

331 
115 


72 
26 


80 
95 
30 
40 

130 
40 

135 
65 


230 


Dorchester 


242 
31 


Queen Anne's 


19 
47 
3 
18 
38 


105 




290 


Talbot . --- 


54 


Wicomico 


484 




218 






Total 


816 


223 


615 


1,654 








10, 207 


964 


3,135 


14,306 







MONTH OF FEBRUARY 1941 



District No. 1: 


4,481 
23 
87 
132 


242 


1,300 
100 
100 
50 


6,023 


Baltimore County 


123 


Cecil 


7 

7 


194 




189 






Total . 


4,723 


256 


1,550 


6,529 






District No. 2: 

Allegany 


1,886 
296 


117 
10 


360 
40 
30 
20 
25 
125 
225 
50 
50 
50 


2,363 


Anne Arundel . . 


346 




30 




79 

46 

1,008 

658 
44 
60 

225 


51" 
60 
-- 

14 


110 


Charles 


71 


Frederick 


1.184 


Garrett 


943 


Howard 


94 


Montgomery 

Prince Georges - - ..- 


113 
289 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6177 



Estimated number of persons in need in Maryland — Continued 
MONTH OF FEBRUARY 1941— Continued 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment, 
Jan. 29, 
1941 


Awaiting 
assign- 
ment and 
review, 
Jan. 29, 
1941 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 2— Continued 

St Marys 


85 
1,359 


8 
90 


50 
175 


143 


Washin^^ton - -- 


1,624 








5,746 


364 


1,200 








District No. 3: 

Caroline . - - 


100 


72 
16 


95 
110 

50 

55 
180 

40 
170 

85 


267 


Dorchester 


243 


Kent 


50 


Queen Annes - 


65 
125 

15 
358 
144 


20 
51 
8 

27 
43 


140 




366 




63 


Wicomico - -.. 


555 




272 






Total - 


924 


237 


785 


1,946 








11,393 


857 


3,535 


15, 785 





MONTH OF JANUARY 1941 



District No. 1: 

Baltimore City 


5,075 
24 
86 
152 


356 
5" 
9 


1.300 
100 
100 
50 


6,731 




124 


Cecil - 


191 


Harford 


211 






Total - - ---- 


5.337 


370 


1,550 


7,257 






District No. 2: 


1,803 
310 


149 
10 


275 
35 
30 
25 
75 

150 

225 
50 
75 
75 
75 

200 


2,327 




355 




30 


Carroll - - - 


70 
45 
1,007 
652 
47 
52 
245 
87 
1,412 


7 


102 


Charles 


120 


Frederick 


66 
105 


1,223 


Garrett 


982 




97 




8 
11 

5 
71 


135 


Prince Georges 


331 




167 


Washington - - - - 


1,683 






Total - 


5,830 


432 


1,290 


7,552 






District No. 3: 


100 
112 


74 

8 


95 
110 

50 

55 
180 

40 
170 

85 


269 




230 


Kent 


50 




90 
124 

18 
345 
150 


5 
64 

8 
43 
26 


150 




368 


Talbot 


66 




558 




261 






Total 


939 


228 


785 


1,952 






Grand total 


12,106 


1,030 


3,625 


16, 761 







6178 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Estimated niiinber of persons in need in Mari/land — Continued 
MONTH OF DECEMBER 1940 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment, 
Dec. 12, 
31, 1940 


Awaiting 
assign- 
ment and 
review, 
Den. 31, 
1940 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 1: 
Baltimore City 


5,236 
23 
95 
221 


329 
2 
4 
15 


1,500 
125 
100 
50 


7 065 




150 


Cecil 


199 




286 






Total 


5,575 


350 


1.775 


7.700 






District No. 2: 

Allegany 


2,034 
326 


66 
5 


350 
25 
25 
40 
100 
150 
250 
50 
75 
75 
100 
200 


2 450 




3.56 


Calvert 


25 


Carroll 


63 
60 
967 
723 
55 
75 
280 
82 


7 


110 


Charles 


160 


Frederick 


61 
34 

6 
6 
9 

87 


1, 178 




1,007 




106 


Montgomery 


156 




361 


St Marys 


191 




1.676 






Total 


6, 054 


282 


1.440 


7,776 






District No. 3: 
Caroline 


94 
115 


47 
12 


75 
85 
35 
45 

150 
30 

150 
75 


216 




212 


Kent 


3.^ 


Queen Annes 


96 
121 

17 
319 
156 


4 
90 

3 
43 
30 


145 




.361 


Talbot 


50 


Wicomico 


512 




261 






Total 


918 


229 


645 


1,792 






Grand total 


12, 547 


861 


3,860 


17 268 







MONTH OF NOVEMBER 1940 



District No. 1: 


5,750 
20 
93 
219 


369 


■ 1,200 
100 
50 
25 


7, 319 


Baltimore County 


120 


Cecil 


6 
14 


149 




258 






Total 


6,082 


389 


1,375 


7, 846 






District No. 2: 

Allesany 


?,023 
354 


97 

8 


400 
40 
50 
25 
100 
150 

100 
100 
100 
200 


2. 520 
402 




50 


Carroll 


62 
66 
964 
741 
91 
75 
307 
89 
1.389 


61" 
34 




Charles 


166 


Frederick _ 


1,175 


Garrett 


1,075 




166 




2 
10 

6 
62 


177 


Prince Georges 


417 


St. Marys ...... 


195 


Washington 


1,651 






Total 


6,161 


282 


1,640 


8 083 






District No. 3: 
Caroline 


85 
. 122 


51 
20 


70 

s 

40 
150 

25 
150 

50 


206 








'35 


Queen Annes 


93 
139 

15 
290 
150 


8 
61 
11 
30 
34 


141 




3.50 


Talbot 


10 


Wicomico 


457 


Worcester 


234 


Total 


894 


215 




1,704 








13, 137 


886 


3,610 


17. 633 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Estimated number of persons in need in Maryland — Continued 
MONTH OF OCTOBER 1940 



6179 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment 

Oct. 30, 
1940 


Awaiting 

assign- 
ment and 
review 
Oct. 30. 
1940 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 1: 

Baltimore City 


6,124 
19 
100 
204 


394 


1,200 
100 
50 
25 


7 718 


Baltimore County . - .. - - - 


119 


Cecil 


8 
17 


158 


Harford 








Total 


6,447 


419 


1,375 


8 241 






District No. 2: 
'^.lleeany 


2,010 
382 


156 
8 


450 
40 
25 
25 
100 
100 
350 
100 
150 
150 
100 
200 


2,615 




Calvert 




Carroll 


82 
75 
991 
787 
107 
86 
352 


1 


108 


Charles 


175 


Frederick 


47 
76 
8 
2 
14 

46 


1 138 






Howard 


215 






Prince Georges 


516 


St Marys 


190 










Total 


6,344 


358 


1,790 


8,492 


District No. 3: 


83 
134 


37 
36 


50 
100 

25 

30 
125 

25 
100 

50 




Dorchester 


270 




92 
146 

14 
248 
133 


3 
46 

7 
53 
42 




.Somerset 


317 


Talbot- 

Wicomico 

Worcester 


46 
401 
225 






Total 


850 


224 


505 


1 579 






Grand total 


13,641 


1,001 


3.670 


18, 312 





MONTH OF SEPTEMBER 1940 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment, 
Sept. 25, 
1940 


Awaiting 
assign- 
ment and 
review, 
Sept. 25, 
1940 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 1: 
Baltimore City 


6, 3.59 
16 
103 
210 


507 
2 
22 
19 


1,600 
100 
50 
25 


8,466 
118 


Baltimore County 


Cecil . 




Harford 


254 








6,688 


550 


1,775 


9,013 




District No. 2: 


1,940 
417 


274 
17 


,500 
25 
25 
25 
50 

100 

250 
75 

100 
75 
75 

200 




Anne Arundel 


459 






Carroll 

Charles 


125 
76 
1,022 
715 
119 
99 
362 
96 
1,352 


2 


152 




17 

55 
7 
1 

21 
2 

99 




Garrett 


1 020 


Howard 


201 


Prince Georges 


458 


St. Marys 


173 






Total 


6,323 


495 


1,500 




8,318 





60396— 41— pt. 15- 



Q130 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Estimated numhcr of persons in need in Maryland — Continued 
MONTH OF SEPTEMBER 1940 — Continued 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment 
Oct. 30, 
1940 


Awaiting 

assign- 
ment and 
review 
Oct. 30, 
1940 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 3: 


81 
122 


43 
61 

4 
42 

5 
56 
52 


50 
125 
30 
30 
125 
20 
75 
50 




Dorctiester - - 


308 




32 




90 
152 

14 
251 
111 






319 




39 


Wicomico - _ . . 


382 




213 






Total - - 


821 


265 


505 


1 591 








13, 832 


1,310 


3,780 


18, 922 





MONTH OF AUGUST 1940 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment 
Aug. 28. 
1940 


Awaiting 

assign- 
ment and 
raview 
Aug. 28, 
1940 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. I.- 


6, 606 
20 
96 
254 


467 
21 
49 
15 


1,400 
85 
50 
25 


8, 473 


Baltimore County 


126 


Cecil 


195 


Harford -- - 


294 








6,976 


552 


1.560 


9.088 






District No. 2: 


1,961 
445 


235 
23 


450 
50 
25 
2.5 
25 
100 
200 
100 
100 
100 
50 
200 


2,646 




518 


Calvert 


25 


Carroll 


73 
1,079 
760 
144 
96 
369 
108 
1.514 


2 
2 
20 
37 
10 

30 
2 
94 


144 


Charles - -- 


100 


Frederick 


1,199 


Garrett 


997 


Howard 


254 




197 




499 


St Marys 


160 




1,808 






Total 


6,666 


456 


1,425 


8.547 






District No. 3: 
Caroline 


74 
142 


34 
61 
2 
13 
19 

65 

18 


40 
100 
30 
30 
100 
20 
50 
40 


148 




303 


Kent 


32 


Queen Annes 


87' 
151 

10 
251 
138 


130 




270 


Talbot --- 


37 


Wicomico 


366 




196 






Total 


853 


219 


410 


1,482 








14, 495 


1,227 


3,395 


19, 117 







NATIONAL DEFENSE. MIGRATION 



6181 



Estimated number of persons in need in Maryland — Continued 

MONTH OF JULY 1940 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment, 
July 31, 


Awaiting 
assign- 
ment and 
review- 
July 31, 
1940 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 1: 
Baltimore City 


6,592 
22 
153 
236 


519 
21 
12 


1,400 
85 
50 
25 


8 511 




128 


Cecil 




Harford 


273 






Total . - .. . 


7,003 


564 


1,560 








District No. 2; 


1.918 
417 


189 
15 


500 
50 
25 
25 
50 
100 
250 
100 
100 
100 
75 
250 


2,607 

482 


Anne Arundel 






Carroll 


123 
78 

1,098 
704 
132 
110 
460 
108 

1,524 


2 
2 

26 

29 
4 
3 

17 
2 

49 


150 


Charles 


130 


Frederick . . . 




Garrett 


983 






Montgomery 

Prince Georges 


213 

577 






Washington 


1 823 






Total . 


6,672 


338 


1,625 


8,635 




District No. 3: 


75 
144 


47 

86 

22 
35 
4 
80 
41 


5 
10 

5 

5 
10 

5 
10 

5 


127 


Dorchester 

Kent 


240 

7 




91 
118 

20 
260 
121 




Somerset 


163 


Talbot 


29 




350 


M'tffCBSteT 


167 






Total 


829 


317 


55 


1 201 








14, 505 


1,219 


3,240 









MONTH OF JUNE 1940 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment 
June 26, 
1940 


Awaiting 

ment and 

review 

June 26, 

1940 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 1: 


6,7.56 
26 
164 
280 


649 
21 
12 
20 


1,800 
125 
50 
25 


9,205 


Baltimore County 


172 


Cecil.. 


226 




325 






Total- - 


7,226 


702 


2,000 


9,928 






District No. 2: 


1,935 
411 


520 

7 


700 
75 
25 
50 


3,155 






•Calvert 


29 


Carroll 


138 


195 



5132 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Estimated numher of persons in need in Maryland — Contiuued 
MONTH OP JUNE 1940— Continued 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment 
Aug. 28, 
1940 


Awaiting 

assign- 
ment and 
review 
Aue. 28, 
1940 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 2— Continued. 
Charles 


73 
1,102 
677 
115 
123 
507 
101 
1,461 


16 
68 
73 
18 

i 

22 
264 


75 
200 
250 
150 
200 
150 
100 
325 


164 


Frederick 


1 370 






Howard 


283 


Alontgomery 


330 






St Marys 


223 










Total 


6,643 


1,039 


2,300 


9 982 






District No. 3: 
Caroline 


62 
66 


78 
194 
6 
29 
53 
6 
121 
32 


5 
10 

5 

5 
10 

5 
10 

5 


145 




270 






Queen Annes 


95 
151 

20 
247 
137 


129 




214 


Talbot 




Wicomico 


378 










Total 


778 


519 


55 


1 352 








14,647 


2,260 


4,355 









MONTH OF MAY 1940 



District No. 1: 
Baltimore City 


6,867 
26 
234 
306 


707 
23 
14 
30 


1,800 
200 
100 
100 


9.374 


Raltimnre Poiinty 


249 


Cecil - 


348 


Harford 


436 








7,433 


774 


2,200 








District No. 2: 
Allegany 


2,071 
426 


410 
14 
4 
9 
15 
76 

105 
23 
12 
23 
15 

251 


600 
125 
40 
50 
80 
275 
275 
200 
300 
200 
125 
350 


3,081 


Anne Arundel 


565 






Carroll 


150 
79 

1,137 
697 
118 
122 
497 
121 

1,530 


209 


Charles 


174 


Frederick 

Garrett 


1,488 
1,077 




341 


Montgomery 


434 




720 




261 


Washington 


2,131 






Total -. .- 


6,948 


957 


2,620 


10, 525 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

Estimated number of persons in need in Maryland — Continued 
MONTH OF MAY 1940— Continued 



6183 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment 
Apr. 1, 
1940 


Awaiting 

assign- 
ment and 
review- 
Apr. 1, 
1940 


District's 
estimate 
of unmet 


Total 
need 


District No. 3: 


131 

189 


48 
107 
18 
21 
58 
79 
65 
7 


10 
60 
20 
10 
20 
10 
65 
15 


189 


Dorchester -. - 


356 


Kent 


38 




106 
162 
12 
339 
133 


137 


Somerset 


240 


Talbot 


101 




469 


Worcester 


155 






Total 


1,072 


403 


210 


1.685 








15, 453 


2,134 


5, 030 


22, 617 







MONTH OF APRIL 1940 



District No. 1: 
Baltimore City 


6,735 
30 
261 
325 


754 
22 
19 
55 


2,000 
300 
100 
175 


9,489 




352 


Cecil 


380 


Harford 


555 






Total 


7,351 


850 


2,575 


10, 776 






District No. 2: 
Allegany 


1,918 
437 


459 
60 
3 
22 
18 
91 

113 
14 
13 

8 
242 


455 
160 
40 
65 
103 
357 
215 
234 
375 
218 
145 
265 


2,832 




657 


Calvert 


43 


Carroll 


77 
1,149 
641 
126 
131 
497 
123 
1,595 


230 


Charles . . 


198 


Frederick 


1,597 




969 


Howard 


374 




519 


Prince Georges 


743 


St. Marys 


276 


Washington 


2,102 






Total 


6,837 


1,071 


2,632 


10, 540 






District No. 3; 


140 
185 


50 
183 

32 

24 
166 

13 
137 

66 


93 
304 
152 

70 
174 
119 
231 

86 


283 


Dorchester 


672 


Kent 


184 


Queen Annes 


107 
128 

158 


201 




468 


Talbot 


143 


Wicomico 


716 




310 






Total 


1,077 


671 


1,229 


2,977 






Grand total 


15, 265 


2,592 


6,436 


24,293 







6184 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 
Estimated nuniher of persons in need in Maryland — Contiuued 

MONTH OF MARCH 1940 



District and county 


Employ- 
ment, 
Mar. 13, 
1940 


Awaiting 

assign- 
ment and 
review. 
Mar. 13, 
1940 


District's 

estimate 

of unmet 

need 


Total 
need 


District No. 1: 


7,065 
27 
266 


'70 
19 
52 


5,000 
300 
250 
150 


12, 837 


Baltimore County - 


397 


Cecil 


535 


Harford -- -- .... 


570 






Total - 


7,726 


913 


5,700 


14, 339 






District No. 2: 


2,073 
425 


'It 


800 
150 
200 
75 
200 
200 
200 
100 
250 
200 
200 
400 


3,087 


Anne Arundel - . . . . - . 


624 




200 


Carroll - 


150 
77 

1,151 
627 
103 
124 
572 
133 

1,723 


15 
6 
66 
65 
17 
6 
23 
17 
98 


240 




283 


Frederick 


1,417 


Garrett - . _ . 


892 




220 


Montgomery . . . 


380 




795 




350 


Washington 


2, 221 






Total - -- 


7,158 


576 


2,975 


10, 709 






District No. 3: 

Caroline - - .. 


151 
180 


50 
186 

43 

18 
189 

12 
266 

65 


124 
406 
191 
88 
233 
171 
347 
108 


325 




772 


Kent - 


234 




112 
157 
12 
358 
180 


218 




579 


Talbot 


195 




971 


Worcester . - . 


353 








1,150 


829 


1,668 


3,647 






Grand total 


16, 034 


2,318 


10. 343 


28,695 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6185 



Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the tvork program in Maryland — Week ending June 18, 1941 

WEEK ENDING JUNE 18, 1941 





State sponsored 










Noncer- 
tifled 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Federal 
agencies 


employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 




3,650 


2,822 


654 


3,476 


206 


152 






Baltimore City 




65 
54 


1621 

3 
29 


3,304 
21 
68 


190 
12 
3 


141 






8 


Cecil 




3 














District No. 2 . -- 


3,850 


3,840 


263 


4,103 


330 


212 






Allegany 




1,486 
156 


24 
47 


1,510 
203 


151 
32 


91 






14 


Calvert 






Carroll 




1 




1 


1 


1 


Charles 








Frederick 




624 
528 
18 
15 
123 


83 
14 
27 
20 
43 


707 
542 
45 
35 
166 


51 
38 
1 


42 


Garrett 




18 






1 












8 


7 








Washington 




889 


5 


894 


48 


38 




500 


509 


11 


520 


33 


31 






Caroline 




60 
65 
2 
55 
80 
11 
140 
96 




60 
65 

i 

80 
11 
151 
96 


4 
3 
2 


3 








3 


Kent 






2 


Queen Annes 














4 
2 
13 
5 


4 


Talbot 






2 






11 


12 






5 












8,000 


7,171 


928 


8,099 


569 


395 










800 


1 


2 


3 


55 






413 


271 


116 


45 








Nursery schools 




110 

8 

133 

13 

45 

84 


66 
8 
48 
13 
110 
46 
45 
77 


27 


17 


8 


6 












43 


42 


16 
1 

16 
5 
4 
5 


14 


Maryland State Planning Board 




1 






172 
22 


57 




13 


Library Extension Service 




4 






3 


Historical records 




4 













' Includes 15 persons on the Nation-wide research projects. 

Supply fund (included above) district office 1, 73; district office 2, 88; district office 3, 9; total 170 ] 
Included above are the following personson the Savage River Damproject— Allegany County,668;Garreti 
County, 273; total 941. Noncertified 130; nonsecurity 62. 
Included above are 538 persons on the Baltimore Municipal Airport. 
Included above are 96 persons on the National Guard hangar project at the Municipal Airport. 



glgg BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the work program of Maryland — Week ending June 18, 1941— Con. 



WEEK ENDING MAY 27, 1941 














State sponsored 


Other 
Federal 
agencies 


Total 
employ- 
ment 


Noncer- 
tified 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 




3,900 


3,090 


620 


3,710 


212 


153 






Baltimore City 




2,922 
76 


2 588 
2 
3 
27 


3,510 
22 
75 
103 


197 
11 
3 

1 


142 






8 


Cecil 




3 


Harford 













District No 2 


4,100 


4,128 


282 


4,410 


329 


220 










1,555 
182 


25 
50 


1,580 
232 


143 
33 


90 


Antifi AniTifipl 




18 








Carroll 




1 




1 


i 


1 


Charles 








Frederick 




703 
517 
18 
16 
132 


21 
24 

28 
41 


791 
538 
42 
44 
173 


55 
34 
1 


45 






17 






1 


Montgomery 










8 


8 


St Marys 






Washington _ 




1,004 


5 


1,009 


54 


40 








District No 3 


700 


592 


17 


609 


36 


33 






Caroline 




62 
79 
2 
62 
95 
15 
170 
107 




62 
80 
2 
62 
95 
15 

107 


4 

4 
2 


3 






1 


3 


Kent 




2 


Queen Anries 














4 
2 
15 
5 


4 


Talbot 






2 






16 


14 


Worcester 




5 












8,700 


7,810 


919 


8,729 


577 


406 










747 


395 


2 


3 

108 


59 




District wide 0. P.'s (included above) 


244 


47 








Nursery Schools 




107 
8 

116 
13 

306 
67 
46 
84 


68 
8 
39 
13 
100 
45 
46 
76 


26 


13 


9 


6 


Penal Education 










42 


35 


16 

1 

16 
5 
6 
6 


14 


Maryland State Planning Board 










146 
22 


60 


13 


Library Extension Service 






State Arts Program 






Historical Records 




8 

















* Includes 22 persons on the Nation-wide research projects. 

Supply fund (included above) district office. 1-80; district office 2-79; district office 3-9; total, 168 persons. 
Included above are the following persons on the Savage River Dam project, Allegany County, 688; Gar- 
rett County, 271; total, 959; noncertifled, 118; nonsecurity 60. 
Included above are 620 persons on the Baltimore Municipal Airport project. 
Included above are 109 persons on the National Guard hangar project at the Municipal Airport. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6187 



Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the ivork program of Maryland — Week ending June 18, WJfl — Con. 



WEEK ENDING APR. 30, 1941 





State sponsored 










Noncer- 
tifled 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Federal 
agencies 


employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 


District No 1 


3,900 


3,109 


304 


3,713 


218 


158 










2,933 
20 
74 
82 


3 509 
2 
3 
30 


3,502 
22 
77 
112 


203 
11 
3 
1 


149 


Baltimore 




6 


Cecil 





3 


Harford 









4,300 


4,322 


276 


4,598 


330" 


233 






Allegany 




1,481 
187 


22 
62 


1,503 
249 


136 
32 


85 


Anne Arundel 




22 








Carroll . . 




71 
40 

759 

534 
23 
20 

142 
70 

995 




71 
40 

836 

549 
47 
46 

188 
70 

999 


5 
2 
56 
31 

1 


3 


Charles 






1 






77 

3 15 

24 
26 
46 


46 


Garrett 




15 


Howard 




1 












9 
4 
54 


8 






2 


Washington 




4 


50 


District No. 3 


800" 


TlF 


17 


735 


40 


37 










67 

103 

2 

64 
117 

16 
225 
124 




67 
104 

64 
117 

16 
225 
140 


4 

4 
2 


3 


Dorchester 




1 


3 






2 










Somerset 






6 
2 
16 
6 


6 


Talbot 






2 


Wicomico 






15 


Worcester 




16 


6 


Subtotal _ 


9,000 


8, 149 


sot" 


9,046 


588 


428 


Residents of other States 






36 
933 


36 
9,082 


1 
589 


1 




9,000 


8,149 


429 










804 


1 


2 


3 


63 




District wide 0. P.'s (included above) 


413 


275 


116 


52 








Nursery schools 




99 
8 

130 
15 

343 
66 
50 
93 


69 
8 
27 
15 
108 
44 
49 
83 


17 


13 


9 


6 


Penal education 






Recreation 




57 


36 


17 

1 

18 
5 
6 

7 


15 


Maryland State Planning Board 










170 
22 
1 

8 


65 
2 


14 


Library extension service 












Historical records 

















3 Includes 14 persons on the Nation-wide research projects. 

Note. Included above are 36 persons on O. P. 105-3-25-54, all residents of Washington, D. C, 1 non- 
certified and 1 nonsecurity. 

Supply fund (included above) district office 1, 88; district office 2, 85; district office 3, 11; total 184 persons. 

Included above are the following persons on the Savage River Dam project: Allegany County, 687; 
Garrett County, 244; total 831 persons; 115 noncertified and 59 nonsecurity. 

Included above are 406 persons on the Baltimore Municipal Airport project. 

Included above are 104 persons on the National Guard hangar project at the Municipal Airport. 



6188 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



M'^ork Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the loork program of Maryland — Week ending June 18, 1941— Gon. 



WEEK ENDING MAR. 


26, 1941 














State sponsored 


Other 
Federal 
agencies 


Total 
employ- 
ment 


Noncer- 
tified 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 


District No. 1 




3.607 


666 


4,273 


240 


175 












3,410 
22 

82 
93 


<628 
3 
3 
32 


4,038 
25 
85 
125 


222 
12 
3 
3 




Baltimore 




7 


Cecil 




3 














District No 2 




4,835 


283 


5,118 


312 


241 








Allegany 




1,650 
215 


26 
62 


1,676 
277 


111 
36 


87 








Calvert 






Carroll 




81 
45 
788 
607 
22 
21 
162 
81 
1,163 




81 
45 
875 
617 
42 
49 
212 
81 
1,163 


5 
2 
60 

24 

1 


3 


Charles 












87 
10 
20 
28 
50 




Garrett 




16 








Montgomery 










11 
4 
58 


9 








Washington 






53 










District No. 3 




798 


18 


816 


43 














78 

120 

1 

46 
113 

11 
314 
115 




78 

121 

1 

46 
113 

11 
331 
115 


t 

1 

6 
2 
19 
4 


3 


Dorchester . . 




1 


5 


Kent 














Somerset 






6 


Talbot 






2 






17 




Worcester 




4 














9,240 


967 


10, 207 


595 










Residents of other States 






51 
1,018 


51 
10,258 


1 
596 


I 






9,240 














1,025 


1 


2 


3 

127 






District-wide 0. P.'s (included above) 


607 


291 


54 












127 
10 

209 
26 

379 
70 
80 

124 


81 
10 
79 
26 

172 
49 
79 

HI 


23 


23 


9 


6 


Penal education 






Recreation 




92 


38 


19 
2 

19 
4 
6 
7 


17 






2 


Sewing rooms 




143 
21 
1 
11 


64 
2" 


14 






3 






5 


Historical records 




7 













* Includes 15 persons on the Nation-wide research projects. 

Note.— Included above are 51 persons on O. P. 105-3-25-54, all residents of Washington, D. C— 1 non- 
certifled and 1 nonsecurity. 

Supply fund (included above) district office 1, 105 persons; district office 2, 132 persons; district office 3, 
13 persons; total. 250 persons. 

Included above are the following persons on the Savage River Dam project — Allegany County, 559 
persons; Garrett County, 100; total, 659; noncertifled 75, and nonsecurity 56. 

Included above are 385 persons on the Baltimore Municipal Airport project. 

Included above are 87 persons on the National Guard hangar project at the Baltimore Municipal Airport. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6189 



Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the work program, of Maryland — Week ending June 18, 19/tl — Con. 



WEEK ENDING FEB. 26, 1941 





State sponsored 










Noncer- 
tified 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap. 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Federal 
agencies 


employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 






3,952 


771 


4.723 


251 


174 












Baltimore City 




3,754 
20 
84 
94 


•727 
3 
3 
38 




4481 


235 
11 

4 


163 






' 23 
87 
132 




Cecil 




1 






3 








District No. 2 




5,412 


334 


5,746 


313 


244 








Alleganv 




1,860 
223 


26 
73 


'296 


110 
37 


84 


Anne Arundel 




28 


Calvert 






CarroO 




79 
46 
897 
649 
24 
22 
168 
85 
1,359 




79 
46 
1,008 
658 
44 
60 
225 
85 
1,359 


5 
2 
63 
23 

1 


3 








1 


Frederick 




111 
»9 
20 
38 
57 


50 






16 


Howard 




1 












14 
4 

54 


11 


St Marys 




2 








48 










District No. 3 




907 


17 


924 


51 


45 
















100 
116 




100 


5 

7 


4 


Dorchester 




1 


117 


5 


Kent 










65 
125 

15 
342 
144 




65 
125 

15 
358 
144 


4 
6 

1 
22 
6 


4 


Somerset 






6 


Talbot . -- 






1 


Wocomico 




16 


20 


Worcester 




5 




" ' 






Subtotal 




10, 271 


1,122 

55 
1,177 


11, 393 

55 

11,448 


615 

1 
616 


463 


Residents of other States 




1 






10,271 


464 












1,146 


' 


2 


3 


73 
10 






675 

87 
10 
96 
26 

208 
52 
2 
75 

119 


325 
25 


146 
20 


58 








Nursery schools 




132 

10 
237 

26 
457 

72 
2 

76 
134 


6 








Recreation 




95 


46 


19 
3 

24 
4 


17 


Maryland State Planning Board 




3 






173 

20 


76 


17 


Library extension service 




3 


Consuhiption goods and services 










1 
11 


- 


6 

7 


5 


Historical records 




7 













* Includes 15 persons on nation-wide research projects. 

Note.— Included above are 55 persons on O. P. 105-3-25-54. All residents of Washington, D. C, 1 non- 
certified and 1 nonsecurity. 

Supply fund (included above), district office 1, 115; district office 2, 142; district office 3, 14; total, 271 
persons. 

Included above are the following persons on the Savage River Dam project: Allegany County, 566; Gar- 
rett County, 104; total, 670 persons; 70 noncertified and 51 nonsecurity. 

Included above are 354 persons on the Baltimore Municipal Airport. 

Included above are 92 persons on the National Guard Hangar project at the Baltimore Municipal Airport. 



6190 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the ivork program of Maryland — Week ending June 18, 19^1 — Con. 



WEEK ENDING JAN. 29. 1941 





State sponsored 










Noncer- 
tifled 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Federal 
agencies 


employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 




6,300 


4,164 


1,173 


5.337 


241 


167 




Baltimore City 




3,959 
21 
81 
103 


5 1,116 

3 
5 
49 


5.075 
24 
86 
152 


223 
10 

1 
7 




Baltimore 




g 


Cecil 


















District No. 2 


6,400 


5,496 


334 


5,830 


3C4 








Alleghany 




1,874 
225 
70 
45 
909 
644 
25 
25 
180 
87 
1,412 


29 

85 


1,903 
310 
70 
45 
1,007 
652 
47 
52 
245 
87 
1,412 


95 
37 
4 

65 
22 
1 


73 








Carroll 






Charles 






. 


Frederick 




98 

58 

22 
27 
65 


49 


Garrett 




16 








Montgomery .- . 










14 
4 
60 




St. Marys 




2 


















District No. 3 . 


1,000 


921 


18 


939 


49 


42 






Caroline _. 




100 
111 

90 
124 

18 
328 
150 




100 
112 

90 
124 

18 
345 
150 


5 
21 


4 


Dorchester 




1 




Queen Annes 




4 


Somerset . 






Q 


Talbot... 








Wicomico 




17 


19 


Worcester . .. 














Grand total .. 


13,700 


10. 581 


1,525 


12. 106 


594 


442 










1,174 


1 

686 


2 


3 
143 


70 




District-wide 0. P.'s (included above) 


345 


55 












■?! 

235 
27 
507 
71 
2 
82 
115 
2 


79 
11 
94 
27 

238 
49 
2 
81 

103 
2 


25 


18 


9 


5 


Penal education 






Recreation 




99 


42 


19 
3 

23 
3 


17 








Sewing rooms 




189 
22 


80 


15 






3 


Consumption goods and services 






State arts program 




1 
9 


3- 


6 
6 

1 


5 








Inventory data on selected wills 




1 













• Includes 25 persons on Nationwide Research Projects. 

Note.— Not included above are the following persons— 35 on 0. p. 105-3-25-54, all residents of Washington, 
D. C, 1 noncertified and 1 nonsecurity. 

Supply fund (included above) district office 1, 126 persons— district office 2, 156 persons— district office 
3, 14 persons— Total 296 persons. 

Included above are the following persons on the Savage River Dam Project— Alleghany County, 606 
persons— Garrett County, 107 persons— Total, 713 persons. 

Included above are 110 persons on the National Guard Hangar Project at the Baltimore City Municipal 



Airport. 
Included 



1 are 435 persons on the Baltimore Municipal Airport Project. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6191 



Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the work program of Maryland — Week ending June 18, 1941 — Con. 



WEEK ENDING DEC. 31, 1940 





State sponsored 










Noncer- 
tified 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Federal 

agencies 


employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 




6,300 


4,240 


1,335 


5,575 


250 








Baltimore City 




3,988 
20 
90 
142 


•1,248 
3 
5 
79 


5,236 
23 
95 
221 


231 
10 

1 
8 


161 








Cecil 






Harford 




7 




■ " " 






6,400 


5,620 


434 


6,054 


319 












2,005 
237 


29 
89 


2,034 
326 


102 
40 




\nne Arundel 




30 


Calvert 










63 
59 
872 
715 


95 
'8 
27 
75 
110 


63 
60 
967 
723 
55 
75 
280 
82 


4 
2 
65 
24 




Charles 




1 














Howard 










4 
55 








170 
82 




St Marys 




2 


















District No 3 


1,000 


908 


10 


918 


48 


40 






Caroline 




94 
114 




94 
115 


5 


4 


Dorchester 




1 


5 








Queen Annes 




96 
121 

17 
310 
156 




96 
121 

319 
156 


4 
6 
1 
19 
6 


3 








6 


Talbot - - . 








Wicoimico 




9 


17 
















Grand total 


13,700 


10, 768 


1,779 


12, 547 


617 


454 










1,241 


1 


2 


3 

139 


76 




District-wide O. P.'s (included above) __.. 


730 


372 


58 


Nursery schools 




126 
11 

245 
27 

558 
73 
2 

82 

6 


84 
11 
99 
27 
274 
50 

2 
81 
96 

6 


24 


18 


9 


4 








Recreation 




102 


44 


20 
3 

26 
4 


17 


Maryland State Planning Board 




3 






211 
23 


73 


18 


Library extension service 




3 












1 


4" 


6 

i 


5 


Historical records 




7 






1 













1 Includes 15 persons on Nation-wide research projects. 

Note: Not included above are the following persons: 3 on Beltsville,42 on O. P. 105-.3-25-54. All resi- 
dents of Washington, D. C, 3 noncprtified and 3 nonsecurity. 

Supply fund (included above) district office 1. 133; district office 2. 176; district office 3, 14; total. 323 persons. 

Included above are the following persons on the Savage River Dam project: Allegany County, 645; Gar- 
rett County, 112; total. 757 persons. 

Included above are 460 persons on the Baltimore City Municipal Airport. 

Included above are 75 persons on the National Guard hangar project at Baltimore City Municipal Airport . 



6192 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the work program of Maryland — Week ending Jime 18, 1941— Con. 

WEEK ENDING NOV. 27, 1940 



District office and county of employee's 
residence 



State sponsored 



Ap- 
proved 
quotas 



Actual 
employ- 
ment 



Other 
Federal 
agencies 



Total 
employ- 
ment 



Noncer- 
tifled 



Non- 
security 



District No. 1. 



Baltimore City. 

Baltimore 

Cecil 

Harford.. 



5,750 
20 



District No. 2. 



Allegany- 

Anne Arundel.. 

Calvert 

Carroll 

Charles 

Frederick 

Garrett 

Howard 

Montgomery. .. 
Prince, Georges. 

St. Marys 

Washington 



2,023 
354 



District No. 3. 



Caroline 

Dorchester- 
Kent 



Talbot 

Wicomico.. 
Worcester. 



District-wide O. P.'s (included above). 



Nursery schools 

Penal education 

Recreation 

Maryland State Planning Board. 

Sewing rooms 

Library extension service 

Consumption goods and services. 

State arts program 

Historical records 

Inventory data on selected wills.. 



' Includes 17 persons on Nation-wide research projects. 

Note.— Not included above are the following persons: 3 on Beltsville, 49 on 105-3-25-54, all residents of 
Washington, D. C, 4 noncertified. and 3 nonsecurity. 

Supply fund (included above) district office 1, 141 persons; district office 2, 195 persons; district oflace 3, 
14 persons; total, 350 persons. 

Included above are the following persons on the Savage River Dam: Allegany County, 729 persons;. 
Garrett County, 120 persons; total, 849 persons. 

Included above are 543 persons on the Baltimore Municipal Airport project. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGKATION 



6193 



Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the work program of Maryland — Week ending June 18, 19/fl— Con. 



WEEK ENDING OCT. 





State sponsored 










Noncer- 
tifled 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Federal 
agencies 


employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 




6,825 


5,322 


1,125 


6,447 


263 


165 






Baltimore Citv - 




5,095 
17 
93 
127 


7 1, a39 
2 

7 
77 


6,124 
19 
100 
204 


244 
7 
3 
9 


150 


Baltimore 




5 


Cecil 




1 


Harford__ 




9 




6,800 


5, 777 


567 


6,344 


373 


257 






Allegany - -- 




1,972 
272 


38 
110 


2,010 
382 


117 
51 


80 






36 


Calvert 










92 
74 
886 
778 
37 




82 
75 
991 
787 
107 
86 
352 

1,383 


6 
2 
68 
31 


3 


Charles 




105 
?9 
70 

,f8 


1 


Frederick • ---- 




52 


Garrett 




14 












1 
30 
4 




Prince Georges 




204 

89 

1,383 


14 


St Marys 




3 








54 










j)istrict No 3 


875 


850 




850 


42 


32 












83 
134 




83 
134 


4 
5 


2 


Dorchester 






4 


Kent 












92 
146 
14 

248 
133 




92 
146 

14 
248 
133 


2 

6 

1 
17 
7 


1 


Somerset 






6 


Talbot 






1 








13 


Worcester 






5 












14,500 


11,949 


1,692 


13,641 


678 


454 










1,307 


1 


2 


3 


74 




State-wide 0. P.'s (included above) 


768 


398 


141 


52 






120 
10 

250 
33 

593 
77 
13 
86 

122 


79 
10 

100 
33 

290 
54 
13 
85 

104 


27 


17 


9 


3 








Recreation 




104 


46 


20 
3 

25 
4 

5 

7 


17 


Maryland State Planning Board 




3 






231 
23 


72 


17 


Library extension service 




1 


Consumption goods and services 










1 
12 


g- 


4 


Historical records 




7 













'Includes 19 persons on Nation-wide research project. 

Note.— Not included above are the following persons: 3 on Beltsville, 53 on O. P. 105-3-25-64, all residents 
of Washington, D. C, 4 noncertified and 3 nonsecurity. 

Supply fund (included above) District Office 1, 150 persons; District Office 2, 179 persons; district office 
3, 14 persons; total, 343 persons. 

Included above are the following persons on the Savage River Dam project: Allegany County, 773 persons; 
Garrett County, 158 persons; total, 931 persons. 

Included above are 614 persons on the Baltimore City Municipal Airport. 



6194 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Work Projects Administratioyi of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the work program of Maryland — Week ending Jnne 18, lO'/l—Gon. 



WEEK ENDING SEPT. 25, 1940 





State sponsored 






Total 
employ- 
ment 


Noncer- 
tified 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Federal 
agencies 


Non- 
security 




7,025 


5,549 


1,139 


6,688 


228 












5,303 
15 
97 
134 


1,056 

6 
76 


6,359 
16 
103 
210 


211 
5 
5 

7 


146 








Cecil 




3 


Harford 












District No 2 


6,800 


5,741 


582 


6,323 


365 


255 










1,911 
300 


29 
117 


1,940 
417 


113 
54 




Anne Arundel 




40 








CarroU .. 




125 
75 
921 
713 
40 


101 
2 
79 
99 

154 


125 
76 
1,022 
715 
119 
99 
362 
96 
1,352 


7 
2 

23 




Charles 


















Howard 














Prince Georges 




208 

96 

1,352 


33 
4 
60 


19 


St Marys 




3 


















875 


821 




821 


44 


34 






Caroline 




81 
122 




81 
122 


4 
4 


2 








3 










Queen Annes 




90 
152 

14 
251 
111 




90 
152 

14 
251 
111 


2 

6 
1 
21 
6 












Talbot 






Wicomico 




17 
















Grand total 


14. 700 


12, 111 


1,721 


13, 832 


637 


449 










1,314 


1 


2 


3 


65 






775 


398 


141 


48 








Nursery schools 




105 
10 

255 
42 

595 
69 
14 
80 

141 


63 
10 
99 
42 

290 
51 
14 
80 

123 
3 


25 


17 


4 


2 


Penal education 










110 


46 


19 
2 

25 
4 


17 


Maryland State Planning Board 




2 


Sewing rooms 




18 


73 


16 








Consumption snoods and services 






State arts program 








5 
6 


4 






13 


5 


6 


Inventory data on selected wills 





















Note.— Not included above are the following persons: 4 on Beltsville; 4 on 05-3-25-88,49 on O. P. 
105-3-25-54, all residents of Washington, D. C; 5 noncertificd and 5 nonsecurity; also 1 person on 
O. P. 113-3-25-10 from Arlington, Va.; 1 noncertifled and 1 nonsecurity. 

Supply fund (Included above): District office 1, 168 persons; district office 2, 184 persons; district office 
3, 16 persons; total 368 persons. 

Savage River Dam (included above): Allegany County, 791 persons; Garrett County, 187 persons; total, 
978 persons. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6195 



Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the ivork prooram of Maryland — Week ending June 18. 19->,1 — Con. 



WEEK ENDING AUGUST 





State sponsored 










Xoncer- 
tified 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Federal 
agencies 


employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 




7,350 


5,883 


1.093 


6,976 


235 












5, 606 

17 

174 


1,000 
3 
10 
80 


6,606 
20 
96 
254 


218 

I 

9 










Cecil 




I 














District No 2 


6.800 


6,005 


661 


6,666 


362 


250 






Allegany 




1,931 
302 


30 
143 


1,961 
445 


107 
53 


74 


Anne Arundel 




31 


Calvert . - - - 






Carroll 




117 
72 
975 
745 

47 




117 
73 
1,079 
760 
144 
96 
369 
108 
1,514 


1 
i 

1 
1 
35 
3 


3 


Charles -.-_ 




1 
104 
15 
97 
96 
175 




Frederick . . . 






Garrett 




13 








Montgomery 




1 






194 

108 

1. 514 










Washington - 






50 










Districts . - 


850 


853 




859 


44 














74 
142 




74 
142 


3 
4 




Dorchester 




3 


Kent - 










87 
151 

10 
251 
138 




87 
151 

10 
251 
138 


\ 

1 
20 

7 




Somerset 






6 


Talbot 






1 










Worcester 






5 










Grand total 


15,000 


12. 741 


1.754 


14, 495 


641 


446 










1,317 


1 


2 


3 


60 




District wide 0. P.'s (included above) 


774 


410 


133 


50 












12 
2S0 
37 
583 
69 
26 
77 
131 
14 


48 
12 

106 
37 

290 
50 
26 
77 

114 
14 


24 


16 


4 




Penal education 










125 


49 


21 
2 

24 
4 

5 

7 




Maryland State planning board 










230 
19 


63 


15 


Library extension service 






Consumption goods and services 
















Historical records 




12 


5 




Inventory data on selected wills 

















Note.— Not included in the above figures are the following persons: 3 on Beltsville; 56 on 105-3-25-54, 
all residents of Washington, D. C; 4 noncerlified and 4 noiisecurity. Also 1 person on O. P. 113-3-25-13, 
noncertified and nonsecurity, from Arlington, Va. 

Supply fund (included above)- district office 1, 175 persons: district office 2, 103 persons; district ofl5ce 3, 
15 persons; total, 293. 

Savage River Dam (included abovel; .Allegany. 857 persons; Garrett, 190 persons; total, 1,047 persons. 



60396— 41— pt. 15- 



6196 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the work program of Maryland — Week ending June 18, 19-'/l — Con. 

WEEK ENDING JULY 31, 1940 





State sponsored 










Noncer- 
tifled 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Federal 
agencies 


employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 




7,575 


6,147 


856 


7,003 


236 


148 






Baltimore City 




5,833 
19 
141 
154 


759 
3 
12 

82 


6,592 
22 
153 
236 


216 

8 
5 

7 


131 








Cecil 




3 


Harford 




7 








District No 2 


7,075 


5,951 


711 


6,672 


359 


236 










1,900 
296 


18 
121 


1,918 
417 


111 
42 




j^nne Arundel 




22 


Calvert 






Carroll - 




123 

77 
994 
689 

56 




123 
78 

1,098 
704 
132 
110 
460 
108 

1,524 


7 
2 

18 




Charles 




1 
104 

\l 

110 
264 

1 








50 






10 


Howard 










3 
43 

3 
61 


2 






196 

107 

1,523 


26 


St Marys 




3 






48 








District No 3 


850 


829 




829 


44 


34 










75 
144 




75 
144 


4 
6 


3 


Dorchester 




4 








Queen Annes 




91 
118 
20 

121 




91 
118 

20 
260 
121 


3 

6 
1 
19 
5 


2 


Somerset 






6 


Talbot 








Wicomico 






15 








3 










Grand total 


15,500 


12, 937 
1.373 


1,567 


14, 504 


71 


418 








1 


2 


3 




State-wide P 's (included above) 


830 

47 
13 

108 
34 

293 
52 
28 
78 

107 
14 
21 
35 


406 


137 


49 












87 
13 

284 
34 

582 
72 
28 
78 

125 
14 
21 
35 


23 


17 


4 


J 


Penal education 










126 


50 


21 
2 

24 
4 

1 
5 
7 
1 


17 






2 


Sewing rooms 




224 
20 


65 


14 






1 






1 


State arts program 


, 






4 






13 


5 








1 


Indexing marriage records, etc 
















2 


1 











Note.— Not included above are the following persons: 4 on Beltsville; 36 on 105-3-25-54 and 24 on 05-3 
25-38, all residents of Washington, D. C. 5 noncertifled and 5 nonsecurity: 1 person on 113-3-25-10; 
resident of Arlington, Va., noncertified and nonsecurity. 

Supply fund (included above): District office 1, 167 persons; District office 2, 109 persons; District office 3, 
15 persons; total, 291 ; 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6197 



Work Projects Administration of Maryland — Weekly report of employment 
under the work program of Maryland — Week ending June 18, 19Jfl — Con. 



WEEK ENDING JUNE 26, 1940 





State sponsored 










Noncer- 
tifled 




District office and county of employee's 
residence 


Ap- 
proved 
quotas 


Actual 
employ- 
ment 


Federal 
agencies 


employ- 
ment 


Non- 
security 


District No 1 


7,575 


6,210 


1,016 


7,226 


231 


135 






Baltimore City 




5,845 
21 
150 
194 


911 


fi 7?ifi 


208 
12 
5 
6 


117 


Baltimore 




5 1 26 
14 164 


10 


Cecil -- -- 












280 












7,075 


5,819 


824 


6,643 


351 








Allegany 




1,918 
293 


17 
118 


1,935 
411 


104 
41 


69 














Carroll. 




138 
72 
992 
646 
2 




138 
73 

1,102 
677 
115 
123 
507 
101 

1,461 


7 
2 

66 

17 
1 
3 

49 
4 

57 




Charles . - 




110 
31 
113 
123 

2 




Frederick 




47 








Howard 




1 






2 






199 

100 

1,459 




St Marvs 




3 






4S 








District No 3 


850 


777 


1 


778 


45 


33- 










62 
66 




62 
66 


5 
4 




Dorchester 






2 


Kent 








Queen Annes 




95 
151 

20 
246 
137 




95 
151 

20 
247 
137 


3 
6 

1 
20 
6 












Talbot 




i 




Wicomico 




16 
















Grand total 


15, 500 


12, 806 


1.841 


14, 647 


627 


402 










1,468 

87 
14 

270 
36 

640 
76 
47 
78 

151 
12 
21 
36 


1 


2 


3 


72 




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883 

49 
14 

106 
36 

295 
55 
47 
78 

134 
12 
21 
36 


450 
21 


135 
17 










Nursery schools 


5 


2 












116 


48 


22 

1 
24 
4 
1 
5 
7 




Maryland State Planning Board 










282 
21 


63 




Library Extension Service 






















Historical records 




io 


7 










Indexing marriage records, etc 










Study of births and deaths 1919-35 








2 


I 













on 



Bureau of Public Roads (not included above) : 11 persons. 

Note.— Not included above are the following persons: 3 on Beltsville, 228 on O. P. 05-2-25-74, and 
05-3-2.'>-88, all residents of Washington, D. C; 6 noncertified and 6 nonsecurity. 

Supply fund (included above): district oflice 1, 170 persons. District office 2, 105 persons; District office 3 
16 persons; total 291 persons. 



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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6209 

Exhibit 4 — Maryland Industrial Activity and the Need for Work Projects 
Administration Employment. June 1941 

report ry federal works agency, work projects administration, 

division of research, JUNE 25, 1!»-H 

Maryland is a IiiglUy diversified industrial and agricultural State. The pcirt 
of Baltimore is a center of large-scale manufacturing industries : on the Eastern 
Shore truck farming, fishing, oystering. and crabbing predominate ; southern 
Maryland has many tobacco and dairy farms, while western Mar.vland is chiefly 
an industrial and mining area. Althogh the State as a whole is reaping the 
benefit of the defense iirogram and of generall.v improved conditions, recovery 
and reemployment have been unevenly distributed. While manufacturing employ- 
ment has been rising steadily in Baltimore, the mining areas of western Maryland 
remain seriously depressed, and the agricultural areas of the Eastern Shore have 
been left almost untouched by the defense program. 

In Baltimore, which had more than 90 percent of the $490,416,000 in defense 
contracts awarded in Maryland through April 1941, employment in manufacturing 
increased 21 percent during the year ending in April 1941. chiefiy as a result of 
the large contracts awarded to aircraft, shipbuilding, and other smaller firms. 
It is estimated that more than 40,<XK) additional workers will be needed by early 
1942, of which about 25,000 will be in aircraft and 10,000 in shipbuilding" Fur- 
thermore, the shipbuilding program probably will be expanded as additional 
defense contracts are awarded. 

strict hiring specifications 

Largely because of increasing opportunities for private employment. Work 
Projects Administration employment in Baltimore drt)pped from O.iSfJT in May 
1940 to 8.510 in May 1941. The extent of further reemployment of W(.rk Projects 
Administration workers is conditioned by the strict hiring si)ecifieations of private 
employers and the migr;ttit)n of young, white, .-.killed workers into the B:iltimore 
area. Local industries with few exceptions refuse to hire Negroes for any but 
unskilled jobs, and few industrial jobs are open to women. 

A substantial number of job seekers have come to Baltimore during recent 
months, and a further influx is expected. It is clear that competition for avail- 
able jobs will be keen. Many of the workers now on Work Projects Administra- 
tion rolls and other local unemployed are disadvantaged in securing private 
employment under present hiring standards and in competition with incoming 
job seekers. About two-thirds of the workers on Baltimore's Work Projects 
Administration rolls in February 1941 were 40 years of age or older: more than 
half were Negroes; and only 18 percent were assigned to skilled work on Wiu-k 
Projects Administration projects. Of the 15.203 persons actively registered with 
the Baltimore office of the State employment service in April 1941, only 2,494 
were white men under 45 years old. 

WORK project administration employment in farm areas 

Work Projects Administration employment in the tobacco-raising counties of 
southern Maryland declined from 1,513 in May 1940 to 492 in May 1941. Most 
of the remaining workers were concentrated in Anne Arundel and Prince Georges 
Counties, chiefly on defense iirojects such as those at the Nav;il Academy at 
Annapolis. There is no Work Projects Administration employment in Calvert, 
Charles, or St. Marys Counties, and only one project worker is employed in 
Carroll County. 

Work Projects Administration employment in the Eastern Shore of Maryland 
has declined from 1,172 to 607 during the year ending in May 1941. Some 468 of 
the workers on the Work Projects Administration rolls in May were residents of 
the four southernmost counties, the principal truck-farming section of Maryland. 
Although stories of anticipated farm-labor shortages have been circulated in these 
counties, investigation brought out that no shortage has yet developed. Many 
Work Projects Administration workers in this area have already secured seasonal 
farm work, and while more persons can be expected to leave Work Projects 
Administration during the summer, and influx of migrants will limit job oppor- 
tunities for local workers. Furthermore, the remaining Work Projects Admin- 
istration load consists largely of older men and women and those who have never 
done farm work. Farmers are reluctant to hire inexperienced workers as 
harvest hands. 

In western Maryland economic recovery is proceeding more slowly than in 
other parts of the State. At the present time the coal mines of this area 



5210 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

employ 30 percent fewer men than Avere employed in 1929, and the railroad 
shops, once an important sonrce of employment, are on the decline. The new 
Hagerstown plant of the Faii-child Aviation Co. will need some 1,500 workei's 
when it begins operation shortly after Jnly 1. Wliile additional workers have 
been hired within recent months by the Kelly-Springfield Tire and the (^elanese 
Corporation plants in Cumberland, application of priorities may restrict further 
increases in production and employment levels. 

In the 4 counties of western Maryland, Work Projects Administration employ- 
ment dropped from 5,435 to 3,918 during the year ending in May 1941. Despite 
the migration of some of the younger workers to nearby defense areas, the average 
age of Work Projects Administration workers in western Maryland is lower than 
that of persons on Work Projects Administi-ation rolls in otlier parts of the State. 

In the State as a whole. Work Projects Administration employment dropped 
from 16,636 in May 1940 to 8,729 in May 1941, or 47 percent. The number of cases 
receiving direct relief, available only to "unemployables" except in Baltimore, 
declined by 17 percent, from 10,091 in March 1940 to 8,357 in March 1941. 

FURTHER DROP IN WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYMENT 

A further decline in Work Projects Administration employment is to be 
expected within the next year, but absorption of Work Projects Administration 
workei-s will proceed more slowly as the rolls are drained of the young, while, 
skilled workers, who are more acceptable to private industry. An analysis of 
the Work Projects Administration work load in February 1941 shows that three- 
fifths of the Maryland project workers were over 40 years of age and almost one- 
third were Negroes. More than four-fifths of the Negroes and about two-thirds 
of all workers were assigned to unskilled W^ork Projects Administration jobs. 
Negroes are still barred from many types of employment, especially in the rapidly 
expanding aircraft industry. 

Of the 29,521 workers actively registered with the Maryland State Employment 
Service in April 1941, less than half were white men. About one-third were 
women and more than one-fourth were Negroes. 

A comparison of the characteristics of Maryland's unemployed workers with 
the highly selective nature of the demand for workers, particularly in defense 
industries, indicates that decreases in unemployment within the coming year 
will not keep pace with the rise in employment levels. Concentration of defense 
activity in Baltimore, application of priorities which may result in shortages of 
materials necessary to nondefense production, and the tapering off of seasonal 
agricultural work with the coming of winter will leave Maryland with a con- 
tinuing unemployment problem. 

Exhibit 5 — Baltimore, Md., Industrial Activity and the Need fob Work 
Pro.jects Administration Employment, June 1941 

Report by Fedeml Works Agency, Work Projects Administration, Division of 
Research, June 25, 1941 

Baltimore had received $447,021,000 in defense awards by April 30, 1941. These 
contracts, which range from the huge awards to the Glenn L. Martin Co. for 
bombers and the Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipbuilding Corporation for freighters to 
small textile awards reflect the diversified character of Baltimore industry. 

The index of manufacturing employment rose 21 percent during the year 
ending in April 1941, partly as a direct result of defense awards. Baltimore's 
steel industry is operating at full capacity. While the increase in nonmanu- 
facturing employment has been less rapid than in manufacturing employment, 
a considerable demand by service industries for young workers is reported and 
construction work has reached an all-time peak. Shortages of certain types of 
highly skilled workers such as machinists, marine machinists, machine tool oper- 
ators, arc welders, sheet-metal workers, electricians, ship fltteis, tool makers, 
loftsmen and riggers, tool designers, draftsmen, land aeronautical engineers have 
been reported and are likely to grow more serious as the demand for workers 
increases. 

thirty-fiat; thousand more in two plants 

By early 1942 the Glenn L. Martin Co. plans to employ 25,000 additional workers, 
00 percent of them unskilled and semiskilled. Within the next year, Bethlehem- 
Fairfield expects to add almost 10,000 workers at its new shipyard. These will 
be chiefly skilled men, and the present force is being tftiined for transfer to skilled 



NATIONAL DEFExNSE MIGRATION 6211 

jobs when the shipways are completed. The Maryland Drydock Co. will add 
1,500 new workers, 60 percent of them skilled and semiskilled. Other firms among 
the many engaged in defense work bring the prospective demand for workers 
within the next year up to more than 40,000. Except at the Glenn L. Martin 
plant, where employment opportunities are limited for the most part to young 
white men, the demand will be largely for skilled workers. 

With the increase in the number of available private jobs, Work Projects 
Administration employment dropped from 6,867 in May 1940 to 3,510 in May 1941. 
or almost 50 percent. At present most of the Work Projects Administration 
construction projects are certified defense projects. Direct relief case loads have 
declined less sharply than Work Projects Administration employment, partly 
because relief is granted to employables only under special circumstances. In 
April 1941 direct relief was granted to 3,718 cases, a decline of 17 percent from 
the 4.441 cases of April 1940. 

Unless hiring specifications are relaxed as the demand for workers increases, 
the number of defense jobs available to workers now unemployed will be defi^ 
nitely limited. Of the 15,203 persons seeking jobs through the Baltimore office 
of the State employment service in April 1941, only 1,903 were skilled workers, of 
whom one-half Avere 45 years old or older. Only 172 workers were listed as 
immediately referrable to jobs in selected defense occupations; some 500 addi- 
tional persons may be available for training. An analysis of the Work Projects 
Administration working load in Baltimore in February 1941 showed that more 
than 50 percent of Work Projects Administration workers were Negroes, as com- 
pared with about one-fifth of the total 1940 population. Two-thirds of the Work 
Projects Administration workers were over 40 years old, and 14 percent were 
women. Only about one-eighth of all project workers were assigned at skilled 
classifications. 

DISCRIMINATION AGAINST NEGBOKS 

The most serious bar to employment of Work Projects Administration w^orkers 
is the discrimination against Negroes practiced by almost all Baltimore indus- 
tries. Except at Bethlehem-Faiifield all but unskilled jobs are closed to Negroes. 
Since the supply of local unskilled workers is now considered completely adequate 
and is likely to be increased by in-migration, job opportunities for Negroes will 
be extremely limited. 

A substantial number of job seekers have come to the area during recent 
months. How large the migration ultimately will be depends on a number of 
factors including the extent and the nature of the demand for additional 
workers, the degree to which relaxation of hiring standards facilitates reem- 
ployment of local unemployed workers, and the competition of higher wage 
defense areas. Baltimore's quota of more than 15,C00 under the Selective 
Service Act will further limit the supply of available young workers. On the 
other hand, it is probable that relaxation of restrictions on the employment of 
women will bring a large new group into the labor market. 

Some new job openings may be available to Work Projects Administration 
workers as an indirect result of defense activity and as workers now employed 
go from nondefense to defense jobs. Work Projects Administration workers 
may be expected to get some of the defense jobs, especially if the restrictions 
against Negroes are relaxed. Nevertheless, the combination of the highly 
selective type of demand for workers and in-mlgration of young skilled workers 
will limit the extent of reemployment of Work Projects Administration workers 
within the coming year. 



Exhibit 6 — Western Maryland — Industrial Activity and the Need fob Work 
Projects Administration Employment, June 1941 

report by federal works agency, work projects administration, dtvision of 

research 

Western Maryland ' is primarily an industrial and mining area. Agriculture 
is confined largely to dairy farming and the raising of grain in Frederick 
County, apple growing in Washington County, and some subsistence farming 
in rural areas of Allegany and Garrett Counties. 

The problems of this area are not few : in fact, industrial expansion in the.se 
counties came to an end soon after the close of the first World War. The 
decline in railroad and railroad-shop employment began in the decade 1920-30 : 



Garrett, Allegany, Washington, and Frederick Counties. 
60396— 41— pt. 15 22 



5212 BALTIMOKE HEARINGS 

up to the present there has been slight tendency toward revival. Employment 
in coal mines has declined by 30 percent since 1929. The histories of other 
industries throughout the area are very much the same. For instance, the 
Moller Organ Co., in Hagersto\Yn, which had 70l> workers in the twenties, now 
employs about 200. 

DEFENSE CONTRACTS IN WESTERN MARYLAND 

Defense-contract awards in w^estern Maryland up to April 30, 1941, totaled 
only $9,531,000 of which $9,001,000 went to the Fairchild engine and aircraft 
division of the Fairchild Aviation Co. in Hagerstown. This firm will need 
1,500 men, the majority of them skilled, when its new plant is completed soon 
after July 1. Officials of the employment service believe that all needed 
workers, with the exception of certain highly skilled men, can be recruited 
within a 30-mile area, which includes a part of Pennsylvania. Hagerstown 
industry emiiloys a preponderance of skilled men, since there are no mass- 
production industries. In April 1941, 2,440 unemployed persons were actively 
registered with the Hagerstown office of the State employment service. Of 
these jobless workers, 198 were .skilled, 232 semiskilled, and 837 unskilled; 
others were clerical, sales, professional, and agricultural workers. 

Of the 432 workers from Work Projects Administration rolls who have com- 
pleted the 400-hour defense-training course. 313 have been placed in private 
jobs. Eighty-seven Work Projects Administration workers are now in training. 
Work Projects Administration emiiloyment declined by 34 percent from 1,530 
in May 1940, to 1,009 in May 1941 in Washington County (Hagerstown). 

Defense activity has had almost no effect outside of Hagerstown. The other 
areas of western Maryland remain seriously depressed. The two western- 
most counties, Allegany and Garrett, have one one defense contract — $59,0(H1 for 
run-of-the-mine coal. The barren hills provide no opportunity for farming. 
Mines are operating at a rate appreciably below that of 1929, with outdated 
equipment and in second and third strata. Railroad shops, after years of 
minimum employment, are now taking on a small number of workers. The 
more prosperous Cumberland industries face an uncertain future. The Kelly- 
Ispringfleld tire plant, working on nondefense orders, has taken on some addi- 
tional workers but production may be curtailed by application of priorities. It 
is believed that the facilities of the Celanese Corporation, which employs 12,000, 
could be converted to munitions 'production within a short period if necessary. 

UNEMPLOYMENT IN WESTERN MARY'LAND 

The volume of unemployment in western Maryland remains relatively high. 
In April a total of 6,516 unemployed workers were actively registered with 
the State employment office in Hagerstown, Cumberland, and Frederick. There 
has been relatively little change in the employment situation since February, 
and there is little prospect of any significant expansion of job openings within 
the coming year, except in Hagerstown. While seasonal farm employment in 
Frederick County will engage some workers for a limited period, the demand 
will not be great. 

Total Work Projects Administration employment in all 4 counties of western 
Maryland declined by 28 percent, from 5,435 to 3,918, during the year ending 
in May 1&41. While many Work Projects Administration workers have found 
private employment during this period, much of this employment has been 
temporary as is indicated by the fact that during May 1941 more than half as 
many persons returned from private employment as left Work Projects Admin- 
istration for private jobs. An analysis of the characteristics of the Work 
Projects Administration workers in this district in February 1941 shows a 
relatively high proportion of young male workers on Work Projects Adminis- 
tration projects ; just under half of all Work Projects Administration workers 
were under 40 years old, and less than 6 percent were women. 

The most important Work Projects Administration project in this section 
if Maryland is the Savage River Dam, which employs 831 men, 566 of them 
from Allegany County. Local sponsors hope that availability of power will 
attract new industries to the area. Unless new industries come to western 
Maryland, the need for Work Projects Administration employment in this area 
of declining industries will remain substantially unchanged. Direct relief is 
available only to un employables, and local relief funds are entirely inadequate 
to meet the needs of employable unemployed workers. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



6213 



Exhibit 7 — National Youth Administration Employmeni 



Rfa^RT BY GLEN J>. BROWN, 



STATE ADMINISTRATOR, 
FOR MARYLAND, JULY' 



NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION 
1, 1941 



It is rather difficult to summarize the training program of the National Youth 
Administration in any dear and concise manner. The National Youth Adminis- 
tration was prohibited last year from offering a training program. Our function 
was to provide useful and productive work experience for young persons and any 
necessary related training was to be provided by the various boards of education. 

The National Youth Administration has made it a definite part of its program 
to terminate from employment any youth who refused employment at current 
wages and satisfactory working conditions. A large number of National Youth 
Administration youths leave the projects each year for farm employment and a 
great many work on farms when not on the projects. During the past year, 
project workers were on National Youth Administration 66 hours per month so 
that they had a great deal of free time for farm employment. 

The number of male youths on National Youth Administration projects is not a 
fair statement of the number of youths available for farm labor. Many youths 
are in the mountains of Western Maryland where there is a limited demand for 
farm labor; and many of the youths on the program in other parts of the State 
are the sons of farmers and farm tenants and so work at home in their spare 
time. It should be noted that projects in St. Marys County rarely work on days 
when atmospheric conditions are conducive to the stripping of tobacco. 

We have been trying for some time to have the Maryland State employment 
service register all our workers in southern Maryland (St. Marys, Charles, and 
rural Prince Georges Counties) so that they might be called for possible employ- 
ment but have met with little success along this line. At the present time we are 
taking some registrations for the Maryland State employment service but the 
coverage is not yet complete. 

Summary of employment on 'National Youth Aflnnnistration projects 



July 

Auuu.st 

September 
October- _ . 
November 
December. 

1940: 

January--. 
February- - 

March 

AprU 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October- -- 
November. 
December. 

1941: 

January.. _ 
February. - 

March 

April. 

May 

June 



White Colored 



White Colored 



341 

410 

783 

1,0!6 

1,199 

1,340 

1.571 
1,728 

l'. 567 

1,505 

1,357 

1,134 

1,122 

723 

582 

934 

1,198 

1,288 
1,763 
2,058 
2,567 
2,733 
2,273 



567 

767 

919 

1.241 

1,389 

1,426 



985 
1, 156 
2.212 
2. 610 
3,003 

3. 473 

4,194 
4,792 

4, 736 
4, 539 
4,098 
3, .555 
3, 060 
2,953 
2.136 
1,752 
2,428 
3,182 

3,484 
4.662 
5,274 
6,585 
6, 483 



Exhibit 8 — Campaign for Public Support of Production of Defense Materials 

bepoet by alice w. hostetleb, president. maryland league of women voters 

Baltimore, Md., July 18, 19.'/1. 
The main work of the league of women voters at this time is an intensive cam- 
paign to win unified public support of the American defense program of production 



5214 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

of defense materials. Consequently, the members have been unable to make 
more than a hasty survey of a problem reported to them. 

The Maryland league was informed that there vpas an emergency in the State 
which, if not met within 6 weeks, would spell disaster to the farmers in un- 
harvested crops and rising prices to consumers. It was suggested to us that it 
might be advisable to use school boys and girls on vacation and women to harvest, 
and that this was a problem which could not be deferred until fall for solution. 
Local leagues were asked to obtain answers from local sources to the question- 
naire enclosed. This brief survey was made for the membership of the Maryland 
League of Women Voters in order to learn whether the problem warranted inter- 
ruption of our major undertaking — the campaign to win the battle of production. 

It is our impression that there is a labor shortage on farms, but that this is not a 
new problem, but one of long standing due largely to the difference in wages paid by 
industry and agriculture. The difficulty has probably been increased by present 
industrial demands, but there is neither the need nor the desire by farmers to use 
women or persons without farm background or experience. Apparently, coop- 
eration has been developed between the farmers and such agencies as the Work 
Projects Administration, National Youth Administration, employment service, and 
draft boards. 

STJRVEY OF LOCAL FARM LABOR PROBLEM 

(To be returned by May 31, 1941) 

I. Among the questions we want answered are — 

1. Is there a labor shortage in your community? 

In farm labor? 

In what industries? 

2. What steps are tlie local agencies taking to solve this problem? 

(a) Is your local W. P. A. actually cutting ofE clients from its 
rolls as they are requisitioned by the local branch of the 
Employment Service? 

(&) Is the local branch of the N. Y. A. doing the same? 

3. Is it desirable at this time to use high-school boys and girls 16 and 

over during their vacations? 

If so, how can their services be made available to farmers? 
Transportation to work. 
Hours of work. 
Pay. 

Protection. 
Boarding. 
Would your local schools permit the League to give short talks 
on this subject to the students before school closes? 

4. How much backing would your community give to the "Farmerette' 

project used during the last war? 

Material on this subject will be sent you. In the meantime 
It is sufficient to get the reaction of local farmers to the idea of 
organizing groups of young women (perhaps college girls) to 
work as units where they are needed and can be transported. 

Sanitary arrangements on farms may make this impossible. 
Please ask about these. 

5. Can you get a rough estimate of rate of pay for farm labor? Per 

hour ; per basket. 
II. Obtain information regarding the problem in your locality. 
Among the sources of information are : 

Local Employment Service — or Mr. Fred Gambrill, Director for State 
Employment Service of Farm Labor, Baltimore Trust Building, 
Baltimore. 
Farm Bureau. 
County Agent. 

Home Demonstration Agent. 
W. P. A. 

Nat. Youth Administration. 
C. C. C. 
School authorities. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 6215 

Exhibit 9 — Farm Labob and the Laboe Supply Situation on the Eastern Shore 
OF Maryland, 1941 

REPORT BY LABOR DIVISION, FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, UNITED STATES DEPART- 
MENT OF AGBUCULTURE 

A. Farm Labor Background 

1. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 

Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester Counties are today the three major. triick- 
trop-producing areas which employ the bulk of the seasonal labor required on the 
Eastern Shore of Maryland for harvesting crops and for work in cannery and 
food-packing establishments. These counties are part of the oldest, and, for a 
long time, the most prosperous agricultural region on the Atlantic seaboard. For 
many generations they approached being self-sustaining and balanced rural com- 
munities able to withstand the impact of changing national economic conditions. 
Varying soil conditions in each of the three counties gave opportunity for nearly 
every type of farming. From the earliest day of plantation economy to the present 
period production of a wide variety of farm products both for domestic use and 
for commercial marketing made the area a subject of enviable prqise. 

Strategically situated as to potential markets, the counties made profitable use 
of their natural waterways before the arrival of the railroad. Baltimore, Wash- 
ington, Wilmington, Philadelphia, and New York took all surpluses from the farms. 
The sea-food industry was an important secondary source of income to both land- 
owners and to a small army of landless workers. When employment in the 
sea-food industry became slack, workers found employment in strawberry pick- 
ing, in the gradually expanding truck-crop harvests, and in muskrat farming 
where large areas were unsuited for cultivation. Timber resources of hard- 
woods and the fast-growing loblolly pine provided an additional source of farm 
income when the hardwoods began to be seriously exploited during the first 
World War which stimulated the lumber industry. Residents in the area seemed 
to enjoy a fair income 12 months of the year. 

Most of the farmers carried on crop rotation which assured production of 
essential feeds for their stock and maintenance of soil fertility. Though there 
were many large farms, some sufficiently extensive to be called estates, the 
family-size farm predominated. A reasonably adequate supply of resident labor 
was available for all farm operations, including the harvests. Some migratory 
labor was procured from nearby towns and some from Baltimore and Wa.shington. 

In the past 25 years this more or less self-sufficient and moderate commercial 
type of agricultural and semiagricultural type of an economy appears to have 
undergone a transformation to one characterized by a dominant commercial and 
semi-industrial type of farming and industry. Family farm labor has given way, 
for the most part, to regular hired hands and short-time employment of local and 
outside seasonal labor. Two basic causes explain this change : One, an increase in 
the production of perishable truck crops and the accompanying acceleration of 
canning and food-processing operations in commei'cially operated establishments ; 
and, two, a gradual decline in the rural iwpulation. 

Truck-crop farming expanded rapidly during the first World War and continued 
until the beginning of the 1929-32 depression. Irish-potato production went into 
high gear in Worcester County in 1916-17 ; the neighboring Virginia counties of 
Accomac and Northampton had entered a period of intensive production of their 
crop somewhat earlier. Accomac County began to expand strawberry acreage in 
1916. Both of the Virginia counties speeded up strawberry production in the 
twenties, and the Maryland counties followed suit. It is not clear whether the 
canning industry originally developed as an economy program by the larger 
growers who decided to can for themselves what they were unable to sell, or as 
a natural growth in an area where perishable foods frequently were in "surplus" 
and sought commercial markets. In any event, canning factories mushroomed 
throughout the area, and the acreage of tomatoes, peas, beans, and other truck 
crops expanded accordingly. Many of the smaller plants disappeared after 1929, 
leaving the field to the larger and more commercially operated plants. Today 
fhere are about 26 plants of this character in operation on the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland. It is possible that a few of the smaller canneries may revive during 
the present defense emergency. 



6216 BALTIMORE HEARINGS 

The only other major development in recent years has been the rapid growth 
of the broiler industry. Worcester, Wicomico, and Somerset Counties have 
become an important part of one of the largest broiler-producing areas in the 
United States. This is a highly speculative branch of poultry husbandry, calls 
for a large initial investment, but appears to be highly profitable to the operators 
as well as stimulating to the local commercial enterprises which serve it — the 
building-materials industry and the grain and feed dealers. No data are avail- 
able showing the etxeut of expansion in broiler production even during the past 
5 years, but it appears to be a farm industry that has reestablished farm income 
for the younger and more enterprising farm operators. It calls for comparatively 
little labor. 

During the period of truck-crop development the populatio-n of the 3 counties, 
totaling 76,740 in 1940, has remained fairly stable, but the rural population of the 
area has declined. Somex-set and Worcester Counties, both preilouiinaiitly rural 
and containing only 1 town in excess of 2,000 (Crisfield) together sulTeied a popu- 
lation decline of about 4,000 between 1920 and 1940. Wicomico County, on the 
other hand, showed an increase of 6,:350 during this period. Practically all of this 
increase is accounted for, ho-wever, by the increased size of Salisbury, predomi- 
nant city of the area, which now contains slightly over 13,000 persons and which 
serves as a trading center for the entire area. This town appears to have drawn 
heavily from the rural areas of the Eastern Shore of Maryland, both white and 
Negro, the latter being attracted into service employment and the former into 
commercial and small industrial enterprises. This trend away from the farm 
during a period of titick-crop expansion has operated to decrease the supply of 
local labor resident in the countryside and to increase reliance of the area upon 
migratory labor to meet harvest needs. 

2. TYPE AXD SOURCE OF FAEM LABOR 

Tnick crop farms and canneries both employ local labor during the season but 
depend more upon nonlocal or migratory workers to satisfy full labor needs dur- 
ing .'Seasonal i>eaks. With the expansion of truck croi) farming in recent years, 
on the one hand, and the decline in the rural population on the other hand, 
labor-employing farmers and cannery establishments have been compelled to rely 
more and more on outside or migratory labor each year from the strawberry 
picking season through the harvesting and processing of beans, potatoes, to- 
matoes and other vegetables. The canneries employ, in general, the same type 
of labor used by farmers to harvest the crops designed for canning. Wrapping 
green tomatoes, however, is performed by expert workers who, for the most part, 
are migratory in character. The latter originate usually in Florida and travel 
in crews over wide areas where tomato-packing plants are located. 

It is conservatively estimated that during the past 5 years more than half of 
the area's seasonal farm-labor supply has come from the ranks of migratory 
workers. Between 40 and 50 percent of the labor employed by the 20 canneries, 
it is stated, are migrants. No complete count has ever been made of the number 
of migrants who come annually for harvesting and canning work available in 
the three counties of Somerset, Wicomico, and Worcester, but estimates indicate 
the figures to be between 3,000 and 4,000. The migrants, both in the fields and 
canneries, are almost exclusively Negroes and consist, for the most part, of 
unattached males. Relatively few of these workers have cars, the majority of 
them being transjwrted in trucks sent after them by their farm employers or 
in those owned by "labor runners" or "labor contractors." 

Migratory farm labor is especially in demand for picking strawberries, beans, 
tomatoes, and potatoes. It was during the boom period of big profits in straw- 
berries and truck crops that these Eastern Shore counties commenced to go far 
afield for this tyi^e of labor. As early as 1916, the Virginia counties on the 
peninsula were drawnng migratory farm labor from the nearby Hampton Roads 
cities. The Maryland counties, in turn, took over this labor supply as it com- 
pleted the Virginia harvests. As this source of supply began to prove inadequate, 
many of the large Maryland farm operators and canners began to employ 
migrants from the m(»re southern States, the Carolinas, Georgia, and Florida. 

Today, a minor portion of the migratory labor stream which moves into the 
Maryland counties on the Eastern Shore has its immediate origin on the Vir- 
ginia Peninsula, but it constitutes, for the most part, workers who had migrated 
there earlier in the season from the Norfolk or Hampton Roads area on the 
mainland in Virginia. Only a comparatively small number are residents of 
either of the two Eastern Shore counties of Virginia. The majority of the 
workers: who migrate to the Eastern Shore of Maryland are part of the large 



NATIONAL DEFENCE MIGRATION 



6217 



stream of constant farm migrants who follow the ripening crops almost the year 
round from Florida up the Atlantic seaboard. They usually begin with the 
strawberry and truck harvests in Florida, then move through the Carolinas, 
Virginia, the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Delaware, and New Jersey before 
returning South. Not all the migrants who cross on the Norfolk-Cape Cliarles 
ferry, it will be noted, remain on the eastern shores of Virginia and Mai viand. 
A number of them move on to Delaware and to the potato region of central New 
Jersey. 

ii. CROP ACREAGE. SEASONALITY OF MAJOR TYPES OF FARMING AND FARM-LABOR FORCE 

Crop acreage and seasonality of operations with respect to the major crops 
in Somerset County are as follows : 



Crop 


Plant 


Harvest 


Anrease 
(estimato'1 
for 1941) 


Strawberries 


Annual 


May 15, about 2 weeks 

June 10, 2 to 3 weeks 

June 25, about 2 weeks 

July 15 to about Sept. 1 

July 25 to about Aug. 15 

July 4 to end of July 


1,800 




Apr. 15 


1.800 


Tomatoes 


1 6,500 




Mar. 25 


800 


Lima beans 


Apr. 15 


500 









It is difficult to estimate the amount of local labor available to harvest these 
crops. The State local employment office at Crisfield has stated that this year 
(1911) between 300 and 400 workers who applied for unemployment-compensation 
benefits could be made available for work on farms during the harvest period. 
Even with access to this group, and including those in the locality ordinarily 
available for regular and seasonal farm work, the farmers in this county must 
still rely very heavily on migratory labor. The State employment service has 
.stated that with proper organization and direction of the migratory-labor influx, 
it is possible to meet harvest labor requirements of all the major croi^s of the 
county with about 1,500 migrant workers. Of this number, there is a demand for 
1,000 strawberry pickers. An additional 500 workers are then required to com- 
plete the string-bean harvest. This is the number of outside farm laborers which 
is needed to augment the local labor supply at the height of the string-bean 
season in the latter half of June. The green-tomato crop, so far as field workers 
are concerned, can be handled with local labor. The work of wrapping and crat- 
ing these tomatoes is usually performed by skilled crews which follow this occupa- 
tion from one region to another as required. The acreaire in white potatoes and 
lima beans is comparatively small and little, if any, outside labor is needed. What 
outside labor is required can be retained from among the migrants who work in 
the earlier strawberry and bean harvests. 

In Worcester County the crop acieages and agricultural seasons are as follows : 



Crop 


Plant 


Harvest 


Acreage 
(estimated 
for 1941} 




Annual 

Apr. 15 

Mar. 15 


May 15. about 2 weeks 

June 15, 2 to 3 weeks 


1.000 


Beans (string) 


900 




5.800 






Aug. 1 to Sept. 15 


5,200 









Local farm laborers are available in sufficient numbers in this county to pick 
the bulk of the strawberry and string-bean crops. An additional 300 migrant 
workers are usually required, however, to complete the harvests of the two crops, 
White potatoes and can-house tomatoes, the major crops grown in Worcester 
County, cannot be harvested without migrant workers. It has been estimated 
tJiat, with proper handling and distribution of labor, these crops could be picked 
with a migrant labor force of about 1,000 workers, including, for the most part, 
those who are previously engaged in strawberry and bean picking. It is believed, 
also, that the labor supply imported for the potato and tomato harvests could be 
rationalized to meet the migrant-labor requirements of the canneries in the 
county. 



6218 



BALTIMORE HEARINGS 



The crop acreages aud the agricultural seasons in Wicomico County are as 
follows : 



Crop 


Plant 


Harvest 


Acreage 
(estimated 
for 1941) 


Aspara^s 


Annual 


Apr. 21 to about July 15 

Mav20. 3 or 4 weeks 

June 8 to about July 15 

July 4 on 


150 


Strawberries 


Annual 


2.000 


Beans (string) 


Apr. 1 


3,000 


Lima beans 


Apr. 10 


2,000 




..__ do 


1,200 


Toniatoes 


Apr.20{f[ee--;--_-; 
Apr. 20— - -- 


June 25, about 2 weeks 

July 15 to about Sept. 1 

July 15, 2 to 4 weeks 

Aug. 10, 3 to 4 weeks 

Aug 5, 6 to 8 weeks 


1,000 




2,000 




Apr. 24 

Mayl 


1,800 


Sweetpotatoes 


4,500 









Strawberries and string beans require the largest numbers of harvesters in 
this county. The large majority of them must be recruited from outside the 
region. The State local employment office has estimated that about 1,000 mi- 
grants are needed for strawberry picking and an additional 1,000 for the string 
beans. With a peak importation of about 2,000 farm laborers, properly dis- 
tributed and exchanged during the cropping season, and with the local labor 
available, it is believed that all the crops of the county could be satisfactorily 
harvested. 

The above review of labor requirements for the various crops grown in the 
3 Eastern Shore Maryland counties of Somerset, Worcester, and Wicomico 
indicates that there is a demand for about 2,300 migrant pickers for the 
strawberry season and an additional 2,200 harvesters for the truck crops, or 
a total of 4,500 migrant agricultural workers. This total slightly exceeds 
the number of migrants, both in the field and in the canneries, who entered 
the area in 1940. With the possible exception of land