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Full text of "National defense migration. Hearings before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, first[-second] session, pursuant to H. Res. 113, a resolution to inquire further into the interstate migration of citizens, emphasizing the present and potential consequences of the migraion caused by the national defense program. pt. 11-[34]"

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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 

HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGEESS 

SECOND SESSION 

PURSDANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 

MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 

AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE 

MIGRATION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 

DEFENSE PROGRAM 




PART 25 
WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

JANUARY 13, 14, 15, 1942 



TESTIMONY REUTING TO THE MAINTENANCE OF 
CIVILIAN MORALE 



;■■? 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

'a resolution to inquire further into the interstate 

migration of citizens, emphasizing the present 

and potential consequences of the 

migration caused by the national 

defense program 



PART 25 
WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

JANUARY 13, 14, 15, 1942 



TESTIMONY RELATING TO THE MAINTENANCE OF 
CIVILIAN MORALE 



Priuted for the use of the Select Committee Investigatiug 
National Defense Migration 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
60396 WASHINGTON : 1942 



SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING NATIONAL DEFENSE 

MIGRATION 

JOHN H. TOLAN, California, Chairman 
JOHN J. SPARKMAN, Alabama j"^ J ' f / 'cARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska 

T A TT'DTTMr'TT" T? A'DMriTT^ TIi;»i^;o '} 



LAURENCE F. ARNOLD, Illinois [' 



Robert K. Lamb, Staff Director 



1 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Lis't of witnesses v 

List of authors vii 

Tuesday, January 13, 1942, morning session 9639 

Testimony of John Russell Young ^ 9639, 9642 

Statement bv John Russell Young 9639 

Testimony of Col. Lemuel Bolles 9649 

Testimony of Dr. George C. Ruhland 9656,9665 

Statement by Dr. George C. Ruhland 9656 

Testimony of Dr. Frank W. Ballou 9673, 9686^ 

Statement by A. W. Heinmiller 9673 

Testimony of Conrad Van Hyning 9690 

Statement by Conrad Van Hyning 9690 

Statement by John Ihlder 9704 

Testimony of John Ihlder 9707 

Statement of Lawrence E. Williams 9711 

Testimony of Lawrence E. Williams 9713 

Statement by Mrs. Helen Duey Hoffman 9714 

Testimony of Mrs. Helen Duey Hoffman 9733 

Wednesday, January 14, 1942, morning session 9741 

Testimony of Hon. Fiorello H. LaGuardia 9741 

Testimony of Dean James M. Landis 9761 

Testimony of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt 9766 

Testimony of Paul V. McNutt 9774, 97S» 

Statement by Paul V. McNutt 9774 

Thursday, January 15, 1942, morning session 9795 

Testimony of panel of State welfare directors 9795, 9812 

Statement by Fred K. Hoehler 9796 

Statement by Leo M. Lyons 9799 

Statement by Miss Loula Dunn 9802 

Statement by Benjamin Glassberg 980S 

Testimony of panel of public health experts 9833-9874 

Testimony of Dr. Reginald R. Atwater 9833, 9834 

Testimony of Dr. Martha M. Eliot. 9833, 9836, 9847 

Statement by Dr. Martha M. Eliot 9836 

Statement by Miss Katharine F. Lenroot ._ 9841, 9843 

Testimony of Miss Alma C, Haupt, R. N 9833, 9852, 985S 

Statement bv Miss Alma C, Haupt, R. N 9852 

Testimony of Dr. George H. Ramsey 9833,9853 

Testimony of Dr. James G. Townsend 9833, 9860 

Testimony of Dr. Huntington Williams 9833, 9863, 9865, 9873 

Statement by Sir Wilson Jameson, M. D 9866 

Testimony of Hon. Malcolm MacDonald 9874 

Introduction of exhibits 9883 

1. Housing Supply and Demand in Washington, D. C, by C. F. 

Palmer 9885 

2. Housing Program to Meet the Needs of National Defense for the 

District Metropolitan Area, by Washington Chapter F. A. E. C. 

and T 9888. 

3. Civil Service Apportionment and Civilian Employment in Execu- 

tive Branch of Government in the District of Columbia, by the 
United States Civil Service Commission 98911 

4. Child-Care Facilities and the Woman Defense Worker, by the 

United Federal Workers of America 9898) 

in 



IV CONTENTS 

Introduction of exhibits — Continued. 

5 to 32, inclusive. Statements by associations and organizations, as to 

their activities in the war effort: Page 

o. American Association of University Women 9898 

6. American Bar Association 9901 

7. American Dietetic Association 9903 

8. American Federation of Labor 9904 

9. American Friend Service Committee 9906 

10. American Home Economics Association 9908 

11. American Medical Association 9909 

12. American Planning and Civic Association ■ 9910 

13. Child Welfare League of America, Inc 9913 

14. Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America 9914 

15. International and National Red Cross 9915 

1 fi. Kivvanis International 9928 

17. Knights of Columbus 9928 

18. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 9932 

19. National Association of Housing Officials 9933 

20. National Congress of Parents and Teachers 9934 

21. National Consumers League 9936 

22. National Council of Jewish Women 9936 

23. National Education Association 9937 

24. National Federation of Business and Professional Women's 

Chibs, Inc 9937 

25. National Federation of Settlements, Inc 9939 

26. National Jewish Welfare Board 9940 

27. National Lawyers' Guild 9942 

28. National Social Work Council 9944 

29. National Women's Trade Union League of America 9950 

30. United Automobile Workers of America 9951 

31. Young Men's Christian Associations 9952 

32. Young Women's Christian Associations 9953 

33. Settlement and Social Welfare in New York State, by Glenn E. 

Jackson , 9955 

34. Hef'lth of the American Farmer and Farm Worker, by Dr. R. C. 

Williams 9961 



LIST OF WITNESSES 

Washington Hearings, January 13, 14, 15, 1942 

Atwater, Dr. Reginald M., executive secretary, American Public Health Page 

Association, New York, N. Y 9833, 9834 

Ballou, Dr. Frank W., Superintendent of Schools, District of Columbia, 

Washington, D. C 9673,9686 

Bolles, Col. Lemuel, Director of Civilian Defense, District of Columbia, 

Washington, D. C 9649 

Dunn, Miss Loula, commissioner of public welfare, State of Alabama, 

Montgomery, Ala 9795 

Eliot, Dr. Martha M., Associate Chief, Children's Bureau, Department of 

Labor, Washington, D. C 9833,9836,9847 

Glassberg, Benjamin, superintendent of public assistance, Milwaukee, 

Wis 9795 

Goudy, Elmer R., administrator, public welfare commission, State of 

Oregon, Salem, Oreg 9795 

Haupt, Miss Alma, R. N., executive secretary, subcommittee on nursing, 

health and medical committee. Office of Defense, Health, and Welfare 

Services, Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C 9833. 9852, 9858 

Hodson, William, commissioner, department of welfare, New York, 

N. Y 9795 

Hoehler,.Fred K., director, American Public Welfare Association, Chicago, 

111 . 9795 

Hoffman, Mrs. Helen Duey, secretary, Washington Housing Association, 

Washington, D. C 9733 

Ihlder, John, executive officer, Auey Dwelling Authority, Washington, 

D. C 9707 

LaGuardia, Hon. Fiorella H., mayor. New York, N. Y., and director, 

Office of Civilian Defense, Washington, D. C 9741 

Landis, Dean James M., executive, Office of Civilian Defense, Washington, 

D. C 9761 

Lyons, Leo M., commissioner, Chicago Relief Administration, Chicago, 

111 9795 

McNutt, Hon. Paul V., director, Office of Defense Health and Welfare 

Services and Federal Security Administrator 9774, 9789 

Ramsey, Dr. George H., commissioner of health, Westchester County, 

White Plains, N. Y 9833, 9853 

Roosevelt, Mrs. Franklin D., assistant director. Office of Civilian Defense, 

Washington, D. C 9766 

Ruhland, Dr. George C, health officer, District of Columbia, Washington, 

D. C . 9656,9665 

Russell, Howard L., secretary, department of public assistance. State of 

Pennsylvania, Harrisburg, Pa 9795 

Townsend, Dr. James G., medical director, Industrial Hygiene Division, 

National Institute of Health, Washington D. C 9833, 9860 

Van Hyning, Conrad, director of public welfare, District of Columbia, 

Washington, D. C 9690,9695 

Williams, Dr. Huntington, commissioner, city department of health, 

Baltimore, Md 9833, 9863, 9865, 9873 

Williams, Lawrence E., chairman, housing committee. District of Colum- 
bia, Civilian Defense Council, Washington, D. C 9713 

Young, John Russell, commissioner, District of Columbia, Washington, 

D. C 9639, 9642 

V 



LIST OF AUTHORS 

Of Prepared Statements and Exhibits 

Page 

Barnes, Roswell P., associate general secretary, Federal Council of the 

Churches of Christ in America, New York, N. Y 9914 

Cary, C. Reed, chairman, publicity committee, American Friends Service 

Committee, Philadelphia, Pa 9906 

Christman, Elizabeth, secretary-treasurer, National Women's Trade 

Union League of America, Washington, D. C 9950 

Davis, Norman H., chairman, International and National Red Cross, 

Washington, D. C 9915 

Donley, Charles S., president, Kiwanis International, Chicago, 111 9928 

Dunn, Miss Loula, commissioner of public welfare, State of Alabama, 

Montgomery, Ala . 9802 

Eliot, Dr. Martha M., associate chief, Children's Bureau, Department of 

Labor, Washington, D. C 9836 

Franklin, Esther Cole, American Association of University Women, 

Washington, D. C i 9898 

Givens, Willard, executive secretary. National Education Association of 

the United States, Washington, D. C 9937 

Glassberg, Benjamin, superintendent of public assistance, Milwaukee, 

Wis 9808 

Goldman, Maurice L., president, National Council of Jewish Women, 

New York, N. Y 9936 

Gove, Gladys F., director, vocational service, National Federation of 

Business and Professional Women's Clubs, Inc., New York, N. Y 9938 

Green, William, president, American Federation of Labor, Washington, 

DC J 9904 

Haupt, Miss Alma C, R. N., executive secretary, subcommittee on nurs- 
ing, health and medical committee, Office of Health and Welfare Serv- 
ices, Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C . 9852 

Heinmiller, A. W., assistant superintendent of schools, District of Colum- 
bia, Washington, D. C 9673 

Hobart, Mrs. Warwick, general secretary. National Consumers League, 

New York, N. Y 9936 

Hoehler, Fred K., director, American Public Welfare Association, Chicago, 

111 9796 

Hoffman, Mrs. Helen Duey, secretary, Washington Housing Association, 

Washington, D. C 9714 

Holbrook, David H., secretary. National Social Work Council, New York, 

N. Y 9944 

Hopkirk, Howard W., executive director. Child Welfare League of America, 

Inc., New York, N. Y 9913 

Ihlder, John, executive officer of the Alley Dwelling Authority for the 

District of Columbia, Washington, D. C - 9704 

Jackson, Glenn E., director of public assistance, New York State Depart- 
ment of Social Welfare, Albany, N. Y 9955 

James, Harlean, executive secretary, American Planning and Civic Asso- 
ciation, Washington, D. C 9910 

Kletzer, Mrs. William, president, National Congress of Parents and 

Teachers, Chicago, 111 9934 

Knight, Harry S., secretary, American Bar Association, Chicago, 111 9901 

Lenroot, Katharine F., Chief, Children's Bureau, Department of Labor, 

Washington D. C 9841,9843 

Lyons, Leo M., commissioner, Chicago Relief Administration, Chicago, 111. 9799 

McNutt, Hon. Paul V., Director, Office of Defense Health, and Federal 

Security Administrator 9774 



Vin CONTENTS 

Page 
Miller, l-ldward R., secretary, summer work camps program, American 

P'riends Service Committee, Philadelphia, Pa 9907 

Palmer, C. F., Coordinator, Dix ision of Defense Housing Coordination, 

Office for Emergency Management, Washington, D. C 9885 

Peek, Lillie M., secretary, National Federation of Settlements, Inc., New 

York, N. Y ■- 9939 

Popper, Martin, national executive secretary, National Lawyers Guild, 

Washington, D. C 9942 

Ross, Nelda, president, American Dietetic Association, Chicago, 111 9903 

Ruhland, Dr. George C, health officer. District of Columbia, Washington, 

D. C 9656 

Sawver, Thomas, chairman, legislative committee. United Automobile 

Workers of America, local 76, Oakland, Calif 9951 

Smith, Myra A., executive, department of data and trends. Young Women's 

Christian Associations, New York, N. Y* 9953 

Sproul, J. Edward, program executive. Young Men's Christian Associations 

of the United States, New York, N. Y 9952 

United States Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C 9891 

Van Horn, Edna, executive secretary, American Home Economics Associa- 
tion, Washington, D. C . 9908 

Van Hvning, Conrad, director of public welfare for the District of Co- 
lumbia, Washington, D. C 9690,9704 

Washington Chapter, Federation of Architects, Engineers, Chemists, and 

Technicians, Washington, D. C 9888 

Weil, Frank L., president. National Jewish Welfare Board, New York, 

N. Y 9940 

West, Olin, M. D., secretary and general manager, American Medical 

Association, Chicago, 111 9909 

White, Walter, secretary, National Association for the Advancement of 

Colored People, New York, N. Y 9932 

Williams, Lawrence E., chairman, housing committee, District of Columbia 

Civilian Defense Council, Washington, D. C 9711 

Williams, Dr. R. C, chief medical officer. Farm Security Administration, 

U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C 9961 

Women's Auxiliary Defense Committee, United Federal Workers of Amer- 
ica, Washington, D. C 9898 

Woodbury, Coleman, director, National Association of Housing Officials, 

Chicago, 111 9933 

Young, John Russell, commissioner. District of Columbia, Washington, 

D. C 9639 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



TUESDAY, JANUARY 13, 1942 
morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
The committee met, pursuant to call, at 10:00 a. m. in room 1301, 
New House Office Building, Washington, D. C, Hon. John H. Tolan 
(chairman) presiding. 

Present: John H. Tolan (California), chairman; John J. Sparkman 
(Alabama), Laurence F. Arnold (Illinois), and Carl T. Curtis (Ne- 
braska). 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director of the committee. 
The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN RUSSELL YOUNG, COMMISSIONER OF THE 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

The Chairman. Commissioner Young, I understand you have 
some gentlemen with you to whom you would probably like to defer 
some of the answers to our questions. 

Mr. Young. There is with me Colonel Bolles, Dr. Ballou, and Dr. 
Ruhland. 

The Chairman. As these gentlemen are to be called subsequently, 
we will question you first. 

Mr. Young. All right sir. 

The Chairman. At this point, we shall place in our record the 
statement you have prepared for this committee. 

(The statement referred to appears below:) 

STATEMENT OF JOHN RUSSELL YOUNG, CHAIRMAN OF THE 
BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, WASH- 
INGTON, D. C. 

As Chairman of the Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia and as 
United States Coordinator of Civilian Defense for the National Capital of the 
United States, I should like to present for the records of your committee the 
problems in the general fields of health, welfare, education, and housing, which 
we are attempting to meet and which are of first importance to a nation at war. 

Washington today is the nerve center of the democratic nations of the world, 
as one of my newspaper friends has put it. It is the home of the President and 
of the Congress of the United States. It is a beautiful city — a city of which we 
are justly proud — but it is faced today with problems which it cannot meet and 
which seriously affect the morale of many thousands of civilians who are per- 
forming the important task of directing the forces of our Nation at war, and which 

9639 



9640 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

affect to a lesser degree the morale of thousands of men in service located in posts 
near Washington, who come here for short holidays when on military leave. 

The problems of the National Capital are the problems of the National Govern- 
ment. At the present time they are laid on the doorstep of the District of Co- 
lumbia government, which government is unable because of lack of funds and 
because of lack of authority to move swiftly in an emergency, to deal adequately 
with them. 

This city should be a model, not only in terms of beautiful parks, boulevards, 
buildings, and places of historical interest to which many thousands come annually 
on pilgrimage, but it should be a model which will stand the test if we go below 
the surface of the things the eye can readily see. It should fulfill, as the capital 
of the democratic nations of the world, all of the democratic principles which we 
hold so dear and for which we are now fighting. 

Any lag here, any inefficiency here, will echo around the world. Any loss of 
morale here will affect the Nation. Performance of high character here, on the 
contrary, will set the tone for the performance of the Nation. Performance de- 
pends on morale and morale depends on satisfactory places to live, on good health, 
and on the wholesome and satisfying use of leisure time. 

The government of the National Capital should demonstrate the concern of a 
democratic government and the ability of a democratic government to provide 
the normal pattern of living for a population which is working under the strain 
of a nation at war. 

I should like to present briefly the general situation on health, welfare, educa- 
tion, and housing, which will be further expanded and presented in detail by the 
heads of the District departments dealing with these subjects, who will appear 
before your committee today. 

1. Education. — One of the most pressing problems facing the public schools at 
the present time has been caused by the large defense-housing program being 
carried on in the northeast and southeast sections of the city. As a direct result 
of the increased population of these areas, certain school buildings are now over- 
crowded and, as a consequence, have been placed on a double shift. 

In these areas the excess enrollment in the elementary and high school popula- 
tion is 2,200. Plans for new buildings to relieve this situation have been com- 
pleted and appropriations have been made, or asked for, to handle the situation. 
If priorities for building materials are granted, and if all of the necessary funds 
are made available, the school problem can be handled. 

The school situation in the District proper is not as serious as might be ex- 
pected from the over-all population increase of 18 percent in the past 2 years, 
because of two factors: First, most of the newcomers to the District with families 
and many old District residents with families, have moved out into the suburbs 
in Virginia and Maryland; second, work permits for children have jumped from 
a total figure of 2,500 in former years to 8,000 in the summer of 1941, and that 
few of these children have returned to school, while formerly most of them re- 
sumed their education at the end of the summer. 

We believe that the morale of newcomers to Washington will be seriously 
affected, unless adequate provision is made for the education of their children. 

Dr. Ballou will give j'ou further details on this subject. 

2. Health. — We are keenly aware of the importance of maintaining and, if pos- 
sible, improving the health status of the District of Columbia. 

This problem becomes much more difficult in the face of a rapidly expanding 
population. The addition of 110,000 people to the population of the District in 
the last 20 months, or a percentage increase of 18, means simply that facilities 
should be increased to the same percentage to meet all the needs and should be 
increased in a much greater proportion to meet the continuing increase of popu- 
lation, with the greater health hazards which accompany an influx of persons 
from every part of the country who must live in crowded conditions which are 
not conducive to adequate health control. 

Health, for the District, is important, not only because the District is the 
Nation's Capital in which are concentrated all of the important services of gov- 
ernment, but, manifestly, what happens in the District because of inadequate 
health protection may readily affect the morale of the entire Nation, and that is 
a most serious prospect in the present emergency. 

From the records of our local health department, it appears that progress, 
and in several instances very material progress, in the promotion of health and 
the conservation of life has been made. This is a m.atter for gratification. 

However, we are also aw^are that because of the racial composition of the 
District's population, because of its housing problems, because of its hospital 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9641 

bed needs, and most of all because of the understaffing of its public health services, 
the District is definitely in a vulnerable position as regards its health interests. 

For years it appears the health services of the District have unfortunately not 
kept pace with the needs of the growing community, let alone those of a Nation's 
Capital. Budget requests for the development of the local health services have 
again and again been drastically cut. Against' the accepted standard of $2.50 
per capita needed for the implementation of recognized public health activities — 
exclusive of hospital service — the local health service still is obliged to operate 
on a budget not half the standard. 

In order to overcome this handicap, we have asked the health officer to prepare 
a supplementary budget to meet present deficiencies of the service. This has 
been done, and the Commissioners will present this deficiency budget to Congress 
and hope that there it may receive prompt and favorable consideration. 

One of our m^ajor concerns is the high incidence of venereal disease and tuber- 
culosis. For a city in its population range, the National Capital is almost at 
the top of the list. 

Dr. Ruhland will give you further details on this subject. 

3. Welfare. — -Relief funds of the District of Columbia have been inadequate 
for years to provide allowances for sufficient food, clothing, and shelter. Because 
of the limitation of funds, an arbitrary regulation was adopted excluding from 
relief grants, even for temporary emergency periods, all families in which there 
was an employable person. 

When the Work Projects Administration cut its quota for the National 
Capital in half in July 1941, the Commissioners recommended additional funds 
to meet the temporary needs of employable persons laid off Work Projects 
Administration rolls. 

The Board of Commissioners, in its budget request to Congress for the fiscal 
year 1943, has also recommended the elimination of the so-called ceilings in 
relief allowances because of its findings that these ceilings operate to limit ade- 
quate relief to those most in need. If the elimination of the ceilings is approved, 
it will be possible to deal with families on the basis of actual need in each individual 
case. 

Health, welfare, and housing are inseparable. Deficiencies in one affect both 
of the others. Poor health makes workers unemployable. Bad housing lowers 
morale. Insufficient funds to provide adequate food contributes to continuing 
poor health. 

Juvenile and adult delinquency play their part. Juvenile delinquency, for 
example, increased 25 percent in the District of Columbia in 1941, as compared 
with 1940. Adult delinquency is on the increase. 

The circle is a vicious one and requires an attack on all fronts to rehabilitate 
those members of our population who are "ill clad, ill fed, and ill housed." 

Mr. Van Hyning will give you further information on this subject. 

4. Housing. — As your committee knows, the housing shortage in the District 
is very serious, both from the point of view of its effect upon our war program 
and from that of the public health. Because of the overcrowding, an epidemic- 
like that of the influenza in 1918 would find us nearly as defenseless as we wer& 
then. But this condition will be improved if the necessary funds are provideiL 
Private enterprise is being asked to take as large a part of this task as it can. 
The remainder will fall upon public housing agencies, such as the Alley Dwelling 
Authority within the District, and other public housing agencies in the sur- 
rounding counties of Maryland and Virginia. 

We recognized, over a year ago, that it would be difficult to house the large 
number of defense workers coming here. Consequently, as an emergency meas- 
ure, the District of Columbia Council of Defense opened a Defense Housing 
Registry, which began operation in March 1940. Citizens and real estate 
interests cooperated in this movement and registrations of available rooms and 
apartments have been centralized in this registr3\ We have had from three to 
six thousand rooms listed for rent through this registry since its opening. It 
will ro.ove next week into new quarters directly across from the District Building, 
where, with expanded facilities, it will be able to give much better service. 

However, there is, and will continue to be, a shortage of housing within the 
District for families with children, and particularly for those in the low-income 
group. Even though rooms are available in private houies to take care of a 
large proportion of the new population arriving daily who are single persons or 
small families, this type of housing will not be satisfactory for any extended 
period. Housing, which will be satisfactory, must be in terms of separate fanaily 
units at a price within the budget of each individual family. 



9642 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

The shortage of overnight lodging facilities, particularly for boys serving in 
the Army, Navy, and Marines stationed in camps near Washington, is a situation 
which needs immediate correction. Reports have reached me that some of 
these boys have walked the streets of Washington for hours at night looking for 
a place to sleep and that some of them have been finally forced to spend the night 
sitting on a bench in Union Station. 

Mr. Ihlder will give you further details on this subject: 

There are two other points I should like to make: First, that recreational 
facilities for the hundred thousand and more people who have come to the District 
is an extremely important matter. Many of these newcomers are single men and 
women and the use of their leisure time in satisfying recreational activities is an 
important factor in their morale. 

Likewise, the provision of recreational facilities for servicemen spending their 
evenings and week ends in the city is an important matter. Some progress is 
being made in these matters, but more money and more staff are needed to provide 
adequate facilities. 

The local government cannot carry alone the load which has been thrust upon 
us and the load which will continue to be thrust upon it. It needs the aid of 
Congress with money and with machinery which will make it possible to get 
speedy action to solve these problems. The heads of the District Departments 
of Health, Welfare, and Education, who will appear following me, will present 
the specific needs in these fields. 

Thank you for the opportunity of appearing before your committee and of 
telling you, as Members of Congress, the prolalems which I, as United States 
Coordinator of CiviHan Defense for the National Capital, and as Chairman of 
the Board of Commissioners for the District of Columbia have been trying to 
solve. We will do all in our power to solve them, but we need your help. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN RUSSELI YOUNG— Resumed 

The Chairman. Mr. Young, we appreciate your coming here this 
morning. Probably the thought occurs to many of you as to just 
why this Committee on Defense Migration should interest itself in 
the civilian morale of the people of the District of Columbia. 

Approximately 2 years ago this committee was created by Con- 
gress—a select committee of the House of Representatives — for the 
investigation of the migration of destitute citizens between States. 
We held many hearings over the country and we made our report to 
Congress last April. They then continued our committee as the 
Select Committee on Defense Migration. 

We found that the migration of destitute citizens, Commissioner, 
is caused by many factors. There are worn-out soil, mechanization, 
ill-health, and kindred things. There is no single solution, but that 
is the general picture. People go and come more or less on account 
of economic security. 

In the investigation of defense migration, we have held hearings 
in different parts of the United States. There again we are concerned 
with the migration between States and expecially this tremendous 
migration on account of defense program, so we have been to San 
Diego, Hartford, Trenton, Baltimore, Detroit, and now back to 
Washington. 

DEFENSE AREA NO. 1 

This committee feels that we need to know more about the civilian 
morale of the District of Columbia, because it is the No. 1 defense 
center of the United States. People have left their home States 
and come to Washington, with jobs already secured or looking for 
jobs; This, too, is migration, defense migration, and our hearings 
are held so we can learn about this, too, because after this war is 



I 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9643 

over, of COUTS&, there will be whirlpools of unsettled persons in Wash- 
ington as well as in other defense centers of the United States. People 
are migratory here. That is why we think we fit into the picture. 

You cannot separate civilian morale from Army and Navy morale, 
so we must consider such things as health and education and the 
other factors. 

Probably you are more cognizant of these figures than I am, but 
we have figures here showing that the population of the metropolitan 
area of Washington, D. C, increased from 621,059 in 1930 to 907,816 
in 1940, according to the Census Bureau figures. That is an increase 
of 46 percent. 

The Washington Evening Star estimated the population of the 
metropolitan area to be 1,058,816 in December 1941. This is an 
increase of 16.6 percent since the census was taken in 1940, and an 
increase of 70 percent since 1930. 

That is why we are very much concerned about the city of Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia, because we are taking Washington for 
this hearing as a symbol city. If the heart of the Nation and the- 
city of Washington can be run efficiently and well during the war^ 
it will be very helpful to the other cities of the country. 

That statement will explain the functions of this committee and 
the reason for these hearings. 

Now, for the purposes of the record, Mr. Young, you are responsible, 
of course, for presenting to Congress the estimates of the cost of 
services of the District government. 

Can you give the committee a brief summary of how this data 
relating to the District budgets are assembled? I don't want all 
the figures, but you can just give me the mechanics. 

Mr. Young. Yoa are asking for the District's own budget — not 
that in connection with the wartime emergency? 

The Chairman. That is right. 

Mr. Young. We first have to estimate what our revenues for the 
following year will be. Then we call in the head of each department 
in the District, every agency. They have been first notified to 
prepare an estimate of the needs of their particular department. 

BUDGET PROCEDURES 

The Chairman. In brief, what are those agencies? 

Mr. Young. We will start with the schools, and then health welfare^ 
possibly, and then we get down to engineering, highways, markets,, 
and every agency in the government. 

But our biggest ones are set up as schools, fire, health. They come 
before the Board of Commissioners and we have them justify what 
they are asking for. After we have had these hearings, which last 
some weeks, we go over it and cut it down somewhat in the same 
fashion the Appropriations Committee of the House or Senate 
would do. 

We try to make it fit with the estimated income. When we have 
to make a large cut in any particular item, we always send for that- 
department head to come back before the Commissioners and telL 
him that we can allow so much and no more. 

We say, "You know more about your particular department tharu 
we do. You state your priorities and if we have to cut, where shalll 
we cut?" 



9644 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

We don't try to slap on a cut when a man is more familiar withhis 
department than we are, but we have to balance our budget in the 
District. That is a requirement of the law. 

And then we take that and submit it to the Budget Bureau. Under 
the new arrangement, in effect the last year, the Budget Bureau only 
concerns itself, principally and primarily, with the estimates that 
they are interested in. They O. K. the Budget and then it is sent to 
Congress and later on we have hearings before the subcommittees. 

The Chairman. Then, when you present it to Congress you start 
in to pray. Is that the idea? 

Mr. Young. We more than pray. We pray and we do everything 
else. W^e might do a little knocking. 

But knowing those things, I think Congress is doing fine. They 
realize we have a tremendous problem here and you have explained 
it beautifully, Mr. Chairman. I think people are now beginning to 
understand that the capital of the Nation is entirely different from 
any other municipality, and I think if we come to Congress this year 
with our budget good and clean, they will understand our problem. 

The Chairman. Nothing that has been said here, nor any questions 
that may be asked by this committee should be taken to mean that 
we have not the deepest respect for the Senate District Committee, 
as well as the House District Committee. We think they are doing 
a splendid job. We are just trying to get the picture of the problems 
that Washington faces because of the war. 

In view of the increased demands for community service which will 
continue to arise as a result of the migration of many new workers to 
Washington because of the war, do you consider the District has been 
adequately provided for in the current budget? 

Mr. Young. No; I don't thmk so. I say that honestly because 
I may be a party to it. 

The Chairman. In an editorial on January 9, the Washington 
Post expressed disappointment that the local budget makes little 
headway in solving the District's problem. The editorial states: 

(Reading:) 

District Budget 

Some of Washington's problems growing out of the war would be met through 
the 1943 budget submitted to Congress, but many long-standing deficiencies in 
the city's municipal service continue to be ignored. The Commissioners and the 
Budget Bureau have taken the war emergency into account, yet there seems to 
be no genera] appreciation of the fact that the city is undergoing probably the 
most rapid growth of its histor)'. 

In the case of the highway fund the budget submitted gives a very inaccurate 
picture of what expenditures for the coming fiscal year are likely to be. Congress 
increased the gasoline tax after the Highway Department's estimates had been 
submitted to the Commissioners. Undoubtedly requests for inclusion of other 
projects in the budget, notably the proposed South Capitol Street Bridge, will be 
forthcoming. 

The allowance of funds for additional water facilities and for 95 new policemen 
will enable the city to meet imperative wartime demands. In both cases the 
question to be asked is whether these estimates prepared for the most part before 
the United States entered the war are now adequate. The increased allowance 
for maintenance of the Home for the Aged and Infirm is not directly related to 
the war. But this item and the preparation of plans for a new home are certainly 
necessary to the preservation of civilian morale in the Capital City. Even war 
should not unduly delay the elimination of institutions that are a disgrace to 
American civilization. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9645 

With the elimination of 20 proposed buildings and 10 site purchases, the schools 
would appear to be hard hit by the local budget. No doubt this action will pinch 
the school system in the future. At present, however, interest is centered in 
completion of several desperately needed buildings now under way. Funds for 
this work and the erection of a new junior high school for Negroes were included 
in the budget. At the moment the Board of Education is worrying chiefly about 
obtaining materials for these schools designed to take care of warworkers' children. 

The most disappointing fact about the local budget is that it contemplates little 
headway in solving many of the problems that are bringing Washington into the 
limelight as a wart on the nose of democracy. Public-health nurses are urgently 
needed. The Health Department modestly asked for 20 additional nurses, 2 
supervisors, and 6 clerks. Funds included in the budget would provide 6 nurses 
and 1 clerk. Ten physicians to help combat syphilis were asked, and 4 were 
allowed. If this recommendation stands, venereal-disease clinics will again 
operate on a part-time basis, even though syphilis, the foe of soldiers, runs riot 
in the Nation's Capital. The additional inspectors allowed would likewise be 
entirely inadequate to keep Washington's slums in habitable condition in this 
acute emergency. Dr. Ruhland's'request for mental-hygiene and cancer-control 
programs, recommended by the United States Public Health Service 4 years ago, 
was once more entirely eliminated. 

This is no time for neglect as usual in meeting the requirements of the Nation's 
Capital. In the United States, Washington is defense area No. 1. It must be fit 
to function as the country's nerve center in this great struggle, just as soldiers 
must be fit for combat at the front. Congress has good reason to take a more 
comprehensive view of the Capital's needs than it has ever done before. 

Would you say this accurately evaluates the dimensions of some 
of the problems now facing the District? 

Mr. Young. I failed to say at the beginning that our budget 
calculations were made last summer, started last summer, and much 
has happened since then. 

Along the lines of the editorial, we realize we need more, of course, 
but since the preparation of the budget we have begun the preparation 
of a deficiency appropriation and a supplement. 

Dr. Ruhland is here and can answer your question with exact 
figures, but 1 think we are going pretty far in helping in that problem 
about which you have read in the editorial. 

The Chairman. Since, in addition to your responsibilities as 
Commissioner, you have now been given responsibility as the head of 
the local civilian defense, the committee would like to obtain informa- 
tion relating to measures currently under way to provide for the 
protection of the civilian population of the District area. For 
example, we should like information in regard to the financial provi- 
sions for protection of the civilians in Washington. How much money 
has so far been appropriated by Congress, if you know? 

NO APPROPRIATION FOR CIVILIAN PROTECTION 

Mr. Young. It may sound a little critical but I don't mean it that 
way. Actually they have not appropriated anything. We are in on 
the so-called Lanham bill for about $2,400,000 and that is confined 
almost entirely to the extension of water mains and sewers to these 
defense projects over in Boiling Field and Anacostia. 

The Chairman. You have reference to the $100,000,000 for civilian 
requirements? 

Mr. Young. Yes, sir; and we originally had in a very modest 
estimate, principally for fire fighting, for only about $300,000, and in 
our first hearing they thought it was too small and suggested it be 
brought to the maximum. That was not hard to do. 



9646 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

That is to provide these auxihary water systems. In case the water 
system should break down, we will build, in these parks and circles, 
systems under the ground, and then we shall have mobile water tanks. 
If the water supply gives out in any part of the city we can move the 
tanks very quickly.. We also asked for 100,000 feet of hose and nozzles 
for fire fighting. In a third hearing they suggested that we should 
cut it down about $700,000 or $800,000. 

My impression now is that we have no hope of getting any of it. 
They seem to think that we should go along like other municipalities. 
In my arguments I tried to raise the point that we are different from 
ordinary municipalities. You were right in saying that this is the 
National Capital and is virtually going to be the Capital of the world 
in certain respects. 

We did what we called our ''blank-out," which gives the Commis- 
sioners authority to borrow $1,000,000 from the United States Treas- 
ury. Now, that $1,000,000 we have in our hands right now. Any- 
how, we are spending it. 

CANNOT USE DISTRICT FUNDS FOR DEFENSE 

In our defense plans — and I will say that we are in very good shape, 
we are very proud of that — but in this long period that we have been 
working on these plans we have not had one penny and we cannot use 
the District of Columbia funds for this purpose. In other words, you 
cannot levy District taxes for it. 

The Chairman. Why? 

Mr. Young. Because the District funds have been appropriated by 
Congress for certain purposes. 

The Chairman. I wanted to get that in the record. 

Mr. Young. Yes, sir. 

The War Department loaned us "Colonel Bolles, and they paid his 
salary. We dug him up an office and some second-hand furniture 
and borrowed clerks from one office or another. He went along for 
weeks, getting his foundation work started, and he did a splendid job. 
He has had incidental expenses which were met, but not with District 
money, and his office grew and grew. 

registration of civilian workers 

Since the attack on Pearl Harbor, it is probably the busiest office in 
the District. It has five rooms. We have registered over 40,000 
people there and I don't know how many more there will be. There 
are 18,000 air wardens and there will be 1,000 firemen and there will 
be police, besides the other workers. 

The Chairman. Mr. Commissioner, has there been a request for 
money for air-raid shelters? 

Mr. Young. That, Mr. Chairman, is being handled in another way, 
I think by the Federal Government. 

We have been informed, I might say, that they are going to do that, 
but we are right now engaged in doing the planning for the type of 
shelters we particularly need, picking out the sites and so forth. 
That is going to cost us some money. I turned that over to our En- 
gineer Commissioner and he is now collecting engineers. We will 
make that survey and I feel pretty sure that will cost $40,000 or' 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9647 

$50,000, even though the Federal Government does the building of the 
shelters. 

The Chairman. Some of the other Congressmen probably want to 
ask you some questions. 

Mr. Curtis. Perhaps you might want to refer this question to 
Colonel Bolles, but I will ask it anyway. Where does the work of the 
civilian defense leave off and the military responsibility begin? 

Mr. Young. I might answer that, Mr. Congressman, by saying, 
and Colonel Bolles may correct me if I am wrong, that my impression 
is that the military is interested in the defense of Washington only 
from a combat standpoint. In other words, they are interested only 
in a physical engagement and not the defense of civilians. 

Mr. Curtis. On the other hand, civilian defense is not charged with 
antiaircraft protection and that sort of thing? 

Mr. Young. I think not, sir. 

AIR-RAID SHELTERS 

Mr. Curtis. In reference to your plans for air-raid shelters, do you 
plan to make these sufficiently permanent and of a quality that can be 
used to relieve the housing situation, as well as being air-raid shelters? 

Mr. Young. That is just being planned now. They are collecting 
this group of engineers to work it out. That is being considered; 
yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Commissioner, of course the dual form of government 
here, especially during this war effort, is a tremendous handicap, 
isn't it? That is, the District of Columbia which I am directly 
speaking of now, is more or less voiceless and totally voteless. Isn't 
that right? 

Mr. Young. It is right; yes sir. You are putting it very mildly, 
Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Curtis. There are probably a million people in the District 
of Columbia. There is nothing comparable to it in the entire world, 
is there? In other words, before you can act, you have got to contact — 
probably not contact, but at least appeal to 96 Senators and 435 
Representatives. 

Mr. Young. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. And you thinlv with that handicap you are doing a 
pretty good job under the circumstances? 

Mr. Young. We hope so, anyhow. 

The Chairman. Is there anything else? 

INFLUX OF WORKERS 

Dr. Lamb. Mr. Young, you may have seen an editorial in yester- 
day's Washington Daily News saying that 125,000 more people were 
expected to come into the District during the next year. Have you 
any figures to indicate whether this estimate is in any way correct? 

Mr. Young. Well, only the basis on which they are coming in now. 
I forget what it is now. 

A few weeks ago we were figuring I thirds: 300 a day. Those were 
employees of the Government. That is not an extravagant figure. 

I think, by the way, Mr. Curtis, that the figures you gave were 
not exaggerated at all on our present population. 

60396— 42— pt. 25 2 



9648 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Dr. Lamb. What arrangements exist within, for example, the Civil 
Service Commission or the Federal Government for letting you know 
the numbers expected before they arrive? Is there any machinery 
for informing you of an expected influx? 

Mr. Young. I don't think so. 

Dr. Lamb. How is it possible for the District government to plan 
ahead under the circumstances? It would seem you are in rather a 
difficult position if you are not kept informed and if, in addition to 
that, it takes such a long time for the machinery — the preparation of 
the budget and passage of the budget — for this new influx to be 
worked out, 

Mr. Young. Well, we have been rather fortunate in having several 
agencies. Take, for instance, the Washington Board of Trade as a 
separate organization. They have been very active and they have 
been collecting those figures on the housing situation. Then the Alley 
Dwelling Authority and our welfare people collect figures, so we have 
what you might call an unofficial guess, where we get a little of every- 
thing. 

Dr. Lamb. I have reference more to the problem of anticipating and 
taking the proper steps to eliminate a situation which will arise. It 
might seem as if the District, because of the machinery which you 
have described, was always bound to be a step behind rather than a 
step ahead in such planning, and it is difficult to speed up the machin- 
ery to take care of this because of the layers of responsibility and 
authority in the midst of which you find yourself. 

Mr. Young. We had those figures last summer and we first turned 
our attention particularly to the schools and we found out that we 
would need more schools. Unfortunately, since then, with the 
priorities on some of the materials, we had to stop building. The 
same with other buildings, public libraries and so forth. 

Dr. Lamb. The Budget did try to help you with an anticipated 
increase over and above what was then existing and causing the 
existing difficulties? 

Mr, Young. Yes. I am sorry I didn't make that plain. 

Dr. Lamb. And insofar as that can be foreseen some 6 months or a 
year in advance, it can be taken care of, but with certain sudden 
increases such as the one now anticipated, the machinery cannot be 
expected to move rapidly enough to take up the slack. Is that right? 

Mr, Young. That is right. 

The Chairman. We are very grateful for your appearance here 
this morning. Commissioner. We have other representatives of the 
District here to give us further details. We wanted to get a general 
picture from you. 

Mr. Young. Mr. Chairman, I have prepared here a statement in 
which I have briefly discussed each of these departments, but I 
think you can do as well by questioning those heads yourself. 

The Chairman. You had better leave it with the reporter. There 
may be material we will want and if, as a result of this hearing this 
morning, there is anything further that you would like us to know, 
we will keep the record open for the next 10 days and we will incor- 
porate any further statement you may make. 

Mr. Young. I would like to amplify the very thing you put your 
finger on at the opening, that we have a tremendous problem, that 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9649 

we are expected to do something big and have very little to do it 
with. You mentioned that yourself and you can't emphasize it too 
strongly. We have our problem; we must have something to meet 
it with. 

The Chairman. This committee appreciates that, Commissioner. 
We thank you very much for appearing here. Colonel Bolles is our 
next witness. Congressman Arnold will interrogate the colonel. 

TESTIMONY OF COL. LEMUEL BOLLES, DIRECTOR OF CIVILIAN 
DEFENSE, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Mr. Arnold. Colonel, the committee would like to have you 
summarize the manner in which Washington's civilian population 
has been mobilized to meet emergency situations. The committee 
believes the physical structure of civilian defense, if summarized 
in this fashion, would be very helpful and then we can proceed with 
other questions. 

Colonel Bolles. Very good, sir. 

Washington is a part of the metropohtan area, civilian defense, 
District of Columbia. That includes the District proper and the 
suburban area in Virginia, which is included in the outside boundaries 
of the counties of Fairfax and includes the city of Alexandria and the 
county of Arlington; also an area on the north side, roughly at a 
point 15 miles outside the District boundary, including Rockville, 
Laurel, and Upper Marlboro. Those areas constitute the metro- 
politian area. Roughly, 700,000 of the population is within the 
District and the remainder of three hundred thousand-odd are in the 
suburbs. 

CIVILIAN DEFENSE ORGANIZATION 

The plan of organization adopted by Commissioner Young in his 
capacity as Coordinator follows almost exactly the plan of coordina- 
tion established by the Office of Civilian Defense. The plan is very 
simple and excellently done. It divides the problem of civilian defense 
into two phases, that wliich is called the protective service and that 
which is termed voluntary participation, the latter covering health, 
welfare, recreation, and so forth, and the first being related to a 
protective organization entitled "Citizens Defense Corps," that 
includes health service, fire service, police service and air-raid wardens, 
medical, public works, and utilities. 

In addition, there is a communications center, a transportation 
service, and a volunteer office for the procurement of volunteers. 

Now, the fire service consists of the regular department, plus the 
auxiliary fire volunteers to a number of, roughly, five times the uni- 
formed force, and the rescue squads. 

The Police Department consists of the uniformed force of approxi- 
mately five times the number of auxiliary volunteers and certain 
special groups, such as bomb squads, and so forth. 

Air raid warden service is entirely unique in the municipal set-up. 
We have nothing comparable to it in the ordinary city, and at the 
present time there are about 22,000 air-raid wardens in the District 
of Columbia. 



9650 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

AIR-RAID WARDEN GROUPS 

The city is divided into aii"-raid warden groups, and then further 
subdivided into zones. The basic organization is a warden sector 
which is a unit of approximately 500 people or a city block. The 
sector is the proper place for the warden's post, which consists of a 
senior warden and 4 or more assistants, a group of 10 fire watchers 
and a group of 9 messengers. The emergency medical service cor- 
responds roughly to a medical corps in the armed organizations. 

Base hospitals from which teams go out are broken into squads 
until they reach the theater of operation. In the District of Columbia 
there are approximately 82 casualty clearing stations. They break 
down into three times that number of first-aid stations and between 
the first-aid stations and the theater of operations there are detach- 
ments of litter bearers. 

We come next to the public works, and the term, I think, is self- 
explanatory. That includes the liighways, sewers, water, and public 
utilities. That service is rather well organized. The public utilities 
work encompasses the regulation of all public utilities. 

There are special squads m each of these services. In the public 
works, there is the decontamination squad to protect from gas, and 
demolition squads to remove buildings and structures that become a 
menace. The utilities service contemplates the coordination of all 
pubHc utilities of every type. 

Following that the transportation service coordinates all types of 
transportation needed, such as ambulance, motor pools, and so forth. 
The city of Washington probably has the finest set of communications 
in the country. We have three separate sets of communications, any 
two of which can go out and the remaining lines will still function. 

We receive our information as to air raids and black-outs from our 
interceptor command station in Baltimore, and we are responsible for 
transmitting those warnings to this entire area. The subcontrol 
centers are established and have functioned. They are constantly 
being tested. That, in brief, is the picture of the set-up. I have 
refrained from giving figures because they are included as a part of 
the air-raid warden's service. 

EMERGENCY FEEDING SERVICE 

There is established an emergency feeding service intended to 
provide for the emergency existing from the time of the disaster until 
the better established agencies are prepared to take care of the people. 
We have no facilities to set up mobile units or anytliing of that sort. 
In order to overcome that, we started establishing small emergency 
feeding units of about 20 women and stocked each of them with coffee, 
soup, and crackers sufficient for 500 people, settmg them up on the 
basis of every 10,000 population. When they are perfected it will be 
impossible to bo more than 15 or 20 minutes away from one of these 
emergency feeding stations no matter where a disaster occurs, and that 
will, of course, overcome the problem of not ha\dng mobile kitchens. 
We are spotting them around in as widespread an area as possible. 
. Then, on the other side, for the housing, we are planning to use the 
old American neighborhood idea that when a person is in trouble his 
neighbor will take Jiim in. So the undamaged areas aromid the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9651 

point where the disaster occurs will absorb these people temporarily 
and give them shelter for the first 12 hours or even 1 or 2 nights. That 
eliminates the immediate danger of panic and suffering until the better 
organized agencies are able to function. Tliis is the first phase in 
housing and feeding. The second phase is being studied and that 
requires a more elaborate organization such as food, cots, blankets, 
and so forth. But this is purely emergency. 

Now, the housing plan is roughly 60 percent complete and we have 
about 60 of the feeding units already established and we need more. 

Mr. Arnold. You are set up according to the plan of the Office of 
Civilian Defense? 

Colonel BoLLEs. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. To whom do you report the progress you have made? 

Colonel BoLLES. My immediate superior, of course, is Mr. Young, 
the United States Coordinator, for whom I act. 

The city of Washington and the metropolitan area is a part of the 
third defense region. The country, for civilian defense purposes, is 
divided into nine defense regions which correspond to the nine corps 
areas of the United States Army. The headquarters of the third 
defense region is in Baltimore and that is our immediate superior 
office in the civilian defense set-up. 

We get our mstructions direct from there and they regard this 
metropolitan area as a fourth State — Maryland, Virginia, Pennsyl- 
vania, and the District of Columbia. They regard us in all respects 
as a fourth State, and Mr. Young as governor of that fourth State, so 
far as relationships go. 

AIR-RAID ALARMS 

Mr. Arnold. In your opmion, Colonel Bolles, will the warning de- 
vices be adequate m futiu'e air raid alarms? 

Colonel Bolles. To what do you refer exactlj'^? 

Mr. Arnold. To the warning devices or sirens. 

Colonel Bolles. Sirens are not adequate at the present time, sir. 
The plans that have been developed contemplate the mstallation of a 
large number of these sirens. They have not been installed yet to 
such a degree that I can speak with any authority on that. 

Mr. Arnold. You mean in the matter of sufficient sirens? 

Colonel Bolles. The installation of sirens has been studied by the 
Engineer Commissioner in close collaboration with the communica- 
tions service. 

Mr. Arnold. Wliat is your opinion with regard to the sufficiency 
of the sirens and alarms? 

Colonel Bolles. I am not highly impressed by it, sh. That is my 
individual opinion. I have not been called upon to deal with it. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you made surveys as to the adequacy of hos- 
pital space and the number of doctors and nurses and fire and police 
forces and water facilities? 

emergency medical service 

Colonel Bolles. A very careful survey of the medical requirernents 
and facilities available has been made by Dr. Jolm A. Reed, chief of 
the emergency medical services, and Ivam speaking now only of the 



9652 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

elemcut of protective service. I am not prepared to discuss the hospi- 
tal faciUties of the District of Columbia because I am not informed of 
that, but the emergency medical service has been set up, using the 
plans and the units of population recommended by the Office of Civil- 
ian Defense. We are set up exactly on that basis and with the excep- 
tion of the squads of litter bearers, that service is complete. 

Requisitions for the necessary medical supplies have been placed and 
I understand will be filled. The personnel is complete and it is trained 
personnel. They have already been tested out several times. 

They do have emergency facilities in the several hospitals here, 
created by utilizing all available space such as dining rooms and halls. 
They would equip them with cots and put into effect the plan of 
evacuating permanent patients who are not of an emergency character. 
We have been assured by Dr. Reed that any reasonable emergency 
can be met without any undue breaking down. 

Now, don't misunderstand me. Our emergency medical service is 
not perfect and a great deal of training has yet to be done, but the 
basic structure, with the exception of litter bearers, has been set up 
and the yardstick was the plan set up by the Office of Civihan Defense, 
wliich has made a careful study of all of it. We will use the units of 
population set out by the Office of Civihan Defense to determine the 
number of those things we should have. 

Mr. Arnold. And even though for many years the District has 
had inadequate services in most of these facilities, you still think the 
emergency set-up would be adequate? 

Colonel BoLLEs. I wouldn't say it would be adequate. 

Mr. Arnold. I mean, will it function in as good a manner as pos- 
sible? 

Colonel BoLLES. Purely for the emergency situation, sir. We would 
get many who are hurt and injured, give them prompt treatment and 
evacuate them at once to some point where they could get better 
care. Now, there is set up in these services a feeding system supplied 
by the Red Cross. There will be 82 of these casualty stations and 
at each station there is a unit for the feeding of patients. The unit 
consists of five women and there are three shifts. Their problem is 
to take care of all feeding of those who have visible injuries and have 
been taken in by the emergency medical service. 

The emergency feeding units of the warden service are intended to 
give immediate feeding to that other and larger proportion of the 
people who have been in the area of the disaster, to prevent shock 
and avoid panic and get them away from the scene of the trouble and 
back to normal as rapidly as possible. 

Mr. Arnold. The committee has noted that generous space has 
been given in the Washington newspapers to the activities of civilian 
defense. Do you think the response of the people has been satis- 
factory thus far to the requests made by your organization? 

public response 

Colonel BoLLES. I am of the opinion that we have in the city of 
Washington and the metropolitan area as fine a body of American 
citizens — ^and possibly on a little higher general level — as any other 
city in the world. The response to the problem has been perfectly 
splendid. The same is true of the press service and the radio service. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9653 

Not a single request that I have made definitely to any agency in 
Washington, or to any group of citizens, has not been complied with 
nor have they failed to do their best to help. As Commissioner Young 
said, for about 3 months I operated without one dollar of financial 
assistance. 

Mr. Arnold. Has any attention been given by your organization 
to the British experience with regard to all these matters we have been 
discussing? 

Colonel BoLLEs. The way this civilian defense is set up is this: All 
that material had been collected by the Office of Civilian Defense 
and has been subjected to a great deal of research and study by men 
whom I regard as very, very able. 

I am deeply impressed with the planning and types of instruction 
that have been issued for the civilian defense by these men. I am 
impressed by their general excellence. 

Mr. Young told me that as soon as we had their studies and plans 
available, to act upon them. They have had not only the British, but 
all other experiences available, carefully studied them, and brought 
out plans applicable to an American community. 

Speaking for ourselves alone, we have not attempted any independ- 
ent study of sources of information separate and apart from what I 
get from that office. We have had two members of our foreign police 
departments at the Edgewood School. That is handled by the Chem- 
ical Warfare Service, War Department, and also the F. B. I. conducts 
schools. We have had a large number of fine policemen graduated 
therefrom, and we have conducted schools here in the control of incen- 
diary bombs, gas defense, and various subjects of that character. I 
think we have a most excellent school. We have sent several thousand 
men through it. It is conducted by the fire and police departments. 

Chief Porter of the D. C. fire department loaned us Chief Murphy, 
who has conducted a very excellent school, and those attending these 
schools have infoi-mation on incendiary bombs and gas defense, and 
so forth. 

Mr. Arnold. Then you think with the study made by the Office of 
Civilian Defense and their instructions to the various cities in the 
country, that we might avoid the mistakes made earlier in England? 

Colonel BoLLES. I do, sir. 

OPINION ON EVACUATION 

Mr. Arnold. What is your opinion of the question of evacuating 
large centers of population in the event of heavy and prolonged air 
attacks? Do you believe that should be done? 

Colonel BoLLES. I might just express a personal opinion, sir. I 
don't believe in evacuating people unless you are under a completely 
destructive fire. I would advise the people to stay and take care of 
themselves to the best of their ability. I don't mean to say you should 
keep a group of civilians under completely destructive fire. Having 
a completely destructive fire is not within my contemplation at the 
present. 

Mr. Arnold. Nor a prolonged attack? 

Colonel Bolles. No, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. I am sure you would agree that in a total war it is 
necessary that the whole population be engaged in some job, total war 



9654 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

can be won only by applying total resources to a war program. Has 
your organization contacted all of the citizens' organizations in the 
District and integrated them into your defense plans? 

PROTECTIVE SERVICE OF PRIMARY IMPORTANCE 

Colonel BoLLEs. A good deal of progress has been made. As far as 
the relationship between the protective division and the group you 
speak of, I have gone on the assumption that until we have perfected 
our protective service the other matter was of secondary importance, 
because if your protective services fail, you may not have an oppor- 
tunity of determining what might be done in the other field. 

If the protective services were completed, and having an adequate 
amount of time and facilities to do that properly — and they are not 
complete yet — then I would devote time and attention to the other 
phases. Frankly, I have not devoted a great deal of attention to 
other phases of it. 

The integration you speak of was started about a month or 6 weeks 
ago, when the Commission appointed Mr. Van Hyning to coordinate 
and develop those activities, but up to that time we were so terrifi- 
cally busy trying to get our wardens and policemen going that there 
were not enough hours of the day to do anything else. 

Mr. Arnold. I think the committee realizes that and we know you 
have done a splendid job with the limited means at your disposal. 

Don't you think the work of your organization should provide for a 
close liaison at all times with regard to the ofRcials directly charged 
with the administration of services such as health, welfare, and 
housing? 

Colonel BoLLES. It does, sir. And it is highly important. 

Now, may I amplify my reply to your preceding question? There 
is no doubt in my mind that there is tremendous importance in all 
those phases which are referred to as nonprotective. They are cal- 
culated to keep the morale of the people sound, and that is highly 
important. They deserve the fullest development, and there is a 
close liaison provided in the structure of civilian defense for all of those 
agencies, one with the other. 

Mr. Arnold. That is alii have. 

Mr. Curtis. Isn't it true that one of the big tasks in civilian defense 
is the matter of discipline, so we won't hurt each other in our attempts 
to protect ourselves? 

Colonel BoLLEs. Quite so, sir, and without any reflection upon the 
people of Washington, because they are simply a segment of the entire 
country. For 3 months prior to Pearl Harbor very vigorous effort was 
made to get them set up for this situation while there was time. 
Immediately after Pearl Harbor the need for all of it arose. 

training required 

We have a million people who have to learn a lot of things for 
themselves. The population must be informed. Each man and each 
woman must know what to do. That is a terrific task for us and we 
have also the task of getting specialized instruction to seven or eight 
groups of enrolled units running altogether in excess of 30,000 people, 
men and women, and rapidly approaching much higher figures. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9655 

There just aren't instructors enough to do it, and the sudden arrival of 
the emergency produced far less confusion than I had anticipated. 

Mr. Curtis. Has not the experience been that a great number of 
serious injuries and deaths result from traffic accidents and other 
factors, rather than the direct hits of bombs? 

Colonel BoLLES. Far more, sir; that is quite true. The only way 
to prevent it is fu'st, by the civilian group properly exercising their 
own initiative at every opportunity to acquire information and to 
accept responsibility for their own conduct in their own homes, and 
second, by training those in the fire and police and warden service and 
coordinating all that activity in such manner that they can control 
traffic, guard people, guide them, and take care of them. 

AIR-RAID PRACTICE 

A black-out at night would be a very bad thing until the population 
is fairly familiar with what is expected of them. You would then 
have a trained warden service and a trained auxiliary police service 
that can handle traffic, a trained fire department and other special 
facilities able to run about in the dark without running over people. 

Mr. Curtis. Would it be wise, for instance, in regard to an air 
raid signal, for the people to know whether it was a mere practice or 
drill and whether it was an actual air raid? 

Colonel BoLLEs. Very important, and Mr. Young has specifically 
required here that no trials be undertaken without adequate advance 
notice' to the people. 

The first interceptor command, which extends all up and down the 
Atlantic, controls the use of air-raid signals. The two tests we have 
had, one in daylight and one in the night, had to be cleared with the 
Army in advance. There is no possibility now of having a test black- 
out without adequate public warning. If there is no public warning 
in advance, it is the real thing. 

Mr. Curtis. I think that matter should be publicized in the com- 
munity. I have in mind a family where there are perhaps several 
children of very tender age. If it is a mere drill, there is nothing 
contributed to the defense of the country by waking them up and 
taking them to a basement or an air-raid shelter room, but that is 
what would be done if it was the real thing. 

Colonel BoLLEs. That is true, sir. I believe that every householder 
and every business organization and every type of establishment 
should go through the motions exactly as would be done in an actual 
raid. It is easier to learn those things in practice than it is with 
somebody shooting at you. The system of training here has been 
adequately publicized in advance and, while a great many people 
apparently don't read the papers, our previous tests have been in the 
newspapers 2 or 3 days in advance and in every issue. There will be 
advance notice of every subsequent test that will be held here, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. A great deal of that matter of discipline is up to the 
people and cannot be brought about by appropriations of Congress or 
anything else. We cannot provide a policeman for each civilian. 

Colonel BoLLES. We cannot do it, sir. Here is a case where an 
individual citizen, whether he likes it or not, has to look out for him- 
self and has to use his own ingenuity and be on the alert to gather and 
absorb information and use it. There just isn't money enough avail- 



9656 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

able to take a million people by the hand and give them this stuff in 
detail, if they are not doing it themselves. We have emphasized that 
this must start from the roots and be of the people. 

Commissioner Young, too, has emphasized that because if it is not 
that way it won't work. The people are going to take the brunt of 
it anyway, and tmless they are aware of that fact themselves they 
will suffer for it. If they are awake even a poor plan will operate. 
That is one reason why initial programs seem slow and confusmg, but 
in the end it is a stronger basis than if laid down by a vast army of 
experts from above. People have to do it themselves. 

The whole superstructure is unimportant when the thing is done by 
the squads of air-raid wardens and individual firemen and policemen 
who are on the ground. All tliis superstructure is for the purpose of 
training an organization in advance. If it is not well done, the people 
will suffer and anything that has been neglected cannot be done after 
the tiling hits. 

The Chairman. Is there any city in the United States comparable 
in size to the metropolitan area of Washington that has a siren that 
could be heard by all the people in that locality? 

Colonel BoLLES. Over the entire area; sir? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Colonel BoLLEs. I am utterly unable to answer that question. I do 
not know, sir. 

The Chairman. Now, we do get our information or warning through 
the radio. Of course, thousands of people in Washington don't have 
radios. 

Colonel BoLLEs. May I make an explanation? I personally have 
not followed the sirens or the warning devices. That has not been my 
responsibility. I have not attempted to dodge anything but I have 
been so extremely busy with things that were my business that I have 
not gone into those other areas which were not mine. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Colonel. We have several 
more witnesses and want to finish by noon. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. GEORGE C. RUHLAND, HEALTH OFFICER, 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

The Chairman. For the benefit of the record, will you state your 
name and your official capacity, Doctor? 

Dr. Ruhland. George C. Ruhland, health officer, District of 
Columbia. 

The Chairman. Dr. Ruhland, you were before us last year and 
gave us a very fine statement at that time. The purpose of this 
appearance and of the statement you have been asked to make is 
to bring that statement up to date. 

(The statement mentioned is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY DR. GEORGE C. RUHLAND, HEALTH OFFICER OF 
THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Contents: Population. Health services: Public health nursing, tuberculosis, 
vital statistics, laboratories, dental, maternal and child welfare. Sanitary serv- 
ices. Health trends. Health Department personnel. Hospital facilities. Hos- 
pital needs. Clinic facilities. Illness among Government and industrial 
employees. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9657 



Population 

District of Columbia: 

1930 486,869 

1940 - 663,091 

Present estimate, October 1941 i 770, 000 

1 This estimate was made by the Washington Board of Trade and was based on the number of building 
permits issued, the occupancy of dwelling units, employment statistics, and other related data. (See table 
below.) 



Items 



September 
1941 



Percent in- 
crease over 
September 
1940 



Percent in- 
crease over 
September 
1939 



Federal employees 

Others gainfully employed 

Family-unit permits 

Job seekers (employment centers) 



198, 371 

217, 629 

891 

19, 456 



38.5 
6.75 
20.1 
-26.7 



50.4 

13.3 

126.1 

-45.4 



Health Services 

The increased demands for health services in the District of Columbia are 
strikingly shown in the following tabulation of services offered during the calendar 
years 1937-40, inclusive; 

Growth of health services, 1937-40 



Percentage 

increase 



Tuberculosis: 

Number of new cases admitted to clinics. 

Number of patient visits to clinics 

Number of X-rays taken 

Venereal diseases: 

Number of patients admitted to clinics 

Number of patient visits to clinics. 

Number of treatments for syphilis 

Number of laboratory tests for syphilis 

Maternal and child welfare: 

Number of cases admitted to maternity clinics 

Number of infant and preschool cases admitted — 

Nursing service: 

Total field nursing visits 

Total office nursing visits 

Field nursing visits for maternity 

Office nursing visits for maternity 

Field nursing visits for infant and preschool 

Office nursing visits for infant and preschool 

Laboratory: Total number of laboratory examinations 



5,992 

20, 054 

7,025 

7.279 

106, tS2 

56, 727 

76, 472 

1,359 
10, 194 

31,210 

25, 837 

4,340 

381 

9,923 

4,419 

158, 124 



9,144 
33, 799 
15, 546 

10, 893 
129,382 

74, 190 
162, 189 

5,208 
18, 070 

38, 033 
49,913 
12, 379 
10, 320 
11,587 
22, 217 
285, 615 



52.6 
68.5 
121.3 

49.6 
21.4 
30.8 
112.1 

283.2 
77.3 

21.9 
93.2 

185.2 
260.9 

16.8 
402.8 

80.6 



I 



A. PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING 

Seventy-five and one-tenth cents per capita, exclusive of Instructive Visiting 
Nurse Society, standard of American Public Health Association for Public Health 
nurses. 

Twenty-seven and seven-tenths cents per capita, exclusive of Instructive 
Visiting Nurse Society, now being spent (including Federal grants). 

The attached table shows (1) the number of nurses required for a population 
of 770,000, according to American Public Health Association standards; (2) the 
number available at the present time; and (3) the additional number required. 

Number of public health nurses at present 95 

Number required 237 

Shortage .- 142 



9658 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



B. TUBERCULOSIS 





Number of deaths 


Death rate 




Women 


Children 


Total 


Women 


Children 


Total 


1940 

1941 


200 

188 


391 
389 


591 

577 


42.2 
33.2 


206.5 
181.9 


89.1 
76.9 



In spite of the importance of this disease as a cause of deaths, the tuberculosis 
clinic has had to restrict the number of admissions to its service because of lack 
of personnel 

Number of new cases admitted for study and number of visits made torn 19S7 

through 1941 



Calendar year 


New cases 


Visits 


1937 _ . . .. _ 


5,992 
5,894 
6,864 
9, 144 
1 10, 000 
1 12, 100 


20 054 


193S 


23, 168 


19.39 .... 


27, 548 
33 799 


1940 


1941 


1 40, 000 


1942 


1 46, 200 





' Estimated. 



Estimated number of nurses required,^ by services 



Service 


Standard 


Estimated problem 
(based on popula- 
tion of 770,000) 


Total 
number 
of nurses 
required 


Number 
of nm-ses 
available 


Addi- 
tional 
number 
of niu-ses 
required 


Tuberculosis 


1 nurse for 22.4 deaths. - 

1 nurse for 394 cases 

1 n urse for 376 cases 

1 nurse for 657.1 cases. . 
1 nurse for 1,900 child- 
ren. 
1 nurse for 685.7 cases _ . 
For every 3-hour clinic 
session, 17.667 nurs- 
ing hours in clinic 
plus 32 hours in 
field.2 


669 deaths 


29.9 
26.0 
22.8 
52.1 
55.0 

10.0 
40.8 


11.9 
20.1 
31.8 
1.16 
13.1 


18.0 


Maternitv- ------ 


10,234 cases - - -.. 


5 9 


Infant 


8, .562 cases 


—9 


Preschool 


34,249 cases 


50 5 


School 


104,414 children 

6,884 cases 

32 clinic sessions of 3 
hours each. 


41 9 


Communicable disease. 


10.0 


Venereal disease 


16.5 


24 3 






Total 


236.6 


3 95.0 


141 6 











1 Based on standards of the American Public Health Association. See Hiscock, Ira, Community Health 
Organization, p. 179, exclusive of bedside nursing. 

2 Estimated by District of Columbia Director of Venereal Disease Service. 

3 Consists of 74 from District funds, 6 from Maternal Child Hygiene, 10 from Crippled Children, 2 from 
U. S. Public Health (title VI), and 3 from Venereal Disease Control Act. 



C. VENEREAL DISEASE 

Number deaths from venereal diseases in 1940 (U. S. Census Bureau) — 255. 

Death rate per 100,000 population (insofar as venereal disease death rate is con- 
cerned Washington was twenty-third among 30 largest cities in the United 
States in 1940)— 38.5. 

Number of clinics — 2. 

Number possible 3-hour weekly clinic sessions — 32. 

Number possible treatments per session (patients) — 100-200. 

Number actual weekly clinic sessions 1940 — 18. 

Number actual treatments requested per session — 350-400. 

During the period November 1940 to July 1941, 2,094 selectees who were found 

to have positive blood tests were referred to this clinic for further examination. 

This increase in activity is in addition to that which would normally have occurred 

due to population increases. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9659 

D. LABORATORIES 

Serological tests estimated for 1942 fiscal year budget — 250,000. 
Serological tests made during calendar year 1941-^329,216. 

Serological tests must be anticipated in view of increasing population and expend- 
ing venereal disease activity — 349,216. 
Tests per year is capacity for laboratory technicians — 25,000, 
Technicians required for 349,000 tests — 14. 
Technicians available at present time — 7. 

E. DENTAL 

Children in junior and senior public and parochial high schools in the District of 
Columbia— 44.900. 

Estimated to be in need of dental attention — 35,900, or 80 percent. 

Those needing care are estimated to be unable to pay for care — 14,371, or 40 per- 
cent. 

F. MATERNAL AND CHILD WELFARE 

Birth rates. (See Health Trends.) 

1936: Maternity patients received care at Health Department clinics — 688. 
1940: Maternity patients received care at Health Department clinics — 5,000. 
1936: Babies and preschool children registered for health supervision — 7,500. 
1940: Babies and preschool children registered for health supervision— 18,000. 
1936: Visits by mothers and children to Health Department clinics for health 

protection measures — 55,000. 
1940: Visits by mothers and children to Health Department clinics for health 

protection measures — 124,000. 
1938: Children with crippling conditions hospitalized for 13,496 days — 268. 
1940: Children with crippling conditions hospitalized for 25,146 days — 367. 

Fifteen maternal and child health centers operated by the Health Department. 

Increased population means increased service demands, and this means: 

1. Additional nursing personnel. 

2. Increased clinical facilities. 

3. Additional medical personnel. 

4. Expanded convalescent care facilities. 
Services for crippled children need to be expanded: 

In 1938, 88 children made 268 visits to Gallinger Hospital crippled children's 
clinic for diagnosis and treatment. 

In 1939, 333 children made 2,168 visits to Gallinger Hospital crippled children's 
clinic for diagnosis and treatment. 

In 1940, 540 children made 2,569 visits to GaUinger Hospital crippled children's 
clinic for diagnosis and treatment. 

Sanitary Services 
A. restaurants and boarding houses 

Number restaurants in 1940, 1,800. 

Number restaurants in 1941, 2,000. 

Estimated number boarding houses with 10 or more boarders, 1,500. 

Estimated number boarding houses with 4 or more boarders, 4,500. 

In order to inspect the 4,500 boarding houses 18 times a year, a total of 81,000 
inspections will have to be made. This would require the services of 14 additional 
inspectors. 

B, water supply 

Lack of adequate personnel has made essential water supply surveys impossible. 
The large number of cross-connections throughout the city present an ever- 
increasing hazard in the growing city. 

Six men are required to augment the present force and to operate emergency 
chlorinators in time of emergency, 

c. housing 

Multiple family units vacant in October 1940 (percent) 0. 24 

Multiple family units vacant in October 1940 (percent) 4. 

Single-room vacancies November 1941 (percent) 1.0 



9660 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



D. GENERAL INSPECTION 



Additional inspectors are needed for general inspection work to ascertain and 
to obtain correction of defects in sewer and water systems and in structural con- 
ditions of buildings. They enforce laws relating to junk shops, tailor shops, 
barber and beauty shops, etc. 



Population 

Number of inspectors. 




770, 000 
11 



E. FOOD CONTROL 

1. June 2, 1902: Ordnance to prevent the sale of unwholesome food in the 
District. This regulation requires the maintenance of cleanliness and good sani- 
tation in food establishments, and provides adequate penalties for any violation. 

2. 1940: Code governing the maintenance and operation of slaughterhouses, 
packing houses, and abattoir, and new regulations governing the operation and 
maintenance of poultry establishments in the District of Columbia. 

3. 1939: Frozen dessert ordinance. 

F. CHARACTER OF ENFORCEMENT 

Enforcement consists of the regular inspection of all food establishmentsj 
prosecution in the court of all violations, and special action on complaints re- 
ferred to the Bureau. 



G. TYPE AND FREQUENCY OF INSPECTIONS 

1940: 

Establishments under inspection 5, 648 

Inspections made 101, 807 

Pounds of food condemned (approximately, 12 tons) 341, 727 

Health Trends 

A. death rates, PER 1,000 POPULATION 



Year 


White 


Colored 


Total 


1937 . 


12.4 
11.4 
11.4 
12.1 
10.5 


18.9 
15.9 
17.0 
16.2 
15.0 


14. a 


1938 - 


12.7 


1939 . - . . 


13.0' 


1940 - . 


13. a 


1941 . - 


11.8 







B. BIRTH RATES PER 1,000 POPULATION 



Year 


White 


Colored 


Total 


1937 


18.8 
19.6 
20.7 
22.3 
24.0 


23.1 
23.5 
24.1 
24.4 
24.6 


20.1 


1938 . 


20.7 


1939 . --- 


21. & 


1940 - 


22.9 


1941 . 


24.2- 







C. TUBERCULOSIS DEATH RATE PER 100,000 POPULATION 



Year 


White 


Colored 


Total 


1930 


62.1 
45.3 
50.6 
46.9 
39.3 
36.5 
42.2 


263.3 
260.8 
266.5 
226.2 
230.8 
216.8 
206.5 


116.9 


1935 


105.5 


1936 


111.8 


1937 - 


97.7 


1938 


9a 8 


1939 - 


84.1 


1940 - 


89.1 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9661 

D. VENEREAL DISEASE DEATH RATE PER 100,000 FOPULATION 



Year 


Rate 


1936 


22.8 


1937 


21.9 


1938 


21.0 


1939 . . 


16.2 


1940 


22.9 









E. INFANT MORTALITY 



Year 


White 


Colored 


Total 


1938 

1939 


37.3 
33.6 
36.8 
38.7 


70.8 
78.9 
70.7 
81.9 


48.1 
48.0 


1940 - 


47.1 


1941 . .. 


51.2 







F. MATERNAL MORTALITY 



Year 


White 


Colored 


Total 


1938 




4.19 


8.37 


5.53 


1939 




3.67 


7.22 


4.78 


1940... _ 




2.27 


4.32 


2.90 


1941 




2.33 


3.61 


2.70 



G. HISTORY OF EPIDEMICS 



Year 


Chicken 
po.K, cases 


Gonorrhea, 

cases 


Meningococcus 
meningitis 


Pneumonia, 
cases 


Poliomyelitis 


Syphilis, 
cases 


Tuberculo- 




Cases 


Deaths 


Cases 


Deaths 




1925 

1926 

1927 

1928 

1929 

1930 

1931 

1932 

1933 

1934 

1935 

1936 

1937 

1938 

1939 

1940 


776 

1,035 

1,487 

702 

947 

807 

893 

1,064 

837 

892 

1,548 

534 

1,049 

1,390 

720 

1,073 


(') 

(') 

(') 

(') 

399 

528 

847 

1,312 

1,344 

1,346 

1,635 

1,982 

2,032 

2,925 

3,386 

3,345 


5 

6 

4 

8 

20 

24 

58 

32 

22 

14 

252 

144 

81 

20 

'I 


3 

2 

3 

5 

14 

9 

28 

13 

11 

6 

93 

64 

30 

9 

4 

6 


1,269 
1,996 
1,125 
1,339 
1,568 
1, 305 
1,433 
1,314 
1,182 
1,254 
1,353 
1,175 
1,041 
1,010 
813 
1,044 


22 

6 
14 
36 

6 
12 
17 
39 
12 
10 
85 

7 
30 
28 
19 

8 


4 
5 
6 
5 
4 
5 
4 
6 
2 
3 
10 
2 
4 
3 
1 
3 


(') 

(') 

(") 

(■) 
788 
1,035 
1,336 
1,872 
2,005 
1,832 
1,747 
2,008 
2,294 
4,031 
6,169 
6,706 


1,238 
1,173 
1,222 
1,142 
1,214 
1,031 
1,062 
1.154 
1.100 
1,138 
1,366 
1,371 
1,406 
1,468 
1,369 
1,637 



' Records not available. 



The following table presents the number of personnel employed in each of the 
Health Department bureaus for the years 1937 through 1942, together with the 
number requested by the health officer and the number approved by the District 
Commissioners for the year 1943. 



9662 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Health Department 
Personnel by bureaus {exclusive of those paid from Federal funds) 





1937 


1938 


1939 


1940 


1941 


1942 


1943 1 


Bureau 


Request- 
ed by 
health 
officer 


Allowed 

by 
commis- 
sioners 


Administration _ - 


13 


25 
10 
31 
45 



63 
11 
27 
11 
10 

7 




13 

30 
16 
31 
59 

75 
12 
27 
11 
10 

11 


14 

31 
16 
31 
59 


80 
12 
27 
13 
13 
7 
11 


14 

31 
16 
23 
61 

81 
10 
24 
13 
13 

13 


15 

31 
18 
23 
62 

83 
10 
24 
16 
13 
7 
13 


16 

32 
21 
24 
58 

86 
12 
26 
21 
18 
9 
18 


27 

33 
30 
28 
75 

115 
14 
35 
32 
38 
11 
26 


18 







Food 2. 


32 


Laboratories _ - 


25 


Maternal and Child Welfare 


26 


]\redical Inspection of Schools . . . 


54 


Mental Hvgiene 





Nursing 


93 




12 


Sanitation 


30 


Tuberculosis _ . . . . . 


27 


Venereal Diseases 

Vital Statistics- 

Permit Bureau 


24 
9 
19 


Total 


253 


302 


314 


306 


315 


341 


464 


369 



' See attached table on deficiency requests for personnel. 
2 Exclusive of 1 special food inspector, at $200 per annum. 

Deficiency requests for additional Health Department personnel — by bureau 



Bureau 


1942 


Deficiency 
request 


Bureau 


1942 


Deficiency 
request 


Administration 


16 
32 
21 
24 
58 
86 
12 
26 
21 


3 

22 
4 

6 
121 
11 
25 
9 


Venereal Disease. 


18 
9 
18 


13 




Vital Statistics _ 


2 


Laboratories -. _ _. ._ 


Permit Bureau .. . 


5 


Maternal and Child Welfare 

Medical Inspection of Schools.. 
Nursing _ _ . 


Dental 

Total 


14 


341 


235 




8 




Total 










243 











Included in Medical Inspection of Schools. 



Hospital F.\ciMriE3 

A recent survey of hospital facilities in the District of Cohimbia discloses that 
there are 3,2.50 unrestricted general medical and surgical hospital beds in the 
District. This figure does not include bassinets or beds for communicable disease 
or mental cases, and includes 65 percent of the general medical and surgical beds 
at Freedmen's Hospital. Up to 65 percent of the beds at Freedmen's Hospital 
are available to bona fide District of Columbia residents. The 3,250 beds do not 
include those in Walter Reed, Veterans' Administration facility, the United 
States Naval Hospitals, inasmuch as these institutions are primarily limited to 
Army, war veterans, and Navy personnel respectively. It also does not include 
the beds at the Florence Crittenton Home or the Washington Home for Incurables, 
or St. Ann's Infant Asylum. The word "unrestricted" should be ciualified to the 
extent that the beds at, Gallinger Municipal Hospital are limited insofar as general 
medical and surgical service is concerned to indigent residents of the District of 
Columbia. This is primarily the case with Freedmen's Hospital beds also. 

The 3,250 beds mentioned above represent, on the basis of an estimated 770,000 
population at the present time. 4.2 beds per thousand. There is presented in the 
attached table the distribution of these hospital beds in the District of Columbia 
by institution. It will be noted that there are 2,321 beds in general hospitals. 
The standard of adequacy for general-hospital beds in a community has varyingly 
been reported at 5 per thousand population, and 1 patient-day per capita, the 
latter estimate having been determined on the basis of group hospitalization 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9663 



experience. It would appear that this ratio should be adequate for private hos- 
pitals. However, numerous factors tend to indicate that this ratio would not 
pertain to hospital beds for indigents such as are provided in most municipal 
hospitals. Among these factors are — 

(1) The population group employing the use of group hospitalization comprises 
a higher income section of the poiDulation than that eligible for public hospital 
care. Nimierous morbidity studies have demonstrated that the incidence of 
illness among the low-income groups i? larger than among those in the higher 
economic level. Persons in this category, therefore, should experience a greater 
need for hospitalization. 

(2) Because of submarginal living conditions it is not sound to return low-income 
patients to their homes for convalescence. 

It is quite probable, therefore, that whereas the latter ratio could be employed 
in determining needs for private-hospital beds, the former would be preferable in 
establishing adequacy for indigent hospitalization. 

Table JSTo. 2— Hospital beds in District of Columbia on Dec. 10, 1941 



Hospital 


Total 
accommo- 
dations 


Number 
beds 


Number 

ba.'^sinets 


Number 

general 

medical 

beds 


Number 

of 

surgical 

beds 


Number 
of 

obstet- 
rical beds 


Number 
of con- 
tagious- 
disease 
beds 


Emergency.. .. 


280 
203 
210 
294 
147 
105 
437 
274 
114 

77 
320 
345 

96 

177 


2S0 

191 

127 

238 

147 

105 

335 

223 

92 

59 

275 

249 

50 

177 





83 
56 


98 
51 
22 
18 
45 
96 
46 




124 


156 






87 

50 





98 

M7 

25 

22 

50 

70 

50 





Children's' 


12 


Columbia' 




40 





Doctors ' .... .. 





Casualty _ 


47 


100 





Episcopal 1- - 





Garfield > . 









Georgetown ' 









George W^ashington 1... 











12 

79 

43 




25 

146 

140 







Providencfe 





Sibley __. 





Florence Crittenton 





Washington Home lor Incur- 
ables 














Total 


3,079 


2,548 


515 






499 


12 










Freedmen's 


5.52 
1,450 


498 
1,394 


54 
56 


167 


131 


49 
56 


151 


Gallinger 1 ._ 


3 4g2 










Total governmental 


* 1, 972 


1,892 


110 






105 


633 










Grand total 


5,051 


4,440 


625 






604 


3745 











• No well-defined distribution of beds by general medical and surgical. 
2 4 additional obstetrical beds have been used in labor rooms. 

' Includes 326 tuberculosis beds at Gallinger Hospital. 

* Excluding Walter Reed, St. Elizabeths, Veterans' Administration facility, and U. S. Naval Hospitals. 



FACILITIES AVAILABLE TO LOW INCOME GROUPS 

Most of the existing facilities in the District of Columbia are available to persons 
in low income categories. Through the wide-sprfead availability of group hospital- 
ization and through part-payment arrangements whereby the patient's bill can be 
paid on the budget plan, these individuals can receive authorization for hospital 
care. The municipal hospital will care for those residents who are considered, 
on investigation, to be medically indigent. The community chest hospitalization 
fund will pay all or part of the hospitalization cost for those medical indigents who 
are not bona fide residents of the District of Columbia. The question, therefore, 
is not so much one of making arrangements for care as of having facilities available. 

It should be mentioned in connection with Gallinger Municipal Hospital that 
pay cases are admitted to three services, namely, tuberculosis, contagious disease, 
and psychopathic. These services are not available in local private hospitals. 

INCREASE IN THE HEALTH FACILITIES SINCE 1938 

(a) Doctor's Hospital: 238 adults, 56 bassinets. 

(b) Two additional units at Gallinger Municipal Hospital: 

1. Tuberculosis, 226 beds. 

2. General medical, 276 beds. 

60396 — 42 — pt. 25 3 



9664 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

(c) Freedmen's Hospital tuberculosis unit: 150 beds. 

(d) Southwest Health Center, District of Columbia Health Department. 

Hospital Needs in the District of Columbia 

In determining hospital needs for the District of Columbia it is not possible to 
ignore the needs in the areas adjoining the District. Present institutions have 
been utilized to a considerable extent by residents of these areas. However, 
viewing the District as a separate entity it develops that on the 1 -patient-day -per- 
capita basis a more than adequate number of hospital beds in private institutions 
exists. On this basis there should be 2,636 general hospital beds available. This 
compares with the 3,250 already in existence. When the metropolitan area is 
taken into consideration it appears that 3,607 general hospital beds are available, 
357 of which are distributed between Montgomery County and Alexandria. 
There are no hospitals in Arlington, Fairfax, and Prince Georges Counties, unless 
the 9-bed unit at Greenbelt is considered. This institution, how^ever, is available 
only to Greenbelt residents and cannot be considered as a general hospital facility. 
On the basis of 1 patient-day per capita there should be 3,851 general hospital beds 
in the metropolitan area, 2,636 of which should be distributed between Mont- 
gomery, Prince Georges, Arlington, and Fairfax Counties and Alexandria. At the 
present time there is a shortage of 858 beds in the suburban areas. It is recognized 
that the determinations of needs described above do not take into consideration 
the indigent problem. For instance, although it is stated that 2,636 general beds 
should be adequate for the District of Columbia, this figure does not take into 
account the indigent increment involved. In order to determine the needs more 
accurately it would be necessary to learn not only the number of indigents in the 
District of Columbia, but in addition, the number of medical indigents. The 
difficulty in securing these data makes it necessary to determine needs for public 
hospital beds on the basis of experience and demand. 

Utilizing these criteria, it has been found that a need for additional hospital 
beds exists at Gallinger Municipal Hospital. The present accommodations for 
obstetrics and infant care are entirely inadequate both from the standpoint of 
physical facilities and from that of bed adequacy. In connection with this 
institution it should also be recognized that inflexibility due to sex and race 
distribution within the hospital as well as to service specialties, such as communi- 
cable diseases, etc., makes a large number of beds necessary. For instance, even 
though the hospital may not be operating at 80 percent capacity, it is quite 
conceivable that certain services may be experiencing overcrowding. 

Health Department Clinical Facilities 

There is presented in the table below the Health Department bureaus which 
maintain clinical services, together with the number of clinics operated by each 
bureau. 

Bureau and number of clinics 

Tuberculosis 2 

Venereal disease 2 

Maternal and child welfare ' 16 

Dental service ^ 10 

' This number includes a clinic for crippled children at Gallinger Hospital and a maternal and child wel- 
fare clinic at the Southwest Health Center. 
' This number includes a dental clinic at the Southwest Health Center. 

At the present time the Health Department operates one health center, that in 
the southwest section of Washington, in which the following services are available: 

1. Maternal and child welfare clinic. 

2. Dental clinic. 

3. Venereal disease clinic. 

4. Tuberculosis clinic. 

5. Public health nursing service. 

6. Sanitation service. 

7. Health education service. 

Fluids have been appropriated for the construction of an additional health 
center, this one to be located in the northwest section of Washington, and to 
provide essentially the same services as are now available in the Southwest Health 
Center. Plans for this center have already been completed and it is anticipated 
that construction will begin shortly. 

In connection with the dental clinic at the Southwest Health Center, it is pertinent 
to note that both children and adults Avho are imable to purchase dental care 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9665 

from private practitioners are eligible for treatment. All applicants are inter- 
viewed by a social service representative of the hospital permit bureau, who 
determines eligibility, this eligibility being contingent on residence and economic 
status. 

The need for an additional health center to be located in the Anacostia area 
of the District of Columbia has long been recognized by the Health Department. 
This need has been accentuated by the influx of defense workers in that area due 
to the increased activity in the navy yard. At the present time the Health 
Department clinic services in this area are inadequate and should be expanded. 
This can best be achieved through the construction of the already proposed health 
center. 

Time Lost Because of Illness 

i. government employees 

According to data reported by the United States Civil Service Commission the 
average number of days lost per employee per j^ear because of sickness is between 
7 and 9. They cite the experience of the General Accounting Office with 11 
days and the Department of Agriculture with 8. The former Department 
employs 6,020 persons and the latter 12,682 in the District of Columbia, a total 
of 18,702 employees. The number of days lost for sick leave varies between 
departments in direct relation to the number of female employees, this group 
reporting a greater sickness experience than the males. 

It is significant that the average number of days of sick leave is smaller in 
field offices with fewer personnel. 

If 8 days of sick leave per year is used as a reasonable estimate, it develops that 
for 206,000 Government employees — the estimated number at the present time — 
some 1,648,000 daj's of sick leave will be expected in the coming year, not includ- 
ing anticipated increases in Government employment. This is approximately 
138,330 days lost per month. 

It was not possible to obtain data for a broader experience. 

II. INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYEES 

It is recognized that sickness among industrial employees varies because of 
several factors, a few of which are: 

A. Type of employment. 

B. Sex distribution. 

C. Age distribution of employees. 

Dr. Louis Reed states in the report of the proceedings of the American Asso- 
ciation for Social Security ^ that because of illness gainful workers lose approxi- 
mately 8 days per year per capita in industrial establishments. This figure is 
partially corroborated by the experience of the Boston Edison Co. during the 
years 1933-37 reported by Gafafer and Frasier in the Public Health Reports 
of July 29, 1938 in which the authors reported an average of 7.518 days of sick 
leave per j'ear among males and 10.855 days among females. Using 8 again 
as a reasonable estimate and applying it to the 220,000 estimated number of 
"other gainfully employed" persons in the District of Columbia at the present 
time, this group would experience 1 ,760,000 days of sickness in the coming year. 
Again, no attempt is made to correct for anticipated increases in employment. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. GEORGE C. RUHLAND— Resumed 

The Chairman. I have a few questions that I want to ask you 
which will be more or less supplementary to the statements you 
have made. 

Under the present residence requirements, and in view of the great 
number of persons in the low-mcome brackets among the new em- 
ployees that are coming to Washington, isn't the health problem 
of the District becoming an increasingly difficult one to handle? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Undoubtedly so. 

The Chairman. A great percentage of the new Government em- 
ployees are of the low-income brackets, aren't they? 

Dr. RuHLAND. They are, yes. 

> Medical Care and National Defense, April 4-5, 1941, p. 1.3.3. 



9666 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

The Chairmax. Probably between $1,200 and $1,560 a year? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Well, according to some information that I have 
here the group in the income bracket of $1,500 and under is about 
24 percent of the local population. 

The Chairman. Is that 24 percent of the people coming in or 24 
percent of those already here? 

Dr. RuHLAND. I take it that that is those already here. 

The Chairman. Dr. Ruhland, in your previous statement before 
the committee you stated, and I quote from that — 

If we cannot stop the influx of those who have not a definite job in prospect 
that will enable them to maintain themselves, then for humanitarian as well as 
health protection reasons, there must be an enlargement of the existing facilities 
and machinery of the Health Service to give those persons such aid as they may 
require. 

The influx of people to the District in the last year, of course, is 
common knowledge. What enlargements of the Health Department 
have there been to provide the additional care required? 

Dr. Ruhland. There have been some additions. For example, 
there is at the present time authorized the building of the additional 
health center in the northwest central area. That will be of definite 
value. There also have been completed additions to Gallinger 
Hospital, one general medical ward and an addition to the tuberculosis 
service of that institution. There has also been added to Freed- 
men's Hospital a 150-bed building for the care of tuberculous. Un- 
fortunately, other services of the Department have not benefited 
proportionately. 

The Chairman. What are the minimum United States Public 
Health standards as to the number of nurses in a city of, say, 750,000 
population? 

STANDARDS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING SERVICE 

Dr. Ruhland. The standards for public-health nursing service in 
a community as developed by the group experience of the American 
Public Health Association is 1 nurse for each 2,000 of population. 
That would mean for the District, assuming it has a population of 
700,000, at least 300 for the District. The District has less than half 
that number. 

The Chairman. What steps have been taken to supplement this 
number, if any? 

Dr. Ruhland. In part, we have turned to Social Security and have 
gotten, by way of the Children's Bureau and by way of the Public 
Health Service, some assistance. We also are trying to supplement 
our deficiency by training women in first aid and home care of the 
sick, but we are understaffed and teaching and training facilities 
obviously mean a diversion from the Public Health Service. I mean, 
if we divert to educational efforts in this field, we must withdraw 
from the clinics. 

The Chairman. Are there any particular or local obstacles pre- 
venting the employment of more nurses? 

Dr. Ruhland. I think Commissioner Young has indicated the 
limitations under which all District services try to operate, and we 
have been especially unfortunate, inasmuch as the budget requests 
of the Department have received rather drastic curtailment. I 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9667 

think, of all the public services in the District, public health has been 
least developed. 

The Chairman. You said a few moments ago that steps were 
being taken to enlarge the present health center. Just how far along 
has that program progressed? 

PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER 

Dr. RuHLAND. There is an appropriation authorized by Congress 
that appropriates half of the estimated amount needed for this pub- 
lic health center, figured at $250,000. In a pending budget the balance 
of the necessary money is incorporated, and I might also add that 
more or less at the suggestion of the committee of Congress and at the 
suggestion of the Commissioners and the Department, there has been 
prepared a supplementary budget which is submitted to the Com- 
missioners and I presume will be submitted to Congress in due time. 
This aims to offset some of the shortcomings in the service at the 
present time. 

The Chairman. Do you meet minimum requirements of the 
Public Health Service with reference to available hospital beds? 

Dr. RuHLAND. It is rather difficult to answer that question. It 
has been given considerable thought. The question must consider 
what are reasonable standards. There opinion differs quite a good 
deal. 

According to reports published by the American Medical Asso- 
ciation, the ratio of hospital beds for population varies all the way 
from three per thousand to five or more per thousand of population. 
More recently there has been offered a standard and it seems not a 
bad one, coming out of the experience of group hospitalization. 

HOSPITAL FACILITIES 

Group hospitalization has a chentele of about 8,000,000 at the 
present time and they have come to the conclusion that adequate 
hospital bed facilities could be provided if you allow for 1 hospital day 
per year for the population. Translated into terms of actual beds, 
let us assume that for the metropolitan area of the District we have 
1,200,000, which, personally, I am inclined to believe is a reasonable 
and conservative estimate of population, there would be required 
4,000 hospital beds on an 80 percent occupancy of those beds. 

That, however, I think must be qualified for this reason. Man- 
ifestly the experience of group hospitalization based on a group of 
people who are at a certain economic level, does not represent the 
ultrapoor wliich are significantly the responsibility of the govern- 
ment here in the District. With that clientele, you must know that 
they are disadvantaged in their housing and food and clothing, and 
so forth, and they are, therefore, the group that is above all exposed 
to illness. 

Furthermore, having taken them to the hospital, you cannot dis- 
charge them from the hospital back to the home unless the home is 
in suitable condition and, of course, other qualifications such as sex, 
race, and type of service, all manifestlv qualify the arbitrary figure of 
4,000 beds.' 



9668 WASHINGTON HEARINGS' 

The Chairman. Your idea would be that 4,000 would be a suffi- 
cient number? 

Dr. RuHLAND. It is my belief that it would not be adequate. 

The Chairman. I wonder how the number that are available com- 
pares to the 4,000 minimum which you set. 

Dr. RuHLAND. From the figures that we have on unrestricted hos- 
pital beds, taking the District of Columbia as against the metro- 
politan area, we have some 3,250 beds. 

On the basis of the 1 patient day per capita, we would only require 
2,636 beds. That manifestly would be inadequate in the face of 
experience, so the theory breaks down right there. 

If we take the larger group, the metropolitan area, we find the metro- 
politan area has a total of 3,607 beds and on the 1 patient day per 
capita basis really should have 3,851 beds and on the basis of 5 beds 
per thousand, we should have 5,600 beds, leaving a deficiency of 
some 2,100 beds. 

The Chairman. Do those figures take into account these new 
additions you mentioned in the beginning of your statement? 

Dr. RuHLAND. They do. 

The Chairman. Are there any further expansions projected or 
contemplated? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Yes; the Commission has presented to the com- 
mittee that dealt with the Lanham Act, a request for an addition 
of a wing to Gallinger Hospital, particularly to house maternity and 
infant welfare cases. Unfortunately, to my knowledge, so far that 
has not received the approval of the Office of Procurement Manage- 
ment. 

Also, we do feel very keenly that because both at Gallinger Hospital, 
wliich is in the nature of a general county hospital elsewhere, as well 
as at Glenn Dale, we have more patients than can be housed now. 
We are forced, therefore, either to decline the admission of patients 
or discharge them before it seems wise to do so, and that is uneconomic 
because the patient breaks down again and makes the rounds of 
hospitalization. 

Therefore, we have recommended that there be added temporary 
structures, if you please, at Gallinger, housing about 600 beds, and 
at Glenn Dale, the tuberculosis sanitarium, possibly 400 beds, which 
could serve the overflow and ultimately might serve the housing of 
chronics and convalescents. 

The Chairman. Referring again to these additions which you 
referred to, are the beds now available? 

Dr. RuHLAND. The additions at Gallinger; yes. Two units are in 
service. 

The Chairman. And you mentioned one at Freedmen's. 

Dr. RuHLAND. And at Freedmen's, likewise. 

The Chairm/Vn. I believe a^ou mentioned one other. 

Dr. RuHLAND. Those are the only two. 

The Chairman. And those beds are already available? 

Dr. RuHLAND. That is right. 

The Chairman. And no others are authorized except what you 
might get under the Lanham Act? 

Dr. RuHLAND. That is correct, sir. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9669 



VENEREAL DISEASE TREATMENT 



The Chairman. What facilities have the District hospitals for the 
treatment and isolation of venereally infected persons? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Not very much unless we open our acute communi- 
cable disease wards to this type of person. Personally, I think that 
is a legitimate use of a communicable disease hospital. In fact, I do 
not see why hospitals generally should not admit those cases, although 
it is not the practice. 

The Chairman. What facilities does the District have for the con- 
trol of venereal disease? 

Dr. RuHLAND. The District maintains two clinics at the present 
time. The physical facilities would permit the holding of 32 clinic 
sessions per week. However, our personnel and equipment admits of 
only 18 such clinic sessions. 

It is not a full utilization of physical facilities. That, in the light 
of the case load, is inadequate. 

The Chairman. That is the next question I was going to ask you, 
if based on that the staff was inadequate? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Yes; it is. 

The Chairman. Has there been any increase in venereal infection? 

Dr. Ruhland. Undoubtedly there is. The trouble that besets that 
question is that there were not reliable statistics to tell us how large 
the 'volume of infection was before public interest focused on it. But 
to illustrate, the Department of Health has undertaken for the Army 
to exaihine the draftees and it is found among these draftees, between 
the period of September and November, some 2,000 plus who had a 
blood test which would indicate possible sj^philitic infection. Of 
course, they report for reexamination. The number of gonorrheal, 
infections is probably larger, and we have no reliable data on that. 

The Chairman. Have you made recommendations for the enlarge- 
ment of your staff? 

Dr. Ruhland. Yes. They are incorporated in the deficiency 
budget referred to by Commissioner Young. 

The Chairman. That is as far as the recommendations have gone 
so far? 

Dr. Ruhland. That is correct, sir. 

The Chairman. I believe that is all. 

MEDICAL CARE FOR GOVERNMENT WORKERS 

Mr. Curtis. Do Government workers secure medical care from 
the Public Health Services rather than from private sources, physi- 
cians, nurses, in private practice? 

Dr. Ruhland. Not to my knowledge. 

Mr. Curtis. I understand in your testimony that you made some 
reference to the low-income brackets of Government workers, and I 
wondered if the Public Health Service was providing them with 
medical care or whether they are expected to secure that from the 
ordinary private sources. 

Dr. Ruhland. I am quite sure it is put up to the individual, 
although an experience that happened this morning might illustrate 
the problem. 



9670 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

My attention was called just before I came to the meeting this 
morning to a clerk who is employed at $1,440 who had fallen and 
broken her ankle and was left in her room. She is in an income 
group who should take care of itself. We are dispatching a nurse 
to look into the matter to see what can be done or refer the case to 
the public care, or, if need be, public assistance must be rendered. 
We cannot maintain the sharp limitations which require 1 year of 
residence or total invalidism. 

Mr. Curtis. Had there been a doctor in to see the Government 
worker? 

Dr. RuHLAND. From the information which I had, which was 
not very complete or intelligent, that did not appear. 

Mr. Curtis. Wlio sets the standard of 1 public health nurse for 
every 2,000 people? 

Dr. RuHLAND. That is a standard suggested by the American 
Public Health Association, based on the group experience in this 
country and Canada for public health service. 

Mr. Curtis. Is that in addition to all private sources of hospital- 
ization and nurses and medical care, or to take the place of that? 

Dr. RuHLAND. This is independent of private medical practice. 

Mr. Curtis. And that is the general standard for the whole coun- 
try? In other words, the standard recommended for a rural county 
of 10,000 people who have no public health nurse now, is to have 
5 nurses? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, in reference to these venereal disease clinics, 
where you have more physical plants than you have personnel to 
operate. How much personnel does it take to operate one clinic* 
How many doctors and how many nurses does it take? 

Dr. RuHLAND. That depends upon your case load. 

CLINICAL requirements 

Mr. Curtis. In order to open one up and to take care of sufiicent 
people to justify opening up one of these what would you have t "> 
have? 

Dr. RuHLAND. I have had one of my assistants give me the exact 
figures. For each clinic session handling 200 patients per session, we 
operate 3 physicians, 3 clerks, 2 medical attendants, 1 custodian, and 
7 nurses. 

Mr. Curtis. Three physicians and seven nurses. 

Dr. RuHLAND. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. That is for how big a clinic? 

Dr. RuHLAND. They handle a case load of 200 patients per clinic 
session. 

Mr. Curtis. What is a clinic session? 

Dr. RuHLAND. A clinic period which runs 2 to 2% hours. You will 
try to handle this volume of patients, 200 patients. 

Mr. Curtis. What is the average number of patients handled by 
the clinics you do have running? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Our clinic sessions run over 200. We run 300 to 
400, I am told by my assistant. 

Mr. Curtis. You have 300 to 400 people handled by 3 doctors and 
7 nurses? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9671 

Dr. RuHLAND. We attempt that. 

Mr. Curtis. How many hours a day do they operate? 

Dr. RuHLAND. We have morning dinics and afternoon dinics and 
some evening dinics and the average chnic period runs about 3 hours. 

Mr. Curtis. Those physicians you use, do they do any private 
practice? 

Dr. RuHLAND. They are employed part time. Yes; they do. 
The same physician is not there in the morning that is there in the 
afternoon and evening. A different set is employed, on a part-time 
basis. 

Mr. Curtis. How about the nurses? 

Dr. RuHLAND. They unfortunately are up against it. They unfor- 
tunately have to stick it out excepting for the evening service. That 
is a different group. 

Mr. Curtis. They spend their full time in Public Health Service? 

Dr. RuHLAND. At present the public service has about 70 percent 
of its nursing service at fixed clinics and only about 15 percent in the 
field. There is a great deficiency in Public Health Nursing Service. 

Mr. Curtis. How many hours a day do those nurses work? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Seven and one-half. 

Mr. Curtis. Six days a week? 

Dr. RuHLAND. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. What is the approximate cost of three doctors for a 
day clinic? 

Dr. RuHLAND. That would have to be computed; I don't know. 
(After conference with accountant.) I am informed by the account- 
ant it is $3,600 a year; that is the basis of the salary. 

Mr. Curtis. For one physician? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Three physicians, one-third time, and each one 
gets $1,200 a year. 

Mr. Curtis. You get a doctor for $100 a month for one-third of 
iiis time? 

Dr. RuHLAND. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. You estimate one-third of his time being 3 hours? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Two and one-half to 3 hours. 

Dr. Lamb. If I understand correctly. Doctor, hospitalization for 
metropolitan Washington falls to a large extent on the District of 
Columbia because of the referral by physicians outside of the District 
of cases for which there is no adequate facility outside the District 
proper. Is that correct? 

Dr. RuHLAND. That is correct, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. And for that some kind of arrangement is worked out 
between the District and these outlying areas; I suppose? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Only insofar as the private hospital is concerned. 
That is a private business matter. 

Dr. Lamb. Your discussion of hospital beds, and so on, referred to 
public and private facilities? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. Have you any figures showing the time lost in Washing- 
ton businesses and in Government agencies on account of illness, and 
anything to indicate whether that figure is staying about the same, 
rising or falling, as the influx of population increases here? 

Dr. RuHLAND. I have nothing that I could submit right now. 
However, this is a practice which we have on a volunteer arrangement 



9672 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

with Federal agencies, that the medical attendants or the nurse in 
the Government service will report to us the incidence of absence 
among employees in that particular building. We use that to inform 
ourselves with regard to the seasonal fluctuation of illness. 

Dr. Lamb. Arc these figures compiled in such way that they might 
be available to this committee, do you know? 

Dr. RuHLAND. I will look into it and see what we can furnish you. 

Dr. Lamb. I am sure the committee would appreciate very much if 
we could have those and discover whether the numbers coming in have 
had any effect on this rate. 

Dr. RuHLAND. I will be very glad to submit what can be found, 
although my guess is that you may not find that reliable. Under- 
stand, it is on a voluntary basis to begin with and through the winter 
months it is confined to respiratory diseases and during the summer 
to gastro-intestinal ailments. 

Dr. Lamb. I understand that. Such information, if it were 
properly compiled, would be of considerable value, I should think, to 
both the public and private agencies operating here, would it not? 

Dr. RuHLAND. Undoubtedly; yes. 

Dr. Lamb. With regard to the statement that 250,000 additional 
persons would come in in the next year, which was made in the 
Washington paper yesterday — perhaps that is on the high side — what 
preparations can be made by the Health Department with respect to 
that, particularly of a planning and budgetary kind? How can you 
arrange to anticipate that, or do you have to wait until the thing has 
fully developed? 

DEFICIENCY BUDGET PREPARED 

Dr. RuHLAND. As stated before, at the suggestion of the committee 
of Congress and the invitation or direction of the Commissioners, the 
Department has prepared a deficiency budget which means to imple- 
ment existing services for the balance of the fiscal year and, of coursef 
continue that service during the ensuing fiscal year. That would 
implement us so that we could more reasonably and adequately meet 
the growing load of service. 

Dr. Lamb. As I understand, however, you have been confronted by 
an additional 120,000 during the last 12 months? 

Dr. RuHLAND. We are anticipating that increased case load and 
are trying to get our personnel in proportion to that number. 

Dr. Lamb. Those have already come in and you have to provide 
for those, in addition to an expected number which has not come in 
at the present time? 

Dr. RuHLAND. We would be glad if we could bring ourselves up to 
present service needs. 

Dr. Lamb. That is what I am driving at, that you have the difficulty 
of arriving even at the proper care of existing needs without reference 
to stepping up your arrangements to meet the anticipated needs, so 
that almost inevitably you are one step, if not two steps, behind, 
because of the budgetary and other administrative problems of an 
area like the District. 

Dr. RuHLAND. Quite correct, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. I understand that the existing standard is $2.50 per 
capita needed for the implementation of recognized public health 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9673 

activities. That does not include hospital service. And you have 
been obliged to operate on a budget not half of that. Is that true? 

Dr. RuHLAND. That is true. That figure you have given is that 
recommended, again bj^ the American Public Health Association. 
That is a group judgment of recognized public health service and 
experience, and exclusive of institutional care. 

Dr. Lamb. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Dr. Ruhland. We appreciate your 
coming here. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. FRANK W. BALLOU, SUPERINTENDENT OF 
SCHOOLS, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

The Chairman. Dr. Ballou, you have submitted for the record a 
very helpful statement that will be printed in its entirety in the 
record. I have a few questions that I would like to ask you, based 
very largely on the printed statement you have supplied us. 

(The statement mentioned is as follows:) 

STATEMENT PREPARED BY A. W. HEINMILLER, ASSISTANT 
SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS IN CHARGE OF THE SCHOOL 
BUDGET, FOR SUPERINTENDENT FRANK W. BALLOU 

Increased Population and School Needs in the District of Columbia 

population growth of the district of columbia and metropolitan area 

The population of the District of Columbia increased from 580,249 in 1935 to 
663,091 in 1940, according to the Census Bureau. This is an increase of 14 
percent. The Washington Evening Star estimated the city population to be 
753,091 in December 1941. This is an increase of 13^^ percent since 1940, an 
increase of 29.8 percent since 1935, and an increase of 54.7 percent since 1930. 

The population for the m.etropolitan area increased from 621,059 in 1930 to 
907,816 in 1940, according to the Census Bureau figures. This is an increase of 
46 percent. The Washington Evening Star estimated the population of the 
metropolitan area to be 1,058,816 in IDecem.ber 1941. This is an increase of 
16.6 percent since 1940, and an increase of 70 percent since 1930. 

TREND OF PUBLIC-SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 

The total public-school enrollment in 1930 was 78,458. By 1935 it had in- 
creased to 93,080. In 1936, the number of pupils increased by 429 to 93,509. 
After this date, the enrollment declined to 92,443 on October 31, 1941. During 
this period, the enrollment in the schools in divisions I-IX decreased from 59,582 
in 1935 to 55,777 in 1941, but the enrollm.ent in the schools in divisions X-XIII 
increased from 33,498 in 1935 to 36,666 in 1941. 

It is estimated that the school enrollm.ent at the beginning of the second 
semester, February 1942, will be 97,057. This is an increase of 4.2 percent over 
the 1935 enrollment, and an increase of 5 percent over the October 1941 enroll- 
ment. Of this num.ber, 58,197 are expected to be enrolled in divisions I-IX and 
38,860 in divisions X-XIII. This decrease in school enrollment during the period 
that the population of the District of Columbia was increasing, is believed to be 
due to at least 3 causes: 

1. Declining birth rate of white children in the District of Columbia, from 1932 
to 1935, which affected the school enrollm.ent from 1937 to 1940. 

2. Movement of white families from the District of Colum.bia to nearby 
Virginia and Maryland. 

3. Increased em.ployment opportunities in 1941, particularly for vocational 
school, senior high school, and teachers college students. 

In 1935, there were 7,163 white births and 3,687 Negro births in the District 
of Columbia. This marked the first increase since 1932, when there were 6,859 



9674 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



white Ijirths and 3,325 Negro births. The number has increased steadily since 
that time, and the total numbers of births for the past 5 years are as follows: 





1937 


1938 


1939 


1940 


1941 


White -- -- 


8,246 
4,002 


8,836 
4,102 


9,639 
4,389 


10, 573 

4,627 


12, 869 




5,261 






Total 


12,248 


12, 938 


14, 028 


15,200 


18, 130 







The increases during these past 5 years will have a very direct effect on public- 
school enrollm.ents, beginning in 1942. The number of births in 1941 represents 
an increase of 67 percent over 1935. The increase of white births is 79.6 percent, 
and that of Negro births is 42.6 percent during this 7-year period. 

While the public schools have m.ade no study of the movement of white families 
into Maryland and Virginia, attention is directed to the large increase of popu- 
lation in the metropolitan area, compared with the rate of increase in the District 
of Columbia. The percentage of increase in the population in the District of 
Columbia from 1930 to 1940 was 54.7 percent and the increase in population in 
the metropolitan area, which includes the District of Columbia, Arlington County, 
Alexandria City, and parts of Fairfax, Montgomery, and Prince Georges Counties, 
was 70 percent during the sam.e period. 

It is believed that the composition of the population of the District of Columbia 
has changed somewhat during the past few years when the rate of increase has 
been the greatest. The Office of Production Management has made a study of its 
employees, and has found that only 35 percent of them are married. The No- 
vember 1941 issue of the Monthly Labor Review reported a study made in June 
1941 of the living arrangements of Federal employees in the Washington, D. C. 
area. The survey showed that 15 percent of the Federal employees who came to 
Washington before May 1, 1940, lived in room.s or boarding houses, and 55 percent 
of Federal employees who came to Washington after May 1, 1940, were living in 
rooms or boarding houses. Two factors contributed to the choice of rooming 
accommodations — the newcomers are typically young and unmarried, and they 
have relatively low incomes. 

Although the total enrollm.ent declined from 92,810 in 1940 to 92,443 in 1941, 
this decrease is believed to be due, to a great extent, to increased employment 
opportunities for vocational school, senior high school, and teachers college 
students. 

In 1941, the number of elementary school pupils increased by 549 over 1940, 
and the number of junior high-school pupils increased by 320 pupils. However, 
during the same period, the number of teachers college students decreased by 187, 
the senior high-school enrollment, 881, and the vocational school enrollment, 168. 

PRESENT TEACHING SITUATION 

The number of teachers now employed in the schools of divisions I-IX is be- 
lieved to be sufficient to take care of any increased enrollment that will occur in 
these schools during the 1942 and 1943 fiscal years, by making adjustments and 
transfers from schools with declining enrollments to those with increasing enroll- 
ments. 

In divisions X-XIII, the teaching situation is by no means as satisfactory. On 
all school levels, the number of pupils per teacher exceeds the standards recom- 
mended by the United States Office of Education. Based upon the October 31, 
1941, enrollment, 76 additional elementary school teachers are needed to reduce 
the number of elementary pupils per teacher from 40.9 to 36; 31 additional 
teachers are needed in the junior high schools to reduce the pupil-teacher ratio 
in these schools from 31.5 to 28; 17 additional teachers are needed to establish 
regular classes in the senior high schools which will average 25 pupils per teacher 
instead of the present number, which is 27.8. 

The 1943 public-school budget estimates include a request for 14 additional 
elementary school teachers, 6 junior high-school teachers, 5 senior high school 
teachers, and 1 senior high school litararian for divisions X-XIII. 

INCREASED BUILDING CAPACITY, 1935-41 

During the 7-year period from 1935 to 1941, new construction increased the 
capacity of public-school facilities by approximately 14,600. This provided new 
space for approximately 8,670 senior and junior high school pupils, approximately 
1,130 vocational school pupils, and 4,800 elementary school pupils. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9675 



This new construction consisted of two senior high schools, one junior-senior 
high school, one addition to a senior high school, two new junior high schools, 
additions to five junior high schools, two new vocational schools, one addition to 
a vocational school, four new elementary schools, and additions to twelve elemen- 
tary schools. 

VACATED SCHOOL BUILDINGS 

During this same 7-year period, the Board of Education vacated 15 old build- 
ings with a capacity of approximately 4,200. These buildings were entirely un- 
suitable for educational purposes, since they were all very old and obsolete, and 
did not provide necessary facilities such as adequate lighting, ample playground 
space, and gymnasiums. 

The resulting net increase in pupil capacity during this period was approxi- 
mately 10,400, and to a great extent, provided the urgently needed schoolhouse 
accommodations for the increased school population from 1930-35, which was 
14,622. 

COMPLETED DEFENSE HOUSING IN 1941 

During 1941 the Navy Department, the Alley Dwelling Authority, and a 
Federal Housing Administration financed agency completed public defense hous- 
ing projects which included 2,142 units that have already been occupied. The 
majority of these units are located in the southeast section of the city, where 
public school congestion has resulted in a very acute situation. 

During 1941, the District of Columbia issued dwelling house permits for 10,500 
dwellings, a large portion of which have already been completed. This is an in- 
crease of approximately 1,900 over 1940 when 8,682 such permits were issued. 

A study of the following completed defense housing projects reveals a wide 
variation in the number of children per family. 



Name and location 


Race of occupants 


Number of 
units 


Total 

number of 

children 


Average 
number of 

children 
per family 


Fort Dupont, Ridge and Anacostia Rds. SE-__ 
Ellen Wilson, I, 6th, and 7th Sts. SE 


White _ 

.- . do -.. . . 


326 
217 
600 
313 

314 
169 


701 
333 
400 
601 

553 
329 


2.2 
1.5 


Bellevue, Anacostia, south of Boiling Field 


do... 


.7 


Frederick Douglass, Alabama Ave. and 21st 

St. SE. 
Carrollsburg, I, 3d and 5th Sts. SE . 


Negro 

do 


1.9 
1.8 


Kelly Miller, W, 2d, and 5th Sts. NW... 


do.._ 


1.9 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA DEFENSE HOUSING UNDER CONSTRUCTION OR COMMITTED 

There are 12 defense housing projects already started that will be completed 
in 1942, which will have a total of 3,033 family units. These projects will be 
constructed by pubhc authorities; 1,318 of the units are for white families and 
1,715 are designated for Negro families; 1,760 of the total number are located 
in the southeast section of the city and 995 are located in the Northeast section. 

The Office of Production Management has granted priorities to private con- 
tractors engaged in constructing 2,927 defense housing units which are estimated 
to be completed between January 7, 1942, and April 6, 1942. Of this total, 779 
are located in the southeast section of the city and 1,822 are in the northeast 
section. Two thousand four hundred and sixty-eight of the units are for white 
families and 459 are for Negro families. 

DEFENSE HOUSING UNDER CONSTRUCTION OR COMMITTED IN NEARBY VIRGINIA AND 

MARYLAND 

There are 10 publicly financed defense housing projects in nearby Virginia and 
Maryland that will be completed in 1942, which have a total of 3,186 units. 
Three thousand one hundred and sixty-six of these units are for white families 
and 20 are for Negro families. In addition to these public projects, there are 
2,909 units being built by private enterprise which have been granted priorities 
by the Office of Production Management. These are estimated to be completed 
in April 1942. 



9676 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



ADDITIONAL DEFENSE HOUSING PLANNED FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA LOCALITY 

According to the Division of Defense Housing Coordination, the program up 
to June 1, 1942, will provide for the erection of 22,000 new homes by private 
enterprise and public funds in addition to housing now in the process of construc- 
tion. This means that approximately as many new living units will be constructed 
during the next 6 months in the District of Columbia locality as there were during 
the entire year of 1941. 

The proposed schedule is as follows: 7,500 apartments to be constructed by 
the Defense Homes Corporation (Reconstruction Finance Corporation subsidiary), 
4,500 homes to be constructed by the Alley Dwelling Authority, United States 
Housing Authority, and Public Buildings Administration; 10,000 homes to be 
built b.v private industry. 

The first group of 7,500 apartments will be generally dispersed throughout the 
District of Columbia and Arlington Count3^ The second group of 4,500 homes 
will be dispersed in the District of Columbia, Alexandria, and Prince Georges 
County. The location of the 10,000 homes to be built by private industry will 
be selected by it, but guidance will be given by the Office of Division of Defense 
Housing Coordination to the end that they will properly serve the need and will 
be in harmony geographically with the general housing program. The details 
are yet to be worked out. 

EFFECT ON PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 

That the growth of population in the metropolitan area will affect the public 
school enrollment there is no doubt, but it will be difficult to state exactly where 
the pressure will be the greatest. Unquestionably, the most pressing needs will 
be in the northeast and southeast sections of the city where the majority of the 
defense housing has been located. In divisions X-XIII there are congested con- 
ditions in other parts of the city as well as the northeast and southeast areas. 

This condition is due not only to the rising increase in population due to the 
Defense Housing Program, but also to the constantly increasing Negro popula- 
tion during the past 7 years. The following statement indicates schools which 
are now overcrowded to the extent that a double shift is either now in effect or 
soon will be if the present rate of increase in enrollment in these buildings con- 
tinues: 

DIVISIONS I-IX 



Name and location of school 



Anacostia Junior-Senior High School," 16th and R Sts. SE 

Taft Junior High School, 18th and Perry Sts. NE 

Stuart Junior High School, 4th and E Sts. NE 

Total 

ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 

Benning School,' Minnesota Ave. between Benning Rd. and 

FooteSt. NE 

Orr School,' 22d and Prout Sts. SE 

Randle Highlands School,' 30th and R Sts. SE 

Stanton School,' Hamilton and Good Hope Rds. SE 

Total 



Capacity, 

Oct. 31, 

1941 



1,225 

627 

1,020 



2,872 



320 
320 
320 
160 



1,120 



Enrollment, 

Oct. 31, 

1941 



1,798 

796 

1,133 



3,727 



497 
485 
360 
231 



1,573 



Enrollment 

in excess 

of capacity 



573 
169 
113 



855 



177 
165 
40 
71 



453 



DIVISIONS X-XIII 



Armstrong High School, 1st and Sts. NW 

Cardozo High School, 9th St. and Rhode Island Ave. NW 


1,077 
1,040 


1,579 
1,455 


502 
415 


Total 


2,117 


3,034 


917 






Browne Juoior High School,' 24th St. and Benning Rd NE 


918 


1,520 


602 







> Operating on double shift. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
DIVISIONS X-X III— Continued 



9677 



Name and location of school 



ELEMENTARr SCHOOLS 

Bell School,' 2d St. between D St. and Virginia Ave. SW 

Briggs-Montgomery School,' 27th St. between I and K Sts. NW 

Douglass-Simmons School,' 1st and Pierce Sts. NW 

Garrison School,' 12th St. between R and S Sts. NW 

Gidding-s School, O St. between 3d and 4th Sts. SE 

Jones School,' 1st and L Sts. NW 

Logan School,' 3d and G Sts. NE 

Logan Annex,' 3d and G Sts. NE 

Payne School,' 15th and C Sts. SE 

Smothers School,' 44th St. and Washington PI. NE 

Walker School,' 3d and K Sts. NW 

Total 



Capacity, 

Oct. 31, 

1941 



680 
640 
960 
640 
840 
320 
400 
320 
320 
680 
320 



6,120 



Enrollment, 

Oct. 31, 

1941 



833 
691 
1,141 
746 
922 
375 
481 
446 
395 
793 
444 



7,267 



Enrollment 

in excess 
of capacity 



153 
51 
181 
106 
82 
55 
81 
126 
75 
113 
124 



1,147 



• Operating on double shift. 

BUILDINGS APPROPRIATED FOR OR UNDER CONSTRUCTION 

The following buildings are either under construction or scheduled to be started 
as soon as possible to relieve congestion in certain buildings where overcrowding 
has become acute. The completion of these buildings will depend upon the 
action taken by the Office of Production Management in granting priorities for 
materials to construct them. A complete statement showing the relation between 
the Defense Housing program in the District of Columbia and the necessity for 
this school construction is being prepared for the United States Office of Educa- 
tion as requested by the Office of Production Management. 



Name and location of building 


Percent- 
age of 

comple- 
tion, 

Jan. 1, 
1942 


Probable occu- 
pancy date 


Abbot Vocational School, Brentwood Park, _.._.,. 



33 





20 

19 

27 






May 1943. 


Beers School, 8-room elementary building in the vicinity of 36th PI. and 

Alabama Ave. SE. 
Benning School, 8-room addition and assembly hall-gymnasium, Minnesota 

Ave. between Benning Rd. and Foote St. NE. 
Davis School, 8-room building, 4 rooms [to be left unfinished, Hillside Rd, 

and Alabama Ave. SE. 
Kimball School, 8-room elementary school in the vicfnity of Minnesota 

Ave. and Ely PI. SE. 

Kramer Junior High School, 17th and Q Sts. SE . 

Spingarn High School, 24th St. and Benning Rd. NE.'. 

Svphax School, 8-room addition, including assembly hall-gymnasium, Half 

St. between N and O Sts. SW. 
Van Ness School, 8-room addition and assembly hall-gymnasium, 4th and 

M Sts. SE. 
Woodrow Wilson High School, completion of 6 classrooms, Nebraska Ave. 

and Chesapeake St. NW.2 


May 1942. 

May 1943. 

February 1943. 

July 1942. 

January 1943. 

(■') 
July 1942. 

April :943. 

(2) 



' Plans must be revised because of changes in construction due to unavaOability of certain critical 
materials. 

2 Plans completed on Nov. 1, 1941, but the Municipal Architect's office is waiting for a project priority 
rating. Construction work will require about 90 days. 



b 



ADDITIONAL SCHOOLHOUSE CONSTRUCTION REQUIRED 

The following school buildings or additions to buildings were approved by the 
Board of Commissioners of the District of Columbia, and were certified by the 
United States Office of Education as necessary items due to the defense-housing 
program in the District of Columbia. They were presented before the House 
District Committee when hearings were held late in 1941 to consider District 
projects totaling approximately $6,000,000 in connection with a proposed bill to 
authorize the District of jColurnbia to receive an allotment of funds appropriated 
by Congress to carry out provisions of the Lanham Act. Although no money was 



9678 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



allotted for the construction of these buildings or jadditions, the necessity for them 
has not decreased but, instead, has become even more urgent than it was when 
they were presented. 



Name and location 


Number assigned 


Total 

estimated 

cost 


Patterson Elementary School, Nichols Ave. and Atlantic 

St. SE. 
Miller Junior High School,' 49th St. and Washington PI. 

NE. 
Taft Junior High School addition. 18th and Perrv Sts. NE 


D. C. 49-104 - 


$213, 950 


D. C. 49-105 - 


1, 220, 200 


D. C. 49-106 . -- 


292, 550 




D. C. 49-113- 


45, 600 


NE. 

Merritt Elementary School, 49th and Hayes Sts. NE. _ 

Lafayette School, completion of second floor, Northampton 

St. and Broad Branch Rd. NW. 


D.C. 49-111-- 


352, 050 


D. C. 49-108 


45,000 


Total 


2, 169, 350 









1 The 1942 District of Columbia Appropriations Act includes $15,427 for the preparation of plans and 
specifications. The 1943 public-school-budget estimates include $300,000 for beginning construction. 

INDEX TO STATISTICAL TABLES USED IN PREPARING THIS REPORT 

A. Population of the District of Columbia. 

B. Enrollments in the public schools of the District of Columbia, 1930, 1935 to 
1941, and estimated for February 1942. 

C. Births reported in the District of Columbia, 1930 to 1941. 

D. Number of regular classroom teachers and the pupil-teacher ratio in the 
public schools of the District of Columbia, 1935 to 1941. 

E. Completed public-school construction appropriated from 1934 to 1940 and 
occupied from 1935 to 1941, which increased capacities. 

F. Public-school buildings vacated since 1935. 

G. Summary of defense-housing construction: 

(1) Public defense-housing projects in the District of Columbia, completed in 
1941. 

(2) Public defense-housing projects in the District of Columbia committed or 
under construction, to be completed in 1942. 

(3) Public defense housing in nearby Maryland and Virginia, committed or 
under construction, to be completed in 1942. 

(4) Private defense-housing projects in the District of Columbia, to be com- 
pleted in 1942, which have been granted priorities by the Office of Production 
Management. 

(5) Private defense-housing projects in nearby Maryland and Virginia under 
construction, to be completed early in 1942, which have been granted priorities 
by the Office of Production Management. 

Population of the District of Columbia 



City proper 



Metropolitan 
area ' 



Census Bureau count, Apr. 1, 1930 

Census Bureau estimate, July 1, 1935 

Census Bureau count, Apr. 1, 1940 

Estimate of the Evening Star, September 1941 
Estimate of the Evening Star, December 1941. 

Total increase since 1930 (percent) 

Total increase since 1935 (percent) 



486, 869 
580. 249 
663, 091 
720, 091 
753, 091 
54.7 
29.8 



621, 059 
(?) 
907, 816 
1,017,816 
1, 058. 816 
70 
(0 



' "Metropolitan area" means Washington, D. C, city proper, Arlington County, Alexandria city, and 
parts of Fairfax, Montgomery, and Prince Georges Counties. : 

' No estimate made. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9679 



PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE DLSTRICT OF COLUMBIA, FRANKLIN ADMINISTRATION BLDG., 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Total membership 



Divisions 1 to 9 



Number 



Increase or 
decrease 
from pre- 
ceding year 



Divisions 10 to 13 



Number 



Increase or 
decrease 
from pre- 
ceding year 



Total 



Number 



Increase or 

decrease 
from pre- 
ceding year 



Oct. 31, 1930 

Nov. 1, 1935 

Oct. 30, 1936 

Oct. 29, 1937 

Oct. 28, 1938 

Oct. 27, 1939 

Nov. 1, 1940 

Oct. 31, 1941 

Estimated, February 1942 



51. 367 

59, 582 
59, 095 
58. 793 
58, 224 
57, 630 
56, 547 
55, 777 
58, 197 



+ 1,666 
+825 
-487 
-302 
-569 
-594 

-1,083 
-770 

+2, 420 



27, 091 

33, 498 

34, 414 

34, 625 

35, 276 

35, 765 

36, 263 
36, 666 
38, 860 



+ 1,338 
+ 1,097 
+916 
+211 
+651 
+489 
+498 
+403 
+2, 194 



78, 458 
93, 080 
93, 509 
93,418 
93, 500 
93. 395 
92, 810 
92, 443 
97, 057 



+ 3,004 

+1,922 

+429 

-91 

+82 

-105 

-585 

-367 

+4, 614 



Births reported in the District of Columbia, 1930-41 





Wiiite 


Negro 


Total 




White 


Negro 


Total 


1930 


6,391 


3,052 


9,443 


1936 


7,941 


3,810 


11,751 


1931 


6,414 


2,973 


9,387 


1937 


8,246 


4,002 


12, 248 


1932 


6,859 


3,325 


10, 184 


1938 


8,836 


4,102 


12, 938 


1933 


6,517 


3,415 


9, 932 


1939 


9,639 


4,389 


14,028 


1934 


6,592 


3,431 


10, 023 


1940 


10, 573 


4,627 


15, 200 


1935 


7,163 


3,687 


10, 850 


1941 


12, 869 


5,261 


18, 130 



Table showing number of regular classroom teachers and number of pupils per teacher 
in regular classes in elementary, junior high, and senior high schools on A^ov. 1, 
1935, Oct. 30, 1936, Oct. 29, 1937, Oct. 28, 1938, Oct. 27, 1939, Nov. 1, 1940, and 
Oct. 31,1941 

[Prepared by tlie assistant superintendent in charge of the school budget, Jan. 9, 1942] 



Number of elementary regular classroom teachers, 

divisions I-IX 

Number of elementary pupils per teacher, divisions 

I-IX 

Number of elementary regular classroom teachers, 

divisions X-XIII 

Number of elementary pupils per teacher, divisions 

X-XIII 

Number of junior high regular classroom teachers, 

divisions I-I X 

Number of junior high pupils per teacher, divisions 

I-IX 

Number of junior high regular classroom teachers, 

divisions X-XIII 

Number of junior high pupils per teacher, divisions 

X-XIII 

Number of senior high regular classroom teachers, 

divisions I-IX 

Number of senior high pupOs per teacher, divisions 

I-IX 

Number of senior high regular classroom teachers, 

divisions X-XIII 

Number of senior high pupils per teacher, divisions 

X-XIII 



1935 


1936 


1937 


1938 


1939 


1940 


869.0 


864.0 


864.0 


861.0 


844.0 


824.0 


37.4 


36.7 


35.4 


34.3 


33.9 


34.0 


509.0 


514.0 


526.0 


544.0 


533.0 


551.0 


42.1 


42.1 


40.9 


40.6 


40.9 


40.6 


439.0 


450.0 


463.0 


466.0 


470.0 


475.0 


29.0 


28.9 


28.7 


28.2 


28.1 


27.6 


201.0 


216.0 


219.0 


218.0 


230.0 


237.0 


29.0 


29.4 


29.7 


31.6 


31.6 


31.8 


451.0 


454.5 


476.5 


485.5 


488.5 


511.5 


26.6 


26.9 


26.4 


27.0 


27.1 


25.2 


143.0 


148.0 


151.0 


154.0 


158.0 


156.0 


29.0 


29.6 


28.5 


29.0 


28.2 


29.5 



811.0 

34.6 
555. 

40.9 
472.0 

27.6 
250.0 

31.5 
517.5 

23.6 
158.0 

27.8 



Standard number of pupils per teacher recommended by U. S. Office of Education: 

Elementary schools 36 

Junior high schools _ 28 

Senior high schools 25 



60396— 42— pt. 25- 



9680 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Recapitulation of completed construction {does not include appropriations for ground 
improvements or additions or improvements to buildings consisting only of gymna- 
siums or assembly-gymnasiums) 

(Prepared by the assistant superintendent in charge of the school budget, Jan. 7, 1942] 





Senior 

high 

schools 


Junior- 
senior 
high 
schools 


Junior 

high 

schools 


Voca- 
tional 
schools 


Elemen- 
tary 
schools 


Total 
amount ap- 
propriated 




$600, 000 
70,000 
379, 500 
350, 000 


$180,000 
250, 000 
100,000 


$334, 000 
275, 000 
363,000 
500,000 




$70, 500 
110,000 
749,000 
294, 000 

528, 100 
220,000 
458, 000 


$1, 184, 500 
705 000 








$100,000 
396, 000 

204, 575 
200,000 


1,691 500 




1,540,000 

732, 675 
1,494 650 


Public Works Administration grant, 
1938-39 






550, 000 
541,000 




524, 650 
640, 000 


Appropriations Acts, 1940 




1 639 000 










Total amounts appropriated 


1 2,965,500 


530,000 


2, 636, 650 


900, 575 


1 2,524,600 


1 9, 557, 325 


Total added capacity- 


3,935 


1,225 


3,516 


1,132 


4,800 


14, 608 





1 Includes $570,000 of unexpended balances of appropriations in the District of Columbia Appropriations 
Acts for 1932 and 1933 for the Municipal Center, which was reappropriated and made available in the 1934 
Appropriations Act as follows: 

Woodrow Wilson High School, begin construction _ $475, 000 

Logan School (elementary school) 8-room building. _ 95,000 

Total amount reappropriated and made available in 1934 570, 000 



Schedule of completed public school construction appropriated from 1934-40 and 
occupied from 1935-41 {does not include appropriations for ground improvements 
or additions or improvements to buildings consisting only of gymnasiums or as- 
sembly-gymnasiums) 

[Prepared by the assistant superintendent in charge of the school budget Jan. 7, 1942] 



Building 



Year ap- 
propri- 
ated 



Amount 
appro- 
priated 



Total 
amount 
appro- 
priated 



Year com- 
pleted 



Added 
capacity 



SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

<3alvin Coolidge High School: 

Begin construction 

Continue construction 

Complete construction 



Eastern High School: Alterations (addition to 
heating plant, remodeling gymnasium into 
classrooms and providing new gymnasium 
wing) 

Woodrow Wilson High School: 

Begin construction (unexpended balances 
from 1932 and 1933 Appropriation Acts for 
Municipal Center were reappropriated 
and made available for this construction) _ . . 

Continue construction 

Complete construction and improve grounds. 

JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 



Anacostia Junior-Senior High:' 
Completion of junior wing.. 

Begin senior wing 

Completion 



JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS 

Banneker Junior High School: 

Begin construction 

Complete construction 



Browne Junior High School: 10-room addition 
and gymnasium 



1938 
1939 
1940 



1934 
1935 
1936 



1935 
1936 
1937 



1938 
1939 



$350, 000 
550, 000 
541, 000 



379, 500 



475, 000 

600, 000 

70, 000 



180, 000 
250, 000 
100, 000 



200, 000 
524, 650 



$1, 441, 000 



379, 500 



1, 145, 000 



724, 050 
108, 000 



1940 and 
1941 



1938. 



1935. 



1935 and 
1937 



1939. 
1936. 



675 



1, 566 



1,225 



707 
291 



1 In the 1933 Appropriations Act, there was an item of $225,000 for beginning the construction of this 
building. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9681 



■Schedule of completed public school construction appropriated from 1934~40 and 
occupied from 1935-41 {does not include appropriations for ground improvements 
or additions or improvements to buildings consisting only of gymnasiums or as- 
sembly-gymnasiums) — Continued 



Building 



Year ap- 
propri- 
ated 



Amount 
appro- 
priated 



Total 
amount 

appro- 
priated 



Year com- Added 
pleted capacity 



JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS— continued 



Deal Junior High School: 

10-room addition and gymnasium, 
do 



Eliot Junior High School; 10-room addition and 
gymnasium 

Jefferson Junior High School: 

Begin construction 

Complete construction 



Paul Junior High School: 10-room addition and 

gym nasi um 

Randall Junior High School: 

8-room addition and remodeling of heating 

plant. ._ 

10-room addition 



VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS 



'Chamberlain Vocational: 

Begin construction 

Complete construction.. 

'Dennison Vocational School: 

Begin construction 

Complete construction. _ 



Margaret Murray Washington Vocational: 10- 
room addition and additional room for clean- 
ing and dyeing 



ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 



Bundy School: 

8-room building. 
8-room addition. 



Bunker Hill School: 8-room building and assem- 
bly hall-gymnasium (4 rooms to be left uncom- 
pleted) 

Cleveland School: 3d-story addition (6 rooms).. 
<3rimke School: 

4-room addition 

8-room addition and assembly hall-gymna- 
sium 



Hardy School: Completion of 2d floor 

Ketcham School: 8-room addition and assembly 

hall-gymnasium 

Kingsman School: 8-room addition and assem- 
bly hall-gymnasium 

Lafayette School: 8-room addition and assembly 
hall-gymnasium (4 rooms to be left uncom- 
pleted) 

Logan School: 

Begin 8-room building (unexpended bal- 
ances from 1932 and 1933 Appropriation 
Acts for Municipal Center were reappro- 
priated and made available for this con- 
struction) 

Complete construction 



Montgomery School: 8-room addition and as- 
sembly hall-gymnasium 

TSToyes School : 2d -story addition 

Rudolph School: 8-room extensible building 

Shepherd School : Completion of 2d floor 

Smothers School: 8-room addition and assembly 

hall-gymnasium 

Truesdell School: 8-room addition and assembly 

hall-gymnasium 

Young School: 8-room addition and gymnasium 

Total 



1935 
1937 



1936 



1938 
1930 



1937 



1936 
1940 



1938 
1939 



1937 
1938 



1936 
1938 



2 1938-39 
1938 

1935 

1937 

1937 
\ 1940 



1934 
1935 



1940 
1939 
1939 
1938 



1937 
1937 



$166, 000 
165, 000 



175, 000 



300, 000 
500, 000 



100, 000 
140, 000 



160, 000 
200, 000 



100. 000 
236, 000 



204. 575 



110, 000 
150, 000 



149, 500 
114,000 



65, 000 
210, 000 



30, 000 
229, 000 

190, 500 



95, 000 
5,500 



229, 000 
60, 000 

160, 000 
30, 000 

188, 100 

171, 000 
140, 000 



$331, 000 
175, 000 

800, 000 
198. 000 

240. 000 

360, 000 

336, 000 
204, 575 



149, 500 
114,000 



275, 000 
30, 000 



190, 500 



1935 and 
1937.... 

1936 

1940 

1938 

1936 and 
1940... 

1939 

1938 

1940 



1930 and 
1938 



1940 ... 
1938 



1938 

1937 

1940 and 

1941 

1940 



100. 500 

229, 000 
60, 000 

160. 000 
30, 000 

188, 100 

171,000 
140, 000 



1935 

1941 
1940 
1940 
1938 

1940 

1938 
1937 



' Public Works Administration. 



9682 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Buildings vacated since 1935 {no longer used for classroom purposes) 



Name of building vacated 


Date abandoned 
for classroom use 


Ca- 
pac- 
ity 


Name of building vacated 


Date abandoned 
for classroom use 


Ca- 
pac- 
ity 


Bates Road Portable 


September 1937.. 

Julv 15, 1941 

February 1938... 
December 1939.. 

Jan. 31, 1941 

December 1938.. 

Aug. 31, 1939.... 
Aup. 31. 1941.... 
June 30, 1940.... 


40 
320 
320 
80 
80 
282 

480 
320 
160 


Jefferson Junior High 

School. 
Polk School 


June 1940 

Aug. 31, 1941.... 

Feb. 26, 1937 

Aug. 31, 1941.... 

Feb. 4, 1940 

October 1935 


612 


Brightwood Annex... ... 


320 


Bunker Hill School (old). 
Chain Bridge School 


Reservoir School 

Rossell School 


160 
480 


Dennison Vocational 
School. 


Toner School 

Van Buren Annex 

Grand total capac- 
ity of buildings 
vacated. 


320 
240 


Henry School.. . 


4,214 


Industrial Home School 
(had been loaned to 
District of Columbia 
schools). 







NOTK.— The Ross School was also vacated for classroom use for the second time on Aug. 31, 1939. This 
building is now used as an administration annex. This building, formerly the Old Adams School, was used 
for a short time prior to 1939 for classes. 

Summary of defense housing construction 

[Prepared by the assistant superintendent in charge of the school budget Jan. 8, 1942] 

Number 
of units 

1. Public Defense Housing projects in the District of Columbia, completed 

in 1941 2, 142 

2. Public Defense Housing projects in the District of Columbia under 

construction or committed, to be completed in 1942 3, 033 

3. Public Defense Housing in nearby Maryland and Virginia under con- 

struction or committed, to be completed in 1942 3, 186 

4. Private Defense Housing projects in the District of Columbia under 

construction, to be completed in 1942, which have been granted 
priorities by the Office of Production Management 2, 927 

5. Private Defense Housing projects in nearby Maryland and Virginia 

under construction, to be completed early in 1942, which have been 
granted priorities by the Office of Production Management 2, 909 

6. Proposed defense housing for the first 6 months in 1942 in the District 

of Columbia locahty to be constructed with public funds 12, 000 

7. Proposed defense housing for the first 6 months in 1942 in the District 

of Columbia locality to be constructed by private enterprise 10, 000 

Schedule of defense housing in the District of Columbia completed by Public Housing 

authorities in 1941 
(Prepared by the assistant superintendent in charge of the school budget Jan. 6, 1942] 



Name or project number and location 



Number 
of units 



Construction agency 



Southeast area 

For white occupants: 

Bellevue, east by 4th St., South Laboratory Rd., west by 

U. S. Naval Laboratory. 
Fort Dupont Dwellings. Ridge and Anacostia Rds . 

Ellen Wilson Dwellings, I, 0th, and 7th Sts 

Fairfax Village (3), Pennsylvania and Alabama Aves 

Total number of white units 

For Negro occupants: 

Frederick Douglass Dwellings, Alabama Ave. and 21st St 

CarroUsburg Dwellings, I, 3d, and 5th Sts 

Total number of Negro units 

Total number of units in southeast 

Northjcest area 

For Negro occupants: Kelly Miller Dwellings, W, 2d, and 5th Sts. 

Total number of Negro units 

Total number of units in northwest 



Navy Department. 



326 
217 
203 


Alley Dwelling Authority 

Do. 
F. H. A. financed. 


1,346 




313 
314 


Alley Dwelling Authority. 
Do. 


627 




1,973 




169 
169 
169 


Do. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9683 



Schedule of defense housing in the District of Columbia completed by Public Housing 
authorities in 1941 — Continued 

SUMMARY OF UNITS CONSTRUCTED 





White 


Negro 


Total 


Southeast area _. _. ._. _ _____ 


1,346 


627 
169 


1,973 


Northwest area . 


169 








Grand total . . . 


1,346 


796 


2,142 







Schedule of defense housing in the District of Columbia committed or under construc- 
tion by public hotising authorities 

[Prepared by the assistant superintendent in charge of the school budget Jan. 6, 1942] 



Name or project number and location of 
construction 


Number 
of units 


Estimated date of 
completion 


Construction agency 


Southeast area 

For white occupants: 

Stoddert Dwellings, Ridge and Ana- 

costia Rds. 
Highland Dwellings, Condon Terrace 

and Atlantic St. 
Knox-IIill Dwellings, Alabama Ave. 

and Hartford St. 
DC-49014, Army War College _. 


200 

350 

250 

50 
20 
214 

234 


Feb. 1, 1942 

do 

Mar. 1, 1942 

1942 - 

1942 

Feb.' l7l94"2 ."."]!';! 

September 1942.... 
Nov. 1, 1942 

September 1942.... 

February 1942 

November 1942 


Federal Works Agency, Al- 
ley Dwelling Authority. 
Do. 

Federal Works Agency, U. S. 

Housing Authority. 
Navy Department. 


DC-49015, Army Air Base 


Do. 


Fairfax Village (4), Pennsylvania and 

Alabama Aves. 
Bellevue Gardens, Nichols Ave. and 

Elmira St. 


F. H. A. financed. 
Do. 


Total number of white units. _ 


1,318 








For Negro occupants: Barry Farm Dwell-' 
ings. Firth Sterling Ave. and Wade Rd. 
Total number of Negro units 


442 
442 


Alley Dwelling Authority. 






Total number of units in southeast... 


1,760 




Northeast area 

For Negro occupants: 

Mayfair Apartments, Benning Rd, 

Kenilworth Ave. and 36th St. 
Suburban Gardens, Sheriff Rd., and 

49th St. 
Parkside Dwellings, Kenilworth Ave. 

and Barnes Lane. 


416 
206 
373 


F. H. A. financed. 

Do. 
Alley Dwelling Authority. 


Total number of Negro units . ___ 


995 
995 




Total number of units in Northeast . _ . 






September 1942. . . 




Southwest area 

For Negro occupants: James Creek Dwell- 
ings, M, 0, Half, and 1st Sts. 

Total number of Negro units 


278 

278 
278 


Do. 


Total number of units in Southwest 













SUMMARY OF UNITS UNDER CONSTRUCTION 





White 


Negro 


Total 


Southeast area 


1,318 


442 
995 

278 


1,760 


Northeast area _ . 


995 


Southwest area . 




278 








Total.. 


1,318 


1,715 


3,033 







9684 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Schedule of defense housing in nearby Maryland or Virginia under construction or 
committed by Public Housing Authorities to be cornpleted in 194^ 

[Prepared by the assistant superintendent in charge of the school budget Jan. 6, 1942] 



Name or project number and location of 
construction 


Number 
of units 


Race of occupants 


Financing or construction 
agency 


Fillmore Apartments, Arlington County 

Barcroft Apartments. Arlington County 

Arna Valley Apartments, Arlington County- 
Falkland Apartments, IGth St. extended, 

Montgomery Countv. 
Md. 18131, Conduit Rd. at west end of 


180 
436 
600 
500 

100 

20 

70 

1,000 

120 

160 


White- - 

do. - 

do 


F. H. A. financed. 
Do. 
Do. 


do 

do.. 


Do. 
Federal Works Agency, U.S. 


Cabin John. 
Md. 18132, Seven Locks Rd. near Conduit 


Negro 


Housing Authority. 
Do. 


Rd. 
Md. 18121, Army Medical Center, Forest 

Glen. 
Md. 18111, Greenbelt ^ 


White 


Do. 


do 

do 

do 


Federal Works Agency, 


Va. 44136, Alexandria 


Farm Security Agency. 
Federal Works Agency, U.S. 


Va. 44137, Falls Church 


Housing Authority. 
Do. 









SUMMARY OF UNITS UNDER CONSTRUCTION 





AVhite 


Negro 


Total 




1,670 
1,496 


20 


1,690 




1,496 








Total 


3,166 


20 


3,186 







Schedule of defense housing in the District of Columbia under construction by private 

enterprise 

[Taken from records in the Division of Housing Priorities, OflSce of Production Management, Jan. 3, 1942] 



Location of construction 



Number 


Date of 


of units 


completion 


37 


Apr. 


5, 1942 


306 


Feb. 


28, 1942 


3 


Apr. 


5, 1942 


5 


Mar. 


7, 1942 


44 


Mar. 


27, 1942 


12 


Mar. 


4, 1942 


60 


Mar. 


22, 1942 


9 


Mar. 


8, 1942 


31 


Feb. 


28, 1942 


16 


Apr. 


5, 1942 


} 30 


Apr. 


5, 1942 


12 


Mar. 


7, 1942 


214 


Jan. 


7, 1942 


779 




779 




} 69 


Feb. 


27, 1942 


69 




69 




3 


Jan. 


8, 1942 


29 


Mar. 


4, 1942 


37 


Mar. 


3, 1942 


376 


Jan. 


7, 1942 


188 


Mar. 


1, 1942 


62 


Apr. 


1, 1942 


48 


Mar. 


20, 1942 



SOUTHEAST AREA 

For white occupants: 

2501-2505 N St... 

2d and Orange Sts 

3711-3715 Horner PI 

2918 P St 

28th and N Sts 

Galen St. between 17th and 18th Sts 

41st St. and Southern Ave 

841-861 51st St 

Fendalland V Sts 

815 East Capitol St 

539-549 Newcomb St 

535-551 Portland St 

2115 R St 

Pennsylvania and Southern Aves 

Total number of white units 

Total number of units in southeast 

SOUTHWEST AREA 

For white occupants: 

Forrester St.. 

Galveston St 

Total number of white units 

Total number of units in southwest. 

NORTHEAST AREA 

For white occupants: 

5-9 Burns St 

166-222 35th St 

14th and Downing Sts 

Minnesota Ave. and Blaine St 

Minnesota Ave. and Blaine St 

Adams St 

Southeast corner of Lincoln Rd. and Bryant St 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9685 



Schedtde of defense housing in the District of Columbia under construction by private 

enterprise — Continued 



Location of construction 



NORTHEAST AREA— Continued 

For white occupants — Continued. 

426 6th St 

300-330 34th St._ 

1502-1525 Queen St 

712-716 Kearny St 

1st and Webster Sts 

River Terrace 

Montana Ave. and 14th St 

Total number of white units. 

For Negro occupants: 

19th and I Sts... 

49th and J Sts 

Total number of Negro units 

Total number of units in northeast 

NORTHWEST AREA 

For white occupants: 

4520 Conduit Rd. 

2311-2341 Montana Ave 

4884 Conduit Rd. 

939 Longfellow St 

2700 Wisconsin Ave , 

430 Concord Ave 

Total number of white units. 

For Negro occupants: 415 T St 

Total number of Negro units 

Total number of units in northwest. 



Number 


Date of 


of units 


completion 


8 


Apr. 


6, 1942- 


16 


Mar. 


27, 1942 


21 


Mar. 


24, 1942 


8 


Mar. 


7, 1942 


72 


Feb. 


28, 1942 


376 


Jan. 


13, 1942 


126 


Jan. 
Jan. 


17, 1942 


1,370 




248 


7, 1942 


204 


Jan. 


7, 1942' 


452 




1,822 




41 


Feb. 


27, 1942- 


16 


Mar. 


3, 1942 


43 


Feb. 


28, 1942 


38 


Jan. 


7, 1942 


100 


Jan. 


10, 1942 


12 


Feb. 
Mar. 


28, 1942 


250 




7 


11,1942 


7 




257 





SUMMARY OF UNITS UNDER CONSTRUCTION 





White 


Negro 


Total 


Southeast area . 


779 

69 

1,370 

250 


452' 

7 


779 


Southwest area 

Northeast area 


69 
1,822 


Northwest area 


257 






Grand total . 


2,468 


459 


2,927 







Schedule of defense housing under construction by private enterprise in nearby 
Virginia and Maryland, to be completed in 1942 

[Taken from records in the Division of Housing Priorities, Office of Production Management, Jan. 3, 1942] 



Location of construction 



Number 
of units 



Date of construction 



Arlington County 

Fairfax County 

Prince Georges County. 
Montgomery County... 



520 

780 

1,207 

402 



Jan. 10, 1942 to Apr. 4, 1942. 
Jan. 6, 1942 to Apr. 2, 1942. 
Jan. 8, 1942 to Apr. 4, 1942. 
Jan. 14, 1942 to Mar. 14, 1942. 



Total number of units. 



2.909 



SUMMARY OF UNITS UNDER CONSTRUCTION Number 

of units 

Virginia 1, 300 

Maryland 1,609 



Grand total 2,909 



9686 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF DR. FRANK W. BALLOU— Resumed 

The Chairman. We note from that that your Department budget 
recommendations were reduced to some $3,000,000. What does this 
mean to your Department in terms of meeting the needs of the in- 
creasing population? 

Dr. Ballou. Well, some of these items that were eliminated from 
the Budget were in anticipation of the development of needs rather 
than to meet enrollments that now exist. 

You will readily understand that in some sections of the city, as for 
example, across the Anacostia River, there are thousands of people 
already there, and, in other areas of the city we see a rising popula- 
tion scheduled, and have asked for an appropriation for land in antici- 
pation of that. It is that type of item which is always placed in the 
priority list, which we submit to the Commissioners, and it is that 
group of items that are eliminated. 

I would like to say that last year the Commissioners made a budget 
to meet the existing situation across the Anacostia River which is the 
area where we have seen a very widespread development. There are 
thousands of families in that area at the present time, with hundreds 
of children to attend school. Some of these items were recognized last 
year as urgent and two of them were transferred to the deficiency 
budget in order to make it possible to let contracts last summer. 
They were small eight-room elementary school buildings. They were 
transferred in recognition of the emergency and the contracts let 
shortly after July 1. 

EFFECT OF PRIORITIES ON SCHOOL FACILITIES 

It was expected those buildings would be available by the middle 
of this year or shortly thereafter. However, there is the matter of 
priorities and whether we can get equipment for them. The program 
which was approved last year was a reasonably adequate program to 
meet that situation and we are now awaiting the action of the United 
States Office of Education on a certificate of urgency for each one of 
these items carried in the appropriation bill last year. That is our 
problem. 

Our problem is to get these buildings built, for which appropria- 
tions have already been made, to meet a situation which is extraordi- 
nary in nature. There are thousands of families living across the 
Anacostia River. We have a compilation of each of those projects, 
and the number of people in those various developments. The chil- 
dren are already there. The most urgent problem before us is the 
problem of getting these buildings built and equipped. 

We submitted, for example, an item for the equipment for the junior 
high school across the Anacostia River which is to take the junior 
high school pupils out of a large building which now houses both the 
junior and senior high school. We knew last September or October 
we were going to have difficulty in getting equipment. W^e asked the 
Commissioners to transfer that item to the deficiency. We are hoping 
still that will be done, but until priorities are decided on for the 
building itself we can't make any progress with that item. 

All of these items are known by the Office of Education, having 
been referred there by me on the request of O. P. M., and we are 
hoping that the action may be taken soon. We have to be optimists 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9687 

and we are optimistic that we shall secure a certificate of urgency from 
the Office of Education. 

OPERATING SCHOOLS ON SPLIT-SHIFT BASIS 

We are operating on a split-shift basis. Many of the schools across 
the Anacostia River are operating on double-shift programs, 3/2 hours 
instead of 5 for elementary pupils, beginning early and closing at 
4 or 5 in the afternoon. 

The Chairman. How long have you been operating that way? 

Dr. Ballou. Some for more than a year, but many more are 
operating now than have operated that way heretofore. 

The Browne Junior High School has operated that way for many 
years and the Anacostia Senior-Junior High School is operating on a 
partial double shift. 

The Chairman. Does that take care of the needs of those particular 
localities? 

Dr. Ballou. Not wholly, because it means the curtailment of some 
parts of the program and you cannot operate a school effectively 
with a double-shift program, more pupils than can be adequately 
taken care of in the building. 

The Chairman. Has the problem of shifting schools in the District 
changed considerably? 

SHIFTING OF SCHOOLS 

Dr. Ballou. We always have in every large city, I think, and it is 
true in Washington, an area in the older part of the city where the 
schools are declining because pupils are decreasing in number. In 
the District of Columbia it means shifting to commercial areas, and 
so on. 

We have a large area in the central part of the city where that is 
going on. We have in those areas the old buildings which are very 
old indeed, and we have tried to embark on a program of replacing 
those buildings with more modern, up-to-date buildings to provide 
for the current institutional program. The other developments are 
like the development I have indicated across the Anacostia River. 
In the suburban areas there are always new developments going on. 
Even though our population was static, we should have to have new 
buildings in those developments. 

We are taking care of many of the pupils in the Anacostia area, 
including some of the area on this side of the river, in the junior and 
senior high schools, and will not have to have more than this Kramer 
High School across the river, but we cannot transport elementary 
school pupils long distances to schools where there might be room 
for them. 

If the children in the Anacostia area were living in the vicinity of 
the schools in the central part of the city, we could house a great many 
of them, but it is not practicable to transfer elementary pupils of the 
first six grades. 

We have established a kindergarten in one of the buildings at the 
Naval Research Laboratory in Bellevue and provided a teacher, but 
all the first-grade children are going by bus to buildings in the city. 
Now, we hope to get a building for that center under the provisions 
of the Lanham Act. 



9688 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

In addition to the fine program which the Commission has set up 
for us in the regular building plan and which the committees of Con- 
gress approved, we are undertaking to secure that $200,000 for school 
buildings under the provisions of the Lanham Act. 

Many of the buildings across the Anacostia River could not comply 
inider the act. We were very much surprised to find that they could 
not. Not even the one where we were to accommodate the children 
of about 1,000 families that have moved there and live in temporary 
quarters, could comply. 

So we have a list of buildings that were proposed to be carried under 
the provisions of the Lanham Act which are not being provided for 
and some of the buildings, I am quite sure, that were omitted from 
the District budget, will become urgent in view of the developments. 

It is difficult to keep up with the requirements in the different sec- 
tions of the city. To prepare to meet the situation as it now exists 
is very difficult. If we could do that we would rejoice. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you something about your personnel 
problems, Doctor. On this split-shift plan of operation, do you use 
the same teachers? 

Dr. Ballou. No; we have two teachers occupying the same room 
with two different groups of pupils. That work is really intensified, 
trying to do in SK hours what should be done in 5 under normal cir- 
cumstances, and the teacher has all her outside work to do. I don't 
think it desirable to have a teacher teach two different classes in the 
same day. 

The Chairman. I agree with you, Doctor. Have you had any 
personnel problems arise as a result of the way the situation has been 
handled so far? 

DECREASE IN SCHOOL POPULATION 

Dr. Ballou. We have a rather strange situation. You are talking 
and thinking in terms of increased population in the District but we 
have an actual decrease in the school population and have had each 
year for the last 3 or 4 years. 

The Chairman. I had in mind something else, that is, teachers 
leaving their work to take other jobs. 

Dr. Ballou. Our teachers are not leaving us. There is no appreci- 
able exodus from our schools. We have difficulty finding clerks and 
custodians and engineers. We can't keep them, particularly engi- 
neers who heat our buildings. They have to have licenses in the Dis- 
trict. They get more money anywhere than they can get with us, 
and they are leaving us. We have numbers of difficulties in that 
regard. 

The Chairman. How are you taking that? 

Dr. Ballou. We are shifting the engineers we have and reducing 
the personnel and expecting them to put in longer hours — that is the 
only way we have of meeting it. And we find that the process of 
getting these positions approved and cleared with Civil Service is 
very difficult. Civil Service does not seem to be in a position to act 
promptly on these requests. 

I received this morning, and it is on my desk at the present time, 
a list of probably 8 or 10 requests we submitted last October for 
classifications of engineer positions which we can't clear. They have 
gone forward to the District and to Civil Service and they are held 
up until they can reach them. You have asked the question and I 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9689 

am answering that the problems are not imaginary, they are real, 
and the difficulties are greater because the District regulations require 
licensed engineers for these high-pressure plants. We have great 
difficulty clearing them at first, and then difficulty in getting permis- 
sion to employ. That is one of the somewhat casual aspects of the 
problem that this committee is concerned with. 

Every aspect of our work is affected by the influx of people in the 
District of Columbia. It doesn't make any difference what work is 
engaged in, but it is affected by this influx of people. 

The Chairman. On your previous appearance you stated your 
problem was a problem of buildings. I gather from what you said 
this morning that still is your principal problem. 

Dr. Ballou. Yes; the problem of buildings. We have large 
classes, especially in the colored schools. We are trying to find build- 
ings that we can transfer to the use of colored schools beginning 
Februaiy f when the new term starts. The problem in the white 
schools is not so acute because we had a declining school population 
among the white pupils. Even though we had many new pupds 
come into the city, we have had the experience over a number of 
years of declining birth rate among the white people. It is increas- 
ing again and by f 942 and f 943 children becoming 5 and 6 years of age 
will increase in number, from among the District residents. 

Another factor which has entered into this problem is the exodus 
of families from the District into adjacent Virginia and Maryland. 
Some of the pupils come back to school to us, but many don't, but 
more important is the fact that in previous years w^e have given work 
permits to 2,500 to 3,000 pupils who worked in temporary jobs and 
came back to school and last summer we gave permits to between 
8,000 and 9,000 and scarcely one came back to school. 

They were the boys and some girls over 16 years of age who got the 
certificates and went to work permanently and didn't return to us. 
We lost that number and it was not fully made up by new pupils 
coming in through the influx of population. Man}^ of the families 
who have come in do not have children. 

WORK PERMITS 

The Chairman. For what age are you required to give work 
permits? 

_ Dr. Ballou. A pupil who reaches 14 years and has completed the 
eighth grade, which is normal progress, may go to work until he is 16. 
He gets the permit to work. He takes it to the employer and when 
he leaves that employment, the employer must notify us because the 
pupil must go back to school until he is 18. When he is 16 he only 
has to get a certificate showing he is over 18. That is an over-age 
slip the employer has to have to know the pupil is eligible to work. 

The Chairman. It would be interesting to know where most of the 
8,000 or 9,000 went to work last year. 

Dr. Ballou. I don't have specific information about that, but my 
information is that they took places in a great variety of working 
establishments in the city. Presumably many of them were young 
men who went into the draft or who volunteered for military service. 
That is the impression the officers have about it. We do not have a 
complete record about it. 



9690 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

The Chairman. That is all. 

Dr. Lamb. Dr. Ballon, what is the requirement with respect to the 
schools' employees? Must they be qualified local residents? 

Dr. Ballou. Oh, no; the requirements are general requirements 
established and they are the same for residents of the District or 
residents of the States. 

The people living in the States who have the necessary educational 
preparation to be teachers can qualify to take our examinations. 

Dr. Lamb. Wliat about your other employees, for instance, engi- 
neers? 

Dr. Ballou. The engineers must have licenses given by the board 
of examiners for the District. 

Dr. Lamb. But they do not need to be District residents? 

Dr. Ballou. No. 

Dr. Lamb. I am getting at the question as to whether that limits 
the Civil Service Commission in trying to find qualified people. 

Dr. Ballou. We would take residents of any place in these posi- 
tions. 

The Chairman. We thank you for coming here, Doctor, and we 
appreciate the statement that you have made. The committee will 
take a 5-minute recess. 

(Short recess.) 

The Chairman. Let the committee come to order. 

TESTIMONY OF CONRAD VAN HYNING, DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC 
WELFARE, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Mr. Curtis. You have the position that Mr. Bondy had? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes, sir — Director of Public Welfare in the 
District. 

Mr. Curtis. He appeared before our committee a year ago and we 
had a rather lengthy statement from him describing the duties and 
so forth, so this will be more or less of a supplemental story to what 
he has previously given. ^ We have your prepared statement and it 
will appear in the printed record at this point. 

(The statement mentioned is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY CONRAD VAN HYNING, DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC 
WELFARE FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

[This report supplements previous information placed on record with the Tolan 
committee by the Director of Public Welfare for the District of Columbia] 

Public Assistance 

The present monthly use of relief funds in the District of Columbia is at the 
peak of the moneys available, leaving no margin to take care of any emergency 
situation which may arise from the laying off of industrial workers caused by 
Federal orders, such as the limitation on sales of tires and automobiles, and other 
limitations which may follow. It is conceivable that many gas station em- 
ployees, automobile salesmen and tire salesmen, and others employed in indus- 
tries depending upon these, will not be able to find immediate reemployment in 
Washington. The loss of employment caused by our defense effort should not 
result in suffering on the part of individual families. 

The increased costs of living are increasing the hardships for families totally 
dependent upon relief whose budgets cannot be increased because of the legal 
ceiling. The funds available are insufficient to adjust relief grants to compensate 

' See Washington hearings, pt. 8, pp. 3109,3117. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9691 

for the increased cost of living. Thus, these increases hit hardest those least 
able to absorb them. 

Relief funds in the District of Columbia have been limited for several years to 
the categories of old-age assistance, aid to dependent children, aid to the blind, 
and general public assistance to unemployables only. Until July of 1941 funds 
were not available for relief to families in which there was an employable person, 
even to carry such families for temporary emergency periods. 

With the reduction in Work Projects Administration rolls in July 1941, the 
Commissioners recommended additional funds to take care of persons dropped 
from Work Projects Administration rolls who might not be able to secure other 
employment. This increase of $75,000 was sufficient only to provide relief grants 
at an average cost of $25 per month for 250 families. 

The proposed appropriation for 1943 reduces the funds available for general 
assistance by $125,000. It is hoped that the improved employment situation 
may make it possible for many persons now classified as unemployable to secure 
some work. 

The appropriations for public-assistance categories in the District of Columbia 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1942, are as follows: 

General public assistance (including some aid to dependent children 

cases) $1 , 025, 000 

Home care (aid to dependent children) 213, 000 

Old-age assistance 620, 000 

Aid to the blind 50,000 

Nonresident service 20, 000 

The case loads as of Decemberjl, 1941, carried under the above appropriations 
were: 

General public assistance 2, 451 

Home care 1, 060 

Old-age assistance 3, 609 

Aid to the blind 255 

The request of the Board of Commissioners for the elimination of the arbitrary 
limitations in relief allowances, which are now contained in the appropriation act, 
will make possible a better use of the funds available in the 1943 fiscal year. 
These limitations are applied to all families, regardless of other resources avail- 
able to them, and without regard for the total needs of the families. Their elimi- 
nation will be a major step forward in the fair administration of relief in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

Nonresident Service 

Since the Public Assistance Division may not grant assistance to any non- 
resident remaining in Washington, such cases are immediately referred to private 
agencies. The funds in the nonresident service are available only for emergency 
relief, pending deportation to the place of legal residence. 

In December 1941, 65 cases were rejected at the Intake Division because of 
lack of residence. Fifteen of these cases were referred to private agencies. The 
Public Assistance Division has no knowledge of what became of these families. 

The lack of public funds to provide for even temporary care of nonresident 
cases is a serious situation, as related to defense activities. It means that persons 
coming to Washington seeking employment must be returned to their places of 
legal residence unless they have funds to care for themselves until they find work 
and receive their first pay. 

Care of Dependent Children 

The Board of Public Welfare's foster care program for the care of dependent 
and neglected children is being seriously affected by the housing shortage in 
Washington and the metropolitan area. About 1,200 children are now cared 
for in foster homes. 

The demand for space for Government workers and the higher rate of pay for 
the space available have cut seriously into the number of available foster homes. 
The boarding rate of $20 per month is too low to pay the actual costs. It will be 
necessary to increase the boarding rates, in order to compensate foster parents 
for the actual costs, leaving out the value of the care and attention which must be 
given to children. 



9692 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Juvenile Delinquency 

The annual report of the Juvenile Court of the District of Columbia shows a 
25-percent increase in the number of delinquent cases handled in the calendar 
year 1941, as compared with 1940. 

Commitments of adults to the jail and sentences to the workhouse and reforma- 
tory are likewise on the increase. 

These increases are no greater than might be expected, when related to the 
increased population of the city and the extensive movement of population in 
and out of the Capital. The present facilities at the jail, workhouse, and reforma- 
tory will be inadequate to receive any further appreciable increase in the number 
of commitments. 

While only a small number of the cases of juvenile delinquency are committed 
to institutions, the District will need increased facilities in this field, should the 
rate of juvenile delinquency continue to increase. 

Institutions 

The institutions affected by the defense program are the two industrial home 
schools, one for white girls and boys, the other for colored boys, and the National 
Training School for Girls, which is now used only for colored girls. 

The population at the Industrial Home School for Colored Boys has now 
reached the maximum capacity. The population at the Industrial Home School 
for White Children is increasing, but there is capacity still for an additional 25 or 
30 children. However, the facilities at this institution are entirely unsuitable 
for the care and treatment of delinquents. 

The National Training School for Girls is operating at less than half of its 
maximum capacity, but the number of commitments to this institution is likely 
to increase rapidly because of the type of girls received for care. 

The District Training School for Feeble-Minded Children, with a capacity 
of 700, is meeting only about 65 percent of the known need for institutionalization 
of this group. 

The programs of all of the above institutions are affected by the increased 
population of the District, and particularly by the increase in juvenile delinquency. 
With inadequate facilities for the care of feeble-minded children and with inade- 
quate training programs in all of these institutions, the District is not properly 
equipped to deal with an increasing load. 

Dependency, delinquency, bad housing, and poor health are all spokes of the 
same wheel. Inadequate facilities for the care and treatment of the feeble- 
minded reflects promptly in the rate of juvenile delinquency. Insufficient food 
and clothing, coupled with crowded and unsatisfactory living quarters in poor 
neighborhoods, create problems of health and contribute to the lists of delinquents, 
both juvenile and adult. The absence from home of mothers, who are working 
long hours, leaves children without supervision and care and adds further social 
problems. 

Day Care of Children 

The large increase in population and particularly the demand for women in 
Government work have created a serious shortage of day-care facilities for the 
children of working mothers. Nursery schools which have never been adequate 
in number to meet the needs for day care for the normal population of the District 
are insufficient to meet the demand. 

A clause in the appropriation act for the Board of Education prohibits the use 
of school buildings or the expenditure of the funds of the Board for the care of 
children 5 years of age and under, and thus eliminates from use the extensive 
facilities of the Board of Education in this field. 

The problem is becoming further aggravated by the double and even triple 
shifts in some of the Government offices, which keep mothers away from their 
homes at hours when they would normally have completed their day's work. 

Facilities are badly needed, not only for the care of children under five, but for 
the after-school care of children of all ages, in order that their parents may be 
free to work in defense agencies. 

Similarly, the shortage of domestic help indicates the need for providing day 
care for the children of domestics, in order that they may be available for service 
in the homes of Government workers. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9693 

Special Problems 

The large number of single men and women living in rooming houses where 
there are no facilities for board has created a special problem which must be dealt 
with immediately. 

Workers who are ill cannot be left alone in their rooms in a strange city and 
among strangers without food or attention. Coworkers are staying away from 
their jobs to take care of their friends, thus doubling up on the loss of time to the 
Government agencies at a time when every worker is needed. 

The provision of food and care for these employees living alone in rooming 
houses is one of the exigencies of the present. 

The Commissioners of the District of Columbia and the Board of Public 
Welfare are planning a reorganization of the public welfare program in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, which, when completed, will result in many improvements. 

The major needs are for an over-all analysis of the public welfare program, 
properly relating the programs of the Public Assistance Division, the child caring 
agencies, and institutions. More adequate supervision and a better analysis of 
the entire program are essential in order that the resources of the Nation may be 
spent in productive effort. The rehabilitation of all the persons who can be 
rehabilitated must be the keynote of the program. 

Recreation 

While Recreation does not come under Public Welfare, it does come into the 
Defense picture, and the writer is therefore, including the following statement in 
his capacity as Chief of Voluntary Participation of the District of Columbia 
Defense Council in order that this important subject may be brought before the 
committee. 

As Commissioner Young has pointed out, recreational facilities must be pro- 
vided for the one hundred thousand or more people who have recently come to 
the District of Columbia, and for service men from the various camps in the 
vicinity of Washington who spend their free time in the city. Recreation needs 
include building space for clubs, services for entertainment, dances, games, indoor 
and outdoor sports, additional lodging facilities, and development of commercial 
recreation. These types of services and more, need to be provided for groups of 
white and colored, civilians and military, and for Federal employees who work on 
diflferent shifts in the 24 hours. In addition, there is a need for providing better 
recreation opportunities for the thousands of new school children who have come 
into the city and where the usual school recreation facilities are overcrowded. 

The report made to the Tolan committee in March 1941, as to limited facilities, 
has not changed. The pressures for meeting these demands has increased. 
Some progress has been made in providing facilities, but additional appropriations 
and staff are needed to anywhere near adequately meet the situation. 

There has been a gradual decline in the services available through the Com- 
munity Center and Playground Department because of insufficient funds. Efforts 
are now being made to secure additional appropriation for this department and to 
broaden the scope of its program so that it might make a greater contribution to 
the total program of recreation in the District of Columbia. Recreation facilities 
usually carried on by this department in cooperation with the park facilities have 
been reduced greatly because of the emergency war program. Fifteen softball 
diamonds, approximately 18 tennis courts, a gold course, a golf driving range, and 
one of few swimming pools, have been removed from the parks area because of 
the installation of military equipment. The recreational activities in the parks 
areas which have been supported, chiefly by Work Projects Administration and 
National Youth Administration, have been reduced and there has been no means 
of providing additional staff. 

Private facilities have stretched their capacity in attempting to make room for 
the activities of the defense program. 

As a result of the combined drive of the District of Columbia and the National 
United Service Organization, funds have been made available to thirteen private 
agencies to extend their services, and to increase their supply of physical equip- 
ments. 

Private agencies participating in the extension of their services to make room 
for the activities of the defense program include: 

1. Young Men's Christian Association which provides entertainment for 
service men over the week-end for approximately 600, giving sleeping accommo- 
dations in their gymnasium to 50. 



9694 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

2. Young Women's Christian Association (white). Has greatly extended 
their regular activities with special entertainment over the week-end with the 
highest capacity of 600. 

3. Young Men's Christian Association (colored). Has had its staff increased, 
has extended its athletic and entertainment programs over the week-end, but has 
no additional lodging facilities. 

4. Young Women's Christian Association (colored). Has increased its staff, 
has enlarged its program for week-end entertainment for service men. Additional 
lodging room is acutely needed, particularly for the group of colored girls who are 
now being employed in the various Government departments. 

5. The Salvation Army has made available considerable space for entertain- 
ment purposes for service club activities, but lacks the staff to keep the program 
in continuous operation. 

6. The Jewish Community Center has increased its facilities for entertainment 
programs, particularly to the civilian population, to the capacity of one thousand. 

It is obvious that such expansions as could be made of the private agencies 
are not sufficient to take care of the increased demands for recreation in this 
community. Special provision has been made to supplement activities of the 
public and private groups by the formation of the Recreation Services, Inc. 
This Corporation, working under the Recreation of Committee of the Defense 
Council of the District of Columbia, has, through the cooperation of the Federal 
Security Agency and the Federal Works Agency, established a recreation club 
for service men and defense workers at Ninth and Pennsylvania Avenue NW. 
An additional center of this kind is to be established at the Banneker Field House 
for colored military personnel and defense workers. Other services are contributed 
through use of personnel and participation in planning and developing a total 
recreation program. 

The Soldiers, Sailors, and Marine Club has maintained active programs of 
recreation and lodging on a permanent basis for military personnel. This Club 
has an approximate bed capacity of 190 which is stretched to 250 by spreading 
blankets on the floor. 

It should be mentioned that a large number of the churches in this city are 
actively cooperating in lending the use of their church halls and parish houses. 

In spite of the progress made in the above public and private agencies for 
expanding recreation services to the District of Columbia, the need has been far 
from met. Because of this condition, some undesirable methods and programs 
of recreation have been developed which are destructive as to morale, and, in 
some instances, might be considered vicious. This applies particularly to the 
development of penny arcades, cheap commercial so-called recreation centers, 
small beer halls, and similar establishments. 

Some of the important needs which would greatly relieve the present situation 
as to inadequate facilities are: 

1. Lodging. — (a) This servic:; is needed particularly for colored men and 
women. Based on reports from the directors of the Young Men's Christian 
Association and the Young Women's Christian Association, additional facilities 
for at least 300 men and 300 women are imperative. 

(b) A recreation center for white women with a capacity of at least 700, to 
be erected somewhere near the Union Station. The Young Women's Christian 
Association has offered its cooperation in servicing this center. 

(c) Lodging facilities in temporary buildings of the barracks type is needed 
for at least 1,500 men. This should be located in the downtown area and of 
temporary structure. 

These particular facilities are the consideration of a housing group, but it 
should be emphasized here that their need is urgent. 

2. Recreation centers.- — The immediate needs of recreation can be partially 
met on a very well considered basis by the establishment of the following facilities: 

(a) A recreational club for men and women at 1517 R Street NW., with ex- 
penditure of approximately $51,800. This facility is centrally located and is 
ideally set up for club and individual activities. 

(5) The Kirk estate, a piece of property located at Thirty-second and Dum- 
barton Avenue NW., formerly used by the Dumbarton Athletic Club could be 
used as a center. These buildings are located near a large park area which has 
an outdoor swimming pool, and is near two tennis courts and other facilities now 
owned by the National Capital Parks. These facilities would be excellent as a 
demonstration unit in coeducational recreation and could house a large number of 
hobby groups. This facility will cost approximately $38,500. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9695 

(f) A type D building of permanent construction on park property near 
Boiling Field and the Naval Reserve air base. Such a building would serve the 
military population of these installations as well as the nearby emergency housing 
units. Construction would cost $68,000. 

(d) If the Salvation Army should give up its present Service Club at 606 E 
Street NW., as is now contemplated, that present building could be rented for 
$10,000 a year and could be operated by' the Salvation Army. 

There are a number of other specific points at which the recreational needs of 
the District should be considered. A recreational program should include the 
preschool child and the new school population of approximately 10,000 children. 
Facilities of the regular school system are either not available or are inadequate. 
The recreational needs of people employed in the new War and Navy Departments 
buildings have received no consideration. It should be pointed out that the 
remedies suggested above are being considered for the needs of the present popu- 
lation and have not taken into consideration specifically the increasing influx 
of people into the city. 

A total program of recreation with consideration of all possible existing facilities 
and plans for extensions of these services, together with a current study of the 
increasing problem, is receiving the attention of the Recreation Committee of the 
District of Columbia Defense Council. 

TESTIMONY OF CONRAD VAN HYNING— Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. Briefly, under what specific administrative authority 
does your office operate? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Our office is under the Board of Public Welfare, 
which is a board of nine citizens appointed by the Commissioners, 
serving voluntarily without pay. Our department is partially respon- 
sible to the Board — that is, it is actually responsible to the Board but 
also ditectly responsible to the Commissioners in the matter of appro- 
priations and appointments of staff and current administrative details. 

Mr. Curtis. You call it the Department of Public Welfare? 

Mr. Van Hyning. No; we call it the Board of Public Welfare. It 
is not a departmicnt actually. It operates under separate appropria- 
tion for each unit. 

Mr. Curtis. What are the various divisions of your Board? 

BOARD OF PUBLIC WELFARE 

Mr. Van Hyning. The units are the General Public Assistance 
Division, which includes the three categories under the Security Act, 
Old Age Insurance, Aid for Dependent Children and Public Assistance; 
a foster care division for the care of dependent children in foster 
homes, which has about 2,000 children under care; and the pro- 
tective service, for the prevention of delinciuency, working with chil- 
dren and with the court; three institutions for children, the Industrial 
Homes, the National Training School for Girls, the District Training 
School for Feeble-minded; the Home for the Aged and Infirm; receiving 
home for delinc^uent children pending their care by the court; and three 
penal institutions — the jail, workhouse, and reformatory; and several 
smaller miscellaneous services, such as deportation of nonresident 
insane and the administration of appropriations to private agencies, 
which is largely a check on the proper expenditure of public money. 

Mr. Curtis. You mentioned the various penal institutions. Which 
one of those receives women criminals? 

Mr. Van Hyning. The jail and the workhouse. The jail is, of 
course, for immediate commitment of persons aw^aiting trial or for 

60396— 42— pt. 25 5 



9696 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

very short sentences and the workhouse has the women's division 
whore there is a work program for women. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have any difficulty at present in obtaining 
personnel? 

PERSONNEL TURN-OVER 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes; a great deal of difficulty. Take the penal 
institutions, particularly at the moment. We have had a heavy turn- 
over both m guards and industrial workers in our industrial pro- 
gram "s^ hich requires the employment of machinists and sliop foremen, 
and so forth. We are losing a great many skilled workers to defense 
work and we also have difficulty because we can't compete with Federal 
salaries. Our turn-over to other institutions, to the police force, 
and so on, is quite large. 

We now have about 80 guards who are on the list for the draft and 
we are very much worried about how to replace those who are called 
into military service. Also, the residence requirement in the District 
has pretty well limited us to the District or the area immediately sur- 
rounding a penal institution. We have not been free to go anywhere 
for personnel. 

Mr. Curtis. Your salary schedule is lower. Is there any other 
difference between your employees and other civil-service employees? 

Mr. Van Hyning. In our social work, for example, public as- 
sistance, our salary level is lower there than the Federal standard. 
It is a $1,620 minimum salary, going up to $1,800 and $2,000. We 
had a turn-over in the social-work group of some 40 percent in the year 
1940. That was largely because of losing members of the public 
assistance stafT to other District agencies paying higher rates of salary, 
and also to the Federal agencies. Our turn-over was excessive. 

Mr. Curtis. Have you any other duties in the District besides 
supervision of the Welfare Department? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Chief of the Voluntary Participation Division of 
the District Defense Council. 

voluntary participation division 

Mr. Curtis. What is the function of the Voluntaiy Participation 
Group? 

Mr. Van Hyning. To coordinate existing resources in the com- 
munity, such as private and public agencies and individuals. First, 
to study the resources; then, if there is a need in excess of local facili- 
ties, to present, through appropriate channels, a request for addi- 
tional facilities. 

For example, we will organize an over-all committee on public 
health, venereal diseases, and hospitals. Care of children is important 
at the moment as well as general provisions for relief. Also, we 
plan to include Dr. Ballou and others on an over-all committee to 
study the school situation. 

The first job is to study the situation, and the second to plan ways 
of dealing with any deficiencies discovered. 

The voluntary participation division breaks down into two head- 
ings — one health, welfare, housing, and education, and the other, 
business services and supplies, such as transportation, communication, 
waste prevention and salvage, and so on. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9697 

Mr. Curtis. What percent of the District population is on rehef ? 

Mr. Van Hyning. The number on direct rehef and categorical 
assistance programs, in round numbers, is about 8,000 families. 
W. P. A. has around 3,000 to 4,000. Were you thinking just of official 
public relief? Eight thousand families in a population of 700,000 
would be about 4 percent. 

Mr. Curtis. That is 8,000 heads of famihes? 

Mr. Van Hyning. I think the figures were gathered last summer 
and showed about 22,000 families on relief rolls and W. P. A. relief, 
which would be from 7 to 8 percent for all types of relief programs. 

Mr. Curtis. What percent of the population is Negro? 

Mr. Van Hyning. 27 to 28 percent as I have heard the last figures. 

housing for relief clients 

Mr. Curtis. Do you experience difficidty in obtaining housmg for 
your relief clients? 

Mr. Van Hyning. There has been some difficulty in the last few 
months and prior to that. The reports from our workers show that 
the increase in rental is more in those low-rate rentals than in the 
higher rentals. It is difficult to allot more for rental. We have not 
found as much difficulty in finding space for them to live in as we 
expected. Apparently the demand for the kind of housing our relief 
clients use isn't very much greater. 

Mr.. Curtis. In other words, the employed people coming in have 
the demand? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Our relief clients occupy quarters renting at 
$12 to $25 a month, and in some cases a little higher. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat percent of relief is paid out in rent? 

Mr. Van Hyning. I am sorry but I haven't that figure. I can 
submit it for the record. 

Mr. Curtis. You will supply it, please? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. Are there many evictions in connection with housing 
and relief? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes. But there has been set up in the last year 
a rental consultant in the landlord and tenant court to deal with that 
problem. The number of evictions of persons, particularly in the low 
income group, has been pretty high. The number of cases heard in 
that court has been about 20,000 a year. They are not always relief 
cases, but we have set up this landlord-tenant court consultant. 

We find it difficult to take care of individual cases of eviction. The 
volume isn't large, but our ability to take care of a given situation 
very often makes it serious. 

Mr. Curtis. What is the procedure in the District? The court 
orders someone out of the premises and then what happens? 

evictions 

Mr. Van Hyning, The court orders them out and they appear and 
ask for an extension of a week or 10 days, and generally those exten- 
sions are granted and in the meantime some agency may attempt to 
work the problem out, particularly since the consultant has been in 
the court to call cases to the attention of agencies. 



9698 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. I am asking about the case where no compromise has 
been reached and all the time is gone and the day and hour arrives 
for them to get out. 

Mr. Van Hyning. The marshal goes to the house and sets the 
furniture out on the street. 

Mr. Curtis. Then what happens? 

Mr. Van Hyning. If it is a case that we, as a public agency, can 
handle within our regulations, we find a place for them right away. 
Generally they have to go to a private agency. Another place is 
found for them and we move the furniture. A person who has been 
evicted for nonpayment of rent has a more difficult time getting 
another place because his rent record is bad. 

Mr. Curtis. Usually a private agency takes care of them? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Usually. 

Mr. Curtis. Suppose night comes and no private agency has 
taken care of them. What happens then? 

Mr. Van Hyning. I don't know of any such situation. 

Mr. Curtis. In otlier words, it is a tough job but it somehow geta 
done? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes. 

types of persons seeking relief 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Bondy told us quite a bit about the nonresident 
problem in the District. Has there been any appreciable change in 
that problem today? 

Mr. Van Hyning. No. We have been very surprised that there 
has not been increased pressure. We made a little study in the last 
few months and the figures showed that 65 nonresident families ap- 
plied for relief in December. We have no provision for those nonresi- 
dents, so they were referred to private agencies. Fifteen of them 
went to private agencies. 

Our records of applications of nonresidents for service, to whom 
we can only give temporary relief and then deport to the place of 
residence, show no appreciable increase. Our lodging house, which 
has a capacity for about 45 men, has been occupied at 90 percent 
capacity. 

Mr. Curtis. The recent newspaper publicity as to the jobs and 
people coming in has not affected you in that way? 

Mr. Van Hyning. No. We feel, however, that there is a gap in 
the situation, which is pretty serious. Our nonresident service finds 
that a great many people coming here come not to make an official 
request for relief, but come to say they have a job and will be paid 
in 2 weeks but haven't enough money to carry them over. The 
request is usually for a loan of money until pay day. 

We have been able to deal with those situations only by determining 
whether the man has a job and giving him that certification and 
getting him credit in a rooming house or hotel on that basis. Through 
that service we have done a great deal of work, but in some instances 
that might not meet the need. It is rather surprising that there 
aren't more of such cases. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Bondy spoke of the great numbers of mentally 
and emotionally unbalanced people that for various reasons came to 
the Nation's Capital. I assume that he was not referring to the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9699 

Communists, but aside from that, has the war caused a greater influx 
of such characters? 

Mr. Van Hyning. I have not made a study of that but our service 
for deportation of nonresident insane has not shown any appreciable 
increase. I can also do a little research for the committee if you 
would like to have that filed. 

Mr. Curtis. I think the two classes he had in mind were inventors 
and disabled people, perhaps veterans, resulting from illness, who 
came here to get personal attention for their case from the Gov- 
ernment. 

oVIr. Van Hyning. The Soldiers and Sailors Home — we do have an 
appropriation for that agency which is private — has had some increase 
in the number of veterans coming to Washington, but they have not 
exceeded their capacity. 

Mr. Curtis. Does the District have a psychiatric service at this 
time? 

Mr. Van Hyning. We are unfortunate in not having a single public 
agency doing psychiatric service for this whole group. That includes 
work for children, who would benefit greatly by psychiatric study. 
There are some private clinics that give what service is given. 

Mr. Curtis. Has any plan been madt^ for instituting such a service 
in the District? 

Mr. Van Hyning. The request was made by the Board of Public 
Welfare 2 or 3 years ago — I am not sure about the time — for a clinic 
at a co.st of $50,000 annuall}^, and it was decided next year that it 
should be in the Health Department and they then submitted it the 
following year. 

As I remember the figures, the appropriation request was reduced 
to $15,000 and was then eliminated in the last presentation of the 
budget, so that the efforts there have been completely ineffective. 

Mr. Curtis. What do you mean by a foster home in connection 
with your work? 

foster homes for children 

Mr. Van Hyning. A foster home is simply any ordinary family 
home in which there is a mother and a father who perhaps have some 
children of their own, or who are childless, but in which the parents 
are interested in children and are willing take in a child who needs 
care. The cost of the care is paid for by the agency. 

Mr. Curtis. Is that a temporary proposition or for a certain num- 
ber of hours a day or 

Mr. Van Hyning. Wlien we speak of foster homes, we mean full 
24-hour care and some foster homes are set up to give care for children 
which we expect will be under our care only a few weeks or months. 
Others are permanently under our care, and we are faced with finding 
a foster home where they will stay until they are of age. In many 
instances they become a part of the family and to all intents and pur- 
poses they are their own children. But the larger groups may stay a 
year or two until some adjustment in their own family situation makes 
it possible for them to get back to their own family. 

Mr. Curtis. Have those been successful? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes; it is a system which is nationally used. It 
is a substitute for the old institutional care, on the theory that if we 
accept the idea that a home is the best place to raise children, that a 



9700 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

boy or girl should be raised in liis own home with his parents, it is 
more important for the cliild who has been deprived of his own home 
to be in the home atmosphere. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have difficulty in making what you feel is a 
reliable and accurate check upon the prospective home? 

Mr. Van Hyning. We don't have difficulty in making the original 
check but it is very important that the first determination as to 
whether tliis foster home is a proper home, whether its motives, for 
example, are purely financial, or whether it is looking for a child of 
adolescent age only to help with house work or farm work. Those 
things have to be checked very carefully. What we call our original 
intake investigation is very thorough. 

Mr. Curtis. Who conducts that? 

Mr. Van Hyning. It is under the Foster Care Division, which is 
staffed with a superintendent and a couple of supervisors and 35 or 
40 workers. 

Mr. Curtis. It is done by professional workers? 

Mr. Van Hyning. It is done by professional workers. Now, we 
do have a shortage of staff to keep up with the proper super\dsion of 
those foster homes. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have enough foster homes? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Not enough to quite fit the needs of every cliild. 
We sometimes have to put them temporarily in one place until we 
find the place that we tliink is ideal. The foster-home program is 
affected by the defense situation because, as the demand for rooms 
increases, anybody who has any difficulty about finances can rent the 
room for more than the board of one cliild, and get as much money 
for room rent as they get for the entire care of the child, so that has 
made the situation very difficult. It is difficult to find new foster 
homes both in the city and in outlying areas. 

Mr. Curtis. What are the age limits of children sent to foster 
homes? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Children are committed to us generally up to 18 
years but we seldom get commitments of children for foster care over 
16, unless there is a delinquency charge included. The average age 
of our foster-care children is going up. The larrest group are 10 to 
12 at the present time. I can also submit that schedule. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat is the youngest are? 

Mr. Van Hyning. We may get them at any age. We may get 
them as babies. We have foster homes to take care of babies 2 or 3 
months old. 

Mr. Curtis. And there is no shortage of those? 

Mr. Van Hyning. No shortage, although it is always desirable to 
have a reserve list in order to fill any extra demands. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat I mean is, more homes are willing to take the 
tiny infants than the older children? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes. Our greatest difficulty is finding the 
proper places for the adolescent children, who are more difficult to 
handle and whose habits are already formed, whether it is institu- 
tional or foster care. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9701 

ASSISTANCE FROM FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Curtis. In this foster home service, what assistance do you 
get from the Federal Government? 

Mr. Van Hyning. We get $10,000 a year from the Children's 
Bureau which we use in foster care, and in the Protective Service 
Division. I think we have two or three workers. 

We particularly have used that money to build up our intake 
service in the Foster Care Division. The rest of it is being used to 
partially staff the Protective Service. 

Mr. Curtis. And the weekly or monthly care that you pay comes 
from the District of Columbia budget? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes. There is no reimbursement from any 
Federal source on that. 

Mr. Curtis. That is how you pay your investigators? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes. They are also the local staff except the 
two or three that are on the Children's Bureau money. 

Mr. Curtis. Have you a municipal lodging house? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes, available for between 40 and 45. 

Mr. Curtis. Is that available for service men? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes, as is also the Soldiers and Sailors Home. 

Mr. Curtis. Who operates that? 

Mr. Van Hyning. The lodging house is operated by our depart- 
ment. 

Mr. Curtis. I mean, the Soldiers and Sailors Home. 

Mr. Van Hyning. I am not sure that I am clear as to the organiza- 
tion, but it is tied up with the veterans' organizations and they have 
an appropriation that comes through, or money for part of their staff 
and part of their upkeep. The maintenance of grounds, and the insti- 
tution itself is paid partially from other funds. 

DAY NURSERIES 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat is the situation as regards day nurseries, as 
contrasted to foster homes? Is that a problem of the relief depart- 
ment? 

Mr. Van Hyning. Well, it is a community problem which is par- 
ticularly serious now. 

We are putting pressure on everybody to get a job and get them off 
relief. If we ho.ve a person who can work as a domestic there comes 
a line beyond which you can't say to this woman, '' You go to worJi and 
leave your children on the streets," because then we are creating 
problems of delinquency by leaving children unsupervised. 

The larger problem is in the number of new people coming to 
Washington, among whom are a great many women who have brought 
children with them. We had one example of a woman who arrived 
here at 3 o'clock in the afternoon with three children, all young, and 
she wanted to go to work the next day, and she wanted a nursery 
school to place the children in. The nursery schools have not even 
been adequate for the District in normal times. 

Air. Curtis. Is there a shortage, so far as your department workers 
know, of free nursery schools, as contrasted to those schools desired 
by clients who may be able to pay a normal price themselves? 



9702 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Van Hyning. The shortage in vohime is larger than the group 
who can pay all or part of the cost of nursery care. The school system, 
which normally would be the place from which you might expect to 
get some help, is limited under the appropriation act. No public- 
school buildings or funds can be used for the care of children under 5 
years of age, so the resources in terms of space are not available for 
the nursery-school group. They could be used for the after-school 
care of older children. 

The day-care problem which we have now covers all ages of children 
of the parents who are at work. The double shift of Government 
workers is keeping women away from home at hours when they 
normally would be at home, so the hours of care have to be extended 
up to the late evening. 

Mr. Curtis. You don't know how many women are employed by 
the Govermnent in Washington, who have children of the preschool 
age? 

Mr. Van Hyning. No. It is a figure that it is almost impossible 
to get, but we are working through the civil service and personnel 
directors of each agency to have them report the employees they have, 
who have brought the problem to them. And, also, we are taking all 
applications and recording them, in order to build up information on 
the situation. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

Mr. Van Hyning. Mr. Chairman, may I say one thing? The 
subject of recreation has not been covered in this hearing and I wanted 
to say something about it in my capacity as chief of voluntary parti- 
cipation and not as director of public welfare. 

Would you like to go into that at all? 

The Chairman. We should be glad for you to do so briefly. 

seriousness of recreational problems 

Mr. Van Hy'Ning. The recreational problem is probably the most 
serious thing, as related to the defense program. Facilities for recre- 
ation for the very largely increased population are not adequate, of 
course, because they have not been expanded and not only have they 
not been expanded but, in the National Capital program something like 
25 soft-ball courts and 10 or 15 tennis courts and several golf ranges, 
and so forth, have been withdrawn for military programs, so those 
facilities are lessening rather than increasing as the population grows. 

The public recreation service has been handicapped by lack of 
funds and pending legislation. A large part of its program depended 
on W. P. A., which was providing the staff". As the W. P. A. staff is 
reduced, the workers must be replaced by others. 

And another angle is the problem of recreation for service men 
coming into town for leave, evenings or week ends, and also the 
problem of providing recreation for the men at camps. All of these 
are being dealt with through the recreational services and the defense 
council committees, but not adequately at present. New recreation 
centers are being constructed from some Lanham Act money which 
has been secured through Recreational Services, Inc., a private 
agency. I would like to submit for the record, if I may, some of the 
reports in connection with that. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9703 

INCREASE IN JUVENILE DELINQUENCY 

Dr. Lamb. I understand from one of the papers submitted that 
juvenile deUnquency in the District has increased 25 percent in the 
last 12 months. 

Mr. Van Hyning. That figure, which I got officially, shows a 25.6 
percent increase in the number of juvenile cases handled in 1941 over 
1940, for each calendar year. The only explanation we can give is 
that the population has increased 18 percent, which would parallel 
that much of an increase, and also that with a moving population we 
might expect more delinquency and with no increase in personnel to 
handle the situation, we might expect more delinquency because we 
are unable to handle it properly. 

Dr. Lamb. With respect to your two jobs; do you find that your 
voluntary participation job. is sufficiently closely tied to your other 
job so that it facilitates your doing the second, or do you find it such 
an additional burden that it is rather difficult? 

Mr. Van Hyning. It w^ould not be such a difficult burden if it were 
possible to get a few staff members to assign to develop various angles 
of it. The general community organization job, which this is, is not 
foreign to the general field of public welfare. In the specific field of 
education, for example, this division's responsibility would not be in 
the technical aspect, but organizing the technical people to do the 
things that were necessary. So if you look at it as a community 
organization job, it is not foreign to the concept of public welfare nor 
to our experience, but it would be better done if we had a few more 
people to help. 

Dr. Lamb. It has hitherto been not only voluntary participation on 
the part of the general public, but voluntary participation on the part 
of the people who were staffing it? 

Mr. Van Hyning. That is right, and we lack the things that make 
the job easier. For instance, we have no research division or per- 
sonnel division or provision for collection of statistics. We are short 
of material that would have made this job easier. 

Dr. Lamb. I should think the District would be more seriously 
affected by that than almost any city in the country, with the excep- 
tion of places like San Diego, where the population increase has been 
even more rapid and larger. 

Mr. Van Hyning. Yes. I think the situation is more along the 
line of San Diego and Hartford in all of these problems. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Van Hyning. We 
appreciate your appearing here. 

(The following material was submitted by the witness subsequent 
to the hearing and accepted for the record. The tables show numer- 
ous withdrawals of recreational areas and playgrounds from use by 
the public. Some of the areas are being used as sites for temporary 
Government buildings, others are being given over to other govern- 
mental uses. An accompanying map is held in committee files.) 



9704 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Recreational area and playground withdrawals 



Lincoln recreational area, reservation 19 
(upoer part of area), 6th and L Sts. 
SE. 

Polo field (West Potomac Park) 

3d and Maryland Ave., recreational area. 

4th and Marjdand Ave. recreational area. 

Anacostia recreational area, section C 



26th and Constitution Ave. recreational 

area. 
Tourist camp area, 14th St. SW 

Jefferson Memorial area (West Potomac 

Park). 
Georgetown playground, 34th and Volta 

PI. NW. 
McMillan playground, 1st and Bryant 

Sts. NW. 
Rock Creek area, 16th and Kennedy 

Sts. NW. 



Reno Reservoir 

East Potomac Park (probable with- 
drawal). 



2 horseshoe courts, 1 softball field, I 
football field, 2 tennis courts, 1 bas- 
ketball court. 

1 lacrosse field, 8 softball fields. 
7 tennis courts. 

2 softball fields. 

2 baseball fields, 2 football fields, 4 
horseshoe courts, 1 softball field, 4 
tennis courts. 

2 softball fields. 

24 tennis courts, 5 softball fields. 
2 softball fields. 

2 tennis courts. 

2 Softball fields, 8 horseshoe courts, 
2 tennis courts. 

4 softball fields, 1 baseball field, 1 bad- 
minton court, 2 volleyball courts, 2 
roque courts, 10 tennis courts, 1 
hockey field, 1 football field, 1 touch 
football field. 

4 tennis courts. 

3 nine-hole gold courses, 1 swimming 
pool, 1 driving range, bicycling facili- 
ties. 



Type 


Number 


Partici- 
pants, esti- 
mated 1942 
use 


Type 


Number 


Partici- 
pants, esti- 
mated 1942 
use 


Softball 


27 fields... 
5 fields... 
3 fields.... 

1 field 

1 field 

1 court 

2 courts... 


135, 408 

924 

7,720 

50 

1,320 

550 

240 


Horseshoes 


14 courts.. 
55 courts.- 
2 courts... 
1 court 


4,200 


Football 

Baseball 


Tennis 

Roque 


132, 000 
020 


Hockey 


Basketball 


750 




Total 




Badminton ... 


283, 782 


Volleyball 













The 283,782 figure does not include the thousands of spectators who attend 
the various activities which are being conducted. 

If East Potomac Park is withdrawn, the estimated use will approach an approxi- 
mate 1,000,000 participation. This is also exclusive of the passive types of recrea- 
tion in which tlie figure would probably be at least doubled. 

Mr. Aenold. The next witness is Mr. John Ihlder, of the Alley 
Dwelling Authority of the District of Columbia. Mr. Ihlder has 
submitted a statement which will appear in the record at this point. 

(The statement referred to is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY JOHN IHLDER, EXECUTIVE OFFICER THE ALLEY 
DWELLING AUTHORITY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 

Washington's Housing Shortage and the Program for New Construction 

Housing conditions in Washington today are a definite handicap to the Nation's 
war effort, and, unless they are improved, may cause a disastrous check to that 
effort. House and room overcrowding here have reached menacing proportions. 
An epidemic, such as that of 1918, would be much more serious than a major 
military defeat. 

These facts are evident to anyone who takes the trouble to look. They are 
evident to anyone who listens to the stories of those who have tried to find a 
house, an apartment, or a hotel room. The crowds that pack the Union Rail- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9705 

road Station are merely more evident than the cots in the ballrooms of hotels; 
the crowds that fill our downtown streets are merely more evident than the 
overcrowded condition of in-town lodging and boarding houses. 

DEFENSE HOUSING REGISTRY 

Statistics on these conditions are available and the Washington Housing 
Association has assembled them for the benefit of those who wish statistics as 
a basis for action. But even more clearly indicative are figures from the Defense 
Housing Registry. 

This registry was established in March 1941, under the District of Columbia 
Council of National Defense, to serve the thousands of persons brought to Wash- 
ington because of governmental activity. The Registry's task increased rapidly 
until it outgrew its present quarters, despite the fact that it is open 12 hours a 
day during the week, and from 9 to 5:30 on Sundays. Next week it will move 
into larger quarters in a new temporary building erected on the little public park 
at Pennsylvania Avenue and Fourteenth Street. 

When it began, some of the Registry's sponsors believed it could meet the 
needs of newcomers by pooling all information about vacancies, so preventing 
waste of time and effort in calling at many offices. But soon it became evident 
that all available vacancies, so far as houses and apartments are concerned, 
were utterly inadequate to meet the needs even of white applicants. For Negroes 
the Registry has been of little service because of lack of listings, not lack of 
applicants. Yet somehow the Negroes, brought here for Government service, 
have been absorbed by the already overcrowded Negro community. Among 
the results of this will be not only decreased efficiency but increased disease. 
We are adding another cause for the high Negro death rate. 

Of course these conditions were foreseeable. In the spring of 1940 the Alley 
Dwelling Authority was informed of the difficulty experienced by navy-yard em- 
ployees in finding suitable houses. In July the Authority proposed to build 1,600 
dwellings for the families of new civilian workers at Government munitions plants. 
But the funds then available were expended elsewhere on the plea of greater need. 
Within a year the need here became so evident that a much larger program was 
started. And now we are forced to expand that program. 

An added item in Washington's housing problem is presented by the soldiers in 
nearby camps who spend their week ends here. During the summer tents and 
vacant college dormitories provided shelter for them. But no adequate perma- 
nent means of lodging them has yet been proposed. 

From the beginning of the Registry's work there has seemed to be an adequate 
supply of single rooms — householders having responded generously to the appeal 
to make spare rooms available. The supply of rooms was further increased by 
action of the Zoning Commission in liberalizing, for the duration, zoning restric- 
tions against roomers or lodgers in residential areas. But this increase of supply 
is chiefly in outlying sections, comparatively remote from places of employment 
and increasingly difficult of access by our overburdened transit system. 

From the beginning there has not been an adequate supply of vacant houses 
and apartments. Early in the Registry's history it had more than 800 houses and 
apartments listed. That is a very small number for a city of this size, but when 
I checked up last Saturday afternoon it had shrunk to only 83. In a city of 
approximately a million people this figure is practically zero. None of the houses 
or apartments now listed rent for $50 a month or less. Houses, when available, 
begin at $75 and go up rapidly. The cheapest dwelling offered is an occasional 
three-room duplex (two-story, four-family house) the shelter rent of which is 
$39.50. The tenant then provides heat, gas, and electricity in addition, 

EXTREME SHORTAGE OF DWELLINGS AND APARTMENTS 

In the earlier months of the Registry the Alley Dwelling Authority inspected 
all dwellings and apartments offered for $50 a month or less, in order to assure 
that they were habitable before the Registry listed them. But the number offered 
rapidly decreased and now there are none to inspect. If an occasional one is listed, 
it is rented before an inspector can get to it. It should be emphasized that at no 
time have there been any appreciable number of dwellings or even rooms available 
for Negro occupancy. 

But the number of applicants has steadily increased. There now are from 100 
to 150 a day. At the time of my check on Saturday there were 30 persons at the 
desk, and 10 more came in while I was getting my information. 



9706 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

A difficulty in making a program to meet our local housing needs is the im- 
possil^ility of foretelling how many families or how many single persons should be 
provided for 6 months hence. Decentralization of Government agencies has 
caused some to move away; but a greater numl^er have moved in. 

Population is keeping ahead of new construction. According to a Work 
Projects Administration survey the population increased by 51,700 persons 
between October 1, 1940, and November 1941. The great majority of these 
were married couples without children, or single persons, the statement being that 
the 51,700 persons constituted 36,300 "families." The District Assessor's office 
says that on July 1, 1941, there were 104,082 single family houses here. This 
does not include apartments. The Bureau of the Census says that in April 1940, 
there were 101,950 housing structures containing 185,123 dwelling units. Com- 
pared with population growth that is very small, even allowing for the omission 
of apartments in the later figures. Of course there must also be subtraction of 
dwelling units because of apartment houses taken over for offices by our Govern- 
ment and by the British commissions. These probably total well over 1,000 
dwelling units. 

A second difficulty in making a program to meet our housing needs lies in the 
fact that the construction of dwellings takes time. Three thousand families may 
come to Washington in a month, but 3,000 dwellings cannot be built for them in 
that month. 

WHY DEMOUNTABLE HOUSES ARE NOT DESIRABLE 

Temporary demountable houses would not meet the situation. Even if the 
factories were to turn out a sufficient number of prefabricated units overnight 
it would be impossible to service them with streets, water mains, and sewers. It 
takes longer to install these utilities than it does to build permanent houses. And 
more than that, there is not sufficient money now available to pay for the required 
utilities. I am informed that there is not even any money to pay for a short 
access street to one of the defense housing projects that is nearing completion and 
is already partially occupied. 

This matter of utilities often is overlooked when discussing a housing program, 
though it is perfectly obvious that houses in a large city are not habitable unless 
they have water and sewer connections. Nor are they accessible unless they 
have streets leading to them. Washington has kept well abreast of normal needs 
in this respect, but the present increase of population was not anticipated when 
the present budgets were made. And even if it had been, the local budget could 
not have provided for it. I believe that no detailed estimates have been made, 
the emergency has come upon us too suddently, but it is probable that servicing 
the dwellings required for war workers will require approximately a million dollars 
for extensions to the water service and nearly as much for sewers. Street exten- 
sions will call for further funds. While these are very loose estimates they indi- 
cate that the construction of houses alone is not enough. 

Demountable houses, therefore, give little promise of saving time. Nor do they 
give promise of saving money, for they cost as much or more than permanent 
housing. The argument for them is that they can be moved to another com- 
munity when the emergency is over. But if they are moved away, they will 
leave behind them the streets, water mains and sewers built to service them, not 
to speak of empty schoolhouses. Unless these vacated sites are utilized by the 
erection of other houses to take the place of those moved away there will be a very 
impressive waste, not only of buried capital but also of buried critical materials. 
We cannot afford this waste of materials. 

SHOULD BE NO FEAR OF OVERBUILDING 

Fear sometimes is expressed that Washington may be overbuilt, that at the end 
of the emergency population will shrink and we shall have many vacant houses. 
Unless there is large-scale and permanent decentralization of the continuing 
Government agencies, leaving only the temporary ones here, there is no reason for 
this fear so far as the present program is concerned. Every emergency since the 
1860's has added greatly to Washington's population, but the end of the emergency 
has been followed by only a comparatively small shrinkage. If the end of this 
emergency is contrary to precedent and is followed by a comparatively large 
shrinkage, still there is no cause for alarm. 

It is assumed that 40,000 additional workers will come to Washington during 
the next ten months. If they are in the same proportion as those studied by the 
Work Projects Administration for 1940-41, they will require some 28,000 additional 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9707 

dwelling units. The present program calls for only 22,000 dwelling units of various 
types in the whole metropolitan area. Of these 10,000 are to be houses built by 
private enterprise. Seventy-five hundred are to be built by the Defense Homes 
Corporation, with the intent of selling them to private owners at the end of the 
emergency. In addition Defense Homes Corporation proposes to erect fifteen 
hundred dormitory units to serve urgent present need. Public housing, under the 
direction of the Federal Works Administrator, will supplement this by erecting 
4,500 dwelling units, of which less than half, 2,000, will be in the District. In 
terms of construction this is a large program. In terms of critical materials and 
priorities it raises serious questions — there can be no waste. So all construction, 
private as well as public, must be under strict control. But in terms of need the 
program is conservative. 

SUPPLY OF SPARE ROOMS MORE ADEQUATE 

As I have said, the one kind of dwelling of which we seem to have a fairly 
adequate supply is spare rooms in private houses. But many of the houses are 
difficult of access and will become more difficult as tire rationing affects our transit 
facilities. Moreover, if we are to take at all seriously the danger of a bombing 
raid, there should be some vacancies left into which to put persons whose homes 
are demolished. The spare rooms of Washington should be considered its last 
housing resource, not its first. Because it is easy to use them we should not be 
blind to the fact that if they are filled we shall be caught in a vise. 

Many of the newcomers consider spare rooms only tem.porary expedients. A 
large proportion of these roomers are constantly seeking apartments or houses so 
they may bring their families here. The statistics showing an unusually large 
proportion of married couples m ithout children and of single persons are in large 
part statistics of divided families. They are taking what they can get tem.porar- 
ily, not what they need if this is to be a long war. We m.ust all expect to endure 
discom.fort, but attempts to separate families for 5 or 6 years or to crowd four or 
five lodgers into a sm.all room for the duration m.eans loss of essential workers. 

So there can be a very considerable shrinkage of Washington's population be- 
fore it will fit com.fortably into the housing now provided or proposed. But 
beyond this, there is a large part of Washington's existing housing that should be 
dem.olished at the first opportunity. As is very well known, there are slum areas 
here which are a disgrace to the Nation and a m.enace to the public health. The 
acute housing shortage has halted slum, reclamation. If the war continues 5 or 
6 years, our shuns will expand because of lack of repairs and, perahps even more, 
because of the conversion of one-family houses into makeshift tenements. When 
peace con.es we shall have a job of rebuilding the older parts of town that will 
elim.inate thousands of s.ubstandard dwellings. 

PRESENT PROGRAM IS CONSERVATIVE 

So the program announced bj- the Defense Housing Coordinator is a conserva- 
tive program. It will not enable us to fully n.eet our current needs. Twenty-two 
thousand dwellings of the various kinds proposed will scarcely take care of the 
expected addition -to our population, and in a city that already is dangerously 
overcrowded. 

In the interest of national defense, regardless of the needs of our Capital City, 
it is necessary to provide for a housing program at least equal to that proposed by 
the Defense Housing Coordinator. In order that this program, may be effective, 
it is necessary that funds be made available for the extension of streets, sewers, 
and the water system.. If the war is long-continued and we propose to retain here 
our defense workers, it will be necessary to provide schools and other community 
facilities. If we are to do all this without extravagant waste, we m.ust build good, 
permanent dwellings. 



TESTIMONY OF JOHN IHLDER, EXECUTIVE OFFICER, ALLEY 
DWELLING AUTHORITY, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Ihlder, it is the committee's understanding that 
you have devoted many years to a study of housing problems, partic- 
ularly those of the District. That summarizes your experience 
briefly? 



9708 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Ihlder. I have been in housing work for about 25 years, as I 
remember, and have been interested in housing in the District either 
directly or as part of other work for some 20 years. 

There should be an adequate supply of decent houses for the whole 
population, considering the methods being adopted to secure that 
result. Of course, the most difhcult part of that problem is the hous- 
ing of families of low income, and part of that problem is getting rid 
of the slums because when they exist families of low income will be 
living in them, not decently housed. 

Mr. Arnold. The President has approved the following housing 
program for the District as of January 2, 1942, upon the recommenda- 
tion of the coordinator of housing defense: 4,500 family dwelling units 
from public funds; 7,500 family dwelling units, by the Defense Homes 
Corporation, and 7,500 dwelling units from private enterprise. 

Of this total how much will the Alley Dwelling Authority be directly 
responsible for constructing? 

Mr. Ihlder. It is proposed to be directly responsible for 2,000, arid 
those figures comprise some already under construction. . 

My understanding is that 22,000 in total from now on until the 
first of July. Of the 4,500 to be constructed by public funds, 2,000 
will be in the District, the other 2,500 will be in the counties outside 
the District, and we should have 2,000 by July. 

Mr. Arnold. Are plans for all of these types of buildings going 
ahead now? 

Mr. Ihlder. They are. Of course, we are all working under the 
Defense Housing Coordinator. He finds the needs and allocates as 
between private and public, and the public building is assigned to the 
Federal Works Agency, which picks the Federal agency to do the job. 
Progress is being made on the whole program, sites are being selected, 
and plans for development are being made. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you state your opinion as to the adequacy 
of the program? 

Mr. Ihlder. In my opinion it is, in terms of need, a very conserva- 
tive progrfini. The lowest estimate I have heard for future popula- 
tion is 40,000 in the next 10 months. This program is for 22,000 for 
the next 6 to 10 months. 

funds available for housing 

Consequently, it will provide for less than the number of families, 
that is, according to the proportion that was found by the W. P. A. 
survey of 1940 and 1941 ; the 40,000 expected would normally call for 
about 28,000 dwelling units. The program provides for about 22,000. 
In terms of need it is a very conservative program in a city that today 
is dangerously overcrowded. 

In terms of construction it is a big progranL In term.s of getting 
priorities and getting materials, it is a difficult program. 

Mr. Arnold. What funds are available for the construction of 
these units? 

Mr. Ihlder. For the public housing, the Lanham Act is supposed 
to provide the funds. For the private housing, I suppose that would 
be secured from private sources with F. H. A. assistance, and for the 
Defense Homes Corporation it will come from the Reconstruction 
Finance Corporation. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9709 

Mr. Aenold. Do you know whether Army funds are being used in 
view of the delay in obtaining the Lanhani Act money? 

Air. Ihlder. To the best of my knowledge and -belief, a little 
remriant of the first Lanham money that went to the Army and Navy 
is being used to construct 70 houses. That is all. 

Mr. Arnold. When is the completion date for the 4,500 imits, for 
2,000 of which vour Authority is responsible? 

Mr. Ihlder." July 1, 1942. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you be able to meet the schedule? 

Mr. Ihlder. If it is humanly possible we shall. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you think priorities might enter into it? 

EFFECT OF PRIORITIES 

Mr. Ihlder. Priorities enter very definitely into the picture. Of 
course, in designing our houses, we are conscientiously omitting every 
critical material we can. But the iron for stoves and heaters and 
metal for plumbing one has to have. But otherwise we have tried 
not to use any of the critical materials. 

Mr. Arnold. Can you tell the committee whether the 7,500 units 
planned for Defense Housing Corporation are planned for occupancy 
by July 1 ? 

Mr. Ihldei . The whole program of the 22,000 houses is set for 
July 1. 

Mr. Arnold. Wliat is the situation, in your opinion, with respect 
to the prospect of completion dates on the units assigned to private 
industry? 

Mr. Ihlder. I could give only an opinion, and perhaps Mr. Williams 
could give a better opinion. 

Mr. Williams. The private builders are having their own troubles 
getting materials and the whole completion is dependent upon 
abihty to secure materials. 

Mr. Ihlder. I should like to interrupt and say that we do not ask 
any favors and, in my belief, the private builder will get as good 
preference as we do. I mean, we who are doing the public building. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you give the committee a brief description, Mr. 
Williams, of how the committee operates and state its principal 
functions? 

committee on defense housing 

Mr. Williams. A little over a year ago the Committee on Defense 
Housing in the District was set up. It didn't actually get down to 
work until March. So far its principal activity has been to list 
vacant properties, cither rooms, apartments, or houses, and en- 
deavor to inspect those properties, and then to have that list avail- 
able for any newcomer so that he can find a room or a house and can 
get all pertinent information with respect to that property. This 
was done without cost to the property owner or the person seeking 
quarters. 

During that time there has been no appeal, up until this recent 
one by Commissioner Young for the public to list rooms. It is true 
there has been some publicity in the press about the activity of the 
housing registration but there has been no real appeal and no one 



9710 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

has gone on the radio to say, "List your rooms as a patriotic matter 
to take care of these new peoph\" 

In spite of that we have had a big response, a fine response from 
the peopk^, in hsting rooms. 

Of course, the house and apartment situation is acute. There is 
no such thing available. There is a good supply of rooms. 

Mr. Ihlder. May I interject there? In regard to rooms, I think 
it is a very serious matter for us to use them as our first housing 
resource. They should be our last. There are going to be emer- 
gencies. You have heard Colonel Bolles speak of the housing com- 
mittee in his organization going into every neighborhood to find 
what rooms are available for people if they are bombed out of their 
homes. 

Mr. Van Hyning spoke of the difficulty of getting foster homes; of 
the coming into Washington of people decreasing the number of 
available spare rooms to a point where it interferes with the normal 
functioning in the community, but there is another thing, and that 
is that it may give us a sense of adequacy which is not real. 

A great many people who are taking the spare rooms don't want 
spare rooms. They want apartments or houses in order that they 
might bring their families here. If they can't get a house or apart- 
ment, they are apt to give up their jobs and go back again, increasing 
the labor turn-over. 

For all such reasons I would hope we should consider our rooms as 
our last resource, not our first to be filled up immediately. If they 
are filled up we are in a vise. 

HOUSING REGISTRATION 

When the housing registration was opened in March we got a con- 
siderable listing. Last July the housing registration had over 800 
houses and apartments available for rental listed with it. Last 
Saturday afternoon it had only 83. There are a great many rooms. 
There were 83 houses and apartments available. 

That means nothing in a city of approximately a million people. 
Consequently, we must think in terms of expanding the number of 
available dwellings for families, other than single rooms. 

Dr. Lamb. Is my impression correct that of those coming in, about 
50 percent come with families? Is that a correct figure? 

Mr. Ihlder. I should think that was rather too large for those who 
are coming in. They may be family persons but they are not bringing 
their families with them. Would you have any idea what the ratio 
would be? 

Mr. Williams. I would think about one-third. 

Dr. Lamb. If you add those in families to the number of families 
coming, the number would be larger than the individuals coming for 
jobs. Is that correct? 

Mr. Ihlder. The statement made in the W. P. A. survey was 
approximately 52,000 persons who constitute 36,000 families, indi- 
cating a very large proportion of single persons or of persons coming 
and leaving children and families behind. 

Dr. Lamb. This survey covers what period? 

Mr. Ihlder. Part of 1940 and up to November 194L 

Dr. Lamb. These are newcomers within that time? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9711 



Mr. Ihlder. Yes; it is for newcomers only. 

]Mr. Arnold. At this point, I shall introduce the statement sub- 
mitted by Mr. Williams, as some of my questions bear on it. 
(The statement referred to is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY LAWRENCE E. WILLIAMS, CHAIRMAN, HOUSING 
COMMITTEE, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIVILIAN DEFENSE 
COUNCIL 

The Housing Committee of the District of Cohimbia Civihan Defense Council 
was appointed by the Commissioners of the District of Columbia and has been 
in active operation for more than a year. This committee, immediately upon its 
organization, recognized that the rate of Federal employment in the i)istrict of 
Columbia clearly pointed to the rapid reduction of the number of vacant housing 
units in this city. Accordingly, the committee arranged to operate a central 
listing bureau which would endeavor to maintain accurate records in a central 
location, of all available rooms, houses, and apartments in the District of Columbia 
and make such listings available to all persons seeking living accommodations. 

The necessary preliminaries for the operation of this registry were completed 
about March 1 and, after a period of training for the staff, the Housing Registry 
went into actual operation on March 17, 1941. It has continued to operate 
successfully since that time. The District of Columbia Defense Housing Registry 
was made possible through the joint efforts of the District of Columbia govern- 
ment, the Federal Government, and local citizens. It has generallv operated on 
the financial basis here outlined since it was opened. Office space, heat and light 
furnished by the District of Columbia government; clerical staff and some 
expenses furnished on Work Projects Administration project: inspection of rooms 
performed by volunteers furnished by Washington Housing Association; inspec- 
tion of houses and apartments i)erformed by staff of the Alley Dwelling Authority. 
All of' the financing such as the salary of the manager, tele})hone bills in recent 
months and incidental expenses provided through a special fund raised by the 
Washington Board of Trade from local real estate and construction companies, 
banks and building and loan associations. 

The District of Columbia Defense Housing Registrj' was the first organization 
of its kind established in the United States. It was in operation before the 
Homes Registration Division of the Defense Housing Coordinator's Office was 
actually set up. The Defense Housing Coordinator's Office, as a matter of fact, 
used the experience of the District of Columbia Defense Housing Registry in the 
subsequent work it did in organizing more than 200 homes registration offices in 
other defense areas. Following is a list of the number of accommodations of 
different types listed on the Defense Housing Registr3''s records, as of each report 
date. Only rental properties are listed since our office does not keep any record of 
property for sale. 





Number 


House 
and 
apart- 
ment 
units 




Number 


House 
and 
apart- 
ment 
units 


Number of rooms on: 
June 10 


2,527 
3,657 
3,873 
4,743 


759 
863 
772 
528 


Number of rooms on— Con. 

Sept. 20 

Oct. 20 

Nov. 20 

Dec. 20 


4,687 
4,832 
5,031 
3,453 


318 


July 10 

July 20 


168 
200 


Aug. 20 


234 



We wish to point out that the Defense Housing Registry has never conducted 
an active, intensive can.paign to secure room, listings in the District of Columbia. 
It has been apparent by the number of listings on hand and the nuiT.ber of appli- 
cants for rooms that the supply of such facilities at the Housing Registry has been 
adequate to m.eet all demands". The picture seem.s now to be changing, however, 
and the Defense Housing Registry is planning to conduct an intensive campaign 
beginning next week, to secure additional room, listings. It is anticipated that the 
Registry will be in its new quarters at Fourteenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue 
NW. at that tim.e, where it will have more adequate space and telephone service. 
There seems to be a general feeling that there are m.any thousand available rooms 

60396— 42— pt. 25 6 



9712 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

in Washington •\vhich will be listed when householders are urgently requested to 
do so. 

During the first nf.onth that the Defense Housing Registry was opened 1,278 
applications for housing accorp.modations were filed. Records indicate that 1,000 
to 1,500 applications have been filed during each of the subsequent months. 
However, it is expected that there will be at least 2,500 applications filed during 
the current report period extending from December 20 to January 20. This in- 
crease is apparently a direct result of the increased rate of Federal hiring since 
Decem.ber 7. 

More than 50 percent of the applicants who have come to the Housing Registry 
have indicated that they already had a place to live in Washington but that for 
one reason or another, a change was desirable. For example, during the last 
report period, Novem.ber 20 to Decem.ber 20, 480 applications were filed by per- 
sons who had no place to live and who presum.ably were newcom.ers, and 637 
applications were filed by persons who had a place to live but who wished to 
m.ake a change. 

The greatest number of applicants has been for room.s. During the sam.e report 
period cited above, 526 applicants for fam.ily units filed at the Housing Registry, 
while 591 applied for room.s. Despite the fact that the number for room.s has 
been greater than the num.her for units, our great difficulty has been in securing 
accomm.odations for those desiring fam.ily units. This is true because of the 
sm.aller num.ber of fam.ily units now available and because m.any of those filing 
applications for houses and apartm.ents desire accomm.odations priced consider- 
ably below the general m.onthly rental for family units in the Washington area. 
It is apparent, from the viewpoint of those operating the Defense Housing Regis- 
try, that there is a serious need for low-priced housing units in the Washington 
m.etropolitan area. That need is immediate and I have previously recomm.ended 
the construction of low-cost tem.porary, demountable units for low-salaried defense 
workers. 

There is, however, no shortage of room.s. The Defense Housing Registry has 
always had more room.s listed than it could actually use. The great difficulty in 
the room, situation has been the fact that the overwhelni.ing num.ber of new Federal 
em.ployees who com.e here from, sm.all cities and rural districts have difficulty in 
adjusting them.selves to the realization that in any large city they m.ust generally 
secure living accom,modations some 20, 25, or 30 m.inutes' distance from their place 
of em.ployn.ent. 

While it has been true and is true that there exist shortages of specific types of 
accom.m.odations, it is equally true that Washington, up until the present time, 
has been at le to furnish som.e type of clean, healthful living accom.m.odat'ons to 
all those who have com.e to the city. It has not been necessary for anyone to 
sleep on park benches and, in view of the rather tren.endous building program 
in progress by private business and Federal departm.ents alike, there would seem 
to be no basis for believing that accom.m.odations will be unavailable in the Wash- 
ington area. This statem.ent, of course, is m.ade in a broad, general sense of 
accom.m.odations, that is, a place to sleep. As it was pointed out above, there are 
definite and pronounced shortages of some special types oi accomm.odations and 
it seem.s apparent that som.e of these shortages n.ust continue to exist in spite of 
all efforts to supply them by private business and local and Federal Government 
agencies. 

DEFENSE HOUSING PROGKAM FOR DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA LOCALITY 

This program, which takes in the anticipated needs only to July 1, 1942, pro- 
vides for the erection of 22,000 new homes by private enterprise and public funds 
and 1,500 new dormitory units for Government workers here between now and 
that date. 

This is in addition to the 23,524 homes and 1,000 dormitory units either com- 
pleted or in process of erection here since last January 1. 

In other words, the program calls for the construction of approximately as 
many new living units in the District locality in the next 6>^ months as during 
the past 11 ^^2 busy months. 

The new-home schedule is as follows: 

1. Seven thousand five hundred apartments, by Defense Homes Corporation, 
to accommodate families at shelter rentals ranging from about $30 to $45 per 
month and to accommodate groups of two, three, or four single persons, each 
group utilizing an apartment with the total shelter rent for the group ranging 
from $30 to $50 per month per group. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9713 

2. Four thousand five hundred homes, the appropriation for which is expected 
to be provided for in the present Lanham bill, for families in the $900 to $2,200 
income groups, at shelter rents below $35 and to be adjusted to the incomes of 
families to be housed. Five hundred of these are to be for Negro families. 

3. One thousand five hundred dormitory units, for single persons earning from 
$1,060 to $1,800. Of these, 300 will be for Negro women and 150 for Negro men. 
These will be located near the Young Women's Christian Association, the Young 
Men's Christian Association, or Howard University, so that they will have a 
permanent use after the emergenc^^ Consideration will be given to the location 
of the remaining 1,050 dormitory units on sites looking toward their utility after 
the emergency. 

4. Ten thousand homes to be built by private industry for workers earning 
generally above $2,200, at shelter rents generally from $35 to $50. 

The 22,524 homes already built or in process of construction since last January 
1 include 1,421 by the Alley Dwelling Authority, 3,650 by the Federal Works 
Agency and the Navy Department, and 17,452 by private industry, as recorded 
by building permits. The 1,000 dormitory units have been built by the Defense 
Homes Corporation. 

This program is the result of several months of study by the Division of Defense 
Housirg Coordination, which initiated comprehensive surveys covering all aspects 
of the problem. These surveys showed that 30,000 families and 37,500 single in- 
dividuals would arrive to reside in W^ashington during the 18-month period be- 
tween January 1, 1941, and July 1, 1942. In addition, the natural increase in 
housing requirements here is estimated at 4,500 homes during this period. 

LOCATION 

As a result of careful studies with the planning agencies, with particular atten- 
tion given to the over-all plan for the development of Washington and also to 
the acute traffic conditions, it is believed the location of these homes will best 
serve the immediate defense effort and the long-term post-emergency use. 

No.' 1 group of 7,500 apartments is to be generally dispersed throughout the 
District and Arlington within easy access of the large employment area and 
within 10-cent bus or streetcar fare zone; convenient as possible to subcentral 
business and amusement areas. 

Group No. 2 of 4,500 homes will be dispersed in the District, Alexandria, and 
Prince Georges County to serve as directly as possible those office buildings which 
house defense workers in those localities. 

The location of the dormitories has already been described in paragraph No. 3. 

The locations of the homes to be built by private industry will be selected by 
it, but guidance will be given to it by the Office of the Divisioi of Defense Housing 
C irpor. ,tion to the end that they will pro, trly serve the need and will be in har- 
mony geographically with the general housing program. 

All homes erected by private industry, to qualify for priorities, must not exceed 
a maximum selling price of $6,000 and a maximum rental, without utilities, of 
$50 a month. 

During the last World War, Government employment in Washington increased 
almost threefold, from 35,477 in June 1916, to 117,760 in November 1918. Govern- 
ment employment declined after the Armistice, but an upward pojiulation trend 
in the early 1920's offset this decline. 

In April 1940, Government employment in the District was 143,469. The 
estimated figure by June, 1942, is 232,000, almost double the figure at the beginning 
of the emergency. Employment is expected to increase beyond this point; 
although estimates of the possible total have not been made. 

TESTIMONY OF LAURENCE E. WILLIAMS, CHAIRMAN, HOUSING 
COMMITTEE, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIVILIAN DEFENSE 
COUNCIL, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Williams, how are the expenses of your office met? 

Mr. Williams. As I have said in the statement submitted, it is 
met in three ways. Building, heat and light are furnished by the 
District of Columbia. Most of the labor is furnished by W. P. A. 
The management of the organization, the equipment purchased, the 
telephone bills, and items of that type were all taken care of by private 
subscription obtained by the Washington Board of Trade from people 
interested in housing problems only. 



9714 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. The only Federal funds you get are Federal aid? 

Mr. Williams. That is right. We are getting a little help now in 
our quarters, a temporary building being erected for us at the corner 
of Fourteenth and Pennsylvania Avenue. 

Mr. Arnold. Private funds provide the rest? 

Mr. Williams. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Ihlder. When the housing registration began there was a 
fear that unfit houses and rooms might be listed and there would be a 
bad come-back if we sent people to these unfit places. Consequently 
the registration, of which Mr. Williams is chairman, utilized the 
services of the Alley Dwelling Authority to inspect all houses or apart- 
ments renting for less than $50, and the Washington Housing Associa- 
tion, a voluntary group, to inspect all the rooms. At the beginning 
the Alley Dwelling Authority had a job. There were a considerable 
number of houses and apartments at $50 and less. There are not now. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Williams, for what type of housing accom- 
modations is the greatest demand? 

Mr. Williams. By far the greatest demand, the demand we can't 
take care of, is for the low priced units that Mr. Ihlder has outlined. 

Mr. Arnold. A greater demand for houses than for apartments? 

Mr. Williams. More people are coming in and asking for rooms at 
the present time. 

Mr. Arnold. Then the greatest demand is for rooms and the next 
is for houses and the third is for apartments? 

Mr. Williams. No; apartments would come ahead of houses. The 
big demand you have is for furnished apartments and there isn't any 
such thing. 

Air. Arnold. What income ranges for each of those accommoda- 
tions? 

Mr. Williams. The greatest demand we have is for those with 
incomes of $1,500 or less. 

Dr. Lamh. At this point, I shall introduce the statement prepared 
by the Washington Housing Association, as many of the subjects 
we are discussing are treated in it. 

(The statement mentioned is as follows:) 

STATEMENT OF THE WASHINGTON HOUSING ASSOCIATION. SUB- 
MITTED BY MRS. HELEN DUEY HOFFMAN, SECRETARY 

Part I. What Is the Housing Situation? 

"Washington is a city of high rents, based on high land value and a floating 
population with resulting speculation in real estate. The chief industry of 
Washington is government, which has taken insufficient responsibility for housing 
its workers. 

"As in few other cities, Washington people have been sold the idea of home 
ownership, with too little consideration for the fact that home ownership may 
be for many of our present residents a luxury they cannot afi'ord. This has 
helped to create a shortage, too long ignored here, of houses to rent to a floating 
population of families of moderate though assured income levels." — Statement 
of J. Bernard Wvckoff, jjresident of the Washington Housing Association, at 
the hearing on National Defense Migration March 24, 25, 26, 1941. 

There is nothing in the present situation 10 months later to change that state- 
ment. But there has been a growing consciousness of the truth presented and 
an expanding outlook in the situation. This is illustrated in the recent recog- 
nition by private industry of the need for more rental housing especially at rents 
under $50 a month and for houses for sale at less than $6,000 total cost. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9715 

The Division of Defense Housing Coordination and the Supply Priorities 
Allocation Board have been instrumental in bringing this about. The restriction 
of priorities to a ceiling of $6,000 for houses offered for sale, disregarding protests 
of the building industry and its demand for a ceiling of $8,000, has resulted in 
bringing the price into closer relationship to greatest demand. 

OVER-ALL HOUSING PROGRAM 

Anticipating the needs. Division of Defense Housing Corporation from its surveys 
has recommended a program to include all public and private building in the District 
from January 1, 1941, to July 1, 1942. It provides that 22,000 new dwellings 
and 1,500 new dormitory units shall be built in the next 6 months. Included is 
an allowance for dwellings at shelter or graded rents, which means a rent that is 
adjusted to the income of the family. The plan includes 7,500 ai)artments with 
shelter rents from about $40 to $45 a month, 4,500 houses for families in the $900 
to $2,200 income groups. These latter houses will have graded rents starting 
below $35 and are expected to be provided for in the present Lanham Act. The 
program scheduled for an additional 10,000 homes for workers earning above 
$2,200 at rents graded from $35 to $50. Only 500 dwellings and 450 dormitories 
will be built for Negroes. 

These dwellings are in addition to the 23,524 houses and 1,000 dormitory units 
included in the program which have been built by public and private funds since 
January 1941. Some of them have been completed and some are still under con- 
struction. Those 24,000 dwelling units already under way were considered in 
the Works Progress Administration rent survey cited below. The rent survey 
shows that at the end of October 1941 only 1,016 units in the whole of Washington 
were available for immediate occupancy. Population figures also cited below 
estimate that an average of 5,100 Federal and private employees (not considering 
additional members of families) were hired during that month. It is obvious 
that these new dwellings outlined in the program as completed or in the process 
of erection since January 1, 1941, are not relieving the housing shortage because 
the inlflux of new workers continues faster than the completion of new dwelling 
units. 

The Division of Defense Housing Corporation has based its housing program on 
the estimates that a total of 30,000 families and 37,000 single individuals will 
have migrated to Washington from January 1, 1941, to July 1, 1942. For this 
influx it plans to provide a total of 45,534 homes and 2,500 dormitory units. 
Figuring two people to a dormitory unit the dormitories will only house 5,000 
individuals, leaving 32,000 single persons unprovided for. However, after 30,000 
families are housed, there will be 15,534 dwellings left over which can easily 
absorb the extra single persons not provided for by the dormitories. 

Theoretically the Division of Defense Housing Corporation plan will provide 
sufficient houses to meet estimated needs by July 1942. However, 12 months of 
their 19 months, program have passed and the^evidence indicates that the intense 
housing shortage continues to increase. 

BUILDING PERMITS 

Permits were issued for the construction of 9,720 family dwelling units by 
private builders in the District of Columbia during 1941. This means 7,238 
apartments and 2,482 houses. In metropolitan Washington there were permits 
issued for 10,902 dwelling units from January 1, 1941, through November 30, 1941, 
making a total of 19.533 dwelling units for Washington and vicinity from January 
through November 1941. 

In the first 6 months of 1941 there were permits issued for 5,938 dwelling units 
in the District, but in the last 6 months this fell off to 3,782 units. By months 
this is: 



1941: 

October 518 

November 357 

December 269 



1941: 

July 1,187 

August 560 

September 891 

This shows an extraordinary dropping off of the number of units constructed 
within the District during the fall of 1941. 

The total number of permits issued in the District for the 3 previous years 
were: 

1938 4,27611940 8,072 

1939 5, 877 I 1941 ,- 9; 720 



9716 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

HOUSING SURVEY 

The two Work Projects Administration surveys of January 1941, and October 
1941, show that there was an actual decrease in the number of units available 
for rent between those 2 months. 

For example, in January 1941, it was determined that there were 3,460 rentable 
dwelling units in the District. In October, out of an estimated total of 180,000 
dwelling units, only 1.8 percent or 2,424 were rentable. The latter figure does 
not represent units actually available for immediate occupancy as a majority of 
them were under construction or in need of major repairs. Only about 800 of 
these units were in good condition and ready to be occupied immediately. Most 
of these v/ere available for white occupancy only, while about 110 were open to 
Negroes, and among the latter about 40 lacked some standard facility like 
installed heating or running water. 

The survey shows that in October 1941, the rents were heavily weighted toward 
the units which rented for more than $50 a month. Less than 5 percent, or 
about 120, of the vacant units rented for under $30 a month. About 18 percent, 
or 437, were available between the range of $30 to $40. About 68 percent, or 
1,649, of the rents were between $50 and $69 and more than 9 percent, or 218, 
rented for over $70. A large percentage of tliese dwelling units contained only 
3 to 4 rooms. The average number of rooms per dwelling unit was as follows: 
29 percent had 1 to 2 rooms; 63 percent had 3 to 4 rooms; 8 percent had 5 to 7 
rooms. 

The above figures were cited for the District alone. The Work Projects Ad- 
ministration survey also computed information for the Washington metropolitan 
area. In this total area there were about 254,000 dwelling units, but only 4,31& 
units were available for rent, and from these only 1,016 were ready for occupancy. 
The other 3,302 were under construction for the most part. Some were held for 
sale and some were in need of necessary repairs. 

POPULATION 

This extraordinary shortage of rentable houses affected the 1,048,816 people 
who lived in Washington at the end of 1941, according to Donald B. Hadley of 
the Washington Post. The District alone contained an estimated 753,000, an 
increase of 90,000 since the Census taken in May 1940. From December 1940, 
to December 1941, there was an increase of 45,900 in Federal employees, or over 
3,800 Federal employees a month, with a corresponding increase of 15,800 
private employees, or about 1,300 a month. This does not include families and 
it does not include the military personnel. 

There are few indications as to when this influx of workers and their families 
to Washington will stop. Reports from the Bureau of Census state the average 
annual increase in population is rising, and the Government agencies are still 
expanding their personnel. The Civil Service Commission long ago recognized 
the shortage of adequate housing as a deterrent to bringing workers to Wash- 
ington. Recently, an effort was made to lure 12 stenographers to the city with 
the promise of a house near the Capitol, where they could live together. But it 
was soon realized that this was an impossibility — there are no empty houses for 
rent. 

In a recent hearing, an official of the War Department stated that of "3,346 
applications sent out to try to get employees to come to Washington to work in 
the War Department, 1,227 accepted. Of these 1,227, 70 percent came to 
Washington and stayed an average of 2 days and then left." It cost the Federal 
Government $3,840 to bring them here for 2 days. They paid their own trans- 
portation here and back home. 

DEMOLITION 

One of the unique minus quantities in Washington housing is that of demolition 
of dwellings in the central area to make way for erection of Federal buildings. 
Each site that is razed for a new public building displaces many families from 
overcrowded slum houses, who crowd into the surrounding teeming neighborhoods. 
Thev do not wish to move away from school, church, or friends. 

While the Government on one hand builds thousands of new houses for defense 
workers, on the other it tears down old houses, some habitable and some completely 
uninhabitable, although heretofore occupied. For the most part the worst slum 
houses are the most numerous, and often whole blocks of them have been de- 
molished for a Federal office building site. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9717 



The seriousness of this displacement of persons from their homes is expressed 
in the following figures ' which show dwellings demolished: 



Year 


Property location and proposed Government building 


Units dis- 
placed 


1933 


Square 761. Annex, Library of Congress -- 


35 


1935 


Squares 144 to 145. South Interior Bldg 


17 


1936 


Squares 265 to 266. Bureau of Engraving and Printing 

Square 677. Government Printing Office warehouse and 

otflce building. 
Park area, reservation D _ ..._.. 


77 


1936 


22 


1937 


56 


1937 


Squares 87 and 117. War Department (completed in 1940).- 
Square 581 . General Federal Office Bldg 


34 


1939 . -- 


63 


1940 ..- 


Squares 534 to 535. Social Security and Railroad Retire- 
ment. 
Square 83. War Department .- 


163 


1940 


29 


1940 


Square 84. War Department 


264 


1941 -. 


Square 60. War Department 


21 


1941 


Square 61. War Department 


29 


1941 


Square 462 (6th to 7th Sts.). Widening of Independence 

Ave. 
Now buying from 7th to 12th Sts. (53 parcels) 5 blocks 


29 




176 




1,025 









In addition to the above, new acquisitions include the following: 

1941. 134 parcels, about 100 owners, 1 block (whole block except church and 

northwe.st corner) — boundaries, Fourth and Fifth Streets NW., G and 
H Streets— General Accounting Office. 

1942. Seventeenth and Pennsylvania Avenue, west half of block on Seventeenth 

Street, Pennsylvania Avenue to H Street. 



DISPLACEMENT OF HOUSING UNITS BY UNITED STATES AND BRITISH GOVERN- 
MENT AGENCIES 

Although the rapidity with which living units are being taken by the British 
and United States Governments has decreased, the fact remains that thousands 
were commandeered and that a population equal to a small city was forced to 
seek quarters elsewhere. 

A compilation by the Evening Star of October 29, 1941, disclosed that 1,934 
apartments in the District were occupied by the United States and British 
Governments as offices, and that this space could house 7,000 persons. In 
addition 570 hotel rooms have been converted into offices. Since then there 
have been several hundred more rooms in hotels and housing units converted. 

The list of apartments with the number of housing units taken over by the 
Government and British, as compiled for the Star by Rufus S. Lusk, publisher of 
Apartment Directory Service, follows :2 

Building and address with number of dwelling units 

By the Government: 

Rochambeau, 815 Connecticut Ave 84 

Potomac Park, 21st and C Sts. NW 112 

Champlain, 1424 K St. NW, and 1757 K St. NW 35, 28 

Riverside, 2145 C St. NW 120 

Corcoran Courts, 23d and D Sts. NW 166 

Mayfair, 2115 C St. NW 56 

Premier, 718 18th St. NW 39 

2501 Q St. NW 108 

1610 ParkRd. NW 110 

515 22d St. NW _• 152 

Dupont Circle Apartments 350 

247 Delaware Ave. SW 38 

758 6th St. SE 14 

Boulevard Apartments (razed by Government) 238 

1 Figures obtained from Procurement Division of Treasury Department, 
a The Washington Star— October 29, 1941. 



9718 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Building and address with number of dwelling units — Continued 

By the Government — Continued. 

Arlington Hotel i 250 

Portland Hotel 1 120 

Raleigh Hotel i 50 

Do (2) 

Bv the British: 

Grafton Hotel USO 

1901 K St. NW 30 

1107 16th St. NW 16 

1910 K St. NW 40 

1800 K St. NW . 61 

1801 K St. NW 48 

1785 Massachusetts Ave. NW 6 

1205 15th St, NW 35 

1 Rooms. 

2 Government also has ballroom. 

OVERCROWDING AND LACK OF SANITATION 

In our report last March before this committee we gave examples of houses 
in the low-rent group which were overcrowded, where there was lack of sanita- 
tion, where the dwelling unit was shared by more than one family, and where 
houses had been converted from one-family houses to houses rented to from two 
to eight families. These bad conditions still exist, and are growing constantly 
worse. The reasons are less and less substandard housing as demolition by the 
Federal Government takes place; rent increases on already high- rent slum prop- 
erties; and pressure of newly arrived defense workers with incomes too low to 
pay for standard housing. 

Toilets shared. — Figures froin our inspection work continue to show an increase 
in the number of shared toilets in recent months. This is an indication that the 
nuinl)er of shared houses is increasing. From May 1940 through December 
1940, 29.43 percent of the dwelling units inspected by the Washington Housing 
Association had toilets shared by two or more families. From January 194i 
through November 1941 the percentage had risen to 45.11 percent. Of 2,240 
dwelling units, 1,011 had shared toilets. In November 1941 it was 52.27 percent. 

Examples. Thirtieth Street NW. 7-room house, with two of the rooms 

in the basement. A family of 6 people live in the basement, 2 families of 2 
people each in the rest of the house. There is no water for the house; the people 
must borrow it from the hydrant next door. All 10 people share the outside 
toilet which is in very bad condition; usually stopped up and unusable. Total 
rent for the house — about $30 a month. 

Third Street NW. 6-room house, with two of the rooms in the base- 
ment. Two families of 1 1 people share the 1 toilet and sink. Total rent for the 
house is $40 a month. 

L Street NW. 7-room house, with a family in each room, a total of 

18 people, sharing 1 bathroom. Rents range from $2.50 to $4 a week per room; 
total rent for the house is about $75 a month. 

L Street NW. 7-room house, with 6 families, a total of 16 people, 

sharing one sink and one bathroom. Rents vary from $2.50 to $4.50 a week for 
one room to $7.50 a week for two rooms. Total rent is $105 or more a month. 

Sixth Street NW. 6-room house, divided into two apartments of 3 

rooms each. There is a sink in each apartment, and a yard toilet. There are 6 
adults and 4 children in one apartment, 3 adults and 3 children in the other, 
plus a family of 4 people taken in as boarders; a total of 20 people. Total rent 
for the house is $41 a month. 

Dwellings shared.- — Other families often share the dwelling unit itself in order to 
cut down the rent. A family will take in out-of-town relatives until they can find 
a place of their own, or they will take in friends or relatives to help pay the rent. 

From May through December 1940, 17.96 percent of the dwellings inspected by 
the Washington Housing Association were being shared by two or more families. 
From January through November 1941, the percentage had risen to 23.72 percent 
of the 2,240 dwelling units inspected. In October, it was 35.35 percent, and in 
November 18.18 percent. 

Examples. — Franklin Street NW. Five room house, $18.50 a month rent. 
House has electricity and outside water and toilet. Two families are sharing the 
house — 2 men, four women, and three children. Nine people in five rooms. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9719 

Fifth Street NW. Five room house, $24.50 a month rent, has electricity and 
inside sink, outside toilet. Two families share the house, 1 man, 1 woman, and 

5 children in one family, one man one woman and one child in the other family — 
10 people in 5 rooms. 

Street NW. Five room house, $35.50 a month rent. Electricity, and inside 
sink, outside toilet. Two families share the house, two men, two women, and seven 
children. 

Fifth Street NW. Six room house, $32.50 a month rent. House has electricity, 
inside sink and outside toilet. Two families share the house, one family of 1 man, 
1 woman, and 10 children, the other family of 1 man, 3 women, and 2 children; 18 
people in 6 rooms. 

Overcrowding. — Overcrowding of houses is still increasing. From March 1941, 
through November 1941, the percentage of dwelling units overcrowded (more than 
two persons per room, exclusive of kitchen) was 22.06 percent, or 360 of 1,632 
dwelling units inspected. In the 3 years before that, the percentages were: 

Percent 

September 1938 through June 1939 16. 54 

Julv 1939 through April 1940 17. 68 

May 1940 through February 1941 19. 87 

In October 1941, the percentage of overcrowding for the month was 23.25 per- 
cent, and in November 30.68 percent. 

Examples. — Franklin Street NW. Three room house, rents for $12 a month. 
No electricity, outside water and toilet. One man, one woman, and seven child- 
ren live in three rooms. 

Fourth Street NW. Six room house, rents for $25.50 a month. Electricity, 
sink, andoutside toilet. Four men, three women, and seven children live in the 
six rooms. 

P'ifth Street NW. Six room house, rents for $32.50 a month. Electricity and 
bathroom. Four men, five women, and six children live in the six rooms. 

Fou^•th Street NW. Six room house, divided into two apartments renting for 
$22.50 and $25.50. There are two sinks, an outside toilet shared by both families, 
and no elect^icit3^ In one apartment lives one man, one woman, and five children, 
and in the other apartment, two men, one woman, and two children, a total of 
twelve people in six rooms. 

Two rooms in a converted house — H Street SW. Two rooms rent for $18 a 
month, outside toilet and water shared with the other occupants of the house. 
One man, one woman, and eight children (the oldest boy 15) live in the two rooms. 

N Street NW. Five room hovise, rented to six families. One room is parti- 
tioned into three by putting up beaver board separations, with a man living in 
each room paying $3 a week rent each. In another room live two women, pay- 
ing $3 a week Vent. And in the last two rooms live one man and one woman pay- 
ing $3.50 a week rent. The house at the time of our last inspection had four legal 
violations: The plaster was falling from the ceiling in several rooms, the roof of 
the house leaked badly, the toilet leaked, and the front porch was breaking down 
and dangerous to walk on. Twelve people were living in this house of five rooms, 
and the total rent for the house was $88.50 a month. (Total includes one man, 
one woman and three children living in another room, paying $5 a week rent.) 

Overcrowding in rooms. — The Consumer Division of the Civilian Defense 
Council in its study of rent increases of persons on relief, August 1941, reported 
a left-handed way of raising rents by overcrowding. Of 685 rooms reported, 114 
had 449 people or 3 or more persons per room. 

Examples. — M Street SE., 13 persons in 1 room. P Street NW., 7 adults and 

6 balDies in 1 room. R Street NW., 7 people in 1 room. Sixth Street SE., 7 
people in 1 room. Gassford Court, 11 people in a four-room house. I Street 
NW., 2 adults, 6 children, in 2 furnished rooms. 

Of 1,100 units reported, 305 had outdoor toilets or privies. 

LAW ENFORCEMENT 

The health, safety, and morals of the people of this city are constantly menaced 
by the inadequate laws and the ineffective enforcement of the existing laws in- 
tended to protect them. 

Water. — For example, the plumbing inspector reports that the law requiring^ 
water for each dwelling applies onlv to houses built after the law was passed 
about 1910. Most of the 4,571 dwellings ' which do not have inside running 

1 Real property inventory, 1934. 



9720 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

water were built l)efore 1910. One j^ard hydrant may serve two or more houses. 
The law is inadequate. 

All the window panes may be out of a house but no action will be taken by the 
Health Department under their interpretation of this regulation. But if a room 
has no windows the Health Department will act in most cases compelling the 
landlord to put in a window. 

Repairs. — A tenant may not withhold payment of rent to force a landlord to 
repair. Even where a landlord has a contract with the tenant to make repairs 
and fails to do so, the tenant may not withhold payment of rent if he continues 
to live in the place. Of course he caii sue for damages, but he would find it very 
hard to prove that excessive number of colds or even pneumonia or tuberculosis 
is traceable to the walls of his house which are always damp from seepage. 

Contiemnntion, insaniiary dwellings.- — The act for the condemnation of insanitary 
dwellings (District of Columbia Code, Supp. 3, title 20, ch. 2, pt. 12) outlines the 
procedure by the appointment of a board for such purpose. The Public Utility 
Commission Report '" states "In the 20 years of its active life the Board for the 
Condemnation of Insanitary Buildings actually condemned 5,324 buildings and 
caused the demolition of 3,327. The effectiveness of the act was destroyed as 
the result of court action taken in 1926 * * *_ Shortly thereafter the work 
of the Board came to a standstill." Since then the law has been tinkered with 
but it remains ineffective and unenforced. 

OWNERS AND TAXES 

Finding the owner. — Getting enforcement of existing law is not easy. It is 
complicated by the problem of finding the owner of substandard property. A 
law passed as recently as June 25, 1938,^ relating to the levying and collecting of 
taxes and assessments .says "the assessor shall prepare and retain in his office 
personal tax accounts — showing the names and addresses of assessed owners and 
the location and value of the property assessed." 

The tax assessor's office has the addresses of about 100,000 out of 150,000 
property owners in the District. There are many persons who appear at the tax 
office to pay their taxes who give a name but will give no address. Until recently 
no tax bills were sent out by the tax assessor's office. Notices are sent to owners 
of known address. 

Tax foreclosures. — The first week of January each year some 12,000 to 15.000 
properties are put up for sale becau.se of tax delinquency for the preceding 6 months. 
A property owner must be alert or his house may be sold over his head as many 
know to their sorrow. Under a new policy the tax assessor notifies owners of 
known address of their tax delinquencies and uses the radio to warn all owners. 

Tax brokers come from Philadelphia, New York, Rochester, and other cities 
to bid in the properties. The property owner has 2 years to redeem his property 
by paying the tax broker the "taxes, penalties, and costs due at the time of the 
sale and that may have accrued after that date, and 1 percent thereon for each 
month or part thereof." ^ This interest rate was changed in 1938 from 8 percent 
per annum to 12 percent per annum. This may help to explain why tax brokers 
of other cities feel drawn to Washington the first week of January each year. 

Redemption.- — Under a law approved in 1936 * the Commissioners of the District 
of Columbia may bid off property in the name of the District of Columbia not 
otherwise bid off and if it is not redeemed within 2 years they may sell it. Tax 
certificate holders after 2 years get a tax deed which clouds the title in case of sale. 
However, the owner can redeem his property at their price plus taxes, penalties, 
and interest. Or these tax brokers may fail to pay the taxes on property they 
do not want and allow it to be sold again for tax delinquency the following year. 

Clouded title. — Original owners of the property may continue to occuny the 
dwelling or it may be rented to someone else. As a result, it is very difficult 
to get law enforcement on building, health, fire, and other violations. Particularly 
is this true where no addresses are given by owners. The present tax assessor has 
to work with obsolescent laws and antiquated procedures. A committee is 
working on the legal problems involved. 

Low taxes, high rents, and numerous violations characterize slum property in 
the Nation's Capital. 

An example of six houses on L Street SE., shows the high profits that can be 
made on slum houses in Washington. These houses are really unfit for habitation. 

i» Rent and housing conditions in the District of Columbia, 1934. 

2 Soc. 11, Public, No. 744, TSth Cone. 

3 Sec. 9-b, Public, No. 744, 75th Cong. 
< Sec. 1, Public, No. 462, 74th Corn?. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9721 

Profits in slum property. — The six houses are each valued at $249 for the land 
and $300 for improvements, making a total assessed valuation of $3,294. They 
are rented for $12.50 a month each, a total of $75 a month, or a gross income of 
$900 a year. The yearly expenses for the six houses would be approximately as 
follows : 

Profits in slum property * 

Taxes, $1.75 per $100 $57. 65 

Agent, at 5 percent of rents (commission) 45. 00 

Water rent, at $8 a year each 48. 00 

Depreciation of house, at 5 percent a year 90. 00 

Upkeep, at $20 a year (each house) 120. 00 

Total expense (a year) 360. 65 

This leaves a net income of about $540 a year, or 16.4 percent, on the value of 
$3,294 of the houses. However, the actual return is much greater than this as 
the houses are so old that they should have long since written off all depreciation 
charges, and it also is evident very little if any money is spent for upkeep during 
the year. If the upkeep and depreciation charges are discounted, the profits 
woufd be $750 a year, or 23 percent of the value of the investment. 

A 10 percent annual return on the $3,294 value on the places would leave $570 
for expenses. The taxes, agent, water rent, and depreciation amounting to $240 
a year would leave $330 for repairs and upkeep, or $55 per house per year. Yet 
there have been no repairs for the past year in these houses except those of a very 
minor nature. 

If no repairs were made on the houses, and a 10 percent profit on the original 
investment was allowed, the houses should rent for $8 a month apiece. Of if 
$25 a year is allowed for upkeep and repairs, the houses should be renting for $10 
a month apiece. A $2.50 per month saving on rent is very large to a family whose 
income is $60 or less a month. 

Real-estate taxes. — Washington has the lowest real-estate taxes of any large 
city in the country. The tax rate is $1.75 per $100 of assessed property value. 
When the rate is adjusted to a basis of assessment of 100 percent of the actual 
value of property it is $1.58 per $100, according to the National Municipal Review, 
1941. In other cities of comparable size the adjusted rate is — 

Pittsburgh $3. 12 

San Francisco 2. 15 

Milwaukee 3. 52 

In larger cities the rate is — 

New York $2. 72 

Philadelphia 2. 88 

The adjusted tax rate is the estimated ratio of the assessed value to the true 
value of the property. However, in Washington the central business property is 
assessed at 100 percent, and the residential property at less, pulling the average 
assessment ratio down to 90 percent of true value.' 

The rents of Washington houses are far above those of these other cities. 
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics' cost of living survey, the estimated 
cost of housing for a 4-person manual worker's family at maintenance level, 
using a base of the cost in Washington as 100, is ^ — 

Washington 100. 

New York 87. 6 

Philadelphia 73. 9 



Pittsburgh 82. 1 

San Francisco 81. 4 

Milwaukee 83. 5 



UNLICENSED REAL-ESTATE OPERATORS 

"Bootleg" or unlicensed real-estate agents appear to operate to a surprising 
degree in the District outside the present Real Estate Broker's License law. 
Their activities are confined laruely to slum properties and their tenants are 
usually relief chents or Work Projects Administration workers. Because these 
people have uncertain incomes, and therefore no established credit, licensed 
brokers will not rent to them. 



' National Municipal Review, 1941. 

2 Cost of living, Bureau of Labor Statistics, September 15, 1941. 



9722 VS^ASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Under tlie Real Estate and Business Brokers' License Act, 20 District of 
Columbia Code, section 1970, "it shall be unlawful in the District of Columbia for 
any person, firm, copartnership, association * * * to act as a real estate 
broker, salesman, etc. * * * without a license issued by the Real Estate 
Commission of the District of Columbia." Penalties of $500 to $1,000 and/or 
6 months' imprisonment are provided. 

Under the qualifications set forth the law states that no license shall be issued 
to a person * * * "until the Commission has received satisfactory proof 
that the applicant is trustworthy, and competent to transact the business in such 
manner as to safeguard the interests of the public." 

These unlicensed brokers, of whom there are six operating on a large scale, rent 
substandard houses sometimes directly, but usually through an intennediary from 
estates, banks, mortgage companies, and the Federal Government. 

Low rents are paid and high rents collected by putting a family in each room 
and doing no repair work nor correcting legal violations such as leaking roofs, 
broken plaster, broken floor boards, leaking plumbing, insanitary toilets, etc. 

Examples. — Sixth Street SE. Six-room dwelling, with yard toilet and hydrant, 
oil lamps, occujiied by three families — four men, four women, and two children. 
They pay $3.50 a week. The toilet is stopped up, plaster breaking, floor unsafe. 
Total rent collected, $45.50 a month. 

F Street SW. Seven rooms, occupied by 5 families — 16 people; 1 inside sink 
and flush toilet and bathtub, with no hot water provided. Oil lamps. Rents 
are $2.50 to $4 a week; total about $65 a month. Violations of the law — no 
window in middle room; ceiling plaster loose; floor in bathroom unsafe; sink 
stopped up (used by 5 families) ; roof leaks; toilet leaks. 

The Federal Government condemns and buys property to hold as sites for 
future Federal buildings. Many of these sites have slum property on them. The 
Government rents the slum property to the highest bidder. He in turn may rent 
to an unlicensed real-estate broker, who rents out each room and collects perhaps 
double or triple the rent he pays the Federal Government. 

Example. — G Place NW. 4-rooms frame house, with beaverboard addition 
on the back; yard toilet and hydrant; oil lamps. Occupied by 5 families — 5 
adults and 4 children — paying $2.50 to $5 a week. Total rent $60 a month. 

Beaverboard partitions divide some rooms. Yard toilet and hydrant leaked 
when inspected June 25, 1941, and again on September 4, 1941; the leaks made 
the yard wet and slimy. In the 3-month interval the toilet house had fallen down. 
Liside stairs were still unsafe. This house is a fire hazard and health menace. 

When reported to the building inspector, he replied, "Owned by the U. S. 
Government," which is interpreted "We can do nothing about it." 

ROOMING-HOUSE PROBLEM INCREASES 

Washington in wartime has been the media in which has grown a problem that 
has not appeared in such intensity in any other city in the United States. There 
is a scarcity of apartments and houses for the families of lower income, and this 
has led to the appearance of the rooming-house problem with all its ugly angles. 
The Federal Government as employer of the vast number of low-income Govern- 
ment custodial and clerical workers ha,s failed to take sufficient interest in their 
living conditions, of which housing is the most important. So the rooming-house 
business has grown to be one of the largest and most unregulated of our city. 

With Government workers and service-trade employees arriving during the 
past year at the rate of about 200 a day, there are few available rooms, especially 
in the "walk-to-work" zone. All persons having vacant rooms have been urged 
to register them with the Defense Housing Registry. New arrivals have been 
urged to live in the suburbs, and now there is talk of billeting future newcomers 
in private homes. 

With the inspection services of the city seriously handicapped by lack of staff", 
it can easily be seen that none of these new boarding and rooming houses will be 
adequately inspected, unless Congress appropriates the funds for employment of 
more inspectors. 

At present the lack of housing of standard grade has caused much distress to 
Government personnel offices since potential employees are refusing to accept 
employment in the Nation's Capital. The defense agencies are estimating that 
there will be 30,000 more persons needed to fill necessary jobs in the Capital, 
and unless there are drastic improvements in the housing situation, this quota 
will not l)e reached. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9723 

Most people think of the rooming-house problem in terms of the young woman 
Government worker. They forget that the problem is just as acute for the young 
man, and very much more so for the man witli a family and an income too low to 
live in Washington. The income will go much further if the family can cook its 
food instead of buying it in a restaurant. 

Among families of low income overcrowding is still the order of the da}' — four 
and five persons are still being crowded into a room where only two can really 
comfortably live. Small rooms are being divided in half by partitions, thus 
doubling the rent. Persons in excess of 15 use one bathroom, if there is one. 
With the nonexistence of low-rent houses and apartments, a room is too often 
the home of a whole family. 

Part II. What Is Being Done About It 

RENT CONTROL 

One of the most outstanding accomplishments of the past year to help the 
critical housing situation in Washington was the passage of the Rent Control 
Act, through the cooperative effort of five real-estate groups, working together 
with the Price Administrator's office, many consumer groups and the Washington 
Housing Association. 

In an emergency rents are bound to skyrocket out of all proportion to the 
salaries of the workers. With the high rents come overcrowding, lack of sani- 
tation, too much of the worker's salary spent on rent and not enough on food 
and clothing — all hazards to health and safety. A law controlling rents does 
not solve the problem of where to put the people coming into Washington who 
must find a place to live. However, if effectively carried out, a law keeping 
rents at a fair level does help to solve the housing problem in relation to health 
and safety. 

Rent Control Act. — Rent control must go into effect before rents have risen 
to a point where people are already paying a disproportionate amount for their 
housing. By freezing rents as of January 1, 1941, this problem has been largely 
rsolved in the present rent-control law. The law provides for an administrator 
appointed by the District Commissioners, and for review of cases by the IVIunici- 
pal Court of the District of Columl)ia ui)on petiiion of either landlord or tsnrait. 
This places the execution of the law in the hands of the local government, and 
makes it a District rather than a Federal measure. Further provisions allow 
tenant or landlord to petition the administrator if they consider their rent too 
high or too low. 

As carried out. — The rent-control bill was signed by the President on December 
2, 1941. On December 17, Robert F. Cogswell was appointed Rent Adminis- 
trator, and on January 2, 1942, the Office of the Rent Administrator was officially 
opened. It is too soon to say how effective that office will be. It is not yet 
adequately staffed, and the administrator is without the necessary examiners 
to hear cases or the machinery to settle them. However, the statements which 
he has given out tend to show that the law will be enforced effectively and will 
alleviate the difficulties of the workers streaming into Washington. 

Low rents become high rents. — So far the more than 1,000 cases which are re- 
ported to have come into the rent-control office seem to be about equally divided 
between tenants whose rents have been raised and landlords wanting advice 
about rents which they have raised in cases which they consider legitimate. 
Most of the complaints by tenants have been against owners whose properties 
rent from $25 to $40 a month, which is definitely low-rent housing. Tenants 
are advised not to pay any more rent than they were paying on January 1, 1941, 
and if the landlord refuses to accept this rent he is at fault and cannot evict 
the tenant. 

Examples.- — A house inspected by the Washington Housing Association had 
been renting for $15.50 in July 1941. In August the rent was raised to $21.50. 
It is a five-room house, with outside toilet and water and no electricity. There 
were no improvements in the house at the time of the rent raise, and the house 
is in need of major repairs. Plaster is falling from the ceiling and walls of several 
rooms, the roof leaks in part of the house, and the sewer has been stopped up since 
October 1941 to January without the owner ever fixing it. A family of four 
people have lived in the house for 6 years, and they have two men roomers. 
When the tenant tried to pay the agent the $15.50 rent, the agent refused to 
take it and demanded the $21.50. The tenant then went to the Rent Adminis- 
trator's office, and was told to take a witness and to offer the agent $15.50. If 



9724 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

the agent aga.iii refused to accept this amount, the tenant should wait the next 
move bv the landlord, who could not legally evict him meantime. 

In other cases, if the landlord has made im.provem.ents in the house and thinks 
that he deserves a rent increase, he still cannot raise the rent above the January 
1941 level until he has requested a hearing before the Administrator and has had 
his case decided upon. This m.ay take som.e tim.e, but he cannot collect the rent 
for the m.onths that have passed and that the lower rent has been paid. Nor 
can the tenant collect the overcharge he has paid since January 1, 1941. 

Cases which will be difficult for the administrator to settle will be those of 
apartments which have been newly furnished in the last year, and also new apart- 
ments and houses for rent. The law provides that these rents shall be set at 
com.parable rents in existing new structures. 

Rent survey. — An office for receiving inform.ation on rent increases in Washington 
was opened in August 1941 at 458 Indiana Avenue, under the direction of the 
consum.er interest com.m.ittee of the Civilian Defense Council of the District of 
Columbia. In addition to increases reported by individuals the office had rent 
inform.ation secured by the Public Assistance Division from som.e 1,600 of its 
clients. 

The inform.ation secured from, individuals seemed to indicate that increases 
were not confined to any one section, but were occurring in all sections of Wash- 
ington. About three-fourths of the increases reported were from, white tenants, 
and one-fourth from, colored. The average percent of increase was about the 
same for each. Most of those reporting paid rents of less than $60 per m.onth. 
Room, reijts represented a sm.all proportion of all increases reported. They were 
included in the totals for all dwelling units. Rent increases ranged from, a few 
around 5 percent to two or three above 50 percent, with the average for all re- 
porting slightly under 12 percent. Relatively high increases were more frequent 
air.ong the rentals under $50 than am.ong those above that am.ount. 

This same tendency for lower rentals to show a higher percent of increase than 
higher rentals was also apparent in the increases reported by Public Assistance 
Division clients. These also ranged from. 4 to over 50 percent. The average 
percent of increase for dwelling Units was 16 percent, and for room.s, 24 percent. 
It will be noted that these percents are considerably higher than for the nonrelief 
group. 

Where rent control is most needed. — In a survey by the Washington Housing 
Association in October 1941 it was found that in a 10-block area of very sub- 
standard houses in the Southwest section of the citv, 50 percent of the houses had 
increases in rents over the past few years. These houses rent for from $10 to $30 
a m,onth when rented as a whole house, or bring as high as $80 when converted 
into room.ing houses. The real-estate agents controlling many of these properties 
are not licensed as required by law. 

The tenants in these houses are m.ainly Negroes, m.any of them, on Work Projects 
Administration or relief. They are used to m.oving from, house to house when for 
1 m.onth or 1 week they cannot pay their rent, are evicted, and forced to rr.ove to 
another part of the city, where they try to get another house or to share one with 
another fam.ily. 

It is am.ong these people that the rent problem, is the m.ost acute, and yet 
these are the people who will be least likely to go to the Rent Adm.inistrator to 
com.plain about their rents. They will be ignorant of the law, which is to protect 
them.. They will be afraid of being evicted once m.ore and of not being able to 
find another place to live at this tim.e. They will not know the rent of the house 
in January 1941. 

Rent Control v. Housing Shortage. — Rent control does not in any way solve the 
problem of the housing shortage. However, it is hoped that if carried out effec- 
tively, it will protect the majority of the District inhabitants from soaring rents 
and from lowered living standards. 

ROOMING HOUSE REGULATIONS 

Until the beginning of this year, there were no adequate regulations for rooming 
or boarding houses. The only requirements for licensing of this type of housing 
accommodation were compliance with the zoning laws, the fire laws, the building 
laws, in that the building was required to be structurally safe, and that there was 
at least a minimum of sanitary facilities. 

Anyone might have obtained a license, no matter what the actual sanitary 
condition of his house, or his own morals, or the character of the protection from 
intruders furnished to his tenants. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9725 

In 1937 the Washington Housing Association prepared at the request of the 
District Minimum Wage Board adequate standards for a rooming house that 
would, as the law provided, "maintain health and protect morals." These 
standards were used by the Minimum Wage Board in their study of living costs 
and fair wages. The same standards are now being used by the Civilian Defense 
Council's Housing Registry in the unofficial inspection of rooms offered for rent 
to the thousands of defense workers now coming to the city. These standards 
were called to the attention of the Commissioners at that time and the need 
stressed for enactment of regulations, proper inspection, and licensing. 

In July 1941 the Commissioners promulgated a regulation requiring owners 
or managers of all rooming houses c mtaining sleeping accommodations for 10 
or more persons to obtain an annual license, the fee for which shall be $5 per 
annum, effective in August 1941. This seemed to be a mere revenue-raising 
measure — with provision for some inspection, but no standards were set up for 
these rooming houses, other than the e.xisting inadequate building, zoning, fire 
and health regulations. Of the estimated 5,000 or more rooming houses m the 
District, less than 1,000 applied for licenses. Due to the inadequacy of the 
building- and fire-inspection forces, inspection has been slow work. 

The rooming-house situation has grown steadily worse and authorities have 
begun to warn of epidemic danger. The number of pubhcized and unpublicized 
assault cases on young women Government workers for a time increased sharply. 
Other crimes — robbery, pocketbook snatching, etc., have become more frequent. 
Government personnel departments have begun to complain that they were having 
difficulty in obtaining new workers, or that their workers are leaving to return 
to their home towns. Police service is being improved however, and will increase 
as additional police are trained and put into service. 

The Health Department, in January 1942, issued a set of rules providing for 
the hcensing and inspection of lodging, rooming, and boarding houses, in which 
four or more persons not members of the family are living. Overcrowding 
is outlawed; all the necessary sanitary standards in the minimum degree are 
set forth; light, heat, ventilation in sufficient amount are requirements essential 
to the procurement of approval of the Health Department for hcensing. Wash- 
ington's striking problem of too many sharing bathrooms is to be controlled by 
the lO-person limit set in these regulations, a great advance over the existing 
ruling of 15 to a bath. 

However, many of the needs of proper rooming house management are not 
included because they are under the jurisdiction of other departments of the 
municipal government. Some regulations are scattered throughout the new 
District rent-control bill, such as the posting in a conspicuous place in each hotel 
room a sign stating the rental per day of such room and a copy of the rates for 
each room shall be filed with the Administrator. The Administrator may 
require a license as a condition of engaging in any rental transaction involving 
the subletting of any housing accommodations or the renting of housing accom- 
modations in a rooming or boarding house. The definition of rooming or boarding 
house under this act is a house in which living quarters are rented by the house- 
holder to more than two persons. The Health Department requires a license 
in the basis of four persons. However, it does not seem to be a compulsory 
licensing of houses, with more than two roomers or boarders, except at the dis- 
cretion of the Rent Control Administrator. 

Up to the present time there are no police regulations that managers or opera- 
tors of rooming houses be required to present satisfactory proof that they are of 
good moral character as is done under Baltimore laws. There is no requirement 
that locks shall be kept on the boarders' doors, nor any requirement that the front 
door be kept locked to protect against intruders. There is also no mention of 
prohibition against immoral establishments. Rooming-house keepers are not 
required to keep a register containing a list of names and addresses of persons 
occupying each room together with the number of the room as is done in hotels. 
There is no rule set forth concerning who shall occupy the rooms, as suggested 
that only persons of the same sex shall occupy one room except very young children 
or married couples, who register as such. Penalty for incorrect registration 
should also be provided. These are properly matters for the Police Department, 
whose regulations were long ago offered to the Commissioners but evidently have 
not yet been accepted. 

There is also no definite statement whether the Department of Health will be 
permitted to revoke or recommend revocation of licenses to the Superintendent 
of licenses in case of persons continuously violating the provisions of the regula- 
tions. 



9726 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Appreciative as the citizens of the District might be over the new regulations, 
there will be little cause for rejoicing if the present very inadequate inspection 
staff is not supplemented by Congress in the appropriation for the coming year. 
The Department of Health cannot enforce even the best possible regulations if it 
does not have an adequate staff. 

Since seven municipal agencies — building, health, zoning, fire, plumbing, police, 
and rent control — are involved in the licensing situation, not to mention a division 
of licensing as the final step, it would appear that rooming-liouse managers, city 
officials, and roomers are faced with more confusion than law enforcement. This 
is a good example of how the mystical maze of laws has been provided for the city 
in times past. 

The rooming-house manager must be informed on seven kinds of regulations 
and be prepared to be inspected at least five times every year. 

How much simpler it would be to coordinate the laws and correlate the inspec- 
tion as the Washington Housing Association does with its field work. Our two 
field workers know the basic regulations, inspect (unofficially) for violations of 
all kinds pertaining to maintenance and use of a dwelling, and refer to the proper 
official, the particular violation over which he has jurisdiction. He then makes 
an official inspection and takes action. We are able to inspect 500 to 600 dwellings 
a month. An inspection force of 5 should be able to cover the city in a reasonable 
time. 

What is needed is that all regulations afi'ecting use and maintenance of a 
dwelling should be provided in a housing code to be administered by a housing 
official. Then order would come out of the chaos of contradictions, and com- 
pliance and cooperation of people would be attained with a minimum of official 
effort. 

COMMISSIONERS AUTHORIZED TO MAKE REGULATIONS 

By an act of Congress, 1878, the Commissioners are "authorized and directed 
to make and enforce such building regulations * * * as they may deem 
advisable * * *_ Such rules and regulations made as above provided shall 
have the same force and effect within the District of Columbia as if enacted by 
Congress." • By the amended act of 1892, "the Commissioners * * * ^re 
hereby authorized and empowered to niake, modify and enforce usual and rea- 
sonable police regulations in and for said District * * * as they may deem 
necessary for the protection of lives, liml)s, health, comfort, and quiet of all per- 
sons and the protection of all property within the District of Columbia * * *."2 
Over the past years there has grown up a practice of running to Congress for these 
regulations instead of obtaining the assistance of experts at the conveniently 
located Bureau of Standards of the Department of Commerce. 

Fire-control bill. — One of the most recent examples of legislative proposed action 
by the municipal authorities is that of the District fire control bill, H. R. 4586, 
sponsored by the present Commissioners and endorsed with the exception of one 
part by the Washington Building Congress and the Washington Housing Associ- 
ation. 

Events leading up to the introduction of the bill were touched off by the much- 
publicized O Street fire, where three lives were lost because of the acknowledged 
deficiency of fire-resistive construction, and lack of means of egress, both legal 
violations. 

This new fire bill is intended to guarantee protection to the lives and property 
of District residents, and to replace the obsolete Fire Escape Act drawn up 36 
j^ears ago. The chief consideration in this new bill is that it is in effect an ena- 
bling act giving the Commissioners power to make flexible rules and regulations as 
the need arises, and as conditions change, whereas in the past Congress had to 
set rigid requirements into laws which in a short time became outmoded. 

The present old law requires fire escapes only when accommodations for 10 
or more persons are provided above the first floor, and this is inadequate to assure 
safety of occupants of 5,000 or more rooming houses. 

The bill permits the Commissioners in their discretion to require necessary 
fire protective and egress measures, and to make whatever safety measures they 
deem fit after public hearings. 

There is one specific requirement, relating to a fire-alarm system, which has 
been severely criticized by the Washington Building Congress and the Washington 
Housing Association because it is the type of regulation which should be acted 
upon by the Commissioners and which should not be included in an enabling act, 
also because it is evidently a concession to monopoly of the alarm system. 

1 .rune 14, 1878, 20 Stat. 131 c. 194; March 3, 1921, 41 Stat. 1217 c. 118. 

2 February 26, 1892, 27 Stat. 394, Resolution No. 4, sec. 2. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9727 

Enabling acts are desirable because experience has shown that it is very difficult 
to secure congressional action to keep such la\v'S up to date. 

The Commissioners are fortunate in having conveniently available the services 
of fire experts at the Bureau of Standards of the Department of Congress in setting 
up the required regulations witli the assistance of the capable Fire Department. 

For the present the bill seems to be quietly lodged on the shelves of the Senate 
District Committee. 

Alore inspectors needed. — Aside from considerations of the effectiveness of the 
measure — it is clear that even if it should be successfully guided through Congress, 
enforcement of the regulations of the Commissioners resulting from it, would be 
retarded severely by the very small inspection staff, now one-third the size it 
should be to cover the rapidly expanding city. 

RAT CONTROL 

In November 1941 Representative Charles Dewey made a thought-provoking 
statement when he predicted that the congested living conditions and the "rat 
scourge" which existed around the Capitol (and he may well have added, in many 
other parts of the city, wherever one finds slum properties) would result in a 
serious health hazard. He also complained that there was no increase in appro- 
priations for refuse disposal despite the population growth, thus inadvertently 
improving the living standards of rats. 

The Washington Housing Association in August 1941 inquired of the Public 
Buildings Administration, the District Health Department and the Fish and 
Wildlife Service, Division of Predator and Rodent Control of the Federal Gov- 
ernment what action was being taken on rat extermination on slum sites being 
demolished for proposed Government buildings, and for surrounding blocks. 
Assurance was given that rat extermination preceded demolition on Federal sites. 
In September plans were made for rat extermination on a city-wide basis. There 
is no lasting value in extermination in a small area since the rodents wiU migrate 
into undisturbed parts of the city. 

Rat rrienace. — The District Health Department, stirred by several typhus cases 
early last summer diagnosed as caused by rats, by tales of children bitten by 
rats in the home, by numerous complaints which poured in by telephone and 
letter, and by citizens' demands, determined to do something about it. Funds 
for the employment of a sanitary engineer for the District had not been obtained 
from Congress. The United States Public Health Service gave valuable assist- 
ance by assigning two public health officials to the work of rat, vermin, and 
mosquito control in the District. A cooperative rodent-control program was 
set up. 

Citizens cooperate. — Tliis plan is to bring all citizens and civic organizations into 
tlie campaign to rid the entire city of rats. The civic associations of the city 
appointed square supervisors, who direct operations and provide funds for the 
purpose — such as buying bait and traps. These are to be furnished by each 
respective civic group or by local contributors. Tlie supervisor in turn appoints 
block managers who conduct block-by-block surveys to determine where there are 
rat harborages, sets the bait or traps, and records tlieir catcli or kill. The Health 
Department acts in an advisory capacity. They mix the bait in approved man- 
ner and distribute it to the square supervisors. In this way, each civic organiza- 
tion, having aroused the citizenry in its vicinity will be expected to exterminate 
all the rats in its boundaries. The plan is to cover the city and then start over 
again. 

Needless to say, in a city of this size, many tons of bait would be needed, and 
an undue hardship is placed on the "poorer neighborhoods to obtain the necessary 
funds. Then, too, the lapse of time between initiation of the campaign in various 
neighborhoods will provide opportunity for the rats to establish residence in places 
not being purged. 

An effective solution to the problem would be appropriation by Congress for a 
large-scale system of continuous operation. Rat and vermin control is just as 
important as mosquito control, for which Congress is willing to provide funds. 

LANDLORD AND TENANT COURT 

A serious problem in low-rent housing for families of low income is revealed in 
the landlord and tenant branch of the municipal court. For the first time in the 
history of such courts a social consultant to the court has been appointed officially. 
In this way a new interpretation has been given to the thought of Cliief Justice 

60396— 42— pt. 25 7 



9728 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Hughes — that the courts were created for the people and not the people for the 
courts. 

In 1939 a study had been made of the court because tenants complained to the 
field worker of the Washington Housing Association that they were being charged 
every month from $3 to $6 more than their rent. They were being summoned to 
court regularly every month although they continued to live in the dwellings. 

The study revealed there was an average of 50,000 cases a month, or 200 cases 
a day, heard in the court in less than an hour, a mere roll call. No attempt was 
being made to inquire into the causes of this rent delinquency. Only one out of 
200 cases was actually evicted. Most suits were for the current month's rent, a 
sort of collection procedure. Six landlords had 2r> percent of the cases. One of 
these collected approximately $400 a month in extra costs above court costs. 

Legal aid needed. — The tenants appearing in court in 1 month were studied. 
Over 90 percent were found to be repeaters; 60 percent were chronic cases, being 
sued 6 or more times a year; and 50 percent of them were known to the social 
agencies. 

If justice was to be meted out to these defendants, it appeared that — 

(1) More time should be given by the judge to the cases; 

(2) Inquiry should be made into the causes of chronic delinquency coupled with 
continued tenancy; 

(3) Landlords should use the courts less as a collection agency, and more as the 
court was intended to be used. 

Frequent conferences between the five judges of the Municipal Court and the 
Washington Housing Association resulted in new rules and regulations being 
adopted by the Court which greatly simplified the procedure. This made it 
possible that these low-income defendants could have full time to be heard at 
no extra cost. Court costs also were reduced and landlords warned to refrain 
from adding extra costs. 

Social aid needed. — Nevertheless it appeared that many defendants had been 
caught in difficulties they could not overcome — loss of employment, loss of time 
between jobs. Work Projects Administration lay-off after 18 months, illness of the 
wage earner, medical expenses, etc. The high rents paid in relation to the low 
incomes made it difficult for them to catch up on back rent and keep up with the 
current rent. It appeared that what some defendants needed was social aid more 
than legal aid. 

After a demonstration of 6 or 7 months financed from private funds, it was 
decided by the judges, the real estate agencies and the Washington Housing 
Association that the social consultant was a valuable addition to the court and 
should be financed by public funds. In August 1941, this work was accepted as a 
public service by the Board of Public Welfare. 

There is being developed a better relation between landlord and tenant as a 
result of better understanding. Excessive court costs have been reduced, but could 
be still further reduced. The informal procedure has benefited those tenants who 
felt that they had a defense. 

From our field work inspection we Igarn that some landlords continue trying 
to collect more than the legal court costs bj^ adding them on hoping the judges 
will not notice it; some threaten the tenants with eviction; some landlords take 
the law into their own hands. 

There is need for — 

(1) Further reduction in court costs. The Landlord and Tenant Court 
should not make a profit, especially from low-income tenants who can ill afford 
the high rents they have to pay. 

(2) The bill for reorganization of the courts, now long delayed should, be acted 
upon immediately. One of the five judges of the municipal court is deceased 
and another is absent much of the time. Three judges are doing the work of 
five and are much overworked. Further delay on the reorganization has no jus- 
tification since judges, bar associations and citizens have endorsed the plan. 

RECONDITIONING AND REMODELING HOUSES 

If Washington is to house all of its newcomers and give breathing space to the 
people who have long lived here two things are necessary, (1) reconditioning and 
remodeling neighborhoods and (2) rehabilitation of run-down neighborhoods. 
If the tax structure is to be protected, sick and decayed areas must be restored. 

It is the policy of the Defense Housing Coordinator to develop and utilize all 
existing housing resources within defense areas as a means of providing homes for 
defense workers. Remodeling of residential properties can be a significant phase 
of this program, since it may be undertaken so as to increase the housing supply 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9729 

by adding dwelling units at less expenditure in materials and labor and with greater 
speed than is required to build new residences. 

In order to expedite remodeling activity, there has been developed between the 
Division of Defense Housing Coordination and the Home Owners' Loan Corpora- 
tion a procedure whereby home owners who wish to remodel or recondition their 
houses to accommodate defense workers may, under certain circumstances, secure 
free technical guidance, including planning assistance and cost estimates. This 
is not a program for making available cash or loans for remodeling, but rather for 
providing free of charge technical advice on the feasibility of remodeling properties. , 
The established lending agencies, building and loan associations, banks, or other 
mortgage lending institutions will be the sources of credit. 

Under this joint program local homes registration offices serve as receiving 
centers for requests for remodeling assistance, sift applications and recommend 
properties to be examined by Home Owners' Loan Corporation technicians, and 
study problems of increasing the housing supply by making presently unused 
dwelling space habitable. 

Up to the present time, and under the above arrangement, the Washington, 
D. C, homes registration office has received 33 applications from persons desiring 
to remodel or recondition their properties, but they have no record of the number 
of reconditioning jobs undertaken without their assistance. Nineteen of these 
applications were rejected due to zoning regulations or the fact that the property 
owner changed his mind about reconditioning the property in question. Applica- 
tions for reconditioning or remodeling have been received from the entire metro- 
politan area of Washington. 

NEIGHBORHOOD REHABILITATION 

"The emergency did not create Washington's housing problem. It was not the 
cause of the progressive deterioration of many substantially sound structures into 
old, ill-kept rooming houses. It was not the cause of gradually undermining 
values in some of the best sections of the city." > 

Rehabilitation of substandard but basically sound residential structures and 
the use of existing public works combined with new construction will serve to 
increase the available supply of standard dwelling units suitable for defense 
workers by reclaiming obsolete structures and making use of them. It will re- 
move dangerous slum areas from the city and instead increase the number of 
standard units available. It lowers the unit cost of defense housing as much as 
one-half, by using existing structural assets and alreadv available pavements, 
utilities, schools, etc. It saves critical materials. 

There are 70 blocks southwest of the Capitol, a good location, "completely 
neglected except for a few^ isolated ventures by enterprising citizens and a few 
hard won projects of the Alley Dwelling Authority. The Federal Home Loan 
Bank Board is maing a survey of parts of that area." ^ 

The southwest Washington rehabilitation project if carried out would demon- 
strate the value of neighborhood rehabilitation. There are 70 blocks in this 
section of the city, mainly Negro. It is an excellent location, but has been 
neglected for many years and is made up almost entirely of some of the worst 
slums in the city. The Federal Home Loan Bank Board survey show^s that the 
district could be restored successfully, that existing structures could be modernized 
and rebuilt quickly at a cost of but 50 to 60 percent of new construction. Approxi- 
mately 60 percent more housing units could be created in a short time. In an 
area of 9 blocks it is possible by demolishing 121 useless buildings to provide 1,000 
new dwelling units; 400 would be represented by reconditiojied houses which are 
structurally sound; 600 more would fill in the gaps in the neighborhood and should 
be new. It would be possible to rent those houses for about $6.50 a room, a rent 
that the defense workers can pay, and half the amount necessary if the construction 
were new. 

"Only the Government can reclaim this area if the work is to be done. Private 
enterprise cannot do it. The right of eminent domain must be exercised." ' 

DECENTRALIZATION 

The Government is attempting to relieve congested Washington by decentral- 
izing its agencies here. Plans to this eflFect have been under consideration for 
about 9 months, and in September 1941, Home Owners' Loan Corporation and 
860 of its 1,120 employees moved to New York with little fuss. In December 
1941, Budget Director Harold Smith stated that about a dozen agencies with 

' Address of John H. Fahey, Chairman of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, before the Washington 
Housing Association, December 8, 1941. 



9730 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

10,000 employees would have to leave this city. It has resulted in widespread 
dissatisfaction and upset of office morale due to frequent changes in the decisions 
as to which agencies would be moved and the locations where thej' would be 
established. 

A^o one wants to move. — In the first place the agencies to be moved complained 
bitterly about loss in efficiency and increase in operating costs caused by their 
removal. All of them, from the Railroad Retirement Board to the Office of 
Indian Affairs claimed that it was vital for them to keep in close contact with 
Congress. The Patent Office has been most insistent that it must remain in or 
near Washington. Emploj^ees objected to the obvious hardships inflicted on 
them and a large percentage in many offices, as high as 50 percent in the Federal 
Housing Administration, stated they would not leave Washington, if their office 
was transferred. 

There are many complaints about the "high-handed way the Government is 
ordering people to pick up and move out/' without having adequately investi- 
gated all sides of the problem. It is said that a complete study should be made 
of available office space in Washington and the vicinity. Agencies should not 
be sent to other cities without first determining if there is adequate office and 
housing space in them, and of course careful consideration should be given to 
which agencies should be sent away and where. 

Decentralization has not yet been universally accepted as a necessary measure. 
Suggestions as to how to avoid it have been made, such as running agencies on 
two shifts so that they will only need half the room they now have, or moving 
the files of the Patent Office into the halls to give more space for offices. 

The Civil Service Commission has kindly set up a decentralization service 
which will consider applications of Government workers who wish to move out of 
Washington. It is conceivable that there are people who want to leave and the 
Commission has reported that many of its own employees have asked to be trans- 
ferred. It has also been pointed out that besides the advantages of a home in a 
comparatively peaceful atmosphere, the transferee's living costs will be greatly 
reduced. 

Substitute measures. — The Senate and the House District Committees, and the 
House Subcommittee on Buildings and Grounds, have been holding hearings on the 
advisability of the decentralization program. The Public Building Commissioner 
submitted a bill recommending an appropriation of $40,000,000 by Congress for 
office space and an undetermined amount to provide land and materials for such 
"tents" [sic] "dormitories and other living facilities" as are necessary for the 
housing of workers who w^ould be employed in the proposed office buildings. He 
stated that the special problems to be overcome in this plan are the high costs of 
land, the scarcity of transportation, water, and sewer facilities. He did not 
include in this bill appropriations for restaurants, banks, and other facilities 
essential to modern man in a modern city. 

Large-scale decentralization would lessen the traffic problem and the health 
menace caused by overcrowding, as well as make room for new workers and 
expanding offices. 

TRAFFIC 

Washington traffic has been the subject of a standing national quip, and in 
wartime it has become one of the most important factors in breaking down 
civilian morale in this city. 

Transportation and housing. — Regarding the critical traffic situation through 
the eyes of housing, one finds the two problems closely related. With all available 
houses, apartments, and rooms in the central areas occupied, the incoming tor- 
rent of defense workers must look to the outer fringes of the city for a place to 
live. Once established in a room far from his place of employment, the average 
new Government worker must use the already overtaxed means of transporta- 
tion — busses, trolleys, and trains, or bring his automobile into town. The 
transit company had added to its service all its ancient vehicles and all those it 
could buy, and still small crowds of prospective passengers wait for long periods 
of time on street corners these cold winter mornings, while lines of busses and 
cars go by marked "full." 

The hazards of driving in downtown traffic with dodging pedestrians (of 
which there is an amazingly high death toll), many traffic jams, and the great 
unlikelihood of finding a place to park, is the other alternative of the worker 
who does not live within walking distance. In any event the expense of com- 
muting in either manner is almost prohibitive to the clerical, custodial, or service 
trade worker, when it is added to the high rent he pays. This association has 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9731 

personally seen examples of persons who have found the grueling test of com- 
muting too much and have been forced to leave the city to find employment in 
a more receptive community. We have also gone to bat for the education of the 
outlying rooming house keepers to encourage them to provide a small but warm 
breakfast, to be included in the cost of the rent, to fortify the commuter for the 
long trip into town. 

There has been a great deal of discussion and much investigation by citizens 
and by congressional committees in an effort to work out feasible plans for aiding 
the traffic snarl on a city-wide basis, but as yet nothing visible has resulted, and 
there are no signs of an efficient transportation system on the immediate horizon. 
New parking sites have been considered; existing parking sites have been com- 
mandeered for Government building, for some other purpose. Plans for a subway 
are under consideration, but the opposition is strong. Bridges, causeways, 
underpasses, networks of thoroughfares or roads, rail loops, beltlines, new bus 
routes — every conceivable scheme — have been brought into the light, yet little 
is done. 

The delay in doing something about it has been attributed, among other reasons, 
to the difficulty of the District government in past years to obtain necessary funds 
from Congress directly or indirectly through taxation, for making improvements. 
Mr. Frederic Delano, Chairman of the National Capital Parks and Planning 
Commission, has offered some constructive suggestions. His agency has studied 
the problem for j^ears and is able to give expert advice. 

BUILDING CODE 

The city has been caught unprepared for a huge building program. With a 
horseless carriage type of building code, it is difficult to provide a streamlined city 
to meet the housing emergency. 

In 1935, the Committee on Sanitary Survey, appointed by the Commissioners 
of the District of Columbia, requested the Washington Housing Association to 
survey, the existing laws on housing and sanitation and prepare a preliminary 
draft of a housing code for the District, to embody the most modern standards 
and to serve as a possible model for the country. A housing code is concerned 
with the use and maintenance of dwellings as distinct from the construction of 
them. 

The code was undertaken, completed and reviewed by experts and the Com- 
mittee on Sanitary Survey itself. 

Meantime, it became apparent that all the separate codes, such as building, 
health, safety, plumbing, etc., should be examined, revised, and coordinated. 

The Washington Building Congress, a business, professional, and technical 
group representing a cross section of the building industry, offered its services 
to the Commissioners. Swinging into action, they set up a "technical committee 
with 20 specialized subdivisions organized to review the various District of 
Columbia Codes and Regulations, and authorized them to submit constructive 
suggestions for their improvement." 

Existing provisions were examined, and a model building code was planned 
by sections, each section to be completed by a group of specialists, whose expert 
recommendations were considered to be of great value. This building code 
committee worked about a year. Some committees turned in excellent new codes. 
Others jjartially completed their work, and some were unable to do so. It was 
apparent that hardworking technicians could not lay aside their more pressing 
employment to take on this specialized unpaid work. It was obvious that a 
commission should be appointed and technical experts engaged to rewrite all the 
codes dealing with the design, construction, and maintenance of buildings. 

The Building Inspection Department continued with its efforts to revise and 
coordinate the codes. In the revised code of November 1941, they made use of some 
of the good features submitted by the Building Congress but they found their 
revisions seriously encumbered with obsolete laws and regulations, which they 
were compelled to include since these are still on the statute books. 

An evaluation of the revised code should acknowledge that the organization, 
form, and indexing is very much improved. There are an increased number of 
definitions, among which are included those which admittedly are modern in 
meaning, and which were not included in the old code, for example, what is a 
habitable room ; and the distinction between basement and cellar (the latter being 
declared legally uninhabitable.) However, a great many of those improved 
definitions recommended by the experts were omitted. 



9732 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

There are distinct improvem.ents noted in the new revision — ^exceeding in vahie 
corresponding parts of the old code — for exan\ple, in the old code, window area 
must be one-tenth of the area of the roona, and the new code increases this area 
to one-eighth; the 1941 code sets a minim.um of 8 feet height for an attic room, 
whereas the old code required only 8 feet for one-half the area of the attic. More 
adequate lighting and ventilation regulations have also been m.ade. 

However, one of the striking deficiencies of the revised code is the omission 
from the body of the laws those plumbing and health laws which specifically 
apply to occupancy of dwellings. There is no real coordination of these verj^ 
closely related branches of housing, either for the convenience of the citizens or 
the inspection services of the municipality. 

It was the suggestion of the Building Congress that this should be a master 
code with all divisions coordinated and correlated. It is apparent that a thorough 
analysis of the problem, of writing a niaster building code has not yet been m.ade. 

Washington will eventually be compelled to do what other cities are doing — 
withdraw completely the revised building code and provide an entirely new one in 
conformity with modern design, materials, and practices. 

NEED FOR A HOUSING CODE 

No central authority. — Washington, like many rapidly growing cities, suffers 
from chronic disorganization. In the absence of a centralized administrative 
authority, laws and regulations provoked by demonstrated needs or striking 
emergencies, have fallen under the jurisdiction of health, building, fire, plumbing, 
zoning, or whatever department circumstances have chanced to propel them. 
The net result is a very confused m_ass of rules and regulations which bewilders 
the average landlord, tenant, or rooming-house manager. 

When a citizen complains about an inadequate window, for example, chance 
determines whether it comes under the jurisdiction of the health or building de- 
partm.ents. Often the com.plaint is lost when it is referred from one departm.ent 
to the other, and since each departm.ent disclaims responsibility, nothing is done. 
Furthermore, there is no follow-up by any central authority, and consequently, 
the maintenance of existing dwellings becomes a lost cause, and our pockmarked 
city areas of degenerate real estate grow ever larger. 

A housing code is quite distinct from a building code, from, a sanitary or health 
code, and from_ a zoning code. It has to do with houses as dwellings. It deals 
with such m.atters as light, sanitation, ventilation, room arrangement, space, pri- 
vacy, m.aintenance, protection against fire, vermin, etc., in the interest of the 
occupaints. 

A building code has to do with buildings as buildings. It controls the use of 
m.aterials, equipment, fire prevention, exits, etc., in the interest of structural 
safety. 

A health or sanitation code deals with insanitary conditions throughout- the 
comm.unity from the standpoint of public health. It includes strict regulations 
on handling of foodstuffs, use of common towels, drinking cups, problems of 
stagnant water, etc. 

A zoning code controls the development and use of private property by divid- 
ing the community into zones for each of which it specifies the permitted uses, 
proportion of lot that can be occupied, height of buildings, density and distribu- 
tion of population, etc., in the interest of the city and its inhabitants. 

From the above it can be seen that each supplements the other and there need 
be no conflict of responsibility or jurisdiction, since in each case the dwelling is 
the object of a different concern. 

The housing code drawn up by the Washington Housing Association has these 
principle divisions: (1) Provisions dealing with existing dwellings for which the 
highest practicable standards are set; (2) provisions for dwellings hereafter erected 
for which higher standards are set, since no investment has yet been made and 
no official sanction given. In this way as new buildings succeed old the standard 
for the comm.unity gradually improves; (3) provisions dealing with alterations and 
improvements of dwellings;' (4) standards of maintenance; (5) provisions dealing 
with administration. The adoption of such a housing code in the District of 
Columbia is necessary to protect the right of occupants of dwellings in Washington 
to safe and tolerable living conditions. 

Incorporated in the report are the following: 

Wartime Washington, by Merlo Pusey. Washington Post, December 23, 1941. 

Housing Proniotes Staying Power by John Ihlder, executive officer. Alley 
Dwelling Authority, December 23, 1941. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9733 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. HELEN DUEY HOFFMAN, SECRETARY, 
WASHINGTON HOUSING ASSOCIATION 

Dr. Lamb. What would be the rental average of those rooms listed 
in the office of the Housing Registry? Have you any figure on that? 

Mrs. Hoffman. They did range from $15 for a very small bedroom 
single or $15 for double, each person. There are few of those now. 
They range single $20 and up, and most of them are between $20 
and $30. Prices have gone up. 

Dr. Lamb. Are all these registered rooms singles and doubles? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Mostly doubles. Many of them are in private 
homes. You can rent single or double, dependmg on how much you 
pay. 

Dr. Lamb. And double rooms rent for 

Mrs. Hoffman. $15, $20, $22.50, and $25 for each person, depend- 
ing on whether there is a private bath, semiprivate bath and so on. 

Dr. Lamb. The rooms with private baths 

Mrs. Hoffman. Largely in private homes. 

Dr. Lamb. And that number is diminishing? 

Mrs. Hoffman. No, it is increasing. Some people who never 
rented rooms before are now doing so. 

Mr. Williams. Many of those who come here come from com- 
paratively small towns where they live one or two blocks from the 
movies and they want to stay as close to the center of things as 
they did at home. 

We have some vacancies in good rooms with private baths, more 
vacancies than we have in the poor rooms downtown. 

Dr. Lamb. How long in point of time, rather than miles, are they 
from downtown? 

Mr. Williams. Fifteen minutes up. 

Dr. Lamb. Thirty-five to fifty minutes? I am thinking of the 
District line. 

Mr. Williams. Thirty-five or forty minutes by streetcar or bus to 
town. 

Mrs. Hoffman. More than that, Mr. Williams, with the traffic as 
it is now. 

Dr. Lamb. I was asking some of the secretaries in the office yester- 
day about this commuting time and found those who were more for- 
tunate took around 30 minutes to get here. One girl who had been 
rooming well out on Sixteenth Street, quite a distance out, had to 
make a change from a streetcar to a bus and it took about 40 minutes. 

Mr. Ihlder. I participated in the checking of girls who didn't 
want to get so far out because boys don't want to spend more taxi 
fare than they have to, but there is also a difficulty in getting meals. 
I have heard of people who had to get dinner immediately on leaving 
the office and then go home, because there was no place to eat out 
where they roomed. But the main thing is the probable difficulty in 
getting transportation in the future. The rationing of tires is going 
to have a direct effect on the availability of rooms. 

Mr. Aenold. I can give you another reason why they want to live 
downtown. They come from small towns and they leave better 
paying jobs out there — that is, better paying considering their 
expenses — than they receive here, and they come here to be near the 



9734 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

bright lights, perhaps, and that is one reason they want to Hve down 
where everything is going on. They have no desire to get out in the 
suburbs because they have had enough of that back horne. 

Mr. Ihlder. But it is going to be a serious transit difficulty from 
now on. 

INSPECTION OF ROOMS 

Mr. Arnold. Now, Mr. Williams, of the number of rooms listed as 
available, how many have been inspected by your office? 

Mr. Williams. We started out having them all inspected but we 
are not keeping up with inspections now. I don't think more than 
two-thirds have been inspected. 

Mrs. Hoffman. But I have 175 volunteer women inspecting rooms 
now. 

Very careful standards were set up by the Washington Housing 
Division and on the basis of these standards the Minimum Wage 
Board Conference Committee checked rooms in setting the minimum 
wage. Rooms now, however, are passed which meet the minimum 
standards of the District according to the laws. 

However, when an applicant comes into the office, further informa- 
tion is given. It is all there on a card for the interviewer and when 
the applicant says: "I want to live in a certain district," the cards 
with the full data are there, and they know how many people are 
served by a bath and about linens and care of the house and matters 
of that sort. 

Mr. Arnold. Of the total rooms can you tell me what percentage 
are available for Negroes? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Very few. The register just has five rooms ahead 
at present. 

Mr. Thlder. From the beginning the registration has not been able 
to supply the demand by Negroes either in houses, apartments, or 
rooms. 

Mrs. Hoffman. And what rooms are available are of such poor 
character that they hesitate to list them. 

Mr. Arnold. \Vhat proportion of rooms listed are within commu- 
tation distance of the principal areas of Federal employment? 

Mr. Williams. All of them. 

Mrs. Hoffman. That is looked into very carefully. 

Mr, Ihlder. But it may be an hour or more. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Yes; it may be an hour. I beheve you have 
practically no surplus of downtown rooms now. 

Mr. Williams. The number of rooms has been decreasing. 

Mr. Ihlder. But we should add that the District Commissioners 
some time ago did call attention to the possibility that rooms would 
be needed and the zoning commission has liberalized for the duration 
the taking in of roomers or lodgers in the more restricted resident 
districts and that has made available a very considerable addition, 
but it has caused a great deal of trepidation for fear those residential 
districts might become rooming house districts. 

Mr. Arnold. What facilities are necessary to qualify as standard 
housing in the District? 

Mrsr Hoffman. The laws of the District are obsolete, very sketchy 
and for several years we have protested to the Commissioners that 
the inspection laws are inadequate and ineffectively enforced. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9735 

Mr. Arnold. Would you compare those laws with other cities of 
comparable size? 

DISTRICT HAS LOWER STANDARDS THAN MOST CITIES 

Mrs. Hoffman. I would say our standards. as set by law are lower 
than set by many other cities. 

Mr. Arnold. Lower than most cities? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I would say so, yes. For example, in Washington 
all the windows may be broken in a house with no law to take care of 
the situation, but if there is no window m a room the Health Depart- 
ment will do something about it. 

Mr. Arnold. Who is charged with housing inspection? 

Mrs. Hoffman. There are five agencies which inspect to some 
degree. A serious thing is that there are seven agencies concerned 
about licensing of the rooming houses, and I am beginning to feel sorry 
for the rooming house managers. These regulations have been 
filtering in recently without any coordination whatever. 

The Zoning Commission says any house with more than 2 people 
is a rooming house and another law says that if they have more than 
4 people they must be licensed because of health regulations and 
another one says if they have more than 10 they must be licensed. 
Who is going to do the licensing and give the clearance, I don't know. 
The problem is difficult. 

It seems to me these licensing regulations should be correlated so 
the rooming house manager will know what is expected of him and 
will be able to carry out the law and conform. I don't know how it 
will be worked out. I know what could be done. 

Mr. Arnold. There are plenty of inspectors going around? 

Mrs. Hoffman. That is the point. Last summer when a licensing 
, law was tossed into the hopper which provided there should be appli- 
cations for licenses presented if so many people were in a house, about 
a thousand rooming houses applied for licenses. They have been 
inadequately inspected. 

Now, a new health law requires licensing on the basis of new health 
regulations which were borrowed from our new housing code, so I 
think they should be good. But they are just gestures without any 
regulation for inspectioil. 

The problem in the District is that regulations have dropped and 
dropped in one department or another, as the emergency arose or 
somebody said there should be a law about it. There is no coordina- 
tion of these laws, and the enforcement is split among various agencies. 

The Health Department may report to the Building Department 
that certain houses are unsanitary and shoidd be demolished, and 
unless there is a follow-up, I certainly don't know how the laws could 
be enforced. 

Mr. Arnold. They are not very effective? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Veiy inadequate and very ineffectively enforced. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have any specific examples of living condi- 
tions of difl^erent employees? 

Mrs. Hoffman. The Government employee in the custodial grade 
here is compelled to live in inadequate housing. Usually there will 
be a father and mother and two, three or four children in a two-room 
furnished apartment. 



9736 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Some 50,000 come into the landlord-tenant court every year for non- 
payment of rent on time. The people Mr. Van Hyning deals with 
do not get into the landlord- tenant court to any great degree. 

BOOTLEG REAL-ESTATE OPERATORS 

Those people are living in rooms which are operated by what we call 
unlicensed or bootleg real-estate operators. There is a law that pro- 
vides real-estate brokers and salesmen should have licenses, but they 
don't meet the legal requirements. 

Some of those men have been operating in the city as much as 25 
years, but they are growing in numbers. There are six large operators 
who will rent a substandard house from an estate or a bank or Federal 
Government, and they rent these room by room to families. 

I took a matter up recently with Mr. McCabe of the Procurement 
Division, about a house with seven rooms which was rented to a man 
who had offered the highest bid for it — a low bid at that — and it got 
into the hands of an unlicensed operator who has a family in each 
room. The Government is getting approximately $25 for the house 
and this real estate operator is getting somewhere around $65 or more. 

The United States Government obtains these houses by condemna- 
tion. They condemn the site for a Federal building and in the 
interval before obtaining the money for the construction of the build- 
ing the house is rented. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you mean a family in each room of a seven-room 
house brings in only $65? They don't charge very high rent. 

Mrs. Hoffman. Each family is paying $2.50 or $3 a week for each 
room, with maybe three or four children in the room. 

Mr. Arnold. Are these isolated examples? 

Mrs. Hoffman. No, they are here by the thousands. Some statis- 
tics on that indicate what the situation is at the present time. I will 
give you a short paragraph [reading] : 

A 7-room house with 6 families in it; a 6-room house with 20 people in it; a 
relief fanaily with 13 persons occupying 1 room; are examples of increasing 
overcrowding. From May 1940 through December 1940, in 30 percent of the 
dwellings inspected by this association the toilet was shared bj- 2 or more 
families. In 1941, the percentage had risen to 46 percent and for November it 
was 52 percent. Overcrowding has steadily increased from 16.5 percent in 1938 
to 30.7 percent for November 1941. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have. 

Dr. Lamb. I have a few questions of Mr. Ihlder. Mr. Williams or 
Mrs. Hoffman might also want to answer. 

PRIVATE HOUSING CONSTRUCTION 

As I understand your testimony, Mr. Ihlder, of the 22,500 units 
assigned to private industry for 1942, 8,500 have already been listed 
as under building permits from last July. 

Mr. Ihlder. My understanding is that the program as of January 1, 
1942, to July 1, 1942, has 10,000 dwelling units assigned to private 
enterprise. 

Dr. Lamb. The 8,500 units listed for building last year have not 
been completed as yet? 

Mr. Ihlder. Not completed yet. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9737 



PUBLIC HOUSING CONSTRUCTION 



Dr. Lamb. How many public defense housing units were completed 
in 1941 in the District? 

Mr. Ihlder. Just two projects of the Alley Dwelling Authority, 
and they are not quite complete. They had 200 in one project and 
300 in the other. A new project by F. H. A. is 250. Those wiU be 
completed, we hope, early in February. 

Dr. Lamb. Those were built for occupancy by whom? 

Mr. Ihlder. Civilian employees of the navy yard or perhaps those 
at Boiling Field. 

Dr. Lamb. So that other civilian Government workers are not 
getting much housing under public housing? 

Mr. Ihlder. They are not. It is the narrow definition of the 
Lariham Act that obtains. 

Dr. Lamb. Unless you include the Defense Homes Corporation as 
a public agency, the figures on the housing program indicate that 
approximately 15 percent of the building has been assigned to public 
authority. Could you describe the organization set-up of the Defense 
Homes Corporation? 

Mr. Ihlder. In general terms, it is a corporation organized as a 
branch or subsidiary of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation for 
the purpose of building or promoting the building of dwellings. 

Dr. Lamb. The building is undertaken by whom? You say 
"promoting the building." 

Mr. Ihlder. It may, I believe, itself be the construction agency — 
of course, employing a private contractor — or it may be the construc- 
tion agency itself, or it may finance a construction agency. 

Dr. Lamb. I notice some 9,000 family dwelhng units are allocated 
to the Defense Homes Corporation for the year 1942. Was this 
agency in existence in 1941? 

Mr. Williams. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. What building did the Defense Homes Corporation do 
last year? 

Mr. Ihlder. Last year it undertook two projects in the District. 
One is out on O Street and the other near Meridian Park. Those are 
dormitories. 

Dr. Lamb. Are they completed? 

Mr. Ihlder. No. 

Dr. Lamb. Do you know how many they will house? 

Mrs. Hoffman. Two hundred and fifty on the O Street site and 
750 on the other site. 

Dr. Lamb. Those are single or double? 

Mrs. Hoffman. I don't know. 

Dr. Lamb. Do you know what the rents are? 

rental rates 

Mrs. Hoffman. The rents for the O Street site are $30 a month and 
$50 with breakfast and dinner. Some of us felt the rents were too 
high for the girls who needed the service most acutely. 

Dr. Lamb. Do you have any idea how many of the private industry 
units are planned for sale and how many for rent? 



9738 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Ihlder. I am not sure. Tliey are all subject to priority order 
and are limited to $6,000 as the sale price and $50 a month as rent. 

Mr. Williams. The greater number of those contemplated, that are 
actually getting started now, will be for rent. For the most part they 
are family flats, garden type apartments, as they are callecl. 

Dr. Lamb. And their rents cannot go above $50 a month? 

Mr. Williams. They can if you include certain utilities. If they 
include gas and refrigeration, they can add a little more, but the basic 
rent will not be over $50. 

Dr. Lamb. That is under the priorities which permit the building? 

Mr. Williams. Yes. 
- Dr. Lamb. Does the assignment of a priority number on materials 
enable the builder to qualify for F. H. A. funds or must the materials 
be in your possession first? 

EFFECT OF PRIORITIES ON BUILDING 

Mr. Williams. You almost have to have the material in your hands 
because the building agencies are hesitant to commit themselves on 
loans on property which may not be completed. 

Dr. Lamb. Under these cii'ciimstances how can you expect a great 
many of the 10,000 actually allocated to be built? 

Mr. Williams. The way it is working now, it is only the builders 
in excellent financial condition who can enter into contracts, those 
who can convmce the banks of their ability to do the job. 

Dr. Lamb. Is that hampering the speed with which this program is 
being fulfilled? 

Mr. Williams. Unquestionably. 

Dr. Lamb. So we may expect the 18,500 here listed, or the 10,000 
for this year, will be reduced by an appreciable amount during this 
year. We may not get the full number by the end of the year? 

Mr. Williams. I would be surprised if we did get them. 

Dr. Lamb. You wouldn't have an estimate of what you expect? 

Mr. Williams. The situation changes so rapidly 

Dr. Lamb. For the worse? 

Mr. Williams. Sometimes it looks a little better. Yesterday there 
was a meeting of builders to try to see how many units they would 
undertake and it all got back to the question you raised. They must 
first convince the lending agency that they can get the materials before 
they will lend the money. Wliether the agency is private or public, 
they want to be sure the builder will get his materials. 

Dr. Lamb. I would like to ask Mr. Ihlder if he has anything more to 
say m respect to the specific program which seems to be developmg; 
if we do have 125,000 people coming in in the next year and sub- 
tractmg any that may be moved out; what his suggestions would be 
to meet the problem. 

Mr. Ihlder. My feelmg is that while the present program that has 
been announced by the Defense Housing Coordinator is almost ultra- 
conservative in terms of need, it probably is as large as we could put 
through at the present time. If things open up a little, and if there 
is opportunity to expand it and the need contmues to be evident, I 
think we can depend on him to be alive to that and expand the 
program as required and as the opportunity offers, but at the present 
time my belief is that this is as large a program as we can expect to 
put through in the next 6 months. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9739 

Dr. Lamb. In terms of the situation that sounds like a cry of despair. 
Mr. Ihlder. That is true. It is, of course, a well-known fact that 
the good city is the city that gi'ows steadily and not too rapidly. 

CITY EXPANDING TOO RAPIDLY 

Sudden spurts, such as Washington is having now% raise problems 
that cannot be properly handled. They put tasks before the city 
that cannot properly be done. We are doing the best we can but if we 
are to get 125,000 more people in a city almost saturated, within the 
next 12 months, our job cannot be done properly. 

But I believe that the Coordinator's program does represent about 
all that we can have any confidence of doing during the next 6 months. 
If during that time we find that more can be done, I am sure he will 
enlarge his program. 

Dr. Lamb. And you are prepared to predict that that program won't 
be completed in the time set? 

Mr. Ihlder. I question whether that many houses are going to be 
built by July 1, but we are going to make every effort to do it. 

ALLEY DAVELLING AUTHORITY 

Mr. Curtis. When was the Allev Dwelling Authority created? 

Mr. Ihlder. The bill was drafted in 1929 and 1930. It was enacted 
in May or June of 1934. 

Mr. Curtis. And when was your organization set up? 

Mr. Ihlder. It was set up formally in October of 1934. 

Mr. Curtis. And what are the total funds that yrtu have received 
from all sources since that time? 

Mr. Ihlder. For the first 2 or 3 years we operated on an appro- 
priation of $500,000, which we have always treated as a loan to be 
returned with interest. After the enactment of the United States 
Housing Law or Act enabling us to take advantage of loans from the 
United States Housing Authority, as local housing authorities in other 
cities do, we secured larger funds. Before that time the President had 
made some allocations so that our total capital was approximately 
$1,000,000. 

After we began to borrow fi'om the LTnited States Housing Authority 
we have secured, I believe, about $15,000,000 — it goes back and forth 
a bit— but I think it is about $15,000,000. 

Then came the defense housing projects, so it looks as if we would 
have, bv the end of this vear, an investment or commitments of 
approximately $20,000,000.' 

Mr. Curtis. That is both loan and direct appropriation and allo- 
cation of funds, appropriations, and so forth? 

Mr. Ihlder. Yes, but every dollar we have secured we treat as a 
loan to be returned with interest. The only exception to that is the 
subsidy money which is given to us as a subsidy. 

SUBSIDY MONEY FROM UNITED STATES HOUSING AUTHORITY 

Mr. Curtis. Does this $20,000,000 include the subsidy? 

Mr. Ihlder. No, sir. The subsidy money comes from U. S. H. A. 

Mr. Cl'Rtis. How much is that? 



9740 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Ihlder. Somewhat less than the interest and amortization on 
the capital. 

Mr. Curtis. How much is it? 

Mr. Ihlder. Well, that depends on how much we have out at the 
moment. I can give you the figure as of any date when I go back to 
the office, but it amounts to, I should say, four-fifths or so of the 
interest and amortization of the money that we actually have put 
into use, and that depends on the state of our different projects. 

Mr. Curtis. I want this, not as of the end of 1942, but as of the 
end of 1941. You will supply me with the total amount of money 
you have received from all sources? 

Mr. Ihlder. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, this is my last question. How many family 
units that have been built by you, by the Alley Dwelling Authority, 
are now available for occupation? 

Mr. Ihlder. Depending on memory — we are now making up a 
statement as of December 31, but to use rough figures temporarily — 
we have approximately 2,000. We have under planning and under 
construction 2,000, and then the 850 defense housing units. 

Mr. Curtis. But you will supply the 

Mr. Ihlder. I will give you the exact figures as of December 31. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Hoffman, Mr. Ihlder, and Mr. Williams, we 
appreciate your coming here very much. The committee will now 
stand adjourned until 9:30 tomorrow morning. 

(Whereupon, at 1:15 o'clock, the committee adjourned until 9:30 
a. m., Wednesday, January 14, 1942.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 14, 1942 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
The cominittee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:30 a. m., in room 1301, 
New House Office Building, Washington, D. C, Hon. John H. Tolan 
(chairman) presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of Cali- 
fornia; John J. Sparkman, of Alabama; Laurence F. Arnold, of Illi- 
nois, and Carl T. Curtis, of Nebraska. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director of the committee. 
The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. Mayor 
LaGuardia, you will be the first witness. Talve a seat right here, Mr. 
Mayoi". 

TESTIMONY OF HON. FIORELLO H. LaGUAEDIA, DIRECTOR, OFFICE 
OF CIVILIAN DEFENSE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Chairman. Mayor LaGuardia, this congressional committee 
feels very friendly toward you. You were our first witness when this 
committee was appointed in April 1940. At that time, of course, we 
didn't know much about the subject of migration, and don't know a 
whole lot about it now; but there seemed to be a prevalent idea in the 
United States that the migration of destitute citizens between States 
just affected one State — California. So our committee decided we 
should go to New York, and you gave the committee quite a good 
start, because immediately you designated migration as a national 
problem. From New York we went to Alabama, and Ilhnois, and 
Oklahoma, and back to Washington, and made our report to Congress. 

A year ago last April our committee was continued by Congress to 
study the problem of defense migration. Since that time we have 
visited San Diego, which of course is one of the hottest spots in the 
United States. Then we went to New Jersey, Connecticut, and Mary- 
land and to Michigan to investigate defense conversion and its effect 
on migration. We then made a partial report. We very quickly 
found out that the mass migration of destitute citizens depended upon 
many factors: Worn-out soil, unemployment, mechanization, and so 
forth. There is no single solution to this problem. 

You may wonder why we reach out into health and recreation and 
housing. Well, those matters tie directly into migration. If a par- 
ticular community does not have those facilities, people just keep on 
moving. A similar situation exists with regard to the automobile 

9741 



9742 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

industry: if they don't convert, the disemployed workers will migrate 
elsewhere. 

So, Mr. Mayor, I again repeat, this committee feels very friendly 
toward you and appreciate your very valuable testimony which we 
referred to in our report. 

This is Congressman Arnold at the extreme right, from Illinois 
[indicating] ; this is Congressman Sparkman from Alabama [indicating] ; 
to my left here is Congressman Curtis, of Nebraska. We have another 
member, Congressman Osmers, of New Jersey. He is a Republican 
and a bachelor, so we sent him down to Fort Meade. He's in the 
Army now, or else he would be here. 

I will turn you over now to the tender mercies of Congressman 
Sparkman, of Alabama. 

Air. Sparkman. Mr. Mayor, I have several questions sketched 
down here that I want to ask you, bearing directly upon the work 
of the Office of Civilian Defense: 

Will you give us a brief picture of the task assigned to the Office 
of Civilian Defense by the Executive order which established it, and 
indicate the present structure of the set-up? 

ESTABLISHMENT OF OFFICE OF CIVILIAN DEFENSE 

/ 

Mayor LaGuardia. The Office of Civilian Defense was established 
by Executive order last May. The President had been thinking about 
it for a long time. 

Of course, the President was way ahead of the procession in that, 
as he was in all war measures. I don't thin]\ there is a better-informed 
man on the European situation than the President. We had been dis- 
cussing it for a long time. 

The United States Conference of Mayors is very closely associated 
with our colleagues in Great Britain, and we obtained not ouly all of 
the reports and instructions from Great Britain but we had also the 
benefit of the experience and reaction of the mayors. I have known 
Mr. Herbert Morrison for a long time. He was, as you know, presi- 
dent of the London County Council, which corresponds to my office 
in New York City. 

The United States Conference of Mayors made a survey and study 
and submitted it to the President, and he submitted it to the War 
Department. That was in the summer of 1940. 

The matter received a great deal of study, and last May the Presi- 
dent signed the order, established the Office of Civilian Defense, and 
asked me to take over the job. 

I do not believe there was any doubt in the mind of the President 
that it was necessary to have it well organized in the event that we 
got involved in the war. 

The Executive order provided that the Office of Civilian Defense 
would take over the protective side of civilian defense and the pro- 
tection of civilians in the event of an attack by a foreign enemy. 
Perhaps the name was not a good one. I fear that a great many 
people really believe that we have defense forces. Very often 1 am 
asked about antiaircraft guns, airplanes, coast defense, and the Navy. 
Are we sure that we can keep the enemy planes from attacking our 
citv? and so forth. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9743 

Well, that is not our function; that is purely a military and naval 
function and has nothing to do with civilian defense. In other words, 
we do not come into action unless the enemy gets by the Army and 

the Navy. 

CIVILIAN SELF-DEFENSE 

Mr. Sparkman. Your set-up is one of self-protection? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Passive self-defense of the civilian. We have 
nothing to shoot back with. 

Therefore, I gave first attention to the protective side of the order. 
We conimenced with study and with forming the rules, regulations, 
and instructions as to what to do in the event of enemy planes getting 
by the Army and Navy and actually dropping bombs on our cities or 
our territory. That included air raid warden servic(>, fire auxiliary 
forces, emergency repair squads, and medical rescue squads. That in 
itself was quite a task. The President also included in the order that 
the Office of Civilian Defense had to approve any matter invohang 
public relations, or civilian participation by other agencies of Govern- 
ment. Well, we have tried to cooperate on our side. 

We started with nothing. All we had was an Executive order and 
the experience of Great Britain. We were finally given quarters. 
The order provided for reprc^sentatives of the Army and the Navy. 
The Army assigned a very excellent officer, a former deputy chief 
of staff. Brig. Gen. L. D. Gasser. The Navy assigned Rear Admiral 
Clark Woodward. That was our start. 

We slowly built up an organization. I, being an executive of a city 
and having had more experience in making budgets and breaking 
budgets, proceeded rather slowly with the formation of a clerical staff. 
1 don't like large clerical stafi's. That has not helped my popularity 
in certain quarters in Washington. D. C. I don't believe we are over- 
staffed on the protective side of my office. 

regional offices 

The order provided for the establishment of regional offices through- 
out th(^ coinitry. We took as a region the same area as that of an 
Army corps area, an.d we established offices in Boston, New York, 
Baltimore, Atlanta, San Antonio, San Francisco, Omaha, and Chicago. 

A regional director was appointed for each region: The regional 
director for Chicago is salaried; Omaha is salaried; and I believe we 
will have to have a salaried director in Baltimore. Then the Army 
assigned officers and the Navy assigned officers to each of the regional 
offices. 

Long before I was appointed director 1 sent a board of fire officials 
of New York City to Great Britain to study fire fighting under war 
conditions. They had returned and made their report, so we had the 
benefit of their first-hand observations. 

Shortly after I assumed office 1 appointed a board consisting of 
commanding officer of the State Police, the State of Michigan, one of 
my own deputy chief inspectors in New York, two engineers of cities, 
one puolic health official of a city, and a construction man, and we 
sent them to Great Britain. They made a survey and a study there 
in the various activities of their fields, and they returned and submitted 
a complete report to me. 

60396 — 42— pt. 25 8 



9744 WASHINGTON HEAKINGS 

INSTRUCTIONS AND HANDBOOKS ISSUED 

Then we proceeded to prepare the instructions: Oral instructions, 
handbooks for air-raid wardens, fire auxiliary, black-out instructions, 
and so forth. I would like to leave a set of those instructions with 
the committee. 

Mr. Sparkman. We would be glad to have them.^ 

Mayor LaGuardia. May I say tliis — and I say this without 
reservation: There isn't a person in this country, who has criticized 
the Office of Civilian Defense, that had read those instructions. One 
very well-known writer wrote an article on civilian defense, and 1 
week after his article appeared he did us the compliment to ask us if 
we had any instructions that we had sent to the field, that he would 
like to see them. 

Now, here are some of them [indicatmg]. Here is the Air Raid 
Warning System. That [indicatmg] is a book of instructions. Train- 
ing Courses for Civilian Protection. What To Do in an Air Raid. 
We want one of these in each family. 

This is Meet Your Air Raid W^arden, which gives the elementary 
rules for individuals. You see, we printed it on inexpensive paper. 
The first order was 39,000,000. Now, if you ask me how they were 
distributed, all I can say is I hope they have been distributed. 

We are not permitted, gentlemen, to go into a city and distribute 
them. I do in my town, because I happen to be the mayor of that 
town, and other mayors have done it, if we could bootleg some of this 
official information to the mayors, but we are not permitted to send 
them to the mayors. We have to go through an involved and com- 
plicated, complex system of State government. Some States have 
distributed them; as to others, I don't know. 

The Chairman. Are there State laws against the distribution of 
such material? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Oh, no. 

Here is the complete list. 

(The following publications issued by the Office of Civilian Defense 
were offered in evidence, accepted for study by the committee and 
are held in committee files:) 

Report of Bomb Tests on Materials and Structures. 

Protection of Industrial Plants and Public Buildings. 

Glass and Glass Substitutes. 

Equipment and Operation of Emergency Medical Field Units. 

Civil Air Patrol. 

Training Courses for Civilian Protection. 

Emergency Medical Services for Civilian Defense. 

Meet Your Air Raid Warden. 

What To Do in an Air Raid. 

Black-outs. 

Air Raid Warning System. 

Protection Against Gas. 

Auxiliary Firemen. 

Fire Protection in Civilian Defense. 

Decontamination Squads. 

Fire Watchers. 

Demolition and Clearance Crews. 

Handbook of First Aid. 

A Handbook for Messengers. 

A Handbook for Rescue Squads. 

A Handbook for Road Repair Crews. 



' See list above. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9745 

Now, gentlemen, many of my colleagues in the House the other 
day, who spoke, haven't read those pamphlets or instructions, nor 
have they any idea of the amount of work that is involved in their 
preparation. Every bit, every line, is the result of careful study of 
actual experience in Great Britain and of consultation with experts 
on the subject. 

The Chairman. Mr. Keporter, will you see that they are mai'ked 
as exhibits? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Here is the first day. Glass and Glass Sub- 
stitutes. "Volunteer Offices." I have got more coming. 

You remember, Mr. Chairman, the passage in St. Luke: "Those 
who have the key " 

The Chairman. I know St. Paul better than St. Luke. 

Mayor LaGuardia. "Those who have the key to the temple of 
knowledge, they enter not and they permit not others to enter." That 
has been my experience, with all this labor. 

Mr. Curtis. Maybe the failing of your Office, if it has any, is that 
it didn't provide for those who can't read, mcluding some of the 
Congressmen. 

Mayor LaGuardia. I sent a copy to every Member; I couldn't 
do any more. But I can understand that. I remember how mail 
used to come to my office by the ton. But I at least could make be- 
lieve that I had read them. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Mayor, you stole my thunder. I was going 
to tell you I had read them. 

jurisdictional disputes 

Mayor LaGuardia. Thanks. Then we appomted directors for 
metropolitan areas, in addition to the regional directors, and that has 
caused me no little trouble and grief. 

Most of us have flown, gentlemen. You will remember that if you 
are in a plane, and you look down, you see a city as one large develop- 
ment; no one can tell where the city Imes are or where county lines are; 
it is just one mass of development. Therefore, we formed metropoli- 
tan areas and appointed the mayor of the largest unit as the cooi'di- 
nator. 

Now, the purpose of that is that many factors enter into the success 
of a bombing attack: it may be the defense; it may be the weather; 
it may be the wind — any factor. 

So you can never tell just what section of your metropolitan area 
is going to be hit, and you require flexibility; so that you can move your 
fire apparatus and medical aid from one section to the other. 

Well, we first ran against the local jealousies — city lines and munici- 
palities beyond the city lines ; in other cases, county lines ; and, in other 
cases, State lines — and we had to live through that. It was not an 
easy matter, and we have that now, I think, pretty well cleared up. 

We had trouble of that sort in Philadelphia; we had trouble in 
Detroit; and we had trouble in Los Angeles. 

We didn't have any trouble down my way, because, in my little 
town down there, we kind of know each other; and we never had a 
meeting. All we do is pick up the telephone. I can say to the neigh- 
boring mayor: "Send me the fire department for my village," and he 



9746 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

can call up and say: "Send me a fireman for my town." That is all 
there is to it. We had no trouble down there. In other cases we had 
a g:reat many jurisdictional conflicts. 

There is not time, in warfare, to think about local jurisdictional 
conflicts. I w^ant to fight the Japs and the Italians and the Germans; 
I don't want to fight sheriffs and Governors; I don't like to. I hate 
fighting anyhow. 

The Chairman. Mayor, right there; that geographical problem — 
48 States — is not comparable with Eneland at all, is it? 

Ma' or LaGuardia. No; and we will necessarily have to go through 
this difficult period. England did, Mr. Chairman. England had 
the provinces and the counties. When the bombing got heavy Great 
Britain federalized the fire department, so now there is no more prob- 
lem of that kind. They can shift it where it is needed. And they 
just took fire departments out of inland cities and placed them in indus- 
trial centers, where they w^ere attacked. And England has federalized 
its air raid warden service very well. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is a result, how^ever, of a very real danger, 
rather than a danger that you tried to make the public anticipate? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Yes; I will come to that, if I may. 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if, right there, I might ask you a question 
about these various State set-ups. 

You have described to us the regional offices. There are nine 
regional offices corresponding to the nine areas in our military defense? 

Major LaGuardia. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. Then, under your regional office, I gather that 
you asked the State to organize, is that right? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Well, many of the States had State defense 
counsels before we were set up. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, they came right into your organization, did 
they not? 

Mayor LaGuardia. I wouldn't say so. 

DUTIES OF REGIONAL OFFICES 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, how do they function under the regional 
office? What is your next step? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Our next step is to have the regional officer 
coordinate all these various activities. In other words, it is his 
responsibility to beg, plead, cajole, or in some way get the local 
defense counsels to establish their air-raid warden service, their fire 
auxiliary, their medical rescue, and their emergency repair. That 
has been done, and it is going on very nicel}'^ now. 

Our difficulty has been in getting down to the local government. 
You see, gentlemen, that under modern warfare, and the new tech- 
nique of warfare, it is the industrial city that is the target of attack. 
The reason for that is not because they want to kill women and 
children; the reason for that is because they want to retard or destroy 
w^ar production, and it does slow it up, and therefore every city has 
become a legitimate target of attack. Whether we approve of it or 
not is not the question. It is a target of attack, and this protection 
service that I am telling you about, you find in the established func- 
tional departments of municipal government. Air-raid wardens 
belong in the police department. You have a fire department; what 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9747 

you have to do is to increase the fire department in personnel and 
equipment, and I hope you will ask me about equipment later on. 

You must take care of the injured and bury the dead, and the cities 
are equipped to do that. They have their hospital service and their 
health service. You enlarge that service to take care of the emer- 
gency. Then you have the damage wrought by high explosives or 
incendiary bombs; we have cared for the fii'st by the increased fire 
department. Then you have the collapse of buildings, the tearing up 
of your streets, the breaking of your water mains, sewers, and gas 
mains. 

EMERGENCY REPAIR SERVICES 

Then you organize; you increase your departments: Your water 
department, your street repair department, your gas department, and 
your public works. You take the equipment that you have and you 
supplement it with the equipment of the utilit}^ companies, and you 
supplement it with the ecpiipment of the contractors. You have your 
traiiled personnel there, you form your batteries and they are ready 
to move out to make immediate emergency repair, as it happens. 

You can't make permanent repairs, but you must make emergency 
repairs, because you may have a break of a water main and a sewage 
main alongside of it, and the first thing you know you contaminate all 
of your water supply. You must make your emergency repairs on 
water supply, because you can't fight fires unless you do. 

There is a British city, gentlemen, that was bombed very heavily 
all one night and all one day, and they destroyed the whole water 
supply. Now, had the Germans returned there on the second day 
they couldn't have fought those fires, but as it happened they didn't — 
they had a couple of clays, and they just ran a temporary pipe line 
surroimding the city and they drew from that. 

Those immediate emergency repairs are a matter of life and death, 
the cities have the machinery, the equipment, and the perse iinel to 
handle it. All you have to do is to increase your city apparatus and to 
organize it so it can move out on an instant. That is being done all 
over the country. 

In the beginning, of course, it was very difficult to get the actual 
training going. 

AIR-RAID WARDEN INSTRUCTION 

Take the fire auxiliary; we have no trouble w4th that, gentlemen, 
because they are trained at the fire houses and with apparatus. They 
see it ; they can handle it. And they gradually absorb the necessary 
knowledge and go out to fires to learn further. But take the air raid 
w^arden: after you have read the lectures to them, after you have 
given them the field medical instructions, then you ask them to drill. 
They must patrol beats 1 or 2 hours a day, and nothing happens. It 
becomes very monotonous and tedious, and we are bound to have a 
turn-over. 

Also, the spot fire fighters, for fighting incendiary bombs; in the 
beginning of the war that was one of the greatest hazards in the 
British cities. But as they developed the technique of fighting these 
incendiary bombs, and as the efficiency of the air raid wardens in- 
creased, it became no longer a great hazard. Now we know the 



9748 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

technique of fighting these incendiary bombs; they have instructed 
our air raid wardens; we have given them the technique; but we 
haven't any material with which they can have actual practice. 

At Edgewood Arsenal, near Baltimore, the Army has provided a 
school with a 2-week course. We have 50 officials there every 2 weeks. 
It has been running for the last 5 months and we have graduated 
hundreds of officials. 

They, in turn, go home to instruct these air raid wardens in fighting 
incendiary bombs. But we can't demonstrate. We haven't any 
magnesium, and there is nothing that can simulate it. You have to 
give them the real test of the heat, how near they can approach to it 
and how long it burns. We begged around, and we just couldn't get 
it. So we shopped around, and finally the director of the United 
States Council of Mayors got in touch with some of our British 
colleagues and we got a thousand incendiary bombs, which they 
shipped to us. 

DUTY ON BOMBS FOR DEMONSTRATION • 

They arrived in New York the other day, gentlemen, and I was 
kind of proud, and I thought, "Well, here is a chance, at least, where I 
can show off," because nobody else could get any of them. We went 
down to the customhouse, and I had a police officer and a truck to 
get them, and lo and behold, the customs people made me pay $18.75 
duty on them. And there you are. 

The Chairman. Did you have the $18.75? 

Mayor LaGuardia. We scraped it up some way. The training of 
the air-raid wardens is really a tedious and uninteresting course — just 
to take an untrained man or woman and have him patrol 1 hour or 
2 hours, or put him on a roof top where he will be stationed for 1 or 
2 hours. It is pretty generous of them when you get them to do that, 
and we have to do it, to toughen them up. That is going on very well 
throughout the country, 

Mr. Sparkman. Let me ask you another ciuestion with reference to 
this organization. 

Mayor LaGuardia. May I also mention just one other thhig? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes; surely. 

Mayor LaGuardia. Then there is the medical rescue squad, that 
is in splendid shape. Medical units have been formed in all of the 
hospitals, and they move*out on the alarm and establish field stations. 

The injured are taken first by the air raid wardens and those having 
first aid training, and they are stretchered to these field stations. 
There they receive attention by physicians and trained nurses, and 
from there they are evacuated to the base hospitals. That is well 
organized throughout the country. 

Mr. Sparkman. I want to get a little clearer in my own mind as to 
the organization of your set-up. 

I gather, from what you say, that, if you had your A^ay about it, 
your organization would center more or less around the cities — ^rather, 
around the metropolitan areas — with emphasis on the industrial sec- 
tions of the country, rather than to follow State, county, and city 
lines. 

Mayor LaGuardia. Generally, I think that expresses my views. 
In other words, as a Federal agency, we ought to have the power for 
direct contact anywhere we maj^ find it is necessary". 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9749 

Mr. Sparkman. Now, under the present set-up, you find yourself 
dealing with a great many organizations that have grown up, some of 
them even before you were organized. So your own organization 
more or less stops with your regional office, and that office thus becomes 
a kind of coordmator? 

Mayor LaGuardia. A coordinator, yes; and there to help, insofar 
as the State organizations will permit us to help. Now, as to New 
Jersey: New Jersey insists that we cannot have any direct communi- 
cation with any localit3^ 

Mr, Sparkman. How many States have defense councils? 

Mayor LaGuardia. All of them. 

A4r. Curtis. May I ask a question at that point? 

.Mr. Sparkman. Surely. 

Mr. Curtis. Is it your opinion, Mr. Mayor, tliat the program of 
civilian defense should be uniform throughout the United States? 

I am thinking of the problems that you have in New York City, 
or that they have in Los Angeles, as compared to a village in the 
Middle West of a thousand people, far removed from any military 
objectives. 

I am not msinuating what the answer should be. I am just 
wondering what your opinion is on that, to bring the best results 
and the best discipline on the part of all. 

Mayor LaGuardia. I am glad you mentioned that. I believe 
that the protective side of civilian defense ought to be a national 
system, and uniform in its organization. 

No set of rules, gentlemen, can possibly apply to every city, so 
these rules and regulations and instructions are written on a national 
basis, with the distinct understanding that they are susceptible to 
modification to meet local conditions. Therefore, the applicntion of 
these rules will depend upon the layout of your city, the type of 
structures in your city, even the make-up of your population. They 
are all susceptible to modification to meet local conditions, but your 
general plan, gentlemen, should be uniform. 

These state defense councils, gentlemen — and I hope you will not 
misunderstand me — have done excellent work. They mean well, 
but they are too large, and you cannot command operations by a 
committee. 

SUGGESTED SET-UP 

Therefore, the ideal set-up would be to follow the chart, having a 
general command in Washington, a regional command, and then a 
command in every area, with air raid wardens under the command 
of one individual, preferably the police commissioner or the chief of 
police; fire-fighting forces under the command of the fire chief; 
emergency repair under the command of whoever handles the public 
works or a comparable competent technical official, and your medical 
rescue under whoever has charge of your hospital departments. 

In many activities of civilian defense, your State defense council 
is excellent. They have contact with its social work, its welfare 
work, its health work, its recreational work — that is all fine — and 
they can split up into subcommittees and work with these established 
agencies of the State and the counties and the municipalities; but 
when it comes to acting under fire, they must regulate the conduct 



9750 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

of the people in order for the people to protect themselves, and they 
must fight fires, and they must carry on this emergency work, and 
they must care for the injured. There you must have individual 
responsibility and individual command or you are going to have 
confusion. 

Does that answer your question? 

Mr. Curtis. I think the civilian defense in the interior of the 
country has a great work do to, but I wonder, sometimes, if, by 
requiring them to pursue the same course of action and live the same 
life as at another point where the problems may be very different, 
you might get a reaction opposite from that which you were seeking. 

Mayor LaGuardia, I agree absolutely with you. 

Mr. Curtis. It is a great agency for morale and discipline and all 
those things. 

Mayor LaGuardia. East of the Rockies and west of the Alle- 
ghenies, in so far as air raid wardens are concerned, I do not believe 
they should do anythmg else but have an organization plan. I do 
not believe, for the time being, gentlemen, that any more than that 
is necessary. 

AREAS REQUIRING LIMITED PARTICIPATION 

I would except from that, though, the cities on the Great Lakes, 
because we have found that the Nazis are very resourceful. They 
have carried out air attacks that were considered impossible. But 
in those sections east of the Rockies and west of the Alleghenies, 
and just excluding the cities along the Gulf of Mexico and some of 
the highly industrial cities along our Great Lakes, I think that the 
activities of the Office of Civilian Defense should be limited, for the 
time being, to the morale, to the health, to the recreation, and to the 
related activities that are in our voluntary participation division 
of the Office of Civilian Defense. 

Ycu see, gentlemen, it all depends upon the relative position of 
the enemy forces. Take the Atlantic: At the present time, with 
Great Britain, Great Britain's Fleet, the R. A. F., the American 
outposts, our naval patrol, our air defense, I do not believe that we 
are subject to or liable to have long sustained, repeated attacks. 

We are not out of the danger of having short, sporadic, quick, 
sudden, surprise attacks, but, if that condition changes on the At- 
lantic side, then naturally we will have to change accordingly, and 
perhaps go to permanent black-outs and take all such permanent 
or more elaborate measures. At present, we must take precaution- 
ary measures and be careful and be on the alert, but our chances 
of prolonged bombing are much smaller now. 

On the Pacific, of course, you have another situation, but you 
also have greater distances, and civilian defense must always be 
guided by the military situation as they are informed of it by the 
Army or the Navy. 

Mr. Curtis. If you will pardon me, in that connection have you 
had a budget that^ permitted you to buy newspaper space to carry 
advertising? 

Mayor LaGuardia. No; and I hope we never have. 

Mr. Curtis. I have noticed some midwestern newspapers — in 
fact, in my own district — carrying full-page ads on what to do in 
an air raid. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9751 

Mayor LaGuardia. Ads? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes; apparently. I suppose it may have been just 
public spirit on the part of the newspapers. 

Mayor LaGuardia. I am informed that that was not an ad. We 
furnished that mat and they ran it for us. 

Mr. Curtis. Free of charge? 

Mr. LaGuardia. Yes. The papers wouldn't charge us for that. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Mayor, what has been the source of your 
funds for the support of your work thus far? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Federal. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, have there been appropriations made by 
Congress already? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Yes, sir; for the Ofhce. 

Mr. Sparkman. For the Office but not for the equipment? 

Mayor LaGuardia. I think they have been very generous. I 
have never spent all that was allowed to me in any one quarter, 
on the protective side. I think the voluntary participation would 
need more money. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, there is some talk of legislation — ^in fact 
it may be that bills are pending already — to change the voluntary 
status of the people who are assisting in the program to a paid per- 
sonnel basis. What is your opinion as to that? 

Mayor LaGuardia. I don't care whether you pay them or not, if 
you get the right person. No matter who he is, he is going to be 
unpopidar if he tells the truth, the way I am this morning. 

You can't buck up against 48 defense councils, averaging from 150 
to 170 fine, enthusiastic, patriotic, wUling people, and do a good job 
without running into opposition. As to those two bills that are 
pending, Mr. Chairman — one the Senate bill and the other the House 
bill — it doesn't make a particle of difference which of the two bills 
you pass; it will not make a particle of difference, gentlemen. All 
the work is done. 

PURCHASES MADE BY ARMY 

Let me tell you about that: In the first place we never intended to 
do the buying. I wouldn't want to do it because we have only a 
few purchases to make, and I didn't want to build a great big pur- 
chasing staff, with technicians and engineers and inspectors. So I 
asked the Army to do it for us, and the Army consented. The 
specifications have been drawn, the inventories have been made, and 
the Army is ready to shoot it out the door. 

Now, we were going to do the allocation. It makes no dift'erence 
which of the two bills you pass. The allocation has been made. 
All we have to do is pick up the book and hand it to whoever is 
going to do the job. I can tell you just how many boots, how many 
helmets, all every city is going to get. So don't lose any time with it. 
Let's get it going. 

Mr. Sparkman. You were talking about the little squabble we had 
the other day on authorizing purchase of equipment? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. I had reference to the other, the paying of your 
personnel, taking them off of the voluntary basis, not necessarily all 
of them but a great many of them. There has been some suggestion 
that that be done. 



9752 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mayor LaGuardia. Do you mean air-raid wardens, too, in the field? 

Mr. Sparkman. I don't know how far down it is proposed to go. I 
am just asking for information. 

Mayor LaGuardia. I still believe in our form of government. 
Anything Congress says is O. K. with me. 

Mr. Sparkman. But the work has been proceeding satisfactorily, 
you think, on a voluntary basis? 

Mayor LaGuardia. I know it. If I were a smarter person perhaps 
I would say it has been a magnificent job. However, I don't give 
(snapping fingers) who says it hasn't been, because I know it has been 
done. 

Mr. Sparkman. Referring to this fight that we had in the House the 
other day: You heard something about it, did you not? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Yes, sir. Sure. 

Mr. Sparkman. I happen to be one of those who voted to leave the 
authority where the President said it ought to be; therefore I think 
I can ask you these questions. 

Mayor LaGuardia. Surely. 

proposed legislative changes 

Mr. Sparkman. The principal objections raised, as I recall, in the 
debates, were, first of all, that the military organization \\as better 
equipped to give us a uniform program throughout the entn-e country; 
second, that satisfactory progress had not been made thus far in the 
program, and that thei'e is a groat deal of confusion. I think you have 
described the reason for that quite well to us this morning. The third 
was that the office of Director of Civilian Defense was so big and 
exacting that it ought to have, as its director, a full-time official, 
and that one who was filling the very big job as mayor of our largest 
city could not possibly have time to fill properly the job of Director of 
Civilian Defense. 

I just wondered if you would care to comment on the whole situation. 

Mayor LaGuardia. Let's take the first objection: The Army. 
I don't think it is a military task; I don't think the Army wants it. 
It is fire-fighting and preparing for the injured, and those are purely 
civilian defense activities which we are prepared to do. I am sure the 
Army doesn't want to go into child care, nutrition, recreation. So 
much for that. 

Mr. Sparkman. May I interject there? I gather from what you 
have just said that as a matter of fact you plan to use the Army for 
procurement purposes. 

Mayor LaGuardia. Oh, yes; that was planned right from the very 
beginning, and they are going to do all the procuring for us. Other- 
wise, look what a stafi we would have to build. 

That is why I am just a little different than some of the other 
agencies around here: I don't want that kind of a staff. W^at 
would I do with them afterward? If they are good they belong in 
other departments; if they are no good I don't want them. 

Now as to your second question: I can assure you that everything 
that is humanly possible^ — all the education preparatory to the tech- 
nical and to the scientific work — has been accomphshed. 

Now, on the tliird: Speaking personally, if I had been a Member 
of the House, I could have criticized that much better than was done 
on the floor of the House. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9753 

THREE ALTERNATIVES 

But seriously, gentlemen, I do get pretty tired at the end of the 
day, and I tliink that before very long I will have to choose one of 
three alternatives. 

I do want to stay until you get that first bill by, and I want to stay 
until the other bill which the President has approved for sencUng to 
Congress — providing for compensation for injured air raid wardens, 
fire auxiliary, medical rescue crews, and so forth — the bill which has 
been drafted by the Department of Justice, and is now part of an 
omnibus bill consisting of several emergency pieces of legislation. 

I would like to see those bills passed and get the work started, and 
then, frankly, gentlemen, I will have to make one of three choices: 

I will either give up being mayor of the city of New York, and take 
the Office of Civilian Defense, if it is the President's wish that I should; 
or I can give up the Office of Civilian Defense and go back to New 
York and mind my own business and criticize everj^thing that is going 
on in Washington, or I might do what I did in the last war, if I can 
get by with it. 

So that yet has to be decided. 

Mr. SpARKMAN. Mr. LaGuardia, you have had opportunity to 
observe, to some extent at least, the defense organization in the 
District of Columbia, have you not? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. What is your reaction to that? 

Mayor LaGuardia. I think the personnel — the head and the 
Commissioners — have a very intelligent understanding of the problem. 

I think that the Director selected is an excellent man. I also want 
to say that many of the local organizations throughout the country, 
and the State organizations, are very good; they are excellent. 

Now, in the District of Cokunbia 1 have only one criticism, and that 
is a matter of organization. I believe that the air-raid wardens ought 
to be under the Police Department, and the fire auxiliary ought to be 
imder the Fire Department, and that your medical rescue ought to be 
under the Hospital Department, and that your emergency repair 
ought to be along the lines I described. As it is now, you have a 
coordinator, and 1 strongly urge you to adopt the organization that 
I have suggested. 

Now, Congress has not done its part with the District of Columbia; 
your Washington government needs more money. Now, I Imow 
what I am talking about, gentlemen. I run a town myself with a 
budget of over $580,000,000, and I laiow what it costs to run a city. 

REQUIREMENTS OF DISTRICT 

You must give that Police Department more men. You must give 
it more firemen. More policemen and more firemen. And you must 
give it more equipment. It needs more emergency hose. That was 
just loiocked out because somebody believed that they didn't need 
that additional hose. You must have a large supply of reserve hose, 
because you can't tell what part of your water supply will be blown 
up or destroyed or impaired, and you have to reach out and get water 
wherever you can fuicl it, and you may have to pmnp great distances. 
So it is very foohsh economy not to give the Fire Department the hose 
that it needs, and I hope that, when that bill does come before the 



9754 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

House, that will be remembered, and ample provision made for 
more hose. 

BLACK-OUTS 

Now, Washington is a difficult place to operate in, and I wouldn't 
say that it is free from all danger. It is not a difficult place to find: 
that is very easy. Even I could find it, and I was the worst flyer in 
the whole A. E. F. On a moonlight night — on any night — whether 
you have a black-out or not, you can find Washington; that is no 
trouble at all. 

A black-out wouldn't help much. The only purpose of a black-out 
is it makes it more difficult to identify a specific place: For instance, 
the navy yard, or some strategic place like that, but the city can be 
found. 

I thought the black-out the other evening was rather successful. 
The streets were well cleared, and the people bt^haved well, except 
that they were all with their noses up against the windows, exactl}^ 
where they shouldn't be; they should keep away from the windows, 
but I don't think they would be there if there should be a raid. 

However, there is an intelligent understanding of the problem, 
there is a desire to do a good job, and Congress ought to give it the 
support it needs. 

Mr. Sparkman. Thank you, Mr. Mayor. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Mayor, you spoke of sending out 39 million, or 
having printed 39 million, of one of those pamphlets? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Does that apply to all of those publications or just 
certain ones? 

Mayor LaGuardia. No, no. Just to this one containing general 
inforn?ation to the citizenry. 

Mr. Arnold. And the others? 

Mayor LaGuardia. The others are teclinical. Some go onl}^ to 
officials. 

This one [indicating] would go to eveiy family. Some go to officials. 
Some go to the Fire Department. Some go to the whole Defense 
Council. Some go to the Police Department. Each in its own 
specialized field. 

Mr. Arnold. You have had printed just an amount ample to give 
that coverage? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Some of them haven't even been distributed. 
They are still at the State headquarters. 

Mr. Arnold. They have been distributed by your office? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Yes, they have been sent to the field. I hope 
that when my successor takes over, he will be permitted to distribute 
these things. As it is now, I can't do my own mailing. I can't mail 
out our own stuft*, gentlemen. 

And did we take a licking about a month ago, when some posters 
were sent out — not by my division — and some towns got more than 
their population? We had nothing to do wijbh that, but we had to 
take the blame. 

Mr. Arnold. Well, of course, you handled this job during the most 
difficult period. You have handled it at a time when many people 
in the country thought it was crazy. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9755 

Mayor LaGuardia. Well, the Chicago Tribune thought even worse 
than that. 

Mr. Arnold. I would just like to ask you, Mr. Mayor: don't 
you believe that it woidd have been just about as easy for the Japs 
to have attacked Los Angeles or San Francisco as it was to attack 
Pearl Harbor? 

Mayor LaGuardia. No. 

Mr. Arnold. But it would have been entirely possible and feasible 
for them to have gotten a carrier over to within striking distance of 
those plane factories in southern California, would it not? 

Mayor LaGuardia. No, I wouldn't say so. There are certain 
factors that enter there that I don't think w^e want to discuss. 

NUMBER OF AIR RAID WARDENS 

Gentlemen, to give you an idea: As of December 31, 1941, the 
reports received from the field would indicate that we have 607,307 
air raid wardens. 

Now, the reason I say that looks too good is because I want — 
when I send out for reports, I insist on getting the number of men and 
women that have been trained or actually in training, and I fear, 
in the 607,000 we have some that are just enrolled and not trained. 

Then we have 258,967 auxiliary firemen, and I know that they 
are in training. 

We have 136,676 in this medical service that I described to you. 

I think you had an inquiry about nurses' aides. Now, that is 
being worked out with the American Red Cross. 

We have a regular working agreement with the American Red 
Cross, because the Red Cross is an agency of Government. The 
Red Cross has undertaken all of the first-aid training, and we just 
have hundreds of thousands of those. I think it is over 1,000,000. 

Now, the nurses' aide course is a course beyond fii'st aid. These 
women go actually into a hospital and get practical training, and the 
Red Cross has undertaken the expense of that, and has appropriated 
a million dollars for nurses' aides, and that job is well on its way, a 
percentage of them have already been trained, and the balance will 
be trained, completely, I think, within 2 months. 

Now, these nurses' aides stand ready to go into hospitals. They 
are turned over to the voluntary participation committee, and locally 
these participation committees can place them in hospitals, in health 
centers, in baby health stations, or wherever they are needed, because, 
gentlemen, we are going to have a great shortage of internes and 
nurses. We have a shortage now. I have over 500 vacancies for 
nurses in my cit}^ hospitals in New Yorl^ alone, and we are short on 
internes now, so we must necessarily arrange some sort of a pooling 
system whereby all communities can have medical and nursing service, 
and also meet the requirements of the Army and the Navy. 

I think you had a question on the number of defense councils. 
There are 7,031, and, to date, over 3,516,000 men and women have 
enrolled. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have. 

The Chairman. Have you anything to say about the deferment of 
students, Mayor? 

Mayor LaGuardia. I am glad to mention that. 



9756 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Gentlemen, we must win the war, but in winning the war we must 
not destroy our future. Now, granting the extreme difficulty of all 
om" war problems, with no illusions as to its being a difficult war to 
win, we are going to go through some very dark periods. Although 
it is going to tax our resources, we still must have a country left after 
the war is won. 

SELECTIVE SERVICE 

I believe the Selective Service Administration has been most stub- 
born. I realize the difficulty of its problems. It must provide the 
men, but it must meet conditions. We camiot, in one breath, say that 
this is a war of production, and we have got to get the tanks and the 
airplanes and the motors and the ships out, and, on the other side, 
close our eyes and pull these men out of the shops and put them in 
the Army. 

Selective service is what the name implies, and what CongTess 
intended it to be — selective. Therefore, due consideration must be 
given to the skilled mechanics or to the potential skOled mechanics; 
due consideration must be given to the necessity of feeding our 
people and feeding a great part of our allies. 

So we come to the college men. Of course, it is agreed, now, I 
think, that students in engineering, chemistry, electricity, will not be 
disturbed. 

This war is going to last some time, so I would take the bona fide 
student, who has matriculated in a recognized college for a full 
course, during the summer months. I would take him 3 months a 
year for training, and, at the end of the fourth year, put him in the 
Army. He could qualify for a commission by that time. 

Naturally, the medical students we must not touch, and when they 
graduate they can serve their internesliip immediately in a hospital. 
Nor should they be put to doing paper work. The Army doctors 
must learn that there is something more important for such men to 
do than paper work. These young graduates of medical schools 
ought to be given the full year's interneship, either in a civilian hos- 
pital or in a military hospital. Then, gentlemen, we have a great 
many boys who are now deferred because of slight defects. That just 
doesn't make sense, and the whole mechcal profession of tliis country 
will say it doesn't make sense. 

MILITARY GUARDS NEEDED 

You take the matter of teeth: why, all we have to do is to provide 
the necessary correction. It wouldn't cost much. The same with 
other slight defects. Those men ought to be drafted. We need 
some 56 battahons of mihtary guards in this country. 

We need them badly, gentlemen, and no one is going to realize it 
until sometliiiig terrible happens. I have been begging for it for a 
long time. At one time, the War Department had agreed to form 
these military guards; now they can't do it. The President has 
already ordered eight regiments to do guard duty temporarily tlirough- 
out the United States. 

We have been working frantically on it, gentlemen. The plants 
have been ordered to provide their own internal protection. Railroads 
must provide their protection. But there is a limit. No city in the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9757 

country has enough poHce to carry on the necessary guard duty in 
wartime, with the danger of sabotage, and we need these military 
battalions, and these boys could be found easily, gentlemen, in the 
men who are now deferred because of slight defects. 

PHYSICAL REHABILITATION OF SELECTEES 

The Chairman. In other words, Mr. Mayor, j^ou would be in favor 
of a physical rehabilitation program, would you? 

Mayor LaGuardia. Yes; except for major defects. I wouldn't 
fuss with mental cases: But for slight eye defects, shght teeth defects, 
venereal disease. I wouldn't put a premium on those things, because 
we can cure them. 

We can cure syphilis in a very few days in New York Citj^. We can 
cure gonorrhea, and we do. It is compulsory in my State, and in 
many other States. I wouldn't put a premium on venereal disease; 
I would put them in the Army and cure them, but not count the tinie 
that they are being cured. 

But I don't think we can stop our cultural life; we shouldn't. If 
this w^ar drags out, and you stiip yom" boys of higher education, 
what is the next generation going to be? 

We have the manpower and we don't lose that, because we train 
them to be officers. It isn't a difficult matter to arrange if it is under- 
stood, and if the desire is not to be too rigid. 

Mr. Curtis. What is your opinion as to older men, particularlj'^ 
men who served in the last war, who are anxious and insistent upon 
doing something, and who perhaps have some physical defects that 
would prevent them from combat service? 

Mayor LaGuardia. I would put them in this military guard battal- 
ion — to guard waterways, waterworks, power plants, all sensitive 
points. We need over 150,000 of them. 

Mr. Curtis. And when you made your reference to food you were 
referring to a broader agricultural exemption or deferment? 

Mayor LaGuardia. I referred to just keeping that under control, 
so there would be no shortages. I think that German}^ sends her 
farm boys, who are in the Army, back to the farms during the harvest 
seasons. There, of course, some older men could replace the younger 
men. 

DEFERMENT OF COLLEGE STUDENTS 

Mr. Curtis. In your recommendation for deferment of college 
students, and those who contribute to the culture of our land, do you 
think there is a danger of running into a class distinction there, 
based on the financial ability of the families to send their sons to 
college and university; one group entering combat service — many 
of them to make the supreme sacrifice — and another group is deferred? 
Do you think there is a potential danger there? 

Mayor LaGuardia. No. Maybe I have a warped view of this, 
because of the conditions in my city. Certainly it isn't a matter of 
aftording to send the boys to colleges. My colleges are just filled with 
young people from families who are on relief — students are going there 
because they get N. Y. A. assistance. That has been the history of 
the colleges of the cit}^ of New York for some time. The requirements 



9758 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

are so high there that the pocketbook has nothing to do with it. It is 
a real mental test. 

Mr. Curtis. I wouldn't think that that would be true tlu'oughout 
the country. 

Mayor LaGuardia. I wouldn't know. 

Mr. Curtis. I am sure it is not true in my State. 

Mayor LaGuardia. I hope I am not living in a country where only 
people who have money can get a higher education. I know it isn't 
true in my city. 

As to those who might enter these guard battalions, they would 
simply be putting in their time in getting their training and educa- 
tion, and would be able to cjualify as officers just as do our boys who 
go to West Point. 

They can carry on their military education along with their college 
work. I would make that a condition. They would be good and 
tough when they graduated, and would be officer material. We are 
going to run short of officer material pretty soon. 

Mr. Curtis: What is your reaction to the recommendations that 
came out of the Baltimore meeting of educators, for stepping up a 
college course so students could graduate in 2% or 3 years? 

Mayor LaGuardia: I think that depends upon the student. 
Some don't learn much in 10 years. Others would learn a lot in 
2}^ years. 

Mr. Curtis. I think their idea was to operate 12 months in the 
year, and also have longer days. 

Mayor LaGuardia. That would be good. That would be ffiie, if 
the youngsters can absorb it. 

POST-WAR considerations 

The Chairman. Mr. Mayor, I have just one observation to make, 
and I think you will agree with me. This committee has traveled a 
hundred thousand miles over this country, and has become greatly 
disturbed about what is going to happen after this war is over. 

Mayor LaGuardia. I am, too. 

The Chairman. We have millions of people who have left their 
home States and gone to these defense centers. Take my own 
State, California, for instance: Before you can go on relief in that 
State you have to live there 5 years. 

Suppose the war stopped tomorrow, or 6 months from now. Man}^ 
persons would have lost their settlement in their own State and not 
yet acquired it in the State of destination. It is going to be a whirl- 
pool unless, through voluntary savings, compulsory savings, public 
works, or something, we look ahead. 

Mayor LaGuardia. Mr. Chairman, the war doesn't frighten me 
any more, as frightful as it is going to be, but the after-war period is 
frightening, and we must be thinking and planning and preparing for 
it now. 

The migration, or change of residence, that you referred to is only 
one of the problems we shall face. We will necessarily havt to take 
some workers from every plant and place them in new plants, and 
put unskilled people in their places to be trained. Thus we shall 
spread or dilute the skilled trades that we now have. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9759 

Then, after the war, there will be a sudden drop m employment, 
with dislocation of families. Communities will have a large number 
of people out of work that they cannot absorb. Some States, as you 
say, have rigid rules of relief that will increase the burden. 

We are not in a class room any more, gentlemen. We are in a 
realistic world, and we must realize that all of these problems now are 
national problems. Therefore, we must start to plan for the after- 
war period now, I would say. 

You talk about savings. Yes, we must save. I would suggest 
that all overtime be paid in defense bonds, payable after the emer- 
gency. 

I would provide that a certain percentage of war contracts, at 
least covering a part of the profits, be paid in deferred bonds, payable 
after the war. 

I would also take a certain percentage of all war wages paid and 
replenish the fund of unemployment insurance so that we can extend 
the period for the payment of unemployment compensation until we 
get readjusted. 

It is taking, now, from a year to a year and a half to transform a 
factory from peacetime production to wartime production. It will 
take that much longer to transform it back to its normal production. 

We must provide continuance of education. We must have no 
interruption of education following the war. 

We must not go through a starvation period, gentlemen, because 
hell will break loose if we do, not only in our country but throughout 
the world. 

We must have such a reservoir of food and supplies in our country 
that we can send it to other countries that will need it badly. If we 
do not they will have an empty victory, with an aftermath problem 
that will be just as frightful as war. 

Fortunately, we have the resources; other countries haven't, 
gentlemen. The other countries can plan and study, but they 
haven't the resources, and we have. 

Yes; we are short in some basic raw materials. We are going to 
find the pinch of that, but resources for the maintenance of life we 
have, and we ought to start pooling them now, gentlemen. That is 
more important than anything else. 

We are going to win the war. There is no question about that, 
but we also must win the peace. We must save this country, and it 
requires the best thought and the hardest work that we can give to it. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Mayor, very much. We are 
very grateful to you, and you have given us a very valuable 
contribution. 

The committee will take a 5-minute recess for the benefit of the 
reporter. 



60.396—42 — pt. 25- 



9760 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

(The following tabic was submitted and accepted for the record:) 

Office of Civilian Defense — enrollment and assignment of volunteers as of Dec. SI, 

1941 



' 


Num- 
ber of 
defense 
councils 


Number 
of volun- 
teers en- 
rolled to 
date 


Volunteers assigned to training or duty in protective 
services (Citizens' Defense Corps personnel) 


Volun- 
teers as- 
signed in 


state or region 


Total 


Air raid 
wardens 


Auxil- 
iary 
firemen 


Auxil- 
iary 
police 


Medical 

per- 
sonnel 


All other 
protec- 
tive 
services 


voluntary 
part-time 
activities 
(Com- 
munity 
Service 

per- 
sonnel) 


FIRST REGION 

Connecticut 

Maine 

Massachusetts. -- 
New Hampshire. 

Rhode Island 

Vermont 

SECOND REGION 

Delaware 


169 
440 
3&1 
235 
39 
140 

46 

.554 
118 

1 

1 
3 5 
604 
133 

67 
95 
94 
112 
3 107 

3 101 

3 54 
130 

92 

72 

531 

62 

1 

3 91 

193 

82 

75 
89 
204 
102 
114 
119 
20 
72 
23 


85, 000 
50, 000 
215, 000 
40, 000 
32, 000 
7,500 

31. 100 
130,000 
203. 972 
297, 301 

31, 737 
67, 000 
225, 695 
127,000 

65, 000 
750, 000 

11, 480 
2.50, 000 

45, 500 


ra. 400 

4. 910 
199.014 
5,783 
4,717 
1,650 

8, 685 
90, 000 
203, 972 
163, 799 

23, 747 

1,3,800 

149, 195 

71, 500 

20,300 

93, 521 

5,702 


16. 100 

800 

112,900 

2,800 

•2,000 

500 

800 

45, 000 

59. 555 

2 100, 000 

16, 224 

7, .500 

80, 000 

20, 000 

1,000 

15, 196 

1,580 


11,750 
500 

16, 800 
9.50 
100 
500 

2,100 
20, 000 

57, 845 
47. 935 

964 

3,000 

20, 500 

1,500 

2.850 

30. 000 

1, 356 


1,900 
500 
17,000 
100 
400 
200 

800 
25, 000 
30, 992 


2, 650 
210 

8,314 
133 

1,017 
.50 

985 


18, 000 
2,900 

44,000 

1,800 

1,200 

400 

4,000 


19,000 
15,000 
14,544 
12,000 
14,000 
3,000 

21, 955 
40,000 


New York 

New York City ' 


28, 280 
2.117 

"2,660 
6.700 
5,000 

10,000 

10,000 

650 


27,300 
8,747 

5,209 

1,000 

26, 000 

44. 000 

1,600 
22, 000 

674 


22,950 


THIRD REGION 

District of Co- 


1,350 

300 

15, 995 

1,000 

1,850 
10, 325 
1,442 




Marvland 




Pennsylvania 

Virginia 

VOURTH REGION 

Alabama 

Florida 

Georgia* 

Louisiana . . . 


75,000 
,52, 500 

""'"86,666 


MississipiJi 
















North Carolina 
















South Carolina. . 


55, 404 
9.804 

26, 820 
9, 250 
76, 500 
21,000 


13, 623 
1, 804 

11,820 
1,200 
3,125 
1,0.30 


3,929 


1, 363 

1.804 


1,318 


2,438 


4,575 




Tennessee . . 




HFTH REGION 

Indiana 








15.000 


Kentuckv 


400 
900 
530 


4(X) 

1,300 

325 


400 
925 
175 






1,200 


Ohio 






15,000 


West Virginia 






1,000 


SIXTH REGION 

Chicago - 








Illinois. - . 


















Michigan 


95, 000 
35,000 

50, 000 
7,700 
















Wisconsin. 














2,038 


SEVENTH 
REGION 

Arkansas - 


6,000 
4,000 




3,000 


2,000 


1,000 




500 


Iowa 5_ ... 




3,700 


















85, 000 
69, 098 
44, 621 


85,000 

6,090 

446 


40,000 


2,500 
1,000 


2,500 
3,590 


40,000 
1,500 










16, 185 


Nebraska 




44, 175 


































Wyoming ' 


5,000 

















1 New York City does not include volunteers for surgical dressings and sewing, 65,000; first aid, 75,000; 
resuscitation, 58,869; blood donors, 18,000; grand total, 509,170. 

2 210,552 enrolled. 

3 Number of defensp councils from Nov. 25, 1941, report. 
* Georgia, 69 councils reporting. 

« Iowa report, Des Moines only. 

8 Missouri report, St. Louis and Kansas Cjty only. 

1 Wyoming report, Cheyeime only. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9761 



Office of Civilian Defense — enrollment and assignment of volunteers as of Dec. 31, 

1941 — Continued 





Num- 
ber of 
defense 
councils 


Number 
of volim- 
teers en- 
rolled to 
date 


Volunteers assigned to training or duty in protective 
services (Citizens' Defense Corps personnel) 


Volun- 
teers as- 
signed in 


State or region 


Total 


Air raid 
wardens 


Au.xil- 

iary 

firemen 


Auxil- 
iary 
police 


Medical 

per- 
sonnel 


All other 
protec- 
tive 
services 


voluntary 
part-time 
activities 
(Com- 
munity 
Service 

per- 
sonnel) 


EIGHTH REGION 

Arizona 


3 14 
341 

75 

377 

890 

167 
344 

3 56 
3 25 
3 36 
3 29 
339 


7,580 


950 




























New Mexico 


20,000 


12, 800 


1,800 


500 


1,000 






8,520 


Oklahoma 
























NINTH REGION 

California * 


136, 400 


79, 884 


37,028 


7,800 


13,900 


6,256 


14,900 




Idaho 




Montana 


















Nevada ... 


14.000 
39, 014 


2,150 
39, 014 


600 
17, 319 


700 
4,721 


500 
8.362 


150 
2,670 


200 
5,942 




Oregon _. 




Utah 




Washington 


44, 124 


44,124 


19, 846 


2,604 


5,535 


4,556 


11,583 








Total 


7,031 


3, 516, 600 


1, 423, 755 


607, 307 


258,967 


149, 359 


136, 676 


246, 030 


477, 277 



3 Number of defense councils from Nov. 25, 1941, reports. 
' California report covers 63 cities only. 

TESTIMONY OF DEAN JAMES M. LANDIS, EXECUTIVE, OFFICE 
OF CIVILIAN DEFENSE 

The Chairman. Please state your name and official position. 

Mr. Landis. At the present time my title is Executive of the 
Office of Civilian Defense. Until 2 clays ago I was Director for the 
first civilian defense region, which covers the New England States. 

The Chairman. Mr. Landis, you have been asked to appear here 
this morning because of your recent appointment as Executive of the 
Office of Civilian Defense. Our involvement in war makes the task 
of civilian defense one of the primary aspects of a total-war effort. 
Our strength depends on our effectiveness in this area no less than 
our effectiveness in the job of production. We are aware of the fact 
that you took office only on Monday and are, therefore, the more 
appreciative of your willingness to assist us on this short notice. 

I am going to ask Congressman Arnold to interrogate you. 

Mr. Arnold. We understand that you have been the chairman of 
the New^ England regional office of the Office of Civilian Defense. 

Now, we have had a very good picture of the operations of the 
central office from Mayor LaGuardia. Will you give us a brief 
picture of the work of a regional office such as the one of which you 
have had charge, indicating some of the major problems which con- 
fronted you and the extent to which your office was able to meet them? 

Mr. Landis. I think the best way to approach that thing is to 
take the history of the civilian defense effort. 

In the last few months in New England, I came into the picture — 
I think it was in the middle of July. Prior to that time the New 
England communities as a whole had been disturbed by the emergency 
situation and had created State councils of defense and a series of 



9762 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

local councils of defense. Those were large aggregations of people 
who were dealing with all sorts of different things. 

About May or June, when Mayor LaGuardia took the directorship 
of the Office of Civilian Defense, he came through New England 
and he succeeded, very ably, in presenting a portion of that program, 
at that time. That was the portion relating to protection. 

Mayor LaGuardia, in his inimitable way, brought home to that 
area the possibility that we might be at war in a fairly short time; 
and also the possibility that if we were at war, we would be attacked. 
That didn't mean that the protection effort started at that time. 
New England is a little different. The State councils of defense 
of two States had gone ahead with a program of training of all these 
groups of services which the mayor described. 

I came into the picture at that time. I had first to acquaint 
myself with what the States were doing. Then my next move was 
to find out what they should be doing and how we could help them 
to realize those objectives. 

Some States, in this field, were talking about civilian defense but 
their plans were paper plans and nothing much else. I spent a con- 
siderable time in trying to bring these things into real effect, with the 
assistance of the States. My effort in the main has been through the 
State councils of defense rather than directly to the communities 
themselves. 

Our form of organization in New England is such that the responsi- 
bility in Government generally heads up to the governor, through his 
appointed agencies, and so there is a better chance of getting uni- 
formity of action by dealing directly with the States than by dealing 
directly with the communities themselves. 

Some of the difficulties that arise are differences of opinion that 
occur between the communities and the States — some of them 
political, some of them social — and they all have to be ironed out. 
The Federal Government is what might be called a chemical solvent 
in that situation. It can help to smooth those things out in a way 
which no other agency can. We have had situations where there were 
two State defense councils in a particular town, both fighting for 
priority in dealing with this problem, and consequently a very con- 
fused picture was given the people of that community. 

TRAINING OF VOLUNTEERS 

The importance of the program along the line of protection de- 
manded the training of numerous volunteers in teclmical fields. 
We had few instructors in these fields. Wlien we started, we had to 
build up a corps of instructors who would know what they were talldng 
about in this field. Then we had to standardize instruction. 

An air raid warden may mean a hundred different things. It has 
got to mean one thing. 

Standardized courses of instruction have now been worked out. 
A man has to go through those courses in order to qualify and in 
order to get the Federal insignia. 

In New England we are death on this business of unqualified people 
wearing the Federal insignia. We don't want that to be true. We 
want to have the thing as a sort of badge of merit, which a man earns 
and which he is proud to wear. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9763 

That was one thing necessary in the situation, to hold men up to 
certain standards. 

The other way in which the Federal Government could help enor- 
mously was in the imparting of information. Here in Washington 
there is technical information available in this field which can be 
spread out to the States. They are glad to get it although they may 
vary it on occasion. In such cases you may have to resort to what 
might be called regional treatment. They have their own ideas as 
to how to do various different jobs, and as long as the job is done 
eft'ectively, I see no reason not to allow some variation, provided that 
the objectives are the same. 

FIRST INTERCEPTOR COMMAND 

One important means of bringing uniformity in the field of protec- 
tion is through the armed services in the United States. For air-raid 
protection the first thing you have to know is, how do you laiow when 
you are going to be attacked? Now, that, of course, is the function 
of the First Interceptor Command, but the First Interceptor Com- 
mand is working through civilians, and must work through civilians. 
We have recruited the civihans for them, and are trying to keep these 
civilians active on their posts. Today some 10,000 volunteers are 
mamiing posts in New England, watcliing for planes. And those 
posts have to be manned for 24 hours a day. 

Other volunteers are manning the district warning centers where 
the signals move from the information centere, first to them, and then 
out through to what we know in New England as report centers. 
They call them control centers here. Those are the operating centers 
of the protective forces and the organization of those operating head- 
quarters seems to me to count very much in this business. 

Unless you have an operating headquarters where men take their 
orders, and where they can report, and where they can be assigned 
to their specific task when occasion arises, I don't thinly you have 
much. You have a mob and not an army. 

December 7, of course, brought a great impetus. 

A lot of things had to be cleared on a regional basis. We had to 
know, for example, what was the signal for a public alarm. 

It was different in dift'erent places in New England. We had to 
have one signal, so that a fellow in Providence gets the same meaning 
as a fellow from Boston. 

I mention small things like that simply to indicate the necessity for 
getting a certain uniformity of action. The interesting thing is how 
you get that uniformity of action. The Federal Government has no 
power in that connection. The power to do that resides partly in the 
States and partly in the municipalities, but the way we worked was to 
get uniform action in the various States and then try to get communi- 
ties in each State themselves to take their lead from the State. 

If the community went out of line, there were pressures that could 
be brought upon that community to come into line. 

Another great unifying force that the Federal Government can 
exert in this field is to be the line of communication between the mili- 
tary authorities and the civilian forces. Nobody could clear, for 
example, the way in which Federal forces would call upon the civilian 
forces for aid, except the Federal Govermnent, In that way the 



9764 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

States could be brought together. I can give you an illustration of 
that. The question of the approach of hostile enemy airplanes has 
got to be decided at one source, and one source alone. You can't 
have every military commander coming in and trying to alert a par- 
ticular community. His information might not be accurate. You 
must have that alert given at the place where definite responsibility 
is lodged and all the data are available. 

Well, the Army and Navy will clear that on their side so that 
anybody with information of that nature in the Army and Navy 
will give this information to the proper agency. Meanwhile on the 
civilian side you can clear it by saying: ''Don't obey any orders 
except the order that comes from the one single source." 

It may seem a small matter, but a failure to clear that kind of 
thing cost at least one death in Portland, and a series of false alarms 
throughout New England. 

UNIFORMITY IN BLACK-OUT REGULATIONS 

Then you have to deal with the matter of uniform treatment in 
this business of black-outs for instance. You can't deal with that on 
a municipal basis. You can't have one municipality having certain 
black-out regulations, and the next one having completely different 
black-out regulations. They have to be uniform. The same thing 
is true with reference to the suggestions of public conduct in theaters, 
churches, schools, et cetera; all that kind of thing. You can't have 
people actmg upon their own bright ideas mstead of obtaining the 
best information available, from a central source, as to how to handle 
these matters. It has been the urge of necessity that has, I think, 
brought uniform treatment of these matters throughout an area of 
that size. It is also an important thing to bring home to the civilians 
a sense of their own responsibility in these matters. 

I think, in the field of protection, there is not now, even indirectly, 
any attitude of "Well, that is the Army's task; that is the Navy's 
task; let George do it." We have to understand that this business 
is our own. We are looking out for our lives in this work of "passive 
assistance." The Army has its own task to do, which it will perform 
capably. 

VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION 

Now to move to the other aspect of the program, the program of 
voluntary participation. Thousands — in fact, millions — of people in 
the United States are asking, over and over, this question: "What 
can I, as an individual, do for defense or for the war effort?" We 
have that great store of human resources available. 

The jobs in the field of protection aren't, as yet, enough to take up 
that store of human energy, some have somehow to get the mechanics 
to feed that human energy into the tasks that need to be done — and 
we have to know what the tasks are that need to be done. The crea- 
tion of a mechanism for the registration of people is one of the easier 
tasks. To register them and find out what they can do, what their 
aptitudes are, is an enormous task but it is one of the easiest tasks, as 
I see it. 

Many of the States and many of the communities had started off 
doing that kind of thing on their own. There was a general State- 
wide registration last April or May in the State of Massachusetts. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9765 

It didn't accomplish much because there was no mechanism to put 
them in the tasks that they coukl do after they were registered. 

There is where I think the Federal Government can do a real job — 
in the suggesting of ways and means by which communities can meet 
their problems. We have an enormous Govermnent of many special- 
ized lines here in Washington from which emanate many good ideas, 
and if those ideas can be effectively transmitted to the communities 
in terms of the needs of those communities, this store of human energy 
may be released and put to work. In this way, we may be able to 
deal with what the mayor called the frightening picture of after the 
war. 

A difficulty that arises in that connection is the channelling of that 
information. As I see it, from the community angle, from the State 
angle, or even from the regional angle, there are many voices talking 
in Washington, but one doesn't quite know what they are saying nor 
if they all speak with authority. 

For example, these agencies, the State councils of defense, local 
councils of defense, were built first to deal with problems of protection. 
Then they moved out to deal with the wider problem of voluntary 
participation. They have a certain loyalty to the regional office of 
the O. C. D. They ask questions of it. 

Meanwhile, other agencies or groups move in and oft'er their re- 
sources. They say, "Shall we do this? Shall we do that? What is 
the meaning of it? How does this fit into the general picture?" 
The "vyay in which communities should deal with the problems of the 
war, seems to me the great problem that can be solved by these 
regional offices and through the Office of Civilian Defense itself. 

Perhaps I have taken too long, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. No. It is very interestuig. I think you have cov- 
ered most of the points I wished to question you on. Then your job 
as Executive requires ovei"-all reponsibility for the two phases of the 
program? 

Mr. Landis. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. And is it your view that these two phases are separate 
and distinct, or in what way do you feel they must be integrated? 

Mr. Landis. My view is that they are part and parcel of the same 
picture. Protection, for instance, is accomplished through volunteer 
service on the part of civilians. I don't believe that the Federal Gov- 
ernment today is thinking of paying all these people for doing a job 
that they should be doing for themselves, for their own existence. 
But that is only a partial utilization of what I spoke of a moment ago 
as the enormous store of human energy that is now available to do 
something for the country to meet the problems that it is facing. 
These problems are seen dimly by the people but they haven't become 
quite concrete to them in many instances. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you state for us ways in which the national office 
will enlist the cooperation of Federal departments and agencies in 
meeting the needs in these communities? 

Mr. Landis. The way in which I think that can be done is to show 
the bearing of the defense effort on the community, and tell the com- 
munity, "These are the things we think you ought to be doing. These 
are the ways in which we tliink the Federal Government as a whole 
can help you. These are the agencies that it possesses to help you." 



9766 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

We can also survey that community and say, "Now, look, you are 
not caring for this thing. You are not taking care of that thing. Can 
we help you do something about it?" That is what we must do if 
civilian defense is brought to the community. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all the questions I have, Air. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Well, thank you, Dean. We appreciate your 
coming here very much. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT, ASSISTANT 
DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF CIVILIAN DEFENSE 

The Chairman. Mrs. Roosevelt, we appreciate very much your 
coming here this morning. I think you know considerable about the 
work of our committee, so we won't go into that. 

But after traveling around the county we have been gravely 
concerned about housing, health, education, and other essential 
facilities. We have been concerned not only because of the personal 
hardships these shortages cause, but because they are major obstacles 
to effective war production. They create labor turn-over. They 
result in ill health and lowered efficiency. Lowered production 
results at a time when not one gun, tank, airplane can be spared. 

We have been concerned by discrimination against the foreign- 
born, against women, against Negroes, in employment and training 
practices, not only because this is contrary to the American way, 
but because it fails to utilize a large section of our labor force. 

Now, Mrs. Roosevelt, you know this country as few others do. 
One of the members of our committee has designated you as "Migrant 
No. 1." I am sure you won't be insulted by that. 

You have been close to the needs of our people. In what ways,, 
if any, do you feel these unmet needs may interfere with our all-out 
war effort? Perhaps you would illustrate with examples of situations 
you have seen in various parts of the country. 

INSECURITY OF FAMILY OR GROUP WEAKENS WHOLE DEFENSE 

Mrs. Roosevelt. Well, I think there are a great many ways in 
which unmet human needs interfere. There is one basic thing — let's 
take it in the field of defense — people must feel secure — that is to 
say each individual family must be secure, to make the whole defense 
of the Nation strong. 

Therefore, when you have either a family or a group that is inse- 
cure, you weaken your whole defense. That is why it is important, 
I think, to meet the needs of people. In the first place, that strength- 
ens your defense, because people have the feeling that they have 
something worth fighting for, the feeling that they can fight, because 
they are strong, they are well fed, they are well housed, they know 
they have a job and it is secure. That makes a strong nation. 

Then, in the field of production, it seems to me it is perfectly 
obvious. We know that if you don't have enough to eat you can't 
work well, and therefore your production is cut down. 

If you are living under conditions which are poor, sleeping con- 
ditions that are bad, if you have overcrowding, medical health con- 
ditions that are very poor, you are not going to do your job as well 
nor are j^ou going to produce as much. I think that that can perhaps 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9767 

be illustrated by a number of situations that exist in various parts 
of this country, but one which is coming to the attention of every- 
body just at present is the Michigan situation. 

I might cite a number of letters from people in which they say, 
"We have been laid off, we don't know what is going to happen to 
us." There are rumors of every kind. "How long will it take to 
convert plants? The cost of living is rising. Our unemployment 
compensation isn't adequate. Our whole situation is insecure. We 
are not even told that we will get om- job back. We don't know how 
we are going to get training for the new job." 

That creates a depression in civilian morale. Now that isn't 
happening just in Michigan. That happens in many places, and will 
happen more and more. I think that we have to prepare for that 
and not let it happen if possible. If you want an illustration of a 
group situation, take your Negro situation, right here in the District 
or in New York City, a group of people who feel that they are pushed 
aside and not allowed to participate. 

It may not be the Negro group only. It might be some of the 
aliens who have come to this country to escape certain things in other 
countries, and who are most anxious to contribute what they have to 
contribute. Now I am not minimizing the fact that we have to be 
extremely careful and that we have to investigate such persons with 
great care, and that we have to know all we possibly can about these 
people, but I do think that we have to utilize everything that we 
possibly can utilize, if we really are going to be all out in this war. 
I think you can find a sense of frustration in those groups, which 
leads to poor morale. 

They are part of our life, and such feeling leads to poor civilian 
morale and to poor production, because it means they have a sense 
of not being able to contribute, of not being included in what is hap- 
pening. 

The Chairman. Well, Mrs. Roosevelt, you speak my language. 
We found those things true of the migrants in 1940, 4,000,000 of them 
on the road and, as you say, insecure. We must give those people a 
country worth fighting for and dying for. I do not feel that you can 
separate civilian morale from Army and Navy morale, it just can't be 
done. 

Mrs. Roosevelt. No, it all hangs together. 

WORK OF VOLUNTEER PARTICIPATION DIVISION 

Mr. Chairman. As I understand, since August you have headed 
up the volunteer participation division in the Office of Civilian Defense. 
Will you please indicate what the purpose of the division is and what 
its work has been up to this time? 

Mrs. Roosevelt. Well, when I came in, there had been two people 
preceding me. The first person was Mrs. Kerr, Jwho was borrowed 
from the W. P. A. Her work, primarily, had to do with professional 
and service projects, and she was simply borrowed to look over the 
field and see what could be done. 

Then Miss Eloise Davidson, who came from the Herald Tribune in 
New York, was borrowed also to continue trying to develop a way in 
which volunteers could be used and by the use of volunteers, civilian 
morale could be helped. 



9768 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Miss Davidson had worked in the T. Y. A. She is a very excellent 
organizer and knows a great deal about people and about nutrition. 
She did not know a great deal about Government agencies and work 
in Washington. She had not had that experience before. 

Therefore the only actual thing that had been done at that time 
was the asking of two people to come in and work on the establishment 
of volunteer bureaus, as they were then called — they are volunteer 
offices now — under the State and local defense councils. 

Well, at that time State and local defense councils were nonexistent 
in many places, because there was still a feeling that this whole idea 
of protection was a foolish thing. Many persons felt that we weren't 
ever going to be attacked, nothing was ever going to happen to us, 
and why did we want to agitate about this? So the Office of Civilian 
Defense made a pattern for the organization of a volunteer bureau. 
Then they started to try to get some bureaus established. 

When, with Miss Davidson's consent, the mayor asked if I would 
come in and help her, I found that to be the situation. There was 
the beginnings of volunteer bureaus. Very nearly the first thing 
you think about is the stimulation of protective things, if you are 
planning for defense. It gradually became evident that if we were 
going to have a complete defense we had to have a conception of 
what lay back of what might be called semimilitary functions in 
defense, for the whole community. 

COMMUNITY GROUP ORGANIZATION 

Well, we decided first of all to tiy to see wdiat groups of people had 
to be interested, if we were going to get the whole community inter- 
ested in defense. The volunteer bureaus were pretty well on the way 
to organization, at least on paper. That meant they knew what 
they wanted but that they hadn't gone very far. Then I decided 
that we would need a youth-activities division, because there would 
be young people in every community that would want to be doing 
something. We would have to know what they wanted to be doing 
and how to interest them. 

We would also have to deal with organizations: Women's organi- 
zations and men's organizations, that would want to be doing some- 
thing. Many of their activities they called defense programs. So 
Miss Davidson took over those organizations, very largely, as we got 
them set up. It gradually began to dawn upon me that we would 
really need to set up some way of getting information from all the 
Government and the State and local, and even from labor groups, 
to know what was happening, what was the impact of defense, in 
communities all over the country. You couldn't just sit in Wash- 
ington, even if you have two or three people traveling, and know that. 
You would have to gather it all into a great pool and analyze this 
information, and then begin to find out what could be done about it. 

That led me to the feeling that we really should establish a way of 
collecting this information and of analyzing it. Then we should 
establish a community planning and organization group that would 
be over all the other activities. Then a community as a whole 
would see what the problems were, and would then use existing agen- 
cies by bringing to their attention the things that had to be done — 
Federal agencies and local agencies and State agencies — and say. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9769 

"This problem is not a problem, in this community, of just of a change 
in employment for a lot of people." 

It is a problem perhaps of that, but it also is a problem of lack of 
housing for part of the community. It is perhaps a problem of a 
group of people, who are in such a low income level at all times, that 
their situation is creating a problem in the whole area. 

In the rural field, which has been very little noticed, there is a great 
deal to be done, because rural people want to feel that they are 
included in the defense of their country. They also have many 
problems in rural areas that are intensified at present. For instance, 
it is very difficult to get farm labor at the price they used to get it. 
There are a great many things that come into the rural picture, which 
we have not covered very well, but which, in community planning 
as a whole, you must consider. 

So that now we are trying to set up an information pool and an 
all-over community planning group, not to actually do things but to 
know things, and to use to the maxunum every agency that is in the 
field and able to do things. I think that is not my job, strictly 
speaking. 

I am in charge of volunteer participation. We, all of us, however, 
came to seeing that this had to be done. 

I think probably it will go over to Dean Landis, eventually, but 
that doesn't matter. 

The point is, the job needs to be done, and it doesn't matter, really, 
in what particular place it is, as long as the job is done. 

Now, as to the volunteer participation, which is really getting 
volunteers into every field, I thought you might lil^e to know that 
we now have these volunteer officers, and the type of volunteers that 
have come into the work. 

FUNCTIONS OF VOLUNTEER OFFICES 

Whore we have actual, complete, volunteer offices set up, they have 
three functions: 

They have the fmiction of enrolluig volunteers, of finding ways for 
training volunteers, and of then finding ways to use volunteers. Wo 
do not call a volunteer office completely set up until it fulfills those 
three functions. 

There are a lot of places where they register people and do nothing 
else. That is not a complete volunteer office, because there is no use 
registering people unless you are going to give them training if they 
need it, ancl find them places where they can actually function. 

Now, we have, on the protective side, furnished auxiliary firemen, 
auxiliary police. I should add that, on occasion, hi many places, you 
adapt your plans to what the place desires to do. In many cases they 
have registered people who wished to be auxiliary firemen, auxiliary 
policemen at the fire stations or the police headquarters — but their 
names are turned in to the volunteer offices so that we can have, in 
one place, a complete picture of all the volunteers that can bo cafied 
upon in tliat community. 

We furnished fire watchers, auxiliary medical personnel, demolition 
and clearance squads, messengers — a lot of messengers; the young 
people come into that — staff corps, rescue squads, bomb squads, feed- 
ing and housing groups, nurses' aides. 



9770 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

RED CROSS SERVICES 

Now, the Red Cross registers the nui'ses' aides, but they asked us to 
help stimulate interest, because they were havmg some difficulty in 
getting as man}^ as they would like to have. There is, of course, a 
full registration of their workers in the Red Cross, The present 
arrangement with them is that they register with us the head of then- 
volunteer service, and the numbers of volunteers that they have 
registered with them. That keeps our office informed of the numbers 
that can be called on, in each group, in case of need. That includes 
road repair crews, decontamination squads, and drivers corps. 

Then, in the community service, we can obtain, for our volunteers, 
training and the opportunity for service with fam.ily security services, 
the health services, the recreation services, and informal education 
services. 

In the recreation services, a great many young people can be used, 
and very often, in some of the education services, they can be used as 
assistants, if they have some supervision. 

Our plans include housing services, democracy programs, library 
services, special war services, child-care services, hospital services, 
consumer services, nutrition services, food-conservation services, and 
American Red Cross services. 

Now, that, of course, means that people who want an outlet find 
it tlu-ough the volunteer bureau, and we beUeve that the more people 
feel that they are actually taking a part m the defense of their covm- 
try, the stronger your defense is. We have also suggested that those 
people who cannot enter any service, for instance housewives, par- 
ticularly in rural areas, where they can't get to a central place to 
work, or young housewives who have little children at home, should 
still be given a feelmg of participation. Realizing that domg your 
job better than you have ever done it before — by taking the trouble 
to learn to follow, for instance, a very simple nutrition course, and 
really feedmg your family better than you have ever fed it before — 
is a defense job. 

PARTICIPATION OF WHOLE FAMILY 

If your whole family is to be enlisted in the effort, you should get 
your children to feel that they are making a contribution. When 
they say, "No; I don't like milk to drink; I won't drink any milk 
this morning," their contribution may be that they drink their milk, 
if that is good for them. Then they have a sense of participation. 

If the whole family joins in, they can be given a sign which says: 
"We are part of the civilian defense program for the defense of the 
Nation," and we think that is a very important thing, because we 
feel that everybody should be given a share in this defense program. 

I don't think you can defend the country with its Army and its 
Navy alone, because there must be first a feeling, by those who are 
in the Army and Navy, that their families are being taken care of. 
That makes an enormous difference to Army and Navy morale. 

Second, a feeling that the people at home know what this whole 
war is about, and that they know what their young people are fighting 
for. and that they are willing to help; I think that is what my side 
of civilian defense is trying to do. I don't feel that we have done it, 
but that is what we are trying to do. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9771 

The Chairman. Mrs. Roosevelt, what effect has the declaration of 
war had on the extension of your service? 

Mrs. Roosevelt. It has had a tremendous efl'ect in the increase 
in the number of volunteers who desire to participate. Of course, 
at first, many of the volunteers were people who had leisure time. 
Now people who think they do a good, full day's work are anxious 
to do somethmg more, if they can. Those who had volunteered 
before, those who had leisure time, looked upon it more or less as, 
well, just not a very important thing, something that you could do 
or not do, as you chose. But that attitude has changed very greatly 
and there is a seriousness now among volunteers which there \\ as not 
before. 

RELATION OF DIVISION TO OTHER AGENCIES 

The Chairman. Mrs. Roosevelt, will you please indicate what the 
relation of your Division will be to existing agencies, such as the 
Federal Security Agency, the Department of Labor, and others? 
What relation, if any, will you have to them? 

Mrs. Roosevelt. Our relation to all these agencies is that, in 
registering volunteers, we can furnish them with any help that they 
need on the local level, to make then programs better than they have 
ever been before. They must, of course, furnish both traming, where 
it is needed, and supervision, but we will furnish volunteers at their 
call. 

Secondly, our agency, with the knowledge gathered from all these 
agencies and from field observation, and from the reports available, 
should be able to recommend to the other agencies in the field the 
things that need to be done. We never do them, but we recommend 
things that need to be done. 

Now, I might illustrate, perhaps, by citmg some work we have 
been doing with the Department of Agriculture. We felt very much 
that there was a need to make rural groups feel they had a distinct 
defense job. We knew, and the Department of Agriculture knew, 
that for a long time they had been trying to stimulate more home 
gardens, with the idea of raising the nutritional level in the home. 

This now has become, in addition to its help in family nutrition, a 
real contribution to defense, because there are many of these foods 
that are commercially grown which we need to ship to our allies. 

There are four things that the nutritionists tell us contain the mini- 
mum requirements to keep people in good condition: Tomato juice, 
potato flour, pork products, and milk powder. 

Well, we can't produce extra cows overnight, but with better 
knowledge of how to feed cows you may be able to increase the 
amount of milk produced. 

There are ways in which we can assist this program, which the 
Agriculture Department had already started, and not adding to the 
urgency of the problem, by taking ourselves, as far as we can, out of 
the market on these things, so they may be free for other people. 

That is the main reason for having a garden, for growing certain 
things. 

So we have worked in very close cooperation with the nutrition 
people, both in the Office of Defense Health and Welfare under 
Governor McNutt, and in the Department of Agricultm-e under 
Dr. Wilson. 



9772 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

We have worked with the Secretary of Agriculture, and we are 
helping to stimulate the interest in rural communities in increasing 
gardens, in increasing the production of certain things which will not 
add to the difficulties of the commercial grower. The commercial 
grower has a hard time anyway, getting his crop picked, at the present 
wage level, and with an increasing scarcity of farm labor. By making 
it possible to produce in smaller units, we hope to make these food 
supnlics available to all at reasonable cost. 

We don't know how successful we will be, but we are going to try 
and push food production as a defense activity. In that way we 
would help the defense program, by working with existing agencies, 
on things that we consider to have a defense value, though we don't 
do the thing ourselves. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Roosevelt, section E of the Executive order 
setting up the Office of Civilian Defense reads, in part: 

The Office of Civilian Defense will consider proposals, suggest plans and pro- 
mote activities designed to sustain the national morale and to provide oppor- 
tunities for constructive civilian participation in the defense program. 

What kinds of jobs are civilians doing to carry out the intent of 
this section in other than the emergency types of work? 

Mrs. Roosevelt. Well, I think I have pretty well covered that in 
citing the things the bureaus had been enlisting people in. 

There is one thing that I think we can help in very much, and that 
is in the stimulation and development, in some cases by groups, of 
more forums or meetings of people for discussion and for obtaining 
answers to their questions. 

SPEAKERS BUREAU 

We have done very little of that, as a whole, in this country. I 
think that it would stimulate morale a great deal if there were, in 
various localities, groups coming together, where they could ask 
questions. We have, in connection with the Speakers Bureau, set 
up a place where questions may be sent in and the answers will be 
obtained from the Government and private agencies here, from the 
people who know. We will send them back to those people who 
ar« holding group meetings like that. We will try to train, tlirough 
our regional offices, people who may be able to go to such groups and 
help them with their problems. 

The Chairman. Yesterday we had a hearing on the problems of 
the District as a typical American city. 

It seemed to us that the migration of large numbers of Government 
workers and others to war jobs here has already created situations 
for which the city does not have the necessary facilities. The number 
of added migrants now expected will swamp the local facilities, 
unless some plan can be worked out for anticipating needs. 

Do you agree with that opinion? What seems to you to be the 
most important unmet needs here in the District? 

Mrs. Roosevelt. There are a great many unmet needs in the 
District. 

The Chairman. We found that out. 

Mrs. Roosevelt. They were here before, and they are much 
worse now 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9773 

There are a great many needs, of course, in the District that are 
enormously increased by the influx of Government workers; the 
housing faciUties in the lower price level are simply unspeakable. 

NEGRO WORKERS 

You have right here an illustration of the Negro question as you 
have it in very few places, because, while conditions seem to be 
unspeakable for white people, it is even worse for colored people. 

Everyone, white or colored, who is a Government worker, has a 
certain amount of difficulty in obtaining food in the time that is 
allotted to him at the lunch hour, but the colored workers have a 
far worse time than the white workers, because they frequently have 
to walk a great many blocks before they can find any place. 

Someone said the other day: "But they can go buy it in any 
drug store." But, if you would like to try it, I think it would amuse 
you, because they can get no one to wait on them until all the white 
people have been waited on first. 

Even white girls, for instance, have complained over and over 
again. 

Our lunch hour is nearly over before we can bu}^ something to bring back and 
eat on our desks. 

Well, the colored people just can't get anything, that is all there 
is to that. 

I think you have an extraordinarily good illustration here, in a 
good part of our population, of the problem of that group. It is the 
lowest-paid group. It is given the jobs that are the lowest paid, 
and I think that this inability to obtain proper food at the proper 
time has a weakening eft'ect, because you will find tuberculosis among 
colored people more than anybody else in the District. 

You will also find more syphilis, and you will find more malnutrition 
among the Negroes. I think that, right here in the District, you have 
the best illustration of many of the evils that are coming to various 
communities in the country, either where a group is having a hard 
time, or where conditions which were bad before are augmented by the 
increase in the population. 

THE ARMY AND CIVILIAN DEFENSE 

The Chairman. Mrs. Roosevelt, it has been suggested in some 
quarters — probably you know about it or you have heard about it — 
that civilian defense be placed within the jurisdiction of the military. 
What is your view of this proposal? 

We have heard the mayor on that. We might as well clinch it. 
What do you think about it? 

Mrs. Roosevelt. Well, I may be a little prejudiced, because my 
particular interests don't lie as much along military lines, but I think 
it would be rather diflacult to expect the Army, which naturally must 
be concerned, primarily, with its military problems and in the obtain- 
ing of materials which are absolutely necessary to defensive and often- 
sive warfare, to also take over the civilian-defense problems of the 
country. They have never before really had any opportunity to 
study these problems, nor any experience in their administration, and 



9774 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

yet they are problems which must be met, if you are going to have a 
really effective defense. 

I am not talking about the buying or the procurement; I am talking 
entirely about the actual work of civilian defense, which I can't see 
under Army jurisdiction, because they have had no experience. Most 
of the people in the Army have had very little reason for being con- 
cerned about the problems which enter into the civilian defense of any 
community. 

The Chairman. It was stated from the House floor that the Army 
is not desirous of that job anyway. 

Mrs. Roosevelt. Well, of course, I don't know about that, but I 
can't imagine that they are desirous of it, because I should think they 
have quite a job on their hands anyway. 

The Chairman. Mrs. Roosevelt, we are certainly very grateful to 
you for appearing here. It has been a very valuable contribution, and 
we thank you very kindly. 

Mrs. Roosevelt. Thank you very much. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL V. McNUTT, DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF 
DEFENSE HEALTH AND WELFARE SERVICES 

Mr. Curtis. Governor, to save time, I will get right down to some 
of the things that we wanted to inquire about. Your statement and 
other material will appear in the record at this point. 

(The statement referred to is as follows:) 

Statement by Paul V. McNutt, Federal Security Administrator and 
Director of Defense Health and Welfare Services, Washington, D. C. 

Over the next few months America must harness every ounce of its brains, 
brawn, and skill to attain the magnificent production goal set by our Commander 
in Chief. This will mean that many people will be uprooted from their established 
homes and accustomed jobs. Migration will probably be greater and for longer 
distances than it has been up to date. Successful migration means placing every 
individual in the job where he can render the maximum service. Even to approxi- 
mate this ideal will require greater coordination and greater speed of the admin- 
istrative machinery for adjusting the labor supply to production needs. 

In Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, there is a statement to the effect that "it 
appears evident from experience that man is of all sorts of baggage the most 
difficult to be transported." We have been experiencing some of these difficulties 
in recent months when our main job has been the relocation and retraining of 
millions of workers essential to defense production. We have also learned that 
part of the cost of transporting man is represented by the community services 
which are considered as an essential part of the American standard of living and 
efficiency. 

I appeared before this committee on March 25, 1941. Since then revolutionary 
changes in manpower demands have developed, and there are on the immediate 
horizon still more sensational changes in labor distribution. Probably the most 
useful thing which I could do now would be to review some of the history of the 
past 10 months and point out its bearing on the near future. 

In my previous statement I mentioned several types of migration which were 
then getting under way and described some aggravated community problems 
which would result from migration and the effect on civilian morale and efficiency 
if these problems were not promptly and energetically dealt with. 

FIVE types of migration 

At that time I outlined five types of migration which were emerging or expected: 
1. Migration of the families of men in the armed forces to the vicinity of the 

camps under construction. This movement has about settled down, but will 

resume with the expansion of the Army. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9775 

2. Movement of construction workers. This reached a peak last summer 
when camp and new factory construction was speeding up — this construction 
activity has about evened off at 1,000,000 workers. There is no prediction as to 
how many more will be required to meet the construction demands of the gigantic 
program outlined by the President. 

3. Movement to large cities which already had a reservoir of local unemployed. 
This has proceeded normally. While some movement of skilled labor has entered 
these cities, it has not been large in proportion to their original labor supply. As 
the local unemployed in these cities are absorbed and the commuters fully em- 
ployed, future expansions of employment will call for longer range movement. 

4. Rapid movement to small cities where large plants were erected. Wichita, 
Kans., is an example of this type. A survey of migration into this city, one of 
America's great new aircraft manufacturing centers, was conducted by the 
Work Projects Administration Division of Research during September 1941. A 
year ago Wichita was predominantly a farm service city with only a few small 
manufacturing industries. Today, after being awarded $368,000,000 in direct 
defense contracts, it has suddenly become one of the Nation's important aircraft 
production centers. This activity has brought a tremendous wave of migrants 
into Wichita. Approximately 12,800 families living in the corporate limits of 
Wichita in September 1941 had moved from outside Sedgwick County after 
October 1, 1940. These families contained 13,000 workers. The total number 
of persons present in the migrant families was 23,000, equal to 20 percent of 
Wichita's 1940 population. In terms of its population, Wichita has attracted 
during the past year 6 times more migration than Baltimore and 20 times more 
than Philadelphia, even though both these latter cities are themselves important 
defense centers. 

5. Unsuccessful migration — the movement of people who come on the basis of 
hunch and hope, and fail to secure a job. This migration was at its height in the 
early stages of the expansion of camps and defense industry and seems to have 
largely settled down. The migration surveys, referred to above, indicate that 
migrants who have been in the community for several months have secured jobs, 
otherwise they move on. Among the more recent migrants a considerable propor- 
tion experiences a period of some weeks of unemployment. Among the Wichita 
migrants 13 percent were unemployed at the time of survey; in Philadelphia, 
8 percent; in Baltimore, 3 percent; in St. Louis, 16 percent; in Macon, Ga., 
11 percent; etc. 

It would seem that industrial migration will be even more speeded up in the 
next 6 months than in the past 6. This is to be expected because the local unem- 
ployed and commuters in the.se areas have about been absorbed and because of 
the intensification of the productive effort. If we are to obtain anything ap- 
proaching a work schedule of seven 24-hour days a week, then millions will have 
to be added to defense production. 

6. To these types of migration I would now add another type which is looming 
on the horizon — namely, that arising out of priorities unemployment. The 
period of easy expansion is past. We are now entering a period of bottlenecks, 
material shortages, plant conversion, and a tremendous shift from civilian to 
military production. It has been estimated that over the next few months there 
will be a net reduction in employment of from 1 million to V/2 million. A net 
reduction of this magnitude means a gross turn-over of several millions who will 
shift from one jol) to another, sometimes without changing residence but often 
migrating some distance to adjust to the new situation. 

tINITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

These great changes in employment indicate that the work of the United 
States Employment Service will be of increased importance. To review briefly 
the activities of this organization: They have placed in the past 9 months mil- 
lions of workers; they have kept special checks on the demand and supply of 
workers in occupations essential to defense. They have improved their system 
of interregional exchange of information and intensified their knowledge of local 
labor market areas. They have instituted a set of special studies of distressed 
areas which have experienced or are expecting to experience priorities unemploy- 
ment. These studies are used as the basis of certification of such areas by the 
Office of Production Management as distressed areas, which status gives them a 
preferential position in securing defense contracts or needed materials. 

The need for more intensive efforts to utilize all available labor and the prob- 
ability that future migrations will be for longer distances than the movements 

60396— 42— pt. 25 10 



9776 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

to date emphasizes the national character of the labor market and the probability 
that State lines will be increasingly meaningless. 

The logical conclusion to be drawn from this situation is that the organization 
for interstate exchange of necessary skilled labor must be kept in high gear. 
This vastly enhances the importance of the operations of the Employment 
Service in its long distance placement activity. The Employment Service has a 
great responsibility for promoting the maximum use of our manpower and it was 
for this reason that the President decided that it would be a wise step to federalize 
the Service, providing a close-knit national program instead of 48 State-Federal 
programs. The Governors, when notified of this decision, have shown a com- 
mendable spirit of cooperation. 

The registration of so large a segment of our effective working population as a 
basis for assignment of every individual to a position of maximum usefulness will 
demand all the wisdom and all the cooperation which can be developed on the 
part of the agencies which are responsible for getting men and jobs together. 

A program of relocation is, however, insufficient without a thorough-going 
program of retraining. The American labor force was not geared to the highly 
technical requirements of defense industry. The unskilled, the inexperienced and 
those with "rusty" skills had to be trained to most exacting specifications. 

This task has been approached by using the existing vocational education 
organization, expanding it where necessar}^ and adding special courses to the 
regular vocational courses. At the time when I appeared before you last March 
the program of training for industry was very much in a transition period. 
The exact requirements of industry had not been determined and the functions 
of the Employment Service in channeling the training operations had not been 
worked out. Also very few trainees had been actually placed in industry. 
The requirements are now fairly definite and are made known to the training 
schools through the Employment Service. 

VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAMS 

The Nation's defense vocational training programs administered by the OfRce 
of Education completed 18 months of operation on December 31, 1941, with 
estimated accumulated total enrollments of 2,880,000. Ninety percent of these 
have been trained in the past 10 months or are in training now. 

This training has been carried on in some 1,200 public, vocational, and trade 
schools, 160 colleges and universities, and an estimated 10,000 public-school 
shops. It should be borne in mind in this connection that these schools and 
shops have been continuously utilized for the regular federally aided vocational 
education program which for the year ending June 30, 1941, enrolled a total of 
2,435,057 students, and that the defense vocational training prograna has been 
in addition to the regular vocational education program. 

Office of Production Management Associate Director Hillman recently called 
upon the public vocational schools to speed up their defense vocational training 
programs and to expand the use of their facilities and equipment by putting the 
VE-ND (1) program on a 24-hour day and 7-day week schedule. He pointed 
out that public vocational schools and public employment offices are in a position 
to direct unemployed youths and adults to the courses of training most suitable 
and for which trained hands are most in demand. Because of the close coop- 
erative working relationships of the United States Employment Service and the 
Office of Education in defense vocational training, and since both agencies are 
coordinate with the Federal Security Agency and Labor Division of the Office of 
Production Management, it would appear that vocational schools may be expected 
to retrain increasing numbers of workers for employment in war industries. 
Likewise, the National Youth Administration, through its residence centers, 
many of which are located in areas of excess labor, is able to give work experience 
to a large number of inexperienced young people and to start them toward war 
industry. 

PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 

At the time I appeared here before it was apparent on the basis of surveys 
made by the Public Health Service and the Office of Education that considerable 
sums would be needed to provide community facilities and health and welfare 
services in order that the migrants might be able to lead normal and healthy lives. 
There was then pending an appropriation of $150,000,000 for the minimum essen- 
tial community facilities. That appropriation has been made and allocated, and 
an additional $150,000,000 has been appropriated for this purjjose. On the basis 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9777 

of applications already on hand for projects requiring Federal grants, this addi- 
tional $150,000,000 will be allotted within a short time. 

The urgency of a health program for "all out" production is evident when it is 
considered that in 1941 about 20 times as much productive time was lost on 
account of illness as on account of strikes. 

The Public Health Service and the Health and Medical Committee have begun 
to mobilize the health resources of the Nation for maximum efficiency. In 
addition to the task of providing hospital and sanitary facilities for growing 
communities, the problems of medical education have been given especial con- 
sideration. Policies of the Army, Navy, and Selective Service have been worked 
out so as to insure the training of the medical and nursing personnel essential to 
the armed forces and civilian population. Medical courses have been shortened to 
3 calendar years and Federal assistance to schools of nursing has provided an 
urgently needed expansion in their enrollment. 

Also, the needs of industrial hygiene have been considered in relation to training 
additional personnel, health supervision of workers, programs of industrial 
nursing, .and the research necessary to implement these activities. Expert 
personnel has been assigned to the State Departments of Industrial Hygiene and 
to large industrial communities to strengthen their programs. Policies have 
been developed to assure the maximum contribution of service by the hospitals. 

Because of heavy demands made by both civilian and military agencies for 
medical and dental personnel, the necessity for developing an intelligent recruit- 
ment policy to satisfy the over-all needs of the Nation is obvious. The Procure- 
ment and Assignment Service was organized in order to coordinate the recruitment 
of medically trained personnel, and to mobilize the professionally trained people 
of the country in such manner as effectively to serve the Nation's war effort and 
at the same time protect the health and safety of the civilian population. 

Problems of physical rehabilitation, improvement of certification of citizenship, 
procurement of blood, and the production of commodities essential to public 
health have been dealt with. 

Regular activities of the Public Health Service which have been greatly ex- 
panded' by the Public Health Service because of war needs include malaria and 
venereal disease controls. Recent malaria control work has increased the pro- 
tection of 700,000 people in the vicinity of Army camps and industrial plants. 
Clinical and laboratory facilities for venereal-disease control, both of the military 
and of the industrial population, have been widely developed. 

Especial attention has been given in the past 10 months to the promotion of 
a Nation-wide nutrition campaign. Studies of the actual food intake of large 
portions of our population show that many people in the United States are not 
adequately fed. 

Recent scientifically controlled experiments have shown that when the inade- 
quate diets of a group of people were improved, their capacity for work increased. 
School children in the United States, as well as those in England, had increased 
vitality after their daily food intake was made more adequate by giving them 
an adequate noon meal. In large industrial plants, men receiving an adequate 
diet were shown to have fewer colds, were absent fewer days from work due to 
illness, and had more of a feeling of well-being as compared to the time they 
were eating an inadequate diet and to other workers in the factory who were 
eating an inadequate diet. 

The aim of the national nutrition program is that every man, woman, and 
child in the United States should have an adequate diet. We are providing a 
framework which draws together the work of Federal agencies, State and local 
nutrition committees, private organizations, and individual volunteers. Nutri- 
tion committees have been established in every State, Hawaii and Puerto Rico, 
in the majority of counties, and in many large cities. 

These committees are organizing an intensive educational campaign to carry 
into effect the recommendations of the National Nutrition Conference. 

Also, especial attention has been given to the problem of proper feeding of 
workers in industry. 

One significant aspect of these movements which should be borne in mind 
is that a large proportion of these migrants are young single women. In addition 
to wives and daughters, from 15 to 25 percent of the newcomers were women 
seeking work. Their problems are more acute because they are less successful 
in finding work than the men. Recent surveys indicate that the unemployment 
rate among migrant women is three times that among migrant men. 



9778 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

I need not elaborate the social problems that large numbers of unemployed 
young women imply. This underlines the major importance which is to be 
attached to the recreation and social protection features of the activities of the 
Defense Health and Welfare Services. 

The promotion of recreation around military camps and industrial centers 
has also made marked progress in 10 months. One of the most pressing problems 
arising out of the Nation's defense activities is that of furnishing suitable recre- 
ation for the civilian population and for service men on leave. Through its 
Recreation Section, the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services has taken 
and is continuing to take steps to insure the provision of profitable and whole- 
some leisure-time activities. 

The problem of maneuver areas has received particular att-ention. Working 
closely in cooperation with the Army, representatives of this Office have organized 
125 communities in the maneuver areas so that soldiers may reap the fullest 
benefits from available resources. 

The Federal Security Agency is sponsoring, upon certification bj^ the War 
Department, a Nation-wide Work Projects Administration project designed to 
supplement recreational services in defense areas where local resources are inade- 
quate to meet the needs resulting from military and defense activity. 

The special problems of defense industrial centers have received particular 
consideration. Proper recreational outlets are especially significant in connection 
with young persons who have left home for the first time to accept jobs in these 
industries. 

Through the Family Security Committee, the Office of Defense Health and 
Welfare Services is giving its attention to the planning of programs which will 
preserve and further provide for family security during the national emergency. 
In its program planning, it turned its attention first to the problem of providing 
a basic public welfare structure throughout the United States, comprehensive 
and flexible enough to meet problems of human need that arise suddenly. To 
this end it recommended an addition to the Social Security Act to provide for 
general public assistance through Federal grants to the States to be administered 
without discrimination as to the residence or legal settlement of recipients. The 
present Federal provisions for payments to persons in need omit several categories 
for which many States have also made no provision ur very inadequate provision. 

You can see from this report that a considerable amount of progress has been 
made in the adjustment of the labor force to a new economy. The job is not far 
enough along, however, to warrant complacency. It is just getting well under 
way. A larger Army and a larger productive capacity will require more construc- 
tion; mounting defense and lend-lease appropriations must be turned into weapons 
by the men who tend machines; meanwhile we must maintain such civilian pro- 
duction as is necessary to morale and the preservation of our economic structure. 
All this adds up to the intensive use of our manpower — the exertion of every 
eff"ort to see that each man and woman is in the place where they can contribute 
most to the common enterprise and to guarantee that the living and working 
conditions of these essential auxiliaries to the fighting forces are such that the 
maximum efficiency of output will be promoted. 

What we are striving for is the unification of many related programs of human 
welfare which will provide a well-rounded approach to the task of maintaining 
uninterrupted security and services for the man in the street and for his family. 



Supplementary Statement Furnished by Helen R. .Jetek, Secretary, 
Family Security Committee 

(The first report prepared on the basis of the jjlau for study of a defense area 
with regard to problems of family security. This report was prepared by the 
Honolulu Council of Social Agencies at the request of Mr. Robert W. Beasley, 
Territorial coordinator of health, welfare, and related defense activities.) 

September 3, 1941. 

Problems of Family Security in the Honolulu Defense Area 

defense councils 

A territorial defense council was appointed by the Governor of the Territory 
early in the summer of 1941. Its m.embership consists of the chairman of the 
board of supervisors of each county (in city and county of Honolulu, the mayor). 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9779 

the territorial director of Selective Service, the chairman of the (Honolulu) mayor's 
entertainment comro.ittee for service personnel, and a representative of the Terri- 
torial food storage committee. Information available to the writer indicates that 
one meeting has been held to date, at which time a resolution was passed urging 
a special session of the Territorial legislature to consider an M-day or defense 
em.ergency bill. The council has no em.ployed executive, and to date, has appar- 
ently not concerned itself with problem.s of family security or related problems. 
Each major island has formed a disaster council. In Honolulu a full-time exec- 
utive with business background has been em.ployed and supplied with offices and 
clerical staff. A large number of comimittees have been set up to prepare for civil- 
ian protection, etc., in case of attack. To date planning has been pretty definitely 
lim.ited to future emergency disaster planning. The vice president of the Honolulu 
Council of Social Agencies is a m.em.ber of the council. 

HONOLULU COUNCIL OF SOCIAL AGENCIES 

In the main it follows the traditional pattern of organization. Membership is 
on a delegate basis with both public and private agencies holding m.embership. 
It is governed by an elected board with certain public officers having an ex-officio 
board m.embership, viz, the director of the local Social Security Board office and 
the Territorial commissioner of health. The executive of the community chest 
(United Welfare Fund) is also an ex-officio member of the Board. The council is 
financed by the community chest (Budget 1941 — approximately $20,000), it has 
a professional staff of three and a clerical staff of seven. Honolulu has had a 
council for about 10 years. It was separated from the chest and supplied with 
separate staff about 2 years ago. The two organizations work very closely together 
It operates as the usual council does, carrying on educational activities, conducting 
research, providing com.m.on services to the agencies (such as social service ex- 
change) and serving as the coordinating and planning nxedium for agencies. In 
recent months, a great deal of attention has been given to defense problems. 
Activities are sum.marized as follows: 

1 . Pushed organization and attempted guidance of development of governmental 
defense and disaster councils. 

2. Participated in establishment of mayor's entertainment committee for service 
personnel (financed by United Welfare fund). 

3. Followed Federal program of coordination of health, welfare and related 
defense activities, and urged appointment of local coordinator. 

4. Developed a plan for interagency cooperation with Selective Service officials. 
With respect to the same the present situation can be summarized as follows: 
Territorial Selective Service officials employ two social workers (use own funds) 
who make dependency investigations. Through plan worked out, they clear with 
the social service exchange on an "information only" basis, and have the coopera- 
tion of regular social agencies, using a plan based on standards suggested by the 
Family Welfare Association of America. This plan appears to be working satis- 
factorily. 

A definite plan for referring Selective Service registrants with problems and 
rejectees with remedial health defects to sources of assistance and treatment is 
now being effected. It involves use of trained medical social workers in examina- 
tion centers who will refer cases to both health and case work agencies. 

5. Meeting defense welfare problems: Planning in this area is being handled 
by two committees of the council: The executive committee which has for the 
time being elected to constitute itself the committee on defense welfare problems 
and an intake and referral steering committee. Right now considerable energy 
is being devoted to planning social work services for enlisted personnel and their 
families and the civilian defense workers and their families. Under a plan ap- 
proved by the council, the local chapter of the American Red Cross is establishing 
a home service department, and a definite but tentative plan of interagency 
relationship with the Red Cross is virtually completed. 

It should be stated here that the local chapter of the Red Cross has doubled 
its able-bodied service personnel (2 to 4 persons), plans to provide medical social 
workers for the 3 service hospitals here, and hopes to develop its home service 
department as needed. To date, due to the unavailability of qualified candidates, 
that consists of 1 trained and experienced case worker. Estimates of staff needs 
in this area run from 5 to as high as 15. 

6. Volunteer services: On August 1, 1941, the council began operation of a 
Central Volunteer Placem,ent Bureau with a full-time professional secretary in 
charge. It is engaged in recruiting, training, and placing volunteers in regular 
agency and defense agency programs. 



9780 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

7. Cost of living and fam.ily buHget study: In 1937, the council published a 
family budget study for the use of the committee's agencies. Revision of this 
study in the light of rising costs has been authorized, but cannot be undertaken 
im.m.ediately because of the press of work. On this point very little reliable 
information on costs is available, but it is known that rents and food cost have 
increased markedly. 

COMMUNITY CHEST (IN HONOLULU, UNITED WELFARE FUND) 

Honolulu has a chest with about 20 years of successful history. The present 
executive has been with the organization for 16 years and has established an 
enviable record of successful m.oney raising and community leadership in social 
work affairs. All major private agencies financed by public solicitation, with 
the exception of the Red Cross, participate in the chest. In 7 of the last 8 years, 
it has attained its financial objective of $500,000 and this year will seek $575,000 — 
$47,000 for the National United Service Organizations. It is in sound financial 
condition, and enjoys the complete confidence of the business coman.unity. 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS 

Honolulu has a chapter of the American Association of Social Workers, with 
about 90 members. 

OTHER COORDINATING AGENCIES 

Other than those previously mentioned, Honolulu has no other coordinating 
agencies in the social work field. The chamber ot commerce operates the health 
council. 

THE PROBLEM SITUATION 

Certain aspects of the problem situation have been touched on in the foregoing 
paragraphs and other reports already prepared. Outstanding basic problero.s 
include : 

1. A housing shortage and high rental situation. 

2. High food and attendant costs. 

3. Lack of sufficient trained and experienced social workers to m.eet needs in 
the areas of fam.ily and children's case work, public and private; m.edical social 
work; psychiatric social work; recreation and group work. 

Attached hereto are reports on aspects of the family security situation prepared 
by representatives of four key agencies at the request of the council: 
" 1. The chief of social work of the Territorial Departm.ent of Public Welfare. 

2. The director of the Territorial Mental Hygienic Clinic (tax supported). 

3. The director of the Private Fam.ily and Children's Case Work Agency. 

4. The director of the Hospital Social Service Association (medical social work 
unit for three main private hospitals — Honolulu has no general public hospital). 

These statem.ents should throw further light on the problems this community 
faces today and will face in the future. 

John H. Moore, 
Secretary, Honolubi Council of Social Agencies. 



Territory of Hawaii, 
Department of Public Welfare, 

Honolulu, T. H., August 27, 1941. 
To: Mr. John H. Moore, executive secretary of the Honolulu Council of Social 

Agencies. 
From: Mrs. Clorinda Lucas, Chief, Division of Social Work. 

Subject: Problems arising in the field of family care as a result of the increase in the 
defense activities in the Territory of Hawaii. 



Over the past year there has been a drastic increase in rent in the Territory. 
Many of the families known to our agency are being forced to live in undesir- 
able and crowded quarters due to the fact that this agency cannot provide the 
rent required in more desirable quarters. There is also a definite shortage of 
houses, making it impossible for these families to find more adequate living 
quarters. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9781 

Various hospitals on Oahu rely upon this agency to make arrangements for 
patients when they are ready for discharge from the hospital. In many instances 
it is necessary for the patient to be isolated or receive some care. Rental of 
furnished single rooms has increased within a year from (per month) $7.50 to 
about $15 and for unfurnished rooms from $5 to $9. 

Private homes are seldom available for persons in need of some convalescent 
care, since the home owners would rather rent rooms to defense workers. The 
Department has had difficulty in finding rooms for single women since again 
landlords are more anxious to rent available rooms to men than to women. 

The workers have reported that many of the single rooms which are now being 
used by recipients of public assistance would hardly meet the health standards, 
but that, since no other rooms are available, they have had to remain in these 
substandard rooms. 

2. SLUM CLEARANCE PROGRAM 

The second housing unit here in Honolulu will be completed soon. The 
Honolulu Housing Authority will then begin the third unit which is to be located 
on a spot now populated. Due to a shortage of houses, these families will appar- 
ently have no place to go. 

3. INFLUX OF DEFENSE WORKERS FROM OTHER ISLANDS IN THE HAWAIIAN GROUP 

At the department of public welfare agents' meeting held in July 1941, it was 
reported that a great number of m(;n from the outside islands have come to find 
work on Oahu. Their families and relatives have been left at home. Requests 
have been received for the Oahu department to interview these men regarding 
financial support for their families. In some instances this move has resulted in 
family disintegration in that some of these men have established new family 
alliances on Oahu. As yet Oahu has not felt this change in the shift in population 
since the men are gainfully employed and able to take care of themselves. 

4. INFLUX OF DEFENSE WORKERS FROM THE MAINLAND UNITED STATES 

As yet very few requests have been received for financial assistance from men 
who have come to the Territory of Hawaii. It has been possible for these men, 
who for some reason have left the defense project, to find other work, such as 
driving taxis, working in bars and restaurants, and working on other contract 
jobs not connected with defense. The men are therefore able to maintain them- 
selves independently. 

5. INFLUX OF DEFENSE WORKERS FROM THE FIVE LINE ISLANDS 

The same situation as stated in the above paragraph also holds true for tliis 
group of men. 

6. REQUESTS FOR RETURN TO PLACE OF LEGAL RESIDENCE 

A few requests have been received for transportation to the mainland. As yet 
no public funds have been used to return defense workers to their former place of 
residence. Because other work has been available in Honolulu these applicants 
have been asked to find employment in order to pay for their own transportation. 
However, from the information which has been obtained, indications are that it 
will be very difficult to obtain authorization for the return of many of these 
defense workers. These workers have worked on contracting jobs in many 
States of the Union and have actually not established legal residence in any 
State for a number of years. Hence, should it become necessary to obtain authori- 
zation for the return of defense workers, the Department will experience great 
difficulty. 

7. OUT-OF-TOWN INQUIRIES 

There has been an increase in the number of out-of-town inquiries. We have 
received letters from various mainland agencies requesting that defense workers 
be interviewed regarding financial support and plans for their families who have 
been left behind. It has, however, been difficult to — 

(o) Locate these men since they move from project to project and from rooming 
house to rooming house. 



9782 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

(b) Work out any continuing plan to assure the families of any regular financial 
support. Because of housing shortage and high rents, these men are often hesi- 
tant about having their families join them here. 

8. INSTALLMENT PLAN BUYING 

Workers have reported that former recipients of public assistance are now earn- 
ing large wages. The workers have found, in visiting in the homes, that the 
families are buying many articles, such as radios, electrical appliances, automo- 
biles, and household furnishings on a long-time installment plan. It is felt that 
many of these families will have a great many debts and will necessarily lose posses- 
sfon of these articles when the wage earner becomes unemployed. 

9. EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG GIRLS 

It has always been difficult to encourage young girls of limited intelligence to 
accept work in private homes. Because of the need for waitresses and bar maids, 
these girls are now willing to accept only that type of employment. In many 
instances, these girls should be more closely supervised. It is anticipated that 
these girls will become unmarried mothers and hence apply for public assistance. 
It will, in all probability, be difficult to obtain financial support from the alleged 
fathers because it will be impossible not only to locate these men but also to 
identify them as the alleged fathers in order to prefer charges. 

10. ILLEGITIMACY 

The increase in the number of single men has been a decided contributing 
factor in the problem of illegitimacy. The 1940 rate of illegitimate births in the 
Territory increased 7.4 percent over that of 1939. It can be assumed that the 
1941 rate will be even higher. 

A manager of a home for unmarried mothers has reported her concern over the 
increase in the number of girls who have become involved. She has stated that 
the Army and Navy personnel have, in many instances, been responsible. How- 
ever, these men are very closely watched in respect to their i^hysicsl condition. 
With the defense workers, there is no control and she is concerned as to what 
physical dangers these girls who are becoming involved with defense workers are 
being exposed. 

It has been felt that the community is attempting to plan for the recreation of 
the armed personnel. However, very little has been done for the defense workers 
and therefore perhaps these men have attempted to plan for themselves. 

11. FOSTER HOMES 

For the present, no change has been noted in the availability of foster homes. 
It is felt that perhaps there may be more families interested in having children 
placed with them since there has been an increased number of middle-class 
families who have come to live in Hawaii. These families may become interested 
in serving as foster families. 

12. HIGH COST OF FOOD 

It has been reported that food prices have increased and therefore recipients of 
the Department of Public Welfare have found it increasingly difficult to manage 
on our food budget. Recipients who have been in the habit of eating in restau- 
rants have reported their difficulty in obtaining adequate food. 

13. DECREASES IN THE EXPENDITURE FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE 

The following amounts have been spent in the past 6 months for public assist- 
ance. As you will note, there has been a decrease of about $4,500 since January 
1941. One might draw the conclusion that this decrease has been due to the 
defense program which has offered employment to persons on the relief rolls. 

January $76, 025 

February 75, 002 

March 74,292 

April 74,301 

May 73,467 

June 71,942 

July 71, 701 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9783 

August 28, 1941. 
Mr. John H. Moore, 

Secretary, Honolulu Council of Social Agencies, 

Hawaiian Trust Building, Honolulu, T. H. 

Dear Mr. Moore: I recently discussed with you the need for more adequate 
facilities and staff to meet the need of diagnosing and treating the increasing 
numbers of psychiatric patients in the Territorj'. The purpose of this letter 
is to follow your suggestion of submitting data and statements which would 
illustrate the problems which we are facing. 

In accordance with Act 257 of the 1939 legislature, the bureau of mental 
hygiene has conducted "an in-patient and out-patient mental hygiene clinic for 
the examination, study, diagnosis, and treatment of cases of mental illness." As 
you know, these are the facilities in the Queen's Hospital originally developed by 
the Hawaii Mental Health Clinic which was sponsored by the public health 
committee of the Chamber of Commerce of Honolulu. In conducting in-patient 
phychiatric hospital services it is necessary to have trained personnel who can 
provide the specialized examinations and treatment needed by these patients. 
In almost every community it is necessary that this supervision and sponsorship 
be subsidized by either public or private funds. In the Queen's Hospital we 
have had supervision over the 10 beds in the mental hygiene clinic section of the 
hospital, the 4 beds in the emergency section and also have had beds made avail- 
able to us throughout the hospital from time to time. 

During the last year we have averaged from 15 to 25 patients in the hospital 
most of the time. Because of the fact that we have not had sufficient beds avail- 
able and because of our limited funds for the treatment of patients, we have 
developed a day-in-patient plan in which patients come at 8 o'clock in the morn- 
ing and stay in the hospital for treatment until 4 o'clock in the afternoon. We 
have been averaging from 8 to 10 of this type of patient daily. From this it is 
evident that we have been responsible for an average of 20 to 30 in-patients daily. 
During the last 6 months we have rarely had an empty bed available for a 
patient. This has meant that we have to had discharge patients earlier than we 
should; have been unable to admit and treat patients needing treatment or we 
have had to commit patients to the Territorial hospital who could have been 
treated at the Queen's Hospital. 

The facilities for psychiatric patients in the Territory are virtually limited to 
those under the supervision of the bureau of mental hygiene in the Queen's 
Hospital and to the Territorial hospital at Kaneohe, Oahu, T. H. The latter 
is a large "state hospital type" of institution carrying a patient load of, about 
1,000 patients in buildings originally built for about 700 patients. It is 12 
miles from the center of Honolulu and is, therefore, not geographically convenient 
to psychiatric patients in Honolulu. It is also inadequately staffed to provide 
adequate psychiatric treatment for acute, recoverable cases. Because of the 
onus of being a patient in the Territorial hospital, many psychiatric patients will 
not go there for treatment who would definitely benefit by a period of intensive 
psychiatric treatment. There is overcrowding and a high percentage of oriental 
and mixed racial groups in the hospital so that many haole individuals will not 
accept treatment there, and it is highly undesirable to send an individual of 
genteel background since the experience might be more traumatic than helpful. 

Defense activities have markedly overburdened our already inadequate facili- 
ties in the Queen's Hospital. The families of Navy officers and men with psy- 
chiatric problems have been referred to our clinic, as have civilian workers from 
Pearl Harbor, the Five Companies, and the line islands. Of the last 100 patients 
seen by the bureau of mental hygiene, 30 were connected with defense activities and 
have been in Hawaii less than 1 year. Fifteen of the thirty were defense workers 
or members of their families, 8 were Navy officers, 2 were Navy men, 1 was from 
the Army, and 4 were mainland "floaters" attracted here by defense jobs. This 
means that in this group there was in increased patient load over island residents 
of 43 percent, and that this 43 percent was made up of individuals connected with 
defense activities. 

During the year July 1, 1940, to June 30, 1941, this organization rendered 
psychiatric service to over 1,300 patients. Of this group only 150 were com- 
mitted to the Territorial hospital. During this same period approximately 550 
of the above patients were hospitalized in the Queen's Hospital. The bureau 
staff rendering this service consisted of a psychiatrist, a resident physician, 2 
psychiatric social workers, 1 occupational therapist, and 2 secretaries. The 
nursing service is provided by the Queen's Hospital and an additional occupa- 



9784 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

tional therapist is subsidized by the Junior League of Honohilu. The total cost 
to the Territory for this service during the fiscal year was approximately $28,500. 
Many of the patients are able to pay for a part, or even all, of the hospital 
expense, but very few of them can afford to pay any professional fees for psy- 
chiatric service. Of 218 patients treated in the Queen's Hospital from July 1, 
1940, to December 31, 1941, the hospital expenses were paid from the following 
sources : 

Territorial funds only 25 

Territorial funds and city and county funds 7 

Territorial and private funds 19 

Territorial funds, city and county and private funds 1 

City and county funds only 41 

Private funds only 125 

Total patients treated in the mental hvgiene clinic from July 1, 1940, 
to December 31, 1940 J 218 

During the past 1 }i years there has seldom been an empty bed available in the 
Queen's Hospital for a psychiatric patient. It is almost always necessary to 
discharge one patient before another can be admitted. On many occasions it 
has been impossible to discharge patients in the hospital because they were too 
sick to leave. This last week end five patients had to be refused admission to 
the hospital because of a lack of beds. Two of the patients were disturbed, 
two had made suicidal attempts, and the other had threatened to do bodily 
injury to members of his family. Not long ago I was called to see the wife of 
a commander in the Navy who was threatening to commit suicide. She was 
acutely disturbed and in need of psychiatric care in a hospital. The commander 
recognized this and requested me to make arrangements for such care. It was 
not possible to obtain a single bed in any Honolulu hospital. When I called 
the nurses' registry for a nurse who might stay with the patient during the night, 
I was told that there was not a single nurse available on the registry. An admiral 
in command of a large number of ships had to leave his duty and return to the 
coast in order to secure adequate psychiatric care for his wife in a hospital, which 
she seriously needed. 

Our present facilities were never designed for the treatment of psychiatric 
patients and are not only inadequate in terms of numbers but also in the quality 
of the arrangements. It is very evident from the experience, statistics, and 
resvdts of the efforts of the Hawaii Mental Health Clinic and the Vjureau of mental 
hygiene during the last 3 j'ears of service in the Territory that there is a very 
definite and urgent need for in-patient psychiatric treatment facilities in Honolulu. 
It is also very evident that our present facilities are very inadequate in terms of 
the type, arrangement, location, and actual number of beds. 

From my experience in psychiatry and with our local problems, I believe that 
there is an urgent need for a small psj^chiatric hospital in Honolulu. This should 
provide ward and private beds for about 35 adults and 10 children. I think 
that a hospital of this size should be associated with a larger hospital such as 
the Queen's Hospital. There are probablj- not enough private mental patients 
in the Territory to make a private mental hospital a paying proposition. There- 
fore, such facilities should be provided in a hospital such as suggested. For 
this reason, it will probably be necessary to construct the hospital with public 
funds. At the same time the operation of the hospital will need a subsidy from 
private or public funds. Such an organization could operate with the present 
bureau of mental hygiene without changing the legislation but with an adequate 
budget. 

Probably the psychiatric hospital suggested could be organized, the funds 
raised and it could be built and operated by a board consisting of representatives 
from the board of health, the Queen's Hospital Board and the community on a 
basis of operating agreements with the board of health and Queen's Hospital. 
Such a plan would, I believe, provide the best service to the community for the 
least expenditure of the taxpayer's money. It should be clearly understood 
that facilities, whatever their nature, cannot be provided at the Territorial 
hospital, at Kaneche, which would adequately take care of this patient load. 

At least $150,000 is needed to build such a building and equip it. It is possible 
that some private funds might be raised locally, or that some funds might be 
obtained at the emergency meeting of the legislature if there is a possibility of 
obtaining Federal funds on the basis of the present emergency and the acute 
need for facilities from that standpoint. We are also sadly lacking in adequate 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9785 

staff and need funds for additional help if we are to even approach meeting the 
present patient load. At the present time we have two psychiatrists but do not 
have a resident or intern. We need an additional psychiatrist and a resident 
physician. At the present time we have only a junior psychiatric social worker. 
We need a chief psychiatric social worker and an additional psychiatric social 
worker. Our secretarial staff is far behind in its work. For example there are 
over 100 physical examinations on patients which have not been typed. We 
have been unable to complete the reports on patients seen on traveling psychiatric 
clinic trip to the Island of Molokai in February of this year. We are not able 
to get out some very essential correspondence on our cases simply because we 
do not have sufficient staff to do this work. The sum of $25,000 for the next 
year would probably cover the needs of additional staff help and additional 
funds for the hospitalization of indigent patients. 

The Territory has probably neglected the field of psychiatry more than any 
other branch of medicine. Therefore, there do not exist in the Territory facilities 
to meet the normal needs of the population. A concentration of a defense effort 
in this area has brought a large number of people to the community — some of 
whom are emotionally unstable and most of whom are placed under considerable 
emotional stress in order to adjust to lack of housing, overcrowding, uncertain- 
ties, insecurities, and many other problems peculiar to the islands. I believe 
that from the standpoint of general morale in the group and in order to provide 
an important link in the chain of defense that increased psychiatric facilities 
are highly desirable and extremely important. 

This communication is sent to you as the opinion of the director of the bureau 
of mental hygiene and it should be understood that while it is forwarded with 
the permission and knowledge of the Territorial Commissioner of Public Health, 
it is not necessarily the opinion of the Territorial Commissioner of Public Health 
nor of the members of the board of health. 
Respectfully vours, 

Edwin E. McNiel, M. D., 
Director of the Bvreav of Menial Hygiene. 



Effect of the Defense Program on Child and Family Service Cases 

reported by the director of the private family and children's case 

work agency 

Of the 414 cases currently under care at the child and family service, 250 have 
been given a cursory review for this report. In 81, or about one-third of the cases, 
outstanding factors were readily discovered directly relating to the present 
defense program. As would be expected, the defense boom has aided some families 
and has been a detriment to others. Even in the same family diverse effects may 
be seen. For example: 

A man who formerly was employed on a vegetable route now works nights at 
Pearl Harbor making more money than before. But his young wife has begun 
to step out nights. Also, in the crowded noisy tenement where this couple and 
their six small children must live until they can find better quarters, the man 
does not sleep well days. Becoming irritable and anguy with his wife, who in 
his opinion should stay home nights and keep the children quiet during the day- 
time, he comes to the child and family service for help. 

Employment. — In the 81 cases obviouslj' affected by the present defense pro- 
gram, 38 male heads of families are employed in civilian defense industries. 
Seven others are serving in the Army and Navy. In several of the remaining 
cases there is no male head of the household, or no family group. Nearly all of 
these 38 male heads of families have notably increased their earnings by securing 
employment in defense industries. Examples: 

Two men were formerly on Works Projects Administration. 

Another was a bookkeeper in a small store and now has a much better paid job 
as timekeeper in a defense industry. 

Four chronic alcoholics no longer lose their jobs when they go on a spree. At 
least three of the men in this group are less well adjusted in their work than 
prior to present defense activities. For example: 

One man was contented to make a modest living by fishing, but because of 
military activities can no longer fish in the accustomed areas. He has, therefore, 
taken a job at Mokapu as carpenter's assistant at $40 a week. While this income 



9786 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

is larger than his previous one, he dislikes the work and still hopes that Washington 
will restore his fishing rights. 

Another man who is reported to have been somewhat alcoholic but regularly- 
employed took a defense job on one of the distant islands. While there, he was 
arrested for burglarizing a warehouse containing cases of beer. 

Another is German and an alien. He is a skilled worker but is in an unskilled 
job because he is barred from defense and apparently from most nondefense 
industries. 

In this group of 81 cases, at least eight adolescent boys have unusually well- 
paid jobs. 

One, 19, earns .$105 a month. 

Another 19-year-old with an I. Q. of 72 is receiving as much as $62 a week. 

A high- school boy, when expelled from school, immediately entered upon 
employment in a defense industry and is not interested in further schooling. 

Only six of the women and adolescent girls in this group are reported to be 
employed in defense industries. This rather low figure may be in part because 
in a large number of these cases, we are dealing with foster homes where the foster 
mothers necessarily would be staying in the home. Of the six women, all work 
at Pearl Harbor: one in a laundry, two at office work, and one in a restaurant. 
The jobs of the other two were not specified. 

Illegitimacy. — In this group of 81 cases, there are six cases of unmarried 
mothers. In four cases the alleged father is in the Army and Navy, and in one 
the boy says that he cannot marry the girl because he will soon be drafted. In 
the sixth case, the mother is a defense worker but the father is said to be a civilian. 

Marital Adjustment. — In the 81 cases marital discord closely related to defense 
activities was obvious in only five cases. 

One was described on the first page of this report. 

Other examples are as follows: 

A wife becarrie unfaithful while her husband was employed on a distant island 
and did not welcome him back. 

A man has secured daytime work in an ammunition plant and at night works 
as a special police officer. His brother who came to Honolulu to work in a defense 
industry has joined the family. The wife finally deserted, complaining that her 
husband is never at home and that he cares more for his brother than for her. 

A man, after much unemployment, began to earn high wages as a skilled worker 
in a defense industry. He no longer feels de])endent on his wife, who from time 
to time has supported him by taking roomers, and does not consult her wishes. 
She greatly resents his new authoritative attitude and has become ver}^ jealous 
of his freedom and his new interests outside of the home. 

A wife nags her husband, insisting that he could get a fine defense job if he 
would. As a matter of fact, because of an earlier embezzlement, he cannot get 
bonded and therefore is not eligible for skilled jobs in his line of work, but his wife 
insists upon ignoring this. 

There are several cases of improved marital relations which appear to be related 
to the present defense program. For example: 

A man, formerly on Work Projects Administration, is now buying new living 
room furniture, has paid for camp for one of his children, and the entire family 
seeins much happier. 

A man has a job at Palmyra. His wife is much pleased because he not only is 
employed but also gambles less and the family receives $70 of his pay every 
month. 

Housing problems. — The case workers reported surprisingly few outstanding 
housing problems. It may be that poor housing conditions are so frequent and 
admit of so little modification by a case worker that too little attention is paid to 
them. Among the nine serious housing problems reported, were the following: 

A man and wife and until recently their young adolescent son were living in one 
furnished room, although the combined earnings of the parents amount to $72 
a week. 

A mother has recently remarried and the couple will take her child from the 
foster home to live with them as soon as they can find a suitable place. They now 
have one room in a hotel of poor reputation. 

A mother has been released from a sanatorium and is staying in crowded quar- 
ters with relatives. Her husband has a room. Two of the children are in an 
institution and one in a foster home. Until a house can be found, the family 
must remain separated. 

A father, mother, and adolescent daughter are living in a poor tenement district 
in one furnished room with a small lanai, although he is making over $60 a week. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9787 

Child neglect. — Three cases in this group were brought to the attention of this 
agency because of suspected child neglect. Two were referred by a chaplain and 
one by a neighbor. In each case one or both parents were employed in defense 
industries or in the Army or Navy. 

Increased costs of foster home care. — A large number of the foster parents in this 
entire group of 250 cases are requesting higher board rates because of the increased 
cost of living and the great demand for rooms to rent. Some foster parents have 
found that it is much more profitable to rent rooms to adults employed in defense 
industries than to care for children at a board rate of only $20 a month. 

Miscellaneous 'problems. — Several individual cases in this group present one or 
more problems pertinent to this study but not included in the above categories. 
Among these are the following: 

A couple on the mainland arranged through a child placing agency to take a 
child for adoption. Soon after the child entered their home, the family came to 
Honolulu where the man had secured a good position in a defense industry. At 
the request of the mainland child-placing agency and with full cooperation from 
the prospective adoptive parents, this agency has taken over supervision during 
the probationary period until final adoption papers are secured. 

Another case is that of a 15-year-old adolescent girl who has been missing for 
several weeks from the foster home and has been reported to be living with soldiers. 

Here also might be mentioned instances of increased family income presumably 
due to greater opportunities in private industry in this period of scarcity of labor 
and increased demand for goods. (There are a number of such situations, but 
many of them cannot be accurately evaluated.) For example: 

A young man of 20 without previous job experience is earning $45 a week in a 
brewery. 

Although there is a temporary advantage due to increased employability in 
the defense work, of people who would otherwise be classified as unemployables, 
we are already seeing the effects of extremely poor housing conditions, increase 
in the cost of living, lack of adequate recreation, and the increased separation of 
parents from thier homes. The defense work has undoul:)tedly meant that often 
both parents work, leaving children to take care of themselves or left in the charge 
of incompetent maids. Defense families have moved from communities where 
they have strong family ties into this community in which they are complete 
strangers. Fathers have been out of the homes for increasing periods of time 
due to longer working hours, and some parents have been separated for long 
periods of time. 

All of these factors have produced increased strains upon the family life and 
these increased strains are now reflecting themselves in the increasing break- 
down of normal family life. An ever-increasing number of children are being 
arrested because of juvenile offenses. There is also an increase in the amount 
of illegitimacy and families broken up by divorce. 

The work of both public and private social agencies must be strengthened in 
order to meet these increasing needs. 



THE queen's hospital SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT 

Social problems (January to July 31, 1941, inclusive) affecting men and/or 
their families in the services- — Army, Navy, and Defense — may be classified as 
follows : 

FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS FOR HOSPITALIZATION 

These were men on the defense projects who indicated inability to pay for 
hospitalization. Lack of the necessary length of residence automatically bars 
most of the defense workers from city and country care; also, most of them cannot 
be considered indigent, and theoretically should be able to pay for hospital care. 
The type of plan most often made is that of installment payments after the 
patient's return to work. These plans take into consideration the patient's 
income and expenditures. However, they have not been very successful, many 
of the patients failing to carry out the plans they make. 

In a number of cases, the men have left the territory shortly after their hos- 
pitahzation, and it is impossible to follow up the cases. Others move or change 
jobs, and so we lose track of them. Some apparently feel no sense of responsi- 
bility, and since many are Government employees, the hospital has no legal 
recourse for collection. The fact that 27 percent of the cases referred for financial 
arrangements during the first 7 months of 1941 were either alcoholic or mental 



9788 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

cases is significant. The possibility that these patients will be suflBcientl}'^ stable 
to assume responsibilities is often remote. 

During this same 7-month period, the accounts of this group referred to the 
social worker totaled, in round numbers, $6,000. Of this only one-third or, 
roughly, $2,000 has been paid to date. These figures take into account only 
the 99 cases referred to the worker on financial arrangements and do not include 
those who appeared able to pay and were not referred but made arrangements 
directly with the business office. Many of these have also failed to pay. 

It is obvious from these figures that the defense program is placing an increas- 
ing financial burden upon the hospital, which it cannot continue to carry unless 
means are found for reducing the amount of loss. 

GENERAL MEDICAL AND SURGICAL TYPES OF PROBLEMS 

"Mrs. R., mother of three small children, arrived in Honolulu only to find her 
husband away on sea duty. She was without funds or adequate living quarters. 
A few days after arrival she developed appendicitis, which required prolonged 
hospitalization. Added to illness was worry regarding the care of her children." 

"Mrs. S., a 41-year-old Caucasian, came to the islands to join her husband, a 
defense worker. He, 22 years her senior, and a second husband, could not under- 
stand his wife's extreme discontentment with the islands. She had not been 
very well lohysicall.y and in order to escape physical discomfort and an inability 
to adjust to a new environment, took to drink." 

"An elderlj' woman, aunt of a petty officer, joined her nephew's family in the 
islands while he was stationed at Pearl Harbor. The young people resented the 
older woman's domineering and demanding attitude which resulted in constant 
friction. She developed a skin condition as well as chronic neuritis which was 
not only uncomfortable but progressive and which necessitated hospital care. 
Meanwhile the nephew was again transferred to the mainland but the aunt was 
physically unaV)le to travel. Her financial resources were in England and she 
was stranded here nearly destitute and without friends." 

"The wife of a petty officer was diagnosed TB, an incipient case. As it was 
unnecessary for her to remain in Queen's Hospital at a mounting cost to her 
husband, social service was asked to find a housekeeper-practical-nurse-care-of- 
children person so that the patient could remain in her home pending a vacancy 
in Leahi Home, a hospital for the treatment of TB." 

There were numerous other calls, some emergent, for placement of children 
during the hospitalization of mothers who are wives of Navy personnel. 

MATERNITY CASES 

Forty-five out of 70 referrals were illegitimate pregnancies, necessitating 
casework service; the remaining 25 were legitimate pregnancies, having complica- 
tions requiring social service assistance. ' 

"An attractive 21-year-old Korean girl became pregnant. The alleged father, 
an enlisted Army man, was transferred to the coast. He planned to return to 
the islands, according to the patient's statement, but his present whereabouts 
are unknown." 

"An 18- year-old Portuguese girl married an enlisted Army man who regretted 
the marriage and resorted to alcohol as an escape. The infant was neglected 
because of the marital difficulties of the young immature couple." 

DIABETIC CLINIC 

Two men and five women were treated as out-patients in the diabetic clinic. 
The services included interpretation of treatment recommended by the doctor, 
cooperative service with other agencies such as department of public welfare and 
Palama Nursing Service regarding plans for patients in need of supplementary 
service. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Many letters to families of men on defense projects have been written at 
patients' requests. Money orders have been purchased and mailed to some 
families. One pneumonia patient was so disturbed about his job that only by 
several phone calls and talks Avith his employer could the social worker allay 
his fear. 

Besides the above types of problems there are others less tangible but never- 
theless significant such as racial intermarriage with conflicting cultures which 
result in various social and emotional difficulties. The problem of child care 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9789 

and placement and the lack of adequate foster homes is an increasing problem. 
The influx of emotionally unstable individuals, itinerant workers, and the like 
has increased the case load of all community agencies. 

Margaret M. L. Catton, 
Director of Social Service. 

TESTIMONY OF PAUL V. McNUTT- Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. In one of our Baltimore hearings, Dr. Robert H. 
Riley, director of the Maryland State Departmehf of Health, testified 
last summer as follows: 

We know that the provision for hospital care in the defense area is totally 
inadequate. The hospitals in Baltimore City are doing the best they can, but 
they have about all — and more — than they can take care of. 

We have to appeal to Dr. Williams and to the Baltimore City hospitals every 
day, and sometimes many times a day, for the hospitalization of patients from the 
counties. 

They are generous and very cooperative but the hospitals are operated to the 
very limit of their capacity, and all need additional facilities. 

Has this situation in Baltimore come to your attention? 

Governor McNutt. Well, the same situation exists in many other 
of the defense centers. 

Mr. Curtis. Have these particular Baltimore officials taken the 
matter up with you? 

Governor McNutt. Not with me directly; no, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. What is your office able to do about it, if they should? 

Governor McNutt. Well, the only funds available are from the 
so-called Lanham Act. 

LANHAM ACT FUNDS FOR COMMUNITY SERVICES 

There was an original appropriation of $150,000,000, There has 
been an additional appropriation of $150,000,000. There was filed for 
the hearings on that appropriation a table showing the need for 
Federal grants amounting to $230,000,000, just then, and that did 
not take into account the present expanded production program. 

Of course, the Lanham Act covers hospitals, school buildings, 
sewers, any other community facilities. It is very broad in its terms. 

Mr. Curtis. In a press release of May 19, from your office, you are 
quoted as saying: 

Rising employment and larger wages resulting from the defense program will 
not be sufficient to have any primary effect on widespread under-nutrition in our 
country, either this j^ear or next. 

In that same press release Dr. Hazel K. Stiebling of the Bureau of 
Home Economics of the Department of Agriculture is quoted as 
saying: 

If the average consumption of these productive foods by all families in this 
country could be raised to the level of those whose present diets maj' be rated 
good, from the standpoint of nutrition, there would be large increases in national 
consumption. 

Consumption increases' would be approximately as follows: Milk, 20 percent; 
butter, 15 percent; eggs, 35 percent; tomatoes and citrus fruits, 70 percent; leafy 
green and yellow vegetables, 100 percent. 

What has your office done to translate these figures into terms of 
quantities of foodstuffs required, so that the Department of Agri- 
culture could draw up a production program to meet these needs. 

Governor McNutt. We have been in almost daily communication 
with the Department of Agriculture and, as a matter of fact, the 



9790 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Director of the Division of Nutrition is the former Under Secretary of 
Agriculture, and tlie present Director of the Extension Division. 

Mr. Curtis. A moment ago Mrs. Roosevelt mentioned four foods 
that we needed, and needed to export, and among them was powdered 
milk. 

SKIMMED MILK 

Isn't it true that there are about 60,000,000 pounds of milk that are 
being wasted daily in the United States — separated milk? 

Governor McNuTT. Well, there hasn't been the proper use made of 
separated milk. There has been, of course, in the mind of the average 
citizen, prejudice against skimmed milk, while, as a matter of fact, 
the nutritive qualities of skimmed milk are well known to nutritionists, 
and should be taken into account. I can't understand the prejudice 
which does exist. Skimmed milk is good, and good for you. 

Mr. Curtis. It is very good. Now, the Pure Food and Drug 
Administration in your office, I believe, has set up a standard requiring 
that this product be designated as skimmed milk? 

Governor McNutt. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. Well, isn't that a bad idea? 

Governor McNutt. No. It is simply following the law that the 
Congress passed. We could not do other than what we did. 

You asked for the common name, and the common name is 
"skimmed milk." Being a country boy, I think I would tell you 
that. If you talk about ''dried milk, solids, not over a certain percent 
fat," I wouldn't know what you were talking about. You talk about 
"skim milk," and I would. 

Mr. Curtis. As a matter of fact, we couldn't sell very much ham- 
burger if we were required to call it scraps on the market, could we? 
And here you are going out to the dried-milk people in this country, 
and they are restrained from utilizing this 61,000,000 pounds because 
we must call it "skimmed milk." 

Governor McNutt. Oh, no. 

Mr. Curtis. Don't you think, if they called it, "fat-free," or some- 
thing like that, the situation might be changed? 

Governor McNutt. That is not so at all. If they had put the 
energy into informing the people of the value of skimmed milk, rather 
than using that energy in fighting the so-called common name, they 
would have a market for it. 

The law requires us to determine what the common name is, and 
the evidence was all one way, but that, I think, is beside the point, 
if I may be permitted to say so. 

Mr. Curtis. Don't you agree that something should be done to 
utilize this great quantity of milk that is not being used now? 

Governor McNutt. No question about it, and I urged the milk 
people to spend some of their energy in informing the populace, 
generally, of the fine qualities of skim milk. We will do the same. 
We have, in our relations concerning nutrition, pointed out that it is 
very good for you. 

Mr. Curtis. I believe that your office has linked the poor nutrition 
of the American people with the high percentage of draftees who were 
rejected for physical defects. This percentage was something like 
42 percent of the total. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9791 

A press release by your office dated August 15, 1941, states: 

A Government financed voluntary physical rehabilitation program for selectees 
rejected for Army service has been recommended by the commission on physical 
rehabilitation and steps are now being taken through appropriate channels to 
obtain necessary legislation, Federal Security Administrator Paul V. McNutt 
announced today. 

Has any legislation been passed for a Government financed rehabili- 
tation program for rejected selectees? 

Governor McNutt. No. 

Mr. Curtis. Does your office now operate any program of physical 
rehabilitation for rejected selectees? 

Governor McNutt. We do not. 

Mr. Curtis. Does your office expect to undertake such work or 
additional work in the near future? 

Governor McNutt. We have thought that such work should be 
undertaken, and that our office would be the logical place to administer 
such work. 

MOBILIZATION OF PHYSICIANS AND DENTISTS 

Mr. Curtis. In a press release of August 29, 1941, your office 
announced that — 

plans have been approved for the mobilization of physicians and dentists to meet 
the special demands for medical care which may arise as the national defense 
effort approaches its maximum, Federal Security Administrator Paul V. McNutt 
announced today. 

Can you tell what these plans are and whether any of them have 
been put into effect to date? 

Governor McNutt. They are in operation today. 

Mr. Curtis. Can you tell us about them? 

Governor McNutt. It is a voluntary system, whereby we have set 
up a board for the selection and allocation of qualified physicians and 
dentists and veterinarians. The professions asked that it be volun- 
tary, and I for one was perfectly willing to give them an opportunity to 
demonstrate that they could do this in that fashion. 

The work is starting very well. We have had the cooperation and 
support of the organized professions. The committee is operating 
from here. It has its State and local subcommittees. I am very well 
pleased with the way in which it is moving along. 

Mr. Curtis. On November 14, 1940, the health and medical 
committee of the Council of National Defense announced the appoint- 
ment of a subcommittee on nursing. On January 15, 1941, the United 
States Public Health Service announced that an appropriation of 
$1,200,000 for training nurses would be used to increase the number 
of nurses. 

Can you give us the specific steps that have since been taken to 
recruit nurses? 

Governor McNutt. The program has been carried out in accord- 
ance with the provisions of the statute; 40,000 were recruited. The 
need for even greater numbers is now realized and a request will be 
made for an additional appropriation. It is costing about $300 per 
nurse to get the training. 

Mr, Curtis. One of the problems which has disturbed the com- 
mittee most was the fact that national defense housing projects in the 

60396— 42— pt. 25 11 



9792 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

past have gone ahead without accompanying plans for other com- 
munity needs, such as education and recreation. 

In a press release on July 12, 1941, your office states that a con- 
ference on recreation for defense workers recommended additional 
consideration of recreation needs in connection with new housing 
projects. 

Before a new housing project is undertaken is your office consulted 
by Mr. C. F. Palmer in regard to planning other community facilities 
such as recreation? 

INTERDEPARTMENTAL HOUSING COMMITTEES 

Governor McNutt. Yes. This was brought about by the forma- 
tion within the agency of what amounted to an interdepartmental 
committee. On that committee are represented all of the Federal 
agencies which would have to do with the furnishing of community 
facilities. 

Certainly, the office of the Defense Housing Coordinator has been 
represented at all of the meetings, and there has been the interchange 
of information between our organization and his, and very cordial 
relations. 

Mr. Curtis. For how many projects have the plans for other 
community facilities been drawn simultaneously with the plans for 
housing? Has your office taken the initiative in urging such advanced 
planning? 

Governor McNutt. Yes; we have taken the initiative on urging 
the planning. I can't answer you as to the number of projects, 
specifically. I can give you the information, but I don't carry it in 
my head. 

'Mr. Curtis. How does your office operate on a local level? How 
do you handle a situation of that kind? 

Governor McNutt. Well, you realize that our basic organization 
is that of the Federal Security Agency, which includes the Social 
Security Board, with its operations in unemployment compensation, 
the United States Employment Services, Aid to Dependent Children, 
Aid to the Blind, Old Age and Survivors Assistance, and Old Age 
Assistance; the Office of Education; Pure Food and Drug Administra- 
tion; National Youth Administration; Civilian Conservation Corps; 
the United States Pubhc Health Service; Howard University; 
Freedmen's Hospital and St. Elizabeths Hospital. That has been 
our basic organization. 

In addition to that we have the responsibility for the defense, 
health, and welfare services, covering education and recreation and 
nutrition, including the operation of the health and medical committee. 

We have utilized our regional offices, that is, the regional offices 
of the social security board, by making them the regional offices for 
the defense, health, and welfare services. We have thus maintained 
our contacts all the way through the States and localities, contacts 
which had already been established in all of these fields. We have 
been dealing with these people through the years. 

We have simply utilized our existing machinery with the addition 
of specialists at the top. For example, we had some very serious 
problems in connection with the communities adjacent to camps and 
defense concentrations. ::■■■ 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9793 

Well, we sent people into those communities to do that job; as soon 
as the community was able to undertake its responsibilities we moved 
our people out. It was simply a matter of helping them do a job 
which obviously belonged to them. 

Mr. Curtis. Governor, I have one more question. I hope you 
won't think I am facetious, but I am really concerned about it, be- 
cause it involves the general welfare of the country, as well as quite 
a few people individually. 

USE OF BUTTER SUBSTITUTES 

Referring back to this quotation from an authority in the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, that our milk consumption should increase 20 
percent, our butter consumption increase 15 percent: I have noticed,, 
in some of the publications issued by the Federal Security Agency, in 
reference to nutrition, certain model diets, a plan for breakfast and 
lunch and dinner, and so on, that, in spite of the fact that we should 
increase our consumption of milk and butter, it would carry in that 
model diet butter substitutes and not butter. 

Governor McNutt. I don't think you could point out any place 
where that has been urged, where a butter substitute has been urged; 
we are talking about the amount of fat which is necessary. 

We tell the people where they can get it, but there has never 
Ibeen — at least from our organization — any urging that there be any 
substitution. 

Mr. Curtis. I didn't say any urging, but the butter substitute 
product was carried in the pamphlet as one of the items in the model 
diet. 

Governor AIcNutt. Well, the needs of the average person are set 
out in the form of fats, for example. It is our duty to tell them where 
they can get it, in what forms, and I think we would be derelict in our 
duty if we did not. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Sparkman. Governor, the whole thing is that the person 
requires a certain amount of fat, and not necessarily butter fat, isn't 
that it, and if he gets that fat from any of these derivatives, why, it 
is all right? 

Governor McNutt. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. That is not what the Agricultural Department has 
stated. They have been specific on milk and butter. 

Governor McNutt. Which division of the Department of Agri- 
culture do you refer to? 

Mr. Curtis. I just quoted the Home Economics Division. 

Governor McNutt. Perhaps it would be well to get the Economics 
Division and the Consumer Division together on some points. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Governor. We are very 
sorry to have kept you waiting. 

Governor McNutt. Do you wish me to file a statement, Mr. 
Chairman? 

Mr. Arnold. We have your statement and it is already in our 
record. 

The Chairman. Thank you. Governor. We appreciate it very 
much. 

The committee will resume session tomorrow morning at 9:30 a. m. 

(Whereupon, at 12:30 p. m., the committee adjourned until 9:30 
a. m., Thursday, January 15, 1942.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



THURSDAY, JANUARY 15, 1942 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 

The committee met, pursuant to adjournment, at 9:30 a. m., in 
room 1301, New House Office Building, Washington, D. C, Hon. 
John H. Tolan (chairman) presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of Cal- 
ifornia; John J. Sparkman, of Alabama; Laurence F. Arnold, of 
Illinois; and Carl T. Curtis, of Nebraska. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; and John W. 
Abbott, chief field investigator. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

As I call the names of the first panel — the panel on State welfare — 
will you be kind enough to come up and take your places here at this 
table? 

The Chairman. Mr. Hoehler, you are going to be the moderator. 
I think Congress needs a moderator. 

Mr. Hoehler. I will do my best. 

The Chairman. Mr. Lyons? 

Mr. Lyons. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Miss Dunn, Mr. Glassberg, Mr. Goudy, Mr. 
Hodson, and Mr. Russell. 

TESTIMONY OF PANEL OF STATE WELFARE DIRECTORS, FRED K. 
HOEHLER, MODERATOR AND DIRECTOR, AMERICAN PUBLIC 
WELFARE ASSOCIATION 

The Chairman. Mr. Hoehler, will you identify the members of 
your panel for the record? 

Mr. Hoehler. The members of panel are Leo Lyons, commis- 
sioner, Chicago Relief Administration, Chicago, 111.; Miss Loula 
Dunn, commissioner of public welfare. State of Alabama, Mont- 
gomery, Ala.; Benjamin Glassberg, superintendent, department of 
public assistance, Milwaukee, Wis.; Elmer R. Goudy, administra- 
tor, public welfare commission. State of Oregon; William Hodson, 
commissioner, department of welfare. New York City; and Howard 
L. Russell, secretary, department of public assistance, State of 
Pennsylvania. My name is Fred K. Hoehler. I am director of the 
American Public Welfare Association, Chicago, 111. 

The Chairman. The committee appreciates the time you people 
have taken to come here and help us. You are all familiar with this 

9795 



9796 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

committee's work during the last 2 years. You know that in recent 
months we have been concerned with migration arising as a result 
of war preparation. The increasingly rapid activity in war produc- 
tion has now intensified problems of social and economic dislocation 
which it is your job to alleviate in the States. We are glad to have 
this opportunity to draw upon your observations and recommenda- 
tions. 

In order to facilitate procedure in a group of tliis size, the members 
of our committee are going to address our questions to Mr. Hoehler, 
who has agreed to act as moderator. He will, in turn, pass the ques- 
tions along to the members of the panel. In this way, I believe we 
can build a well-rounded picture of what is developing in the States 
you represent as you see the problems. I have read the interesting 
statements you have submitted. They will be incorporated in the 
record. 

(The statements referred to above are as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY FRED K. HOEHLER, DIRECTOR OF AMERICAN 
PUBLIC WELFARE ASSOCIATION, CHICAGO, ILL. 

January 15, 1942. 

Before beginning my testimony, may I express to this committee our apprecia- 
tion of the invitation extended to these pubhc welfare administrators (who are 
with your committee today) to present to you some pertinent information on the 
problems confronting States and localities as this Nation engages in total war. 

Today and tomorrow the executive committee of the National Council of State 
Public Assistance and Welfare Administrators and the board of directors of the 
American Public Welfare Association will meet in this city to discuss the problems 
arising in various parts of the country due to defense impacts. 

During December 1941, about 150 State and local public-welfare directors and 
some three or four hundred of their associates, representing nearly all of the 48 
States, met here in Washington to review their experiences for the past year and 
to plan to meet new responsibilities and new problems arising from defense ac- 
tivities. During that conference, the group raised a great many questions con- 
cerning the results of the impact of increased defense employment on welfare 
agencies through the reduction of relief rolls. It also discussed potential employ- 
ability in defense work for some of the persons on relief. There was consideration 
of so-called priority unemployment and a number of other social and economic 
problems which face every American community. 

REDUCTION OF RELIEF ROLLS 

In answer to the questions which are related to the number of relief recipients, 
we found that reduction has been extremely spotty, with some places enjoying 
a considerable amount of new employment which has taken employable people 
from Work Projects Administration, the youth agencies, and also the relief rolls. 
Other places have experienced very little effect from defense employment. In a 
few places it could be said that relief rolls have reached the hard core of unemploy- 
ment and were made up mostly of those people who are unemployable or who 
suffer from one type of handicap or another which prevents engaging in employ- 
ment for wages. It was also pointed out during the conference that there was 
no provision for general relief. In a great many other States, it has always been 
extremely inadequate so that people have actually not had even the bare necessi- 
ties of life provided from public funds. In every State, however, there has been 
a welfare organization administering one or all of the public-assistance programs 
(old-age assistance, aid to dependent children, and aid to the needy blind). These 
groups, now aided from Federal, State, and local funds, are not likely to find a place 
in the labor market. Some may be removed from the assistance rolls because 
relatives have found regular employment and can thus provide a larger measure 
of support for them than during the last several years. Where this occurs, there 
are frequently persons on the waiting list for categorical assistance who have not 
received this type of aid because of the shortage of funds. States affected by large 
industrial opportunities have naturally experienced the greatest reduction in the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9797 

total cost of assistance. In those States where rehef rolls have been reduced and 
there was the possibility of a cut in expenditures, other problems have arisen which 
required the attention of the public-welfare departments and their employees. 

REHABILITATION AND RETRAINING 

Many welfare departments have been concerned with problems of rehabilitation 
and reemployment of relief recipients. There has been the frequently expressed 
need for the coordination of public welfare, vocational rehabilitation, and employ- 
ment service agencies to accomplish the goal of returning relief recipients to private 
employment. In several instances such coordination has been worked out with 
very good results for those who are actually employable and for whom training 
is a possibility. This kind of coordination has not been effected in many places 
because of the shortage of funds. In each instance, funds are necessary so that 
actual rehabilitation and retraining with lasting results can be accomplished. 
Many of the State legislatures and a great many of the cities and counties have 
been shortsighted in not providing the additional funds which were necessary 
for this type of program. It is unfortunate that Federal funds have been so 
inadequate, particularly for medical rehabilitation. 

In correspondence which has come from the States to the office of the American 
Public Welfare Association, it has been pointed out that local facilities for diag- 
nosing and treating physical defects are completely inadequate and that new 
medical services must be made available to local communities if rehabilitation 
is to be accomplished. In other instances, it has been pointed out that funds 
for vocational training, while they have been available recently, have not gotten 
to the places in this country where that kind of training for new skills is most 
necessary. 

In the matter of reemployment, there has existed for a long time the obvious 
need for a strong Federal employment service. This type of service, now an 
accomplished fact, should move rapidly into setting new and better standards for 
employment-service personnel so that those agencies may display greater vision 
and iniagination than has been the case in the past. 

A serious factor which has retarded reemployment of many people on relief 
rolls has been the discriminatory hiring practices of a great many employers. 
Very frequently men who have served on Work Projects Administration or who 
have been on the relief rolls are for that very reason alone denied employment. 
In other cases, racial discrimination has left no alternative for the individual or 
the family than that of seeking public relief. Recently in a few places the elimina- 
tion of aliens from defense industries and from many other forms of employment 
has placed this group entirely at the mercy of charitable agencies. In some cases 
assistance has been denied them by public welfare agencies because they lacked 
legal residence. 

PRIORITY UNEMPLOYMENT 

The problem of defense priority unemployment is just beginning to materialize 
in a great many communities. Up until the end of November, assistance rolls 
were not greatly augmented as a result of curtailment of nondefense production. 
Recently, however, the mobilization for total war has imposed sharp restrictions 
on private consumption of goods made from materials required by the war. 
Factories have been closed to consumer goods production and more drastic cur- 
tailments in this regard must be expected. This program for all-out war will 
undoubtedly cause great dislocation and with it many problems requiring com- 
munity action under State and Federal leadership. In meeting these problenis, 
Federal funds will be necessary. The dislocation of workers and of industries 
places a great burden on governmental agencies which are expected to meet needs 
for food, clothing, shelter, transportation, recreation, public health, and education. 
These services are essential to civilian defense. Fortunately this country has the 
resources and will undoubtedly express the willingness to meet adequately these 
problems of home security. Provision will have to be made for emergency funds 
not only to provide transportation for those people who are moving from one 
community to another but also to provide some type of assistance to meet the 
costs of dislocation and relocation. No one who has been through this experience 
can deny that the average worker in this country must suffer a financial loss 
whenever there is sharp and urgent requirement for a change of job which involves 
the movement and care of his family. The answer to this growing problem of 
dislocation can be found only in Government action and in the provision of the 
necessary Federal funds to meet it. 



9798 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Welfare agencies throughout the United States have felt very keenly the 
pressure from increased cost of living. In very few instances have they had 
the funds and in some cases they have even lacked the authority to increase the 
assistance grants to individuals and families who are dependent on public aid. 
Wherever rents increase and food prices move upward it means that not only do 
the lower income groups suffer, but particularly do the recipients of public aid 
carry a greater burden than ever before. Special case work services a-re being 
provided in many instances at additional cost for administration in order that 
families can be advised regarding wise and judicious spending of shrinking in- 
comes. It has been generally agreed by experienced welfare people throughout 
the Nation that there is need for Federal legislation putting ceilings on rents and 
prices of food and other commodities. Even with such ceilings in effect, greater 
purchasing power is needed for the clients of welfare departments in order to meet 
the already rising costs of living. In many communities, particularly those near 
army cantonments and new defense industries, it has been noted that the increase 
in juvenile delinquency is related to the inadequacy of relief grants to meet family 
and individual needs. In not a few instances these same communities lack 
necessary facilities for education and recreation. When the rising cost of living 
has forced women and children of low income families into the labor market to 
supplement family incomes, it has followed that juvenile delinquency and other 
social problems increase materially, requiring action of the part of welfare agencies. 

PKOVISION FOR DEPENDENTS OF THOSE IN THE ARMED FORCES 

Another type of dislocation which seriously affects many families is catised by 
the removal of young men to enter the armed forces of the Nation. Already over 
1,400,000 have been so removed and many more will be in the near future. To 
provide for the dependents of those who are engaged in the services of the Army 
and Navy, becomes an important national responsibility. During the past year, 
it has been my privilege, as well as responsibility, to visit a number of camps 
throughout the Nation where I had an opportunity to talk with hundreds of 
soldiers. In nearly every instance there was some concern expressed for the 
economic and social security of the families which they had left at home, even 
where the breadwinner, be it a father or a brother, was currently employed. 
There was always the fear that he might become incapacitated through injury or 
there might be a loss of einployment. An invariable question was "What pro- 
vision can be made or will be made for meeting the needs of my family which I 
obviously cannot meet on $21 or $30 a month?" This concern on the part of the 
soldiers and sailors is an important factor in our military morale and is also just 
as important in the development of civilian morale. Where some measure of 
security is assured there will not only be greater respect for the Nation which 
provides it but greater confidence on the part of those who work or fight for that 
Nation. 

With the induction of men into the armed forces through the selective service 
boards, many welfare agencies were asked to provide personnel to investigate 
claiins for dependency deferments. This service was necessary and desirable, 
but it added to the costs of administration in the public- welfare agencies and no 
additional funds were provided from any source for this increased service. Follow- 
ing induction into the service, there have been a number of cases where dependency 
has developed in the families of the service men. Up to the present these 
cases were met by discharge from the armed forces. Currently and in the future 
such discharges maj' not be available, and it places a burden upon public or private 
agencies to meet the needs of the family. 

With regard to provision for the dependents, it would be extremely unfortunate 
if this kind of provision for the families of service men is placed on the basis of 
charity. After all, the soldier is an American citizen and he asks for no charity. 
He expects his country to make provision for those whom he has left behind 
and who are denied his support. This Nation must fulfill the obligation to these 
men and provide adequate allowances from Federal funds based on token allot- 
ments by the men who are serving in the Nation's armed forces for as little as 
$21 and $30 a month. Such allotments and allowances should be given careful 
study not only by the Army, which has already developed plans for meeting this 
need, but by the agencies of the Federal Government operating within the Federal 
Security Agency. The staffs of these agencies have had long experience in meet- 
ing such responsibilities through insurance and assistance provisions. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9799 

EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE 

If this country is to suffer from serious enemy attack, sabotage, or bad disloca- 
tions of industry, there should be adequate assistance provided, not on the basis 
of need but on the basis of lost wages, income, or personal property. This type 
of assistance can only be granted from Federal funds and should not be a subject 
for discussion in charity campaigns or appeals to people to provide aid to others 
who must meet these misfortunes. Provision should be made in the Federal 
Security Agency for setting up such an en ergency assistance service in which 
grants will be made to people who establish loss of personal property or who suffer 
loss of income because of damages to their personal property or to their own person. 
Without this provision this Nation cannot expect to maintain adequate morale 
or a united Nation. People who face disaster imposed by war must have the 
assurance that their country will help them to meet the results of that disaster. 

NONMILITARY AGENCIES 

The Congress of the United States has a responsibility to recognize all of these 
civilian needs as definitely related to our total war effort. Discussion of defense 
and nondefense expenditures needs careful scrutiny before curtailment because 
in modern war sometimes the greatest defense is that which we provide in the 
protection and the security of the home. Certainly in a democracy where the 
individual is held in high esteem and looks to the State with confidence, there 
must be a recognition of the State's responsibility and the Nation's responsibility 
for helping the individual and his family face the rigors and the crises which come 
into their lives in meeting a total war. It is not only that these people need 
economic aid. Many of them will need far more than money — service of people 
who are trained and equipped to help them face the day-to-day crises and added 
responsibilities. This kind of service can come best through agencies and 
people trained to help others in meeting their problems. There can be no stinting 
of manpower or in the conservation of manpower either for the armed forces, 
industry, or the maintenance of the American home. Wherever conservation is 
necessary, be it in goods or men, it must be paid for and when a Nation is at war 
provision for this payment should come from national resources. 



STATEMENT BY LEO LYONS, COMMISSIONER, CHICAGO RELIEF 
ADMINISTRATION, CHICAGO, ILL. 

January 13, 1942 

Effect of Concentrations of Military or Industrial Defense Activity 

ON Welfare Problems 

The increased industrial activity within the past year, as a result of the defense 
programs established in the Chicago area have, up to this time, served to reduce 
the number of cases on the relief rolls. From October 1940 to October 1941, 
there has been a reduction of 35 percent in the number of relief cases, rsulting 
principally from employable persons securing jobs in defense and related activities. 
As a result of these industrial activities affecting the relief rolls, we find that as 
of today the case load consists largely of unskilled labor with a heavy concentra- 
tion of Negro men, and both Negro and white women. Should there be a further 
accentuation of defense activity calling for less skilled, older persons, there should 
be a further reduction in the relief rolls. 

Information available to us from the United States Employment Service indi- 
cates that during a 3-month period, October through December 1941, approxi- 
mately 8,000 persons in the State of Illinois lost private employment because of 
priorities, etc., resulting from material shortages. Of this number, approximately 
two-thirds were in the Chicago area. However, it is estimated that two-thirds 
of those who lost jobs have been reabsorbed into defense and related industries 
and were not forced to apply either for unemployment compensation benefits or 
for public assistance. 

The Division of Unemployment Compensation, Illinois Department of Labor, 
reports that in December 1941, there was an increase of 6 percent over December 
1940 in persons making claims and receiving initial payments of unemployment 
compensation benefits. During this same period there was an increase of 3.3 



9800 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

percent in applications for public assistance in Chicago because of the loss of 
private employment. 

For the first 9 days in January 1942, we find that 37.4 percent of all applications 
made for relief were due to loss of private employment. 

The United States Employment Service reports an increased number of regis- 
trations from persons previously engaged as automobile and tire salesmen. Up 
to this point the Chicago Relief Administration has not felt the efi'ects of the ration- 
ing programs with reference to automobiles and tire sales and rubber production. 
The picture in Chicago with its diversified industries is still good insofar as relief 
is concerned. The trend for the past 16 months has been downward. It is our 
belief that with further restrictions on clothing, radios, novelties, and other civilian 
industries, there is a possibility of a reversal of this trend occurring within the 
next 60 to 90 days. 

Welfare Problems Related to Priority Unemployment, Curtailment of 
Civilian Production, and Transition to War Industries 

Thus far. the Chicago Relief Administration has not had to expand its welfare 
activities or services because of problems relating to priotiy unemployment or to 
civilian defense activities. It is anticipated, however, that as an increasing num- 
ber of civilian industries may be transformed into defense activities, there may be 
a period during which recourse to public assistance by displaced workers will be 
necessary. The problems of civilian morale because of displacement in industry 
has not yet become unduly serious. The staff and facilities of the Chicago Relief 
Administration have been offered to the Civilian Defense Office; the staff consists 
of 1,330 persons of which 919 persons have volunteered for civilian defense duty 
who are now being called to aid in that program. 

Problems of Areas Suffering Population Loss and Other Depressed 

Areas 

The general picture regarding population loss and depressed areas is not as yet 
acute in the Chicago area. It is our understanding from the United States 
Employment Service that there are several areas in Illinois, principally single- 
industry towns whi(?h are seriously affected. There has not as yet been any 
marked" increase in the number of applications of nonresidents or migratory 
workers who have lost employment in their own localities. If there is a transfer 
of large groups of workers or civilians into the Chicago area the Chicago Relief 
Administration will be called upon to provide assistance including medical services 
and to meet emergency problems of feeding and housing. The Chicago Relief 
Administration is considering, in its planning, problems which may arise should 
general and large-scale evacuations occur from costal areas or from depressed 
areas. Should these evacuations occur the Chicago Relief Administration is 
prepared and equipped with staff and with experience to assist in a general welfare 
program of readjusting these persons into the community. The extent to which 
the local relief administration can meet this problem will be determined by limita- 
tions of resources. 

Problems of Dependency Growing Out of Military Service 

With an increase in Selective Service quotas, we are experiencing an increase in 
problems with reference to dependency growing out of military service. The 
relief administration has already entered into this program and since December 
8, 1941, has loaned four employees on a full time-basis to the Chicago Selective 
Service Board to assist in investigating dependency claims. Of the 119 cases 
referred for investigation the Chicago Relief Administration staff finds that 50 
percent of the cases investigated had no valid claims for dependency. In the 
remaining cases it was indicated that military service would create dependency 
principally because of illness, old age, widowhood, etc. The relief administration 
staff acts as fact-finding investigators in this role, and is well equipped because 
of its experience to participate in such a program. 

Problems Resulting From the Rising Cost of Living 

The increase in food costs in the Chicago area during the past 12 months have 
averaged between 10 and 12 percent. Clothing prices have increased approxi- 
mately 10 percent. Household furnishings during the past year have increased 
3.5 percent. These increases particularly affect the lower income groups and 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9801 

are based upon standards from which reUef budgets are computed. The Chicago 
Relief Administration has within the past 30 days increased its reUef allowance 
by approximately 10 percent. 

Role of the Public Welfare Agencies in Meeting Needs Growing Out 

OF Enemy Action 

The public welfare and relief agency in Chicago is prepared to play a vital role 
in meeting needs growing out of enemy action, with particular reference fit) reset- 
tling children or general population when and if evacuation from home areas is neces- 
sary. The Chicago Relief Administration is prepared to provide emergency 
care, feeding, housing, clothing, and medical service if necessary. The plans 
have already been submitted to the mayor of Chicago whereby the relief adminis- 
tration could feed and house 3,250 persons in its own district offices and its other 
housing facilities. Medical and feeding facilities can be established within 2 or 
3 hours. The services of the relief administration staff of 1,330 are available 
to meet any crisis that may arise. The Chicago Relief Administration is equipped 
to cooperate with community organizations and integrate its program to provide 
for a large number of persons. Temporary shelter and food can be immediately 
provided. The relief administration can also serve in securing adequate housing 
and reestablishing families in adequate shelter facilities. The resources of the 
relief administration can be expanded to serve a large number of persons who may 
be affected by any catastrophe. 

Welfare Services in a War Economy; Their Function and the Problem 

OF Their Financing 

Since our last report to this committee, the Illinois Statute pertaining to resi- 
dence has been revised with some liberalization as to residence requirements for 
public assistance. There are still, however, no provisions for other than tempo- 
rary care, pending removal for migratory interstate persons applying for assistance. 

The' law, at present, provides for temporary care and transportation back to 
the place of legal residence for applicants who have residence for relief purposes in 
some Government unit in Illinois. A person to be eligible for assistance from the 
city of Chicago must have resided in the State of Illinois for a continuous period 
of 3 years, and must have made his permanent home in Chicago for a period of 
6 months prior to his application for relief. Residence once acquired will be 
retained until a person acquires a new residence in another governmental unit 
of Illinois, or has remained outside of the State of Illinois for a continuous period 
of 12 months or has acquired residence in another State. 

Upon the consent and agreement with the overseer of the poor in the responsible 
governmental unit, a person may remain in Chicago and receive assistance there. 
For persons who hold residence in other States, temporary care and transporta- 
tion may be furnished upon the person's request, and if he has a legal residence in 
some other State. No assistance may be granted to a person who refuses to 
return to the place of legal responsibility. 

Up to this time there has been no noticeable increase in applications from non- 
residents. However, as depressed areas occur, there will be an influx into Chicago 
of youths and the more aggressive older persons. It is quite likely that with an 
increase in migration and transfer of workers from depressed areas, the existing 
residence statutes will involve a hardship in cases of temporary dislocation during 
the period where industries are refitted or retooled for defense activities. Un- 
doubtedly there will be an increase in interstate migration in order to achieve an 
equitable and adequate labor supply. Existing laws regarding residence involve 
considerable hardship. We anticipate that with a total war economy, there will 
be increased demand for welfare service to meet problems of dependency to pro- 
vide medical care to meet any emergency which may arise out of total defense. 
It will be necessary to continue and expand already existing social services. The 
factor of civilian morale will play a vital role in sustaining the war economy. 

With the anticipated increase in the demand for welfare services, the problems 
of local financing will become acute and in addition to present legal limitations 
and restrictions regarding local financing, the problem of wholesale migration may 
be encountered which will necessitate a broader base than local financing provides. 

It is our opinion that to adequately meet the problems arising from the migra- 
tion of laborers and their families, and increased social problems resulting from 
congested populated areas, the Federal Government should sive consideration to 
the establishment of a fourth category in the social-security program so that 
assistance might be provided for those currently in need regardless of age, race, 



9802 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

color, creed, or place of residence. This would require the establishment of 
uniform settlement laws and grants-in-aid to localities affected by this acute 
problem. 



STATEMENT BY LOULA DUNN, COMMISSIONER OF PUBLIC WEL- 
FARE, STATE OF ALABAMA 

Duriftg the past year we in Alabama have had an opportunity to observe 
what I imagine is a pretty complete cross-section of the problems created for 
communities and individuals by an expanding defense and war program. We 
have seen a wide variety of defense activities superimposed upon an economic 
and social structure where industrial development has only recently begun to 
modify the predominantly rural character of the State. Moreover, having been one 
of the 4 poorest States of the Nation in terms of per capita income, Alabama now 
ranking forty-sixth, we have had little in the way of private or community reserves 
to help us in cushioning the shocks of social change brought about by the shift to 
a war economy. 

All of this has meant that while we welcome the opportunity to make fuller 
use of our resources, both human and material, in the common cause, we have 
been undergoing a series of readjustments which have sorely taxed our means for 
meeting the needs of the people involved. It is because of these many readjust- 
ments already necessitated, however, that we are in a measure able to state some 
of the reasons for an intensification, rather than a lessening, of social services 
during the war emergency. In presenting some of the problems already being 
faced or anticipated in Alabama, I shall, therefore, attempt to indicate something 
of the need for maintenance and strengthening of public and community programs 
designed to meet the needs of people. 

Even a period of social growth and development brings to families and indi- 
viduals the kind of problems which welfare agencies were created to meet. The 
existence of a state of war with its demands on individuals for all-out effort makes 
it all the more important that their vitality, morale, and singleness of purpose not 
be sapped by problems of economic or social readjustment beyond the power of 
individual solution. Providing the necessary assistance both in individual finan- 
cial aid and in community organization for effective and unified service is a 
contribution which we iu the welfare field should make to the achievement of full 
and early victory. 

In Alabama we have found that no part of our State has been immune from the 
changes created by a developing war economy. For while direct defense activity 
has been primarily centered in 18 of the State's 67 counties, this activity has in 
fact tended to draw off workers and otherwise affect the other parts of the State. 
Moreover, selective service, rising prices, organizations for civilian defense, and 
other vmiversal developments in the war program have, of course, been felt 
throughout Alabama. Gradually, therefore, our organization within the State 
department of public welfare for dealing with defense and war problems has 
come to embrace all of our counties. The first impact, however, was felt in those 
areas where a concentration of defense activity brought new population and a 
swift accumulation of new problems. 

A brief summary of the type and location of major military and industrial 
wartime activities in Alabama may be helpful to the committee in visualizing 
our problems. (Appended is a map showing location of the various projects in 
the State, as well as a suinmary list of the principal establishments. 

Calhoun County (1940 Population, 63,319) 

Anniston, the largest town and county seat, had 25,523 residents prior to the 
expansion of Fort McClellan, Army cantonment, to include 20,000 troops. A 
total of 21,000 acres was purchased in the county by the Army for use as a training 
area. 

Also, in Calhoun County is located a new ammunition dump for which 10,000 
acres were required, and numerous industries filling defense contracts. 

Because the expansion of Fort McClellan, coupled with these other projects, 
was among the first defense developments in the State, Anniston early became 
aware of problems now common to cantonment areas. 



' Not. printed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9803 

Colbert County (1940 Population, 34,093) 

Tuseiniibia and Sheffield, the 2 largest cities of the county, have populations 
of 5,515 and 7,933, respectively. In addition to being the heart of the Muscle 
Shoals area, with Wilson Dam operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority, the 
county has 3 large war industries — Reynolds Metal Company, Reynolds 
Alloy' Company, and Electro-Metallurgical Company. Employees at the 3 
plants and those of the Tennessee Valley Authority total nearly 10,000. 

Because this section is close to the Tennessee and Mississippi lines, the problem 
of migration is enormous, with a continuous flow of workers into the locality. 

Coffee County (1940 Population, 31,987) 

Close to Enterprise, the county's largest town (4,353), the Army is beginning 
construction on the Pea River project which will be a cantonment for approxi- 
mately 30,000 men. The location, comprising some 50,000 acres in Coffee and 
Dale Counties, will include chiefly lands formerly used as a State park. 

Because this is the newest military area in the State, few problems have as yet 
been manifest. Elba, the county seat, with 2,363 residents, together with other 
municipalities, is, however, attempting to prepare for the influx of construction 
workers soon expected. 

Dale County (1940 Population, 22,685) 

The Pea River project which will occupy a portion of Dale County will not be 
the first military establishment there. Grimes Air Field, located close to Dothan 
in adjoining Houston County, has just been completed as a unit of the south- 
eastern Air Corps training center. Because of the proximity of the air field and 
the new cantonment to Houston County, which borders both Georgia and Florida, 
there are already evidences of a spill-over of migratory labor from these States. 
The c.ounty seat of Dale County, Ozark, is expecting a decided increase in its 
poi)ulation of 3,601 as construction work progresses and more newcomers pour 
into the area. 

Dallas County (1940 Population, 55,245) 

Just outside Selma, with 19,834 inha))itants, the Army has built Craig Field, 
also a unit of the southeastern Air Corps training center. Because this field 
was finished early in 1941, Selma has already made some progress, insofar as funds 
were available, toward strengthening community facilities for recreation, hous- 
ing, etc. 

Etowah County (1940 Population, 72,580) 

Gadsden, whose population in 1940 was 36,975, has become a small munitions 
center. The Attalla Manufacturing Co. there is making shells, another shell- 
forging plant has been built, and Republic Steel is filling war orders. Before 1941 
closed, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. at Gadsden was running on a greatly reduced 
schedule and it is possible that a shut-down will be necessary. 

Jefferson County (1940 Population, 459,930) 

In and around Birmingham (267,583) and Bessemer (22,826) are located iron, 
coal, and steel industries which make the area second only to Pittsburgh in 
strategic importance. At the same time fear has been expressed for the large 
cast-iron pipe and stove foundries which may have to curtail operations soon 
for lack of raw materials. 

Macon County (1940 Population, 27,654) 

Close to Tuskegee (3,937) the Army has almost completed its only flying 
school for Negroes. The influx of construction workers taxed existing facilities, 
and soon an increase in Army personnel will overflow the already crowded schools 
and other community resources. 



9804 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Madison County (1940 Population, 66,317) 

The mecca for migrants in Alabama at present seems to be Huntsville, which, 
according to the last census, had 13,050 residents. The Redstone Arsenal and 
the Chemical '^'arfare plant, together occupying 40,000 acres in the county, are 
drawing construction workers to such an extent that almost no houses or rooms 
or even shanties can be had at any price. Since construction has not reached its 
peak, however, the already over-crowded facilities will be further taxed during 
the coming months. 

Mobile County (1940 Population, 141,974) 

The census figures for Mobile (78,720) do not reflect an accurate picture today, 
because the almost 20,000 employees in shipbuilding and related industries there 
and at Brookley Field, the southeastern air depot nearby, are largely from other 
areas. Community life is being taxed on every hand — traffic is hazardous, houses 
can be secured only at exhorbitant rentals, schools are operating double shifts, 
and health authorities agree that hospitals, physicians, and clinics cannot meet 
the needs of the total population. 

Montgomery County (1940 Population, 114,420) 

To Montgomery's 78,084 residents have been added the approximately 12,000 
military and civilian personnel at Maxwell and Gunter Fields, the two branches 
of the southeastern Air Corps training center located there. 

Russell County (1940 Population, 35,775) 

In Russell County 10,000 acres were recently purchased as a training area for 
Fort Benning in adjoining Columbus, Ga. At the same time. Fort Penning was 
enlarged to house approximately 60,000 men, with plans under way to make this 
number 90,000. The influx of population to Columbus consequently overflowed 
across the river to Russell County, Ala. Phenix City (15,351), therefore, has 
acute population problems due to its proximity to a large cantonment, and also 
must cope with interstate migration. 

Talladega County (1940 Population, 51,832) 

Although many of the thousands of migrants who went to Talladega County 
during 1941 are now beginning to leave for Huntsville and other points, the area 
continues to suffer from over-population. Childersburg, near which the Alabama 
ordnance works have been built, has grown from 515 to about 6,000, while similar 
growth has occurred in the larger towns of the county (Sylacauga, 6,269, and 
Talladega, 9,298). Near Talladega is the Coosa River munitions plant (Brecon 
Loading Co.) and both this and the ordnance works will continue to employ large 
numbers of persons even after all construction is completed since their operations 
personnel is expected to be at least 9,000. 

These communities have all suffered in greater or lesser degree the problems of 
population increase so rapid that the accompanying expansion of normal com- 
munity facilities and services lagged far behind. The social disorganization 
attendant on too rapid growth has, in the areas where military establishments 
have brought large numbers of unattached young men, been coupled with the 
problems created by an abnormal population distribution in terms of age, sex, 
and social ties. Furthermore, in most of these counties the purchase of large 
amounts of agricultural land for military purposes has displaced the families 
which formerly n ade their living from this land, necessitating a move to new 
locations and frequently a new source of livelihood. For example, the Farm 
Security Administration, which was given the responsibility for relocating these 
displaced people, reports aiding 403 families near Fort McClellan, 210 in the 
Childersburg sector, 492 in Madison County, and 23 at the Tuskegee air base. 

T do not need to tell this committee, with its wide background of observation 
throughout the country, that the outstanding characteristic of a defense commun- 
ity IS overcrowding. Alabama's defense centers are no exception. The first pinch 
is normally felt in housing with attendant rent increases, unsanitary conditions, 
and makeshift living arrangements. Over-flowing schools and hard-pressed health, 
recreational, and sanitary facilities follow close behind. Without taking too much 
time on what I know is a familiar story to the committee, I cite a few examples 
of conditions reported from some of our counties. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9805 

We have seen rent increases varying from 20 to 500 percent. People have been 
reported sleeping in automobiles or paying $1 a night for the use of living room 
chairs in tourist homes. Shanties of rough lumber have been thrown together on 
small lots purchased for $50 in $4 monthly payments. Trailer camps have sprung 
up in all the defense areas. Naturally, these crowded conditions have affected 
not only the newcomers drawn by defense employment, but also the older resi- 
dents, especially those at the low income levels. We have had case after case of 
public-assistance families forced out of their homes by rent increases which they 
could not meet. Many such families have turned to makeshift shanties, doubling 
up, and housing previously abandoned as unsatisfactory. On the other hand, in 
areas from which workers have migrated, new dependency has been reported. 
This occurs when the father or son leaves his family at home and fails to support 
them, either because his wages were less than he anticipated when measured by 
rising prices, or because he has deserted his dependents. 

Children in defense areas suffer from overcrowding not only at home but also 
at school. One of our county directors reported recently: Pupils sit two in a seat 
and around the wall in chairs. Space in the basement has been converted into 
classrooms and the gymnasium is used. It is estimated that 200 additional chil- 
dren should be attending school but no effort is made to enroll them because of 
lack of space. Similarly, in Talladega County 2,700 new school children have 
been enrolled in a school system normally enrolling 5,000 children. 

The congested conditions and lack of social stability of these boom towns create 
new and expanded problems for our child-welfare workers. One area reports an 
increase in the number of juvenile delinciuency cases during the past year of over 
500 percent. In cantonment towns we have had cases of 13-year-old girls engaging 
in prostitution. Industrial centers report both boys and girls involved in un- 
wholesome or illegal enterprises. Such problems are greatly aggravated by the 
inadequacy of recreational facilities and activities for children, civilian adults, and 
soldiers. 

CIVILIAN DEFENSE COUNCIL 

In recognition of these situations created by the war activities throughout the 
State, Alabama's State Civilian Defense Council is furnishing leadership in direc- 
tion and procedure. This council, with the Governor as chairman, was formed 
early in 1941, its members being executives of already functioning State agencies 
such as health, welfare, agriculture, industrial relations, and other departments. 
This pattern of organization is proving effective in allocating responsibility to the 
governmental department concerned and in eliminating unnecessary duplication 
of service and expenditure. The State council works closely with the 67 county 
defense councils and through it are channeled Federal regulations and services. 

Gradually the aid available through these various Federal programs is begin- 
ning to bring some measure of relief into the situation as far as facilities are con- 
cerned. Construction of 11 defense housing projects ' will, when completed, 
furnish 2,354 new dwelling units; new construction of community facilities under 
the provisions of the Lanham Act is now under way in some counties. Projects 
already approved for Alabama to develop health, education, and recreational 
facilities will represent an approximate expenditure of 3^/4 million dollars. Local 
efforts to provide recreation for soldiers are being supplemented by activities of 
the Federal Security Agency through its recreational division, by United Service 
Organization funds raised nationally, and by Work Projects Administration pro- 
grams. No additional aid for welfare purposes has been made available, however 
and our normal resources have been far from adequate, especially in view of the 
reductions now taking place iii the Federal youth and work programs. 

It is interesting to note that in addition to the responsibility placed on welfare 
departments by the need for community service in defense areas, the financial 
burden of actual assistance grants has not, as might be expected, been lessened 
to any degree. Last spring we made a special case review in the 17 counties of 
the State where defense activity was then concentrated, and found that only 9 
percent of the public assistance cases studied were affected to such a degree that 
they could be closed. This can be explained in part by the fact that in Alabama 
funds have never been available, except in occasional dire emergencies, to assist 
families in which there is an able-bodied member, and that relatives of public 
assistance clients, even though they have secured better paying jobs, are not yet 
able, because of debts, accumulated family needs, and increased living costs, to 

' Projects located in Birmingham, Childersburg, Gadsden, Mobile, Montgomery, Muscle Shoals, Selma, 
Sylacauga, and Talladega. 



9806 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

assume the burden of their support. A similar case review, covering the entire 
State, is now under way and will be completed in February, 

From the point of view of the State as a whole, any reduction in the need for 
financial assistance to families in defense areas is more than offset by the rising 
cost of living and the situation in other sections. Rural counties in the State are 
experiencing the difficulties of population loss, shortage of farm workers, and an 
uncertain future. Farm credit bureaus and landowners are reluctant to furnish 
families whose plans are indefinite, while some landlords and tenants have included 
30-day clauses in their yearly- agreements. A general restlessness and instability 
characterize the rural sections, with an increasing tendency for the able-bodied 
young men to volunteer for military service or to emigrate, leaving behind an 
ovcraged and otherwise hand'capped population with a higher than normal 
incidence of dependency. 

In other parts of the State we are beginning to feel the pinch of transition to a 
war economy in the form of so-called priority unemployment. Many of our 
smaller industries have not received defense orders and are, therefore, unable to 
secure necessary materials. Stove manufacturers have already been forced to 
curtail their production. In north Alabama the cast-iron pipe industry, likely 
to be shut down shortly, involves approximately 12,000 workers. The Goodyear 
rubber plants in Gadsden are now on a part-time schedule and must either close 
soon or be converted for wartime production. Likewise, the State's silk industry, 
which is spread over 11 counties and involves approximately 3,000 workers, may 
soon be shut-down. It is hoped that many of these workers can be alasorbed in 
textile plants which need additional employees in filling Army contracts. The 
shifting of such workers to a new industry, however, involves at best a trying 
period of readjustment and one with which we have had little experience. 

These are only some of the first evidences of a difficult transitional process in 
which war production may ultimately absorb many workers and plants made 
idle by civilian curtailment. But the condition, even though it may be temporary, 
is boimd to create widespread hardships among those thrown out of employment. 
The welfare agencies must thus be in a position to ease the process of transition 
by meeting needs not answered by vmemployment compensation. 

Another new welfare problem has been created by the voluntary enlistment 
of many young men who formerly supported their families in whole or in part. 
No special Federal provision is now made for such families and they must, there- 
fore, look to the regular public welfare agencies for financial aid. Even prior to 
the war, voluntarj- enlistments from Alabama in the armed forces of tlie Nation 
were higher proportionately than for the country as a whole and were highest in 
those rural counties where family income is the lowest and employment oppor- 
tunities are fewest. Since the outbreak of actual war, we are beginning to receive 
an increasing number of applications for aid from families whose breadwinner has 
enlisted. Moreover, we have been warned to expect a more rigid definiticn of 
dependency in the granting of deferments by selective service boards which will 
undoubtedly increase the number of requests for assistance. The expansion of 
the selective service i:)rogram will also enlarge the Job which the public welfare 
departments are doing for the selective service boards in making investigations of 
doubtful cases of dependency. Already the 17,383 investigations made from 
November 1940, through November, 1941, have consumed 7 percent of the admin- 
istrative time of county staffs with the cost borne entirely out of State and local 
funds with no Federal participation. 

The problems which are the concern of public welfare have been greatly ag- 
gravated by higher prices. I have already cited rising rents in defense areas. 
Increases in food costs throughout the State have been reported as ranging from 
7 to 33 percent. Clothing prices have advanced from 10 to 35 percent, with the 
greatest jump taking place in the cotton work clothes commonly purchased by 
these low-income groups. A recent study made throughout the State revealed 
that the purchasing power of the relief dollar had dropped from 100 cents in 
September 1940, to 72 cents in November 1941. When you consider that our 
average relief grant is only $10 a month, it is evident that price increases are 
forcing relief recipients to a submarginal standard of existence. Frequently 
these low grants have in the past been supplemented by surplus commodities. 
Although some commodities are still being distributed, their quantity and variety 
are much more limited now because of war conditions. 

In time of war it is my belief that the Federal Government is more than ever 
responsible for the welfare of its citizens, and that the demands of an all-out 
effective eflfort can be met only in a Nation where no individual is permitted ta 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9807 



be devitalized by hunger and the fear of want. I beheve that the Federal Gov- 
ernment should use its resources to see that people are aided over the periods of 
individual economic hardship brought about by war conditions. Likewise, I 
consider it the Government's obligation to bring the population at the lowest 
level of existence up to a minimum standard that assures the health and vigor 
needed for successful prosecution of the war. I recognize, of course, that war 
means sacrifice and frugality on the part of us all, but war also means untiring 
work. It means, too, the kind of courage that comes from good health and a 
knowledge that the same country that asks sacrifice of its citizens guarantees 
to them a minimum of economic security below which no individual will be 
permitted to fall. This has been one of the sources of national strength in 
England ; I believe it will prove to be likewise here. 

Sjjecifically, I think the Federal Government, in the following ways, should 
undertake to meet the problems described: 

1. Public assistance, including provision for general relief to residents and non- 
residents alike, should be extended to States on a basis of variable grants to assure 
a minimum standard to all Americans, including those living in the poorer States. 

2. Leadership should be furnished toward establishment of uniform settlement 
laws as a preliminary step in abolishing them. 

3. Federal dependency allowances should be available to the dependents of 
men in miUtary service. 

4. A Federal fund, subject to a minimum of legal and procedural restrictions, 
should be available to meet without delay emergency problems of need resulting 
directly from the war, whether from enemy action or internal economic adjust- 
ments. 

5. A unified Federal approach should be made to the problem of assisting 
States and communities in coordinating their own resources and relating them to 
the total war eff"ort. This should include the problems of housing, health, wel- 
fare, recreation, and community facilities, as well as production problems and 
those of civilian protection. 

Location of major militanj and industrial defense activities in Alabama, January 1942 



Location 



Population 
1940 



Defense activity 



Calhoun County 

Anniston 

Colbert County 

Tuscumbia 

Sheffield 

Coffee County 

Elba 

Enterprise 

Dale County 

Ozark 

Dallas County 

Selma 

Etowah County 

Gadsden 

Jefferson County 

Birmingham 

Bessemer 

Macon County 

Tuskegec--- 

Madison County 

Huntsville 

Mobile County 

Mobile 

Montgomery County 
Montgomery 

Russell County- 

Phenix City 

Talladega County 

Talladega 

Sylacauga 

Childersburg 



63, 319 

25, 523 

34, 093 

5,515 

7,933 

31,987 
2,363 
4,353 

22, 685 
3,601 

65, 245 
19, 834 
72, 580 
36, 975 

459, 930 

267, 583 

22, 826 

27, 654 

3,937 

66, 317 
13, 050 

141, 974 
78, 720 



114,420 
78, 084 
35, 775 
15, 351 
51, 832 
9,298 
6,269 
515 



Fort McClellan. 
Ammunition dump. 
Wilson Dam. 

Electro-metallurgical plant. 
Reynolds Metal Co. 
Reynolds Alloy Co. 
Pea River cantonment. 



Grimes Air Field. 
Pea River cantonment. 
Craig Field. 

Shell forging plant. 
Attalla Manufacturing Co. 
Republic Steel Corporation. 
T. C. I. and other steel industries. 



Air training base for Negroes. 

Chemical warfare plant. 
Redstone Arsenal. 
Shipbuilding. 
Brookley Field. 
Aluminum plant. 
Other industries. 
Maxwell Field. 
Gunter Field. 
Annex to Fort Penning. 

Coosa River munitions plant. 



Alabama Ordnance Works. 



60396— 42— pt. 25- 



-12 



9808 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

STATEMENT BY BENJAMIN GLASSBERG, SUPERINTENDENT, DE- 
PARTMENT OF PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, 
WIS. 

Effect of Concentration of Military and Industrial Defense Activities 

ON Welfare Problems 

No new defense plants or Army camps have as yet been established in Wis- 
consin. Consequently, there has been no important migration of workers into 
the State according to the Industrial Commission. Many of the cities have 
experienced a considerable inmigration. 

A few months ago it was annovuiced that a $65,000,000 Badger ordnance plant 
is to be constructed in the Merrimac area, Sauk County, to be completed January 
1, 1943. Buildings on an 8,000-acre site to cost $42,000,000 have been contracted 
for which will call for 10,000 construction workers. The War Department is 
planning to expand the facilities in Camp McCov, near Sparta. Plans call for 
buildings to cover 53,000 acres at a cost of $22,000,000 which will require 20,000 
construction workers. When completed it is estimated that 1,000 civilian workers 
will be necessary for maintenance. It is expected that the influx of workers for 
these projects will affect 27 towns, villages, and cities in their "spheres of in- 
fluence." 

In the past, large construction jobs such as these have been undertaken and 
completed without very much planning in advance concerning the health, housing, 
education or other needs of the workers and their families who would be gathered 
together to do the job. Fortunately, a complete list of the sanitary facilities, 
necessary expansion of the water supply, the school needs, recreational facilities 
and service centers which the cities and towns in these areas will require in meeting 
the expected population expansion, has been carefully compiled by representatives 
of several Federal agencies working in close cooperation with the Wisconsin 
Council of Defense. The recommendations have been sent on to Washington by 
H. L. McCarthy, the regional director of defense, health and welfare services. It 
is contemplated that additions and revisions of the original recommendations will 
be necessary. 

The plans submitted to Washington, however, have not taken into consideration 
the fact that many workers who will drift into these areas, predominantly rural, 
from various parts of the State and from other States will fail to get work and will 
be in need of relief. The prospects of transients being granted relief if in need 
are quite remote. The relief director of La Crosse states that relief for single 
persons and possibly for married couples without children who have no legal 
settlement will be refused. Other towns will probably take the same attitude. 

The 27 villages, towns and cities which will be affected by these two develop- 
ments can no more be expected to provide for the relief needs of those in distress 
than they can be expected to supply the additional communal facilities to meet 
the increase in population. Congress has made it possible for these facilities to 
be supplied by the Federal Government. The cost of furnishing relief to the 
nonresidents and transients should be assumed by the Federal Government with 
the State assuming a portion of the cost. No part of it should be saddled on the 
local community which has no responsibility for creating the problem it is suddenly 
confronted with. The adoption of uniform settlement laws by all States with 
a reasonable maximum of 6 months or a year, would help materially in eliminating 
one of the most troublesome problems in the administration of public welfare. 
Federal responsibility for transient relief would facilitate such a move and reduce 
the ranks of those who have lost their "settlement rights" and have lost hope of 
ever regaining them. 

Neither has any thought been given to the need of providing for the hospitaliza- 
tion and medical care of the thousands of workers who will be employed in these 
two areas. It does not appear that there are sufficient public facilities available 
for those unable to pay doctor and hospital bills. Neither the local public- welfare 
agencies nor private social agencies are likely to be willing or able to provide the 
increase in the demands for free medical care which may be necessary. 

It should also be pointed out that provisions will probably have to be made 
for additional housing facilities. Very little building of private homes has taken 
place in these areas. Defense housing projects should be given consideration, 
especially since there will be a permanent addition to the population. Otherwise 
overcrowding will result, along with high rentals and unsatisfactory sanitation. 
The forced doubling up of families will serve to increase the problem of adjustment 
to a wholly new environment. Many families do not possess the inner strength 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9809 

to meet such situations successfully and need counseling and advice which the 
social agency can render. 

Effect of Curtailment of Civilian Production on Welfare Problems 

The first city to feel the effects of the shortage of "critical materials" was 
Manitowoc. The Aluminum Goods Manufacturing Co. laid off about half of its 
force of 3,000 workers beginning March 1941. Detailed information concerning 
this situation has been gathered by the Tolan Committee. The prohibition of the 
sale of new automobiles has added several thousands to the many who had been 
laid off in Milwaukee, Janesville, and Kenosha plants. In addition, automobile 
sales forces have been suddenly faced with dismissal. There are 5,794 licensed 
salesmen in the State. The virtual elimination of the sale of tires and tubes has 
very seriously affected Eau Claire and La Crosse, both of which have large plants 
dependent on rubber and are now faced with a complete shut-down. Other con- 
cerns manufacturing auto parts, farm machinery and metal stamping companies 
have also been seriously affected. It is expected that the $5,000,000,000 defense 
contract which was discussed w^ith the automobile industry and the auto workers 
union in Washington on January 5 will help to provide work for all those who have 
been laid off. In the meantime some workers laid off last May or June have 
exhausted their unemployment benefits and have applied for relief. Some have 
drifted to other cities in search of work and have had to apply for relief. 

Sooner or later as a result of these sudden industrial changes in spite of the 
Work Projects Administration program, if it continues, and unemployment com- 
pensation benefits, there will be many persons who do not quite fit into any 
category and are in need of relief. Some communities may be faced with a large 
volume of applications for aid due entirely to our war efforts. To attempt to 
meet this need would put a severe strain on many localities which are still faced 
with the task of liquidating bonds issued for relief during the depression. 

With the exception of the early depression years the State of Wisconsin has 
provided very little assistance to the local communities in helping them to meet 
the cbsts of general relief. With the exception of New York, Illinois, Massa- 
chusetts, and California, local expenditures for relief in Wisconsin exceeded that 
spent by the political subdivisions of any other State in the country. The 
northern cut-over counties are the only ones to have received any substantial 
assistance from State funds because of their utterly helpless condition. There 
should be a more generous program of State aid adopted, and the Federal Govern- 
ment should be called upon to aid the States and local communities to meet their 
general relief expenditures by assuming at least half of the cost. This would 
prevent any unnecessary suffering and undermining of the health of any portion 
of our population. 

Federal aid would help raise standards of public welfare agencies and result 
in an improvement in personnel. This is of vital importance. Public agency 
workers will more and more be called upon to face problems arising in families 
as a direct outgrowth of the war. Families will separate, with the breadwinner 
employed in a distant defense plant and the family left behind and perhaps 
forgotten. Men displaced from their usual jobs will unconsciously struggle 
against acquiring a new and unknown skill or will object to being transferred to a 
strange environment. Older boys wiU leave school and enlist or will take a well- 
paid job and suddenly be in possession of more money than they had ever dreamed 
of. They may drift to other cities and gradually the old family ties will be for- 
gotten. Young girls from families with marginal incomes will flock to towns near 
Army camps to work as waitresses or entertainers, but later may stay on for less 
respectable purposes. More and more women will be drawn into factories. Many 
mothers will be tempted to go to work and place their children with relatives, 
friends or strangers, sometimes without giving sufficient thought to the kind of 
home to which they will entrust their children. Suitable foster homes arp not 
always readily available. Lack of parental care will soon show itself in an increase 
in juvenile delinquency, a not unusual concomitant of war. 

Family tensions of every conceivable kind, problems of adjustment of the 
individual to new environments, social and industrial, and to changed family 
situations, will arise and face us on a large scale. It will be far beyond the resources 
of the existing private social agencies to cope with them. It is important that 
there be available in each community a properly staffed and equipped public 
welfare agency capable of helping fan ilies solve some of their diffculties. The 
post-war period will aggravate and intensify these problems. A large part of the 
labor force will suddenly find that there no longer is a market for the one skill 



9810 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

they possess. A new and larger movement of population will again begin with a 
great many families again threatened with disorganization. We must be prepared 
for such a contingency so that we may be in a position to meet it. 

Employment Service 

The chief responsibility for dealing with the problems resulting from the dis- 
location of large numbers of workers falls on the Employment Service. It must 
make certain that workers are properly classified according to skill. It must 
know which plants need workers and see that they get them in an orderly way.. 
This must be done promptly and expeditiously if the program announced by the 
President in his address to the Congress on the "State of the Nation" on January 
6 is to be carried out. If properly qualified workers are to be shifted from one 
city to another where shortages exist, the Employment Service in cooperating 
with the local welfare departments should determine, as is done in England, 
that the transferred workers and their families will have a proper place in which 
to live and that there are adequate provisions for their health. We must learn to 
conserve the health of the worker as much as the materials he is working with. 
It is most important that we avoid the waste and confusion and loss of valuable 
man-hours which is bound to result if workers are left to shift for themselves and 
industries are free to compete with each other. 

The Federal Employment Service must be prepared to assume responsibility 
for the transportation of the worker and the assistance necessary to maintain 
him and his family until he can do so himself. Costs should be assumed by the 
welfare agencies to be reimbursed by the Federal Government. The Employ- 
ment Service can help mobilize available labor which may ordinarily not be drawn 
upon by industry because of prejudices against various groups such as Negroes, 
aliens, and other minority groups. It can also make certain that women and 
older men on Work Projects Administration or relief are, after receiving necessary 
training, gradually substituted for younger workers who would thus be released 
for the armed forces. 

Along with the problem of reallocation and transfer of labor is the problem of 
retraining. No national system for retraining has as yet been developed. This 
responsibility might well be placed in the hands of the Employment Service, 
especially since it has recently become a Federal agency exclusively and thus 
free from local and State political pressures. The Employment Service would 
serve as the coordinating agency, bringing together industry, labor and the voca- 
tional education groups to develop a practical and effective approach to this 
problem and be responsible for carrying it out. In many localities well equipped 
vocational schools are already in existence which could be used for retraining 
purposes. Where they do not exist it will be necessary for the Employment 
Service to develop facilities for this purpose. Unless Work Projects Adminis- 
tration, National Youth Administration, and Civilian Conservation Corps are 
abolished, their training programs can also be utilized. 

One of the most important problems facing the Nation following the war will 
be the task of retraining millions of workers so that they may again function in a 
peace economy. It is, therefore, essential that the Employment Service be as 
strong as possible. 

Dependency Resulting from Military Service 

Generally speaking, there has been very little dependency resulting from the 
Selective Service System in most parts of the State. The State Public Welfare 
Department has encouraged the local draft boards to clear all cases which might 
involve dependency with the local public-welfare agencies which have cooperated 
in making necessary investigations. Enlistments by employed sons who were 
contributing to the support of the family have in some cases made it necessary 
for the welfare agency to give some supplementary aid. The vast expansion of 
the armed forces may change this picture considerably. It would then be neces- 
sary for Congress to provide some form of allotment by men in the service to their 
families. In addition, Federal aid to the States for direct relief expenditures 
would insure more adequate aid to families in need because of military service. 

Unmet Needs 

Although the social services are fairly well developed in many parts of the 
State, there are very inadequate facilities for meeting some important needs such 
as dental care. The extent of this need was revealed by the recent physical 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9811 

examinations of draftees. The examinations made in 1917-18 originally showed 
how bad the situation was. Dietary deficiencies also appear to be widespread. 
If we are to follow in the footsteps of the British, where, as Eric Biddle points out, 
the Government works on the theory that the strengthening of the health and 
welfare measures ranks with the building of guns, tanks and planes as a defense 
priority, then we have a good deal of work cut out for us. 

It is unwise to deprive the Nation of a large number of men who might be used 
for its defense because of dental, eye and nutritional deficiencies, many of which 
if properly treated could be corrected. The public must assume responsibility 
for maintaining the health of the total population. The adoption of the national 
health program as envisaged by bills introduced by Senator Wagner and urged 
by the President on the National Health Conference which met in Washington 
in 1938 would be a step in the right direction. In the meantime adequately 
financed dental clinics should be opened by the health departments or dispen- 
saries in the various cities with Federal aid to insure their proper operation and 
financing. 

The local public health and welfare agencies should take an active interest in 
building up the health of all those rejected for service because of physical defi- 
ciencies. Since this work could well be regarded as a part of our national defense 
efforts, the cost of a major part of it should be borne by the Federal Government. 
This is especially necessary because the enormous increase in Federal taxes will 
make it exceedingly difficult to increase local taxes. The operation of the defense 
program will, as has been pointed out, increase the demands upon the social 
services of many localities. Unaided, they will not be able to meet these demands. 
The total cost of a program to protect the health of the Nation when compared 
with the 50-billion-a-year Victory program will be infinitesimal. 



Exhibit A. — Compensation for Displaced Workers 

SUPPLEMENTARY STATEMENT BY BENJAMIN GLASSBERG, SUPERINTENDENT, 
DEPARTMENT OP PUBLIC ASSISTANCE, MILWAUKEE COUNTY, WIS. 

It has been assumed that workers who are unemployed because of the conver- 
sion of industry to wartime production should receive unemployment compensa- 
tion until they have found other employment. It may be questioned whether 
this practice is sound. Unemployment insurance was set up as a means of easing 
the shock caused by the operation of the business cycle and thus maintain a 
certain level of consumer demand. It was never contemplated that it be used to 
meet the emergencies created by war conditions. It does not seem reasonable 
to deplete the reserves set up to meet unemployment needs created by peace- 
time conditions and to convert them to the needs of workers temporarily out 
of work because of the operation of the defense program. 

It is interesting to note the announcement made on January 12, 1942, by 
Arthur B. Barber, senior examiner in charge of appeals for the Wisconsin Industrial 
Commission, that the Gillette Tire & Rubber Co. of Eau Claire contests the pay- 
ment of unemployment benefits to 700 displaced workers because of the rubber 
shortage. He stated the company contended that payment of unemployment 
claims on its reserve for that purpose need not be made because the law declares 
an employee is not eligible to compensation if the unemployment is "due to act of 
God, fire or other catastrophe or acts by civil or military authorities directly 
affecting the place in which he was employed." The company's contention. 
Barber explained, is that the tire-rationing program constituted such an act. 

This condition has not arisen in other States because the individual employers 
reserve plan has been adopted only in Wisconsin and one or two other States. 
Where the "State pool" plan operates, an employer does not have the same incen- 
tive for challenging such payments. 

From the point of view of the displaced worker it does not seem reasonable to 
expect him to fall back on unemployment compensation. It should be remem- 
bered that all State laws require a waiting period of 2 or 3 weeks during which 
period the worker is not entitled to benefits. Furthermore payments are limited 
to a maximum of 50 percent of the weekly wage. During 1940 the average weekly 
benefit for total unemployment was less than $10 in 30 States and less than $8 
in 12 States. 

This results in a heavy burden being placed on a small group of workers who 
happen to be employed in certain industries that must cease operation because of 
war needs. The burden of the war should be distributed equally or in accordance 



9812 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

with ones ability to pay. The rubber worker who is suddenly deprived of a job 
must fall back on unemployment compensation which may not even meet the 
minimum needs of his family while other workers in essential industries are earn- 
ing more than ever before. This condition ought to be righted. There should 
be a special appropriation made by Congress for the purpose of paying workers 
unemployed because of our war needs. They should be paid a substantial por- 
tion of their average weekly wage, possibly a minimum of 75 percent, while un- 
employed. The unemployment compensation machinery could be used for making 
payments to the workers. At the same time the displaced worker would have to 
undergo retraining to fit him for a job in a defense plant. In this manner, the 
worker would not have to rely on unemployment compensation or relief as is now 
the case. 



TESTIMONY OF PANEL OF STATE WELFARE DIRECTORS— Resumed 

The Chairman. The first question is: 

What are the main pubHc welfare problems arising as the result of 
the rapid conversion of our economy to wartime needs? 

We are interested in details on such developments as priorities 
unemployment and resulting dependency, acute shortages of com- 
munity facilities and essential services, dependency resulting from 
military service and other forms of dependency related to the emer- 
gency. 

Mr. HoEHLER. Mr. Chairman, I would suggest that Mr. Hodson 
give us a brief answer on that question, and then we will turn to Mr. 
Russell, of Pennsylvania, and ask Mr. Goudy, who comes from a 
Western State with some large rural areas, to close it with a statement. 

The Chairman. All right, Mr. Hodson, will you say something on 
that subject? 

WAR INTENSIFIES WELFARE PROBLEMS 

Mr. Hodson. Mr. Chairman, I would say that the problems arising 
out of the wartime situation are, in one sense, merely the intensifica- 
tion of the normal problems which welfare departments have to face. 
It is the job of welfare departments to take care of people who are in 
trouble. That is sometimes a very complicated and a very extensive- 
job. In wartime those human problems become more intense and 
more widespread, so that what the departments have to do is to extend 
their normal functions, and probably reorganize their job, so that they 
can meet these newer problems as they present themselves. 

A welfare department administering a general relief program must 
be prepared to take care of all sorts of human needs. 

When there is unemployment; when there is illness; when there is 
inability to work and labor; and when there are no family resources, 
the welfare department is called upon to provide assistance. 

In other words, the general relief program, where it exists, is a kind 
of cushion for the care of persons who cannot otherwise be provided 
for. 

Persons, for example, who are not eligible for unemployment in- 
surance benefits, or persons who have exhausted their benefit rights, if 
they have no other resources, will have to be cared for through the 
departments of welfare. 

It seems to me important to remember that despite the fact that 
there has been an increase in employment, and up to the present time 
a general decrease in the case loads of departments of welfare, we still 
have a very substantial relief problem. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9813 

In New York City, to be specific, a very large part of our relief 
load now consists of families where there is no employable member. 
They are the sick and the lame and the halt and the blind. They 
are families where the workers are either permanently or temporarily 
unable to work. 

That is going to be the hard core of the job, and it is important 
that we shouldn't get the idea that, because there has been this general 
improvement in the employment situation, the relief problem is over, 
and that we need to do nothing more about it. 

The Chairman. There is no question but what there is a widespread 
feeling throughout the country that there is no unemployment. 

Last July we held hearings here and testimony was given that, at 
that time, there were approximately a million employable persons 
registered in either the State or the Federal employment agencies. 
But the feeling exists that there is no unemployment now. 

Mr. Sparkman. Isn't it true that we have at all times some Z% 
million unemployable? 

Mr. HoDSON. I think those are the figures. 

RELIEF OF UNEMPLOYED AND UNEMPLOYABLES 

Mr. Sparkman. And of course that burden is always on the relief 
organizations, regardless of employment and regardless of conditions? 

Mr. HoDSON. Well, I think it is important to remember, in that 
connection, Mr. Chairman, that it is not only this more-or-less perma- 
nent problem of families where there is no employable worker — and 
that is a very sizable problem in this country — but over and above 
that we have, and must be prepared to meet, a substantial problem of 
families where there is an employable member, but where that em- 
ployable member is not employed. 

For example, I was just looking at some figures provided by the 
New York State Department of Labor. They show that in December 
there were some 20,000 persons in New York City who had exhausted 
their benefit rights. Now, if all those 20,000 persons get jobs imme- 
diately, and if they have resources, they of course will not be applying 
for relief. On the other hand, if they don't get jobs— and many of 
them won't — and if they have no resources, those people will be 
applying, in considerable numbers, for public assistance. Wliat we 
fail to remember, in this total picture, is that at no time do we ever 
have complete employment of all employable persons. We may have 
a general upward trend, but there will be eddies where the trend is 
downward. We think we are going to face that situation, with respect 
to the conversion of nonwar industries into war industries, to a very 
considerable extent. 

While we haven't yet had enough experience to be dogmatic about 
it, and to say precisely what the figures are, we do anticipate that 
there will be a very considerable dislocation; there will be a very con- 
siderable number of persons who will have to be tided over until such 
time as they are retained to engage in war industry. 

Now, if you do not have a sound, adequate, and properly financed 
public assistance program for those people, it simply means that they 
won't be cared for. A sound public assistance program, so far as. 
general relief is concerned, requires Federal reimbursement. 



9814 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

You now have Federal reimbursement for old age, and the blind, 
and aid to mothers of dependent children, but there is no Federal 
reimbursement for the largest problem of all, which is home relief. 

If you look at the figures, you will find a much larger number of 
men, women, and children, under care of departments of public wel- 
fare on your home relief program, than you have in all the other 
programs combined. Yet the Federal Government assists the S fates 
and localities for these highly specialized programs, all of which we 
think is sound. But for the biggest problem of all, there is no Federal 
reimbursement. 

The Chairman. Have you any suggestion to make as to how we 
should take care of unemployment insurance? 

GRANTS-IN-AID FOR HOME RELIEF 

How would you suggest that it be handled? 

Mr. HoDSON. I should like very much, Mr. Chairman, to see this 
committee recommend legislation which would provide for Federal 
grants-in-aid for home relief, in exactly the same way that you now 
provide these grants for the other special forms of public assistance. 

The Chairman. That is the beginning. Now, would you have that 
on a variable basis? That is, some States are in a better financial 
condition than others, aren't they? 

Mr. Hodson. You are asking me a very embarrassing question 
because I come from a State which, generally speaking, doesn't 
underrate itself, and yet recognizes the share of the tax bill that it has 
to pay. 

However, there isn't any question in my mind but what the thing 
has got to be operated on a variable basis. If you are trying to es- 
tablish a national minimum, then the States that can afford to must 
contribute to the States that can't. I think some kind of variable 
grants are inevitable if you are going to establish a Nation-wide 
program which will provide for an adequate minimum of care. 

Mr. Sparkman. Don't you think that is true even with the cate- 
gories that now exist? 

Mr. Hodson. I think the principle is the same in both cases. 

The Chairman. Your suggestion is in line with our general recom- 
mendation already filed in our report, but no specific legislation has 
been introduced as yet. 

We came to that conclusion unanimously. Of course, the employ- 
ables you are speaking about, that you think should be taken care of 
partly by the Government and partly by the State are in most cases 
heads of families, aren't they? 

Mr. Hodson. That is right. 

The Chairman. Wliat about defense in-migration into your State? 
Has it been increased or decreased as a result of this war program? 

Mr. Hodson. I suppose New York City has relatively less war 
industry than most parts of the country. 

We are not essentially a heavy-industry town ; we are essentially a 
consumer industry town, so that, in all probability, we haven't had as 
much in-migration as other parts of the country have had. Perhaps 
some of the other members of this panel would have a different story 
to tell. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9815 

We don't have a large problem of migration, except that we do have 
a considerable number of Negroes who are coming to New York. 

The Chairman. Wliat about Puerto Ricans? 

Mr. HoDSON. And Puerto Ricans. 

The Chairman. I think the testimony that we received in New 
York City July 19, 1940, showed that there were about a hundred 
thousand Puerto Ricans in the city of New York.^ 

Mr. HoDSON. I think that figure is approximately correct. 

The Chairman. Mr. Russell, would you care to comment on this 
problem? 

general relief 

Mr. Russell. Mr. Chairman, speaking for Pennsylvania, I would 
like to express agreement with the general statements that Mr. 
Hodson has made in reference to New York. I also agree with 
him in regard to the general public assistance program. I would 
like to emphasize my conviction that the most important factor of 
the public assistance program is a general assistance program as an 
underpinning for everything else that we have in that fielti. Re- 
gardless of the special provisions or special programs for particular 
groups of people, there are always persons that fall between the slats 
of these special programs, and who can't be taken care of unless 
there exists this basic program, which can meet the needs resulting^ 
from any kind of unemployment or disability — or just plain lack of 
income. 

As to the specific problems that I see ahead, particularly those 
related to the particular situation, we are considerably concerned 
with priority unemployment. That however is just a term, so far, 
in Pennsylvania. Special programs, such as unemployment com- 
pensation, have, to date, absorbed the dislocation that has taken 
place. That is no guaranty at all that it can satisfactorily continue 
to absorb unemployment due to dislocations and conversions. 

The general assistance program is likely to have burdens placed 
on it far beyond its ability to handle them unless the Federal grants- 
in-aid suggestion becomes effective. 

A sudden increase in unemployment and applications for general 
assistance could use up, overnight almost, the resources at the dis- 
posal of the State. We are expected, because of the nature of the 
program, to meet that sort of a situation, and yet we could be very 
easily placed in a position where the funds would run out and there 
would just be no basis for carrying out our full responsibilities. 

LOSS OF gasoline TAX REVENUES ANTICIPATED 

In this connection, the war situation has already affected the State 
income. There is a prospect, in Pennsylvania, that the income from 
gasoline taxes, for example, which are an important part in the financial 
support of the assistance programs, will be cut by about 40 percent. 

The Chairman. Do you know, Mr. Russell, the approximate 
amount, in normal times, of gas tax income in the State of Pennsyl- 
vania? 

Mr. Russell. I can't quote that amount offhand. 

1 See New York hearings, pt. 1, pp. 116-132, and 203-217. 



9816 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

The Chairman. Very large, though, isn't it? 

Mr. Russell. It is a substantial sum. The Federal share in sup- 
porting the general public assistance program; the sharing and caring 
for the needs of the unemployed, offers, to my mind, another hazard. 

In Pennsylvania there are now about 100,000 unemployed receiving 
either W. P. A., or State assistance. The question of what happens 
to W. P. A. is, just as it has always been, a disturbing factor to the 
State. It is impossible to make plans; it is impossible to look ahead, 
as far as working out a State budget is concerned, because there is no 
surety as to whether the proportionate share between the Federal and 
the State governments is to be maintained over a particular length of 
time. It is not a new problem but it is a complicating problem for the 
future. 

I think I would add this: That the State would readily assume what- 
ever additional burden might come because of a reduction of the 
W. P. A. program, if it were able to operate on a sharing basis, such 
as has been described by Mr. Hodson. 

I think that is all, except for the general problem of rising living costs, 
which is, perhaps, more important for the persons who are receiving 
assistance than for the general population. In other words, grants are 
fixed, and inadequate at best, and the plight of the persons who are re- 
quired to live on the assistance level is becoming increasingly difficult. 

All these things add up to make the outlook for public assistance 
rather dubious, as far as fulfilling its basic responsibility of meeting 
needs decently. 

DEFENSE IN-MIGRATION IN PHILADELPHIA 

The Chairman. Mr. Russell, what about your in-migration into 
Pennsylvania as a result of this war program? Has it increased? 

Mr. Russell. It has, very definitely; chiefiy in Philadelphia and 
Pittsburgh. 

The shipyards in Philadelphia have attracted a great many people 
from outside the State, and Pittsburgh industries have brought in 
persons from nearby States. There has been no effect of that on the 
relief rolls particularly, although it has complicated the housing situa- 
tion. 

The Chairman. Wliy does it have no effect on the relief rolls? 

Mr. Russell. Largely because the people that have come in have 
obtained jobs. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Russell, I would like to know if any dependency 
has resulted from military service. I assume that wouldn't be true 
with respect to the draft, but perhaps in volunteering for military 
service it has caused an increase? 

Mr. Russell. It hasn't been an appreciable factor as yet, although 
that very definitely will become a problem. The reason that it is 
not an important problem in Pennsylvania so far is that there has 
apparently been a very careful handling of the deferment problem. 
As soon as family persons are drafted in large numbers that will be a 
very definite and major problem, to which I might add my opinion 
that the need arising from that source seems to me peculiarly one 
which should be supported by Federal funds rather than State. 

Mr. Arnold. The in-migration has caused higher rents in Phila- 
'delphia and Pittsburgh. Does that affect your relief payments? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9817 

Mr. Russell. It does. It reaches us, of course, through the prob- 
lem of the rising costs ; the problem of whether we can keep our grants 
in line with the rising costs. 

Unfortunately, in Pennsylvania, though we have, compared to 
other States, a high standard of assistance grants, the rent item has 
always been the most inadequate one in the budget. That has been 
emphasized now to the extent that our maximum grant is less than 
50 percent of the commercial rents, which are asked of relief families. 

Mr. HoEHLER. Mr. Goudy of Oregon will next comment, Mr. 
Chairman. 

Mr. Goudy. Mr. Chairman, in any transition period discussed 
here we would recognize that there are certain benefits, and that there 
are certain liabilities also, incurred in a public welfare program, 

BURDEN ON GENERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM 

The increased employment, particularly in defense industries, in the 
State of Oregon has materially reduced one phase of the program — 
general assistance. The social-security categories have, it is true, 
continued to increase a relatively small amount; but I would like to 
point out, in respect to Mr. Hodson's and Mr. Russell's statements, 
the importance of that general assistance program, when you take the 
public welfare program as a whole. 

The three social-security categories are definitely limited by the 
law under which they operate, limited as to age and limited as to 
types of care. The result is that, in States operating with general 
assistance programs, that program has to take up and bear the full 
burden of the responsibilities that are thrust upon the welfare pro- 
gram in this transition period. And, though the relief rolls have been 
reduced somewhat, because of reduced unemployment^ there are 
other factors which more than offset this. 

Most of these have been mentioned: The increased cost of housing; 
the general increase in the cost of living. 

There are other questions which arise: Particularly the care of 
certain groups who are left dependent because of the war situation, 
certain groups such as the Japanese in the State of Oregon, certain 
civilian workers' families in places that are directly affected by the 
war. Many of these problems may not be large in themselves. 
But taken in the aggregate they assume very real proportions for a 
general assistance program in the State. 

RECAPITULATION OF SPECIFIC PROBLEMS 

Mr. HoEHLER. Mr. Chairman, may I briefly recapitulate and stipu- 
late some problems that are general? 

You have heard statements from three of our large States: Penn- 
sylvania, Oregon, and New York. Mr. Hodson represents the city 
of New York and is speaking pretty largely of what is happening 
throughout that area. 

I visited a number of States in the last few months, and I find the 
problems are these: Those arising from the dislocations in industry, 
in which frequently the worker uses all of his resources to pay for 
transportation and to pay the cost of moving his family. When he 
comes to a community, he is without resources. While he may have a 



9818 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

job, somebody has to extend credit or assistance to him so that he 
and his family may hve during the period while he is waiting for his 
first pay envelope. 

Then there is the problem of what we call defense unemployment; 
that which is related to priorities, material shortages, and to consumer- 
goods curtailment. Many people throughout the Nation become 
unemployed on this account. In some areas the groups are small, 
and in some areas — such as Detroit at the moment — the groups are 
very large. Cumulatively, it becomes a big problem for welfare care. 

Later on w^e may hear from some of these people about the inade- 
quacy of compensation benefits. 

The third problem is that which relates to dependency due to 
military service. It is not serious at the moment, but potentially it is 
a grave problem. And even though we don't think of dependency due 
to military service as a matter that has great economic significance, 
at the moment it has great social significance, because of problems 
which arise in families when either the breadwinner, or perhaps the 
oldest son — an important factor in the family — is away. 

As a fourth item, I would like to mention the problems which arise 
where there has been a sudden rapid increment in population, and 
where that growth has been way out of proportion to what the town or 
community might normally be expected to absorb. 

Many of those communities lack facilities in education, in welfare 
services, in health. That lack of services and lack of facilities has 
meant that frequently the welfare departments and other public 
departments related to welfare have been asked to carry additional 
burdens. 

EMERGENCY FUND FOR WAR DISASTERS 

Another item is something which hasn't hit us at the moment, but 
is imminent and may happen in some of our cities at any time: That 
is the need for some emergency fund to meet problems which result 
from enemy attacks, sabotage, or serious dislocation, in which the 
cities, the counties, and the States can't be asked to accept responsi- 
bility, because frequently the financial responsibility would be so 
great as to make it a problem for Federal action. When losses are 
due to enemy attack, the problem should be cared for without the 
necessity of establishing need. 

Another item is the increased cost of living, which has affected the 
budgets of the individual relief families. Very few States have 
increased their appropriations, and it is a serious problem, trying to 
make a pre-war budget for a relief family meet the increased war costs 
of living. 

An item which hasn't been mentioned, and which we may neglect 
unless it is called to our attention, is the service program. Take, for 
instance, the services to children. I was in California and saw several 
large housing projects around which hundreds of children were playing, 
without supervision, without direction, and no place to go if sudden 
storms came up. I was told that some of the homes were closed; 
the mothers were away working. 

The commanding officer of one of the units said to me with a great 
deal of concern: "There are the Dillingers and the prostitutes of 
tomorrow, because this community is not providing the kind of leader- 
ship which is needed to keep those children out of trouble." And 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9819 

they were not all small children. Many of them were in their teens, 
subject to all sorts of possibilities in the way of community and social 
problems. 

Then there is the additional problem which is confronting; welfare 
departments: Additional services which they are asked to give, par- 
ticularly to help the selective service boards in determining depend- 
ency, and other related services. 

The welfare departments of the country are delighted to have this 
responsibility placed upon them, because they feel that they can 
contribute that service to defense; but while they are doing it they are 
using up rather limited administrative funds within the State and the 
community, which haven't been supplemented by any funds from the 
Federal Government or from other sources. They have taken on an 
additional responsibility in administration and services, without addi- 
tional funds, which means somebody in the State suffers. Either 
someone who needs assistance or relief can't get it because funds are 
being used for administration, or administration machinery has to 
be clogged for this additional service. 

Mr. Curtis. Are the funds used for social welfare purposes derived 
from gasohne taxes in very many f the States? 

Mr. HoEHLER. May 1 pass that question on to one of our State 
administrators? 

Mr. Russell, will you answer that question? 

USE OF GASOLINE TAX FOR RELIEF 

Mr. Russell. Specifically, our funds are appropriated out of the 
general funds of the State. But the gasoline taxes over the past few 
years have been established for the sole purpose of providing money 
for the relief program. The automobile license taxes in Pennsylvania 
go to the highway department. Gasoline, however, is, in general, for 
public assistance. 

Mr. Curtis. There has been no estimate made yet, I suppose, of 
how those funds are going to suffer by reason of automobile curtail- 
ment and the rubber situation? 

Mr. Russell. The figure that I mentioned was an estimated 40 
percent decline. I don't know how valid that is at this point; that 
was an estimate. 

Mr. Lyons. In the State of Illinois, it has been estimated that the 
reduction in the sales tax will be about 10 million dollars due to the 
reduced sale of automobiles, tires, and so forth. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do any of the rest of the States use gasoline 
taxes? Alabama does not. 

Miss Dunn. Alabama does not. The counties, however, contribute 
very largely to our public welfare fund, and they use the gasoline taxes 
to feed their general fund. It is already anticipated, therefore, that 
there will be an effect on public welfare, even though it is indirect. 

Mr. GouDY. There are no gasoline taxes in the wState of Oregon used 
for public welfare purposes. 

Mr. HoDSON. New York has a gasoline tax. 

Mr. HoEHLER. May I say, Mr. Chairman, in introducing Miss 
Dunn, that the State of Alabama has done quite a remarkable job in 
bringing in all of the county directors of welfare from time to time, 
where they are concerned particularly with these new developments 



9820 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

in the State — and there are a great many. The record of those 
meetings which had been passed on to Washington and to the various 
agencies here, and distributed to other communities around the 
country, has been very helpful in indicating problems wliich have 
arisen in Alabama and are potential problems in other communities. 
The Chairman. We have been receiving those. 

WELFARE PROBLEMS IN ALABAMA 

Miss Dunn. We in Alabama would like very much to see the 
variable grant formula applied, not only in securing Federal partici- 
pation in general relief, but also to our existing public assistance 
categories. 

On the question of the effect of the defense program on the public 
welfare caseloads, I think we have seen some very specific evidence. 
Our State has had a larger percentage of voluntary enlistments, prior 
to the declaration of war, than the Nation as a whole. 

As a result of that — and because many of these voluntary enlist- 
ments are directly related to the need for employment — we are getting 
an increase in applications for relief to the families of these voluntary 
enlistees. I think it points up a very real question for all of us, and 
one I hope this committee will consider. 

The question of rising cost of living is a serious one with us, because 
we have never provided adequately for those people who are on our 
relief rolls. 

We made a survey recently and found that the purchasing power of 
the relief dollar in the last year had decreased 28 cents, which is a 
lot of money to people who are limited in their relief budgets. It 
appears, too, that this purchasing power is continuing to decline very 
rapidly now. 

Our State has also had a good deal of in-migration. Mr. Spark- 
man's city of Huntsville is now a Mecca for migrants. The fact that 
we have had an inadequate general relief program and inadequate 
housing facilities is one of the best evidences that the needs of the 
people already receiving public aid are being increased by pressure of 
the new families coming into the State. It is difficult for us to know 
how to spread the relief dollar, with its value being less, and with the 
applications for aid in certain areas being more than offset by new 
applications from low-income people affected by skyrocketing living 
costs. 

The Chairman. Tell us about Wisconsin, Mr. Glassberg. 

WISCONSIN UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM 

Mr. Glassberg. Mr. Chairman, Wisconsin has a dependency prob- 
lem, as have all other States. 

As a result of the shut-down of automobile plants and rubber plants 
we will probably be made to feel the effects of that much more than 
other States, because our unemployment insurance system is unlike 
that of 45 of the other States. We have an individual employer's 
reserve system. 

Only 3 days ago the Gillette Rubber Co. challenged the eligibility 
of persons who are displaced in the automobile plants and rubber 
plants for unemployment compensation, because the State law pro- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9821 

vides that no worker will be eligible if his plant is shut down because 
of an act of God or because of the action of a civil or military official 
directly affecting his place of employment. 

The Gillette Rubber Co. definitely challenges the right of displaced 
w^orkers to receive unemployment compensation. 

If that challenge is upheld — and the law would seem to indicate 
that there is justice in their contention — then the unemployed will 
have to be cared for through general relief. 

So this problem which, in some States, can be handled in part 
through unemployment compensation will, in Wisconsin, become a 
purely general relief problem. 

I might say that it seems to me there is some reason to feel that 
unemployment compensation reserves should not be used to provide 
displaced workers with a livelihood during that period of unemploy- 
ment. Fundamentally, unemployment compensation reserves were 
set up, presumably, to meet the needs of peacetime unemployment. 
Why should these reserves be depleted to meet a military or national 
defense emergency? 

Furthermore, it seems to me that it is unfair to the workers in these 
plants to single them out to bear a burden which the rest of the 
population does not bear. 

The man who happens to be working in a rubber plant is suddenly 
left without a job. The man working in an essential industry is earn- 
ing more than he ever earned before. There is no equalization in the 
distribution of the war burden, in my opinion. 

furthermore, you must not forget that all State laws, including 
Wisconsin's, provide for a waiting period of 2 or 3 weeks. 

During this period there is no compensation. 

Secondly, the maximum amount which a worker can get in my State 
is $17 a week; that may be far less than his relief budget, if he were 
receiving relief. 

In carrying out the suggestion made the other day by Mayor 
LaGuardia — that there be a special Federal appropriation to provide 
cash to displaced workers — I think that the average weekly wage of a 
worker should be used as a basis for determining the amount he should 
receive, and that the amount should be approximately 75 percent 
of that average. 

In brief, I do not feel that a person who happens to be hit in these 
consumer goods industries should be called upon to bear a burden 
which is not spread over the total population. 

The Chairman. Mr. Lyons? 

Mr. Lyons. For the sake of brevity, I would just like to give a few 
rather pointed statements on what is happening in the Chicago area. 

REDUCTION IN RELIEF IN CHICAGO AREA 

We have found that in the Chicago area, as a direct result of the 
defense program, we have experienced a very marked reduction in 
the relief problem, from October 1940 to October 1941, that reduction 
representing about 35 percent. 

We are finding that of the persons remaining on relief rolls, classed 
as employable, many are not acceptable to employers. They are 
made up, for the most part, of Negro men, and Negro and white 



9822 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

women, and of persons who are less skillful than the older group of 
persons. 

The State employment service reports that, from October through 
December, there were approximately 8,000 persons in the State who 
lost private employment because of priorities. It is also indicated 
that approximately two-tliirds of these were immediately absorbed 
and were not required, or did not find it necessary, to apply for bene- 
fits. The balance of the group, of course, sliifted off into other types 
of employment. 

The Division of Unemployment Compensation of the Department 
of Labor reports that in December 1941 there was an increase of only 
6 percent over December 1940 in persons making claims and receiving 
initial payments. The public assistance load in that period increased 
by only 3.3 percent. In the first 9 days of January 37.4 percent of all 
the persons applying for assistance did so because they had lost private 
employment. 

The department of employment service reports that an increased 
number of registrants are persons previously engaged in automobile 
and tire sales work. Up to this point the Chicago Relief Administra- 
tion has not felt the effects of the rationing program with reference to 
these types of trades. 

The picture in Chicago, with its diversified industries, is still good, 
insofar as relief is concerned. The trend for the past 16 months has 
been downward, and it is indicated that that trend will continue. 

It is our belief, however, that, with further restrictions on clothing, 
radios, novelties, and other civilian industries, there is a likelihood of 
a reversal, at least a leveling off, of this trend in persons who find it 
necessary to apply for benefits. 

Mr. Arnold. Has any dependency resulted from the military serv- 
ice, either from volunteers or the draft? 

Mr. Lyons. The Cliicago Relief Administration has assigned four of 
its staff to the Selective Service Board to determine in a 90-day period 
the extent to which that board may or may not be affecting the relief 
situation. When the period of 90 days expires we will know what the 
problem is. 

RED CROSS DISASTER SERVICE 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Hoehler, I would like to ask you a question 
bearing upon something you said a few minutes ago as to increased 
needs for welfare in various localities. It seems to me that some of 
those things you mentioned are being taken care of by the Red Cross, 
and organizations of that type. Are those things that you mentioned 
usually the functions of the welfare department? I have in mind, lor 
instance, disaster work. You spoke of the problems arising if some- 
thing should hit, or if there should be sabotage. I was under the im- 
pression that such work was usually handled by the Red Cross rather 
than the Public Welfare Department. 

Mr. Hoehler. I would like to say just this, Mr. Congressman: The 
basic responsibility for assistance to people in need, whether it is need 
because of unemployment, disability, sickness, or disaster, is the 
Government's responsibility. 

The Red Cross has been doing, for years, the job of handling dis- 
asters, and can continue to do it, but $50,000,000 or $100,000,000 niay 
not meet problems arising from enemy attack, and problems arising 
from sabotage. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9823 

Basically, again, that is a national responsibility. So far as the 
Red Cross can continue to meet that responsibihty I think it should 
meet it. So far as the Red Cross can continue to meet problems of 
dependency which arise in soldiers' families, I think it should meet 
them. But, should that problem become a big problem, it is no longer 
a responsibility of a charity organization, whether it be public or 
private: It becomes the responsibility of the Government to provide 
wage adjustments for allotments. Now, those are the two areas in 
which the Red Cross has been active. 

Mr. Sparkman. What I had in mind with reference to the depend- 
ents of soldiers and sailors is a plan that was used during the last war, 
of making allotments. 

Mr. HoEHLER. That is right. 

The Chairman. Don't you believe that some such legislation as 
that should be worked out for this war? 

BENEFITS FOR DEPENDENTS OF MEN IN THE ARMED SERVICES 

Mr. HoEHLER. I do. However, I think we ought to move up to 
the present-day type of thinking in allotments and allowances. 

We benefited — those of us who were in the Service and had de- 
pendents — because of compulsory allotments and allowances during 
the last war. 

During this war, while we have engaged in a procedure which kept 
most men with dependents out of the service, they are bound to come 
in eventually. If they don't come in through selective service or 
enlistments, they will acquire dependents over a period of several 
years. Then, I think, the Government should set up a system of 
allotments and allowances — -allotments which may be only token allot- 
ments. 

We have got to recognize that the men in the service who are getting 
$30 a month, or, if they are getting $40 a month, are inadequately 
paid and can't assume responsibility for dependents. That token 
allowance should be matched by an adequate allowance for dependents 
not only to care for the wife who is a dependent, but an allowance for 
children. 

Very frequently the parent is just as dependent on the son in the 
military forces as the wife and children would be. There should be 
provision for caring for mothers and fathers. There might be other 
dependents, in which there is a very real responsibility on the part 
of the soldier, and for those dependents I think there should be some 
method of establishing their relation to him and liis responsibility 
for them. 

METHOD OF PAYMENT 

That, too, is a responsibility of Government for the men in service. 
It should be given as a matter of right rather than by determining 
need and putting it on a charity basis. If you do that I am of the 
firm conviction that you will have a better army, you will have better 
morale, both in the Army and outside of it; people in the fighting forces 
can feel that the Government is making some provision for those 
whom they left back home, and who may be dependent upon them. 

Mr. Sparkman. Instead of having just an arbitrary allotment, you 
would work it out on a more or less flexible basis, by using the facili- 
ties of the Welfare Department to determine the degree of need? 

60396—42 — pt. 25 13 



9824 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. HoEHLER. I would use the facilities, Mr. Congressman, of 
the Federal Security Agency, rather than the Welfare Department. 
The welfare departments around the country are State and local 
departments, and these people here would be the first to admit that 
they are spotty in their organization, so far as effectiveness of service 
and funds for providing administration may be concerned. 

The Federal Security Agency or the Social Security Board could 
determine whether, in certain States, the best instrument which they 
could use for determining eligibility for this kind of aid would be the 
Welfare Department, the Office of Unemployment Compensation 
office, or the Office of Old Age and Survivor Insurance. They have 
agencies in all the States, competent and able to do this job. 

Mr. Sparkman. You would make it flexible so far as amounts are 
concerned? 

Mr. HoEHLER. Absolutely. 

Mr. Sparkman. Rather than rigid or arbitrary? 

Mr. HoEHLER. I would make it flexible, depending on the number 
of individuals who are dependents of the man in the service. 

Mr. Sparkman. Wliat about the need? 

Mr. HoEHLER. I don't think you can establish need and be fair 
to the men in the service. I think you have got to set down a basic 
sum, which would constitute the allowance for the wife, and an addi- 
tional allowance for each child, and avoid the necessity of investigat- 
ing need, particularly in those immediate dependents. 

CHILD-WELFARE PROBLEMS 

Mr. Sparkman. Do the welfare departments at present have any 
nieans for handling the problem of children in congested areas? 

Mr. HoEHLER. They have the machinery, but it needs supple- 
mentation. 

I would like, if you will permit, to pass that question to those who 
must handle the child -welfare problems and the protection of the 
children in the communities. 

Mr. Sparkman. I will be glad to. I want to make this distinction. 
Of course I realize that there are child-welfare departments, but my 
idea has always been that they are more for seeing that the benefits 
going to dependent children were properly administered, rather than 
seeing that they were taken care of during the daytime, or on play- 
grounds, or through various activities such as you had in mind. 

Mr. HoEHLER. The problem which I mentioned is the problem 
which combines health and welfare assistance, and in some cases public 
health, housing, and other communitj^ facilities that might be provided 
for those children. Miss Dunn was a child-welfare worker before she 
became a commissioner of public welfare. 

Mr. Sparkman. A very fine one, too. 

Mr. HoEHLER. She can tell you something about the child-welfare 
program. 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold's next question, I believe will 
cover that. We might start off with Congressman Arnold. 

Mr. Arnold. Well, tliis next question has been answered in part. 
I thought it might be good for the record, after I propound this ques- 
tion, if Mr. Lyons would detail the struggle Illinois has had to obtain 
funds for relief. He and I have fought these battles together. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9825 

RELIEF PROBLEMS IN ILLINOIS 

I was in the Illinois Legislature, and we had most of the relief load 
in the larger counties such as Cook, comprising half of the population 
of the State. The private funds of Juhus Rosenwald and others have 
diminished rapidly in trying to take care of the problem. We have, 
therefore, had to mortgage the gasoline fund two different times; we 
passed a sales tax of 1 percent for relief; and have tried various other 
methods to obtain funds for relief. 

1 believe it would be well to have a prelinunary statement, prior to 
this question, about what the Federal Government should do. 

The question is: What specific recommendations have you for 
Federal action in the public field at the present time? 

It might be helpful if I stated a few of the proposals now being 
examined by tliis coimnittee: 

First, public assistance, including provision for general rehef to 
residents and nonresidents alike to be extended to the States on a 
basis of variable grants. 

Second, the adoption of uniform settlement laws or abolition uf 
settlement laws. 

Third, Federal allowances to meet dependency and other problems 
of need arising out of the emergency. 

Are you in a position, Mr. Lyons, to tell what struggles a State like 
Illinois had in the past 11 or 12 years? 

Mr. Lyons. I would be very glad to summaiize the very fine work, 
that the Congressman was a leader in, in endeavoring to get adequate 
funds by adequate legislation in the State of Illinois, to set up a well- 
organized, well-rounded, well-administered program. 

Going back just 10 years ago, we did, as was pointed out, mortgage 
the gas tax, with a 2 S-milhon- dollar bond issue, then a 30- million- 
dollar bond issue; and then getting into Federal grants, we went 
through that entire program consistently recommending, as Federal 
legislation came into the picture, that full Federal benefits be used. 

It was, I think,' in 1936 that the old-age assistance program became 
operative in Illinois. 

We have gone through that terrific problem and through the 
estabhshment of, first, a sales tax, removing the property tax for a 
short period ; then the 3 percent sales tax, wliich has again reverted 
back to 2 percent. We have gone through all the growing pains of 
financing, in an endeavor to adequateh" meet the problem. 

FOURTH CATEGORY OF RELIEF 

Now, to say what is needed, it appears very definitely that there 
should be a fourth category set up to care for persons on direct relief. 

Those persons, for the most part, are not employable; are not 
acceptable for employment. I think there is a very definite distinction 
there . 

I think there should be provision — proper legislation — to set up a 
method of grants, and certainly a program of rather uniform adminis- 
tration of care for all persons in need, regardless of race, color, creed, 
or of their residence, because of this great fluctuation and changing 
of population wliich we are now having. 



9826 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

I don't know whether that covers the thing that you intended, 
Congressman, or not, but it is a rather sketchy review of that ex- 
perience. 

Mr. Arnold. That covers it pretty well. You have touched on the 
abolition of settlement laws, or the adoption of uniform settlement 
laws, and the other matters covered by the committee. 

New, Mr. Hoehler, the question is: What specific recommendations 
have you for Federal action in the public field at the present time? 

Mr. Hoehler. Congressman, I think you will find that some of the 
formal papers submitted by members of the panel carry recom- 
mendations. 

Mr. Arnold. They have all been included in the record. 

Mr. Hoehler. I would like to ask Mr, Goudy to give us some im- 
pressions which he has, not only on the matter of settlement laws, but 
the matter of what kind of Federal program should be inaugurated in 
order to meet the needs which he sees on the west coast. And, if you 
will, Mr. Goudy, speak a little bit on the problem of the alien. I hope 
you may not have the problem of discrimination in employment which 
was indicated partly by Mr. Lyons' statement: to the effect that so 
many Negroes are on relief rolls and don't get into employment. 

Will you speak on that subject, please? 

Mr. Goudy. Mr. Chairman, on the first point, with respect to the 
fourth category, I think the three Pacific Coast States have certainly 
had their share of movement of people from the other parts of the 
country . 

We feel that, in establishment of the fourth category, there should 
be no distinction made between the care of a resident and a nonresident 
person, I think those of us in the administration of the public 
welfare field in Oregon would go further than the question of the 
uniformity of that, but provide that there be no distinction made 
in the care of the two. We should have a law that would be broadly 
flexible, permitting the handling of cases on an individual basis, 
whether they be residents or nonresidents. Certainly, with the 
problems that are arising now, it becomes very much more important 
that there be provision made for proper and adequate care in the 
fourth category. 

The question was raised by the Congressman here, and Mr. Hoehler, 
as to other agencies providing care in this emergency period. Allow 
me to cite a specific case: 

AID TO dependents OF CIVILIANS IN WAR ZONE 

From one county in Oregon there were some 200 men working on 
Wake, Guam, and other Pacific islands. Many of those men had 
families in the county they left ; 70 of those men have left families who 
probably will become the responsibihty of the public-welfare adminis- 
tration in that county. Whether they are dead or interned, or what 
has happened, is unknown, but the load falls on one Oregon county. 
That county, of course, has been harder hit than others. 

Now, there is no other agency, so far as we know, that provides 
care for those families. They were civilian workers. 

Mr, Sparkman. May I interject there? The Government plans to 
continue the pay, I understand, of those who are living. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9827 

Mr. GouDY. So far we have not been able to get information whether 
that is true or not. 

Mr. Curtis. Were they employed by a private contractor or by the 
Government? 

Mr. GouDY. So far as we know most of those men were employed 
by private contractors, although that is not certain. 

Mr. Curtis. Do workmen's compensation requirements extend to 
the island of Wake? 

Mr. GouDY. I don't Icnow the answer to that question, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Was the contract for their emplovment made in your 
State? 

Mr. GouDY. I can't answer that, specifically, because there are 
probably several of them. 

Mr. Curtis. The chances are they had a job before they went to 
the island of Wake. 

Mr. GouDY. No. As a matter of fact, the report we have indicates 
that at least some of those men were on W. P. A. 

Mr. Curtis. Perhaps I didn't make my question clear. They had 
the assurance that they would have a job on the islands before they 
left their home, did they not? 

Mr. GouDY. That is my understanding, but the fact remains that 
there are some 200 of those men. Some 70 of them left families, and 
to this time we have been unable to determine where they mil receive 
assistance, except as the contractor may carry them for a period of 
time, which may be done. 

We have made inquiry, but we have no answer. The problem is 
immediate. We will provide for those families on general assistance. 

Mr. Sparkman. The statement was made one day this week, I 
believe, that, for those still Uving, the Government would continue 
those payments, and that those payments would be issued out of 
Honolulu; therefore there would be a little time. 

Mr. GouDY, Are these payments for civilian employees on private 
contract? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes, the civilian employees on private contract, 
who are still living. 

The pay checks of those who are known to be dead would be made 
up to the time of their death, and then would stop. 

Mr. GouDY. The only point I would like to make here is that, 
when that problem arises in that county, those checks were due to 
those families on December 15. They were not received on Decem- 
ber 15. Those families are dependent. Some agency had to meet 
that problem, had to meet it at that time, and there was, so far as 
I know, no agency except the public welfare agency which was in a 
position to meet that problem. Now, with respect to the other 
question Mr. Hoehler raises, with respect to discrimination: 

Many of these problems are just beginning to show. What they 
may amount to is still problematical, but there are questions that 
they raise as to certain groups. 

For instance, the Japanese group: Shortly before I left the city 
of Portland, I received a letter from the Japanese committee, asking 
a meeting with our office, to determine what will be done for Japanese 
citizens, and some aliens who are now dependent because of the 
war situation. How many there may be is unknown at this time, 
but obviously there will be a rather substantial number. 



9828 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

The Chairman. What is the Japanese population of Oregon? 

Mr. GouDY. I don't know the exact number, but if my memory 
serves me, it is approximately 4,000. The problem undoubtedly 
would be a problem both in tlie State of Washington and the State 
of California. 

The Chairman. Does anyone else care to be heard on this matter? 

COST OF GENERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM 

Mr. Russell. Mr. Chairman, might I say one word? It is prob- 
ably no unusual experience for you to have State officials comuig to 
Washington with their hand out for Federal money, and I would 
like to emphasize this point in relation to my own particular State: 
That regardless, there, of administration, we have had an uninter- 
rupted and sound but expensive assistance program throughout the 
last 8 years. The cost of that program has reached very close to 
50 percent of the State budget. 

I come to the same conclusion that everyone else here on this 
panel comes to, m reference to any specific problem that is described — 
that we need Federal sharmg on general pubhc assistance. 

I would like to emphasize the point that Pennsylvania intends to 
do no less in the future, and their desire to have a sharing of the re- 
sponsibility, in the basic problem of general assistance, is a desire to 
do more than they have done to date, and to be put in a position 
where they can really provide that basic underpinning for all the 
people, regardless of whether they belong to specific groups or not. 

Mr. HoDsoN. Mr. Chairman; may I make a comment with re- 
spect to what may be expected of departments of welfare, and other 
local authorities, in the event of enemy action on these shores? 

I have no doubt that your committee is quite familiar with the 
fact that in Great Britain they made fairly adequate provision, in 
the beginning, for persons who were injured. Their hospital care 
was well organized. By and large they had prepared pretty well 
against property damage. But what surprised them most of all 
was that the cliief need was to take care of people who were suddenly 
dislocated from all the normal patterns to which they had been ac- 
customed. They were out of their houses; they couldn't find their 
relatives; they needed information; they needed a small allowance 
to provide for the immediate necessities. And all that group of 
ordinary, human services, strangely enough, the British, in the be- 
ginning, had not prepared for. 

The Chairman. May I interrupt you there to say that we will 
have, as a witness this morning, Mr. Malcolm MacDonald, British 
High Commissioner of Canada, and we intend to go into that, which 
is very important. 

Mr. HoDSON. Now, the point that I wanted to make, with respect 
to departments of welfare, was that it seems to me that what we have 
got to expect is that wherever you have, in the localities, a department 
of government which has the skill and the experience and the staff 
to do these particular jobs that are necessary for people, that machinery 
should be used to the fullest extent. 

Obviously, it ought to be done in close cooperation with the Red 
Cross, but the total of all that can be done by the Red Cross and by 
the departments of welfare, and by the other local authorities, won't 
be too much. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9829 

I think it is important that, as this thing develops, and as enemy 
action comes, if it does, the departments of welfare must be prepared 
to provide those services for hmnan beings who are in trouble, under 
those circumstances, that they would provide under normal peacetime 
conditions. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Chairman, I am still asking that question 
about the child welfare. I haven't heard that question answered 
yet. 

Mr. HoEHLER. I would like to refer it, as I suggested, to Miss 
Dunn, who has had that experience. 

CHILD WELFARE SERVICE 

Miss Dunn. Mr. Congressman, I think too many people are inchned 
to think of cliild welfare as being confined to the aid to dependent 
children program, and, therefore, to the actual giving of relief. 

Equally important are the child welfare services incorporated into 
most of our public acts as a part of the total public welfare program. 

At this point, I would like to observe that in one of our defense 
areas in Alabama we have been impressed with the fact that juvenile 
dehnquency has increased by 500 percent. The cases had to do, in 
many instances, with the seeking of employment by under-age groups, 
and with young girls presenting social-protection problems. All 
too frequently these young people came out of the nearby rural areas, 
where there was insufficient economic aid, directly traceable, I think, 
to inadequate relief. 

It is through a provision of the Federal Security Act, wliich is ad- 
ministered by the Children's Bureau, that we do have child welfare 
services. I think these services should be extended to improve exist- 
ing facilities in meeting the needs of children. Now they are largely 
on a demonstration basis. 

I have been impressed with how easy it is to look toward setting 
up a new program to meet some of these problems. I am fully con- 
vinced that, if we strengthen some of our protective services for 
children, which are now already in existence, and extend them, we 
shaU prevent a great many of our social, and perhaps some of our 
economic, disasters. 

Mr. Curtis. I think it is perfectly obvious that certain types of 
need have increased, because of the defense and the war situation, 
but have you found that certain other needs have become lessened? 
Has the defense employment affected your relief lines? 

Mr. HoEHLER. Mr. Hodson, will you answer that question, please? 

Mr. Hodson. Speaking for New York, Mr. Chairman, the situa- 
tion roughly is this: 

DECLINE IN RELIEF ROLLS 

Up to within a month ago, the total decline in relief rolls^I am 
speaking not only of home rehef but of W. P. A. as well — the total 
decline from the peak of October 1935 to October of 1941 was about 
56 percent. That was in numbers cared for, and about 59 percent 
in terms of expenditures. 

Of course, that decline has been accelerated in the last year because 
of the great increase in employment due to defense industries, aiid 



9830 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

while we don't have so many defense industries in New York, we- 
have nevertheless gotten the secondary results of defense employment. 

Now, the point that I want very much to emphasize here, however, 
is that, first of all, we are getting, down in New York, as I suspect 
we are in other places, to the hard core that I spoke of a little while 
ago- — to the families that have no employable member but must 
receive public assistance because there is nobody to take a job. 

That is number one. 

The relief problem is not solved. We have a very substantial 
problem and will continue to have a substantial problem for an 
indefinite period in the future, with respect to these families that 
need care, because there is no workman in the family, or no workman 
who is presently able to work. 

The other thing is that we are beginning to see, in New York, 
an increase in the relief problem. Our applications are beginning to 

go ^P- 

The unemployment insurance benefit claims are increasing, so 

that we anticipate, by reason of these dislocations, priorities, and the 
shift-over from nonwar to war industries, that we shall have an 
increasing problem, even affecting those families that have an em- 
ployable member. Therefore, we are looking forward, at least for 
the immediate future, to some increase in our problem. 

We are convinced that for the future there will be no decline in 
the relief problem such as there has been up to this point, because 
of that large group of persons and families in which there is no em- 
ployable member. 

Now, that leads me to say this, Mr. Congressman, that it seems 
very important — and I assume that it is within the jurisdiction of this 
committee's interest — that our unemployment insurance program 
should be widely extended. In other words, if we provided unem- 
ployment insurance for all employable persons, we would reduce the 
number of applicants for relief. 

SUPPLEMENTING UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE BENEFITS 

It is important to extend that coverage. We have the anomaly 
now of persons who receive unemployment insurance benefits which 
are not adequate to provide for the family and must be supplemented 
by relief allowances. I would say that, in New York, there are several 
thousands of cases of that type. 

Unemployment insurance benefit is fixed by the tenure and by the 
wage. Now, the worker may have a family of 3, or he may have a 
family of 10. In either case he gets the same benefit. If he has a 
family of 10 the benefit is wholly inadequate, and it is frequently 
necessary for him to ask for supplementation from the relief authorities. 

It seems to me that the unemployment compensation system should 
be modified so as to weight the benefits in favor of the low-paid workers^ 
to weight them stUl further in terms of the number of dependents, to 
reduce the waiting period, and to extend the length of coverage. 

If that were done, it would reduce to a very considerable degree 
the number of persons who would have to apply for relief. If the 
duration of coverage were extended, it would afford the disemployed 
worker an opportunity to make the necessary adjustment, and to find 
another job. That is particularly necessary in view of the disloca- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9831 

tions that are going to result from the conversion of nonwar to war 
industries. 

The time to modify and extend unemployment insurance coverage 
isn't next month or 6 months from now: it is now. 

I think that, by so doing, we can reduce the extent of expenditures 
that will be necessary for public assistance. 

Mr. Curtis. The added burdens of the last 18 months that have 
been placed upon the Federal Government are tremendous. Our 
Government bears these burdens not only for our own country but for 
many countries, in providing food, lease-lend, and so forth. The 
talk of a year or two ago of the ability of the Federal, local, and State 
governments to provide these things just hasn't any foundation now. 

While I hope my patriotism isn't challenged, I suggest that the 
Federal Government might reach a breaking point in the midst of 
the war, and, if there had been certain tasks that could have been 
carried by other units, and we had deliberately added them to the 
Federal Government's burdens, we would have made a sad mistake. 

I realize that I am facing a group which would argue about such a 
thought, but I love my country and am concerned about it. 

Mr. HoDsoN. May I say that I am sure that all of tliis group 
recognize that the basic solvency of the Government is vital to the con- 
tinuation of our war effort, but I think, Mr. Congressman, that perhaps 
we might differ on the extent to which the old orthodox theories 
of finance still apply. 

It seems to me that we have reached the point, as was indicated by 
the National Resources Planning Board the other day, where we must 
think primarily about our resources and manpower, and the national 
income wliich is derived from the full use of those resources and that 
manpower. If we do that we shall certainly find the money to meet 
these programs. 

Our concern is that the whole burden of tliis effort should not fall 
on the humble people who are doing the work. If we are fighting 
this war for their future peace and security, we have got to give them 
as much security as is possible now, while the war is being fought. 
We shall probably have to modify our old concepts of how these things 
are to be financed, and meet the war situation on the basis of the full 
use of our resources and manpower. 

Mr. Curtis. I don't want to prolong the argument. All of that 
sounds well and good, but once the Government reaches a breaking 
point there can be no turning back or redoing the thing along different 
lines. 

Second thought may be possible in private affairs, but a bank that 
closes still creates havoc in the community, and heartbreak, and many 
many things. 

The Chairman. There may be members of tliis committee who 
have divergent views, but we get along so well that we keep away from 
those things as much as we possibly can. 

Members of the panel, this has been tremendously interesting to 
the members of this committee, but we are running beliiiid our sched- 
ule, and we have still to hear a panel of seven members of the United 
States Department of Pubhc Health, and we want to close by noon. 

Mr. HoEHLER. May I thank you, on behalf of the members of the 
panel, for the privilege of coming here and presenting our problems. 



9832 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

I ask the privilege of presenting a letter and a telegram from Miss 
Martha Chickering, director, department of social welfare, Sacra- 
mento, Calif., who was scheduled to participate in this panel but 
was prevented from attending this session. 

(The letter and telegram referred to above are as follows:) 

State of California, 
Department of Social Welfare, 
Sacramento, Calif., Dece7nber 31, 19^1 . 
Fred K. Hoehler, 

Director, American Public Welfare Association, 

Chicago, III. 
Dear Mr. Hoehler: Any attempt to present material on the maintenance of 
the social services in California at the moment is very diflScult, since there is a 
possibility, of course, that the State of California may become a front-line area 
in a total war. 

It seems clear to me that the maintenance of the public social services in a 
period of even extreme emergency will be largely dependent upon the adequacy of 
the foundations already existent. The best preparation which can be made, 
therefore, toward an emergency would seem to be to strengthen those foundations. 
The best way to help strengthen this State towa rd the maintenance of its social 
services would, in my opinion, be the addition of a so-called fourth category; 
namely, Federal aid for general relief, to be extended through the same social 
machinery as the other forms of federally aided public assistance. This would not 
only strengthen administration of the existing public welfare agencies, but it 
would also provide adequate basic care for any segment of the population unable 
for any reason to care for itself. 

I would also request that attention be given toward some program for the care 
of dependents of service men. 

It is probable that the average State legislature will not immediately see the' 
place and importance of the social services in a wartime picture. The Congress of 
the United States is in a much better position to realize what modern war does to 
human beings. Unless Congress acts early it is quite likely that many States will 
learn through extreme human suffering that the care of the civilian population by 
the basic social services is one of the prime necessities in the waging of a modern 
war. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Martha A. Chickering, 
Director, Department of Social Welfare. 



Sacramento, Calif., January 12, 1941- 
Fred Hoehler, 

Hay- Adams Hotel, Washington, D. C: 
Individuals in this State and other coastal areas will probably send children 
and aged dependents to middle-western relatives for care for the duration. Pos- 
sible problems resulting are obvious. Suggest Federal planning for assuring 
standard at homes, medical care, and financial assistance if needed. Urge that 
any programs for aid in emergency resulting from enemy action be through the 
constituted public agency. This would assure stability — long-time planning 
integration with community. Federal aid greatly needed, probably through child 
welfare services for development of adequate day care for children of working 
mothers. Regret delay in sending report but urge consideration this wire plus 
letter urging fourth category and provision for service-men's dependents. 

Martha A. Chickering, 
Stale Department of Social Welfare. 



The Chairman. We will next hear from a panel composed of public 
health experts. Dr. Atwater, you, I believe, will act as moderator 
for the panel. Will you come forward and introduce yourself and the 
members of your panel? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9833 

TESTIMONY OF PANEL OF PUBLIC HEALTH EXPERTS 

Dr. Atwater. The members of this panel are: Dr. Martha M. 
Eliot, Associate Chief, Children's Bureau, Washington, D. C; Miss 
Alma Haupt, executive secretary, subcommittee on nursing, health, 
and medical committee, Ofl&ce of Defense, Health, and Welfare 
Services, Federal Security Agency, Washmgton, D. C; Dr. George H. 
Kamsey, commissioner of health, Westchester County, N. Y.; Dr. 
James G. Townsend, medical director. Industrial Hygiene Division, 
National Institute of Health, Washington, D. C; and Dr. Huntington 
Williams, commissioner, city department of health, Baltimore, Md. 
My name is Reginald M. Atwater; I am the Executive Secretary of 
the American Public Health Association, New York, N. Y. 

I have to present to you the regrets of Dr. Abel Wolman, who had 
an emergency call which made it impossible for him to be present this 
morning. He has already testified before you, however.^ 

The Chairman. I want to thank each of you members of this panel 
on public health for meeting with us this morning to discuss some of 
the public health problems arising under the war activity. It is my 
understanding that we have received, or will shortly receive, papers 
from each of you. We appreciate this invaluable assistance. The 
papers will be published in our record. (The papers referred to above 
appear with the testimony of the respective witnesses.) 

As this committee has traveled about the country studying the 
migration of two and more million people moving into defense centers, 
we have observed acute problems arising in the public health fields. 
In Hartford, Baltimore, San Diego, and in the other centers where 
we have been, critical shortages in health and hospital facilities have 
been reported to us. Now with the war upon us, problems already 
grave are being intensified. We have asked you to meet with us as a 
group to learn from you the national needs in the various phases of 
the public-health field, and to hear such recommendations for congres- 
sional action as you may have. 

Dr. Atwater, you have been good enough to agree to act as moderator 
for this panel. Will you call upon the individual members of the 
panel as you see fit so that each member may state briefly the problems 
he sees arising in his special field of work, what seem to him to be the 
most significant unmet needs, and what services he feels are necessary 
in order to meet them. Then at the close of this interrogation may we 
ask you, as executive secretary of the American Public Health Asso- 
ciation, to summarize the over-all picture, and to make such general 
recommendations and comments as you feel will be of assistance. 
Following your remarks, in what time remains, I am sure that the 
individual members of this committee wUl wish to address a few 
questions to the members of the panel. 

Now please feel free to interrupt at any time to raise questions 
that may bring out the main problems or difficulties arising in the 
field of public health. Dr. Atwater, will you proceed, please. 

i \See Baltimore hearings, pt. 15, p. 5888. 



9834 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF REGINALD M. ATWATER, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, 
AMERICAN PUBLIC HEALTH ASSOCIATION 

Dr. Atwater. Mr. Chairman, as a word of preface before the other 
members of the panel speak, I wish to quote a high British official who 
recently said that the greatly expanded social and health services in 
England did as much to win the battle of Britian as the Royal Air 
Force. 

British experience shows that many people fear the loss of health 
and economic security even more than they fear death by bombing. 

You will find that no matter what happens to their homes as a result 
of aid raids, the English people need not worry about their economic 
or health security. They are enabled to rebuild their homes through 
insurance provisions. They are able to feed and clothe and shelter 
their families through the social services and they are able to give 
them medical and health services as well. What is lost is lost by all 
and what is saved is saved for the use of all. On such a foundation 
we believe morale is built. 

Now, the focus of this present hearing relates to the part which 
health security can play in building and maintaining morale in the 
present emergency. 

The members of this panel, representing as they do a variety of 
public health specialties, have a simple message for this committee 
on which they are entirely agreed. 

This is the common denominator from which we speak. First, we 
know what good health services are and we can supply a blueprint; 
second, even a perfect blueprint left on paper will not meet the need. 
You realize how necessary it is to implement that blueprint in order 
to buUd good public morale. 

We shall try to bring out in what we have to say, the steps which 
now ought to be taken in public health to bring about a state of good 
public morale. 

Just a word, now, on health services in wartime. 

HEALTH SERVICES IN WARTIME 

Health officers and health department staffs are expected always 
to be on duty to fulfill the urgent needs of civil government. Our 
present state of war calls for a clarification of aims, some simplification 
of organization, and a considerable strengthening of effort to develop 
and keep fit a nation of superior men, women, and children, capable 
of an optimum life within the privileges and duties of free peoples. 

Now I said we had a blueprint. I shall file for the record a state- 
ment of what those minimum functions and desirable organizational 
principles are for health activities. 

I don't think I shall pause longer than simply to leave with you this 
statement which is an official declaration of the Professional Society 
of Public Health Workers. On that we are all agreed.^ 

The public health profession is already on record as to what should 
be the minimum functions and the organization principles for health 
activities. Wherever these minimum functions do exist we believe 

1 Statement held in committee files. See Desirable Minimum Functions and Organization Principles for 
Health Activities, Year Boole, 1940-41, Supplement to American Journal of Public Health, vol. 31, No. 3, 
March 1941. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9835 

that the service must be maintained during the emergency. Wherever 
they do not exist we point out that our Nation is vulnerable at that 
point and we beUeve these services must be established there. 

We regret to report that, in the words of Dr. Thomas Parran, Sur- 
geon General of the United States Pubhc Health Service, these mini- 
mum services exist only on paper in many States and localities, and 
some of those States and localities are in the most acute areas of need. 

In order to build public morale it must be emphasized that in 
every area of the United States and its territorial possessions these 
functions need extension and improvement. We want to translate 
these principles into militant action. These blueprints must be con- 
verted into practical programs for State, city, and county work, and 
the voluntary organizations must take an appropriate place with the 
official organizations. 

The public health profession has a single aim and that is victory; 
and to this end we, as a body of pubhc servants, dedicate all the 
resources of our professional and technical capacities. 

MORALE-BUILDING FORCE OF PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE 

We feel that any neglect or curtailment of the essential protection 
of civilian health, whether at home or in the factory or in other working 
place, is inconsistent with maximum efficiency of the military forces 
and the preservation of public morale. 

We believe that the trained civil health worker is properly to be 
considered indispensable to the maintenance of national health. We 
behove that he should be encouraged to continue at liis regular station 
m civil government unless the war can be more effectively prosecuted 
by his transfer to military service. 

In order to build sound pubhc morale, those States, and some of the 
more limited areas lacking in whole or in part the reality of these 
health services, should with all speed be provided with health officers 
competent to give leadership and direction, and authorized to spend 
public funds sufficient to make health services a reality for every unit 
of population under the flag of the United States. 

This competent modern health department about which we are 
talking comprises a medical, sanitary, and related biological and 
social service which enjoys broad authority to meet a wide variety of 
emergencies. 

We believe that at the present time it is neither practically desirable 
nor pohtically feasible to create a fully centralized health administra- 
tion under the Federal Government. However, I wish to emphasize 
that ways must be found to help the health officer and each member 
of his staff to think of himself as conducting an essential portion of a 
national project for the people's health. He ought to act at all times 
as if he were, in fact and within the law, at the administrative dispo- 
sition of the Surgeon General of the United States Pubhc Health 
Service. 

We are glad to see that steps are being taken to expand the reserve 
of the Service, even those who are commissioned may be expected 
to remain in their key positions unless enemy action or epidemics 
demand that they be moved elsewhere. We believe that if the pubhc 
will act with vision and confidence upon the principles and pohcies 
here declared, victory in arms can be achieved without sacrifice of 



9836 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

the continuing and progressive health needs of a people devoted to 
the humanities of peace. 

We came out of the last struggle with some genuine public health 
advantages. We believe it is possible to come out of this one with 
new gains. Finally, we need only to remind you, familiar as you are 
with the state of the Nation, that beliind these marble palaces that 
we see in Washington, behind the bold facades of a Fifth Avenue in 
New York, a Michigan Boulevard in Chicago, or a Market Street in 
San Francisco, there lie bad but remediable physical conditions — veri- 
table slums in wliich lie the seeds of bad public morale. 

In what we have to say we shall attempt to detail for you some of 
the ways by which our public health resources can be employed to 
build the foundation for good public morale. 

I should like to present Dr. Martha Eliot who is Assistant Chief of 
the Cliildren's Bureau in the Department of Labor, a position of 
competence in clinical medicine, and one who within the last few 
months has had an extraordinary opportunity of seeing the situation 
in England and how public morale has there been built by the use 
of health services. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. MARTHA M. ELIOT, ASSOCIATE CHIEF, 
CHILDREN'S BUREAU, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Dr. Eliot. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I have 
already filed a brief statement with the committee with respect to the 
relationship between some of the cliild health needs and measures, 
and this question of national morale, but I would like to add a few 
remarks at this time which point up some of the statements made 
therein. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY MARTHA M. ELIOT, M. D., ASSOCIATE CHIEF, 
CHILDREN'S BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WASHINGTON, 
D. C. 

Acute Health Problems Growing Out of Defense Concentration of 
Population and What Can Be Done About Them 

Maintaining the health of mothers and children no less than that of workers in 
industry is fundamental to maintaining the strength and morale of the Nation. 
This is true in peacetime; it is essential in wartime. Men in military service and 
workers in industry will be more effective on the job if they know that their 
wives and children are well and that their health is being looked after. 

More and more mothers are being drawn into industry. If they are to work 
steadily their children must be kept ,well so that the mothers do not find it neces- 
sary to take time off to care for sick children. 

The fact that nearly 50 percent of the draftees were rejected for military 
service in 1940 and 1941 because of defective health is startling evidence of the 
inadequacy of our preventive and treatment programs in the medical care of 
school children. 

The future of the Nation depends on how we care for children now and how we 
plan ahead for continuing improvements in care. 

In periods of preparation for war and in wartime the stresses and strains of 
industry, the movements of the population, and the absence of the father from 
many homes result in serious dislocations of family life, in crowded and often 
insanitary living conditions, in lack of, or inadequate, provision for medical care, 
education and recreation facilities, and social protection. 

The effect on children is much more severe and serious, especially in the long 
run, than on adults. The physical and emotional effect on children of too little 
or disturbed sleep, of irregular and unsatisfactory meals, of delayed medical care 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9837' 

are well recognized. When family life is dislocated as in time of war, these effects 
are exaggerated. Fears and the sense of insecurity of parents are reflected in the 
attitudes and actions of children. Disturbed emotional states and aggressive and 
asocial behavior often develop among children merely as a result of a sense of 
insecurity in their homes or when they are separated from their parents or one 
of their parents. Delinquency rates go up, but the increase is accounted for 
largely by minor delinquencies such as petty thefts. Many of the emotional 
disturbances among children which are today being incited by the war or civil 
defense situation are evidence of old instability and insecurity which are finding 
expression in war symbols. 

The remedy lies in more security in home life, not less, in normal routines of 
living, in adequate health service and medical care, in advice and guidance for 
parents, in educational and recreational opportunities for all children, in nursery 
schools and group activities for young children, in the provision of sufficient and 
satisfactory daytime care of children when the war effort requires mothers to go 
to work. All these are needed in peacetime in every community. It is imperative 
that they be provided in every defense area today without delay. 

The United States can no longer afford to be wasteful of children's lives and well- 
being as we have been in the past. 

Although we have been making progress in the United States in providing the 
basic health services for mothers and children, there are still many cities and 
rural areas where these services are in large part lacking or are available to only 
a small proportion of the resident families. Evidence already presented to this 
committee has shown how tragically lacking such service is in many military 
and industrial defense communities. 

Other evidence can be given which shows the utter inadequacy of health 
services for mothers and children in areas outside the defense communities where, 
the less dramatic war effort of raising our food excites little attention. The war, 
situation is adding to the deficiency in these communities because physicians 
and nurses are leaving our small towns and cities in great numbers to join the 
military forces. In some cases communities have been left without any physicians, 
in others with a totally inadequate number to care for the mothers and children. 

It is essential to the morale and well-being of the Nation that maternal and. 
child-health services be maintained and expanded where they exist and that they, 
be installed elsewhere not only in defense areas where conditions are dramatically 
acute but in the rest of our cities and counties also. The oncoming generation of 
boys and girls who will bear the military and industrial load tomorrow are in 
our home communities throughout our States. From the point of view of military 
attack these are the relatively safe areas. But if evacaution of mothers and 
children from danger areas should ever become necessary they would be sent to 
these relatively safe communities. Unless these communities are organized 
now, they will not be ready to provide health and social services to an increased 
child population, to say nothing of meeting the urgent needs of their own children, 
and young people. 

LESSONS FROM GREAT BRITAIN 

The chairman of the committee has asked for lessons to be learned from the 
handling of the health situation in England. In February 1941 as a member of 
a War Department mission in England I studied the civil defense measures for the 
protection of children and since then I have received information from the ' 
Ministries of Health and Labour of Great Britain. 

The remarkal:)ly good health record for mothers and children that has been 
maintained there under war conditions including the evacuation of large numbers 
of mothers and children from London and other industrial cities was due in large 
part to the fact that the health and medical services had been so well established 
before the war and have been continued so effectively since war was declared. 
Gradually since the last war, child health clinics (called child-welfare clinics), 
school medical services, district nursing services, health visitors and midwives 
have been made available under the jurisdiction of practically every local authority. 

When I was in England I was told that before this war started practically all 
mothers in the counties later to become reception areas for evacuated children 
could take their children to child-welfare clinics in their home communities and 
that no mother needed to go more than 6 or 7 miles at the outside except perhaps 
in remote rural areas in the northern counties. School medical services including 
medical treatment clinics were available in some degree to all school children. 
School meals were being served to children in more than half of all provincial 



9838 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

schools. Prenatal clinics had been made available by all local authorities and 
the service of trained, skilled midwives had been made universal since the amend- 
ment of the Midwife Act in 1936. Consultant service from physicians, and in 
case of need from obstetricians, had been made available by the Government 
everywhere. Hospital care for maternity jjatients could be made available at 
least in a nearby town on the recommendation of a physician. 

When war was declared in September 1939 this network of maternity and child- 
health clinics and medical care services for school children was spread all over the 
country. Competent medical officers of health who had had clinical training in 
pediatrics and obstetrics were responsible for the organization of the work in 
cities and rural districts. Without this network of service, the huge tasks of care 
of children in cities under bombing and in the reception areas could not have 
been accomplished with the success that has attended them. 

One outstanding lesson then to be learned from British experience is that we 
must complete in the United States our basic network of health organization and 
health services for mothers and children, if we are to use our limited medical and 
nursing personnel up to maximum effectiveness, if we are to avoid the malnutri- 
tion, illness, and epidemics that devitalize a nation in wartime, and if we are to 
meet eflfectively new emergencies as they arise. 

But we can also learn many lessons from the way Great Britain planned for and 
met the unusual stresses and strains of war upon children. For instance, it is im- 
portant for us in the United States to realize that the British people started to 
plan for the protection of children long before war was declared and that as time 
has gone on great progress in improving the quality of care and service has been 
made. Mistakes were made in the early days of the evacuation scheme, but these 
have been largely rectified. By and large the basic plans for protection of chil- 
dren in areas of danger have been carried out and the policy of evacuation of 
children and mothers from areas of danger to areas of relative safety is still re- 
garded as sound. The most recent reports indicate that more than a million 
children are being cared for in reception areas under the Government evacuation 
plan and that approximately three-fourths of all London children are still out of 
the city in these reception areas. Since evacuation is voluntary, provision is 
made for children in the cities under bombing as well as in reception areas, but 
parents are encouraged to send their children out of the city. 

During the 2 years of war, standards of care in reception areas have been raised 
and many community facilities for evacuees have been organized. Schools have 
been opened in reception areas and recreation programs for children and youth 
have been provided both in the industrial areas and in the reception areas. For 
the youth who remain in the city to work, special effort is made through the recre- 
ation department of the education authority to provide social centers and recre- 
ational activities. Nursery centers, now called "wartime nurseries," have been 
established for evacuated children and in the industrial areas for young children 
of mothers who must go to work in the war industries. 

Medical and health services for city school children though originally abandoned 
before the first evacuation in the expectation of bombing have been reinstated and 
are actively serving children in both city and country. Child health clinics and 
health visitor service which likewise were abandoned in London for a short time 
at the beginning of the war are now provided in some degree for all young children. 

Maternity care has been reorganized so that a large proportion of women are 
delivered in maternity homes and hospitals outside of the cities that are target 
areas. 

Child guidance clinics have been developed in many new places. The need for 
these clinics is increasingly appreciated, especially in the reception areas to assist 
in solving problems of children who are difficult to place in private households. 
Emotional disturbances among evacuated children have been found to be exacer- 
bations of previous difficulties in a majority of cases. The employment of wel- 
fare officers and child guidance workers has done much to assist the local authori- 
ties and the volunteers in meeting these problems. 

The nutrition of children and workers is regarded by the British authorities as 
fundamental to good morale and is given continuing attention by the Ministries 
of Food and Health. Children and pregnant and nursing mothers are given 
priority in the distribution of milk. Local authorities are urged to establish 
school meals in all communities. Feeding centers, the so-called British restau- 
rants, are established in all industrial cities for workers and others and in the 
reception areas for evacuees. Here a well-balanced meal can be obtained for a 
verv small cost. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9839 

All of this has done much to strengthen the morale of British workers and the 
men in military service. It contains many lessons for us, though their applica- 
tion to our situations may be different. 

PLANNING FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES 

There can be no doubt that here in the United States the morale of the men in 
military and naval service, the morale of industrial workers, and the morale of 
women industrial workers with children will be immeasurably strengthened if 
they can feel secure as to the health and well-being of their children. But morale 
will not be strengthened unless the people know that plans are underway for the 
protection and welfare of children in this period of war. These plans must 
include protection of children in the areas of potential danger from belligerent 
action and for their removal in case of real danger. Action must also be taken 
to provide at once health and welfare services to children living in or near the 
defense industrial cities or the great military establishments. Beyond this there 
must be a supplementation of health and welfare services in those relatively safe 
areas which would be used for reception of children from the danger zones should 
evacuation ever become necessary. 

Our greatest potential weakness today in the protection of children in wartime 
lies in the inadequacy of health, medical, and welfare services for children and 
of provisions for maternity care in hospitals and clinics in our rural areas and in 
the smaller cities and towns which are the relatively safe areas. Plans should be 
made now, even if it is at what appears to be great cost, to provide a large mobile 
corps of public health, medical, and welfare workers that would be available on 
an interstate basis to assist State and local agencies in meeting wartime needs of 
civilians, particularly in those areas which lie outside the danger zones. Plans 
should be made now for improving and organizing maternity care and medical 
care for children in these areas and for providing child welfare and community 
organization workers. To do this now is to be forehanded. It would not be 
waste effort since such a mobile corps of health and welfare workers would be 
stationed for the present where their help is needed. They would, however, be 
available on short notice to go to other areas if and when belligerent action should 
create an urgent demand for expansion of health and welfare services. Such a 
mobile corps of health and social welfare workers would in no sense replace the 
Red Cross workers who serve in disaster relief. 

To establish such a mobile corps of health workers to serve civilian populations 
would require setting up some "priorities" for the civilian population by those 
responsible for procurement of health personnel. 

The proposals made are predicated upon the recruitment and training of the 
professional workers who will be needed to carry on the various parts of the pro- 
gram and the training of volunteers to assist on the nonprofessional phases of 
activity. 

To meet our most urgent needs today the following concrete proposals are 
submitted for the consideration of the committee: 

I. For defense areas — industrial and military: (a) The immediate provision of 
funds that would make possible the placement or utilization of physicians, and 
the placement of public-health nurses, and nutritionists — 

1. To organize prenatal clinics, child-health conferences, public-health and 
nursing service in the homes, school medical, and nursing service; 

2. To make available maternity care and medical care of children for families 
unable to procure it now; 

3. To provide health service in all daj^ care centers for children of mothers who 
must work as a result of the defense effort. 

(6) The immediate provision of funds to make possible hospital beds and public 
clinics for maternity care and the care of sick children. 

The appropriation of Federal funds is essential to stimulate this service. State 
and local funds should also be made available to meet these costs. 

From appropriations for community facilities under the Lanham Defense Hous- 
ing Act, funds have been provided for the construction of health centers and 
hospitals or additions to hospitals in some local defense areas but funds for main- 
tenance are usually not included. 

So far as they are not available local practicing physicians should be used in 
these services but there is such a shortage of physicians in these rapidly growing 
communities that means must be found to make medical service available to the 
civilian population. 

60396— 42— pt. 25 14 



9840 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Many industrial defense worliers will be able to pay for medical care and 
hospitalization for their families if service and facilities are made available and 
the costs are moderate. The situation is more critical for enlisted men w^hose 
pay is not sufficient to enable them to provide medical care for their families. 
Enlisted men do have wives and children in spite of the effort to select single men. 
The number with families is likely to increase as the men are retained in service 
more than 1 year and as a much larger army is recruited. Also there are in our 
rapidly growing defense areas newcomers not yet fully established in industrial 
and commercial employment who are not able to pay for medical care and hos- 
pitalization when their wives and children need it and who, because of residence 
laws, are not eligible for medical care now available from public welfare funds. 

The State maternal and child health plans for the fiscal year 1942 submitted 
to the Children's Bureau by State health officers as the basis for making Federal 
grants showed that at least some maternal and child-health services were to be 
available in approximately 165 counties or districts known to be defense areas. 
The State health officers report that for these and other defense areas there is 
great need for expansion of maternal and child-health services — more public 
health nurses is the recurrent plea. 

In Washington and California limited programs for medical and hospital care 
have been established under 1942 maternal and child health plans for families of 
men serving in the United States Army and Navy but as yet these programs are 
available in only two counties. 

The problem of providing medical and nursing care for women at delivery is 
acute in many areas with insufficient hospital beds, doctors, and nurses. 

II. A program of health service to all children and youth of secondary school 
age so that they may take full advantage of their opportunities for education and 
training and be fitted to undertake tasks suitable to their individual capacity 
when they leave school. The immediate provision of funds to provide — 

(a) Medical examinations of all children of secondary school age, both in 
school and outside. 

(6) The necessary medical, hospital, and follow-up care for the correction of 
remediable defects and conditions that interfere with health and well- 
being, including care for chronic illness from which recovery may be 
anticipated if care is given promptly. 

(c) Health instruction in the schools. 

Recent examinations of young men by the Selective Service Boards show wide- 
spread physical and other defects that have prevented their acceptance for general 
military service. Examinations of boys and girls by the National Youth Adminis- 
tration have shown similar conditions. If children are to reach the age when they 
leave school or college to go to work in a condition of good health and vigor, handi- 
capping conditions must be eliminated as early in life as possible. As a major 
defense measure it is imperative that children and youth from 14 to 18 be given 
the benefit of all medical skill to keep them in good health or to restore them to 
health if possible, that they may take their place in the defense industries or in 
other tasks that are essential to the life of the Nation. 

To propose that a special program of care be carried out for children of this age 
group is only to put first an urgent and immediate wartime need. Of all school 
grades it is probable that the secondary schools are least well provided with health 
services. To start an intensive school health program here appears to be appro- 
priate. It should be extended to the elementary schools as soon as possible, 
since many of the defects known to exist in children 14 to l.S could and should be 
corrected much earlier in childhood. 

III. A mobile corps of health, medical, and welfare workers to be available 
on an interstate basis for service in communities outside the defense areas or areas 
of danger to meet emergency wartime needs of civilians which may result from 
belligerent action. 

The immediate appropriation of Federal funds for this purpose is essential 
since the Government should be free to move these workers to any area of urgent 
need resulting from enemy action. The need for this action today has already 
baen pointed out. 

IV. An immediate campaign to secure the immunization of all children against 
diphtheria and smallpox to prevent epidemics and to conserve medical and nursing 
service which would be required in case of epidemics. 

This campaign should be carried on by State and local health authorities during 
the spring of 1942 with the cooperation of professional workers and the aid of 
community organizations such as parent-teacher associations. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9841 

The extensive migration of families during 1941 means that children from areas 
where immunization procedures have been less carefully followed have been taken 
to military and industrial areas and we are in danger of serious epidemics that 
might affect not only children, but also the armed forces and industrial workers. 

There were 16,922 cases of diphtheria and 1,368 cases of smallpox in 1941 
(through week of December 27) reported by the State health officers to the United 
States Public Health Service. To eliminate these two health menaces is prac- 
ticable and it will be a significant contribution to the conservation of medical 
and nursing time. 

To meet the needs that will become increasingly pressing as the war continues 
and when peace comes, it is urgent that a long-time program for maintaining the 
health of mothers and children throughout the Nation be started now. Nothing 
that can be done today would develop high morale among the people so promptly 
as would the enactment of an effective national program of medical care. The 
expansion of a program for mothers and children would be the most telling part 
of such a plan. 

It is therefore recommended that there be expansion of the Federal-State 
cooperative programs of maternal and child-health services and services for 
crippled children to make State-wide provision for the necessary preventive and 
curative services. 

With Federal grants under the Social Security Act we have been extending 
during the past 5 years our basic network of maternal and child-health services 
including the organization of county or district health units, public-health nursing 
service, and medical service usually from local practicing physicians for the con- 
duct of prenatal clinics, child-health services, and school medical examinations. 
Yet reports from the State health officers of 46 States and the District of Columbia 
as of June 30, 1941, showed that in their 2,857 counties onlj^ 846 counties had 
prenatal clinics held at least once a month or oftener, and in onljf 1,536 counties 
was the medical examination of school children provided for. In only 680 
counties were all 3 of these services provided. It was reported that in only 
1,864 or two-thirds of the 2,857 counties were there public-health nurses under the 
supervision of the State health agencies providing some services to motliers and 
children. Home delivery nursing service was provided in only 128 counties. 
Even where services are available there frequently are not enough health workers 
to fully meet the known need. 

Maternal and child-health service in every city and county is important to 
national defense because in the areas where there are no "defense activities" are 
the women, boys, and girls who will share in agricultural production, the wives 
and children of the men in the military and naval forces, and the women and 
children who may soon be drawn into industrial and even military employment. 
Also the areas remote from potential danger must be made ready to receive 
mothers and children if the need for evacuation arises. 

Medical care for maternity patients at delivery or for sick children has been 
provided in only a few isolated instances under this cooperative Federal-State 
program. With increased funds rapid increase in such service chould be obtained. 
We have the knowledge and skill to provide this care even in the least populous 
areas. What is needed are the funds to make it available. 



Exhibit A. — Need for Expansion of Child Welfare Services 

REPORT BY KATHARINE F. LENROOT, CHIEF, CHILDREN'S BUREAU, UNITED STATES 
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Need for expansion of the child welfare services now carried on by the Children's 
Bureau in cooperation with the States under title V, pari 3 of the Social Security 
Act, including development of community services for daytime care of children 
whose mothers are employed in occupations essential to the war effort and other 
children without adequate home care because of the war prograin 

January 14, 1942. 
Since 1935 the Children's Bureau has been cooperating with the child welfare 
agencies in developing child welfare services for the protection and care of home- 
less, dependent, and neglected children, and children in danger of beconiing 
delinquent, especially in rural areas. Such services are now provided in about 
500 counties in the United States. 



9842 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

The State plans for the fiscal year 1942 and information obtained by the 
staff of the Children's Bureau indicate a serious increase in problems affecting 
the welfare of children in defense areas. The types of problems presented include 
home problems arising from grave housing shortages, need for recreation, short- 
age of school facilities resulting in nonattendance at school or curtailed hours of 
school, increasing delinquency, difficulty in finding foster homes for children 
because of expanded demand for women workers and especially problems of day 
care for children whose m.others are employed. 

Of the 52 State plans for grants-in-aid for child welfare services, approved by 
the Children's Bureau for the fiscal year 1942, 35 contained provisions for use of 
Federal funds for child welfare services in 73 defense areas. In 56 of these areas 
previous plans had been made for child welfare workers and in some of these 
areas additional workers were provided. In 17 areas new programs of child 
welfare services were developed. 

In the past year advisory groups to the Children's Bureau and organizations 
of pul)lic welfare officials, as well as outside agencies such as the American Legion, 
have urged amendment to the Social Security Act to provide increased funds for 
child welfare services. The following recom.mendations were adopted by the 
Advisory Comm.ittee on Community Child Welfare Services, meeting December 

2, 1940, and were later approved by the Council of State Public Assistance and 
Welfare Administrators and the Board of Directors of the American Public 
Welfare Administration : 

"After consideration of the report of the Child Welfare Division of the Children's 
Bureau on developments in child welfare services under the Social Security Act, 
and evidences of urgent needs growing out of the defense program, the committee 
was unanimous in making the following recommendations: 

"1. That increased Federal funds should be made available under title V, part 

3, of the Social Security Act, for the following purposes: 

"(a) To provide Federal funds, on the basis of joint Federal and State planning, 
for paying part of the cost of local child welfare services in rural political subdi- 
visions and in other areas of special need, in order that the continuation and pro- 
gressive development of such services will be assured. 

"(6) To provide child welfare services which are sorely needed in many com- 
munities affected by the defense program. 

"(c) To enable the Federal Governmeat more fully to participate financially, 
on the basis of joint planning, in the development of the States' responsibilities 
for stimulation and leadership in child-welfare programs. 

"(d) To enable the Federal Government more fully to participate financially, 
through both demonstrations and continuing support, when needed, in providing 
certain types of services, such as case work or child guidance, which are essential 
in an adequate program of care of children, as for example, public institutional 
care for delinquent children. 

"(e) To make available increased Federal funds on the basis of joint planning, 
for improving the quality of personnel for child-welfare services, through provi- 
sion for study in educational institutions and other measures. 

"(j) To provide further Federal financial participation in special projects under- 
taken by State agencies which involve demonstrations or studies in the fields of 
community planning, child guidance, services to children of minority and other 
disadvantaged groups, and the development of community resources for the pre- 
vention of juvenile delinquency." 

Since the adoption of these recommendations there has been compelling evi- 
dence of the urgent need for the expansion of these services. I would, therefore, 
make the following recommendations. 

1. That funds ranging from $7,500,000 to $10,000,000 a year be made imme- 
diately available for grants to States for child-welfare services, especially services 
in defense areas, including military and industrial defense areas and areas suffering 
from priority unemployment. 

2. That the funds be allotted to the States by the Secretary of Labor on the 
basis of plans developed jointly by the State welfare agencies and the Children's 
Bureau and in accordance with policies and procedures established by the Secre- 
tary of Labor and the Chief of the Children's Bureau for the administration of 
part 3 of title V of the Social Security Act, as amended, with such modifications 
as may be deemed necessary. 

3. That sTich .services include strengthening State welfare departments to give 
consultant services to local communities and to State institutiors and agencies 
concerning the organization of child-welfare services, the prevention and treat- 
ment of delirquency problems, the care and supervision of mentally deficient 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9843 

children, the provision of programs of daytime care of children of working mothers 
in cooperation with educational authorities, and the development of training pro- 
grams for volunteer and professional workers in the fields of child welfare. 

4. That the funds also be available for the establishment of local facilities of 
the kind described in item 3. 

5. That additional appropriations be made available to the Children's Bureau 
for the administration of the services described above, for loan of needed personnel 
to State agencies in accordance with agreements with such agencies, a d for the 
development of training programs lor volunteer and professional workers. 



Exhibit B. — A Brief Summary of Defense Activities Related to Children 

REPORT BY KATHARINE F. LENROOT, CHIEF, CHILDREN'S BUREAU, UNITED 
STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

There are at present approximately 400 defense areas in the United States 
(embracing almost a thousand communities), some military, some industrial, 
others shipbuilding. Some are located in a single community, but practically 
every one has an effect on the health and welfare of children over a wide territory 
sometimes extending over as many as 10 or 12 counties. These defense areas 
are centered largely in the coastal States and in the northeast and central indus- 
trial States, and there is no State without at least one such defense area. One 
southern State has a major defense activity in each of 25 counties. 

The following excerpts from reports which have come to the Children's Bureau 
in the past 6 months point out the wide range ofiproblems affecting both the 
health and welfare of children. The situations described in these reports can be 
duplicated many times. 

1. A Children's Bureau field consultant reports: 

The Blank Co. is constructing a powder plant, a TNT plant, and bag-loading 
plant in an area extending from 8 to 18 miles from the town of X, which is approxi- 
mately 40 miles from the city of Z. These plants are in the stage of construction, 
and operations have not begun. Thousands of workers commute from Z and 
surrounding towns. 

The town of X had an original population of 900 and the present population 
increase is estimated from 5,000 to 8,000. The elementary-school and high- 
school enrollment has increased from 350 in April 1941 to 900 in September, 
with an estimated increase to 1,500 by December 1, 1941. A new road, additional 
sanitary facilities, a recreation building, and a housing project (375 units) are 
being constructed in the town itself, and plans are being made for new school 
facilities. 

Because there is no housing for families, the housing of construction workers 
and their families is chiefly in trailers. Many of these workers have come from 
the C area where they worked on the construction of the munitions plants there. 
Mothers in the trailer units are complaining about the lack of sanitary facilities 
and washing facilities and the crowding of trailers as compared with the well- 
regulated trailer units in C. 

There are 10 distinct trailer units within a radius of 8 miles of X with 5 new 
ones established at distances of 10 to 25 miles from the town. The number of 
trailers in a unit ran from 7 to 100. No count has been made of the actual number 
of families, but it is estimated that there are 250 children of preschool age for a 
nursery school that can accommodate only 25 to 30. Family life is complicated 
because men work on night shifts and have to sleep in the daytime. 

To meet part of this need the Federal consultant has suggested that a program 
of volunteer participation be developed which will include parent-education of 
mothers and the formation of parent councils, the organization of social activities, 
the establishment of new playgrounds, classes in sewing and nutrition, and 
volunteer assistance to the public-health nurse in the child-health clinics. 

2. A State health officer reports: 

The greatest problem at this time is in a military area — an Army post situated 
in X County near the town of L. The population of the town of L has mcreased 
from 18,000 to 25,000; the population of the county from 40,000 to 100,000. 
The county covers more than a thousand square miles of territory. 

As the population increased, the active practicing physicians in L decreased 
from 14 to 12, or to a ratio of 1 physician to 8,000 people. As would be expected, 
the shifting population resulted in many problems affecting health, namely. 



9844 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

increase in rent, very poor housing, especially at the outskirts of the city limits, 
increase in venereal disease, increase in prostitution, increase in illegitimacy, 
overcrowding of the schools, increase in communicable disease. 

The State health department has established a county health unit in this county 
providing 1 health officer, 4 sanitarians, and 4 public-health nurses (this provides 
a nurse for every 25,000 persons in the population, but to provide even the mini- 
mum number of nurses that would be considered acceptable, that is, 1 for every 
5,000 persons, 20 nurses would be needed instead of 4). Four child-health 
conferences are now being conducted at strategic points in the county. 

At the time of this report two additional defense establishments were proposed, 
one an Army cantonment in Y County that would include up to 45,000 men and 
the second a $52,000,000 powder plant in Z County. This plant will be situated 
near the town of C, a community of approximately 500 people. It is estimated 
that the plant will employ between 6,000 and 10,000 civilian workers. At present 
there is one 75-year-old physician in this county and no hospital facilities. The 
closest hospital is 27 miles away, but it has only 32 beds and 4 bassinets. 

3. A report on one community: 

Many problems have been developing which have grown out of the fact that the 
town of C has grown in a few months, because of the development of a smokeless 
powder plant and a bag plant, from a village of 900 people to over 14,000 people. 
Sanitation, housing, schools, recreational facilities, and transportation are all 
grossly inadequate. Many serious cases are being referred to the county welfare 
department. It has not been able to handle these cases adequately because of 
the limited staff, which is untrained. 

Workers are commuting from points as far as 50 miles away. 

Children who are placed in foster homes are now being crowded out because the 
families are taking roomers. There is a question on the part of the State Depart- 
ment of Welfare whether such foster homes should be relicensed because of their 
overcrowded condition. 

The school situation is extremely serious in both the town of C and the neighbor- 
ing communities of N and J. In J 785 children now attend school in a building 
built to accommodate 500. Transportation to other communities is not possible; 
the town could not finance such a project and the children could not be gottento 
school on time. In C new accommodations are needed for 988 children not in- 
cluding those in the trailer camp which may or may ot be there next fall. 

The county is served by a district health department that covers five counties. 
Medical and nursing services are being extended, but there are no hospital facilities 
whatsoever in the county. 

The Children's Bureau in defense planning. 

The Children's Bureau has always been concerned with the protection of 
America's children from the effects of social and economic upheavals which ac- 
company substantial population changes and industrial dislocations such as those 
that are now taking place as a result of the world war and defense activities in the 
United States. 

The Director of Defense Health and Welfare Services appointed Katharine F. 
Lenroot, Chief of the Children's Bureau, as child-welfare consultant to his office, 
and Charles I. Schottland, Assistant to the Chief, serves as liaison officer between 
the Children's Bureau and the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services. 

Dr. Martha M. Eliot, the Associate Chief of the Bureau, has been designated as 
the liaison officer with the Office of Civilian Defense, to assist in the preparation 
of programs related to child welfare. Dr. Eliot serves as secretary of the Joint 
Committee on Health and Welfare Aspects of Evacuation of Civilians. 

Regional consultants of the Children's Bureau are serving as its representatives 
in the 12 regional advisory councils for the coordination of defense health and 
welfare services. Other staff members are serving as consultants in relation to 
special aspects of the defense program as it relates to children. 

Maternal and child-health services. 

No additional Federal funds for increasing maternal and child-health services 
in defense areas have as yet been made available by Congress for grants to the 
States under title V, part 1, of the Social Security Act. 

The State health officers and maternal and child-health directors are well aware 
of the great need for these services in such areas and did what they could in the 
1942 State plans to meet these needs without curtailing established programs in 
other areas where such service is also needed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9845 

A review of State maternal and child-health plans and supplements (approved 
to November 24, 1941) showed that at least some maternal and child-health 
services were available in 165 counties or districts known to be defense areas. 

The State plans and other information received from the States include the 
following types of comments on these and other defense areas: 

Increased demand for nutrition training and service. 

When families of defense workers move in there will be need for more child- 
health conferences, medical and nursing care, hospital care, and public-health 
nursing service. 

More prenatal and child-health clinics are needed. 

Heavy loads for public-health nurses have necessitated redistricting; new 
nursing districts mean new baby stations with, it is hoped, doctors in charge; 
nurses have started classes in child hygiene for girls 12 to 16 years of age responsible 
for children at home while mothers work. 

More maternal and child-health staff needed, especially nursing staff. 

Maternal and child-health clinics are held in two defense areas, but services are 
not adequate. 

Adequate maternal and child-health services have not been developed in any 
defense area. 

No hospital facilities nearer than the city of X. 

B County does not have an organized health department. 

City health department inadequately staffed. 

Hospital facilities are inadequate generally. 

At least 15 public-health nurses and 2 physicians are needed. 

No county health department and no city has full-time qualified health officer. 
Public-health work in behalf of mothers and children practically nonexistent. 

Approximately 400 public-health nurses are needed in the State to have one for 
each 5,000 population prior to the national defense program. Estimated that 
20 additional physicians will be needed in 15 counties to care adequately for the 
maternal and child-health program. 

Federal community facilities projects. 

The Lanham Act,i approved June 28, 1941, authorized the expenditure of 
$150,000,000 for the acquisition, maintenance, and operation of public works 
made necessary by the defense program. 

Activities authorized under this act are primarily for schools, waterworks, 
sanitation facilities, hospitals and other places for the care of the sick, recreational 
facilities, and streets and access roads. 

As of December 2, 1941, 89 projects had been approved in 24 States, Alaska, 
and Hawaii for the construction of new or additional hospital and health-center 
facilities. Of these projects 46 were for hospital and 43 for health-center facilities. 
Other construction projects approved include 196 for sanitation, 221 for schools, 
245 for recreation, and 21 for miscellaneous facilities. Funds have been approved 
for the maintenance and operation of 109 additional projects, primarily for the 
maintenance and operation of schools but also for recreation and hospital services. 

Child-welfare services. 

The State plans for the fiscal year 1942 for child-welfare services, administered 
under title V, part 3, of the Social Security Act, and information obtained by the 
Children's Bureau's staff of consultants in child welfare during visits to the States 
indicate an increase in problems affecting the social welfare of children in defense 
areas. The type of problems presented include those incident to housing shortage, 
the need for recreation, the lack of adequate school facilities, increase in delin- 
quency, rise in reported venereal diseases, and so forth. Difficulty in finding 
foster homes for children because renting rooms to defense workers provides a 
more lucrative income is another problem which confronts the child-welfare 
agencies in a number of defense areas. 

Of the 52 State plans for grants-in-aid for child-welfare services approved by 
the Children's Bureau for the fiscal year 1942 35 contain provisions for use of 
Federal funds for child-welfare services in 73 defense areas. In 56 of these defense 
areas previous plans had made provision for child-welfare workers, and in some 
instances the new plans merely provided for one or two additional workers for 
localities in which there had previously been one worker. 

No additional Federal funds for increasing grants to the States for child-welfare 
services have as yet been provided by Congress under title V, part 3, of the Social 
Security Act as a result of needs in defense areas. 

1 Public Law 137, 77th Cong., 1st sess. 



9846 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Day care of children. 

Day care for young children whose mothers are employed is emerging as one 
of the urgent social needs of the defense period. 

Conditions such as those described in the following illustrations from reports 
received by the Children's Bureau indicate the need for providing adequate day- 
time care of children of working mothers. 

Many of the problems arise out of the employment of mothers in defense 
industries. Recently a nurse in L county advertised that she was ready to take 
infants to board. Immediately she had 15 applications. By State law she is 
limited to taking 6, and one wonders what happened to the others. 

In S and C many women are working either in the local mills or in H. They are 
leaving preschool children indiscriminatelj^ with neighbors or relatives while the 
school children appear at school an hour or more before school opens. 

We have many instances cited, such as 800 women going to work in a factory one 
morning and 40 children being locked in parked automobiles. 

In recognition of the problem the conference on day care of children of working 
mothers, called by the Children's Bureau, met on July 31 and August 1, 1941, to 
discuss this entire question and to consider the impact of the defense program in 
relation to it. This conference adopted a statement of principles and recommended 
the appointment of several committees to consider various aspects of day care. 

To plan and coordinate all Federal programs involving community provision 
for the day care of children a Joint Planning Board on the Day Care of Children 
has been formed, pursuant to one of the recommendations of the conference, 
including representatives of the Children's Bureau, United States Department of 
Labor; the United States Office of Education, Federal Security Agency; and the 
Work Projects Administration, Federal Works Agency. 

On the recommendation of the executive committee of the committee on day 
care of children of working mothers, the Children's Bureau has appointed an 
advisory committee on day care. 

Social protection of youth. 

Early in 1941 the Children's Bureau made brief studies in a number of com- 
munities where it appeared likely that situations were developing which threat- 
ened the social welfare of children. These communities included areas adjacent 
to military and naval establishments and communities whose population was 
rapidly increasing because of defense industries. On the basis of the observations 
made in these communities, the need was apparent for a social protection service 
which would stimulate programs looking to the prevention of prostitution and 
commercialized vice. For this purpose a Division of Social Protection was 
subsequently established within the organization of the Federal Security Agency. 

Members of the Children's Bureau staff are cooperating with the Division of 
Social Protection. The interest of the Children's Bureau in the social-protection 
prograin is based on recognition of the fact that the increase of prostitution 
and commercialized vice and the conditions out of which they grow contribute to 
juvenile delinquency and to the creation of situations of social danger for children 
and youth. 

Recreation. 

The concentration of population in defense areas has made the need for recrea- 
tional activities for youth and children increasinglj' apparent. The growth of 
undesirable types of commercial recreation and the need for services to protect 
youth and children have accentuated the demand for wholesome leisure-time 
activities for boys and girls as well as for adults. Recreational facilities and 
leadership need to be developed in order to meet the needs of children and families. 

In many defense areas Federal community buildings are being constructed. 
These buildings will be operated by the United Service Organization for national 
defense or, in some places, Vjy local agencies. The recreation section of the 
Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services is responsible for assisting State 
and local agencies to develop community plans for recreation. The specialist in 
group work on the staff of the Children's Bureau is assigned on a part-time basis 
to work with this section as consultant on the recreational program, with par- 
ticular reference to children and women. 

Volunteer participation in programs for child health and welfare. 

Opportunities for volunteer participation in child-health and welfare work in 
this period of national defense are of two kinds: First, the volunteer assistance 
that must be given bj' citizens in the initiation, development, and support of the 
community services and facilities necessary for children in military or industrial 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9847 

defense areas and in those areas which might become reception areas for children 
in time of acute emergency; and second, the day-by-day help that might be given 
by individuals in providing the health and welfare services and the care needed 
by children everywhere. 

The Office of Civilian Defense is issuing manuals on volunteer participation in 
the fields of recreation, education, family security, nutrition, health, and child 
care. These manuals are being prepared by the Federal agencies interested in 
these subjects. The manual on volunteers in child care is being prepared by 
the Children's Bureau. 

The volunteer participation section of the Office of Civilian Defense has asked 
the Children's Bureau — 

(1) To outline a simple basic course in child care that will lead to a certificate 
entitling the holder to be known as a child-care volunteer; 

(2) To cooperate with the volunteer offices in developing such courses; and 

(3) To plan for rosters of child-care volunteers to form a child-care reserve for 
use in periods of emergency. 

An outline for the basic course for volunteers in child care is included in the 
manual on this subject now in preparation. 

Child labor. 

Increased industrial demands for labor are having a marked effect on the 
school attendance and the employment of minors. 

Reports of employment certificates, which must be obtained under most State 
laws for minors going to work, show an increase in the employment of young 
persons both in the 14- and the 15-year age group and in the group 16 and 17 
years of age. In 29 States and the District of Columbia where the minimum age 
for employment during school hours was the same in both years, 2,355 first 
regular certificates were issued for 14- and 15-year-old boys and girls in the first 
6 months of 1941, as compared with 1,236 in the corresponding period of 1940, 
an increase of nearly 100 percent. 

Boys, and girls 16 and 17 years were going to work in much larger numbers 
during this period. Incomplete reports from 13 States and the District of Colum- 
bia, where certificates for minors of 16 and 17 years are required under State law, 
show in round numbers 79,000 certificates issued in the first 6 months of 1941 as 
compared with 30,000 in the first 6 months of 1940, an increase of more than 160 
percent. 

Reports are already coming in of difficulty in enforcing school-attendance laws 
and child-labor requirements because children are picking up jobs which they 
could not fill legally but which are open and tempt them to leave school. 

The problem of children engaging in street trades in Army camps and stations, 
often leaving school to do so, came to the attention of the War Department with 
the result that the Adjutant General's office of the War Department issued a 
directive order on August 16, 1941, that defines the responsibility of camp and 
post commanders for the welfare of bo.vs and girls who come into the camps for 
street trading or other purposes. This order states that, where applicable, 
regulation of these activities should be in accord with Federal and State laws and 
local municipal ordinances relating to child labor. 

A statement entitled "Information on Child Labor and Youth Employment 
for Regional Representatives on Defense Councils," issued on December 10, 1941, 
is attached. It is a fuller discussion than this one of child-labor matters of special 
concern in connection with the defense program and with the objectives of the 
Bureau in the field of child labor and youth employment. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. MARTHA M. ELIOT— Resumed 

Dr. Eliot. I was interested iu the fact that there were questions on 
child welfare asked at the last hearing. I would like to indicate that 
the health and welfare needs of children are very closely interlocked. 
One can scarcely talk about one without talking about the other. 

In this country we have never had the essential network of services 
for mothers and children which we need to promote child health, and 
to restore the health of children so that when they reach adult life 
they may be physically fit to carry on the work of the world. 



9848 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Data can he picsontcd to show the lacks iii maternity care and 
medical cai-e for chikh-en. There are gross inadequacies in these 
fields in many small cities and in much of our rural area. 

Of great importance today is tlie inadequacy in the cities, and in 
the small towns and rural areas. These small towns become suddenly 
important as industrial centers in many parts of the country. Health 
officers, medical men, bedside nurses, and public-health nurses, who 
are accustomed to dealing with children and providing maternity 
care, have been taken away from many of these small towns and 
cities and rural areas, in numbers out of proportion to the total 
number in that community. 

The inadequacy in these rural areas and in the small towns lias a 
very direct bearing on problems that are related to the results of 
direct belligerent action, in that these are the areas which would have 
to receive any families or children should belligerent action require the 
removal of mothers or children from any of our coastal areas. 

EFFECT OF BRITISH HEALTH PROGRAM ON MORALE 

We are aware of the high morale among the British people, and I 
want to point out that, from my observations there, it was apparent 
that one of the major bases for this high morale was the nation-wide 
program for maternity-care services, for child health, and for the 
school medical service. 

These programs were established long ago — in fact, ever since the 
last war they liave been steadily expanded until they are now nation- 
wide in scope. 

The British people, however, were determined, at the onset of this 
war, that these child-health services and maternity-care services 
should not lapse. And even during the war, plans have been made 
by the IMinistry of Health to strengthen these services. 

There have been appointments of new personnel in the various 
regions of the country: health, welfare, and child guidance personnel. 

There has been an equitable distribution of physicians among the 
various provinces in order that the school medical services and the 
child health services might be continued, and in order that there 
always will be some medical service to take care of the medical-care 
needs in every community in the land. 

The midwife service has been of inestimable service in England 
during this period. The extension of the maternity-care service and 
the improvisation of the new emergency types of care have been 
extraordinarily successful. This is demonstrated by the fact that the 
maternal mortality rate in England has actually decreased durmg the 
last 2 years, when one might have expected, under the circumstances, 
a marked increase. 

The success of their great evacuation scheme for children has had 
a great effect upon the morale of the people. The success and this 
high morale is, to a very considerable extent, dependent on the ma- 
ternal and child welfare health services, and upon ingenuity of the 
Ministry of Health. 

I would like to say one word about the program that they have 
carried on in the field of nutrition. If anything in this great health 
field and welfare field has had an effect on morale, it has been the 
tremendous efforts of the Government to feed the populace adequately 
within the means at their disposal. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9849 

FEEDING STATIONS 

I know that you are aware of the development of the feeding sta- 
tions, or what are now called British restauriants. They are of the 
utmost importance, from the pouit of view of developmg and mamtain- 
ing high morale among the people, among the workers, and among the 
children. The fact that these feedmg centers have been established 
in factories as well as in schools is a matter, I think, of importance to 
us here. 

As you know, priority in the distribution of certam essential foods 
has been established for children and for mothers. This again has a 
direct bearmg on the high morale among the people. The wide exten- 
sion of school lunches is of great importance. 

I want to point out three or four major fields here in the United 
States in which I think we need immediate action today, with respect 
to child health and maternity care. 

CHILD HEALTH AND MATERNITY SERVICES IN DEFENSE AREAS 

In the first place, in our defense industrial areas, and in the areas 
surrounding military establishments, there can be no question but 
that we need far more effective work in the field of child health and 
maternity care than we have today. 

Our maternity services are far from complete in this country, to 
start with, and, when the situation arises, as has arisen in many of 
these small towns and mushroom cities, where thousands of people 
have pom-ed in, families coming as well as workers, the need for 
maternity care has increased far beyond the means of the communities 
to handle it. 

In some of these communities there has been a return to the employ- 
ment of the untrained, unskilled midwives, when doctors have been 
taken away from these communities. The need for more hospital 
provision is very great. The need for maternity provision is also great. 
Child health services are quite insufficient. We need not only pre- 
ventive services but we need more clinics for care of sick children. 
We need more hospital facilities for care of sick children. We need 
to place physicians, who are aware of how to take care of children, 
in strategic spots in this country to practice and to serve local health 
departments. 

Of course, we need more nurses. From every State comes that 
particular plea. 

The need for health services in these industrial defense communities 
is closely allied to the need for day care of children of working mothers. 
At this time many women are going into the defense industries, and 
many of those women are the mothers of young children; provision 
must be made for the care of those children during the daytime. 

SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS 

I would like to point out particularly the need for a program of 
health service and medical care for children of school age. 

At this time, I believe we should probably emphasize the needs of 
children of secondary school age — not just those in school but also 
those who are at work. 



9850 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

We need a Nation-wide program of diagnostic examination, and a 
program of medical care to correct the conditions that may be fomid 
in those children today. 

Secondary schools arc the schools which probably are neglected 
most in our school health program. Children of secondary school age, 
who are not at school, get relatively little medical care. Of course, 
we need a rapid extension from this age group down to the lower 
grades in the school. 

We shouldn't forget the need to install and develop school lunches 
in our school program; also to develop the health instruction among 
school children, which is a function of the Department of Education. 

I believe we need to give attention to meet unforeseen emergencies 
in health services for children, emergencies that may result from 
belligerent action in this country. 

It seems to me that we need to develop further a mobile corps of 
medical and welfare workers in child health to be available on an 
interstate basis, to meet acute emergency needs which may arise at 
almost any time as a wartime need. I believe that such a corps of 
workers should be particularly familiar with the needs of mothers 
and children, because they will be needed in the areas outside of the 
danger zones, perhaps more than they would actually be needed 
within the danger zones themselves. These areas beyond the danger 
zones are the areas to which children might be sent in case of emer- 
gency. 

It should be pointed out that such a mobile corps of workers would 
not replace the great army of Red Cross disaster workers, because 
they would be attached to public agencies and would serve to supple- 
ment and expand the already existing public forces. Extra workers 
might be needed in some of the danger areas, where the health and 
welfare service for children is today inadequate. I would like to 
indicate that, in all of this, there would be no waste effort; their 
workers would be placed where they are needed today, but they would 
be ready for service elsewhere in case of urgent need. 

Lastly, I would like to point out that these programs that I have 
suggested so far are programs that ought to be started today, if we 
are going to meet the grave needs that exist. One of the most 
effective ways to raise morale among the people of this country would 
be to assure them adequate medical care. Maternity and child 
health programs of medical care would be, in my opinion, the most 
telling part of such a program. The value of this program of ma- 
ternity care, now prepared for children as a morale builder, is un- 
questioned in Great Britain. 

Dr. Atwater. Dr. Eliot has compressed within a few words a 
wealth of experience. 

We have with us today two health officers, one representing a 
county and the other representing a city. I am going to introduce to 
you now Dr. George Ramsey, who is the commissioner of health in 
Westchester County, N. Y., a man who has had both State and county 
experience, and who has had teaching experience, too, at Johns Hop- 
kins University. 

Can you tell us, Dr. Ramsey, how this health program could be 
brought to focus, practically, in an area like yours? 



* NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9851 

TESTIMONY OF DR. GEORGE H. RAMSEY, COMMISSIONER OF 
HEALTH, WESTCHESTER COUNTY, N. Y. 

Dr. Ramsey. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I 
would Uke to remind you, first, that the services which the health 
department carries on are over-all services. 

They are, for the most part, rendered on behalf of rich and poor 
alike, without distinction, our job being, as far as possible, to prevent 
disease and to reduce suffering and death. 

We local health officers find ourselves now faced with the problem 
of maintaining the services we already have. 

Dr. Eliot and others, I am sure, have told you that in the rural 
areas the services for preventive medicine are by no means complete 
Even though incomplete, we are now faced with maintaining what 
we have. We must meet the problem of loss of personnel, and of 
lack of substitutes in many kinds of positions. 

The recommendation of the American Public Health Association 
has already been stated to you by Dr. Atwater — that public health 
personnel be disturbed as little as possible during the present emerg- 
ency, so that their particular skills may be left in the community. 

There is also in certain parts of the country a tendency to reduce 
health department staffs to save funds, along with the more or less 
general tendency to reduce the cost of local government. 

Dr. Eliot has covered the next point which I wish to make, and 
that is the possibility of the transfer of public health workers from one 
area to another, should necessity for that arise. Dr. Eliot applied 
that specifically to the field of maternal and child health. It might 
well be extended to cover other phases of preventive medicine. 

Some of the situations that may arise in connection with the migra- 
tion of population or with the war are obvious. Our duties, if we 
have an extensive epidemic of some kind, are perfectly clear. It is 
not always clear to the general public how our facilities for preventing 
such an occurrence operate. In fact, many people are not aware 
of the fact that such facilities exist. I refer to such matters as 
purification of water supplies and the supervision of milk supplies and 
food, and the like. It is easy enough to explain that those things must 
not and cannot suffer. 

It is a little harder to understand the problem that the health officer 
has with relation to conquering a disease such as tuberculosis and 
syphilis. It is the general experience following war that tuberculosis 
rises. We have now reached a very low level in this countiy, and we 
wish to maintain our facilities on a sufficiently high standard further to 
reduce tuberculosis mortality and illness. The goal toward which we 
have been constantly striving and which we feel is thoroughly prac- 
ticable is the complete eradication of tuberculosis. 

In order to keep on with this program it is necessary to keep at 
home enough doctors and enough nurses to cover the routine job of 
holding tuberculosis clinics and of finding new cases, and of the many 
visits to homes which are required. 

The war has already brought to local health officers and their staffs 
new activities. It is only natural that we should be called in, and it 
is our duty to participate in various activities with relation to defense. 

For example, as Miss Haupt will undoubtedly tell you, health de- 
partment staffs, particularly nursing staffs, are being used for teaching 



9852 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

courses in first aid , and in home hygiene care of the sick. That means, 
if you take away a nurse to do some teaching, she can't be doing her 
ordinary day's work of visiting, so that it means a larger responsibiUty. 

Those responsibilities we are eager to take on, but many local 
health officers feel that there is need for further clarification, perhaps 
from the Federal Goverimient, as to the relationship to official local 
health agencies and other agencies, such as the Ked Cross and the 
Office of Civilian Defense. 

The local fellows back home simply want to know what their 
relationship is to these various agencies, both old and new. 

We all feel that we must maintain the health work that is done now 
on its present level, and we further feel that, in areas where local health 
services have not been sufficient — and there are very many such areas — 
they should be extended and increased. 

Dr. Atwater. Thank you, Dr. Ramsey. 

You will see, Mr. Chairman, how this is a series, as it w^ere, of 
headings for a table of contents. 

We shall try to compress what we have to say, still giving you the 
important features of each. 

Miss Haupt is a person Avho is able, from her wide experience, to hit 
some of the high spots of our panel discussion; in her present capacity 
with the Federal Security Agency she has an over-all view. Will you 
summarize it briefly, Miss Haupt? 

TESTIMONY OF ALMA HAUPT, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, SUB- 
COMMITTEE ON NURSING. HEALTH AND MEDICAL COM- 
MITTEE, FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Chairman. Miss Haupt, I have your prepared statement and 
the two supplementaiy exhibits that you submitted. They will be 
placed in the record. 

(The statement and exhibits referred to above are as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY ALMA C. HAUPT, R. N., EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, 
SUBCOMMITTEE ON NURSING, HEALTH AND MEDICAL COM- 
MITTEE, OFFICE OF DEFENSE HEALTH AND WELFARE SERVICES, 
FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY 

The close association between nursing and morale is described in the following 
quotation from a recent letter from an American nurse in Brazil. i "I've wanted 
to write and ask you to try to send some nurses to Brazil. No one in my experi- 
ence in France, Turkey, Albania, and Italy has made the friends for the United 
States of America that nurses have. To relieve human suffering is to win a 
friend, always, I find." 

For 1}^ years, the nursing profession has been "on the alert" to fit into the 
military and civilian needs of the country. It has a background of service and 
discipline; it has ethical relationships with the medical profession and a well 
developed scheme of national. State, and local organization on which to build. 

For the special purposes of defense and now for war, it has two Nation-wide 
organizations: 2 One is governmental, the Subcommittee on Nursing (established 
November 1940) of the Health and Medical Committee operating under the 
Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, and acting in an advisory capacity 
to the Medical Division of the Office of Civilian Defense. The other is voluntary, 
the Nursing Council on National Defense (formed July 1940), made up of the 
five national professional nursing organizations and the American Red Cross 

1 Letter to Director, Foreign Nursing Service, American Red Cross, Washington, D. O., from Mrs. 
Esther Imogene Johnson Patterson, Bahia, Brazil, Caixa Postal 165. 

2 See exhibit A, Organization of Nursing in Defense, p. 9956. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9853 

Nursing Service. The chief nurses of the various Federal nursing services have a 
liaison or ex officio relationship to both of these Nation-wide organizations. 

The aims of both are essentially the same, viz: (1) To analyze the country's 
need for the education, procurement and assignment of professional nursing and 
auxiliary nursing service in relation to both military and civilian agencies relating 
to the national emergency; (2) to make plans for meeting these needs; (3) to 
correlate, as may be necessary, the nursing services of the United States with 
those of Canada, and Central and South America. 

The Government's Subcommittee on Nursing works with and through govern- 
mental agencies. The Nursing Council on National Defense works with and 
through the national professional organizations and their respective State and 
local constituencies. Between the Subcommittee on Nursing and the Nursing 
Council on National Defense, there is close and frequent interchange of informa- 
tion and delegation of appropriate responsibility. 

The problem facing nursing in the emergency is twofold: (1) To provide ade- 
quate personnel, and (2) to organize the needed types of nursing service by imple- 
menting them with necessary administration, financial support and standards 
of operation. 

The activities of nursing in meeting these problems are outlined as follows: 

I. Problem Dealing With Providing Adequate Personnel 
]. the graduate nurse 

(a) Three hundred thousand nurses have answered a national inventory sup- 
ported jointly by the Nursing Council on National Defense, the Subcommittee 
on Nursing of the Health and Medical Committee, the American Red Cross, and 
the United States Public Health Service. The United States Public Health 
Service has charge of the administration of this project and has had valuable 
assistance from the Work Projects Administration. Suggestions have been given 
to State nurses' associations and their local branches as to the utilization of the 
data. On the basis of a sampling of 25 percent of the returns, it is estimated that 
there are 20,000 young inactive nurses who may be able and willing to return to 
active civilian service. Marriage is the chief cause of turn-over in the nursing 
profession. 

It is estimated that there are 100,000 nurses who did not answer the original 
questionnaire. 

(6) The Subcommittee on Nursing receives quarterly reports from all Federal 
nursing services of (1) the number of nurses on duty; (2) the vacancies for which 
salary is provided; (3) the additional number needed in the next 3 months. 

The figures are then correlated with available figures of private agencies as 
secured through the Nursig Counicl on National Defense. As of December 1, 
1941,^ before war was declared, the figures roughly showed the following needs: 

Army and Nav}^ 11, 000 

Institutions 10, 000 

Public Health 10, 000 

Total nurses needed 31, 000 

(c) The United States Public Health Service, througli its Division of Public 
Health Methods, has sent a questionnaire to public and private hospitals and 
health agencies including information regarding the number of nurses and auxiliary 
nursing personnel on hand, positions vacant and anticii^ated number in next 3 
months. It is hoped that this may be kept uj) on a quarterl}' basis. 

Since war was declared, the figures of the needs of the Army and Navy are 
confidential. However, the calling out of four base hospital units of 125 nurses 
each focuses anew attention on the problem of supplying the military forces and 
at the same time keeping civilian hospital and public health services intact. 

(d) Red Cross enrollment. — Traditionally, the American Red Cross enrolls 
nurses for the first reserve (nurses under 40, unmarried and physically fit) from 
which the Army and Navy secure well-qualified nurses. It requires normally a 
pool of 5 nurses to get one into service. Hence, the first reserve of 25,700 nurses 
as of January 1 must be augmented to well over 50,000 to get the minimum of 
10,000 nurse.s needed by the armed forces. It is, of course, anticipated that the 
needs of the Armv and Navy will be greatly augmented. 

The American Red Cross' also has a second reserve of 43,408 nurses who are 
unavailable for military duty but are available for disaster, wartime epidemics, 

3 See exhibit B, Government and Civilian Nursing Services, p. 9956. 



9854 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

and to reinforce nursing staffs in tivil hospitals and in public health work related 
to civil defense. It is interesting to note that in World War No. 1 a total of 24,354 
nurses were in service with the Army and Navy. 

(e) Procurement and assignment. — The demand for nurses has led the sub- 
committee on nursing to consider some plan similar to that of the procurement 
and assignment service for physicians, dentists, and veterinarians, to adjust the 
needs of military and civilian services and to give recognition through insignia, 
buttons, or some other tangible device, to those who serve their country by 
remaining in necessary local civilian jobs. This is in the process of immediate 
consideration. 

Inasmuch as the Army and Navy requirements are for graduate registered 
nurses, the only way this need can be met is by increasing immediately the number 
of students in schools of nursing and it will be necessary for some time to come to 
assist the schools in their expansion through Federal aid. 

2. RECRUITMENT OF STUDENT NURSES 

In view of the shortage of nurses and the fact that it takes 3 years to train a 
graduate nurse, the subcommittee on nursing estimated that instead of the 
usual 35,000 students a year in schools of nursing, it was necessary to raise the 
figure to 50,000 or an addition of 15,000. A committee on recruitment of 
student nurses was formed by the nursing council on national defense, the 
chairman of which was tied in with the subcommittee on nursing by making her 
special consultant on recruitment. Available figures indicate that the spring 
enrollments for 1942 would only bring the figures to 45,000, hence it was necessary 
to give quick emphasis to recruitment if the additional 5,000 well-prepared young 
women were to enter accredited schools this spring. 

To this end, a State nursing council on defense was formed in each State, the 
first job being to form a recruitment committee. 

A national. State, and local program of public information is now under way, 
leading off with statements from Mr. McNutt, Mayor LaGuardia, and the three 
Surgeons General. 

It is a question if the accredited schools of nursing are equipped in terms of 
teaching staff, clinical facilities, and physical accommodations to take more than 
50,000 students. Also, it is a problem to compete with other current oppor- 
tunities for women in defense, and to attract more than 50,000 well-qualified 
candidates a year into professional nursing. 

3. VOLUNTEER NURSES* AIDES 

In order to make available, to civilian hospitals and health agencies, some 
assistance to the depleted graduate nurse staffs, the American Red Cross and the 
Office of Civilian Defense have jointly sponsored a program to provide 100,000 
volunteer nurses' aides. 

These aides work under the supervision of the graduate nurse and their training 
and supervision on the job make new demands on keeping up the number of 
nurse teachers and supervisors in civilian hospitals. 

4. NURSING AUXILIARIES 

It is recognized that in addition to graduate nurses and volunteer nurses' aides, 
the emergency situation calls for additional personnel whether on a pay or volun- 
teer basis. To this end, a category of nursing auxiliaries has been set up. 

II. Problems Dealing With Provision for Various Types of Nursing 

Service 

a. hospital nursing service 

The reduction of medical personnel in hospitals is throwing added burdens and 
responsibilities on nursing staffs and the depletion of nursing staffs is requiring a 
new job analysis of those functions which may properly be shared with volunteer 
nurses' aides, auxiliary workers, and volunteers. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9855 

B. PUBLIC-HEALTH NURSING 

In total war, the need for adequate public-health nursing in each community 
is emphasized. In 1941, 700 counties of the country had no public-health nursing 
service of any sort and 31 cities with a population of 10,000 or more had no such 
service. 

To meet the defense situation, the Emergency Health and Sanitation Act has 
made it possible for the United States Pubhc Health Service to appoint public- 
health nurses. The State health departments have requested 500 nurses but 
the Federal funds have permitted employing only 151. These nurses are em- 
ployees of the United States Public Health Service assigned to State health 
departments which, in turn, reassign them to local defense areas where they work 
under an official agency. 

The lack of hospital facilities, particularly in rural areas, also makes it important 
that public-health nurses be available and that they give bedside nursing care 
as well as assist in communicable-disease control and health education. 

The Farm Security Administration, under the Department of Agriculture, has 
50 nurses in resettlements and provides funds for 50 nurses serving migratory 
camps. 

C. PRIVATE DUTY 

As a contribution to defense, the American people will be challenged to curtail 
all forms of luxury nursing and instead of using private duty service as in the past 
it will be necessary to share nursing service and to develop what is known as 
group nursing. 

D. NURSING IN DISASTER AND IN EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES 

Through the Office of Civilian Defense, plans are made for the utilization of 
nurses and nurses' aides in field unit squads and also for the services of public 
health nurses in home visiting of the injured released from casualty stations and 
hospitals. 

The American Red Cross also has a well organized plan of disaster nursing. At 
the moment, the Red Cross is arranging to send 75 second reserve nurses to the 
Hawaiian Islands for use in civilian hospitals. Also second reserve nurses were 
used in San Francisco to receive the wounded from Pearl Harbor and to assist them 
in getting to hospi'als. 

In case of an "incident" it may be necessary to pool all local nursing resources 
under one central service and to have flexible interchange of nurses in ho.spital, 
private duty, and public health service. 

E. NURSING iN FIRST AID 

All nurses are being encouraged to take first-aid courses and as many as possible 
to prepare themselves to become instructors of first aid through the joint efforts of 
the American Red Cross and the Office of Civilian Defense. 

F. HOME NURSING 

The American Red Cross is expanding home nursing classes setting as a goal at 
least one-half million participants this year. This requires a demand for many 
additional nurse teachers and provides a suitable opportunity for married nurses 
who can only give part-time service to make a valuable contribution to national 
defense. For this expansion, 15,000 part-time nurse instructors are needed, of 
whom 5,000 are already signed up. 



60396— 42— pt. 25 15 



9856 



WASHIXGTOX HEARINGS 



Exhibit A. Government and Civilian Nursing Services 

REPORT BY subcommittee ON NURSING, HEALTH AND MEDICAL COMMITTEE, OFFICE 
OF DEFENSE AND WELFARE SERVICES, FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY, WASHINGTON, 
D. C, ON PRESENT PERSONNEL AND ADDITIONAL NEEDS FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDING 
JUNE 30, 1942 

Survey made Dec. 1, 1941 



Nurses on 
active duty 



Additional 

nurses needed 

fiscal year 

1942 



Estimated 

additional 

needs, fiscal 

year 1943 



Government: 

Veterans' Administration 

U. S. Public Health Service: 

Hospital Nursing Service --- 

Public Healtli Nursing Service: (13 regular, 126 tem- 
porary on national defense; 3 temporary on nursing 

education for national defense) 

Indian Affairs: (582 regular, 166 temporary) 

Children's Bureau 

Army (see special page) 

Navy 

Civilian: 

Private duty -.-- 

Inst itutional 

Public Health (all services including Federal) 

Student nurses 

American Red Cross First Reserve 



950 
142 



1,000 



350 
92 



7 
6.811 



180, 000 
170,000 
24, 000 
85, 000 
20, 549 



8.030 
700 

(?) 
10,000 
10,000 
15,000 

2 30, 000 



2,211 



> Indian Aflairs has 783 regular positions, of which 166 are temporarily filled and 35 are vacant at the 
present time. 

- The American Red Cross First Reserve, by congressional action, is the ofiicial reservoir of nurses for the 
Army and Navy Nurse Corps. The 30.000 additional First Reservists are needed to meet the present 
expansion of our military forces. 



Exhibit B. — Organization of Xursing in Defense 
[Reprinted from the American Journal of Nursing, volume 41, No. 12, December 1941] 

The organization of nursing in defense on a Nation-wide basis is the respon- 
sibility of two major groups working in close relationship with each other. These 
are (1) the Subcommittee on Nursing of the Health and Medical Committee, 
Ofhce of Defense Health and Welfare Services and (2) the Nursing Council on 
National Defense. 

The Government has placed in the hands of the Subcommittee on Nursing all 
the responsibility for the education, procurement, and distribution of nurses in 
both military and civilian services for defense. In this emergency, the sub- 
committee acts as a "p.arent committee" utilizing every available agency and 
individual concerned with nursing to carrj' out the tremendous program. It may 
delegate and coordinate, but retains the final responsibilitj^ and authority for 
execution of the tasks involved. The subcommittee serves the Health and 
Medical Committee of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services and the 
Medical Division of the Office of Civilian Defense. It acts in an advisory capac- 
ity to the United States Public Health Service in the Federal aid program for 
nursing education. 

The Nursing Council on National Defense, which coordinates all the defense 
activities of the national professional organizations, has the same objectives as 
the subcommittee. The chief difference is that the Nursing Council works with 
and through the national nursing organizations and their State and local constituent 
groups; whereas the subcommittee works with and through the Federal agencies. 
A two-way channel exists between the subcommittee and the Nursing Council 
for interchange and dissemination of information, consultation on programs, 
delegation of responsibilities. 

The Nursing Council is the agencj' for focusing the interest and problems of 
the nursing profession as a whole, and makes available its facilities to both its 
own groups and the subcommittee. 

1 hese two groups are developing a realinement of nursing forces to meet 
emergenc.y situations and a close integration of nursing with the vast health and 
welfare i^rograms of the Federal Government. These factors are being considered 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9857 




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9858 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

from the long-range view of the reconstruction period, as well as of the imme- 
diate emergencies of the da}^ This involves a new and forceful approach to 
the same old problems of recruitment of better-qualified students, better schools 
of nursing, better conditions of work and pay for nurses, better distribution of 
nursing service, and more effective nursing legislation. Support also is given to 
the controlled preparation and use of nonprofessional workers and volunteers in 
nursing services. 

To facilitate the work of the defense program of the Nursing Council and the 
subcommittee, an executive secretary has been appointed for each. Represen- 
tatives will attend meetings of both groups for joint planning, and constant com- 
munication between their headquarters is carried on. 

The Nursing Council on National Defense, of which Julia C. Stimson is chair- 
man, is located at 1790 Broadway, New York, N. Y. The Subcommittee on 
Nursing of the Health and Medical Committee, of which Mary Beard is chairman, 
is located in the Social Security Building, Room 5654, Fourth and C Streets SW., 
Washington, D. C. The Medical Division of the Office of Civilian Defense, of 
which Marian Randall is nursing consultant, is located in DuPont Circle Apart- 
ments, Connecticut Avenue, Washington, D. C. 

TESTIMONY OF MISS ALMA HAUPT^Resumsd 

Miss Haupt. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I 
thought it was interesting, on the day your request came to me, that 
I got the following letter from an American nurse in Brazil: 

I wanted to write and ask you to try and send some nurses to Brazil. No one, 
in my experience in France, Turkey, Albania, and Italy, has made the friends for 
the United States of America that nurses have. To relieve himian suffering is 
to win a friend, always, I find. 

We are beset with many problems m nursing, at the moment, in 
j-clation to defense, but briefly we can divide them into two parts: 
One, that of educating and securing necessary personnel, and two, 
giving the kind of services that are needed and distributing those 
services in relation to the migration problem. 

Under the question of providing sufficient personnel, we think, first, 
of the graduate nurse, and we have been making an inventory. We 
know there are 300,000 of them, and that the greatest problem in 
nursing is marriage; we no sooner get a nurse trained than she is apt 
to go off with the intern. 

20,000 INACTIVE NURSES 

At any rate, on the basis of this inventory, there are 20,000 young, 
inactive nurses, Avho could be brought back into service. We are 
more or less trying to bring them back alive. We find the chief 
difficulty in bringing back the inactive nurses is that their feet won't 
take it. 

Then we have the question of the distribution of graduate nurses 
for the Civil Service Commission, and all of the Federal agencies, 
8nd they are crying for help. 

Briefly, our needs, as of December 1, which w^as before war was 
declared, were 11,000 nurses for the Army and Navy, 10,000 for 
institutions, and 10,000 for public health, making a total of 31,000 
needed. 

Now, the Red Cross traditionally enrolls the nurses for the Army 
and the Navy, and assures them of a good quality of nurses, but they 
leport that they must have five nurses in order to get one, and that 
their present first reserve of about 25,000 would have to be raised to 
over 50,000 if the needs of the armed forces are to be supplied. 

I might add that the needs of the armed forces now are secret, 
Init we can anticipate a great expansion. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9850 

It is also interesting to note that in World War I a total of 25,000 
nurses was used in the armed forces. 

PROBLEM OF DISTRIBUTION 

As Dr. Ramsey says, there is this very real problem of distribution. 
We are hoping to parallel what the doctors are doing in setting up 
some scheme whereby locally we can advise a nurse as to whether she 
is most needed in her community or most needed in the Army or the 
Navy. 

The problem is particularly acute now because four base hospitals 
have been called out by the Army, and they will take nurses from 
Boston, Philadelphia, Cleveland, and St. Louis. Western Reserve 
alone will lose 34 of its best instructors. How to replace them is the 
question, and so we feel that the big problem is recruitment of more 
students into schools of nursing. We have set up a plan for including 
50,000 in the schools, whereas normally there would be 35,000. 
Congress has implemented us with a Federal aid appropriation of 
$1,200,000 to expand schools of nursing. There is very definite need 
that that appropriation be continued and increased, and plans are 
being made along that line. 

Now, because we are short of nurses, we are also cooperating with 
the Red Cross and the Office of Civilian Defense in the preparation of 
volunteer nurses' aides. But there aren't enough of them, so we are 
now looking into this question of what might be called a group of 
nursing auxiliaries, which would include the N. Y. A. and the W. P. A. 
and others, who may give assistance in the nursing field. 

So much for the question of personnel. 

Now, with relation to the problem of providing types of service. 

TYPES OF SERVICES 

I think we are going to have to do a new job analysis in hospital 
service, because many nurses now are having to do the work the doctors 
did before, and it means that the nurses, in turn, will have to slip some 
of their jobs to these nonprofessional workers, and there will bo a 
great many adjustments to make. 

In total war adequate Public Health nursing is more important than 
ever, and as you doubtless loiow, through the Public Health Service, 
150 Public Health nurses have been assigned for defense areas. Five 
hundred have been requested by the States but they could not bo 
supplied because of lack of funds. 

The lack of hospital facilities, particularly in rural areas, ties in 
with what Dr. Eliot said in emphasizing the need for nurses. I don't 
know any group that can give security to families more than the 
nurses who actually visit the homes. 

You know that the Farm Security Administration provides 50 
nurses for resettlements and 50 for migratory camps. One of the 
biggest changes that may have to occur is in the population which 
uses private duty nursing. We may have to ask to curtail what might 
be called "luxury nursing" and use' group nursing, whereby one nurse 
serves' three or four people. 

That is a real challenge to the public itself. 



9860 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

And then, in disaster and emergency, we have the plans of the 
Office of Civilian Defense whereby nurses are formed into squads 
under doctors, and where the Public Health nurses are asked to stay at 
their own posts rather than rush to an emergency, because they may 
be very much needed later. 

RED CROSS TRAINING COURSES 

Also, the Red Cross is calling upon nurses to help teach first aid. 
First of all, every nurse should take a first-aid course. We all get 
rusty. Secondly, they are needed to teach first aid; and finally, the 
Red Cross is expanding its home nursing program, feeling that one of 
the soundest ways of promoting morale is to be sure that in every single 
home there is someone who understands the fundamentals of simple 
home nursing and the fundamentals of first aid. 

Now, who else other than the public health nurse gets into the home 
itself for that type of teaching? And so the Red Cross is asking for 
15,000 part-time nurses to teach home nursing. Five thousand are 
already enrolled. That gives an opportunity for the married nurses, 
who can only give part-time service, to find a very useful place in 
the defense program. 

The sum total of all of this is that we have a program to try to 
meet these needs. We will need additional facilities, in terms of 
funds, and in terms of expansion of program, and we certainly are 
going to have to work for mobility in nursing, changing nurses from 
concentrated areas, perhaps, where they may have been needed be- 
fore, to the rural areas, if an incident occurs, and I can assure you 
that the nursing profession appreciates this opportunity of present- 
ing its problem. Especially we would like to thank Congress for the 
appropriation that was made for nursing education. 

Dr. Atwater. Miss Haupt has named some of the other founda- 
tion stones. One of the medical specialties acutely needed at the 
xnoment is that of industrial hygiene. 

Dr. Townsend, who is the chief of the industrial hygiene division 
of the National Institute of Health, is here. 

Dr. Townsend, may we hear from you at this point? 

TESTIMONY OF DR. JAMES G. TOWNSEND, MEDICAL DIRECTOR, 
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE DIVISION, NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF 
HEALTH, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Dr. Townsend. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I 
will be very brief in stating this problem. 

In Bethesda we are vitally concerned with the health and welfare 
of the workers of the Nation. 

There are about 50,000,000 gainfully employed people, of which 
about 30,000,000 are in the industries per se. 

Now, the man-days lost per year from sickness are about 400,000,- 
000, or a million years per year — enough sickness to close down a 
thousand plants per year, each plant employing a thousand workers; 
and yet 90 percent of the illnesses are not occupational. They are 
not the illnesses that come from accidents through faulty machinery 
or unprotected machinery, or from toxic fumes and gasses, but from 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9861 

the ordinary common cold, pneumonia, stomach troubles, and the 
things that you and I would have. 

This problem will probably be increased on account of the fact that 
the young, active, virile men will be called to the colors, and the 
older m^en, youths, and women will take their places in industry. 
Quite frankly, management expects that; they have told me so. 
These women and older men will be thrown into new environments and 
will probably be subjected to more industrial hazards than those 
vounger men who have been trained in industry. 

Then, too, there is the question of the night shift, which is making 
some difference in the change of enviroimient. People have to sleep 
all day ancl go on shifts at night, which disturbs their morale somewhat, 
also their nutritional basis. That has to be looked into. 

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE 

Well, of course, the backbone of this thing is to get a medical set-up 
into the plants, but unfortunately the great majority of industries 
and plants in this country are small plants, employing 500 people or 
less, and have no medical service whatever. 

The larger plants have very good medical service. What we are 
doing is working through the State health departments, especially 
those that have divisions of industrial hygiene. We arc trying to 
work with them in stimulating these plants to provide medical service. 

The managements have told me more than once that the keystone 
of their morale is tlu'ough the medical service, because the workers 
go to the doctors and the nurses with their troubles, and they are very 
often able, through job placement, to put an individual in the environ- 
ment where he can best work and serve. 

Now, tlirough the emergency health and sanitation appropriations 
which the Congress has given us, we have been able to place on duty 
in various States industrial engineers, industrial physicians, and 
chemists. These not only open up new fields of endeavor, where 
such work has never been done before, but augment existing work, 
because some States, frankly, have not been able to carry on the 
extra load. We have about 37 such persons now scattered among 16 
States. We also have some personnel in the Tennessee Valley 
Authority. 

The doctors at these plants advocate a preemployment examination, 
and a periodic examination, especially in those trades such as radium 
dial painting, or in the manufacture of TNT or where benzol is used. 

I think the vaccination and inoculation program—vaccination 
against smallpox, inoculation against typhoid — is especially impor- 
tant because of the migration of workers from industry to industry. 

We also emphasize the importance of nutrition and the augmenting 
of the nursing personnel in industry. Managers have come to me and 
said, "Doctor, we would be very glad to have physicians in our plants, 
but we don't know where to get them. We can't find trained doctors 
whom we can employ." There is a means to remedy that, providing 
we can get the phvsicians, and I think we can. 

The Office of Education, through an appropriation, has funds to 
give intensive 6-month courses to engineers, physicists, and personnel 
managers, but in the bill there was no provision made for physicians. 



9862 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

In the conferences that I have had with the Office of Education 
I was told that there was no way to send physicians to these schools 
for instruction, because there was no provision for it in the bill. I 
would like to suggest that the language be changed so that we can send 
a few physicians to these colleges through the Office of Education. I 
think that w^ould help. 

I am not proposing that the Federal Government, per se, give 
medical treatment to every industrial w^orker; that would be quite an 
impossible task. 

We do, however, feel that those wdio are hurt on the job should be 
treated. Through a system of health education, and through the 
cooperation of the local medical societies, we try to bring the worker 
and the local physician together. We are also working along the 
same lines with the dentists. We do not have the same difficulty in 
the ordnance plants. 

PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE INSPECTION OF PLANTS 

The Public Health Service has been assigned the duty of inspection 
of all Government-owned, Government-operated, and contract- 
operated ordnance plants, loading depots, aircraft plants, and so on. 
We have already inspected about 30 such plants, and have a contract 
to inspect and evaluate 55 more. 

W^ith the Army-owned and Army-operated plants the Surgeon 
General's office puts in the necessary recommendations and appliances; 
in the Government-owned and contract-operated plants, the various 
companies that have contracts with the Government are expected to 
put in the necessary corrections. As I said before in dealing with 
larger plants we do not have that difficulty; our difficulty is mostly 
with the smaller plants. 

We are doing the best we can with a situation which is growing in 
importance, through frequent visits to the field; to supply States 
with doctors, engineers, and chemists; and also to supply them, on a 
lend-lease basis, with certain laboratory equipment needed in the 
examination of dust and various atmospheric samples for toxic gases. 

In our research laboratory we are now carrying on about 95 separate 
problems, all connected with defense and the war effort. 

Our laboratories are also accessible to any State, county, or city 
that wants some special work done in connection with their industrial 
work. At the present time 36 States, 4 cities, and 2 counties have 
industrial hygiene bureaus that are in operation. 

I just want to emphasize again, in closing, that w^e are trying to 
bring this message to the factory and to the w^orker, throug-h the 
existing State organizations. 

Dr. Atwater. Dr. Huntington Williams has, for more than 10 
years, been the Commissioner of the Department of Health in Balti- 
more, and he was formerly connected with the New York State Depart- 
ment of Health. 

He is one of the fully trained, competent health officers of the kind 
to whom we referred. Dr. Williams, may we hear from you at this 
point? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9863 

TESTIMONY OF DR. HUNTINGTON WILLIAMS, COMMISSIONER, 
CITY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, BALTIMORE, MD. 

Dr. Williams. Air. Chairman, I would like to focus my remarks 
on a local level. My comments concerning the city I represent are 
an effort to reply to the spirit and the letter of your investigation. 
The problems on the outskirts of the city, in the rural areas, and in 
other parts of the country are not likely to be entirely similar to what 
we have in this particular community which is given as an experience. 

At the hearing held in Baltimore on July 1, 1941, by your committee 
I testified, in connection with facts then available, on the impact of 
defense in-migration in Baltimore City on the public health services 
in that city.' 

Baltimore has, in general, so far as I know, no acute public health 
problems growing out of current defense concentrations of people that 
arc fundamentally different from those recorded on July 1. 

The Baltimore City Health Department, founded on two major 
public health ordinances enacted in 1797, the year the city was founded; 
has been carefully nurtured during the past 50 years and today receives 
a budget from purely local tax money of 99 cents per capita, for a 
population of 865,000 people. These local appropriations have made 
it possible to give reasonably adeciuate public health protection to the 
city, including the thirty-odd thousand defense in-migrants that have 
come into Baltimore during the year 1941. As yet the load of work 
has not become too great for us to carry. 

As previously pointed out there is a housing shortage,' but this 
situation was acute in Baltimore, especially for Negroes, before defense 
in-migration came upon the scene. The city housing ordinances 
during the past year have been amended and greatly strengthened 
from the public health viewpoint, and the city health department 
housing program, which is a long-range one, is proceeding so far with- 
out any severe disruption due to defense in-migration. 

In an effort to reach new families as they come to Baltimore, the 
city health department has secured the cooperation of local industries 
and of the city housing authority and has been receiving business 
reply postcards entitled "Parent's register for health service" and 
"Family record" through these two sources. 

These cards are submitted for your review. 

(The cards referred to above are as follows:) 

Baltimore City Health Department 

Administrative Section 

PARENT'S REGISTER FOR HEALTH SERVICE 

The city health department is anxious to make health services available to 
every family in Baltimore, including those newly arrived in the city. Will you 
kindly fill in the following information? 

Names of parents 

Baltimore address 

Number of children under 6 years of age 

Number of children 6 years of age or older 

' See Baltimore hearings, pt. 15, p. 9506. 



9864 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

PLEASE MAIL THIS CARD PROMPTLY. NO POSTAGE IS REQUIRED 

Baltimore City Housing Authority 

Health Department of Baltimore City 

FAMILY RECORD 

For your information there follo^vs our family record as regards: 

Name of father or mother 

Present address 

Former address 

Town State 

Number of children Ages 

Information supplied by 

Since July 1941, these cards have been received by the city health 
department at the rate of from 98 to 1,800 per month. They have 
been used for public health nursing follow-up to ensure as far as possi- 
ble that children over 6 months old are given toxoid inoculation and 
vaccination for the prevention of diphtheria and smallpox. That 
was felt to be one of the most likely break-downs in the health protec- 
tion service that might result from inmigrants to defense industry. 

Five large industrial-defense plants to om* knowledge will not employ 
new workers unless they have been vaccinated. During 1941 a total 
of 594 such workers came to the city health department for this service, 
as compared with 38 in 1940, the previous high record. 

I am trying to connect the health department work with the prob- 
lem of morale building. This is a rather new reaction for a local 
health officer, although subconsciously he may have been at work in 
this field without being aware of it. 

HEALTH SERVICE AND CIVILIAN MORALE 

The Baltimore City Health Department uses ever}^ opportunity to 
build civilian morale as it builds city health and in this the press and 
the radio are constantly employed, along with all other practical 
public educational procedures. The Baltimore health motto is 
"Learn to do your part in the prevention of disease," and there is 
hardly a family in the city that is unaware of the municipal govern- 
ment's concern for the health and welfare of expectant mothers, new 
babies, children and adults. 

From the Baltimore experience it would appear that local morale 
is raised if there is official leadership of public opinion in the health 
field. During the past 6 months two special opportunities arose in 
this connection. One was in regard to the freshness of the consumer 
milk supply and its labelling; the other was concerning the danger of 
any given family's contracting poliomyelitis. In the latter case 
there were two striking local news releases based on city health depart- 
ment sources, one entitled "Polio at Middle River" and the other, 
"Four new cases of polio in Baltimore last week." They have been 
submitted for the record. 

(The releases referred to above are as follows:) 

Polio At Middle River 
[The Evening Sun, Baltimore, Tuesday, September 2S, 1941] 

It is easy to understand how the parents in the Middle River area and every- 
where else dread the possibility of their children contracting poliomyelitis. It 
seems natural as well, for them to conclude that the congregation of children in 



XATIOXAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9865 

public schools heightens the possibility of infection and protest, .as have the 
Middle River parents, school sessions when the infection is known to be in the 
community. 

Parents should try to remember, however, that theirs is the layman's point of 
view; that health officers, who are responsible for the public welfare and whose 
reputations depend upon their judgment in such matter, do not share the appre- 
hensions of the layman. The health authorities know how many poliomyelitis 
cases there are and where they are. If they had reason to believe that opening of 
a public school in any given locality would expose the community to danger of a 
polio epidemic it is reasonable to suppose that the schools would not be opened. 
It should be reassuring, rather than alarming, to note that public schools are open 
with the full approval of State and local health authorities. 

These guardians of the public health are persuaded, strange as it may seem to 
parents, that children are in closer contact with each other outside of school 
than they are inside. At school they sit at their desks, separated by some feet, 
throughout the day. At play they tussle, wrestle, come into bodily contact 
continually. Moreover, there is no evidence to prove that children contract 
poliomyelitis from children any more than they do from adults. It is entirely 
possible that the virus is carried by well persons, which may mean the parents, 
who are so anxious to keep their children near them. Finally, it is to be noted that 
poliomyelitis epidemics get their start and reach their peak during the summer 
months when schools are closed. 

FouK New Cases of Polio in Baltimore Last Week 

[The Sun. Ba'.timore, Sunday, October 5, 1941] 

Four new cases of poliomyelitis in Baltimore last week were reported by the 
Health Department yesterday to Mayor Jackson by Dr. Huntington Williams, 
health commissioner. 

On the subject Dr. Williams said, "It is of interest to note that the public is 
slowly learning some important theories about infantile paralysis; namely, that 
the risk of any city dweller contracting poliomyelitis is certainly much less than 
one chance in a thousand; that the virus is not spread by inanimate objects like 
iron lungs or respirators but from person to person, probably chiefly by healthy 
adult carriers; and that the 999 or more become immune in this way without ever 
showing any symptoms or signs of the process having taken place." 

TESTIMONY OF DR. HUNTINGTON WILLIAMS— Resumed 

Dr. Williams. The first release had to do with the question of 
whether schools ought to be kept closed a little longer at the end of the 
season, and the reasons why that should not be done, which is the 
accepted theory of most experts, and the second release dealt with the 
amount of risk that a given family might expect in having its own 
child stricken with this terrible disease, a matter which has caused 
great lack of morale during the polio season, and where the public 
thinking has not been very straight. 

In this connection I would like to quote from the views expressed in 
this news release, which is under quotes from health department 
sources. I bring this in because it has to do with public morale at a 
given moment from the public health point of view. 

It is of interest to note that the public is slowly learning some important 
theories about infantile paralysis; namely, that the risk of any city dweller 
contracting poliomyelitis is certainly much less than one chance in a thousand; 
that the virus is not spread by inanimate objects like iron lungs or respirators, 
but from person to person, probably chiefly by healthy adult carriers; and that 
the 999 or more become immune in this way without ever showing any symptoms 
or pigns of the process having taken place. 

Now that being put before the public gave them some strengthening 
of morale when they were worried as to whether their child had a great 
or slight chance of being stricken with this disease. Common sense 



9866 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

would tell tliem that the chance was slight, if they would count on the 
hngeis of their two hands the number of their own personal acc[uaint- 
ances that had ever suffered. Still it is a terrifying affair and there 
is need for enhancing morale. These releases, it is felt, did something 
to allay public apprehension. 

1 was asked to say a few words regarding public health in England 
diu-ing the past year. While in England as consultant to the United 
iStates Office of Civilian Defense in July and August 1941, studies 
were made on air-raid medical services, but there was little oppor- 
tunity to study public health administration or health problems at 
close range. These matters were studied in England by Dr. Thomas 
Parran, Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service in 
February 1941 . and by Dr. Martha Eliot. 

Fortunately an excellent report on the matter has just appeared in 
the December 1941 issue of the American Journal of Public Health 
1)y Sir Wilson Jameson, Chief Medical Officer of the British Ministry 
of Health, entitled "War and Health in Britain" and the attention of 
the House committee is respectfully drawn to Dr. Jameson's record, 
and if you will permit me I would like to submit this article for inclu- 
sion in the record. 

(The article referred to above is as follows:) 

War and Health in Britain i 

REPORT BY SIR WILSON JAMESON, M. D., HON. F. A. P. H. A., CHIEF MEDICAL OFFICER 
OF THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH, LONDON, ENGLAND 

When I received the invitation of the American PubUc Health Association to 
gttend its seventieth annual meeting, the Minister of Healtli, Mr. Ernest Brown, 
realizing the importance of the occasion, was insistent that I should let nothing 
stand in the way of my acceptance. I myself appreciate deeply the compliment 
you have paid me, and I am particularly glad to have the opportunity tliis evening 
of thanking you in person not only for the invitation but also for the honor you 
did ine a few years ago in electing me an lionorary Fellow of the American Public 
Health Association. 

If you asked the medical officer of health of one of the large cities in Great 
Britain iiow the war had affected his work, he would probably tell j'ou that about 
90 percent of his time was spent on emergency duties and only about 10 percent 
on the more famihar tasks of peacetime administration. By this he would not 
mean to imply that he had amost whollj- forsaken the practice of public health 
but rather tliat the perfecting of schemes for the prevention of mutilation and 
death from air attack had tended to take the place of plans for the prevention of 
disease and that a totally new set of problems had been thrown up in consequence 
of the war. Health departments with their staff of doctors, nurses, and sanitary 
inspectors have in the past shown themselves capable of dealing with most types 
of emergency, so new duties are apt to be placed upon them sometimes to the 
detriment of their existing and no less important tasks. I shall try to give you 
some idea of how the work of our public health departments has been affected 
during the past 3 j^ears and to show you that the major disasters we feared have 
not yet occurred, whereas matters we 'thought of small moment have assumed 
\inexpected imjiortance. In all wars there is a reversion to fundamentals and 
this war offers no exception to the rule. 

ORGANIZATION OF POPULATION MOVEMENTS 

First of all we have experienced enormous movements of certain sections of 
the population from one part of the country to another. During the first 18 
• I'.onths of war over 2)i million mothers and children in England and Wales were 
transferred, under official evacuation schemes, from our big cities to smaller towns, 
villages, and the countryside, where they were in the main billeted in private 
houses. Many of these people have been evacuated two, three, or even four times 

' Address at a special session on "Meeting the Public Health Emergency in Great Britain" of the American 
Tiiblic Health Association at the seventieth annual meeting in Atlantic City, N. J., October 16, 1941. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9867 

for. as bombing became less frequent, there was a drift of evacuees back to the 
towns from which thej^ came. Well over a million of these peoi)le are still in 
billets. It is fortunate that our housing improvements of the last 20 years gave 
us the house room to absorb this army without overcrowding, and that our house- 
holders accepted this invasion of their cherished privacy with tolerance and good 
win. 

All this took a great deal of organization and, on the whole, the machine' worked 
with commendable smoothness. But think what it meant to the health services. 
Maternity and child welfare workers, school doctors, dentists, and nurses had to 
follow the families to the reception areas. Schools, hospitals, clinics, and othei' 
premises were insufficient to cope with the great additions to tlie local populations, 
so new premises had to be provided. Staffs were hard to find. Difficulties, which 
in the past had appeared small and easy to deal with, were magnified. Alany of 
the town children were discovered to have lousy heads in spite of the efforts that 
had been made to free them from vermin. This had to be dealt with promptly 
in rural areas where facilities for cleansing were not so readily available. Bed- 
wetting in unaccompanied young children became a problem of first-rate conse- 
quence. Scabies increased greatly in incidence. Difficult children — a term which 
covers a multitude of conditions — required special measures for their management. 
And all this happened in quiet, peaceful areas where prior to the war little thought 
had been given to such matters. Yet they have been dealt with. Treatment- 
centers have been established, psychiatric social workers have been appointed, 
welfare workers have helped with billeting difficulties, and gradually the great 
experiment of turning the city dweller into a village resident is proving successful. 
And was not such an experiment well worth all the trouble we have had? 

The congestion in the cities of Great Britain has been the cause of all sorts of 
social evils, and if we can get even a small proportion of our people to return to 
the land whence most of them originally came we shall have done well. Largo 
numbers of emergency maternity homes have been established up and down the 
country in safe areas where normal confinements have been conducted with the 
best possible results. Ilxpectant mothers are billeted near these homes for a 
few weeks prior to their confinement, and attempts are made, not always with 
success, to keep the mothers and their infants in the country for some time after- 
ward. We hope many of these country maternity homes will remain as permanent 
institutions. Then there are hundreds of war-time residential nurseries for chil- 
dren under 5. While no one wishes to see very young children separated from 
their parents for long periods of time, we think we may be able to retain many 
of these mirseries as convalescent homes to which children may be sent, in happier 
days, from our child welfare centers. So far as the value of evacuation schemes 
is concerned, the main argument in favor of removal of selected groups from target 
towns lies in the fact that the age group 5-15 years — which has conti'ibuted a 
much higher proportion of evacuees than any other — has shown much the lowest 
death rate from "enemy action." 

In addition to the official schemes for the mass movement of selected persons, 
there has been of course a great deal of unofficial movement of people frorn one 
area to another. There has, too, been the recruitment of millions of rneii and 
■women into the fighting services, inany of whom have been billeted in various 
parts of the country. Finally great numbers of men and women have had to bo 
taken from their homes to work in the factories that are everywhere being de- 
veloped. .\11 these comings and goings of the people have destroyed home life. 
No one's home is his own — he is either living in some other person's home or 
sharing his own with total strangers. It requires little imagination to conjure 
up the possible complications of such a state of affairs, and yet we have endured 
2 years of the war without any obvious deterioration of health — and, it is hardly 
necessary to add, with an increasing determination to see this business through 
to the end. In making evacuation a success the health officer and his staff have 
played a leading, if unaccustomed, part. 

HOSPITAL SERVICES 

In order to deal promptl.y and efficiently with air-raid casualties and with cases 
of illness in the services and in evacuated persons, emergency medical, hospital, 
and laboratory services had to be established. A great deal of additional hospital 
accommodation was provided by adapting and equipping existing buildings and 
by erecting hospital huts in the grounds of existing institutions. It is estimated 
that we have some 400,000 hospital beds in England and Wales available within 
the emergency scheme. So far as possible, additions to hospitals have been made 



9868 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

with ail eye to their future use in times of peace. The plan that has been de- 
veloped of transferring much of the hospital accommodation from the center of 
our towns to situations in the country is one that many of us would like to see a 
permanent feature of hospital reorganization. Some of our hospitals have been 
so damaged that they will have to be rebuilt. It would be folly to rebuild them 
on crowded and unnecessarily expensive sites. With modern means of transport 
it is possible to move patients in comfort considerable distances, and I for one 
look forward with confidence to some redistribution of our hospitals in the years 
to come. 

It was thought necessary at first to keep large numbers of beds empty and staflf 
standing by, ready for the reception of casualties of all kinds. Experience so far 
has shown that we overestimated the need for such a big reserve. The result has 
been that these hospital beds have been used more and more for civilian sick and 
we are rapidly getting something in the nature of a national hospital service — • 
without our being fully aware of the change that is taking place. As these hos- 
pitals are grouped and administered, for wartime purposes, in regions, we are 
coming to the belief that the proper method of providing adequate hospital serv- 
ices for the benefit of the public is on a big regional basis, and already schemes 
are being discussed for future hospital provision on these lines. As our counties 
and cities own many large hospitals, medical officers of health are of necessity 
intimately concerned with such proposals and are helping to solve the problem of 
so coordinating the work of both voluntary and municipal hospitals that the public 
will get the best possible service. 

We very naturally dreaded the appearance of serious epidemic disease in the 
unusual conditions in which people were living, and in order to assist early diag- 
nosis we established a system, under the management of the Medical Research 
■Council, of emergency public health laboratories covering the whole country. 
Some of these laboratories were new creations; others, which had been in existence 
for years, were brought into the scheme. As a result, every medical officer of 
health has now a first class laboratory wnthin a maximum radius of 30 miles. 
Not only does the laboratory do all the bench work needed, but the staff go out 
and help with the field w^ork. This is in the best tradition of your own admirable 
United States Public Health Service, and it will be a great disappointment to me 
if we do not retain these indispensable epidemiological units after the war. 

AMERICAN RED CROSS FIELD HOSPITAL UNIT 

I am delighted to tell you that the most complete of all these units at our dis- 
posal is the American Red Cross Harvard Field Hospital Unit under the direction 
of our mutual and respected friend Dr. John Gordon, professor of preventive 
medicine in the Harvard Medical School. This unit not only provides us with 
some 130 beds in novel and efficient prefabricated buildings; it gives us as well a 
first class laboratory and mobile epidemiological teams of doctors and nurses. 
Already we have used these teams in various parts of England and it is of interest, 
though I really do not know why we should have imagined otherwise, that such a 
team, immediately on arrival in England and without spending any time on local 
introductions, can set about the difficult task of case finding and follow-up in a 
typically British town. In so doing I am assured that they feel just as much at 
home and meet with just as much success as they w'ould in their own part of the 
world. Dr. Gordon has been appointed official United States liaison medical 
officer with the Ministry of Health and his advice and help are being constantly 
sought. Public health in America could have made no more valuable contribu- 
tion to our war effort than by sending us this admirable unit. I hope to see much 
•of its practice embodied subsequently in our ow'ii epidemiological plan. 

One of our fears w'as that, with the inevitable damage to water mains and sewers 
by bombing attack, there would' be a great increase in the incidence of typhoid 
fever. Happily this fear has not been realized. In London, for instance," every 
type of water main has been broken in every conceivable manner. Sewers have 
emptied their contents into large trunk mains and polluted the water over great 
distances. One main, 4 feet in diameter, has been broken no fewer than 11 times, 
.and the number of times mains have been damaged amounts to thousands. This 
is understandable when we recollect that the system of mains in London is over 
8,000 miles in length. The disinfection of mains under repair by means of chlorine, 
in a strength of 10 parts per million and with a period of contact of 15 minutes, 
has, however, proved an excellent safeguard, and I am hapjw to say that neither 
in London nor elsewhere has there been any outbreak of typhoid fever due to 
-damage to mains and sewers as a result of air raids. On the other hand, we have 
jhad quite a number of epidemics of paratyphoid fever traceable in a majority of 



XATIOXAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9869 

instances to infection associated with premises where bread and various kinds of 
pastries are made. 

The war has helped us to make real progress with our scheme for the immuni- 
zation of children against diphtheria. Last November the Government decided 
to issue supplies of alum precipitated toxoid free to all health authorities and 
this provided the necessary official backing and stimulus for the movement. I 
cannot give you the figures of the numbers immunized so far — we have called for 
returns up to September 30 — but we have evidence that a great deal has been 
accomplished in the past 8 or 9 months. We are finding difficulty, of course, in 
bringing in the children below school age in sufficiently large numbers, but we hope 
that with continued publicity even this trouble will he overcome. 

AIR-RAID PRECAUTIONS 

In addition to devising a hospital and laboratory system to meet our antici- 
])ated needs we had, of course, to work out a whole scheme of air-raid precau- 
tions — or, as we now know it, A. R. P. This meant the creation of first aid or 
stretcher parties who travel at once to the scene of what is called an incident and 
assist in finding casulaties and in apjilying the necessary first aid treatment. 
First-aid posts had to be established, to which the less severelj' injured are di- 
rected. Ambulance services had to be built up, air-raid shelters had to be pro- 
vided, and cleansing centers for decontaminating persons affected by mustard 
gas had to be planned. In addition rest centers for bombed-out persons had to 
be found and equipped, and there are now some 13,000 of these in Great Britain 
with accommodation for over a million people. A large staff had to be assembled 
and trained and retrained in the light of new knowledge and experience, and in all 
of this the medical officer of health was heavily involved. Indeed, it is this work 
that has occupied bj' far the greater part of his time in certain areas. 

The air-raid-shelter problem has been one of no little difficulty. Domestic 
shelters and street surface shelters had been prej^ared against the onset of raids, 
but 'when night bombing began a year ago the public took the law into their 
own hands and invaded deep "tube" stations and other underground spaces 
where they felt themselves to be in greater security. These places had not 
been prepared as doxmitories, and sanitary and other arrangements were sadly 
lacking. Soon, however, provision was made for proper eciuipment and super- 
vision. Large numbers of shelters have been fitted with bunks; water-flushed 
toilets have been installed where possible; medical-aid posts have been estab- 
lished in all large shelters with doctors and nurses in attendance — incidentally 
much health education work is carried on and many children have been immunized 
against diphtheria in these shelters; canteens are available and entertainments of 
various kinds provided. And now it is right to say that reasonable shelter pro- 
vision has been made for a very large mass of the people. For example, by last 
April the total capacity of public and domestic shelters in the county of London 
amounted to 2}^ million persons. A census taken on April 7 showed that some 
23 percent of the people spent the night either in public shelters or in privately 
provided domestic shelters — about 8 percent being in public shelters including the 
deep "tube" stations. The rest of the people just stayed in their own homes or 
else used shelters provided by private means. It is of interest that we have had 
no epidemic disease associated in particular with shelter users nor has the incidence 
of vermin among such persons increased. 

THE INDUSTRIAL WORKER 

So far this war has been for us a war in which industrial workers have played 
an almost larger part than the members of the fighting services. It is fitting 
therefore that I should say something of the conditions under which industry 
is [being carried on and of the health of the persons employed. One of the penal- 
ties of a democracy appears to be that it takes a long time to get into its proper 
stride. This was so in Great Britain but the pace has been steadily increased 
and a gigantic effort is now being made. There have been many difficulties to 
overcome. New factories have had to be built, often in remote parts of the 
country. Workers have had to be drafted to them, and living accommodation 
found or provided for them in the neighborhood, or special means of transport to 
and from their homes arranged. Many workers have joined the services, so new 
entrants to industry have had to be trained, and women in large numbers are 
taking the place of men. All factories have to be blacked out as a precautionary 
measure against air raids — this raises problems of lighting and ventilation. 
Bombing attacks may be made while people are going to or leaving their work. 



9870 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Shopping for the family becomes very difficult when the womenfolk are employed 
in factories. Young children must be cared for while the mothers are at work, 
so wartime day nurseries are being everywhere established — often with the gen- 
erous help of American well-wishers. Special arrangements have to be made for 
medical care and welfare work in the new factory areas. 

After the evacuation of Dunkirk and the collapse of France in May 1940, a 
tremendous effort was put forth by industry. Longer and longer hours were 
worked, and it is interesting to record that in many factories there was actually 
a higher hourly output of work at the same time. This, however, as we knew 
from experience, could not last, and gradually output began to fall as a result 
of strain and fatigue. Time began to be lost through sickness and injury and 
workers became stale. Had the long hours continued there would undoubtedly 
have been a serious effect on health and efficiency. So a reduction of hours was 
introduced and some provision was made for holidaj's. It is true to say that 
there is little to gain and probably more to lose when the weekly hours of work 
exceed 60-65 for men and 55-60 for women. 

In spite of what our people have been through, I am glad to have the assur- 
ance of the Senior Medical Inspector of Factories that he finds no evidence that 
in general the health of the industrial worker has suffered materially. War 
conditions have, of course, resulted in the increase of certain industrial poison- 
ings. The most noteworthy increases are associated with the processes in- 
volved in the manufacture of TNT and are revealed in aniline poisoning, toxic 
jaundice, and in poisoning from nitrous fumes. There is, too, a higher incidence 
of poisoning from carbon monoxide owing to the greater use of blast and other 
furnaces in the making of munitions. In order to safeguard the health of factory 
workers the Minister of Labour has issued an order making compulsory, when 
thought necessary, medical supervision and nursing and welfare services in any 
factory concerned with the manufacture of munitions of war. In consequence, 
well oyer 100 full-time and nearly 400 part-time doctors have been appointed in 
munition factories as well as very large numbers of nurses. Welfare work too is 
spreading rapidly both within and in the districts surromiding factories. It 
is satisfactory that many factory owners who originally accepted such super- 
vision with great reluctance have later expressed their appreciation of its prac- 
tical value. We hope this increase in medical care and in welfare work in fac- 
tories will become a permanent part of our industrial organization. 

Before I leave the subject of industry, may I quote a few words from a report 
by the Senior Medical Inspector of Factories? Speaking of women, he says: 

"Of their keenness to do what they are required to do I have nothing to add to 
what is general knowledge, and, so far as it is possible to judge, the work upon 
which they are employed is well within their capacity. The idea that the ordinary 
conditions of work must be improved because women are to be employed is, I 
consider, unsound. In general, if the conditions are unsuitable for women they 
are equally unsuitable for men. It is true that some types of work are of them- 
selves unsuitable for women but that is an entirely different matter. At present 
there is work that has to be done that is a hazard to health and to life, both to 
men and to women, whatever precautions may be taken. The women, I believe 
are willing to share this risk with the men." 

SPIRIT OF THE CIVIL POPULATION 

You may ask how the civil population has stood up to the frightfulness they 
have had to endure. I may say right away that their spirit has been splendid 
and that, if anything, the women are even stouter-hearted than the men. As 
regards neurotic illnesses, here are the conclusions reached in a quite recent 
report to the Medical Research Council: 

"Air raids have not been responsible for any striking increase in neurotic illness. 
Crude figures from hospitals and outpatient clinics even suggest a considerable 
drop. 

"Reliable data from London and Bristol, and the impressions of good medical 
observers, indicate that after intensive raids there is a slight rise in the total amount 
of neurotic illness in the affected area, occurring chiefly in those who have been 
neurotically ill before. Neurotic reactions may not show themselves for a week 
or 10 days after the bombing; they usually clear up readily with rest and mild 
sedatives. Hysteria is unconnnon, anxiety and depression are the commonest 
forms of upset. 

"The incidence of neurotic illness has been low in fire-fighters and other workers 
in civil defense. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9871 

"Insanity has not increased, so far as figures are to hand, though more persons 
with senile deterioration have been admitted to mental institutions than before, 
because their relatives could not anj- longer look after them or the raids had in 
other ways disturbed their routine and their precarious adaptation. The same 
was true of some defectives. 

"Suicide has diminished both in England and in Scotland. 

"It is impossible to distinguish between neurotic illness due directly to air raids 
and that which may follow such secondary troubles as disruption ai^d loss of one's 
home, evacuation, difficulties in transport to and from work, or temporary loss 
of employinent. It is to the war as a whole, with its accumulated stresses, that 
people have had to adjust themselves, and signs of failure to do this can be taken 
as warning signals of neurosis. An increase in alcoholism would be such a sign; 
there is no evidence that there has been any increase of this sort. The rise in 
road and industrial accidents has been considerable; many causes are at work, 
the psychological ones among which have not been analyzed. There has similarly 
been a rise in juvenile delinquency; this cannot be regarded as tantamount to a 
rise in juvenile neurosis, but it suggests that the same environmental factors are 
at work as conduce to neurosis. 

FOOD RESTRICTIONS 

And now a few words about rationing and how the people are faring in s]:iite 
of some food restrictions. Only certain foods are rationed; these are meat, bacon, 
margarine, lard or cooking fats, cheese, tea, sugar, and jam. We have to register 
for milk and certain categories of the population are given priorities for milk, 
namely: expectant and nursing mothers and children up to the age of 18. Adults 
get what is left over, while persons suffering from certain kinds of illness have 
s]5ecial privileges. Under the national milk scheme, mothers and children under 5 
may obtain a pint of milk a day at a price of just over 3 cents or, if need be, free. 
School children, under the milk-in-schools scheme, may purchase, or be given 
without charge, in school, two-thirds of a pint daily at a cost of less than 1 cent 
for one-third of a pint. These school children, together with young persons between 
the ages of 14 and 18, may have delivered to their homes an additional half-pint 
of milk a day at the ordinary retail i)rice (at present about 7 cents a pint). During 
this year more than 3,000,000 persons have benefited under the national milk 
scheme— 276,000 expectant mothers, 73,000 infants under 1 year, and 2,700,000 
children aged 1 to 5. In addition, 2^:^ million children are getting milk under the 
milk-in-schools scheme. 

A national wheatmeal loaf, made from 85 percent extraction flour, is marketed 
at the same i^rice as white bread, and the medical profession has always urged 
that it should })e made the standard issue for the country. It has, however, been 
decided as a matter of policy that Ijoth types of loaf should be available, but that 
white flour should be enriched by the addition of thiamin. Vitamins A and D 
are added to all margarine, and preparations containing vitamins A, C, and D 
are available for all expectant and nursing mothers and for young children. 

A careful survey of the diets of 103 London families made in the spring of this 
year showed interesting results (table 1). 

The fact is that for a beleaguered citadel we are being very well fed indeed. 
There are difficulties in the distribution of foodstuffs. In some districts shop])ing 
is a much more troublesome business than in others. But sufficient food is either 
being produced in or is being brought into Great Britain to keep us all in good 
heart and fit for a pretty heavy day's work. The best way of overcoming dis- 
tribution difficulties is, we think, by extending communal feeding. One of our 
aims is to provide as many children as possible with a midday meal in school — I 
believe this will become a i)ermanent part of our educational program. At joresent 
about 6 percent of our school children are having a school dinner. The numbers 
are increasing rapidly and we hope during this winter to feed many more. Can- 
teens for factory workers, miners, dock workers, and building operatives are 
springing up everywhere. Nearly all the factories in which we can require the 
establishment of canteens serving hot meals have already made, or will shortly 
have made, such provision. British restaurants, financed by government, where 
the whole family may get a good meal at a cheap rate already number o\er 1,000 — 
another 400 will soon he opened. All these arrangements tend to make possible 
the eating of one square meal a day and enable the women of a household to enter 
industry without the worry of knowing how their families are to be fed. Of course, 
it is not easy to get together the equipment needed for communal feeding on such 
a vast scale, but it is being done with all possible speed. The old idea that an 
Englishman's house was his castle behind the walls of which he secured himself 

60396— 42— pt. 25 16 



9872 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



against all comers is no longer true. He has to share his castle with any person 
who may be officially billeted on him and, more than that, he may no longer eat 
his roast beef before his own fireside. If he wants a good meal at a cost within 
his means he may have to collect his bowler hat and his umbrella and betake 
himself to some communal feeding center. We are becoming a very different 
people from the race continental caricaturists poked fun at for so many years. 

Table 1 
consumption of nutrients per diet head daily 



Food expenditure per diet 
head, weekly 



Under 5s. (A). 

5s. to 7s. (B) 

7s. to 9s. 6d. (C)... 
Over 9s. 6d. (D)_.. 



Calories 



1,740 
2,090 
2,405 

2,747 



Protein 



Carbo- 
hydrate 



248 
283 
303 
352 



Fat 



57 
75 
94 
105 



Cal- 
cium 



0.37 
.51 
.60 

.77 



Iron 
mg. 



7.5 
9.3 
12.0 
12.1 



Vitamins I. U. 



2,341 
2,675 
3,646 
3,847 



Bi 



258 
326 
403 
452 



758 

953 

1,046 

1,2.54 



ACTUAL INTAKE EXPRESSED AS PERCENTAGE OF REQUIREMENTS BASED ON 
LEAGUE OF NATIONS STANDARDS 



Food expenditure per diet head 
weekly 



Under 5s. (A).. 
5s. to 7s. (B)..., 
7s. to 9s. 6d. (C) 
Over 9s. 6d. (D) 



Calories 



80 
91 
105 
120 



Protein 



95 
110 
128 



Calcium 



Iron 



75 
95 
117 
124 



Vitamins 



124 
130 



125 
154 
173 



128 
162 
180 
216 



ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITION' 

It is not sufficient to make dietary surveys and to calculate the calorie and 
other values of the food eaten. We must make as best we can some kind of actual 
assessment of nutrition in groups of the population in various parts of the country. 
The method of clinical assessment originally advocated by the Board of Education 
in respect of school children is much too dependent upon the whims and fancies 
of individual investigators. Some more accurate method must be used. We have 
agroup of nutritionists at Oxford who are trying toelaborate the necessary technique 
which must, I think, be a combination of dietary survey, laboratory control, and 
clinical examination. In this connection we are getting much help from the Rocke- 
feller Foundation and I hope that before long we shall l)e able to send teams of 
trained workers to selected areas to search for the earh^ and so far elusive signs 
of nutritional deficiencies. Up to the present I think I can say that with the 
means at our disposal we have not been able to find evidence that our people are 
suffering in any degree from malnutrition. I should be foolish, however, to feel 
easy in my mind as to the future. The margin of safety we possess must be very 
small. 

A great deal of food educational work has been going on. The Ministry of 
Food and the Board of Education have taken a prominent part in this, and I 
cannot speak too highly of the way in which the teachers of domestic subjects 
have gone out into the homes and the market places to give instruction to the 
public. Large new groups of people are becoming to some extent social workers 
and I have no doubt the experience will be of permanent benefit to them. Indeed, 
the whole of our health educational program has been stimulated by the war. 

TRAINED MANPOWER 

To keep all these wartime activities moving and to maintain existing services 
at as high a pitch of efficiency as possible has made enormous demands on our 
trained manpower — and nowhere more than in the case of doctors, dentists, 
nurses, and other officials of our health and medical departments. We have had 
endless difficulties over doctors and at the present moment we have a committee 
of well known medical men drawn from civil practice and from the Services 
actively engaged in trying to secure a better utilization of our diminishing resources. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9873 

Indeed, members of the committee are traveling about the country in an endeavor 
to see for themselves whether service and civilian needs cannot be pooled and 
dealt with by a single medical staff, and whether reductions in what are consid- 
ered minimum establishments cannot still be made. It is no easy matter to 
provide medical officers for our fighting services and for all the special kinds of 
work connected with first aid, shelters, emergency hospitals, and the like thrown 
up by the war — in addition to retaining enough, doctors to care for the civil 
population. Large numbers of women are joining the Civil Nursing Reserve and 
being given some training in nursing, but the competition of the uniformed 
women's services and of industry is very strong. Casualty work, of course, has 
its slack as well as its busy periods, and it is hard to determine what is exactly 
the insurance we should provide in the way of trained personnel standing by to 
meet any sudden emergency. 

I began by saying I would try to show you how the work of the medical officer 
of health had been affected by the war. I should like to close by saying that 
our health services have stood up well to the additional tasks placed upon them. 
Normal services have continued to function. Infectious disease during the war 
has, fortunatel}^, been no more than average. We must, however, keep always 
in mind the possibility that we may be living on the resources we have built up 
over a period of years. The increase in the incidence of tuberculosis, with the 
heaviest mortality falling on the female age group 15-25, gives us concern and 
we are trying to determine the possible causes of this increase. We must ever 
be on the watch for these unfavorable trends. 

We may have been slow to realize that war in Europe was inevitable and slow 
to appreciate the magnitude of the issues even once the battle had been joined. 
There is now no misunderstanding of the situation. Every man and every 
woman knows that if this war is to be won it can be won only by each one putting 
forth the greatest effort of which he is capable. This is what we are approaching 
now. Those of us who are in some measure responsible for the planning of things 
are constantly looking to the future and endeavoring so to meet the present 
emergency as to derive some permanent good from the measures we adopt. For 
war, though a great destroyer of things worth preserving, may yet almost over- 
night open the door to progress and reform that in peacetime would have meant 
years of constant striving. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. HUNTINGTON WILLIAMS— Resumed 

Dr. Williams. The Commissioner of Health of Baltimore, while 
in England, could not but observe current health-administration 
practices in that country, and has had the following to say in regard 
to the relations on the local level between air-raid civil-defense work 
and official public health endeavor: 

As a health officer it was a bit distressing to nie to notice that this great task 
of administering the local emergency medical and hospital services for the current 
war was often assigned to the medical officer of health of the community. In 
England it appears to have been customary to overload local health departments 
with administrative cares and duties such as hospital administration and medical 
care and other such work so that the essential preventative duties of a health 
department, for which it was originally created, are to some degree starved by 
lack of available time and attention and budgets. 

Here in the matter of medical and other air raid precaution services for civilian 
defense in a blitz war this pattern has again been frequently followed with an 
unfortunate decrease of health-officer attention to many primary duties and 
responsibilities. The result is, in part, large numbers of children and others 
unprotected against smallpox and diphtheria, large volumes of unpasteurized 
milk in urban communities, little or no industrial hygiene as health department 
work, and syphilis and tuberculosis far from where they could be so far as ade- 
quate community control is concerned. It would seem unfortunate if we did 
not learn, in this country, something of value from these lessons. i 

This is read because I was asked to bring into this panel the lessons 
we learned from British experience. 

I would like now to turn the meeting over to Dr. Atwater. 



1 See American Journal of Public Health, February 1942, p. 140. 



9874 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Dr. Atwater. Mr. Chairman, I think that this testimony should 
stand for itself. 

It is, as you know, impossible to summarize it except to repeat 
what has been said. 

We shall be glad to answer any questions that members of the 
committee may have. 

The ChaiRxMan. Doctor, we would be only too interested in asking 
you questions, because this has been tremendously interesting to us, 
but we have still to hear from Mr. MacDonald who is waiting for us. 
He has to rush back to Canada. 

Mr. Curtis. I have one or two questions. 

Do you anticipate a big increase of mental cases because of the 
war, and, if so, what are you going to do about it? 

Dr. Atwater. I should like to document what I have to say by 
referring to what Sir W ilson Jameson says, in the record which has 
just been filed with you, that, interestingly enough, the British 
population has been so absorbed in doing things of that preventative 
and constructive nature that the rate of mental diseases has not in- 
creased as expected there, so if we can use the English experience 
as a parallel, we do not expect a large increase. 

Perhaps other members would like to supplement that brief state- 
ment. 

Mr. Sparkman. Isn't it too early for that to have developed even 
in England? Doesn't it come as an aftermath rather than concurrent? 

Dr. Atwater. It was expected to come during the attacks. When 
I was in England that was anticipated and a number of beds were 
set aside with that in mind. I think it was shown that during the 
blitz itself they have not been needed as much as was expected. 

The Chairman. Dr. Atwater and members of the panel, we are 
deeply grateful to you for coming here and I know that you have 
made a valuable contribution that will be deeply helpful to us in 
making our report to Congress. 

Mr. MacDonald is our next witness. 

TESTIMONY OF MALCOLM MacDONALD, BRITISH HIGH COM- 
MISSIONER FOR CANADA, TORONTO, CANADA 

The Chairman. Mr. MacDonald. You are the son of Ramsay 
MacDonald, are you not? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now, what position do vou occupy now, Mr. 
MacDonald? 

Mr. MacDonald. I am the British Government's representative, 
called the High Commissioner in Canada. 

The Chairman. In Canada? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes. 

The Chairman. And you were formerly Minister of Health, were 
you not? 

. Mr. MacDonald. Yes; 1 was Minister of Health right through 
the blitzkrieg in Enorland. 

The Chairman. Congressman Curtis will ask the questions. 

Mr. Curtis. May we first ask that you sketch briefly the Ministry 
of Health at war, indicting first the major services it provided before 
the war and then developing for us the ways in which these services 
have been modified and new services added to meet war conditions. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9875 

Mr. MacDonald. Well Mr. Chairman and members of the com- 
mittee, you will appreciate that is a very broad subject. I will do 
my best to touch upon the high spots of a very wide field. It has a 
whole range of mountain peaks, but I will travel over those peaks 
as rapidly as I can. 

Air. Curtis. May I suggest that it is the custom of the committee 
to welcome written statements. If you wish to amplify this and 
send us a statement, we will keep our record open for about 10 days, 
so that would enable you to treat the matter as briefly as you see fit 
this morning. 

PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM 

Mr. MacDonald. I will keep that in mind. One of the main 
activities of the Ministry of Health in peacetime was to provide, 
through the proper agencies, healthy housing conditions for our entire 
population. In fact, in the 20 years between the last war and this 
war, the Ministry of Health, through the constitutional agencies, 
has rehoused one-third of the entire population of the island. That 
slum clearance and housing activity had reached a tremendous 
pitch by 1939. 

That was certainly one of the main activities of the Ministry in 
peacetime. Now the war has stopped that almost completely, 
because we wanted to conserve our building labor and our building 
materials — bricks, tiles, window glass, and the rest of it — for abso- 
lutely essential war building purposes. 

We had to build airplane factories; we had to expand docks; the 
house-building activity of the Ministry of Health has ceased entirely, 
except for one kind: The construction of houses which are needed in 
growing munitions towns and in dockyards and elsewhere, where large 
extra populations are coming in and where at present there is no hous- 
ing accommodations for them. 

Apart from that, the major activity of the Ministry of Health 
before the war has ceased. 

HEALTH INSURANCE 

A second great branch of the activity of the Ministry before the war 
was the administration of our health-insurance scheme by which the 
workers — men and women — in the insured industries, made contribu- 
tions, the employers made contributions, the state made contributions, 
and out of the fund which was so raised these workers, when they fell 
ill, got free medical attention, free provision of medicines, and were 
paid sickness benefits and disablement benefits during the period that 
they were off work. 

The Chairman. Mr. MacDonald, were those voluntary contribu- 
tions or compulsory? 

Mr. MacDonald. Those were compulsory for workers within a 
certain income and wage limit. 

We attached such importance to maintaining the health of our 
people and especially, of course, of our industrial population during 
the war, that we have actually expanded that health-insurance scheme 
since the war began. We have expanded it in two ways. 



9876 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

First of all. we have increased the rates of sickness and disablement 
benefits so as to bring them into line with the increased cost of living; 
secondly we have put up the income limit for compulsory insurance. 

The top wage used to be, if you will forgive me quoting figures in 
sterling, 250 pounds a year, and now that maximum has been in- 
creased to a wage of 420 pounds a year, so that we have brought into 
our national health insurance a very much larger body of workmen 
and workwomen. We have brought in many of what we would call 
the black-coated workers. 

SUPERVISION OF PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES 

The third great branch of the normal peacetime activity of the 
Ministry was a general supervision of the public-health provisions and 
facilities throughout the country. They looked after generally, 
through the local authorities, the maternity and child-welfare clinics, 
maternity homes, the general municipal hospital service, clinics for the 
treatment of venereal diseases and other public health services. 

We attached such great importance, from the point of view of the 
physical fitness of our population under war strain and also from the 
point of view of maintaining morale, to keeping up the public health 
services, that what we have done since the war is actually not to lessen 
them but to expand them. 

Perhaps I might give, quite briefly, two or three typical examples of 
the expansion which has taken place. 

We attached great importance to nutrition and one of the principal 
items in a great program of nutrition improvement has been a nation- 
wide scheme for giving inexpensive milk — in the cases of very poor 
families, free milk — to all expectant mothers and nursing mothers and 
infants. 

In other ways w^e have improved the nutrition, for example, by 
increasing greatly the facilities for free midday meals for all school 
children, and the menu at those meals is one which is not only palatable 
but is also scientific. 

Then we have increased enormously during the war our govern- 
ment expenditure on the inoculation of children against diseases like 
diphtheria. 

We have increased very greatly our financial contribution and the 
facilities that we provide for the treatment of venereal diseases and 
we have made it possible, by giving the local authorities the necessary 
finance, for them to protect the whole of their water supply against 
possible bacteria wdiich would promote disease in the population, by 
financing the introduction of chlorinating plants. 

As I say, those are some of the outstanding examples of a very 
considerable expansion of our public-health provision which we 
thought to be necessaiy in war conditions. 

Then I come to the new services which have fallen on the Ministry 
of Health during the war. 

EVACUATION OF CHILDREN 

First of all, as you know, there has been a very large evacuation, 
especially of mothers and children, from our target towns. At the 
height of the blitz, for instance, 85 percent of the entire child popu- 
lation had left London and gone into the countrvside. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9877 

That was not a compulsory movement; it was a voluntary move- 
ment. 

The Ministry of Health was responsible for organizing the whole of 
that movement at both ends. At the end from which these people 
left, they had to organize the children through the local authorities, 
into school pai'ties, their teachers with them, to evacuate them from the 
target towns to other parts of the country. At the other end the 
Ministry of Health was the central Government department responsi- 
ble for their reception, for their billeting, for their medical care, for 
their being provided with food and all the other amenities of life in 
their new locality. 

Well, now, that raised the public health problem immediately^ 
Hundreds of thousands of women and children left the big cities- 
where there was already good provision for public health. There 
were good maternity and child welfare clinics; there were good hos- 
pitals; there were good maternity homes and the rest. They were 
scattered, and crowded, into the rural areas. The provision for 
public health in these areas was adequate for their normal populations,, 
but hopelessly inadequate to look after this increased population. 
Yet they w^ere living under conditions which were somew^hat over- 
crowded and proper care for their public health became more impor- 
tant than ever. 

PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY SERVICE 

Well, the ]\Iinistry of Health provided the local authorities with all 
the finances which were necessary, gave 100-percent grants for every- 
thing that was required, and we very swiftly improvised a public 
health service right through rural Britain which had existed before 
but only on a small scale. We increased it enormously. 

For instance, we provided free medical care -for all the school 
children who were evacuated. Besides that we had to increase hos- 
pital accommodations, accommodations for nurseries for infants, 
accommodations for prenatal clinics and maternity homes and con- 
valescent homes, and so on. What we did was borrow from the well- 
to-do and, if necessary, commandeer, as was necessary in some cases, 
but not many, from the well-to-do their great country mansions and 
manor houses. If you go to those great stately homes of England 
today you will not find living in them their old owners; they are 
doing war jobs elsewhere. You will find that many of them are 
residential nursery schools filled with children from London or Bir- 
mingham or Plymouth or somewhere else, and there they live and 
become healthy, wnth their own teachers, their own nurses, and their 
own staffs. 

Others are maternity homes; others are hostels for the aged and 
infirm; others are convalescent homes, and so on. We have acquired 
those buildings in order to create a very efficient public health service 
for caring for the much larger population now living in rural England. 

HOSPITAL SERVICES 

Another job that the Ministry of Health was given was the care, 
not only of the soldiers wounded in battle and brought back to the 
base hospitals in Britain, but also of civilians injured in air raids. 



9878 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

We were told that we should need 1,000,000 beds to do the job. 
Well, it never got up to that figure and it never proved anything like 
necessary, but we did have to expand very greatly the whole of our 
hospital service. 

We did that by taking over many of the existing voluntary hospitals, 
many of the existing municipal hospitals, and many of the country 
houses of England which weren't being used for some of these other 
purposes which I have mentioned. We added to a lot of those 
buildings new huts with up-to-date wards and operating theaters 
and X-ray departments, and we created an emergency hospital 
service which would be capable of looking after all the wounded 
who were likely to come out of the air raids oh Britain. 

In order to administer and staff that enlarged hospital service we 
got the help of the medical profession and the nursing profession. 
jMany of our most distinguished specialists and surgeons and doctors 
gave up their private practices completely, or else gave a very much 
smaller amount of time to them, and came into this emergency hos- 
pital and emergenc}^ medical service as administrators and as doctors 
and surgeons. Of course we also had to increase very largely the 
nursing staff of those establishments. 

Let me mention another of the new war services which fell to the 
Ministry of Health: The care of the homeless. 

CARE OF THE HOMELESS 

We had an enormous number of houses damaged, out of which 
the inhabitants would emerge, curiously enough, without a scratch, 
from their various domestic shelters. We had, after a serious raid 
in a single city, sometimes 10, sometimes 20, 30, 40, or even 50 thou- 
sand people, who had a roof over their heads the night before but 
whose roof had disappeared, and they had to be cared for. The 
Ministry of Health was responsible for that job and again working 
through the local authorities we created, all over the target cities 
and towns, in schoolrooms, in church halls, in parish halls, and 
other handy buildings, what were called food and rest centers for the 
homeless. The people made homeless after each new raid came 
immediately to those places where there was hot food and hot drinks, 
where there were warm clothes, blankets, bedding, and all the other 
things required, and those homeless people stayed in those centers 
until they could be found accommodations among their neighbors 
and their friends, or in hostels which were established, or until they 
could be evacuated to new homes in the countryside. 

The whole of that duty fell upon the Ministry of Health, and I 
might mention very briefly two or three other of the emergency services 
for which the Ministry was responsible. It had to look after all the 
repairs to the houses which were damaged. You will appreciate the 
importance of that from the point of view of preserving morale. 

If a family was made homeless in a raid and its house had received 
only superficial damage, it was a matter of great importance to 
repair that damage as rapidly as possible so that the family could go 
back and live in their own home and accustomed domestic surroimd- 
ings in 2 or 3 days, and we did, in the course of the 9 months or so of 
blitz, repair many many hundreds of thousands of houses and got 
their inhabitants back into them. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9879 

In the same way the Ministry of Health was responsible for the 
repair of water mains and gas mains and electricity systems through 
the local authorities, and again it was a matter of vital importance in 
order to maintain morale. 

You had to have the taps running in people's houses as soon as 
possible after the raid ; you had to have the gas and electricity work- 
ing, so they could cook, and have light in the evenings, and so on^ 
ancl the Ministry of Health was given that job. 

AIR RAID SHELTERS 

Finally — and this also was important from the point of view of 
maintaining morale and public health — many people in the raids 
went down to big air-raid shelters and in some of those big air-raid 
shelters thousands and thousands of people congregated. Now in 
the winter of the raids the enemy's planes might be over a city right 
through the night, hour after hour, and night after night, and in fact 
many of our pepole were working during the day, doing their 8 hours 
work during the day and then coining straight back in the dark early 
winter evenings to their air-raid shelters. They were living 10, 12, 
14 and in some cases 16 hours every day in those places. 

There was obviously a great risk to public health, and to meet that 
the Ministry of Health, again through the local authorities, estab- 
lished in all those big air-raid shelters, medical aid posts which became 
regular dispensaries. Every kind of medicine and other things that 
you could require for any more or less minor ailment, was there; 
there were trained nurses in constant attendance, there all the time; 
and doctors visited each of those shelters every single night, and they 
were always on call. The provision of those medical-aid posts with 
the nurses and the doctors in attendance was one of the reasons why 
we got through the period of the blitz without any serious epidemic. 

There were cases where an epidemic was on the verge of starting 
n this or that shelter, but by clearing people out for 24 hours and 
getting onto the job of cleaning the places before anybody was allowed 
in again, it was checked at the very beginning. 

Those are only the high spots of the Ministry of Health's activities 
in the war. I would like to make this one comment; it is something 
which I have really emphasized already: 

The Government never stinted any money for any of these activi- 
ties, because we felt that the work of repair to damaged houses, water 
mains and gas mains, as well as aid to human beings, was a matter of 
absolutely first importance to maintaining the physical, mental, and 
spiritual fitness of that great civilian population fighting a war on its 
own doorsteps. 

Mr. Curtis. You have given us a very fine picture of the splendid 
work that you have done. 

I might ask you to mention how the Ministry of Health enlisted the 
assistance of local authorities and volunteer organizations in its woik. 

Mr. MacDonald. In order to fight this war on the home front, we 
established in Britain a Government machine which was constructed 
in three tiers. 



9880 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

WORKED IN THREE TIERS 

There were separate Government authorities performing distinct 
functions at three different levels. At the top was the National Gov- 
ernment, the Central Government: Its function was to lay down the 
general lines ot policy for the Nation as a whole. 

In the middle, we divided the country into about a dozen areas 
that we called regions, and in each of those regions there was a regional 
commissioner, with a very large expert staff". Their fimction was to 
act as a liaison between the Central Government and the local author- 
ities which were at the third level, and also their function was to co- 
ordinate the activities of the smaller local authorities in their area. 

At the third level were these local authorities. They were the 
agents for carrying out, in this city or that town or that group of vil- 
lages, the whole of the policy laid down by the Central Government. 

To quote Mr. Churchill, "we gave them the tools and they did the 
job." The local authorities were enlisted to do all these jobs in 
their areas: The housing department of the local authority, for in- 
stance, looked after the homeless and disabled; the engineering depart- 
ment of the local authority locked after the repair of water mains, 
gas mains, sewage mains, and the rest of it; the public health depart- 
ment of the local authority looked after the maternity homes, the 
nursery schools, and the new clinics of all sorts. 

The Chairman. The local health agencies cleared through the 
Ministry of Health, didn't they? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes. They got their orders from the Ministry 
of Health, and they simply carried out, in each small locality, those 
orders. Any extra cost which was required by them, to do their job 
arising out of the war emergency, was provided by the Ministry of 
Health at the center. 

VOLUNTEER ASSISTANCE 

Mr. Curtis. Did a great many of your people volunteer to assist 
without pay? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes. A good many without pay. You see, 
the local authorities had to do those jobs and, as one of the last people 
giving testimony said, it unloaded a tremendous lot of responsibility 
on already rather overworked public health officers, and other officers 
of the local authority. They couldn't have done it by themselves, 
and that was where the voluntary societies came in. 

There were thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, 
of people who were ready to help the local authorities on the spot, and 
the local authorities brought them in, gave them the appropriate jobs 
which they were trained and qualified to do, and managed to do the 
job with the help of this large body of volunteers. 

Just to give one example: I have spoken about the food and rest 
centers for the homeless, -where they come, immediately after a raid, 
to be cared for and to be made comfortable and to have food and drink 
and rest. Well, those places were staffed very largely by voluntary 
workers. 

The average staff for a center is five people. Perhaps two of those 
would be local government officials and the other three would be volun- 
tary workers, welfare workers, who were trained to do that kind of job. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9881 

Mr. CuETis. Did you find that some of those voluntary workers 
were eventually graduated into a job that paid wages? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. Because they, perhaps, lost their job due to war effort? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes. Many of the jobs were regularly paid 
jobs and, as you say, a lot of the volunteers would graduate into those 
as it became necessary. But other jobs were unpaid, and it worked 
itself out: Those who wanted pay got a pay job; those who wanted to 
work on a voluntary basis stayed on the unpaid jobs. 

civilian defense 

Mr. Curtis. Was the civilian defense in England handled by the 
military or a civilian department? 

Mr. MacDonald. By a civilian department. We thought that the 
service departments had their own job to do in fighting the war on 
the military fronts. We established an entirely new civilian depart- 
ment called the Ministry of Home Security, which didn't exist until 
about a year before the war, to do this whole job of the actual pro- 
tective and defensive services of the war on the home front. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you mention, or list, the main services of this 
Ministry of Home Security? We would like to know about that. 

Mr. MacDonald. Thej^ were responsible for what might be called 
the protective jobs; let me just mention some typical examples: 

They were responsible for providing, through the local authorities, 
the air-raid shelters for the civilian population in all the vulnerable 
areas. 

They provided the small domestic shelters, the Anderson and 
Morrison shelters, as they are called. 

They provided the steel and concrete strengthening of basement 
shelters of all sorts, and they provided and equipped these large air- 
raid shelters. 

The Ministry of Health came in only when it was a question of 
looking after the health of people in those shelters. We provided the 
medical-aid posts and the nurses and the doctors, and all the rest: 
the ventilation, the sanitation, the putting in of bunks, the creating 
of a structure which was proof against blasts was the work of the 
Ministry of Home Security. 

Mr. Curtis. How about the auxihary firemen and policemen? 

Mr. MacDonald. That was under Home Security. Home Se- 
curity looked after shelters, provision of gas masks for the civilian 
population, and all these civilian services: air-raid wardens, rescue 
squads who dug out the living from under the ruins, auxiliary fire 
brigades who put out the fires, the fire watchers who stood on the 
roof and put out incendiary bombs as they came down, and so forth. 

All those civil defense services were organized under the Ministry 
of Home Security. 

Mr. Curtis. What agency has administered direct relief to meet the 
various types of dependents arising from the emergency? 

PROVISION or direct relief 

Mr. MacDonald. A great many agencies. First, the services: 
The Army, Navy, and Air Force. The dependency allowances of 
those were paid by the service departments themselves. They were 
responsible for that. 



9882 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Then there were allowances for wives and dependents of munitions 
workers, who had to work away from their homes. That was looked 
after by the Ministry of Labor. 

Then there was the whole question of pensions to wives and depend- 
ents of people killed because of the activities of the enemy — service 
people, civil-defense people, or munitions workers. The payment of 
those pensions was looked after by the Ministry of Pensions. 

Then there was a question of paying compensation to uninjured 
people who had lost their homes, their clothes, their furniture, and 
their possessions. They were paid immediately, to get new clothes, 
new furniture, and the rest. Those moneys were paid out by our 
assistance board which had great experience in making payments to 
needy people, and different classes of dependents. Civilians who had 
needs arising out of the war were cared for by different departments 
which had special experience in those particular jobs. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. MacDonald, I assure you that the committee has 
appreciated your coming here, and the very interesting and valuable 
statement that you have given us. 

The Chairman. Mr. MacDonald, just a question or two. From a 
geographical standpoint, you can readily see that we have a different 
problem here in the United States than you have in England. I 
understand that the area of England is about the same as that of 
Oregon. 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes. 

The Chairman. You have about 40,000,000 people? 

Mr. MacDonald. About 45,000,000 people. 

The Chairman. About these air-raid shelters — have you a sufficient 
number of them to take care of all the people on the island? 

\h-. MacDonald. Yes. We divided our tiny island into the safer 
arers. No area was safe, but there were degrees of safety, and it was 
macie compulsory that the local authorities in the vulnerable areas 
should provide air-raid shelter for their entire population. Today 
there is provision for air-raid shelter in those places for nearly 
25,000,000 people, which is the entire population of those areas. 

The Chairman. Coming back to the question that England and 
the United States do not present a comparable picture. 

We have our county health officers, and our city health officers, 
and State health officers, and to coordinate them through a clearing 
house here in Washington is going to be some job. 

Mr. MacDonald. I see that. I realize that what I have said isn't 
necessarily a comment at all on what conditions might be here, or 
what should be done here. It is a pure statement of fact, of how we 
have tackled our particular problem in Britain. Yours will be, in 
many ways, quite different. We appreciate that. 

The Chairman. From what you say, I glean the conclusion that 
really the health of England today is as good, if not better, than in 
pre-war days. 

Mr. MacDonald. Touch wood. It is as good, and probably better 
now than it was before the war. 

air-raid alarms 

The Chairman. What do you do about air-raid alarms over there? 
Mr. MacDonald. Well, again, that is one of the duties of the 
Ministry of Home Security. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9883 

They have to see that, in every part of the country, there is proper 
provision for giving the air-raid alarm. We give the alarm by sirens. 
I don't know at what distance apart the sirens are placed in London, 
but London must be covered by hundreds of sirens. They are set up 
on the tops of high buildings, and there is nobody in any part of 
London, or any part of any other city or town or village in England, 
who can't hear one or the other of the air-raid sirens when they 
blow. 

The Chairman. We were supposed to have some here, but no one 
has ever heard them, so far. 

Mr. MacDonald. We have shens all over the place. If I started 
from my home in Hampstead and went straight down to my office 
in the middle of London, I would probably pass 20 or 30 air-raid 
sirens as I motored down. 

The Chairman. You don't take Hess and put him in an air-raid 
shelter, do you? 

Mr. MacDonald. No. We keep him in a safe place, though. 

The Chairman. Was there anything else? 

Dr. Lamb. If I understand you correctly, Mr. MacDonald, the 
Ministry of Health corresponds, in general, to the work of the Fed- 
eral Security Agency in this country and the Ministry of Home 
Security corresponds, in general, to the Office of Civilian Defense? 

Mr. MacDonald. In general, yes. 

Dr.. Lamb. In the work it is called on to do? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes. As I understand it, that is true, although 
I think that your Federal Security Agency covers a wider field than 
our Ministry of Health. 

Dr. Lamb. It covers some of the things which would be covered 
by the Ministry of Labor and the National Service? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes; and some of the things, I think, even 
•covered by our Board of Education. 

Dr. Lamb. Yes. The Office of Education is included. But the 
Ministry of Health is really — or properly, perhaps — labeled as the 
Ministry of Health and Welfare? 

Mr. MacDonald. Exactly. Yes, absolutely. Especially in wartime. 

The Chairman. Mr. MacDonald, we are certainly very grateful to 
you for coming here this morning. It has been a very valuable con- 
tribution. The committee will extend you the courtesy, if, as a 
result of this hearing, you want to add anything in written form, of 
keeping the record open, because it becomes a permanent record of 
Congress, you see, and we make our report to Congress based on these 
hearings. So anything that you want to send in will be incorporated 
in the record just as if you had so testified this morning. Thank you 
very much. 

Mr. Abbott. Mr. Chairman, I should like at this time to offer for 
the record a group of exhibits from sources not represented by 
witnesses. 

The Chairman. The exhibits will be made a part of the record. If 
there is nothing further, the committee will stand adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 1 p. m., the committee adjourned, subject to the 
-call of the chairman.) 



EXHIBITS 

Exhibit 1. — Housing Supply and Demand in Washington, D. C, 

Locality 

REPORT BY C. F. PALMER, COORDINATOR, DIVISION OF DEFENSE HOUSING 
COORDINATION, OFFICE FOR EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

1. What was the vacancy index in the District of Columbia as of January 1, 1940.^ 
January 1, 1941? January 1, 1942? 

The vacancy index in the District of Columbia locality ^ derived from Work 
Projects Administration, Post Office and Census surveys and utility company data, 
show the decline in vacancies since May 1939. These figures cover vacant 
habitable units ready for occupancy, and include both rental vacancies and 
vacancies for sale onlv. 



May 1939.. _. 
January 1940 
January 1941 
January 1942 



District of 
Columbia 



Percent 
4.0 
3.9 
2.0 



Arlington 
and Alex- 
andria 



Percent 

3.6 

3.3 

2.5 

.5 



Close-in 
sections of 
Montgom- 
ery and 
Prince 
Georges 
Counties 



Percent 

3.8 
3.3 
2.8 
1.3 



2. What is your estimate of the number of single individuals who entered the 
District of Columbia to take up residence during the calendar years of 1940, and of 1941 
respectively? Kindly supply all information available as to estimated income dis- 
trib^ition of this group. 

3. What is yoiir estimate of the number of families and the total number of in- 
dividuals they comprise, who entered the District of Columbia to take up residence 
during the calendar years of 1940 and 1941 respectively? Kindly supply all informa- 
tion available as to estimated range of income distribution of this group. 

The data on in-migration are not available prior to January 1941. From April 
1940 to December 1940, 28,584 additional Government workers were hired in the 
District locality. 

Pre-war estimates prepared by this office on November 1941, were for the period 
of January 1, 1941, to July 1942 and were based on surveys as of August 1941. 
The expected number of Government and non-Government in-migrant workers 
for this period was 75,000, consi-sting of 37,500 workers in 30,000 in family groups 
(including some families with more than 1 worker) and 37.500 single persons. 

It was expected that a large number of multiperson families would not be com- 
plete when the primary wage earner came to the locality. However, housing 
accommodations would have to be made for these families to avoid fluctuation in 
employment. The Work Projects Administration survey (November 1941) on 
in-migration for the District of Columbia alone showed 14 percent of the 1- 
person families and 11 percent of the multiperson families had left a spouse or 
dependent children behind when they moved to Washington. It was estimated 
the eventual increase in population due to in-migrant workers having families 
would approximate 105,000 persons for the locality. The total increase in popula- 
tion (including single workers as well as those with families) was estimated at 
142,500. 



1 The District of Columbia locality includes the District of Columbia, Alcxandiia, Arlington County, 
Bethpsda, Brentwood, Caiiitol Heights, Fairfax County, Falls Church, GaitherFburg, Hyattsville, Mt. 
Rainier, Prince Georges County, Riverdale, Silver Sprin;;, Takonifi Park, Rockville, and Upper Marlboro. 

9885 



9886 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



The estimated income distribution of in-migrant families and single persons 
was based on the following: Bureau of Labor Statistics survey of living arrange- 
ment s.(Mav 1941): 



Income group 



Under $1,200 

$1,200 and under $1,560 
$1,560 and under $2,160 
$2,160 and under $3,240 
$3,240 and under $6,000 
$6,000 and ovpr 



Em- 
ployees — 
families 




100.0 



Em- 
ployees^ 
siniile 
persons 



4.9 
48.2 
32.5 
10.9 

3.3 
.2 



100.0 



4. 117(0/ are ijour present estimates of rented housing accommodations needed in 
the District for single individuals during 19J,2, classified according to rental levels'? 
For families, classified accotding to rental levels? Of houses needed for sale, classified 
according to cost? 

5. How many new units for rent did you estimate were needed in the District for 
194n For sale? 

Housing accommodations required have been estimated (November 1941) for 
the period of January 1, 1941 to July 1942, rather than for 1942, consistent with 
the immigration estimates above: 

Single individual accommodations required 37, 500 

Family dwelling units required for this period '34, 500 

The November 1941 Locality Program Report ^ issued by the Division of Defense 
Housing Coordination called for the construction by July 1942 of 7,500 small 
apartment units, adaptable either to occupancy by small families or groups of 
single persons, which can care for approximately 17,000 persons and 1,500 dormitory 
units to house 1,606 single persons, and 16,023 family units. It was believed that 
approximately half of the in-migrant single workers could be housed in existing 
buildings, without new construction. 

The rental levels required for single persons housed in dormitories varied from 
$18 to $25 per month. For single person occupant groups to be housed in small 
apartments, shelter rents required will vary from $30 to $45 per month for a typical 
two or three person group. 

Of the 16,023 family units required: 6,023 required shelter rents of $20 to $35 
per month; 10,000 required shelter rents of $35 to $50 per month (or $4,000 to 
$6,000 selling price) .3 

6. Of these, what percentage do you estimate can or will be built by private enterprise? 
How many should be built by Government agencies? 

For single person occupancy, all 7,500 small apartment type units and 1,606 
dormitory units will be l)uilt by Government agencies. 

For family occupancy, 63 percent can be built by private enterprise and 37 
percent should be built by Government agencies. 

7. How many new units, classified by rental levels, now in rented occupancy, ivere 
provided in the District in 1941 by private builders? By public building? 

8. How many new rental units, classified by rental levels, are now in process of 
construction in the District by public agencies? 

Privately financed homes. — Available data relate to units started, rather than to 
units now occupied. 

(a) Of the total of 21,500 privately financed family units started in the Distict 
of Columbia locality in 1941, nearly 55 percent or about 11,500 were rental units. 

The estimated rental levels are as follows: 



' Covers new construction needed for natural increase as well as for immigration. 

2 This program approximated the additional housing accommodations needed in the District of Columbia 
locality by July 1942, in excess of that provided in 1941, and is based on pre-war estimates of employment. 
The acceleration of Government employment during the latter part of 1941 and the increased estimates of 
employment due to the state of war are now being studied in terms of additional housing needs. The 
present indeterminate effect of decentralization of Government agencies and the probable more effective 
use of local labor supply are being considered in this evaluation of the probable additional housing needs. 

3 Under |)riority regulations tor eligibility for use of critical materials, shelter rents must be $50 per month 
or less or selling price $6,000 or below. Rental units are granted rating preference. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9887 

Rental housing units started during 1941 by estimated rental levels 



Contract rent 


Number of 
units 


Percent 


Actual 


Cumulative 


Under $30 


150 

2,500 

2,550 

2,900 

1,650 

650 

450 

650 


1.3 

21.7 

22.2 

25.2 

14.4 

5.7 

3.9 

5.6 


1.3 

23 


$30 to $39.99 


$40to $49.99 . 


45 2 


$50 to $59.99 .- -- ...-.- 


70 4 


$60to.$69.99 


84 8 


$70to $79.99 .... 


90 5 


$80 to .$89.99 


94 4 


Over $90 . - . 


100 






Total 


11, 500 


100.0 









In addition, 250 dormitory units were started by private enterprise, with mortgage financing provided 
by Reconstruction Finance Corporation Mortgage Co. 

Public defense housing. — (6) Under construction or completei' 



Family units 

Dormitory units. 




Programmed 
rentals 



$ll-$2fi.00 
$ll-$23. 50 
$20-$40. 00 
$20-$30. 00 



1 1,534 of the above units are complete. 

9. What are the total Federal appropriations allotted since May 1940 for housing 
in the District? 

No specific Federal appropriations have been allotted to the District of Colum- 
bia. 

Occupancy of defense projects under PA-781, PA-849 and PA-42 is restricted 
to families of industrial workers engaged in defense industries or families of 
workers stationed at military and naval posts or reservations. The vast majority 
of government employees are not eligible for housing under this legislation. 

The estimated cost of 3,580 homes programmed under construction or com- 
pleted under the terms of legislation above — $16,800,000.'' 

10. Hoiv many new units now in occupancy were constructed in the District in 
1941 for sale, classified according to cost? Of these, how many were constructed under 
Federal Housing Administration title VI? 

Housing for sale. — It can be estimated on the basis of data for 11 months that 
nearly 10,000 privately financed dwellings for sale were started in the District of 
Columbia locality during 1941. Until the Bureau of Labor Statistics- Work Projects 
Administration defense housing survey of the area has been made, an accurate 
distribution of these according to cost classes will not be available. 

On the basis of the Federal Housing Administration experience, it would 
appear that including the cost of the land the average valuation of sale houses in 
this area in 1941 was in excess of $6,000. In fact, more than half of the houses 
started during the year are believed to have had a value in excess of $6,000. It 
is expected that priority regulations, put into effect subsequent to September 15, 
1941, will emphasize the building for low-income families. 

Title VI. — The Federal Housing Administration inventory of its title VI 
operations in the locality discloses that as of November 30, 728 homes had either 
been completed or were still under construction. Of these, 145 were sold or for 
sale, 31 were available for either sale or rental, while the remaining 552 units were 
built or being built specifically for rental. 

11. What Federal appropriation did you estimate was needed for housing con- 
struction in the District for the year 1941 f 

* Not included are 1,453 United States Housing Administration-aided homes for construction by the 
Alley Dwelling Authority (low-rental projects to be used as defense housing) at estimated cost of $7,686,000. 
Also not included is the .$38,000,000 cost of the 2,250 dormitory units and the 7,500 small apartment units 
under construction or to be built by the Defense Homes Corporation. 



60396— 42— pt. 25- 



-17 



9888 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Estimates for housing needs were restricted to those workers eligible under 
PA-849 and PA-42. (See Question 9.) 

The estimated cost of the required 2,655 homes under that limitation was 
$12,500,000. The remaining 925 homes costing $4,300,000 cited in question 9 
above were allocated late in 1940. _ ■ i r.- • 

12. What Federal appropriation do you believe is needed for housing in the District 

for 1942 f 

Based on present estimates. — To provide for low income employees ot Govern- 
ment defense agencies otherwise ineligible under existing legislation, we believe 
a Federal appropriation of approximately $50,000,000 is needed to provide 
immediatelv for 4,500 homes to house low income families of defense workers and 
for additional needs that will arise in the coming months. 



Exhibit 2. — Housing Program to Meet the Needs of National 
Defense for the District Metropolitan Area 

Report by Washington Chapter, Federation of Architects, Engineers, 

Chemists and Technicians, Affiliated with Congress of Industrial 

Organizations 

Washington, D. C, January 14, 1942. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, 

Old House Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir: Confirming my recent telephone conversation with both your 
office and Mr. John W. Abbott, I have sent you under separate cover a copy of 
a report prepared by our committee titled, "Housing Program to Meet the Needs 
of National Defense for the District Metropolitan Area." I also wish to request 
that thfs statement and letter transmitting it be included in the record of the 
hearings to be held by your committee, January 13 to 15, 1942. 

May I point out that this program does not treat the housing needs of the 
District as those of a metropolitan area merely, but as those of our Nation's 
Capital and No. 1 defense center, as those of what is ironically enough both the 
nerve center and stepchild of our national defense effort. 

Supplementing the statement sent you under separate cover, we would like to 
stress the fact that the health and welfare of residents of the Capital as related 
to the adequate housing of families, cannot be left to the operations of private 
builders in either normal or present times. Today, the designation of Washing- 
ton, along with scores of other cities, as a defense area for the purpose of qualifying 
private building operations within both the terms of title VI of the Federal Hous- 
ing Administration and within the priority limitations concerning construction 
costs and rentals set by the Supply, Priorities, and Allocations Board, fails to 
insure the necessary construction of dwellings to meet the needs of the majority 
of families in the Nation's Capital. 

The volume of dwelling construction by private builders as pubhcized for the 
past year is misleading inasmuch as a large but generally unpubHcized portion of 
such dwellings are not within the financial reach of average, moderate-income 
families. This need in the Nation's Capital, as elsewhere, can only be met from 
public funds used to provide dwellings which would be permanent, planned 
improvements and, as necessary, which would permit slum-clearance and provide 
low-rental housing for low-income families after the emergency. 

In broad terms, we support the comprehensive program for the District of 
Columbia as proposd by the Division of Defense Housing Coordination, which 
calls for the construction of about 22,000 dwellings at a total cost of about 
$100,000,000. However, this should be considered as the minimum program 
only which is necessary to provide for the health, welfare, and morale of Federal 
defense employees, as" related to adequate housing facilities for the Nation's 
Capital. Steps should be taken by the Coordinator's office to supplement its 
proposals along the lines of our program. 

In addition to rtquiiing that the greater part of this housing be planned so as to 
become part of the long-term housing program of the District, an adequate portion 
of all housing to be constructed by private enterprise should be subject to cost 
limitations comparable to the provisions of the Lanham Act. The Coordinator's 
office should require that all privately built housing conform to the needs indicated 
by a careful market analysis of family incomes and needs. This is the only way 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9889 

that private enterprise should be permitted to build, in order to meet the needs of 
all families whose incomes are above the market served by housing built from 
public funds. The priority limitations of $6,000 cost and $50 monthly rentals 
are necessary ceilings but alone cannot insure an adequate supply of housing to 
suit representative income needs. 

Management policies for all housing built from public funds should be based on 
the proven policies of the United States Housing Authority, including graded, and 
therefore in part, noneconomic rents to suit income needs. 

We believe that the inclusion of these proposals is necessary to insure a defense 
housing program for the Nation's Capital which will contribute to the maintenance 
of the health, welfare, and morale of its residents. 

Thanking you for the courtesy of your consideration of these statements, I 
remain 

Respectfully, 

Robert M. Sentman, 
Chairman, National Defense Commitlee. 

(Program referred to above is as follows:) 

When President Roosevelt was forced by the threat of Hitlerism to declare a 
state of national emergency, members of nearly every housing authority in the 
country recalled the problems of housing during World War No. 1. Remembering 
those problems, they spoke out for immediate and adequate preparation and large 
appropriations in order to meet the housing needs which were soon to grow in- 
creasingly critical. They spoke strongly and unitedly — well over a year ago„ 
But Congress refused to see the extent of these needs. 

Washington, the one city in which real estate interests were relatively unharmed 
by the depression, continued to boom. Thousands of new workers poured into 
town and filled up the remaining housing vacancies and the credit side of the real- 
estate ledgers. While appropriating billions for guns and tanks. Congress paid 
little attention to the public housing program necessary to provide dwellings for 
the workers who are the ones who have to turn dollars into an "arsenal of demo- 
cracy i" Members of Congress are still blind to this essential part of the defense 
program. 

Washington is the No. 1 defense area of the Nation. The nerve center of the 
munitions and armaments program of the world's greatest industrial nation is 
the Nation's No. 1 stepchild. When will Congress awaken to the deplorable state 
of the Capital's facilities? To what extent must morale and eflRciency of em- 
ployees and their families be blunted before Congress realizes that Government 
employees are defense workers too? 

The passage of the Lanham Housing Act, as amended, by Congress provided 
$300,000,000 for defense housing — but over 90 percent of the defense workers 
of the District were excluded. The present amendment to extend this act and 
its scope has been held up in the House Buildings and Grounds Committee for 
over 4 months. 

Meanwhile, as one Washington columnist put it, "the politically paralyzed Dis- 
trict has been sitting quietly by while a major batch of defense gold earmarked 
for swollen defense cities has been gobbled down to the last wrinkled dollar 
* * * so rapidly have the political mittens dipped into the $150,000,000 fund 
provided by Congress last summer under the Lanham (community facilities) Act," 
while ignoring necessary community facilities such as hospitals, recreation cen- 
ters, water works, sewage-disposal plants, etc., for the District. Only a belated 
recognition within the past 10 days of the District's need forced the favorable re- 
consideration of a meager 3J'^ million dollars for these essential facilities. Obvi- 
ously Congress must appropriate additional funds to supply the District's expand- 
ing needs. 

Rent control for the District, as it may finally be passed, will still require 
vigilant supervision. No efforts have been made by the governments of Virginia 
and Maryland to secure the extension of rent control to the Metropolitan area 
beyond the District line, where so many Government workers already live and 
where so many more will live in order to work in the new decentralized office 
buildings. 

Despite all the discussion and agitation of issues by public officials, there is only 
one solution — more housing, under the coordinated administration of a single, 
responsible agency. 



9890 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

GUIDES TO THE HOUSING PROGRAM 

Washington is predominantly a city of white-collar workers. Approximately 
190,000 such workers are on the Government rolls here. Approximately two- 
thirds of these earn less than $2,000 a year. The percentage of non-Government 
employees earning less than $2,000 a year is considerably higher. 

A study by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in May 1941 showed that families in 
the $1,500 to $1,800 per year income group in Washington pay 33 percent of 
their incomes for rent. This is higher than any city in the whole country, and 
it is going up. According to a survey just completed by Work Projects Adminis- 
tration rentals for vacant dwellings have risen 13 percent since January of this 
year. 

But the problem is even more than one of high rents. Overcrowded boarding 
and rooming houses, unscrupulous proprietors, inadequate sanitary and recrea- 
tion facilities, inadequate inspection and policing — these are an important part of 
the critical situation today. Congress and responsible District officials must 
share the blame for shirking their responsibilities. An intelligent employer must 
look out for the welfare of his employees. 

The lowest income families, always the victims of exploitation, are being 
more cruelly exploited today. A recent survey by the Washington Housing 
Association in one of the worst slum sections of the city showed rent increases 
in 50 percent of the houses investigated. Only 12 percent of the dwellings 
showing rent increases had been repaired. These houses are not fit for habi- 
tation, even rent-free. Outside toilets, kerosene lamps, wood-stove heaters, 
backyard pumps, leaky roofs, broken windows, sagging floors and stairs — these 
are the things the poorest families get for their $14 to $28 monthly rent money. 

Thousands of men and women have come to Washington from the small town — 
lured by jobs at what seemed to be a living wage back home. Many of these 
workers give up the hopeless struggle to make ends meet, and go back home; 
one committed suicide. Such infamous conditions are causing hundreds of 
prospective employees to turn down defense jobs. 

Except for the comparatively small program of the Alley Dwelling Authority 
(about 2,700 dwelling units which barely cover the total number of dwelling units 
demolished or taken over for office space by the Federal Government) and despite 
the ballyhoo about residential building by private enterprise, practically nothing 
is being built for low-income families. During 1940 and the first quarter of 
1941, 60 percent of all new rental housing rented for more than $50 per month. 
Most rental units below that figure will be found miles outside the District in 
isolated developments. Low rental vacancies for Negro families are nonexistent. 
The overcrowding of poor Negro families has been made even more deplorable 
as the result of recent large scale demolition of low rental dwellings which they 
had occupied, in addition to overcrowding to make room for newcomers to the 
District. Hundreds of families now live one family to a room in buildings that a 
few months ago were single-family houses. For higher-income Negroes the 
supply is less than half the demand; which is a good way to maintain rents at 
extortionate levels, even above those for comparable dwellings for white families. 

These facts are so well known to interested civic-minded citizens that we 
believe that more than repeated publicity is necessary to break down the indif- 
ference and lethargy of Congressmen and District officials. We believe that an 
immediate public housing program must be put into effect at once. 

THE HOUSING PROGRAM FOR THE DISTRICT METROPOLITAN AREA 

1. Seven thousand five hundred new family dwellings to be built immediately 
from public funds in addition to those already planned, for defense workers who 
have recently moved into the District, including Government employees in 
defense agencies. These homes should rent at from $15 to $35 per month, and 
they would revert to the use of low-income families living in substandard housing 
after the emergency. 

2. Six thousand new small apartments to be built by limited dividend cor- 
porations for young married couples and single persons who have recently moved 
into the District. 

3. Twenty thousand new family dwellings to be built by the Alley Dwelling 
Authority for low-income families in the District, replacing a portion of the 
substandard dwellings in which they are at present forced to live. Fourteen 
thousand of these are needed for Negro families. Many of the workers in these 
families are either working in defense agencies or servicing them. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9891 

4. Seven thousand five hundred new family dwellings to be built with public 
funds for each additional 50,000 increase in population. These units would 
revert to the use of low-income families living in substandard housing after the 
emergency. 

5. Six thousand small apartments to be built by limited dividend corporations 
for young married couples and single persons, for every 50,000 additional increase 
in population. 

6. Five thousand single and double dormitory units to be built by limited 
dividend corporations and public funds for each 50,000 increase in population. 
Adequate recreational and community facilities should be provided and pro- 
vision made for cooperative operation of services. 

7. Strict adherence to the $6,000 selling price limitation and the $50 monthly 
rental limitation on private construction set by the Office of Production Manage- 
ment for priority construction in order to bring housing within the needs of 
defense workers not serviced by public funds. 

8. The Defense Housing Coordinator's office and the Federal Housing Ad- 
ministration should be required to set a quota to regulate the private construction 
of multiple dwellings so as to provide homes at rents from $35 to $40 per month. 
Such quotas should be based on the number of such dwellings required as estab- 
lished by careful market analysis of family needs and incomes. 

9. The acquisition of apartments and houses by the Federal Government for 
office use should cease immediately. Those already acquired should be returned 
to dwelling use at the earliest possible date. The necessary Government office 
buildings should be constructed at the same time, in accordance with a feasible • 
program of decentralization within the metropolitan area. 

10. Provision of necessary community facilities to take care of the needs of 
the increasing population — schools, hospitals, recreation centers, public utilities, 
and in relation to improved traffic facilities — must be made at the same time. 

11. Strict enforcement of existing building and health codes. Enactment of a 
housing code for the District. 

In conclusion it is further proposed that the entire housing program should be 
conducted under a centralized agency, including the Alley Dwelling Authority, 
the Alexandria Housing Authority, the Federal Housing Administration, the 
National Capital Park and Planning Commission, and others as necessary. The 
personnel of the Alley Dwelling Authority should be enlarged by the addition of 
representative civic interests of the District. 

It is obvious that the program herein outlined is not only practical but neces- 
sary. Time is of the essence, if governmental and other workers in the Nation's 
Capital are not to become the victims of further exploitation nor the prey of 
those malinfluences which are destructive of decent living standards, high morale, 
and efficiency. The defense efforts of residents of the Nation's No. 1 defense 
center should not be permitted to become impaired, inasmuch as everything 
necessary to the immediate initiation of this program is available — the authority, 
the source of funds, responsible leadership and trained personnel, and the desire 
of all patriotic citizens to make the Nation's Capital a model and to present our 
defense efforts here as an example to other cities throughout the entire Nation. 



Exhibit 3. — Civil Service Apportionment in the United States 
AND Possessions and Civilian Employment in the Executive 
Branch op the United States Government in the District of 
Columbia 

REPORT BY UNITED STATES CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The data for June 1940, December 1940, and June 1941 were taken from the 
Commission's semiannual reports of employment which exclude temporary em- 
ployees in substitute grades of the Post Office Department, while the data for 
September 1940, March 1941, and September 1941 were taken from the Com- 
mission's monthly reports of employment which ordinarily include such employ- 
ees. Therefore, in order to make the data comparable, as indicated in the 
tabulation, temporary employees in substitute grades of the Post Office Depart- 
ment have been excluded for all months. 



9892 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Condition of the apportionment at close of business Saturday, June 29, 1940 

Important. — Although the apportioned classified civil service is by law located 
only in Washington, D. C, it nevertheless includes only about half of the Federal 
civilian positions in the District of Columbia. Positions in local post offices, 
customs districts, and other field services outside of the District of Columbia which 
are subject to the Civil Service Act are filled almost wholly by persons who are 
local residents of the general community in which the vacancies exist. It should 
be noted and understood that so long as a person occupies, by original appoint- 
ment, a position in the apportioned service the charge for his appointment con- 
tinues to run against his State of original residence. Certificates of eligibles are 
first made from States which are in arrears. 



State 



IN ABEEARS 

1. Virgin Islands 

2. Puerto Rico 

3. Hawaii 

4. Alaska 

6. California 

6. Texas 

7. Louisiana 

8. Michigan 

9. Arizona.- 

10. South Carolina.. 

11. Mississippi 

12. New Jersey. 

13. Ohio 

14. Alabama 

15. Arkansas 

16. Oeoreia 

17. Oklahoma.. 

18. Kentucky 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 



660 

157 

25 

2,426 

2,489 

898 

2,069 

186 

743 

859 

1,727 

2,840 

1,131 

792 

1,243 

1,024 

1,117 



Number 
of posi- 
tions 
occupied 





44 

17 

8 

872 

1,022 

425 

1,009 

98 

415 

516 

1,039 

1,720 

691 

. 489 

792 

664 

740 



State 



IN ARREARS — Continued 

19. North Carolina 

20. New Mexico.- 

21. Tennessee. 

22. Illinois 

23. Nevada. 

24. Wisconsin 

25. Indiana.. 

26. Connecticut 

27. Florida 

28. Delaware 

29. Idaho 

30. Vermont 

31. Oregon... 

32. Montana 

33. Maine 

34. Wyoming 

35. West Virginia 

36. Massachusetts 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 



1,355 

181 

1,118 

3,260 

39 

1,256 

1,384 

687 

627 

102 

190 

154 

408 

230 

341 

96 

739 

1,816 



Number 
of posi- 
tions 
occupied 



91ft 
125 
848 

2,597 
32 

1,049- 

1,120 
619 
576 
95 
178 
145 
387 
224 
333 
94 
731 

1,810 



State 



IN EXCESS 

37. New Hamsphire. 

38. North Dakota. .. 

39. Missouri 

40. Washington. 

41. Kansas 

42. Pennsylvania 

43. Rhode Island 

44. New York 

45. Utah 



Num- 


Num- 


Net 


ber of 


ber of 


gain 


posi- 


posi- 


or loss 


tions to 


tions 


smce 


which 


occu- 


July 


entitled 


pied 


1, 1939 


199 


200 


+ 12 


291 


293 


-34 


1,551 


1,566 


-2 


668 


675 


-3 


804 


819 


-47 


4,115 


4,231 


+263 


294 


303 


-20 


5,379 


6,572 


+368 


217 


229 


+13 



State 



IN EXCESS— continued 

46. Minnesota... 

47. Colorado 

48. Iowa 

49. South Dakota 

50. Nebraksa 

51. Virginia 

52. Maryland.. 

53. Dist. of Columbia... 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


posi- 


posi- 


tions to 


tions 


which 


occu- 


entitled 


pied 


1,095 


1,178 


443 


481 


1,056 


1,166 


296 


332 


589 


730 


1,035 


2,051 


697 


2,104 


208 


8,851 



Net 
gain 

or loss 
since 
July 

1, 1939 



-62 
+34 
-33 
+3 
+11 
-48 
+ 16 
-46 



By appointment. 

By transfer 

By reinstatment. 
By correction 



Total. 



295 

27 

9 

1 



332 



LOSSES 

By separation 59 

By transfer. 43 

Total 102 

Total appointments 53,311 



Note. — Number of employees occupying apportioned positions who are excluded from the apportionment 
figures under sec. 3, rule VII, and the Attorney General's opinion of Aug. 25, 1934, 16,783. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9893 

Condition of the apportionment at close of bvsiness Monday, Sept. SO, 1940 



State 



IN ARREARS 

1. Virgin Islands 

2. Puprto Rico 

3. Hawaii 

4. California 

5. Alaska 

6. Texas 

7. Louisiana 

8. Michigan. — . 

9. Arizona 

10. South Carolina. -- 

11. Arkansas 

12. Alabama 

13. Mississippi 

14. Ohio 

15. New Jersey 

16. Georgia 

17. Kentucky 

18. North Carolina.— 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 



10 

692 

165 

2,543 

27 

2,609 

941 

2, 109 

195 

779 

831 

1, 185 

900 

2,978 

1,810 

1,303 

1,171 

1,420 



Number 
of posi- 
tions 
occupied 





47 

18 

927 

10 

1,123 

459 

1,102 

104 

447 

510 

732 

501 

1,882 

1,147 

828 

756 

977 



State 



IN ARREARS— continued 

19. New Mexico 

20. Oklahoma... 

21. Tennessee 

22. Nevada 

23. Illinois 

24. Wisconsin 

25. Indiana 

26. Connecticut 

27. Vermont.. 

28. Florida - 

29. Delaware 

30. Rhode Island 

31. North Dakota 

32. Kansas 

QUOTA FILLED 

33. Utah 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 



Number 
of posi- 
tions 
occupied 



190 


132 


1,073 


753 


1,172 


911 


41 


32 


3.418 


2,800 


1,317 


1,134 


1,492 


1,285 


720 


674 


161 


151 


658 


618 


107 


102 


308 


304 


305 


303 


843 


841 



227 



State 



IN EXCESS 



34. Idaho... 

35. Pennsylvania 

36. New York 

37. Oregon 

38. New Hampshire. 

39. Missouri.. 

40. Minnesota 

41. West Virginia 

42. Maine 

43. Iowa 



Num- 


Num- 


Net 


ber of 


ber of 


gam 


posi- 


posi- 


or loss 


tions to 


tions 


since 


which 


occu- 


July 


entitled 


pied 


1, 1940 


199 


200 


+13 


4,315 


4,346 


-85 


5,639 


5,689 


-143 


427 


431 


-f25 


208 


211 


+2 


1,626 


1,668 


-f27 


1,149 


1,183 


-49 


775 


799 


-f32 


354 


366 


+20 


1,107 


1,177 


-40 



State 



IN EXCESS— continued 

44. Massachusetts 

45. Washington 

46. South Dakota 

47. Colorado 

48. Wyoming. 

49. Montana. 

50. Nebraska 

51. Virginia 

52. Maryland 

53. Dist. of Columbia... 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


posi- 


posi- 


tions to 


tions 


which 


occu- 


entitled 


pied 


1,904 


2,029 


700 


749 


310 


335 


464 


503 


101 


110 


241 


282 


617 


776 


1,085 


2,084 


731 


2,151 


218 


8,908 



Net 

gain 
or loss 

since 

July - 
1,1940 



+131 
+42 
-U 
+1 
+ 11 
+47 
+18 
-17 
+13 
+47 



By appointment-. 

By transfer 

By reinstatement. 
By correction 



Total. 



460 

16 

1 

2 



By separation. 

By transfer 

By correction.. 



Total. 



55 



Total appointments 55,894 

Note.— Number of employees occupying apportioned positions who are excluded from the apportionment 
figures under sec. 3, rule VIl, and the Attorney Genernl's opinion ol Aug. 25, 1934, 17,175. 



9894 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Condition of the apportionment at close of business Saturday, Dec. 14, 1940 



State 



IN ARREARS 

1. Virgin Islands 

2. Puerto Rico 

3. Hawaii 

4. California 

5. Alaska 

6. Texas 

7. Louisiana... 

8. Michigan 

9. Arizona :. 

10. South Carolina... 

11. Mississippi 

12. Arkansas 

13. Georgia. 

14. Kentucky 

15. Alabama 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 



11 

738 

176 

2,716 

28 

2,786 

1,005 

2,316 

208 

832 

961 

887 

1,391 

1,251 

1,266 



Number 
of posi- 
tions 
occupied 





47 

19 

1,032 

11 

1,272 

515 

1,234 

114 

497 

621 

577 

908 

818 

832 



State 



IN ARREARS— continued 

16. Ohio 

17. New Jersey 

18. New Mexico. 

19. North Carolina 

20. Oklahoma 

21. Nevada 

22. Tennessee. 

23. Illinois 

24. Indiana... 

25. Wisconsin 

26. Vermont 

27. Florida 

28. New York 

29. Missouri 

30. Pennsylvania.. 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 



3,179 

1,933 

202 

1,516 

1,146 

44 

1.252 

3,650 

1,549 

1,406 

172 

702 

6,021 

1, 736 

4,607 



Number 
of posi- 
tions 
occupied 



2,108 
1,307 

143 
1,075 

859 
35 
1,030 
3,141 
1,404 
1,285 

160 

687 
5,901 
1,704 
4,538 



State 



IN EXCESS 

31. Connecticut 

32. Colorado 

33. Delaware 

34. West Virginia 

35. Washington 

36. Idaho 

37. Minnesota 

38. Maine 

39. Iowa 

40. Massachusetts... 

41. South Dakota 

42. New Hampshire. 



Num- 


Num- 


Net 


ber of 


ber of 


gam 


posi- 


posi- 


or loss 


tions to 


tions 


since 


which 


occu- 


July 


entitled 


pied 


1, 1940 


769 


776 


+75 


495 


503 


-30 


114 


116 


+9 


827 


853 


+34 


748 


772 


+ 17 


213 


220 


+19 


1,226 


1,271 


-38 


381 


397 


+24 


1,182 


1,233 


-59 


2,033 


2,127 


+100 


331 


348 


-19 


223 


237 


+13 



State 



IN EXCESS— continued 



43. Rhode Island. 

44. Oregon 

45. Kansas 

46. Utah 

47. Nebraska 

48. North Dakota. 

49. Wyoming 

50. Montana 

51. Virginia. 

52. Maryland. 

53. Dist. of Columbia.. 



Num- 


Num- 


ber of 


ber of 


posi- 


posi- 


tions to 


tions 


which 


occu- 


entitled 


pied 


329 


354 


456 


492 


900 


984 


243 


270 


059 


778 


326 


386 


108 


128 


257 


308 


1,158 


2,108 


780 


2,217 


233 


8,929 



Net 
gain 

or loss 
since 
July 

1, 1940 



+16 
+57 
+69 
+15 
-22 
+58 
+22 
+57 
-66 
+30 
+53 



By appointment.. 

By transfer 

By reinstatement. 
By correction 



Total. 



By separation. 

By transfer 

By correction.. 



Total. 



93 



Total appointments 59,681 

Note.— Number of employees occuyping apportioned positions who are excluded from the apportion- 
ment figures under sec. 3, rule VII, and the Attorney General's opinion of Aug. 25, 1934, 17,461. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9895 



■Condition of the apportionment at close of business Monday, Mar. 31, 1941, based on 

1940 census 



State 


Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 


Number 
of posi- 
tions oc- 
cupied 


State 


Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 


Number 
of posi- 
tions oc- 
cupied 


IN ARREARS 

1. Virgin Islands 


11 

859 

194 
33 
3,173 
2,946 
1,086 
2,414 

229 

873 
1,307 
1,003 

244 
1,435 
1,301 

895 
1,641 
3,173 
51 
1,911 
1,339 

872 
1,073 
3,627 
1,574 

241 
1,441 

122 
6,191 

874 




46 

20 

11 

1,075 

1,351 

531 

1,265 

127 

510 

829 

639 

156 

924 

862 

605 

1,110 

2,205 

36 

1,410 

1,073 

710 

946 

3,252 

1,424 

226 

1,362 

119 

6,075 

862 


IN ARREARS— continued 
31. Washington 


797 

500 

1,283 

1,738 

516 

165 

4,547 

785 

226 

389 

1,166 

1,983 

115 

328 

253 

295 

257 

827 

604 

295 

1,230 

837 

305 


787 


2. Puerto Rico 


QUOTA FILLED 

32. Oregon 




3. Hawaii- 




4. Alaska . - .- -. 




5. California 


500 


6. Texas 


IN EXCESS 

33. Minnesota 




7. Louisiana 




8. Michigan 






1,288 


10. South Carolina 


34. Missouri ..... 


1 745 




35. Colorado 


524 


12. Mississippi 


36. Vermont- 


171 


13. New Mexico 


37. Pennsylvania . 


4,715 


14. Georgia 


38. Connecticut 


816 


15. Alabama 


39. New Hampshire 


239 


16. Arkansas 


40. Maine... . .- 


415 


17. North Carolina.- 


41. Iowa 


1,251 


18. Ohio 


42. Massachusetts .. 


2,152 


19. Nevada 


43. Wvoming . 


129 


20. New Jersey 


44. Rhode Island 


375 


21. Tennessee. 


45. Utah . . 


293 


22. Florida 


46. South Dakota 


358 


23. Oklahoma 


47. Montana . 


332 


24. Illinois -- 


48. Kansas. 


1,134 


25. Indiana 


49. Nebraska 


840 


26. Idaho .. .. 


50. North Dakota . 


423 


27. Wisconsin 




2,118 


28. Delaware 


52. Marvland 


2,245 


29. New York 


53. District of Columbia 


8,965 


30. West Virginia 







By appointment.. 

By transfer 

By reinstatement. 
By correction 



357 

48 

4 

1 



Total. 



By separation. 

By transfer 

By correction.. 



Total. 



76 



Total appointments 61,576 

Note. — Number of employees occupying apportioned positions who are excluded from the apportioned 
figures under sec. 3, rule VII, and the Attorney General's opinion of Aug. 25, 1934, 18,079. 



Condition of the apportionment at close of business Monday, June SO, 1941 



State 


Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 


Number 
of posi- 
tions oc- 
cupied 


State 


Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 


Number 
of posi- 
tions oc- 
cupied 


IN ARREARS 

1. Virgin Islands 


12 

897 

203 

3,316 

35 

3,144 

1,135 

2,523 

240 

912 

1,366 

1,048 

1,500 

255 

1, 360 

1,715 




46 

22 

1,127 

12 

1,477 

549 

1, 300 

134 

541 

853 

672 

962 

165 

891 

1,168 


IN ARREARS— continued 
17. Arkansas 


936 

3,316 

1,997 

53 

1,400 

911 
1,645 
3,791 

252 
1,122 

523 
1,506 

128 

833 

913 


652 


2. Puerto Rico 


18. Ohio 


2,324 


3. Hawaii 


19. New Jersey 


1,435 


4. California 


20. Nevada 


40 






1,120 


6. Texas 


22. Florida 


744 






1,469 


8. Michigan 


24. Illinois 


3,425 






228 


10. South Carolina 


26. Oklahoma 


1,045 






499 




28. Wisconsin 


1,441 


13. Georgia 


29. Delaware 


123 




30. Washington 


823 




31. West Virginia 


906 


16. North Carolina 







9896 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Condition of the apportionment at close of business Monday, June 30, 1941 — Con. 



State 



IN EXCESS 



32. Connecticut 

33. Vermont 

34. Pennsylvania 

35. Maine 

36. New Hampshire. 

37. New York 

38. Massachusetts... 

39. Missouri- 

40. Minnesota 

41. Wyoming 

42. Colorado. 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 



821 

173 

4,752 

407 

236 

6,470 

2,072 

1,817 

1,340 

120 

539 



Number 
of posi- 
tions oc- 
cupied 



830 

175 

4,864 

417 

242 

6,703 

2,163 

1,896 

1,409 

128 

600 



State 



IN EXCESS— continued 



43. Iowa. 

44. Rhode Island 

45. Utah 

46. South Dakota.. 

47. Montana 

48. Kansas. __ 

49. North Dakota 

50. Virginia 

51. Nebraska 

52. Maryland 

53. District of Columbia. 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 



1,218 
342 
264 
309 
269 
865 
308 

1,285 
567 
874 
318 



Number 
of posi- 
tions oc- 
cupied 



1,358 
383 
306 
379 
340 

1,193 
437 

2,137 
969 

2,294 

8,937 



GAINS 

By appointment. 1,416 

By transfer 16 

By reinstatement - 2 

By correction 3 



Total 1,437 



By separation. 

By transfer 

By correction.. 



Total. 



105 
2 



193 



Total appointments 64,353 

Note. — Number of employees occupying apportioned positions who are excluded from the apportion- 
ment figures under sec. 3, rule VII, and the Attorney General's opinion of Aug. 25, 1934, 18,544. 

Condition of the apportionment at close of business Tuesday, Sept. 30, 1941 



State 



IN ARREARS 



Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands.. 

Hawaii 

Alaska 

California 

Louisiana 

Michigan 

Arizona.. 

Texas 

Georgia. 

South Carolina. 

Kentucky 

Mississippi 

Alabama 

North Carolina. 

New Mexico 

New Jersey 

Ohio.... 

Arkansas 

Nevada 

Florida ... 

Tennessee 

Indiana 

Delaware 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Oregon 

Connecticut 



Nupiber 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 



Number 
of posi- 
tions oc- 
cupied 



1,062 


49 


14 


1 


241 


22 


41 


12 


3,926 


1,307 


1,344 


618 


2,987 


1,428 


284 


144 


3,646 


1,853 


1,775 


1,059 


1,080 


647 


1,617 


983 


1,241 


797 


1,610 


1,038 


2,030 


1,373 


302 


206 


2,364 


1,661 


3,926 


2,766 


1,108 


784 


63 


45 


1,078 


862 


1,657 


1,337 


1,948 


1,686 


151 


133 


298 


268 


4,488 


4,042 


619 


562 


971 


897 



State 



IN ARREARS— continued 



29. Wisconsin 

30. Vermont 

31. Pennsylvania.. 

32. Rhode Island. . 

33. Massachusetts- 



IN EXCESS 



34. West Virginia 

35. New Hampshire 

36. Maine 

37. Oklahoma 

38. Missouri. 

39. Washington 

40. Wyoming. 

41. Colorado 

42. Utah 

43. Iowa 

44. Minnesota 

45. New York 

46. Montana 

47. Kansas 

48. South Dakota 

49. North Dakota 

50. Virginia 

51. Nebraska... 

52. Maryland 

53. District of Columbia. 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which 
entitled 



1,783 
204 

5,627 
405 

2,453 



1,081 

279 

482 

1,328 

2,151 

987 

142 

638 

313 

1,443 

1,587 

7,661 

318 

1,024 

365 

365 

1,522 

748 

1,035 

377 



Number 
of posi- 
tions oc- 
cupied 



1,675 
196 

5,427 
404 

2,449 



1,094 

284 

503 

1,395 

2,274 

1,052 

153 

733 

361 

1,677 

1,878 

9,602 

434 

1,434 

516 

516 

2,387 

1,258 

2,575 

9,335 



GAINS 

By appointment 3,466 

By transfer 36 

By reinstatement 1 

By correction 1 



By separation. 
By transfer 



Total. 



100 
82 



182 



Total 3,504 Total appointments 76.192 

Note.— Number of employees occupying apportioned positions who are excluded from the apportionment 
figures under sec. 3, rule VII, and the Attorney General's opinion of Aug. 25, 1934, 19,136. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



9897 



Condition of the apportionment at close of business Monday, Dec. 15, 1941 



State 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which en- 
titled 



IN ARREAKS 



Puerto Rico 

Virgin Islands. - 

Hawaii 

Alaska 

California 

Louisiana 

Michigan 

Texas 

Arizona 

Georgia 

South Carolina- 
Kentucky 

Alabama.- - 

Mississippi 

Ohio 

North Carolina. 

New Mexico 

Arkansas 

New Jersey 

Tennessee 

Florida 

Nevada 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Oregon 

Delaware 

Connecticut 

Wisconsin 

Idaho 

Pennsylvania... 
Rhode Island... 
Vermont 



1,137 

15 

257 

44 

4,201 

1,438 

3,196 

3,901 

304 

1,900 

1,155 

1,731 

1,723 

1,328 

4,201 

2,172 

323 

1,186 

2, 530 

1,773 

1,154 

67 

2,085 

4, 803 

663 

162 

1,039 

1,908 

319 

6,021 

434 

218 



Number 
opposi- 
tions oc- 
cupied 



51 

1 

23 

14 

1,390 

651 
1,510 
2,045 

163 
1,128 

701 
1,078 
1,104 

884 
2,878 
1,511 

230 

863 
1,860 
1,451 

962 

56 

1,779 

4,222 

583 

143 

956 
1,760 

295 
5,768 

422 

212 



State 



IN EXCESS 



33. West Virginia 

34. Washington 

35. New Hampshire 

36. Massachusetts 

37. Missouri 

38. Maine 

39. Oklahoma -.. 

40. Utah 

41. Colorado 

42. Wyoming 

43. Minnesota . 

44. Iowa 

45. New York 

46. Montana 

47. Kansas 

48. North Dakota 

49. Virginia 

50. South Dakota 

51. Nebraska 

52. Maryland 

53. District of Columbia. 



Number 
of posi- 
tions to 
which en- 
titled 



1,157 
1,056 

299 
2,625 
2,302 

515 
1,421 

335 

683 

152 
1,698 
1,544 
8,197 

340 
1,095 

390 
1,629 

391 

800 
1,108 

403 



Number 
of posi- 
tions oc- 
cupied 



1,185 
1,093 

310 
2,741 
2,470 

557 
1,558 

383 

812 

184 
2,067 
1,883 
10, 291 

466 
1,545 

589 
2,507 

606 
1,429 
2,694 
9,464 



By appointment. 
By transfer 



1,080 
35 



Total... — - 1.115 



LOSSES 



By separation. 
By transfer 



164 
92 



Total. 



256 



Total appointments.. 81, 528 



Note.— Number of employees occupying apportioned positions who are excluded from the apportion- 
ment figures under sec. 3, rule VII, and the Attorney General's opinion of Aug. 25, 1934, 20,000. 

Civilian employment in the executive branch of the U. S. Government in the District 
of Columbia by quarterly periods by sex — June 19 40- September 194.1 ^ 



Month 


Employment 


Increase over previous 
period 


Cumulative increase 




Total 


Men 


Women 


Total 


Men 


Women 


Total 


Men 


Women 


June 1940 


133, 645 
145, 191 
154, 680 
166, 537 
183, 907 
190, 832 


80, 607 

2 87, 115 

92, 092 

2 97, 791 

106, 134 

2 107, 839 


53, 038 
2 58, 076 

62, 588 
2 68, 746 

77, 773 
2 82,993 














September 1940 

December 1940 

March 1941 


11, 546 
9,489 
11, 857 
17, 370 
6,925 


6,508 
4,977 
5,699 
8,343 
1,705 


5,038 
4,512 
6,158 
9,027 
5,220 


11,546 
21, 035 

32, 892 
50, 262 
57, 187 


6.508 
11, 485 
17, 184 
25, 527 
27, 232 


5,038 
9,550 
15, 708 


June 1941 


24, 735 


September 1941 


29, 955 



> Excludes temporary employees in substitute grades of the Post OflBce Department. 
• Estimated. 



9898 WASHINGTON HEABINGS 

Exhibit 4. — Child-Care Facilities amd the Woman Defense. 

Worker 

REPORT BY THE WOMEN'S AUXILIARY DEFENSE COMMITTEE, UNITED FEDERAL 
WORKERS OF AMERICA, CONGRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS, WASHINGTON, 
D. C. 

January 12, 1942. 

The Congress of Women's Auxiliaries, Congress of Industrial Organizations, at 
its first national conference in Detroit, held simultaneously with the Congress of 
Industrial Organizations convention, passed the following resolution: 

""^ hereas it is vital to the defense of the Nation that women be released from 
domestic duties in order that they take part in defense industry and in volunteer 
defense work; and 

"Whereas there are at present totally inadequate facilities for this purpose: Be 
it therefore 

"Resolved, That the Congress of Women's Auxiliaries urge the following: 

"The immediate establishment of free nurseries for children of workers, such 
nurseries to be staffed both by professional educators and by child-care volunteers, 
trained by the United States Children's Bureau, and such imrseries to be financed 
by the Government * * *." 

To carry out the mandates of this resolution, the United Federal Workers' 
Auxiliary of the District of Columbia has been active in urging an immediate 
large-scale program. Federal funds are needed for building space, professional 
staff, and some pert of the equipment. 

In view of the totally inadequate child-care facilities in the District of Columbia, 
the United Federal W orkers' Women's Auxiliary, Congress of Industrial Organi- 
zations, as part of its defense program urges that Federal funds be allocated 
immediately for the establishment of large numbers of free child-care centers. 



(Exhibits 5 to 31 are statements submitted by various organizations 
in answer to a letter from Congressman Tolan requesting information 
concerning the activities of the organization and how they have been 
changed or modified as a result of the defense effort and the war.) 

Exhibit 5. — American Association of University Women, 
Washington, D. C. 

report by ESTHER COLE FRANKLIN, ASSOCIATE IN SOCIAL STUDIES, JANUARY 27, 

1942 

This association's 73,000 members, all of them alumnae of colleges and uni- 
versities of high standing, are organized for educational and civic work in 925 
communities of the United States and its possessions. Founded 60 years ago for 
practical educational work, the association now carries on a Nation-wide program 
of study and activity in the fields of education, international relations, social 
studies, economic and legal status of women, and the arts. 

Virtually every aspect of this comprehensive program has been modified over 
the past year and a half by the social problems created by defense. The national 
board of directors and the national subject-matter committees, through the head- 
quarters staff of experts, as well as resourceful local leaders, have adapted the 
existing program of study and activity to the changing needs since the European 
war broke out in the fall of 1939.5 

DEFENSE ACTIVITIES OF THE NATIONAL OFFICE 

A few weeks after President Roosevelt had appointed the National Defense 
Advisory Commission, the American Association of University Women released 
a bulletin of program suggestions, entitled, "Today's challenge to the American 
Association of University Women." The section headings indicate the emphasis 
for branch work: First, Look at your community; Cultivate intelligent public- 
opinion; Support the schools; Protect children and young people; Watch consumer 
interests; Speed the adjustment of immigrants; Aid war refugees; Strengthen 
welfare services; Encourage the spirit of free inquiry; Build toward renewal 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9899 

through the arts; Catalog American Association of University Women mem- 
bers; See that women's abilities are used; and Uphold standards for volunteer 
workers. 

Each issue of the quarterly journal and the general director's letter, sent to 
national, State, and local officers of the association, has incorporated program 
suggestions pointed up by the defense program prepared by each member of the 
national staff. In the'fail of 1940, registration cards for members were prepared 
by the committee on economic and legal status of women and furnished to branches 
on request. Up to December 1, 1941, over 550 branches had completed the regis- 
tration of members for defense work in the communities. In the meantime, the 
Office of Civilian Defense had been established, and the American Association of 
University Women registration lists were furnished where requested to the local 
defense councils^ 

Among the resolutions passed by the biennial convention of the association, 
May 1941, were the following dealing directly with the problems of defense: (1) 
A coordinated welfare system, adequate labor standard.-:, fair both to employer 
and employee, and community education on all social and consumer problems are 
essential to the maintenance of the democratic way of life; (2) the American 
Association of University Women, as a means of protecting civilian standards and 
assisting in the defense program shall advocate: First, the practice of thrift; 
second, investment in defense savings; third, reduction in number of patterns and 
styles of merchandise wherever it is deemed necessary in order that labor and 
machines may be more effectively and economically used; (3) realizing the in- 
creasing gravity of the national emergency as the world crisis intensifies, and 
recognizing the responsibility of the American Association of University Women 
for its share in national leadership, this convention urges upon the board of 
directors the full exercise of its initiative during the period between conventions, 
including the appointment of whatever committee or committees the emergency 
may require. 

In the various workshops where State and branch committee chairmen met to 
analyze and exchange problems and experiences in community activities the 
principal questions were those dealing with community defense situations. In 
the social studies workshop nearly 20 branches reported definite organization for 
community defense work, most of them cooperating with local defense councils. 
It is a principle of the association's program that commimity work should be 
determined by the needs of the community and the particular skills of the branch 
members in meeting those needs; hence the variation in activities as evidenced by 
discussions in these workshops at convention. The discussion served to guide the 
headquarters staff in furnishing materials to local groups for study and first-hand 
inquiry. 

Questions relating particularly to community defense problems dealt with con- 
sumer protection and representation during the war effort; the effect of the emer- 
gency on long-range welfare and relief programs; American Association of Uni- 
versity Women's part in frontier thinking on post-defense, and planning for 
proper economic and social adjustments after the war; appropriate American 
Association of University Women participation in defense housing programs 
including homes registration and rooms registry services and formulation of com- 
munity opinion with respect to public housing' projects for defense workers; 
community plans for recreation and other services near army camps particularly 
in relation to the campaign and work of the United Service Organizations; and 
the training, employment and housing of women workers in defense industries. 

Since November 1940, the series of bulletins issued each month by the social 
studies office under the general heading Contemporary America have dealt 
with national defense problems, among them: Organization for national defense, 
Labor and defense. Taxation and defense, America's migrant problem, Inflation, 
and Conservation. Each bulletin summarizes the over-all problem and the 
national policies closely related to it; and then points out the specific ways in 
which each local group may analyze the problem as it is reflected in the com- 
munity. Out of the study groups using contemporary America have come a 
wide variety of community activities looking toward adequate housing, health, 
welfare and recreational facilities for the added population brought in by defense 
industries and Army and Navy concentration centers. 

The problem-of-the-month in international relations, prepared by the associate 
in international education, has furnished factual material for community forums 
and discussion groups, and has been of value in many communities in the establish- 
ment of civilian morale. Likewise, educational materials from the office of the 



9900 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

associate in childhood education have dealt with the development and welfare of 
children and the expansion of school facilities during the crisis, particularly in 
defense areas. 

Another function performed by the national headquarters of the association is 
that of continuous contact and conferences with the Federal agencies determining 
policies with respect to civilian defense and civilian morale, and with the other 
educational and civic organizations carrying on similar activities. The informal 
relationships between the headquarters staff and the Consumer Division of the 
Office of Price Administration, the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, 
and the Office of Civilian Defense, are of particular importance at this time. 
Examples of contributions to national policy include the work of Mrs. Harriet 
Ahlers Houdlette, associate in childhood education, on the national commission 
for young children; and the services of Dr. Esther Caukin Brunauer, associate in 
international education, on the commission to study the organization of peace 
(both nongovernmental). Dr. Brunauer has also served as a consultant to the 
Office of Civilian Defense; and on request. Dr. Esther Cole Franklin, associate in 
social studies, has prepared packets of American Association of University Women 
materials for the various civilian defense regional offices. 

Support of legislation has been authorized by the national committee on legis- 
lative program since the May 1941 Convention on the following bills in the social 
studies field: The Voorhis bill to establish a post-emergency economic advisory 
•commission; the Tolan bill to regulate private employment agencies engaged in 
interstate commerce; and the price control bill. (Copy of the American Associa- 
tion of University Women testimony on each measure is appended.) A summary 
of national policies governing the course of the program of the American Associa- 
tion of University Women during the war appears in the January issue of the 
journal of the association. (A marked copy is being sent under separate cover.) 

DEFENSE ACTIVITIES OF STATE DIVISIONS AND BRANCHES 

In the States and branches, programs in 1941-42 have been geared largely to 
defense needs Statistical data on branch activities will not be available until 
the annual branch reports are submitted in the late spring. There is ample 
evidence, however, that activities of branches include: (1) Cooperating with other 
groups and with local defense councils, both in undertaking community education 
and welfare projects as a group and in placing individual volunteers where they 
can serve most effectively in the community defense effort; (2) organizing and 
carrying on forums, radio programs, and newspaper publicity series dealing with 
community problems related to defense, among them: the needs of the schools; 
the situation with respect to care for children of working mothers; nutrition 
education; education of aliens, of citizen-illiterates and of draftees rejected for 
illiteracy; consumer interests and the dangers of inflation; defense savings; housing 
conditions; the training and employment of women; and the need for added 
recreational facilities; (3) actually working as an organization to find out at 
first-hand the community problems and using organizational influence to meet 
these problems through discussion with officials in State and municipal govern- 
ments. 

Branches in defense areas have been particularly active. Every week letters 
bring word of new activities undertaken because of urgent defense situations. 
The activities range from the furnishing of rooms and motor transportation and 
volunteering as clerical workers in the defense agencies to serving as members of 
defense councils and assisting in making plans and policies. 

American Association of University Women members in many parts of the 
country are serving on State and local nutrition committees and on consumer- 
interest committees connected with the defense councils. In a few defense 
centers, American Association of University Women branches are furnishing 
leadership for the direction of activity in fair rent committees and in local price 
reporting. Branches which had registered members in the fall of 1940 have 
taken initiative in making community surveys and assisting in the development 
of volunteer civilian defense offices for the proper utilization of volunteers not 
only within American Association of University Women but in other organizations 
and among the unorganized women of the community. American Association of 
University Women branches have recognized the tremendous problems in some 
defense areas where health conditions have been made acute, where school facilities 
have been overtaxed, and where housing has been woefully inadequate. They 
have attempted to cooperate with other groups in these communities to secure 
through local, state and federal governments, the facilities needed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9901 

Exhibit 6. — American Bar Association, Chicago, III. 
report by harry s. knight, secretary 

January 19, 1942. 

The American Bar Association is a voluntary association composed of ap- 
proximately 30,000 lawyers gathered from every State, Territory, and possession 
of the United States. These 30,000 lawyers are what might be called personal or 
direct members. In addition, the American Bar Association (hereafter referred 
to as "A. B. A.") reaches and represents through its house of delegates approxi- 
mately 85,000 additional lawyers scattered over the same area. 

The house of delegates of the A. B. A. is composed of 182 delegates representing 
the State and Territorial Bar Associations, the larger City Bar Associations, and 
certain other national associations of lawyers. 

The house of delegates is the policy-determining body for the association; it 
meets twice a year, in the fall and early spring. The general meeting of the 
association, which holds assembly meetings open to all members of the associa- 
tion, meets annually in the early fall. 

The association has numerous special and standing committees, the membership 
of which extends into every State in the United States, and into the various 
localities of the States. 

The A. B. A. maintains general headquarters at 1140 North Dearborn Street, 
Chicago, that maintains a permanent staff of approximately 25 people under the 
immediate direction of Mrs. Olive G. Ricker, executive secretary of A. B. A. 

A. B. A. publishes a monthly journal composed of from 75 to 100 pages, pub- 
lishing articles in the interest of the profession, which can be and is being used 
for the purpose of bringing to the attention of the lawyers of the Nation their 
duties and obligations. 

Through our representative system, the activities of the association and of 
its committees and sections, through the mails and otherwise, reach not only the 
30,000 direct members, but reach the members of the State and local bar associa- 
tions who are not direct members of the A. B. A. 

The general objects and purposes of the association are to promote the adminis- 
tration of justice, the uniformity of legislation and of judicial decision, throughout 
the Nation and to correlate the activities of bar organizations in the respective 
States on a representative basis in the interest of the legal profession and of the 
public throughout the United States. 

To that end the association has 14 separate sections devoted to special branches 
of the law, which are merely units of the association, such as the patent and trade- 
mark section, a section devoted to public utilities, etc. 

Among other separate or subordinate units is one entitled "Junior Bar Confer- 
ence" which is composed of members under the age of 36 years. 

What is A. B. A. doing to help in the national crisis? 

In the fall of 1940, there was created a committee on national defense composed 
of Col. Edmund R. Beckwith, of New York, as chairman, and one member from 
each Federal judicial circuit. This committee for the past year and at the present 
time maintains office headquarters at 1002 Hill Building, Washington, D. C. 

In December 1940 and since, this committee has compiled a pamphlet manual 
of law of 90 pages for use by advisory boards for registrants, circulated 200,000 
copies, which is a concise yet well annotated compilation of the Soldiers' and 
Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940, and of their several relationships affected by the 
military service, the National Service Life Insurance Act of 1940, and the law 
pertaining to selective training and service. This is not only being used by the 
boards but is being used by the counsel for the boards and by lawyers who are 
called upon to give advice to registrants and their families, and act for and in 
their behalf in the emergency. 

This committee has effected an organization of lawyers throughout the United 
States — at least one in each county of the United States — who have expressed their 
willingness to give free legal aid to our draftees and soldiers, and their families, 
when such persons are unable to pay for such aid. 

The committee has also made contacts through the War and Navy Departments 
to further this work. A few examples will be explanatory: A service man in 
Iceland learns from home that there is trouble about the rent, the payment on 
the radio, or ice box, or that a remote relative has died and a prospect of a small 
inheritence should have attention. He immediately contacts his superior officer 
in Iceland. The superior officer contacts the War or Navy Department, as the 



9902 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

case may be, in Washington, and they in turn immediately communicate with the 
chairman of the committee on national defense at his headquarters in Washing- 
ton, that all of this trouble is in some remote town in Kansas, and the national 
defense office of A. B. A. immediately contacts the lawyer in this remote town in 
Kansas, and the legal problem is given attention. 

More than 500 cases of this kind have been acted upon since the creating of this 
committee. The committee is about to put out a second edition of the Manual 
of Law pertaining to draftees and enlisted men. 

This committee has also effected a contact with the Federal Bureau of Investiga- 
tion whereby the committee can obtain a responsible lawyer in any locality in the 
United States who will cooperate with the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 
making any local investigation. 

Our junior members with the assistance of some of the seniors have prepared 
outlines of data for addresses which have been, are being, and will continue to be 
made in the various localities throughout the United States, to the schools, to 
service clubs and whatever opportunity affords, for the purpose of maintaining 
the morale and laying before the people their duties as citizens in an emergency 
of this kind, to cooperate with their civilian defense authorities — in short, what 
it means to be a good and helpful citizen. 

For some years past it has been customary for one of our sections, known as the 
bar organization activities section, to hold a series of regional meetings, beginning 
usually in January and extending until the late spring. These meetings are 
staged in a central city for the benefit of the lawyers from four or five States, in 
the immediate locality, and programs are arranged for a day and an evening to 
bring the work and activities of the A. B. A. home to the many lawyers who would 
not normally travel the distance to go to an annual national meeting. For ex- 
ample, on January 16 this year a regional meeting was held at Raleigh, N. C.^ 
for the purpose of bringing in the lawyers of North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee, and Kentucky. On January 17 there was a 
regional meeting held at Jacksonville, Fla., for the benefit of the lawyers of Florida, 
Alabama, and Georgia; and other meetings are scheduled for different parts of the 
country during the next few months. 

In the early part of January it was determined by the administrative board, 
which is the interim governing body of the A. B. A. that .the normal programs 
of these meetings should be replaced by programs featuring the different phases 
of national defense, and what the lawyer as a lawyer, not as a citizen, could do 
to assist in this emergency. For instance, at the Raleigh meeting Mr. Tappan 
Gregory, a top lawyer of the Chicago bar, addressed the lawyers present on what 
they could do to assist the committee on national defense, the work of which 
has just above been outlined, and particularly what they could do in their re- 
spective communities, to make some investigation and report any needs or wants 
which have been occasioned by our crisis, which the lawyer as a lawyer can assist 
in remedying. At the same meeting Mr. George L. Haight, a top lawyer in 
Chicago, a member of the A. B. A.'s committee on civil rights, addressed the 
lawyers and turned from "rights" to "duties and obligations," endeavoring to 
have the lawyers there present go to the people of their own communities, impress 
upon them what must temporarily be given up or surrendered in order that we 
may have our rights in the long run; and to impress upon the lawyers there 
present, so that they in turn may impress upon the people, that as citizens of a 
democracy they have obligations which are now more important than rights. 

Other talks have been and will continue to be made along the same lines. In 
other words, these regional meetings will be conducted in the coming months 
and there will be scheduled as the principal features the work and the possibilities 
of future work of our committee on national defense, with its headfiuarters in 
Washington. 

Our committee on legal aid, which now has established in all the larger centers 
systems of rendering legal aid and advice gratuitously to all of those who are 
unable to pay for it. 

Work in course. — We are endeavoring to extend the work of the defense com- 
mittee and legal aid combined, so that it will extend not only to those who are 
in the armed forces or in our camps as draftees but will extend to those who have 
been thrown out of employment by reason of industrial priorities — not necessarily 
to assist them in procuring new jobs, but to assist them with legal service if 
such may be needed by reason of their unemployment. 

We are endeavoring to develop a service to be spread by our younger men in 
the communities of the Nation to interpret and explain the numerous regulations 
which are coming out of Washington which affect the rank-and-file individual. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9903 

Many of these, either by reason of improper newspaper publicity or improper 
comprehension, are not understood, and are confused; and it is with the hope 
of clarifying these that an effort is being made to have them e.-cplained in the 
communities. 

In addition to the foregoing, of course lawyers in every community, as leaders 
of thought and leaders of men, are participating as citizens in Red Cross, Defense 
bonds, organizing air-raid wardens, and many other activities, but we consider 
that in this work the lawj^ers are acting not as lawyers but as citizens, and we 
have confined the foregoing to their work as lawyers. 

We are yet planning, and expect to continue to plan. 



Exhibit 7. — The American Dietetic Association, Chicago, III. 

report by nelda ross, president 

January 20, 1942, 

The American Dietetic Association is a professional organization with 4,700. 
members. 

These members hold positions as hospital dietitians, nutritionists, teachers, 
school lunchroom managers, college food service directors, home economists with 
commercial firms, research workers, and many other positions concerned with 
food and nutrition. 

"The object of this association shall be to improve the nutritional status of 
human beings; to bring about closer cooperation among dietitians and nutri- 
tionists and workers in allied fields; to raise the standard of dietary work." 
(From the Constitution of the American Dietetic Association.) 

Membership requirements include a bachelor's degree with a major in foods and 
nutrition or institution management, followed by an approved course in applied 
nutrition or institution management. For this approved course applicants may 
substitute 2 years of successful experience in nutrition or in.stitution management, 
as defined by the constitution and approved by the executive board of the 
association. 

The business of the organization is managed by the executive board. The 
members of this board are the elected officers and the appointed chairmen of the 
four sections representing the interests of the members— ^ namely: Administra- 
tion, diet therapy, community education and professional education. 

The house of delegates, which includes delegates from the 38 affiliated State 
organizations, elects the vice president who is also the chairman of the house of 
delegates. 

The business office is located at 185 North Wabash Avenue, Chicago, 111., and 
is under the direction of the business manager- — Miss Dorothj' I. Lenfest, who 
is also the director of the placement bureau. This bureau provides service for 
members of the association seeking employment and for employers seeking 
dietitians. 

A journal is published monthly, the Journal of the American Dietetic Associa- 
tion. The editorial office is in New Canaan, Conn., the editor- — Mrs. Mary 
Pascoe Huddleson. An educational director^ — Miss Gladys E. Hall, is employed 
by the association. Her duties include inspection of the hospital, administration^ 
and clinic courses approved by the association, coordination of all educational 
policies, projects, and studies of the association. 

This association has 38 affiliated State associations and approximately 45 
local groups. Through these groups, the association reaches the individual 
members who participate in programs of work and projects sponsored by the 
associarion. 

The following has been accomplished in our defense program: 

Registration of all active and inactive dietitians with their special qualifica- 
tions. These records may be obtained from the secretary of the State dietetic 
association. 

For the dietitian who has been inactive, refresher courses have been held. For 
plans and discussions of community projects, nutrition seminars have been held. 

Activities have included educational exhibits, food demonstrations, publicized 
uses of protective foods, demonstrations on the use of surplus commodities, 
assistance in school lunch programs, radio piograms on normal nutrition, on 
market news and programs which urge the housewife to buy, and the merchant 
to sell graded products. 

60396— 42— pt. 25 18 



9904 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Consultation services are offered to social agencies on family budgets. 

Nutrition centers have been established in some States to give information to 
the housewife on problems connected with food for her family. 

Valuable material has been compiled and made available as a school lunchroom 
manual, low-cost recipes, and concise hiformation on the normal diet. 

Speakers' bureaus have been organized and many talks given on nutrition 
problems. 

Members have contributed articles on nutrition to local newspapers. 

Members have served on the State nutrition councils. They have cooperated 
with the Red Cross in teaching both nutrition and canteen courses to the laymen. 

Efforts have been made to increase the number of dietitians available for 
service by talks in schools on dietetics as a career by increasing the number of 
student dietitians in some courses already established and by establishing new 
approved training courses. 

For 1942, refresher courses, nutrition centers, publicized information on the 
selection and preparation of the normal diet have been continued. Members are 
working on outlines for courses as well as teaching Red Cross nutrition and 
canteen courses. 

Time studies, job analyses have aided many in reorganization of their depart- 
ments to meet the increasing shortage both of dietitiatis and employees. 

Projects of the association for 1942 include studies in administration, diet 
therapy, community education, and professional education. 
• Studies are selected with a view to their timeliness and their value to the 
members of the profession. Several projects for 1942 are listed with the section 
responsible for the study. 

Administration section: 

1. Set up simple specifications for meat purchasing. 

2. Check course of study for canteen work. Suggestions for setting up an 

inexpensive canteen that could be installed on a small truck. 

3. Suggest emergency equipment for small units. 

Diet therapy section: 

1. Compilation of new figures for nutritive value of foods as results are re- 

ported in current publications. 

2. Continuation of the study of the vitamin A versus carotene content of 

certain therapeutic diets. 

Community education: 

1. The preparation and collection of recipes, and outhnes for lessons in meal 

planning and budgeting for lower income families 

2. A study of the use of non-home economics volunteers in nutrition education. 

Professional education: 

1. The needs and responsibilities of the dietitian in service. 

2. Educational requirements for dietitians teaching student nurses. 

The members of the American Dietetic Association have cooperated with 
existing agencies in emphasizing good nutrition for everyone. 

The defense program includes efforts to increase the number of women trained 
in nutrition and institution management. 

The American Dietetic Association, affiliated State associations and individual 
members have been active in furthering principles of good nutrition and methods 
by which it may be attained. 



Exhibit 8.^ — American Federation of Labor, Washington, D. C. 

REPORT BY WILLIAM GREEN, PRESIDENT 

The American Federation of Labor is wholeheartedly in support of the action 
of our Government in declaring war on the Axis nations. We believe that this 
is a world-wide conflict in which representatives of new political despotisms have 
declared war upon nations which are devoted to maintaining democratic insti- 
tutions. We in the labor movement realize that we have a major stake in the 
outcome of this conflict for our very right to free organization is involved. As we 
believe that effective support for the foreign policy of the Government can develop 
only from luiderstanding, the American Federation of Labor has done its part in 
making sure that its members understand what is involved in the struggle. As a 
result of our efforts two distinguished British trade unionists have talked to large 
groups of labor representatives and other citizens in key cities, bringing a direct 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9905 

message of the experiences of British trade unions. When war was declared 
special conferences of our oflficials issued manifestos pledging support in behalf 
of labor aiid directing that controversies on labor issues be referred to mediation 
and arbitration agencies without interruption of production. In addition, at the 
request of the President of the United States, the federation designated representa- 
tives to join with representatives of employers in working out a program for 
handling labor disputes during the war. The unity of labor representatives in 
these conferences was mamly instrumental in achieving a constructive program. 

These two measures — understanding and official labor program for the guidance 
of wage earners, together with public machinery for the adjustment of labor 
disputes supplementing vmion provisions, laid the foundations for morale in that 
large sector of the population called wage earners and small salaried workers. 
Citizens are willing to make sacrifices and endure hardships when they are assured 
their sacrifices will not accrue to the personal gain of individuals or groups. 

These practical organizational moves have been supplemented by admonitions 
to invest in democratic institutions by putting the financial as well as the moral 
strength of unions behind the Government by personal and organizational buying 
of defense bonds. This admonition has been followed with notable results in 
union investments in defense bonds. 

Wherever opportunities Imve been afforded us, the American Federation of 
Labor has designated representatives to cooperate with the Government in con- 
nection with the conversion of civilian production to war purposes. We believe 
that national morale is essential to winning this war and that morale is dependent 
upon assurance that the Government is planning to preserve the investments which 
workers, owners, and managements have made in the industrial undertakings of 
this Nation. Morale can best be maintained when the Government plans this 
transition so that complete utilization is made of our production facilities, so that 
primary civilian needs are met while we produce the tools of warfare for ourselves 
and allied democratic nations so that as mvich as is needed is available when and 
where it is wanted. This transition can be made without enormous and costly 
wastes of time in gettiT^g war production at capacity only if existing production 
facilities and labor skills are conserved. 

Perhaps the most important single element in maintaining morale is responsi- 
bility. This can be promoted by permitting existing organizations to delegate 
representatives to share in policy making and direction of work. 

We regret that this principle of organizational representation has not been 
followed in all cases where the defense administration was concerned with labor 
issues and labor welfare. Where it has been followed results were evident in 
initiative and responsibility. 

In my earlier testimony, July 15, 1941, I presented to your committee extensive 
data on shortages of essential community facilities, proper housing, recreational 
facilities, schools, and health services, especially in new communities and those 
growing rapidly because of defense construction or nearness to military centers. 
These deficiencies are still acute. 

The American Federation of Labor has urged expansion of social security by 
the inclusion of benefits to serve both temporary and permanent disability, to- 
gether with broadening of coverage to meet the emergencies which may interfere 
with income earning. Adequate provisions for such emergencies become in- 
creasingly important because changes are sudden and unexpected and unless there 
are adequate provisions assuring income, worry and uncertainty would surely cut 
into morale. We are urging an adequate national system of social security. With 
the payment of compensation for loss of income due to sickness both the individual 
and his dependents are more secure and would benefit proportionately if payments 
included provisions for medical care. Adequate social security provisions with 
equal treatment for all citizens are basic provisions in civilian welfare and morale. 
The British example in extending and increasing its social insurance programs 
in the midst of war is one we should follow. 

The American Federation of Labor has as yet been able to do little for civilian 
defense except to urge State federations of labor and city central bodies to par- 
ticipate in community undertakings. As the program for civilian defense unfolds, 
we hope to do more, for matters vitally affecting labor interests will be involved. 
While some aspects of civilian defense, such as the training of auxiliary fire- 
fighters, placing of watchers on factory roofs, and the hours of spotters, etc., are 
of special concern to labor, in many matters wage earners' interests are those of 
all other citizens in community safety. Much of the civilian defense program 
should be the joint concern of the community, all citizens serving together for 
their common advantage. 



9906 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Exhibit 9. — American Friends Service Committee, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

REPORT BY C. REED GARY, CHAIRxMAN, PUBLICITY COMMITTEE 

The American Friends Service Committee represents American Friends, "col- 
lectively, in the attempt to carry on education, service, and social experimenta- 
tion both at home and abroad in accord with the basic principles of the Rehgious 
Society of Friends. Tlie committee was founded in 1917. Its first work was to 
bring relief to civilians behind the battle lines in France. Shortly after the 
armistice it was working in Germany, Russia, and Austria. 

Its primary objective is to serve in areas in which social groups are suffering 
because of economic maladjustment or because of war, or other social evils. 

It endeavors to make it possible for those needing assistance to help themselves 
although it also administers relief where self-support is not possible. 

Practically all of its overhead is subscribed by members of the Religious Society 
of Friends for the purpose. The funds expended directly on the various activities 
of the committee are derived from many sources, only a small proportion being 
from Friends. 

There are at present approximately 125 paid workers who are assisted by a large 
but indefinite number of volunteers. The work is divided for organizational pur- 
poses into the following sections: 

1. Refugee and overseas relief. 

2. Social industrial. 

3. Peace. 

4. Civilian public service. 

The American Friends Service Committee among its various activities is con- 
ducting two programs which seem to fall within the area of interest of the House 
Committee Investigating National Defense Migration. These are: 

A. A program of aid in Americanization and placement of refugees and 

other aliens. 

B. A program of summer work camps and civilian public service camp 

projects. 

A. A program of aid in Americanization and placement of refugees and other aliens. 

The European relief activities of our committee at the close of the first World 
War led to the establishment of Quaker centers in a number of European cities 
which were maintained until the entry of the United States into the present war 
as foci of international understanding and good will and religious stimulus. 

When religious and racial persecution began in Europe, persons turned to these 
centers for guidance and practical assistance. When pressure of persecution 
caused large-scale population movements, these centers became involved in advis- 
ing migrants. The refuge committee was formed in January 1939 to aid recom- 
mended refugee immigrants entering the United States in their adjustment to 
our country. 

We have cooperated with other American agencies serving refugees in providing 
initial hospitality to new arrivals, assisting in resettlement in certain cases, render- 
ing some placement service — particularly to students and scholars — and carrying 
on Americanization work through Quaker hostels and summer camp groups which 
provide a period of orientation and retraining as a preliminary for job placement 
and establishment in American community living. 

The effort of our committee in rendering these services has been to aid in the 
integration in American life of the new immigrant group which recent develop- 
ments in Europe have presented to the United States and to stimulate under- 
standing of the refugee problems among Americans and an acceptance by them 
of this new group in our communities. Many of the refugee immigrants bring 
useful skills to the United States. 

Program of aid to aliens under war conditions 

Since the outbreak of war our committee has felt gravely concerned over the 
plight of aliens now resident in the United States who are nationals of countries 
with which we are at war but who are themsevles friendly and loyal to the United 
States. We are now in process of studying present needs and of planning our 
future program. In v^hatever services in this area we may decide to undertake 
we would follow the practice of our committee to develop only such services as 
are not adequately provided by other agencies, and as may b? appropriate to our- 



jstational defense migration 9907 

organization and resources and to emphasize the demonstration of new types of 
projects which might later be carried out by other organizations on a larger scale. 
We have under consideration the extension of present activities and the possible 
development of certain new services as follows: 

It is evident that aliens in the United States particularly nationals of enemy 
countries will find difficulty in keeping and finding jobs. We, therefore, hope to 
increase our efforts to aid aliens in job placement and to indicate to employers 
the large unused reservoir of skilled workers in our recent immigrant group which 
has great potential value for the United States at this time. 

We also hope to continue present projects and plan new projects to provide 
orientation and retraining for those aliens who, because of background, age, or 
other factors, find special difficulty in securing employment under war conditions. 

We hope to provide temporary financial aid and guidance toward more perma- 
nent plans to those aliens known to us who face unexpected loss of income. 

We would expect to continue service of advice and assistance to aliens whose 
personal problems are augmented by the war crisis. 

Should the events of war necessitate mass evacuation of aliens from certain 
restricted areas our committee would expect to cooperate with the Government 
and with other concerned agencies to meet the resulting problems in dislocation 
of human lives, which these developments would probably produce and to aid 
these families in reestablishing themselves in useful occupations. 

At the request of Quakers living in Honolulu we have set up an office there and 
are assisting in the care of alien families in the Hawaiian Islands who find them- 
selves in difficulty because they are living in a military area. 

Our committee is concerned also with the possible development, in cooperation 
with other agencies, of appropriate services to aliens interned in the United States 
during the war period. Such services might include: 

Religious and friendly visitation. 

Development of occupational, as well as educational and recreational activities. 

We feel that the American Friends Service Committee would be able to make 
a special contribution in the field of service to those aliens who fall into the enemy- 
alien category, because of its long experience in rendering a personalized service 
to distressed groups without regard to race, creed, or nationality. 

Exhibit A. — Memorandum Regarding the Program of the American 
Friends Service Committee Summer Work Camps and Civilian Public 
Service Camp Projects in Relation to Community Problems Growing 
Out of Defense and War Activity 

report by edward r. miller, secretary, summer work camps program 

The summer work camp program of the American Friends Service Committee 
has been arranged for the past 8 years to help meet the needs of social and eco- 
nomic problems with a spirit of constructive good will through its projects of 
physical work in marginal communities and among minority people. The present 
emergency is being met by this program in the following ways: 

1. IBy continuing to serve the needs of these marginal communities and mi- 
nority people because in many cases we find they are now neglected groups 
because the energies of private and government groups are being expended else- 
where. Such groups are to be found among Negroes in cities and Negro and 
white sharecroppers who are gradually dying for want of rehabilitation. 

2. By increasing the opportunities especially for women to serve in our units 
of work with social agencies. Not only is opportunity to have a first-hand serv- 
ice experience with a social agency in demand by social work majors in college, 
but we find the settlement houses over the country are rapidly becoming badly 
understaffed. 

To afford more constructive and challenging opportunities to men who are 
officially part of the civilian public service camps for religious conscientious ob- 
jectors, as provided for by the national Selective Service Board, and to meet the 
increasing needs in work of national importance, men from the civilian public 
service camps are being offered: 

1. Opportunity to be trained to help staff mental hospitals which have suffered 
drastic depletions in staff because of the war. 

2. Three experimental units of 10 men each are planned in one county each 
in Wisconsin, Ilhnois, and Connecticut that these men may live on individual 
dairy and poultry farms to help relieve the scarcity of labor in these vital agri- 
culture production units. 



9908 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

3. Opportunities are being offered by various agencies in the Federal Govern- 
ment Forest Service, to help relieve the scarcity of workers in some of the long- 
established forest research enterprises. 

In addition to these volunteer and conscripted groups helping to meet current 
needs within our country, we are helping to place individuals in public and private 
agencies for service. Some of the specific opportunities are work with the Farm 
Security Administration in managerial capacities in migrant labor camps, group 
labor home projects and so forth, and volunteer or paid staff members in social 
agencies. 

Those who have had experience in our volunteer program are giving encour- 
agement and leadership in local communities to groups interested in construc- 
tive, part-time service projects within their communities. In a number of in- 
stances the work these indigenous community groups are undertaking is in direct 
relationship to scarcity of labor or other energies to carry on needed community 
operations. We give as much encouragement and direction to this kind of pro- 
gram as possible, and have prepared some literature for the guidance of other 
groups. 

Exhibit 10. — The American Home Economics Association, 

Washington, D. C. 

REPORT BT EDNA VAN HORN, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 

Membership. — The American Home Economics Association is the professiona 
organization of the Nation's home economists. It is made up of home economics 
associations in the 48 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. In 1940 
membership was, for the first time, limited to those holding a degree from a college 
or university with a major in home economics or in a related field with special 
subsequent experience. 

The membership in the American Home Economics Association in 1941 was 
14,282 adult professional members, 2,329 home economics student clubs, totally 
about 80,000 high school and college students, 11 groups of homemakers, and 
2 foreign groups. 

Fields of work. — Association members are working in many fields, child develop- 
ment and parent education, colleges and universities, elementary and secondary 
schools, extension service, farm security, adult education, home economics in 
business, home economics in institution administration, homemaking, research, 
and social welfare and public health. 

Aims. — The object of the association is the development and promotion of 
standards of home and family life that wiU best further individual and social 
welfare. 

Publications. — The American Home Economics Association publishes the 
Journal of Home Economics, Consumer Education Service, and National Magazine 
of Home Economics Student Clubs, and regular and special bulletins. These are 
used for publication of the work of the professional divisions, departments, and 
committees within the association and for keeping members informed about devel- 
opments touching family welfare. This year the publications give much space to 
reporting to members the defense program of Federal and social agencies together 
with ways in which the American Home Economics Association is cooperating 
with them and suggestions of ways for State associations and individuals to help 
in State and local organizations. 

Association's defense work. — A national committee for coordinating programs 
and pooling resources has been formed to help solve management problems of 
families in relation to national defense programs. It consists of home economists 
in the United States Office of Education, United States Extension Service, Farm 
Security Administration, Farm Credit Administration, Consumer Division, and 
the American Home Economics Association. The committee's report is being 
sent by each agency to State and local workers who may find in it suggestions for 
State-wide and regional pooling and strengthening of resources and services to 
families. 

Registration of home economists for emergency service was begun in July 1940. 
Some 35,000 home economists are now registered in the State home economics 
associations. This list is being used to fill volunteer and paid jobs where home 
economics training is needed. Many of these home economists have taken or are 
taking refresher courses in nutrition to fit them for training leaders and for par- 
ticipation in defense jobs. Home economists are serving in community, State, 
and national nutrition, consumer interests, and child and family welfare programs. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9909 

We are asking State associations to make the registration lists available to defense 
councils. 

Activities of special groups in the association include: (1) Studies.* of grade 
labeled canned foods d,s an aid to quality identification and better buying; (2) 
customer-store projects in the interest of better understanding between consumers 
and retailers; (3) work with representation on two dozen or more committees of 
the American Standards Association and of the National Bureau of Standards 
setting up standards for consumer goods and specifications on which to base sim- 
plification programs; (4) work in the National Consumer-Retailer Council, Inc., 
on programs for developing and promoting informative buying and selling, and 
other cooperative efforts directed toward efficient distribution of goods; (5) affili- 
ated high school and college student home economics clubs are actively at work 
on a youth defense program voted at their annual meeting last June. In October 
the college club chairman represented the high school and college clubs at the 
Youth Conference on Defense called by Mrf. Roosevelt. The association sent 
its president-elect. Miss Jessie Harris, as an adult delegate to this conference. 

The annual meeting of the association will be shortened this j-ear to 3 days and 
the program will be based on the theme that homemakers can best help win the 
war by keeping themselves, their families, and their communities strong and well, 
using only the materials and services that will be theirs when our country is 
producing all the armaments we need. 

Recommendations as to Federal agencies. — The association would like to see a 
better coordination among Federal agencies concerned with civilian welfare and 
the expansion of some of the regular agencies rather than a variety of new agen- 
cies. In line with this thinking, we send a representative regularly to the United 
States Office of Education's Wartime Commission, confer often with the Bureau 
of Home Economics and United States Rural Extension Service, and help with 
consumer information centers in the Consumer Division of Office of Price Admin- 
istration, send delegates to serve on the standards panel, attend special confer- 
ences in Office of Civilian Defense, have a representative on the National Advisory 
Committee to the coordinator of health, welfare, and related activities. We 
find that when a community or a college campus sets up a nutrition council, or a 
consumer information center, that community wants help from all these agencies 
but finds it confusing to get materials from so many agencies, and burdehsome to 
report back to a varietj' of agencies. 



Exhibit 11. — American Medical Association, Chicago, III. 

REPORT BY OLIN WEST, M. D., SECRETARY AND GENERAL MANAGER 

Perhaps the most important and far-reaching activity of this association per- 
taining to national defense has been the survey of medical personnel of the United ' 
States made by its committee on medical preparedness. The house of delegates 
of the American Medical Association at its annual session held in June 1940 received 
a communication from the Surgeon General of the United States Army proposing 
that the association undertake such survey. This matter was considered by a 
reference committee and the House of Delegates adopted the recommendation sub- 
mitted by the committee to the effect that this survey be undertaken. The 
committee on medical preparedness was appointed and at the earliest possible 
time the work incident to the proposed survey was begun. 

More than 180,000 questionnaires addressed to licensed physicians in the United 
States and its territories have been distributed. Individual physicians have filled 
in and returned the questionnaires to the number of approximately 158,000. The 
information secured through these questionnaires has been transferred to punch 
cards and most of it has been available to official agencies of the Federal Govern- 
ment for several months. Until recently the entire expense of this undertaking 
was borne by the American Medical Association except for such expenditures as 
were met by cooperating committees of constituent State and Territorial medical 
associations and similar committees of component county medical societies. Some 
months ago a liaison officer was assigned to the offices of the American Medical 
Association by the Surgeon General of the Army and this officer has given valuable 
assistance in promoting the accomplishment of the purposes intended to be served 
through the survey. Within recent months we have had the benefit of the services 
of a few civil-service employees under the direction of the liaison officer represent- 
ing the Office of the Surgeon General. 



■9910 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

As a result of the work of the committee on medical preparedness of the 
American Medical Association, with the splendid cooperation of similar committees 
representing constituent State and territorial medical associations and component 
county medical societies, a very remarkable amount of information has been 
secured concerning physicians of the Nation and has been compiled for ready use 
in connection with the procurement and assignment of physicians for service with 
the military forces. 

In addition, efforts have been made and are being persisted in to provide infor- 
mation that will be useful in aiding the Government in securing medical services 
in industrial plants engaged in defense activities and it is our very earnest hope 
that the information that has been secured and compiled will also be useful in 
making the most adequate possible provision for medical care of the civilian 
population at home. 

The association, through its committee on medical preparedness and through 
its official and administrative personnel, is cooperating to the fullest possible 
extent with the newly created Procurement and Assignment Service. Dr. Frank 
H. Lahey, the president of the American Medical Association, is the chairman of 
the board of the Procurement and Assignment Service, and the executive officer 
of that service is Dr. Sam F. Seeley, major. Medical Corps, United States Army. 

The American Medical Association publishes the Journal of the American 
Medical Association, a weekly journal with a circulation approximating 100.000. 
Through the editorial columns of the Journal and through its section devoted 
to medical preparedness, the medical profession of the United States is kept in- 
formed with regard to defense activities with which the medical profession is now 
or must later be concerned. Official releases of Government agencies are repro- 
duced in the medical preparedness section of the Journal and other information 
received from official sources is thus made available for the readers of the Journal. 
Scientific articles having special bearing on war medicine and on medical phases 
of national defense are published in the Journal and in other publications of the 
association. 

In 1941 a new publication of the association devoted entirely to the general 
subject of war medicine was added to the list of official publications of the asso- 
ciation. This is published under the name "War Medicine." 

The association publishes a monthly periodical called Hygeia, a health magazine 
established and published for the purpose of providing for the public authentic 
information concerning health, and an effort has been made through this magazine 
not only to stimulate general interest in the subject of health and disease preven- 
tion but also to stimulate interest in the national defense program. 

The various councils, bureaus, and departments of the American Medical 
Association have for years attempted to be of service to official agencies of the 
Federal Government and have cooperated to the greatest possible extent with 
those agencies. These efforts at cooperation have been intensified within the 
last year or two since the Government began to develop a national defense 
program. 

Exhibit 12. — American Planning and Civic Association, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

REPORT BY HARLEAN JAMES, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 

Field of the American Planning and Civic Association.- — From the enclosed 
folder you will see that our organization at all times deals in community facilities 
of various sorts which minister to the welfare, health, efficiency, and morale of 
the American people. We carry on an educational program which presents to 
the readers of our publications — the American Planning and Civic Annual and 
Planning and Civic Comment — authoritative accounts of what is being done, 
within the planning, park, and conservation field, to improve living and working 
conditions of American families at all levels of government. (For your conven- 
ience in referring to the accompanying material, the folder enclosed is marked 
"A," the quarterlies "B.") 

Congested populations. — The unprecedented shifts of population which have 
concentrated workers and their families in places where existing accommodations 
for living were inadequate or entirely lacking, have thrown into sharp relief and 
emphasized the defects of many of our cities and towns. Those cities were fortu- 
nate where modern planning, zoning, housing, and building codes were already 
in effect, though no city could be said to be adequately prepared to solve at once 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9911 

the problems forced on it by reason of the sudden influx of war industries and 
the large numbers of workers. 

Protection of park areas. — During the past year, since the intensive production 
of war materiel, the American Planning and Civic Association has urged national, 
State and local park authorities to protect their areas from unnecessary, unrelated 
encroachments. Because parks and playgrounds are in public ownership and 
comparatively free from buildings there has been a temptation on the part of 
defense authorities to locate temporary war buildings on these open spaces. 
The saving in time and money through the unjustified use of such areas is almost 
always counterbalanced by the reduction in needed park and recreation facilities. 
In other words, the price paid for such building sites in, forfeiture of essential 
recreational opportunities may be much greater than the cost of private prop- 
erty, or the appropriation of other types of public property. 

Outdoor recreation in 1942. — It is our belief that facilities for outdoor recreation 
during the summer of 1942, and so long as the war lasts, will play an important 
part in maintaining the health and morale of men in army posts and training 
camps and the civilian population. In every city where defense activities have 
expanded there will be need for additional recreational facilities and leadership. 
In many cases, more rather than less park space will be needed. 

Federal funds for excess community facilities. — Where the increased burden of 
cost for these facilities can be directly traced to defense expansion and where it 
is beyond the reasonable ability of the local government to cover it, it would be 
only fair for the Federal Government to make grants-in-aid or allocations of 
funds to local work and recreation authorities for the provision of adequate 
recreational facilities for the excess population. 

English and German experience. — England, in her desperation after the fall of 
France, drove her people to the 7-day week, and stopped paid vacations. Her 
production line immediately jumped upward, leveled off, and then took a long 
turn downward. The British found that the workers had to be kept fit in order 
to stand the strain of continued work. An Associated Press dispatch from 
London recently brought the news that "2 years of war have brought bombs, 
death and destruction, but have not done away with that cherished institution, 
the British week-end." Germany has opened up the entire network of Reich 
waterways to serve for leisure-time purposes. Germany is developing all her 
recreational facilities as a part of the war program. Shall the United States be 
less wise than these countries experienced in making war? 

Importance of local planning.^ln all of our publications and in other feasible 
ways we have advocated that Federal authorities responsible for providing hous- 
ing for war workers cooperate closely with local, planning, zoning, housing, and 
building-code officials, in order that housing projects may fit into the community 
pattern, may take advantage of existing school, park, and playground facilities, 
or, if these are lacking, that they be provided as part of the housing project. 
It is well known that long-sustained toil at exacting tasks gradually wears down 
health and morale if some sort of recreation is not available to counteract the 
physical and nervous strain and to renew the spirits of the workers. These 
facilities are just as necessary to human beings as water supply, sewage, and 
street pavements. 

Maintenance of zoning standards. — Our association has protested, and will 
continue to protest against the breaking down of sound zoning regulations in 
communities where new factories and housing projects are being built. No 
doubt it is sometimes necessary to modify existing zoning districts to meet wartime 
conditions; but, in consultation with local planning and zoning authorities, such 
changes can be worked out without wrecking the zoning structure of the city. 
Particularly we deplore the relaxation of zoning protection for single-family 
districts which is proposed in many cities. In these districts live the home owners 
who have pride in their premises and in their cities. To permit intrusions of other 
types of homes and buildings in these residence neighborhoods may set in motion 
the inexorable forces which ultimately lead to blight and possible city-wide dis- 
integration. Our home neighborhoods are worth protecting! 

Utilities and community facilities in counties. — Where waitime housing projects 
have been erected outside of city limits, the problem of providing adequate utilities 
and additional recreational facilities is most important. There are in the United 
States only about thirty of the three-thousand-odd counties which have any 
semblance of county-wide planning and zoning. In so far as the counties can 
be organized to meet the strain thus suddenly put upon them, well and good. 
But it has been and will be necessary for the Federal Government to work out 
feasible cooperative methods by which the Federal Government will provide all 



9912 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

utilities and facilities which cannot be provided by the county or functioning 
government. Where houses are permanent these utilities and facilities should be 
of a permanent nature. Even for temporary houses there should be temporary 
provision for school and recreational facilities. 

The little-town problem. — In a number of instances war districts have been 
located in little towns of a few hundred residents and have Vjrought in thousands 
of workers. In these cases, almost completely new community facilities are 
demanded. After making the most of the local government organization and 
exisfing utilities and facilities, it is clearly the duty of the Federal Government 
to provide for these war workers. 

Surveys and plans. — Surveys by the appropriate Federal authority would bring 
together an accurate account of community conditions in all congested war 
centers. Plans could be developed, then, in accordance with local planning and 
park agencies, to supply the most pressing needs. No doubt the service of the 
housing coordinator to determine housing needs would contribute to this task. 

Post-defense planning. — Already we are advocating the greatest use of planning 
agencies and techniques in building the Federal works projects for the post-defense 
period, because we beUeve a planned program, fitted into adequate local plans, 
will yield to the community dividends far beyond make-work projects, and will 
contribute as much or more to the employment which will be necessary to absorb 
the demobilization of troops and war workers. (See page 48, January 1942 
Planning and Civic Comment.) S. 1617 and H. R. 5638, now pending in Congress, 
are drawn to promote this suggested procedure. 

Probably the post-defense period will offer unprecedented opportunities for 
urban redevelopment of cities in the United States. Three States have already 
passed enabling legislation, and the Federal Housing Administration has recently 
issued a handbook on the subject. 

Information service. — Through the American Planning and Civic Association 
and its associate organization, the National Conference on State Parks, we are 
in touch with planning and park commissions and agencies throughout the country. 
We maintain an especially close connection with the National Park Service, which 
was created by Congress in 1916, after an extensive educational campaign led by 
the then American Civic Association. It is our belief that as soon as conditions 
of neaiby and remote travel are determined upon and made known, our two 
organizations could do a good deal to promote the use of parks and recreation 
areas, within the limitations set by the Federal Government. 

Planning and park commissions and citizens generally should be informed as 
to what is possible in the way of outdoor recreation during the summer of 1942. 
We are ready to supply information to local groups where zoning districts are 
threatened, and particularly to place authoritative data and supporting reasons 
in the hands of local newspapers and organized groups, for the protection of 
residence neighborhoods. (See page 15, January 1942 Planning and Civic 
Comment.) 

District of Columbia. — The American Planning and Civic Association set up a 
committee of 100 on the Federal City in 1922. This committee issued a report 
in 1924, presenting a program for improvement of Washington. In January 
1940 the committee presented a comparison of the recommendations of 1924 with 
the accomplishments between 1924-40, and a new set of recommendations for 
the Federal City. (See enclosure "C".) 

We have at all times advocated that official plans prepared by the National 
Capital Park and Planning Commission be followed in the development of the 
city. We now recommend that, either by Executive order or congressional 
legislation, all Federal and District authorities be directed to submit plans for 
physical improvements in the District of Columbia to the National Capital 
Park and Planning Commission for written approval or recommendations, and 
that departure from the Planning Commission's recommendations be permitted 
only on written statement, with reasons attached, of the responsible administra- 
tive agency involved. Only by some such procedure will the Federal City be 
protected from departures from carefully conceived plans which may blight its 
future for a hundred years. 

But the announced policy of bringing into Washington what amounts to 
an entire cit}^ of considerable size, to be superimposed on the existing city, is 
producing, and will continue to produce, complications which cannot be solved 
without the financial aid of the Federal Government. The District of Columbia 
is fortunate in that it has a well-established planning commission, combining 
Federal and District of Columbia representation, set up in 1926 by amendment 
of the Park Act of 1924, a Zoning Commission, first created in 1920, and an Alley 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9913 

Dwelling Authority, first set up in 1934, which is now, within the limits of appro- 
priations by Congress, constructing and operating public housing projects in the 
District of Columbia. If adequate funds are made available, existing machinery 
could be invoked to provide whatever public housing is required to supplement 
dwelling units to be erected by private enterprise under stimulation of the Housing 
Coordinator. 

It is unfortunate that the Lanham bill (H. R. 6128) omitted provision for 
desperately needed housing in Washington. Only prompt passage of the pro- 
posed separate Lanham bill for the District of Columbia will permit action 
soon enough to provide any sort of accommodations for the expected influx of 
war workers. 

The committee of 100 on the Federal City will be glad to continue and intensify 
its educational program to maintain the integrity of the official plan for Wash- 
ington, to promote public and private housing with adequate community facilities 
and to extend and protect the parks of Washington. 

Mistakes have already been made in departing from established plans of the 
National Capital Park and Planning Commission. Buildings have been erected 
on park lands. For all permanent buildings for Government offices or homes 
for war workers, great care should be taken to conform to the official plans of the 
National Capital Park and Planning Commission. 

No more buildings should be erected in the parks of Washington, except with 
the consent of the National Capital Park and Planning Commission and the 
National Park Service which administers the District of Columbia parks. (See 
page 24, January 1942 Planning and Civic Comment.) 

There is great need that the pending bill to unify the recreation facilities in the 
District of Columbia, as recommended by the President's committee, be passed 
by Congress. Sufficient funds are needed for adequate outdoor recreation 
facilities for war and civil workers during the long, hot summer of 1942. Funds 
should be made available to develop the much needed undeveloped recreational 
centers already in public ownership. This is not a place to retrench during the 
war. 



Exhibit 13. — Child Welfare League of America, Inc., New 

York, N. Y. 

report by howard w. hopkirk, executive director 

January 21, 1942. 

Signs of insecurity which often reflect lack of community planning and which 
usually reflect inadequacies of existing private and governmental child welfare 
services have long been observed by the Child Welfare League of America, 
Its network of agencies in the United States and Canada engaged largely in the 
foster care and protection of children, invariably is called upon when children 
uprooted from their usual environs become seriously neglected or show signs of 
delinquency. 

The 172 accredited agencies and the 148 affihated (but not accredited) agencies 
which constitute the Child Welfare League of Amxerica had a taste of war even 
before our own country began mobilization for defense. We are the national 
agency which traditionally has sought to establish and improve standards for 
the foster care and protection of children. In that capacity we have a great 
interest in what happens to refugee or migrant children. 

The movement of refugee children from Great Britain and Europe was under 
various auspices, many coming under arrangements made by the United States 
Committee for Care of European Children. But after these children were 
settled down in American homes it was the local member agencies of the Child 
Welfare League which provided most of the supervision required by the children 
and by their foster parents. The child welfare agencies approved for this task 
by the United States Children's Bureau properly insisted upon maintaining for 
these guest children the same quality of service provided for our own. The 
extra loads thus assumed by these agencies during 1940 and 1941 proved sur- 
prisingly heavy. It meant, in several agencies, the addition of a worker, and in 
some, an excessive amount of overtime, many workers foregoing vacations and 
holidavs — all of which was cheerfully contributed. This overload caused by the 
migration of a few hundred children is only a token of the additional services now 
needed in many mushroom communities to which thousands of American families 
have brought their children and the child welfare problems which inevitably follow 



9914 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

such hastily contrived community life. Should we come to such uprooting of 
children as England has found necessary, the expansion of social service needed 
will be comparable to the war time expansion of our military establishments. 

Data already available show that a definite sag in the welfare of children can be 
expected in 1942 unless existing services be expanded. This means larger appro- 
priations for public service and the raising of more funds than ever before by 
agencies under private auspices, or by the community chests wherever they have 
assumed responsibility for the support of private child welfare agencies. 

The most serious of the needs which are apparent in January 1942, is the unmet 
demand for daytime care of the children of working mothers. Member agencies 
of the Child Welfare League in California and New Jersey have testified to this 
need. In Morris County, N. J., where there are two large arsenals and other 
expanded defense industries, our member agency is participating in county-wide 
planning for the study of this need and for meeting it. The Morristown Daily 
Record (December 19, 1941) refers to this study of needs which was directed by 
the county superintendent of schools: "Large numbers of children go home to 
empty houses after they leave school. The parents are doing their part in the 
national crisis by working in defense industries, and the local communities must 
undertake to provide programs which will protect these children from the dangers 
of character break-down resulting from lack of parental supervision during the 
nonschool hours." In varying degrees, but in surprisingly largo proportions, the 
same conditions exist in four other New Jersey cities, as reported by our members 
in Elizabeth, Montclair, Newark, and Orange. What is true in these five cities 
is true in other parts of New Jersey and in every State in which industrial plants 
or military establishments have altered the usual patterns of life for families and 
communities. We can supply your committee with definite reports of the need in 
many localities. Old communities, as well as those recently established, often 
reveal limitations of local resources and unwillingness of local officials to carry 
responsibilities for service to any kind of migrant family or -child. In terms of 
child welfare we see the blighting influence in the fields of education and health, as 
well as in the field of welfare services. 

We have cooperated closely with the United States Children's Bureau in its 
recent efforts to guide communities and particular agencies in developing foster 
day care for children of working mothers. New resources, nationally and locally, 
must be tapped if we are to escape the calamity of having a parent's pay check 
serve as a token for neglect of his child. 

Other signs of these strenuous times are reports of the difficulty in obtaining 
the usual supply of foster homes, it being of economic advantage to rent a room 
to a defense worker rather than to reserve it for a foster child. The Child Welfare 
League's recent study of the board rates applicable to boarding home care at the 
end of 1941, tells of the increased cost of living as another factor with which 
foster parents and child placing agencies must deal. 

Serious increases in delinquency are appearing. These have been observedand 
recently reported from Oklahoma and Maine. An agency in Maine serving 
unmarried mothers reports a 50-percent increase in the number of cases coming to 
it for consideration. 

The Nation-wide development of Child Welfare Services under the Social 
Security Act may be considered the most significant of recent child welfare de- 
velopments. It means that dependent, neglected and delinquent American 
children in rural environments are less frequently ignored. The funds for this 
purpose are too limited to permit extension of this service to all communities 
needing it. We may well consider the organization and extension of Child 
Welfare Services as a symbol of America's true regard for each of its children, even 
for the child in the most remote and humble shack. 



Exhibit 14. — The Federal Council of the Churches of Christ 
IN America, New York, N. Y. 

report by roswell f. barnes, associate general secretary 

January 16, 1942. 
The Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America is a council repre- 
senting 24 national denominations of the non-Roman Christian churches in 
America, having a total constituency of approximately 26,000,000. In the work 
of the churches which is concerned with defense migration, this council works 
in close cooperation with the home missions council of North America which 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 9915 

represents the boards of the churches having special responsibiUty for migrant 
workers. 

The total general program of the churches is concerned with various problems 
relating to our national emergency, but the most pressing problems receive the 
special attention of agencies created by the churches for these specific purposes. 

The general commission on Army and Navy chaplains is the official cooperative 
agency representing evangelical churches of the United States for certifying 
ministers to the Government for service as chaplains, for strengthening the ties 
between chaplains and the churches to which they belong, and for serving as 
liaison between the churches and the Government in matters affecting the spiritual 
welfare of men in service. 

The agency which is most concerned with the problems under consideration 
by your committee is the christian commission for camp and defense communities, 
constituted jointly by the Federal Council of Churches and the home missions 
council. This commission assists the churches which are most heavily burdened 
with responsibilities of meeting new populations brought into their communities 
in the vicinity of training camps and defense industries. The commission has 
collaborated with Mr. Taft's work in the office of the National Security Agency 
concerned with problems of public health, morality, and other aspects of general 
community welfare. It also cooperates with the United Service Organizations 
in their programs in these communities. Under the stimulus and guidance of 
this commission, the churches in many communities involving migrant populations 
have organized special services such as those provided by a special committee 
with employed personnel under the direction of the Delaware-Maryland Council 
of Churches working in the communities in that territory which have inadequate 
facilities for religious and social welfare work; and a special committee of the 
Missouri Council of Churches which has organized the services for the new popu- 
lations adjacent to Fort Leonard Wood. Such work has been organized by the 
churches in many communities across the country. It is of special importance 
in connection with problems of community morality and liealth as well as the 
problem of morale generally. Regional conferences are being held in order to 
effect a better coordination of the work of the churches with that of the United 
Service Organizations, local defense councils, and representatives of the Office of 
the Coordinator of Health, Welfare, and Related Defense Activities. 

The special service of the churches is sometimes provided by supplying addi- 
tional personnel for an existing church. In other instances, it involves renting 
or building some new quarters as a place where the men from the camps or the 
workers in defense industries can meet for religious services and wholesome 
social purposes. At some points it will be necessary to rely upon trailers or travel- 
ing leaders who will set up programs of religious education for the children of 
workers or the families of Army personnel who live outside the reservations. In 
many communities the churches are an important factor in the suppression of 
prostitution and the control of places of so-called entertainment. 

Through our office, or in most instances through the office of the christian 
commission for camp and defense communities, the churches will be glad to 
cooperate with agencies of the Government in maintaining wholesome community 
life among the shifting populations. 



Exhibit 15.^ — The International and National Red Cross, 

Washington, D. C. 

REPORT BY NORMAN H. DAVIS, CHAIRMAN 

The Treaty of Geneva, an agreement among the governments of the world, 
was adopted by a diplomatic convention in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1864. The 
United States acceded to the treaty in 1882. The convention was revised in 
1906 and again in 1929. The total- number of parties adhering to the convention 
of 1864 and the revisions of 1906 and 1929 is 61. 

The purpose of the treaty, briefly stated, is to provide for the amelioration of 
the condition of soldiers wounded upon the field of battle, to neutralize and 
protect persons engaged in according relief to the sick and wounded, and to 
furnish supplies for these purposes. 

An international conference in Geneva in 1863, which prepared the way for 
the convention that wrote the treaty, recommended "That there exist in every 



9916 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

country a committee whose mission consists in cooperating in time of war with 
the hospital service of the armies." Red Cross societies organized in accordance 
with this recommendation in nations which have acceded to the treaty are there- 
after recognized by the International Committee of the Red Cross of Geneva 
and by the other nations which are parties to the treaty. 

The International Committee is looked upon as the guardian of the Treaty 
of Geneva and is primarily concerned with matters bearing directly or indirectly 
upon Red Cross problems arising from war. The essential spirit of the Committee 
is the absolute neutrality. 

The League of Red Cross Societies. 

The League of Red Cross Societies, created May 1919, through the initiative 
of Henry P. Davison, chairman of the war council of the American Red Cross, 
was launched with the help of the Red Cross societies of Great Britain, France, 
Italy, and Japan. Its object is to promote and facilitate cooperation between 
national Red Cross societies in carrying out their peacetime programs aiming 
at the improvement of health, the prevention of disease and the mitigation of 
suffering. The league includes the national societies of 61 countries in its 
membership. 

The American National Red Cross — its charter and mandates. 

The American National Red Cross is a permanent organization, functioning 
actively and continuously, in accordance with the provisions of its charter granted 
January 5, 1905, by act of Congress of the United States of America to carry out 
the purposes of the Treaty of Geneva and certain other broadly defined duties. 
Under this charter "the purposes of this corporation are and shall be: 
"To furnish volunteer aid to the sick and wounded of armies in time of war 
* * * 

"To perform all the duties devolved upon a national society by each nation 
which has acceded to said treaty (the Treaty of Geneva) * * * 

"To act in matters of voluntary relief and in accord with the military and naval 
authorities as a medium of cominunication between the people of the United 
States of America and their Army and Navy * * * 

"To continue and carry on a system of national and international relief in time 
of peace and to apply the same in mitigating the sufferings caused by pestilence, 
famine, fire, floods, and other great national calamities, and to devise and carry 
on measures for preventing the same." 

Briefly the organization of the American National Red Cross includes: The 
incorporators and their successors who are named in the act of incorporation 
constitute a perpetual body. They elect six members of the central committee 
and the members of the board of trustees of the endowment fund. 

The officers are a president- — the President of the United States is ex-officio 
president of the American National Red Cross upon his acceptance of the office — 
and the fouowing elective officers: three vice presidents, a counselor, a treasurer, 
a secretary. All elective officers are elected by the central committee. The 
appointed officers are: the chairman, appointed by the President of the United 
States, and the vice chairman appointed by the central committee. 

The entire control, m.anagement and administration of the affairs of the Ameri- 
can National Red Cross are vested in the central committee by the provisions of 
the congressional charter. 

The central committee consists of 18 mero.bers, 6 appointed by the President 
of the United States, 6 elected by the incorporators, and 6 elected by the delegates 
of the chapters. Of the 6 appointed by the President, 1 is named chairman and 
5 represent respectively the Departments of State, War, Navy, Treasury, and 
Justice. The elected members service for 3 years. 

The activities of the organization are directed from national headquarters in 
Washington, and from area offices in Alexandria, Va., St. Louis, and San Fran- 
cisco. 

The chapter. 

The chapter is the local unit of the American National Red Cross. It receives 
its charter from the national organization and is responsible for all local phases 
of national obligations and all local Red Cross activities within its territory, 
subject always to the policies and regulations of the national organization. The 
territory assigned to a chapter is usually a single county, but circumstances m.ay 
make some other territorial assignnaent desirable. Funds and property of the 
Red Cross coming into the custody of a chapter are subject to the control of the 
central committee. Where the jurisdiction of a chapter covers n.ore than the 



NATIONAL DEFENS.E MIGRATION 9917 

town or city it is sometimes desirable to organize branches of the chapter. The 
branch derives its authority from, the chapter, its organization is authorized and 
its territory is assigned by the chapter. All of the funds and property coming 
into the possession of a branch are to be administered in accordance with the 
regulations and instructions of the chapter. 

The combined annual expenditures of the chapter for the fiscal year 1940-41 
aggregated nearly $12,000,000. Approxin.ately 1,100 chapters — the larger ones — 
today have about 3,600 skilled employees helping with big and little tasks every 
day. 

Volunteer chapter officership and committee membership for 3,742 chapters 
with 6,131 branches num.ber m.any tens of thousands. They are reenforced by 
other significant groups of citizens who also volunteer their time. 

Nearly a million and a quarter women have volunteered their time in the 
volunteer special services of the organization. Tens of thousands of naen and 
women volunteer their tim,e as instructors in first aid and other tens of thousands 
as instructors in water safety, home nursing, home and farm safety, and other 
adult education courses conducted by the Red Cross. Hundreds of thousands 
of school administrators and teachers help annually with Junior Red Cross. 
Today these millions of Red Cross workers are at the center of the Nation's 
war effort making disciplined and trained contributions. 

Finance. 

The sources of income of the national organization are norm.ally (a) the 50 
cents from each m,embership which con.es to the national organization, (b) interest 
on endowment and other invested funds, and (c) minor miscellaneous receipts. 

The roll call receipts are placed in the general fund of the national organization 
from which is financed the general program, of the Red Cross. The roll call 
receipts are not segregated in a separate fund, because the effort is to keep the 
Red Cross organization and program flexible and not divided into separate 
operations. 

On September 30, 1941, the principal under the administration of the trustees 
of the endowment fund was $15,193,673.21 including the former special reserve 
of war funds under the adm.inistration of the board of trustees of the endowment 
fund as a special war emergency reserve, the principal to be drawn upon only 
in the event of a war involving the United States. Only the income from the 
funds thus invested is used for the general program of the Red Cross. 

Some $97,000,000 has been expended by the Red Cross for dom.estic disaster 
relief in 20 years after the close of the. World War I period. Of this, $79,000,000 
was expended in 13 major disasters, each involving an expenditure of a million 
dollars or more. Although there were 13 n.ajor disasters, a Nation-wide campaign 
for funds was held in only 6; the others were financed through appeals in the 
regions prim.arily concerned. Thus, on the basis of this experience, a national 
campaign for domestic disaster relief is required only once in every 3^^ years. 

In May 1940, a war relief fund cam-)aign was inaugurated with a goal of $20,- 
000,000. The statement of policy said that funds received by the national organ- 
ization would be used wholly and exclusively for war relief and no part of them 
applied toward the support of the normal program and expenditures of the Red 
Cross, all of which are met from the roll call and other regular income. Chapters 
were authorized to retain 15 percent of the collections to cover expenditures for 
their local war relief efi"ort, primarily for the suuplies and other items in connec- 
tion with the volunteer production of surgical dressings, garments, sweaters, and 
other articles for the war sufferers. 

The American Red Cross api lied the funds raised in this campaign for extend- 
ing aid through the French and British Red Cross societies and through other 
responsible operating organizations of the countries where assistance had been 
requested and given, which organizations acted as distributing agents for, and 
under the supervision of, the American Red Cross. 

In extending this aid the American Red Cross did not confine itself to any