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Full text of "National defense migration. Hearings before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, first[-second] session, pursuant to H. Res. 113, a resolution to inquire further into the interstate migration of citizens, emphasizing the present and potential consequences of the migraion caused by the national defense program. pt. 11-[34]"

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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 

MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 

AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE 

MIGRATION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 

DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 27 
WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

FEBRUARY 3, 4, 11, 1942 



THE MANPOWER OF THE NATION IN WAR 
PRODUCTION— BOOK ONE 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 

MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 

AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE 

MIGRATION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 

DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 27 
WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

FEBRUARY 3, 4, 11, 1942 



THE MANPOWER OF THE NATION IN WAR 
PRODUCTION— BOOK ONE 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
60366 WASHINGTON : 1942 



SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING NATIONAL DEFENSE 

K MIGRATION 

JOHN HJToiAN, California, Chairman 

JOHN J. SPARKMAN, Alabama CARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska 
LAURENCE F. ARNOLD, Illinois 

Robert K. Lamb, Staff director 






CONTENTS 



Page 

List of witnesses iv 

List of authors iv 

Tuesday, February 3, 1942, morning session 10235 

Testimony of Brig. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey 10235, 10238 

Statement of Brig. Gen. Lewis B. Hershey 10235 

Testimony of Donald H. Davenport 10256, 10275 

Statement by Donald H. Davenport 10257 

Testimony of John J. Corson 10286 

Statement by John J. Corson 10286 

Wednesday, February 4, 1942, morning session 10317 

Testimony of Howard B. Myers 10317 

Statement by Howard B. Myers 10318 

Testimony of Thelma McKelvey 10344 

Statement by Thelma McKelvev 10344 

Testimony of Mary Anderson. /. 10390, 10400 

Statement by Mary Anderson 10390 

Wednesday, February 11, 1942, morning session 10407 

Testimony of Noel Sargent 10407 

Statement by Noel Sargent 10407 

Wednesday, March 18, 1942, morning session 10424 

Testimony of Raymond Griffin McDonald 10425 

Statement by Raymond Griffin McDonald 10446 

Introduction of exhibits 10449 

1. Surveys on defense migration, by Division of Social Research, Work 

Projects Administration, Federal Works Agency 10449 

2. Manpower for the construction of Camp Albert H. Blanding 10634 

3. Defense migration of Iowa National Youth Administration youth. 10694 
Index (following p. 10696) i-VM 



LIST OF WITNESSES 

Washington Hearings, Feb. 3, 4, 11, Mar. 18, 1942 

Anderson, Mary, director, Women's Bureau, United States Department Pag* 
of Labor, Washington, D. C 10390, 10400 

Corson, John J., director. United States Employment Service, Federal' 

Security Agency, Washington, D. C - 10286, 10306 

Davenport, Donald H., chief, employment and occupational outlook 
branch. Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of 
Labor, Washington, D. C 10256, 10275 

Hershev, Brig. Gen. Lewis B., director, Selective Service System, Wash- 
ington, D. C 10235, 10238 

McDonald, Raymond Griffin, migrant defense worker, Freeport, Tex 10425 

McKelvey, Thelma, Labor Division, War Production Board, Washington, 

D. C 10344, 10378 

Mvers, Howard B., director of research, Work Projects Administration, 

Federal Works Agency, Washington, D. C 10317, 10330 

Sargent, Noel, secretary. National Association of Manufacturers, New 

York, N. Y 10407, 10413 



LIST OF AUTHORS 

Of Prepared Statements and Exhibits 

Anderson, Marv, director, Women's Bureau, United States Department of Page 
Labor, Washington, D. C 10390 

Corson, John J., director. United States Employment Service, Federal 

Security Agency, Washington, D. C 10286 

Davenport, Donald H., chief, employment and occupational outlook 
branch, Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor, 
Washington, D. C 10257 

Division of Social Research, Work Projects Administration, Washington, 

D. C - 10449 

Eslick, Theodore P., State youth administrator. National Youth Adminis- 
tration for Iowa, Des Moines, Iowa 10694 

Hershey, Brig. Gen. Lewis B., director. Selective Service Svstem, Wash- 
ington, D. C 1 10235 

McDonald, Raymond Griffin, migrant defense worker, Freeport, Tex 10446 

McKelvey, Thelma, Labor Division, War Production Board, Washington, 

D. C 10344 

Myers, Howard B., director of research. Work Projects Administration, 

Federal Works Agency, Washington, D. C 10318 

Sargent, Noel, secretary. National Association of Manufacturers, New 

York, N. Y 10407 

Wiles, Edward E., Department of Research and Statistics, Florida Indus- 
trial Commission, Tallahassee, Fla 10634 

IV 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MirxKATION 



TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 3, 1942 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington , D. C. 
The committee met, pursuant to notice, at 9:30 a. m., in room 1536, 
New House Office Building, Washington, D. C, Hon. John H. Tolan 
(chairman) presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tohm (chairman), of CaH- 
fornia ; John J. Sparkman, of Alabama ; and Carl T. Curtis, of Nebraska. 
Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director. 
The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 
General Hershey will be the first witness. 

TESTIMONY OF BRIG. GEN. LEWIS B. HERSHEY, DIRECTOR, 
SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Chairman. General Hershey, we appreciate your coming here 
this morning. The committee at this hearing is interested in study- 
ing the problem of national labor-market policy. Industry, agricul- 
ture, and the Army will recpiire additional millions of workers during 
the next year. It is estimated that in the coming year 10,000,000 
additional workers will be needed, 6,000,000 of whom will be new 
entrants into the labor market, while another 4,000,000 will be shifted 
from consumer-goods industries. In short, it appears that the Nation 
will face an over-all labor shortage problem in 1942. As you are well 
aware, it is critically important that intelligent policies governing 
labor migi-ation and all other aspects of the labor market should be 
developed now. The selective service, of course, is a very powerful 
factor in determining what happens to the supplj^ of labor for industry 
and for agriculture. 

General, Congressman Sparkman will ask you some questions based 
on the statement you filed with the committee. The statement will 
be inserted m the record at this point. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY BRIG. GEN. LEWIS B. HERSHEY, DIRECTOR, 
SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

I am appearing in accordance with the committee's request and have prepared 
a brief statement covering the specific inquiries set fortli in such request. 

The Selective Service System has been charged with the responsibility of regis- 
tering and classifying the entire manpower of this Nation between the ages of 

10235 



10236 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

18 and 65, and with the further responsibility of determining which of the men 
between 20 and 44 should be allocated to the armed forces and which of them 
should be allocated to wartime production or other essential civilian activities or 
responsibilities. As a specified amount of money must be so budgeted as to 
obtain the best use, so also must the supply of manpower be budgeted and allo- 
cated so as to obtain the most effective results. 

Generally speaking, the following are the users of manpower essential for the 
war effort and the national health, safety, and interest: (1) The Army, (2) the 
Navy and Marine Corps, (3) war industrial production, (4) war agricultural pro- 
duction, (5) war transportation, and (6) other civilian activities essential for the 
welfare of the civilian poj)ulation or for the war effort. 

It is obvious that manpower must be properly allocated among those users. 
No user can be permitted to acquire more manpower of a particular type than it is 
determined should be allocated to it after considering the needs of the others. 

It would be utterly foolish to take men out of essential war production and 
induct them into the armed forces when by so doing the Army fails to receive the 
equipment it must have in order to fight effectively. A proper balance must be 
maintained, and manpower must be so allocated that a sufficient amount of 
mechanical equipment will be available for the Army and Navy at all times. 

The principles and theories of selective service concerning such balance and 
allocation have been under careful study and research for many years. 

A vast majority of the manpower between the ages of 21 and 36 have already 
been registered and partially inventoried. Immediately following December 7, 
1941, when public opinion became entirely unified and it was obvious that there 
would be a tremendous war production expansion, coupled with a simultaneous 
large-scale increase in the size of the armed forces, we promptly requested and 
obtained legislation to extend the age limits of men liable for training and service 
and to provide for an extensive inventory of the Nation's manpower. 

INVENTORY OP NATIONAL MANPOWER 

Under the new legislation, although liability for military service is confined to 
the men between the ages of 20 and 45, provision is made for Selective Service to 
inventory all of the manpower between the ages of 18 and 65. The inventory of 
the men between 18 and 20 and between 45 and 65, who are not liable for service, 
will furnish the Selective Service System with more detailed information upon 
which to establish proper deferment policies. By means of proper deferment 
selective service can, to a considerable extent, control proper allocation of manpower 
among the users, provided the individual users do not disrupt our operations and 
upset the proper balance by ruthlessly competing among themselves for the cream 
of our manpower. Control may be imposed by denying deferment to a man work- 
ing at a nonessential occupation. 

It is imperative that peak production be attained at the earliest possible moment 
so that the necessary equipment and materiel will be available not only to meet 
the requirements of our own armed forces, but also to assist in equipping the armed 
forces of our allies. We must not forget that for every soldier there must be many 
men working behind the lines to sustain him. 

I have already called your attention to the fact that competition among the 
various users of manpower must be controlled or entirely eliminated. Although 
war industrial production must be maintained, it should not be permitted to draw 
unnecessarily upon the supply of potential I-A men or upon manpower engaged 
in war agricultural production. In recent conferences with management and 
labor organizations directly concerned with essential industrial production, it was 
agreed that they would cooperate with us by handling their personnel expansion 
program in such a manner that the rosters of employees would consist of men of 
various ages and of various circumstances, and would also consist of a large 
percentage of women. An employer engaged in essential production who has 
6uch an employee pattern is not faced with a very difficult situation when it is 
recognized that the vast majority of his employees would be entitled to deferment 
for reasons other than occupational. 

CLASSIFICATION OF RESIDENTS 

In this connection, too often we overlook the fact that vast numbers of the men 
engaged in essential activities are deferred for reasons other than occupation, 
namely, for dependency or by reason of physical defects. Statistics disclose that 
only about 3.4 percent of classified registrants are in class II, of which 2.5 percent 
are in class II-A, being engaged in essential nonwar civilian activities, while 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10237 

0.9 percent are in class II-B, being engaged in essential war activities. In con- 
trast to the small percentage of essential workers who are in class II, and par- 
ticularly in class II-B, the statistics disclose that approximately 64.1 percent of 
classified registrants are in class III, being deferred because of dependency. In 
this class is found the bulk of the workers. 

There is no question but that all of the various users of manpower would prefer 
to use for the most part young, physically perfect men. A survey of our man- 
power, however, reveals that there are not enough young, 100-percent perfect 
men to fill the total manpower requirements of all the users of manpower, if we 
contemplate the pjossibility of having an armed force of 7,000,000 or 8,000,000 
men or more and the production of materiel with which to equip it and also 
supplement the materiel requirements of our allies. 

UTILIZATION OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS 

In the near future the Army wiU be inducting, through selective service, men 
from all age groups between 20 and 45. There is no question but that some of the 
older men will be assigned to jobs requiring less physical strain than those to which 
the younger men will be assigned. There are many assignments in the armed 
forces that can be performed by such older men and by limited-service men just 
as well as by younger, 100-percent-perfect men. When the armed forces required 
only comparatively small numbers of men, it was probably advisable to impose 
very high standards and take only the young, 100-percent-perfect men to perform 
all assignments, even though some of them could be performed just as well by 
men who could not meet such standards. 

The other users of manpower can utilize older men and women to a considerable 
extent, so as to relieve the tremendous demand upon the supply of younger men. 
Unless this is done, there will not be sufficient manpower of different ages and of 
different types to meet the present and long-term requirements of our war effort. 

Some of the younger industries hired their employees almost entirely from 
among the young, 100-percent perfect men. We have been calling upon them 
to modify their employment practices by intermingling with their existing em- 
ployees a sufficient percentage of women and also men of older ages and men who 
are not entirely 100 percent physically perfect. Employers who already have 
proportionate numbers of their employees of various ages and circumstances 
should not discriminate against younger men when hiring in the future, pro- 
vided such employers employ proportionate numbers of various ages and cir- 
cumstances. 

As I have heretofore indicated, employers who have such a cross section of 
employees will at worst be concerned only with the replacement of a fraction of 
their employees, and we have assured such employers that we will cooperate to 
the maximum so as not to disrupt essential production, and so as to provide for 
making necessary replacements over a reasonable period of time. The entire 
concept of occupational deferment contemplated deferments of various lengths 
of time to take care of situations such as this. 

While employers engaged in essential industrial production cannot sit com- 
placently by and expect to be able to employ only young, single, 100-percent 
perfect men, we definitely recognize that the hysterical action on the part of 
selective service local boards in refusing necessary claims for occupational 
deferment must be prevented. 

The Selective Service System has thus far acquired information with respect 
to the supplies of, and demands for, various types of skilled men, from all avail- 
able sources, both governmental, public and private. It has recognized, how- 
ever, the need for more detailed and more accurate information, which it plans 
to obtain from more comprehensive and intensive liaison on National, State and 
local levels with governmental, public and private agencies and organizations, 
and also from the occupational inventory contemplated by recent legislation. 
National headquarters already has direct liaison with labor and management 
organizations and has received the cooperation of governmental agencies and 
officials who are concerned with the question of manpower. Such relationships 
permit valuable exchange of ideas with unusual informality, facility, and speed. 

With respect to the occupational inventory, a form, which we propose to use in 
order to obtain the initial information, has been tentatively drafted by Selective 
Service with the assistance of various governmental agencies interested in such a 
survey, and whose cooperation we have requested. After the initial information 
has been obtained by way of the proposed form, Selective Service intends to keep 
that information current by requiring the registrants of aU ages to file supple- 



10238 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

mental information setting forth specified changes in status. Among other 
things, by Iceeping this information current in the local boards, we will have cur- 
rent information on the various matters pertaining to manpower, including 
migration. 

EFFECT ON AGRICULTURE 

We have been receiving numerous inquiries about the effect Selective Service 
is having on agriculture. Froin the best information available to us from gov- 
ernmental, public, and private sources, on the National, State and local levels, it 
seems as though there are local shortages of agricultural labor i*i some areas, par- 
ticularly in and around the heavy indvistrial areas, and that the shift of farm labor 
to war industrial production or to the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps through 
their recruiting campaigns in farming areas are the two main causes of any such 
shortages, with Selective Service coming in a poor third. 

Proper control of the recruiting practices of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps and 
war industries will relieve the situation insofar as essential agricultural manpower 
is concerned. 

People living in agricultural areas must recognize that we cannot defer every 
farmer, every farmer's son, and every farmhand merely because the individual 
happens to be engaged in the occupation of farming. The test of deferment is 
whether or not the products from such farm are substantially contributing to our 
national health, safety and interest in providing food or raw materials which are 
essential for our armed forces, the armed forces of our allies, or our civilian popu- 
lation. 

We have been giving this matter our careful consideration, and we recognize 
that the problem becomes more acute as increased demands are made on the 
labor supply by all users. We are supplementing and expanding our contacts 
with governmental agencies, with farm organizations and other interested groups 
on National, State and local levels, which, coupled with our occupational survey, 
should be of material assistance in guiding our policies. 

ALLOWANCE AND ALLOTMENT 

Allowance and allotment legislation has been proposed, and if enacted in proper 
form, it will release for induction many registrants, now deferred on the grounds 
of dependency, who would be contributing to claimed dependents amounts equal 
to or less than the amount of the allotinent. 

The Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 charges the Director of Selective 
Service with the responsibility of getting post-war employment for members of 
the armed forces, whether inducted through Selective Service or not. 

Since the enactment of the act in the fall of 1940, we have been engaged in 
planning along those lines, and we have a separate division in national headquarters 
designated as the Reemployment Division. We had to be ready to get reemploy- 
ment for the inductees who were to be released from active duty at the expiration 
of their period of training and service, and we actually did put our reemployment 
machinery into operation with respect to the men over 28 years of age who were 
released from active duty under the age deferment act. 

In setting up our reemployment machinery, we sought and obtained splendid 
cooperation from the various governmental, public and private agencies and 
organizations. Our contemplated occupational inventory will merely supple- 
ment the forms and procedure which we were using in our reemplo5^ment program 



TESTIMONY OF BRIG. GEN. LEWIS B. HERSHEY— Resumed 

Mr. Sparkman. Let me say in the beginning, General, that if any 
of the questions I may ask should call for information that you think 
is not proper to divulge, you are to feel perfectly free to say so. 

The first question I want to ask you is this: What is the size of our 
armed forces at the present time and what do you contemplate the 
size will be at the end of this year? 

General Hershey. I couldn't give you the exact number at this 
time. It is somewhat less than"2,00b,000. The Secretary of War 
has announced 3,600,000 as the objective before January 1, 1943. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION - 10239 

That will mean an increase of from 1,900,000 to 2,000,000 more than 
they have at the present time. ■ 

Mr. Sparkman. What age groups will be drawn on most heavily 
for that increase? 

General Hershey. I should say the twenties in general. But it 
will depend to some extent on how well the recruiting goes among the 
18- and 19-year-olds. The 18- and 19-year-olds are not liable for 
military service but they are being solicited by the Army, and the 
17-, 18-, and 19-year-olds are being solicited by the Navy. So there 
will be drawings from the 18- and 19-year-old groups, in spite of the 
fact that the 20- to 45-year-old group are the only ones liable under 
the Selective Service Act. 

Mr. Sparkman. The drawings from the 17-, 18-, and 19-year-old 
groups will be voluntary? 

General Hershey. Yes. 

POLICY ON DEFERMENT 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you briefly outline for us your deferment 
policy with relation to industrial and agricultural workers? 

General Hershey. I might say that the deferment policy on both 
industrial and agricultural workers shoidd be looked at in the light 
of the fact that a very large share of those workers are deferred for 
reasons other than the fact that they are industrial or agricultural 
workei's. 

I believe you will find that normally about 12 men who are engaged 
in agriculture or industry are deferred for dependency for each man 
who is deferred primarily because he is engaged in agriculture or in 
industry. 

The reason for that is easy to see. The great majority of wage 
earners, especially as you go in the upper twenties, and particularly in 
the thirties and forties, are individuals who are maintaining de- 
pendents. For that reason, under our present policies, where we defer 
somewhere around 65 percent of our total number for dependency, we 
intend to give what we call indirect deferment to the agricultural and 
industrial workers. 

At the present time, about nine-tenths of 1 percent of the men that 
we have classified have been placed in what we call II-B deferment; 
that is, men specifically in war industries. We have deferred about 
2K percent of those we classified in II-A which includes those engaged 
in agriculture, groups in training for skills or professions in which there 
are shortages, doctors that are engaged at home in taking care of the 
civilian population, and any other person who indirectly contributes 
to the war interest by maintaining the structure of society. That 
group runs to about 500,000 out of a total of 14,000,000 or 15,000,000 
already classified. 

The Chairman. The deferment of agricultural workers reaches into 
the dependency problem more than it does the labor problem. Is that 
right? 

General Hershey. In other words, we have some boys who are at 
home who do not have dependents, but I think you will find that the 
average individual on the farm has a wife or perhaps a mother or 
someone that he supports. So, regardless of his age, this young farm 
worker with a dependent will be placed in class III, because we defer in 



10240 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

the lowest class to which a man is eligible, and dependency is a class 
III instead of a class II deferment. Hence a man eligible for depend- 
ency deferment will not be considered agriculturally or industrially. 

SHORTAGE OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS RECOGNIZED 

The Chairman. Do you take any cognizance of an acute agricul- 
tural labor shortage in a particular part of the country in deferment? 

General Hershey. Yes. We have tried — ^with what success time 
alone probably will say — but we have taken into consideration the 
shortage of agricultural workers. 

I personally happen to feel it rather keenly. I know that the 
agricultural worker that is removed is practically irreplaceable because 
of the fact that if it is general farming on a small farm — the kind I 
am particularly familiar with — the worker has to be to some extent 
the manager. 

He has to be able to do things without supervision and, my experi- 
ence has been — ^and I grew up on a farm — that his skill and his 
ability to manage, is the result of having lived on a farm up to the 
time he is in his twenties. Added to that fact it is difficult, especially 
in my part of the country, to get people who have not lived under 
those circumstances, to go into farming. It is an acute problem, 
because if you remove this fellow you can't get one to replace him. 

We have tried rather hard to impress this upon our boards. I have 
felt sometimes that even among our farmers there is not quite the 
appreciation of how skilled they are, if you want to use the word 
"skilled," in describing knowledge of a profession that is rather 
particular. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, it is your purpose to continue to defer 
men with dependents? 

ALLOTMENTS AND ALLOWANCES 

General Hershey. Yes, as long as possible, with certain minor 
changes that may come with the passage, if Congress should, of 
allotment and allowance legislation later. Dependency is a thing 
that starts where there is very little dependency either financially or 
even socially, and it goes to the place where you have a very closely 
knit family unit where dependency is very high. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, there will always be some deferment, 
but your point is that as the need becomes greater, the degree of 
dependency will have to be greater in order to entitle that person to 
deferment? 

General Hershey. That is right. The general principle, however, 
is that dependency will continue to be a very outstanding cause for 
deferment? 

Mr. Sparkman. And is it your idea that there may be some system 
of allotments worked out for maintenance of dependents? 

General Hershey. Yes. 

Within the last 3 or 4 weeks I attended a conference at the War 
Department concerning proposed legislation of such nature. I think 
a bill has already been introduced in Congress by Representative 
Edmiston, of West Virginia. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10241 

Three years ago I made a study on this question as a staff officer 
in the War Department, and I do have considerable general knowledge 
on the different philosophies on the allotment-allowance laws, and to 
some extent how they are operated in other countries. 

Mr. SpARKiMAN. We had an allotment law, of course, dm-ing the 
World War. 

General Hershey. During the World War there was a straight-out 
compulsory allotment of half of the soldier's pay, the allotment not to 
be in excess of $15 per month. At that time the base pay was $30 per 
month which carried, of course, a compulsory allotment of $15 to the 
wife. This was matched by a $15 allowance from the Government to 
wives with no children. If there were children, the first child was 
given $10 per month by the Government and each succeeding child 
$7.50 up to a maximum of five children. This would make $15 which 
the soldier furnished and a maximum of $55 which the Government 
furnished. It is my understanding that, w^hile the actual amounts 
this time may or may not be different, there will be a bill requested or 
submitted by the War Department based on the same basic principle; 
namely, a compulsory allotment matched or exceeded by an allowance 
from the Government. 

Mr. Sparkman. In addition to that compulsory allotment there was 
also a voluntary allotment, was there not? 

General Hershey. Voluntary allotments are possible now. 

Mr. Sparkman. But the Government does not match the voluntary 
allotments with one of their own, do they? 

General Hershey. No; nor did they in the last war. 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if you could tell us briefly something 
about similar plans used by other governments? 

ENGLISH AND FRENCH SYSTEMS OF ALLOWANCES 

General Hershey. They have in England a hardship board set up 
to judge the individual case, and try to make an allowance that will 
match part of the difference between the loss of pay in leaving civilian 
employment to go into the Army. 

They have a ceiling or a limit to their allowances. 

It was my fear, when I made the study over there, that to operate 
it in this country would be rather difficult, as we would have the tend- 
ency to grant the ceiling allotment all the time. 

In France they differentiated by areas. In Paris a wife would get 
so many francs, but in Brest or Boulogne or some other place it would 
be somewhat less, and in rural areas it would be still less. 

I made quite a study of that a few years ago, and with the material 
I could get together it seemed to me would be getting into something 
that would be impossible to administer. As this committee knows, 
we do move around in this country, and if we tried to set up a differ- 
ential for different parts of the land, we would also have to establish 
a differential as the dependent moved from place to place, and that 
would appear to be out of the question. 

Mr. Sparkman. Let us turn to another subject now. Many 
competent medical examiners have recommended a rehabilitation 
program for selectees who have been rejected because of minor 
physical defects. I wonder if you might give us some thoughts on 
that subject. 



10242 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

REHABILITATION OF SELECTEES 

General Hershey. Yes, sir. Last autumn, in October or early 
November, the President directed the Selective Service System to see 
what we could do about that. We have set up regulations for a very 
limited type of rehabilitation. 

This involved the rehabilitation of men who could be brought to the 
general service level. That is, men who could, by minor treatments, 
be made into general service soldiers. 

The regulations on that were ready a few weeks ago when, with the 
outbreak of the war, we were confronted with another very different 
situation. We were confronted first with a lowering of eligibility 
standards; then the Navy itself was undertaking some rehabilitation; 
and some studies by the War Department will soon be announced, 
as to the percentage of class I-B men that they will receive for different 
types of so-called limited service. 

It looks now as though we are going to accept without rehabilitation 
all the classes of men with which our present program concerns itself. 
If this becomes a fact, it will rather leave" our present rehabilitation 
program without point. We would be rehabilitating people that would 
be already acceptable for duty in the Army. 

Realizing that, and not wanting to get involved in a rehabilitation 
program that would be out of date before it was started, we set up in 
Virginia and Maryland some experimental work with the regulations 
we have drawn, to see how they would work out, believing if the Army 
does go where we think they are going, tins experimental work will 
be out of date. If they do not and the old regulations remain we will 
have the experience to launch out on a national scale the program we 
have set up. 

But I want to emphasize that it is very limited in scope. The 
directive never in\ olved anything but rehabilitating men who are 
just below the general service level requirements to a point where they 
will be acceptable for active duty. 

I have said, perhaps not too elegantly, we were making a 10-tooth 
reject into a 12-tooth soldier. We were not attempting things that 
involved hospitalization to any great extent because we had no facili- 
ties except as we rented them. That is, the Selective Service System 
has medical examiners, but as far as hospital facilities go, we must go 
out and find them on contract or otherwise. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, first, the Army, by lowering its standards, 
could probably very effectively do that same rehabilitation program 
after they are in the Army rather than before; could they not? 

General Hershey. Yes, sir. Before the war, with the limited 
number of individuals to be taken each year, and looking into 10 
years' reserve, they would hesitate to accept a man that they would 
now gladly accept when we are faced with using manpower and using 
it only for the period of the emergency. 

Mr. Sparkman. And as the need for manpower develops, the 
standards naturally will be lowered? 

CANADIAN AND GERMAN STANDARDS 

General Hershey. Inevitably. In Canada, on the question of 
teeth, the regulations say "Whole or partial dentures are no cause for 
rejection. Gross malformation of the jaws is." 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10243 

And in the German Army you have some five different classes of 
soldiers; the fifth class is just about able to walk. So when manpower 
becomes acute, you must inevitably lower standards. , 

The Chairman. Suppose you have no teeth at all? 

General Hershey. In Canada, if you have false teeth, you are 
accepted — and I suppose if you had no teeth and could get none, they 
would give you some. 

.The Chairman. Whether they fitted or not. 

Mr. Sparkman. Assuming that you go into the rehabilitation pro- 
gram, as the Army lowers its standards, I presume you would dip a 
little further down into the group that you might rehabilitate. 

General Hershey. My feeling on that would depend a little on 
our experience, but I think that the answer is "No." The President 
directed us to undertake rehabilitation in an effort to aid and assist 
the Army, and at a time when the acuteness of medical attention in 
the country was not as great as it would obviously be very soon. 

We are faced with quite a shortage of medical men and anything 
that tends to duplicate an effort, whether it be an examination or 
rehabilitation, I believe, does use up medical men and I am afraid 
we are going to have to use them very sparingly. 

limited-service men 

Mr. Sparkman. What do you think about the policy of the Araiy 
taking men for limited service? 

General Hershey. I think it is a very good policy. I don't want 
to be top much of a prophet, but I think they will take hundreds of 
thousands before we are tlirough. I believe a limited service man 
can well be used, if you find a job in which that particular defect does 
not act as a hindrance. We can use the example of the one-legged 
stenographer. In fact, I saw this morning in the paper that there 
was a one-handed stenographer. So if your limitation is not in the 
field in which you are operating, you are practically 100 percent. 

Mr. Sparkman. I have heard a good many comments, not only 
here, but in different parts of the country, about the Army using 
healthy, strong young men in positions guarding public buildings or 
guarding bridges, railroads, and so forth. Isn't a man who might 
not be able to do field service in the Ai'iny one who could perform 
that type of service? 

General Hershey. Yes; I am not too well informed of their plans, 
as of the moment, in the Army. But in the studies we made in the 
last 5 years, with which I was quite familiar, those men used in what 
we called the "zone of the interior" were to be very largely the 
so-called limited-service men. 

I do happen to know that in the plans for the antiaircraft defenses 
in a considerable part of this country, the commanding general has 
recommended the use of 70 percent class I-B men in these more or less, 
permanent and fixed activities. 

USE OF veterans OF THE LAST WAR 

Mr. Sparkman. A great many letters have come to me, and I am 
sure every Member of Congress received them, from veterans of the 
last war who are anxious to help out in this war, even though they 



10244 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

may be over age. It seems to me their services might very well be 
utilized in the "zone of the interior." 

General Hershey. This is a personal opinion, but I should agree 
with you. The only restriction that I would make is that he have 
other qualifications besides having served in the last war. I agree 
with you wholly. 

Mr. Sparkman. I was assuming that he was physically able. 

General Hershey. I wouldn't demand too much physical fitness, 
providing he is reasonably healthy for a man of his age. 

I believe many of those men with their experience, first as soldiers 
in their youth, and secondly in administrative and other things since 
that, would give a very fine tone to many of our units. I think they 
would give a stability to many of our units. 

Mr. Sparkman. In the second interim report which this committee 
filed with Congress on December 19, we made a recommendation — 
recommendation No. 5— with reference to the transfer of labor to 
war work. 

In that recommendation the committee urged a complete inventory 
of the available labor supply. 

It is om impression that the recent amendments to the Selective 
Service Act providing for the registration of all males from 18 to 65 
is the first step toward a complete inventory of our available labor 
supply inasmuch as there are two groups there from whom you cannot 
immediately draw soldiers. 

Do you agree with me that an intelligent placement and deferment 
policy requires a complete inventory of our manpower? 

General Hershey. Absolutely. 

Mr. Sparkman. And I woidd like to add also womanpower. 

INVENTORY SURVEY TO APPRAISE MANPOWER 

General Hershey. I would say "Yes." The latter I have not 
given so much study to. You cannot make an intelligent appraisal of 
something when you do not know what that something is and, there- 
fore, an inventory survey is the first thing you have to take in apprais- 
ing manpower or resources. The selective service will have ready in 
a day or two for submission to the Bureau of the Budget what we 
call the basic form, or, as a soldier, I call it the occupational service 
record, of the individual, which eventually, if it is used as we visualize 
it, will be taken from at least 40,000,000 males and, to whatever extent 
it is later determined, from women. 

Mr. Sparkman. What age groups would you include in that? 

General Hershey. We are starting with 20- to 21 -year-olds and 
the 36- to 44-year-olds. The second group we intend to use is the 21 
years and 6 months to 37 years and 6 months. 

In other words, in accordance with our conversations with the 
U. S. Employment Service, we are going to require this record of the 
individuals who register on February 16, as the first group, and then 
from the group already registered, classified and deferred. I do 
not know at present whether the 18- and 19-year-olds will come 
before the 45- to 64-year-olds or not. However, it won't make very 
much difference which comes first, because at the speed with which 
we will register these age-groups there will not be very many weeks 
or months difference. But we won't do this until we have registered 
the other groups. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10245 

Mr. Sparkman. As the labor situation becomes tighter, and the 
number available grows smaller, would it be your idea to extend the 
ages from which an inventory would be taken? 

In other words, would you ever drop below 18 or ever go above 65? 

General Hershey. I happen to have been brought up on a farm 
and I believe there is ability to do work below the age of 18. If that 
isn't true someone made a mistake with me. And I still like to flatter 
the upper limits to believe there are things that can be done by people 
above 65. I do believe very firmly if this war'is going to be the kind 
of war we are visualizing now, it is going to take the use of all of our 
manpower, and a very intelligent use of it. 

ADVOCATES PROHIBITION OF INDISCRIMINATE VOLUNTEERING 

Mr. Sparkman. General Hershey, the committee has been inter- 
ested in your suggestion that the Army and Navy ought to stop 
recruiting volunteers and should obtain their recruits through the 
selective service. As we understand, you believe indiscriminate 
volunteering is not the best way of allocating available manpower. 
Is that right? 

General Hershey. That is right. In fact, the research that I 
have done on the manpower procurement makes me believe that, 
if you are going to use manpower wholly and efficiently, you have 
got to inventory it. You have to budget it, and allocate it, and 
you have to allocate it on a central plan and not as each particular 
man decides or desires his part should be. 

The present events and manpower are following very much the 
pattern of what usually happens. There is a certain amount of 
working this way and that way, a certain amount of competition, 
a certain amount of pirating, and that sort of thing, which makes 
for duplication and inevitably makes for inefficiency because men do 
lose time wondering what they ought to do, when they should be 
at work. 

Mr. Sparkman. Your thought is then that the prohibition of 
this indiscriminate volunteering ought to apply not only to the 
Army and Navy, but to industry as well? 

General Hershey. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, in order to get the maximum out 
of the available manpower, there must be a general scheme of allocat- 
ing that manpower? 

budgeting our manpower 

General Hershey. I think we will have to budget it just exactly 
as we would budget our appropriations. That is, we have got to 
decide not only how many men the Army and Navy and the aircraft 
production and agriculture and all these other things must have, but 
we are going to have to go to the refinements of the title. You cannot 
use all of your best men in any one place. You are going to have to 
distribute your cream, your rich milk, your skimmed milk, and the 
bottom of the milk where you can use it, and you must not get men 
who have capacity to do many things placed on jobs where they must 
do only a few things, because brains and ability unfortunately, 
especially when combined with youth, are not too abundant. 



10246 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, the natural desire of any employer of 
men is to get young, physically fit men? 

General Hershey. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Not only does that create a certain amount of 
turmoil and discrimination against other groups, but doesn't it also 
create a large labor turn-over by reason of the fact that you may 
reach in next month or the following month and take a good many of 
the young men out of industry? 

General Hershey. Inevitably. 

And it makes little difference whether you push a man into the 
armed forces by social pressure or whether you attract him by some 
other means, if this man leaves a vital job, you do create a space 
from which he came w^hich becomes a problem. On the other hand, 
if he goes from one industry to another, attracted by wages or other 
things, you have time lost not only in training but in travel. And 
many times the moving of one man will move three or four others, 
because someone moves from elsewhere to take his place, and another 
man from some other place to take his, and so on. You have no 
idea of the extent to which time is lost moving around. 

Mr. Sparkman. You also find organizations seekiiig to do the same 
job competing with each other for the labor supply? 

General Hershey. That is true. 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if you can tell us what the situation is 
in some of the other countries, how they have handled ,the problem 
during the present war? 

CONSCRIPTION AND ENLISTMENT IN EUROPE 

General Hershey. It varies in different countries. In France 
and Germany, countries where they had compulsory training, they 
intended in the first World War to bring them in entirely by age 
groups, which did mean in the first World War Germany had to 
return hundreds of thousands to factories. 

England, of course, maintained the enlistment practice for the air 
corps and foi the navy and, while before this present war they 
actually did have a conscription plan, in the World War they waited 
on enlistments. 

I do not have the figures, but after Dunkirk, England found itself, 
of course, very short of material. They had to return a great many 
men from the armed forces into the factories because they had over- 
drawn and the need for material transcended the need for men. 

There is very little point behind the conditioning and training of 
men, unless at the end of that period you can outfit them. 

Mr. Sparkman. I have reference particularly to the allocation or 
the use of the manpower that was left at home. In other words, the 
labor supply rather than the handling of the fighting forces. 

Geneial Hershey. England has gone practically to the conscrip- 
tion of labor, just as it does for the armed forces, which means very 
close control. 

Germany's problem has been somewhat different, because she has 
had a great many so-called captive nations, which she can use for 
manpower, which means she can develop far more in the military 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10247 

forces per population than anyone else. But I think the tendency is, 
as manpower needs get more and more acute, that more controls are 
used to keep the men where they are necessary, or move them where 
it is necessary to have them. 

I am talking about labor now, as well as the soldier. 

REGISTRATION OF OLDER MEN 

Mr. Sparkman. In your testimony before the House and Senate 
Military Affaii's Committee 3'ou stated that citizens between the 
ages of 45 and 64 who were to register would not be liable for ^military 
service. As a matter of fact they are not, under the law. 

It was stated that this registration would give selective service a 
knowledge of what labor reserves were available. Such knowledge 
would assist you in developing your deferment policy. 

Now, would not the registration of all workers, male and female, 
with the Employment Service, give you this information equally as 
well as registration with selective service? 

General Hershey. That question may be controversial. It w^ould 
depend, of course, on what sort of law was passed. 

selective service can require that INFORMATION BE KEPT 

UP-TO-DATE 

At the present time I believe it is accurate to state that the only 
agency that has the power to require information on a man and compel 
him to keep it current and keep the agency exactly informed where he 
is at all times, is the Selective Service System. 

The Department of Justice may exercise the same right over the 
aliens, but at the present time I think the Selective Service System 
is the only agency that can require a current knowledge of a man's 
whereabouts, and capacities. To that extent I think we are able to 
require and maintain a more complete account of a man than the 
Employment Service would be able to do, under the present law. 

Of course, if Congress gave the power to the Employment vService 
to require this of all labor, then our part would disappear and our only 
contribution would be the agencies — some 6,500 that we have locally — 
that do have some grasp of the manpower within the 21 to 36 limits, 
and should very soon have a knowledge of the additional age groups. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is it not true that the labor requirements and the 
requirements of the armed services for men are so intertwined that 
the program must be worked out by one agency or, at least, co- 
ordinated? 

General Hershey. No question about that. 

Mr. Sparkman. And by having this information in your own files, 
you are certainly able to do that better than you could hope to do it 
simply by cooperating with some other agency? 

General Hershey. We feel that not only the U. S. Employment 
Service, but man}^ other agencies, public and private, may be asking 
information that we will have to furnish. In other words, I think we 
will have to be prepared to answer anything that anyone wants to 
know. Whether w^e will be able to do it or not, I think is a question. 
I think we will have to decentralize authority, where action can be 
very close to the situation. I would hesitate to think of what would 

60396— 42— pt. 27 2 



10248 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

be happening on our battlefronts now if we were controlling the 
strategic and tactical action from here, and I think, as the war goes 
on, we have got to make up our minds that we have got to put author- 
ity out where the action is. 

I visualize on this employment problem that the contact between 
the Employment Service and us must be on the lowest level, the 
operating level. You can't accumulate millions of records in one 
place and handle them rapidly. 

Mr. Sparkman. You, of course, have no control over the persons 
from 45 to 64 except to require them to give you this information? 

General Hershey. I think that is true. I think, however, that you 
have some control by public opinion. If Congress should consider 
exercising more controls, they probably would want to base their 
action on information that w^ould come first if we were going to act 
intelligently. 

Mr. Sparkman. Can you tell us something about how the Ministry 
of Labor in England operates, how it inter-relates the production 
program with the needs of the armed forces? 

PROCUREMENT OF LABOR IN ENGLAND 

General Hershey. It is my understanding that the Ministry of 
Labor handles procurement of labor for the armed forces and for 
production. They began with reserved occupations, that is, those 
occupations in which all workers above a stated age are deferred. 
They attempt to protect acute occupations b}^ lowering the age by 
which deferments are made in that occupation. If, for example, 
toolmakcrs were most important, the age limit would be lowered to, 
say, 17, 18, 19 or 20, and all toolmakers above that age would be 
deferred. If plumbers were more plentiful, deferments in that 
occupation would be reserved to 30-year olds and upward. 

An individual cannot be deferred solely because he is in a reserved 
occupation. He must also be above the age specified for deferment 
in the particular occupation for which he is claiming deferment. 
As a result of experience, however, they have modified this deferment 
procedure to one in w^hich each case is taken up as an individual one, 
bringing this procedure nearer to our own. 

REQUIREMENTS OF A LABOR SUPPLY AGENCY 

Mr. Sparkman. What would be your idea as to the formation of 
some kind of national labor supply department, including the Selec- 
tive Service, whose purpose it would be to integrate and develop 
properly the allocation of our manpower? 

General Hershey. I think that you must include in an agency of 
that kind two main classes of organizations, both public and private, 
namely, the users and the procurers of manpower. 

I do not have very specific ideas as to what the composition of such 
a board should be, but it should have representation from the main 
users of labor. 

I have visualized such a committee as being initially somewhat 
advisory, operating on the basis of cooperation. One of our difficulties 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10249 

has been that many times each of the agencies which use men look at 
the whole pool of manpower as theii- own individual source of labor 
and forget there are other boys in the family who must use the car 
occasionally. I think after we have had a little more meeting of the 
minds, among our users, the placers of labor will be able to get within 
the limits of the available supply, the amount of labor required by the 
users. 

But I think it is going to require a get-together of the users and a 
decision as to who is going to have what. 

Mr. Sparkman. Assuming such an agency should be created, should 
it be administered by the military or civilian? 

General Hershey. I look for it rather to be administered by co- 
operation; the Army and Navy obviously must have the number of 
men they can use and use effectively to win the war. 

But I probably would answer ''Civilian" because, as I said a while 
ago, and many times before, I do not believe in recruiting as such, and 
that is about the only part that the armed forces play at the present 
time in procuring men. 

The Selective Service System and the U. S. Employment System 
are both primarily civilian organizations, and, of course, the private 
placers of labor are all civilian. 

CONFLICTING LABOR POLICIES 

Mr. Sparkman. Now, General, I have prepared here a rather 
lengthy question, kind of a cover-all, that I want to propound to you. 

It seems to us that national planning of our labor supply is as 
necessary as national planning of our war production. This means 
that agencies dealing with the labor market should be integrated or 
coordinated. Training policies, transfer policies, deferment policies, 
all of these are at present at work, and sometimes at cross-purposes. 

For example, let us say that you defer a farm worker in Nebraska 
and an aircraft company comes in and recruits this worker for training. 
In the meantime Selective Service may have inducted many unskilled 
workers from the very area in which the aircraft plant is located. 

In this case the manufacturer is compelled to go outside his local 
labor market to obtain rural workers, in preference to the urban 
unemployed and perhaps unskilled. We believe this is happening 
every day. The local manufacturer goes out and hires the deferred 
farm worker. In short, there are conflicting policies at work in the 
labor market, and these conflicting policies may cause great difficulty 
in the labor market. 

In other words, it seems we have to take a national viewpoint of the 
labor market and institute whatever controls are necessary to obtain 
consistent national policies which will guarantee the best possible 
distribution and utilization of our labor supply. 

Do you agree in general with that statement? 

General Hershey. I think I can say that I agree wholly. We, as 
Selective Service people, because we have to get men for the armed 
forces and because we must get them without causing unnecessary 
upsets, must always think in terms of the national picture, and if I 
understand your question, it was a statement of the fact that we must 
try to put the men in the place where they can render the maximum 



10260 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

service that the Government requires at this tinie in whatever field 
the men can render it best. 

That is the basic philosophy that I have been brought up on in 
Selective Service. 

MAXIMUM EFFORT TO BE REQUIRED 

Mr. Sparkman. It is j-our opinion that in the present difficulty 
we are certainly going to be called upon for our maximum effort? 

General Hershey. I believe so. 

Mr. Sparkman. And if we fall short in arranging for that maximum 
effort it simply is going to prolong the war? 

General Hershey. I am very frightened at our philosophy of 
abundance. We feel there is abundant labor, abundance of every- 
thing, and one of the most disturbing things to me is to overcome the 
subconscious feeling of everybody that we have plenty of men. We 
have not. 

Mr. Sparkman. Don't you think, too, there is still prevalent too 
much of a feeling of the abundance of our superiority in every respect? 

General Hershey. We have all the money, all the materials, all 
the men, and man for man we are worth two or three of them. That 
is very fine, but it should not be allowed to get too far. 

Mr. Sparkman. General, I just want to ask one more c[uestion. 

STANDARDIZING DEFERMENT 

We hear complaints from time to time about the irregularity of 
the operation of the deferment policy. We hear of different Govern- 
ment departments, for instance, in which deferments are granted 
almost wholesale to those particular workers, even though they may 
be filling positions of relative unimportance. We hear it also about 
certain communities or sections. 

Would you give us some idea as to the prevalence of that kind of 
practice and what may be done to prevent it? 

General Hershey. I might state first of all that inevitably we are 
going to have rumors and probably well-founded ones, of the applica- 
tion of a law that is administered in a decentralized way. First of all, 
we have approximately 20,000 local board members, grouped in threes 
and fives. They will be living under a great many different condi- 
tions and necessarily they are going to look at the same thing, if it 
ever existed, a little differently in dift'erent places. Then, of course, 
human beings have the capacity to be quite dift'erent. 

Of course, we have taken, before December 7th, a great many 
measures in attemptmg to get these boards to think alike. As an 
example, it is probably rather easy to describe a medical student, but 
it is a great deal more difficult when you get out into some other en- 
deavor to identify him in the first place, especially if he is taking manv 
other subjects, and having identified him, to try to indicate his need 
like you can a medical student. 

When you look at all the different kinds of things that play a roll 
in deferment — dependency, occupation, student, physical condition — 
it is a rather difficult thing to standardize deferments. 

Now, war has made a difference in the sense that many of the border- 
line cases will tend to receive more uniform treatment. In fact, [we 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10251 

will have to be alert to keep our local boards educated to the necessity 
of protecting our industries sufficiently. With the onset of war, you 
will get more uniformity, but not necessarily more wisdom in approach- 
ing the c[uestion. 

In any law, no matter what it is, the decision must be made as to 
whether the authority is going to be centralized by some one person, 
which it is not with 17,000,000 looking at facts set out in cold type, 
or whether you are going to delegate it to men who actually see and 
know the men they actually pick. 

If you punch holes in cards you may think you have an accurate 
record because you have some means which will show that the card 
is punched exactly right. But you forget that the human being 
decides where to put the punch mark and there is no basic uniformity 
even in the Alilitaiy Service. And it may make a difference between 
life and death whether the man is ordered to one front or whether he 
is ordered to another one. 

We have tried to get a moderate amount of uniformity. I person- 
ally have never worshipped at the base of the uniformity statue, 
because I think it is an ideal that is never reached. I don't believe 
that most of our Nation's laws have a constant application through- 
out the countr}^, and I will be so bold as to say I don't think they 
should have. 

Out in Angola, where I live, our approach as to who should go to 
war is probably different from that of some other community. 

If we are going to have Democracy, we are going to have it at the 
base. What these people want, providing they meet their obligations, 
they should have. I don't know who better knows what they should 
have than they do. 

DEFERMENT OF KEY WORKERS 

Mr. Sparkman. Let's get away from the local communities, and 
let me hear you speak about Government workers. Naturally you 
do have a deferment for key workers, but who passes upon whether 
they are key workers? 

General Hershey. Well, in effect there is a board operating now 
trying to get something basic. Two or three of the Cabinet are on 
the board and they are meeting again tomorrow trying to decide some 
policies by which the head of a department, or someone to whom the 
authority is delegated, will sign Forms 42 and 42A which constitute 
claim and affidavit for deferment. We have had two types that have 
been unfortunate, the agency or employer who filed a claim for every- 
one, and the one who filed none. Somewhere in between is the proper 
place, but it is a difficult thing, because there you have to tell one 
man "I can get along without you," and the other man that you 
cannot get along without him. 

That is exactly what should happen, but humans, being what they 
are, tend to dodge responsibility. 

As manpower becomes more acute, two things must happen. Local 
boards, by and large, are not going to be overly impressed with the 
need for people in the Government. I believe that will be one thing. 

Mr. Sparkman. I just started to ask you, as a matter of fact, 
whether there were not a great many people in the Government, in- 
cluding Members of Congress, who could not very well be replaced. 



10252 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Hershey. I think the average board feels so, and whether 
right or wrong, I am afraid that is going to be the reaction. The 
thing we are going to have to face in government, as in industry, is 
that we are going to have to find how to do more work with less men, 
which means we have to streamline our operations. 

That gets back to delegation. If you delegate authority there 
isn't quite the necessity for writing back and forth in order to get 
action. You will need less men to do the same amount of work. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Chairman, that is all I care to ask General 
Hershey. 

I would like to express my thanks to General Hershey. He has 
•appeared before our Military Affairs Committee a great many times 
and he always makes a fine presentation as he is doing here. 

The Chairman. In the first place, from your experience, in this 
field, which is probably greater than any person in the United States, 
are you still of the opinion that there is a self-satisfied, complacent 
feeling in the United States? 

General Hershey. I feel we are in the unfortunate position of 
having a great deal of complacency and slight hysteria. 

The Chairman. We have been carried away with our bigness. 
There isn't any particular magic to having manpower of 40,000,000 
or 50,000,000 unless you can break it down and get it directly or in- 
directly in this war program, is that true? 

General Hershey. That is true. 

The Chairman. There have been no steps taken so far for the 
registration of women, have there? 

REGISTRATION OF WOMEN 

General Hershey. Our department has not, and I am not familiar 
with any place in the Government that has. Of course, the O. C. D. 
had volunteer registration and also there is some proposed legislation, 
I think, providing for a small number in the Army. I think we have 
had very good cooperation, especially from the airplane people. I 
think the airplane people are making arrangements to have as high 
as 40 percent women in the factories. 

The Chairman. Would the registration of women require new 
legislation? 

General Hershey. It would unless you did it on a voluntary basis. 
If we are going to have registration, it should be definite, positive, 
and compulsory. 

rehabilitation of selectees 

The Chairman. General, you spoke about the rehabilitation of 
selectees, teeth and one thing and another. What about social dis- 
eases, sickness, and so forth? 

General Hershey. I think at the present time the Army and the 
Navy are either already taking or going to take men with uncom- 
plicated gonorrhea. The only restriction, as far as the Army is con- 
cerned, is the amount of facilities they have available to take care 
of it. 

They are expanding those facilities, but I am not prepared to say 
when they will have completed them to the point where you could 
guarantee that each case that was found would be accepted. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10253 

I think they are moving; somewhat slower in syphilis and in the 
complicated gonorrhea cases. 

If the past is any criterion of what we are going to do, you cannot 
justify in the public opinion the deferment of men because of social 
diseases. I think inevitably the armed forces will have to mdke 
arrangements to take them and treat them. 

APPEALS 

The Chairman. One more question. I have received quite a few 
letters from my constituents regarding deferments that have been 
refused. I invariably answer by telling them that is solely within 
the discretion of the local board, and they have their appeal, and any 
congressional influence might be more harmful than helpful. Is that 
a correct statement? 

General Hershey. I think that is a correct statement. By and 
large we have tried to educate the local boards to a belief that they 
were important and they had their obligations and, except as the 
law provided for appeals, they would be allowed to operate without 
mterference excepting the tons of information which they get. But 
after all, you have to furnish them a great deal of information, so 
they will know what the picture is. 

We have tried to let them interpret the information and if they 
interpret it so it doesn't suit the registrant, he has the right to appeal. 

I think your statement might avoid the resentment that might be 
felt by the local boards that someone was trying to put the heat on 
them, i want to say here that the way the Members of Congress 
have cooperated has been most reassuring because we have had prac- 
tically an absence of Members of Congress trying to instruct our system 
on how to classify people. 

Mr. Curtis. I think you have some very fine draft boards. I have 
25 counties in my district and I have yet to receive a complaint 
against a local board in any one of them. 

General Hershey. I am very happy to hear that. With 20,000 
people you will have, perhaps, some mistakes, but I have said many 
times, we are getting service you could not buy. 

UTILIZATION OF TOTAL LABOR SUPPLY 

Mr. Curtis. I will try to be very brief, General, but I want to ask 
you this: 

Do you think it is possible for us to run our factories and farms a,nd 
transportation and communication systems and all essential civilian 
activities with the kids, both boys and girls, under 20, the women, and 
the men over 45 and the men between 20 and 45 who are physically 
imperfect? 

General Hershey. This would be entirely a curbstone opinion. I 
should say not, because I am thinking probably in terms of as high as 
55 percent of our present dependency cases. 

Mr. Curtis. I would include in that category dependency cases. 

General Hershey. I could probably say "Yes," although I should 
like to hedge to this extent. 

I think real care must be taken to take out the men who are now 
physically fit and have no other reason except industrial reasons for 



10254 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

their deferment. Their transfer to the armed forces must be slow 
enough to insure that production not only maintains its pace and goes 
ahead, while we bring in the women and deferred classes to replace 
them. I think that is where care must be exercised to the utmost. 
Otherwise you will start transferring so rapidly that you will not be 
able to keep up your production. 

Mr. Curtis. In the territory I am most familiar with, practically 
everyone is a farmer, and I think those dralt boards have a tough 
problem on their hands. All those boys are in pretty much the same 
class, and how they can pick out here and pass over there is a most 
difficult thing. 

General Hershey. This is one thing we are having some little 
trouble getting to our draft boards. I think in rural communities 
the draft boards think they must take someone. By and large this is 
true. On a theoretical basis, if a draft board had no men in class I-A 
the draft board would have no quota. 

QUOTA SYSTEM 

Mr. CuRTi's. Now, that comes to the question I would like to ask. 
The quota for any given county and State is based on the number of 
men in I-A and not the total population? 

General Hershey. That is right. But that is a changing thing and, 
therefore, we have to either take it at a particular time and then as 
it changes make the adjustment later, or take an estimate class I 
and adjust as we classify. 

Mr. Curtis. There are no aliens in I-A, are there? 

General Hershey. Yes. 

IV^r. Curtis. Very many? 

General Hershey. Not at the present time. The men who are 
registered between the ages of 21 and 37 under the recent amendments 
are eligible. The declarant alien has been eligible all along, and the 
nondeclarant alien under the amendments which were passed in De- 
cember becomes eligible, if acceptable. 

Mr. Curtis. I say this not critically, but merely to bring the facts 
into the record. I Ijelieve there is a situation developing that de- 
mands a little attention along that line. 

In a rural community where there are no industries or industrial 
development, no alien population whatever, no congested areas, and 
where everyone knows everyone else, requests for deferments are very, 
very few. Those commimities are raising a much greater proportion 
of the Nation's army than others. 

I have in mind one county in my district which has the same popula- 
tion it had in the last war. In the last World War, in order to raise 
about 4,000,000 men they were called upon to furnish 100. Their 
population has not increased^but that of the country has — and up to 
date, in order to raise one and three-quarter million men they have 
already been called on for 97. 

I don't expect you to answer that right now, but I wanted to raise 
that question as to what is happening with your industrial deferments. 

General Hershey. I will be glad to look into that particular thing. 
The county I came from is not too different than the one you described 
and in the World War, because we happened to have two National 
Guard companies in our district, that is, a company and a detach- 
ment, for 18 months we were over our quota. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10255 

In other words, the quota did not catch up with us until June or 
July 1918. I don't know whether you have a volunteer proposition 
out there that might lia\e made some of that difference. 

Air. Curtis. No; they have had to draft some. 

General Hershey. But you may have some delaj^ed credits on some- 
of j'^our volunteers. I don't know. 

Mr. Curtis. I rather think that is not the case. 

Do you tliinlv that interned aliens and prison labor can be utilized in 
agriculture and other places? 

General Hershey. I have not given much thought to it. When I 
think in terms of agriculture I think in terms of small farms, where each, 
man who works is more or less part manager. We send a man out in 
the fields, and he decides quite a lot of questions. I would have some 
difficulty using the type of labor you refer to on the farms I know best 
about. It would be just a guess with me when you go into larger 
farming operations. 

Mr. Curtis. We are apt to have a lot of vegetable growers in con- 
centration camps before long; are we not? 

General Hershey. I think so. I worked on the food production plan 
in Hawaii and strange as it may seem, in a land that is quite largely 
devoted to pineapples and sugar, we were very short of individuals 
who knew how to grow any other things, and one of our big problems 
was trying to get men who would know what type of thing was coming 
through the soil and be able to identify it from a weed. 

■ JUSTIFICATION FOR OCCUPATIONAL DEFERMENTS 

Mr. Curtis. You think for the present, at least, that some occupa- 
tional deferments are justified? 

General Hershey. I think they are always going to be justifi.ea. 
I have said this: If there was a need to defer a necessary man before 
the war the need has become greater since. If he was not necessary 
before the war and isn't necessary now, he should not be deferred. 
But the nature of war has changed. The number of men that must 
be behind the lines has increased. W^e still think the man who actually 
goes out to fight is rendering a service that the one who stays behind 
is not rendering. It is going to be one of our severe psychological 
problems to see that the man who is content to make tilings will not 
get into what the English call a dugout service. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. One question, General, and then we will excuse you. 

This committee, as you know, is a defense migration committee, 
and that is our problem. There are millions of people who, according 
to our fi,ndings, have left their home States and lost their residence 
there, and have not acquired it in the State of destination. 

Have you any difficulty in registering them? From what State 
are they registered^ — the State of origin or the State of destination? 

registration of migrants 

General Hershey. On registration day the man is obligated and 
allowed to register wherever he is. If he fills in an address not under 
the jurisdiction of the local board where he registers, liis card will be 
sent to the local board having jurisdiction of such address. We try 



10256 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

to be liberal in allowing men to transfer their classifications. There is 
Tio question but that we have some delinquents. As time goes on I 
think the means of checking on delinquents will be bettered. 

There isn't much trouble keeping track of the man who registers, 
because he is required to report all changes of address and, while 
we have had some delinquency, I don't think we have had as much 
as we had in the World War, either as to men who have not registered 
or, having registered, have not complied with orders from their local 
boards. 

I have been quite encouraged by the response the people as a whole 
have given to their obligations. 

The Chairman. General, on behalf of the committee, I want to 
thank you and Major Keesling for coming here this morning and to 
say to you, speaking personally, that you are doing a fine job with 
a difficult task. 

We thank you very much. 

General Hershey. Thank you very much, sir. We always appreci- 
ated the support we have had from Congress. 

The Chairman. We will take a 5-minute recess now. 

(Recess was taken at this point.) 

The Chairman. Will the committee please come to order? 

Mr. Davenport, you will be the next witness. 

TESTIMONY OF DONALD H. DAVENPORT, CHIEF, EMPLOYMENT 
AND OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK BRANCH, BUREAU OF LABOR 
STATISTICS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Chairman. As you know, this committee has approached the 
problem of an adequate labor supply through its study of defense 
migration. We have found much unneeded and wasteful migration. 
But at this time it seems more important than ever to conserve our 
manpower and womanpower. 

We have asked you to tell us this morning what the over-all labor 
supply and demand will be in the next year and what some of the 
consequences of this demand will be in terms of migration. 

Congressman Curtis, from Nebraska, will interrogate you. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Davenport, I would like you to describe the 
over-all labor demand for the next year and the changes which will 
take place in our labor forces as your Division sees them. 

Mr. Davenport. If I may start with a picture of what has happened 
during the last year and a half of defense effort, we can establish a 
base from which we can project our estimates of the labor require- 
ments that we face in the next 12 months. 

As I understand the interest of this committee, it is to inquire 
into those forces that bear upon the movements of manpower from 
one part of the country to another, and it was with that in mind 
that we prepared the material which is included in the prepared 
statement which I believe you have before you. 

(Statement referred to above is as follows:) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10257 



STATEMENT BY DONALD H. DAVENPORT, CHIEF, EMPLOYMENT 
AND OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK BRANCH, BUREAU OF LABOR 
STATISTICS, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IMPACT OF THE WAR PRODUCTION PROGRAM ON THE LABOR FORCE 

During the year and a half from June 1940 to December 1941, employment 
of wage and salary workers in nonagricultural industries increased by 5 million. 
Nearly all of this increase was directly attributable to the defense production 
program. During the first 12 months of this period, the increased wages paid 
out in defense industries provided the stimulus for a substantial rise in non- 
defense employment, but this increase was largely wiped out by the curtailment 
of nondefense production in the last half of 1941, and non defense employment 
now stands at approximately the same levels as in the spring of 1940. 

Under these conditions, it was inevitable that the increases among various 
industries should be extremely spotty — that tremendous increases in some cases 
should be accompanied by relatively small increases in others. Of the 5 million 
increase, 2.7 million, or more than half, was concentrated in manufacturing 
industries, while there was an additional half million increase in construction, 
due very largely to the building of defense plants and housing for defense workers. 
Increases in mining transportation, and public utilities were also due largely to the 
increased loads placed on these industries by increased defense activity, while the 
increase of nearly 1 million in trade is largely the result of the high seasonal levels 
of retail activity which always take place in December (table 1). 

Table I. — Changes in nonagricultural employment, June 1940 to December 1941 

[In thousand.s] 





Aggregate employment 


Increase 


Industry group 


June 
1940 


December 
1941 


Number 


Percent 


Total (wage and salary workers) -.. 


29, 737 


34, 797 


+5,060 


+17.0 






Manufacturing 


10, 040 
838 
1,321 
3,032 
6,570 
4,137 
3,799 


12, 703 
907 
1,820 
3, 287 
7,503 
4,223 
4,354 


+2, 663 
+69 
+499 
+255 
+933 
+86 
+555 


+26.5 


Mining .. 


+8 2 


Construction . . 


+37.8 


Transportation and public utilities 


+8.4 


Trade 


+ 14 2 


Service and miscellaneous 


+2.1 


Government . 


+14 6 







Prepared by Occupational Outlook Division, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Feb. 3, 1942. 

Nearlj' half of the 2.5 million increase in employment in manufacturing indus- 
tries from June 1940 to November 1941 was concentrated in the transportation 
equipment and machinery groups, which showed increases of 84 and 58 percent, 
respectively. These were the largest percentage increases shown for any group, 
though increases of 30 to 40 percent were shown by iron and steel, nonferrous 
metal products, chemicals, and rubber, and all groups except tobacco products 
increased at least 10 percent. (Table 2 and charts 1 and 2.) 



10258 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Table 11.-^ Changes of employment of manufacturing industries June 1940 to 

November 1941 

[In thousands] 



Industry group 



Aggregate employment 



June 1940 



November 
1941 



Increase 



Number Percent 



Iron and steel and their products 

Machinery (not including transport) 

Transportation equipment 

Nonferrous metals and products 

Lumber products 

Stone, glass, and clay products 

Textiles and products.-. 

Leather products 

Food products 

Tobacco products 

Paper and printing 

Chemicals, petroleum, and coal products 
Rubber products 

All manufacturing ' 

Durable goods industries i 

Nondurable goods industries ' 



925.5 

,019.2 

644.0 

265.8 

621.9 

290.6 

, 526. 8 

280.8 

861.9 

89.8 

608.1 

394.3 

112.0 



1, 238. 2 

1, 606. 5 

1, 184. 9 

363.3 

707.8 

355.6 

1, 845. 2 

312.7 

968.0 

94.6 

672.6 

489.6 

149.8 



+312. 7 

+587. 3 

+540. 9 

+97.5 

+85.9 

+65. 

+318. 4 

+31.9 

+ 106. 1 

+4.8 

+64.5 

+95. 3 

+37.8 



+33.8 
+57. 6 
+84.0 
+36.7 
+1.3. 8 
+22.4 
+20.9 
+11.4 
+ 12.3 
+5.3 
+ 10.6 
+24.2 
+33.8 



10, 631. 



+2, 493. 2 



+30.6 



3, 843. 3 
4, 294. 5 



5, 567. 7 
5, 063. 3 



+1, 724. 4 
+768. 8 



+44.9 
+17.9 



' Totals for durable, nondurable, and all manufacturing have been adjusted to conform to trends shown 
by 1939 Census of Manufactures; group estimates are adjusted only through 1937. Totals for all manufac- 
turing and for nondurable include miscellaneous manufacturing industries, not included in the data for 
Industry groups. 

Prepared by Occupational Outlook Division, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Feb. 3, 1942. 



The geographic, as well as the industrial impact of the war program, shows 
considerable variation. This is indicated particularly by data for the larger 
cities. (Table 3 and Chart 3). Thus m.anufacturing employm.ent more than 
doubled during this period in 4 cities: Long Beach, San Diego, Seattle, and 
Wichita. Twelve cities showed increases of 50 percent or more, while at the 
other extreme, seven cities showed increases of less than 10 percent or actual 
declines in m.anufacturing employment. 

While the range in the percentage increases in em.ployro.ent among the various 
states and regions was considerable, (Table 4 and Chart 4), nevertheless, it is not 
as great as one m.ight e.xpect from, the concentration of primary defense contracts 
in a few industries. The geographical dispersion of increases in employment is 
in part due to the wide-scale subcontracting that has occurred. 

It is obvious that both prime contracts and subcontracts have tended to be 
distributed in accordance with existing productive facilities. Contracts for new 
industrial facilities, however, have been distributed in such a way as to bring 
about increased geographical dispersion. Table 5 and Chart 5 indicate that the 
five regions with the smallest percentage of total United States factory wage 
earners in 1939 received proportionately a larger share of the new industrial 
facilities contracts. On the other hand, the four regions with the largest per- 
centage of total factory wage earners in 1939 received a proportionately sm.aller 
share of the new industrial facilities contracts. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10259 



PERCENT CHANGE IN EMPLOYMENT 
IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 

JUNE 1940 TO NOV. 1941 

-10 '10 »20 »30 •40 •50 •eO •70 •80 '90 


1 


TRANSPORTATION ^^^^^^^^^H^^^I^^^HI^I 

■^mi[i^i^m^miiiiiinmmiiiiH 




MACHINERY ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 






NONFERROUS H 
METALS H 


■JI^H 






IRON AND STEEL ^^^^^^^^| 








^^^^^^^^1 








^^^^^H 








AND GLASS . hJI^I^I 








^^^^H 








LUMBER ^^H 








FOOD ^^M 








LEATHER ^^| 








PAPER a PRINTING ^^B 




TOBACCO H 






-10 tlO 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 





Ohaet 1. 



10260 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 




Chart 2. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10261 



Table III. — Indexes of eviploynjent in nianvfaduring industries by metropolitan 

area 

12 months average— 1937=100] 



Metropolitan area 



Akron, Ohio 

Albany, N. Y.' 

Atlanta, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

Birmingham , Ala 

Boston, Mass.' 

Cambridge, Mass 

Lynn, Mass 

Somerville, Mass --- 

Boston City and outside ' 

Bridgeport, Conn 

ButTalo, N. Y. 

Canton, Ohio 

Chattanooga, Tenn 

Chicago, 111.- 

Gary, Ind 

Chicago City and outside 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

Cleveland , Ohio 

Columbus, Ohio 

Dallas, Tex -.-. 

Dayton, Ohio 

Denver, Colo.. 

Des Moines, Iowa — 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn — 

El Paso, Tex 

Erie, Pa 

E vansville, Ind 

Flint, Mich 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Fort Worth, Tex 

Grand Rapids, Mich 

Hartford, Conn 

Houston, Tex - 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Jacksonville, Fla 

Kansas City, Mo 

Kansas City, Kans - 

Kansas City, Mo., and outside 

Knox ville, Tenn 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Long Beach, Calif 

Los Angeles City and outside 

Louisville, Ky _ 

Lowell, Mass 

Memphis , Tenn 

Miami, Fla -._ 

Milwaukee, Wis 

Minneapolis-St . Paul 

St. Paul, Minn 

Minneapolis City and outside 

Nashville, Tenn 

New Haven, Conn 

New Orleans, La 

New York and Northeastern New Jersey '. 

Newark, N. J 

Jersey City, N. J 

Paterson, N. J 

Elizabeth, N. J 

Yonkers, N. Y 

New York City and outside ' 

Norfolk, Va.i 

Oklahoma City, Okla 

Omaha, Nebr 

Peoria, 111 

Philadelphia, Pa.' 

Camden, N. J 

Philadelphia City and outside ' 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Portland, Oreg 



Employment index 



November 
1941 



June 1940 



113.9 
115.9 
109.7 
164.5 
131.3 
142.7 
111.9 
181.4 
102.3 
143.8 
159. 8 
140.7 
143.6 
121.5 
132.8 
118.9 
133.6 
124.7 
136.3 
135.6 
152.4 
106.7 
147.1 
112.6 
93.5 
85.9 
98.1 
144.6 
79.8 
93.6 
118.5 
113.4 
120.0 
150.2 
132.3 
141.9 
150. 
120.6 
106.8 
125.9 
120.9 
204.8 
327.8 
201.4 
120.0 
104.8 
115.2 
129.4 
119.9 
121.9 
122.8 
121.4 
110.9 
143.2 
144.5 
136.3 
136.0 
121.6 
157. 3 
135.3 
119.0 
136.4 
241.7 
12.3. 9 
110.8 
115.0 
124.8 
163.3 
121.7 
126.8 
161.7 



Percentage 

change 
June 1940 
to Novem- 
ber 1941 



79.2 
86.5 
90.4 
110.4 
100.4 
96.7 
81.5 
92.6 
89.2 
99.1 
97.1 
102.0 
88.4 
93.4 
96.5 
108.7 
95.9 
92.8 
96.9 
90.5 
99.7 
87.7 
95.7 
107.8 
75.6 
72.3 
85.1 
99.2 
88.9 
83.4 
78.5 
85.9 
97.4 
101.7 
95.5 
107.6 
103.6 
95.6 
91.7 
97.1 
96.3 
114.9 
81.8 
115.8 
95.4 
79.1 
87.3 
77.4 
86.7 
90.8 
89.9 
91.2 
85.0 
97.8 
92.9 
100.6 
104.1 
96.5 
113.0 
100.3 
92.7 
100.2 
132.9 
89.0 
91.8 
86.2 
91.7 
118.3 
89.5 
95.9 
105.4 



+43.8 
+34.0- 
+21.3 
+49.0 
+30.8 
+47. & 
+37.3 
+95.9 
+14.7 
+45.1 
+64.6 
+37. » 
+62.4 
+30.1 
+37.6 
+9.4 
+39.3 
+34.4 
+40.7 
+49.8 
+52.9 
+21.7 
+53.7 
+4.5 
+23.7 
+18.8 
+15.3 
+45.8 
-10.2 
+12.2 
+51.0 
+32.0 
+23.2 
+47.7 
+38.5 
+31.9 
+44.8 
+26.2 
+16.5 
+29.7 
+25.5 
+78.2 
+300.7 
+73.9 
+25.8 
+32.5 
+32.0 
+67.2 
+38.3 
+34.3 
+36.6 
+33.1 
+30.5 
+46.4 
+55.5 
+35.5 
+30.6 
+26.0 
+39.2 
+34.9 
+28.4 
+36.1 
+81.9 
+39.2 
+20.7 
+33.4 
+36.1 
+38.0 
+36.0 
+32.2 
+53.4 



• Includes employment in Government navy yards and arsenals. 



10262 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Table III.- — Indexes of employment in mamifaciuring industries by metropolitan 

area — Continued 



Metropolitan area 



Providence, R. I.' 

Fall River, Mass 

New Bedford, Mass 

Providence City and outside '-_. 

Reading, Pa ..- -.. 

Richmond , Va _ 

Roche=-ter, N. Y 

St. Louis, Mo 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

San Antonio, Tex 

San Diego, Calif 

San Francisco, Calif.' 

Oakland, Calif . 

San Francisco City and outside ' 

Scranton, Pa 

Seattle, Wash 

South Bend, Ind 

Spokane, Wash 

Springfield, Mass.' 

Syracuse, N. Y 

Tacoma, Wash 

Tampa, Fla 

Toledo, Ohio 

Trenton, N. J 

Tulsa, Okla 

Utica, N. Y 

Washington, D. C 

W^ichita, Kans 

Wilmington, Del 

Worcester, Mass 

Youngstown, Ohio 



Employment index 



November 
1941 



124. 
110. 
104. 
132. 

7G. 
114. 
125. 
120. 
100. 
117. 
467. 
151. 
108. 
162. 

91. 
215. 
148. 
104. 
134. 
137. 
123. 
138. 
100. 
134. 
124. 
140. 
174. 
271. 
132. 
122. 
112. 



June 1940 



93.7 
96.9 
68.7 
99.0 
65.7 

102.9 
96.2 
92.4 
81.0 

107.4 

157.1 
92.6 

100.1 
90.9 
85.0 

104.6 
94.6 
98.0 
91.3 

103.0 
96.4 

113.3 
72.1 

114.4 
90.3 
93.8 

106.6 

109.4 
96.0 
93.0 
88.1 



Percentage 

change 
June 1940 

to Novem- 
ber 1941 



+33. 1 
+ 13.5 
+51.5 
+33. 9 
+ 17 
+ 11.7 
+30.7 
+29 9 
+21 4 

+9 2 

+ 197 6 

+61 

+7 9 
+78 4 

+8 
+ 105 7 
+57 4 

+6.5 
+47.4 
+33.6 
+28.2 
+22.5 
+39.4 
+ 17.7 
+37.5 
+50.0 
+63.4 
+ 148.5 
+38.4 
+31.7 
+27.2 



' Includes employment in Government navy yards and arsenals. 

Prepared by Occupational Outlook Division, Bureau of Later Statistics, Feb. 3, 1942. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10263 



PERCENTAGE CHANGES OF EMPLOYMENT 
IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 

BY METROPOLITAN AREA, JUNE 1940 TO NOVEMBER 1941 

PERCENTAOE CHANGES 



IT, CONNECTICUT 
;iSCO, CALIFORNIA 
>N. C. 



DENVER, COLORADC 
PORTLAND, OREGON 
DALLAS. TEXAS 
NEW BEOFOHO, MAS 



BALTll 
BOSTO 



ASSACHUSETTS 



NEW HAVEN, CONNECTlCU 
ERIE. PENNSYLVANIA 
BOSTON CITY 
JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA 

CLEVELAND, OHIO 
TOLEDO, OHIO 
CHICAGO ClTV* 
PATTERSON, NEW JERSE' 



milwaukee, w 
camden. new 
buffalo, ne* 
chicago, illii 

cambri'dge. m 



ST 



PHILADELPHIA, PENNSTLVANli 



READING , PEN 



60396— 42— pt. 27- 



CITT ONLY ALSO INCLUDED IN METHOPOLlTAN AREA 



Chaet 3 



10264 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Table IV. — Changes in employment in nonagricvUural estahlishments by regions 
and Stales from June 1940 to November 1941 

[In thousands] 





June 1940 


November 
1941 


Increase 


Segion and State 


Number 


Percent 




2,448 


2,961 


+513 


+20. 96 








185 
127 
74 
1,277 
221 
564 


204 
147 
80 
1,549 
267 
714 


+19 

+20 

+6 

+272 
+46 

+ 150 


+ 10.27 




+15. 75 




+8.11 




+21.30 


Rhode Island 


+20. 81 


Connecticut - 


+26. 60 




7.622 


8,601 


+979 


+ 12.84 








3,863 
1.130 
2, 629 


4,232 
1,342 
3, 027 


+369 
+212 
+398 


+9.55 




+ 18.76 


Pennsylvania 


+ 15.14 


East North Central -- - 


6.703 


7,881 


+ 1, 178 


+ 17.57 






Ohio 


1.749 

767 

2,219 

1,341 

627 


2,080 

926 

2,571 

1,576 

728 


+331 
+ 1.59 
+352 
+235 
+101 


+ 18.93 




+20. 73 




+ 15.86 




+ 17.52 




+ 16.11 




2.347 


2, 658 


+311 


+ 13.25 








527 
403 
764 
76 
83 
201 
293 


584 
4.51 
917 
80 
85 
216 
325 


+57 
+48 
+ 153 
+4 
+2 
+ 15 
+32 


+ 10.82 




+ 12.91 




+20. 03 




+.5. 26 




+2.41 




+7.46 




+ 10. '2 




3.386 


4.119 


+723 


+21. 65 








72 
499 
338 
488 
368 
662 
270 
463 
326 


78 
623 
428 
601 
414 
669 
333 
566 
407 


+6 
+124 

+ro 

+ 113 
+46 

+107 
+63 

+ 103 
+81 


+8.33 




+24.85 




+26. 63 




+23. 16 




+ 12.50 




+19.04 




+23. 33 




+22. 25 




+24. 85 








1.319 


1,585 


+266 


+20. 17 








357 
432 
354 
176 


404 
507 
461 
213 


+47 

+75 

+ 107 

+37 


+ 13.17 




+17.36 


Alabama 


+30. 23 


Mississippi 


+21.02 






West South Central - 


1.794 


2,101 


+307 


+ 17.11 






Arkansas . . 


172 
354 
286 
982 


215 

420 

315 

1,151 


+43 

+66 

+29 

+169 


+25. 00 




+ 18.64 




+10. 14 




+17.21 








775 


847 


+72 


+9.29 








114 
85 
53 

219 
73 
88 

110 
33 


119 
92 
58 

252 
76 

100 

112 
38 


+5 
+7 
+5 

+33 
+3 

+ 12 
+2 
+5 


+4.39 




+8.24 




+9.43 




+ 15.07 


New Mexico - - 


+4.11 




+ 14.64 


Utah . 


+ 1.82 


Nevada 


+15.15 


Pacific . - - - 


2,387 


2,857 


+470 


+ 19.69 








420 

246 

1,721 


503 

283 

2,071 


+83 

+37 

+350 


+19.76 




+1,5.04 




+20. 34 







Prepared by Occupational Outlook Division, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Feb. 3, 1942. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10265 



if> ^ 




1- ^^ 


^«;^^^^^u_ 


2 **3^ 


^^g^^^g^^^^> 


UJ 




X 

if) 


V^ 


-I 

CD 




< 




1- 




in 




Ul 


£n 




Chart 4 



10266 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Table V. — Distribution of factory wage earners in 1939 and value of defense in- 
dustrial facilities contracts ^ through Sept. SO, 19^1, by geographic regions and 
States 



Geographic region and State 



Factory wage earners, 


Defense industrial 


1939 


facilities contracts 2 


Number 


Percent 


Amount 


Percent 


(thousands) 


of total 


(millions) 


of total 


7,887 


100.0 


$5, 260. 5 


100.0 


954 


12.1 


345.5 


6.6 


2,250 


28.5 


1, 095. 


20.8 


2,195 


27.8 


1, 399. 1 


26.6 


382 


4.8 


417.3 


7.9 


987 


12.6 


436.7 


8.3 


358 


4.6 


460.4 


8.8 


263 


3.4 


444.6 


8.5 


69 


.8 


141.3 


2.7 


429 


5.4 


374.7 


7.1 


76 


1.0 


13.3 


.3 


56 


.7 


19.0 


.4 


22 


.3 


4.8 


.1 


461 


5.8 


133.4 


2.5 


106 


1.3 


12.8 


.2 


234 


3.0 


162.2 


3.1 


958 


12.1 


419.4 


8.0 


433 


5.5 


190.9 


3.6 


858 


10.9 


484.6 


9. 


598 


7.6 


431.2 


8.2 


277 


3.5 


318.6 


6.1 


596 


7.6 


276.0 


5.2 


522 


6.6 


322.5 


6.1 


201 


2.5 


50.8 


1.0 


80 


1.0 


43.8 


.8 


65 


.8 


71.9 


1.4 


179 


2.3 


203.5 


3.9 


3 


Q) 


.3 


(?) 


6 


.1 


.1 


(?) 


19 


.2 


13.7 


.2 


32 


.4 


84.0 


1.6 


20 


.3 


1.9 


(?) 


142 


1.8 


99.5 


1.9 


8 


.1 


9.8 


.2 


134 


1.7 


146.1 


2.8 


75 


1.0 


111.8 


2.1 


270 


3.4 


25.4 


.5 


127 


1.6 


26.6 


.5 


158 


2.0 


7.6 


.1 


53 


.7 


8.0 


.2 


63 


.8 


44.5 


.8 


132 


1.7 


166.3 


3.2 


117 


1.5 


230.6 


4.4 


46 


.6 


19.0 


.4 


36 


.5 


64.9 


1.2 


71 


.9 


73.0 


1.4 


28 


.4 


82.4 


1.6 


127 


1.6 


224.3 


4.3 


9 


.1 


1.9 


(3) 


11 


.1 


.6 


(4 


3 


.1 




(<) 


24 


.3 


32.7 


.6 



Total. 



New England 

Middle Atlantic 

East North Central-. 
West North Central. 

South Atlantic 

East South Central.. 
West South Central.. 

Mountain 

Pacific 



New England: 

Maine. 

New Hampshire 

Vermont- 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

Middle Atlantic; 

New York-. 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

East North Central: 

Ohio... -. 

Indiana 

Illinois-.. 

Michigan 

Wisconsin... 

West North Central: 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missouri 

North Dakota 

South Dakota 

Nebraska 

Kansas 

South Atlantic: 

Delaware 

Maryland 

District of Columbia. 

Virginia 

West Virginia 

North Carolina 

South Carolina 

Georgia 

Florida 

East South Central: 

Kentucky 

Tennessee 

Alabama 

Mississippi... 

West South Central: 

Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Oklahoma 

Texas 

Mountain: 

Montana 

Idaho 

Wyoming 

Colorado 



1 Includes facilities estimated to cost more than $25,000 which are direct obligations of the War and Navy 
Departments (including financing through Government supply and emergency plant facility contracts), 
Maritime Commission, Defense Plant Corporation, British Government, loans of the Reconstruction 
Finance Corporation, and certificates of necessity approved (excluding pilot and mechanic training). 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10267 



Table Y .— Distribution of factory wage earners in 1939 and value of defense in- 
dustrial facilities contracts through Sept. SO, 19^1, by geographic regions and 
States — Continued 



Geographic region and State 


Factory wage earners, 
1939 


Defense industrial 
facilities contracts 


Number 
(thousands) 


Percent 
of total 


Amount 
(millions) 


Percent 
of total 


Mountain— Continued. 


3 
6 

90 
63 

275 


(«) 
.1 
.1 

(') 

1.1 

.8 
3.5 


2.7 

.1 

39.7 

63.6 

111.2 
23.4 
240.1 


1 


Arizona --- -- - 


(') 
.8 
1.2 

2.1 

.4 

4.6 


Utah — -. 

Nevada _ 

Pacific: 

Washington.. 

Oregon 

California 



2 2.5 percent not designated to any State and 0.2 percent outside continental United States. 

3 Less than 0.05 percent. 
* No figures given. 

Source: Percent of factory wage earners based on figures given in Census of Manufactures: 1939, "Sum- 
mary statistics for establishments grouped by size as measured by number of wage earners," November 
1941. Percent of defense industrial facilities contracts based on "dollar costs" — Office of Production Man- 
agement release, Oct. 31, 1941. 

Prepared by Occupational Outlook Division, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Feb. 3, 1942. 



Among the States the story is very much the same. Of the seven States that 
had the largest number of factory wage earners in 1939 — New York, Pennsyl- 
vania, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Mas.sachusetts, and New Jersey — only one, Ohio, 
received a larger than proportionate share of industrial facilities contracts, and 
in this case the excess in the share of facilities contracts was only a fraction of a 
percent. ■ 

The tables and charts that have been shown thus far indicate that while there 
have been fairly wide differences in the force of the impact of the defense program 
on various industries and on various geographical areas, some impact has been 
felt throughout all segments of our national economy. Under these circum- 
stances it might be supposed that unusually long migrations on the part of labor 
would not have occurred. Various studies that the Bureau of Labor Statistics 
has made regarding the source of workers in different defense industries and 
studies that have been made by the Work Projects Administration and other 
agencies indicate, however, that the migration of workers has been e;ctensive, not 
only with respect to numbers, but also with respect to distances. Chart 6 shows 
the distances that were traveled by 565 workers hired by one Long Island air- 
craft plant. It will be noted that a few workers traveled the entire distance 
across the country notwithstanding the fact that there is a very large demand 
for workers in aircraft plants on the west coast. Of the 565 workers hired, only 
about one-third lived within 10 miles of the plant; an additional one-half lived 
within a distance that might be considered roughly commuting distance — up to 
30 miles. About one-tenth of the workers came from distances in excess of 100 
miles (table 6). 

Table VI. — Workers hired by one Long Island aircraft plant classified according 
to distances from their last previous place of employment 



Distance (in miles) 


Number of 
workers 


Percent 
distribu- 
tion 


Distance (in miles) 


Number of 
workers 


Percent 
distribu- 
tion 


Less than 10 


179 
298 
34 
31 


31.7 

52.7 

6.0 

5.5 


250 and over 

Total 


23 


4.1 






30 and under 100 


565 


100.0 


100 and under 250 .. . 









Division of Wage and Hour Statistics, February 3, 1942. 



10268 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 




Chabt 5 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10269 




Chabt 6 



10270 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



The President's new war production program requires that by the end of this 
year war production shall engage the services of about 15 million workers, 3 times 
as many as were so employed in the fourth quarter of 1941. This increase will 
be brought about only in small part by increases in total employment. Tentative 
estimates of the Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate an increase in nonagricultural 
employment of slightly over 2 million from the fourth quarter of 1941 to the 
fourth quarter of 1942 (table 7, charts 7 and 8). 

The increase in total employment and prospective increases in the armed forces 
for 1942 will not exhaust our labor reserves. If the same proportion of the popu- 
lation were employed as during the last war, we might expect to draw 5 or 6 
million people who are not normally in the labor force into the labor market. 
These people include young persons in school, a fairly considerable number of 
young unmarried women who are neither at school nor looking for work, some men 
and married women without children or with grown children who have had work 
experience but are not currently in the labor market, and some older men who have 
retired. The reserve can be built up also by keeping people who would normally 
retire in employment for an additional period of months or years. Women who 
retire from employment on marriage constitute the largest single source of supply 
in this group. The retirement of older male workers who have jobs will also be 
postponed. Finally, there is a considerable body of workers engaged in seasonal 
employments such as agriculture, lumbering, and Great Lakes shipping, who 
normally retire from the labor market for 2, 3, or 4 months of the year. To the 
extent that their services can be used during the slack season, they add to the 
reserve of manpower available for war and essential civilian production. It is 
essentially from this reserve that we shall draw workers to replace those who are 
called to the colors. The increase in the labor force drawn from this reserve in 
1942 will probably be large enough to permit the expansion visualized in the face 
of continued frictional unemployment. 

Table VII. — Estimates of population, labor force, employment, and unemployment, 

1940-42 

[Quarterly averages, in millions] 



Total population 

Under 14 

14 and over 

Not in the labor force. . 

In the labor force 

Armed forces 2 

Unemployed 

Employed 

Agricultural 

Nonagricultural 

Self-employed, etc 

Wage and salary work- 
ers 

Defense.- 

Nondefense 



1940 



131.8 

30.7 

101.1 

45.6 

55.5 

.5 

8.6 

46.4 

(') 

(') 

0) 

29.5 

.5 

29.0 



132.0 

30.6 
101.4 

44.6 

56.8 

.5 

8.4 

47.9 

(0 

0) 

0) 

30.3 

.7 

29.6 



132.3 

30.6 

101.7 

46.9 

54.8 

.8 

7.4 

46.6 

(') 

(') 

(') 

31.5 

1.4 

30.1 



132.5 
30.6 
101.9 
48.2 
53.7 

1.1 

7.2 
45.4 

8.4 
37.0 

5.7 

31.3 

2.4 

28.9 



132. 8, 

30.6 

102.2 

48.2 

56.0 

1.6 

6.1 

48.3 

10.0 

38.3 

5.6 

32.7 

2.7 

30.0 



133.0 

30.5 

102.5 

45.3 

67.2 

1.9 

5.1 

50.2 

10.2 

40.0 

5.8 

34.2 

3.4 

30.8 



133.2 
30.5 
102.7 
47.3 
55.4 

2.0 

3.9 
49.5 

8.9 
40.6 

5.9 

34.7 

5.0 

29.7 



133.5 
30.5 
103.0 
48.2 
54.8 

2.3 

4.5 
48.0 

8.2 
39.8 

5.6 

34.2 

7.5 

26.7 



133.7 
30.4 
103.3 
46.2 
57.1 

3.0 

3.7 
50.4 

9.7 
40.7 

6.5 

35.2 
10.0 
25.2 



134.0 
30.4 
103.6 
45.2 
58.4 

3.6 

3.5 
51.3 

9.7 
41.6 

5.5 

36.1 
12.5 
23.6 



134.2 
30.4 
103.8 
46.4 
57.4 

4.2 

2.4 
50.8 

8.5 
42.3 

5.6 

36.8 
15.0 
21.8 



' Not available. 

' 1942 estimates based on statement by the Secretary of War, January 15, 1942. 

Note. — Labor force, total civilian emplojTnent, agricultural and nonagricultural employment, and 
unemployment are on the basis of the Work Projects Administration monthly unemployment survey. 
Nonagricultural wage and salary workers is the Bureau of Labor Statistics series; self-employed, etc., is a 
residual item. 

Prepared by Occupational Outlook Division, Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 3, 1942. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10271 



CHANGES IN THE LABOR FORCE 
AND ITS COMPOSITION 



MILLIONS 

60 



ARMED FORCES 



50 



40 



30 



MILLIONS 

— 160 



UNEMPLOYED 



AGRICULTURE 
9.2 



SELF-EMPLOYED 
ETC. 



/ 



20 



10 



NON-OEFENSE 



UNEMPLOYED 



AGRICULTURE 
8.9 



SELF-EMPLOYED 
ETC. 
59 



ARMED FORCES 
4 2 



UNEMPLOYED 
2.4 



AGRICULTURE 
8S 



SELF-EMPLOYED 
ETC. 
5.5 



NON-OEFENSE 
29.7 



DEFENSE 
5.0 



NON -DEFENSE 
21.8 



50 



40 



DEFENSE 
15.0 



30 



20 



1940 

FOURTH QUARTER 



1941 

FOURTH QUARTER 



1942 



Chabt7 



10272 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



SOURCES OF 12.2 MILLION INCREASE 

IN ARMED FORCES AND 

IN DEFENSE EMPLOYMENT 

FOURTH QUARTER 1941 TO FOURTH QUARTER 1942 

1 2^00,000 [- 



2.0 



0.4 



0.4 



1.5 



7.9 



NET INCREASE IN TOTAL LABOR FORCE 



NET REDUCTION IN AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT 
NET REDUCTION IN SELF EMPLOYMENT ETC. 



NET REDUCTION IN UNEMPLOYMENT 



NET CONVERSION FROM NON-DEFENSE 
EMPLOYMENT 



Chart 8 



NATIONAL DEFENSE IVnCRATION 10273 

There will be serious local shortages of labor. The unemployed at the present 
time are not all located in communities with facilities suitable to war production. 
The distribution of the reserve of manpower not normally in the labor market 
corresponds more closely to the distribution of total population than it does to 
the distribution of existing war production. In some centers where war pro- 
duction expanded most rapidly in 1941, this reserve has already been drawn down. 
Therefore, if we are to avail ourselves of the available labor reserve — both those 
now unemployed and those who may be drawn into the labor market — it is of 
the utmost importance that defense production be widely decentralized. Pro- 
vision will also have to be made for defense housing for the use of those who 
migrate from areas in which employment cannot be increased to the centers of 
war production. 

Discrimination against the employment of women, of Negroes, and of other 
minority groups will seriously interfere with the Victory program. Increases in 
the armed forces will vacate jobs normally held by men. As there are only about 
2}^ million unemployed males, some of whom are unemployable, and as there will 
always be some persons unemployed between jobs, it is evident that an increase 
of 2.2 million in the armed forces will create a real stringency in the market for 
white male workers of age for military service. Prospective increases of total 
employment, over and above increases in military forces, will only be possible if 
employers limit hiring specifications to the technical requirements of the job. 
To the extent that they refuse to hire Negroes and other racial groups they will 
create an artificial scarcity of male workers. To the extent that they plan to 
hire older workers and women, they will ease their problems of recruiting labor. 

During the defense period of 1940-41, our labor supply was amply adequate to 
provide for both the increase in industrial production and the increase in our 
armed forces without drawing extensively on the potential reserve of persons who 
can be brought into the labor market during the emergency. The increase in the 
size of the labor force, at least until December, was about that which might be 
expected as a result of population growth. We started the defense period with 
over 8 million unemployed. As employment expanded, this number was rapidly 
reduced, till by the end of 1941 it stood at slightly less than 4 million. With an 
anticipalted net increase of 2 million in employment and 2.2 million additional 
needed for the armed forces it might be expected that unemployment would 
virtually disappear by the end of the year. In fact, however, the conversion of 
many plants to defense production, and the closing down of others because of 
shortages of materials, will result in a continuation of considerable unemployment 
through most of this year. Many of the displaced workers can be transferred 
to defense work, but their transfer will in many cases require retraining or reloca- 
tion, and will take time to work out. The increases in employment and in the 
armed forces will have to be met partly by drawing in people who are not now in 
the labor market. 

While the total number of unemployed will be substantial throughout most of 
the year, it will be composed of a shifting group of individuals. Large numbers of 
individuals will experience short periods of unemployment, and only the least 
employable or those in the most inaccessible areas are likely to experience pro- 
longed and continuous unemployment. It will be unemployment of a type 
against which unemployment insurance was designed to provide, though for some 
workers in areas highly dependent upon the production of civilian consumer 
durable goods, like automobiles, the statutory period of compensation will be too 
short to meet their needs. 

The major expansion of war production in 1942 must come by diversion from 
production for civilian purposes to production for military purposes. It appears 
that as many as 8 million workers may be thus diverted to war production. 

Many of these workers will continue to work where they are and to make 
essentially the same products as at present, but the product will be used for 
military purposes. This is true, for example, of basic metal production such as 
iron and steel, and also of manufacturing industries making basic industrial 
equipment and construction materials. Construction will continue to employ 
about the same number of workers as at present, but virtually all construction 
will be directly or indirectly for military purposes: i. e., for new war plants, for 
the housing of troops or defense workers. In these cases there will be little or 
no delay in switching from production for civilian needs to production for war 
purposes. No retraining program will be necessary for these workers. The 
changes in production may not be sufficiently great to make the workers aware 
of the fact that the ultimate use to which their product is to be put has changed. 



10274 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

In other cases some retooling of the plant and some retraining of the workers 
will be necessary before the plant can be adapted to war production. This will 
be the case where the production techniques used to make civilian articles do not 
coincide with the techniques required to produce any of the thousands of articles 
needed by the Army and Navy, or parts of these products. It is a problem that 
will arise especially frequently in connection with the final assembly or sub- 
assembly of war material, or in connection with the fabrication of highly specialized 
parts that have few counterparts in civilian life. 

The Victory program depends upon this type of conversion of plant and work 
force to war production wherever it is possible and wherever the simple process 
of product diversion to war purposes is impossible. Essentially all equipment 
now used to produce consumers' durable goods must be placed at the service 
of the war effort. Thus it has already been ordered that there shall be no new 
automobiles, except for military purposes, while automobile companies are to 
make tanks, guns, planes, and other instruments of war. There will be similar 
shrinkage in the production of producers' durable goods. Civilian industry will 
be limited to the purchase of materials needed for plant maintenance and for 
meager replacement. The basic machine producing capacity of the country 
will be needed in its entirety to equip new war plants, to reequip and balance 
the equipment of plants converted to war production, or to produce final instru- 
ments of war. 

Insofar as the durable goods industries that make demands upon scarce ma- 
terials, chiefly the metals, cannot adapt their plant to direct or indirect war 
production, it wiU be necessary to release workers for jobs in other war indus- 
tries. In some instances this may involve the total closing down of a plant. 
In many more instances it will involve the release of part of the labor force, for 
in'many instances it will not be possible to achieve 100 percent use of a plant — 
especially of those plants producing finished consumer goods — for war purposes. 
It must he assumed that where scarce materials are incidental to essential civilian 
production, as in the use of steel for shoe nails, supplies will be maintained. It 
is for this reason among others that war production plans presuppose the con- 
version of most durable consumers' goods industries to war production but the 
continuation of production of most nondurable goods for civilian production 

The absorption of 10 million more workers on defense production depends in 
part upon the building of new plants, not yet under contract. Since this takes 
many months and since in any event toolmaking facilities are required to equip 
plants already projected, to reequip plants for war production, and to produce 
new equipment to permit existing plants to achieve balanced production at 
capacity operation, the Victory program will depend upon a full utilization of 
existing facilities for war production. This is the more necessary because several 
millions of the workers needed for Victory production will be drawn from em- 
ployments that cannot be adapted to war production. Some of them, as has been 
indicated, will come from plants that cannot be fully adapted. Others will be 
drawn from agriculture and various forms of self-employment. Still others 
will come from offices and sales forces that have been engaged in the distribution 
of durable consumers' goods. The absorption of these millions of workers will 
be possible only if productive equipment that can be used for war purposes is 
operated continuously, whether such equipment is found in new plants built 
especially for war production or in facilities converted from civilian production 
to war purposes. 

Finally, the increase of war production employment to only 1,5 million pre- 
supposes an increase in the number of hours worked in many establishments. 
A few industries, as for example the machine-tool industry, have already length- 
ened the workweek for individual workers to the limits of safety. Other indus- 
tries, especially those producing durable consumers' goods, have averaged little 
more than 40 hours a week. When these industries are converted to war pro- 
duction, they will either require more workers than has been anticipated or they 
will have to tend toward 48-hour shift operation. While untrained manpower 
will be adequate throughout most of 1942 to permit a larger increase in defense 
employment than is projected, the training problem for those establishments 
undertaking all-out war production is so large in any event as to make it almost 
certain that shift hours will be extended. 

This does not mean that there will need to be a corresponding increase in the 
length of the work week for those engaged in civilian production. Conservation 
of manpower through a general lengthening of the workweek is not likely to be 
necessary until 1943. As a matter of fact there will be a pressing need in 1942 
to find additional employment opportunities for civilian production in order to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10275 

maintain the level of living at the highest possible level. Men and women will 
be available, or can be made available, in larger numbers than they are likely to 
be used. If materials and machines are available and if there is consumer de- 
mand for the products, there will be the manpower to permit a greater expansion 
of personal services and of the production of consumer goods such as foodstuffs 
and textile products than has been currently projected in the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics' tentative estimate of a net increase of employment of slightly more 
than 2 million for 1942. 



TESTIMONY OF DONALD H. DAVENPORT— Resumed 

During the last year and a half of defense effort we have faced an 
expanded demand for labor, at the same time that our armed forces 
have increased. The impact of that defense effort, which has become 
a war effort, can be described industrially and geographically, and it 
is those aspects of this problem that thi-ow light upon the necessity for 
movements of workers from one part of the country to another. 

The first impact of the defense effort was through the demand for 
increasing quantities of war material which stunulated certain indus- 
tries. 

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY EFFECTS 

Obviously the effect upon different industries was varied. 

There was a primary effect in the hiring of a great many workers 
that were capable of turning out the kinds of products that were 
needed — ships, cargo vessels, aircraft, and so forth, and ordnance 
items needed to equip both the ships and planes. 

The secondary effect was upon the industries that provided the 
materials required by the increased number of workers engaged in the 
defense industries. 

There was a twofold factor m this. First there came an increase in 
employment which, of course, proportionately increased pay rolls 
and spending power. 

Secondly, an increased number of hours of work in those plants; 
pay rolls expanded more in proportion than did employment. This 
increased spending power had its effect upon civilian industries, 
the industries that produce the butter rather than the guns. 

Therefore, during the first 12, 13, or 14 months of the defense 
effort, there was a dual expansion of defense and civilian industries. 
However, beginning in the fall of 1941, the effect of restrictions on raw 
materials, restrictions in the use of silk for the manufacture of silk 
hosiery, restrictions in the use of steel, and the use of copper. The 
exercise of priorities, with respect to the use that could be made of raw 
materials, began to have a dampening effect upon the industries that 
produced civilian goods; so that over all today we find that the 
employment in nondefense industries is back at the level where it was 
at the beginning of the defense effort and that means a drop of prob- 
ably 1,000,000 people diverted from the manufacture of nondefense 
items, into the manufacture of defense items. 

Mr. Curtis. You are referring to workers that have been checked 
on and referred to your office? 

Mr. Davenport. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you make estimates, aside from your actual enu- 
meration? 

Mr. Davenport. Yes, sir. 



10276 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. And do the figures you referred to include estimates? 
Mr. Davenport. Those are over-all estunates. 
Mr. Curtis. Does that include salesmen? 

140,000 firms report on employment 

Mr. Davenport. It does. We have over 140,000 firms that report 
to us every month with respect to the number of people they employ, 
their pay rolls, and, in most cases, the man-hours they put in. From 
those 140,000 returns every month, we make estimates of what the 
total picture would be if all of the firms employing labor were to report. 

We check periodically the sample of firms that report. Those are 
all voluntary reporters. 

We have built up the good will that keeps them reporting to us, 
over a good many years. 

I have here several charts that will show the effect of expansion 
in employment on different industries. 

This chart [indicating] shows the percentage increase from June 
1940 to November 1941. The scale runs from zero to 90 at the 
extreme right. ^ 

percentage increases in employment 

The first bar represents the manufacture of transportation equip- 
ment. This includes shipbuilding, naval vessels, maritime cargo 
carriers, aircraft, railroad cars, locomotives, and automobiles. The 
expansion in that category of industries was most marked — approxi- 
mately an 83 or 84 percent increase in the period from June 1940 
to November 1941. 

The machinery group, which is strategic from many points of 
view, and includes machine tools, power equipment, and machine- 
tool accessories, expanded about 58 percent in the same period. 

In nonferrous metals, that is, aluminum, brass, bronze and copper, 
zinc and lead, the expansion was approximately 36 percent. 

Iron and steel expanded about 34 percent; rubber, 34 percent; 
chemicals, perhaps 26 percent; stone, clay, and glass, around 25 per- 
cent; and textiles, lumber, food, leather, paper, and tobacco, about 
5 percent. 

I have another chart based upon the same figures, which shows the 
absolute numbers which, in some respects, are a httle more illuminat- 
ing than the percentage increases in the different industries.^ 

This, again, is from June 1940 to November 1941, 

The absolute numbers of workers involved in increases of employ- 
ment from June 1940 was almost 600,000 in the machinery group. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you attribute that increase largely to the produc- 
tion of machines to make defense articles? 

Mr. Davenport. Primarily. I would say that was the pre- 
ponderant influence affecting Ihis group. It was the manufacture of 
machine tools to tool up the new airplane plants, the new shipyards, 
the new plants for the manufacture of ordnance. 

That is why machine tools and machinery in general constitute a 
very strategic group. You can't make planes until you have the 
machinery with which to makie planes. Therefore, you must build 

1 See chart 1, p. 10259. 

2 See chart 2, p. 10260. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGTIATION 10277 

your plant, equip your plant, tool up your plant to produce before 
you can hope to get the war-munitions program out. 

Almost 50,000 transportation workers were hired who were not 
on the pay roll in June 1940; textiles, around 300,000; steel around 
300,000; food, also about 300,000; and tobacco, probably 2,000 or 
3,000. 

Mr. Curtis. By food, what do you mean; do you mean raising or 
processing or what? 

Mr. Davenport. This is the manufacture of foods. It would in- 
clude flour milhng, the baking of bread, etc. 

Mr. Curtis. It doesn't include farming at all? 

Mr. Davenport. No, sir; just the manufacturing industries. 

Now, obviously, each one of these industries has certain geographic 
centers of activity. Therefore, the expansion of these industries 
means an internal tension in the distribution of your labor force. That 
alone has resulted in migration of workers from parts of the country 
which were not affected by the unpact of the war production program 
upon our industries. 

The next chart shows the geographic effects of this situation.^ 

CHANGES lisr FACTORY-WORKER EMPLOYMENT 

From 93 cities, each one of which is over 100,000 population, we 
received sufficient reports from manufacturers in those communities, 
to enable us to build up an index of the changes in factory- worker 
employment. 

Factory-worker employment is defined in this instance to include 
not only the private manufacturing establishments, but also the Gov- 
ernment manufacturing establishments, such as the Watertown 
Ai-senal, the Frankfort Arsenal, and the various United States navy- 
yards and manufacturing arsenals throughout the country, regardless 
of whether they are privately or Government ow^ned. 

The community designated by the bar at the top is Long Beach, 
Calif. The bar stretches out to 300 percent. For every one factory 
worker you had in that area in June 1940 you had three factory 
workers there in November 1941. 

That is the center of one of the greatest expansions of the aircraft 
mdustry we have anywhere in the country. 

San Diego, Calif., also shows an increase which is second, around 
a 200 percent increase in the period of a year and a half. 

There are in all, I think, 22 communities in which the increase in 
the number of people working in manufacturing establishments 
exceeded 50 percent. And it stretches down through a list of about 
125 towns to Des Moines, Iowa, that had an increase of probably 4 
percent. 

Evansville, Ind., actually showed a decrease, but it was unique 
in that respect. 

The reason for the differences in the behavior of these cities, I 
think, is quite ob\4ous. The identity of Wichita with the aircraft 
industry, a sudden expansion by reason of some five aircraft plants 
that located in that community, ties it up pretty closely with one of 
the most rapidly expanding factors in our war economy, aircraft 
production. 

1 See chart 3, p. 10263. 



10278 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Seattle, Wash., which expanded almost 100 percent, is a combina- 
tion of aircraft— the Boeing Aircraft Co.— and the navy yard m the 
Seattle-Tacoma area. , , • j. 

One word of explanation in the interpretation of the mformation 
on this chart may be pertinent. 

In the 93 are"as, each community having a population of over 
100,000 has been listed separately. In other words, for the Kansas 
City area there were two items— Kansas City, Mo., and Kansas 

City, Kans. . , • , • i i 

New York and northern New Jersey is one area which includes 

Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth, Yonkers, and New York 

City, plus the outside. Altogether, we would have, including the 

subareas, about 125 separate cities plotted. 

I should say that they represent areas that include somewhere 

between 70 percent and 80 percent of our manufacturing employment. 
You get a different picture, from the point of view of over-all State 

figures, over this same period from June 1940 to November 1941. 

CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT PATTERN 

Taking the States, and m tliis case takmg all civilian employinent, 
excluding agricultural employment, we find a very spotty condition 
showing up by reason of the fact that the States in which we find the 
most rapidly expanding war industries tend to fall into a definite 
pattern. 

The first impact in point of time was naturally in the older indus- 
trial areas. 

For military purposes, strategic reasons of defense, and what not, 
the newer establishments in the defense industries that were financed 
through the expenditure of Government funds, were located outside 
of the older industrial areas. 

This chart shows the over-all effect from June 1940 to November 
1941.^ Had we taken a series of maps from June to July 1940 — 
June to August 1940 — you would have seen a gradual change in the 
pattern because the initial effect was pretty largely on the eastern 
seaboard and in the State of California. 

It wasn't many months before Kansas appeared as one of the 
States that began to show expansion as a result of Wichita, Kans., 
being the center of five aircraft plants. 

At one time there was only one defense contract in the Wichita 
area outside of the aircraft contracts to the five aircraft companies; 
I think that was $20,000 of flour that happened to be purchased from 
one of the flour mills in Kansas. 

DISTRIBUTION OF WAR PLANTS AND WAGE EARNERS 

I think this committee will be interested in the comparison of the 
geographic distribution of the funds that were made available for the 
expansion of war plants, with a geographic distribution of the wage 
earners employed in factories by States, in 1939. 

If we take the 1939 wage-earner figures, wage earners in manufac- 
turing establishments, and distribute them geographically, we get a 
pattern of the location of our factories as of the predefense period. 

iSeechart 4, p. 10265. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10279 

Then, if we take a geographic distribution of the money that has 
been made available to expand war plants by States, we get a picture ^ 
that shows some very interesting comparisons. 

The first five areas, the Mountain States, the West South Central, 
East South Central, West North Central, and the Pacific, are areas 
in which the States got a share of the new defense-plant money that 
was greater than they would have gotten if it had been allocated on the 
basis of the old plant pattern— if it had been allocated on the basis of 
existing factory labor forces in 1939. 

The areas that are designated in the four columns on the right side 
of the chart: New England, South Atlantic, East North Central, and 
Middle Atlantic, all received smaller shares of the money that was 
allocated for expansion of plant facilities than would have been allo- 
cated if the mioney had been divided on the basis of the old plant 
facility pattern. 

Now, it is not our responsibility to appraise the philosophy that 
determined the allocation of that money. We are fact finders, we 
are relating the situation which is basic to an understanding of the 
migration problem that you are struggling with. 

That migration problem, as I see it, resulted of necessity from the 
decisions that were made to expand the manufacturing employment 
and defense facilities in the areas that previously had not been pre- 
dominantly manufacturing areas. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Davenport, do you expect the trends to indicate 
in 1942, just as these charts indicate in the past, where the largest 
amount of additional labor will be required and where it will be cur- 
tailed inost sharply? 

Mr. Davenport. Unfortunately, sir, I am not in a position to 
answer that fully. 

We have made no forecast of the over-all expansion of indi\ddual 
areas, except in specific industries, and there we are advising the Em- 
ployment Service and the aircraft companies and the shipbuilding com- 
panies that are concerned, with respect to what our estimates are of 
their future requirements, based upon contracts let. 

MIGRATION OF WORKERS 

I would say in general that the expansion in shipbuilding will have 
to be along the seacoast, and to that extent shipbuilding will continue 
drawing people from the interior to work in the shipyards. We 
expect an expansion there that will be very considerable in the next 
12 months, and that will continue. 

I have some evidence that I shall show you of the drawing power 
of one aircraft plant located on Long Island. We were permitted to 
go- into this aircraft plant and examine the personnel records of the 
recently hired workers, which show that those workers came from a 
great many different States. There were aircraft plants on the 
Pacific coast, but three workers left California for the Long Island 
climate. 

One came from Florida. 

Most of them, as you might expect, came from the States which 
are closer to Long Island.^ 

1 See chart S, p. 10268. 

2 See chart 6, p. 10269. 

60396— 42— pt. 27 4 



2Q280 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

The figures witli respect to those 565 workers that migrated mto 
that arca^over the period we were studying indicates that 31.7 percent 
came from within h'ss than 10 miles and 52.7 percent came from an 
area between 10 and 30 miles, but 15.6 percent came from distances 
that ran from 30 up to 3,000 miles. 

DISTRIBUTION OF PLANTS 

There is a movement to have the air engine industry distributed a 
Utile more widely than it was a year ago. For a long time the airplane- 
engine industrv was located almost exclusively on the eastern seaboard, 
whereas the airplane-frame mdustry, which assembles the frame and 
the engine and propeller into the frame, was predominantly located in 
California, on the west coast. 

There has been a deliberate attempt to decentralize the manufacture 
of airplane engines, and we now find some airplane engines being 
manufactured out in California and others in Ohio. 

We see that the predominant locations of airplane frames is still on 
the west coast. The engine industry and propeller industry is still 
predominantly on the east coast. 

In the early stages of defense effort, there was a greater tendency 
for the companies holding the prime contracts to do all the work they 
could do themselves. That meant a greater concentration of employ- 
ment in their immediate locations. 

Since then there has been an effort on the part of the Oflfice of 
Production Management — now the War Production Board — and 
others, to encourage, urge, and compel the prime contractor to sub- 
contract a great deal of the work to others. That has had a decen- 
tralizing effect. 

I think that in part is responsible for the fact that there has been 
an increase in employment in every State in the Union, and with very 
few exceptions there has been an increase in employment in a great 
many different lines of industry that you would not ordinarily think 
of as being touched by primary defense contracts for planes, ships, 
and so forth. 

Mr. Curtis. How many women does the Bureau estimate will be 
drawn in the industry during the next year? 

Mr. Davenport. I think, if I may turn to the next to last chart,' 
we may derive the basis for an answer to that question. 

distribution of labor forces 

This chart shows the distribution of our labor forces in three periods, 
two in retrospect and one in prospect, the fourth quarter of 1940, the 
fourth quarter of 1941, and what we estimate the distribution will be 
in the fourth quarter of 1942. 

■ The height of the bar represents the total number of men and women 
in the working force, either working or unemployed, or in the armed 
forces. It is the deployment, if you will, of our human resources in 
that segment of the population that constitutes the people who are 
willing to work and able to work and either working or unable to find 
work. 



1 See chart 7, p. 10271. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10281 

In the fourth quarter of 1940 — the defense program had been under 
way since June — we estimate that we had about 1,400,000 that were 
engaged in activities that might be described as defense employment, 
employment bv reason of the manufacture of defense materials; and 
in noiidefense at that time 30,100,000. 

The self-employed group, which is explained as a residual group — • 
those who are running small stores that they own, hot-dog stands, 
and so forth — we estimate at about five million nine; agriculture, 
about nine million two; unemployed, about seven million four; and 
the armed forces, including the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and 
Coast Guard, about eight hundred thousand. 

In 1941 the picture changed appreciably. The armed forces had 
expanded to 2,000,000; the unemployed had been drawn down to 3.9 
million. That is where we got a lot of the expansion that was called 
for in defense. 

Defense employment expanded to 5,000,000, nondefense shrank to 

29.7 million. Self-employed the same figure and agriculture dropped 
to 8.9 million. 

Now, the picture we see ahead of us — and this is based upon con- 
sidered judgment — it is obvious there is nothing in the Book of 
Revelations that will help us to find what these figures will be at the 
end of this year. The Secretary of War did help a little when he told 
us that the expansion of the Arni}^ would be a certain figure. We 
found out from the Navy what the expansion of the Navy would be, 
and we estimate our armed forces to be 4,200,000 as an average for 
the fourth quarter of this year, a figure as of the middle of December 
1942. The expansion there will be all males, obviously. To the 
extent that they are drawn from industry their places will be taken, 
I make bold to say, by women. 

Mr. Curtis. Why will there still be 2,000,000 unemployed? 

Mr. Davenport. The character of the unemployed at that time 
will be quite different from the character of the unemployed at the 
present time. If you will look at the lower part of this chart you will 
see that defense employment is estimated to expand from 5,000,000 
to 15,000,000 and nondefense employment to contract from 29.7 to 

21.8 millions. 

You see a picture of internal tension that will mean that people 
who are working here, manufacturing civilian goods, will not be needed 
here, but they will be needed over there [indicating on chart] where 
the expansion is, for war materials. 

Mr. Curtis. And some can't get over there? 

Mr. Davenport. To get the men who are working here to move 
over there takes time. It takes persuasion, it takes economic pressure, 
and while that man is making up his mind that he cannot find another 
job in his home locality he is unemployed, though he is employable. 

Mr. Curtis. Might it not be an element of training? 

Mr. Davenport, That is right. He may have to be trained. 
While he is training, he is unemployed. 

It is our judgment that the composition of the 2,400,000 that we 
figure may be unemployed at that time will be quite different from 
the point of view of the employ ability and skills that might be useful, 
from what it was in the fourth quarter of 1941, and a great deal 
different from the fourth quarter of 1940. 



10282 M^ASHINGTON HEARINGS 

UNEMPLOYABLES 

Mr. Sparkman. Your chart does not take into account the unem- 
ployable at all, does it? 

Mr. Davenport. Those who are strictly unemployable are not 
included here. The working forces are considered to be those who are 
able to work, willing to work, and either working or unemployed 
because they cannot find work. 

The term " unemployabihty" is an elastic term and in this 2,400,000 
I would say you will find two groups, a group that will be left unem- 
ployed after you have sifted and sifted, and a group which has become 
unemployed by reason of the conversion of nondefense into defense 
industries. Many of them are left holding the bag, ownmg a little 
homo in this community, where there is nothing for them to do, be- 
cause the industry there produced civilian goods and cannot De con- 
verted to the manufacture of war materials. To use that man you 
have to move him X miles to an industry that can be converted. 

Mr. Sparkman. A fairly large part of that two million four would 
be represented by a lag in moving from one point to another? 

Mr. Davenport. That is a good way to describe it. 

SOURCES OF AVAILABLE LABOR 

Mr. Curtis. If I understand your figures, in order tc get 10,000,000 
more people working in defense you will take 1,500,000 of the unem- 
ployed, and you will get 400,000 from agriculture and the rest will 
have to be women. And then you will have to take enough women to 
replace the increase in the armed forces. You will have to employ 
about three and a half million women. Is that correct? 

Mr. Davenport. We have not carried our estimate in terms of 
sex to the point where I would be willing to say, but I am willing to 
say that for every man who is drawn out of this picture into the armed 
forces, you will have to replace him with a woman. 

Mr. Curtis. Why not put a 17-year-old boy there? 

Mr. Davenport. We are counting on that to some extent, but how 
many 17-year-old boys do you have? Have you a picture of that? 
Not a great many. 

Mr. Sparkman. 1,300,000. 

Mr. Davenport. The Army estimates that 1,220,000 become 21 
each year, so the 17-year olds would be slightly in excess of that. The 
total number of individuals of the ages of 14, 15, 16, and 17 destined 
for the labor force is 1,400,000. That number could be expanded by 
drawing on a large percentage of those that normally go to school, or 
girls that normally don't enter the labor force. Ordinarily we expect 
a net increase in the labor force of between 700,000 and 800,000 a year, 
by reason of growth of population. The reason it doesn't expand as 
rapidly as the classes that enter the working ages, is because you have 
deaths at the other end. This last chart shows our rough pictures of 
the sources from which we are going to get this expansion in the war 
effort, both industrial war effort and armed force war effort.^ It 
indicates that somewhere aromid seven million nine hundred thousand 
will be converted from civilian, nondefense industries. 

' See chart 8, p. 10272. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10283 

The reduction in the number of unemployed is about one and a half 
million and the reduction in the number of self-employed about 
400,000, possibly 400,000 more from agriculture, and a^ 2,000,000 
increase in the total labor force. 

Ordinarily we only count on, as I say, 7€0,000 to 800,000 increase. 
That labor force can be increased in these ways: You can reach down 
and get younger people who normally would be going to school; you 
can draw in women that normally are not in the labor forces; you can 
hold people back who normally would be retired at the age of 65 or 70; 
and you can draw some who have retired back into the labor force. 
But you can only expand that way once or twice. After you have done 
that all that you can count on would be the normal increase in your 
labor force. 

EMPLOYMENT OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS 

Mr. Curtis. How are you going to reduce your agricultural em- 
ployment, in view of the fact that you are going to demand an in- 
creased production and a decrease of available labor-saving machinery? 

Mr. Davenport. Well, sir; I imagine the selective service will 
draw from the agricultural communities, and from those farms that 
have long been classified as submarginal or marginal farms, farms 
that merely produce an existence for their operators. 

I cannot pose as an agricultural economist but I imagine the net 
output of agriculture could be increased from the really producing 
areas and the selective service could still draw off the 400,000 that we 
figure' might be drawn from the farms. 

In other words, the local draft boards, if they exercise wisdom, 
should take into account that this farm, from which John Jones was 
drawn before their board, is a farm that under no circumstances 
could be classified as one producing a pound of food for the armed 
forces or civilian population. It might as well be closed just as 
many of our plants are closed up through the regular bankruptcy 
courts. 

I can imagine that the local draft boards might exercise that kind 
of wisdom and if they were imbued with the idea of producing more 
food products to be thrown on the market, they rnight use that kind 
of touchstone in deciding whether or not to continue to allow that 
farm to operate. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Davenport, getting away from some of these 
details for a moment, I want to ask you a question in connection 
with the defense migration that we have and the problems it is going 
to create in the way of housing and health and education and training 
programs. 

OPINION ON labor MARKET POLICY 

In reference to a national labor market policy, do you have any 
recommendations as to any changes that ought to be made? 

Mr. Davenport. I came in a little after General Hershey started 
his testimony this morning, but I did not find myself in disagreement 
with the General's views. 

I think the planning for the utiUzation of our manpower from the 
point of view of making a 100-percent war effort is highly essential. 



10284 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

My main concern is that the macliineiy that is set up to execute that 
plan be simple enough so that it doesn't get bogged down in operation 

I think the General's idea of delegation of authority to the local 
level and operating on a basis without too much centralization in 
statistical controls is an excellent one. 

Mr. Curtis. To what extent should there be a consolidation of 
agency effort? 

Mr. Davenport. I have no recommendation to make with con- 
solidation of agencies. If this were peacetime, I would have some 
recommendations, but my position at the present time is that further 
shifts merelv confuse the fob. I have every confidence that the United 
States Employment Service, now that it is federalized, is going to do a 
bang-up job, and will play an important part in the defense program. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Davenport, is our statistical information set-up 

adequate? . • • i 

Mr. Davenport. I suppose the answer to that is that no statistical 

set-up is ever adequate. You too frequently have to rely on estimates 

that are based on judgment. 

Mr. Curtis. Is there any particular angle on which study is needed 

and no study is available? 

WOULD obtain more ADEQUATE STATISTICS WITH MANDATORY POWERS 

Mr. Davenport. I think if we had mandatory powers to get certain 
information from employers, we would have more adequate statistics 
at the present time. 

The Bureau of Labor Statistics, in contrast to the Census, operates 
on a basis of voluntary cooperation from employers and when we 
send out a questionnaire to several thousand employers, I am handi- 
capped by the fact that we have to send a follow-up and possibly 
a telegram stating that it is the War Production Board that wants 
the information, that Knudsen, Hillman, or now Nelson wants it, 
and will they please reply. 

I should say an intelligent and discriminatory delegation of manda- 
tory powers to get this information for the purpose of our supreme 
effort would help a great deal. 

Mr. Curtis. Will the Bureau of Labor Statistics be able to under- 
take additional defense migration studies within the present year? 

Mr. Davenport. If we have the funds. At present we are oper- 
ating to the full extent of our budget and it will be impossible to 
carry on any expansion of our present activities without expansion 
of funds. We have before the Bureau of the Budget requests for 
half a million dollars additional funds at the present time. 

Mr. Curtis. Are you losing any of your personnel to Selective 
Service? 

Mr. Davenport. Yes, sir; that is a constant source of disturbance 
to us, as is the loss of personnel to defense industries. 

LOSS OF aircraft EMPLOYEES TO ARMED SERVICES 

When you were questioning General Hershey I had in mind a 
letter we have just received from the personnel manager of Boeing 
Aircraft. He made an analysis of the number of individuals who 
had left Boeing Aircraft Co. in the last 3 months. Of that number, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10285 

over 300 left to join the armed forces: 150 had been drafted and the 
others had vohuiteered, 

I suppose that mihtary authorities would indicate there wasn't any- 
thing more important than expansion in Boeing Aircraft, so they 
could deliver the bombers they have on contract. That undoubtedly 
impairs their ability to deliver their contracts. 

It is in the jurisdiction of the local draft boards, as to how they 
operate on rec^uest for deferment from Boeing. 

In my own shop I have asked for deferment of a number of indi- 
viduals who are irreplaceable in making the kind of studies that the 
war-production program considers essential and I am constantly go- 
ing to the administrative officer who goes to the Secretary of Labor 
to request deferment of these individuals. 

We have invested in such individuals l^ or 2}2 or 3K years of 
professional education. We don't know where, in the present labor 
market for professional help, we can find anyone to do that job. It 
will impair our efficiency very much if we have to lose such persons 
to the draft. 

At one time 52 of our secretaries received telegrams from various 
defense agencies offering them jobs at salaries a grade above what 
we were pajdng them. That was one Saturday morning; 52 of our 
secretaries one Saturday morning received offers of jobs from the 
defense agencies that are growing very rapidly. 

I might indicate that our own agency is a defense agency, but there 
are, I believe, 200 different defense agencies. 

We, too have expanded. Our present staff is at least double what 
it was before the defense effort began, but the increase of 450 people 
on our pay roll has meant the hiring of 600 people to replace those 
that include the turn-over in that period. 

Mr. Curtis. How far down the scale do you go in showing that 
certain people, for whom you are requesting deferment, are necessary? 

Mr. Davenport. That isn't a question I can answer, because I 
don't have jurisdiction over that. I can make my recommendations 
and describe how important an individual is in my operations. They 
have asked for limited deferment, 2 or 3 months, for individuals in 
CAF-5 classifications, I believe. 

Mr. Curtis. Eighteen months' experience in any job will make a 
person much more capable than no experience, but the inconvenience 
of training an inexperienced person alone does not make him a neces- 
sary man, does it? 

Mr. Davenport. I wouldn't say so. It would depend somewhat 
upon the necessities that the agency was facing, and the labor market 
and the ability to get someone to replace that individual. 

I am speaking of persons with specialized training, people who have 
had special classes in statistics, economics, and accounting, before 
being hired in those categories by the Bureau. We have been ham- 
pered by the raids of other Federal agencies, and by the Selective 
Service System. We are not crying out for help but the situation is 
given in answer to your question. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Davenport. 

We appreciate your coming here very much and your statement wilt 
be inserted in the record. 



10286 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

The Chairman. Our next witness is Mr. John J. Corson who is 
accompanied by Mr. Collis Stocking, Assistant Director of the 
Bureau of Employment Security. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN J. CORSON, DIRECTOR, UNITED STATES 
EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY, WASH- 
INGTON, D. C. 

The Chairman. As you know, Mr. Corson, this committee, since 
its creation in April 1940, has been vitally interested in the func- 
tioning of and the improvement of the employment services. We 
have stated over and over again in our reports to Congress that the 
Employment Service was one of the most important agencies in the 
Nation for guiding migration. In our first interim report to Congress 
on October 21, 1941, we recommended the nationalization of the 
Employment Service as a step which was needed to eliminate the 
conflict of policies on referral and clearance by the separate State 
employment services.^ I am happy, therefore, to welcome you here 
this morning as the director of the new National Employment Service. 

Dr. Lamb will ask you some questions. 

Dr. Lamb. In the first place, Mr. Corson, I would like to tell you 
that your five prepared statements will be put into the record and 
that they are very much appreciated. I would like to read the titles 
of them to indicate the scope of the material submitted. First, 
The New Structure of the Employment Service. 

Second, Migration and National Defense, May to November 15, 
1941; 

Third; Employment of Women in Defense Industries; 

Fourth; Labor Displacement Resulting from Material Shortages; 

Fifth; In-plant Training as Observed by Public Employment 
Offices. 

All of those topics are in one way or another of interest to this 
committee. 

(The statements referred to above are as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY JOHN J. CORSON, DIRECTOR, UNITED STATES 
EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY, WASH- 
INGTON, D. C. 

I. The New Structure of the Employment Service 

INTRODUCTION 

The actual declaration of war by the Axis Powers upon the United States of 
America created unprecedented problems in national defense. The problems, 
both military and civil, which will obtain during: the war period require the pro- 
duction of war and civilian materials on an unparalleled scale. 

Successful achievement of this production will require tremendously increased 
numbers of workers, and the labor supply program must be subjected to continuing 
review to determine the effectiveness and economy with which all labor resources 
are being used. This program involves widespread recruitment and training of 
workers, the orderly and effective transfer of labor among industries, and the 
controlled movement of workers not only between States but between the major 
industrial areas of the country as needed to insure maximum production. It is 
imperative therefore that there be a single centrally directed organization to 

' See first interim report, House Report No. 1286, p. 42. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10287 

carry on the program. Such an organization now exists in the United States 
Employment Service. Following the President's action in nationalizing the 
existing State employment services, the United States EmploA-ment Service now 
carries complete responsibility and authority for the operation of all public 
employment services in the United States. 

ORGANIZATION 

' The maintenance of a Federal system of public employment offices requires the 
establishment of an organizational structure through which the Director of the 
United States Elmployment Service will exercise direct control over all employ- 
ment service operations in the several States. The new structure is designed 
specifically to expedite the administrative process, eliminate organizational and 
functional problems created by rigid State laws and State lines, and provide 
simultaneous issuance to all field personnel of all matters of uniform policy and 
procedure. 

The departmental organization in Washington has centralized the authority 
and responsibility for administrative direction and management of the United 
States Employment Service program in the Director of the United States Employ- 
ment Service. Field operations of the program have been assigned to an Associate 
Director. 

The 12 regional offices through which line supervision of the State operations 
is maintained serve geographical areas which closely approximate natural labor 
market areas of the United States. Decentralization of functions and authority 
commensurate with the responsibilities and with principles of good management 
has been made to eliminate lags in making decisions and issuing instructions. 
Provision has been made for technical and administrative assistance from the 
departmental offices on administrative and operating problems in the field. 
Plans call for periodic audit of performance. 

Appropriate authority and responsibility for State administration of the 
United States Employment Service program and for coordination of work with 
other Federal and State agencies relating to the labor supply program are given 
to the directors of the Ignited States Employment Service for the several States. 

The reorganization of facilities for serving labor market areas bisected by 
State lines is being accomplished in areas such as Kansas City, Kans., and Kansas 
City, Mo. Study is being made of all areas with similar problems in order to 
place responsibility for servicing employers upon one administrative unit. Such 
unified responsibility will insure application of the "ever widening circle plan" for 
recruiting labor without restriction by State lines or other artificial barriers or 
impediments. This plan provides for giving jobs first to qualified workers living 
near the employment site. When labor in the nearby area is exhausted, the hiring 
radius is enlarged by successive steps. 

CLEARANCE OF LABOR 

Principles and practices of clearance recruitment have been reviewed and 
appropriate regulations established to prevent migration into areas already 
supplied with unused qualified labor. Complete utilization of local supplies of 
labor is being attempted, including the use of workers arbitrarilj' rejected by 
employers because of physical defects, racial or hke discriminations, age and sex. 
Fuller utihzation of available skills through upgrading and job dilution methods 
is being required before clearance recruitment is initiated. Transfer and retrain- 
ing of workers with critical occupational skills employed in nondefense and defense 
industries and who are working below or out of their highest occupational class, 
is being urged. The occupational files of the Work Projects Administration and 
the local relief rolls are being searched for suitable candidates for immediate 
placement or for training before an order is certified for clearance recruitment. 

The pooled interview method of mass recruitment for specific employers is 
being extended by the Employment Service. By this method interviews of 
groups of selected applicants are arranged for employer representatives at con- 
venient points. An itinerary is frequently arranged for these representatives to 
interview workers at a number of predetermined points where a sufficient number 
of suitable candidates warrants a visit by a representative. The pooled interview 
method has the following advantages: 

1. Orders from employers are more specific as to number and acceptable quali- 
fications since the expense of interview is assumed by the employer. 

2. Fruitless travel of workers is eliminated by insuring a job before leaving their 
home community. 



10288 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

3 Employer has opportunity to interview, and frequently accepts, applicants 
with marginal qualifications not normally referred in the clearance process 

4. Worker has an opportunity to discuss workmg conditions, etc., with the 
employer without incurring travel costs or resorting to correspondence. 

BASIC PROCEDURES 

Within the network of 1,500 full-time local employment offices and 3,000 
itinerant service points the employment service will operate with uniform instruc- 
tions and procedures. Basic procedures are being prepared with the assistance 
of selected technical personnel from the several States and will be adopted as a 
standard manual of method and procedure for all States. A continuing process 
of bringing in selected technicians with recent local office operating experience is 
in effect to insure the development.of practical, workable, and effective procedures. 

EXTENSION OF FARM PLACEMENT SERVICE 

The Department of Agriculture has established goals for 1942 which will reqyiire 
the greatest production in the history of the United States. Since the United 
States Employment Service is charged with the specific responsibihty of serving 
agricultural workers and growers a further development of this phase of employ- 
ment service work has been outHned for the Nation as a whole. Responsibihty 
has been centered in the departmental organization in Washington for planning 
and coordinating the work in the several States and regions. Close coordination 
of the work of the Department of Agriculture and the Employment Service is 
effected through the departmental staff. Authority and responsibility for super- 
vising local operations are centered with the regional representative in the 12 
regional offices. One member of the regional office staff has full-time responsi- 
bility for the supervision and coordination of operations within and between the 
several States of the region. Provision is made for an administrative staff membei 
on a year-round or seasonal assignment in each State to supervise and coordinate 
the farm placement work in each State. Particular emphasis is being placed on 
the assignment in each local office of placement personnel particularly familiar 
with farm employer requirements. 

The farm placement problem is generally separated into (1) seasonal mass 
movement of large numbers of workers for specific crop handling, (2) normal farm 
employment, such as dairy hands, ranch hands, and similar nonmigratory workers. 
Primary responsibility for planning incident to serving growers and workers is 
lodged with the regional and State farm placement supervisors. Coordinating 
the national aspects of the problem and technical and advisory assistance is pro- 
vided from the departmental staff. 

The total problem of the farm labor market is recognized as inseparable from 
the industrial labor market. Provision for handling of the farm placement work 
is included as a part of the total operations with appropriate specialization and 
emphasis needed to effectively handle the problems. 

II. Migration and National Defense, May to November 15, 1941 

The defense program, with its tremendous impetus to industrial activity, has 
effected a significant redistribution of the population in this country since the 
summer of 1940. Hundreds of thousands of job seekers were attracted to the 
shipbuilding, aircraft, and heavy industry centers of the Atlantic coast and the 
Northeast, to the expanding aircraft and shipbuilding cities on the west coast, 
to Gulf Coast shipbuilding centers, and to aircraft production centers in the 
Middle West. Army camps, powder plants, and similar projects, though con- 
centrated in the South and Southwest, were scattered throughout every area of 
the country, and while under construction attracted many additional migrants. 

Unemployed workers looking for jobs, workers already employed but seeking 
higher wages, left depressed areas and small communities for centers of expanding 
opportunity. Out-migration developed from the border States of the South into 
the industrial areas of the Northeast; from the depressed coal-mining communities 
of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia to nearby centers of heavy goods pro- 
duction; and from the agrarian range and grain States to west coast and middle 
western industries. Migration was a most important source of labor in areas 
where there were no large reserves of unemployed local labor to staff the new 
defense plants, while in some of the older industrial cities there was less need for 
outside labor. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE' MIGRATION 10289 

The majority of migrants to areas of defense activity came from nearby sur- 
rounding territory. A smaller but significant number of more highly skilled 
workers traveled greater distances, widely separated cities exchanged skilled 
production workers, while skilled construction workers migrated from one project 
to another over a wide area. 

AREAS WITH DECLINING OR STEADY IN-MIGRATION 

Because of the accelerating tempo of the armament program it is of particular 
interest to examine the migration trends that have become evident during the 
second half of 1941. Reports received by the Bureau of Employment Security 
from the State employment services ' since April 1941 indicate that the geographic 
pattern of industrial migration has not substantially changed since the initial 
phase of the defense program. Nevertheless, in many areas a change in trends 
became apparent during the late summer and early fall* months. There was a 
decline in the rate of migration to the following important industrial centers 
which earlier had noted heavy in-migration: Migration into Connecticut indus- 
tries which attracted large numbers of workers from all of the New England and 
North Atlantic States was maintained at a high level during the early summer 
months but declined after July. Several New England States which earlier noted 
extensive out-migration reported that migration of workers from nondefense areas 
was declining during October and early November. 

Movements of workers within Pennsylvania from areas of over-supply to de- 
fense areas decreased during the later months of 1941. Throughout the summer 
and fall workers left the depressed coal areas for Bethlehem, Pittsburgh, and Phila- 
delphia, for industries in adjacent States. During the year ending October 1941 
about 5,000 workers left Scranton for employment in defense industries located 
in Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Maryland. By November, how- 
ever, several employment offices in the anthracite area reported that persons who 
had formerly migrated to other communities, were returning, partly because of 
high cost of living in defense areas. 

Migration into southern Michigan may have started to decline in the fall 
months: a decrease in out-migration from northern Michigan was observed in 
November, and was attributed to the reduced rate of employment expansion in 
southern Michigan. 

The heavy influx of workers into East St. Louis, 111., failed to continue after 
August. During the spring and early summer, Wichita, Kans., experienced an 
unusually high rate of in-migration. A Work Projects Administration survey 
made in September 1941 revealed that 23,000 persons in the city on that date 
came there since October 1940, a number equal to 20 percent of Wichita's 1940 
population. The State employment service reported, however, that migration 
into the city declined during the late summer and fall months, since most of the 
labor requirements in the aircraft factories had already been met. It is antici- 
pated that the movement will accelerate early in 1942 when the Boeing Aircraft 
Co. will start to hire production workers. 

Migration declined in the San Francisco Bay area during September and Octo- 
ber. Fewer out-of-State workers entered California by automobile in search of 
manual employment during October than in the summer months, but the number 
was still over 10,000. The decrease may have been due solely to curtailed agri- 
cultural activity. The heavy flow of workers into the Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton 
area of Washington was reduced during the fall months, with a noticeable decrease 
in the number of migrants from the Middle West. 

In some of the most important industrial areas, particularly those in the North- 
east, there was little evidence of anv major change in the rate of migration. 

Throughout the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes industrial area, labor supply con- 
tinued to shift from nondefense to defense areas. Migrants came chiefly from 
the depressed coal and limestone belts throughout the Northeast but movement 
of unskilled workers from the Southern States into the cities of this area was 
accelerating. Migration into Indiana was heaviest in the Calumet-South Bend 
area. Indianapolis, in the central part of the State, also attracted many workers. 
There was out-migration from the southern part of the State, several thousand 
workers having left this section during the first 10>< months of 1941. The popu- 
lation of the northern industrial area of Ohio, including the cities of Cleveland, 
Ravenna, Sandusky, Canton, and Youngstown, increased substantially through- 

1 Unless otherwise specified, the information summarized in this report covers the 5H-month period 
from May to November 15, 1941 , and is obtained from monthly labor market reports received by the Bureau 
of Employment Security from its State offices. 



10290 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

out the entire defense period; large numbers of in-migrants came from southeastern 
Ohio. There was also considerable migration to Cincinnati and Dayton, made 
up chiefly of workers from adjacent Southern States. 

Migration into Baltimore, which attracted numbers of workers from the Middle 
and North Atlantic States since the beginning of defense work, continued at a 
high level throughout the summer and fall months. For the 2-week period Oc- 
tober 15 to November 1, the Baltimore employment office registered for work 
1,251 persons who had been in the city for less than 3 months. Most of these 
came from surrounding Maryland counties, but there were appreciable numbers 
from adjoining States. 

AREAS WITH mCREASING RATE OF INFLUX 

In a number of areas in-migration increased during the summer and fall of 1941. 
The flow of workers iflto the industrial cities of up-State New York accelerated 
during this period. Large numbers of job seekers from the anthracite areas of 
Pennsylvania and from other parts of New York State entered Buffalo, Niagara 
Falls, Schenectady, Rome, Massena, and Watertown. Approximately 5,000 work- 
ers came to the Niagara Falls area during the year ending October 1941, while 
Buffalo anticipated a total influx of 22,000 workers by the end of December. 

The population of Washington, D. C, increased at an accelerating rate from 
664,000 on April 1, 1940. to an estimated 770,000 by the end of 1941, while adjoin- 
ing suburbs were expanding in a similar manner. A large proportion of this gain 
resulted from increased Government employment. 

Migration into southern Michigan rose during the summer of 1941 but showed 
some signs of diminishing during the late fall. Records kept by the Detroit Cen- 
tral Placement Office showed that during October 3,100 new applications were 
received from individuals whose last employment was outside of Detroit. This 
number was less than the average for the 4 preceding months (3,400 to 3,600) 
but was significantly above comparable figures for the spring of 1940. The total 
number of nonlocal workers registering for work in Detroit during the 15 months 
from August 1940 to October 1941 was 32,000. Since some nonlocal workers 
undoubtedly entered the city without registering at employment offices, this 
figure understates the amount of migration into Detroit. Migration into Ann 
Arbor was also heavy, and the population of the Battle Creek area increased by 
an estimated 11,000 during 1941. 

INDUSTRIAL AREAS WITH LITTLE IN-MIGRATION 

Three of the most important metropolitan centers in the Northeast, Boston, 
New York, and Philadelphia, have been affected only to a slight extent by popu- 
lation shifts since the beginning of the defense program. Skilled metal trades 
and construction workers continued to leave New York, which offers relatively 
little defense employment, for work along the east coast and in other areas. 

Because of ample local labor reserves there was relatively little migration into 
Philadelphia in spite of the large volume of defense contracts awarded in that 
city. A recent Work Projects Administration survey of migration into Phila- 
delphia indicated that migrants entering the city since October 1940 made up a 
group equal to only 1 percent of Philadelphia's 1940 population, and that, relative 
to total population, the city had received only one-third as much migration as 
Baltimore. 

Migration into New Jersey industrial cities was relatively slight, in spite of a 
temporary influx of unemployed workers from the Pennsylvania coal fields during 
the summer. 

SHIFTING TRENDS IN AREAS OF OUT-MIGRATION 

In certain areas out-migration which had occurred during the early months of 
1941 slackened later in the year. The Mountain and Plains States generally 
continued to report out-migration of both skilled and unskilled workers to the 
west coast. Nevertheless, in Nebraska this movement was less during September 
and October than during previous months, because of the impending opening of 
the new Martin Bomber plant in the Omaha-Lincoln area. Nevada also noted 
curtailment of out-migration due to increased activity within the State. Although 
many workers had left Tulsa, Okla., during the first year of the defense program, 
proposed aircraft and munitions plant expansion in the city and the high cost of 
living in defense areas reversed the trend, so that by the fall of 1941 there was 
considerable migration to the area. 



NATTOlN'iAL DEFENSE' MIGUATION 10291 

In October and November fewer workers than formerly were leaving Texas for 
California and other points outside of the State. Many who had migrated earlier 
in the year were returning because of declining job opportunities and the high 
cost of living in defense centers. 

The flow of workers from Wisconsin and Minnesota to other areas continued, 
but during the fall months migration into southern and eastern Wisconsin indus- 
trial areas from the central and northern parts of the State was increasing. Out- 
migration to the west coast from Minnesota declined during October and Novem- 
ber. 

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGES IN TBENDS 

The shifting pattern of migration during recent months reflects the changing 
economic impact of the defense program. State employment services have 
attributed the decline in migration to certain areas primarily to a decreasing 
expansion of defense industry, and in some instances to increased employment 
opportunities in communities from which migrants came. Lack of adequate 
housing, transportation, and other community facilities have been secondary 
factors discouraging further migration into some of these cities. The spreading 
of defense work, either through placement of direct contacts or through indirect 
stimulation of industry, has decreased outmigration from some of the smaller 
cities and formerly undeveloped areas, and occasionally has reversed the trend. 
Workers who had left their homes frequently returned as local jobs were created. 
Differentials in cost of living between already overcrowded areas and the home 
communities counteracted to some extent the lure of higher wages in the larger 
cities. 

War between the United States and the Axis Powers which has already speeded 
up the tempo of armament production may accelerate the rate of migration into 
big industrial centers. Speed will be a primary consideration, and it may be 
quicker to make use of already existing power and transportation facilities than 
to develop the less active areas. In any case, further important changes in 
volume and direction of migration will undoubtedly result. 

MIGRATION OF CONSTRUCTION WORKERS 

The movement of construction workers, which was an outstanding part of early 
defense migration, was of less relative importance during the later months of 1941. 
With the completion of some of the major construction projects in rural or non- 
industrial areas, many of the boom towns reverted to their normal size. Large 
numbers of the workers, particularly those with skills, migrated to areas where 
projects were beginning or were still in progress. Many of the unskilled workers 
drawn from surrounding agricultural localities returned to their farms or once 
again sought employment as farm laborers. While important new army camps 
and powder plants were being built throughout the nonindustrial South and 
Middle West, the bulk of new construction work appeared to be located in the 
industrial and shipbuilding centers where construction activity accounted for 
only a part of the total defense employment. Production workers hired for 
operation of completed munitions plants frequently entered a city at the same 
time that workers who had been engaged in plant construction were leaving. 

Marked shifts in population were observed throughout the Southern States, 
where most defense employment has occurrred in connection with construction 
projects. Thus, in Alabama, migration into Childersburg, heavy during the spring 
months, nearly ceased by October, while at the same time workers were drifting 
into Huntsvilie, the location of a new chemical ordnance plant, from the entire 
Tennessee Valley. Peak employment on defense construction projects at Moultrie 
and Valdosta, Ga., was passed with workers from nearby counties returning to 
their homes, but migration into Macon and Augusta was developing. Migration 
of construction labor to Louisville, Ky., very great during the spring months, 
declined during the summer, and by August was termed "negligible" as thousands 
of workers were laid off and moved out of the city. In October and November, 
however, when the Hoosier Ordnance Plant in Louisville began to hire power- 
machine operators, large numbers of women applying for such employment entered 
the city from other parts of the State. 

During the fall months workers were observed leaving such areas as Charles- 
town, Ind., Milan, Tenn., Morgantown, W. Va., and Radford, Va., all of which 
had formerly attracted thousands of construction workers. 

Construction workers left Ravenna, Ohio, during September and October, but 
at the same time there was a continued influx of applicants for production work in 
the munitions loading plant. The Iowa Ordnance Plant at Burlington, which 



10292 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

employed during its construction phase a total of seven to eight thousand out-of- 
county workers, began extensive lay-offs during October, with most of the dis- 
missed workers leaving the area immediately. 

Construction at Fort Leonard Wood was nearly completed by the end of the 
summer, with resulting out-migration, but large numbers of workers came to the 
southwest counties of Missouri for work in building new Army cantonments. 

During the early summer months, 4,500 workers were recruited from other 
localities for construction work at Fort Wingate, N. Mex. By September these 
workers were leaving the area; hundreds were being sent out of the State each 
month to camp construction work in Texas, Arizona, California, and Colorado. 
Reports from California offices through the late summer and early fall similarly 
described large scale shifts of construction workers among the several sections of 
the State. t • j o 

The larger Army being organized because of the entry of the United States mto 
the war will result in the rapid construction of a number of new Army camps, 
while there will also be an increase in the number of Army and Navy munitions 
and ordnance plants in rural areas. There may be consequently a repetition on a 
greater scale than before, of the early "boom town" phase of the^defense program, 

CHARACTERISTICS OF MIGRANTS 

Migration was characteristically from smaller to larger communities and from 
rural to urban areas. Not only were the better qualified skilled and semiskilled 
workmen in the small towns leaving for defense centers, but a considerable num- 
ber of unskilled agricultural laborers were hired on local construction projects or 
left for nearby cities to seek industrial work. State employment service reports 
emphasized heavy migration of rural workers to the Seattle-Tacoma-Bremerton 
area in Washington, to Southern California industries, and to Portland, Oreg., 
where the influx of such labor was said to have been further stimulated by curtail- 
ment of agricultural activities during October. Similar rural to urban trends were 
observed in many other sections of the country. A detailed study conducted by 
the Florida employment service concerning characteristics of workers coming to 
the Camp Blanding construction project showed that 26.7 percent of the total 
applicants registering for work had formerly been agricultural workers; more than 
50 percent of these came from within a 50-mile radius of the camp. 

The Work Projects Administration surveys on migration revealed that in 16 of 
the 24 cities surveyed, more than 25 percent of the migrants were rural in origin 
(from places of less than 2,500 population), while the proportion in some areas was 
considerably higher: 42 percent in Wichita, 41 percent in Detroit, 38 percent in 
St. Louis, 45 percent in Macon, Ga. 

Occupational characteristics of migrant workers varied considerably in the 
different localities. According to State employment service reports, the majority 
of workers coming into Connecticut, New Jersey, Bath, Maine, and Niagara Falls, 
N. Y., during the fall of 1941 were unskilled. Of 1,241 persons registering with 
the Baltimore, Md., employment office during the period October 15 to November 
1, who had been in the city less than 3 months, 180 were skilled, 252 semiskilled, 
432 unskilled, 247 juniors, and 160 clerical and professional workers. Approxi- 
mately 35 percent of the out-of-town applicants at the local employment office in 
East Chicago, Ind., were unskilled workers from nearby locilities. Nearly one 
fifth of the out-of-town applicants in the Akron area were skilled, and a similar 
proportion semiskilled. The great majority of workers migrating into the Calu- 
met-South Bend area of Indiana and into Indianapolis were unskilled, but a 
considerable proportion of newcomers into Cleveland were qualified in skilled and 
semiskilled occupations. 

A check of employment service registrants made by the East St. Louis, 111., 
office from July 25 to August 23, revealed that 23 percent of workers from out of 
town were skilled, 50 percent unskilled laborers. The majority of in-migrants to 
Chicago were unskilled. Of the total number of nonlocal workers who registered 
in Detroit employment offices during the 15 months from August 1940 to October 
1941, by far the largest proportion, about 33 percent, were classified as semi- 
skilled manufacturing workers. Almost one-fifth were skilled and about 15 per- 
cent classified as clerical and sales workers. 

Most of the workers coming into Birmingham and Mobile, Ala.. Charleston, 
S. C, and Newport, Ky., were unskilled; 26.7 percent of the migrants into the 
Camp Blanding area of Florida were unskilled agricultural workers. 24.9 percent 
were imskilled production workers, while 14.2 percent were semiskilled and 28.6 
percent skilled. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10293 

Unskilled workers were the largest group entering Denver, Colo., and Wichita, 
Kans., but in the San Francisco Bay area a spot-check of out-of-town applicants 
coming into a local employment office showed that 30 percent were skilled, 50 
percent semiskilled, and only 20 percent unskilled. 

Many States have indicated that during the past few months there has been a 
growing movement of semiskilled trainees in aircraft and other industries from 
areas of training to areas where jobs are available. 

While Work Projects Administration surveys of migration generally noted a 
lower proportion of unskilled workers among the migrants than was indicated 
by employment service reports, it is possible that a larger proportion of the 
unskilled than of other groups registered with the employment offices. In 18 
out of the 22 cities in which the Work Projects Administration obtained informa- 
tion on previous occupation of migrants, workers in white-collar classifications 
(professional, scmiprofessional, administrative, and clerical) formed over one-fifth 
of the migrants for whom occupational data were available. The proportion 
was more than one-third in South Bend, Ind., and Chicago, 111., while 52 percent 
of the workers coming into Des Moines, Iowa, and 55 percent of those entering 
Washington, D. C, belonged to the white-collar group. The proportion of 
unskilled workers among the migrants was somewhat smaller; unskilled workers 
were one-fifth or more of the total migrants in 12 out of the 22 cities. Skilled and 
semiskilled craftsmen and machine operators formed the largest group of in- 
migrants in most of the cities surveyed by the Work Projects Administration. 

That the unemployment rate among migrants has varied considerably among 
different localities is indicated both by information from the State employment 
services and by the Work Projects Administration migration studies. According 
to the employment services, unskilled workers had the highest unemployment 
rate, but apparently did not remain long in any particular area if unsuccessful ia 
locating work. Skil'ed workers, both in construction and industrial production, 
were often assured of definite jobs before arrival in the new locality, and even 
without such a.ssurance had relatively little difficulty in obtaining work. Agri- 
cultural laborers were en^fjoyed in large numbers on construction work in rural 
areas, but in the cities their employment depended not only on the amount of 
unskilled work available but also upon the degree of competition with unemploj'ed 
workers already resident in the community. Most of the unskilled workers 
migrating to defense centers in Maine, Connecticut, and New Jersey, were able 
to obtain work, but in other cities, such as Baltimore, East Chicago, Calumet, 
South Bend, Indianapolis, and Cincinnati, they were less successful. The percent 
of migrants unemployed at time of survey bv Work Projects Administration ranged 
from 3 percent in Fort Wayne, Ind., to 20 percent in Chicago. In 9 of the 24 
cities covered, the unemployment rate was 10 percent or more; the rate was 
especially high in Wichita, Kans., St. Louis, Mo., Fort Smith, Ark., and Los 
Angeles County, Calif. 

As in the early months of the defense program, the majority of workers mi- 
grating were in the younger age groups, and were younger than the workers already 
resident in the conmunity to which they cpme. Their youth gave the n igrants 
a competitive advantage over the resident workers, although in a number of areas 
unemployment was high among the youngest group of migrants with no previous 
work history. Many of the western grain and range States observed that most 
of the workers leaving for the west coast and other industrial centers were young 
men with few family ties. Throughout all States, workers trained in defense 
courses were predominantly of this type. A considerable proportion of workers 
left their families in the home community, sending for them later. 

The great majority of the migrant job seekers were men. Negroes were 
strikingly imderrepresented among the n'igrants. In the cities surveyed by 
Work Projects Administration, the ratio of Negro in-migrants to total 1940 Negro 
population in the cities was much less than the corresponding ratio for the white 
population. There are a few indications, however, in reports from employment 
offices, that the number of unskilled southern Negroes coming into the industrial 
northeast was beginning to increase during the fall months. 

FUTURE IN-MIGRATION 

Any specific estimates as to future volume of in-migration are necessarily uncer- 
tain at best. Information obtained from some of the special labor market surveys 
made by the State employment services and the Bureau of Employment Security 
in areas of defense activity is summarized in appendix I. This appendix indicates 
some of the areas into which migration may be heavy during the early months of 
1942, and also indicates localities where the peak of activity may have been passed. 



10294 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

LABOR DISPLACEMENT AND MIGRATION 

Displacement of labor because of curtailed civilian production will stimulate 
additional migration. Special community surveys made by the State employ- 
ment services in a number of areas where labor displacement has occurred or is 
anticipated show that displacements of this kind had not been great in volume 
through November 1941, but will soon become more severe and will affect an 
increasing number of communities. Entry of the United States into the war, 
which occurred after most of these surveys were made, will undoubtedly intensify 
the immediate problem, but at the same time will hasten the reabsorption of 
workers. 

Labor displacement has been most heavily concentrated in the Great Lakes 
and Ohio Valley industrial area, but has also affected the Atlantic Coast States. 
Localities suffering most heavily from unemployment arising out of these dis- 
placements are those with little or no expanding defense industry to take up the 
slack and which are beyond commuting distance of other towns with expanding 
defense production. The following areas present especially serious problems: 

Lay-offs have been most spectacular in the Detroit area; it is estimated that 
from 120,000 to 145,000 workers will be displaced when 100-percent curtailment 
of automobile production becomes effective. Though aircraft, tank, and ordnance 
production will eventually take up much of the slack, it may be near September 
1942 before employment in defense industries expands sufficiently to absorb all 
displaced workers. 

While Detroit has had larger quantitative displacements, Flint will probably 
experience a larger relative unemployment than any other major industrial area 
in Michigan. Thirty-seven thousand to forty-two thousand workers in the Gen- 
eral Motors plants will be out of work. Although the tank program may be 
centered in Flint, demand for workers may never exceed fifteen thousand, and will 
not develop for a considerable time. The same kind of situation to a lesser degree 
will prevail in Pontiac, Bay City, Jackson, and Lansing. 

The most serious area of displacement in Wisconsin is centered in Racine and 
Kenosha, where the chief industries were the manufacture of refrigerators, hosiery, 
and bedsprings. More than half of the working population of La Crosse will be 
unemployed because of curtailment in rubber production and other industries. 
Manitowoc, Eau Claire, Kewaunee, and West Bend have suffered from shortages 
of aluminum for nondefense production, while in Eau Claire the situation will be 
further intensified by the rubber shortage. A serious displacement is also expected 
in Sheboygan. 

Almost one-third of the 400 industrial wage earners in Albert Lea, Minn., have 
already been displaced, and further lay-offs are anticipated because of brass and 
steel shortages. Many workers have been laid off in Newton, Kellogg, and Albert 
City, Iowa. 

Curtailed production caused by material shortages has also resulted in serious 
unemployment in certain sections of Ohio — especially London, Mansfield, De- 
fiance, and Williams County. In addition, as civilian rubber production is cur- 
tailed, Akron and the area surrounding it will be confronted with mass unemploy- 
ment. 

A number of communities in Illinois, including Kankakee, Aurora, Decatur, 
Elgin, and Belleville, have been seriously affected by curtailment in sheet metal, 
machinery, and stove industries, while an automobile glass manufacturing concern 
in Ottawa laid off over a thousand workers. Except in Belleville, reabsorption of 
unemployed workers will be negligible without defense contracts. The situation 
in Indiana communities such as Evansville, Kokomo, New Castle, and Plymouth, 
which have been dependent on automobile and refrigerator industries, is very 
similar. 

Three Pennsylvania towns — Indiana, Meadville, and New Kensington — have 
been affected by rubber, copper, and aluminum shortages needed for the manu- 
facture of textiles, zippers, and aluminum household utensils. 

Metal shortages have caused displacements in the jewelry industry of Attleboro, 
Mass.; hundreds of employees are being released with little chance for further 
employment within the commuting area. As many as 7,500 workers may be dis- 
placed in Jamestown, N. Y., a furniture manufacturing center, with no nearby 
industries into which they can be absorbed. There is serious unemployment 
affecting thousands of workers in Trenton, N. J., as General Motors shuts down 
its plants. 

Although the community surveys do not contain information on the extent of 
out-migration from affected areas, the monthly State labor market reports issued 



NATTONiAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10295 

during October and November indicate that priorities unemployment is beginning 
to influence migration trends. Skilled workers in nondefense plants throughout 
the country, anticipating lay-offs, have been obtaining more permanent jobs in 
defense industry. Migration to New Jersey, to Elmira and Jamestown, N. Y., 
and to certain cities of Pennsylvania declined because increasing lay-offs of local 
workers in nondefense industries reduced employment opportunities for nonlocal 
workers. Displaced workers migrated to other areas from Evansville, Ind., and 
from Wyoming. A recent increase in the proportion of skilled and semiskilled 
workers among the migrants into Indianapolis and into southern California was 
attributed to priority lay-offs in other localities. A Texas employment office 
noted that a number of workers with factory and machine-shop experience who 
were formerly employed in middlewestern and eastern industries were passing 
through the State on their way to the west coast in search of employment. The 
Los Angeles employment office reported an increase in the already heavy migra- 
tion from North Central and Southwestern States because of labor displacements. 

The evidence above suggests that displacement will have a net effect of increas- 
ing migration, particularly among skilled and semiskilled workers. At the same 
time there may be important areas where in-migration for defense employment 
will be reduced because of the availability of local labor formerly engaged in non- 
defense work. 

The duration of unemployment, its severity in particular areas, and the result- 
ing volume of migration, depend upon factors that can be at least partially fore- 
seen and controlled. If defense contracts are awarded promptly to employers in 
distress areas it may be possible to convert equipment to war r.ses with elatively 
little delay; in these circumstances workers will be likely to remain in the >s 'nity. 
However, most contracts up to the present time have been allocated in the -ix ^er 
industrial centers and to the bigger companies, who are already engaged in pro- 
duction or in plant conversion. The importance of meeting production schedules 
in the war emergency may lead to further placement of orders with these larger 
corporations, and may conflict with a policy of minimizing labor dislocation by 
wide contract distribution. As a result there may be considerable out-migration 
of workers from areas without contracts, and further migration of labor into al- 
ready expanded cities will be necessary. 

Serious out-migration from areas such as southern Michigan may occur in spite 
of large armament production contracts if workers anticipate a long period of- un- 
employment before conversion of plant is completed. In such situations, much 
depends on the speed with which plans for war production are drawn up and initi- 
ated. 

There is also a need for retraining the many workers whose previous skills are 
adaptable to, but not identical with, war production requirements. Unnecessary 
delay in retraining would not only aggravate unemployment and stimulate un- 
necessary migration, but would also create labor shortages when plants begin to 
operate. 

CONCLUSION 

Migration stimulated by the defense program was heavy through November, 
the close of the period covered in this report. The movement into areas which 
were approaching their peak of defense employment was declining, but new areas 
which had been slower to feel the first effects of industrial expansion were exper- 
iencing a decreasing rate of out-migration or an acceleration in the rate of influx. 
Migration was rural to urban in character, and drained off labor supplies from the 
small communities. Migration of construction workers was of less relative im- 
portance than in the initial phases of the defense program, but displacement of 
workers from civilian production was beginning to have a perceptible effect on 
migration trends. The entry of the United States into the war, with prospective 
increase in army and navy construction work and with drastic effects on industrial 
production, may greatly increase the volume of migration of all types during the 
next year. 

Migration has served an important function in bringing workers to essential 
production tasks, but much of it has also been wasteful, resulting in unemploy- 
ment among migrants and preventing efficient absorption of available local labor. 
While further dislocation because of the war effort will be unavoidable, careful 
planning by Government agencies responsible for the war production program can 
help in keeping needless migration at a minimum. 



60396 — 42 — pt. 27- 



10296 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 
Appendix I. — Labor market surveys ' 



City or metropolitan area 



Alabama: 

Childersburg 

Gadsden 

Mobile 

Arkansas: Camden 

California: 

San Dieso - -- - 

San Francisco 

San Jose-Sunnyvale 

Colorado: Denver 

Connecticut: 

Bridgeport 

Hartford 

Meriden 

New Britain, Bristol 

New Haven 

Florida: Jacksonville 

Georcia: 

Macon 

Savannah 

Dlinois; 

Herrin. Carbondale 

Joliet, Wilminston 

Rockford, Beloit (Wis.) 

Savanna 

Indiana: 

Indianapolis 

Madison -- 

South Bend - 

Iowa: 

Burlington -_ 

Des Moines. 

Kansas: Wichita 

Kentucky: Louisville 

Maine: Portland 

Maryland: Baltimore.- 

Massachusetts: Boston ... 

Michigan: 

Niles 

Washtenaw County 

Mississippi : Pascagoula 

Nebraska: Omaha. 

New York: 

Dunkirk 

Farmingdale, Bethpage 

Staten Island 

Utica, Rome 

North Carolina: Wilmington 

Ohio: 

Canton, Alliance, and Massillon. 

Cleveland 

Columbus 

Hamilton, Middletown 

Lima _ 

Lorain and Elyria 

Sandusky 

Sidney, Piqua, Troy 

Springfield 

Oklahoma: 

Choteau... 

Tulsa 

Oregon : Portland 

Pennsylvania: Erie 

Rhode Island: 

Newport 

Quonset Point 

Tennessee: 

Knoxville, Alcoa 

Memphis 

Milan, Humboldt 



Date survey 
issued 



July 14 
Nov. 7, 
Dec. 16, 
Oct. 11 

Dec. 26, 
Apr. 11 
July 21 
May 16, 

Nov. 24, 
Dec. 3 
Nov. 10, 
Nov. 25, 
July 19, 
July 21 



June 5 
July 2 

Oct. 13 
Sept. 9, 
June 4 
June 2, 

Aug. 1, 
May 3 
Feb. 19 

Sept. 4 
Oct. 29, 
Nov. 5 
June 19, 
June 24 
Nov. 1 
May 5 

June 26, 
May 29 
Dee. 22, 
July 23 

July 8 
Nov. 10, 
May 21 
Dec. 12, 
June 10, 



May 
May 
Apr. 
July 
Dec. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Oct. 
Aug. 



Oct. 11 
Nov. 28 
July 12 
Nov. 13, 

May 19 
May 9, 

Aug. 7, 
Oct. 29, 
Sept. 19, 



1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 
1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 

1941 
1941 
1941 



Estimated 2 in- 
migration 



2, 000-2. 700 

100 

12, 000 

100 

21. 000 

21. 400-23, 400 

250 

1, 000-1, 200 

4, 000-5, 500 

5,000 

200-250 

1, 000-1, 200 

400 

500 

500-600 
3,500 

1,000 

4, 000-4, GOO 

425-525 

100-125 

6,000 
1.200 

2, 500-3, 000 

2,600 
1,000 

15, 000 
3,500 
4,000 

15. 400 
7, 000-8, 000 

350 

23, 000 

1,500 

5,000 

600-700 

500-1, 000 

2, 000-3. 000 

2,500 

3,000 

3, 500 
6,000 

3, 200 4, 600 

500-700 

200 

700 

800-1, 000 

200 

4,200 

500 
2,000 
2,000 

150 

1, 700-1, 800 
1,000 

320 

700 

2,350 



Date of estimated in-migration 



May 1941 to May 1942. 
September 1941 to August 1942. 
November 1941 to October 1942. 
October 1941 to September 1942. 

By November 1942. 
April 1941 to March 1942. 
July 1941 to June 1942. 
By February 1942. 

By July 1942. 

By December 1942. 

November 1941 to April 1942. 

By Dec. 31, 1942. 

July 1941 to June 1942. 

June 1941 to June 1942. 

June 1941 to May 1942. 
June 1941 to June 1942. 

Bv March 1942. 
August 1941 to August 1942. 
May 1941 to May 1942. 
By May 1942. 

August 1941 to July 1942. 

By June 1942. 

August 1941 to March 1942. 

August 1941 to June 1942. 

January to June 1942 

By March 1943. 

By April 1942. 

By February 1942. 

September 1941 to Mar. 31, 1942. 

By December 1942. 

July 1941 to June 1942. 

By May 1942. 

December 1941 to September 1942. 

July 1941 to July 1942. 

By March 1942. 

September 1941 to February 1942. 

By Dec. 31, 1942. 

Do. 
By July 1942. 

By Feb. 1, 1942. 

May 1941 to April 1942. 

1941-1942. 

By June 1, 1942. 

By Feb. 28, 1942. 

October 1941 to March 1942. 

By Apr. 30, 1942. 

September 1941 to February 1942. 

By May 1942. 

By October 1942. 

December 1941 to March 1942. 

By August 1942. 

September 1941 to February 1942. 

By Mar. 13, 1942. 
By 1943. 

April 1941 to July 1942. 
October 1941 to March 1942. 
July 16, 1941, to April 1942. 



' The labor market surveys have been undertaken jointly by the Bureau of Employment Security and 
the State employment services in selected local labor markets affected by defense activity for the purpose of 
forecasting the labor demand, the available local supply, and expected shortages. The "information in this 
table does not include all areas in which surveys have been made, but only those giving estimates of in- 
migration during 1942. 

2 This estimate applies only to the number of workers that will have to be imported from outside the 
commuting area if defense production schedules are to be met. It does not include secondary migration of 
service and other nondefense workers, nor does it estimate the mass of migrants who may be attracted to 
the area because of uncontrolled rumor and publicity. 



NATIOaSTAL DEFENSE' MIGRATION 10297 

Appendix I. — Labor market surveys — Continued 



City or metropolitan area 



Texas: 

Beaumont, Port Arthur, Orange 

Dallas, Fort Worth 

Houston, Baytown 

Utah: Ogden 

Virginia: 

Hampton Roads. 

Radford, Dublin 

Washington: Seattle, Tacoma, and 
Bremerton. 

West Virginia: 

Charlestown 

Morgan town 

Wisconsin: 

Racine, Kenosha 

Sturgeon Bay 



Date survey 
issued 



Oct. 18, 1941 
Feb. 28,1941 
July 16.1941 
Nov. 13,1941 

Nov. 26. 1941 
June 16,1941 
July 8, 1941 



May 6, 1941 
Oct. 15,1941 

July 15,1941 
Nov. 6,1941 



Estimated in- 
migration 



2,500 

17, 000 

250 

3, 500-4, 500 

20, 000-29, 000 

1,000 

37, 000-46, 000 



1,600 
115 



150-200 
200-300 



Date of estimated in-migration 



July 1941 to July 1942. 
By Dec. 31, 1942. 
June 1941 to June 1942. 
September 1941 to June 1943. 

Do. 
June 1941 to May 1942. 
September 1940 to December 1942. 



By August 1942. 
By July 1, 1942. 



June 1941 to June 1942. 
By March 1942. 



III. Employment of Women in Defense Industries 

During the past year an increasing number of occupations in which there were 
labor shortages have been reported to public employment offices. Not only have 
these shortages been noted in supplies of specific skilled workers, but in many 
areas a virtual exhaustion of the local labor supply has been reported. In these 
latter areas many employers have begun to learn that a large number of semi- 
skilled and unskilled jobs formerly considered suitable only for men, can be 
performed equally well by women. In total numbers, placements of women in 
many of these jobs have not yet been significant. However, there are indications 
that the increasing labor demands of the victory program will have to be met by 
the sharply increased employment of women. Adequate staffing of the manu- 
facturing establishments of arms producers will depend not only on the employ- 
ment of all women presently unemployed, but in addition upon recruiting hun- 
dreds of thousands of women not now in search of work. 



CURRENT placements 

While the total number of women placed by public employment offices has 
steadily increased, it has not kept pace with the increase in placements of men. 
In the third quarter of 1941, placements of women numbered 525,200 as compared 
with 385,800 in the corresponding quarter of 1940, an increase of 36 percent; 
placements of men, on the other hand, increased almost twice as much, from 
605,600 to 1,029,100, an increase of 70 percent. Thus, even though the actual 
number of women placed in all occupational groups except the skilled group 
increased, placements of women, as a fraction of all placements, declined. In the 
manufacturing industries the number of women placed increased by 33 percent, 
from 82,500 in the third quarter of 1940 to 109,500 in the third quarter of 1941. 
compared with an increase of male placements of 74 percent from 200,300 to 
348,000. 

The number of women placed in 20 key defense industries increased from 13,500 
in the first quarter to 16,900 in the third quarter of 1941. The largest increases 
were in the aircraft and parts industry (from 460 to 1,300) and in the chemical 
products industry (from 400 to 1,000). However, the actual number of women 
placed in these industries has been very small compared with the number of 
men. 

During the year, the most striking increases in women's employment were 
made in the professional and managerial occupations, where placements of women 
rose from 20 percent to 29 percent of all placements in this group. This gain is 
undoubtedly due to the continuing increase in job opportunities and the shortage 
of highly trained men developing in the Nation. 

The number of women enrolled in defense training and reemployment refresher 
courses has been negligible. From the beginning of the training program through 
September 1941 only 8,824 women were enrolled compared to 670,192 men. 
However, 6,000 of the enrollments of women took place from July through 
September 1941, indicating an increasing participation in the training program. 



10298 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

The limited number of women trained is accounted for by the failure, until 
recently, of employers to relax their restrictions on the employment of women. 
Appropriations for defense training specify that selection of trainees be based on 
"the existing and anticipated need for defense workers in occupations essential 
to the national defense." 

Recent labor market surveys of the Bureau of Employment Security report 
increasing instances of training for women. In Hagerstown, Md., 400 women 
are being trained in sheet metal, woodwork, machine shop, and welding work. 
Training programs for women on machine tool operations and subassembly work 
for aircraft plants are being inaugurated in New Jersey and Ohio. 

Many other instances of the relaxations of employer specifications concerning 
women have been reported. Many plants unable to obtain sufficient numbers of 
semiskilled workers, have filled vacancies with women. The most encouraging 
reports are from aircraft firms, which until recently employed few women, yet in 
December 1941 hired several hundred women production workers. There are 
indications that this is on the increase. By the spring of 1942, California aircraft 
firms expect to hire hundreds of women trainees. *A large plant manufacturing 
supercharger units will hire 700 women by April 1942. In addition, clearance 
orders reported by public employment offices show increasing requests for women 
workers. 

POTENTIAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES 

As noted, increasing opportunities for the employment of women are develop- 
ing. In an effort to indicate what jobs might be suitable for women, the Bureau 
of Employment Security is preparing an analysis of all jobs occurring in key 
defense industries. At present only 623 occupations designated as essential to 
national defense have been analyzed. Latest available information indicates 
that women are now employed in only 27 of these. An analysis of the duties 
performed by workers in the remaining occupations indicates that 251 are appar- 
ently suitable for women. Of these, 199 have a training period of less than 6 
months. Another group of 188 occupations appears to be partially suitable for 
women. Among these some breakdown of the job may be necessary, or some 
rearrangements of the industrial process might be required in order to employ 
women. Of the entire list of 623 occupations only 57 appear to be entirely 
unsuitable for women. 

These facts are even more striking when the number of hires anticipated by 
defense employers is considered. For the period September 1941 to February 
1942, 315,000 job openings were reported in the selected list of occupations. Of 
this number, less than 20,000 were openings in occupations in which women are 
now employed. On the other hand, 115,000 were reported in occupations appar- 
ently suitable for women and 110,000 more in occupations partially suitable for 
women. 

It is possible that very recent developments have enlarged the number of occu- 
pations in which women are currently employed. However, it may be readily 
seen that great numbers of jobs can be performed by women and that the use of 
this reservoir of workers has only begun. Public employment offices throughout 
the country are encouraging employers to make fuller use of women. The tech- 
nical services of job analysts of the Bureau are available to assist in achieving 
necessary job break-downs. Local employment offices are familiar with State 
regulations concerning the use of women workers and can indicate to employers 
what problems may be encountered in conforming to these regulations. In view 
of the need for additional workers in many areas, and the probability of Nation- 
wide labor shortages in many more occupations within the coming year it is 
becoming increasingly important to make the fullest possible use of this addi- 
tional source of labor. 

IV. Labor Displacement Resulting from Material Shortages 

THE problem 

Up to the outbreak of war the total volume of unemployment created by short- 
ages of materials, supplies, and equipment had not been large. Generally 
speaking, the country as a whole was relatively untouched by such disemplov- 
ment although a small number of communities have been seriously affected aiid 
many others were threatened with serious problems. Since December 7, the 
picture has changed rapidly. The virtual cessation of rubber and automobile 
production which was immediately ordered has been and will be followed by 
further reduction of output in innumerable consumer-goods industries. Un- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10299 

doubtedly, this country has suddenly been confronted with a labor displacement 
problem of great magnitude, although its duration will probabh'^ be relatively 
short, depending upon the speed with which industry gears itself to the President's 
victory program. 

Of approximately 2,725,000 workers engaged in those consumer-goods industries 
which are being or will be directly affected by curtailment orders and material 
shortages, between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 will probably be displaced pending 
conversion of consumer-goods plants to war production, further expansion of 
existing rearmament plants, and the construction of new ones. It seems unlikely 
that much more than another 1,500,000 workers, primarily in the service and 
distributive industries, will be laid off through the indirect effects of curtailed 
production in the primary consumer-goods industries. A very large proportion 
of the workers who will suffer from the indirect impact of priorities are employed 
by automobile dealers as salesmen or mechanics. Of the somewhat more than 
400,000 workers in this field, it is doubtful that as many as half will be displaced. 

Although no completely reliable figure is available on the number of workers 
unemployed today because of curtailment orders and material shortages, in all 
probability it does not exceed 400,000. Exactly how many displaced workers 
will be unemployed at any given time it is extremely difficult to estimate, but of 
the estimated maximum displacement of 3,000,000 workers, not more than half 
are apt to be out of work on any given date. The volume of labor displacement 
and the size of the problem to be met from one day to the next depend on the rate 
of displacement as against the rate of conversion, expansion of existing facilities, 
and construction of new facilities for war production. The faster the rate of 
lay-off, the greater the volume of unemployment with which we shall have to 
cope; the greater the speed of conversion and expansion, the more likely will it 
be that the displacement problem will be of no great magnitude. This was illus- 
trated by the forecast of defense employers in November of their anticipated 
hires and lay-offs during the ensuing 6-month period. At that time some 10,600 
establishments surveyed by the United States Employment Service indicated 
that through April 1942 they expected to hire 469,600 workers; over the same 
period, their lay-offs were expected to total 146,900. The outbreak of war lias, 
of course, upset all predictions. We know, however, that within the next few 
months, both the lay-off rate and the hiring rate will be greatly increased. It ia 
possible although not probable, that if industry can shift quickly from peacetime 
production to war production, neither the volume nor duration of priority unem- 
plo^ ment will be serious. 

A large proportion of workers already displaced is concentrated in Michigan's 
automobile and related industries. In that State, initial claims for unemployment 
compensation, which indicate approximately the number of workers currently 
laid off from jobs in nonagricultural and nonservice employment, totaled 192,400 
during December, 165,600 more than in November. In the Nation as a whole, 
initial claims in December amounted to 1,032,000, an increase of 70 percent over 
November, as compared with only a 20-percent increase between the same 2 
months of 1940, Although the volume this December was only somewhat more 
than 200,000 greater than the volume of initial claims a year ago, probably many 
more than 200,000 are unemployed because of inadequacy of materials, supplies, 
and equipment. This December, a much smaller number of lay-offs can be attrib- 
uted to the usual seasonal slackening in certain industries, because the seasonal 
pattern in many fields has been eliminated by war orders. Additional evidence 
of the impact of priorities upon employment is that in the 8 States — Michigan, 
Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Cali- 
fornia — in which the greatest volume of displacement has occurred, the number of 
initial claims filed at local employment offices during December was more than 
double those received in November, whereas 1 year ago the increase was only 23 
percent. 

The Bureau of Employment Security is receiving, through the local offices of 
the United States Employment Service, a report on hundreds of plants which 
have been forced to reduce their staffs because of curtailment orders and material 
priorities or which anticipate making such lay-offs within the near future. An 
analysis of the 450 reports received during December covering firms with original 
employment of approximately 371,000 indicated that these firms have already 
laid off or will lay off, within the next few months, about 113,300 workers, nearly 
one-third of their working force. Analysis of comparable reports received during 
the previous month had indicated approximately a 26 percent lay-off rate. Actual 
layoffs reported by the firms surveyed in December total only 45,300; the other 
68,000 were anticipated. However, these figures on actual lay-offs and the esti- 



10300 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

mates of future lay-offs are both undoubtedly seriously understated; not only 
because all firms affected by priority unemployment did not fill out a report, but 
also because of existing uncertainties as to future production plans, most em- 
ployers are not able to accurately estimate their future lay-offs. 

The problem of disemplo^ment is serious in its effects on particular areas and 
in certain industries, especially those using metals, chemicals, rubber, and textiles. 
The area that appears to be hardest hit is the Great Lakes and Ohio region. Most of 
the communities which have been certified by the Office of Production Management 
as distressed areas which are to be given preference in the awarding of defense 
contracts are located in this section of the country. In Michigan, not only Detroit, 
but FHnt, Kalamazoo, Muskegon, Greenville, Benton Harbor, Saint Joseph, Bay 
City, Grand Rapids, Jackson, Lansing, Pontiac, Royal Oak, Saginaw, Wyandotte, 
and numerous smaller communities are being seriously afi"ected. In Indiana, 
communities with an increasingly serious volume of unemployment include 
Anderson, Evansville, Indianapolis, Muncie, South Bend, Terre Haute, Kokomo, 
and New Castle; in Illinois, Belleville, Decatur, Elgin, Aurora, Kankakee, Dan- 
ville, Fl-eeport, Galesburg, Bloomington, and Shelby ville; in Wisconsin, Kenosha, 
Racine, Eau Claire, La Crosse, Sheboygan, West Bend, Manitowoc, and Ripon; 
in Ohio, Akron, Bridgeport, Cleveland, Dayton, Mansfield, Springfield, and 
Youngstown. However, in most sections of the area, particularly Michigan, a 
substantial portion of the displaced workers will be reabsorbed by June 1942 and 
the remainder sometime in the second half of 1942. In fact, there will even be 
serious shortages of workers in many occupations after these workers are re- 
absorbed. 

The Middle Atlantic States also face an increasingly serious displacement 
problem, largely because so many of their plants are engaged in consumer goods 
production. However, the problem in this area will probably be mitigated fairly 
rapidly because most of the displacement is taking place in the larger metropolitan 
areas, such as Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and Erie, which are active with defense 
contracts. The situation in Trenton, N. J., however, is apparently grave. 
Approximately 3,000 workers have already been laid off and an additional 2,800 
are scheduled to be laid off in the near future; the reemployment prospects for 
these men are not promising. In New York City, there are more than 50,000 
unemployed construction workers alone, with little prospect of employment. 
Hundreds of small firms and a number of larger ones in New York City are 
suffering from material shortages. The situation there will probably become 
more acute. 

The other section of the country with serious displacement problems is New 
England. Here, rubber and woolen curtailment orders will result in the unem- 
ployment of 35,000 woolen workers and 10,000 rubber workers. Previous cur- 
tailment orders and increasing material shortages have or will throw out of work 
a minimum of 10,000 in the costume jewelry industry, plus additional thousands 
in the hardware, clocks, and watches, electrical appliances, and other metal 
products industries, if materials are not forthcoming. It is probable that the 
number of workers displaced will not exceed the number of new workers to be 
engaged by the expanding war industries and by those plants converting to war 
production. Temporarily, however, there will be a lag during which a consider- 
able number of workers will be without jobs. 

Throughout the rest of the country, although certain localities and industries 
are hard pressed, the problem cannot be considered serious. The Pacific coast, 
for example, is booming with aircraft and shipbuilding production and little 
difficulty is anticipated in absorbing the relatively few workers displaced by 
material shortages. Very few places in the Rocky Mountain and Great Plains 
areas are vulnerable to priority restrictions. In the South, construction labor 
will be the chief sufferer, but if contemplated Arinj^ cantonments, air bases, and 
industrial expansion plans go through, there will be a substantial demand for 
construction workers in this section of the country. 

Analysis of plant surveys received in December by the Bureau of Employment 
Security indicates that along with the automotive and automobile parts industry, 
priority unemployment will most seriously affect those plants making stoves and 
heating equipment, furniture and other lumber products, textiles and apparel, 
rubber products, and jewelry, clocks, and silverware. In all these industries, 
firms reporting during December indicated that total lay-oflFs will decrease their 
staff's by 35 to 45 percent. 

Lay-offs in the automotive and automobile parts industries will largely occur 
in Michigan, Indiana, Missouri, New Jersey, Ohio, and Pennsylvania; in firms 
manufacturing stoves and heating equipment, in Illinois, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 



NATIONIAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10301 

and Michigan; in plants making furniture and other kimber products, in Pennsyl- 
vania, Ohio, and Michigan; in textiles and apparel plants, in Pennsylvania, New 
York, Massachusetts, Connecticut. Indiana, and Rhode Island; in the jewelry, 
clocks, and silverware industry, in New England and Illinois. 

On the basis of the December analysis, over half of the workers already dis- 
placed are semiskilled, somewhat less than a third unskilled, and approximately 
15 percent in skilled professional and managerial occupations. For those firms 
anticipating future lay-offs, the proportion of semiskiled workers to be fur- 
loughed was even greater whereas the proportion of unskilled workers laid off is 
expected to decline. 

Of the 146,900 workers to be laid off during the 6-month period ending May 1, 
1942 on the basis of November 1941 expectations in 10,600 defense and related 
establishments, only 11,500 or 8 percent were skilled workers; 66,200 or 45 per- 
cent were semiskilled workers; and, unskilled workers accounted for 40,500. In 
the skilled trades, occupations in which the most lay-offs were anticipated included 
stove mounter, general sheet-metal worker, electroplater, and arc welder; how- 
ever, the demand during this 6-month period for sheet-metal workers and arc 
welders far exceeded the anticipated laj'-offs. In the semiskilled trades, the 
most numerous lay-offs were anticipated for general assembler (automobile 
manufacturing) heavy stock punch-press operator, floor assembler, metal buffer, 
spot welder, and subassembler (automobile manufacturing) ; however, anticipated 
hires of floor assemblers were more than triple the number of anticipated lay-offs. 

Although merely because they are so numerous, more plants with employment 
of less than 100 workers or 250 workers have laid off or will lay off workers, 
nevertheless, a considerable number of fairly large firms have also been compelled 
to curtail production and employment drastically. In the automotive field, 
large establishments predominate; most of those affected are making very sizeable 
lay-offs. In most of the other industries dependent upon metal the firms are of 
medium size and, of course, are the ones most frequently affected. In general, 
the larger plants are not making numerically small lay-offs but are being forced 
to furlough substantial groups of employees. 

ROLE OF THE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY PROGRAM IN CONNECTION WITH LABOR 

DISPLACEMENT PROBLEMS 

The employment security program, jointly directed by the Social Security 
Board and State agencies, has been making a notable contribution toward the 
alleviation of distressed areas arising out of tlie lack of materials. This contribu- 
tion has been made in three ways. In the first place, local public employment 
office representatives are calling upon all plants which have experienced or are 
faced with the prospect of lay-offs of 50 or more workers, in order to determine: 
(a) How serious the lay-oft" is; (b) the materials lacking; (c) the skill of the workers 
laid off; (d) whether the plant facilities are convertible to defense production; 
and (e) what the employment opportunities are for displaced workers. This 
information is supplied both to the Contract Distribution Service and to the 
Labor Division, Priorities Branch, of the Office of Production Management, in 
order that both agencies may be informed quickly as to the seriousness of the 
situation and what equipment is idle. The information is also made available to 
the State employment services and the Regional Labor Supply Committees of the 
Office of Production Management in order that those agencies might give immedi- 
ate consideration to the steps which might be taken to relieve the situation. As 
a result of these joint actions, there have been numerous instances of awards of 
contracts to firms which are faced with shut-downs or materials have been supplied 
through a speeding up of delivery. A lay-off of 500 workers in a railroad equip- 
ment concern was recently averted by expediting a shipment of steel. 

In addition to signaling the occurrence or the possible occurrence of lay-offs 
to the Office of Production Management so that proper action can be taken, the 
United States Employment Service has also been instrumental in placing many 
workers laid off or in directing them to training courses in order to provide them 
with skills that can be readily utilized by firms in need of workers. Recently 
3,400 workers were laid off by an automobile assembly plant. Shortly after, 
these workers were registered with the local employment office and jobs were 
found for about half of them. This instance can be multiplied many times. 

The third way in which the employment-security program helps to relieve the 
hazards of unemployment arising out of a lack of materials is through the unem- 
ployment compensation program. Through this program, workers who meet the 
eligibility provisions of the State laws are compensated for their loss of employ- 
ment by the payment of benefits equal to about one-half of their regular weekly 



10302 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

wages Under existing provisions of the State laws, they can probably draw 
about 12 weeks of benefits during any 12-month period. This, of course, will 
vary between States in accordance with the provision of the State law, as well as 
the earnino- power of workers laid off. In Michigan, for example, most of the 
workers laTd off are probably eligible for benefits for $16 a week for about 15 
weeks. Such payments can tide many workers over their period of unemploy- 
ment. If contracts can be speedily awarded and supplies assured to many plants 
otherwise faced with labor displacements, unemployment insurance can probably 
serve to maintain workers' standards of hving, and at the same time keep them 
in the community so that they are available when restaffing of the plant begins. 
If, on the other hand, contract awards of conversion cannot be made within 3 
months following the lav-off , it is very likely that a considerable number of 
workers will remain unemployed thereafter until such time as conversion is 
accomplished or they may leave the community for jobs elsewhere. 

V. In-Plant Training as Observed'by Public Embloyment Offices 

Severe labor shortages in occupations essential to the defense program have 
focused attention on training inexperienced workers and upgrading employed 
persons as solutions to ever more pressing recruitment problems. Many of the 
current labor shortages are in occupations so highly skilled that rapid training of 
new workers is impossible. In these situations it becomes necessary to transfer 
or retrain workers from nondefense industries and to upgrade persons already 
employed in defense establishments. From an inspection of labor supply and 
demand data collected by the United States Employment Service in November 
1941, it is apparent that'these methods of meeting labor requirements will have 
to be employed exclusively in many'highly skilled occupations. This is especially 
true in aircraft, shipbuilding, and ordnance production. Since November, of 
course, the plans for greatly increased war production have produced estimates 
of labor needs far in excess of those reported at that time. Among metal machin- 
ing occupations with heavy demands in November and with few fully qualified 
employment service registrants are: All-around machinist, for which defense 
employers anticipated almost 21,000 openings prior to April 1942; bench machin- 
ist, over 4,000 openings; marine machinists, 3,700 openings; milling machine 
operator, 6,400; turret lathe operator, 5,600; tool maker, 8,200; and die maker, 
1,600. The number of qualified registrants was in no case adequate to meet 
these demands, ranging from about 260 die makers to 2,500 all-around machinists. 
Other acutely short occupations are aeronautical draftsman, tool designer, ma- 
chine shop inspector, aircraft wing frame builder, pneumatic riveter, airplane 
woodworker, and, among shipbuilding occupations, ship fitter, ship carpenter, 
ship joiner, and ship electrician. Shortages may be actually more acute than 
these data indicate since many of those who are registered with the employment 
service in these categories probably fail to measure up to employer specifications 
or are located where no demand currently exists. 

In-plant training in the present emergency is of special significance in meeting 
such labor requirements, since it supplies the only possible means of filling the 
huge demands for skilled labor developed by the arms program. An investigation 
of employment service reports from 14 representative States indicates that such 
training is in progress in both large and small establishments operating in all 
parts of the country. The States reviewed were selected to include a variety of 
defense activity and are widely distributed geographically. 

The programs by which management is training workers and upgrading em- 
ployees vary among industries and are adjusted to the immediacy of the need 
for workers. Whereas before the present emergency, training normally consisted 
of the regular apprenticeship program, usually of 4 years' duration, the emphasis 
at present is on training "on the job" designed especially to give rapid, efficient 
training to produce immediately needed skills in a minimum of time. This 
method was proved the most effective means of rapidly training workers in 
World War No. 1. It has been bolstered in the present war, however, by sup- 
plementary training offered under the national defense vocational training pro- 
gram. Supplementary training courses are directed toward teaching employed 
workers additional skills, and are scheduled in such a way that regular work is 
not interrupted. This program differs from the regular apprenticeship program 
in that the training is designed to meet the immediate need for qualified workers 
for specific jobs within the plant. 



NATIONAL DETENSE' MIGRATION 10303 

TRAINING ON THE JOB 

In connection with on-the-job training, industry is breaking down highly 
skilled operations into component tasks and training less skilled workers for these 
unit jobs. An example is found at a shipbuilding company on the Gulf coast 
which broke down a November demand estimate for 2.800 skilled workers into a 
demand for 1,500 skilled and 1,300 semiskilled persons in December. Meantime, 
an in-service training program was set up to take care of about 2,000 workers. 
A radio manufacturing plant in Maryland employs a job analyst whose full time 
is devoted to analyzing and simplifying job processes in the plant. An intensive 
in-service training program has been inaugurated in an attempt to upgrade the 
present personnel. 

In-plant training is used also to add to the experience or skills already possessed 
by the worker and make possible his upgrading to a higher skill. Numerous 
evidences are found in the ordnance and aircraft industries. At an ordnance 
works in South Carolina, general helpers are trained in 6 months under the super- 
vision of leadmen to be semiskilled workers. At an airplane assembly plant 
in Kansas, a systematic training program is in operation under which experienced 
precision machinists are trained as tool makers and aircraft jig builders. In the 
field of airplane accessories, a plant in the Midwest is satisfying its demand for 
highly skilled crystal grinders by training workers within its own laboratories. 

On-the-job training may be given new workers as soon as they enter the employ 
of a firm. An aircraft plant in Florida, anticipating an increase of 800 workers, 
hires defense-training graduates and gives them additional in-plant training until 
progress justifies their advancement to regular jobs. An aircraft assembly plant 
in Connecticut has taken over the training program formerly conducted by the 
State board of education for its prospective employees to control instruction more 
closely than was possible in a public course. A vestibule school has recently been 
installed at a Minnesota ordnance plant for the purpose of inducting job leaders, 
supervisors, and key workers into the plant. These workers will later give on- 
the-job training for production workers. Samples of all the machines used in 
production are provided for the school. An aircraft plant in Kansas operates its 
own so-called finishing school. The plant selects trainees from the national 
defense training courses and private schools and pays them 30 cents an hour while 
it verifies their training and determines their efficiency and capacity for produc- 
tion. The trainees are then instructed in the plant's procedures, shop practice, 
and blueprints and immediately upgraded. 

Another device for alleviating shortages of skilled craftsmen is found in up- 
grading and training workers in parent plants for employment as key skilled 
workers in new plants. By means of on-the-job training, a new plant can then 
be staffed around this nucleus of transferred skilled workers. For example, a 
munitions firm is training, in its Connecticut plant, workers to operate munition 
plants in Kansas City, Mo.; Salt Lake City, Utah; and Denver, Colo. This 
method is also practiced by a machine tool company in Texas for its nearby sub- 
sidiary. A corollary method, that of sending workers to other plants to receive 
training for work in skilled and supervisory capacities, is practiced by an ordnance 
works in Kentucky. This approach has also been noted in Massachusetts, where 
specialized workers needed at one metal-trades plant were trained in another shop 
on machines similar to those they were to operate. 

The Federal Government is assisting the in-plant training program for new 
workers by placing Work Projects Administration workers as learners in essential 
occupations in defense plants. After a short period of training and observation 
in the plant, the trainees are transferred to the employer's pay roll, providing they 
have acquired the minimum skill necessary for employment. The trainee's wages 
are paid by the Work Projects Administration during the training period, which 
may not exceed 160 hours. Wages paid by the Work Projects Administration to 
in-plant trainees are equivalent to the established learner wage. This arrange- 
ment had been in operation on a Nation-wide scale for only 3 months by Decem- 
ber 1941, yet more than 375 defense production plants in essential industries had 
requested participation in the plan. These plants, located in more than 28 States, 
are producing such vital defense equipment and materials as aircraft, arms, Diesel 
engines, tools, instruments, iron, steel, and brass. Of the 2,300 Work Projects 
Administration workers who had C(»mpleted training during this period, 93 per- 
cent had been immediately placed. On January 1, 1942, about 750 Work Pro- 
jects Administration workers were in training. 



10304 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

SUPPLEMENTARY TRAINING 

To supplement on-the-job training undertaken by industry, the Federal Gov- 
ernment provided training supplementary to employment, a phase of the voca- 
tional education for national defense training program. As of November .30, 1941, 
578 000 persons employed in defense industries had received trammg through this 
program. A steel fabricating plant in Pennsylvania requires employees to attend 
supplementary national defense courses at the public high schools. When these 
employees are promoted to more skilled jobs, trainees from national defense pre- 
employment refresher courses are hired. More than 300 employees of a ship- 
building employer in Texas are attending courses at Lamar College as a prerequi- 
site to upgrading. Officials in a plant on the lower gulf coast, anticipating a need 
for ship fitters, have broken down the occupation into 4 specialized operations. 
By requiring workers to take supplementary training courses in these operations 
they have added considerably to the proficiency of their workers, while quickly 
solving their labor problems. A Michigan shipbuilding firm, anticipating a short- 
age of skilled workers when its labor force is expanded from 1,200 to 1,800 has 
had a supplementary national defense training program set up to qualify their 
employees for upgrading. 

An aircraft plant in Kansas employs an analyst to promote and supervise sup- 
plementary training. He determines the need, suggests improvements in the 
program to the national defense training authorities, and assists in the selection 
of employees to attend such courses. In addition to the supplementary training 
activities of the defense training program, the engineering service and the manage- 
ment defense training programs are offered to industry to overcome shortages 
of qualified workers. A steel company in Pennsylvania selected 250 of its em- 
ployees to attend Pennsylvania State College extension courses in defense engi- 
neering to qualify them to fill key positions. 

Another method employed by plants for recruiting skilled workers consists 
of reimbursing, persons for tuition spent for a training course qualifying them for 
specific jobs in the plant. In the past 18 months a Minnesota plant, manufac- 
turing gun mounts, has hired 250 men who bad taken a special defense course 
(tuition $122) at an industrial institute, refunding tuition at the time of hiring. 
A textile products firm in Massachusetts refunds the tuition to employees taking 
courses at a textile school or university upon satisfactory completion of the 
course. 

APPRENTICESHIP 

Although the apprenticeship program looks farther into the future, it has 
also been expanded to meet constantly increasing demands for the country's 
future skilled mechanics. Fifty-nine thousand apprentices are being trained 
under standards approved by the Federal committee on apprenticeship standards, 
an increase of about 50 percent over January 1941. The training program ex- 
tends usually for a period of 4 years, the rate of pay advancing at specified intervals 
according to recommended schedules. 

Formal indenture apprenticeship programs, in a number of apprenticeable 
occupations, have been inaugurated at an aircraft plant on the west coast in addi- 
tion to foremen training programs. An electrical products company in New 
England is clearing through the employment service for machinist apprentices. 
At a shipbuilding corporation in South Carolina, a special apprenticeship program 
has been set up in addition to the regular 4-year apprenticeship program. This 
program is designed to train skilled helpers in a period of IH to 2 years. A metal 
trades plant in Kentucky has recently set up a full 4-year apprenticeship program. 

An apprenticeship program in the construction trades has been developed in 
Rochester in cooperation with the local government apprenticeship representatives 
of the board of education, employers, union officials, and the employment service. 
This need for this program is clear since one union, probably typical of others, 
has revealed that the average age of its members is 50 years or more. As a result 
of the conferences, about 20 individuals will start apprenticeship training in 
January. In connection with this new program, apprentices for the plumbing 
and steamfitting trades will receive part-time training from the vocational educa- 
tion for national defense program. The trainees will be paid by the employers 
for study time and will attend school once a week beginning January 5. Boys 
between 18 and 22 are eligible. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE LllGRATION 



10305 



OTHER FEDERAL SERVICES 

The Federal Government has sought to encourage industry to expand its train- 
ing activities through the advisory service of the Training- Within-Industry 
Section of the Office of Production Management. This service is rendered upon 
the specific request of an employer and ranges from explaining to management the 
value of training in solving labor recruitment problems to making detailed analj'ses 
of the training and manpower problems and counseling on programs to be used. 
As of September 1941, advice had been given to 1,736 companies employing 
2,786,000 workers, among them many aircraft firms. In addition, during the 
past 2 months, 792 plants employing 1,302,000 workers had agreed to use the 
new job-instructor-training program of Training- Within-Industry. This is a 
short course in the technique of training given to a few selected foremen and 
supervisors who pass along this instruction to leadmen who train large numbers 
of workers engaged in actual operations. 

To assist in upgrading, job break-down, and training planning, the United 
States Employment Service has made available to employers the services of 
trained job analysts. These analysts, often in cooperation with Training- 
Within-Industry representatives, enter the plants to analyze jobs and interview 
workers. All possibilities of upgrading or promoting workers are explored. If 
insufficient skills are found through this method, recommendations for job simpli- 
fication are made. The recommended program is carried out by the plant itself. 
Job analysts are available through local employment offices throughout the 
country. 

OPERATION OF IN-PLANT TRAINING PROGRAMS 

Most plants do not rely on a single type of training. For example, a tractor 
company in Illinois operates the following types of courses with these enroll- 
ments. 



Course 



Enroll- 
ment 



Type of training 



Foundry 

Machine shop 

Patternmaking _ . . 

College graduate course... 
Production machine shop 

Sheet-metal 

Mechanical engineering... 



21 

270 

9 

53 
164 

52 

19 



4-year apprentice training pro- 
gram. 

2-year on-the-job training course. 

Employees enrolled in courses at 
Illinois Institute of Technology 
in Chicago. 



A recent report from Texas points out that the Employment Service, the 
Training- Within-Industry Section of the Office of Production Management, the 
Apprentice Training Program, and the Department of Vocational Flducation are 
working with Texas employers in determining the gross occupational demand and 
the supply that the employers can furnish by means of training and upgrading, 
in order to arrive at the net demand which must be supplied from the open labor 
market or from preemployment training schools. 

An analysis of the expected labor market developments in the San Francisco 
Bay area in California (through April 1942) yields an indication of the part 
played by the training programs in satisfying employer needs. Scheduled hires 
in the 21 bay area shipyards for this period total 29,000. On-the-job training is 
expected to furnish a total of 14,650 workers of whom 700 can be advanced to 
foremen, 6,650 to skilled, and 3,300 to semiskilled jobs. Supplementary defense 
training is expected to make it possible to upgrade approximately 7,000 workers 
to skilled status, 1,400 to semiskilled status, as well as to make 3,000 unskilled 
workers more competent at their jobs. The remaining hires will be made from 
among preemployment defense training course graduates, public and private 
vocational school graduates, and from apprentices being advanced to journeymen 
status. 

GROWING NEED FOR IN-PLANT TRAINING 

Up to the present time in-plant training has been undertaken by employers at 
their own initiative, with the encouragement and assistance of Government 
agencies. Many far-sighted employers have seen in training-within-industry 
programs the solution to labor supply problems hampering expansion of their 



10306 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

nroduction. Now that production must be increased manifold to supply our 
own and other nations' war needs, in-plant training will be needed almost univer- 
sally to staff new and converted plants. Not only should existmg programs be 
continued and enlarged but new programs of on-the-job traming and optimum 
upgrading should be instituted as fast as they can be planned. Both defense and 
nondefense employers should extend this type of training to the limit of their 
capacities, since both groups can contribute to the need for essential skills. Ihe 
facilities of the Training- Within-Industry Branch of the Office of Production 
Management should be extended. The United States Employment Service will 
continue to lend all possible aid to the program, and to supply technical assistance 
where necessary. 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN J. CORSON— Resumed 

Dr. Lamb. With reference to the first of these statements, you have 
already covered the subject to some extent in part 1 of your prepared 
statement. 

Can you tell the committee some of the reasons why the President 
saw fit to nationalize the Employment Service? I may say that in 
the committee's first interim report last October, the committee rec- 
ommended that Congress give serious consideration to the need for 
such nationalization for the duration of the emergency period, and, 
therefore, anticipated the move, although they did not call for an 
Executive order, but for congressional consideration of the matter. 

Can you tell the committee some of the reasons why the President 
saw fit to nationalize the Employment Service? 

NATIONALIZATION OF EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

Mr. Corson. In answering that question, I think we must look 
prospectively at the problems which are apt to confront the Employ- 
ment Service in the months ahead. Meeting the demands of the 
"victory program" will require the most careful conservation of all 
our skilled labor, the fullest utilization of all other available labor, 
and the most efficient management of all our labor resources. 

The steps that must be taken to insure that those ends are attained 
will require the very widespread recruitment of workers from all 
sections of the country, a much more expanded training program, 
and the orderly transfer of labor among industries. They will require 
the controlled movement of workers, not only between States, but 
between industrial areas. 

We will likely have to take steps that have not heretofore been a 
function of the Employment Service. I think the President's action 
in asking each Governor to make available the State Employment 
Service facilities was based upon a realization of what was to come 
rather than deficiencies in the operation of the Employment Service 
in the past. 

When we realize the amount of additional manpower that will be 
required, as was stated by Dr. Davenport and General Hershey, it 
becomes clear that we will have to budget our manpower as carefully 
as we budget what funds we have. It becomes apparent that this 
cannot be done without a national service that can tap labor resources 
wherever they may be and make them available wherever they 
must be. 

From what I understand of the discussions that took place in the 
Cabinet prior to the President's action, it was this prospective look 



NATIONAL DEFENSE' MIGRATION 10307 

as to the steps that would have to be taken to mobilize our labor 
resources that gave rise to this action — the President's request for the 
nationalization of the Employment Service. 

I think it should be said that the response from the several Governors 
to the President's telegram was significant evidence of the willing- 
ness of each of the States to cooperate, and a recognition on their 
part of the necessity for a National Employment Service to do this 
particular job. 

POLICY OF THE "eVER- WIDENING CIRCLE" 

Dr. Lamb. I notice on page 2 of part 1 of your statement, that you 
refer to the policy of the "ever- widening circle." I would like to ask 
a question with respect to that. 

It is obviously necessary to employ all local labor reserves before 
recruiting workers from outside of the given area; that is to say, all 
qualified local labor reserves. 

But once the local labor reserves are fully utilized, should you go 
to the nearest pool of labor reserves to recruit your workers, or should 
you go to those areas whose labor reserves are the least productively 
employed at the present time? 

Would it not be desirable to go to the old Cotton Belt in the South 
or to the Appalachian area, where the available labor supply is con- 
tributing very little to our national war effort, to obtain your recruits, 
rather than to the nearest labor reserves which may be more produc- 
tively employed than the labor reserves in the area I have mentioned? 

In other words, isn't it necessary to take a national viewpoint on 
our labor supply and its allocation, rather than to think of the labor 
market in terms of local units? 

Mr. Corson. I think it is necessary to do both. Recognizing the 
interests of the human being who is asked to move, and the practical 
question whether or not he will move in response to an offer of a job, 
I think we have to consider first those people in-the local labor market. 
Before we are through, however, we will have to make a positive and 
aggressive effort to recruit the manpower in such areas as you speak 
of, where there is an available supply of manpower that is not being 
productively used at present. 

We will have to go beyond merely offering them jobs and actually 
make a positive effort to find them and bring them to the jobs. 

I think that effort will be aided by the occupational inventory to 
be obtained in connection with the selective-service registration. It 
will furnish a questionnaire form which will indicate the occupational 
characteristics of the individual and give the Employment Service 
access to the names and whereabouts of the individuals who might 
be utilized. 

It will put in our hands direct access to a number of individuals who 
have not been previously registered in employment oflSces. 

AGE GROUPS TO BE REGISTERED 

Dr. Lamb. As we understand it, this forthcoming registration of all 
males from 18 to 64 in age, being conducted by the Selective Service 
Administration, will yield occupational data, one copy of this to go 



10308 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

to the Employment Service, one copy to the Census, and the third to 
be left with the local selective service board. Is that correct? 

Mr Corson. That is correct. I would like to qualify my answer 
to this extent. The only presently scheduled registration is one for 
the a^cs 20 to 44. The Selective Service Act provides for the regis- 
tration of those from 18 to 65. Registration of those in other age 
groups than from 20 to 44 is not yet scheduled. 

Dr. Lamb. But may be anticipated? 

Mr. Corson. Yes; it may be anticipated. 

Dr. Lamb. In this collection of occupational data, will Selective 
Service Administration and its local boards receive direction from 
the Employment Service? . 

Mr. Corson. The answer is *'Yes." We have for some time been 
advising the Selective Service as to those occupations in which short- 
ages exist now or are anticipated. Selective Service has been making 
that information available to local draft boards. Local draft boards, 
in individual cases, have already been asking the advice of the local 
employment offices. 

Dr. Lamb. This is in respect to deferment? 

Mr. Corson. This is in respect to deferment. 

Dr. Lamb. Is this on the basis of national shortages or local and 
regional shortages? 

Mr. Corson. This is on the basis of national shortages. 

opposed to compulsory registration 

Dr. Lamb. Would you, speaking either as the Director of the 
U. S. Employment Service, or as an individual, be in favor of the 
compulsory registration of all manpower and womanpower with the 
Employment Service? 

Mr. Corson. I would not be in favor of such a registration at this 
time. I think, in the development of our whole national labor policy, 
cognizance should be taken of the depletion of our available labor 
resources. The time may come when we will have to take steps which 
are not now necessary. I do not think such a complete registration is 
essential now. The shortages are not sufficiently great at this time, 
although we must look forward to the time when it will likely be neces- 
sary to register women as well as men. 

That depends upon the depletion of the available labor supply. 
I would hope that as we go along we can develop, in more concrete 
terms than has yet been developed, a national labor supply policy 
that would be related to the depletion of available manpower. Such 
a policy would indicate a series of successive "next steps" to be taken 
as that labor supply is progressively depleted until it is no longer able 
to meet developing needs. 

Dr. Lamb. You are probably acquainted with the operations of 
the British Ministry of Labor in national service, in the manner in 
which they operate the British equivalent of the selective service 
system, together wuth the placement of industrial and other workers. 
What proposals, if any, do you have for closer integration of Selective 
Service Administration and the Employment Service in this country? 
Would you recommend that the Selective Service Administration be 
placed within the Employment Service? 

Mr. Corson. I would not. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10309 

APPROVES SELECTIVE SERVICE PROCEDURES 

Dr. Lamb. The present procedure is working satisfactorily? 

Mr. Corson. From an operational standpoint the present procedure 
is working quite effectively. 

This is an aside, but I find General Hershey very helpful and very 
cognizant of the problems from the standpoint of the Employment 
Service, in developing those policies which are essential to our effective 
operation. 

I might add that in undertaking this job as Director of United States 
Employment Service, I started out knowing something of the British 
experience and philosophically thinking it would be preferable to have 
a registration of at least those not within the military age groups made 
by and through the Employment Service. 

Practically, I do not now think that is desirable or feasible. The 
local emploj^ment offices are now faced with the necessity of meeting 
employers from day to day and taking care of applications from em- 
ployees. They are not equipped at this time to take on this substan- 
tial additional job of registering millions of men who are now not 
seeking jobs. Consequently I think the arrangement worked out with 
the Selective Service, w^iereby through their machinery we will obtain 
a copy of the individual's questionnaire, indicating his occupation and 
skills is a practical way of obtaining the same end in a manner that 
makes it useful. 

Dr. Lamb. The United States Employment Service has been re- 
sponsible for setting down the occupational characterizations upon 
which' this registration will take place, is that correct? In other words, 
these characterizations are satisfactory categories for your purposes? 

Mr. Corson. The Selective Service has requested us to devise the 
form that will provide the occupational information. 

Dr. Lamb. So when their data become available to you, you will be 
able to make good use of them, both nationally and locally? 

USE OF SELECTIVE SERVICE'S OCCUPATIONAL LISTINGS 

Mr, Corson. Yes. Full use of them will mean that the material 
will be available in the local office. We will have there a file of these 
occupational questionnaires which will be sorted out to show by occu- 
pations, and particularly by critical occupations, the names and 
addresses and number of individuals in that community who possess 
those skills. 

Dr. Lamb. You will not have any national tabulations, either sample 
or total, by say punch cards, of the results of this? 

Mr. Corson. No; we will not. However, tying together the avail- 
ability of that data in our local offices will be tied together through 
what we technically call the clearance system. That system comes 
back to this concept of the "ever-widening circle." When an employ- 
ment office can't fill an employer's request in the local area, that order 
is simultaneously made known to the offices in the next widest circle, 
and immediately enables them to make use of the data obtained from 
the Selective Service questionnaire. 

Dr. Lamb. On the basis of the selective service registration you will 
never be able to anticipate situations which may arise, but only when 
thev have arisen. 



10310 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Corson. I am not sure I understand you. 

Dr. Lamb. If j^ou had a tabulation of this kind, you would have a 
thorough picture of the available skills centralized, and the possibility 
of future shortages developing. 

Can you approximate that from other sources, sufficiently well, so 
that this is not necessary? 

Mr. Corson. In our opinion we can; and, of course, we can supple- 
ment some of our available data from the knowledge of trends of the 
critical skills that will be derived from these questionnaires, without 
the necessity of setting up a statistical count of the total. 

The Census Bureau is considering the advisability of niaking such 
a count. A count of many miUions would be involved in this par- 
ticular registration, and the time consumed will not be short. In the 
meantime, from an operating employment service angle, those indi- 
viduals will be continuously moving. Thus we cannot count upon 
the availability of so many machinists in a particular area when a 
tabulation becomes available 6 months later. 

KEEPING REGISTRATION CARDS UP TO DATE 

Dr. Lamb. On the other hand, is not a possible weakness of keeping 
these cards in the local office, that the registrations taken at a certain 
period of time will cease to be accurate after a limited period of time? 

Mr. CoRSON. Only to a limited degree, for this reason: The local 
draft board will be notified of the movement of the individual who 
has been registered. When attempting to meet an employer's order 
for a number of workers of a particular skill, when we find that a 
particular individual whom we wish to refer has left the address on 
his questionnaire, we can find his whereabouts through the notification 
of the local draft boards. 

Dr. Lamb. This country has taken two important steps toward 
control of the labor market; first, a complete registration of the labor 
supply, and second, a nationalized employment service, with uniform 
policies and procedures. 

CONTROL OF HIRING IN CRITICAL SKILLS ADVOCATED 

Is the next logical step the control of all hiring by the Employment 
Service? 

Mr. Corson. A next logical step is the control of hiring in critical 
skills through the employment office. I am not sure it will ever be 
necessary to have a control of all hirings through Employment Service, 
and, again, I am concerned with the ability of the employment local 
office to handle such a job. The control of all hiring would be a 
burden local employment offices could not now meet. 

The problem at the moment is the meeting of orders for certain 
limited skills, particularly in the metal trades. If we are to meet the 
demands of those employers whose production is most essential to 
the war efl'ort, if we are to be able to supply them with the number of 
machinists that they require, it may be necessary in the near future to 
say that all such hirings must be made through the employment offices. 
The employment office would refer a limited number of workers with 
critical skills to employer A in preference to employer B. Such a 
step may be necessary to provide the production of bombers and tanks 
that we are counting on. 



NATIONiAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10311 

Dr. Lamb. The line of questioning I have been pursuing arises in 
part from the observation of the committee as it has gone around the 
country, that the situation which is not anticipated today because 
there is no machinery set up for anticipation, becomes the serious 
situation of tomorrow, and consequently we are one or two or three 
jumps behind. A method for anticipation in advance is, I am sure, 
desirable, and I am concerned with the ways in which the U. S. 
Employment Service, for example, collaborating with other agencies, 
is able to approximate these necessary procedures, even though it does 
not have machinery for hitting the nail on the head. 

What substitutes would you say exist for such anticipations as I 
described? 

Mr. Corson. I don't believe there are any substitutes for that 
anticipation. I think we should be developing now the waj^s and 
means in which such control would be made effective, and that re- 
quires careful collaboration by many who would be affected. 

In the Labor Division of the now War Production Board, we have 
been considering such steps, and when they would be necessary. 

Dr. Lamb. The committee in its second interim report advocated a 
comprehensive plan ^- — I think it is correct to sa}^ somewhat more 
comprehensive in operation than anything that preceded the War 
Production Board, and perhaps then envisaged by the Executive order 
recently issued.^ That comprehensive production plan has as an 
inextricable adjunct the operation of a successful employment service 
plan. In fact, I will go further and say the Employment Service 
becomes, under those circumstances, a part of production operations. 

RELATIONS BETWEEN EMPLOYMENT SERVICE AND LABOR DIVISION OF 
WAR PRODUCTION BOARD 

Wliat are the relations between the Employment Service and the 
Labor Division of the War Production Board? 

Mr. CoRSON. This morning I have been in contact two or three 
times with the Deputy Director of the Labor Division. There are 
very few, if any, problems of any major importance within the Labor 
Division in which the Employment Service is not given an opportunity 
to express its viewpoint and contribute to the policy of the Labor 
Division. 

Dr. Lamb. Take, for example, the recent situation which has now 
come to a head, the shut-downs in the automobile industry. 

As we understand it, no comprehensive plans existed or exists for 
the reemployment and, insofar as necessary, the retention of all of 
those workers. A bill is now pending before Congress to subsidize 
their period of disemployment until they can be reemployed and put 
into training, but the training plans are not clearly stated. What 
is the present situation, for example, in the automobile industry, as 
you know it? 

Mr. CoRsoN. The disemployment in Detroit is, of course, increasing 
and will reach substantial proportions. As to whether there has been 
a program developed to meet that situation, I will say this: There was 
no lack of consideration of that eventuality in Detroit or of anticipa- 
tion of it. 



1 See House Report No. 1553. 

2 See Executive Order Jan. 16, 1942. 

60396 — 42 — pt. 27 6 



10312 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Dr. Lamb. You mean in Detroit, in the Employment Service? 

Mr. Corson. And in the Labor Division of the then O. P. M. 

You suggest by your question that there should have been a plan 
for the absorption of those workers in other areas? 

Dr. Lamb. Or possibly for their reemployment there at a fairly 
early date, and particularly a plan for retaining those people for jobs, 
the existence of which was already anticipated. 

Mr. Corson. You have a problem of maintaining certain labor 
forces which, although disemployed for the time being, will be 
urgently needed again in 3, 6, or 9 months. 

Dr. Lamb. It is for the duration of the unemployment, and what 
happens to them during that period that the committee is particularly 
concerned with. 

Mr. Corson. Certainly we have been concerned with the fact that 
here is a pool of manpower not being used at this period of time. 
How to utihze it and have any assurance that it will be available again 
when needed for the reopening of the plants which will have been 
converted, is the problem. 

WAR displacement BENEFITS 

Dr. Lamb. By subsidizing them, I should think you would have 
some control over the question of whether they would be available 
and, in turn, that would operate to employ as many of them as possible 
in training projects which would directly place them where conversion 
is going on. 

Mr. Corson. That was definitely contemplated in the program 
that the President presented to Congress with respect to war displace- 
ment benefits. 

I have forgotten whether it is specifically stated in his message, 
but it has certainly contemplated that the war displacement benefits 
would not be available to individuals who were referred to training 
and did not undertake such training or to such individuals who, when 
offered jobs in essential war industries, were unwilling to accept such 
jobs. 

That was suggested by the staff of the Labor Division of O. P. M. 

Dr. Lamb. The committee's observation, from the beginning of 
last summer to the end of September, is that the workers were not 
reluctant to take training, that they took it with alacrity. When 
they secured it they found, in too many cases, that they were trained 
with no job in sight. What I am raising here is the question of the 
training program being related to a job in sight, and the character of 
the training program taking such a direction. 

Mr. Corson. In Detroit you should recognize that the displace- 
ment in the automobile industry is a general displacement, displacing 
a greater proportion of the total labor force of the industry than 
usual. It involves many people for whom training was not needed. 
They cannot go back to jobs in the bomber plants without a period 
of training. There are others who will need a certain measure of 
retraining. I don't know the precise plans that have been made for 
such retraining. I do know that the defense training staff in the 
Labor Division has been laying such plans. 

The function of the Employment Service is, of course, to develop 
from the employers their estimates as to the prospective needs for 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10313 

labor in a variety of skills, in order that we can contribute that to the 
plan for training. 

Dr. Lamb. Perhaps I ought to direct my question to you as Chief of 
the Labor Supply Division rather than as the Chief of the United 
States Employment Service, and ask you, as Chief of the Labor Supply 
Division, what you would consider adequate plans for anticipating 
and du-ecting people to jobs, and traming for those jobs. In other 
words, aren't we, as I observed before, two or three steps behind on 
this situation; and if so, to what extent are we able to overtake our 
delayed action? 

TRAINING PROGRAM IN DETROIT 

Mr. Corson. I wouldn't agree that we are two or three steps 
behind. "We have a training program in Detroit, and substantial 
efforts have been made within the last several weeks, to obtain, by 
loan, begging, borrowing, or any other device, additional facilities 
which would permit the training of additional workers in and about 
Detroit. 

Dr. Lamb. I think that is a criticism of the failure to anticipate the 
situation. This committee investigated as long ago as last September 
and found this situation arising and to be anticipated, so the fact that 
the facilities are now overtaxed was to have been expected, I think, as 
long ago as October 1. 

Mr. Corson. I don't know whether this present situation was ade- 
quately anticipated — I will accept your presumption that it was not, 
because I frankly don't know, having no connection with it at that 
time — but I think it would be still questionable whether additional 
facilities could have been developed, even if it were foreseen 60 or 90 
days earlier. 

Dr. Lamb. What I mean is that the ideal facilities for training 
workers are within-industry-training facilities, and the need for those 
could have been foreseen providing the proper action to convert had 
been taken. 

What discussion has gone on, either with the Employment Service 
or the Labor Supply Division of what proportion of our labor force 
should be drawn from among the ranks of women, what proportion 
should be Negroes, and what proportion made up of older workers? 
Is that a matter of consideration at the moment? 

UTILIZATION OF WOMEN, NEGROES, AND ALIENS 

Mr. Corson. It is and, of course, we have been concentrating for 
some months now upon encouraging fullest utilization of women, and 
of Negroes. Recently the problem of aliens has become more acute. 
We are striving for the fullest utilization of all those groups within 
the local communities. 

We have taken such steps as the local employment office can, by 
pointing out to employers the availability of these groups, making 
known to the employer that his order can be filled with qualified 
individuals coming from these groups, and dissuading him from 
insisting on specifications that discriminate against these groups. 

These efforts have not been wholly successful. Many employers 
still insist upon such specifications. The depiction of the available 



10314 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

labor supply will necessarily have an influence upon them in getting 
them to modify such specifications in the future. 

We have cases where employers contributed to the services of our 
occupational analysts in analyzing jobs, breaking them down, eliminat- 
ing the heavier work in some of them, in order to make a redistribution 
of jobs in such a way that women could be more effectively used. 

We have had some very encouraging results in some plants in the 
use of women in such jobs. 

However, this is a continuing job. We have to continue to bring 
to the attention of employers the available supply of women, Negroes, 
aliens, and physically handicapped workers. Their services will 
become increasingly essential to the whole war effort as we go along, 
and our labor supply becomes increasingly depleted. 

Dr. Lamb. Training will be a key to that problem also, will it not? 

Mr. Corson. Yes; a key to the use of these groups. 

Dr. L VMB. And that again becomes the function of the planning 
ahead, so that the training will eventuate in jobs and not in a blind 
alley. 

MOBILIZATION OF FACILITIES FOR TRAINING 

Mr. CoRSON. I think the planning is going on to a greater degree 
than your questions imply, if I may say so. Each week we discuss 
regularly with Colonel McSherry, in charge of defense training, the 
data which comes through our offices, as to shortages in particular oc- 
cupations; the location of these shortages hj areas, and anticipated 
shortages in other occupations. We are constantly making that 
information available to those in charge of planning defense training, 
and they are steadily mobilizing their facilities to make training avail- 
able in those particular skills and places needed. 

There is the problem of continuing the mobilization of facilities for 
training to meet those needs, as well as individuals to be trained. 

Dr. Lamb. Would it be your point of view that within-industry- 
training programs are most successful and most satisfactory? 

Mr. CoRSON. Yes; I think they are essential to the further ex- 
pansion of our labor supply. 

Dr. Lamb. Do plans exist for requiring employers to set up ade- 
quate within-industry-training programs or is that on a permissive 
basis? 

Mr. Corson. On a permissive basis. 

Dr. Lamb. Do you think the time is coming when it may be neces- 
sary to require such programs of all employers who have defense 
contracts? 

Mr. Corson. It is like the old saying: You can lead a horse to 
water but you can't make him drink. It is somewhat that sort of 
problem. 

As long as you can convince the employer of the utility of training 
and as long as you can demonstrate to him that the trained product 
is good, there is no necessity for compulsion. 

I think that is the approach that will have to be used for a con- 
siderably longer period of time. That, plus the influence of a statis- 
tical diminution of available labor supply will be sufficient, I think, 
to result in the actual utilization of training programs. 

Dr. Lamb. I would like to pursue another line of questioning. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10315 

What is the relationship of management and Labor to the operations 
of the Employment Service? Is there an advisory council of some 
kind, local, regional, or national? 

FEDERAL ADVISORY COUNCIL FOR EMPLOYMENT SECURITY 

Mr. Corson. There is a Federal Advisory Council for Employ- 
ment Security, composed of representatives of the labor movement 
and the public. That advisory council has met within the last 
month for 2 days, and has gone over the entire problem we are dis- 
cussing here today. 

In addition, in most of the States, although not all, there have 
in the past been advisory councils to the State employment service 
and the State unemployment compensation boards. 

In many local areas, there are local advisory committees. 

In our opinion, the Federal operation of the Employment Service 
requires a greater emphasis upon the existence and use of such ad- 
visory committees than was heretofore necessary. 

The tendency of bureaucrats to be bureaucrats, if you will, will be 
minimized if we can insure that the local office manager is in touch 
with, and consulting with, a local advisory committee, made up of 
representatives of labor and management within that community. 

There are outstanding examples throughout the country, of the 
effectiveness of the local advisory committees. 

Dr. Lamb. Will the increasing difficulties of operating the defer- 
ment system increase the need for that? 

Mr. Corson. It will be one of the factors that will increase the 
need for it. You have suggested that a next step might be the re- 
quirement that all hirings, or at least all hu'ings in certain categories 
or labor market areas, be made through emploj^mcnt offices. That, 
I think, is a matter which should be done in consultation with the 
local advisory committees, to develop an understanding of why this 
has become necessary. 

Dr. Lamb. What is the basis on which those committees have 
been chosen? 

Mr. Corson. It has varied a great deal and we are trying at the 
moment to take stock of the circumstances prevailing in each State 
as to the selection of those committees. 

Dr. Lamb. Who appoints the national committee? 

Mr. Corson. The national committee was appointed by the Social 
Security Board. 

Dr. Lamb. Would you recommend a consolidation of all agencies 
dealing with labor supply and training, in order to obtain unity of 
policy, or do you think you are approaching that through the present 
organization? 

Mr. Corson. I wouldn't recommend a consolidation of all agencies. 
These agencies, like the Employment Service, are alreadj^ taxed to 
capacity to keep abreast of the job and keep thinking ahead of the job. 

To move them and go through the derangement caused by shifting 
and consolidation, might, I think, be a handicap, rather than a gain. 

I think the arrangements now in effect between the several agencies 
in the field of labor supply are relatively effective. However, I think 
that there is an urgent need for the clearer formulation at least of a 
national labor-supply poHcy that will give us not only a clear chart 



10316 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

of our course for the immediate weeks ahead, but for the year 1942 
and the year 1943. 

As I see it, the United States Employment Service is bound to be 
confronted with great difficulties in supplying the requisite labor to 
man these industries in the latter part of this year, and if not then, at 
least in 1943. 

The available supply of labor, if every method is used to utilize it, 
is going to be something less than necessary to meet the demands. 
It is going to require every possible effort to provide the requisite 
supply of labor. 

If that is to be the case, then I think the need for thinking now of 
the policies that will prevail in 1943 is highly essential. 

NEED FOR JOINT POLICY-FORMING COMMITTEE 

Dr. Lamb. So you would say that a policy-forming or determining 
committee of a joint character between, say, the Federal Security 
Agency and the War Production Board and Labor Department and 
Selective Service Administration was more needed than the placing of 
the administration of a consolidated labor supply and training office 
in anj'^ one of these agencies? 

Mr. Corson. I would. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all that I have. 

Mr. Sparkman. No questions. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Corson. 

Your statement and testimony have been very valuable and they 
were presented very ably and well. 

The committee stands in recess until tomorrow morning at 9:30. 

(Whereupon, at 12:20 p. m., the committee adjourned until 9:30 
a. m., Wednesday, February 4, 1942.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGKATION 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 4, 1942 

morning session 

Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

House of Representatives, 

Washington, D. C. 

The committee met at 9:30 a. m., in room 1536, New House Office 
Building, Washington, D. C, pursuant to notice, Hon. John H. 
Tolan (chairman) presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of Calif- 
fornia; John J. Sparkman, of Alabama; and Carl T. Curtis, of Ne- 
braska. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director of the committee. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. Mr. 
Myers is our first witness. 

TESTIMONY OF HOWARD B. MYERS, DIRECTOR OF RESEARCH, 
WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION, FEDERAL WORKS AGENCY, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The Chairman. Mr. Myers, as you know, this committee has 
drawn upon the publications and testimony of the staff of the Work 
Projects Administration in the past and particularly upon your own 
Division of Research. We have been impressed with the high quality 
of your research work and we want you to know that the 52 defense- 
migration studies which your Division has made have been of the 
utmost value to this committee. 

Congressman Curtis will interrogate you. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Myors, what is your position with the Work 
Projects Administration? 

Mr. Myers. I am Director of Research for the Work Projects 
Administration, 

Mr. CuRiis. And how long have you held that position? 

Mr. Myers. Since the beginning of the program in 1935. 

Mr. Curtis. Have you made any studies in reference to the move- 
ment of workers or migrants? 

52 STUDIES OF DEFENSE MIGRANTS 

Mr. Myers. Yes. In an attempt to help get at the facts on migra- 
tion, my division has made 52 studies of defense migration in various 
cities of 25,000 and over throughout the country in the last few 
months.^ 



» See pp. 10449-10633. 

10317 



10318 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

^Ir. Curtis. Now, your cities of 25,000 and over— were those the 
points where you studied the incoming migrant? 

Mr. Myers. That is correct. 

Mr. Curtis. And you studied the outgomg migrant at the same 
points? 

Mr. AIyers. No; the studies were designed to measure the move- 
ment of persons into each of the cities, those who had come in since 
October 1, 1940, and still resided in the area when the survey was 
made in the fall of 1941. 

Mr. Curtis. Of those 52, did you pick out problem spots m the 
defense program? 

Mr. Myers. Most of the cities were so-called hot defense areas. 
We also took a number of cities which at that time did not have 
defense activities, in order to get an indication of the situation in 
areas without large volumes of war contracts. 

Mr. Curtis. Can you give us your estimate of the total number of 
defense migrants during the last year? 

Mr. Myers. Yes. Congressman, I have a brief statement here, 
together with a series of charts, which summarizes some of the facts 
about these migrants and estimates the number. Would you like to 
have me present that? 

Mr. Curtis. Your statement will be received in evidence and 
placed in the record at this point. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY HOWARD B. MYERS, DIRECTOR OF RESEARCH, 
WORK PROJECTS ADMINISTRATION 

Defense Migration ' 

For the second time in 10 years the United States is experiencing a sharp 
increase in worker n.igration. In the 1930's migration was stim.ulated by depres- 
sion, in the 1940's it is being stimulated by the im.perative dem.ands of war. 
The concentration of war orders in a relatively small number of areas is creating 
great demands for additional labor in som.e cities. At the same tim.e the growing 
im,pact of priorities and shortages of materials is squeezing large numbers of workers 
out of their previous jobs in many sections of the country. The result is a growing 
volume of migration of workers and their families toward war boom towns. 

FOUR SOURCES OF LABOR SUPPLY 

Broadly speaking, employers with war orders have turned to four sources of 
labor supply : 

1. The local unemployed. 

2. Local workers already employed, but in nonwar industries. 

3. Local nonworkers coming of working age or induced to enter the labor 
market by the prospect of easily-secured jobs at good wages. 

4. Workers and potential workers from other areas. 

In m.ost cities the workers required for war industries have been supplied 
largely from the first three sources — that is, from, various groups in the resident 
population. This is both a natural and a desirable development, as large supplies 
of actual and potential workers have been readily available in nearly all centers 
of war activity. 

For example, there were nearly 8,000,000 unem.ployed in the United States in 
October 1940. One year later the number had shrunk to approximately 4,000,000. 
Unem.ploym.ent is still high, though less formidable than it was. Even the m.ost 
active war centers still have their unem.ployed — -workers who, though clearly 
employable, are not acceptable for the available jobs because of age, race, sex, or 

' The studies on which this statement is based were conducted by Mr. Malcolm J. Brown of the Labor 
Marlset Research Section, Division of Research, Work Projects Administration, under the supervision of 
Dr. John N. Webb, Chief of the Labor Marliet Resear«h.Section. Mr. Brown assisted in the preparation 
of the testimony herewith presented. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10319 

lack of training. As the need for workers increases further, and as restrictive 
hiring limits are relaxed, many of the remaining unemployed will succeed in 
obtaining jobs. 

The number of workers who have shifted from nonwar to war jobs in the same 
locality is not known but, stiro.ulated by higher earnings in war industries, the shift 
is probably already very large. The rapidly growing effects of materials short- 
ages will sharply accelerate these shifts during 1942, thus providing additional 
local workers for the expansion of war production. 

Nonworkers, too, have recently been entering the labor m.arket in substantial 
numbers, and this movem.ent also is growing. New entries to the labor m.arket, 
particularly students and housewives, have already offset a large part of the loss 
resulting from the withdrawal of workers to the arm.ed forces. 

In an increasing num.ber of war production centers, however, the prim.ary 
sources of resident labor possessing the needed skills and characteristics are run- 
ning low. In these areas local deficiencies in the labor supply are being met by 
a growing flow of workers from other areas. 

Workers from, out of the city are of two types: commuters, who ride back and 
forth between home and work each day; and migrants, who move to the active 
area. This distinction is an important one. When defense industries are 
located in or near great population centers, com.m.uters m.ay supply a very large 
part of the extra labor needed. But when defense industries are located in a 
sparsely settled area, migration is required. The Ravenna (Ohio) ordnance 
plant, which draws from, a labor force of nearly 1,000,000 workers living within a 
radius of 40 m.iles, may depend m.ainly upon com.m.uters; but the Iowa ordnance 
plant at Burlington, with only 100,000 workers living within a 40-mile radius, 
must em.ploy a large proportion of m.igrant workers. 

Defense m.igration has been dram.atized by the rapid m,assing of large numbers of 
workers in isolated Army-camp and powder-plant towns, in the great new air- 
craft-production centers, in the resurrected shipbuilding centers — -in such towns 
as San Diego, Pascagoula, Wichita, Bath, Hartford, Burlington, Shreveport, 
Seattle. 

The needs of war have transformed the disliked transient of the depression 
into the respected war worker of today. The border patrols of a few years ago 
are being replaced by a variety of devices to encourage migration, including 
advertising by private contractors, expansion of the public employment office 
clearance system, and defense housing and community facility programs. Poor 
housing, overcrowding, health hazards, skyrocketing rents and inadequate 
school, sewer, and water systems are now matters of public concern, partly because 
it is feared that such undesirable conditions may discourage the migration of 
needed workers. 

STUDIES OF MIGRATION TO DEFENSE AREAS 

It is clear that defense migration is raising increasingly serious problems, and 
that these problems urgently require analysis. In an endeavor to help get at the 
facts, the Work Projects Administration Division of Research some months ago 
undertook a series of studies of migration to defense areas. These surveys, 
sponsored by the Federal Security Agency, were designed prmiarily to determine 
how many workers and persons had moved to the area during the past year, 
where they had come from, what types of people they were, the occupations and 
industries in which they had been employed, the success of various groups of 
migrants in finding employment after migration and the extent to which they had 
shifted to new occupations and industries after migrating. The surveys covered 
the activities of civilian workers only, and no attempt was made to gather infor- 
mation about persons who had left the survey city during the year. 

The information was secured through a sample census of each area, using 
techniques generally similar to those of the Work Projects Administration monthly 
report of unemployment. Particular attention was given to coverage of rooming 
houses, lower-priced hotels, defense housing projects, and tourist and trailer 
camps. 

In all, 52 areas were selected for survey. Most of the cities selected had 
received large war material orders or construction contracts; a number of towns 
with few war contracts were included as control areas. Data are now available 
for each of these cities, and with the permission of the committee, will be sub- 
mitted for the record. 

The data make possible a number of observations concerning defense migration, 
pre-war phase. It should be said at the outset that generalization concerning the 



10320 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

movement is hazardous. The situation varies markedly by locahty, depending 
on such factors as the tvpe and intensity of defense activity, the size of the resident 
labor supply, the economic situation in nearby areas, and the ability of the com- 
munity to house and service the incoming population. 

Before going further, I should point out that by no means all migration to 
defense areas is defense migration in the narrow sense. Broadly speaking, one 
nondefense worker moves to a defense town for every worker who comes in to 
take defense employment. The enticing prospect of a Job draws clerical and 
service workers as well as skilled metal tradesmen, operatives and construction 
workers. Many of these workers secure jobs which contribute indirectly to the 
war effort, others join the ranks of the resident unemployed. All contribute, 
however, to the social and economic problems which migration raises and, con- 
sequently, all are included in the discussion which follows: 

In general, defense migration has been of two main types: (1) The movement 
of construction workers to camp and new facility sites, many of which have been 
located in rural or small-town areas; (2) the movement of workers to war industry 
centers, for the most part the larger cities. The industrial movement has been 
less spectacular, but is of longer duration and, socially and economically, is much 
more important. I shall discuss prinarily this latter type. 

RATES OF MOVEMENT 

Perhaps the primary point to make concerning defense migration to date is 
that, by and large, it has flowed in smaller volume than many of the more excited 
newspaper and magazine stories would have us believe. This early overestimation 
of the volume of migration is understandable, however. It takes a relatively 
small number of migrants in a community to create numerous problems. For 
example, the District of Columbia jvas already so congested when the defense 
program first began, that a very small in-migration would have exhausted all the 
available housing. There were only 3,800 habitable rental vacancies in the 
District last Februar3\ In the absence of a considerable construction program, 
an annual migrant rate of only 2 or 3 percent would have exhausted these vacan- 
cies by November. The actual migrant rate for the District was 7.8 percent. 
It is no wonder that in-migration to the District seemed even greater than it was. 

This is not to say that recent migration has not been tremendous in some areas. 
The movement to large construction jobs has been impressive, but most of this has 
been temporary. It is true, further, that a few industrial towns have experienced 
a hectic mushroom growth. Migrants into San Diego, Calif., total 27 percent of 
the 1940 population — the highest rate among the 51 areas surveyed. Wichita, 
Kans., a booming aircraft center, is second, with a 20 percent migration rate. 
Wh'Ie the rate of migration is lower, some of the larger cities have experienced 
truly astounding in-movements. For example, more than 150,000 persons moved 
into Los Angeles and its satellite towns i during the year following October 1940. 
In the same period, more than 50,000 persons have moved into Washington, D. C. 
and more than 40,000 to Seattle, Wash. 

These cases are exceptional, however. In half of the 51 areas for which data are 
available the migration rate has been 5 percent or less, and in only 10 of the 51 
cities has it been 10 percent or more. 

Chart 1 shows, in array, the migrant rates of all the cities included in the 
Work Projects Administration surveys. 

At the top of the chart are the "hottest" war-boom cities: San Diego and 
Wichita (aircraft), Newport News (shipbuilding), and Long Beach and Seattle 
(aircraft and shipbuilding). The active construction centers also appear high on 
the chart; note in particular the position of Burlington, Wichita Falls, Corpus 
Christi, and Fort Smith, cities which were in the midst of large-scale war construc- 
tion programs when they were surveyed. 

Some of the cities at the bottom of the chart are cities with little or no war- 
stimulated activity, such as Newburgh, Washington, Pa., and Brockton, for ex- 
ample. Many, however, are active war centers which have been able to expand 
production without much migrant labor. St. Louis, with war contracts valued at 
more than a quarter of a billion dollars, is seventh from the bottom; Pittsburgh 
is third from the bottom; and Philadelphia, with a billion dollars in contracts, is at 
the very bottom of the arra}'. Most of these cities had large numbers of resident 
unemployed workers when the rearmament program began, and in most cases, the 
local unemployed population is still large, even today. 

' This fiRure includes migration to Long Beach, Belvedere, Beverly Hills, Huntington Park, South- 
gate, Santa Monica, Burbank, Alhambra and Inglewood. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10321 

Our estimates show that approximately 2,250,000 persons and 1,000,000 
workers living in cities of over 25,000 population October 1941, had entered these 
cities after October 1, 1940. The over-all migrant rate for cities over 25,000 
population was 4.3 percent. 

It is important to note that these figures refer to in-raigration only, not to net 
population gain. As a matter of fact, it seems clear that some of the cities suffered 
a net population loss during the first year of the defense program. Terre Haute, 
for example, had a higher proportion of housing vacancies late in 1941 than in 
April 1940, and almost certainly lost population. There may be several other such 
cities in the list. Even in the most active cities, there was doubtless some out- 
migration during the period covered by the surveys. 

DECREASED RATE OF MOVEMENT 

On the other hand, the surveys indicate that the rate of migration has been 
increasing in most areas. It is probable that migration will grow even more 
rapidly during the coming months, stimulated by the marked intensification of the 
war effort, by the near absorption of the resident labor supply in certain "hot" 
areas, and by rapidly growing priorities unemployment. The rubber shortage will 
inevitably make commuting more difficult, so that cities like Bridgeport, Bristol, 
and Ravenna, which are now dependent on a large number of commuters, must be 
prepared to house great numbers of migrants when large-scale commuting is no 
longer possible. During the first year of war, migration should exceed by a con- 
siderable margin the volume during the prewar period. 

EMPLOYMENT OF MIGRANTS 

Second, it is pleasing to report that defense-migration thus far has been, on the 
whole, strikingly successful. In half of the areas surveyed the unemployment rate 
for all migrant workers is 7 percent or less; in a fourth of the areas it is 4 percent 
or less. Only one city out of nine has a migrant unemployment rate of 15 percent 
or more. Chart 2 shows the migrant unemployment rates for all the survey 
cities. 

Important war-industry centers fall at both ends of the array shown in chart 2. 
Highest unemployment was reported in P'ort Smith, Ark., where large numbers of 
workers had flocked in in anticipation of the start of work on a new Army camp. 
Very high unemployment was also found in Long Beach, Los Angeles, and Wichita. 
In San Francisco, San Diego, Seattle, and Corpus Christi, unemployment was 
relatively high, indicating that workers were arriving faster than they could be 
absorbed. But in Bristol, Baltimore, Washington, D. C, Burlington, South 
Bend, Warren, and Bridgeport, which are likewise important centers of war 
activity, migrant unemployment was exceptionally low. 

In view of the almost completely unguided nature of the movement, and con- 
sidering the fact that the surveys included considerable numbers of migrants who 
had very recently arrived in the area and had had little opportunity to adjust 
themselves, the unemployment rates reported among migrants are surprisingly 
low. In terms of obtaining employment defense migration presents a welcome 
contrast to the tragic experiences of migrants during the depression. 

Not only have the great majority of the defense migrants obtained jobs, large 
numbers of them have got better jobs than they held before migrating. Occu- 
pational upgrading has been widespread. Shifts among manual workers from 
unskilled to semiskilled, and from semiskilled to skilled have been especially fre- 
quent. As a result of this process the proportion of migrants working at unskilled 
occupations is surprisingly small — in the great majority of towns less than 10 per- 
cent. Income data were not obtained, but in view of the occupational upgrading 
reported and the relatively high wages and full employment in most war industries, 
it seems clear that the incomes of a large proportion of the migrants have risen. 

Although migrants in general have been quite successful in finding jobs, certain 
groups have fared less well than others. Women have been far less successful 
than men in obtaining jobs — in most areas their rate of unemployment is three or 
more times that for men. Negroes, too, have been relatively unsuccessful as mi- 
grants — their unemployment rate is three or more times the rate for whites in 
most areas to which Negroes have migrated in apprecia.ble numbers. 

Young workers have been generally more successful than their elders. The 
very young group is a striking exception. In the great majority of areas workers 
under 20 reported the highest unemployment rate of any age group. Most of 
these youth have, of course, entered the labor market recently, and have had 
little or no previous work experience. Workers 45 years and over reported, in 



10322 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

general, consistently higher unemployment than average (see appendix tables 3 
and 4). 

As would be expected the migrants who have been in the area longest tend to 
have the lowest unemployment rates. In general, migrants who have come from 
nearby areas tend to report less unemployment than those who have traveled far, 
probably because the former group more often return home if they fail to get a job. 

In nearly all areas skilled manual workers and professional and technical work- 
ers have the lowest unemployment rates among the migrants. The least success- 
ful occupational groups are nearly always the service workers, particularly do- 
mestics, who often report extremely high rates of unemployment. 

TYPES OF MIGRANTS 

Negroes make up only a small proportion of the migrants to war-industry cen- 
ters. In half of the survey cities, 3 percent or less of the migrants are Negroes, 
and even in the South, migration rates for Negroes are much lower than for whites. 
This is understandable, in view of the widespread discrimination against Negroes 
in war industries. It contrasts sharply with experience in the first World War, 
however, when a large-scale migration of Negroes to northern industrial centers 
took place. As the demand for labor increases and present employment restric- 
tions are relaxed, it is probable that Negroes will begin to move in greater numbers. 

Chart 3 shows the proportion of Negro migrants in each of the survey cities. 

As the chart indicates, the highest proportion of Negroes was found in Macon, 
followed by Wichita Falls and Atlanta. Among northern cities, the highest pro- 
portions were found in Baltimore, Washington, Pa., Pittsburgh, Washington, 
D. C, Johnstown, and Battle Creek; in these cities, however, Negroes made up 
only 7 to 11 percent of the migrants. 

There were relatively few female workers among the migrants. Half of the 
cities reported 18 percent or less females among the migrants, and only 9 cities 
reported more than one-fourth of the workers to be females. (See appendix 
table 6.) 

Contrary to popular impression, relatively few of the migrants are coming from 
agriculture. This is rather surprising in view of our large agricultural labor 
reserve. 

The proportion of workers drawn from agriculture is shown for each city in 
chart 4. 

In half of the survey cities, 9 percent of the migrants or less are farm workers. 
Even in the South, the proportion is usually below 15 percent, and in the industrial 
East, the proportion is in most cases negligible. 

War industry centers thus far have secured their workers primarily from urban 
areas. Most of the rural migrants have come from villages; the proportion from 
the open country is very small. 

Few of the migrants have traveled far; in most centers the average distance is 
less than 125 miles. The California cities are outstanding exceptions to the gen- 
eral rule. Migrants to Long Beach have moved an average of more than 1,000 
miles, while Los Angeles migrants have averaged nearly 1,300 miles. (See ap- 
pendix, table 8.) 

PATTERNS OP MOVEMENT 

In order to illustrate the patterns of geographical movement traced by recent 
migrants maps have been prepared showing the place of origin of the migrants 
interviewed in six cities in different sections of the country. (See charts 5-10.) 

The short distance traveled by migrants to most cities is well illustrated by the 
maps for Bridgeport, Philadelphia, Oklahoma City, and St. Louis. Philadelphia 
migrants, for example, moved predominantly from New York City, Scranton, and 
Wilkes-Barre. Bridgeport migrants came principally from the same three cities, 
plus Westchester County. Practically none of the Bridgeport migrants had moved 
from south of Philadelphia, and relatively few came from north of Boston. In 
Oklahoma City, migrants had moved principally from Tulsa, Seminole, Shawnee, 
and numerous county seats within half a day's automobile drive. Most of the 
St. Louis migrants came from southeastern Missouri and southern Illinois. 

In Seattle, the distance traveled is somewhat greater; a substantial number of 
migrants had moved from the Twin Cities, and from numerous small towns and 
rural places across Montana, North Dakota, and Minnesota. Many others came 
from San Francisco and Los Angeles. Even so, the bulk of the Seattle migrants 
had moved from Portland, Spokane, Tacoma, and from the small cities within 
the State of Washington. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10323 

Los Angeles County migrants provide one of a very few exceptions, among the 
51 cities surveyed, to the general rule that recent migrants have been drawn from 
the immediate neighborhood of the receiving area. Most of the Los Angeles 
migrants originated in a strip running north and south through the Midwest 
from the Twin Cities to Dallas, and including Sioux City, Omaha, Lincoln, St. 
Joseph, Kansas City, St. Louis, Oklahoma City, and Tulsa. 

The Bridgeport and Philadelphia maps well illustrate the influence of depressed 
areas on defense migration, since a particularly large proportion of migrants in 
both cities had formerly lived in the Pennsylvania anthracite region. Neither 
the Oklahoma City nor Los Angeles maps, however, show any great migration 
from the poorer counties in the Oklahoma Ozarks, whose outmigration during the 
1930's was dramatically brought to the Nation's attention. 

Finally, the maps show that the great bulk of recent migration to cities is from 
cities, rather than from rural places. In Philadelphia and Bridgeport, migration 
from rural places is negligible, and in Seattle, Los Angeles, and Oklahoma City 
it is far outweighed by urban migrants. St. Louis reported the highest proportion 
of rural migrants, nearly two-fifths of the total. 

AGE GROUPS 

Migrants as a group are young, as chart 11 shows. 

In half of the cities the average age of all migrant workers is 29 years or less; 
in no city does the average rise as high as 35 years. The figures reflect both the 
greater mobility of young workers and the low hiring age limits in many war in- 
dustries. In the aircraft town of Wichita, Kans., where hiring restrictions are 
unusually severe, the average age of all migrant workers is under 25 years. In 
Bristol, the Los Angeles satellite cities, Baltimore, San Diego, Bridgeport, and 
Seattle — all important war-industry manufacturing cities— the average age was 
also very low, ranging from 25 years to 27 j'ears. In practically all the war- 
construction centers, on the other hand, migrant workers were older, averaging 31 
years to 33 years. 

The migration surveys provide evidence that the rising demand for labor in 
centers of war activity is drawing nonworkers into the labor market in consider- 
able num'bers. In half of the cities surveyed 14 percent or more of the migrant 
workers had never had a job at their previous residence; and in four cities, 
Wichita, St. Louis, Bridgeport, and Nashville, this group made up one-fifth or 
more of the migrant workers. Most of these persons were students and house- 
wives entering the labor market for the first time. The employment record of 
this group is often poor; in more than half of the cities the proportion who have 
obtained jobs is smaller than for migrants with work experience. 

The proportion of one-person families among the migrants at their new loca- 
tions is extremely high, ranging from 30 to 50 percent for most areas and reaching 
a peak of 78 percent for Washington, D. C. It is well known, of course, that 
single persons are highly mobile. Large numbers of these one-person families 
are incomplete, however; in many towns the proportion is more than one-third of 
all one-person families. In half of the towns, 15 percent or more of these 
workers left their families behind when they migrated. In part this separation 
reflects the normal instability of the migration process- — the breadwinner leaving 
his family behind until he settles in a new location. In part, however, it results 
from the serious housing shortages existing in many areas with large war contracts. 

A striking relationship between the proportion of migrant families which are 
incomplete and the availability of housing is afforded by a comparison of the 
migration data with the findings of a series of residential vacancy surveys recently 
conducted in many of the same areas by the Work Projects Administration 
Division of Research. A comparison of vacancies and the proportion of workers 
migrating without their families is presented in chart 12. 

As the chart demonstrates, there is a strong general tendency for migrant 
workers to leave family members behind when migrating to cities with low vacancy 
rates, and to bring all family members with them when crowding is less severe. 
In Bristol, at one extreme, the habitable vacancy rate was 0.2 percent, and 60 
percent of the workers with families had migrated without their families. In 
Oklahoma City, at the other extreme, the habitable vacancy rate was 4.5 per- 
cent, and only 4 percent of the workers with families migrated without their 
families. Several cities, of course, are exceptions to this rule; in Oakland and 
Corpus Christi, for example, migrants tended to bring their families along in 
spite of a general housing shortage, and in the Los Angeles area, they tended to 
leave their families behind even though housing was relatively, plentiful. The 
general relationship is nevertheless unmistakable. 



10324 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

It is clear that many migrants leave their families behind simply because they 
are unable to find housing accommodations for them. Inadequate housing thus 
increases the proportion of migrants who are unstable and, in consequence, tends 
to increase the labor turn-over rate in war industries. 

The extent of doubling up among multi-person families shown in Chart 13, 
provides a further index of the congested housing conditions in centers of war 
activity. Doubling up is common in all of the areas surveyed; in half the areas, 
30 percent or more of the multi-person migrant families are either sharing their 
dwelling with other persons, or living in hotels and trailers. Doubling up was 
particularly severe in Wichita Falls, Bridgeport, San Diego. Warren, Baltimore, 
Burlington, Wichita, and Washington, D. C. 

Tlio Work Projects Administration surveys show conclusively that considerable 
population movements have already taken place and that migration is still on the 
upswing. The all-out war effort, accompanied by rapid shifts in industrial con- 
centration, vast new demands for labor in some areas and large-scale priorities 
unemployment in other areas, and diminishing primary labor sources, is certain 
to provide a marked stimulus to the further movement of population. Last year, 
situations like those found in San Diego and Wichita were rare. A year from 
now they may be common. We are clearly in for large-scale migration of labor 
during the next few years. 

In many respects this migration may differ from that experienced to date. It 
appears probable, for example, that as the demand for labor grows migration from 
rural areas will increase, the movement of women and Negroes will also grow, 
and these groups will be more successful than heretofore in obtaining jobs. 

Defense migration is already creating serious economic and social problems in 
many communities. It is important that these be solved and that they be solved 
quickly. 

Meantime, we should not forget the post-war migrant problems now being 
created. It seems probable that many war industries will shrink as rapidly as 
they have arisen, that the present extreme concentration of industrial activity 
will be to some extent reduced, and that the country will again face large-scale 
unemployment. These changes will provide new stimuli to migration. The 
course of post-war migration, however, will be far less happy than that of the 
present day. Post-war migration may well be depression migration all over 
again — the type with which we have become all too familiar during the decade 
just ended. 

As the experience of the depression years abundantly illustrates, the wise 
direction of large-scale population movements is an extremely difficult task. To 
keep suffering to a minimum and to avoid the creation of new depressed areas 
requires careful planning over a considerable period of time. It is essential that 
such planning be undertaken at once. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10324a 



Chart 1 
MIGRANT RATES 

(PERCENT RELATIONSHIP OF MIGRANT PERSONS TO 1940 POPULATION) 

October I, 1940 1o the Specified Dote of Survey 

Percent 
5 10 15 20 25 



Son Diego, Calif. ^ 
Wichita, Kens. ^ 
Newport News, Vo.-^ 
Burlington, Iowa 3/ 
Long Beach, Calif 2.'' 
Portsmouth, Vo. V 
Wichita Foils, Tex. 2J 
Norfolk, Vo. -2/ 
Seattle, Wash. 2/ 
Corpus Christi, Tex. '^ 
Fort Smith, Ark. i/ 
Glendale etc., Calif. 3/ 



La Fayette, Ind. 



2J 



Washington, D.C. .5 
Warren etc., Ohio ^ 
Augusta, Go. -§/ 
Macon, Go. J/ 
Los Angeles, Calif. 2/ 
Bridgeport, Conn. .1/ 
Oakland, Calif. 3/ 
Bristol, Conn. 3/ 
Oklahoma City, Okla. J/ 
Muskogee,, Okla. 2J 
South Bend, Ind. ^ 
Marion, Ohio ^ 
Dayton, Ohio 4/ 
Battle Creek, Mich. .5/ 
Des Moines, Iowa 2/ 
Portlond, Me. ^ 
Houston, Tex. ^ 
Quincy, 111. ^ 
San Francisco, Calif. 2/ 
Appleton, Wis. .5/ 
Noshville, Tenn. 2J 
Terre Haute, lnd.£/ 
Boltimore, Md. J/ 
Saginaw, Mich. -3/ 
Atlanto, Go. -2/ 
Greenville, S.C. J/ 
Indianapolis, Ind. .2/ 
Kalamazoo, Mich. .2/ 
Newburgh, N.Y. U 
Washington, Po. -2/ 
Detroit, Mich. 5/ 
St. Louis, Mo. 1/ 
Hockensack, N. J. ^ 
Brockton, Moss. -2/ 
Bloomfield, N.J. -2/ 
Pittsburgh, Pa. .2/ 
Johnstown, Pa. 2J 
Philadelphia, Pa. J/ 



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10324b 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Chart 2 
EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF MIGRANT 
(PERCENT DISTRIBUTION) 



WORKERS 



Unemployed V/Z/A Employed 

Percent 
40 50 60 



Bloomfield, N J 
Bristol, Conn. 
Wostiington, D. C. 
Burlington, lowo 
Baltimore, Md. 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Hackensack, N J. 
Oayton, Ohio 
Brockton, Mass, 
Bottle Creek, Mich. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
South Bend, Ind. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
Warren etc, Ohio 
Newport News Areo, Vo. 
Oes Moines, Iowa 
Norfolk, Va. 
Portlond, Me. 
Saginaw, Mich 
Portsmouth, Vo. 
La Foyette, Ind 
Augusta, Go 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
Wichita Falls, Tex. 
Quincy, III. 
Ooklond, Col. 
Johnstown, Pa. 
Appleton, Wis. 
Greenville, S. C. 
Philodelphio, Pa 
Morion, Ohio 
San Diego, Colif 
Pittsburgh, Po. 
Corpus Christi, Tex. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Newburgh, N.Y. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Son Francisco, Colif. 
Mocon, 6a. 
Houston, Tex 
Glendal-e etc., Calif. 
Wichita, Kans. 
Muskogee, Okla. 
Atlanta, Go 
Washington, Pa. 
Oklahoma City, Okla. 
Los Angeles, Calif 
Long Beoch, Calif. 
St Louis, Mo. 
Ft. Smith, Ark. 



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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10324c 



RACE 



Chart 3 
OF MIGRANTS 



Negro 



Percent 

50 



Appleton, Wis- 
Bloomfield, N.J. 
Des Moines. Iowa 
Portland, Me 
Seattle, Wosh. 
Burlington, Iowa 
Son Francisco, Colif. 
f\/lorion, Ohio 
Brockton, Mass. 
Bristol, Conn. 
Ft. Smith, Ark. 
Long Beach, Calif. 
Glendale etc., Colif 
Son Diego, Calif. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
Oklahoma City, Oklo. 
South Bend, Ind. 
Wichita, Kons. 
Saginaw, Mich. 
Quincy, III. . 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
La Fayette, Ind. 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Ooklond, Calif. 
St Louis, Mo. 
Newburgh, N.Y. 
Indionapolis, Ind. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Warren etc., Ohio 
Hackensack, N.J. 
Dayton, Ohio 
Greenville, S.C. 
Wichita Falls, Tex. 
Philadelphia , Pa. 

Corpus Christi, Tex. 

Johnstown, Pa. 

Washington, D.C. 

Houston, Tex. 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Nashville, Tenn. 

Muskogee, Oklo. 

Washington, Pa. 

Baltimore, Md. 

Norfolk, Vo. 

Atlanta, Go. 

Newport News Area,Va. 

Augusta, Go. 

Portsmouth, Va. 

Mocon, Go 



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60396 — 42— pt. 27- 



10324D 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Chart 4 

PROPORTION OF MIGRANT WORKERS ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE AND IN 
INDUSTRIES OTHER THAN AGRICULTURE, AT THEIR LAST RESIDENCE 



Agriculture 



In Other Industries 



Philodelphio, Po. 
Hockensock, N. J. 
Brockton, Moss. 
Johnstown, Pa. 
Woshington, Po. 
Newburgh, N. Y. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Wostimgton, D. C. 
Bloomfield, N J. 
Terre Houte, Ind. 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Portlond, Me. 
Pittsburgh, Po. 
Son Francisco, Calif 
South Bend, Ind. 
Worren etc., Ohio 
Oakland, Calif. 
Appleton, Wis. 
Long Beach, Colif. 
Kolomozoo, Mich. 
Seoltle, Wash. 
Muskogee, Oklo. 
Los Angeles, Cclif. 
Saginaw, Mich. 
Burlington, lowo 
Oklohomo City, Oklo. 
Greenville, SO. 
Wichito Foils, Tex. 
Corpus Christi, Tex. 
Fort Smith, Ark. 
Augusta, Go. 
Quincyi III. 
Bottle Creek, Mich 
Marion, Ohio 
Houston, Tex. 
Lo Fayette, ind. 
Portsmouth, Vo 
Son Oiego, Colif, 
Atlonto, Go. 
Dayton, Ohio 
Glendole etc., Colif. 
Indionopoiis, Ind. 
Baltimore, Md. 
SI. Louis, Mo 
Bristol, Conn 
Mocon, Go. 
Norfolk, Vo. 
Wichilo, Kons. 
Noshville, Tenn. 
Newport News, Vo 
Detroit, Mich. 



Percent 
50 



90 too 



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Appendix tobte 7 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10324E 




10324P 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10324G 




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10324H 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



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10324J 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10324k 



Brockton, Mass. 
Washington, Pa. 
Burlington, Iowa 
Newburgti, IM. Y. 
Des Moines, lowo 
Oakland, Calif. 
Muskogee, Oklo. 
San Francisco, Calif. 
Portland, Me. 
Warren etc , Otiio 
Hockensack, N. J. 
Marion, Otiio 
Wichita Foils, Tex. 
Carpus Christi, Tex. 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Oklahoma City, Oklo. 
South Bend, Ind. 
Long Beach, Calif. 
Ft. Smith, Ark. 
Portsmouth, Vo. 
Saginaw, Mich. 
Norfolk, Vo. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
Bloomfield, .N.J. 
Ouincy, III. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
San Diego, Calif. 
Indianapolis, Ind. 
Houston, Tex. 
Augusta, Go . 
Newport News Area, Va. 
Washington, D. C. 
Battle Creek, Mich. 
Greenville, S. C. 
Johnstown, Pa. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Atlonta, Go. 
Glendale etc., Calif. 
Dayton, Ohio 
Macon, Go. 
Baltimore, Md. 
La Fayette, Ind. 
Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Wichita, Kons. 
Appleton, Wis. 
Bristol, Conn. 



Chart 11 

AGE OF MIGRANT WORKERS 

(PERCENT DISTRIBUTION) 



Under 20 years \////A 20-44 years |:::::::::| 45 years or over 

i * i Median age 

Percent 
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 



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Source: Appendix table 9 



10324L 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Chart 12 

HABITABLE RENTAL VACANCY RATES AND PERCENT 
OF WORKERS MIGRATING WITHOUT THEIR FAMILIES 



Bristol, Conn. 
Warren etc., Ohio 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Dayton, Otiio 
Mocon, Go. 
Baltimore, Md. 
Hampton Roods Areo, Va 
Burlington, lowo 
Soutti Bend, Ind. 
Indionopolis, Ind. 
Ooklond, Calif. 
Pittsburgh, Po. 
Lo Fayette, Ind. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 
Washington, D.C. 
Soginow, Mich. 
Battle CreeK, Mich. 
Seattle, Wash. 
Atlanta, Go. 
Corpus Christi, Tex. 
Son Diego, Calif. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Augusta, Go. 
Wichito, Kon. 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Long Beach, Calif. 
Portland, Me. 
Kolomozoo, Mich. 
Nashville, Tenn. 
Terre Houte, Ind. 
Wichita Falls, Tex. 
Houston, Tex. 
Los Angeles etc., Colif. 
Son Francisco, Colif. 
Oklohomo City, Okia 

Source Appandix tabig 10 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10324m 



Chart 13 

LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF MULTI -PERSON 
(PERCENT DISTRIBUTION) 



MIGRANT FAMILIES 



V/Z/A In separate dwelling K9»g»l Shoring a dwelling 
tN^WNI In tourist and trailer camps 



|:--- ■::! In tiotels 



Percent 
50 



Wichito Foils, Tex. 
Jotinstown, Po. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
Greenville, S. C. 
Wostiington, Po. 
Morion, Ohio 
Burlington, Iowa 
Son Diego, Colif. 
Warren etc., Ohio 

Kalomozoo, Mich. 

Baltimore, Md 

Portsmouth, Vo 

Wichita, Kons 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

Woshington, D C. 

Detroit, Mich. 

Pittsburgh, Po. 

Doyton, Ohio 

Augusta, Go 

Bristol, Conn. 

Newport News flreo, Vo 

Corpus Chrlstl, Tex. 

Norfolk, Vo. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

South Bend, Ind. 

Portland, Me. 

Philadelphia, Po 

Glendole etc., Calif 

Atlanta, Go. 

Seattle, Wash. 

Ouincy, III. 

Los Angeles, Colif. 

Mocon, Go. 

Newburgh, N.Y. 

Houston, Tex. 

Hackensock, N. J. 
Ooklond, Colif. 
Long Beach, Colif. 
Saginaw, Mich. 
St. Louis, Mo. 
Bloomfield, N.J. 
Son Francisco, Colif 
Ft. Smith, Ark. 
La Fayette, Ind. 
Des Moines, Iowa 
Brockton, Moss. 
Oklohomo City, Oklo 
Nashville, Tenn. 
Muskogee, Oklo. 
Terre Haute, Ind. 
Applefon, Wis. 



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10324n WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



In addition to the charts and tables herewith, reference is made to 
the detailed migration surveys made under the direction of Howard 
B. Myers and referred to in his testimony. These surveys are printed 
herein as exhibit 1, pp. 10449-10633, and cover the following areas: 
Akron, Ohio ; Appleton, Wis. ; Atlanta, Ga. ; Augusta, Ga. ; Baltimore, 
Md.; Battle Creek, Mich.; Bloomfield, N. J.; Bridgeport, Conn.; 
Bristol, Conn.; Brockton, Mass.; Burlington, Iowa; Chicago, 111.; 
Corpus Christi, Tex.; Dayton, Ohio; Des Moines, Iowa; Detroit, 
Mich.; Fort Smith, Ark.; Fort Wayne, find.; Glendale, Calif, (see Los 
Angeles); Greenville, S. C; Hacksensack, N. J.; [Hampton Roads 
area, Va. ; Houston, Tex.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Johnstown, Pa.; Kala- 
mazoo, Mich. ; La Fayette, Ind. ; Long Beach, Calif, (see Los Angeles) 
Los Angeles, Cahf. ; Macon, Ga. ; Marion, Ohio; Muskogee, Olda. 
Nashville, Tenn. ; Newburgh, N. Y. ; Newport News, Va. ; Norfolk, Va. 
Oakland, Calif.; Oklahoma City, Okla. ; Philadelphia, Pa.; Pittsburgh 
Pa.; Portland, Maine; Portsmouth, Va. ; Quincy, 111.; Saginaw, Mich. 
St. Louis, Mo. ; San Diego, Calif. ; San Francisco, Calif. ; Seattle, Wash. 
South Bend, Ind.; Terra Haute, Ind.; Warren, Ohio; Washington, 
D. C; Washington, Pa.; Wichita, Kans.; Wichita Falls, Tex. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10325 



Work Projects Administration Defense Migration Survey 
Table 1. — Number of migrant persons and migrant rates 



City and State 


Migrant per- 
sons in the 
city at the 
time of the 
survey per 
100 persons 
in April 1940 
population 


Estimated 
number 
of mi- 
grant 
persons 


City and State 


Migrant per- 
sons in the 
city at the 
time of the 
survey per 
100 persons 
in April 1940 
population 


Estimated 
number 
of mi- 
grant 
persons 


Philadelphia, Pa.' 

Johnstown, Pa. 2 


1.0 
1.0 
1.6 
1.8 
1.8 
2.2 
2.5 
2.7 
2.8 
2.9 
3.2 
3.2 
3.2 
3.4 
3.5 
3.6 
3.7 
4.0 
4.0 
4.2 
4.2 
4.4 
4.5 
4.8 
5.4 
6.4 


19, 800 
700 

17, 500 

730 

1,200 

560 

20, 800 

60, 900 
700 
900 

12, 600 
1,730 
2,450 

10, 250 
2,900 

30. 500 
2.300 
6.600 
1,150 

26, 700 
1.700 

15. 900 
4.000 
7,700 
2,300 

11, 400 


South Bend, Ind.3 

Marion, Ohio < 


6.5 

6.5 

5.7 

6.3 

6.3 

6.6 

6 7 

6.9 

7.0 

7.0 

7.5 

7.8 

8.5 

8.9 

9.9 

11.1 

11.4 

11.6 

11.8 

12.6 

13.4 

19.2 

19.7 
20.0 
26.1 


5,600 

1.700 

1,850 

1.900 

12.900 

29,700 

9.900 

103. 400 

4, 600 

4,050 

4.090 

51. 700 

2. 500 

31. 900 

3.600 

6.400 

42, 100 

16, 700 

5.300 

6 400 


Pittsburgh, Pa. 3. 


Muskogee, Okla.' 


Bloomfleld, N. J.3 


Bristol, Conn.3 


Brockton, Mass.^ 


Oklahoma City, Okla.i... 
Oakland, Calif.3 


Hackensack, N. J.s 


St. Louis, Mo. 3 


Bridgeport, Conn.3.. 

Los Angeles, Calif.3 

Augusta, Ga.2 


Detroit, Mich.' 


Washington, Pa. 2 


Newburgh, N. Y.3 


Macon, Ga.> 


Indianapolis, Ind.' 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 3 

Greenville, S. C.i... 


Warren, etc., Ohio 3 

Washington, D. C.3. 

La Fayette, Ind.2 


Atlanta, Ga.3 


Glendale, etc., California '. 

Fort Smith, Ark.i 

Corpus Christi, Tex.s 

Seattle, Wash.3 


Saginaw, Mich. 3 _ . 


Baltimore, Md.' 


Terra Uaute, Ind.^ 


Nashville, Tenn.^ 






Wichita, Falls, Tex.2 

Portsmouth, Va.' 


San Francisco, Calif.' 


Quincy, 111.^ . 


Long Beach, Calif.' 

Burlington, Iowa 3. 

Newport News area, Vir- 
ginia 3__ 


22. 000 
5,000 

7,300 
23 000 


Houston, Tex.2 


Portland, Maine '.. 

Des Moines, Iowa 3 


Battle Creek, Mich,3 


Wichita, Kans.' 


Dayton, Ohio < 


San Diego, Calif.< 


59, 900 





1 Surveyed September 1941. 
3 Surveyed October 1941. 
' Surveyed November 1941. 



* Surveyed December 1941. 

» Surveyed May 1941, adjusted to October 1941. 



Table 2. — Estimated number and employment status of migrant workers 
[Ranked by proportion of workers unemployed] 





Esti- 
mated 

number 
of mi- 
grant 

workers 


Percent distribution 


City and State 


Esti- 
mated 

number 
of mi- 
grant 

workers 


Percent distribution 


City and State 


Total 


Unem- 
ployed 


Em- 
ployed 


Total 


Unem- 
ployed 


Em- 
ployed 


Bloomfield, N. J.. 

Bristol, Conn 

Washington, D. C. 
Burlington, Iowa.. 

Baltimore, Md 

Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Hackensack, N. J. 

Dayton, Ohio 

Brockton, Mass... 


350 

1,150 

36, 800 

2,900 

16, 600 

850 

210 
6,800 

450 
1,000 
6,000 
2,700 
1,000 
2,250 

3,760 
3,400 
7,350 
1,700 
1,300 
2,950 
1,100 
2,400 
5,100 
3,000 
2,200 
700 
11, 500 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
4 
4 
4 

4 
5 
6 
5 
6 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 


98 
98 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
97 
96 
96 
96 
96 

96 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
94 
'94 
94 
94 
94 
93 


Johnstown, Pa 

Appleton, Wis ... 
Greenville, S. C... 
Philadelphia, Pa.. 

Marion, Ohio 

San Diego, Calif. . 

Pittsburgh, Pa.... 

Corpus Christi, 

Tex 


450 

500 

1,090 

12. 900 

675 

29. 900 

8,800 

3,200 

23, 200 

430 

16, 300 

12. 200 
2,050 
7,100 

16, 300 
13, 000 

800 
4.450 

290 

5,000 
48, 200 

9,000 
11. 200 

1.600 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
9 
9 

9 
9 
9 
10 

10 
11 
11 

12 
13 
13 
14 
14 

15 
16 
16 
16 
17 


93 
93 
92 
92 
92 
91 
91 

91 


Battle Creek, Mich. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 
South Bend, Ind.. 
Terre Haute, Ind.. 
Warren, etc., Ohio. 


Seattle, Wash 

Newburgh, N. Y.. 

Detroit, Mich 

San Francisco, 
Calif 


91 
91 
90 

90 


Newport News 

area, Virginia... 

Des Moines, Iowa. 

Norfolk, Va 

Portland, Maine.. 

Saginaw, Mich 

Portsmouth, Va... 
La Fayette, Ind... 

Augusta, Ga 

Indianapolis, Ind. 


Macon, Ga 

Houston, Tex 

Glendale, etc., 

California 

Wichita, Kans 

Muskogee, Okla.. 

Atlanta, Ga 

Washington, Pa... 
Oklahoma City, 

Okla 


89 
89 

88 
87 
87 
86 
86 

85 


Nashville, Tenn... 
Wichita Falls, Tex. 

Quincy, 111 

Oakland, Calif 


Los Angeles, Calif 
Long Beach, Calif. 

St. Louis, Mo 

Fort Smith, Ark.. 


84 
84 
84 
83 



10326 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Table Z. ^Corn-par ison of the percent of unemployment among all migrant workers 
and among migrant workers under 20 years of age 



City and State 


Percent 
unem- 
ployed, 

all 
workers 

(a) 


Percent 
unem- 
ployed 
workers 
under 20 

(6) 


Percent 
by which 

{h) ex- 
ceeds (a) 

(0 


City and State 


Percent 
unem- 
ployed, 

all 
workers 

(a) 


Percent 
unem- 
ployed 
workers 
under 20 

(6) 


Percent 
by which 

ib) ex- 
ceeds (a) 

(0 


Bloomfield, N. J... 
Burlington, lowa.. 
Philadelphia, Pa... 
Newhurgh, N. Y.. 

Saginaw, Mich 

Portsmouth, Va... 

Appleton, Wis 

Portland, Maine... 
South Bend, Ind... 
Indianapolis, Ind.. 
Nashville, Tenn... 

Wichita, Kans 

Augusta, Ga 

Detroit, Mich 

•Oklahoma City, 
Okla - 


2 
3 
8 
9 
5 
5 
7 
5 
4 
6 
6 

13 
6 

10 

15 

14 
8 

17 
3 
6 

13 

12 
7 
9 

11 
4 


10 
12 
29 
33 
17 
15 
20 
14 
11 
14 
14 
30 
13 
20 

30 
26 
14 
31 
5 
10 
21 

19 
11 
14 
17 
6 


+400 
-f300 
-f263 
-f267 
+240 
+2(0 
+186 
+180 
+175 
+133 
+133 
+131 
+ 117 
+100 

+100 
+86 
+85 
+82 
+67 
+67 
+62 

+58 
+57 
+56 
+55 
+50 


Bridgeport, Conn.. 

St. Louis, Mo 

Bristol, Conn 

Houston, Tex 

San Diego, Calif... 

Oakland, Calif 

Norfolk, Va 

Battle Creek, Mich. 
Long Beach, Calif. 
Newport News 

area, Virginia 

Seattle, Wash 

La Fayette, Ind... 

Baltimore, Md 

Quincy, 111 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Corpus Christi, 

Tex 


4 
16 
2 
11 
9 
7 
5 
3 
16 

4 
9 
5 
3 
6 


9 
16 

10 
3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
5 

14 


6 

24 
3 
16 
13 
10 
7 
4 
20 

5 
11 
6 
3 

6 

S 

5 
8 

4 


+50 
+50 
+50 
+45 
+44 
+43 
+40 
+33 
+25 

+25 
+22 
+20 


-12 


Atlanta, Ga. 

Marion, Ohio 

Fort Smith, Ark... 

Dayton, Ohio 

Wichita Falls, Tex. 
Muskogee, Okla. . 
Glendale,etc., Cal- 


-44 


Los Angeles, Calif. 
San Francisco, 
Calif 


-60 
-60 


Kalamazoo, Mich.. 
Brockton, Mass... 
Washington, D. C. 
Hackensack, N. J.. 
Warren, etc., Ohio. 
Des Moines, Iowa. 
Washington, Pa... 




1 
) 


-67 


Johnstown, Pa 

Greenville, S. C... 

Macon, Ga.. 

Terra Haute, Ind.. 


(?) 



• Less than H of 1 percent. 



1 Not ascertainable. 



Table 4. — Comparison of the percent of unemployment among all migrant workers 
•> and among migrant workers 45 years of age and over 



City and State 


Percent 
unem- 
ployed, 

all 

workers 

(a) 


Percent 
unem- 
ployed, 
workers 
45 years 
and over 
(6) 


Percent 
by which 

(6) ex- 
ceeds (a) 
(0 


City and State 


Percent 
unem- 
ployed, 

all 
workers 

(a) 


Percent 
unem- 
ployed, 
workers 
45 years 
and over 
(b) 


Percent 
by which 

(6) ex- 
ceeds (a) 
(c) 


Washington, D. C. 
Kalamazoo, Mich.. 
Ncwhurgh, N. Y.. 
Hackensack, N. J.. 

Saginaw, Mich 

Dayton, Ohio 

Brockton, Mass 

Greenville, S. C... 

Marion, Ohio 

San Diego, Calif... 

Johnstown, Pa 

Nashville, Tenn... 
Pittsburgh, Pa 


3 
3 
9 
3 
5 
3 
3 
9 
8 
9 
7 
6 
9 
4 
4 
3 
6 
11 
16 
5 
10 

10 
5 

17 
1) 
3 

15 


10 
8 
22 
7 
11 
6 
6 
17 
7 

17 

13 

11 

16 

7 

7 

5 

9 

Ifi 

23 

7 

14 

14 
7 
23 

"1 

20 


+233 

+ic: 

+144 

+ 133 

+ 120 

+ 100 

+100 

+89 

+88 

+80 

+86 

+83 

+ 78 

+75 

+75 

+67 

+50 

+45 

+44 

+40 
+40 

+40 
+4(1 
+35 
+33 
+33 

+33 


1 Augusta, Ga 

' Macon, Ga 

Newport News 

area, Virginia 

South Bond, Ind._ 
Washington, Pa.-. 
La Fayette, Ind . _ . 
Glendale, etc., 

California 

Appleton, Wis 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
Corpus Christi, 

Tex 


6 
11 

4 
4 
14 
5 
1 

12 
7 

16 
1 

9 
13 
3 
7 
4 

16 
6 
5 
13 
14 
5 
8 
2 
6 
2 


8 
14 

5 
5 
17 
6 

14 

8 
18 

10 

14 

3 

7 

4 

16 

6 

4 

9 

9 

2 

1 

0) 

(') 
(■) 


+33 

+27 

+25 

+25 
+21 

r 

+17 
+ 14 
+13 

+ 11 


M^arren, etc., Ohio 
Terre Haute, Ind., 
Battle Creek, Ind.. 
Quincy, 111 

Houston, Tex 

Long Beach, Calif. 
Des Moines, Iowa. 

Detroit, Mich 

San Francisco, 
Calif 


Muskogee, Okla... 
Burlington, Iowa.. 

Oakland, Calif 

Bridgeport, Conn.. 

St. Louis, Mo 

Wichita Falls, Tex. 

Norfolk, Va 

Wichita, Kans 

Atlanta, Ga . . 

Portland, Maine... 
Philadelphia, Pa... 
Bloomfield, N.J... 
Indianapolis, Ind.. 
Bristol, Conn 


+8 











-20 

-31 

-33 

-60 

-87 

P) 

(0 


Portsmouth, Va... 
Fort Smith, Ark... 

Seattle, Wa.sh 

Baltimore, Md 

Ot-'b^nma City, 
Okla 











i Less than J.^ of 1 percent. 



> Not ascertainable. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10327 



Table 5. — Race of migrants 
[Ranked by the proportion of Negroes] 



City and State 



Appleton, Wis.-. 
Bloomfleld, N.J. 
Des Moines, Iowa... 

Portland, Maine 

Seattle, Wash 

Burlington, Iowa 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Marion, Ohio 

Brockton, Mass 

Bristol, Conn 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Long Beach, Calif.. 
Glendale, etc., Cali- 
fornia 

San Diego, Calif 

Bridgeport, Conn... 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Oklahoma City, 

Okla 

South Bend, Ind 

Wichita, Kans 

Saginaw, Mich 

Quincy, 111 

Los Angeles, Calif... 

La Fayette, Ind 

Kalamazoo, Mich... 
Oakland, Calif. 



All 








mi- 


Negro 


White 


Other 


grants 








100 





100 





100 





100 





100 




100 





100 




100 





100 




100 


(') 


100 




100 





100 




100 


(') 


100 




100 





100 




100 





100 


(') 


100 





100 


1 


99 





100 


1 


99 


(') 


100 


1 


99 


0) 


100 


1 


99 


(') 


100 


1 


99 





100 


1 


99 





100 


1 


99 


0) 


100 


2 


98 





100 


2 


98 





100 


2 


98 





100 


2 


98 





100 


2 


97 


1 


100 


2 


98 





100 


3 


97 





100 


3 


97 


(') 



City and State 



St. Louis, Mo_ 

Newburgh, N. Y... 
Indianapolis, Ind... 

Detroit, Mich 

Warren, etc., Ohio. 
Hackensack, N. J.. 

Davton, Ohio 

Greenville. S. C 

Wichita Falls, Tex.. 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Corpus Christi, Tex. 

Johnstown, Pa 

Washington, D. C 

Houston, Tex 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

PittsDurgh, Pa 

Nashville, Tenn 

Muskogee, Okla 

Washington, Pa 

Baltimore, Md 

Norfolk, Va 

Atlanta, Qa 

N ewport News area, 

Virginia.- 

Augusta, Oa 

Portsmouth, Va 

Macon, Ga 



All 






mi- 


Negro 


White 


grants 






100 


3 


97 


100 


4 


96 


100 


4 


96 


100 


4 


96 


100 


4 


96 


100 


4 


96 


100 


5 


95 


100 


5 


95 


100 


5 


93 


100 


6 


94 


100 


6 


84 


100 


6 


94 


100 


7 


93 


100 


7 


93 


100 


7 


93 


100 


8 


92 


100 


8 


92 


100 


10 


90 


100 


10 


90 


100 


11 


89 


100 


14 


86 


100 


16 


84 


100 


16 


84 


100 


17 


83 


100 


18 


82 


100 


20 


80 



Other 



(') 



(') 



1 Less than \i of 1 percent. 



Table 6. — Proportion of male and female workers in the migrant labor force 
[Ranked by the proportion of female workers) 



City and State 



Washington, D. C 

Muskogee, Okla 

-Atlanta, Oa 

Macon, Qa 

Greenville. S. C 

Nashville, Tenn 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Quincy, 111 

Kalamazoo, A'lich 

Los .A.ngeles, Calif 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Washington, Pa 

San Francisco, Calif 

La Fayette, Ind 

Appleton, Wis 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Oklahoma City, Okla.. 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Seattle, Wdsh 

St. Louis, Mo 

Brockton, Mass . 

Battle Creek, Mich 

Norfolk, Va 

Houston, Tex 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Long Beach, Calif 



Total 


Female 


Male 




100 


45 


55 




100 


30 


70 




100 


28 


72 




100 


28 


72 




100 


28 


72 




100 


28 


72 




100 


28 


72 




100 


27 


73 




ICO 


20 


74 




100 


25 


75 




100 


25 


75 




100 


25 


75 




100 


25 


75 




100 


24 


76 




100 


23 


77 




100 


22 


78 




100 


22 


7S 




100 


?2 


78 




100 


22 


78 




100 


21 


79 




100 


21 


79 




100 


20 


80 




100 


20 


80 




100 


19 


81 




100 


18 


82 




100 


18 


82 





City and State 



Glendale, eto., California 

Bristol, Conn 

.\ugust8, Oa - 

Detroit, Mich - 

Pittsburgh, Pa - 

Corpus Christi, Tex 

Oakland, Calif 

Indianapolis, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Portland, Maine- 

Bloomfleld, N. J 

Portsmouth, Va 

Marion, Ohio 

Newport News area, Vir- 
ginia 

Wichita, Kans 

Saginaw, Mich - 

Warren, etc., Ohio 

Ilackensack, N.J 

Dayton, Ohio 

Fort Smith. Ark 

San Diego. Calif 

Wichita Falls, Tex 

Burlington, Iowa 

Baltimore, Md 

Johnstown, Pa 



Total 


Female 


100 


17 


100 


17 


100 


17 


100 


17 


100 


17 


100 


17 


100 


16 


100 


15 


100 


15 


100 


15 


100 


15 


100 


14 


100 


14 


100 


13 


100 


13 


100 


13 


100 


13 


100 


13 


100 


12 


100 


12 


100 


12 


100 


11 


100 


10 


100 


10 


100 


10 



Male 



83 
83 
83 
83 
83 
83 
84 
85 
85 
85 
85 



10328 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Table 7.— Proportion of migrant workers engaged in agriculture and in other 
industries at their last residence 

[Ranked by the proportion in Agriculture] 



City and State 


All 
work- 
ers 


In agri- 
culture 


In other 
occupa- 
tions 


City and State 


All 
work- 
ers 


In agri- 
culture 


In other 
occupa- 
tions 




100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


2 
2 
2 
3 
3 
3 
4 
4 
4 
5 
5 
5 
5 
5 
7 
7 
7 

8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
9 
9 
9 


98 
98 
98 
97 
97 
97 
96 
96 
96 
95 
95 
95 
95 
95 
93 
93 
93 
93 
92 
92 
92 
92 
92 
91 
91 
91 


Greenville, S. C 

Wichita Falls, Tex 

Corpus Christi, Tex 

Fort Smith, Ark 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
100 


9 
9 
10 
11 
11 
12 
12 
13 
13 
13 
14 
14 
14 
14 
15 
15 
15 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
19 

20 
21 


91 


Hackciisack, N. J 

Brockton, Mass 


91 
90 

89 


Washinpiton, Pa — 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Briiiiieport, Conn - 

M'asiiinsjton, D. C. 

Blooiiificld, N. J 

Torre Haute, Ind 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Portland, Maine 

Pittsburgh, Pa - 

San Francisco, Calif 

South Bend, Ind 

Warren, etc.. Ohio 


Augusta, Ga 

Quiney, 111 

Battle Creek, Mich 


89 
88 
88 
87 




87 




87 




86 


San Diego, Calif 


86 


\tlanta, Ga - 


86 


Dpyton, Oliio . 


86 


Glendale. etc., California. 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Baltimore, Md 


85 
85 
85 


Appleton, Wis 

Long Beach, Calif 

Kalamazoo, Mich -.. 

Seattle Wash 




85 




84 


Macou, Ga 

Norfolk, Va 

Wichita, Kans 


83 
82 


Muskogee. Okla 

Los Angeles. Calif 

Saginaw. Mich 


81 


Nashville, Tenn 

Newport News area, Vir- 
ginia 

Detroit, Mich 


81 
80 


Oklahoma City, Okla.-^ 


79 



Table 8. — Average distance traveled by migrant workers 




City and State 


Average 
distance 


City and State 


.A.vera?e 
distance 


Fort Smith Ark - -- 


Miles 

130 

1,190 

1,270 

1,070 

350 

1,100 

300 

145 

115 

291) 

90 

100 

70 

85 

95 

70 

110 

85 

140 

155 

135 

100 

170 

60 

125 

340 


Kalamazoo, Mich . 


Miles 
95 


Glendale, etc , California . 


Saginaw, Mich 


90 




St. Louis, Mo 


160 




Bloomfield, N. J. 

Hackensack, N. J 


65 


Oakland, Calif - 


60 


San Diego, Calif .- 


Newburgh,»N. Y 

Davton, Ohio 


70 




130 




Marion, Ohio 

Warren, etc., Ohio 


90 


Bridgeport, Conn . 


115 


Washington, D. C -.. 


Muskogee, Okla . . 


85 


Atlanta, Ga 


Oklahoma Citv, Okla 


120 


Augusta, Ga 


Johnstown, Pa 


90 




Philadelphia. Pa 


80 


Quincv, 111 - . 


Pittsburgh, Pa 


100 






100 


La Faxrtte, Ind 


Greenville, S. C 


70 


South Bend, Ind 


Nashville. Tenn . 


85 


Terro Haute, Ind 


Corpus Christi, Tex 


240 


Burlington, Iowa 


Houston, Tex 


175 


Des Moines, Iowa 


Wichita Falls. Tex 


160 


Wichita, Kans 


Newport News area, Virginia 


150 


Portland, Maine 




170 


Baltimore, Md 


Portsmouth, Va 


190 


Brockton, Mass 


Seattle, Wash 


260 


Battle Creek, Mich 




75 


Detroit, Mich 











NATTONIAL DEFENSE MIGUATTON 



10329 



Table 9. — Age of migrant workers 
r [Ranked by proportion of workers under 20 years] 



City and State 



Brockton, Mass 

Washington, Pa 

Burlington, Iowa 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Des Moines, Iowa — 

Oakland, Calif 

Muskogee, Okia 

San Francisco, Calif- 
Portland, Maine 

Warren, etc , Ohio-. 

Marion, Ohio 

Wichita Falls. Tex. - 
Corpus Christi, Tex. 

Hackensack, N. J 

Los Angeles, Calif... 

Nashville, Tenn 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Oklahoma City, Okla 

South Bend, Ind 

Long Beach, Calif 

Fort Smith, Ark 

Portsmouth, Va 

Saginaw, Mich 

Norfolk, Va 

Terre Haute, Ind : 

Bloomfleld, N.J 

Quincy, 111 



Percent distribution 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



31.1 
30.6 
33.7 
33.9 
29.7 
31.7 
31.6 
32.3 
32.3 
32.6 
29.7 
32. .5 
31.9 
31.8 
29.9 
29.6 
29.7 
30.5 
31.7 
29.5 
32.8 
29.4 
29.4 
29.1 
32.1 
29.3 
31.4 



City and State 



Pittsburgh , Pa 

San Diego, Calif 

Indiananolis, Ind 

Houston, Tex 

Augusta, Ga 

Newport News area, 

Virginia 

Washington, D. C 

Battle Creek, Mich.. 

Greenville, S. C 

Johnstown, Pa 

St. Louis, Mo 

Atlanta, Ga 

Glendale, etc., Califor 

nia 

Dayton, Ohio... 

Macon, Ga 

Baltimore, Md 

La Fayette, Ind_ 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Seattle, Wash 

Detroit, Mich_ 

Bridgeport, Conn 

Wichita, Kans_ 

Appleton, Wis 

Bristol, Conn 



Percent distribution 



100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



28.9 
27.2 
29.2 
29.1 
30.1 

26.3 
26.1 
29.2 
26.0 
32.5 
30.8 
28 8 

26.4 
27.7 
28.1 
27.5 
27.7 
28.0 
27.8 
30.4 
27.0 
24.9 
29.3 
25.2 



' Less than J^ of 1 percent. 
Table 10 



Habitable rental vacancy rates ' and percent of workers migrating with- 
out their families 

[Ranked by habitable vacancy rates] 



City and State 


Vacancy 
rate 


Percent 
without 
families 


City and State 


Vacancy 
rate 


Percent 
without 
families 


Bristol, Conn -.. .. .. 


0.2 
.3 
.4 

.5 
.5 
.5 

.5 
.7 
.7 
.8 
1.0 
1.0 
1.1 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 
1.2 


60 
33 
44 
26 
23 
38 

21 
31 
21 
16 

4 

18 
22 
29 
33 
11 

9 


Seattle, Wash 


1.3 
1.3 
1.3 
1.4 
1.5 
1.6 
1.8 
1.9 
2.0 
2.1 
2.1 
2.4 
2.7 
3.0 
3.0 
3.1 
4.4 
4.4 


13 




Atlanta, Ga __ . .__ 


18 


Bridgeport, Conn 

Dayton, Ohio 


Corpus Christi, Tex 


5 


San Diego, Calif 


27 


Macon, Ga . 


St. Louis, Mo 

Augusta, Ga 

Wichita, Kans 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Long Beach, Calif 

Portland, Me 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Nashville, Tenn 

Terre Haute, Ind 

M'ichita Falls, Tex 

Houston, Tex 


26 


Baltimore, Md 

Hampton Roads area, Vir- 
ginia 

Burlington, Iowa 

South Bend, Ind 

Indianapolis, Ind 

Oakland, Calif 

Pittsburgh, Pa 


15 
12 
8 
11 
7 
7 
10 
15 


La Fayette, Ind 

Philadelphia, Pa 

Washington, D. C 

Saginaw, Mich _. . 


10 

8 


Los Angeles, etc., California. 

San Francisco, Calif . 

Oklahoma City, Okla 


25 
10 


Battle Creek, Mich 


3 



1 Number of vacant rental units in good condition per 100 units in the city. 



60396— 42— pt. 27- 



10330 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Table 11. — Living arrangements of multi-person migrant families 
[Ranked by the proportion of families occupying a separate dwelling] 



City and State 



Wichita Falls, Tex.... 

Johnstown, Pa 

Bridecport, Conn 

Greenville, S. C 

Washington, Pa 

Marion, Ohio 

Burlinston, Iowa 

San Diego, Calif 

Warren, etc., Ohio 

Kalamazoo, Mich 

Baltimore, Md. 

Portsmouth, Va 

Wichita, Kans 

Battle Creek, Mich... 

Washington, D. C 

Detroit, Mich.. 

Pittsburgh, Pa 

Dayton, Ohio 

Aueusta, Qa 

Bristol, Conn 

Newport News area, 

Virginia 

Corpus Christi, Tex.. 

Norfolk, Va 

Indianapolis, Ind 

South Bend, Ind 

Portland, Maine 



Percent distribution 



tsg 



(') 





1 

17 
10 
15 

2 
2 
1 


4 
7 
1 

4 

1 

14 

1 





(') 



City and State 



Philadelphia, Pa 

Glendale, etc., Cali- 
fornia 

Atlanta, Ga 

Seattle, Wash 

Quincy, 111 

Los Angeles, Calif 

Macon, Ga 

Newburgh, N. Y 

Houston, Tex 

Haekensack, N.J 

Oakland, Calif 

Long Beach, Calif 

Saginaw, Mich 

St. Louis, Mo 

Bloomfleld, N. J. 

San Francisco, Calif. - 

Ft. Smith, Ark 

La Fayette, Ind 

Des Moines, Iowa 

Brockton, Mass 

Oklahoma City, Okla 

Nashville, Tenn 

Muskogee, Okla 

Terre Haute, Ind 

Appleton, Wis --. 



Percent distribution 



100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



osg 



(') 



I Less than \i of 1 percent. 

TESTIMONY OF HOWARD B. MYERS— Resumed 

Mr. Myers. For the second time in 10 years, the United States la 
experiencing a sharp increase in worker migration. It is true that 
most war-production centers are still able to meet their labor needs 
largely by drawing on local sources of supply, but in an increasing 
number of areas these local sources are running low and a growing 
stream of migrants is coming in. 



SCOPE OF SURVEYS 

This series of studies, which we undertook in the fall of last year, 
were designed to show how many workers and how many persons had 
moved to the area during the past year, where they had come from, 
what types of people they were, the occupations and industries in 
which they had been employed, their success in finding jobs after 
they migrated, and the extent to which they shifted to new occupa- 
tions or new industries. 

The surveys covered civilian workers only and no attempt was 
made to get information on workers who had left the area during the 
year. 

Now, before presenting some of the findings of these studies, I 
should like to point out that workers from out of the city are of two 
types — commuters and migrants. 



NATIONIAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10331 

War industries located near great population centers — for example, 
those in Ravenna, Ohio — are frequently able to meet a large part of 
their labor needs by employing workers from neighboring areas who 
commute daily to and from the factories. Industries in more sparsely 
settled areas — an illustration is Burlington, Iowa — must depend 
largely on migrant workers. 

The availability of commuters thus has a pronounced effect on 
defense migration. The surveys did not attempt to measure the 
extent to which commuters supplemented or substituted for migra- 
tion to war-producing centers. 

Migration to war-industry towns has by no means been restricted 
to war workers. Roughly speaking, one nondefense migrant has 
moved into a defense town for each worker who has secured a war 
job. 

Mr. Curtis. Have those nondefense migrants gotten jobs? 

Mr. Myers. A considerable portion have. 

Mr. Curtis. In what type of work? 

Mr. Myers. Either in the service industries in the area, or in jobs 
not directly related to the defense program, such as domestic service. 
Some have been unemployed and the percentage of unemployed of 
that group has been larger than for the war workers. 

The Chairman. Are those nondefense workers from industrial 
areas? 

Mr. Myers. For the most part they are from industrial areas, from 
the cities. 

The Chairman. Proceed. 

migration less than anticipated 

Mr. Myers. By and large, migration to defense areas has been 
smaller than a good many of the more excited newspaper articles 
have suggested. That is not to say that recent migration has not 
been very large in some areas. 

During the year following October 1940 more than 150,000 persons 
moved into Los Angeles County, more than 50,000 to Washington, 
D. C, and more than 40,000 to Seattle, Wash. 

These are exceptional cases. 

In half of the 51 cities surveyed the migration rate has been 5 
percent of the total resident population, or less, and in only 10 of 
the 51 cities has it risen to 10 percent or more. 

The first chart I have here shows the migrant rates for all cities 
included in the survey.^ 

At the top of the chart are the hottest war boom cities: San Diego, 
Calif.; Wichita, Kans.; Newport News, Va.; Burlington, Iowa; 
Long Beach, Calif. ; and so on. 

The active construction centers also are high on the chart. Note 
particularly Burlington, Iowa; Corpus Christi, Tex.; and Fort Smith, 
Ark. Those are cities in which large-scale construction programs were 
in progress at the time the survey was made. 

At the bottom of the chart are some cities with little or no war- 
stimulated activity, such as Newburgh, N. Y.; Washington, Pa.; 
and Brockton, Mass. Many, however, are active war centers which 
have been able to expand production without a great influx of workers. 

> See chart 1, p. 10324a. 



10332 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

St. Louis, Mo., for example, has had war contracts valued at more 
than a quarter of a billion dollars and is seventh from the bottom; 
Pittsbur^rh is third from the bottom; and Philadelphia with a billion 
dollars in contracts is at the bottom. 

Most of these cities had large numbers of resident unemployed 
workers when the contracts were received, and in most of these com- 
munities unemployment is still fairly large. 

Our estimates show that approximately two and a quarter million 
persons, inchiding about 1,000,000 workers living in cities of over 
25,000 population, had moved to those cities after October 1, 1940. 
The over-all migrant rate for cities of over 25,000 population was 
4.3 percent. 

It is important to note that these figures refer to in-migration only, 
and not to net population gain. 

Mr. Curtis. To what extent do you have figures on where these 
people came from? 

Mr. Myers. We have data on that and I have a series of maps here 
I should like to present in a few moments which show the movements 
in sLx of the cities.^ 

MEANING OF IN-MIGRATION 

Mr. Spaekman. May I ask what you mean by "in-migration," 
with reference to these particular cities? Does it mean crossing 
State lines or coming from a certain distance away from that point? 

Mr. Myers. It means that on October 1, 1940, they lived outside 
the county or the corporate limits, usually the county. Then on the 
date of our survey, which was September, October, or November, 
1941, they lived inside the corporate limits of the area. 

Mr. Sparkman. Suppose they were working there and commuting 
from a distance 30 or 40 or 50 miles away? 

Mr. Myers. We would not cover them and, as I suggested a 
moment ago, that group in some areas is quite important. In 
Ravenna, Ohio, there evidently has been a great deal of commuting. 
We cannot reach those people in the surveys without covering a tre- 
mendously broad area. 

It is pretty clear that in some of the cities — for example, Terre 
Haute, Ind. — there has been a net population loss during the period 
because some workers have moved out while other workers were 
moving in. Even from the most active cities there was undoubtedly 
some out-migration during the period. 

The surveys have not measured that out-movement. 

The surveys indicate that the rate of migration has been increasing 
in most areas. It is probable that migration will grow even more 
rapidly during the coming months as it is stunulated by the marked 
intensification of the war eft'ort, by the absorption of the resident 
labor supply in certain "hot" areas, and by rapidly growing priorities 
unemployment. During the first year of the war, migration should 
exceed by a considerable margin the volume during the pre-war period. 

It is very pleasing to report that defense migration thus far has 
been strikingly successful on the whole. 

The Chairman. You mean in securing jobs? 

Mr. Myers. Yes. 

1 See charts 5-10, pp. 10324e-10324j. 



NATTONiAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10333 

The Chairman. That was in contrast to what happened before the 
war. Isn't that true? 

SHARP CONTRAST BETWEEN PRESENT AND PAST MIGRATIONS 

Mr. Myers. There is a sharp contrast between the migration of the 
depression period and the present movement, both in the types of 
persons moving and their success in getting jobs, and in the pubHc 
reaction to the move. 

The Chairman. Let me interrupt, Mr. Myers. In other words, 
you don't find now the attempts to keep them out hke they did before. 
The gates are open now, are they not? 

Mr. Myers. Quite. Instead of the border controls and restrictive 
legislation of the depression period, we now have situations in many 
areas where migration is being actively encouraged both through 
advertising, through various types of local efforts and in a sense 
through the defense-housing and community-facilities program, as 
well as the clearance activities of the United States Employment 
Service. 

There has been a marked shift in public reaction as the war 
demands for labor have grown. 

In half of the areas we surveyed the unemployment rate for all 
migrant workers is 7 percent or less ; in one-fourth of the areas it is 4 
percent or less. 

The second chart shows the unemployment rates for each of the 
surveyed cities.^ 

Important war-industry towns fall at both ends of this array of 
cities. The most striking factor is the relatively small proportion 
of unemployment in all cities, shown by the dark sections on the chart. 
The light sections represent the number of migrants that have jobs. 
The highest unemployment is shown for Fort Smith, Ark., where large 
numbers of workers came in in anticipation of the start of work on a 
new Army camp. Very high unemployment was found in Long 
Beach, Calif., and Wichita, Kans. 

TIME OP MAKING SURVEY DISCUSSED 

Mr. Curtis. Wouldn't the day you happened to take your survey 
make a big difference on that? 

Mr. Myers. It would make some difference. For example, in Fort 
Smith the contract had been let for the Army camp; work had not 
yet started in any considerable volume; but workers informed that 
work was beginning had gone in in advance of the start of the 
construction. 

Mr. Curtis. Intending to get there ahead of time? 

Mr, Myers. Intending to get there ahead of time and hoping to 
get jobs. 

Particularly in the case of these construction towns does the unem- 
ployment rate depend on the time at which the survey is taken. The 
list here contains illustrations of both types of situations. Some we 
got just before work started and some at the peak of the construction 
activities, and a few after the construction activity was mostly over. 

> See chart 2, p. 10324b. 



10334 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

In San Francisco, San Diego, Seattle, and Corpus Christi unemploy- 
ment was relatively high, although those towns are very active defense 
centers, indicating that workers were coming in faster than they could 
be absorbed, but in Bristol, Burlington, Washington, D. C, Baltimore, 
South Bend, Ravenna, and Bridgeport, migrant unemployment was 
exceptionally low. 

Not only have the great majority of migrants got jobs but large 
numbers have better jobs than they held before they migrated. 

Mr. Curtis. What do you mean by "better jobs"? 

Mr. Myers. More continuous employment, a higher occupational 
skill or higher wages. 

Mr. Curtis. But they are paying more for living expenses, are they 
not? 

Mr. Myers. In most cases I am sure they are. 

We have no accurate figures on that, but the data we have on 
rentals and other items indicate that they undoubtedly are paying 
more. 

The Chairman. Mr. Mj^ers, this committee, as you probably know, 
has traveled about 50,000 miles throughout the United States, and, 
of course, w^e came in contact with the dilapidated means of trans- 
portation of migrants, all of them practically broke and penniless. 

I suppose with this war program they can finance their transporta- 
tion better than they did before the war. 

Mr. Myers. Yes, sir; I think that is true on the average. 

The Chairman. They have jobs in sight. 

COST OF MIGRATING 

Mr. Myers. It still leaves a serious problem. Congressman. 

Take an example of an unemployed worker migrating to a defense 
town. A good deal of the expense involved in migration has to be 
met, of course, before or during the time he makes the move. I think 
the problem is one of getting money to make the move, to travel 
by train or automobile or w^hat not to the new town and to support 
himself, or himself and his family, for a period until a job is secured. 

The Chairman. I take it the majority travel by automobile, don't 
they? 

Mr. Myers. I think that is the most common method of transpor- 
tation. 

The Chairman. The rubber shortage and tire shortage will be 
quite a problem, won't it? 

Mr. Myers. It will make it an extremely serious problem. The 
rubber shortage will affect migration in still another way. As tires 
get scarce and wear out, the commuters who have been working in 
towns like Ravenna and driving 30 to 50 miles a day, will be unable 
to commute. That will probably mean that some workers will have 
to move into the area and thus increase congestion over the present 
amount. 

As tires get short, migration will have to be substituted for com- 
muting to a considerable extent. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Myers, I know of one instance in w^hich a 
recommendation has been made by the State O. P. M. office that 
commuters' cars such as you mentioned before, be given the right to 



NATIONIAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10335 

purchase tires provided they carry as many as six persons to the car. 
It seems to me that might be worked out in such a way as to give 
some relief to the problem that you anticipate. 

Mr. !Myers. I think it is clear that the supplying of tires to com- 
muting defense workers is an important need. 

I gather also that the supply of rubber is extremely short and the 
question of the extent to which rubber can be supplied for commuting 
to the defense industries is questionable. 

Some groups have fared better than others in this migration. 
Young, white, skilled and semiskilled males have been most successful. 
Women, Negroes, unskilled workers, inexperienced workers and work- 
ers over 45 have been least successful. 

NEGRO MIGRANTS 

As shown by chart 3, Negroes make up a very small proportion of 
the migrants m most areas. ^ In Macon, Ga., the area into which the 
largest proportion of Negroes moved, only 20 percent of the migrants 
were Negroes. Augusta and Atlanta, both southern towns, naturally 
rank high. 

As you will note, in a majority of towns considerably less than 1 
percent of the migrants are Negroes, and in many towns the propor- 
tion is practically negligible. 

Mr. Curtis. In Macon, Ga., do they get 20 percent of the jobs? 

Mr. Myers. Negroes are one of the least successful among migrant 
groups in terms of getting jobs. If the unemployment among whites 
is 5 percent, it may be 10, 15, or 20 percent or more among Negroes. 

The situation here is in marked contrast to that developed during 
the last World War. I think it is probable that, as the demands for 
labor grow, this picture will change and a much larger number of 
Negroes will migrate. 

Chart 4 indicates that, contrary to popular impression, relatively 
small proportions of the migrants are coming from agriculture.^ The 
highest proportion is in Detroit, about 20 percent. 

In most cases the proportion coming from agriculture is 10 percent 
or less. 

Mr. Curtis. By that do you mean "actual farmers?" 

Mr. Myers. Actual farmers and farm workers. The proportion 
coming from the open country is about the same, as you would expect. 

Mr. Curtis. What do you mean by "open country?" 

Mr. Myers. Those comhig from outside of the villages, towns, or 
cities. 

Mr. Curtis. Well, have you got a chart on a small country town 
of 5,000 or less? 

Mr. Myers. No; I don't have. The movement here is mostly a 
city movement — tow^ns of over 5,000. 

We find that the village and open-country people who migrate 
come mostly from the villages and to a relatively small extent from 
farm houses and open country. The smallness of this movement is 
rather surprising in view of our large agricultural labor reserve, and 
it is probable it also will grow as the demand for labor increases. 

1 See chart 3, p. 10324c. 
» See chart 4, p. 10324D. 



10336 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

DISTANCES TRAVELED BY MIGRANTS 

Few of the migrants have traveled very far. In most centers the 
average distance is less than 125 miles. In Cahfornia cities there are 
outstanding exceptions to the general rule. 

In order to illustrate some of the movements I have had charts 
made of movements to six of these towns which illustrate the types 
of situations that arise. ^ These four maps that I have out on Bridge- 
port, Philadelphia, Oklahoma City, and St. Louis illustrate the short 
distance traveled by most migrants. Each dot or cross represents a 
migrant in the sample. A dot means a migrant from an urban area 
and a cross means a migrant from a rural area. For example, Phila- 
delphia migrants moved predominantly from New York City, Scran- 
ton, and Wilkes-Barre. 

Mr. Curtis. Each dot or cross is a migrant? 

Mr. Myers. Yes. You see, the sample was 270. That would be 
a small proportion of the total migrants but the distribution of all 
migrants would show the same picture as the sample, of course. 

Bridgeport migrants came very largely from the same areas, -with 
a few migrants scattered around New England. Notice the large 
proportions coming from Scranton and Wilkes-Barre and the city of 
New York. 

Mr. Curtis. Is'that Pennsylvania migration from the abandoned 
mine area? 

Mr. Myers. It is, yes. And one of the interesting points about 
these first two maps is the extent to which migration is coming from 
the depressed mining area. 

Both towns, Scranton and "Wilkes-Barre, which are in the depressed 
coal area of Pennsylvania, are heavily represented by these migrants. 

In St. Louis most came from southern Illinois and southeastern 
Missouri. St. Louis, incidentally, is a good example of the rural 
movement. About 40 percent of the migrants in St. Louis are from 
rural areas, which is one of the highest proportions we found in any 
of the cities surveyed. 

The Chairman. But going into California they come from longer 
distances? 

Mr. Myers. Much longer — 1,000 miles in many instances. In 
these other cases the movement is 125 miles or less. ^■^^:^ 

I have a chart here on Los Angeles which illustrates the movement 
to west coast cities. In Seattle you will observe a good deal more long- 
range movement. Most of the migrants, however, still come from 
within the State, with fairly heavy movements from California, and 
this very interesting movement through here along the northern 
border [indicating]. 

Mr. Curtis. Doesn't that prove that they follow the railroads 
and the highways? : 

Mr. Myers. I think that is one of the major reasons. There is a 
good deal of economic relationship in this northern tier of States, as 
you know. 

1 See charts 5-10, pp. 10324E-10324J. 



NATIONiAL DEFENSE' MIGRATION 10337 

MIGRANTS TO LOS ANGELES 

Now, in Los Angeles we have one of the few exceptions to the 
general rule that the migrants have been drawn from the fairly im- 
mediate neighborhood. Alost of these Los Angeles migrants origi- 
nated in a strip running from the Twin Cities to Dallas. 

The Chairman. The Mississippi Valley, in other words? 

Mr. Myers. Sioux City; Lincoln, Nebr.; St. Joseph, Mo.; Kansas 
City, Mo.; St. Louis, Mo.; Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Okla. 

The Chairman. What about Texas? 

Mr. Myers. A considerable number came from Texas, particularly 
around Dallas. 

You find movements from Chicago and New York. Oldahoma, 
where there was a good deal of migration a few years ago, is not out- 
standing as compared to the other States in the California movement. 
That is a marked difference from the depression days. 

Mr. Sparkman. When we were in Los Angeles the personnel 
director of one of the great aviation manufacturing companies de- 
scribed to us their methods of recruiting labor. Don't you think that 
the fact that they shop for their labor and actually send out repre- 
sentatives and work in the Midwest, as he testified, is the cause of 
the large migration from there? In these other areas, migration was 
purely voluntary, without any urging or encouragement, whereas in 
the Los Angeles-San Diego area, particularly the Los Angeles aviation 
area, the help was pulled in. 

Mr. Myers. I think that is a factor. 

The Chairman. Don't you give the sunshine any credit for it? 

Mr. Myers. I don't know, Mr. Congressman. 

Mr. Curtis. The Mountain States don't have many people. You 
have to have somebody living in a place before they can leave. 

Mr. Myers. That is true. There have been fewer defense con- 
tracts in this area as compared to population, so you have a freer 
population here than you tend to have in the eastern section of the 
country. 

The Chairman. Nevada, that large State adjoining California, has 
only a little over 100,000 people in the State. 

Mr. Myers. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Then they are going to California in spite of the 
climate and not because of it. 

Mr. Myers. I don't know the answer to that one. Congressman. 

Now, this Philadelphia-Bridgeport situation illustrates the move- 
ment from depressed areas, which I think is quite significant. Of 
course, the depressed coal area has recently got a new shock through 
the limitations on the production of silk, which have thrown out a 
number of silk workers in that same area. 

AGE or MIGRANTS 

Finally, the maps show that the great bulk of recent migration has 
come from the cities, rather than from the rural areas. 

Now, as a group, migrants are yoimg, as chart No. 11 shows. ^ In 
half of the cities the average age of all migrant workers is 29 years or 
less, and in none of the cities does it rise as high as 35 years. 

» See chart U, p. 10324k. 



10338 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Tlie series of dots shows that the median age in each city sticks in 
most cases pretty close to 30 years. The shaded portions show the 
proportion under 20, and the "dotted section the proportion over 45. 
You will see that the great bulk of the migrants are between 20 and 45. 

The Chairman. They are within the draft age, aren't they? 

Mr. Myers. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Laaib. On your small chart you show the median age, which 
seems to run quite low. 

Mr. Myers. Yes; the median age is 29 years or under in half of the 
51 cities, and in no city does it rise as high as 35 years. 

Mr. Curtis. Are you referring to men and women? 

Mr. Myers. This covers both men and women. 

In most situations the average age of the women is, of course, 
lower than the men, but in few, if any, towns is the average age of 
the men appreciably above 35 years. 

HOUSING shortages AND THE MIGRANT WORKER 

Large numbers of migrant workers leave their families behind when 
the}^ move to these war-industry towns. In half of the cities the 
proportion is 15 percent or more. This, in part, is caused by the 
serious housing shortages. 

Chart 12 shows a striking relationship between the proportion of 
workers leaving their families behind and the availability of housing.^ 

The W. P. A. Division of Research has been making a study of 
housing of workers in defense towns. In many cases these studies 
were made at about the same time. 

This chart shows the number of vacant rental units in good con- 
dition per hundred dwelling units in the city. The proportion runs 
from about 4}^ percent in Oklahoma City and San Francisco, to 1 per- 
cent or less in Bristol, Conn. 

The other half of the chart shows the percentage of workers who 
migrated without their families. These are workers who have families 
but didn't bring them when they moved. 

You will notice the strong tendency for the proportion of migrants 
leaving families behind to rise as the vacancy rate fall. For example, 
in Bristol the habitable vacancy rate was 0.2 percent and 60 percent 
of the workers with families had left their families behind. 

Now, in Oklahoma City, at the other extreme, where the vacancy 
rate was 4.5 percent, only 4 percent of the workers had migrated 
without their families. 

There are sorae exceptions to the general rule but the general ten- 
dency, I think, is unmistakable. 

The extent of "doubling up" among families, as shown in chart 13, 
provides afurther index of congested housing conditions.^ "Doubling 
up" is common in all areas surveyed, and in half the areas 30 percent of 
the rnultiperson families are sharing their homes with other persons, 
or living in hotels or trailers. 

The dark section shows the proportion doubled up and the light 
section the proportion who have dwelling units in which they live by 
themselves. 

' See chart 12, p. 10324L. 
' See chart 13, p. 10324M. 



NATIOlSTiAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10339 

The surveys made by W. P. A. show conclusively that considerable 
population movements have taken place and that migration is growing. 

The Chairman. Do you think it will keep onr increasing, Mr. 
Myers? 

Mr. Myees. I think unquestionably the next year will see a good 
deal more migration than the last, due to the intensification of war 
efforts and the shortage of labor supply in some of the very "hot" 
areas. 

INCREASED EMPLOYMENT IN DEFENSE AREAS ANTICIPATED 

Mr. Curtis. I want to ask a question about that. Dr. Davenport 
told us yesterday that in this calendar year there would be three times 
as many people employed in defense industries as now, which is a 
tremendous increase.^ 

Mr. Myers. That is correct. 

Mr. Curtis. In view of the studies you have made over a long period 
of time, do you have any predictions to make as to where the conges- 
tion will be and where these workers are going to come from? 

Mr. Myers. Yes. First, as Dr. Davenport said yesterday, we 
should expect an increase of 10,000,000 workers in defense hidustries 
this year. That means a shift of probably 8,000,000 workers out of 
n.ondefense industries, and an increase in total employment of perhaps 
2,000,000. That means there is going to be a strong compulsion for 
people to move. They will be drawn into the areas where pro- 
duction is expanding, and more or less pushed out of the areas 
where priorities unemployment is severe and production is falling off. 

The areas to which they will move, I think, will be primarily the 
cities along the east coast and the west coast and certain spots in the 
middle of the country where defense contracts are concentrated. 

Mr. Curtis. Isn't it true the only thhig that will lessen the problem 
of housing facilities and sanitation and all those things, and the only 
thing that will soften the cruelties of that situation is the extent to 
which they can decentralize and spread contracts out over the interior 
of the country, utilizing the small existing establishments? 

EFFECT OF DECENTRALIZATION ON MIGRATION 

Mr. Myers. I think it is very important that contracts be de- 
centralized as far as practicable so that the small establishment can 
be brought into this war effort. That will materially lessen migra- 
tion, with its attendant problems: housing, lack of community facil- 
ities, et cetera — and it should also expedite the war effort. 

Mr. Curtis. Have you made any studies as to the availability of 
mechanics in these smaller areas where the defense program is not 
operating? ■■ ' 

Mr. Myers. Yes, sir; we have made some surveys of labor supply. 
We have not made those on a large enough scale to show the number 
of mechanics in particular towns or States. ^ 

We do know, from the concentration of W. P. A. employment which 
tends to be in the areas in which there are no defense contracts, and 
from our other data, that the availability of skilled labor and various 
types of semiskilled labor is much greater in the areas without defense 
contracts than in these very "hot" towns. 

> See p. 10256. 



10340 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. I think that is all I have. 

Dr. Lamb. The papers that you have submitted raise a number of 
questions and I wonder if you would answer some of these that have 
not been covered in what you have said so far. 

Mr. Myers. I shall be very pleased to do so. 

TOTAL NUMBER OP DEFENSE MIGRANTS 

Dr. Lamb. In the first place, you didn't give any round figure for 
your estimate of the total number of defense migrants during the last 
year, did you? 

Mr. Myers. Well, I gave the figure of two and a quarter million 
persons who have moved to cities of 25,000 and over. Some of them 
are nondefense workers, of course. 

Dr. Lamb. Your figure on migrants in the last year is two and a 
quarter million. What percentage of the population does this cover? 

Mr. Myers. About 40 percent of the total population are in cities 
of 25,000 and over. 

Dr. Lamb. Fifty-odd million at least? 

Mr. Myers. 52,000,000, I think. 

Dr. Lamb. Is it your impression that the fact that these people are 
moving to areas of expansion would mean that this estimate of mi- 
grants was approximately complete for the entire country, or do you 
think that additional numbers should be added to that total of yours? 

Mr. Myers. I think it is clear that the two and a quarter million 
doesn't represent the total number of migrants for the country. It 
actually covers only 40 percent of the total population. I don't think 
I care to estimate the number for the entire country from the data 
we have. 

I think it is true, however, that the greatest movement in the coun- 
try has been to these larger cities since most of the defense contracts 
are concentrated there. 

Dr. Lamb. It is your impression that the serious drain of workers 
from rural areas, however, is yet to come? 

Mr. Myers. Yes, I think we will see more of that in the next year 
than we have in the last. 

Dr. Lamb. You have no surveys of cities between 2,500 and 25,000? 

Mr. Myers. Practically none. We covered some satellite cities, a 
few small places around Los Angeles, and the one or two places, like 
Ravenna, Ohio. 

LADDER OF MOVEMENT FROM COUNTRY TO TOWN 

Dr. Lamb. Is it your impression there is something of a ladder of 
movement from the country to a town of 2,500 or slightly larger, and 
from there to the larger communities? 

Mr. Myers. There may be such a movement. Our studies wouldn't 
prove that point one way or the other. 

Dr. Lamb. WTiat about previous studies by the W. P. A.? 

Mr. Myers. Some of our earlier studies have suggested that there 
is such a movement. It is true, however, on the other hand, that 
relatively few defense contracts have gone to villages and open coun- 
try, and consequently there would not be the strong stimulus in those 
areas for in-movement that there is in the larger cities. In cases 
like Ravenna, as in other towns, we have found a relatively small per- 



NATTOTSnAL DEFEN'SE' MIGRATION 10341 

cent coming from the open country. In Ravenna, I think the figure 
is 5 percent of the total. 

Dr. Lamb. Is that a study of the workers in the powder plants or a 
study of the workers in the construction period? 

Mr. Myers. That was a study of the workers living in Ravenna 
and Warren and one or two other neighboring towns. 

Dr. Lamb. After production had opened up? 

Mr. Myers. After production had started, yes. 

OCCUPATIONAL SHIFTS 

Dr. Lamb. Have you any comment to make on the shift of occu- 
pations that appears in yom- tables? A large number of migrant 
workers appear to have shifted. 

Mr. Myers. Yes; the shift has been largely from agriculture and 
from the so-called no-job group which did not have jobs at the former 
residence, and from unskilled workers to manufacturing operatives. 
There has been some shift from operatives to skilled workers, but 
it has been smaller. To a considerable extent there has been an 
upgrading process going on. The unskilled worker graduates to the 
operative and the operative graduates to the skilled class. 

In Bridgeport and Bristol where there has been an extraordinary 
increase in demand, you find very marked occupational shifts taking 
place. For example, clerical workers have shifted from offices to 
operatives in manufacturing establishments. 

Dr. Lamb. This would be due in part to the great rise in earning 
capacity, particularly where overtime exists? 

Mr. Myers. That is true. The earnings would be greater in a 
situation like that. 

Dr. Lamb. To say nothing of the absence of expanding opportu- 
nities for the other type of work. 

Mr. Myers. That is right, and that is being stimulated now by 
priorities which are going to hit wliite-coUar workers, salesmen, and 
so forth, very hard. 

Dr. Lamb. You would expect that a great many of the white- 
collar workers now being disemployed by the war shut-downs would 
find their way into the ranks of factory operatives. Have we any 
records of that in the last World War which would throw light on 
the subject? 

Mr. Myers. The records of the last World War, of course, are 
not very complete. I am sure there was some of that movement 
in the last World War. Offhand, I can't think of any studies made 
that measure it with any precision. 

Dr. Lamb. Of course, the proportionate number of white-collar 
workers in 1917 and today is greatly in favor of the present time? 

Mr. Myers. That is correct, of course. 

Dr. Lamb. With respect to your studies, they are really of migrant 
workers who have ceased, momentarily, at least, to migrate. They 
are spot check studies? 

direction of studies 

Mr. Myers. That is approximately correct. We have not tried 
to measure the flow of workers through an area, that is, the total 
number who had been in the area any time, say in the last year. 



10342 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

On the other hand, we do, of course, get somewhere near the proper 
proportion of the highly mobile group. They have to be somewhere 
and since we take migrants who came into the area yesterday just as 
readily and as completely as we do those that came in a year ago, we 
feel we get about the proper proportion of the group that is merely 
passing through. 

Dr. Lamb. Your records on the number of unemployed would 
suggest, however, that the unsuccessful migrant to that area, who 
faUed to get a job and moved out, would not be counted, so that the 
proportion of unemployed, relative to the number of jobs in the area, 
would not be determined except for the moment, by your studies. 

Mr. Myers. Yes; it may change. 

Dr. Lamb. There may be a high turn-over in some places which 
would not be measured? 

Mr. Myers. Yes; that is correct. 

Dr. Lamb. Not turn-over on the job, but turn-over of the migrant, 
in and out of an area. 

Mr. Myers. Geographic turn-over; yes. Of course, we do get 
the group that has come in within the last week or 2 or 3 weeks, and 
there we undoubtedly get those workers who have not yet made an 
adjustment, not yet got a job. In a situation like Fort Smith, we 
find a high proportion of unemployment primarily because work has 
not yet started on the Army camp. 

If we made that survey a month or 2 later, we would undoubtedly 
have found a smaller proportion of unemployment. 

Dr. Lamb. You have tabulated the figures on the dates of arrival, 
so you could make a curve showing the dates of arrival and the pro- 
portionate numbers arriving on dift'erent dates? 

migration increasing 

Mr. Myers. We find that proportion has been increasing. 

Dr. Lamb. There is a rise? 

Mr. Myers. A sharp rise. For example, if the in-movement was 
spread evenly throughout the year we would get 7 or 8 percent each 
month. We find, inj.^the last months before the survey was taken, 
that the number of arrivals was more nearly twice that amount, the 
number running from 12 to 14 percent, and in many cases it is 3 to 
4 times the average rate. So the influx in most cities increases as 
you get nearer to the present date. 

Dr. Lamb. In other words, if the rate of movement in the country 
was small, in the neighborhood of 200,000 per month on the average 
for the year 1941, toward the end of the year the numbers per month 
moving in would be approximately 400,000? 

Mr. Myers. In the neighborhood of 400,000. Considerably above 
the average for the whole period; yes. 

Dr. Lamb. Is there any way in your future surveys to check up 
on the length of time it takes a migrant worker to obtain his job? 

Mr. Myers. We have considered that. It is possible. It does 
add rather considerably to the cost and complexities of the surveys. 

Dr. Lamb. Could you do it on a sample basis in a few places where 
the numbers coming in are pretty large? 

Mr. Myers. It might be done in a few'cases."' Of course, the figures 
we have showing the small volume of unemployment, suggest that 
in the average situation there isn't a very long time elapsing between 
the arrival in the area and the securing of a job. 



NATTONIAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10343 

I feel reasonably confident that in the average situation that period 
is not very long. 

It would be quite practicable to get that information. I would, 
however, be a little hesitant to increase the complexities of the surveys. 
These 51 communities represented a considerable volume of energy 
and expenditure. 

Dr. Lamb. I appreciate and realize that. I was wondering about 
a few samples to see how that was working. 

Mr. Myers. That might be done. 

EMPLOYMENT OF MIGRANTS 

Dr. Lamb. Do you ask how they got jobs? Whether through the 
employment service or some other way? 

Mr. AIyers. l\ot in the migration surveys. We have asked it in 
other surveys we have made. 

Dr. Lamb. Recently? 

Mr. Myers. Within the last year or year and a half. 

Dr. Lamb. What is the result of that inquiry? 

Mr. Myers. We find that a relatively small proportion of the 
workers secure their jobs through the Employment Service. The 
surveys I am speaking of are primarilj^ surveys of W. P. A. workers 
who have got jobs. We know they had a job. 

Dr. Lamb. Those would be resident workers for the most part? 

Mr. Myers. Mostly resident workers. 

Dr. Lamb. And the practice among employers within a limited 
area around a community is to hire at the gate? We have found 
that in our studies around the country. 

Mr. Myers. That is true. As to the migrants, I suspect the situa- 
tion differs markedly in different areas. I know of areas we have 
surveyed, for example, in which the emploj'ment practice is almost 
entirely to hire at the gate, and you have to go and stand in line in 
order to get a job. 

In other areas, I am sure a large proportion of the workers are 
referred through the Employment Service, and my impression is 
that that practice is growing. 

Dr. Lamb. Is it going to be possible for W. P. A. to make additional 
migration studies during the coming year? 

Mr. Myers. We hope it will be possible. I think it would be an 
extremelj^ valuable thing to do. The fii'st series of surveys we made 
coincides almost exactly with the pre-war period. The last surveys 
were made in the last days of December, and all were made in the 2 
or 3 months before war was declared. 

There is an opportunity to make a survey showing the situation in 
the first year of the war. 

Dr. Lamb. I hope you will make some in the same communities. 

Mr. Myers. I think we should make a good proportion of them in 
the same communities. Probably it would be desirable to shift to 
new communities for some of the surveys. 

Whether we can make additional surveys or not depends on the de- 
mands on our time for other defense service, and the amount of funds 
available. 

Dr. Lamb. One more question. Have you any check on the stories 
to the effect that large numbers are leaving California or other west 
coast States? We have attempted to check that and I have some 
information on it. 



10344 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Myers. No; the surveys don't provide any information on that 
point. I have not heard, however, anything indicatmg that the out- 
migration there is very large. My o^vn guess would be that certainly 
there was a very heavy net inflow, but the surveys don't measure out- 
flow and I have received no reports that indicate that any great 
amount of that has taken place. 

Dr. Lamb. We checked the populations in Farm Security camps and 
the flow through employment offices and rural areas, and the result 
seemed to be not material. I wondered what the W. P. A. might 
have on that. 

Mr. Myers. I don't think we have anything that would provide 
any conclusive basis for judgment on that. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all I have. 

Mr. Sparkman. Thank you, Mr. Myers. We appreciate the very 
fine presentation you have given us. 

We will take a short recess. 

(Short recess.) 

Mr. Sparkman. Let the committee come to order. Miss Thelma 
McKelvey of the Labor Division, War Production Board, is next. 

TESTIMONY OF THELMA McKELVEY, LABOR DIVISION, WAR 
PRODUCTION BOARD, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Mr. Sparkman. Our committee has been traveling rather exten- 
sively over the country. Miss McKelvey, looking into the labor 
problem, particularly with reference to its effect on the migration of 
workers. We have been interested in and concerned with the utiliza- 
tion of the services of women in the war-production effort. Therefore, 
we are particularly pleased to have you with us this morning to deal 
with this subject. 

* I have looked over the prepared statement that you have kindly 
furnished the committee and I find it of absorbing interest and I want 
to assure you that it will be incorporated in our record. I want to ask 
you some questions based upon and prompted by the statement that 
you have prepared. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY THELMA McKELVEY, LABOR DIVISION, WAR 
PRODUCTION BOARD, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Women in War Production 

The attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, and the formal entrance of 
the United States into a war of crucial import, not only to this Nation but to the 
world, precipitated drastic changes in the attitudes of the American people. 
There is a new unity in the Nation, with all energies and efforts directed toward 
rapidly increasing production of the essentials to carry on a successful war. A 
clear-cut recognition now exists of how we must use our resources — materials, 
manpower, and machines — to supply as quickly as possible to the military serv- 
ices all the material of war, and to insure the proper flow of these implements 
without delay. 

This changed attitude was sharply reflected in planning for the use of reservoirs 
of labor as yet practically untouched. There was complete agreement by all 
groups working in the labor supply field that women are an immediate reserve 
of potential producers which will and must be used as our armed forces are in- 
creased and our working forces consequently depleted. In a war period it is 
imperative that there should be wise use of women in the service fields, in manu- 
facturing, in agriculture, and in government. 

The potentialities of women as a source of much needed labor were well estab- 
lished in the United States during World War I. For example, women employed 



NATTOTSTlAL D'EFEOS^SE' MIGBATION 10345 

per 1,000 wage earners in the iron and steel industry rose from 33 (1916) to 95 
(after the second draft, 1918), from 85 to 142 in the chemical industry, and from 
18 to 114 in the automobile industry. British experience in the present war 
shows that this trend has been greatly accelerated. Our own Nation is prepared 
again to demonstrate that women are ready and able to assume their place in 
industrial production. 

Studies indicate that women have been found satisfactory in virtually every 
type of job ordinarily filled by men. The National Industrial Conference Board, 
in a report in July 1918, stated: "Experience of employers * * * has clearly 
demonstrated the practicability of employing women in a large variety of manu- 
facturing operations * * *. Where women were employed in the same 
work they have equaled or excelled men in respect to output. In some processes 
their superiority is marked." As demands and inroads on our normal labor re- 
sources become more diversified and intense, there will be increased utilization of 
other labor reserves, of which women are the largest and most acceptable group. 

The Federal Government has been in the forefront in promoting increased ac- 
ceptance of women workers. The President of the United States has on several 
occasions pointed out the necessity of utilizing full}' all of the Nation's labor 
power, and he particularly emphasized one importance of mobilizing women 
workers when he referred to "manpower and womanpower" in his telegrams 
sent on December 19, 1941, to all State Governors, requesting them to merge 
the State employment services into one national system of public employment 
offices. 

As early as June 1941 the United States Civil Service Commission requested 
all Government departments to increase their use of women workers to the fullest 
possible extent by employing women in a greater variety of positions. Moreover, 
in July 1941, foreseeing great drains on manpower in certain areas, Mr. Sidney 
Hillman, Associate Director of the Office of Production Management, wrote war 
contractors urging that more consideration be given to increased use of women 
workers and outlining the types of work for which women have proved especially 
adaptable. The War and Navy Departments have pointed out the necessity of 
using more women workers, not only to increase production, but to release men 
for service with the armed forces. In January 1942 a variety of positions in 
Navy shore establishments which had previously been held only by men, were 
opened t6 women with scientific or engineering education or with mechanical 
aptitude. 

In a developing program of employment in a national emergency, there appear 
to be three distinct phases. In the first phase, increased l^uying power resulting 
from greater production and employment created an additional demand for 
workers in occupations traditionally held by women. These include retail sales, 
clerical and service positions, as well as occupations in consumer manufactures, 
particularly textiles, food processing, and clothing trades. This condition, start- 
ing in the defense centers, became general as the economic eff"ects of defense 
activities spread through the country. This first phase of increased demand for 
women workers utilized principally those individuals who normally are a part of 
the labor market. The country was well into this phase by the spring of 1941. 

The second phase was accompanied by a rising wage level and, in highly in- 
dustrialized areas, an approaching or imminent shortage of qualified male labor. 
Light mass-production industries, involving relatively simple, high-speed machine 
operation and assembly work, began to employ women for jobs requiring dexterity, 
care, and speed with a minimum of strength and craftsmanship. Women have 
proved very satisfactory, and in some instances superior to men, in such occupa- 
tions. The United States is well into this phase and in some industries and 
localities is moving into the third phase. 

In the third phase of the cycle, the one in which Great Britain has been since 
Dunkirk, women enter jobs in trade, services, transportation, and manufacturing 
that have customarily been held by men. This influx of women into industry 
releases men for heavier, more exacting factory work, or for service in the armed 
forces. In this stage, women may even take over factory jobs that traditionally 
have been considered suitable only for men. Undoubtedly the outbreak of hos- 
tilities on December 7 hastened the trend toward this third phase. 

The efl'ect of priorities in curtailing civilian production, and the release of the 
older groups of selectees tended to retard more extensive employment of women 
in war industries prior to the actual declaration of war, since both measures re- 
leased large numbers of men for employment. New employment of women was 
for the most part concentrated in non defense enterprises, where women took the 
place of men who migrated to defense jobs or joined the armed forces. 

60:W6— 42 — pt. 27 9 



10346 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



The declaration of war halted the release of older selectees from the armed 
forces and has accelerated the induction of new age groups and of volunteers. At 
the same time enormously increased production of supplies is immediately neces- 
sary New construction and the completion of the tooling up and converting 
process in manv industries have made and will make possible the employment of 
many more workers. All of these activities are depleting the supply of male 
workers in many areas to such an extent that Government, employers, and organ- 
ized labor are actively planning for the employment of more women in the near 
future. 

WOMEN AS A RESERVOIR OF LABOR 

If we can succeed in using effectively our potentially great force of women 
workers, we need have no doubt about meeting any labor requirements for war 
production. Recent 1940 census figures show that of the 50,350,000 women in 
our population, 14 vears of age and over, 12,850,000, or slightly less than one- 
quarter, were part of the labor force in 1940. This figure included a larger pro- 
portion of women in their twenties than of any other age group. Approximately 
2,100,000 of the 4,680,000 women in the 21 to 24, inclusive, age group were in the 
labor force, and the next highest labor force ratio was shown in the 25 to 29 year 
group, with about 1,992,000 in the labor force out of a population total of 
5,174,000. 

There were 1,265,538 women 14 and over who reported themselves as "seeking 
work," of which 950,904 indicated that they were experienced workers. From 
this number alone can be drawn literally hundreds of thousands for immediate 
placement in war jobs. 

Then there are the 28,551,680 who reported themselves as engaged in their own 
housework, and another 4,455,971 in school or college. If it becomes necessary 
to recruit from this group in approximately the same proportion as are now in 
the labor market, another 8,000,000 could be inducted into a total war effort to 
meet the service, agricultural and manufacturing needs of our civilian population 
and the military forces. 

In October 1941, 1.3 million women were registered with public employment 
offices. This represents a decline of about 200,000 or 11.1 percent, from the num- 
ber of women registered in January 1940. As may be expected, the number of 
men in the active file declined from 4.6 to 2.9 million or 36.5 percent during the 
same time, due to the increasing employment opportunities of expanding war 
production industries. Even though the actual number of women registered de- 
clined, women accounted for 32 percent of the file in October 1941 as compared 
to 25 percent in January 1940. 

Number of registrants in the active file as reported by public employment offices, by sex, 
January 1940 to October 1941 



Month 



Active file 



Total 



Men 



Women 



Percent 
women of 
total file 



1940 

January 

February — 

March _ 

April 

May — 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

1941 

January 

February 

March 

April 

May - 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 



6, 079, 495 
5, 920, 294 
5, 025, 183 
5, 682, 447 
5, 724, 029 
5, 734, 450 
5, 564, 671 
5, 210, 660 
4, 910, 827 
4, 618, 504 
4, 568, 415 
4, 758, 697 



5. 093, 476 
5,101,417 
5, 170, 193 
5, 097, 020 
5, 156, 288 
5, 126, 192 
4, 982, 430 
4, 699, 020 
4, 355, 861 
4,241,918 



4, 572, 897 
4, 473, 466 
3, 759, 376 
4, 204, 205 
4, 165, 320 
4,107,811 
3, 973, 273 
3, 749, 352 
3, 519, 359 
3, 302, 807 
3, 269, 197 
3, 464, 510 



3, 745, 408 
3, 759, 783 
3, 819, 828 
3, 755, 519 
3, 685. 144 
3, 567, 679 
3, 441, 520 
3, 286, 989 
1 2, 788. 240 
2, 902, 789 



1, 506, 598 
1, 446, 828 
1, 265, 807 
1,478,242 
1, 558, 709 
1,626,639 
1, 591, 398 
1,461,308 
1,391,468 
1,315,697 
1, 299, 218 
1. 294, 187 



1, 348, 068 
1,341,634 
1, 350, 365 
1,341,507 
1,471,144 
1, 558, 513 
1, 540, 910 
1,412,031 
1 1,182,998 
1, 339, 129 



(') 



24.8 
24.4 
25. 2 
26.0 
27. 2 
28.4 
28.6 
28.0 
28.3 
28.5 
28.4 
27.2 



26.5 
26.3 
26.1 
26.3 
28.5 
30.4 
30.9 
30.0 

31.6 



1 Data not reported for New York. 



XATIOiSTiAL DEFENSE jVnGRATION 



10347 



WOMEN IN MANUFACTURING 



According to the 1940 census, 25 out of 100 of over 10,000,000 employed in 
factories are women. This ratio of emplo3'ment of women shows almost no 
diflerence from the 1939 Census of Manufacturers covering a total of 10,414,000 
persons employed in manufacturing establishments of which 2,643,000 were 
women, distributed as follows: 



Industry group 



Grand total 


Males 


Females 


10, 414, 764 


7,770,814 


2, 643, 950 


1, 335, 157 


982, 653 


352, 504 


99, 418 


37, 044 


62, 374 


1. 237, 630 


711, 266 


526, 364 


925. 657 


277, 651 


648, 006 


430, 98S 


422, 971 


8.017 


367, 353 


322, 843 


44,510 


334, 651 


254, 130 


SJ. 521 


5.56, 661 


426, 203 


130. 458 


431,336 


359.712 


71,624 


140, 279 


143, 799 


2, 480 


159, 384 


119,761 


39, 623 


375, 482 


226, 641 


148,841 


359, 208 


315, 970 


43, 238 


1, 227, 390 


1. 133, 654 


93. 736' 


307, 562 


259, 488 


48, 074 


368, 753 


249, 657 


119,096 


701,359 


640. 896 


60, 463 


516, 062 


474, 763 


41, 299 


205, 601 


199, 849 


5,752 


328, 833 


211,863 


116,970 



All industries. 



Food and kindred products. ._ 

Tobacco manufacturers 

Textile-mill products and other fiber manufacturers 

Apparel and other finished products made from fabrics and similar 

malerials-. . 

Lumber and timber basic products 

Furniiure and finished lumber products 

Paper and allied products 

Printinji, publishing, and allied industries 

Chemicals and allied products _ 

Products of petroleum and coal 

Rubber products 

Leather and leather products.. 

Stone, clay, and elass products 

Iron and steel and their products, except machinery 

Nonferrous metals and tlieir products 

Electrical machinery 

Machinery (except electrical) _. 

Automobiles and automobile equipment 

Transportation equipm ent except automobiles 

Miscellaneous industries 



The Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor 
estimates that of the 5,000,000 in defense production during the fourth quarter of 
1941, 480,000 were women. Although these estimates are unofficial, they show 
the best distribution by sex available and the figures are listed as indicative of the 
employment ratio of men and women in plants then on defense production. 

Estimated defense employment, fourth quarter, 1941 



Manufacturing: 

Iron and steel 

Machinery 

Aircraft 

Shipbuilding 

Automobiles 

Railroad cars and loco- 
motives 

Nonferrous metals 

Lumber 

Stone, claj% and glass. . . 

Textiles 

Leather 

Paper 



Total 


Female 


750, 000 


46, 000 


1, 030, 000 


54, 000 


275,000 


3, 000 


100,000 


1,000 


115,000 


8,000 


50, 000 




225, 000 


31,000 


110,000 


1,000 


80, 000 


9,000 


220,000 


95, 000 


25,000 


10, 000 


45, 000 


11,000 



Manufacturing— Con. 

Chemicals. 

Rubber 

Food 

Mining 

Construction 

Transportation and public 

utilities 

Finance, service, and mis- 
cellaneous 

Government 



Total 



110,000 
55, 000 
110,000 
175, 000 
425. 000 

300, 000 

50, 000 
750, 000 



Total J 5,000,000 



Female 



16, 000 
14, 000 
31,000 



30, 000 



10, 000 
110, 000 



480, 000 



LABOR REQUIREMENTS FOR 1942 

It is estimated that by the end of 1942 the United States will have 15 million 
workers engaged in war production. This represents a 200-percent increase 
over the number so employed at the end of the year 1941. The United States 
Bureau of Labor Statistics has estimated that this increase in the war labor force 
will require the addition of at least 2 million new workers. This will be accom- 
plished^artly by the normal population increase and partly by drawing on groups 
not normally in the labor market, particularly women, youths, and older men. 
These will largely offset the 2.2 million men expected to be drafted into military 
service. Another one and )^ million are estimated as coming from the group 
previously unemployed; 7.9 million will be converted from production for civilian 
purposes to war production; 400,000 will come from agricultural pursuits; and 
another 400,000 from the self-employed group. 



10348 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

There ia reason to assume that the 2 million new workers brought into the labor 
market will be mainly women. Furthermore, a substantial portion (at least 
25 percent) of the VA million previously unemployed who will be brought into 
war production will also be women. The fact that approximately 200,000 men a 
month arc expected to be drafted into military service during the next 12 months 
further substantiates the conclusion that widespread opportunities for employment 
of women both in the civilian fields and war production plants must follow If this 
withdrawal of manpower into the military forces continues during 1943, oris 
accelerated during 1942, the need for women will be proportionately increased. 
Even though war production is highly concentrated geographically, and even 
though women constitute a less mobile labor force than men, through planning and 
selection there should be no trouble in drawing them into the labor force as needed. 

STEPS TOWARD AN ORGANIZED TJSE OF WOMEN WORKERS IN THIS COUNTRT 

Shortly before the United States entered the war, the National Labor Supply 
Committee (made up of representatives of Government agencies to work with the 
Deputy Director of Labor Supply and Training in the Labor Division of the Office 
of Production Management, on the formulation of policies governing labor supply 
for defense production) appointed a subcommittee to draft a course of action to 
deal with the necessary increased utilization of women workers during a war 
period. Miss Mary Anderson, Director of the Women's Bureau, United States 
Department of Labor; Mrs. Nellie Miles, representing the United States Employ- 
ment Service of the Federal Security Agency; and Miss Thelma McKelvey, repre- 
senting the Labor Division of the Office of Production Management, composed the 
membership of this subcommittee. A program was worked out during the first 
days of active hostilities and was adopted late in December 1941 as the Labor 
Division's policy on women workers. 

In developing this program, recognition was taken of the President's statement 
of the need to quicken existing production by working a 24-hour day, 7-day week 
in every war industry. Under the greatly expanded war program, all labor 
resources must be utilized to their maximum efficiency. As previously pointed 
out, increasingly large numbers of women will be called upon to work in the 
production of war material. To put these women to work rapidly and effectively 
in their country's service, the following steps have been established: 

1. An immediate inventory of women now available for war production. Ar- 
rangements have been completed with the United States Employment Service, and 
that agency is now in the process of analyzing the skills and occupational ex- 
perience of women who are registered for work with the 1,500 public employment 
offices operated by that agency. As of October 1941, there were 1,339,129 women 
registered with the public employment offices in the continental United States 
Alaska, and Hawaii. Particular emphasis is being placed on previous experience 
and production skills which are or can be related to occupations in war industries. 
These analyses are supplemented by industrial studies available or in process in 
the Women's Bureau of the United States Department of Labor. 

2. A voluntary registration is being planned of women willing to accept work 
or training for work, not only in the actual manufacture of goods for use by the 
armed forces, but in raising and processing foodstuffs and in the maintenance of 
essential civilian services necessary to the war effort. Facilities to register persons 
in almost every community in the United States within reasonable distance of their 
homes now exist in the United States Employment Service. There are untold 
numbers of women who, though not normally a part of the labor force, would and 
could take a job if this becomes necessary, or who would be willing to train for 
production work. A recruitment drive is planned to secure a complete, though 
voluntary, registration of all women willing to take a job to assist in the war effort. 
The drive will be carried out most vigorously in those areas where labor stringen- 
cies already exist and where the withdrawal of men into military service will add an 
additional strain on the labor available in specific industrial areas. In conducting 
such a voluntary registration, the cooperation and understanding of the general 
public, labor, and management, must be secured before the registration is under- 
taken. It is important that the induction of women into manufacturir^^ plants 
proceed only after demands on the men of the country take them out of the labor 
market. In all probability it will not be practical to hold such a registration of 
women until the registration of manpower, ordered by the recent amendments 
to the Selective Service Act, is completed. 

3. The defense training programs, conducted by public vocational schools, 
the National Youth Administration work project program, and the training- 



NATrONiAL DEFENSE MlGRATIOlSr 10349 

within-industry program of the Labor Division, are being geared to include women 
in the vocational-training courses and plant-training programs. These training 
programs are preparing to provide speciiic training to greatly increased numbers 
of women as rapidly as possible. The subcommittee on the utilization of women 
workers of the National Labor Supply Committee was clear in its position that 
women should not be given training separate from men, and that there is no need 
for establishment of new facilities or new training techniques. In carrj-ing out 
this program of training, the National Labor Supply Committee will request the 
United States Employment Service and the Work Projects Administration to give 
special attention to the referral of women as trainees to preemployment training 
courses. The National Labor Supply Committee will also request the United 
States Office of Education to ask the vocational school authorities to accept more 
women as trainees in anticipation of industrial needs. 

4. Creation and development of plans to insure suitable conditions of work, 
which experience has proven necessary to secure maximum production with women 
workers. These plans require close cooperation with the Women's Bureau to 
insure effective employment of women and encompass the following matters: 

(a) Maintaining fair and equitable wage rates and hours; 

(6) Advising and aiding employers in establishment of necessary plant facilities, 
and adequate health and safety measures for effective emploj^ment of women; and 

(r) Advising in connection with problems of housing, dormitories, and living 
quarters for women workers. 

5. The Regional and Lidustrial Area Labor Supply Committees of the Labor 
Division will be relied upon to carry out the program for the training and employ- 
ment of women in war industries, in accordance with local conditions. Steps are 
being taken through the 12 regional labor supply committees and the industrial 
area labor supply committees, which operate throughout the country and include 
management and labor representation, to impress upon emploj-ers the advisability 
of u.oing locally available women workers before recruiting labor from outside 
areas. The committees also work with organized labor leaders to secure their 
counsel as to the kinds of work which women can most readily do in a particular 
plant, and to assist in forwarding training programs. The United States Employ- 
ment Service will intensify its referral of women to industrial jobs for which they 
are qualified. 

6. As a component part of meeting the exigencies of a long war, consideration 
will be given to the possible future need for compulsory registration of all women 
legally qualified to work in industry or perform other essential war services. 
Compulsory registration of women was instituted in Great Britain in March 1941, 
a year and a half after the beginning of the war in Europe. 

In this country we have not yet felt a need for such registration, nor is a need 
foreseen in the immediate future. But we are engaged in an all-out war in which 
all civilians, men and women alike, have important roles. We cannot predict the 
limits of our future needs and the only wise course is to prepare for every eventu- 
ality. The Labor Division is, therefore, studying British and other countries' 
experience, hoping to profit by their successes and avoid their mistakes. All 
planning will be coordinated with the War and Navy Departments, the United 
States Emploj'ment Service, and the civilian defense authorities so that if and 
when a compulsory registration of womanpower is needed to further the war 
effort, it can be carried out efficiently and with the minimum amount of disturbance 
or disruption. 

BRITISH EXPERIENCE IN USE OF WOMEN WORKERS 

British experience has shown that readjustment to war production is not easy, 
and that the adverse efi"ects fall particularly heavily on women. In September 
1939, the month war began, unemployment in Great Britain changed sharply 
from the preceding month. There were 175,000 more women in the unemployed 
group, but the number of unemployed men dropped by 99,000. This trend con- 
tinued throughout the next year. "^By March 1940 total unemployment dropped 
below the figure for August 1939, but the unequal absorption between men and 
women continued during the next year and a half later. It was not until February 
1941, just a month before the British Government began a compulsory registra- 
tion of the supply of women labor, that the number of unemployed women dropped. 

Women were particularly affected by the closing of plants under industrial 
concentration plans, whereby nonessentials were curtailed and the remaining 
production carried on by full-time "nucleus" or integrated firms. Many of the 
industries thus curtailed were those in which a large proportion of the workers 



J 0350 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

were women, as in cotton, hosiery, boots and shoes, and pottery. Eighty percent 
of the machine operators in this industry were women and from 50 to 60 percent 
of these wore married and consequently largely mmobile. u • + i 

Not until after Dunkirk did the British educational system begin to play a 
major role in its country's effort. It was then that the British began to use 
every facility possible for war production, including the schools. Jobs have been 
broken dowh into specialized operations sufficiently small to require very little 
training for each operation. Under this arrangement British industries have 
utilizecf what has come to be called the "dilutee." Organized labor in Great 
Britain has conceded the use of "dilutee" labor for the duration of tlie war, with 
the understanding that immediately the conflict ceases these dilutees will no 
longer operate in places requiring skilled craftsmen _ ,, t- 

On January 21, 1941, the Minister of Labor and National Service, Mr. Ernest 
Bevin announced in the House of Commons that "we have now reached the 
sta<^e where * * * we shall have to call into service many women who in 
normal circumstances would not take employment." On March 13, 1941, the 
Minister of Labor appointed the women's consultative committee to aid m planning 
the registration. This committee sits under the chairmanship of the Parlia- 
mentary secretary to the Ministry of Labor. vi-,,n^. 

The registration for employment order was issued JNlarch 17, 1941, under the 
announced policv that "nothing that a woman can do or can learn to do, however 
important, should be allowed to absorb a man of military age." The demand 
for women workers increased as a result of the low number of unemployed plus 
the completion about this time of many factories built for war production. 

Compulsory registration of women began in April with women of 20 and 21 
registering first. Excluded were women actively serving in one of the recognized 
voluntary or technical war services. Interviews by women officers of the Ministry 
of Labor were conducted with nonemployed women. Those in less important 
work were taken in first. Women university students studying for certain tech- 
nical vocations were not required to give up their studies for other work. It was 
found that from one-fourth to one-third of those interviewed were available for 
work directlv connected with the war effort. 

The previous work experience of women accepted for employment in one typical 
war plant followed roughly this diversified experience background: 

Factory, 28 percent. Laundry workers, 5 percent. 

Housemaids, 23 percent. Barmaids, 3 percent. 

Stores, 17 percent. Hairdressers, 2 percent. 

Warehouse employees, 7 percent. Dressmakers, 1 percent. 

Waitresses, 6 percent. Miscellaneous, 3 percent. 

Women in England are trained for war production jobs in a wide variety of 
ways. Much of the training is done in the plant and on the job through absorp- 
tion by watching another individual do some simple operation at the bench or 
on the" machine. In other cases women begin by inspecting simple parts under 
the direction of another competent individual. Many of the technical schools 
have taken a significant part in the training of women. The trade and technical 
schools are making use of every possible facility to meet the need for trained per- 
sonnel. Ordnance factories have set up their own school in a central area to 
train women on milling machines, shapers, planers, lathes, drill presses, grinders, 
and gear cutters. Girls in training are brought from the factory area to the 
school for the training period, and then returned to the factor}^ area for em- 
ployment. 

Employment of women workers in England's war industries far exceeds develop- 
ments thus far in the United States. Some aircraft plants in England are 40- 
percent manned by women with a probability that the proportion will rise to 
80 percent. In some munitions plants women make up from 80 to 90 percent of 
the workers. In the manufacture of antiaircraft guns about one-sixth are women. 

Women's abilities in war industries are mostly used in performing light opera- 
tions requiring considerable manual dexterity, as for example, the delicate opera- 
tions requiring great accuracy in an airplane instrument factory, some of which 
normally take as much as 2 years to learn; riveting; drilling or stamping or press- 
ing small pieces of aluminum; sewing fabrics; painting fuselage; assembling parts 
and airplane M'olding; gaging, drilling, turning, assembling, and machining opera- 
tions to make fuzes in munitions plants; soldering, testing screws; and radio and 
electrical assembly. 

But women's work is by no means limited to these lighter operations. They 
are also working on heavy presses in the manufacture of trench-mortar bombs; 
in munition factories they handle large cartridge cases; in the manufacture of 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10351 

guns they operate large lathes and milling machines; boring and rifling antiair- 
craft, field, and naval guns; and many are at work on lathes in tank factories. 

Women have replaced men, to a large extent, in food industries and in the 
Government service. They now largely man London's transport garages, and 
10,000 women are taking over all jobs in London's subways except the actual 
driving of trains. 

Each month new reports come from England of women taking over skilled 
jobs formerly believed to be suitable only for men. Women are handling 180- 
pound shells; making piston rods for locomotives; flame cutting; working as 
hammer drivers in railway shops; forging crankshafts; operating 15-ton cranes; 
acting as electrician's mates; and setting turret and capstan lathes. One ma- 
chine-tool firm with 170 employees uses women workers almost entirely. Many 
women, because of their delicate touch, have developed an ability to perform 
grinding operations to tolerances usually achieved by men only after long expe- 
rience. 

In January of this year, a crew of women pilots were organized for ferry service 
to fly military planes from factories to bases. 

R! W. Hambrook, of the United States Office of Education, recently spent 4 
months in England surveying methods of vocational education. He well summed 
up the position of British women when he stated: "The variety of work done by 
women is astonishing. They have taken the place of men in sweeping floors, 
cleaning shops, running cranes, doing messenger work, keeping reports, checking 
and inspecting, running semiautomatic and automatic machinerj^ operating 
lathes, shapers, vertical and horizontal milling machines, surface grinders with 
magnetic chucks, cylindrical grinders, setting up machines, filing, drilling, as- 
sembling, scraping, fitting, etching, making electrical fittings, and other jobs 
too numerous to catalog * * *_ England realizes that at the end of this 
war she will owe a tremendous debt to the loyal efforts of her women in meeting 
a situation of significant importance in the present emergency." 

DEFENSE VOCATIONAL TRAINING PROGRAM IN THE UNITED STATES 

The Fpderal Government has financed training programs to prepare men and 
women for war-production work through the public vocational-school facilities 
in the Nation. This program was started in the summer of 1940 and has con- 
tributed to the training or retraining of a total of 2,477,400 persons. 

Congress appropriated funds in 1940 and 1941 for the training of defense work- 
ers, without regard to sex, color, race, or religion. This training has been given 
in vocational schools of less than college grade and in institutions of higher learn- 
ing. 

The Office of Production Management approved the list of occupations pre- 
pared by the Bureau of Employment Security, in the fields where defense train- 
ing of less-than-college grade is to be offered. The industries for which the oc- 
cupations were specified are as follows: 

Aircraft and parts. 

Air transportation (common carrier). 

Air transportation (except common carrier) and air-transportation services. 

Aluminum products (including rolling and drawing). 

Ammunition. 

Automobiles and automobile equipment. 

Communication: Telephone, telegraph, and related services. 

Electrical machinery. 

Firearms. 

Industrial chemicals. 

Iron and steel and their products. 

Machine tools: Lathes, screw machines, etc. 

Models and patterns (except paper patterns). 

Motorcycles, bicycles, and parts. 

Nonferrous-metal foundries (except aluminum) . 

Professional and scientific instruments, photographic apparatus, and optical 
goods. 

Railroad equipinent. 

Shipbuilding and ship repairing. 

Utilities: Electric and gas. 

Of the almost 2Y2 million persons who have received specific and general occu- 
pational training in the vocational schools, relatively few have been women. 
The first emphasis was on the training or "refreshing" of unemployed male 
workers in order that they could go into industry rapidly, and thus relieve the 
unemployment problem. The general public, organized labor, and management 



10352 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

looked with disfavor on the training of women while there were men available 
for eniplovment A specific policy of the Labor division has been that defense 
training programs should be set up for women workers only where there are 
existin-^ or anticipated employment opportunities for women m specifac defense 
occupations, and not in industrial areas where great numbers of men were un- 

emploved. , .^ j i ^ 

The number of women enrolled in preemployment and supplementary courses 
from the beginning of the defense training program to November 30, 1941, was 
14 202. Of this number 12,018 were enrolled in preemployment and refresher 
classes, and 2,184 were in supplementary classes. There are 16 States which have 
enrolled no women in preemployment courses, and 19 for which no women have 
been reported as enrolled in the supplementary courses for those already employed 

in industry. . • i i? u • 

Women have been enrolled in a wide variety of classes, such as airplane fabri- 
cation, aircraft electrical assembly, welding, sheet metal inspecting, machine 
shop practice, blueprint reading, drafting, radio communications, and service. 

A comparison of the monthly enrollment of women from June 30 to November 
30, 1941, showed a more positive trend in the direction of an acceptance of women 
in defense training classes, in anticipation of greater outlets of employment. On 
June 30, 1941, there were only 435 women enrolled in preemployment courses and 
334 in supplementary courses. September 30, 1941, showed an increase to 3,173 
in preemployment courses and 633 in supplementary courses. By November 30 
there were 5,116 in preemployment courses and 717 in supplementary courses. It 
must be admitted that these figures indicate a decidedly conservative approach to 
the training of women workers either prior to their entrance into manufacturing 
establishments or after they become employed in manufacturing processes. The 
largest volume of this training was in the States of California, Indiana, Massa- 
chusetts, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and 
Wisconsin. 

In the engineering, science, and management training programs, carried on in 
institutions of higher learning, there were, as of November 30, 1941, 4,436 women 
enrolled in 124 colleges and universities offering defense courses in these fields. The 
majority of women were enrolled in the following types of courses: 

Engineering. — Mathematics, explosives, engineering drawing, production 
engineering, safety, mechanical engineering (inspection and testing), analytical 
chemistry. 

Management. — Industrial organization and management, accounting, personnel, 
administration, and labor problems, employment management, statistics. 

The United States Office of Education reports that in these short unit courses, 
women have studied aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, marine, 
mechanical, metallurgic and general engineering, inspecting and testing, and that 
the colleges report no particular difficulty in placing these women at the end of 
their training period. 

Trainees for the preemployment courses have been referred by the public 
employment offices and the Work Projects Administration. Selection of trainees 
is accomplished by means of tests and consideration of previous industrial experi- 
ence. There is a definite attempt to select trainees who are likely to be successful 
as workers and who will meet the employer specifications as to age, physical 
condition, and education. The courses vary in length for the individual who can 
progress as rapidly as her ability will permit. Trainees attend preemployment 
classes 30 hours a week. 

_ Supplementary classes are attended by workers who desire to learn new opera- 
tions, or to increase their present skill by additional class training in the theory 
of their work or by more extensive practice. Trainees usually attend defense 
supplementary classes 15 hours a week. 

Up to this time, women have been taught in segregated classes, although a trend 
is noted toward mixed classes. Since men and women often work together in the 
same departments of a factory — and undoubtedly will work together in greater 
numbers during the war period, there is little logic in separating women from men 
in the training classes. . 

Women enrolled in defense training classes are instructed at the same training 
stations as men, use the same equipment and supplies, and their instruction 
follows the same teaching outline. Instructors are almost entirely men as few 
women have the necessary training and experience to qualify as instructors in 
defense occupations. 

The classes for women are held as a rule during the day or in the early evening, 
A "graveyard" training shift for women is not anticipated, unless in the future 
they are needed in such numbers by industry as to require late night training. 



NATTOIMIAL DEFEISTSOE' MIGRATION 



10353 



There is reason to expect that the preemployment and supplementary training 
program for women will show a decided change during the next few months in cer- 
tain areas in the country. For example, the entire west coast area is already faced 
•with shortages of qualified workers. The labor force in the aircraft industry is 
made up chiefly of young men from 21 to 31. The industry is exerting every effort 
to achieve 24-hour, 7-day-a-week operation, which will call for many thousands of 
additional workers. As more and more men transfer from production to active 
military service, the problem of stabilizing the working force will be acute. The 
aircraft industry is already experiencing the possibilities of employing women in 
the local area, and the number of women in defense training classes in the west 
coast area is increasing. A recent report from San Diego states that 500 women 
have just entered training classes. 

A similar situation is found in Connecticut, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and 
New York. In Brooklyn, Dr. Harry W. Reddick, director of the Brooklyn De- 
fense Training Institute, recentlj' announced that a survey of 12 major defense 
plants in the metropolitan area revealed that executives of all Ijut 1 plant were 
in favor of giving defense training to women. Applications from women will now 
be encouraged, where previously they had been accepted but not sought. Up to 
now, only 10 of the 900 graduates of the institute have been women. This survey 
also showed that the new draft regulations are already drawing from the area men 
who were previously exempt. Courses now offered to women will train them for 
positions as draftsmen, tracers, mathematicians, testers, inspectors, and other 
posts on a subprofessional engineering level, during a 30-week period. There are 
recent reports from other areas in New York State of many new registrations of 
women trainees — 2 towns each report 200 recent women enrollees [in aircraft 
and sheet metal. 

Courses have been opened in other North Atlantic States as follows: 

Rhode Island: Inspection of macRine parts and forgings, machine shop. 

West' Virginia: Power-sewing-machine operations. 

Massachusetts: Radio assembly and machine operation. 

New Hampshire: Machine shop. 

New Jersey: Machine-tool operations. 

New courses for women have been approved since December in Texas, Illinois, 
Kansas, Missouri, and Michigan. All indicate a continued expansion of training 
for women. 

Representative new courses for training of women in the pre-emploijment program 

[Starting in December 1941] 



State and city 


Course title 


Enrollment, 
Jan. 1, 1942 


California: Oceanside „ 


Auto mechanics _ . . .. 


1 


Illinois: Chicaeo . . 


Assemblers . 


6 


Kansas: Kansas City... ... . 




16 


Maryland: 

Baltimore 




51 


Elkton 




8 


Hagerstown 




46 


Massachusetts: 

New Bedford . . 




32 


Chicopee... .-. .. 


Radio . 


8 


Missouri: Joplin 


Power sewing 


15 




do . - - 


16 


New Jersey: 

Keanst)urg . 




14 


Paterson. .... 


do ... 


14 


Verona. . __ . _ . .. 


do.. 


2 


New York: Elmira 


Machine shop - - 


7 


Pennsylvania: 
Philadelphia 


Sewine machine operation 


16 


Do 


Machine-tool operation 


3 


Shamokin. ... . _ 


Inspection (machine parts and forgings) 

Organized machine shop (blueprint reading 

and mathematics). 
Arc and acetylene welding for welders and 

helpers. 

Blueprint reading . . 


20 


Rhode Island: Providence 


15 


Florida: St. Petersburg 


1 


Michigan: 

Detroit . . . . . 


6 


Do 


do 


25 


Do 


do . - 


14 


Do - . 


do 


9 


Flint.-- - . 


do 


8 


New Hampshire: Berlin 




21 


Tennessee: Nashville 


Electrician (aircraft) . 


13 









10354 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

NATIONAL YOUTH ADMINISTRATION WORK PROJECTS FOR GIRLS 

The out-of-school work program of the National Youth Administration gives 
concrete evidence that its shop facilities can be used to a much geater extent m 
training girls between the ages of 17 and 24, inclusive, for mdustnal employment. 

The number of young women employed by the National Youth Admmistration 
in shop, mechanical, and production jobs directly related to the needs of war m- 
dustries has been increasing along with the expansion of employment opportuni- 
ties for women in these industries. In November 1941, almost 23,400 young 
women were employed on National Youth Administration projects which furnish 
experience in machine and metal working, radio and electrical work, automotive 
and mechanical work, woodworking, and industrial sewing. This is about 10,000 
more than were employed on National Youth Administration projects of this type 
in July 1941. All of these fields are related to war labor requirements. Young 
women who have worked on these projects may find employment either in private 
industries having war contracts or in other industrial establishments where they 
take the places of workers who have gone into the defense industries. 

During November 1941, over 7,300 girls were employed on National Youth 
Administration projects in the electrical, machine and metal working, and auto- 
motive and mechanical fields alone. During the same month about 550 girls 
went from National Youth Administration employment to jobs in plants manu- 
facturing iron and steel products, nonferrous metal products, electrical and metal 
working machinery and equipment, aircraft part plants, and other manufacturing 
industries. 

In the machine and metal shops, girls perform those operations which involve 
the use of light machinery and require repetitive skill, finger dexterity, and accur- 
racy. Among these are the operation of small drill presses, punch presses, and 
bench lathes. In the radio and electrical shops, girls perform all types of assembly 
work which involve the use of small hand tools and techniques of soldering. 
Young women are proficient also at light and medium welding and in inspection 
work of various kinds. The industrial sewing projects prepare girls for employ- 
ment in industries manufacturing such defense articles as barrack bags, cots, air- 
plane wings, parachutes, canvas bunks, various types of furnishings for forts and 
cantonments, and clothing for the Army. 

The practical value of this experience and training is shown by the fact that 
during the period July 1941 through November 1941, more than 60,000 young 
women went from National Youth Administration projects to jobs in private 
industry. 

The National Youth Administration is prepared to train many more unskilled 
young women for jobs in industry. 

TRAINING WITHIN INDUSTRY 

Probably the most important and most efficient technique for equipping 
unskilled and partially skilled persons to do a new job or acquire a new skill, is 
on-the-job training in industrial plants. This learn-bj^-doing approach is also used 
to upgrade workers in order to utilize the best skill of each worker to the maximum 
of his individual ability. The training-within-industry program of the Labor 
Division has worked with management and labor groups throughout the country 
to develop more extensive plant training programs. Over 600 management and 
labor consultants are contributing their services in this important phase of 
training. 

Women have not been overlooked as an essential part of this work. There are 
a number of women consultants from industry and education in the training-within- 
industry's 22 districts. While precise statistics are not available as to the num- 
ber of workers who have been trained and upgraded through in-plant training 
programs, it is estimated that more than 2,000 concerns emplojang some 3,000,000 
persons have on-the-job training programs. Women workers have been and are 
being trained on the job too. In one small plant, for example, 20 girls are at work 
running gear cutters, turret lathes, engine lathes, milling machines, and drill 
presses. Nearly all women workers in the aircraft industry are also receiving 
in-plant training, including metal work, such as riveting and bucking. 

The on-the-job training approach will be increasingly relied upon as greater 
numbers of inexperienced persons are brought into war production. This will be 
especially true as women replace men, first in simpler operations and later in more 
complicated and highly skilled processes. 

Within the past few months' time over 16,000 foremen and supervisors (both 
men and women) in about 800 plants have completed a streamlined job instructor 



NATTOTSTiAIi DET^ISTSE MIGRATION 10355 

training program — specially designed to help aU those who instruct workers on 
the job. The importance of the entire training-within-industry program cannot 
be overemphasized in the war effort. 

PLACEMENT OF WOMEN THROUGH THE PUBLIC-EMPLOYMENT SERVICES 

The total number of women placed by public-employment offices has steadily 
increased during the last year. However, the rate of increase has not kept pace 
with the increase in placements of men. In the third quarter of 1941 placements 
of women numbered 525,000 as compared with 385,000 in the corresponding 
quarter of 1940, an increase of 36 percent. On the other hand, placements of 
men increased almost twice as much, from 605,600 to 1,029.100, an increase of 
70 percent. In the manufacturing industries, there were 82,500 women placed in 
the third quarter of 1940, while 109,500 were placed in the third quarter of 1941, 
an increase of 33 percent. This can be compared with the increase in male place- 
ments of 74 percent, from 200,300 to 348,000. 

The number of women placed in 20 key defense industries increased from 
13,500 in the first quarter to 16,900 in the third quarter of 1941. The largest 
increases were in the aircraft and parts industry (from 460 to 1,300) and in the 
chemical products industry (from 400 to 1,000). However, the actual number of 
women placed in these industries has been very small compared with the number 
©f men. 

The most striking increases in women's employment in 1941 were made in the 
professional and managerial occupations, where placements of women rose from 
20 percent to 29 percent of all placements in this group. This gain is attributed 
to the continuing increase in job opportunities and the growing shortages of 
highl}' trained men in this field. 

In the last 2 or 3 months of 1941, many more instances were reported of the 
relaxation of employer specifications which have restricted the employment of 
women. Many plants unable to obtain sufficient numbers of semiskilled male 
workers have filled vacancies with women and are making increased requests of 
public employment offices for women workers. The most encouraging reports 
received by the public employment service offices come from the aircraft firms. 

Anticipating the development of increased employment opportunities for 
women, the Bureau of Employment Security is preparing an analysis of all jobs 
in key defense industries in an effort to indicate what jobs might be suitable for 
women. At present 623 occupations designated as essential to national defense 
have been analyzed. The latest available information indicates that women are 
now employed in only 27 of these. An analysis of the duties performed by workers 
in the remaining occupations indicates that 251 are apparently suitable for women. 
Of these, 199 have a training period of less than 6 months. Another group of 188 
occupations appears to be partially suitable for women. Among these occu- 
pations some break-down of the job might be necessary or some rearrangements 
of the industrial processes might be required in order to employ women. Of the 
entire list of 623 occupations, only 57 appear to be totally unsuitable for women. 

A consideration of the number of hires anticipated by defense employers makes 
these facts even more striking. For the period September 1941 to Februarj^ 1942, 
public employment offices reported 315,000 job openings jin the selected list of 
defense occupations. Of this number less than 20,000 were in occupations in 
which women are now employed. On the other hand, 115,000 job openings were 
reported in occupations apparently suitable for women, and 111,000 others in 
job openings partially suitable for women. 

Recent developments and the needs of the victory program should enlarge the 
number of occupations in which women are currently employed. Even though 
the use of the reservoir of women workers has only just begun, the fact has been 
established that there are a great number of jobs which can be performed by them. 
In conformity with the Labor Division policy, public employment offices through- 
out the country are encouraging employers to make fuller use of women, in view 
of the possibility of Nation-wide labor shortages in many occupations during the 
coming j-ear. 

At this time no figures are reported to show a break-down by sex of the place- 
ment of defense votational trainees through the public employment offices. Since 
these data are not available, a brief analysis has been prepared of women placed 
in shortage occupations important to war production and in which defense train- 
ing is simultaneously being conducted. 

On the whole, the placement figures currently available in shortage occupations 
suitable, for women do not show any definite trend. There are several occupa- 



10356 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

tions however, in which reports of placements for women have been received for 
the first time since the beginning of the defense program. In these, it seems highly 
probable that most of the persons placed have been defense trainees. 

Thirty-seven women were placed as engine lathe operators m October and 
November This was the first occasion for such placements. Thirty-three 
multiple spindle drill press operators were placed in this same period, although 
placements in this occupation have occasionally been made since May 1941. 
Women have been hired as floor assemblers (machine shop) since January 1941, 
and 274 placements were made in this occupation in October and November. 

In aircraft occupations, 374 women were placed as detail assemblers m the same 
2 months. First placements of women occurred in August and have grown con- 
siderably. During this period, 61 women were placed as aircraft riveters, and in 
November 10 female airplane electricians were placed. In both cases, no earlier 
reports of such placements had been received. 

Women have long been employed as radio chassis assemblers, and now that this 
has become a national shortage occupation, it is noteworthy that they numbered 
more than half of total placements — a proportion exceeding that in any other de- 
fense shortage occupation. First reports of such placements were received in 
May and for the October and November period reached 250. It is of interest 
that 258 women were enrolled in preemployment and refresher courses for the 
radio industry in the quarter ending September 30, 1941. 

Recently women have also been placed in shortage occupations classified as 
only partially suitable for them. The greatest numbers of such placements in 
October and November were in the following occupations: 88 machine-shop in- 
spectors; 14 all-around machinists; 98 electrical assemblers (a high proportion of 
total placements for this occupation) ; 24 special radio equipment assemblers; and 
6 coremakers. 

Reports on placements of women by broad occupational groups reveal something 
of the geographic differences in their placement (and training) opportunities. In 
the assembly occupations, in which the largest number of women were placed, 
California, Washington, New York, and Ohio headed the list of placements during 
September 1941. Placements, in machining occupations, the second most im- 
portant group for women, were most numerous in New York, Michigan, Cali- 
fornia, and Ohio. 

More placements in cold-metal fabricating occupations, and in electrical and 
related occupations were made in New Y'ork and California than in other States. 
Michigan had the largest number of placements in the hot-metal fabricating occu- 
pations. 

WOMEN IN PRODUCTION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE WAR 

The place of women in our industrial pattern has been well established during 
the 23 j'ears since the last war. They constitute one-fourth of the workers in 
manufacturing establishments; they are indispensable in the service, clerical 
and teaching fields; they have penetrated into the more technical, professional and 
managerial fields. They are part and parcel of the structure of the work -life in 
this highly developed countr\'. In analyzing their present or future usefulness to 
war production, however, the emphasis falls in classifications very different from 
peacetime. The manufacture of ships, airplanes, tanks, guns, and ammunition 
have traditionally been men's work. Nevertheless, a number of women are 
already at work in expanding war industries, such as aircraft, bag and shell 
loading, munitions, and the Government service. 



AIRCRAFT 



Last July when Mr. Sidney Hillman, Director of the Labor Division, addressed 
his letter to primary contractors in stringency areas, requesting them to employ 
more women, the aircraft industry was a major objective. Prior to this time, 
women workers in aircraft plants had been limited to clerical employees and a very 
few fabricating sewers and upholsterers. Today the situation "in the aircraft 
industry is changing sharply. Immediately after the issuance of Mr. Hillman's 
request, west coast aviation plants began to use women workers in light airplane 
assembly work on wings, fuselages, and control surfaces, and in riveting, drilling, 
filing, and removing metal burrs from machined parts. In September this trend 
had spread to other aircraft plants throughout the country, and by December, 
almost 4,000 women (less than 2 percent of the total employment) were employed 
in aircraft plants and almost 600 in airplane engine plants.^ 

In ^Baltimore an airplane factory first began training girls in September 1941. 
The starting group numbered 35 girls taking courses of 6 weeks' duration in sheet- 
metal work, including drilling, dimpling, countersinking, gun and compression 



XATIO?C.\L DETEXSE MIGRATION 10357 

riveting, and the burring and machine finishing of small metal parts. Courses 
in electrical assemblies and bench work followed. Spot-welding training was 
given on the job. Now about 300 are employed and another 1,000 are to be added 
in the next few weeks. Estimates are that at least 5,000 women workers will be 
hired in aircraft plants in the Baltimore area in the coming 4 or 5 months. 

Last fall another aircraft plant in Maryland requested that women be trained 
for work in cutting, filing burring, hammering, stretching, drilling, and riveting 
aluminum alloys. This training also included blueprint reading. The first 
trainees consisted mostly of married women and girls who had some work experi- 
ence. Twenty of the twenty-one women who enrolled in the courses completed 
it and were found satisfactory. Now 400 are being trained in sheet metal, wood- 
work, machine shop, and welding work. Plans at this plant are moving toward a 
faster employment rate of women workers. 

In October another California aircraft firm reported that their experiments 
with women workers had been so successful that they considered women workers as 
having a permanent place in their shops. According to the company: "So well 
did they perform their duties that the project rapidly passed from the experimental 
stage to a point where women have become a permanent fixture in our personnel 
program. It is possible that they will handle a large percentage of total shop work 
should the emergency sharply curtail the available supply of men." Of the women 
employed by this firm, which has continued to be the leader among aircraft plants 
in utilizing women, the vast majority have had some previous factory experience. 
Their average wage was found to be 44}^ cents an hour in their old jobs, while they 
now receive an average of 70)4 cents — the same rate as men for comparable work. 
About two-thirds of the women are, or have been, married; and for the most part 
lived within commuting distance of the factory before they were employed. 

Another airplane plant in St. Louis announced in January that, at the request 
of Army authorities, they were rushing plans to train women production workers, 
including riveters, inspectors, and electrical assembly workers, to meet a threatened 
shorta^ge of skilled men workers and to release men for military service. This 
plant is already employing women to sort and distril^ute bluei)rints and to control 
the flow of parts to the assembly line. This company has stated: "There may 
come a time when we can't get any men of military age and have to depend on 
men above that age or men of military age unable, for some reason, to serve. 
That means we must fill in with women." This plant has also found many women 
already satisfactorily trained, especially in small assembly work, because of pre- 
vious factory experience. Most of the women employed at this plant are between 
18 and 30, but no age limitation has been set. 

One aircraft firm was employing 270 women in their southern factory at the 
end of 1941 in the following departments and occupational classifications: 

Sheet metal department: Cover and trim department — Con. 

Punch press operator Coverer beginner 

Trim saw operator Trimmer 

Band saw operator Paint department : 

Libert shear operator Spray doper 

Sheet metal bench beginner Brush doper 

Engraving machine operator Layer-out and masker 

Metal preparation beginner Prime sprayer beginner 

Farnham rolls operator beginner Wings-outer department: 

Processing department: Beginner general aircraft assem- 

Beginner anodizer blyman 

Begiimer cadmium plater Riveter 

Beginner dural heat treater Miscellaneous department: 
Final assembly department: Final as- Beginner electrical and radio as- 
semblyman beginner sembly. 
Cover and trim department : Parts stamper 

Sewing machine operator (power) Production clerks 

first class Beginner general aircraft assembly 

Sewing machine operator (power) Subassembly department: Beginner gen- 
second class eral aircraft subassembly 

Coverer 

This firm has an established polic.y of promotion as the individual's skill war- 
rants and has announced that there will be no discrimination against women in 
these promotions. The company is actively recruiting women workers for the 
following jobs but finds applicants with the necessary training and technical 
background to be scarce: Certified aluminum welder; welder (arc); welder (acety- 
lene); engine lathe operator, beginner; turret lathe operator; milling machine 



10358 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

operator beginner; erco machine operator, beginner; bench machinist, beginner; 
pattern maker plaster, beginner; woodworker jig and mock-up, beginner. 

The company has found from a study of their occupations that there are a few 
aircraft jobs for which women are not generally suitable because of physical 
requirements. These jobs are: Drop hammer operator, power hammer operator, 
hydraulic press operator, sand blaster, steel heat treater, router operator, shaper 
operator, floor molder apprentice die castings, power break operator. 

Some aircraft jobs require a background of experience which few, if any, women 
possess, and the training period required for these jobs makes general utilization 
of women workers impractical. These jobs are: Wood patternmaker; sheet metal 
lay-out; tool and die maker; jig builder; automatic screw machine operator. 

It can be seen from the above statements that there are few jobs in aircraft manu- 
facturing from which women are barred because of physical requirements or experi- 
ence and training requirements. Aside from actual work experience, the major 
deficiency in women's qualifications for skilled jobs is usually a lack of mathe- 
matics and manual training. A long-range solution to this problem would be to 
encourage girl high-pchool students to take courses in plane geometry, trigonom- 
etry, physics, and chemistry to better equip themselves for skilled jobs. The im- 
mediate expedient is to refer more women to preemployment courses in the 
defense training program. 

Surveys are in process to determine to what extent and in what occupations 
women can perform satisfactorily in aircraft production. This information is not 
yet available, but unofficial estimates place the figure at 30 to 50 percent of the 
total aircraft employment. In the manufacture of airplane engines and pro- 
pellers, there is less certainty as to the occupations which can be satisfactorily 
fiUed by women. 

BAG- AND SHELL-LOADING PLANTS 

The loading of artillery bags and shells provides employment possibilities for 
substantial numbers of women. The processes, for the most part, are simple 
loading and assembly jobs. They require relatively short training periods, and the 
exercise of great caution in handling the explosives. It has been found that women 
are more suitable than men for many of the required occupations in this industry. 

A study of an operating bag-loading plant revealed that more than half of the 
employees were engaged in sewing powder bags, and more than a fifth were am- 
munition assembly laborers. In nearly all cases, both of these occupations were 
filled by women. 

In another study of the occupations involved in the loading and assembly of 
37-mm. shells, 28 percent of the employees were found to be women. Again, in 
the loading and assembly of detonating fuzes, another study indicated that 72 
percent of the workers were women. The same proportion in the assembly of 
nose-bomb fuzes was 68 percent. 

In general, the suitability of women for shell- and fuze-loading and assembly 
operations varies considerably. In some cases the proportion of women is less 
than one-third, in other cases it may range as high as 100 percent. In this con- 
nection, the United States Department of Labor estimated that at least 40 per- 
cent of the workers in bag-loading plants, and between 30 and 40 percent in sheU- 
and bomb-loading plants, are or will be women. 

SMALL-ARMS AMMUNITION (CALIBER .30 AND .50 AMMUNITION) 

In the small-arms ammunition plant in which source data for this study were 
obtained, women represent approximately 32 percent of all workers in occupa- 
tions directly concerned with the manufacture of small-arms ammunition, and 
they constitute about 80 percent of all workers employed in the 22 occupations 
that are open to women or to both men and women. In addition to these 22 
occupations in which women are actually employed, there are 37 other occupations 
apparently suited to the employment of women. If women exclusively were em- 
ployed in these 37 occupations, their total employment would be increased from 
approximately 32 percent to approximately 60 percent. 

There are certain characteristics common to all occupations in which women 
are actually employed — they involve the manipulation of small and light ma- 
terials, require relatively brief training periods, and are repetitive. Examples 
are occupations concerned with primer inversion, packing, and inspection work, 
the latter being performed almost entirely by women. Machine tending and 
machine feeding are likewise engaged in extensively by women. Although women 
are not at present employed in occupations requiring any great degree of strength, 
it is the opinion of management, in the establishment in which source data for this 



NATTONAL DEIFEN'SE MIGRATION' 



10359 



study were gathered, that the strength factor may be minimized if the supply of 
male workers diminishes seriously. It is known that women were employed as 
tenders of heavy draw presses during the emergency of 1914-18, even though they 
had not previously been, and are not now, so employed. It is likewise indicated 
that in case of necessity women could be employed in occupations involving the 
tending of a battery of machines even though they are unable to tend as many 
machines in one battery as men can. 

Following are the previously mentioned 22 occupations in which women are now 
employed in the establishment surveyed, with indications of the percentage em- 
ployment of women in each occupation and the percentage total employment 
represented by each occupation: 



Title 



Percentage 
of women 

to total 
workers in 
the occupa- 
tion 



Percentage 

of total 
workers in 
the occupa- 
tion to total 
workers in 
the process 



Anvil plate filler • 

Bullet assembly press operator i 

Charging machine operator ' 

Do 

Charwoman 

Clip assembly machine feeder 

Clipping machine operator ' 

Cup plate filler ' 

Flame annealing machine operator • 

Foiling machine operator ' 

Forming press operator, automatic. 
Gage and weigh machine operator L 

Head turn machine operator i 

Inspector ' 

Loading machine operator i 

Packer (ammunition) 

Primer inverting machine operator ' 

Do... . 

Production clerk 

Screw machine operator, automatic. 

Shellacker' 

Trim machine operator ' 



100. 00 
68.18 
28.57 
28.57 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
80.00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
100. 00 
77.11 
100. 00 
100. 00 
84.21 
27.78 
100. 00 
82.61 



0.52 

3.25 

2.60 

2.60 

.52 

.75 

1.18 

1.03 

.52 

.52 

.89 

1.77 

.74 

7.54 

2.15 

6.15 

.67 

1.33 

1.70 

1.88 

.22 

1.71 



' Denotes occupations partially suitable for women. 

Following are the occupations in which women apparently could be employed 
but in which they are not presently employed in the plants surveyed: 



Title 



Brake operator, hand 

Cannelure and finish machine opera 

tori 

Centerless grinding machine operator. 

Chamfering machine operator ' 

Chest cover sealers i 

Clerk-ty pist 

Cup fillers ' 

Cylindrical grinder operator. 

Draw press operator 

P'levator operator, freight 

Flame annealing machine operator i.. 

Gaging machine operator i 

Guide, factory 

Head turn machine adjuster i 

Heading press operator i 

Internal grinder operator 

Inventory clerk 

Mercury cracking tester i 

Oil extractor 



Percentage 

of total 
workers in 
the occupa- 
tion to total 
workers in 
the process 



0.15 

.22 

.07 
.07 
.45 
.37 
.52 
.44 
3.22 
2.68 
.52 
.15 
.07 
.44 
2.45 
.30 
.44 
.15 
.07 



Title 



Painter, spray 

Punch press operator, automatic 

Receiving clerk 

Rotary surfpce grinder operator 

Screw machine operator, semiauto 

matic 

Shear operator, hand 

Solderer 

Stamper 

Stenciler -• 

Stock clerk 

Surface grinder operator 

Swaging machine operator 

Tester 

Toggle press operator, hand 

Tool clerk 

Tool grinder operator 

Trim machine adjuster > 

Universal grinder operator 



Percentage 

of total 
workers in 
the occupa- 
tion to total 
workers in 
the process 



0.37 
.60 
.15 
.07 

1.10 
.15 

1.93 
.15 
.37 
.07 
.74 
.37 
.22 
.52 

1.19 
.07 
.88 
.30 



> Denotes occupations partially suitable'for women. 



10360 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

FEDERAL DEFENSE ACTIVITIES 

Mrs. Lucille Foster McMillin, United States Civil Service Commissioner, 
recently issued a Studj' of Women's Participation in Federal Defense Activities, 
entitled "The First Year." In this study Mrs. McMillin pointed out that on 
June 30, 1940, "The civil service employment in the executive branch of the 
United States Government had reached a total of 1,002,820 individuals. Of this 
number 816,010 were men and 186,210 were women. * * * By June 30, 1941, 
238,509 additional placements brought Federal service employment to a grand 
total of 1,358,150 emplovees — 1,091,743 men and 263,407 women." 

To illustrate the extent and variety of the kinds of jobs women are holding 
luidcr the Federal Government, the following is quoted from Mrs. McMillin's 
study: 

"They (women) were occupied in research work in the Bureau of Home Eco- 
nomics of the Department of Agriculture, and in the Children's Bureau of the 
Department of Labor. 

"They were found in positions involving work in law, medicine, public admin- 
istration, illustrating, editing, and writing. 

"In almost every department and independent establishment of the Govern- 
ment, women were holding good jobs and were rendering outstanding service. 

"By far the greatest number of women were in the clerical, stenographic, and 
typist positions — a particular source from which the most women proceed to 
bigger jobs, better pay, and a successful career in the Federal ranks. * * * 

"On June 30, 1940, there were 2,844 women civil employees in the Ordnance 
Department at large, outside the District of Colubmia. By the end of June 1941 
their number had increa.4ed to a total of nearly 10,000 women civil employees, of 
whom more than 6,000, or approximate!}' two-thirds, were employed in Govern- 
ment-operated arsenals of the Nation, as follows: 

Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, N. J 2, 349 

Watervliet Arsenal, Watervlict, N. Y 185 

Watertown Arsenal, Watertown, Mass 251 

Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pa 3, 223 

Springfield Armory, Springfield, Mass 279 

Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, 111 511 

Total, women employees 6, 798 

"* * * While the number of women presently engaged in work in defense 
activities is small in comparison with the estimated number which ultimately will 
find employment therein, they are found in jobs which are picturesque and unique 
in character, and which include tasks not usually performed bj' women. 

"From many sources reports are received of their continuous placement on the 
production line in establishments of the War Department — the arsenals, the ord- 
nance depots, the proving grounds, the munition factories, the quartermaster 
depots, the air fields, the Engineer Department at large, and the Medical Corps; 
in the navy yards and air stations of the Navy Department; in the armament 
industries vital to defense; and in the multitudinous activities of those other 
departments and independent establishments of the Government which have been 
designated as defense agencies. 

"In the Picatinny Arsenal at Dover, N. J., more than 1,000 women are working 
as classified laborers, and more than 400 are employed there as explosives opera- 
tors in the operation of machines and presses incident to the loading of munitions. 

"At the Edgewood (Md.) Arsenal, women's nimble fingers are used on the assem- 
bly line in the manufacture of gas masks. Every 24 hours more than 2,000 
womeii work in 3 shifts, 6 days a week, handling highly confidential processes, 
operating heavy-duty high-speed electric sewing machines, using pliers, soldering 
irons, and presses, and performing skilled handwork in the assembly of incom- 
plete parts of gas masks. Final inspection of the finished product is made by 
women. Patience and care are indispensable as a single leak or defective piece 
might be disastrous in some future liattle. Women from this arsenal are sent to 
private companies engaged in the maimfacture and assemblv of gas-mask parts to 
act as instructors of the employees of the private firms. At the arsenal, women 
toxicologists and pharmacologists perform research work in testing the efficacv of 
chemical-warfare materials. They test the value of defensive gases developed to 
counteract the known chemical-warfare gases of other countries. Before the 
national emergency, Edgewood Arsenal had 181 women emplovees, as compared 
with 2,513 on April 1, 1941. . i - . 



NATlONiAL DE'FE]S'S!E' MIGRATION 10361 

"At the Frankford Arsenal, Philadelphia, women hold the majority of positions 
in the fuze shop. Girls with a high-school education, but having little or no 
experience in the work, are accepted for training in this important job in one of 
the country's largest arsenals. Here, on the production line, women assist in the 
manufacture, in the inspection, in the testing, and in the intricate subassembly 
of parts for mechanical time fuzes used in artillery shells. Here women are 
machine-tool operators and precision optical workers, performing duties which 
correspond with those required in the finest type of watchmaking. Tiny, deli- 
cate parts, cumbersome to the heavy hands of men, are handled easily and effi- 
ciently by the quick fingers of women. Here women are munition inspectors. 
Here their quality of patience, their temperament, their dexterity, their devotion 
to duty are vitally essential as their deft hands turn out the missiles of defense. 

"At the Philadelphia Quartermaster Depot the majority of positions in the 
clothing factory are filled by women. The factory manufactures uniforms and 
clothing equipment for the soldiers. It is the only factory operated by the War 
Department for this purpose. Many women occupy supervisory positions 
there. 

"In the Marine Corps Supply Depot at Philadelphia — the only clothing factory 
depot operated by the Marine Corps — women manufacture marine uniforms. 

:i; * * 

"In the Chemical Warfare Service at Cincinnati, Ohio, 2.50 women have been 
appointed to jobs as arsenal learners, gas-mask inspectors, process inspectors, 
and laboratory aides in connection with the manufacture of gas masks. In the 
Engineer Department at large, women occupy the position of engineering aide. 
One woman is a junior architect. In the Ordnance Department at large, women 
are serving as under inspectors of ordnance. 

"At the Fairfield Air Depot, Patterson Field, Fairfield, Ohio, women apply 
radio-active luminous material to various dials used on aircraft instruments. 

"In the St. Louis, Mo., Ordnance District Office women work as inspectors of 
ammunition parts and small-arms ammunition and in the recording of intricate 
drawings and specifications of ordnance-material items. 

"At the San Antonio, Tex., Arsenal women are used in cleaning and grinding 
lenses in the optical section. * * * 

"The laboratories of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at 
Moffett Field, Calif., employ women with majors in mathematics, physics, or 
chemistry to make computations on wind-tunnel tests. * * * 

"At the Philadelphia Navy Yard women operators are employed in the Naval 
Aircraft Factory in the manufacture of parachutes and related equipment used 
by the Navy. 

"The inspector of naval aircraft at San Diego, Calif., employs women as in- 
spectors of engineering material. * * * 

"In the military camps of the country, in the hospitals, in defense agencies, in 
the field activities of the Government, women are employed as nurses, hospital 
attendants, hostesses, librarians, receptionists, mess attendants, laundrj^ opera- 
tives, surgeon's assistants, dental hygienists, dietitians, inspectors of textiles, 
elevator operators, cooks, welfare workers, and technicians of all kinds. * * * 

"In other Government agencies women are studying ways of improving bread 
for the military forces. They are developing new recipes with the aim of making 
bread more nutritous. The.y are conducting experiments in the preservation of 
foodstuffs, such as potatoes, eggs, milk, and other staples. They are engaged in 
nutrition studies which are a part of a national-nutrition program. They serve 
as inspectors of supplies sent to England. They are employed in the testing of 
textiles to determine resistance to mildew and other deteriorating elements, for 
the betterment of military clothing and equipment. They design work outfits 
for women employed in farm, home, and factory occupations — outfits stripped of 
hazardous ties and frills, and provided with comfort and safety. * * * 

"Women are occupying positions such as director of personnel, liaison officer, 
food consultant, director of nutrition, associate administrator, executive assist- 
ant, nurse consultant, chief of pul)lic information, and chief of press relations. 
* * * 

"Thus, at the end of the first year of the emergency, we are able to see some- 
thing of women's participation in the national defense program on the govern- 
mental front. However long the narrative may continue, it is certain that he 
who writes the final chapter will find in the complete story a record of courage, 
fortitude, and heroism displayed by women workers in defense who engaged 
themselves in uncommon duties which they performed faithfully and well." 

60396 — 42— pt. 27 10 



]^Q362 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

PRESENT SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING GREATER EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN 

In a total war effort, we must utilize our labor power as wisely as we use our 
militarv strength. Manv factors must be taken into consideration in advocating 
lar<^e-scale employment 'of women in industry. A short-sighted or too hasty 
approach would result in an unsettled and unbalanced labor market. 

One of the first considerations must be the curtailment or complete closing 
down of vast portions of our civilian industry as materials essential to war pro- 
duction are withdrawn from manufacturers of civilian goods. The curtailment 
of the automobile and rubber industries alone will cause a temporary lay-off of 
five or six hundred thousand workers, of whom approximately 80 percent will be 
men In the field of durable consumer goods (refrigerators, washing machines, 
and other household appliances), many have been disemployed. In the silk in- 
dustry 40,000 have been displaced. This, of course, does not count the thousands 
who are si'milarlv, though indirectly, affected by such curtailments. 

It is vitally important to success in our war effort that we make use of these 
idle plant facilities and this idle manpower for the production of war goods. 
Since the majority of displaced workers are men, they will be given the first 
chance to enter into war occupations. Moreover, the reemployment of women 
normally employed in these industries must come before new women workers 
are brought into the labor force in any great numbers. 

In 26 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico there are laws regulat- 
ing the working hours of women in manufacturing establishments. Sixteen 
States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico prohibit night work in certain 
industries. In some instances these laws have worked against the employment 
of women, although until the time of the war this presented no serious problem. 

In some instances, employers and organized labor have hesitated to open job 
opportunities for women, because of necessary readjustments in plant facilities 
to provide rest rooms and health and safety precautions for women workers. 

If there are sufficient men in an area to meet the labor requirements, organized 
labor is resistant to the employment of women because they are usually employed 
at a lower rate than men. Industry must recognize the importance of employing 
women at an equal rate of pay for equal work, to prevent a lowering of wage 
standards. 

War production is highly concentrated in certain geographical areas. Inas- 
much as women constitute a less mobile labor force than men, employers must 
recognize the importance of recruiting women in accordance with established 
labor supply policy of use of local labor supply. 

It is especially important that post-war readjustment be considered in bringing 
about a large influx of women into the war labor force. There is little doubt that 
women will be required to leave their jobs at the end of the war, to permit the 
return of men to their jobs as they are released from the armed forces. 

Shortly after the United States entered into war against the Axis Powers, rep- 
resentatives of Federal agencies and State labor commissioners were called to- 
gether by the Secretary of Labor to prepare a statement of war labor supply 
policy which would permit temporary modification in accepted standards of em- 
ployment and hours of work, but which would preserve State labor laws protect- 
ing the efficiency of the workers. This statement of war labor policy has been 
issued by the War and Navy Departments and the United States Department of 
Labor, from which the following is quoted: 

"This all-out program of production requires the employment of all labor in 
accordance with those practices which will result in the maximum continued 
output of every individual. The sole test of labor standards must be the effect 
on the efficiency of the individual to insure top war production. Based on this 
test the State laws and regulations embracing the following principles should 
be preserved, except where temporary modification may be necessary during the 
war period to assure maximum production. 

(1) A maximum 48-hour week for the individual worker, since weekly hours 
in excess of this standard have been demonstrated to result in decreased rather 
than increased production when continued for any extended period of time. 

(2) A maximvim 8-hour day for the individual work or the daily hours custom- 
arilv worked in the particular establishment, industry, or community. 

(3) One day of rest in seven, because experience has shown that this inter- 
lude has a revitalizing effect on the worker and a consequent beneficial effect on 
the total output. 

(4) Adaptation of the hours of labor and working conditions to the age and 
sex of the worker and the nature of the occupation. 



NATION-AL DETENSE' MIGRATION 10363 

(5) Proper safeguards for health and safety go hand in hand with production 
efficiency and, therefore, greater care must be exercised in making plant condi- 
tions safe and healthful. 

(6) Provision should be made for adequate meal and rest periods from con- 
tinuous work in order to preserve health and efficiency. 

(7) Wage rates for women should be the same as for men, including the en- 
trance rate. 

"These standards must be relaxed if and when necessary for total war produc- 
tion. There must be no relaxation of standards governing employment of minors 
under the age of 16. At the same time there must be vigilance to prevent any 
unnecessary abrogation or suspension of labor laws and regulations. There is 
no occasion to engage in a blanket suspension of labor standards. It would be 
unwise to sacrifice, where sacrifice is not required, the safeguards with which 
the country has sought to protect labor. Social gains, not inconsistent with 
war needs, must be conserved." 

With all of these factors constantly before us, the Labor Division will vigorously 
pursue its policy that "there must be an extension of the scope of employment 
of women in increasing numbers of occupations and areas and that this will be 
facilitated to meet the needs of the war program, particularly in areas where 
shortages of male workers are occurring." 

The loyalty and patriotism of the women of America are unquestioned. When 
they are needed they will do their share in turning out the essentials of war. 
There is no question that they are capable of meeting the demands which will 
be made of them in in the turbulent months to come. 

LIST OF TABLES 

Vocational training for defense workers 

Table I. Cumulative total number of women enrolled in preemployment and 
supplementary courses to November 30, 1941. 

Table II. Preemployment and refresher courses ending net enrollment for 
women by State, June 30, September 30, October 31, November 30, 1941. 

Table HI. Supplementary courses ending net enrollment for women by State 
June 30,' September 30, October 31, November 30, 1941. 

Table IV. Enrollment of women in Ve-nd courses cumulative enrollment from 
July 1, to November 30, 1941, and ending net enrollment as of November 30, 
1941, by State. 

Table V. List of courses training women for defense occupations by principal 
training centers, as of November 30, 1941, preemployment courses. 

Tat)le VI. List of courses training women for defense occupations by principal 
training centers, as of November 30, 1941, supplementary courses. 

Table VII. Engineering, science, and management defense training female en- 
rollment in educational defense training, and engineering, science, and manage- 
ment defense training courses by State and institution from October 9, 1940, to 
November 30, 1941 (based on monthly enrollment reports). 

National Youth Administration out-of-school work programs 

Number of girls employed in selected types of work activities by month. 

Table VIII. Machine and metal working shops. 

Table IX. Radio and electrical. 

Table X. Woodworking 

Table XL Automotive and mechanical. 

Number of girls leaving National Youth Administration -projects to accept jobs in 

private industiij 

Table XII. Month of November 1941. 

Table XIII. July 1941 through November 1941. 

Table 1.^ — Cumulative total number of women enrolled in preemployment and 
supplementary courses to Nov. 30, 1941 



Type of training 



July 1, 1940, to 
Nov. 30, 19-11 



July 1, to Nov. 
30, 1941 



Preemployment . 
Supplementary.^ 



13. 567 
3,453 



1 12, 018 
8 2, 184 



' Includes 334 trainees actively enrolled on June 30, 1941. 
» Includes 435 trainees actively enrolled on June 30, 1941. 



10364 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Tabie II —Pre-employment and refresher courses ending net enrollment for Women 
hy State, June 30, Sept. SO, Oct. 31, Nov. 30, 1941 





Ending net enrollment for women 


State or Territory 
(1) 


June 30, 
1941 

(2) 


Sept. 30, 
1941 

(3) 


Oct. 31, 
1941 

(4) 


Nov. 30, 
1941. 

(5) 


Total - - 


435 


3,173 


4,600 


5,116 









7 



705 



6 


899 
5 

180 



33 

118 
12 

350 

139 

9 
86 



218 

159 
41 

:-i47 

96 

7 


147 
1 

595 



213 
23 
42 

514 

9 

3 
16 
9 









7 





33 







735 




12 




24 



193 



15 

172 


188 









12 




159 


70 




11 




19 

1 



82 

105 



3 

13 





(i9 

25 

54 

216 



109 




170 




238 









13 






114 








79 












240 




433 




4 






259 












210 












66 


New Ilampshire - - 



37 



73 

1 
377 




127 

20 

479 









98 








53 




623 


North Carolina - 










Ohio 


354 




19 

1 


27 


OreRon.- 


25 




751 


Rhode Island. _ 












South Dakota.... 



5 



4 
13 







26 


Texas. 


30 






5 


Vermont 






6 











Washington . . 


54 




4 
1 


116 
180 
2 
13 




128 
183 
2 
11 




125 


Wisconsin 


198 




3 


District of Columbia 




15 











Puerto Rico 














NATTOlSrAL DEFEJCSE' MIGRATION 



10365 



Table III.- 



'Supplementary covrses ending net enrollment for women, by State, 
June SO, Sept. SO, Oct. SI, Nov. SO, 1941 





Ending net enrollment for women 


State or Territory 
(1) 


June 30, 
1941 

(2) 


Sept. 30, 
1941 

(3) 


Oct. 31, 
1941 

(4) 


Nov. 30, 
1941 

(5) 


Total -.. 


334 


fiS3 


520 


717 








Alabama . - . - - 








50 






11 





46 
25 
42 

26 















California . 


128 


C dorado 






124 

11 
5 



40 



23 


47 


Delaware . - - - 





Florida 






5 


Idaho . . - .. . 




180 

1 



53 
2 
2 





Illinois . 


77 






2 


Iowa - 




1 


Kansas 






2 








1 
2 

2 





39 
13 
66 






10 
15 
13 






Louisiana -. - 





Maine 





Maryland 


7 


Massachusetts 


45 


Michigan .. 


27 







Mississippi - 




Missouri 


10 
2 
8 




9 


8 


Montana . 




16 


Nebraska 













25 
2 

42 


1 
4 
6 
3 










New Hampshire -.- - 





New Jersey 


1 


New Mexico -.- 


1 

194 












169 




204 


North Carolina 





North Dakota 





Ohio 


3 


Oklahoma . 








Oregon 


7 
20 



16 
27 

11 

3 
7 


2^ 


24 




31 


Rhode Island . 





South Carolina 




South Dakota .. ... 






12 
2 







Tennessee 


7 


Texas 


46 




24 


Utah 





Vermont 





Virginia.- 


30 


Washington .. . .. 


6 

1 


3 





13 


West Virginia 



2 


2 




2 


13 






Wisconsin 


a 







District of Columbia 





Hawaii.. 


13 


Puerto Rico 










10366 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Tablr 'IV.— Enrollment of women in Ve-nd courses cnmulative enrollment from 
July 1 to Nov. SO, 1941, and ending net enrollment as of Nov. 30, W41, by btate 





Preemplo3rment- 
refresher courses 


Supplementary 
courses 


state or territory 
(1) 


Cumu- 
lative 
enroll- 
ment 
from 
July 1, 
1941, to 
Nov. 30, 
19411 

(2) 


Ending 
net en- 
rollment 

as of 

Nov. 30, 

1941 

(3) 


Cumu- 
lative 
enroll- 
ment 
from 
July 1, 
1941, to 
Nov. 30, 
1941 

(t) 


Ending 
net en- 
rollment 

as of 

Nov. 30, 

1941 

(5) 


Total 


12,018 


5,116 


2,134 


717 














28 


7 














2.146 

13 

557 


735 
12 

188 


172 

25 

219 


128 









47 








16 
629 

11 

416 

238 



36 
159 


12 

70 

11 

170 

238 



13 

114 


77 
5 

227 
7 
2 
7 








6 









77 




2 




1 




2 


Kentnckj' 















Maryland 

Massachusetts 


748 
582 
488 
517 


229 


C6 


240 
433 

4 
259 


210 


60 


73 
79 
337 

2 
8 
K- 



7 
45 




27 


Minnesota . 










Missouri . -- 


8 


Montana . -- 


16 


Nebraska _ -- 









New Hampshire 












G07 



1,381 


98 



b23 


70 

2 

439 


1 


New Moxico . . . -- 





New York. 


204 


North Carolina 














Ohio 


530 

73 

43 

1,543 

57 



354 
27 

25 

751 






5 
4 

38 
85 

11 


3 







Orcson . ... 


24 




31 


Rhode Island . . 










South Dakota . .... 






41 
46 
12 


26 

30 

5 


7 

109 




7 


Texas 


24 







Vermont 








54 

223 

491 

4 

34 






54 
125 

lys 

3 
15 



32 

48 


65 



13 


30 


Washington 


13 







Wisconsin 


2 







District of Columbia... . ... 







13 


Puerto Rico..- ... . . ... 















' Includes trainees rejected subsequent to CDroUment as unsuited for training and dropouts. 



NATIOlSriAL DEFENSE MIGRATIOlSr 



10367 



Table Y.~List of courses training women for defense occupations, by principal 
training centers, as of Nov. SO, 1941 — Preemployment courses 



Location and course title 



CALIFORNIA 

Alameda: 

Aiqilane coverer fabric. -. 

Airplane fabrication 

Machine shop 

Alhambra: 

Aricraft sheet metal 

Installation mech. Ill 

Downey: Aircraft riveting and asembly. 
El Monte: 

Electric wiring .-. --. 

Machine shop II 

Eseondido: 

Sheet metal- > 

Welding-- 

La Verne: 

Airplane sheet metal 

Sheet metal riveting 

Long Beach: 

Aircraft installation and radio 

Aviation assembly and installation, 
mech 

Aviation metal - 

Welditjg 

Los Angeles: Power sewing 

Ontario: Aircraft sheet metal 

San Diego: 

Electric assembly 

Electric installation for assemtly 

Inspection aircraft 

Plaster pattern 

Sheet metal aircraft .-. 

Tube bending 

Aircraft covering 

Fabric work aircraft 

MARYLAND 

Baltimore: 

Assembly small parts 

Airplane riveting 

Hagerstown: 

Acetylene welding 

Aiicraft sheet metal - 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Chicopee: Machineoperation for women. 
Holyoke: Machine shop practice bench. - 
Newtonville: National defense training- 
Springfield: Machine shop 

Waltham: Industrial jewel making 



NEW YORK 

Bay Shore, L. I.: Aircraft fabrication 

and related subjects 

Bufl'alo: Lens grinding .-- 

Elmira: Inspection 

Hornell: Welding 

New York City: Radio communication 

and service-. 

Pearl River: Inspection course 

Richfield Springs: Machine shop 

Rochester: 

Light assembly 

Army ordnance inspector 

Machine shop 

Syracuse: 

Blueprint reading 

Shop mathematics 

Utica: 

Machine shop practice 

Machine shop practice - 

Sheet metal pr. division 

Sheet metal shop practice - 



Enroll- 
ment 
Nov. 30, 
1941 



1 

50 

17 

180 

21 

28 
11 

38 
10 
143 
10 
18 
13 



107 
1G7 



Location and course title 



OHIO 

Akron: 

Machine shop.- 

Radio 

Sheet metal 

Auto mechanics 

Cincinnati: 

Sheet metal and welding -.- 

Radio operation and repair 

Gas and arc welding 

Machine shop -- 

Sheet metal - 

Machine shop and welding 

Cleveland: 

Geneial machine shop 

Sheet metal work 

Columbus: 

Machine shop. ..- - 

Wood pattern making 

Portsmouth: Radio repaii and construc- 
tion t heory - 

Toledo: 

Auto mechanics 

. Machine shop. --- 

Radio shop - 

Sheet metal 

Welding -. 

Woodworking -- 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Altoona: 

Radio assembly and repair.. 

Radio construction and communica- 
tion 

Mount Carmel: Radio repair and main- 
tenance. -- -- 

Philadelphia: 

Detailing mechanical 

Detailing and tracing-- - 

Electrical maintenance - 

Instrument inspection 

Sheet metal 

Welding acetylene 

Detailing and tracing-- - 

Embroidery work 

Light manufacturing 

Sewing machine operation — 

Pittsburgh: 

Machine tool.. 

Sheet metal 

Scran ton: 

Sheet metal - 

Welding 

Machine tool operation 

Williamsport: Aviation instruction and 
repair 

CONNECTICUT 

Brigdeport: General machine.-- 

Hartford: 

General machine 

Shop training for women 

Middlctown: Gun belt making 

New Britain: 

Foundry practice 

General machine - 

New Haven: 

Power sewing 

Machine shop 

Norwich: Machine -- -- 

Stamford: 

Power sewing 

Shop training machine 

Shop training and sheet metal work. 



Enroll- 
ment 
Nov. 30, 
1941 



10368 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Table V. — List of courses training women for defense occupations, by principal 
training centers, as of Nov. SO, 1941.—Preemployment courses — Continued 



Location and course title 



CONNECTICUT — Continued 

Watcrbury: 

General machine . - 

Sheet metal 

ILLINOIS 

Chicago: 

Radio service - 

Machine tool operator 

Marion: 

Machine tool operation 

Sheet metal 

Metropolis: Machine tool operation 

Sycamore; Radio assembly 

INDIANA 

Hammond: 

Power sewing machine 

Industrial sewing 

Gary: 

Machine shop 

Related instruction 

Indianapolis: 

Radio 

Sheet metal 

Welding 

Muncie: N. Y. A. machine shop 

KENTUCKY 

Covington: Electricity 

Louisville: Power machine operation- . 

MINNESOTA 

Minneapolis: Power machine operation 
St. Paul: Power machine sewing- 

MISSOURI 

Kansas City: Machine shop 

Louisiana: 

Cold metal 

Machine shop 

Metal inspection..- 

St. Louis: 

Machine shop 

Welding 

Sheet metal 



Enroll- 
ment 

Nov. 30, 
1941 



72 
2S1 



Location and course title 



WEST VIRGINIA 

Charleston: Drafting 

Clarksburg: 

Auto mechanics 

Combination welding 

Martinsburg: Aircraft sheet metal 

South Charleston: 

Arc welding 

Machine tool operation 

Wheeling: Related sheet metal 

•WISCONSIN 

Cudahy: Machine shop 

Fort Atkinson: Sheet metal 

Kaukauna: 

Machine shop 

Sheet metal 

Madison: Machine shop 

Milwaukee: 

Electricity 

Foundry 

Machine shop 

Power sewing 

Welding 

Oshkosh: 

Communications 

Machine shop 

Stoughton: Machine shop 

Superior: Radio and telegraphy 

Watertown: Machine shop and welding 

Waukesha: Welding 

Wausau: Electricity 

West Allis: 

Auto mechanics 

Electricity 

Machine shop 

Molding and coremaking 

Sheet metal 

Welding 



Enroll- 
ment 
Nov. 30, 
1941 



NATIOm\L DEFEXSE MIGRATION 



10369 



Table VI. — List of courses training women for defense occupations by principal 
training centers, as of N^ov. 30, 1941 — Supplementary courses — Continued 



Location and course title 



CALIFORNIA 

Alameda: 

Airplane fabrications.- 

Airplane mechanic gas engine 

Burbank: 

Aircraft and electric assembly 

Navigation and meteorology 

Airplane and its components 

Sheet metal fabrications 

Steel welding 

Downey: 

Aircraft acetylene welding (ad- 
vanced) 

Aircraft acetylene welding (begin- 
ners) 

Aircraft electric assembly. 

Sheet metal inspection 

Assembly inspection 

Glendale: Tool planning 

Inglewood: Machine shop practice 

Long Beach: Blueprint reading 

National City: 

Aircraft blueprint reading 

Sheet metal fabrications 

Sheet metal fabrications and rivet- 
ing 

San Francisco: 

Aircraft structural 

Metal parts inspection 

MARYLAND 

Elkton: Blueprint reading and measure. 
Hagerstow'n: Aircraft blueprint reading. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Ghicopee: Radio 

East Boston: Machine inspection for 
ordnance 

Pittsfield; Blueprint reading for as- 
sembly 

Waltham: Blueprint reading 

NEW YORK 

Amsterdam: Blueprint reading 

Binghamton: 

Acetylene welding 

Applied mathematics 

Blueprint reading 

Buffalo: 

Blueprint reading and sketching 

Industrial chemistry 

Machine shop 

Mechanical drawing and sketching-. 
Precision measure 

Cortland: Blueprint reading.. 

Elmira: Blueprint reading 



Enroll- 
ment 
Nov. 30, 
1941 



Location and course title 



Enroll- 
ment 

Nov. 30, 
1941 



NEW YORK— continued 



Herkimer: Inspection 

Hion: Drafting and blueprint reading. - 

New York: Radio communications and 
service 

Niagara Falls: 

Blueprint reading 

Chemistry industrial 

Nyack: Welding 

Richfield Springs: Blueprint reading... 

Rochester: Machine shop practice ^^.. 

Schenectady: 

Blueprint reading 

Radio assembly 

Radio blueprint reading 

Scotia: Applied engineer mathematics. 

Syracuse: 

Blueprint reading 

Elementary machine tool 

Troy: 

Elementary metallurgy 

Foremanship and supervision 

Mathematics for machine II 

Tracing 



OHIO 

Cincinnati: Electrical motor repair 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Ardmore: Advanced mechanical draft- 
ing 

Philadelphia: 

Related instruction (metal trades). 

Blueprint reading 

Drafting, mechanical 

Drafting, electrical 

Rankin: Blueprint reading 

CONNECTICUT 

Derby: Blueprint reading 

Rockville: General machine 

ILLINOIS 

Metropolis: Welding 

MISSOURI 

St. Louis: Welding gas 

WISCONSIN 

Milwaukee: 

Blueprint reading 

Sheet metal 

Welding 



10370 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Tablf VII -Enaineering, science, and management defense training, female 
Zr^llment inlTucational defense training <^nd _ engineering science, and r^^^^^^ 
agemeni defense training courses by State and institution, from Oct. 9, 1940, to 
Nov. SO, 1941 [Based on monthly enrollment reports] 



State and institution 
(1) 



United States, total. 



Alabama: . 
Alabama Polytechnic Institute. 
University of Alabama 



Total. 



.A.rizona: University of Arizona 

Arkansas: University of Arkansas 

California: _ , 

California Institute of Technology - 

Stanford University 

University of California 

University of Santa Clara.. 

University of South California 



Total. 



Colorado: 

Colorado School of Mines. 
Colorado State College — 

Regis College 

University of Colorado — 
University of Denver 

Total.... 



Connecticut: 

University of Connecticut. 
Yale University. -- 

Total 



Delaware: University cf Delaware 

Florida: University of Florida 

Georgia: Georgia School of Technology - 
Illinois: 

Bradley Polytechnic Institute 

llUnois" Institute of Technology 

N'orthwestern University 

University of Cliicago 

University of Illinois 

Total • 



Indiana: 

Butlor University. 

Indiana University 

Purdue University 

Rose Polytechnic Institute. 
University ol Notre Dame.. 

Total 



Iowa: 

Iowa State College 

State University of Iowa. 

Total 



Kansas: 

Kansas State College. 
University of Kansas. 



Total. 



Kentucky: University of Louisville 

Louisiana: 

Louisiana State University 

Southwestern Louisiana Institute. 
Tulane University of Louisiana. .. 

Total...- 



Maine: University of Maine 

Maryland: University of Maryland 

Massachusetts: 

Boston College 

Boston University 

Harvard University -..: 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 



Oct. 9, 1940, 

to June 30, 

19411 

(2) 



90 



July 1 to 
30, 1941 



(3) 



40 



21 



Oct. 9, 1904, 

to Nov. 30, 

1941 

(4) 



132 
308 



102 



54 



67 



• Instruction began in the first educational defense training course on Dec. 9, 1940. 



4,436 



222 
308 



530 



74 



85 



76 



19 



13 

104 



126 



NATIOISrAL DEFETsrSE MIGRATION 



10371 



Table VII. — Engineering, science, and management defense training, female en- 
rollment in educational defense training and engineering, science, and jnanagement 
defense training courses by Stale and institution, from Oct. 9, 1940, to Nov. 30, 
1941 — Continued 

[Based on monthly enrollment reports] 



State and institution 
(1) 



Oct. 9. 1940, 

to June 30, 

1941 

(2) 



Massachusetts— Continued. 

Massachusetts State College- 
Northeastern University 

Tufts College 



TotaK 



Michigan: 

Lawrence Institute of Technology 

Michigan College of Mining and Technology. 

Michigan State College - -. 

University of Detroit 

University of Michigan 

Wayne University 



Total. 



Mississippi: Mississippi State College- 
Missouri: Washington University 

Nebraska: University of Nebraska 



New Hampshire: 

Dartmouth College 

University of New Hampshire. 



Total. 



New Jersey: 

Newark College of Engineering.. 

Princeton University. 

Rutgers University 

Stevens Institute of Technology . 

Total 



New Mexico: University of New Mexico. 

New York: 

Clarkson College of Technology 

College of the City of New York 

Cornell University 

Defense Training Institute 

Long Island University 

Manhattan College 

New York University 

Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn 

Pratt Institute 

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 

Syracuse University 

Union College 

University of Buffalo 

University of Rochester 

Total 

North Carolina: 

Duke University 

North Carolina State College 

University of North Carolina 



Total. 



Ohio: 

Case School of Applied Science. 

Fenn College 

Miami University 

Ohio Northern University 

Ohio State University 

Ohio University 

University of Akron 

University of Cincinnati 

University of Dayton . 

University of Toledo 

Western Reserve University 

Youngstown College 



Total. 



July 1 to 
30, 1941 

(3) 



Oct. 9, 1904, 

to Nov. 30, 

1941 








4 


4 




2 


19 


21 







7 


7 




10 


48 


58 







2 


2 




1 





1 




8 


2 


10 




2 


2 


4 




13 


25 


38 




5 


4 


9 


29 


35 


64 







113 


113 







19 


19 




2 


1 


3 




1 


12 


13 




4 


32 


36 


5 


44 


49 




5 


5 


10 







3 


3 




1 


16 


17 







1 


1 


6 


25 


31 


2 


9 


11 







5 


5 




7 


16 


23 




3 


22 


25 




1 


12 


13 







4 


4 




2 





2 




3 


42 


45 







1 


1 




1 





1 




3 


3 


6 







3 


3 




63 


69 


132 







19 


19 







4 


4 


83 


200 


283 




2 


39 


41 







9 


9 







29 


29 


2 


77 


79 




3 


19 


22 







43 


43 







37 


37 




4 


5 


9 




18- 


37 


55 




22 


57 


79 




3 





3 







45 


45 




4 


1 


5 







17 


17 







7 


7 







2 


2 


54 


270 


324 



10372 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Tabi e VII —Engineering, science, and management defense training, female en- 

^"iSSneryin educational defense trainAng^ and engineepng, snence,and managejnent 

defense training courses by State and institution, from Oct. 9, 1940, to Nov. 3U, 

^ °° ^°"^ [Based on monthly enrollment reports] 



State and institution 
(1) 



Oct. 9, 1940, 

to June 30, 

1941 

(2) 



Oklahoma: 

University of Oklahoma. 
University of Tulsa 



Total -- - 

Oregon: Oregon State College - - 

Pennsylvania: 

Bucknell University 

Carnecie Institute of Technology _ 
Drexel Institute of Technology- .- 

Haverford College 

Lafayette College 

Pennsylvania State College 

Swarthniore College - . 

University of Pennsylvania 

University of Pittsburgh 

Villanova College 



Total. 



Rhode Island: 

Brown University 

Rhode Island State College. 



Total. 



South Carolina: 

The Citadel 

Clemson Agricultural College. 
University of South Carolina. 



Total 

South Dakota: South Dakota State College . 



Tennessee: 

University of Tennessee . 
Vanderbilt University... 



Total. 



Te.xas: 

Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. 

Southern Methodist University 

Texas Christian University 

University of Texas 



Total. 



Utah: University of Utah 

Vermont: University of Vermont. . 

Virginia: 

Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 
University of Virginia 



Total. 



Washington; 

State College of Washington. 
University of Washington... 



Total. 



District of Columbia: 

Catholic University of .\merica. 
George Washington University. 
Howard University 



Total. 



July 1 to 
30, 1641 



(3) 



1 
69 
21 

2 

1 
1,154 

1 
63 
99 

2 



Oct. 9, 1904, 
to Nov. 30, 
1941 

(4) 



1.413 



39 



5 

111 

27 

2 

1 

1,250 

1 

68 

111 

2 



1,578 



78 



40 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10373 



Table VIII. — Number of girls employed in selected types of work activities by month, 
out-of-school work programs, fiscal year 1942 — machine and metal-working shops ' 



Region and State 


Number of girls 


July 


August 


September 


October 


November 




1,869 


4,243 


5,410 


6,359 


5,916 




Region I: 


203 


205 


159 


108 


116 








156 
9 
3 

423 


150 
11 
4 

1,056 

74 
1 


413 
11 
2 

987 

97 

1 


325 
18 


362 


New Hanipstiire 


27 


New York City and Long Island 


1 


New York (excluding New York City 


1,222 

106 

1 


1 163 




60 


Vermont - 












Total 


794 


1,501 


1,670 


1,780 


1,729 






Region II: 

Delaware 












District of Columbia 




116 
710 
380 
2 
255 
205 

57 
204 
101 

40 
188 


106 

887 

567 

3 

336 

298 

118 

347 

92 

88 

256 


89 
855 
574 
1 
349 
857 

52 
400 
248 

82 
254 


81 




171 

■ 218 

2 

83 

145 
27 

106 
66 
42 
27 


880 


Indiana 


548 




1 




86 




565 




27 


Ohio 


341 




367 




94 




305 






Total -.- - 


887 


2,258 


3,098 


3,761 


3 295 






Region III: 

Alabama 




16 

2 

35 

1 








Arkansas 




2 
16 




2 


Florida 


42 


17 

1 


13 




1 


Louisiana 










1 




6 


1 




North Carolina 






South Carolina 
























Texas 


1 








1 
























Total -- 


44 


54 


24 


19 


17 






Region IV: 

Col)rado -. .. 




4 

65 

8 








Iowa - - 


37 


211 
14 
12 

104 


326 
15 
24 

173 


303 


Kansas - . 


18 




i 


29 


Missouri -- - 


45 


177 








Nebraska 


27 


75 
6 


76 
1 


54 
1 


69 


New Mexico 


2 


North Dakota. -_ 














27 


73 


South Dakota .. _-_ . 












10 


14 


14 


17 


18 








75 


217 


432 


637 


689 






Region V: 

Arizona 














68 


213 


182 
3 


143 
2 


172 


Idaho - -- - - 


10 


Nevada - - -- - 








Oregon . 








1 
16 


1 










3 




1 




1 












Total - 


69 


213 


186 


162 


186 







' Includes machine, sheet metal, welding, foundry, forge, and blacksmith shops. 



10374 



WASHHSTGTON HEARINGS 



Table IX — Number of girls employed in selected types of work activities hy month 
out-of-school work programs, fiscal year 194^— Radio and electrical 







Number of girls 




Region and State 


July 


August 


September 


October 


November 




547 


690 


958 


1,093 


1,201 






Region I: 


16 


21 


10 














13 


19 


15 
15 
49 

116 
6 


61 
21 
34 

117 


41 




23 


New York City and Lonj]; Island 

New York (excluding New York City 


10 
135 


33 
96 


47 
108 




11 
























Total- - 


174 


169 


211 


233 


230 


Region II: 


3 


4 


31 
2 
59 
42 
26 
3 
3 


36 


32 








SO 
46 
20 
12 
4 


74 

42 

39 

4 


68 
64 
19 


157 




68 




15 




2 




42 


10 








Ohio - 


55 
26 


57 
16 
15 
65 


72 
31 


71 
114 


88 




79 








29 


157 


130 


183 






Total - 


245 


318 


426 


634 


634 






Region III: 




2 
8 
40 
12 
2 


15 
17 
28 
28 
1 
6 


5 
11 
30 
22 


5 






17 


Florida -- 


6 
20 


37 




12 




2 






9 


7 




































9 


11 


27 


26 


27 






Total --- 


35 


75 


122 


103 


107 






Region IV: 




1 
28 
6 








Iowa. - 


9 


38 
11 


30 
10 


41 




10 










31 




33 
7 
10 


67 
18 
3 


48 






18 


Nebraska 


21 


22 


3 


New Mexico .-. 


7 
















4 


16 


1 


17 


10 


South Dakota 




Wyoming 
























Total 


65 


71 


100 


142 


137 






Region V: 

Arizona _ .__ 












California 


10 


43 


70 
8 


51 
8 


54 


Idaho 


7 


Nevada 








Oregon 


7 


9 


21 


22 


23 




7 


Washington 


1 


5 






1 










Total 


27 


57 


99 


79 


92 






Territories: 

Alaska ...-. 


1 










Puerto Rico 






2 


1 












Total. 


1 






2 


1 











NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10375 



Table X. 



-Number of ghls employed in selected types of work activities by month 
ovt-of-school work programs fiscal year 1942, woodworking 



Region and State 




N 


umber of girls 




July 


August 


September 


October 


November ' 


Grand total - 


3,192 


4,864 


4,694 


3,755 


2,401 




Region I: 


113 


91 


58 


34 


7 


Maine 




Massachusetts - 


86 
36 

1 

638 


105 
27 
8 

681 


66 

40 

3 

530 


20 
25 
4 

670 


25 
18 


New York City and Long Island 

New York (excluding New York City 


1 

572 


Rhode Island 




Vermont.- -- 
























Total 


874 


912 


697 


653 


623 






Region II: 

D elaware -.. ..- 












District of Columbia. 












Illinois - - 


464 
172 

24 
5 

24 


1,017 

228 

1 

34 

36 

1 

357 

460 

83 

151 


678 

167 

80 

20 

15 

16 

346 

535 

59 

198 


492 
59 
44 


62 


Indiana _ 


54 




23 


Maryland 


16 




13 

5 

220 

397 

72 

73 


10 


New Jersey - 




Ohio - .- -. -.- 


286 

409 

24 

37 


26 


Pennsylvania .-. - 


241 


West Virginia . .. 


57 


Wisconsin 









Total 


1,445 


2,368 


2,114 


1,375 


485 






Region III: 
Alabama 


5 
88 
7 
1 
10 


20 
129 
55 
10 
36 


76 
169 
42 
14 
35 


37 
105 
47 
18 
37 


20 


Arkansas.- 

Florida. 


25 
30 


Louisiana 


39 


Mississippi . 




North Carolina 

South Carolina.. 


36 


105 

2 

60 

44 

9 


114 

2 

54 

19 

51 


128 
1 
59 
16 
36 


215 
1 


Tennessee -- 


26 
62 


85 


Texas . . 


10 




8 








Total 


235 


470 


576 


484 


433 






Region IV: 

Colorado... _ 

Iowa 


1 

116 


11 
263 


68 

177 

6 

24 

58 

12 

168 

154 

27 

16 

58 

112 


49 

187 

14 

47 

44 

. 13 

71 

253 

30 


6 
148 


Kansas 




Minnesota 

M issouri 


28 

125 

21 

37 

29 

6 

7 

6 

90 


20 
65 
24 
112 
122 
16 
9 


36 
27 


Montana.. ... .. .. 


12 


Nebraska 


37 


New Mexico .. 


254 


North Dakota 


22 


Oklahoma 


1 


South Dakota .. .. 


46 

78 


53 


Wyoming 


104 


106 






Total 


466 


746 


880 


832 


701 






Region V: 

Arizona 








10 

177 

2 

1 

2 

1 

105 


41 


California 


118 


234 


267 




Idaho ... 


5 


Neyada . 


1 


23 

7 

3 

101 


19 

12 

6 

123 


1 


Oregon. 


1 


Utah 




16 


Washington . 


53 


95 






Total 


172 


368 


427 


298 


159 






Territories: Virgin Islands 




1 


113 















1 Employment on regular program only, girls no longer assigned to woodworking shops operated under 
the defense program. Statistics Section, Division of Finance and Statistics Jan. 21, 1942. 



10376 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Table Xl^Numher of girls employed in selected types of work activities by month, 
out-of-school work programs, fiscal year 1H2, automotive and mechamcal 







Number of girls 




Region and State 


July 


August 


September 


October 


November 




62 


154 


155 


231 


242 






Region I: 




24 






















































New York (exclusive of New York 
















1 


1 






Vermont 








Total 




25 


1 






Region II: 




























5 






4 
















25 
8 


1 
23 


2 

52 

8 


2 






20 






3 












Ohio - --- 


8 
10 
5 
2 


10 
14 
12 

1 


10 

23 

32 

5 


28 

14 

50 

1 


20 




31 




58 




2 






Total . - 


25 


75 


94 


155 


140 






Region III: 




18 
5 


18 
5 






Arkansas - 


5 
17 


7 


4 


Florida 


1 




9 


2 


1 
















1 


1 
1 


1 


North Carolina . -. 






1 
























Texas 


7 


9 


5 


6 


8 




















29 


41 


31 


16 


15 






Region IV: 

Colorado 












Iowa -- .-_.-- 




2 


20 


28 


39 


Kansas -.. .-- 






Minnesota .__ 










1 


Missouri . _ . 


2 




2 


18 


19 


Montana .-. 






Nebraska ... 










2 


New Mexico--. 












North Dakota 
















2 


1 


1 


5 


South Dakota 






Wyoming ._ . .. 
























Total - 


2 


4 


23 


47 


66 






Region V; 

Arizona . 












California.. ... 


6 


9 


6 






Idaho . _. 






Nevada 












Orecon 








. 13 


21 


Utah 










Washington 
























Total 


6 


9 


6 


13 


21 







Statistics Section, Division of Finance and Statistics, Jan. 21, 1942. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE AHGRATION 



10377 



Table XII. — Number of girls leaving National Youth Administration projects to 
accept jobs in private industry — Out-of-school-work program, month of November 
1941 



Type of industry 



Number 
of girls 



Total! - - 

Manufacturing industries, total 

Food and kindred products, and tobacco .- 

Textile and textile products... 

Lumber, furniture, and finished lumber products 

Paper and allied products 

Printing, publishing, and allied industries... 

Rayon and allied products .' 

Chemical products (excluding rayon and allied products) 

Petroleum and coal products -. 

Rubber products 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay, and glass products 

Iron and steel and their products (excluding machinery) 

Nonferrous metals and their products (excluding machinery) 

Electrical machinery and equipment 

Agricultural machinery and equipment 

Metalworking machinery and equipment 

Other machinery and equipment ..- - 

Aircraft and parts 

Automobiles and automobile equipment 

Ship and boat building and repairing 

Railroad and other transportation equipment 

Other manufacturing industries 

Nonmanufacturing industries, total. 

Agriculture, forestry (excluding logging), and fishing 

Mining, quarrying, and petroleum production 

Construction 

Air transportation and service 

Railroads (interstate) 

Other transportation and services 

Telephone, telegraph, and related services 

Electric, gas, and other local public utilities.. 

Wholesale and retail trades.-. 

Finance, insurance, and real estate 

Service industries (excluding domestic service) 

Domestic service.- _ 

Other nonmanufacturing industries - 

Unknown industry 



9,672 



2,002 



307 

612 
71 
58 

122 
12 
28 
17 
28 

126 

57 

65 

43 

98 

7 

11 

41 

17 

39 

5 

3 

235 



4,633 



41 
7 

36 

2 

10 

28 

143 

36 

1,996 

323 

1,030 

634 

347 



3,037 



1 Includes one-half of the youth whose reasons for leaving were not reported. 



00396— 42— pt. 27- 



-11 



10378 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Table XIII. — Number of youth leaving N. Y. A. projects to accept jobs in private 
industry— out-of-school work program, July through November 1941 



Type of industry 



Total' - 

Manufacturing industries, total 

Food and kindred products, and tobacco - 

Textile and textile products 

Lumber, furniture, and finished-lumber products 

Paper and allied products 

Printing, publishing, and allied industries . 

Rayon and allied products 

Chemical products (excluding rayon and allied products). .. 

Petroleum and coal products 

Rubber products -- --- 

Leather and leather products 

Stone, clay, and glass products. 

Iron and steel and their products (excludipg machinery) 

Nonferrous metals and their products (excluding machinery 

Electrical machinery and equipment 

Agricultural machinery and equipment --- 

Metalworking machinery and equipment 

Other machinery and equipment 

Aircraft and parts 

Automobiles and automobile equipment 

Ship and boat building and repairing 

Railroad and other transportation equipment 

Other manufacturing industries 

Nonmanufacturing industries, total -. — 

Agriculture, forestry (excluding logging), and fishing 

Mining, quarrying, and petroleum production 

Construction _. ..- 

Air transportation and service 

Railroads (interstate) 

Other transportation and services __ 

Telephone, telegraph, and related services 

Electric, gas, and other local public utilities 

Wholesale and retail trade 

Finance, insurance, and real estate _ - 

Service industries (excluding domestic service) -- 

Domestic service 

Other nonmanufacturing industries 

Unknown industry 



Number of youth 



Total 



170, 635 



39,237 



4,955 

5,869 

2,429 

967 

1,389 

291 

874 

476 

465 

1,483 

981 

3,090 

1,077 

1,815 

322 

1, 360 

1,513 

3,866 

1,032 

1, 025 

389 

3,569 



60, 097 



10,217 

994 

4,389 

259 

1,422 

1,430 

1,568 

929 

17, 292 

2, 303 

11,621 

4,135 

3,538 



71, 301 



Male 



110,463 



25, 660 



2,755 

1,795 

2,027 

566 

679 

119 

520 

392 

277 

697 

658 

2,617 

788 

1,180 

279 

1,255 

1,242 

3, 581 

829 

971 

363 

2,070 



34, 951 



9,717 
962 

4,175 
243 

1,364 

1,241 
559 
624 

8,203 
426 

5,135 
489 

1,813 



49, 852 



Female 



13, 577 



2,200 
4,074 
402 
401 
710 
172 
354 

84 
188 
786 
323 
473 
289 
635 

43 
105 
271 
285 
203 

54 

26 
1,499 

25, 146 



600 

32 

214 

16 

58 

189 

1,009 

305 

9,089 

1,877 

6,486 

3,646 

1,725 



21,449 



1 Includes one-half of the youth whose reasons for leaving were not reported. 

TESTIMONY OF THEIMA McKELVEY— Resumed 

Mr. Spaekman. The first question I want to ask you is, how many- 
additional workers do you estimate will be needed for war production 
during the year 1942? 

Miss McKelvey. The best estimate we have now is that in- 
creased employment in war production will be from 5,000,000 as of the 
last quarter in 1941 to 15,000,000 by the end of 1942. 

Mr. Davenport, I think, gave the full statistics in this connection 
yesterday. This will represent a 200-percent increase in the number 
actually in war production, during the next year. 

Mr. Sparkman. Or a net increase of 10,000,000 workers? 

Miss McKelvey. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. How many of these new workers will be women? 

Miss McKelvey, That is an estimate, of course, because we have 
not yet any actual basis to anticipate the number who wUl go into the 
war-production industries. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATIOIsT 10379 

However, as I recall, there will be approximately 2,000,000 new 
workers coming into war production. There will be at least 2,200,000 
withdrawn into the Army, all of which will be manpower and concen- 
trated mostly in the group 20 to 35 years of age. 

The demand should take one and one-half million of the unemployed 
group. Almost 8,000,000 will be shifted from civilian-production in- 
dustry to war industry, and 500,000 to 1,000,000 from agriculture and 
self-employment groups. 

NUMBER OF WOMEN WORKERS REQUIRED 

It seems to me it is reasonable to expect that the 2,000,000 new 
workers, possibly 1,000,000 or one and one-fourth million, will be 
women, and from the unemployed group 25 percent wUl be women, 
which would make a total of between one and a half to two million 
women coming into war production enterprises who had not previously 
been a part of the labor market. 

About 25 percent of the women who will be inducted into war pro- 
duction will come from civilian production, making a large number of 
women in war-production plants. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are there any occupations which women are unable 
to fill? 

Miss McKelvey. Yes; there are, and I think individuals will dis- 
agree as to what they are. 

Our studies have indicated that the physical requirements are about 
the only deterring factor for women in various occupations. We can 
think of many occupations in steel, for instance, where you have the 
weight-lifting factor, and some hazardous occupations, where it is in- 
advisable to use women. 

However, in England it has been demonstrated they can do almost 
anything a man can do outside of that one factor. 

Mr. Sparkman. Where physical strength is required? 
Miss McKelvey. The physical strength is the only deterring factor. 
I might add that there are the highly skilled occupations requiring 
long years of training; naturally women have had no background or 
experience in those fields and we might not have time to train them 
or equip the plant on a break-down process to employ them. 
Mr. Si-arkman. Such as making precision instruments? 
Miss McKelvey. Machine tools, tool and die sinking, and that 
type of skilled occupation. 

Mr. Sparkman. How many women are engaged in war production 
now? 

Miss McKelvey. The estimate is that about half a million out 
of the 5,000,000 in war production in the last quarter of 1941 were 
women. 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if you can break that down into its 
component parts of skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled? 

Miss McKelvey. I can't do that. In the first place, there are no 
statistics available as to the placement of workers in those three 
categories. From the type of work that women are doing now, 1 
have observed that most come in the semiskilled groups. 

Another indication is that in checking on the placements through 
the Bureau of Employment Security and local employment offices^ 
we find that between 50 and 60 percent of their placements of women 



10380 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

were in the semiskiUed groups, not over 5 or 6 percent in the skUled 

^^Mr^ Sparkman. I beheve it is the task of the Labor Division, is it 
not, to look after the traming of women workers? 

Miss McKelvey. We develop pohcies in connection with trainmg. 

Mr. Sparkman. How many women have been trained to date? 

NUMBER OF WOMEN GIVEN VOCATIONAL TRAINING 

Miss McKelvey. I am embarrassed to say because the number has 
been so few. Around the first of December about 14,000 out of two 
and a half million were women who had been trained in the vocational 
schools of the country. 

I can give you an indication as to the type of trainmg they had. 

Mr. Sparkman. I was going to ask you for what occupations they 
bad been trained. 

Miss McKelvey. There were in the preemployment classes at 
that time around 10,000. That is the training before they are 
inducted into industry; there are about 1,200 in the supplementary 
training classes, which is a supplement to work in plants, and they 
attend voluntarily; and around 4,400 in the technical and engmeering 
schools of the country. 

That has changed," however. I am glad to say that during Decem- 
ber in preemployment training there were 15,000 women actually en- 
rolled in training classes at that time, which is a marked increase. 

emphasis in TRAINING 

Furthermore, the women who have been employed in war-produc- 
tion plants have been trained on the job. They feel they can induct 
them into a job and they are productive in a short period of time with 
job training in the plant, so you have that offsetting factor. 

Furthermore, I think the emphasis in training will be on the job 
in the plant; doing a specific operation, or being upgraded from one 
operation to another. 

Mr. Sparkman. For what particular jobs are these women trained? 
Do you train them for particular jobs or just more or less generally? 

Miss McKelvey. The attempt is to train them for particular jobs 
in classes which lead into a specific production operation. They are 
trained in electrical assembly, they have been given some light 
welding and light riveting, subassembly, reading of blueprints, and 
tracing. 

In preemployment they frequently are given a general use of 
machine tools or tools of one kind and another, and they also are 
trained in safety precautions and general background preemploy- 
ment training which will make it easier for them to go into a factory 
and assume their place. I am sure there will be a marked increase 
in that type of training during 1942. 

Mr. Sparkman. I was particularly interested in a little item I saw 
in the paper the other day relating to a war-production plant in my 
home town, Huntsville, Ala. There are a couple of large defense or 
war-production plants down there. I noticed that one which is to 
open very soon will be operated almost completely by women. It was 
stated that originally they had been planning to use a high percentage 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10381 

of men, but due to the shortage of manpower they were changing 
over and were going to use women aknost completely. Will those 
women be trained prior to being employed? 

Miss McKelvey. I don't know what the plant is producing. 

Mr. Sparkman. It is an ordnance plant. 

Miss McKelvey. I think they will be trained right on the job. 

Mr. Sparkman. Has this training program been pretty well scat- 
tered over the United States? 

Miss McKelvey. For women? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes. 

Miss McKelvey. Fairly well. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, you can't scatter 14,000 very far, can 
you? 

Miss McKelvey. No. If you will check through the list of tables 
you will find 107, 25, and so forth; very few States have had over 300 
or 400 or 500 enrolled. The first demand was to employ men first. 
There was no drive for the employment of women. We had a great 
reserve of manpower wanting work and trained for work in occupa- 
tions in which they had experience, and they wanted to get back into 
those occupations. So you had no impetus or no reason to use a 
large number of women in war plants and most of them are tradi- 
tionally the type where women had not been employed, such as ord- 
nance, shipbuilding, and aircraft. 

NEGRO women TRAINEES 

Mr. Sparkman. To what extent have Negro women been trained? 

Miss' McKelvey. Not to any great extent. We don't have a 
break-down by race on training, but from spot checks I have made I 
don't think more than 1,000 Negro women have been in training 
classes. Most of this training has been in heavy power-machine 
operations for quartermaster depots, bag-loading plants, and so on. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of the 14,000? 

Miss McKelvey. That would be my estimate. I also checked 
that with our minority section in labor supply and that was their 
estimate. 

Mr. Sparkman. Could you tell me if that is disproportionate to 
their numbers? 

Miss McKelvey. Not greatly. 

Mr. Sparkman. So after all, in as small a program as you have 
had, it has not been greatly disproportionate? 

Miss McKelvey. No. 

ADAPTABILITY OF WOMEN TO MECHANICAL WORK 

Mr. Curtis. Have you made any check on the adaptability of 
women to mechanical work, as to their previous work or profession? 

Miss McKelvey. The onlyjcheck on that recently has been through 
the surveys of the Employment Service which has been requested from 
time to time to check on women available and seeking work and 
registered with the Employment Service. A great many of the 
women in the country have had factory experience and they are 
readily trainable for employment in war plants. 



JQ382 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Furthermore, there have been tests in schools of the manipulative 
ability of women, which has been high, and the whole experience has 
shown that women are capable of doing factory jobs of many different 

types and kinds. , „ . « ^ 4. • 

We find they have been perfectly satisfactory m a few plants m 

aircraft, where they have done light welding and light rivetmg. 

Their efficiency is as high as the men on the same job. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have these women who have been tramed been 

able to find jobs? , , . r j.i- j. • 

Miss McKelvey. Almost all of them, and the reason for that is 
that the definite policy is again to only train women where there are 
available job openmgs in the area. . , , j. j 

We kept a fairly even balance between ]ob outlets tor women and 
the number of women trained. 

Mr. Sparkman. The natural assumption then would be that you 
are going to expand your program greatly in order to take care of 
the increased demands. 

Miss McKelvey. We should expand it perhaps faster than the 
demands, because there is no assurance yet or recognition throughout 
the country as to the extent of the withdrawal of men between the 
ages of 20 to 35 in the military service. We should anticipate such 
withdrawals in congested areas particularly, such as Los Angeles and 
the eastern seaboard and certain parts of the Middle West. 

attitudes toward hiring op women 

Mr. Sparkman. Have employers been reluctant to hire women? 

Miss McKelvey. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. What are their reasons? 

Miss McKelvey. Chiefly because it requires special planning for 
the hiring of women in large numbers. State laws govern hours of 
work; they cannot work at night, and they have to have special rest 
rooms and medical facilities. There has been a natural lag in antici- 
pating that or doing anything about it when we have had available 
manpower to go into a plant under varying types of plant conditions. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are there further discriminations or objections 
against hiring married women? 

Miss McKelvey. Interestingly enough, the first trend in this period 
has been to take married women. I think that has been largely due 
to a fear or hesitancy in acknowledging how long this is going to last, 
that you might have a collapse of your war program and it would 
be easier for women who are the wives of the men in the plant to be 
dismissed first, which would create less disturbance. I expect that to 
change rapidly. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have unions interposed any objections to the 
employment of women? 

Miss McKelvey. In general, no; locally, yes. They have not 
taken any specific national position on it. 

They fear the lowering of labor wage rates, a break-down of the job 
operation, which would naturally require less wage payment, and 
that wage differential is one of the chief fears that the unions have, I 
am sure. 

However, the labor pohcy committee of the Labor Division has 
gone on record that it recognizes the need for extended employment 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10383 

to women in war industries. The expanded employment of women 
should take place in an orderly fashion so there won't be an unneces- 
sary dislocation of employed men prior to their induction. 

Mr. Sparkman. Has any particular craft or any union objected to 
the use of women in any particular industry? 

Miss McKelvey. No; but there is a general resistance to it under 
normal conditions. 

Mr. Sparkman. Not any more than you would normally expect, 
however? 

Miss McKelvey. No. 

LABOR division's PART IN UTILIZATION OF WOMEN WORKERS 

Mr. Sparkman. Has the Labor Division conducted any campaign 
to induce women into the labor force in aircraft, arsenals, ammunition 
plants, small-arms plants, and other industries? 

Miss McKelvey. Yes; we have. Our first effort was last summer 
in surveying local labor-market situations in certain areas. With 
particular reference to the aviation industry, Mr. Hillman wrote pri- 
mary contractors in certain areas where we anticipated labor market 
stringencies, asking them to make preparations to take women into 
their plants, to plan and survey the types of operations they could do, 
as there was the indication that they would run into increased diffi- 
culties in securing male labor in those areas. 

This request was made by en\ployers in California; Wichita, Kans.; 
Connecticut; and Maryland. 

Furthermore, since the war, we have made a definite effort through 
the labor-supply committees in the industrial areas to promote the 
employment of women where withdrawals of manpower are antici- 
pated. 

WAGES PAID 

Mr. Sparkman. Let me ask you some questions about protective 
measures for women workers. Do they receive the same wages as 
men? 

Miss McKelvey. No; they do not. They have not. Payment of 
women workers frequently — I don't know the average — is 10 to 15 
cents an hour lower than men. The whole policy of the Federal 
Government, United States Department of Labor, and the War and 
Navy Departments is that women should be paid the same as men 
for the same type of Aork and every effort will be made to carry out 
that policy. 

Mr. Sparkman. When you say they are paid a lower wage gen- 
erally, is that the over-aU payment regardless of the type of work 
done, or do you mean that women who are put on in a plant doing 
welding, replacing men who have been doing that same job, are paid 
less than the men they replaced? 

Miss McKelvey. The aircraft industry is paying women the same 
rate as men. However, in the past women have been doing work 
which is usually assigned to women. It is accepted as a woman's 
job and there is a definite wage differential. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is what I wanted to be sure that we under- 
stood. I wanted to distinguish that. Is a woman who is doing the 
work that has been done by a man paid the same wage as the man? 

Miss McKelvey. The trend now is that she will be. 



10384 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

HOURS OF LABOR 

Mr. Sparkman. Have laws prohibiting night work for women been 
suspended in any case? i i o i 

Miss McKelvey. None of the laws have been suspended, beveral 
of the States which did not have the authority under the State law 
to make exemptions have amended their law to provide an exemption 
privilege to plants on war production in order that they may employ 
women 24 hours a day on a shift basis. 

Mr. Sparkman. You do not anticipate difficulty in that connection? 

Miss McKelvey. I hope not. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have any laws, limiting the number of hours 
women may work, been suspended? i i • j. 

Miss McKelvey. No. The exemption may apply there m a lew 
States. 

Many of the States have an 8-hour law, 48 hours per week maximum 
for women. On the other hand, a few States allow 54 to 56 hours a 
week. None of those laws have been changed yet, although exemp- 
tions to individual plants have been granted. 

DAY care of children 

Mr. Sparkman. Has the Labor Division attempted to obtain Fed- 
eral funds to provide day nurseries for working mothers? 

Miss McKelvey. No; we have not attempted to. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you plan to do so? 

Miss McKelvey. Frankly, I wouldn't know. I am sure that we 
would want to support any such program. 

Up to this time the responsibility for day care of children has 
rested with the Office of Defense, Health, and Welfare Services. The 
Women's Bureau, United States Office of Education, cooperating with 
the W. P. A. and Farm Security, have participated in planning this 
program. Insofar as I know, no specific funds have been appropriated 
for the expansion of the program. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you see how it would be possible to draw any 
great number of women into the war production effort without being 
concerned with the day nursery problem? 

Miss McKelvey. No; I don't see how it would be. I think it is 
very necessary that this be a part of the planning of any program 
where we expect women to be employed in large numbers, 

Mr. Sparkman. Do these same agencies you mentioned a few 
minutes ago look after the care of school children after school? 

Miss McKelvey. The United States Office of Education is par- 
ticularly charged with that responsibility through the local schools, 
supplying the necessary personnel to take care of children after school 
if the mothers are working. That is not too advanced yet. 

Mr. Sparkman. In connection with the training program of the 
women, has any provision been made to take care of their children? 

Miss McKelvey. It has not been necessary. There would be no 
distinction made between women in training and the working mother. 
We must be very careful to see that this doesn't happen. 

Mr. Sparkman. Miss McKelvey, there seems to be a general over- 
all labor shortage pending for this year. This shortage will require, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10385 

as you pointed out, the use of all types of labor devices, including a 
large number of women. 

QXTESTION or STIMULATING EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN 

Rather than wait upon the voluntary agreement of employers to 
employ women, would it be a better policy to require all defense 
employers to hire a certain percentage of women? 

Miss McKelvey. That is a very fundamental kind of policy 
question which I think has many problems, administratively, and I 
would hesitate to even make a conclusive statement. I do think 
this: That employers are going to, and already are, as a matter of 
fact, changing their specifications and plans to use women. 

Whether or not they should use a certain percentage of women, 
regardless of what the conditions are in the locality, I would hesitate 
to say. I don't think we should require a percentage at this time. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you believe that it is a problem, but one that 
will probably take care of itself as it develops? 

Miss McKelvey. I think certain measures, certain steps, may have 
to be taken to stimulate the employment of women. After all, we 
have proceeded, and we should proceed, on the basis of using the local 
labor supply to produce during a war period. If we have all women 
left in a locality, or 75 percent women, you are going to have a much 
easier job of getting women in that locality into the war production. 
They will be forced into it by the needs of the situation. 

The same will be true of the Negroes. We have to use the Negro 
where he is available and where he can do a job. 

Mr. Sparkman. The same would be true of the over-age and per- 
haps the partially handicapped? 

Miss McKelvey. Yes. A trend is Ifeginning to develop on the 
part of the employers in changing their specifications for labor. They 
have been very obdurate in some of their points as to the kind of 
labor they will use, but when a scarcity of labor develops you will have 
a change in specifications on physical standards, race, age, and sex. 

Mr. Sparkman. Miss McKelvey, sometimes we get almost lost in 
the great maze of agencies and institutions that seek to do these var- 
ious jobs. That is true to some extent with the various agencies 
that are working on the labor end of it. 

Are you familiar with the set-up of the Ministry of Labor in Great 
Britain? 

Miss McKelvey. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder what your comment would be on the 
advisability of some such set-up as that in this country. 

Miss McKelvey. I feel that we have already the beginning of a 
collaboration of agency activities and a direction of that activity in 
our War Production Board, and in the Labor Division, which has 
been bringing together the work of all the agencies in the labor- 
market situation. 

We have a national labor-supply committee made up of agency 
representatives working in the field of labor supply in every instance, 
and they are cooperating in working out their programs and operations 
with policies that have been developed. That is all on a voluntary 
policy -formation basis, bat it is working and it is developing. 



10386 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

MANAGEMENT AND LABOR COOPERATION REQUIRED 

Mr. Sparkman. If we come to the point where it becomes necessary 
to exercise some kind of compulsory control over the composition of 
labor force used in our war-production program, do you think that 
management and labor should have a voice in making the decisions? 

Miss McKelvey. I think there should be the closest cooperation 
with management and labor. The Government can't come to con- 
clusions without the help of both management and labor. 

Mr. Sparkman. I believe General Hershey, in discussing this same 
problem yesterday, said he thought the two groups to be kept in 
mind all the time were the users and procurers of labor. Are you of 
the same opinion? 

Miss McKelvey. Yes, sir. You have to keep those two groups in 
mind. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all I have. 

Mr. Curtis. Do a great many women contact your office expressing 
a desire to do war work — production work? 

Miss McKelvey. No. Only to a certain extent. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have any evidence of a desire on the part of 
many women to have the type of work that would be available? 

Miss McKelvey. Yes; we have a definite indication. 

Mr. Curtis. What seems to be the urge for it? Is it economic? 

Miss McKelvey. Most of it is economic. They feel that in this 
period they should have an equal opportunity for jobs where they 
can earn good wages, where they feel they can be productive, or for 
which they can be trained. There is no doubt in my mind that the 
women are anxious to do a job. 

women's auxiliary army corps 

Mr. Curtis. Have you studied the Rogers bill for an auxiliary 
army? 

Miss McKelvey. I read it through. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you recommend its passage? 

Miss McKelvey. I would rather not say, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. They are going to call the roll on that in a little while 
and I have to make up my mind. 

Miss McKelvey. I think it will be necessary to know how to use 
the women in a service way. If women want to join the Army and 
be part of the military services, I feel they should have that opportunity. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have any evidence that part of the women who 
are expressmg a desire to serve do so with the mistaken idea that it is 
something glamorous and quite exciting to get greasy in a shop and 
work hard? 

Miss McKelvey. I don't kid myself to that extent; no. I thmk 
they realize life is a very serious business and there has been enough 
visual evidence of the physical requirements of production. Thev 
know what It means in terms of grease and long hours and hard work. 

1 would hesitate to glamorize it. I think it would be the wrong 
approach to securing, in the labor market, women who are prepared 
to go m and do a hard job on production. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10387 

Mr. Curtis. One of the leading airplane manufacturers in the 
country told me it cost him $500 to take a good-looking lady through 
the plant — that all the boys stopped to look. 

Miss McKelvey. I have heard that, too. I think he must have a 
prejudice against women. 

Mr. Sparkman. A great many women look upon this as an oppor- 
tunity to do something they would be glad to do at any time. Isn't 
that true? 

Miss McKelvey. That is true. "Women have had a great desire 
to work in this country. 

Mr. Sparkman. And a great many of these women would have been 
working at this same job before had they been able to get these jobs? 

Miss McKelvey. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. Dr. Lamb? 

REGISTRATION OF WOMEN 

Dr. Lamb, I gather from your paper that the imniediate inventory 
of women is now going on. 

Miss McKelvey. That is true. 

Dr. Lamb. That is true as to the records of some 300,000 registered 
with the U. S. Employment Service or being classified and analyzed? 

Miss McKelvey. With particular attention to factory experience 
and other experience which would make them available and trainable 
for war production. 

Dr. Lamb. I would like to have your opinion on this. I imagine 
that the numbers registered who are qualified by previous experience 
for such jobs is not very high out of a total of 300,000 domestic workers 
and restaurant workers and so on. 

Miss McKelvey. That is correct. 

Dr. Lamb. You say a voluntary registration is being planned of 
women willing to accept work. WTio will conduct this voluntary 
registration? 

Miss McKelvey. The plan will be worked out, in collaboration 
with the agencies on labor supply, chiefly the Women's Bureau and 
the Employment Service, with the assistance of the War and Navy 
Departments. A voluntary registration is planned because you want 
to become informed in a preliminary way as to where the potential 
reserve of women is who could be brought into war production plants. 
It would be a measure of the potential women-power who could go 
into factories. 

Dr. Lamb. You would like to have this volunteer registration as 
complete as possible, I take it? 

Miss McKelvey. Yes; for agriculture as well as war-production 
plants. 

women's land army 

Dr. Lamb. With respect to agriculture, this committee has previ- 
ously taken the position that hitherto there were no very serious short- 
ages except in very restricted areas, and I would like to have your 
opinion with respect to the immediate need for a so-called women's 
land army. 

Miss McKelvey. I don't think there is any immediate need for 
that type of army. I think the farm placement offices of the United 



10388 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

States Employment Service, 600 of them, are equipped to handle farm 
labor recruitment in cooperation with the United States Department 
of Agriculture. . . ■, -, 

If we made a drive to recruit the available women in a loca ity 
when needed and paid the standard wage for their work, the situation 

should be met. , • , . i 

Dr. Lamb. I don't think this committee would even object to volun- 
teer workers, provided their placement took place in an orderly manner 
through the United States Employment Service if they were not placed 
where they would depress the existing wages, which in many areas have 
certainly been too low, or otherwise interfere with the orderly opera- 
tions of the agricultural labor market. 

Miss McKelvey. I think it would be very inadvisable, and create 
problems we would not like to meet, if we set up a competing agency 
for the placing of women regardless of the need or what is available 
for agriculture. 

Dr. Lamb. And it should be done through farm placement service 
throughout? 

Miss McKelvey. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. The paper you have submitted discusses the need for 
maintenance of suitable conditions, and it says that these conditions 
may be maintained through close cooperation with the Woman's Bu- 
reau and the Labor Supply Division. Those organizations are already 
at work, I take it. You have a continuing committee? 

Miss McKelvey. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. Of which you are a member, I believe. 

Miss McKelvey. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. As you know. Miss Mary Anderson will be the next wit- 
ness, and she will undoubtedly talk at more length about that, so I 
won't question you further about it. 

may need compulsoky registration of women 

You envisage the policy that we may have to have compulsory 
registration of women in this country as Great Britain has had since 
March 1941. That is, perhaps, a couple of years off, in your estima- 
tion. 

Miss McKelvey. I should say at least a year. If we go into a 
very concentrated, offensive war, by 1943, we might find it imperative 
to know the resources of our total labor market. 

Dr. Lamb. The Labor Department is studying the British experi- 
ence? 

Miss McKelvey. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. Your impression is that the British experience has been a 
satisfactory one? 

Miss McKelvey. There have been certain weaknesses, but as 
they have gone along they have improved and corrected certain 
defects that have existed. 

Dr. Lamb. ^Vllat have been the principal defects, would you say? 

Miss McKelvey. They had a limited registration in the first 
place. 

Dr. Lamb. By age? 
^ Miss McKelvey. Yes; and they had a system of voluntary help 
in factories, which created a problem. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10389 

Dr. Lamb. You would say probably the bottleneck in all of this is 
the training program? 

Miss McKelvey, I think it is. 

Dr. Lamb. And a successful training program would do more to 
put the war production program on its feet, and particularly to put 
women into essential jobs? 

Miss McKelvey. I think training is the key to our production 
effort at this time. 

Dr. Lamb. And that is the direct responsibility of the Labor 
Division of the War Production Board? 

Miss McKelvey. That is right. 

INTERDEPARTMENTAL LABOR COMMITTEE 

Dr. Lamb. Yesterday Mr. Corson answered a question with 
respect to policy forming and determining set-up, a somewhat similar 
question to the one Mr. Sparkman directed to you. I will read the 
question and answer to you. [Reading:] 

So you would say that a policy forming or determining committee of a joint 
character between, say, the Federal Security Agency and the War Production 
Board and Labor Department and Selective Service Administration was more 
needed than the placing of the administration of a consolidated labor supply and 
training office in any one of those agencies? 

And he said: "I would." 

As I understand it, there is at the present time a joint committee 
which coordinates the work of those and other agencies. Is that 
correct? 

Miss McKelvey, It is not exactly a joint committee. There is 
an interdepartmental committee on policy and the formation and 
development of policy as it affects operations of the various agencies 
and as they contribute to a developing labor-market situation. 
Then, naturally the Labor Division is attempting and succeeding 
very well through the operating agencies, in getting results throughout 
the country and with employers and labor, by direct contact, dis- 
cussion, meetings and agreement on ways to meet labor requirements. 

Dr. Lamb. The Government apparatus and the employers in the 
field? 

Miss McKelvey. That is right. It represents the kind of positive 
leadership in a war effort that is very desirable and necessary. 

Dr. Lamb. That committee as it stands is merely an interdepart- 
mental committee of representatives who are not necessarily the 
heads, but people to maintain contact. Is that correct? 

Miss McKelvey. They have been designated as the responsible 
officers in labor supply. If any question arises that affects operating 
policy, it is referred back and cleared, naturally. 

Dr. Lamb. I raised this question because after Mr. Corson testified 
we heard later in the day that some plans were on foot for a much more 
comprehensive set-up than now exists. I don't know whether you 
are in a position to speak about it or informed and able to speak 
about it, but it is characterized as a "Manpower Board." 

Do you know anything about that or would you prefer not to speak 
about it? 

Miss McKelvey. I have not been authorized to express an opinion, 
and I prefer not to answer this question. 



JQ390 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr Sparkman. Thank you very much, Miss McKelvey. We 
appreciate your appearance here and the fine representation you have 

given us. 

Our next witness is Miss Anderson. 

TESTIMONY OF MISS MARY ANDERSON, DIRECTOR, WOMEN'S 
BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WASHINGTON, D. C. 

Mr. Sparkman. Miss Mary Anderson, Director, Women's Bureau, 
Department of Labor— is that right, Miss Anderson? 

Miss Anderson. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. Miss Anderson, at our meetmgs throughout the 
country since last April, this committee has been very much mter- 
ested in the matter of labor supply. We have seen much unnecessary 
migration to defense centers because of the failure to utilize local labor 
reserves such as women. j u- 

We are interested in whatever measures may be taken to reduce this 
unnecessary migration to these defense areas. We are particularly 
pleased to have you with us this morning. 

You have submitted a statement to us. I have not yet had the 
privilege of seeing it, but I can assure you it will be incorporated in the 
record. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY MARY ANDERSON, DIRECTOR, WOMEN'S BUREAU, 
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, WASHINGTON, D. C.i 

WOMEN WORKERS AND WAR PRODUCTION 

Woman has always been a vital part of American industry. She became a 
part of it at its birth, prospered with its prosperity, suffered with its adversity, 
equally in war and peace. The needs of a growing country brought about the 
transfer of home production to factory production and turned the part-time 
work of many women over to a comparatively few wage-earning women devoting 
full time to production. As each invention took hold on the life of the Nation, 
it has changed the kind of work to be done and transferred much that was tra- 
ditionally woman's work in the home and in early factories to men. After factory 
work was established as a man's or a woman's job, it required a great shortage of 
workers of one sex and an abundance of workers of the other sex existing at the 
time of improvements in methods of production or created by immigration or by 
wars to effect extensive transfers of factory tasks from men to women or vice 
versa. The mounting volume of production and the ever-extending areas of 
distribution up to 1930 were achieved by employment of a larger and larger pro- 
portion of women, while children and men, 65 years old and older, decreased 
materially and the proportion of adult men workers remained the same. In 
1940 over one-fourth of all women were in the labor force. 

WAR LABOR REQUIREMENTS AND AVAILABLE LABOR SUPPLY 

War production for 1942 is planned at more than double that of 1941; in 1943 
the President asks us to double the 1942 output. This war program is estimated 
to require 15 to 21 million workers in the technical, administrative, office, me- 
chanical, and factory personnel of war factories. Even though it be possible to 
curtail civilian production to one-half present needs, over 5,000,000 workers 
would still be necessary for civilian health and welfare. Or from 20 to 26 million 
factory workers are required for both war and consumer production. At the 
end of 1941, we were estimated to have 15,000,000 persons in manufacture and 
3,000,000 unemployed; 1,000,000 of the latter were women. Even if ail unem- 
ployed could be used in production, there would still be from 2 to 8 million workers 

' Supplementary exhibits submitted with the above statement are held in committee flies. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10391 

required. The largest proportion of this number must come from the ranks of 
women. 

There are sources from which women can be drawn for the war needs without 
disrupting the family life. About 900,000 girls finish school each year. In 
agricultural and Mountain States there are large numbers of rural girls who have 
no opportunity for gainful employment in their own communities but would gladly 
welcome such employment. These girls are an excellent reservoir upon which to 
draw for the war-production program. In urban communities 31 percent of the 
women work; in rural farm areas 12.7 percent. A third source of woman labor 
will be found among women who worked prior to marriage and who are now 
homemakers without young children. As there is normally an increase in numbers 
of gainfully employed women after 45 years of age, the possibilities of employment 
of the mature woman with earUer factory experience are worth while. 

CAN WOMEN BE USED IN WAR INDUSTRIES 

Past experience. — About 2}i million women were employed in manufacture in 
1940, an increase of 9 percent over 1930. Women formed almost three-fourths 
the wage earners in the wearing-apparel industries; they have taken over, there- 
fore, most of the manufacture of clothing for soldiers and sailors, the powder-bag 
sewing for explosives, the sewing of parachutes and canvas covers for every air- 
plane engine, the fabric work on ailerons and other small airplane parts, the 
making of tarpaulins, slipcovers, and mattre.ss covers for the Navy. Many 
women are employed in the food industry. The last war led to a material in- 
crease in women in meat packing, bakeries, and other food establishments and 
a similar increase can be expected today, for our soldier needs three times as much 
food as a civilian. 

Women formed over one-third of the employees in the manufacture of electrical 
equipment and apparatus in 1939, numbering almost 90,000. In this industry, 
they wind armatures and coils, assemble small armatures and motors, mold small 
electrical parts and assemble switchboards, wiring supplies, batteries and elec- 
trical instruments. They have been employed in machine shops, in the sheet- 
metal departments and in the wiring departments of large electric factories. 
Their success in this industry demonstrated for over 20 years leaves no doubt 
that women could take over the manufacture of electrical parts and the assembly 
of instrument boards, switch box and other parts on airplanes and for ships. 

Woman's success in hardware and cutlery, in the manufacture of office and store 
machinery, in the stamped and pressed metal industries is also valuable as a guide 
to what she can do in war industries. Women operate punch presses in many 
industries; there is no reason whatsoever why they should not be operating the 
light presses used to blank, form, and pierce winders, bulk heads, gus.sets, etc. 
Women operate drill presses in many consumer-goods factories; they can do similar 
work in war factories. Milling machine operations, light turret lathe operations, 
grinding, assembly of small parts, and inspection are done by thousands of women 
today and can be done in new factories. 

The last war. — During the last war, many of the labor-saving devices of today, 
the beautiful factories of today, the vocational training of today, were non- 
existent. Women went into the iron and steel foundries and machine shops and 
learned on the job, often under most adverse conditions. Yet the record of 
achievement shows that in about every vital industry women set up their own 
lathes, millers, drills, grinders and presses. Metal work is emphasized because 
almost half the firms reporting replacement of men by women employed women 
on metal work. These firms produced high explosives and shrapnel shells, cart- 
ridges, machine guns and rifles, cannon and cannon mounts, airplanes and sea- 
planes, grenades, automobiles and tanks, tools, and many other war products. 
About 83 percent of the firms, comparing the work done by women on metals 
with that done by men, stated they considered the product of the former as 
satisfactory as, or better than, that of men. 

More than half the workers in bag-loading and shell-loading plants were women. 
Great credit has been given these workers by the War Department, In air- 
plane manufacture, women formed one-fourth of the workers. The work women 
did and the extent of their successes or failures is recorded in a volume published 
by the Women's Bureau and titled, "The New Position of Women in American 
Industry." 

Occupations which women can fill in present war industries. — Early in 1941 the 
Women's Bureau began a series of occupational analyses of the important war 
industries to determine the work women could do in such plants more effectively 



2Q392 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

than men. Until December 7 there was so much opposition to women's employ- 
ment that our recommendations of the occupations women could fill had to be 
most 'conservative. If we eliminate opposition to women's employment on the 
part of fellow men workers, of lead men, and foremen, and factory superin- 
tendents, women's limitations as productive workers m war industries may be 
classed under three categories: , ^ , ^ i, u; ^i, > 

1 A known limitation in lifting strength of about one-half the average man s 
lifting strength; and a known limitation in pulling strength of about two-thirds 

that of the average man's. ^ ^^^, ■, j • ^i, 

2. Greater susceptibility to dermatitis and other health hazards in the presence 

of specific chemicals. •,. -^ • iu i. ji- f + i„ 

3. A lack of basic mechanical knowledge, of familiarity m the handhng of tools 

°The first' two factors are constant. The third could have been eliminated had 
our vocational schools started to give women background work when women 
asked the Office of Education to do so in November 1940. While some local 
schools have given the training, the attitude of national officials has not been en- 
couraging. So on December 7 only a relatively few thousand women had been 
rendered more useful by schools to the war industries. In this connection we 
wish to commend the National Youth Administration for they have given 
invaluable experience to about 700 girls in machine shop, sheet metal, welding, 
radio and electrical work. 

The industries studied by the Women's Bureau to date are aircraft assembly, 
small-arms ammunition, artillery ammunition, and instrument manufacture. I 
should like to sketch briefly the type of occupations we are recommending. 

Aircraft. — Aircraft assembly is essentially a field for women workers. Because 
the material of which airplanes are built is light in weight, because the structure 
is built up out of thousands of small pieces (a bomber has 20,000 parts exclusive 
of the engine), there is no department in which women may not be employed. 
The pressing or forming of the metal, the making of it into exact shape, putting 
it together by riveting or welding, the assembling of all the many minor parts and 
the assembly or building up of the wings, control surfaces, cowling, fairing, tank 
and fuselage, and then the final painting, all have numerous occupations that women 
can do. We are glad to report that two aircraft plants agree with us about 
women's suitability for this industry and have adopted a program for use of 
women throughout their plant. Neither plant is large, but they furnish an 
example of what can be done when management is favorable to women's em- 
ployment. 

The Vultee Aircraft Co. of California began the introduction of women into 
the plant in April of 1941 when 15 girls were hired. They have added on grad- 
ually until there were 536 or about one-tenth of the total in production. The 
number is not large but the girls are distributed throughout the shop. The girls 
are assigned to simple jobs first — such as filing burrs off parts. The foremen do 
the shop training. They are admitted to supplemental courses carried on 24 
hours of the day. These courses are in machine shop operations, sheet metal, 
riveting, blueprint, inspection techniques. Today women are not only in the 
machine shop, on precision bench assembly, subassembly, in the electrical and 
radio departments, in the tooling division, the painting division, but are assembling 
all parts of the fuselage until it is ready for the engine. The fuselage or body of 
this plane is made of tubular steel. This is carried in jigs on a slow-moving 
conveyer. The girls slide under it on a low movable bench and work on plat- 
forms for top parts. They install the power lines, electrical systems, pedals, 
control parts, and fittings. As the engine is heavy men mount it but girls help in 
putting on baifles, connecting oil lines, wiring parts, and putting on accessories. 
The plane is then ready to have its metal skin riveted on by men. Girls, however, 
have riveted together the empennage or various types of control surfaces as ailerons, 
stabilizers, devices, etc. These are small parts and small girls are regarded as 
especially suitable. The girls begin at the same rates as men, 60 cents an hour. 
One girl riveter has reached $1.15 an hour which is about $190 a month. 

The second plant whose attitude toward women's employment is excellent is 
the Cessna plant at Wichita, Kans. This makes trainer planes which have wings 
and control surfaces of wood. Women saw the wood, sand it, nail'it, and glue 
together all the small sections. Where wooden structure is used, it is covered by 
fabric. In the fabric division, women cut, operate sewing machines, stretch the 
fabric over the parts to be covered, and then stitch the ribs and edges by hand, 
a hey also do the doping. In metal plants women do the electrical work and do 
the installation of the entire instrument board, the installing of the radio. Here, 
too, the beginning rate for men and women is 60 cents an hour. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10393 

From these two descriptions, it is evident that work in aircraft plants is varied 
and far more interesting than much work in offices and other factories. Plants 
are noisy for sheet metal resounds. 

Instrument. — Another war-developed industry that we believe holds a real 
future for women is instrument manufacture. Aircraft, fire-control, surgical, and 
dental instruments are important to defense. Instruments for indicating, meas- 
uring, recording, or controlling the flight and navigation of an airplane, the optical 
instruments, such as panoceanic sights, gun sights, periscopes, telescopes and 
binoculars used for controlling the aiming and firing of guns, torpedoes, and bombs, 
while all very diQ"erent in structure, are made up of many small parts requiring 
painstaking care. 

For many years instrument manufacture was done by all around skilled instru- 
ment workers. But with increased production, jobs are broken down. In Great 
Britain special training coul-ses have been offered to women in the making and 
fitting of instruments. In this country only one plant admits girls to its formal 
training program. Women given basic instruction in schools and upgrading 
training in factories can become skilled instrument workers. Today's trend in 
the United States to make them unskilled workers should be stopped. We look 
to our Navy officials for help, just as the Army is helping in aircraft. The Navy 
has asked for many copies of our occupational analysis. 

Shipbuilding, too, may demand women's services. As yet the Bureau has not 
been able to study it although we have had two requests to do so. 

Ammunition. — Manufacturers of ammunition for small arms have modernized 
their old plants in the East and are operating or will operate five new plants in 
Missouri, Minnesota, Colorado, and Utah. The Frankford Arsenal has doubled 
its personnel in small-arms ammunition several times recently. Since the small- 
arms ammunition industry has a small product, a standardized one as to opera- 
tions and machinery, and one which requires considerable care and attention to 
detail, women have been used extensively and as the new plants get in production 
many more women will be employed. The Frankford Arsenal now employs about 
half women in this production whereas a plant in Wales has 80 percent women. 

Ammunition for artillery weapons can be broken down into many separate 
component parts and assemblies which lend themselves to wide distribution 
among many contractors. Cases, shell forgings, fuzes, and other parts are being 
manufactured by widely scattered contractors and subcontractors. The parts 
are brought together for final assembly and loading at Government owned plants. 
Large new plants for shell and bag loading are, or soon will be, in operation in 
rural areas in Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Kansas, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Iowa, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. These plants, located in rural, nonin- 
dustrial areas, should draw upon unemployed rural women, for well over half 
of the operations in the plant can be carried on by women. Training is on the 
job. 

Rifle and gun -production. — The Bureau has not as yet made its study in this 
country of the ordnance that fires this ammunition. At the invitation of the 
Ministry of Munitions in Canada, it visited such plants in Toronto and Hamilton. 
Whether it is rifle manufacture in which there is mass production or antiaircraft 
gun manufacture in which each machine must be used to fashion many parts, 
Canadian women are expected to carry the bulk of production work. This work 
is largely machine shop work, that is, the gradual fashioning of many metal 
castings into parts of the gun, and the final assembly of the gun. It is precise 
work. Girls are reading blueprints, getting their tools and fixtures, setting up 
their machines and operating them, some to no tolerance. The management 
expects the girls to operate all but the heavier machines and to set them up; 
the girls are doing it. There is no thought, even in mass production shops, of 
teaching a girl only one process on one machine. Girls will be machine specialists, 
and if the war lasts several years they will be machinists. 

The Canadian experience demonstrated to us that if the Government, the 
management and the foreman want women to become valuable machine-shop 
workers, women become so very easily and in short time. I want to say also, 
that in no shop we visited was the work as hard as sewing-machine operation or 
textile-machinery tending. It takes time to cut metal. 

TRANSFER OF EXPERIENCED FACTORY WOMEN WORKERS FROM CONSUMER GOODS 

TO WAR INDUSTRIES 

The withdrawal of vital materials from nondefense production, beginning in 
August 1941, has resulted in dislocations of women who have been employed in 
this type of production. As women factory workers are employed primarily in 

• 60396— 42— pt. 27—^12 



JQ394 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

consumer goods industries, their readjustments foUowing rationing of industrial 
raw Serials and finished products must be planned. Woman-employmg m- 
dultr^s already affected are: Aluminum cooking utensils silk throwing miUs, 
silk narrow fabric mills, silk broad fabric miUs, hosiery, costume jewelry, silver- 
ware tires, drug sundries and other rubber articles, cork and asbestos using 
industries, phenSl using industries, automobile passenger cars, batteries clocks 
and watches, cutlery, hardware, games and toys, hghtmg fixtures, radios refrigera- 
tors, sewing machines, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, and stoves and 

""* The' difficulty in shifting disem ployed women workers to war industries varies 
with the volume and character of war contracts in the specific area where disem- 
nlovment occurs. A study of each situation and numerous sympathetic confer- 
ences with the women themselves need to be held before these workers can be 
rendered useful to the war eflfort and are established on a self-supporting basis. 
The following situations already existing illustrate the kinds of problems arising 
through the curtaihnent of consumer production. , -r, , 

The ending of the silk throwing industry, in the anthracite area of Pennsyl- 
vania, has caused untold hardship to many families whose women worked in 
these mills In Luzerne and Lackawanna Counties, in November, it was esti- 
mated that there were 10,000 unemployed women from silk mills and clothing 
factories. While men's pants and shirt factories have profited by war orders, 
women's dress and underwear suflfer from lack of supplies. Organized labor has 
objected to the Labor Supply Committee suggestion to retrain throwsters for 
sewing machine operations. Nor is the character of work done by women in 
throwing mills similar to sewing machine operating. Out -migration of women 
was suggested by the EmplojTnent Service. However, only one-eighth of a 
sample group interviewed were without dependents and these girls lived with 
their families and were not eager to move to new localities. As this area has 
suffered through decreased employment in anthracite mining, new industries 
are badly needed. The unemployed silk throwsters could be employed on artillery 
ammunition component parts for the war period. 

Women are also hard hit by the cutting off of metal for costume jewelry in 
Rhode Island. But here there is a possibility of their employment by firms manu- 
facturing tools and small-arms ammunition. The Women's Bureau is working 
with the Employment Service to effect such transfer. 

The ending of automobile passenger car manufacture presents a serious problem 
for women for they were employed chiefly in the office and in the upholstery de- 
partments and had acquired skills- not called for in munitions industries. Re- 
training is essential. The Women's Bureau has worked on the problem of 
reemployment of women automobile workers in Michigan with some success; 
but much more attention must be given the situation. 

******* 

Women displaced from consumer goods industries should be the first to be re- 
employed in war industries; their reemployment requires study of their past 
occupations in relation to war demands, as well as study of local and nearby de- 
mands before a retraining program can be instituted. 

Women from rural areas should be used extensively in rural plants being 
erected for bag loading, sheU loading, and in the production of small-arms ammuni- 
tion in the Rocky Mountain area. Their employment calls for tke erection of 
suitable places where they can live and eat as well as sleep, and for the satisfactory 
operation of these homes. 

Young women from school require preemployment training to equip them with 
the fundamentals for useful war industry employment in their communities. 
Older women may require refresher courses before they can be reabsorbed. 
Both groups should receive training within the plant, so that much needed lead 
women and forewomen can be developed from their ranks. 

Women workers can fill our war industry needs, but their effective use requires 
planning and careful supervision. 

State Laws Governing the Employment of Women 

A generation or two ago women worked in factories in this country for 11 and 
12 and 13 hours a day. There was nothing to prevent this. Trade unions were 
in their infancy. Moreover women did not belong. Before 1879 there was no 
enforceable hour law for women in the United States. Gradually the public 
awoke to what these long hours were doing to the health of women workers, to 
their homes, and to their children. State legislatures began to feel the pressure 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10395 

of aroused public opinion. Slowly State after State, beginning with Massa- 
chusetts in 1879, passed some kind of legislation limiting the hours that women 
may be employed. Today there remain only five States, Alabama, Florida, 
Indiana, Iowa, and West Virginia, that have not restricted the employment 
of women for unlimited hours. 

Experience and scientific research have shown that, over any extended period 
of employment, the 48-hour week for women workers yields the greatest maximum 
production. In 1918 only one State and the District of Columbia had limited 
the employment of women to 48 hours a week in some branch of manufacture. 
Our own and the British experience in the World War taught us much. Scientific 
studies that were made at that time gave us factual evidence of things many of 
us had known a very long time before. These studies showed that when men 
and women are overworked, when hours are long and rest periods are infrequent, 
sickness rates increase, accidents are more numerous, and workers are much 
more frequently absent from their jobs. These ill effects are more pronounced 
among women workers than among men. The lesson to be drawn from this 
experience by us today is the effect of long hours upon production. Accidents, 
absenteeism and sickness interrupt the productive process. Output falls oflf as 
these industrial ills increase. 

The experience of the World War impressed itself upon the legislators of this 
country. Since 1918 the number of States that limit the weekly hours for which 
women may be employed in manufacturing ' to 48 or less has increased from 1 
to 21.2 

The legal number of hours for w^hich women may be employed in manufactur- 
ing is more than 48 in the following States: 

i9y2 hours: Kansas; 50 hours: Vermont and Wisconsin; 54 hours: Arkansas, 
Louisiana (6,000 or less population), Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, 
Nebraska, New Jersey, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas; 55 hours: Delaware, 
South Carolina (hosiery), North Carolina (firms with 8 or fewer); 57 hours: 
Tennessee; 60 hours: Georgia (cotton or woolen mills — all employees), Maryland, 
Mississippi, and Kentucky; no limitation: Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, and 
West Virginia; Colorado, 8-hour day — no weekly limit; Idaho, 9-hour day — no 
weekly limit; and Montana, 8-hour day — no weekly limit. 

Today '20^ States require that women employed in manufacturing < shall be 
given 1 day of rest in 7. Short rest or lunch periods are required by law for 
women working in factories in 21 ^ States. 

Not all of the legal regulations governing the employment of women are in- 
flexible. In 9 8 of the 21 State laws limiting to 48 or less the number of hours 
for which women may be employed in manufacturing, authority is given to 
permit longer hours during periods of emergency. 

Ten ' of tlie twenty laws requiring 1 day of rest in 7 for women employed in 
naaiiufacturing permit 7 days employment in serious emergencies. 

' Not including canning. 

2 (1) Arizona, (2) California, (3) Connecticut, (4) Illinois, (5) Louisiana, (6) Massachusetts, (7) Nevada, 
(8) New Hampshire, (9) New Mexico, (10) New York, (11) North Carolina, (12) North Dakota, (13) Ohio 
(45 hours), (14) Oregon (44 hours), (16) Pennsylvania (44 hours), (16) Rhode Island, (17) South Carolina 
(40 hour, applies to textile only), (18) Utah, (19) Virginia, (20) Washington, (21) Wyoming, and the 
IJistrict of Columbia. 

3 (1) Arizona, women; (2) Arkansas, women; (3) California, women (industrial welfare order) and women 
and men (law); (4) Connecticut, women and men; (5) Delaware, women; (6) Illinois, women and men; (7) 
Kansas, women (commission of labor and industry order); (8) Louisiana, women; (9) Massachusetts, 
women and men; (10) New Hampshire, women and men; (11) New Jersey, women; (12) New York, women 
and men (day-of-rest law), women (hour law); (13) North Carolina, women; (14) A^orth Dakota, women; 
(15) Ohio, women; (16) Oregon, women (industrial welfare order); (17) Pennsylvania, women (5)^ days a 
week); (18) South Carolina, (a) women (Sunday work illegal in manufacturing), (h) women and men (5 
days a week in cotton, silk, rayon, woolen textile mills), (r) women and men (Sunday work illegal in tex- 
tile manufacturing except in emergency, when time and a half must be paid); (19) Washington, women; 
(20) Wisconsin, women and men; and the District of Columbia, women. 

* Not including canning. 

» (1) Arkansas, (2) California, (3) Delaware, (4) Indiana, (5)' Kansas, (6) Kentucky, (7) Louisiana, (8) 
Maine, (9) Maryland, (10) Massachusetts, (11) Nebraska, (12) Nevada, (13) New Jersey, (14) New Mexico, 
(15) New York, (16) North Dakota, (17) Ohio, (18) Oregon, (19) Pennsylvania, (20) Utah, (21) Wisconsin, 
and the District of Columbia. 

'f(l) Connecticut, (2) Massachusetts (extraordinary emergencies in businesses requiring shifts), (3) Ne- 
vada (if time and one-half is paidi, (4) New Hampshire, (5) New Mexico (2 hours weekly if time and one- 
half is paid), (6) Oregon (overtime, if time and one-half is paid for hours in excess of 44), (7) Pennsylvania 
(if time and one-half is paid for hours over 44), (8) Utah, (9) Wyoming (overtime, if time and one-half is 
paid). 

' (1) Arizona; women working 6 hours or less a day may be employed 7 days; (2) California; women and 
men; (3) Connecticut; women and meil; (4) Massachusetts; women and men; (5) New Hampshire; women 
and men; (6) Oregon; women; (7) Pennsylvania; women; (8) South Carolina; women and men; (9) Wis- 
consin; women and men; (10) North Dakota; women (10 hours a day, 7 days a week allowed in emergency 
if 48 hours a week is not exceeded). 

Of the 28 States net listed above, all but Idaho, Montana, Nevada, and Wyoming have legislation on their 
books prohibiting Sunday labor in general. Most of these laws have their origin in the old Puritan blue 
laws, and provide for exceptions under various circumstances. 



10396 "WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

At the time the United States declared war on the Axis Powers, 12 s States 
prohibited the employment of women in manufacturing during some hours of the 
night In some cases these prohibitions were provided for by statute, m others 
by administrative regulations. Since the declaration of war, steps have been 
tai<en by all of the 12 States, except Delaware and Ohio, to relax the night work 

'^ l"hc United States was plunged suddenly into war. The President on Decem- 
ber 10 called for all-out war production. Enormously increased plant activity, 
of course, was the result. Many processes in war-production industries are per- 
formed by women. But during the defense period few women were trained for 
the time when they would be needed in a vastly expanded production program. 
Consequentlv many requests came from employers for the relaxation of State 
laws governing the employment of women. The Women's Bureau and State 
labor departments realize that in view of this great national emergency temporary 
adjustments may have to be made. Knowing as we do that production will 
suffer if labor standards are lowered for any extended period of employment, we 
are recommending that relaxation when permitted by law be limited to temporary 
emergency periods; that every application for relaxation be thoroughly investi- 
gated by State labor commissioners to assure that relaxation is actually necessary ; 
that permission be given to individual firms and not to entire industries; and that 
permits be withheld unless the employer makes satisfactory arrangements to 
train or secure trained workers within a reasonable time. We hope that by this 
careful procedure necessary adjustments can be made, and labor standards and 
all-out production can be maintained. 



I. Trends in Employment op Women in British War Industries 

DURING WORLD WAR I 

During World War I there was an increase of about 3.4 percent in the total 
number of women employed in Great Britain (from July 1914 to July 1918), ac- 
cording to the report of the War Cabinet Committee on Women in Industry. 
However, the women in manufacturing had increased about 36 percent. The 
force of women in the chemical industries in 1918 was more than one and one-half 
times that of 1914, and in the metal industries was nearly two and one-half times 
as great as in 1914.' 

INCREASES HAVE CONTINUED SINCE W^ORLD WAR I 

Though the war increases represented a mushroom growth, after a period of some 
stabilization there still was a long-time gradual increase in woman employment in 
the groups of industries referred to. Census data for 1921 and 1931 show an in- 
crease of 11 percent in the number of women in total employment, of 13 percent in 
the number of women in metal manufacturing, and of 17 percent in the number of 
women in the chemical industries. Reports as to insured persons (aged 16 to 64) 
show that from 1931 to 1937 (after which domestic workers were covered) the 
total number of insured women had increased 4 percent. From 1931 to 1939 (the 
latest date of publication) the number of insured women in the metal and in the 
chemical industries each had risen 14 percent. The Ministry of Labor points out 
that in the period from 1923 to 1935 "the industries that have expanded include a 
much greater proportion of operations on which women can be employed." ^ 

ENGINEERING INDUSTRIES 

Especially significant in war production are the engineering industries, which 
include all operations in the manufacture, assembly, and repair of metal articles 
involving the use of machine tools, whether the principal work of the firm or merely 
subsidiary (as in a maintenance department) .^ 

u ' 9o\ California, (2) Connecticut, (3) Delaware, (4) Indiana, (5) Kansas, (6) Massachusetts, (7) Nebras- 
ka, (8) New Jersey, (9) New York, (10) Ohio (applies only to girls between the ages of 18 and 21), (11) 
Pennsylvania, (12) Wisconsin. 

.,' For comparative data for this country: In a large group of war implement and war industry firms in the 
United btates surveyed hy the Women's Bureau, the woman labor force had increased roughly 40 percent 
from 1910 to 1919, and niuch of this increase was in new work in the plants rather than in replacement of men. 

' Ministry of Labor (iazette, December 1935, p. 457. 

« See Gazette, cit., July 1940, p. 185. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10397 

Engineering trades in Great Britain long have been highly organized, but the 
trade unions were in the main entirely barred to women, so that women were less 
than 2 percent of the membership. Yet more women were employed than gen- 
erally is realized and the number grew rapidly in pre-war years. Women were in 
the electrical trades, making of sewing machines (where they outnumbered men) , 
of telephones, typewriters, cycles and motors, and so forth. As in this country 
they did inspection and much bench work, and the assembly of small parts. 

The numbers of women >n engineering industries increased rapidly in the years 
before the present war. They had advanced 15 percent from 1914 to 1924; from 
1930 to 1935 (which is about the time of the beginning of rearmament on a major 
scale) when men's employment increased 7 percent, women's went up 27 percent. 
From 1935 to 1939 there was almost a 20-percent increase, and by 1939 the pre-war 
Ministry of Labor reported 300,000 women in the engineering trades, 98,000 more 
than in 1924. 

INCREASED EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN WAR INDUSTRIES OF THE PRESENT 

As to the present war period, it is of course not possible to get complete data as 
yet, but there are many scattered indications of the enormous extent to which 
women are carrying on the work of war production, and the processes, many of 
them unusual to women, in which women now are engaged. 

1. For occupations performed by women in British factories in metal work and 
other industries, see the long list attached to the Women's Bureau mimeograph 
Women in War Industries in Great Britain. 

2. As to extent to which women constitute the labor force in British war fac- 
tories, the following important instances give significant indication: 

Data on Proportions of Women in British War Industries, 1941 

aircraft 

The aircraft industry is already staffed 30 percent by women, and there is room 
for an increase up to 70 percent.' 

Forty percent of the workers in a large British Spitfire plant are women and the 
proportion is expected to rise to 80 percent in a short time. (The Christian 
Science Monitor. Behind British Airplanes. May 3, 1941.) 

A firm in the North Midlands region, which repairs Hurricanes and Tiger 
Moth Trainers, had, at the end of June, over 400 employees, of whom 28 percent 
were women. The intake of new labor agreed by the management will be approxi- 
mately 75 percent women.^ 

ordnance and ammunition 

At a new Royal Ordnance factory in Wales, 80 percent of the workers are girls. 
(London Times. May 11, 1941.) 

An outstanding example of dilution by women is to be found in the Wales 
region, where in a Royal Ordnance Factory there are 1,200 females out of a total 
of 1,850 employees. This means there is woman dilution of 65 percent on expert 
gun work * * *.^ 

In a fuze factory in the Midlands 90 percent of the work is done by women. 
(Scott, Peggy. British Women in War. London, Hutchinson & Co., Ltd., 
1940., p. 152.) 

The northeastern region has a factory where 3-inch shells are manufactured, 
and 90 percent dilution by women has been achieved * * *.^ 

In a plant which began producing antiaircraft guns in March 1940, about 
one-sixth of the workpeople were women in the following March. (The Man- 
chester Guardian. Women's Aid on Making Guns. March 29, 1941.) 

Now female labor accounts for 40 percent of the total employed in the tank 
industry.! 

1 The British Library of Information. Women Welcome Stimulus of Conscription. Bulletins from 
Britain. No. 67. December 10, 1941. p. 13. 

2 Ministry of Labor and National Service. Round the Region. Women on War Work Here, There and 
Everywhere. Engineering Bulletin No. 7. December 1941. 



10398 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Percent increase in employment of women in Great Britain 



Total employment. .- 

Manufacturins 

Motal manufacturing 
Chemical--- --. 



1914-18 1 



3 

36 

•249 

160 



1921-31 « 



1931-39 » 



♦5 

2 

•14 

17 



1 From report of the War Cabinet Committee on Women in Industry, 1919, pp. 80, 81. 

« From census data (women and girls). . . , ,^ ,^ ^ , j, -k^- ■ . 

» From estimates of number of insured persons 16 to 64, in Great Britam and Northern Ireland, Mmistry 
of Labor Gazette, December 1931, p. 476, and December 1939, p. 418. 

< Increase from 1931 to 1937. In 1938 domestic workers were added to insurance coverage, and due to this 
the numbers of women increased still more in 1938. Workers under the agricultural scheme, covered in 
1936, are excluded in computing the increase. 

» Includes machinery. 

• For the most part, primary metal processing rather than metal products. 



II. British Experience Shows Methods Effective in the Employment of 
Women in War Industries 

The Women's Bureau early began an examination of British experience to see 
what assistance it could offer to efforts in this country for the effective utiliza- 
tion of womanpower. Efforts were then begun to profit by this experience. 

British officials closely in touch with the situation believe that essential funda- 
mentals for the best employment of women include the following: 

1. The Government must keep close and constant touch with women's organ- 
izations, for example, trade-union women, business and professional women, and 
others — and make use of the advice offered by their experience with women's 
work. These women have practical experience to offer, and in addition the effect 
of assuring them that their work is necessary in a national emergency goes a 
long way in creating the high morale essential for the greatest efficiency. 

The Women's Consultative Committee to the Ministry of Labour and National 
Service was not organized immediately, but since its formation it has been very 
active in formulating policies for utilizing the services of women and also has kept 
in constant touch with the women's organizations. These particular activities 
are similar to the work done in this country by the Women's Bureau in the De- 
partment of Labor. The Women's Consultative Committee in Great Britain, 
though nominally an advisory body, actually is responsible for policies relating to 
women's work in war industries. The committee's advice is never disregarded 
or overlooked. It acts directly through the Minister of Labour on the one hand 
and it obtains advice and assistance from women's groups on the other. 

2. Government training facilities must be freely opened to women on a much 
larger scale than has yet been achieved in this country. In Great Britain, lacking 
at first Government facilities, women supervisors were trained by the Women's 
Engineering Society on its own initiative, beginning in May 1939. Later, the 
Government took over this society's training school, and in December 1940 
courses in the Government training centers were opened to women. "The British 
Ministry of Labour and National Service has a woman as special adviser on 
women's training. In this country, training opportunities in the Government- 
sponsored defense courses have developed very slowly for women. After many 
months of operation, only about 500 women had been included among the trainees. 
By the autumn of 1941 the numbers were increasing rapidly, and some 20,000 
were reported, but this still is small compared to the growing needs for women, 

3. Thorough studies must be made of the jobs women can do in defense indus- 
tries and attention of employers urgently called to the work women can do in 
their particular plants. In this country the Women's Bureau has been making 
such studies and has in hand material to advise plants as to the work women are 
doing and can do in making aircraft, small-arms ammunition, artillery ammuni- 
tion, and various needed types of instruments. The Bureau has available for 
distribution reports showing jobs suitable for women in each of these industries. 
A multitude of the actual jobs done by women in war industries in Great Britain 
are listed in a Women's Bureau mimeograph of October 1941: Women in War 
Industries in Great Britain. 

4. A prime necessity in proper location of the woman labor supply is a sufficient 
number of employment exchanges, including their location in smaller as well as 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10399 

larger centers, and their staffing with personnel well informed as to jobs women 
can fill. In Great Britain, the Ministry of Labour and National Service issued 
last June a restriction-of-engagement order which required employers to obtain 
their workers through the national labor exchanges. 

5. In the formulation of policies affecting women, women competent to advise 
should be consulted at every stage of the process. The Women's Consultative 
Committee and the special adviser on women's training have already been men- 
tioned. In Great Britain women also did the interviewing of women. This was 
done by the supervisory force of women in the Ministry of Labour, composed of 
some 1,400 women. Furthermore, special panels were organized in connection 
with local labor exchanges to hear cases of women requesting to be reallocated in 
the defense program; women serve on these panels. 

6. Careful planning for the introduction of women should include agreements 
as to wage scales that provide for the same rate of pay for women as men on the 
same jobs. This has been done on a considerable scale in Great Britain It tends 
toward a sound wage structure based on rates varying to suit the job, and allays 
fears that new women workers will serve to undercut an established wage scale. 
The agreement in the engineering industries, made in May 1940, is an important 
example of such action, which also has been taken in the electrical supply, boot 
and shoe, transport, and other industries. 



III. Steps in Integrating Women into British Wab Industries 

1. Under the Emergency Defense Powers Act the Minister of Labour and 
National Service has power to control and direct labor. (First passed in August 
1939, this act was strengthened for immediate effective operation in May 1940 
when the present government came into power.) 

2. The British system of employment exchanges has long been highly organized, 
managing placement and unemployment insurance. During the war, it has had 
entire charge of placement in industry, registration of men for military service, 
and registration of women. 

In June 1940 the Ministry of Labour and National Service issued what was 
known as the "Restriction of Engagement Order," which required that all engi- 
neering labor (the chief type used in war industries) must be engaged through the 
employment offices. 

3. The Ministry of Labour and National Service operates through (1) The em- 
ployment exchanges, just discussed; (2) the regular factory inspectors; (3) a new 
organization (created June 1940), the welfare officers, who cooperate with local 
agencies on matters relating to workers, but outside the factory, e. g., board or 
lodging, transport, reception of workers; and (4) (also new), special national 
service officers with emergency powers. They transfer skilled workers, supervise 
replacement of men, plan for dilution and upgrading and for training; (5) labor- 
supply committees, advisory in character, working with employment exchanges; 
(6) special local appeals boards to hear appeals in cases of women who think the 
work classifications to which they are allotted should be changed (women serve 
on these committees). 

4. Special plans for placing women: 

May 22, 1940: An agreement was made between trade unions and employers 
for the introduction of women into the engineering industries, that is, even in jobs 
formerly held only by men. This agreement included provisions as to wage rates. 
Such agreements since made in other industries have greatly facilitated entrance 
of women and allayed fears that their introduction would be disadvantageous to 
established trade-union wage rates. 

January 21, 1941: A year and a half after British involvement in war, Mr. 
Bevin announced in Commons that it was necessary to call on woman labor. 
(This was but one step in a continuing program of shifting workers from nonwar 
to war industries and expanding the labor force.) 

March 13, 1941: The Ministry of Labour appointed the Women's Consultative 
Committee (eight members). 

March 15, 1941: An order was issued requiring the registration of women (as 
well as men). At this time the program for concentrating labor in war industries 
was progressing rapidly; the earlier stages of this had thrown many women out of 
jobs in nonwar industries. 

April-December 1941 : Women 20-30 were registered, classified, and interviewed 
(by women officers of Ministry^of Labour in supervisory and managerial grades, of 



j[Q400 WASinNGTON HEARINGS 

whom there were 1,400). Under this registration, women could be directed into 
Sstry, but not at that time into the uniformed auxi lary forces 

December 18, 1941 (following the Prime Minister's speech of December 2, 
194n A Royal proclamation made single women 20-30, of whom there were 
1620,000, liable to be called up for the armed forces. See exhibit 12.) 
They wei^e needed primarily in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. (See exhibit 
9) In the Auxiliary Territorial Service women are needed in army camps for 
clerical work, cooking, cleaning, telephone operating, and so forth Some of the 
new registrants also will operate antiaircraft guns, though Mr. Bevm expressly 
stated that this would be a service chosen voluntarily. . ., , , • , 

Women liable for military service may state preference for civil defense jobs or 
work in industry. Preferences in industry are limited to (1) filling shells, (2) 
jobs in small-arms and airplane-engine plants, (3) domestic workers m hospitals, 
(4) Women's Land Army, (5) government and emergency training centers. 

5 Employment of women is handled by women, in the following capacities: 

A. The Women's Consultative Committee, created March 13, 1941, determines 
policies in relation to woman employment. 

B. The Ministry of Labour and National Service has a special woman adviser 
on women's training. 

C. Registered women are interviewed by women interviewers. 

D. Special advisory committees to local employment exchanges handle cases 
of women's appeals. Women serve on these. 

TESTIMONY OF MISS MARY ANDERSON— Resumed 

Mr. Sparkman. Dr. Lamb has gone over the statement and I am 
going to ask him to interrogate you. 

Dr. Lamb. The first question I would Hke to ask you is, What was 
the experience on utiUzation of women during the first World War 
when, as we understand it, the Women's Bureau was created? 

Miss Anderson. The first experience was the fact that women 
already were employed in a great many war industries before we went 
to war. As men were drawn from the industries to the Army, women 
were bemg employed in the industries. It was, of course, not an 
awfully long time so they didn't penetrate into the industries as far 
as they may do at the present time. 

They showed that they could do the work with some little training 
and upgrading and they did it very well and some of the work for 
which they were specially fitted they did even better than the men 
had done. 

If I may, I will read a paragraph from my statement (reading:) 

During the last war, many of the labor-saving devices of today, the beautiful 
factories of today, the vocational training of today, were nonexistent. Women 
went into the iron and steel foundries and machine shops and learned on the job, 
often under most adverse conditions. Yet the record of achievement shows that 
in about every vital industry women set up their own lathes, millers, drills, 
grinders, and presses. Metal work is emphasized because almost half of the 
firms reporting replacement of men by women employed women on metal work. 
These firms produced high explosives and shrapnel shells, cartridges, machine 
guns, rifles, cannon and cannon mounts, airplanes and seaplanes, grenades, 
automobiles, tanks, tools, and many other war products. About 83 percent of the 
firms, comparing the work done by women on metals with that done by men, 
stated they considered the product of the former as satisfactory as, or better 
than, that of men. 

EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN IN ENGLAND'S WAR INDUSTRIES 

Dr. Lamb. Could you tell the committee briefly what the experience 
of England has been in this war with the employment of women in 
war industries? We understand women were registered there last 
March. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10401 

Miss Anderson. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. That is, women between the ages of 20 and 30. 

Miss Anderson. Yes. England's experience with women, of 
course, has been very satisfactory. First, they registered. When 
they began to think about employing women, they had two voluntary 
registrations; they stimulated an interest in registering by radio 
publicity and by holding meetings. The women registered very 
gratefully. 

Because at that time they were not ready to employ them, there was 
a great deal of dissatisfaction throughout the country in regard to 
those registrations. So much so that when they could begin to 
employ the women, they had to have, not voluntary registration, 
but enforced registration of women between 18 and 30. 

Now, they again have a compulsory registration of women between 
35 and 45. Women are being employed in all of the war industries. 
In some of them women represent 30 percent, and in some 40, and in 
some to as high as 80 percent, and they are going in more and more 
as men are being drawn away from the industries. 

According to Miss Haslett, who was over here, and who is an 
engineer and the special woman adviser on women's training, they 
are engaged in almost all kinds of industrial occupations. They are 
tool makers and they set up the machines. So there is practically 
no place in the war machine, m the war industries, where women are 
not being employed in England today. 

Dr. Lamb. What about the wages paid? 

Miss Anderson. Wages paid in most of the places are the same as 
the men received. There are, of course, some places where women 
do get less than the men got when they were on the job. I under- 
stand that is a great contention in England today. 

Dr. Lamb. Would that be true in the industries where the number 
of women is largest, would you say? 

Miss Anderson. I think it is; yes. 

Dr. Lamb. Have you an estimate as to how many women workers 
will be needed by industry within the next year? 

Miss Anderson. We have no authoritative figures. Our esti- 
mated figure is that over a million additional women workers will be 
asked to come in next year. It may be even higher than that. 

POTENTIAL employment OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN 

Dr. Lamb. I would like to ask you as to the occupations in which 
women are now finding increasing opportunities? 

Miss Anderson. Women are being employed with increasing 
rapidity in airplane factories. Women were not employed in airplane 
factories before the war or before the emergency. But they are now 
being' taken in fairly rapidly in a great many occupations, and they 
are doing welding, working in the fuselage department and, of course, 
they do the assembly and all of those smaller jobs. In other indus- 
tries, such as small arms, women have always been working to a 
certain extent. Fuze-making is also a job women have done. There 
is great expansion in the work. 

We made an investigation in the four areas where women were 
employed to a certain extent and where they could be used with 
the idea that women should have a chance to make good if they were 



10402 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

inducted into the industries. We made the survey in the aircraft 
production program, and we went in and worked with the foremen 
and discussed what jobs women could be inducted into, and we have 
issued those reports. -. . , r ^ e 

Besides the small-arms ammunition there is the manutacture ot 
artilleiy ammunition; and there are others that should have our 

attention. , , • • i • 

One place women can be used a great deal is m the instrument 
field, and also in photography. Photography is a very important 
job these days when you have to do so much of it in the airplane, 
particularly, and in the detecting field where women are so largely 
employed in England and where, of course, through Mrs. Kogers' 
bill, the War Department wants to employ women here. 

Dr. Lamb. I was interested in a reference in your prepared state- 
ment to the effect that in 1940 there were about two and a half million 
employed, which represents an increase of 9 percent over 1930. 

Miss Anderson. That is from the Census figures. 

Dr. Lamb. Of course, we all expect women will find ready employ- 
ment in the wearing-apparel industries, but it is interesting to observe 
that over one-third of the employees in the manufacture of electrical 
equipment and apparatus in 1939 were women. 

Miss Anderson. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. Winding armatures, coils, and in assembly work and 
like operations. 

Miss Anderson. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. And also in the machine shops and sheet-metal shops. 

Miss Anderson. Yes. The electrical industry has always been 
one we might call a woman-employing industry because there are so 
many small articles on which they do much better work and which 
they handle much better than men. 

Dr. Lamb. Particularly on the side of assembly and precision 
work? 

Miss Anderson. Yes. It is something like making fuzes. A time 
fuze is a very small object. There are many intricate parts in a 
time fuze, some very small, about the size of a pin. Women's hands 
are much better fitted to assemble that fuze than are men's hands, 
so women are employed entirely. 

OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC SERVICE 

Dr. Lamb. Wliat about other occupations, such as telegraph 
operators, messengers, taxicab drivers, streetcar conductors, elevator 
operators, and similar occupations? 

Miss Anderson. They are beginning to come in to those occupa- 
tions now. 

Dr. Lamb. You expect they will expand considerably? 

Miss Anderson. They will expand, of course. 

Dr. Lamb. The W. P. A., as you know, has done about 50 migration 
studies, and they indicate that unemployment among women migrants 
is anywhere from 5 to 10 times as high as among men migrants. 
Do you think this reflects discrimination by employers against women 
workers? 

Miss Anderson. To some extent. You are talking about agricul- 
tural labor there? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10403 

Dr. Lamb. No; not migrant agricultural workers; but migrant 
defense workers. 

Miss Anderson. Yes. Of course, there is some discrimination 
but not much at the present time. 

Powder-loading plants, for example, are in the country and they 
have to build housing so as to house the workers. Even so, some of 
them come from within the radius of, say, 50 miles. They do come 
that far sometimes, into those plants. 

Dr. Lamb. In other words, you would say that the housing of 
unattached women workers is a problem? 

Miss Anderson. Yes. They have built dormitories and it has been 
done in a great hurry and, like most things done in a hurry, they are 
not very well done. 

I realize it is a temporary situation, but in those dormitories there 
is not afforded any way of getting food. Sometimes the dormitories 
are located about 3 miles from the nearest restaurant or any place 
that food can be obtained other than that which can be procured 
within the plants. 

PROBLEM OF HOUSING 

But the dormitories have to be built quite a little way from the 
plant, because the plant is a hazardous industry. 

It is necessary to have facilities for food; there should be recrea- 
tion; there should be other conveniences for the women, not only be- 
cause necessary for the women themselves, but because necessaiy for 
real production. If the women live very badly, they won't stay and 
there will be a very high turn-over, which is always hard on production. 

So it is important to have good living conditions as well as good 
working conditions. 

ATTITUDE OF EMPLOYERS AND UNIONS 

Dr. Lamb. With respect to employer discrimination, what is your 
bureau doing today to break down any prejudices that exist against 
the women workers? 

Miss Anderson. We cooperate, that is to say we visit the em- 
ployers, sometimes at their request and sometimes without a request, 
and find out whether they are employing women, what the conditions 
of employment are if they are employing women, and what the 
conditions should be. 

One very large plant, very important in the war production, did 
not want to employ either women or Negroes. We visited them twice 
and they were adamant. The Office of Production Management 
wanted women employed and so did the War Department, and they 
wanted them to expand and train women so as to be ready to em- 
ploy them. About 2 weeks after we had been there one of the men 
called me in a hurry and said, "For heaven's sake, come over and 
help us employ these women." So it works both ways. When they 
wanted us, they knew where to find us. 

There are, of course, several reasons for opposition to employment 
of women. Some are valid and some are not. For instance, an 
employer, a foreman particularly, says, 'T don't want women in here. 
I can't cuss them out like I can cuss the men out. We couldn't have 
women in here," 



1Q404 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

And it goes much farther than that. That is a trivial thing. He 
doesn't want to employ women. He doesn't know why. He has 
never done it and he feels that it is impossible for him to do it now. 

Then, of course, we have the labor organizations who don't want 
women 'employed because in the past women have been used very 
greatly to lower the conditions of employment. They have been 
paid less and employers have actually exploited women as a potential 
labor supply as against men, and that is what men are afraid of all 
the time. 

PROIECTION OF WORKING STANDARDS OF WOMEN 

Dr. Lamb. Your Bureau is directly charged with responsibility for 
protecting the working standards of women, is it not? 

Miss Andeiison. Yes. It was created by Congress for that pur- 
pose. More than a year ago we published a pamphlet on standards 
for the employment of women in war production, the first of a series 
of defense bulletins. We followed it with one on the lifting of heavy 
weights aud oue on safety clothing, the last named of great impor- 
tance in machine operations. A report on women's washroom and 
other service facilities is in preparation. 

SUSPENSION OF STATE LAWS REGULATING EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN 

Dr. Lamb. Have any State laws regulating night work or hours of 
work by women been suspended? 

Miss Anderson. Yes. Twelve States prohibit the employment of 
women in manufacturing during some hours of the night. In some 
cases the prohibitions were provided by statute, in others by admin- 
istrative regulation. We asked them, where it was necessary — where 
the three-shift system came in — to waive that restriction and prac- 
tically no State had to amend its law ; the Governor or the labor com- 
missioner took steps to suspend that regulation for a certain time. 
They are doing that where they want to employ women on three 
shifts, but they make very careful investigation in regard to whether 
it is necessary and require that it shall be only for the duration. 

Dr. Lamb. Do you think these laws are adequately safeguarded? 

Miss Anderson. I think so, yes. That is being done in regard to 
the 8-hour day and 48-hour week for women. 

Dr. Lamb. Does the Women's Bureau in any way supervise the 
vocational training of women? 

Miss Anderson. No; we do not. 

Dr. Lamb. Wliat have you been doing to increase the training of 
women workers? 

Miss Anderson. Well, we have been working with the old O. P. M. 
organization in the training within industry and the upgrading within 
industry. We worked very long and very arduously and didn't get 
very far, but I think the situation is altogether different now. 

I feel that vocational training should only be used for the women 
who have never been inside of a factory and don't know anything 
about factory work. Wlien women are used to the factory, you might 
say "factory broke," the best thing to do is to put them right in on 
production and train them there. 

Dr. Lamb. Miss McKelvey testified earlier that 14,000 women had 
been trained in the training programs. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10405 

Miss Anderson. Is that vocational education? 

Dr. Lamb. That covered, I beheve, all the Federal training pro- 
grams. I would be interested to know what you think the needs are 
for speeding up the training of women for war work. \Miat needs to 
be done? 

Miss Anderson. I think the Employment Service should register 
these women and they should be referred to training classes. 

Dr. Lamb. Has the Bureau been active m attempts to obtain train- 
ing facilities for Negro women? 

Miss Anderson. Yes. We do that in the same way as we do the 
other. We don't separate them at all. 

OPINION ON COMPULSORY HIRING 

Dr. Lamb. What womd be your opinion of a requirement that ail 
defense employers should hire a certain percentage of women in view 
of the impending shortage of workers for war jobs? 

Miss Anderson. Well, I don't know that that wovdd be very help- 
ful. I think they will hire women just as they need them and in some 
places the percentage would be higher than in others. 

I t"hink in the aircraft plants it will be very high. 

Dr. Lamb. Through a combination of the skill which the women 
develop and the shortage of men? 

Miss Anderson. Yes. I understand that the ahplane factories 
took in and trained a great number of young men and that they did 
that with the idea that they would have to take them out sometime 
in the combat area. What they need so badly along with the fighters 
of the Army is mechanics. If the actual people in the Army had that 
mechanical skill, it would be much more important in the combat 
field, so they expect to withdraw nearly all of these young men from 
the airplane factories. They want to bring in the women. We have 
worked very closely with the War Department on that situation. 

Dr. Lamb. Are you familiar with the set-up and the operations of 
the British Ministry of Labor? 

Miss Anderson. Yes. 

Dr. Lamb. Would you think that a consolidation of the present large 
number of agencies in this country having to do with the labor market, 
into a department similar to that in England, would be desirable here 
at the present time? 

Miss Anderson. I believe strongly that the various labor agencies 
and all those relating to labor matters should be in the Department 
of Labor. That is what the Department was created for, and obvi- 
ously it should be done. I understand such a system has worked out 
very well in England. 

safeguarding compulsory controls of labor force 

Dr. Lamb. The witnesses yesterday indicated a certain trend toward 
compulsory controls over the labor force or, particularly perhaps, the 
organization of placement for certain types of skills, a limited number 
of which are becoming scarce. 

What would your opinion be with respect to the need for safeguard- 
ing such compulsory controls by letting management and labor have 
a voice in these decisions? 



10406 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Miss Anderson. I think management and labor should always have 
a voice in important decisions that affect labor. 

Dr. Lamb. Is there any advisory committee connected with the 
Women's Bureau, for example? 

Miss Anderson. Yes. We have an advisory committee of the 
leading women's organizations, and we have an advisory committee of 
the leading labor organizations in the war industries. 

Dr. Lamb. Are women being hired on the same basis as men as to 
pay and seniority? 

Miss Anderson. To a large extent. I do get some information 
occasionally that they are not, but as a whole the women are hired for 
the same wage that men are, and in up-grading in industry they get 
the same pay. 

Dr. Lamb. Do you know whether the Army and Navy have made 
any use of women doctors and psychologists? 

Miss Anderson. I don't think they have. My information is that 
they have not so far done that. 

Dr. Lamb. Do you happen to know what the basis of the ruling is 
that bars married nurses from the Army and Navy? I believe that 
is a correct statement. 

Miss Anderson. No, I do not; but I know such a ruling existed for 
a long time. 

Dr. Lamb. Those are all the questions that I have, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Sparkman. Miss Anderson, we appreciate very much your 
coming to us and the fine way in which you have presented this subject 
matter to us. 

If there is nothing else, the committee will stand adjourned until 
next Wednesday at 9:30 a. m. 

(Whereupon, at 12 noon, the committee adjourned until Wednes- 
day, February 11, 1942, at 9:30 a. m.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MICtRATION 



WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 11, 1942 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
The committee met, pursuant to adjourmnent, at 9:30 a. m. in 
room 1536, New House Office Building, Washington, D. C, Hon. 
John H. Tolan (chairman), presiding. 

Present: Representatives John H, Tolan of California, chairman; 
John J. Sparkman of Alabama, Carl T. Curtis of Nebraska, and 
Laurence F. Arnold of Illinois. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director of the committee. 
The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

STATEMENT OF NOEL SARGENT, SECRETARY, NATIONAL ASSOCIA- 
TION OF MANUFACTURERS 

The Chairman. Mr. Sargent, the committee recalls with pleasure 
your appearance before it last July, and it found your statement of 
that date to be very valuable. 

In the past 2 weeks we have been interested primarily in receiving 
testimony on the national labor market demands for next year, and 
what national policies will be necessary to permit us to meet the war- 
time demand for labor. 

We are hopeful policies can be developed to make our labor program 
more orderly. 

The members of the committee have some questions to ask. I 
understand that your statement arrived this morning and some of the 
questions and answers will need amplification. Your statement will 
be inserted in the record at this point. 

(The statement referred to follows:) 

STATEMENT BY NOEL SARGENT, SECRETARY, NATIONAL 
ASSOCIATION OF MANUFACTURERS, NEW YORK, N. Y. 

Utilization of the Nation's Labor Supply 

I have been requested by the chairman to appear before your committee today 
to discuss the broad subject of full utilization of America's labor supply, and 
have, in addition, been given nine specific questions upon which judgment is 
desired. 

Before attempting to answer the specific questions referred to, it is, I believe, 
necessary to consider the broad background involved, especially insofar as it 
involves the determination of our labor supply and the wartime employment 
trend. 

10407 



10408 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

With this in mind, Mr. Chairman, I present the following statistical observa- 
tions, including at this point answer to your question ^o. 3: 

"What deficiencies are there in current statistical data on the labor market? 
What suggestions for improvement can you make?" 

(1) When the United States defense effort started in July 1940, there were 
10 850 000 people employed in manufacturing and estimated unemployment of 
7 789,000. I wish to point out, however, that there is not necessarily any direct 
relationship between the volume of manufacturing employment and total unem- 
plovment; in fact, during a considerable part of the 1930's manufacturing employ- 
ment increased while total unemployment either increased or stayed about the 
same. In other words, other fields of economic life than manufacturing may hold 
the key to the volume of unemployment. . . ^ i j , . nnn nnn ^- t a 

(2) In December 1941, manufacturing employment totaled 14,000,000 (includ- 
ing both factory and nonfactory workers) ; estimated unemployment in all branches 
of industry was 3,675,000. x- . .i, ^ • t m^o 

Employment in December showed a drop, but we estimate that in January 1942, 
factory employment reached a new high; employment in five exclusively war- 
production industries is calculated at 49 percent above last July, and 8 percent 
above December. 

While over-all employment figures for manufacturing are quite good, the 
figures for other branches of industry are not as reliable, representing newer 
series based on less complete reports. 

Unemployment figures, however, are not so good. The inaccuracy is due to 
failure in some cases to require employment service registrants to re-register; fail- 
ure in some cases to require employment service registrants to register at all; 
payment of unemployment compensation to some people who have really left 
employment; and self -evaluation by applicants. Until these things are changed — 
if they can be — thoroughly reliable unemployment statistics, at least in any 
detail, are impossible. 

(3) We estimate that in December 1941 about 30 percent of all manufacturing 
production was defense production. On this basis the 14,000,000 manufacturing 
employees at the end of 1941 may be roughly divided into 4,200,000 in defense 
production, and 9,800,000 in civilian production. (There might be some question 
as to whether 30 percent defense production would require more or less than 30 
percent of the manufacturing employees. I have assumed that the two figures 
would be equal. It is true that some of the new defense workers are still only 
semitrained, and that they may lack the average efficiency of mechanics in civilian 
industries; on the other hand, they are working on the newest and best machines, 
permitting high per capita output, and are also working in industries in which 
machinery plays a large part in the output volume; it is believed that these would, 
during 1941, about offset each other.) 

It is difficult to draw a rigid line between defense and nondefense industries; 
for example, the factory worker who makes the cloth that is made into the work 
shirt that is bought by the worker in an airplane factory is really engaged in 
defense work. But, in order to conform more nearly to popular understanding 
of defense or war production, we consider in our present statistical analysis that 
only 20 major manufacturing divisions are producing war goods. 

(4) We cannot make a detailed break-down of current trends in defense and 
nondefense employment. This is because the Government last November 
ceased publication of detailed industrial group employment, pay roll, and man- 
hour statistics. The Government does, however, publish valuable series in these 
fields covering over-all manufacturing, durable and nondurable goods. These 
series fail, however, to enable us to trace the exact picture of employment shifts 
in war and civilian production, including the extent of priorities unemployment. 

I do not believe, however, that we should criticize the Government policy in 
this respect, assuming that information of value to the enemy might be disclosed 
as to volume of production of different war goods if detailed pay roll and man- 
hour figures were published. 

But, on the other hand, industry itseff knows that further increases in the 
manufacture of war products will require a great shift of labor and replacement of 
labor called into military service. 

I therefore suggest that the Government might continue to publish only over- 
all manufacturing, durable and nondurable, figures covering employment, pay 
rolls and man-hours. It might, however, resume publication of employment 
figures for specific industries, since these do not indicate actual production volume; 
but not resume publication of individual industrv pay roll and man-hour figures. 
If this suggestion is considered impractical under existing conditions, the United 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10409 

States Bureau of Labor Statistics could construct an index of defense and war 
production employment, and pass on this index to a small group of responsible 
persons which in turn could advise the various branches of our defense and war 
industry. 

Another reason for this suggestion is the fact that man-hours conversion factors 
for war production are not known to outsiders and that furthermore employnjent 
in itself would be no accurate basis to derive man-hours and finally output. 

(5) We estimate that total industrial production on the F. R. B. index in 
December 1941 was approximately 170 (that is 70 percent above the 1935-39 
base), of which mining constituted about 21 points of the total. We estimated 
that total industrial production in December 1942 will be approximately 180, 
with virtually all the increase representing manufacturing. Thus manufacturing 
will increase from 149 to 159 points, or 7 percent. This would represent in more 
normal times an approximately similar employment increase, that is to 14,980,000 
in December 1942 as compared to 14,000,000 last December. 

(6) We further estimate that 50 percent of all manufacturing production in 
December 1942 will be war production; this compares with 30 percent in Decem- 
ber, 1941. 

(7) We can, therefore, start with a basic estimate of an even distribution of 
manufacturing employment in December 1942 between war and nonwar 
industries. 

(8) This would give us 7,490,000 emploved in civilian industries, as compared 
with 9,800,000 at the end of 1941; a decline of 2,310,000, or nearly 24 percent. 

(9) But in the war industries we would have 7,490,000; an increase of 3,290,000 
or 78 percent above the 4,200,000 at the end of 1941. 

(10) As a matter of fact the employment increase in the war industries will, 
in all probability, be substantially greater. In the first place, much of the 1942 
expansion of war production will involve conversion of plants not highly adapted 
to war production and the utilization of older machinery; it will also be more 
difficult to obtain as skilled supervisory personnel; it will likewise be necessary 
to train large numbers of new workers, many with lower physical qualifications, 
with a reduction in the average efficiency per war worker in 1942 as compared 
with 1941. No exact measurement of these factors is possible, but I estimate 
that protJably about one-third more new workers will be required in the war- 
production industries than the bare statistics would reveal. This would mean 
an additional 1,097,000 employees — a total increase of 4,387,000 or somewhat 
more than 100 percent above the total number of defense workers in December 
1941. 

(11) On this basis, total manufacturing employment in December 1942 would 
compare as follows with total manufacturing employment in December 1941: 





Number of employees 




1941 


1942 


War production . . ... 


4, 200, 000 
9, 800, 000 


8, 587, 000 


Civilian production. - . . _ . . 


7, 490, 000 






Total . . 


14, 000, 000 


16, 077, 000 







This would involve a net increase of 2,077,000, or nearly 15 percent in the 
number of manufacturing employees during the present year. 

(12) But it would not be correct to assume that this net increase will not also 
be accompanied by severe unemployment in some cases. First, not all of the 
2,310,000 displaced workers in the civilian industries will be absorbed by the 
selective service system. Second, not all of them will be suitable for employ- 
ment on war work. Third, many of them will be located in communities far 
distan* from any war-work possibilities. A substantial number can and will be 
employed on war production; a substantial number will enter the armed forces; 
the remainder will represent war unemployment in a period of incx eased effort 
to secure workers. 

(13) The net increase of 2,077,000 will represent transferences from civilian 
production to war production, plus additions to the working force drawn particu- 
larly from formerly unemployed; grade- and high-school graduates; retired em- 
ployees; women not formerly seeking employment; and many other groups. 

60396— 42— pt. 27 13 



10410 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

SPECIFIC QUESTIONS 

I turn now, Mr. Chairman, to observations upon the several questions you 
submitted to me in advance, with the exception that I shall give no further 
comment on question III. 

Quhtion I: 

"Do you recommend Federal assistance for the transfer of workers from civilian 
to war work? If so, what kind of assistance?" 

I do recommend Federal assistance for the transfer of workers from civilian to 
war work. 

It should be pointed out that such assistance will be needed for two quite 
different groups, namely: 

(a) Individuals who have worked in factories producing civilian goods and who 
face priorities unemployment; and 

(b) Individuals who have been connected with retail and appliance sales and 
have no factory-work background. 

Those in the first group will probably try to obtain employment within a reason- 
able distance of their present residence and will try to avoid moving their families 
in the hope that some war work may be assigned to their former employer, and 
that they may be called back to that plant. 

Members of the second group present a more serious problem, since they are 
not accustomed to manual work, and it will be difficult to employ them at rates of 
pay which will equal their former earnings. 

The primary assistance given will be of two kinds: 

(1) Through the operation of the State unemployment compensation laws, 
designed to furnish individual aid in unemployment; 

(2) Through the Federal employment bureaus in industrial areas, and by close 
cooperation with State, municipal, and private employment agencies. 

Additional Federal assistance should be so handled as to minimize the possibility 
and severity of abuses. 

Subject to this limitation. Federal assistance might take the following forms: 

(1) A plant training program designed to further develop and make of value the 
dexterity, flexibility, and experience of the individual when he has taken a job 
opportunity available in war production. 

Such training should be limited to a definite period, with perhaps a 6 months' 
maximum. This would be a sort of "earn while you learn" training, with the 
actual net costs borne by the employer and reimbursed by the Government. 

This would be primarily an extension of the Government's present training- 
within-industry program. 

(2) Extension of free training courses such as are now being administered 
through various educational organizations. 

(3) WheTe an employer engaged in war production is unable to find qualified 
personnel in his own area and locates it elsewhere, and pays the traveling expenses 
of such new personnel, and probably of their families, from their old homes to the 
new places of employment, the Government should accept such expenses as 
legitimate costs of production. 

Question II: 

"Do you recommend that the Federal Government render financial assistance 
to workers who must migrate to obtain jobs in war production? If so, how should 
such assistance be given?" 

The general answer to this question is. No. 

This answer is given for the following reasons: 

(1) If there is sufficient cooperation between Federal, State, municipal, and 
private employment agencies indiscriminate traveling in search of jobs will be 
unnecessary. 

(2) If existing agencies put an individual in touch with a job, and the employer 
pays his traveling expenses, as previously advocated, there is no real need for 
Government travel assistance. 

(3) If an individual does not have a job, or a mighty good prospect of one, in 
another locality he will usually be better off staying in his own area. 

(4) Itinerant job seekers will create many special problems of housing, sani- 
tation, etc., in other communities; if they go to rapidly expanding industrial 
areas they will simply augment existing community difficulties. 

(5) Such assistance, if given without a definite location on a new job, would 
increase the difficulties of the Selective Service System, as men might be wander- 
ing from one community to another. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10411 

(6) Such assistance might increase the difficulties of conversion of local plants 
to war work by unnecessary removal of workers from the community. 

(7) If such assistance were given freely it might lead to unnecessary and waste- 
ful job shifting. 

Question IV: 

"What current hiring practices hinder the full utilization of our labor force in 
the most efficient manner? What proposals can you offer for their elimination?" 

In answer to this question I list the following practices, with suggestions for 
their correction: 

1. Practice of employment agencies in sending to employer applicants who do 
not really possess the particular abilities the employer has requested. But as 
long as reliance must be placed on the use of self-evaluation by registrants this 
probably cannot be fully eliminated. 

It might be reduced, however, by the utilization by employment agencies of 
interviewers who could, in personal conversation, probe into the actual knowledge 
possessed by applicants. 

Moreover, greater familiarity by employment agency representatives would 
facilitate full employment. Here is one illustration which came to us just a few 
days ago: 

"The Labor Department people did not realize that the employees of X who 
were without work, due to a shut-down in that plant, were not trained to take their 
place in the machine tool industry. As far as we could tell, they saw a great 
number of employees who had been working, had been let off, and should be 
employed by us. Apparently they had no conception of the difference between 
operating and feeding presses, or even body work such as X is doing, and the 
precision and training necessary to turn out high grade aircraft products. In 
addition to the above, the labor bureau people apparently had no appreciation of 
the difference in temperament and tools that a man must have, a,s between these 
two types of work." 

2. Practice of many State and Federal employment agencies in repeatedly 
referring the same api^licants to vacancies. In a short time an applicant may be 
sent out to several different prospects. Where he has not found a job this is all 
right, but where he is a "floater" who is able or wants to work only a short time 
in any one place it is detrimental. It encourages jobbing around for a "soft snap" 
job; increases turn-over; increases unemployment compensation costs in experience- 
rating States, and promotes dissatisfaction in the working forces where they 
frequently spend a short time. 

3. Indiscriminate hiring, which may result in the diversion of, or pirating from, 
defense industries of individuals with skills and aptitudes urgently needed in 
such industries. A practical solution of this problem might be worked out on 
the basis of voluntary local cooperation through local organizations or the office 
of the War Production Board. 

4. Indiscriminate advertising for skilled help. For example, aircraft com- 
panies in some sections of the country in their highly laudable effort to increase 
war production are advertising for skilled help in defense centers throughout the 
country. The defense program gains little if skilled men are taken off one war- 
work job to work on another. Here, again, the labor section of the War Production 
Board could act to discourage such activities. 

5. Indiscriminate competition by Government ordnance plants in hiring away 
workers from other war production, even from aviation plants. 

6. Immediate absorption of doubtful or submarginal workers into labor unions. 
Usually these people cannot be discharged without lengthy meetings between 
management and union representatives, because, if discharged, they may be 
sources of difficulty with the Labor Board. 

All this is very wasteful of management time and effort. If it were possible 
to employ such doubtful people on the basis that the union would not take them 
in and represent them, during a period of a 6-month trial, many people who do 
not represent a good labor risk could be given a try-out. Many union agreements 
contain such a provision; the practice should be extended. With the thought 
in mind that production for defense is first, companies frequently cannot take 
the risk of employing doubtful or submarginal workers today without some 
"weeding out" protection. 

7. The severity of some State workmen's compensation laws in making the 
employer fully liable in case of the aggravation of physical conditions which 
existed prior to employment. This ma.kes an employer extremely careful as to 
the physical status of new employees. It would seem that in such States a 



10412 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

temporary relaxation of these laws in the case of war production might be ad- 
visable, perhaps by permitting waivers to be obtained covering the employment 
of handicapped persons. 

8. Continuance by many companies of pre-war rigid physical standards. 
With the need for vast numbers of additional workers, caused by expanded 
production and by the draft, companies which are doing, or expect to do, war 
work should promptly review their health requirements to see if at least tem- 
porary relaxation of such standards would not be helpful. 

9. Similarly, some companies might properly consider relaxation of restrictions 
against employment of either women in general, or of married women. 

10. The Federal Wages and Hours Act, which prevents companies from hiring 
submarginal workers at wages commensurate with their ability. There is no 
remedy for this, except amendment of the Act to permit the wage-hour law 
administrator to approve such employment under appropriate protective restric- 
tions against abuse. 

11. Refusal by some employers to employ aliens. Similarly, refusal by some 
branches of the Government, by some unions, and by some employers to permit 
employment of certain minority-group members. We have urged that there be 
no arbitrary restrictions of this kind, but there can probably be no fully satis- 
factory solution to this problem until human nature changes. 

12. The practice of many employers in requiring that applicants for employ- 
ment shall either belong to or join a labor union. Employers on war work should 
be able to hire the most competent workers they can find, and such arbitrary 
restrictions necessarily interfere with war-production efficiency. 

The solution is to amend the Wagner Act so that, in addition to protecting the 
employee against discrimination because he belongs to a union, it will also protect 
him against discrimination if he voluntarily decides he does not want to belong 
to a union. 

The worker should be allowed to decide for himself that he wants to belong to 
a union or that he does not want to do so; the employer has no basic right to 
coerce him in this matter. 

13. The practice of many unions in demanding that onlj' union members 
shall be, or remain, employed. This results in employer inability to hire people 
who are competent to do a day's work, and thus prevents maximum utilization 
of the available labor force. 

The solution is to do as President Gompers agreed in World War I and freeze 
the existing closed- and open-shop status "for the duration." 

Question V: 

"Do you think that there is duplication of effort and/or lack of coordination 
among the different Government agencies dealing with problems of labor supply?" 

The answer is "Yes" — but is not to be considered as highly critical. 

We are faced with a complicated problem, which must be solved in the mini- 
mum length of time. This necessity for haste, and our traditional Government 
set-up, probably make inevitable a certain amount of duplication of effort and 
lack of coordination. 

Question VI: 

"Do you think that the defense training program has suffered from lack of 
uniform policies and single administrative direction?" 

We have surveyed a large number of industrialists on this question. In general, 
their combined judgment seems to be as follows: 

(a) There has been lack of uniform policies and single administrative direction 
of the defense training program; there is a possibility that recent moves to coordi- 
nate labor supply and training may be helpful. 

(b) Probably some of this — but not all — has been necessary because of the haste 
involved and the wide variety of training needs. 

(c) The defense training program would have been more efficient if there had 
been clear-cut policies and a sound plan of organization to carry them out. 

(rf) So far, the defense program has suffered but not severely from this lack of 
policy and organization. 

(e) This is largely because the Training Within Industry Division of the former 
O. P. M. although only a part of the broad defense training program has done a 
very good job under all the circumstances. 

■Question VII: 

"In your opinion, is a consolidation of agencies needed at this time to effectuate 
& national labor market policy?" 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10413 

It is impossible to answer this question very well without knowing just what is 
naeant or contemplated by the phrase "national labor market policy." 

It would surely be helpful to have a sound national policy regarding wages and 
their relation to inflation, wages and their relation to prices, demands for more 
closed shops in industry — but Congress has refused to act on these vital matters. 
Certainly these problems have a definite bearing on indiscriminate labor com- 
petition and efflcient utilization of the Nation's labor supply. 

It does, however, seem inconsistent to promote a War Production Board, with 
responsibility for war production; to set up a training division within that Board; 
to have Federal Employment offices under the Social Security Administrator; and 
labor supply services under the Social Security Administrator, but with some sort 
of tie-in to the W. P. B. 

It would seem that a more definite wartime consolidation of these divisions 
under the W. P. B. would be a constructive step. 

Question VIII: 

"Do you think it desirable to establish a department of labor supply and 
national service similar to the English Ministry of Labor Supply and National 
Service? Conceivably, such a Ministry of Labor Supply would include some or 
all of the following agencies: the Selective Service Administration, the Depart- 
ment of Labor, the training and supply work of the Labor Division, the Employ- 
ment Service, parts of the Work Projects Administration, the Civil Service 
Commission, parts of the Office of Education and the farm labor work of the 
Department of Agriculture." 

If by this is meant a new Department or Cabinet rank, the answer is "No." 
We have a permanent Department of Labor now. 

Today there are three main labor problems: 

(1) How to get labor for the military forces. 

(2) How to get labor for the war production. 

(3) How to find jobs for the priority-unemployed. 

There should be only two main wartime labor supply divisions, and these should 
cooperate very closely: 

(a) The Selective Service Administration. 

(6) The Labor Supply Division within the War Production Board. The lattei* 
should have full control over all Federal Government agencies of recruitment, 
placement, and training of labor on war and civilian production; it should not 
control other functions of the Department of Labor, the Office of Education, etc. 

The Selective Service Administrator and the Labor Supply Director of the War 
Production Board should cooperate in setting up rules for the handling of labor 
supply from the standpoint of the combined needs of the armed forces and those 
producing the goods they need. This would lead to a more efficient utilization of 
labor supply. 

It seems unnecessary, at this time, to go further and establish regimentation 
which would compel labor to work in particular plants, industries, or communities. 
Control over priorities will itself compel shifting and readjusting labor supply 
without regimentation over the individual. 

Question IX. 

"Should such a Department of Labor Supply be a civilian agency?" 

In answer to question VIII I answered the basic question as to whether there 
should be such a department. 

I assume the present question asks whether if such a department were created it 
should be civilian. 

The answer is affirmative — but it should cooperate closely with military 
authorities. They have too many other problems to take over the whole labor 
situation. 

TESTIMONY OF NOEL SARGENT— Resumed 

The Chairman. Congressman Curtis will first question you. 

Mr. Curtis. I am very happy you could be here, Mr. Sargent. 

We were told in our hearings last week that while we employ 
about 5,000,000 people in defense industries now, before the calendar 
year of 1942 is over it would be 15,000,000, and I am very glad to have 
your ideas with reference to this labor situation. 



10414 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

We recall your paper submitted last summer and your appearance 
before the committee, and at that time you recommended that em- 
ployers should utilize the local labor reserves before recruiting labor 
from outside areas. 

UTILIZATION OF LOCAL LABOR RESERVES 

The committee has received some evidence to indicate that that 
practice has not been carried out very well. What is your idea or 
observation on that? 

Mr. Sargent. Well, I would say that, in general, it has been well 
carried out, but I would say also there are notable exceptions, both 
on the part of private industry and the Government, with respect 
to recruiting labor from other areas than those in which plants are 
located. 

Mr. Curtis. In other words, when everything else was equal, they 
did take local labor? 

Mr. Sargent. Yes, sir. It is naturally better for the employer to 
take local labor, because it doesn't create transportation and housing 
and other problems. 

Mr. Curtis. Do they take the local labor if the local labor is old 
men or colored workers? Are they taking those classes of labor rather 
than receiving the labor from some distant point if it is of the age they 
want and white male labor? 

Mr. Sargent. I would say there has been some relaxation on the 
part of employers in hiring qualifications of all kinds, with respect to 
physical standards and sex and other qualifications that formerly 
existed. I think that, however, there will be many future changes in 
hiring standards on the part of employers, and further necessary 
relaxations will be forced by the outright demand for labor on the 
one hand, and by the withdrawal of present employees on the other 
hand. 

Mr. Curtis. And that will affect the employment of colored people 
in a like manner? 

Mr. Sargent. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Realizing that some people who are now employed in 
war industries will be drafted into the Army, it is entirely possible 
that ten or twelve million workers will have to be recruited this year 
for industry. Do you think that the policies which manufacturers 
have followed in the past year in recruiting labor will enable us to 
meet the demands for the coming year? 

ESTIMATED LABOR REQUIREMENTS 

Mr. Sargent. Let me say at the start, Mr. Curtis, that I have 
observed on a great many reports statements of 10,000,000, 15,000,000, 
or 20,000,000 increase in labor on war production. 

Now, that is possible if you include construction labor and all 
other types of labor which must be included, but if you include only 
manufacturing labor, I do not believe there is any such increase in 
sight. 

Nevertheless, there will be a substantial increase, and I think 
employers will have to reconsider and relax former hiring standards, 
in order to obtain that labor. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10415 

Mr. Curtis. The Director of the United States Employment Ser- 
vice, Mr. John J. Corson, told us a week ago that in the near futm-e the 
Employment Service would assume control of all hiring where short- 
ages of skilled labor have developed. Apparently as shortages 
develop, the Employment Service plans to take control of those 
workers. 

Do you think such control is desirable or necessary? 

OPPOSES CONTROL OF HIRING BY EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

Mr. Sargent. I think there should be, in the War Production 
Board, through its Labor Supply Division, a centralization of Govern- 
ment activities, with respect both to hhing and training of workers 
during the war period. 

If Mr. Corson's statement meant that if the employer wishes to 
obtain a civilian draftsman he could not go to a plant or another 
company in the same commimity to get the draftsman, but would 
have to go to a Federal service, that would be going too far. How- 
ever, if he wishes to employ labor tlirough the Employment Service, 
there should be a coordination of all Government agencies, and it 
seems to me it would be proper for the Federal agency to try to 
coordinate that employment activity. 

Mr. Curtis. What criticisms, if any, would your organization wish 
to make of the United States Employment Service, or maybe I should 
say suggestions or comment that you wish to make, in reference to 
our United States Employment Service? 

Mr. Sargent. We have no general criticisms to make of the United 
States Etnployment Service. I do, in my paper, which has been 
incorporated in the record, make some suggestions as to inadequacies. 
I do not laiow that they are the fault of the Employment Service 
particularly. 

For example, sometimes a man will be sent out repeatedly to a 
dozen jobs in 6 months. It is evident he is not successful and able to 
make a go of it, and sending that man out repeatedly is not very 
conducive to getting satisfactory results. 

Another thing which I assume is not the fault of the Employment 
Service, is that when men register as seeking jobs, it is a self-evaluation 
proposition. They tell how skilled they are and what they can do. 
It is a tendency of human nature for a person to rank 'himself a little 
higher than he actually is. It is a psychological proposition. 

Mr. Curtis. It is true of Congressmen, I think. 

Mr. Sargent. I wouldn't say, sir. 

NEED OF SKILLED INTERVIEWERS OF APPLICANTS 

When a man does that, unless the Employment Service has very 
skilled interviewers of applicants, men who can by questioning deter- 
mine whether they actually possess the qualifications they say they 
have, very often men are sent out without the qualifications an em- 
ployer wants. 

Mr. Curtis. And whenever that happens, that hurts the Employ- 
ment Service, because all parties are disappointed if the employment 
does not carry through? 

Mr. Sargent. Yes, sir. 



10416 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. I think your suggestion that the interviewers of the 
Employment Service be people who can, in a measure, detect some- 
thing about the applicant's ability by questioning him and learning 
about his background and experience, is good. 

Assuming that the Employment Service does take control of the 
hiring of certain limited skills, would it not be possible for the Employ- 
ment Service to require employers to hire all local available labor 
reserves first before bringing workers in from the outside? 

Mr. Sargent. I should think so. 

Mr. Curtis. If it all had to go through the Employment Service, 
do you think it might help in making use of the local reserves first? 

Mr. Sargent. Yes. 

We must bear in mind that while many of us have advocated the 
employment of local labor where available, that local labor sometimes 
does ciot possess the required skills, so you often find local labor is 
not available with the particular skill needed for precision work, and 
things of that sort. 

The Chairman. Granted that they are, you are firm in your behef 
that local labor should be used? 

Mr. Sargent. Yes. They should be given first chance of employ- 
ment if they are available in the area. 

QUESTIONS definite ALLOCATION OF CLASSES OF LABOR 

Mr. Curtis. Could the Employment Service do a better job by 
allocating a certain amount of employment to women and a certain 
amount to colored people? 

Mr. Sargent. I don't know whether it is feasible to make a rigid 
allocation and say that employers must employ a certain percentage 
of this class and a certain percentage of that class. If you start 
that you get mto saying that John Jones should work in this factory 
and cannot work in the other, and that Tom Brown must move 20 
miles away while the other fellow stays here. I don't know whether 
it is a desirable thing to get into that extreme regimentation of what 
the individual should do. 

Mr. Curtis. I am very much interested in the decentralization of 
defense work insofar as possible. Now, none of us want to hurt the 
defense program or to retard it. It is my belief that in the interior 
of the country there are quite a few resources in the way of able 
mechanics and small shops that have not been fully utilized. Do 
you have any suggestions to make on how further decentralization of 
our war efforts might be carried out? 

Mr. Sargent. No further than we have suggested in other state- 
ments before this and other committees. 

We beheve as you do that the primary job is to get the war effort 
done. Within that limit, both of skill and increase in the supply of 
available facilities, of course both elements must be taken into account 
and we believe the distribution of contracts is a desirable thing. 

That applies to the distribution of prime contracts, where that is 
possible, and to the distribution of subcontracts. 

On the prime contracts it is obvious if orders are extremely big and 
there can't be any coordination of smaller plants for the purpose of 
taking a large order, then the order must be given mitially to plants 
which are capable of taking the entire order. They, in turn, will 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10417 

probably be overloaded and will be forced to look for other plants to 
take certain parts of the work. 

BELIEVES DECENTRALIZATION WILL INCREASE 

I believe as the contracts let under the appropriations made by 
Congress increase, a larger and larger amount of decentralization and 
distribution is inevitable, because it will be physically impossible to 
get work done unless it does take place. 

Mr. Curtis. Does your organization take any part in the formation 
of pools? 

Mr. Sargent. No; w^e do not take any part ourselves in the forma- 
tion of pools, but we have through the National Industrial Council, 
which is an organization of some 35 State associations and 200 local 
associations, endeavored to impress upon them the necessity of 
organization in their own communities of pools of various plants, and 
have given them information about the York plan and other plans 
follow^ed in different parts of the country, so that they will be able to 
study that and do it better. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have any suggestions in reference to how the 
Government could improve its procurement service in order to help 
manufacturers, and to help the program generally? 

Mr. Sargent. We have some ideas and suggestions concerning that, 
sir, but in view of the fact that the W. P. B. is now trying to work out 
a reorganization along that line and is dealing witb it, as you know, I 
think the general interest might be better served if we endeavored first 
to try to work that out through the W. P. B., rather than present 
suggestions for congressional action. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Sargent, you feel, as I take it from your 
answers, that sooner or later — we hope sooner— the small manu- 
facturing plants in the United States will be utilized in the defense 
program? 

Mr. Sargent. That is, those which are capable of being used. 

The Chairman. And looking toward that, the pooling idea has been 
created? 

Mr. Sargent. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. When you think, Mr. Sargent, of approximately 
160,000 manufacturing plants and factories in the United States, 
large and small, 97 percent of them employing less than 200 men, that 
gives you quite a picture and, if those 97 percent have to go out of 
business, or a great proportion of them, it will be very critical indeed 
unless something is done about it. 

Mr. Sargent. Yes, sir. We have a committee on civilian industry 
production which is endeavoring to make suggestions as to the best 
means of keeping alive, if possible, the small companies, and the 
chairman testified only recently before Mr. Patman's committee of 
the House, dealing with that subject. 

attitude of manufacturers toward women 

Mr. Arnold. I have some questions, Mr. Sargent, dealing with 
women in industry. What have been the objections of manufac- 
turers in the past employing women? 



10418 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Sargent. Well, I don't know that I can say that manufac- 
turers generally, I mean as an over-all proposition, have had objections 
to employing women, in view of the fact that a large number of them 
have employed women for a number of years. It is true that there 
have been companies and industries in which the employment of 
women has been negligible. That has been due to a variety of factors. 

In some industries it is due to the heavy nature of the work, where 
women are not suitable, for physical reasons, and that is offset by the 
large number of places where the manual dexterity of women makes 
them more valuable than men. 

Some employers have had objections to employment of married 
women, some employers have had objections to employing more than 
one member of a family because they wanted to spread employment 
through the community as much as possible. 

Those situations have all existed in different places. There has 
been no general industrial policy, but individual companies may have 
had such policies. 

In addition to that, some employers have felt that the turn-over 
among women employees was much greater than among male em- 
ployees, and since the cost of training an employee in a skilled occupa- 
tion is very high, that was a justifiable reason for not employing 
women to as large an extent as men. 

Mr. Arnold. I notice women are being employed now in certain 
industries, certain types of workers, and it is reported that they can 
do some types of work better than men. 

Mr. Sargent. There are certain types of assembly work in making 
airplanes, for example, that women can do as well as men — I wouldn't 
say better — but where it has been customary in the past for the com- 
panies to employ men. But they are finding that women do the 
work as satisf actorilv . 

Mr. Arnold. And you would assign the reasons for not employing 
them heretofore to the fact that the manufacturers recognized there 
was larger turn-over in employing women and also that they wanted 
to employ only one in a family? 

Mr. Sargent. And there are some occupations, such as foundry 
work, where women are not physically able to do the work. Possibly 
the feeling that employment should be confined to one in a family is 
especially common in rural communities. There have been big 
campaigns in many rural parts of the country as to whether the local 
school board should employ married teachers. 

Mr. Sparkman. Federal Government had that until a couple of 
years ago. 

Mr. Sargent. So I understand. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know whether manufacturers expect to use 
women workers extensively next year? 

Mr. Sargent. I beheve there will be a substantial increase ui the 
employment of women next year, due to the need for increase in labor 
demand and due to the withdrawals of physically fit males for the 
Army. 

Mr. Arnold. And with the war on and all the young men going to 
war, the turn-over probably won't be as great as it would be in 
peacetime. 

Mr. Sargent. It should not be. Whether it will be or not will 
depend to some extent on whether we have a national labor policy that 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10419 

seems to encourage people to think that the pasture across in another 
State is a little greener, and, of course, if higher wages are paid to 
induce people to change their jobs. We could have quite a substan- 
tial turn-over both among men and women if that situation develops 
very strongly. 

SUSPENSION OF RESTRICTIONS ON EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN 

Mr. Arnold. Do you believe the specific limitations which have 
been placed on the employment of women such as the restriction 
against night work and limitations of hours, should be suspended at 
this time? 

Mr. Sargent. I would not advocate a general suspension because, 
generally speaking, while some of the laws may have gone to extremes, 
there has been a social justification for many such laws. As distinct 
from a general suspension, I would say that the State labor depart- 
ment, or whoever may be delegated responsibility, should see that, 
as there is a shortage of particular classes of labor for war work, there 
should be a suspension to permit such employment in those occupa- 
tions. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Sargent, we have been concerned, from time 
to time, at least we have been giving some thought to the idea, whether 
or not there should be a consolidation of all Federal agencies which are 
concerned with some aspect of the labor market. Would you recom- 
mend such a consolidation? 

Mr. Sargent. If that is meant, as was indicated in questions 8 
and 9 submitted to me by the chairman, some over-all ministry of 
supply, to take over all functions of labor, including civil service, 
training and employment, I should think not. I don't believe that 
is necessary or desirable. 

I think there should be two main labor divisions during the war 
period, the Selective Service on the one hand and the Labor Supply 
Division of the War Production Board on the other, and under the 
Labor Supply Division the labor recruiting and training work of all 
Government agencies should be placed. For example, the other 
functions of the Department of Labor and the Social Security Board 
should not be taken over. 

Then, there should be the closest coordination between Selective 
Service and the Labor Supply Division, but not, I would say, complete 
amalgamation. 

Mr. Sparkman. If there should be developed later a single agency 
to handle labor supply and training, how would you think that the 
functions of management and labor should be divided? In other 
words, should management and labor both participate in such an 
agency? 

Mr. Sargent. I should think it would be quite proper to have 
advisory committees, consulting committees, with any such Board, 
but that seems to me that all that would be necessary in that respect. 

Mr. Sparkman. Referring again to the paper you submitted to us — • 
last July 19, I believe it was — in that paper you emphasized the 
necessity for intensive wi thin-industry training programs. As a 
matter of fact, approximately two-thirds of your paper was concerned 
with the need for such training. 



10420 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Do you think that the size of the within-industry training programs 
has been adequate? 

Mr. Sargent, I should say that it has been very successful and has 
done a good job. It has not been 100 percent, but I think it has done 
a good job and should be expanded rather than curtailed. 

Mr. Sparkman. I really referred to the extent of the program and 
you say it should be expanded? 

Mr. Sargent. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you know whether employers are planning to 
expand this within-industry training or not? 

Mr. Sargent. I know many of them are, those which are employing 
large additional forces. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you think the Federal Government ought to 
subsidize such training? 

SUBSIDIZED training 

Mr. Sargent. I think, sir — and I will elaborate on the answer to 
one of the questions submitted — that when the employer provides 
such training that the net cost to him — and I emphasize net cost 
rather than gross cost — should be recognized as a cost of production 
by the Federal Government. It should be deductible as a cost of 
production, under the tax laws, and recognized as a cost of production 
which should be recognized by the Federal Government in the price 
it pays for its defense goods. 

Mr. Sparkman. It is, isn't it? 

Mr. Sargent. Generally speaking, but I don't think there should 
be any question about it. For example, if a company already has an 
existing contract and expands the operation of its force considerably, 
there might be a question as to whether that additional cost would be 
recognized as a cost under that contract. 

Under the Presidential order of December 27, readjustment of 
contract prices are permitted in certain cases, and I think such a 
condition should be one of those recognized as proper for that purpose. 

Mr. Sparkman. In the event an adequate agency for labor supply 
and training should be set up by the Government, or even in the event 
that your suggestion is carried out, that is, the Selective Service 
coordinated with the Labor Supply Division of the War Production 
Board, in either case do you think that such agency should have the 
power to require employers to set up this within-industry training 
program? 

Mr. Sargent. I shouldn't thinly; so, because it may not be suitable 
for the particular case. It might be that local trade schools could 
do a better job in a particular case, or local educational institutions. 
It seems to me it would not be sound policy to require some particular 
method to be followed, without knowledge of what was necessary. 

If an employer has a contract and wants to complete it he wants 
the skilled labor, and if he thinks it feasible to put in a within-industry 
training program he will do it. If he can get the skilled labor without 
doing that, he should not be required to do it. 

It may be that he would be able to get from civilian industries 
which were closed down a sufficient supply of skilled labor to do the 
work. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10421 

While these workers might need some training, I don't think it is 
possible to say in advance how much training would be needed or 
what supply of skilled labor would be available. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, do you think the need would 
force the employer to resort to the program anyway? 

Mr. Sargent. It would either force the employer or the com- 
munity, through its local educational system or trade schools, or 
something of that sort, to do it. 

Mr. Sparkman. We notice in your paper of July 19, you emphasize 
the desirability of rotating workers who have received intensive 
short-term training, in order that such employees should not be 
restricted to single operations. Do you know of any companies 
which have a program of rotating the workers from one job to another? 

Mr. Sargent, Yes, sir. I believe more should do it; I know some 
are doing it, 

TRANSFER OF WORKERS TO DEFENSE INDUSTRIES 

Mr. Sparkman. As you know, one of the critical problems of labor 
supply in the next year will be the transfer of some 8,000,000 work- 
ers — I believe that has been testified — ^from nondefense industries 
into war industries. Has your association given consideration to 
this problem? 

Mr. Sargent. In my prepared statement, I gave you some infor- 
mation upon that. As far as manufacturing is concerned, I do not 
believe the figure is anything like 8,000,000. There may be shifts 
in other forms of work, such as retailing and construction, and so 
forth. As far as manufacturing is concerned, I estimate there will 
be a decline in civilian employment of 2,300,000. 

Dr. Lamb. We have reference to testimony Mr. Davenport,' of 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, gave last week, and his figures must 
have included nonmanufacturing, because I understood there are 
10,000,000 workers. 

Mr. Sargent, Fourteen million are now employed in manufactur- 
ing industry, of which 10,500,000 are factory employees. It is ridicu- 
lous to expect 10,000,000 will be forced to shift. 

Mr. Sparkman. I know we had a chart that presented it rather 
graphically, and my recollection is that the 8,000,000 consisted of 
several different components, and probably included women. 

Mr. Sargent. My estimate is confined to manufacturing and my 
suggestions as to what should be done are confined to manufacturing 
employment. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you say how many from manufacturing? 

Mr. Sargent. Two million three hundred and twelve thousand 
from December 1941 to December 1942, 

unemployment compensation 

Mr. Sparkman. What are your views in regard to the bill pending 
before the Congress for $300,000,000 to increase unemployment com- 
pensation payments to those who have been thrown out of employ- 
ment because of conversion of industry or because of working of 
priorities? 

» See p. 10256 et. seq. 



10422 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Sargent. I met a member of the Ways and Means Committee 
on my way up here this morning, who said they are holding hearings 
on two different bills that have been introduced on that subject. I 
have not seen either one, and I prefer not to comment on them for 
that reason. 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if you might state to us generally if you 
believe that the Federal Government should help out in that problem? 

Mr. Sargent. I think the social security or the unemployment 
compensation laws which were enacted to take care of cases of dis- 
tress generally, should be given a chance to operate before we consider 
that they won't operate successfully, perhaps before they are even 
tried. 

In addition to that, I have suggested in my answer to the prepared 
questions and have given some observations concerning the obliga- 
tion of the Federal Government in the case of migration of labor, to 
which generally I am opposed. 

Unless a man has an actual job in sight, to give him money to go 
somewhere and look for a job will create more housing, transportation, 
and other problems in other communities. If the employer pays the 
traveling expenses and was reimbursed, you would not need a Federal 
grant to the individual. 

Mr. Sparkman. That really is a subsequent question that I was 
going to ask you. As I understand it, the $300,000,000 proposal 
relates to unemployment brought about by reason of the conversion 
of civilian production plants to war production and is tied in with a 
retraining program. Now, the other question I was going to ask you, 
the one that you have already touched on, was about the moving of 
people. As I understand, you would be willing to give assistance to 
workers, provided they had definite assurance of a job at the other 
end of the line? 

reimbursement for expenses of transfer 

Mr. Sargent. I think that if through private sources or the coor- 
dinated Employment Service activities, the man gets assurance of a 
job at the other end of the line, the best means would be to have the 
employer pay the man's traveling expenses and possibly those of his 
family, and be reimbursed for that cost. If the Federal Government 
were to go into the business of simply giving a man money when he 
did lose a job to go some place else to find a job, you would be creating 
more problems than you would be solving. 

Dr. Lamb. May I say that this question was based upon the testi- 
mony which was received by the committee earlier, with respect to the 
English experience since the war began? 

. Mr. Eric Biddle, of the American Public Welfare Association, was 
in England and, as you laiow, has published a pamplilet on the subject 
of the Ministry of Labor and National Service Operations. 

He testified that the transfer of men to actual jobs by agreement 
with the employer that these men with tnis skill were needed, was 
subsidized by the British Government, so the movement was not hap- 
hazard, nor was the man moving without full kiaowledge that a job 
^existed. That was the intention of the question. 

Mr. Sargent. The question didn't make it clear. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10423 

Mr. Sparkman. In your last appearance before the committee you 
urged the elimination of discrimination in defense liii'ing against mi- 
nority groups. Have you in your direct contacts with employers or 
unions observed any tendency to such discrimination? 

Mr. Sargent. It has been decreased; not eliminated. 

Mr. Sparkman. You necessarily believe the transfer and training 
of defense workers should be without discrimination against any 
group of workers? 

Mr. Sargent. It should be based on the ability of a man or woman 
to do a job. 

Mr. Sparkman. And his condition of employment? 

Mr. Sargent. Well, if you mean by that that a less capable man 
who has been unemployed longer should be given a job, I am not sure 
I agree to that. 

Mr. Sparkman. I don't mean that, but naturally you don't want 
to recruit a laborer out of a going concern to caiTy him over to some 
other place? 

Mr. Sargent. No, we do not. 

Mr. Sparkman. I believe that is all, Mr. Chairman. 

DISTRIBUTION OF LABOR 

Dr. Lamb. I would like for the record to clarify the question, and 
your reply to it, Mr. Sargent, where you say, iii answer to the ques- 
tion: "In your opinion is a consolidation of agencies needed at this 
time to effectuate a national labor market policy?"^ — -Your answer is: 
^'It is impossible to answer this question very well without knowing 
just what is meant or contemplated by the phrase 'national labor 
market policy.' " 

This is used as the Employment Service would use it, with respect 
to the policy described by Mr. Corson last week, of having to declare 
certain skills critically short and hence to control the market for those 
skills by directing people with such skills to specific jobs. That would 
involve a national labor market policy with respect to that skill. 

Mr. Sargent. Would that mean a compulsory shifting of people? 

Dr. Lamb. Dr. Corson advocated such a compulsory shifting of 
people. 

Mr. Sargent. If the priority system works properly the companies 
which need people, either defense or civilian, will be able to operate, 
and the others will be unable to get materials, and their workers will 
be compelled to look for new sources of employment, and it seems to 
me that that is much better than a regimentation which directs and 
compels the movement of people. 

Dr. Lamb. I think his assumption had something like this in 
mind. Let us suppose two employers in separate parts of the country 
received contracts, that both of them are expanding and that one of 
them has an expected need for certain of his workers, but not for 
others; that the other has an expected need for the workers whom 
he doesn't possess. The nature of the contracts are such that he 
can work his existing workers, with the exception of these few, con- 
siderably more. 

Under those circumstances, the need for transfer would be based 
upon the nature of the contracts let. I do not believe this is a com- 
pletely hypothetical case and Mr. Corson assumes that under those 



10424 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

circumstances some intervention by the employment service to 
direct the men to the new jobs will be necessary. 

The employer under the second instance would not know of the 
existence of the men in the first plant, and it would be only through 
the clearing system of the Employment Service that the men might 
be directed to theu' plant. 

Mr. Sargent. I think the idea of a clearing system to determine 
where shortages in particular skills exist, and where supplies exist, 
is a desirable and natural function of an employment service, 

QUESTIONS USE OF COMPULSORY SHIFTING 

I think further that the Employment Service should endeavor 
through every means short of compulsion, to encourage the shifting 
in such cases. 

But I question whether it should go, certainly as yet, to the limits 
of compulsion. I can visualize the situation where compulsion 
might become necessary, but I don't believe it is yet. 

Dr. Lamb. Shortages have not arrived at any such stage? 

Mr. Sargent. I don't believe they are at that stage yet, no. 

Dr. Lamb. That is what was meant here by the use of the phrase 
"national labor market policy." 

Mr. Sargent. I couldn't tell very well. 

Dr. Lamb: Of course, the employment service operates on the basis 
of the ever-widenmg circle, and this particular type of problem is 
ordinarily not included in their considerations, because the local 
market comes first with them and the movement of people long 
distances is not ordinarily a feature of their work. 

The Chairman. Mr. Sargent, I want to say to you that you accepted 
a former engagement here and then it was called off, and we were to 
have Mr. Green of the A. F. of L. and Mr. Murray of the C. I. O. 
here this morning. Day before yesterday we were informed that 
Mr. Green was called out of town suddenly and Mr. Murray was to 
be at a War Production Board meeting this morning. Therefore, 
we did not have the heart to notify you not to come. 

We appreciate very much your coming and your paper will be a 
very valuable contribution to our committee. 

We thank you very much. 

The committee will stand in recess until tomorrow morning at 9:30. 

(Whereupon, at 10:25 a. m. the hearing was recessed until Thursday, 
February 12, 1942, at 9:30 a. m.) 

(The following testimony was taken on March 18, 1942, at the 
offices of the committee and approved for insertion in the record, 
because of its interest to the committee.) 

As told in his testimony, tliis witness came to Washington to tell 
his story, because of unsatisfactory employment conditions in the 
several States he had visited as a migrant construction worker. He 
came at his own expense, on borrowed funds, from Freeport, Tex., 
to Washington, D. C. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10425 

TESTIMONY OF RAYMOND GRIFHN McDONALD 

Mr. Francis X. Riley (investigator for the committee). Will you 
state your name for the record? 

Mr. McDonald. Raymond Griffin McDonald. 

Mr. Riley. And your age? 

Mr. McDonald. Twenty-nine. 

Mr. Riley. Ai-e you married? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Riley. Do you have any children? 

Mr. McDonald. One boy li years old. 

Mr. Riley. What is your present address? 

Mr. McDonald. 721 West Fifth, Freeport, Tex. 

Mr. Riley. How long have you lived there? 

Mr. McDonald, Nine weeks. 

Mr. Riley. What sort of accommodations do you have there? 

Mr. McDonald. I have my own trailer house. 

Mr. Riley. Do they have a regular camp in Freeport? 

Mr. McDonald. Well, they have, to the best of my knowledge, 
two trailer camps there. 

Mr. Riley. Do you live in either of them? 

Mr. McDonald. No, sir; I rent trailer space at a residence, so my 
family can have better sanitation facilities. 

Mr. Riley. Are the sanitation facilities of the house available to 
your family? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir; for $2.50 per week. 

Mr. Riley. Do you have running water in the trailer? 

Mr. McDonald. No, sir; just outside the door. 

Mr. Riley. Where were you born? 

Mr. McDonald. I was born in Oakland, Ai'k., July 16, 1912. 

Mr. Riley. Where were you educated? 

Mr. McDonald. I was educated in the grade schools of Flippin, 
Ark., and Tulsa, Okla. 

Mr. Riley. Do you have any high-school education? 

Mr. McDonald. I finished high school at the John E. Brown 
School in Siloam Springs, Ark. 

Mr. Riley. Did you get a degree or learn a trade at that school? 

Mr. McDonald. Well, you are taught to work 4 hours a day 
there, every day, and the first year you are there you have to work 
where the school places you, and after the first yeai* you are allowed 
to choose your occupation. 

Mr. Riley. What occupation did you choose? 

Mr. McDonald. The first year I was on the waiters' force. The 
second year I worked in the president's home helping take care of 
his boy and the yard and house. The third year that was what I 
did also. 

Mr. Riley. Did you get out with any particular trade or occupation? 

Mr. McDonald. No, sir; I didn't get out with a particular one. 
I studied electrical engineering and radio in my classes as my occu- 
pation. 

Mr. Riley. Have you worked at either of those trades? 

Mr. McDonald. No, sir; the depression terminated my vocational 
studies, and I left school. 

60396 — 42— pt. 27 14 



10426 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. Riley. When you got out of school did you go to work? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Riley. Where? 

Mr. McDonald. I went to work in Tulsa, Okla., at the Union 
Transportation Co. 

Mr. Riley. What were you doing? 

Mr. McDonald. I went to work as assistant parts manager. 

Mr. Riley. And after that job where did you work? 

Mr. McDonald. After that job I went to work for myself in the 
retail ice business. 

Mr. Riley. In Tulsa? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Riley. And you stayed in that business? 

Mr. McDonald. From 1930 to 1932. 

Mr. Riley. Now, in 1932 what did you do? 

Mr. McDonald. I went to work with the Golden Goose Hamburger 
Systems. 

Mr. Riley. Were you married at that time? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir. In fact, I was married all of this time. 
I married 4 or 5 months after I finished school. I was married in 
April 1930. 

Mr. Riley. Then after the hamburger job? 

Mr. McDonald. I worked as driver-salesman for the Carnation 
Milk Co. — Quality Milk Co. They teach you there. You have to 
go through an extensive course on retail sales, and so forth. 

Mr. Riley. What did you do after that? 

Mr. McDonald. I drove a cab a year and a half. 

Mr. Riley. Where? 

Mr. McDonald. Tulsa, Okla. 

Mr. Riley. That brings it up to what year? 

Mr. McDonald. 1936. 

Mr. Riley. What did you do then? 

Mr. McDonald. I moved to Houston, Tex. I went to work for 
the Volcano Burner Co. 

Mr. Riley. Doing what? 

Mr. McDonald. In Tulsa, while I was doing this cab driving, 
Jack Mitchell, a friend, asked me to come to Houston, Tex., and go 
to work for him, so we could continue with our boat racing. 

Mr. Riley. What business was Jack Mitchell in? 

Mr. McDonald. He was in a burner business for the oil-field boilers. 

Mr. Riley. How long did you work for him? 

Mr. McDonald. I think I only worked there for something like 
7 months before the shut-down in the oil business came down there. 

Mr. Riley. What year was that? 

Mr. McDonald. That was still during the year 1936, for I went 
there in January. 

Mr. Riley. What after that? 

Mr. McDonald. I went to work for the Sanitary Farm Dairy, as 
driver-salesman . 

Mr. Riley. In Houston? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes. It was here I first started getting carpenter 
work. As you know, the outboard motors have to be the most 
precise built boats that we have. 

Mr. Riley. That is where you got your carpentering? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE IVnGRATIOX 10427 

Mr. McDonald. I began to get my tools and learned to do finishing 
work. I went from the Sanitary Farm Dairy to the Port Houston 
Laundry. 

Mr. Riley. How long did you drive the laundry truck? 

Mr. McDonald. About a year. 

Mr. Riley. Where did you go from there? 

Mr. McDonald. I went to Port Neches. I owned my own dump 
truck there and did some carpentering work, whatever I could pick 
up] to do. I did work with my truck and when I couldn't I worked 
with different types of construction. I was there 1 year and 2 months. 

Mr. Riley. What date was that? 

Mr. McDonald. I left that business October 5, 1940. 

Mr. Riley. Now, in October 1940 did you go to work? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes; I went to work at Camp Hulen, Tex. 

Mr. Riley. What were you doing there? 

Mr. McDonald. Carpentering. 

Mr. Riley. How long did you work there? 

Mr. McDonald. I was there 4 months and 2 weeks. 

fees and dues paid to union 

Mr. Riley. Did you have to join a union to get the job? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Riley. What union did you join? 

Mr. McDonald. I joined the A. F. of L., Local 213, Houston, Tex. 

Mr. Riley. How much did it cost you to join? 

Mr. McDonald. $50. 

Mr. Riley. How much were the dues? 

Mr. McDonald. At that time, $2 a month. 

Mr. Riley. Are the dues the same now? 

Mr. McDonald. $1.75, and the initial dues have been advanced 
to $75 in place of $50. 

Mr. Riley. Are you behind in those dues? 

Mr. McDonald. I have transfeiTed into another local. I am now 
in the Galveston local. 

Mr. Riley. And your dues are all paid up? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir. I paid foreign dues and also sent in 
the dues to Houston for close to 1 year. I paid dues where I was 
working and sent dues in to Houston. 

Mr. Riley. How long did you work at Camp Hulen? 

Mr. McDonald. Four months and two weeks. 

Mr. Riley. And why did you leave that job? 

Mr. McDonald. The job finished for the hospital area for which I 
was working, and for about 75 percent of the other areas. 

Mr. Riley. Where did you go from there? 

Mr. McDonald. From Camp Hulen I went to Abilene, Tex., as 
that was the best information we could get, that there was a job just 
starting at Abilene. When I got to Abilene I found that the job was 
something like 60 percent completed, there was in the neighborhood 
of about 3,000 men standing in a big fairgrounds, in a bull pen, out 
of work. They had heard the same thing as I had. I had to travel 
back to Mineral Wells, Tex. 



10428 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. KiLEY. How far is that? 

Mr. McDonald. One hundred and thirty miles, and I had ah-eady 
driven in the neighborhood of 600 miles to get to Abilene. 

Mr. Riley. Where do most of these men come from, both at 
Camp Hulen and at Abilene? 

Mr. AlcDoNALD. Natm'ally, as the Hulen job and those at Mineral 
Wells and Abilene were Texas jobs, a large percentage of those men 
were Texas men, but there were men from every State in the Union. 
On every job you go to you run onto men from every State. 

Mr. Riley. Did any men on the Camp Hulen job go to Abilene? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes. Of course I couldn't know all the men I 
worked with personally, but out of the crew I worked with about 45 
percent wound up finally at Mineral Wells. 

Mr. Riley. Did they go to Abilene first and then Mineral Wells 
with you? 

Mr. McDonald. They didn't go in my car, they went in their cars. 

LIVING conditions IN CONSTRUCTION AREA 

Mr. Riley. How are living conditions in Camp Hulen? 

Mr. McDonald. Camp Hulen is a small town; I think the popula- 
tion before we moved in was something like 2,000. They moved 
6,000 workers in there and I have seen workers sleep out for weeks. 
I have seen them sleep in theu' cars for weeks, and there was no 
housing project in Camp Hulen at all. The chamber of commerce 
there did try to find rooms to the best of their ability, but there were 
no rooms to be found, and men were driving anywhere from 5 miles, 
I would say, to 75 miles a day, round trip, to places they could find 
to live that were decent; and men that didn't have cars and couldn't 
afford transportation stayed right there and slept on open ground, in 
the back of a truck or back of a car, or anything they could get. 

Mr. Riley. What kind of weather was it at this time? 

Mr. McDonald. All of Texas, that is on the Gulf coast, only 
varies 1.6 inches in rainfall in any given 3-month period. The land 
there is like a sponge. You can step on it here, and 4 or 5 feet over 
there water will seep up. I saw that land from Camp Hulen, Tex., 
to Port Neches, which is a trip of 220 miles. I have seen every field 
along the highway with water up to the highway during the time that 
this job was going on. 

Mr. Riley. Were any families sleeping in cars or in the open? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Riley. Any small children? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Riley. Were there any deaths on the job, other than construc- 
tion deaths, while you were there? 

Mr. McDonald. When you ask about deaths, a person doesn't 
have to die to be sick with flu or malaria and yet continue to work. 

Mr. Riley. Suppose you start with the health conditions. 

Mr. McDonald. The Army came in there and tried to get a little 
sanitation in that camp. Of course they were bucked by every little 
businessman. He didn't want to put in a sewer because he didn't 
want to spend money. I don't think they put in any sewers or any- 
thing like that while we were there. I didn't see any city sewage, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10429 

but cafeterias were made to disinfect their dishes and cooking utensils. 
They were required to do this by the Government. Now that is a 
big help, and it has failed to be done on quite a few of the jobs since 
then. But they ran up against opposition from the people who 
couldn't realize they were in a war and they were crying about how 
much it would cost them to make these sanitation facilities available 
for these people. 

Mr. Riley. How about the health rate? Was there much sickness 
or epidemic at Camp Hulen? 

Mr. McDonald. To the best of my knowledge, at one time there 
was in the neighborhood of 40 percent on the job with malaria or 
flu — either down in bed, or just dragging on the job. 

Mr. Riley. How long were you on the Mineral Wells job? 

Mr. McDonald. The Mineral Wells job was fairly well completed 
when I got there, but I was there 9 weeks. 

Mr. Riley. What kind of living conditions did they have there? 

living conditions at mineral wells 

Mr. McDonald. The living conditions in Mineral Wells were just 
as bad, if not worse, as the living conditions in Camp Hulen because 
of the fact that the city ordinance made us people with the trailers 
get off — we had to get in these restricted areas and the State highway 
parking on the highways coming in to Mineral Wells had "no parking" 
signs. Since you couldn't put your trailers there, and in a small 
town it takes space for a trailer and the space wasn't there, so people 
were living up and down the highways there, on any kind of a dry 
place they could get on, living in the ditches and living anywhere 
they could live. I paid $3.50 a week to park my trailer on the side 
of a road so I could get my boy and wife into where they could get a 
shower — not a bath — just a shower. 

Mr. Riley. Did your boy go to school? 

Mr. McDonald. He went to school in Mineral Wells, and Palacios 
(Camp Hulen), Tex. 

Mr. Riley. What grade is the boy in? 

Mr. McDonald. My boy now is in 5-A. 

Mr. Riley. Did he lose anj^ time because of this shifting? 

Mr. McDonald. He is bound to lose whatever time I lose. Natu- 
rally, the boy has to lose the time with me when I move. 

Mr. Riley. Does he lose any grades? 

Mr. McDonald. He doesn't lose any grades, but you know your- 
self if I was out of work 3 or 4 weeks of the school period, hunting 
work, you know any boy is going to lose 3 or 4 weeks of school — ^that 
is, if you are moving. 

Mr. Riley. But if there was information about jobs it wouldn't 
be necessary for you to move in search of work? 

Mr. McDonald. No. If there was a plan of some sort worked 
out so when we were winding up on one job we could be transferred 
to another job, or informed of when we could go to work on another 
job, right w^here we could go to work, and within, say, a week of the 
time we could go to work — we could let them have a week to get in 
the material, let things go wrong in their material set-up — then our 



10430 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

children could stay in school until time to go there. Maybe we could 
pick up a few days' work, or a part-time job, instead of just spending 
it running around all over the country. 

Mr. Riley. Where did you go from Mineral Wells? 

Mr. McDonald. From Mineral Wells I heard, still through the 
best information that could be had, and what I mean by "best that 
could be had" our union men could tell us of no job to go to work on, 
and all they had in the way of information was that "We hear that 
job over there is a good job" and that's the best information we could 
get. And the employment bureau had no information where we 
could go to work, but through letters and information from men 
that had gone out we heard that the Albuquerque job was a good 
job, and when we got to Albuquerque for some reason (I don't know 
what it was — I still don't know, if you don't find out then you never 
find it out), they gave information that the job was just hke Abilene, 
60 or 65 percent complete. There was another job — 130 miles — just 
starting at Gallup, N. Mex. We drove on over there, and when I got 
over there I noticed that they were picketing. The teamsters and 
chauffeurs were having a misunderstanding with one of the con- 
tractors. There was only one of these different contractors that was 
having a misunderstanding with union labor, but through this argu- 
ment none of the working house labor could go over a recognized 
picket line, but we could go and find out if we could go to work and 
when. So we went in and talked to the superintendent of carpenters 
and were told we could go to work and our names taken and all. We 
had 3 days' or a week's work left where we were so we informed by the 
man that as soon as this strike was over we would be right on up and 
we drove back to Mineral Wells. The next day after we got back to 
Mineral Wells, the Albuquerque, N. Mex., paper stated that the strike 
was over, that they had come to an agreement and that everything 
was going to be all right, so we hooked our trailers and took our chil- 
dren out of school, Louis, and all these boys I know. Eighty percent 
of us defense workers have children one age or another; nearly all of 
us are married and have children. We went back to Gallup, N. Mex., 
pulled the trailers through a snowstorm, rain, and everything else, to 
get there. When we drove into Gallup there stood our pickets just 
as big as day. They never had moved — the strike hadn't been settled. 
So we went up to this business agent of the union there in Gallup. 
We were informed by him there was a man coming in from Washington, 
D. C, the next day and he was sure the strike would be settled because 
it really wasn't a very bad disagreement, but we sat there 7 days 
waiting for the Government man to get there and w^aiting for the 
strike to get settled and spending what few dollars we did have — 
very few, you know, with 9 weeks' work and all that traveling. I 
busted two casings and got stuck $9.50 for a casing, so I didn't have 
much money left. I had to make payments on the trailer and all those 
things. Naturally you have to pay your bills and you can't afford to 
just sit and be out of work. We couldn't get any information at all 
after sitting there. We said, "Do you know is there any work in 
California or any place that you know of?". He said, "To the best 
information I can get there isn't any at all and I advise you boys to 
sit down here and wait for this job to get started for we are going to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10431 

need men here. It's a 9 months' job." Well, I couldn't see myself 
sitting down. I had sat a week, ruined the casings and spent all 
that money, and we got some information from back in Houston that 
there was an $80,000,000 job starting at Orange and things were going 
to be pretty good in the next few days. Being as I was from Houston 
originally and had people there, and that if the worst came to worst 
I could borrow a dollar, and as it was, I was a thousand miles from 
anybody I knew. I drove back there and when I got down there, 
there was only 700 carpenters to be used on this big $80,000,000 job. 
One hundred and seventy miles away there was a big cantonment job 
started at Leesville, La. 

Mr. Riley. Did you go to work there? 

Mr. McDonald. I went over there and drove out in the country a 
couple of mUes. I paid 25 cents for a parking lot out there a couple 
of miles in the country to go in and ask a union I had already paid 
into, as a member, if I could get a job. They didn't have any more 
information in Leesville, La., at the union headquarters than if I had 
been in Los Angeles, Calif., and the same situation came up, and to 
the best of my knowledge the Goveriunent didn't investigate the 
amount of permit men, new permits that were used on the Leesville 
job when so many of us fellows were already out of work and trying 
to go in there and go to work. 

Mr. Riley. How many carpenters were used? 

Mr. McDonald. I can't make an exact estimate but from the size 
of the camp I would imagine 9,000 carpenters were used. 

Mr. Riley. Did you go to work at all? 

Mr. McDonald. No, sir. I couldn't go to work at all or get 
information at all as to when I might. It was the same old story — 
lack of material, the union tells you Government doesn't cooperate, 
and the Government tells you the union doesn't cooperate, and busi- 
ness tells you neither cooperate. You couldn't get to the gate. You 
were hired by the union before you could get to the guard. 

Mr. Riley. Where did you go from Leesville? 

Mr. McDonald. I went back to Port Neches, Tex., where my wife 
was staying with her people and told her that under the present 
conditions all of the defense work from as far east as Childersburg, 
Ala., and as far west as Gallup, N. Mex., that I didn't see any chance 
of getting any work for quite some time here in this district but at 
Mountain Home, Ark., they were starting a 5-year job at $40 a week. 
We could buy a home up there for $500. If I could make $40 a week 
for 5 years and keep our boy in one school and quit wasting our 
money trying to run all over the country to find these defense jobs, 
I believed in the long run we would come out two or three thousand 
dollars ahead in a 5-year period. 

COST OF undirected JOB SEARCH 

Mr. Riley. If possible, I would like to have you give a comparison 
of costs to a family that has to wander around looking for jobs, and 
one that moves to a job through regular channels, and a family that is 
permanently settled. 



10432 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Mr. McDonald. All defense workers are asking themselves that 
question and this is the answer. If we could get steady employment 
at $40 a week that we would make in the neighborhood of $500 a year 
more money, save a $75 a year expense repair bill on our automobiles, 
be a citizen of a community and have all the advantages offered by 
being a citizen of a community, which would be very much of an 
improvement over the way we have faced conditions in the last 18 
months trying to be a help to our country and be a defense worker. 

Mr. Riley. Do you believe that this undirected migration is affect- 
ing the morale of the working man and affecting the defense program? 

Mr. McDonald. When a man has to work out in all kinds of 
weather conditions and face all kinds of unsanitary conditions and 
live under all kinds of conditions and pay the price that we have to 
pay in these boom towns for everything we get, and then, when we 
pick up every newspaper, read that we are being un-American, I be- 
lieve that it would undermine anybody's morale after a year to 18 
months of it. 

Mr. Riley. Did you run into any shortage of skilled labor on any 
of these jobs? 

Mr. McDonald. I can say truthfully "that I don't believe there is 
a shortage of skilled labor, but there is a shortage of a way to let 
these skilled laborers know where they can go to work; that they are 
sitting at home broke or out on the road from job to job that they 
have heard about. Man, the man-hours lost from misinformation 
would be sufficient to man all the jobs. The man-hours lost from 
misinformation and no information is by far greater than the man- 
hours ever lost by any strike in the trade I am in. I know that the 
man-hours lost would make the strike hours look like a drop in the 
bucket. 

Mr. Riley. Do you know about how many skilled laborers there 
are in this country? 

Mr. McDonald. I don't know how many skilled laborers there are 
but I do know of a common sense, concrete plan to find out how many 
skilled or semiskilled there are. 

Mr. Riley. Do you know of any agency or organization that can 
inform you as to the number of skilled laborers there are in this 
country? 

Mr. McDonald. To the best of my knowledge, there is no organ- 
ization or place of information of any sort where this can be found out. 

Mr. Riley. Do you believe that there is any plan which could be 
formulated whereby the numbers and location of skilled laborers 
could be determined? 

SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, there is a plan that can not only do this but 
it can be done with very little expense to the Government right at 
this time. I am speaking of the employment bureaus. The tax- 
payers have already paid in millions of dollars in taxes into these 
bureaus for just this type of information. The offices are already 
set up, their stenographic force is already there, the equipment — - 
everything that is needed for just this job — has already been in effect 
for nearly ever since the New Deal, a matter of 9 or 10 years, I think. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10433 

Now, the only thing that has to be brought up is that you have got 
to set up an agency that will inform the people by radio and local 
newspapers and then furnish your local post offices with blanks for 
all types of labor to fill out, the types of work they can do best. For 
instance, a farmer might have at one time been a very good bricklayer 
or a carpenter, or vice versa, a carpenter might have been a good 
farmer, but what we need to know for total all-out production is just 
what labor can produce. People wouldn't have to go before the em- 
ployment bureau, but could fill these out at home and send them in 
to their closest employment bureau, and within 30 to 60 days we 
would know accurately how many man-hours of labor that we could 
produce in every type of skilled craft in this country. 

Mr. Riley. Would it be necessary under this plan for them to list 
their means of transportation? 

Mr. McDonald. Well, it would be a good point to bring out but 
if we need, as our Government instructs us, 15,000,000 workers in 
an all-out total war-production program, instead of letting the worker 
furnish his transportation of any type he has been able to procure, 
there should be some means of transportation worked out for the 
defense worker as well as our soldiers witliin our borders. 

Mr. Riley. Do you believe that there should be one universal 
system of identification cards so that once having been admitted to a 
defense job it should be an admittance to all other defense jobs? 

Mr. McDonald. That's right. That's absolutely correct. If a 
man or woman has shown good faith on any one Government job, 
then they should be just as good on the next Government job in a 
total all-out war-production job. 

Mr. Riley. Do you have any idea how much time is lost in the 
duplication of these identification cards? 

Mr. McDonald. Well, it is not just a matter of time. Say I 
lost 2 days or 2 weeks at $10 or $15 a day. It is hard to draw that 
idea, but the thing is, as well as my losing time, it is costing the tax- 
payers dollars. Every time they have to pay for that it takes money 
to pay the men that take my picture, and the machinery to take my 
picture. All of that has to be taken into consideration. 

Mr. Riley. Was the union there at Mountain Home, Ark., at all? 

Mr. McDonald. Not at that time. There were three or four unions 
bidding for the job but right at the time I landed 

Mr. Riley. What do you mean "bidding for the job"? 

Mr. McDonald. In other words, the different unions trying to get 
in there. I don't know — I can't understand why one job here will 
pay $1 an hour for cutting a 2 by 4, while 100 miles away you can get 
$1.50 an hour and another 100 miles $1.60. Taking it as a whole in 
the North you have the winter that knocks you out of working so 
much and that's why they say living conditions are high, but in the 
South it's rain, rain, rain. It just knocks you out of as many dollars 
as snow and sleet in the winter. 

Mr. Riley. Were they doing any hiring at the gate in Arkansas? 

"bull pen" hiring 

Mr. McDonald. They didn't hire at the gate. The first day I 
saw the job I would say there were 300 or 400 men lying on a hiUside 



10434 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

around the employment bureau. You had to go in there and give 
them all of the information about where you were born and raised, 
and so forth — you have to do this on any job you go to work on. 
They were using at that time, I think, in the neighborhood of 120 
carpenters working for them but they were just building officials' 
houses down inside. They fenced it all right, so the workers couldn't 
see the job, and the officials' houses were inside of that. For the 
actual construction of the dam they were using dump trucks on the 
preliminary work, and they claimed they were waiting on machinery 
and they couldn't get their railroad tracks laid in, and that they were 
short of material and tliis was tied up and that was tied up, but this 
superintendent of carpenters told Mr. Johnson and I that he thinks 
within the next week at the most they will have the track finished and 
everything will be all right. So I went out there and sat down. 
I was broke. I couldn't do anything else but sit down. And I sat 
for a week and that week ran into 10 weeks. It happened I could 
buy a few groceries on credit. We were unemployed for those 10 
weeks. For 10 weeks you could get absolutely no information from 
the employment bureaus there or from the. union officials. 

Mr. Riley. Did you ask the employment bureau if there were any 
other jobs? 

Mr. McDonald. If they had any listed anywhere or could get that 
information— the way they explained it to me there was a lack of 
cooperation among interstate employment bureaus, that there wasn't 
cooperation, that big business didn't wholly cooperate and that the 
unions didn't try to help the employment bureaus. So in the mean- 
time the union officials had come in from the Batesville (Ai'kansas) 
Local. I couldn't get any information at all out of them. They 
knew there was no work going in Springfield, Mo. — that was the 
closest job of any kind — that the Rolla job was closing up, 26,000 men 
being let ofi^ and that all he knew of was if I had heard from Louisville, 
Ky., that they were needing men, that I better go on up there. He 
didn't know when that job at Mountain Home would go forward so 
I borrowed the money to drive my car to Louisville. I borrowed 
money and sold my watch for $3. 

Mr. Riley. Did you go to work? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, I went to work. There were over 300 union 
jobs. They were crying for men and were only 500 miles from where 
I had sat 10 weeks. 

Mr. Riley. How long had they been needing those men? 

Mr. McDonald. They had been needing men in Louisville for 
something in the neighborhood of 7 months. 

Mr, Riley. Do you know whether they had made any attempts to 
get men or not? 

Mr. McDonald, There were no bull pens there. Every man had 
to go tlirough the union. The company ordering the men through the 
union, they could guarantee a job, so quite a few men came up from 
Nashville, Tenn, Outside of that I don't loiow of any other States 
that they called men from, but if they did I am fairly certain that 
these union men in these other States or localities was not given that 
information. 

Mr. Riley. How long did you work in Louisville? 

Mr. McDonald. I worked in Louisville for 10 weeks. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10435 

Mr. Riley. Did you work with any of the men you had worked with 
on previous jobs? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir. I ran into seven men that I had worked 
with on the Mineral Wells job, but there was something like 300 
Texas cars on the company lots. 

Mr. Riley. Did they lose the same amount of time you did? 

Mr. McDonald. Some of these men had lost time just like I had 
and I am sure from the information that I could get from them that 
other men that was in the crew had lost time, too, because we got 
letters from men that were in Houston and had "set" there and were 
still out of work. 

Mr, Riley. Where did you go from Louisville? 

Mr. McDonald, I went to Neosho, Mo., as that was the closest 
place I could go to work. I went through St. Louis but I couldn't 
line up any work in St. Louis. 

Mr. Riley. How did you happen to go thi'ougli St. Louis? 

Mr. McDonald. There are two routes to go to Neosho, but on 
account of road conditions I took the St. Louis one. There are 
bridges where you have to pay every time you cross. So far the 
union workers have paid thousands of dollars across the Illinois bridge 
going to the job every day. On one route, in other words, I would 
Have to go tlu'ough northern Ai-kansas and the roads were not as good 
on trailers and cars as the route tlu'ough St. Louis. I also had heard 
there was work in St. Louis, and you can't miss a chance to go to work 
when you are out of work, so I went by the way of St. Louis. I had 
been informed at St. Louis that it would be a couple of weeks until the 
Neosho job was any good. 

Mr. Riley. Did you work in Neosho? 

Mr, McDonald. Yes, sir, I "set" there 9 days and they finally had 
a couple of Senators, to the best of my knowledge, investigating why 
that job hadn't started a month before, and after 9 days I finally got 
to go to work, 

Mr. Riley, How long did you work there? 

Mr. McDonald. In Neosho I worked in the neighborhood of 3 
months, but out of it I never got over 60 days' work. 

Mr. Riley. Was that because of weather or working conditions? 

Mr, McDonald, Well, that's a hard thing to ask a man, that can't 
get proof, what he thinks, but I would say that weather conditions 
had a lot to do with it, and then there was some shortage of material, 
but there wasn't a whole lot of days of lack of material shortage men- 
tioned on this job because there was so much bad weather they had 
time to get material in on it, so they couldn't give us that old story 
again. 

Mr. Riley, Did you have any money left when that job was com- 
pleted? 

Mr. McDonald. I had $107 because I had paid off the money that 
I had had to borrow during the 10 weeks I was out of work in Arkansas ; 
my groceries and expenses there, and the gasoline bills I naturally run 
up trying to get that job. By the time I had paid all of this and had 
this bad weather to contend with I had $107, after making fairly good 
money on the job. Then I made the 80-mile trip, trying to cut down 
on the thousand-mile trip for a change. 

Mr. Riley. Where did you go then? 



10436 WASHINGTON HEARINGS , 

Mr. McDonald. Choteau, Okla., at the $50,000,000 du Pont plant. 

Mr. Riley. Wliat did you do there? 

Mr. McDonald. I went in to the union headquarters and they told 
me there was about 2,000 carpenters in line, that there was that many 
carpenters from all over the country that was setting there waiting 
for that job to start. 

Mr. Riley. How many were they going to hire? 

Mr. McDonald. There would have been in the neighborhood of 
10,000 carpenters hired when the weather permitted; by this time we 
were having the subzero weather that hits that part of the country. 
I had already worked at a powder plant and I have recommendations 
here that I am good at form work. 

Mr. Riley. How long did you work at Choteau? 

Mr. McDonald. I didn't get to work at Choteau, Okla. I went 
out to the duPont gates and the only information that I could get 
was to fill out the information blank, my past experience, if I was an 
American, etc. I showed this guard that I had these recommenda- 
tions that I had worked these other jobs. He says that it's just rules 
— rules, that's all he knows. So I took the information blank and 
went back to the union hail and asked the man there. I said "Now, 
my friend, I am not trying to argue bui can't you get us fellows over 
here — there are about 13,000 waiting on the job — can't you give us 
some more information? Doesn't the du Pont Co. rely on you enough 
to tell you approximately just when we men can be used?" And he 
said "I couldn't tell you within a month of when you will go to work, 
but I will put you to work as soon as I can." 

Mr. Riley. Did you ever work lor the same contractor twice in 
any of these travels? 

Mr. McDonald. Hubbard, that I worked for once before, was at 
this Norfolk Dam job. He has several jobs all over the United States, 
and when we finished this job at Louisville we were informed this com- 
pany would use the men at Texarkana. The information was that 
they didn't give the boys who went down there any better chance than 
the men who came in from somewhere else. 

Mr. Riley. Wliere did you go from Oklahoma? 

Mr. McDonald. I drove over there to Neosho and I set there 9 
days waiting for the weather to break, for my trailer to thaw out. My 
water tank was frozen sohd. I had bought $17 worth of heating 
equipment to keep that trailer warm enough to live in and you could 
get it just as warm as you wanted inside and the ice would freeze on 
the outside it was so cold. Rivers were frozen over solid from bank 
to bank, to give you an idea how cold it was, and they wanted us to 
get out on the outside of those buildings and put on siding, and on the 
job at Neosho we wasn't allowed a fire to warm our feet by; so I told 
my father: "I'm going to go to Choteau, and if Choteau can't give 
me any information, why I think that I will go down to Freeport. 
Tex., as I hear they are starting this big plant there right in the line 
of work I have been doing. I can't get any information from any- 
where else." 

Mr. Riley. Did you find any work at Choteau? _ . 

Mr. McDonald. No work at all. There was the same conditions 
there. 

Mr. Riley. How long were you there? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10437 

INFORMATION ON OTHER JOBS NOT AVAILABLE 

Mr. McDonald, Ten days. They finally told us they are winding 
up this job at Neosho. There was a job at Parsons, Kans., just 35 
miles away. We couldn't get any information on it. There was 
another job at Riverton, Kans. Three jobs within 80 miles, that we 
couldn't get any information on. We were told "Fellows, this job is 
winding up. They are supposed to double it some day but when that 
day will be we don't know." In reality they are doubling it now, but 
we didn't find that out when we were there. So I didn't get any more 
information, as I have said, than I got the first time, so worrying about 
this lack of infoiTiiation and everything else, I got packed and I went 
to Texas. I thought maybe things would go better down there. At 
least, it would be warm, where my boy couM go to school without 
freezing to death. So when I got down there I found they had a bull 
pen at Freeport. A bull pen is where a bunch of people come and 
stand like a bunch of cattle and look hungry and are hungry. They 
stay from sunup till sundown, trying to get a man to put them on. 

Mr. Riley. Is that what is called "hiring at the gate"? 

Mr. McDonald. That's a bull pen. It is a disgrace to the American 
people. It's a disgrace to have a man sit up from sunup to svmdown 
in a bull pen when we are short of labor. So we asked the union heads. 
The two miions out of Houston were hiring through a steward. I 
made him pretty mad when I told him a bull pen was a disgrace. He 
said the companies had the right to demand a bull pen, that it was the 
company's wish. I said, "Well, it looks to me that if the company 
knew that there is in the neighborhood of 3,000 men sitting in Houston 
and Galveston out of work, waitmg for that job to get going and that 
we can be there witlnn 2 hours after they order us, that it's a disgrace 
for a man to sit there in that weather all day long." 

Mr. Riley. Did you go to work in Freeport? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes; after making this imion man mad, I went 
down and stood in the bull pen because I was broke, and I went to 
work. 

Mr. Riley. Were there any of the usual work stoppages on this 
Freeport job, that is, weather, lack of material, and so forth? 

TRANSPORTATION DIFFICULTIES FACED BY WORKER 

Mr. McDonald. Yes. After 18 months' experience our different 
management has had in a way of production, we run mto one of the 
worst that I have seen in Freeport. In the first place, they built the 
old Dow Chemical plant and they knew previously what the ramfall 
was in this section of the country, that all the roads that were there 
were cheap asphalt roads with no reinforcmg steel in them and that 
there was no bottom to that coimtry; yet, with 5 months to prepare 
for this situation, when workers were brought in they had a one-way 
bridge for us to cross over in competition with the railroad train and 
busses and town traffic, when by putting in one-half a mile of road we 
could have avoided the going thi'ough the Freeport traffic, across this 
one-way bridge and through the city of Velasco's worn-out streets and 
saved about a mile and one-half of completely worn-out roads — and I 
mean worn out. There is absolutely no dramage to the road system 



10438 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

there. Mud and water will stand on them for days after a rain and 
the holes are so deep that your bumpers will drag when you fall into 
them and there is no way to keep from falling off in them, and there are 
no curbs. There are no drainage pipes at all and Velasco after 2 weeks 
of dry weather — those holes still haven't had a shovelful of shale thrown 
in them. Then when you get to the job at the new Dow magnesium 
plant you had another one-way bridge to carry all of the defense 
traffic. It was 8 weeks after the job started before they drove piling 
to make a two-way bridge, yet they had driven thousands of pihngs 
for buildings, down inside of the plant where the men hadn't yet gone 
to work. Now they had one road that you could go a mile and a half 
aroimd and come into the plant, but this last half a mile, in the plant 
proper, the road was made of 2 by 6 lumber laid on flat ground 
with no drainage ditches and after 2 days of rain you couldn't even find 
these two by sixes. They ran dump trucks with 3 yards of shale 
continuously over these inadequate roads and by the next morning 
when the time came for the defense workers to go to work he couldn't 
get tlu-ough without a "cat" to pull him. They brought in this 
Government equipment, that sometimes was as much as 20 tons, 
over a road that couldn't even hold up under passenger traffic 
Naturally, through this cause, we lost many days of work. Now as 
far as sanitation in Velasco and Freeport for the defense workers, there 
is no modern drainage and what ditches they had are incomplete, 
In other words, they will drain a ditch for maybe 2 blocks and then 
it will be filled up at one end where they have to put in a new road or 
someone has built a house and their driveway has filled this in and 
this water has stood 7 weeks that I know of in these ditches. In one 
place in particular the Freeport laundry dumps their water out into 
these ditches. It is backed up around about a 6-square-block area 
with the dogs and animals of the town drinking out of these ditches 
and with all these chemicals that go into laundering clothes as well as 
the filth and disease from mosquitoes that are bred in it. In Velasco 
you have, in your trailer parking, no modern sanitation at all. The 
people are having to boil their water because of their old out-houses, 
Velasco also holds this dampness and filth for weeks. The people are 
livmg in tin houses and living in cars and they are crawling in under 
houses and sleeping on newspapers to get out of the rain. They are 
sleeping 20 and 30 m an old shack, just on cots and on the floor. 
Houses there have as high as 17 and 18 people usmg one bathroom. 
As far as I know, these trailer parks don't even have a shower in them. 

Mr. Riley. Do they have an ordinance regulating trailer camps? 

Mr. McDonald. As far as I know they don't have, for I know a 
number of the men in the trailer camps. I know they have children 
and families in there with them and I don't believe now that there is 
an ordinance of any type pertaining to the sanitation. How could 
they? They haven't any sanitation. 

DISCRIMINATION AGAINST TRAILER CAMPERS 

Mr. Riley. Do you find any discrimination in Texas, Arkansas, 
Missouri, Tennessee, or Kentucky against people living in trailer 
camps? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10439 

Mr. McDonald. Well, there seems to be a misconceived idea that 
the people that live in trailer houses are just about the same class of 
people as a cab driver and everybody knows what people think of cab 
drivers — that they are white trash, tramps, floaters, that we have to 
put up with. I have heard that over and over. That's another thing 
that tears down the morale. 

Mr. Riley. Have you ever lived in a town in a trailer camp and 
participated in any of the community activities? 

Mr. McDonald. Well, as you know, or as I have already explained, 
we are kind of outlawed when we light in these towns and the nearest 
I ever came to participating — I did meet one prince of a fellow, in all 
this traveling, in Neosho, Mo. He is a deputy sheriff and undertaker 
there. He had one of the nicest trailer parks you could run into. It 
was behind his private home. He had picnic grounds, and he did put 
in facilities for 12 of our trailers and we were treated like white people 
by him and his family, but that was just one trailer park out of dozens 
of them. That's the nearest I ever got to being treated like a white 
man. 

Mr. Riley. Did your boy go to school in Freeport? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes; he is already enrolled in the Freeport schools. 

Mr. Riley. How far does he have to travel to get to school? 

Mr. McDonald. My boy has to travel, to get to school, only about 
8 blocks. They are slightly overcrowded in their schools, naturally, 
but due to the fact they have already had the plant a year they have 
built one new school that has relieved this. 

Mr. Riley. Are there many children of construction workers in 
the schools? 

Mr. McDonald. I have said before, I believe 80 percent of us have 
children of varying ages but I believe it is safe to say that 40 percent 
of us have school-age children, because when you go into crafts you 
go into the older type of man as a rule. Our children run anywhere 
from the age of 8 up to 16. 

Mr. Riley, Did your boy experience any difficulty in the schools in 
Freeport? 

Mr. McDonald. I can't say that he did, because Texas has a pretty 
good school system. They furnish books for the school children there, 
by the State, and the teachers themselves there seem to take great 
interest in these children. They realize that we have had to miss 
work and our children have had to miss school. The principal of the 
school there is on the Chamber of Commerce and he knows the things 
they have had to face. 

Mr. Riley. Was your boy ever discriminated against in any of the 
schools? 

Mr. McDonald. I can truthfully say I don't believe my boy has 
been discriminated against in any of the schools in any of the.States I 
have been in. 

Mr. Riley. How long did you work in Freeport? 

Mr. McDonald. I got to work 3 weeks as a pile driver. Now I will 
have to explain that to you. The carpenters are allowed to work with 
pile drivers if there is a shortage. Right at that time there was a 
shortage of pile drivers so at the end of 3 weeks enough pile drivers had 
come in from the neighboring territories that we carpenters weren't 



10440 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

needed, 15 of us. I wasn't fired and I went up to the superintendent 
of carpenters and told him the situation, that Mr. Whitney, the con- 
tractor himself would tell him that I was as good a man as he had ever 
hired, but I was a carpenter on a carpenter's card and that the pile 
drivers didn't feel like it was necessary to keep carpenters on when 
there was pile drivers wanting a job, but that he would personally 
recommend these 15 carpenters to go to work for the Austin Co. This 
brings up the same subject. I was working on the same ground within 
a hundred feet of where I would have worked if I had been an Austin 
Co. carpenter, yet I had to be completely released just like I had never 
worked on the job. This superintendent of carpenters told me, 
"McDonald, I don't know what the trouble is right now, we've got to 
take pictures and there is this road and that road." There were no 
roads. I then asked the superintendent, "Now will it be all right to 
leave my tools in Tobin & Whitney's office?" There was no use carry- 
ing a heavy box of carpenter's tools and the superintendent of car- 
penters admitted it was all right to leave it in there. In the mean- 
time, that same day they layed off 75 percent of all skilled craft on 
this job. 

Mr. Riley. WTiat was the reason for that? 

Mr. McDonald. Well, the reason for that — I believe the boys 
would give a thousand dollars if you could find out why they missed 
the 2 or 3 weeks' work. When I left they still hadn't given us a decent 
reason why we weren't working. 

Mr. Riley. Have they replaced those men? 

Mr. McDonald. Not entirely. Here is one thing — the picture 
situation, the taking of fingerprints, and information asked as to your 
nationality. They claim they could only take 125 a day on a $50,- 
000,000 job. Now, as I say, 75 percent of these men were layed off 
and 50 percent of them never had their pictures taken, and never filled 
out questionnaires and yet they were in there working. 

Mr. Riley. Even after the lay-off? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes. They were taking pictures, 125 a day. 
There was in the neighborhood, I think, of 5,000 men working when 
we got that 75 percent lay-off. They hired them back at the rate of 
125 a day. There was no roads in there at all yet. They done all 
hiring and tearing up of these roads. It would take you an hour and 
a half to go 3 miles down there — I mean literally an hour and a half. 
And there was one little short cut there would have saved 1 hour and 
15 minutes if they would have put it through. Instead, they were 
putting a concrete road out in the middle of the job which didn't do 
anybody any good. After missing all this work on account of work- 
ing conditions, when they got pretty weather they laid off 75 percent 
of the skilled craft. I am still trying to get on that job right now. 

Mr. Riley. Are your tools still in AVhitney's office? 

NOT allowed to RECOVER TOOLS 

Mr. McDonald. The steward told me, "We have a housing project 
over here and you can go to work and get a few days' work." I said, 
"Fine. I need it. I have missed so much work on account of weather 
and this lay-off that I need it." I said, "My tools are in Whitney's 
office, and you will have to get my tools, get me a permit or send one 
of the guards down." He said, "I can't do that, they haven't given 
us a permit for you fellows who have worked inside to get your tools 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10441 

out of there." And I said, "Are they scared we are gomg to leave?" 
He said, "I don't know about that. All I know is I can't get you 
your tools." I said, "I have my birth certificate, I have a Govern- 
ment pass from the job I was on. I have my union papers on me, 
and I'd like to get my tools to make my family a living with them." 
Mr. Riley. What did he say? 

Mr. McDonald. He said he'd see about it. He'd see the superin- 
tendent of carpenters. So the following Wednesday after standing in 
the bull pen, he said, "I have a job you can go to work on over at the 
old plant." I said, "That's just fine. Hoav are things coming here 
on the new job?" He said, "I believe they will straighten out in a 
week or 10 days." I got my work order and I said, "Say, Steve, that's 
fine — where are my tools?" He said, "Give me that work order back. 
I can't get you the tools." I said, "Now, Steve (the union steward), 
I don't want to cause any trouble or anything like that. These other 
boys don't want to cause trouble. Now, tell me, man to man, why 
can't we get our tools?" He said, "I can't." 

Mr. Riley. Are your tools still there? 

Mr. McDonald. My tools are still there in Tobin & Whitney's 
office. They are subcontractors from Austin. 

Mr. Riley. Did you make any other attempt to get your tools? 

Mr. McDonald. You see, you can't get past the guards. You 
can't get through the door to see the big boys because you have to 
show this picture and button to get by to see any big men. But if a 
union man has any rights at all, or if an American has any rights at 
all — I have a birth certificate— to get in a door to see if I could get 
my tools, but I didn't get to go to see him, and the other boys didn't 
get to go to see him. 

Mr. Riley. Did you make any other attempt to get your tools? 

Mr. McDonald. I don't want to be called a trouble maker nor a 
Communist nor any of these "isms" so I didn't want to start any 
trouble or cause any trouble on a Government job. I happened to 
run across the president of the chamber of commerce and he told me 
how well pleased they were with the report I had made before them, 
on the conditions of us craftsmen that are following these defense 
jobs all over the country. 

Mr. Riley. That's the report you are attaching? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes; that's the report. And he says, "As long as 
you can't get your tools and you can't find out why you can't get 
your tools, why don't you work on this job of trying to find out if you 
can get any further information, for all we can do for you is to send 
copies of it to Washington." 

Mr. Riley. What steps did they take to see that you got this report 
here? 

Mr. McDonald. They were going to send in copies of the report to 
the Senators from Texas, Lee O'Daniel and Tom Connally, and also 
to Donald Nelson, head of production, as the chamber of commerce 
felt that I had proven to them the point or points of the problem 
facing us was not only hurting us defense workers but was hurting our 
Nation as a whole, due to the tire situation and the rapid spread of 
, disease, if diseases should start in these defense jobs and just as one 
American person to another. 

Mr. Riley. Did they suggest your coming to Washington with this 
report? 

Mr. McDonald. Now, that's a funny thing. Everyone seemed to 
think I ought to get a lot of newspaper publicity; that is, the chamber 

60396 — 42— pt. 27 1.5 



10442 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

of commerce had that idea and also various people that I talked to. 
Small businessmen and skilled craftsmen don't seem to think that I 
can come to Washington, D. C, and get much done, but I knew that 
Mr. Jesse Jones here of the Federal Loan Agency was affiliated with 
the Houston Chronicle, so I went there, to the defense reporter of the 
Houston Chronicle and told him the set-up, and I strictly did not want, 
at that time, publicity of any kind, but if he could just find out if I 
could see anyone with authority, that I would borrow my own money 
and come on my own up here and see what I could do. 

Mr. Riley. Did you borrow money and come on your own? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir; I borrowed $150 on my car and trailer, 
second mortgage. 

Mr. Riley. Did you drive here or come by train? 

Mr. McDonald. I came by train. I couldn't drive; I didn't have 
tires on my car. 

Mr. Riley. Have you any idea how many miles you have driven 
since you started on defense work? 

Mr. McDonald. I know I would be safe in saying that I drove 
between 25,000 and 30,000 miles. 

mileage wasted seeking work 

Mr. Riley. How many of those miles would you consider wasted 
miles because you didn't get jobs at the end of them? 

Mr. McDonald. 20,000 miles, or safely 15,000 miles, a good 50 
percent of them is wasted miles. 

Mr. Riley. Do you believe that it would be cheaper to build 
housing near projects, rather than have men commute distances? 

Mr. McDonald. Due to the tire situation right now and due to 
what is Ivnown as the lack of material situation in prefabricated 
housing, which is largely used in these housing projects, and due to the 
way that we have trailers setting in trailer lots all over the country, 
it looks to me that the Government was making a much safer invest- 
ment putting trailers at these different jobs and letting men either 
rent those trailers or, if their credit is good, buy those trailers. A 
trailer is a pretty decent thing to live in. If you have trailer spaces 
made modern, they are a nice thing and it costs lots less to put in a 
few shower houses and sanitation facilities in a trailer camp than miles- 
of plumbing and the actual materials needed in a housing project, 
yet they have over-supplied numerous districts with housing projects 
and other jobs have no housing projects at all on them. 

Mr. Riley. To get back to this idea of traveling and wasted miles, 
what was the most reliable source of job information you had in all 
of these travels? 

Mr. McDonald. There wasn't but one source, and that was if some 
friend of yours was actually at a job. 

Mr. Riley. That is known as the grapevine? 

Mr. McDonald. The grapevine is the only system you can rely on 
or you can start to rely on. You couldn't rely on a newspaper. The 
architects and engineers put out a book that tells how big a job is 
going to be and where and when it will probably start. If we could 
have bought information we would have bought it. 

Mr. Riley. Did you ever try the State employment service? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10443 

Mr. McDonald. We had them at every job. When we went to 
work they got the credit for putting us to work. 

Mr. Riley. But you actually had to find the jobs? How about the 
unions; did they direct you to any jobs? 

Mr. McDonald. The unions didn't. I can't say they ever told 
me of a job that I could have gone to work on, that they absolutely 
knew. They should have absolutely known if I could have gone to 
work there. You could wire business representatives all over the 
United States, and they would write back "Maybe you can go to 
work; maybe you can't." We had already run all over the country; 
we had lost confidence in the union. 

Mr. Riley. What about the contractors themselves? 

Mr. McDonald. The contractors themselves, so far as I know^ 
made absolutely no endeavor outside of a few of their keymen 

Mr. Riley. That is, officials and straw bosses? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes; so far as I know, outside of a few keymen, 
they made no endeavor. In fact, most of the contractors have so 
many jobs, their keymen are so well scattered, you can hardly call an 
organization an organization any more. 

Mr. Riley. Since October 5, 1940, what is the cheapest wage you 
have ever worked for? 

Mr. McDonald. $1 an hour. 

Mr. Riley. And the highest? 

Mr. McDonald. $1,375 an hour, with 50 cents a day transporta- 
tion. 

Mr. Riley. What percent of your pay of last year would you say 
was in overtime? 

Mr. .McDonald. Between one-fourth and one-fifth; just about the 
amount of money that I spent on looking for jobs, is what I got out 
of time and a half. 

Mr. Riley. Was that time and a half, or in double time? 

Mr. McDonald. That w^as both up to August 1941. Since that 
time all of the A. F. of L. carpenters and all the other skilled craft that 
I know in the A. F. of L. only get time and a half for any overtime 
over 40 hours a week. 

Mr. Riley. Would you be able to maintain your family without 
overtime and still get to each job? 

Mr. McDonald. Well, as I told you just a minute ago, that time 
and a half is what has enabled me to save up the two or three hundred 
dollars I have had to spend getting to a new job. If this plan of 
transferring us was put into effect, to where we could work 70 hours a 
week at a dollar an hour straight time, then we woidd be better off 
than we are now under the present conditions of time and a half. 

Mr. Riley. Can you substantiate those figures on the basis of your 
experience? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir; I can. We will take the Neosho job 
when it wound up, as an example. I couldn't say where all 22 men 
who were in my crew went to, but there are 5 I do know where they 
went; 1 of them is in Los Angeles, Calif.; another 1 and his wife and 4 
children are in Texarkana, Ark.; 3 of them, after going everywhere 
they could to find work, are sitting now, waiting for this job to open 
up, 20 miles out of Austin, Tex.; and myself, I am in Freeport. Now 
the least miles any one of us travel to find a job would be 350 miles, 
and I think the boy that went to California went 2,200 miles and that 



10444 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

the 3 boys out of Austin have traveled about ] ,000 miles apiece and 
I traveled in the neighborhood of 800 miles — when every one of us, 
if we could have gotten the proper information, could have sat right 
in Neosho, Mo., now that the camp is doubling, and spent less money 
and have saved these thousands of miles on our cars, on our trailers, 
and the money we spent for gasoline and oil. 

Mr. Riley. Have you been able to save money out of that? 

Mr. McDonald. Well, I had $12 before I borrowed that $150. 

Mr. Riley. Do you own any Defense bonds? 

Mr. McDonald. I haven't been able to buy any Defense bonds or 
stamps. My wife and boy have got a few stamps they have saved up. 

Mr. Riley. Do you believe that with the money you could have 
saved from work information that you would have been able to buy 
Defense bonds now? 

money and time lost seeking work 

Mr. McDonald. It looks fairly reasonable to me to believe that if 
I spent in the neighborhood of $400 of money I had already made 
looking for work, and that just say at $30 a week on weeks I lost, I 
would have made $600 more money; there is $1,000 that it has cost me 
through lack of this information, and that I could have bought easy 
$800 worth of Defense bonds for my boy that will be 21 years old when 
these Defense bonds mature. As an addition to this I could have 
saved 75 percent of this money that I have spent in automobile repair 
and not count the depreciation on my trailer worth a dollar, and it's 
depreciated in the neighborhood of $200 being pulled into these States 
I have had to. These trailers weren't made to be pulled into every one 
of these United States of America. 

Mr. Riley. Did you have to pay an income tax last year? 

Air. McDonald. I made $2,000, a little less, and by the time the 
"ducts" were taken I didn't have to pay any. I wish I could have. 

Mr. Riley. Have you any idea how much time you lost last year 
needlessly? 

Mr. McDonald. I lost in the neighborhood of 17 weeks traveling, 
that I can plainly recall. 

Mr. Riley. That, exclusive of loss of time through weather? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes; that exclusive of the weather man. That's 
our enemy, too, and lack of material. And then that loss I had down 
here — that 2 weeks I couldn't prove what was the fault of that — it 
wasn't the weather down there, and it wasn't, as far as we could find, 
lack of material. 

Mr. Riley. When do you expect to go back to work there? 

Mr. McDonald. I'mgoingback to work there. The union steward 
said that it would be totalitarianism if I showed that [the attached 
report] to anyone before I went to Mr. Green and showed it to him. 
I told him that I had been an American so much longer than I had 
been a union man, I could hardly see eye to eye on that. 

Mr. Riley. Have you made any attempt to get in touch with Mr. 
Hutchison of the carpenters' union? 

Mr. McDonald. No; I feel sure that if Mr. Green was tied right 
down to it, he knows that this situation does exist, because the 
business agents know they exist, and if he is the head of the organ- 
ization he should know that they exist. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10445 

Mr. Riley. Have you made any attempt to see any other Govern- 
ment agencies since you've been here? 

Mr. McDonald. I've made no attempt to see any other Govern- 
ment agencies. 

Mr. Riley. TMio is the first person you saw? 

WANTS ACCURATE EMPLOYMENT INFORMATION 

Mr. McDonald. I saw Mr. Timmons, special correspondent, 
Houston Chronicle. Now, the reason I did that, I am not a politician, 
I don't know the fii'st thing about politics, and I didn't know anyone 
to come to; but there was a defense editor in Houston told me this 
man had been here a number of years and could recommend someone 
that would be vitally interested in it to me. I don't know how to 
get in there that I don't want anybody to think that we workers out 
here — there are thousands of them that know and believe these things 
that I've told you. We are not Communists, 85 percent of us never 
belonged to the union before this defense started. I don't think it is 
radical for a man to make a decent living and buy a few Defense 
bonds, so we wouldn't be called radicals; and we haven't got any tires 
to continue to run all over the country, and we are burning a lot of 
gasoline now, that you are starting rationing it. 

Mr. Riley. At the end of this job where will you go? 

Mr. McDonald. If I get the work here on this job, I don't have no 
more idea than a crippled 'coon, where I am going. 

Mr. Riley. How about your tires? 

Mr. McDonald. I haven't got enough tires to pull my trailer now. 
I wouldn't feel safe pulling it 25 miles. That's the reason I set there 
during all this misunderstanding that went on on the job. I have 
come to the point where I can't go any further with these tires. Now 
you take in Neosho, when the first tire rationing came out there was 
13,000 workers and 17 tires issued for that county, and your ministers 
and your police department, and your funeial homes came out before 
defense workers have a tire. So how much chance did the defense 
worker have? Some of those fellows traveled 200 miles a day to and 
from work, and there ^re men right here on this job traveling from 
Houston every day through the lack of the remedying of these causes 
I have brought out here. That's 130 miles a day — and us out of tires. 
It is enough to make you sit up nights and lose sleep, because I have 
done it and I know it is not right. Let me ask you a simple question: 
We already have equipment and employment bureaus and that was 
what they were originally started for, was to get jobs, to acquire job 
information for us men that were out of work. Now, if that set-up 
is already there, and Mr. Green and the unions and the Government 
heads that are responsible for defense workers' getting these jobs 
finished in as quick a time as possible, wouldn't that have been a 
reasonable solution, to have transferred us from one job to the other 
through these employment bureaus? The taxpayers are paying taxes 
for that reason right there. I want to show you a little thing that we 
workers know and a lot ot people are coming to realize — I have had- 
this picture made, I have had my fingerprints made, I have had physi- 
cal examinations, I have filled out wliere I was from on every govern- 
mental job. Now, if we had been transferred from one job, how 



10446 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

many thousands of dollars would have been saved just taking those 
pictures? If they could only take 125 a day on the job I was on, 
some of those pictures cost them $30, although some of those men have 
already had their pictures taken on a previous job. Why should we 
have a waste of that time? Why should we stay out of work? $15 a 
day I missed because we had to take more pictures. 

Mr. Riley. What outfit in Houston wrote the mortgage on your 
car? 

Mr. McDonald. I made the mortgage on my car to a personal 
friend that I worked for in the Paramount Laundry. I borrowed the 
money from the bank with his signature. The bank was the San 
Jacinto National Bank of Houston, at Houston, Tex. The note was 
dated March 13, 1942, and is for $150. Dewey F. Hollingsworth, 
who owns the Paramoimt Laundry and Dry Cleaning System in 
Houston, Tex., went with me to the bank and they loaned me $150 
on his signature. 

Mr. Riley. How many construction workers are in Freeport now? 

Mr. McDonald. Well, there are not nearly as many construction 
workers in Freeport now as there have been. As I explained to you, 
because of lack of cooperation from our production chiefs and our 
union officials and due to lack of weather and unsanitary conditions, 
there have been two or three thousand men gone home sick and tii'ed 
of it. They can't get work when the sun shmes. 

Mr. Riley. About how many are left? 

Mr. McDonald. When I left there last Friday I believe there was 
only in the neighborhood of 3,000 men working on that vital defense 
job. 

Mr. Riley. Do you know how many tires have been rationed for 
this month in Freeport? 

Mr. McDonald. I am not sure, but I believe they issued 11 tires 
for Freeport, and they mformed us through a Government-sanctioned 
newspaper that if we defense workers could get an order for retread 
on a tire that it would be between 60 and 90 days before we could get 
that retread job done. Now that was in Houston. 

Mr. Riley. What effect do you believe this rationing order will have 
upon men in your circumstances? 

Mr. McDonald. It will just stop it, that's all. If they don't 
change this rationing system that we are now under, right now there are 
thousands of us that can't go anyplace. We have just got to take 
the best we can, the closest place we can find and stay with that. We 
can't continue on defense jobs. 

Mr. Riley. Do you believe that discrimination you have met before 
in strange communities will manifest itself in this tire-rationing 
proposition? 

Mr. McDonald. That's the proof of human nature. You know 
it's human nature to take care of people that you have known for 
years quicker than you would an outsider or a transient — that's just 
human nature. 

Mr. Riley. Now, let us summarize your exp_erience and recom- 
mendations. 

Mr. McDonald. Fqr the purpose of the record, I would like to 
summarize the various points I have tried to bring out in my testi- 
mony to you people. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10447 

1 . The overcrowding of most of our skilled crafts in our migratory 
defense jobs, how this is going to hurt the morale of this group, and 
the number of unemployed it will dump on the war effort in from 12 
to 18 months. 

2. I want them to realize and to think of the amount of bonds that 
could be paid for by this group if they had a transfer system, the 
amount of rubber and petroleum products that not only could have 
been saved but that can yet be saved, and how vitally important they 
are to the total war effort. 

3. The thousands of workers that are skilled and semiskilled, but 
through their misinformation that most of our jobs are only 40-hour 
weeks, they haven't wanted to become defense workers. Yet if there 
is a shortage of skilled labor these men are needed just as much as 
any qualified union skilled laborer. The only way in the past that 
the employment bureaus have had of finding out where there was 
skilled or semiskilled labor was that a man would have to become 
broke and apply for unemployment compensation — have been out of 
work — and yet we have millions of men even yet, in this country 
that haven't become unemployed, applied for compensation and con- 
sequently have not been classified as skilled or semiskilled. 

(The above witness submitted the following statement to the com- 
mittee, written before he left Freeport, Tex., for Washington, D. C.:) 

STATEMENT OF RAYMOND GRIFFIN McDONALD, FREEPORT, TEX. 

March 1, 1942. 

I am writing about a problem that is facing the Nation as a whole (the problem 
of labor on defense projects in all localities). 

I have talked to two National Labor Relations Board members concerning this, 
and they advised me to take up this matter with the chamber of commerce and 
through them take it up with the higher Government officials. The Government 
officials that I have talked to as well as several union officials were interested in a 
few simple solutions I have worked out pertaining to this problem. 

There are three separate problems I wish to take up. The first and foremost is 
the seeming shortage of trained men in different parts of the Nation. I do not 
believe that we are short of skilled labor, but so far we have been short of a plan 
to pool our labor and to classify it into separate groups, and to find out just where 
we really do stand when it comes to man-hours of production in the field of 
defense plants and cantonments. 

Out of all of these men they would find that a large percentage of them would 
like to transfer from one job to another. This would save them hundreds of 
dollars in traveling expenses and make them hundreds of dollars more money by 
working steady the year around. When we take into consideration the present 
rubber situation and our great need for buying more defense bonds it is easy to 
understand that every mile saved and every extra dollar made is not just a help to 
an individual but to the Nation as a whole. 

As an example I was finishing up on a cantonment project and only 80 miles 
from there they were starting a $50,000,000 powder plant and all of the information 
that could be had when I went over there was that I was about No. 2,000 in line 
and to fill out an information blank and I would be put to work as soon as possible. 
Mind you, at the time I had already worked satisfactorily on four other Govern- 
ment projects and had personal recommendations from foremen and superintend- 
ents I had worked for. So due to this I drove my car and trailer house 700 miles 
to find a job where I could get some information. In the meantime, I lost 3 weeks' 
work. 

As another example I would like to use the Orange shipyards job. This was 
advertised as an $80,000,000 job in all the newspapers, but nothing was said about 
only 500 carpenters going to be used. As a result somewhere in the neighborhood 
of 12,000 men tried to clear into the Orange carpenter's local, and some of these 
men traveled 1,000 miles to do so. I was out of work for 10 weeks and only 500 
miles from where I was they were drastically short of men. Now the responsibil- 
ity for this condition does not rest upon the shoulders of any one group of men. 
But it does rest upon the shoulders of our union heads, unemployment bureaus, 



10448 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

local political factions, and our governmental bodies responsible for the comple- 
tion of our defense plants. 

Let us recall for just a moment how many times you have picked up your daily 
newspaper and read about how many man-labor hours were being lost due to 
strikes, but did these same newspapers report to you that most all of the different 
crafts of the A. F. of L. had signed an agreement with the President of the United 
States not to strike on any defense project? And that is a reason why a great 
part of all of this hollering might be a smoke screen to keep the public from knowing 
just how much muddling and incompetency was going on behind the scenes in 
production. 

Now that we are on wartime and we have 16 months of experience behind us 
it looks fairly reasonable that if we men were transfered from one job to the next 
it would speed up production easily 20 percent if not more. As an example, let 
us say we are completing a plant here and 300 miles away we are starting another 
one. On this new job we will need 25,000 men altogether, that through our 
unemployment bureaus, chainber of commerce, and by putting notices in local 
newspapers we have registered only 5,000 men in this locality that can be classed 
as neighborhood talent that wish to work on this new job. Now doesn't it look 
logical that we should also inform the men on the job that is winding up of this 
situation and transfer those who wish to be transferred? Therebj' we would have 
at least 80 percent experienced men on a job which would naturally step up 
production as well as give the local men a better chance to hold their jobs. This 
would also have a tendency to stop so much wasted gasoline and thousands of 
dollars worth of tires. 

The second most important problem facing defense workers is the housing 
and proper sanitation conditions in the different localities wherever they may be 
called to work. Now that the public as a whole has finally begun to realize 
that we are in a war and that these defense workers are necessary to the welfare 
of the Nation as a whole, it is going to simplify this problem immensely. Pre- 
viously they would sit at home in all of their smug complacency with from 1 to 
20 rooms unused and the defense workers that — through the lack of these same 
rooms — had to live in their cars, tin shacks, and sleep 20 and 30 in a house just 
to get in out of the rain and weather are called white trash. 

Now, gentlemen, how many of you could do a decent day's work after sleeping 
in a car for 1 month? Well, many of these workers did, and not for 1 month but 
for several. 

It looks fairly plausible to me that the Government officials could show the 
chamber of commerce proof of these conditions in other localities and the sanita- 
tion problems they had to face. . Then b.y pooling the resources of your many 
ladies' aid societies, community chest workers, and your Boy Scouts, and with 
help from your local newspapers, a lot of these conditions could be remedied 
before the workers moved in. 

By starting early on this problem people could be advised of just how many 
workers to expect. They could have their rooms ready and listed with the 
chamber of commerce and the amount of rent they expected to receive for them. 
Their driveways could be made or repaired to accommodate the workers' cars 
thereby saving a world of traffic congestion, not only for the workers but their 
neighbors and townspeople as well. Also the different means of sewage disposal 
could be enlarged to accommodate the extra load to be put on it. Parking 
problems worked out in advance and the thousand other little problems that 
always go with trebling a town's population 

The third, and yet one of the most essential problems, is the problem of ade- 
quate roads to and from the project in the least possible time, so the workers 
can get to work without throwing any extra hardships on the regular traffic. 
The incoming State highway's are the first to take into consideration as most of 
them are not built to accommodate the type of loads that will be hauled over 
them; nor the continuous stream of passenger cars coming over them. There is 
untold delay to vital defense materials when these roads get bad and in many 
instances men have to be laid off for a number of days during a little bad spell 
of weather. With the proper planning and action in the months it takes to get 
one of these large plants under construction, all of these problems could have 
been taken care of with one-third of the trouble it takes after all of the defense 
workers have moved in. 

As President Roosevelt said — one day may mean the diff"erence between life 
and death in the future history of the world; then we must not miss days of man- 
hours of production through these causes. In the past week we have lost 5 
consecutive days of work here directly caused by the above causes — something 
must be done. 



EXHIBITS 



Exhibit 1. — Surveys on Defense Migration 

Migration surveys were made by the Division of Social Research 
of the Work Projects Administration, during 1941, in urban centers 
with population of 25,000 and over. These surveys covered the first 
year of the defense effort and present the best factual material of 
defense migration yet collected. The reports on the 52 surveys so 
made follow in alphabetical order, and cover the following cities: 
Akron, Ohio; Appleton, Wis.; Atlanta, Ga.; Augusta, Ga.; Baltimore, 
Md.; Battle Creek, Mich.; Bloomfield, N. J.; Bridgeport, Conn.; 
Bristol, Conn.; Brockton, Mass.; Burlington, Iowa; Cliicago, 111.; 
Corpus Christi, Tex.; Dayton, Ohio; Des Moines, Iowa; Detroit, 
Mich.; Fort Smith, Ark.; Fort Wayne, Ind.; Glendale, Calif, (see Los 
Angeles); Green\alle, S. C; Hackensack, N. J.; Hampton Roads 
area, Virginia; Houston, Tex.; Indianapolis, Ind.; Johnstown, Pa.; 
Kalamazoo, Mich.; La Fayette, Ind.; Long Beach, Calif, (see Los 
Angeles) ; Los Angeles, Calif . ; Macon, Ga.; Alarion, Ohio; Muskogee, 
Okla.; Nashville, Tenn.; Newburgh, N. Y.; Newport News, Va.; Nor- 
folk, Va. ; Oakland, Cahf.; Oklahoma City, Okla., Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Pittsburgh, Pa.; Portland, Maine; Portsmouth, Va.;Quincy, 111.; Sagi- 
naw, Mich.; St. Louis, Mo.; San Diego, Calif.; San Francisco, Calif.; 
Seattle, Wash.; South Bend, Ind.; Terre Haute, Ind.; Warren, Ohio; 
Washington, D. C; Washington, Pa.; Wicliita, Kans.; Wichita Falls, 
Tex. 

April 23, 1941. 

Rkcent Migration into Akron, Ohio 

A survey of migration into Akron, Ohio, together with the adjoining cities of 
Barberton and Cuyahoga Falls, was conducted by the Work Projects Adminis- 
tration, Division of Research, during the first week of April 1941. The survey 
covered workers and their families who had moved into the three cities from 
places outside of Summit County after October 1, 1940. Every thirteenth 
dwelling and every second low-priced hotel in the three cities were sampled in the 
survey. Tourist camps were a negligible factor in Akron and therefore were 
excluded. 

INDUSTRIAL' activity 

Although the Akron area was enjoying a rapid expansion of industrial activity 
during the first week of April 1941, its local unemployment problem was far from 
being solved. The Akron rubber factories were working a 4-shift day; plant 
expansion for the production of rubber-metal aircraft parts was in process; the 
chemical plant at Barberton was active; and the area had receiyed some benefit 
from the huge construction job at the Ravenna arsenal, 23 miles away. Yet the 
backlog of workers laid off in the 1937 recession had not yet been exhausted, even 
at the rubber factories, where the management has agreed to rehire former 
employees ahead of other workers. 

A brief survey of the Akron area labor market indicated that there were, by 
and large, very few opportunities for outside workers during the 6-month period 
covered by the survey. Former rubber workers who had left Akron during the 
late 1930's stood a fair chance of reemployment in the rubber factories; and some 

10449 



10450 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Akron-area migrants were able to secure work at Ravenna. These two groups 
were the only exception to the prevailing situation. Akron thus provides one 
test for the hypothesis that "tens of thousands" of workers are migrating into 
northern industrial centers without regard to employment opportunities. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approxim.ately 1,200 families living in the Akron area during the first week 
of April 1941 had moved into Summit County after October 1, 1940. These 
families contained 2,300 persons. Migrants thus made up a group equal to 0.8 
percent of the 1940 population of the Akron area. Their contribution to the 
Akron labor force was somewhat greater, however, since the migrant group 
contained a considerably higher proportion of workers than would be expected 
in a settled urban population. 

EMPLOYMENT 

Migrant workers had been generally successful in finding jobs. Nine-tenths 
of the migrant workers were employed during the week of the survey, and one- 
tenth were unemployed. To a considerable extent the high proportion of em- 
ployment obtained by migrants was the result of previous experience in the 
Akron rubber factories. 



INDUSTRY BEFORE AND AFTER MIGRATION 

The industrial distribution of workers at their last place of residence and on 
jobs held in the Akron area is as follows: 



Percent distribution 



Agriculture 

Mining 

Building construction 

Manufacturing: 

Rubber 

Aircraft 

Ottier 

Transportation 

Trade 

Professional and governmental services 
Domestic and personal services 

Total— 




These distributions show a sharp increase in workers attached to building 
construction, representing principally the workers employed on construction at 
the Ravenna arsenal, and in the rubber industry. About one-sixth of the workers 
had been engaged in either agriculture or mining before migration. 



AGE 

The Akron-area migrants were exceptionally young, even for a migrant group. 
The average age of all migrant workers was 28.9 years, which is 7 or 8 years under 
the average expected of a settled urban labor force. Only 1 migrant worker in 
4 was more than 35 years of age. The average age of 1-person families was 
25.3 years; and the average for the heads of niultiperson families was 32.3 
years. 

ORIGINS 

The Akron-area migrants had come from relatively long distances. The 
distribution of workers according to their place or origin was as follows: 

Place of origin: , Percent 

Adjoining counties 20 

Elsewhere in Ohio 28 

Adjoining States 33 

Other States 19 

Total 100 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10451 

Interstate migrants were actually more numerous in the Akron area than intra- 
state migrants. 

When traced upon a map, the origins of the migrants are shown to be con- 
centrated in two types of areas: 

(a) Nearby industrial centers, particularly Cleveland and Pittsburgh. 

(b) Depressed industrial and agricultural areas, particularly the southern Ohio 
and Pennsylvania coal fields, central West Virginia, and the southern Appa- 
lachians. 

The migrants came predominantly from urban places (2,500 or more popula- 
tion) ; 71 percent last lived in urban places and 29 percent in rural places. 

LIVING ARRANGEMENTS IN AKRON 

The Akron-area migrant families were made up of two groups of almost equal 
size: The 1-person families (49 percent) and the multi-person families (51 
percent). The 1-person families were distributed through the city as follows: 

Living arrangements: Percent 

Low-priced hotels 29 

Rooms in homes and rooming houses 71 

Total (1-person families) 100 

The multiperson families were found in the foUoT\ing circumstances: 

Living arrangements: Percent 

Doubled up with other families ; 17 

In a separate dwelling 83 

Total (multiperson families) 100 

These figures will suggest the relationship between a given influx of new 
workers and the occupation of vacant dwelling units. 

SUMMARY 

It should be noted that the experimental survey of migration into the Akron 
area cannot support broad and final inferences about defense migration because 
of the impossibility of generalizing from a single situation. The survey does, 
however, suggest tentative conclusions which should not be overlooked. 

Recent migration into the Akron area appears to have been neither excessive 
not ill-advised. Only 1 worker in approximately every 100 in the Akron area 
was found to have arrived during the 6 months preceding the survey. The net 
gain to Akron, however, was somewhat less than 1 in 100 since some out-migra- 
tion has undoubtedly taken place. The migration to Akron was apparently 
not even sufficient to cancel the withdrawal of Akron-area workers into the 
armed forces of the United States. It is important, too, that most of the mi- 
grants had found jobs. 

February 12, 1942. 
Recent Migration Into Appleton, Wis. 

A survey of migration into Appleton, Wis., was conducted by the Work Projects 
Administration, Division of Research, during November 1941. The survey was 
concerned with civilians who moved to Appleton from places outside Outagamie 
County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living there at the time of this 
survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered the residential districts 
and lower-priced hotels within the corporate limits of Appleton. Higher-priced 
hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt was made to gather information about 
persons who left the city during the survey period. 

industrial activity 

Appleton is not an important center of direct defense activity. Between June 
1940 and October 1941, Outagamie County received direct defense contracts 
valued at only about $600,000. The general increase in industrial activity was 
reflected in Appleton, however. During the period between October 1940 and 
October 1941, an estimated 500 new jobs were created in the city. 



10452 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 500 families living in Appleton at the time of this survey had 
moved to the city after October 1, 1940. The families contained 500 workers 
and a total of 1,150 persons. Migrants made up a group equal to 4 percent of the 
city's 1940 population. 

ORIGINS 

Three-fourths (75 percent) of the migrants had moved from within Wisconsin. 
Michigan and Illinois were the second most important sources, contributing 
6 percent each. Four percent came from Minnesota. The average distance 
traveled by the migrants was 75 miles; only 6 percent had traveled 500 miles 
or more. 

Rural places were the origin of 30 percent of the migrants; i. e., 5 percent came 
from open country and 25 percent from rural villages. Towns (2,500 to 25,000 
population) contributed 39 percent; small cities, 14 percent; and cities of over 
100,000 population, 17 percent. 

About one-fourth (24 percent) of the migrants had formerly lived in Appleton. 
About half of the former residents had been absent from the city for 4 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex.- — The average age of migrant workers in Appleton was 29.3 years. 
In one-person families the average age was 25.0 years, and for heads of multiperson 
families, 35.5 years. Fourteen percent of the workers were under 20 years, and 
14 percent were 45 years and over. 

Woman workers made up 23 percent of the total migrant labor force in 
Appleton. The average age of females was 26.3 years, as compared with 29.9 
years for males. 

Race. — All of the migrants in Appleton were white persons. 

Size of family. — Migrant families in Appleton averaged 2.3 j^ersons per family. 
Nearly half consisted of only one person when interviewed: 

Size of family: Percent distribution 

1 person 46 

2 persons 16 

3 and 4 persons 30 

5 persons and over 8 

Total ^ '100 

Most of these families were complete when interviewed: only 7 percent of the 
1-person families and 6 percent of the multiperson families had left a spouse or 
dependent children behind when migrating to Appleton: Before migration, the 
families had contained 1,200 persons. Of these, 96 percent had migrated and 
4 percent had stayed behind. 

Month of arrival. — About half of the migrants had arrived in Appleton during 
June or earlier: 

Month of arrival: Percent aistrilmtion 

October 1940 to March 1941 21 

April to Mav 1941 21 

June to July 1941 : 12 

August to September 1941 25 

October 1941 12 

November 1941 9 

Total '...- 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Appleton migrants came principally from manufacturing, trade, and "other" 
services, or held no jobs at their last residence. Relatively few came from agri- 
culture. In Appleton, manufacturing was the chief employer of migrant workers, 
with particularly large numbers employed in paper and food industries. A sizable 
proportion of the migrants found jobs in trade and "other" service industries. 

The industrial attachment of the workers on their last full-time jobs before 
migration and on their jobs in Appleton was as follows: 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10453 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Apple- 
ton 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in Appleton 

Agriculture, forestry, fishing 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Food 

Paper and allied products 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities- 

Trade 

Personal service 

Other services. ._ 



0) 



Total. 



100 



100 



1 The status of these workers at their last residence was: Students, 8 percent; housewives, 2 percent; 
unemployed, 4 percent; and others, 2 percent. 

2 Less than 0.5 percent. 

White-collar workers made up the largest single occupational group among the 
migrants, accounting for 41 percent of the total before migration and 42 percent 
in Appleton. The proportion engaged in skilled and semiskilled occupations 
increased sharply from 23 percent before migration to 32 percent in Appleton. 
A relatively large proportion of the workers held unskilled jobs in Appleton. 

The occupations of the workers before and after migration follow: 



Occupation 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Appleton 

Professional and semiprofessional..- 
Proprietors, managers, and officials- 
Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. 
Laborers, except farm . _ _ _ _ 



Total- 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



100 



In Apple- 
ton 



(■) 



1 Less than 0.5 percent. 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 500 migrant workers in Appleton, an estimated 35 workers, or 7 percent, 
were unemployed and seeking work during the week preceding the survey. 

Unem'ployment by sex. — Both inales and females in Appleton reported an unem- 
ploj^ment rate of 7 percent. 

Unemployment by age. — Unemployment was highest among workers under 20 
years of age. Unemployment among workers of 45 years of age and over was 
only slightly at)ove average. 

Percent 
distri- 
Age of worker: bution 

Total 1 7 

Under 20 vears 20 

20 to 24 years 12 

25 to 44 years 2 

45 vears and over 8 



10454 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Unemployment by month of arrival. — Workers who arrived in Appleton during 
the month in which the survey was conducted and during the month preceding, 
reported exceptionally high unemployment rates: 

Percent 
unem- 

Month of arrival: ployed 

Total 7 

October 1940 to July 1941 3 

August to September 1941 3 

October 1941 19 

November 1941 25 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — The lowest unemployment rate 
was reported by manufacturing workers; the highest by workers who held no 
job at their last residence. Rates by industry follow: 

Percent 
unem- 
ployed i^ 

Industry at last residence: AppletoJ^ 

Total 7 

No job 14 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 10 

Mining (i) 

Construction 0) 

Manufacturing 2 

Transportation , communication, and utilities (') 

Trade 10 

Personal service (0 

Other services 9 

' Base too small for computation. 

In terms of occupations, the' lowest unemployment rates were reported by 
skilled workers and nonfarm laborers. The group showing well above average 
unemployment were workers who had no jobs before migration. Rates by 
occupation follow: 

Percent 
unemployed 
Occupation at last residence : . «« Appleton 

No job 14 

Professional and semiprofessional 5 

Proprietors, managers, and officials 6 

Clerical and kindred workers 8 

Craftsmen and kindred workers Q) 

Operatives and kindred workers 4 

Domestic and other service workers 9 

Farm operatives, tenants, and laborers 10 

Laborers, except farm Q) 

Total 7 

1 Less than 0.5 percent. 

HOUSING 

The majority of the migrant" families in Appleton were occupying a separate 
dwelling unit when enumerated. About two-fifths had doubled up with other 
persons and a small proportion lived in hotels. 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1 -person 
families 



Multi- 
person 
families 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels , 

Total 



100 



100 



(0 



' Less than 0.5 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10455 



CONCLUSIONS 



The volume of recent migration into Appleton was relatively small during the 
first year of the defense program. Among the 51 cities covered in these surveys, 
only 18 reported a lower migrant rate than Appleton. Appleton migrants did 
report, however, about average success in finding work after migration. 



January 14, 1942. 

Recent Migation Into Atlanta, Ga. 

A survey of migration into Atlanta, Ga., was completed by the Work Projects 
Administration Division of Research during the early part of November 1941. 
The survey was concerned with civilians who moved to Atlanta from places out- 
side of Fulton and De Kalb Counties after October 1, 1940, and who were still 
living in Atlanta at the time of the survey. Operating on a sample basis, the 
survey covered the residential districts and lower-priced hotels within Atlanta's 
corporate limits. Higher-priced hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt was 
made to secure information about persons who left the city during the period 
covered by the survey. 

industrial activity 

Atlanta was not an important defense-production center during the first year 
of the defense program. Between June 1940 and October 1941, Fulton and 
De Kalb Counties received direct defense contracts valued at about $26,000,000, 
equal to only about one-eighth the 1937 product value of manufactures in the 
two counties. Between October 1940 and October 1941 employment in Atlanta's 
manufacturing industries increased 15.3 percent, placing Atlanta in only sixtieth 
rank among the 84 largest American cities. According to local reports, the 
migration into Atlanta during the period covered by this survey was accompanied 
by considerable out-migration, particularly among skilled workers. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

An estimated 4,100 families living in Atlanta in November 1941 had moved to 
the city after October 1, 1940. These families contained 4,450 workers and a 
total of 10.250 persons. Migrants made up a group equal to 3.4 percent of 
Atlanta's 1940 population. 

ORIGINS 

Georgia was the principal source of Atlanta migrants, contributing 62 percent 
of the total. Alabama was second contributor, with 9 percent; Florida third, 
with 7 percent; and Tennessee fourth, with 4 percent. The average distance 
traveled by the migrants was 90 miles, and only 12 percent had traveled upward 
of 500 miles. 

Rural places were the origin of nearly one-third of the migrants; i. e., 10 per- 
cent came from the open country and 20 percent from rural villages. Towns 
(2,500 to 25,000 population) contributed 36 percent; small cities, 15 percent; and 
cities of over 100,000 population, 19 percent. 

More than one-fourth (28 percent) of the migrant families had formerly lived 
in Atlanta. Half of these families had been absent about 4 years before their 
return. 

characteristics 

Age and sex. — The average age of migrant workers in Atlanta was 28.8 years. 
In one-person families, the average age was 24.6 years, and for heads of multi- 
person families, 32.4 years; 12 percent of the workers were under 20 years, but 
only 9 percent were 45 years and over. 

More than one-fourth (28 percent) of the migrant workers were females. The 
average age of the female workers was 24 years, as compared with 30.6 years for 
males. 

Race. — -Negroes made up 16 percent of the Atlanta migrants. The migrant 
rate for nonwhite persons (based on 1940 population) was 1.5 percent, as com- 
pared with 4.4 percent for white persons. 

Size of family. — When interviewed, Atlanta migrant families averaged 2.5 
persons per family, and were relatively large in comparison with migrant families 
in other cities. Two-fifths consisted of only one person. 



10456 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Percent 
Size of family in Atlanta: distribuiion 

1 person 39 

2 persons 20 

3 and 4 persons 31 

5 persons and over 10 

Total 100 

Most of these families were complete when interviewed. However, 33 per- 
cent of the 1-person families and 11 percent of the multiperson families had left 
a spouse or dependent children behind when migrating to Atlanta. Before mi- 
gration, the families had contained 11,700 persons. Of these, 87 percent had 
migrated and 13 percent had remained behind. 

Month of arrival. — -About half of the migrants arrived in Atlanta before July 
1941. 

Percent 
Month of arrival: distribution 

October 1940-February 1941 19 

March-April 1941 ^ 12 

Mav-June 1941 18 

July 1941 13 

August 1941 13 

September 1941 17 

October-November 1941 8 

Total 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

The three most important sources of Atlanta migrants were new workers and 
workers in manufacturing and trade, but each contributed no more than one- 
sixth of the migrants. There was a substantial representation, also, of farm 
workers and "other" service workers, and the number of personal service workers 
was greater than usual. In Atlanta the proportion engaged in both manufactur- 
ing (especially textile manufacturing) and trade increased appreciably and 
absorbed nearly half of the workers. 

The following table shows the industries of the migrants on their last full-time 
Jobs at their last residence, and on their jobs when interviewed in Atlanta. 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Atlanta 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in Atlanta 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining.- 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Textiles 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities- 
Trade , 

Personal services 1 

Other services .- 



Total - 



14 

m 

10 
23 

7 
14 



100 



' The status of these workers at last residence was: Students, 9 percent; housewives, 5 percent; unem- 
ployed, 2 percent; others, 1 percent. 

No one occuj^ational group predominated among Atlanta migrants before mi- 
gration. Because of occupational shifts, however, the proportion engaged in 
clerical and operative's jobs increased markedly after migration to Atlanta. 
Relatively small proportions of migrant workers engaged in craftsmen's and 
laborer's jobs in Atlanta. 

The following table shows the occupational distribution of migrant workers 
before and after migration. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10457 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In 

Atlanta 



No job at last residence -__ 

Unemployed in Atlanta - 

Professional and semiprofessional — 
Proprietors, managers, and officials.. 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers _ 
Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



100 



100 



UNEMPLOYMENT 

Unemployment among Atlanta migrants was high. Out of 4,450 workers, an 
estimated 620 workers, or 14 percent, were unemiiloyed and seeking work during 
the entire calendar week preceding interview. In other recently surveyed cities, 
migrant unemployment has ranged from 2 to 17 percent. 

Unemployment by sex. — Female migrant workers reported more than four times 
the unemployment rate of male migrants. Among females, 32 percent were un- 
employed, and among males, 7 percent. Two-thirds of the unemployed workers 
were females. 

Unemployment by race. — Negroes reported about nine times the unemployment 
rate of white workers. Among Negroes, 43 percent were unemployed, as com- 
pared with 5 percent for white migrants. 

Unenivloy merit by age. — Migrant workers under 25 years of age reported high 
imemployment rates, but older migrant workers were more successful. 

Age of worker: Percent unemployed 

Total 14 

Under 20 vears 26 

20 to 24 years 26 

25 to 44 years 7 

45 years and over 9 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — Migrants who arrived in Atlanta during the 
months just preceding the present survey showed the highest unemployment rates: 

Month of arrival: Percent unemployed 

Total 14 

October 1940-April 1941 7 

Mav-June 1941 10 

July-August 1941 18 

September 1941 . 22 

October-November 1941 29 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — The most successful Atlanta mi- 
grants were those engaged in construction, manufacturing, and transportation. 
Farm workers reported about average unemployment, and new workers were well 
above average. Unemployment among personal service workers was e.xtremely 
high . The following table shows unemployment rates bj- industry at last residence. 

Unemployed in Atlanta 
Industry at last residence: Percent 

• Total 14 

No job 17 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 15 

Muling (0 

Construction 4 

Manufacturing 5 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 4 

Trade 10 

Personal service 63 

Other services 8 

' Base too small for computation. 
G0:596— 4i!— pt. 27 16 



10458 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



In terms of occupations, the white-collar workers, craftsmen, and operatives 
showed least unemployment in Atlanta. Nonfarm laborers reported a high un- 
employment rate, but the highest rate was among domestics. Unemployment 
rates by occupation follow: 

Unemployed in Atlanta 
Occupation at last residence: Percent 

Total 14 

No job 17 

Professional and proprietory 3 

Clerical and kindred workers 6 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 5 

Operatives and kindred workers 5 

Domestic and other service workers 57 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 15 

Laborers, except farm 20 

HOUSING 

The majority of the Atlanta migrants were sharing a dwelling with other per- 
sons when interviewed, and considerably less than half occupied separate living 
quarters. 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1 -person 
families 



Multi- 
person 
families 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

Total 



(') 



100 



100 



• Less than 0.5 percent. 



CONCLUSIONS 



The volume of recent migration into Atlanta has been moderately large. At- 
lanta's migrant rate (based on 1940 population) is about equal to the rate found 
in Baltimore, but Baltimore has many times more defense contracts than Atlanta. 
In view of the high unemployment rate among Atlanta migrants, it seems clear 
that migrants have recently been attracted to Atlanta a great deal more rapidly 
than they could be absorbed into local industries. 



December 18, 1941. 
Recent Migration Into Augusta, Ga. 

A survey of migration into Augusta, Ga., was completed by the Work Projects 
Administration, Division of Research, in the middle of October 1941. The sur- 
vey was concerned with persons who moved to Augusta from places outside of 
Richmond County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living there in October 
1941. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered the residential districts 
and lower-priced hotels within the city limits of Augusta. Higher-priced hotels 
were not surveyed, and no attempt was made to gather information about persons 
who Tiad left the city during the year covered by the survey. 



industrial activity 

Between June 1940 and August 1941, Richmond County received direct defense 
contracts valued at about $6,000,000, principally for the construction of Army 
facilities. Defense activity in or near Augusta has included the erection of the 
Triangle Division camp, which employed 9,000 construction workers at the time 
of this survey; work at the Augusta arsenal; and expansion of Daniel Field, the 
municipal airport, for military use. During the past year, also, indirect defense 
orders were responsible for a general increase in the activity of Augusta's cotton- 
textile mills. 

This activity had attracted a large number of migrant workers to Augusta. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10459 



NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 2,200 families, containing 2,400 workers and a total of 4,600 
persons, moved to Augusta from places outside of Richmond County after October 
1, 1940, and were still living there in October 1941. The total number of migrants 
was equal to 7 percent of the 1940 population of the city. 

ORIGINS 

The largest group of migrants, 42 percent, come from Georgia. South Carolina 
was the second most important source of migrant workers, contributing 36 percent; 
North Carolina was third, with 6 percent; and Mississippi fourth with 3 percent. 
The average distance traveled by migrant workers was 100 miles; and only a very 
few, 4 percent, had traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places were the origin of over one-third of the migrants; 9 percent came 
from open country and 25 percent from rural villages. Towns (2,500 to 25,000 
population) were the origin of 31 percent; about one-fifth (22 percent) came from 
small cities; and 13 percent came from cities of 100,000 population and over. 

Previous residence in Augusta was reported by 18 percent of the migrant 
families. Among these former residents, about one-half had been absent for 
4 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of all workers was 30.1 years. The average age 
of family heads was 33.1 and of the unattached, 28.7 years. Only 10 percent 
of the migrant workers were under 20 years of age, but 17 percent were 45 years 
of age or over. 

Women workers constituted 17 percent of all workers in the migrant labor force. 
The average age of women workers was 24.5 years as against 31.7 years for men. 

Race. — A relatively large proportion, 17 percent, of the migrants are Negroes. 
(The proportion of Negroes migrating to other southern survey cities ranged from 
20 percent in Macon, Ga., to 1 percent in Fort Smith, Ark.) However, since 
close to half of Augusta's population consists of Negroes, the migrant rate for 
Negroes was much lower than that for white persons. 

Size of family. — Almost half of the families, when interviewed in Augusta, were 
composed of one person. 

Percent 
distri- 

Size of family in Augusta: bution 

1 person 45 

2 persons 26 

3 and 4 persons 21 

5 persons and over 8 

Total 100 

Many of these families were not complete when interviewed; 23 percent of the 
one-person families and 15 percent of the multiperson families had left a family 
member behind when they moved to Augusta. Before migration these families 
contained 6,600 persons, of whom 29 percent stayed behind and 71 percent mi- 
grated to Augusta. In the recently surveyed cities only the migrant families in 
Bridgeport, Conn., had left so high a percentage of family members at their former 
residences. 

Month of arrival. — About half of the migrants had come to Augusta within 2 
months of the time of the migration survey. The distribution of the migrants by 
the date of their arrival follows: 

Percent 
distri- 
Month of arrival: bution 

October 1940 to February 1941 9 

March to April 1941 9 

May to June 1941 9 

Julv 1941 11 

August 1941 14 

September 1941 36 

October 1941 i 12 

Total 100 

1 The survey was conducted during October; hence this figure does not represent the total in-migration 
during the month. 



10460 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Both before and after migration Augusta migrants were predominantly engaged 
in construction. Manufacturing contributed only 11 percent of the migrants. 
Another 11 percent were former agricultural workers. The most significant 
industrial shift in the movement of workers to Augusta involved former agri- 
cultural workers and those who had no jobs at their former residence. Agri- 
cultural workers and formerly unemployed workers were employed largely in 
construction work at Augusta, and former students were principally engaged in 
trade. 

A distribution of migrants by the industry of their last job at their former 
residences and the industry in which they were employed in Augusta follows: 



Industry 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in Augusta 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Textile mill products. 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities. 

Trade 

Personal services 

Other services 



Total. 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



(2) 



100 



In Augusta 



100 



' The status of these workers at last residence was: Students, 5 percent; housewives, 3 percent; unem- 
ployed, 3 percent; and others, 2 percent. 
2 Less than 0.5 percent. 

Augusta migrants were to a large extent craftsmen at their last residence. 
Clerical and kindred workers, and farm workers of all types each accounted for 
II percent of the migrants at their former residence. Semiskilled workers were 
relatively few. In Augusta the ranks of skilled workers were augmented largely 
by former farm workers and operatives. 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Augusta 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Augusta 

Profe.ssional and semiprofessional... 
Proprietors, managers, and officials. 

Clerical and kindred, workers 

Craftsmen and kmdred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers — 

Domestic service workers... 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 
Laborers, except farm 

Total— 



(') 



100 



(0 



' Less than 0.5 percent. 



UNEMPLOYMENT 



Of the 2,400 migrants workers in Augusta, about 150, or 6 percent, were un- 
employed and seeking work at the time of the migration survey. 

Unemploytnent by sex. — Unemployment among women was about seven times 
higher than among men. Among women migrant workers 22 percent were 
unemployed, but only 3 percent of the male migrants were unemployed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10461 

Unemployment by race. — Negroes reported twice the unemploynieut rate of 
white workers. Among the Negro workers 10 percent were unemployed, as 
compared with 5 percent for white workers. 

Unemployment by age. — The highest unemployment rate was reported by 
workers under 20 years of age. The unemployment rates of workers by age 

was as follows: 

Percent 

Age of workers: unemployed 

Total 6 

Under 20 vears 13 

20 to 24 years 3 

25 to 44 years 5 

45 years and over 8 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — The heaviest unemployment was reported 
by the migrants who arrived in Augusta between March and May. 

PCTCBJlt 

Month of arrival: unemployed 

Total 6 

October 1940 to February 1941 5 

March to April 1941 10 

May to June 1941 5 

July to August 1941 3 

September 1941 8 

October 1941 7 

Unemployment by size of place of origin. — Unemployment rates were consist- 
ently lower for workers from larger communities. Those from the open country 

reported almost twice the average unemployment rate. 

Percent 

Size of place of origin: unemployed 

Total 6 

Open country 10 

Rural villages (less than 2,500) 6 

Towns (2,500 to 25,000) 7 

Small cities (25,000 to 100,000) 3 

Large cities (over 100,000) 3 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — Practically all construction workers 
found employment in Augusta. About 1 in 7 of those who had no job at their 
last place of' residence were unem])loyed in Augusta at the time of the survey, 
and above-average rates were reported by workers from manufacturing and trade. 

Rates by industry follow: 

Percent 
unemployed 

Industry at last residence: "' Augusta 

Total 6 

No job 14 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 6 

Mining - (') 

Construction 1 

Manufacturing 11 

Transportation, communication, and utilities (0 

Trade 1 1 

Personal service 12 

Other services -'- 6 

' Based too small for computation. 



10462 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Skilled workmen and white-collar workers had the lowest unemployment rates 
in Augusta. There were comparatively large numbers of unemployed migrant 
semiskilled workmen. 

Percent 
unemployed 
Occupation at last residence: in Augusta 

Total 6 

No job 14 

Professional, proprietory, and clerical 3 

Craftsmen and kindred workers (i) 

Operatives and kindred workers 15 

Personal service workers (2) 

Other service workers (2) 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 4 

Laborers, e.xcept farm 7 

1 Less than 0.5 percent. 

2 Base too small for computation. 

HOUSING 

A relatively large number of families were sharing a dwelling unit with other 
persons. The distribution of families according to their living arrangements 
follows. 



Living arrangements 


Total 


1-person 
families 


Multi- 
person 
families 


Occupying a separate dwelling 


35 

64 

1 


2 

95 

3 


61 


Sharing a dwelling with others.. 


39 


In hotels . . 








Total 


100 


100 


100 







CONCLUSIONS 

Recent migration into Augusta has been heavy. In terms of its population, 
Augusta has attracted about the same volume of migration as Bridgeport, Conn., 
and Macon, Ga., two other small cities in which defense activity has been parti- 
cularly great. Unlike the other two cities, however, a very large part of Augusta's 
migrants consisted of construction workers who were not expected to remain in 
the city after the completion of the new army facilities. The rest of the migrants, 
(i. e., the nonconstruction workers) had not been particularly successful in finding 
work in Augusta. 

November 14, 1941. 
Recent Migration into Baltimore, Md. 

A survey of migration into Baltimore, Md., was completed by the W. P. A. 
Division of Research during the early part of September 1941. The survey 
was concerned with persons who moved to Baltimore from places outside of 
Baltimore City and Baltimore County after October 1, 1940, and who were still 
living in the survey area in September 1941. The survey was confined to the 
city of Baltimore and to the Glenn L. Martin camp, which is located northeast 
of the Baltimore city limits. Higher-priced hotels were not surveyed, and no 
attempt was made to gather information about persons who had left Baltimore 
during the survey period. 

industrial activity 

Baltimore is one of the more important American defense centers. Between 
June 1940 and August 1941 the city received prime defense contracts amounting 
to nearly half a billion dollars, principally for aircraft manufacturing and ship 
building. Direct defense activity alone has absorbed about 23,000 workers since 
October 1, 1940, according to local reports, and several thousand more new jobs 
are reported in subsidiary and service industries. Between July 1940 and July 
1941, Baltimore manufacturing employment rose 32.9 percent; and Baltimore 
ranked thirty-sixth among the 93 cities of over 100,000 population in the propor- 
tionate increase in manufacturing employment during the period. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10463 

Many months ago Baltimore reported acute shortages of several types of crafts- 
men, particularly those needed in the shipbuilding industry. At the time of this 
survey, however, no shortage of local unskilled workers had developed, except 
in the aircraft industry, where severe age and race employment restrictions have 
prevented the full use of locally available labor. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 15,700 families living in the city of Baltimore in early Septem- 
ber 1941 had moved from outside of Baltimore County after October 1, 1940. 
These families contained 16,600 workers. The total number of persons contained 
in the migrant families was 30,500, equal to 3.6 percent of Baltimore's 1940 
population. At the Glenn L. Martin camp outside the Baltimore city limits, 
the survey found an additional group of 160 migrant families containing 450 
persons. 

ORIGINS 

The principal origins of the Baltimore migrants were Philadelphia, New York 
City, and rural places in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and North Carolina. 
The State of Pennsylvania contributed 23 percent of the workers; Maryland, 15 
percent; New York and Virginia, 10 percent each; West Virginia 8 percent; and 
North Carolina, 7 percent. The average distance traveled was 170 miles. One 
worker in 8 had traveled more than 500 miles; and 1 in 200 had come from a 
foreign country. 

Rural places, that is, places of less than 2,500 population, were the source of 
32 percent of the Baltimore migrants; 7 percent had come from the open country 
and 25 percent from rural villages. Towns (2,500 to 25,000 population) contrib- 
uted 25 percent; small cities, 18 percent, and 25 percent came from cities of over 
100,000 population. 

An exceptionally large proportion of the migrants had come to Baltimore for 
the first time ; 92 percent reported no prior residence in Baltimore, and 8 percent 
reported having lived in Baltimore before. Among the former Baltimore resi- 
dents, about half had been absent for 6 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of all migrant workers was 27.5 years. In 
one-person families, the average age was 24.6 years; and for heads of multi-person 
families, 32.6 years. One migrant worker in 9 was 45 years of age or over. 

Women workers constituted 10 percent of all workers in the migrant families. 
(Comparative figures for other survey cities are: Detroit, 16 percent; Greenville, 
S. C, 28 percent; and Philadelphia, 22 percent.) 

Race. — Negroes constituted 1 1 percent of the migrant workers. Negro migrants 
made up a group equal to 2.2 percent of Baltimore's 1940 Negro population, con- 
siderably less than for white migrants, who equalled 3.9 percent of the 1940 white 
population. 

Size of family. — When interviewed in Baltimore, the majority of the migrant 
families contained only one person: 

Size of family in Baltimore: Percent distribution 

1 person 56 

2 persons 19 

3 and 4 persons 18 

5 persons and over 7 

Total 100 

In a large number of instances, however, these families were not complete. 
Nearly half of the one-person families, and one-tenth of the multi-person families, 
had left their spouse or dependent children behind when they moved to Baltimore. 
Before migration, the families had contained 42,300 persons. Of these, 30,500 
had migrated but 11,800 had remained at the migrant's place of origin. 

Months lived in county. — The tempo of migration into Baltimore has shown a 
substantial increase in recent months. At the end of 1940, about 600 migrant 
workers were being added to the Baltimore labor supply each month. Early in 
1941, the influx reached 1,000 workers a month; and since May it has averaged 
2,500 workers a month. i 



' These figures assume little or no "turnover" among the migrants. 



10464 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Percent of 
Month of arrival: Baltimore migrants 

October-December 1940 12 

January- February 1941 12 

March- April 1941 12 

Mav-June 1941 33 

July 1941 15 

August 1 94 1 1 16 

Total 100 

1 Includes the first week of September 1941. 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

The industrial distribution of Baltimore migrant workers on their last full-time 
jobs at their last places of residence, and on their jobs in Baltimore, was as follows: 





Percent distribution 


Industry 


At last 
residence 


In Balti- 
more 


No job at last residence 1 . 


18 




Unemployed in Baltimore 


3 


Agriculture, forestry and fishing 


15 
5 
12 

5 
2 
9 
7 

15 
2 

10 


<?) 


Mining 


(2) 


Construction. 


8 


Manufacturing: 

Transportation equipment - _. -- -. 


39 


Iron and steel 


7 


Other - 


12 


Transportation, communication, and utilities - . 


6 


Trade 


12 


Personal services 


2 


Other services .. .. 


11 






Total . .... 


100 


100 







• The status at last residence of these workers was: Students, 7 percent; housewives, 2 percent; unem- 
ployed, 7 percent; others, 2 percent. 
2 Less than 0.5 percent. 



This table reveals an extremely sharp industrial shift among the migrants. 
Baltimore manufacturing industries, particularly the shipyards and aircraft 
factories, had attracted only a few migrant workers formerly engaged in manu- 
facturing, but had attracted thousands of migrant farmers, miners, construction 
workers, students, unemployed workers, and even tradespeople. 

The occupational distribution of the migrant workers before and after migration 
was as follows: 





Percent distribution 


Occupation 


At last 
residence 


In Balti- 
more 


No job at last residence _ . ..... 


18 




Unemployed in Baltimore . . . : 


3 


Professional and semiprofessional . . . ._. ...... ...... 


3 
5 
10 
17 
17 
1 
5 
13 
11 


3 


Proprietors, managers, and officials . . . 


3 


Clerical, sales, and kindred workers . . 


16 


Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers . ..--.--.. ._ 


28 


Operatives and kindred workers 


23 


Domestic service workers ... . . .. . 


1 


Other service workers ...... . ... . ... . . 


4 


Farm owners, tenants, and laborers . ... . .... 


(') 


Laborers, except farm. . 


19 






Total 


100 


■ 100 







' Less than 0.5 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10465 

Unskilled workers formed a relatively large proportion of Baltimore migrants. 
Before migration, 30 percent of the workers held unskilled jobs, and 24 percent 
of the migrants still held unskilled jobs in Baltimore. While the proportion of 
unskilled workers decreased, however, the proportion of clerical, skilled, and 
semiskilled workers increased. Onl^' 44 percent of the workers were drawn 
from these three categories, but 67 percent held jobs in these categories in Balti- 
more. 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of the 16,650 migrant workers in Baltimore, 580, or 3 percent, were unem- 
ployed and seeking work at the time of the survey. Comparative figures for 
other survey cities are: Fort Wayne, Ind. (May), 3 percent; Detroit (May), 
10 percent; Greenville, S. C. (September), 9 percent; and Philadelphia (September 
8 percent. 

Unemployment by race. — The rate of unemployment for Negro workers who 
had migrated to Baltimore was more than five times greater than the rate for 
white migrant workers. Among Negroes, 11 percent, and among white workers, 
2 percent, were unemployed. 

Unemployment by sex. — Women migrants to Baltimore had more than six times 
the unemployment rate of men. Among the women workers, 13 percent were 
unemployed; among the men, 2 percent. 

Unemployment by age. — No single age group among the Baltimore migrants 
had suffered high unemployment, although the very young and the very old 
showed a slightly higher-than-average unemployment rate. Under 25 years, 5 
percent were unemployed; between 25 and 44, the rate was 2 percent; and among 
the workers 45 and over, the rate was 4 percent. 

Unemployment by distance traveled. — The migrants who traveled the shortest 
distance reported the lowest unemployment rate. Among the few who came 
from foreign countries, two-thirds were unemployed. 

Percent of 
workers 

Distance traveled: unemployed 

Total , •- 10 

Less than 200 miles 2 

20 to 499 miles - 5 

500 to 999 miles 7 

1 ,000 miles and over 5 

Foreign 66 

Unemployment by month of entering county. — Baltimore migrants wiio had 
arrived during the month immediately preceding enumeration showed an unem- 
ployment rate more than three times higher than the average for all migrants. 
Among the migrants who had been in the city longest, however the unemployment 
rate was only slightly below average. 

Percent of 
workers 
Month of entering county: unemployed 

Total 3 

October 1940 to May 1941 2 

May to June 1941 3 

July 1941 1 

August 1941 1 10 

' Includes the first week of September 1941. 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — There was little difference in the 
unemployment rates of Baltimore migrants according to their industry at last 
place of residence. Only the workers from personal service industries reported an 

unemployment rate far above average: 

Percent un- 
employed in 

Industry at last residence: . Baltimore 

Total 3 

No job 5 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 2 

Mining 4 

Construction 3 

Manufacturing 3 

Transportation and communication 3 

Trade 3 

Personal services 10 

Other services . 3 



10466 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Unemployment rates according to occupation were as follows: 

Percent un- 
employed in 

Occupation at last residence: Baltimore 

Total 3 

No job 5 

Professional, proprietory, and clerical 4 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers 1 

Operatives and kindred workers 3 

Domestic service workers 17 

Other service workers 5 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 2 

Laborers, except farm - 3 

This distribution reveals one notably low rate and one notably high. Baltimore 
migrants who held skilled jobs at their last residence reported virtually no unem- 
ployment, while migrant domestic service workers showed a rate nearly six times 
higher than average. 

HOUSING 

Less than one-third of the Baltimore migrant families were occupying a separate 
dwelling when enumerated; the great majority had doubled up with other families. 
One percent of the migrants lived in hotels, and 1 percent in trailers. 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1-person 
families 



Multiper- 
son families 



Occupying separate dwelling 

Sharing dwelling 

In hotels 

In trailers 

Total 



100 



100 



CONCLUSIONS 

After a slow start late in 1940, migration into Baltimore began increasing in the 
early spring; and by late summer it had reached significant volume. There is 
little doubt that Baltimore is now growing more rapidly than at any time since the 
World War. 

Judged in terms of the Baltimore migrants' unemployment rates, this movement 
has been a successful one, even though several groups of migrants — particularly 
women workers and Negroes- — have not fared as well as others. The rate of 
migration was consistently lower, however, for the less successful groups than for 
types of workers most in demand. 



February 11, 1942. 
Recent Migration into Battle Creek, Mich. 

A survey of migration into Battle Creek, Mich., was conducted by the Work 
Projects Administration, Division of Research, during the latter part of Novem- 
ber 1941. The survey was concerned with civilians who moved to Battle Creek 
from places outside of Calhoun County after October 1, 1940, and who were 
still living there when this survey was conducted. Operating on a sample basis, 
the survey covered the residential districts and lower priced hotels within the 
corporate limits of Battle Creek. Higher priced hotels were not surveyed, and 
no attempt was made to gather information about persons who left the city 
during the survey period. 

industrial activity 

Between June 1940 and November 1941, Calhoun County received direct 
defense contracts valued at about $26,000,000. Nearly half of this sum was 
allotted for construction work at Fort Custer, which had employed about 1,700 
workers at the peak. At the time of this survey, this job was virtually completed, 
and the majority of the migrant construction workers had departed for other 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10467 

jobs. Increased activity in steel-goods manufacture during the first year of the 
defense program created a number of new jobs in the community. According 
to local reports, however, there were a considerable number of resident unem- 
ployed remaining in the city at the time of this survey. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

An estimated 1,000 families, containing 1,000 workers and a total of 2,300 
persons, living within the corporate limits of Battle Creek at the time of this 
survey, had moved to the city from places outside of Calhoun County after 
October 1, 1940. Migrants made up a group equal to 5.4 percent of the 1940 
population of the city. 

ORIGINS 

Michigan was the most important source of the migrants, contributing 51 
percent. Illinois was second, with 12 percent, and Tennessee was third with 
7 percent. Six percent had come from Wisconsin, 5 percent from Ohio, and 4 
percent from Indiana. The average distance traveled by migrants was 125 
miles. Only 11 percent of the migrants had traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places were the origin of nearly a third of the migrant workers; i. e., 9 
percent came from open coimtry and 22 percent from rural villages. One-fourth 
(25 percent) of the migrants came from towns (2, .500 to 25,000 population;) 21 
percent from small cities, and 23 percent came from cities of 100,000 population 
or over. 

More than one-fourth (28 percent) of the migrant families had formerly lived 
in Battle Creek. About half of these former residents had been away from the 
city for 5 years or more before their return. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of migrant workers was 29.2 years. For one- 
person families, the average was 24.0 years, and for heads of multi-person families 
32.3 years. Workers under 20 years of age comprised 11 percent of the migrant 
workers and those 45 years or over, 12 percent. 

Women workers made up 20 percent of all migrant workers in Battle Creek. 
The aver'age age of women workers was 25.6 years, as compared with 29.8 years 
for men. 

Race. — Seven percent of the migrant persons in Battle Creek were Negro. 
White persons made up the remaining 93 percent. 

Size of family. — Migrant families averaged 2.3 persons per family when inter- 
viewed in Battle Creek. 

Percent 
distribu- 

Size of family in Battle Creek: tion 

1 person 42 

2 persons 21 

3 and 4 persons 29 

5 persons or more 8 

Total 100 

Most of the migrant families were complete units when interviewed; however 
14 percent of the one-person families and 3 percent of the multiperson families 
left a spouse or dependent children at their last residences. Before migration 
the families contained 2,500 persons, of whom 95 percent moved to Battle Creek 
and 5 percent remained at the migrants' previous residences. 

Month of arrival. — Half of the migrants arrived in Battle Creek prior to August 
1941. Only a few, 2 percent, came during the month in which they were inter- 
viewed. 

Percent 
distribu- 
Month of arrival: ''o« 

October 1940-March 1941 18 

April-May 1941 . 12 

June-July 1941 21 

August-September 1941 29 

October 1941 18 

November 1941 2 

Total 100 



10468 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

No one industry predominateci among the migrant workers at their last resi- 
dences. Manufacturing, trade, and "other" service industries each contribute'! 
about one-fifth of the workers. Agricultural workers and those with no jobs a 
their last residence contributed a relatively large proportion of the migrants. In 
Battle Creek manufacturing absorbed two-fifths of the migrants. The more im- 
portant manufacturing industries in which migrants found jobs were iron and steel 
and machinery. Few migrants were employed in the food industries. One-fifth 
of the migrants were employed in "other" service industries (finance, insurance, 
and real estate; business and repair services; amusement, recreation, and related 
services ; Government work, etc.). Trade absorbed nearly one-fifth of the migrants. 

The industrial distribution of the migrants on their last full-time jobs at their 
last residence and on their jobs when interviewed in Battle Creek was as follows: 



Industry 



No job at last residence • 

Unemployed in Battle Creek. 
Agriculture, forestry, fishing.. 

Min ing 

Construction 



Manufacturing. 



Food.. 

Iron and steel- 
Machinery 

Other 



Transportation, communication, and utilities. 

Trade 

Personal services 

Other services 



Total. 



Percent distribution 



At last resi- 
dence 



In Battle 
Creek 



19 


39 


2 


3 


2 


15 


S 


11 


10 


10 


3 


6 


17 


18 


13 


10 


16 


20 



' The status of these workers at their last residence was: Students, 9 percent; housewives 2 percent; un- 
employed 1 percent; others 2 percent. 
' Less than 0.5 percent. 

Clerical workers and operatives comprised about one-third of the migrant 
workers at their last residence, but in Battle Creek nearly half of the workers found 
employment in these two occupational categories. There were very few craftsmen 
among the migrant workers. 

The occupations of the migrants before and after migration were as follows: 





Percent distribution 


Occupation 


.A.t last resi- 
dence 


In Battle 
Creek 


No job at last residence 


14 




Unemployed in Battle Creek '. 


3 


Professional and semiprofessional 


7 

6 
15 

8 
19 

5 

10 
11 

5 


9 


Proprietors, manasers, and officials. -J - 


7 


Clerical and kindred workers . 


15 


Craftsmen and kindred workers 


10 


Operatives and kindred workers. .. .. .. -. . 


28 


Domestic service workers 


3 


Other service workers. 


13 


Farm owners, tenant?, and laborers..- 


(1) 


Laborers, except farm . 


12 






Total - 


100 


100 







' Less than 0.5 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10469 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 1,000 migrant workers, an estimated 30, or 3 percent were unemployed 
and seeking work during the calendar week prior to interview. 

Unemployment by sex. — Men and women reported about the same unemploj^- 
ment rate in Battle Creek. Among women workers 4 percent were unemployed 
and among men 3 percent. 

Unemployment by race. — The unemployment rate of Negro workers was 9 
percent, as compared with 3 percent for white workers. 

Unemployment by age. — Battle Creek migrants reported only small variations 
in unemployment according to age: 

Percent 
vnemployed 
Age of worker : in Battle Creel: 

Total 3 

Under 20 years 4 

20 to 24 years 4 

25 to 44 years 2 

45 years and over 5 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — Unlike the other cities covered in these 
surveys, Battle Creek migrants who had arrived in the city shortly before inter- 
view reported no greater unemployment tlian those who had been in tlie city longer. 

Percevt 
Month of arrival: unempioyrd 

Total 3 

October 1940to March 1941 2 

April 1941 to May 1941 0) 

June-July 1941 4 

August-September 1941 4 

October-November 1941 4 

' Less than 0.5 percent. 

Unemployment by industry and occupation.- — Except for workers from other 
service influstries, no industrial group among the migrants reported high unem- 
ployment. 

Percent unemployed 
Industry at last residence: '« battle Creek 

Total 3 

No job 2 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4 

Mining (i) 

Construction (i) 

Manufacturing 2 

Tran.sportation, communication, and utilities (') 

Trade 3 

Personal services 3 

Other services 16 

1 Base too small for computation. 

Domestic and other service workers and clerical workers reported the highest 
unemployment rates in Battle Creek. No other occupational group showed any 
significant proportion of unemploj^ed workers. 
Occupation at last residence: 

Percent unemployed 
in Battle Creek 

Total 3 

No job 2 

Professional, semiprofessional, and proprietary : (') 

Clerical and kindred workers 6 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 3 

Operatives and kindred workers 3 

Domestic and other service workers 8 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 4 

Laborers, except farm (-) 

' Less than 0.5 percent. 

* Base too small for computation. 



10470 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



The majority of the migrant famihes were sharing their Hving quarters with 
other persons in Battle Creek. About two-fifths were occupying a separate 
dweUing unit, and a few were living in hotels. 



Living arrangements 



Total 



1- person 
families 



Multiper- 
son families 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

Total 



(1) 



100 



100 



1 Less than 0.5 percent. 



CONCLUSIONS 



Like many similar midwestern cities — South Bend, Ind.; Dayton, Ohio; and 
Quincy, 111., for example — Battle Creek's recent in-migration has been character- 
ized by moderate volume, and by the marked success of migrant workers in 
obtaining jobs. 



February 13, 1942. 
Recent Migration Into Bloomfield, N. J. 

A survey of recent migration into Bloomfield, N. J., was conducted by the 
Work Projects Administration, Division of Research, during the latter part of 
November 1941. The survey was concerned with civilians who moved to Bloom- 
field from places outside Essex County after October 1, 1940, and who were 
still living there when this survey was conducted. Operating on a sample basis, 
the survey covered the residential districts and lower priced hotels within the 
corporate limits of Bloomfield. Higher priced hotels were not surveyed and no 
attempt was made to gather information about persons who left the city during 
the survey period. 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Bloomfield is a small segment of the northern New Jersey industrial area, 
one of the principal defense centers in the country. Bloomfield itself has defense 
contracts valued at $6,500,000, and the city lies within easy commuting distance 
of the aircraft plants at CaldweU, Paterson, and Bendix, and the shipyards at 
Kearny. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

An estimated 300 families containing 350 workers and a total of 730 persons, 
living within the corporate limits of Bloomfield at the time of this survey, had 
moved to the city after October 1, 1940. Migrants made up a group equal to 
1.8 percent of the city's 1940 population. 



New Jersey contributed the highest proportion, 42 percent, of the migrant 
workers. New York was the second most important source of migrants, con- 
tributing 22 percent, and Pennsylvania was third with 21 percent. The average 
distance traveled by migrants was 64 miles, and only 6 percent had traveled 
500 miles or more. 

Large cities (100,000 population or over) contributed 33 percent of the migrant 
workers and small cities (25,000 to 100,000) contributed 18 percent. Twenty- 
six percent of the migrants came from towns (2,500 to 25,000) and 23 percent 
came from rural places; i. e., 8 percent came from open country and 15 percent 
came from rural villages. 

Returning Bloomfield residents comprised 15 percent of the migrant families. 
About half of these families had been absent from the city for less than 2 years. 



CHARACTERISTICS 



Age and sex. — The average age of migrant workers was 29.3 years. In one- 
person families the average age was 24.0 years and for heads of multiperson 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10471 



families it was 35.0 years. Workers under 20 years of age comprised 9 percent 
of the migrants and workers 45 years and over 16 percent. 

Women workers constituted 15 percent of the migrant labor force. The 
average age of women workers was 28.3 years as compared with 29.4 years for 
men. 

Race. — Negroes constituted less than one-half of 1 percent of the migrants. 

Size of family. — The average size of migrant families was 2.4 persons. One- 
third of the families were composed of one person. 

Percent dis- 
Size of family in Bloomfield: tribution 

1 person 34 

2 persons 23 

3 and 4 persons 35 

5 persons or more 8 

Total 100 

A few of the families left a spouse or dependent children at their last residences. 
Among one-person families 16 percent and among multiperson families 3 percent 
were incomplete when interviewed. The families contained 800 persons before 
migration of whom 91 percent had migrated and 9 percent had stayed at the 
migrant's last residences. 

MONTH OF ARRIVAL 

Over two-fifths of the migrants arrived in Bloomfield 6 months or more prior 
to the survey. 

Percent dis- 
Month of arrival: tribution 

October 1940 to Mav 1941 45 

June-July 1941 14 

August-September 194 1 23 

October 1941 11 

November 194 1 7 

Total 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Manufacturing and trade contributed the largest proportion of the migrant 
workers. One-sixth of the workers were either unemployed at their last resi- 
dence or were new workers just entering the labor market. In Bloomfield, 
approximately two-thirds of the migrants were employed in manufacturing. 
Machinery was the principal manufacturing industry. One-sixth were employed 
in trade. The following table shows the industry of the last full time jobs of 
migrants at last residence and on their jobs when interviewed in Bloomfield. 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In 
Bloomfield 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in Bloomfield 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining- 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Chemicals and allied products 

Machinery 

Transportation equipment 

Other 

Transportation, commimication, and utilities. 

Trade 

Personal services 

Other services.- 



Total. 



100 



» The status of these workers at their last residence was: students 12 percent; housewives 4 percent; and 
unemployed 1 percent. 
' Less than 0.5 percent. 



10472 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Clerical, skilled, and semiskilled workers made up half of the workers at their 
last residence and more than two-thirds in Bloomfield. Only a very few workers 
were employed as laborers ether In Bloomfield or at their last residences. Occupa- 
tions at last residence and in Bloomfield follow: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In 
Bloomfield 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Bloomfield 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers -_- 

Laborers except farm 



(') 



Total- 



100 



100 



1 Less than 0.5-pereent. 



UNEMPLOYMENT 



Out of an estimated 350 workers only 7, or 2 percent, were unemployed during 
the week preceding interview. 

HOUSING 

Over half of the migrant families were occupying a separate dwelling unit in 
Bloomfield. Nearly two-fifths of the families were sharing a dwelling unit with 
other persons, and a few unattached migrants were living in hotels. 





Total 


Percent distribution 


Living arrangements 


1 -person 
families 


Multi-per- 
son families 




57 

39 

4 


9 
80 
11 


82 


Sharing a dwelling with others 


18 










Total --- - -- - 


100 


100 


100 







CONCLUSIONS 



The volume of recent migration into Bloomfield, N. J. was unusually small 
during the first year of the defense program. Among the 51 cities covered in these 
surveys, only 2 showed a lower migrant rate. 

There was virtually no unemployment among the Bloomfield migrants. 



December 5, 1941. 
Recent Migr^^tion Into Bridgeport, Conn. 

A survey of migration into Bridgeport, Conn., was completed by the Work 
Projects Administration Division of Research during the early part of November 
1941. The survey was concerned with civilians who moved to Bridgeport from 
places outside of Fairfield Coimty after October 1, 1940, and who were still living 
in Bridgeport at the time of this survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey 
covered the residential districts, the one occupied defense housing project, and 
lower-priced hotels within the corporate limits of Bridgeport. Higher-priced 
hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt was made to gather information about 
persons who had left Bridgeport. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10473 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Bridgeport is one of the Nation's more important defense centers. Between 
June 1940 and September 1941 the Bridgeport industrial area received defense 
contracts valued at $187,000,000, equal to about half the 1937 value of manufac- 
tures in the area. Between September 1940 and September 1941, manufacturing 
employment in Bridgeport rose 47.3 percent, the seventh largest rate of increase 
among 84 American cities. 

With this activity, the supply of locally available unemployed in the preferred 
lategories was quickly exhausted. As a result, an extensive training program was 
istablished to replenish, from local sources, the supply of semiskilled workers; 
and a large group of commuters were drawn from nearby farms and villages into 
the Bridgeport labor market. In addition, migrant workers in large numbers 
moved to Bridgeport for the new job. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 5,100 families living in Bridgeport at the time of the present 
survey had moved to the city after October 1, 1940. These families contained 
r),900 persons, of whom 6,000 were workers. Migrants made up a group equal 
to 6.7 percent of Bridgeport's 1940 population. 

ORIGINS 

The principal source of Bridgeport migrants was the State of Pennsylvania, 
which contributed 36 percent of the total. New York was second, with 34 
percent and Connecticut was third with only 6 percent. IMassachusetts con- 
tributed 5 percent and Maine 3 percent. The average distance traveled was 115 
miles, and 1 migrant in 20 had traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places (places of less than 2,500 population) were the source of 13 percent 
of the migrants, i. e., 3 percent came from open country and 10 percent from rural 
villages. Towns (2,500 to 25,000 population) contributed 32 percent; small 
cities, 16 percent; and cities of over 100,000 population, 39 percent. 

A relatively small proportion of the families (11 percent) had formerly lived in 
Bridgeport. Half of these families had been absent from the city for 9 years or 
more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of all workers in the migrant families was 27.0 
years. In one-person families, the average was 24.7 years: and for heads of multi- 
person families, 31.3 years. Workers under 20 years made up 13 percent of all 
workers, and 9 percent were over 45 years. 

Women workers made up 18 percent of all the migrant workers in Bridgeport. 
The average age of women workers was 24.0 years, as compared with 27.5 years 
for males. 

Race. — Negroes constituted 1 percent of the Bridgeport migrants. 

Size of family. — The majority of the Bridgeport migrant families contained 
only one person when interviewed at the time of this study: 

Size of family in Bridgeport: distribution 

1 person 59 

2 persons 18 

3 and 4 persons 18 

5 persons and over 5 

Total 100 

An imusually large proportion of these families were incomplete when inter- 
viewed; 54 percent of the 1-person families and 11 percent of the multiperson 
families had left one or more family members behind when they moved to Bridge- 
port. Before migration, families had contained 14,900 persons. Of these, 66 
percent had migrated and 34 percent had remained at the migrants' places of 
residence. 



60386 — 42— pt. 27 17 



10474 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Month of arrival. — A distribution of the migrant workers according to the 
month of their arrival in Bridgeport was as follows: ^^^^^^^ ^^ 

Month of arrival: Bridgeport migrants 

October 1 940-February 1941 20 

March- April 1941 15 

Mav-June 1941 23 

Julv- August 1941 22 

September 1941 14 

October 1941 6 

Total 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Before migration only about one-fourth of the Bridgeport migrants were 
engaged in manufacturing; but in Bridgeport, manufacturing engaged three- 
fourths of the workers. New recruits for the factories came from all industries, 
but especiallv from mining, trade, and, most of all, from workers who held no 
jobs at theirlast residence. Agriculture was only a minor contributor. 

The following table shows the industry of migrant workers on their last full- 
time jobs at last residence and on their jobs when interviewed in Bridgeport. 



Industry 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in Bridgeport 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturing 

Iron and steel and their products. .. 

Nonferrous metals 

M achinery 

Transportation equipment 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities. 

Trade 

Personal services 

Other services 



Total. 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



100 



In Bridge- 
port 



(2) 



4 

74 



22 
7 

20 
9 

1& 



100 



1 The status of these workers at their last residence was as follows; students, 11 percent: housewives, 
2 percent; unemployed, 7 percent; other, 1 percent. 

2 Less than 0.5 percent. 

The principal occupations for migrants in Bridgeport were skilled and semi- 
skilled. Before migration, 40 percent of the workers had held skilled and semi- 
skilled jobs; after migration, the proportion increased to 68 percent. Only a small 
proportion of the workers held unskilled jobs either before or after migration to 
Bridgeport. 

The occupations of Bridgeport migrants before and after migration were as 
follows : 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Bridge- 
port 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Bridgeport 

Professional and ."^cmiprcfessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials.. 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen ana kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domest ic service workers 

Othpr service workers .^ 

Farm owners, tennnts, and laborers- 
Laborers, except farm. 

Total 



100 



10ft 



NATIONAL DET-ENSB JSHGRATION 10475 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 6,000 migrant workers in Bridgeport, an estimated 220 workers, or 4 
percent, were unemployed and seeking work during the week prior to interview. 
Comparable figures for other recently surveyed cities are: Baltimore, 3 percent; 
Wichita, 13 percent; Philadelphia, 8 percent; and St. Louis, 16 percent. 

JJyietn ploy merit by sex. — Unemployment among fen^ale migrant workers was 
five times greater than among males. Among the females, 10 percent, and among 
the males, 2 percent, were unemployed in Bridgeport. 

Unemployment by age. — No single age group showed high unemployment in 
Bridgeport. Very young workers, however, reported an unemplojnnent rate 

slightly above average. 

Percent unemployed 

Age of worker: in Bridgeport 

Total 4 

Under 20 years 6 

20 to 24 years 3 

25 to 44 years 3 

45 years and over 4 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — Migrant workers who had arrived in 
Bridgeport during the months just preceding the present survey reported the 
highest unemployment rate. 

Percent unemployed 
Month of arrival: in Bridgeport 

Total 4 

October 1940 to February 1941 3 

March to June 1941 3. 

July to August 1941 a 

September 194 1 5. 

October 1941 11 

Unemployrncnl by industry and occupation.- — In terms of industry at last resi- 
dence, no major differences appear in the unemployment rate of migrants. Work- 
ers from agriculture and the personal service industries showed unemployment 
slightly above average, however; and those from mining and construction were 
well belo\y averag^e. Rates by industry at last residence follow. 

Percent un- 
employed in 
Industry at last residence: Bridgeport 

Total . 4 

No job at last residence 5 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 6 

Mining 1 

Construction 1 

Manufacturing 2 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 4 

Trade 5 

Personal services 7 

Other services 2 

In terms of occupation at last residence, only the domestic service workers 
showed a high unemployment rate in Bridgeport. Very little unemployment 
was reported by skilled workers or nonfarm laborers. Unemployment rates- 
by occupation follow: 

Percent un' 
employed in 
Occupation at last residence: Bridgeport 

Total --- 4 

No job at last residence 5 

Professional, proprietory, and clerical 4 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 1 

Operatives and kindred workers 3- 

. Domestic service workers 14 

Other service workers 3; 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 7 

Laborers, except farm 0)/ 

1 Less than 0.5-^percent. 



10476 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



HOUSING 



An exceptionally small proportion of the Bridgeport migrants were occupying 
a separate dwelling when interviewed. Even among the multiperson families, 
a majority had doubled up with other persons. 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1-person 
families 



Multi- 
person 
families 



Occupying a separate dwelling 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

Total 



(') 



' Less than 0.5 percent. 



CONCLUSIONS 



In terms of its population, Bridgeport has recently attracted a large number 
of migrants. Its migrant rate is approximately double the rates reported for 
Baltimore and Indianapolis, nearly three times greater than the rate for St. Louis, 
and nearly seven times greater than the rate for Philadelphia. The number of 
migrants attracted to Bridgeport during the first 13 months of the national 
defense program is about three times greater than its net population gain during 
the 20-year period between 1920 and 1940. Judged by the low unemployment 
rate of Bridgeport migrants, the movement has been a notably successful one for 
virtually all classes of migrant workers. 



January 10, 1942. 

Recent Migration Into Bristol, Conn. 

A survey of migration into Bristol, Conn., was conducted by the Work Projects 
Administration, Division of Research, during November 1941. The survey was 
concerned with civilians who moved to Bristol from places outside of Hartford 
County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living there at the time of the 
survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered the residential districts 
and lower-priced hotels within Bristol's corporate limits. Higher-priced hotels 
were not surveyed, and no attempt was made to gather information about persons 
who left the city during the survey period. 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Bristol, like many other Connecticut cities, enjoyed greatly increased industrial 
activity during the first year of the defense program. According to local esti- 
mates, employment in Bristol's steel- and brass-products factories increased 28 
percent between October 1940 and the time of this survey. Meanwhile, similar 
and often greater increases in employment were taking place in most of the 
cities within commuting distance — in Hartford, New Britain, Waterbury, New 
Haven, etc. Under these conditions, Bristol's backlog of unemployed workers 
was quickly depleted, and numerous migrant workers were attracted to the 
Bristol factories from neighboring States. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

An estimated 1,100 families living in Bristol at the time of this survey had 
moved to the city from places outside of Hartford County after October 1, 1940. 
These families contained 1,150 workers and a total of 1,900 persons. Migrants 
made up a group equal to 6.3 percent of Bristol's 1940 population. 



The principal sources of Bristol migrants were New York, which contributed 
30 percent; Maine, which contributed 20 percent; and Vermont, which contributed 
18 percent. Massachusetts was the origin of 9 percent; 6 percent came from 



NATIONAL DEFENSE' MIGRATION 10477 

Pennsylvania, and 6 percent from New Hampshire. The State of Connecticut 
contributed only 3 percent of the migrants. The average distance traveled by 
the migrants was 145 miles, and only 5 percent traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places were the origin of more than one-third of the migrants; i. e., 1 per- 
cent came from the open country and 35 percent from rural villages. Towns 
(2,500 to 25,000 population) contributed 36 percent; small cities, 10 percent; 
and cities of over 100,000 population. 18 percent. 

Only 5 percent of the families, an exceptionally small proportion, had ever 
lived in Bristol before their present move. About half of these former Bristol 
residents had been absent 10 years or more. 

CHARACTEniSTICS 

Age and sex. — Bristol migrant workers were unsually young, averaging 25.2 
years. In one-person families, the average was 23.8 years, and for heads of multi- 
person families, 29.3 years; 16 percent of the workers were under 20 years, but only 
6 percent were 45 years and over. 

Female workers made up 17 percent of all the migrant workers. The average 
age of female workers was 23.4 years, as compared with 25.8 years for males. 

Race. — Negroes constituted less than one-half of 1 percent of the Bristol mi- 
grants. 

Size of family. — When interviewed in Bristol, migrant families were small, 
averaging 1.8 persons per family. Two-thirds of the families contained only one 
person. 

Percent 
Size of family in Bristol: distribuiion 

1 person 66 

2 persons 14 

3 and 4 persons 15 

5 persons and over 5 

Total 100 

An unusually high proportion of these families, however, were not complete 
when interviewed; 77 percent of the one-person families and 13 percent of the 
multiperson families had left a spouse or dependent children behind when they 
moved to Bristol. Before migration, the families had contained 3,800 persons. 
Of these, exactly half had moved to Bristol and half had stayed at the migi'ant's 
last residence. 

Month of arrival. — About half of the migrants arrived in Bristol during June 
1941 or earlier, and a very small proportion arrived during the month in which 
the survey was conducted. 

Percent 
Month of arrival : distribution 

October 1940-March 1941 25 

April-May 1941 20 

June-Julv 1941 25 

August 1941 9 

September 1941 8 

October 1941 10 

November 194 1 3 

Total 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Before migration, only one-fifth of the Bristol migrants were engaged in manu- 
facturing; but in Bristol, manufacturing occupied three-fourths of the migrants. 
Bristol factory workers were drawn from all industries, but particularly from 
among farmers and new workers, who supplied more than one-third of all workers 

The following table shows the industry of m.igrant workers on their last full 
time jobs at their last residence and on their jobs when interviewed in Bristol. 



10478 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Industry 



No job at last residence ' - 

Unemployed in Bristol 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing. 

Mining 

Construction... 



Manufacturing. 



Iron and steel 

Machinery 

Non-ferrous metal products . 
•Other 



Transportation, commimication, and utilities- 
Trade -- 

Personal service 

Other services 



Total. 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Bristol 



20 


75 




2 


14 




2 


47 




1 


6 




IS 


8 




4 


1 




13 


7 




5 


4 




10 


2 



100 



I The status of these workers at their last residence was as follows: Students, 9 percent; unemployed, 6 
percent; housewives, 2 percent; others, 1 percent. 

Semiskilled jobs, the principal attraction for Bristol migrant workers, occupied 
more than half of the workers when interviewed, but only about one-quarter of 
the workers before migration. Skilled jobs were next in importance, employing 
about one-sixth of the migrant workers. Unlike many other survey cities, Bristol 
attracted very few white-collar workers. 

The occupations of Bristol migrants before and after migration are shown in 
the following table: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Bristol 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Bristol 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, manafrers, and ofBcials.. 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic-service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. 
Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



100 



■UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 1,150 migrant workers in Bristol, an estimated 25 workers, or 2 percent, 
were unemployed and seeking work during the calendar week preceding inter- 
view. Bristol shows the lowest unemployment rate of any city covered to date 
by this survey. 

Unemployment by sex.— Among the 25 unemployed workers, 20 were females. 
Ten percent of all female workers were unemployed, as compared with 1 percent 
for males. Most of the unemployed females were operatives from the apparel 
and leather industries. 

HOUSING 

About two-thirds of the Bristol migrants had doubled up with other families; 
one-fourth occupied separate living quarters; and the balance lived in hotels and 
trailer camps. 



NATIOlSnAL DEFENSE' MIGRATION 



10479 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1-person 
famOies 



Multi- 
person 
families 



Occupying a separate dwelling 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

In tourist and trailer camps. .. 

Total 



100 



4 

100 



CONCLUSIONS 

The volume of recent migration into Bristol, while obviously large, is consider- 
ably less than that found in many other war-boom cities. Out of 39 cities for 
which data are now available, 14 show a higher migrant rate than Bristol. In 
one sense, it is true, this comparison is somewhat misleading. Bristol migrants 
more than those in any other survey city, tended to migrate without their families 
thus reducing the number of migrant persons for a given number of migrant work- 
ers, and in turn, the migrant rate, which relates migrant persons to 1940 population. 



FEBRU.A.RY 14, 1942. 
Recent Migration Into Brockton, Mass. 

A survey of migration into Brockton, Mass., was completed during the early 
part of November 1941. The survey was concerned with civilians who moved to 
Brockton from places outside of Plymouth County after October 1, 1940, and 
who were still living there when this survey was conducted. Operating on a 
sample basis the survey covered the residential districts and lower-priced hotels 
within the corporate limits of the city. Higher-priced hotels were not covered, 
and no attempt was made to gather information about persons who left the city 
during the survey period. 

INDUSTRIAL 'ACTIVITY 

Between June 1940 and October 1941 Plymouth County received approximately 
$18,000,000 in prime defense contracts, equal to nearly one-fourth of the 1937 
product value of manufactures in the county. There were, however, no shortages 
reported in the Brockton labor market at the time of this survey; according to 
local reports, increases in unemployment due to priorities were expected. 

number'"of migrants 

An estimated 450 families, containing 450 workers and a total of 1,200 persons, 
living within the corporate limits of Brockton at the time of this survey had 
moved to the city from places outside Plymouth County after October 1, 1940. 
Migrants made up a group equal to 1.8 percent of the 1940 population of the city 



Massachusetts contributed by far the largest proportion, 82 percent, of the 
migrants. Next in importance were Maine, contributing 5 percent, and New 
Hampshire with 4 percent. The average distance traveled by migrants was 58 
miles; and only 1 percent traveled 500 miles or more. 

One-fourth of the migrants (25 percent) moved from large cities (100,000 
population or over) ; and one-fifth (19 percent) had come from small cities (25,000- 
100,000 population). Towns (2,500-25,000) contributed 37 percent of the mi- 
grants. Nineteen percent came from rural villages, and less than one-half of 
1 percent came from open country. 

Former residents of Brockton comprised an unusually large proportion (43 
percent) of the migrant families. About half of these returning residents had been 
absent from the city for 3 years or more. 



10480 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of migrant workers was 31.1 years. In one- 
person families the average was 28.4 years and for heads of multiperson families 
it was 33.8 years. Less than 1 percent of the workers were under 20 years of age 
and 24 percent were 45 years of age or older. 

Women workers comprised 21 percent of the migrant labor force. The average 
age of women workers was 29 years, as compared with 31.9 years for men. 

Race. — Negroes constituted less than one-half of 1 percent of the migrants. 

Size of family. — The average size of the migrant families was 2.6 persons. 
One-person families comprised only one-fourth of the migrants. Percent 

Size of family in Brockton: distribution 

1 person 24 

2 persons 31 

3 and 4 persons 35 

5 persons or more 10 

Total 100 

A few of the migrant families were incomplete when interviewed: 22 percent 
of the 1-person families and 8 percent of the multiperson families had left a spouse 
or dependent children at their last residences. Before migration the families 
contained 480 persons, of whom 96 percent had migrated and 4 percent had stayed 
at the families' last residences. 

Month of arrival. — Half of the workers migrated to Brockton during or before 

June 1941. „ _, 

Percent 

Month of arrival: distribution 

October 1940 to March 1941 18 

April to May 1941 11 

June to July 1941 20 

August 1941 . 13 

September 1941 4 

October 1941 21 

November 1941 i 13 

Total 100 

* Does not include the entire month. 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Manufacturing was the largest single industrial group among the migrants 
and trade was second, both before migration and in Brockton. Very few migrants 
had been engaged in agriculture at their last residence, and unlike migrants in 
the other cities surveyed, relatively few workers engaged in personal and other 
services. 

The industrial distribution of the migrants on their last full-time jobs at last 
residence and on their jobs in Brockton was as follows: 





Percent distribution 


Industry 


At last 
residence 


In Brock- 
ton 


No job at last rosidence ' _ 


10 




Unemploved in Brockton.. 


3 


Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 


(2) 


2 
5 

13 

1 
22 

5 
30 

5 

7 


2 


Mining 


(2) 


Construction 


6 


Manufacturing: 

Leather and leather products 


16 


Iron and steel 


8 


Other 


26 


Transportation, communication and utilities 


1 


Trade 


28 


Personal services 


2 


ther services _ 


5 






Total... 


100 


100 







' The status of these workers at their last residence was: Students, 4 percent; housewives, 3 percent; unem- 
ployed, 3 percent. 
' Less than 0.5 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



10481 



As in the other cities survej'ed, white-collar workers had a large representation 
among the migrants. There were also a large number of operatives, particularly 
after migration. Unskilled workers made up only a very small proportion of 
the workers. 

The occupations of migrant workers at their last residence and in Brockton are 
shown below: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Brock- 
ton 



No job at last residence... _ 

Unemployed in Brockton 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, raanacers and officials 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred wor^ers. 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers ._ _ 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 

Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



100 



100 



UNEMPLOYMENT 

Of the estimated 450 workers in Brockton, only 15, or 3 percent, were unem- 
ployed and seeking work during the calendar week preceding interview. Most 
of these unemployed workers were either professional or domestic service workers 
at their last residence. 

HOUSING 

Over two-thirds of the migrant families were occupying a separate dwelling 
unit in IJrockton; one-fourth were sharing a dwelling with other persons; and a 
few unattached persons were living in hotels. 



Living arrangements 



Occjipying a separate dwelling 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels.. 

Total 



Total 



1-person 
families 



100 



Multiper- 
son families 



100 



CONCLUSIONS 



Both the volume and rate of migration into Brockton during the period covered 
by this survey were low; only 4 of the 51 cities recently surveyed showed a lower 
migrant rate. There were very few unemployed among the migrants. 



December 16, 1941. 
Recent Migration Into Burlington, Iowa 

A survey of migration into Burlington, Iowa, one of the Nation's great new 
munitions centers, was completed by the Work Projects Administration Division 
of Research in the early part of November 1941. The survey was concerned 
with civilians who moved to Burlington from places outside of Des Moines County 
after October 1, 1940, and who were still living in Burlington at the time of the 
present survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered the residential 
districts, lower-priced hotels, and trailer camps, both private and Government- 
owned, within the corporate limits of the city. An additional canvass was made 
of trailer camps around the edges of the city. Higher priced hotels were not 
surveyed, and no attempt was made to gather information about persons who had 
left Burlington during the survey period. 



10482 WASHINGTON HEARINGS . 

INDUSTRIAL, ACTIVITY 

Burlington is the location of the new Iowa ordnance plant. Between June 1940 
and August 1941, prime defense contracts awarded in connection with this plant 
were valued at about $65,000,000, a sum more than six times greater than the 
value of all Burlington manufactures during 1937. About half the total defense- 
contract value was allotted to plant construction and about half to^ the production 
of ordnance. 

Construction of the plant was begun late in 1940, but peak construction employ- 
ment was not reached until July 1941, when about 13,000 workers were employed. 
Construction employment declined rapidly in the late summer and fall as the 
plant approached completion. During the same period completed sections of 
the plant began operation, providing new employment on a somewhat smaller 
scale than the original construction job. At the time of the present survey, it 
was locally estimated that 10,000 workers were still employed about the plant, 
either on the last phases of construction or in production at newly installed 
operating units. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 2,800 families living in Burlington at the time of the present 
survey had moved to the city after October 1, 1940. These families contained 
2,900 workers and 5,000 persons. Migrants made up a group equal to 19.2 
percent of Burlington's 1940 population. 

The survey found an additional 330 families, containing 900 persons, in tourist 
and trailer camps just outside the Burlington city limits. 



Iowa was the most important source of Burlington migrants, contributing 39 
percent; and lUinois was second with 22 percent. Minnesota and Missouri each 
contributed 9 percent, and 3 percent came from Wisconsin. The average dis- 
tance traveled by the migrants was 140 miles; 11 percent had traveled 500 miles 
or more. 

Rural places (less than 2,500 population) contributed slightly less than one- 
third of the migrants; i. e., 2 percent came from the open country and 29 per- 
cent from rural villages. Towns (2,500 to 25,000 population) contributed 30 
percent; small cities, 19 percent; and cities of over 100,000 population, 20 per- 
cent. 

Only 3 percent of the migrant families had formerly lived in Burlington. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of migrant workers in Burlington was 33.7 
years, considerabl}^ above the average for migrants in other cities surveyed. In 
1-person families, the average age was 33.4 years; and for heads of multiperson 
families, 35.2 years. Only 4 percent of the workers were under 20 years, but 23 
percent were 45 years and over. 

Ten percent of the migrant workers were women. The average age of women 
workers was 27.1 years, as compared with 34.7 years for men. 

Race. — Practically all the migrants were white; Negroes accounted for less 
than one-half of 1 percent of the total migrants in Burlington. 

Size of family. — Migrant families in Burlington were relatively small, averag- 
ing 1.8 persons per family. More than half of the families contained only 

one person. 

Percent 

Size of family in Burlington: dittribution 

1 person 53 

2 persons 25 

3 and 4 persons 19 

5 persons and over 3 

Total '- 100 

Many of these families were not complete when interviewed; 40 percent of the 
1-person families and 10 percent of the multiperson families had left a spouse or 
dependent children behind when they moved to Burlington. Before migration 
the families had contained 6,800 persons. Of these 72 percent had migrated to 
Burlington, and 28 percent had remained at the migrants' places of origin. 



NATTONiAL DEFENSE' MIG'RATIOlSr 



10483 



Month of arrival. — Half of the migrants interviewed had come to Burlington 
about 6 months before the present survey. 

P€TC€7lt 

Month of arrival: dintribvtion 

October 1940 to February 1941 27 

March to April 1941 19 

May to June 1941 21 

July to August 1941 19 

September 1941 11 

October 1941 3 

Total 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Before migration to Burlington, the largest single group among the migrants 
was made up of construction workers. Important secondary sources of mi- 
grants were workers from agriculture, trade, "other" service industries, and 
workers who held no job at last residence. The proportion of migrants who 
were employed in manufacturing industries at their last residence was notably 
small. In Burlington, more than half of the migrants were emploved in con- 
struction, and nearly one-quarter were engaged in the production of ordnance. 

The industrial distribution of migrant workers on their last full-time jobs at 
their last residence and on their jobs when interviewed in Burlington was as 
follows : 



•• 


Percent distribution 


Industry 


At last 
residence 


In 
Burlington 


No job at last residence ' 


12 




Unemployed in Burlington . . . . . 


3 


ACTiculture, forestry, and fishing 


9 

1 

42 

2 
4 
5 

12 
3 

10 


(n 


Minings- _ . . . - 


m 


Construction. . . 


64 


Manufacturing: 

Chemicals - 


23 


Other-- 


3 


Transportation, communication, and utilities - 


4 


Trade T 


8 


Personal service ... --. 


3 


Other services 


2 


Total 


100 


100 







1 The status of these workers at last residence was as follows: Students, 5 percent; unemployed, 5 percent; 
and housewives, 2 percent. 

2 Less than 0.5 percent. 

Both before and after migration, the largest occupational groups among the 
Burlington migrants consisted of craftsmen and — unlike most of the other cities 
surveyed — unskilled workers. The principal occupational shifts took place among 
former students, who turned mainly to clerical and unskilled jobs, and among 
former farm workers, who shifted largely into unskilled work in Burlington. 

The occupational distribution of migrants at last residence and in Burlington 
follows: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Bur- 
lington 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Burlington... 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials- . 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers.. 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. 
Laborers, except farm 

Total 



100 



(') 



3 
6 

2 

12 
32 
14 
1 
8 

23 



1 L«ss than 0.5 percent. 



10484 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



UNEMPLOYMENT 

^ Out of 2,900 migrant workers in Burlington, an estimated 95, or 3 percent, were 
unemployed and seeking work during the calendar week preceding the survey. 
Unemployment by sex. — Unemployment among male migrants in Burlington 
had virtually disappeared. The few female migrant workers, however, reported 
excessive unemployment. Among the males, 1 percent were unemployed, as 
compared with 27 percent for females. More than three-fourths of the unem- 
ployed workers were females. 

HOUSING 

The majority of the migrant families in Burlington had doubled up with other 
families, and only about one-fourth occupied separate living quarters. A rela- 
tively large proportion of the families lived in tourist and trailer camps. 



Living arrangements 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

In.tourist and trailer camps.. .. 

Total 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1 -person 
families 



100 



Multi- 
ple-person 
families 



(>) 



100 



Less than 0.5 percent. 



CONCLUSIONS 



The rate of recent migration into Burlington is tremendously high, nearly equal- 
ing the rate for Wichita, Kans., and about double the rates for Fort Smith, Ark., 
and Wichita Falls, Tex., two very active small defense cities included in this sur- 
vey. The number of persons who moved to Burlington during the first year of 
the defense program is considerably larger than the city's net population gain 
during the half century between 1890 and 1940. 

The recent migration to Burlington has been a notably, successful one, since only 
3 percent of the migrant workers reported unemployment. In Wichita, on the 
other hand, 13 percent were unemployed; in Fort Smith, 17 percent; and in 
Wichita Falls, 6 percent. 

A considerable part of the Burlington migrants consisted of construction work- 
ers whose stay is temporary. However, the number of migrants who will remain 
in the city after the end of construction work at the Iowa Ordnance plant and in 
other more permanent industries will still be relatively large. 



June 7, 1941. 



Recent Migration Into Chicago, III. 



A survey of migration into Chicago, 111., was conducted by the Work Projects 
Administration Division of Research during the first week of May 1941. The 
survey was concerned with persons who moved to Chicago from places outside 
Cook County between October 1, 1940, and May 1, 1941. The city of Chicago 
as a whole was covered with two independent sair.ples, whose results were in close 
agreement. Special surveys were made in rooming-house districts, in low-priced 
hotels and in tourist camps. Migrants in higher-priced hotels were not included 
in the survey. No attempt was made to gather information on families migrating 
away from Chicago during the 7-m.onth period covered by the survey. 



industrial activity 



The city of Chicago had not benefited from the national defense program to 
any exceptional degree at the time the n.igration survey was conducted. Although 
Chicago's industries reported generally increased industrial activity between 
October 1940 and May 1941, a substantial part of the local labor force was still 



NATrONAL DEPEOSrSE' MIGllATION 



10485 



unemployed in May. Late in the spring of 1940, local estinaates put the total 
number of unemployed workers in Cook County at 300,000. 

Chicago could therefore afford few job opportunities to workers from, outside 
the city during the 7-m.onth survey period. Tlje survey of recent migration into 
Chicago thus provides one bit of evidence for testing the belief that great num.bers 
of workers are migrating into American industrial centers without realistically 
appraising their chances for finding jobs. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approxim.ately 11,300 families living in Chicago during the first week of May 
1941 had m.oved'to Cook County after October 1, 1940. These families contained 
approximately 22,800 persons.' Migrants thus m.ade up a group equal to 0.7 
percent of Chicago's 1940 population. 

White persons predominated am^ong the migrants, accounting for 90 percent of 
all migrants. Negroes made up 9 percent of the migrants, and other races, prin- 
cipally Mexicans, contributed 1 percent. 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

The rate of unem.ployment am.ong workers who had recently migrated to Chicago 
was high. Out of approximately 12,100 workers in the m.igrant families, 80 
percent were working and 20 percent were unemployed and-seeking work. 

TURN-OVER 

The Chicago migration survey provides certain indirect evidence on the extent 
to which unemployed workers are constantly m.oving from, city to city in search 
of work. If the turn-over of "floaters" within any given city were high, two 
conditions would be expected: (a) The rate of iuiem.ployn\ent am.ong nigrants 
would be high; and (6) a high proportion of the migrants interviewed at any 
given time would have been in the city only a short time. In Chicago, the first 
of these conditions obtained, but not the second. Approxim.ately the same 
num.ber of migrants interviewed during the first week of May 1941 reported that 
they had arrived in the city during October and November 1940 as reported 
arriving during March and April 1941. 

INDUSTRY BEFORE AND AFTER MIGR.\TION 

The industrial distribution of Chicago migrant workers on their last full-tin'.e 
job at their last place ot residence before m.oving to Chicago, and on the jobs in 
Chicago when the survey was made, was as follows: 





Percent distribution 


Industry 


j\.t last 
residence 


In Chicago 


Agriculture _. 


19 
5 
9 

5 
4 
12 
5 
15 
10 
7 
9 




Mining .. ... __ 




Construction. 


g 


Manufacturing: 
Food 


11 


Iron and steel . . . 


13 


Other 


20 


Transportation and communication 


6 


Trade... . ... . ... . 


19 


Professional and governmental service ... ... 


8 


Domestic and personal services 


8 


Other . 


7 






Total ... 


100 


100 







A very broad stratum (nearly one-fourth, in fact) of newly arrived workers 
had come from agriculture and mining. Compensating increases took place 
among workers engaged in Chicago's manufacturing industries, particularly food 
and iron and steel, and in trade. The other industrial classes show no significant 
changes. 



10486 



WASHINGTON HEAKINGS 



The average age of all workers in the migrant families was 31.6 years, substan- 
tially below the average age of resident Chicago workers. In one-person families, 
the average age of workers was 27.0 years; in multiperson families the average age 
of family heads was 33.1 years. Only 1 worker in 20 was 45 years of age and over. 



The Chicago migrants had come from exceptionally long distances. Only 5 
percent had moved from counties contiguous to Cook County; and only 19 per- 
cent had moved from other Illinois counties. States adjoining Illinois (i. e., 
Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Missouri, and Wisconsin) contributed 24 percent. 
States not contiguous to Illinois contributed 53 percent of the migrant families. 

The great majority of the migrants had moved to Chicago from urban places 
(i. e., places of 2,500 population or more). A total of 80 percent of the families 
had moved from urban places, and a large proportion of these had come from 
cities of more than 100,000 population. Rural places contributed 20 percent. 
Most of the rural migrants came from villages, rather than from places in the 
open coimtry. 

Finally, most of the families had come to the city of Chicago for the first time. 
Among all the migrant families, 68 percent contained no member who had ever 
lived in Chicago before; and 32 percent contained one or more members who were 
formerly Chicago residents. Practically all of the former Chicago residents had 
jnoved away from Chicago after 1930. 



LIVING ARRANGEMENTS 



Considerably less than half of the Chicago migrant families occupied a separatd 
dwelling unit at the time of the survey; the majority lived in rooming houses ane 
hotels or had doubled up with other families. The distribution of the families 
according to living arrangements was as follows (exactly half the migrants were 
one-person and exactly half were multiperson families) : 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



One-person 
families 



Multi- 
person 
families 



Occupying a separate dwelling 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

Total 



100 



100 



100 



CONCLUSIONS 

The flow of migrants, both Negro and white, into the Chicago labor market 
during recent months has been very small. Moreover, the evidence suggests 
that very few floaters, moving from city to city in search of work, are passing 
through the Chicago labor market. The record of recent migration into Chicago 
offers no support for the belief that the general increase in industrial activity 
outside important defense centers had brought large numbers of ill-advised workers 
to the northern industrial regions. 

The Chicago survey does suggest, however, that important consequences would 
probably follow, should the number of migrants appreciably increase in the future. 
The newly arrived workers in the Chicago labor market were considerably younger 
than the backlog of resident unemployed workers. Hence it would be expected 
that the newcomers would be more readily absorbed into Chicago's industries 
than the local unemployed; and any sizeable increase in the flow of workers would 
accordingly decrease tlie chances of reemployment for the local unemployed. 

The record of the origins of Chicago migrants indicates that important geo- 
graphical and industrial" shifts may be in process of beginning. The distance 
traveled by newcomers was exceptional; there are few cases in the history of 
American internal migration to parallel the record shown by recent Chicago 
migrants. It is significant, too, that two-thirds of the migrants had never lived 
in Chicao:o be^'ore, and that one-fourth of the new workers had left the farms and 
mines before moving to Chicago. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10487 

December 20, 1941. 
Recent Migration into Corpus Christi, Tex. 

A survey of migration into Corpus Christi, Tex., was conducted by the Work 
Projects Administration, Division of Research in the latter part of October 1941. 
The survey was concerned with civilians who moved to Corpus Christi from places 
outside of Nueces County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living there 
in October 1941. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered residential 
districts, lower-priced hotels, and tourist camps within the city limits of Corpus 
Christi. Higher priced hotels were not surveyed and no attempt was made to 
gather information_about persons who had left the city during the period covered 
by the survey. 

industrial activity 

Between June 1940 and September 1941 Corpus Christi received direct defense 
contracts valued at $43,125,000. This entire sum was allotted for the construc- 
tion of facilities, principally for the construction of a naval air station in Corpus 
Christi and a shipyard a few miles outside the city limits. General business 
activity in Corpus Christi, which was already brisk because of a recent oil boom, 
has been further intensified by this defense work. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 2,900 families, containing 3,200 workers and a total of 6,400 
persons, moved to Corpus Christi from places outside of Nueces County after 
October 1, 1940, and were still living there in October 1941. The total number 
of migrants was equal to 11.1 percent of the 1940 population of the city. 

ORIGINS 

Texas supplied three-fourths of the migrants in Corpus Christi. Oklahoma 
was the second most important source, contributing 8 percent, and Louisiana was 
the third with 2 percent. The average distance traveled by migrants was 240 
miles; and 23 percent, a relatively large portion, had traveled 500 miles or more. 

Towns (places of 2,500 to 25,000 population) were the origin of the largest 
proportion of the migrants, 37 percent. Cities of over 100,000 population con- 
tributed 28 percent. Rural places contributed 20 percent; i. e. 1 percent came 
from open country and 19 percent from rural villages. The smallest proportion 
of migrants, 15 percent, came from small cities (25,000 to 100,000 population). 

Only 10 percent of the families reported previous residence in Corpus Christi. 
Among these former residents, about one-half had been absent for 3 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of all migrant workers was 31.9 years. The 
average age of family heads was 35.1 years and of unattached workers 29.5. 
Only 7 percent of the migrant workers were under 20 years of age, but 16 percent 
were 45 years or over. 

Women workers constituted a comparatively high proportion, 17 percent, of 
the migrant labor force. The average age of women workers was 24.9 years, as 
against 33.3 years for men. 

Race. — Mexicans made up 10 percent, Negroes 6 percent, and white persons 
84 percent of the Corpus Christi migrants. 

Size of favnly. — The average size of the migrant families was 2.2 persons. 

Percent 
Size of family in Corpus Christi: distribution 

1 person 43 

2 persons 25 

3 and 4 persons 26 

5 persons and over 6 

Total___ 100 

Most of these fan.ilies were corr^plete when interviewed; 8 percent of the 
1-person fan.ilies, however, and 2 percent of the niultiperson families had left a 
fauaily men.ber behind when they n.ovecl to Corpus Christi. Before migration 
the families contained 6,600 persons of whon) 97 percent nJgrated and 3 percent 
stayed behind at the migrants' last residences. In other survey cities, the 



10488 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



proportion of family members left behind ranged from 3 percent in Greenville, 

S. C, to 34 percent in Bridgeport, Conn. 

Month of arrival in county.— About half of the migrants had been in Corpus 

Christi for 5 months or more when interviewed. The distribution of migrants 

by m,onth ot arrival in Nueces County follows: 

Percent 

Month of arrival: distribution 

October 1940 to Februarv 1941 26 

March to April 1941 12 

May to June 1941 18 

Julv to August 1941 26 

Septem.ber 1941 12 

October 1941 ' 6 

Total 100 

1 Does not include the whole month. 



INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Before and after m.igration, Corpus Christi m.igrants were engaged principally 
in construction, trade, and "other" services. The proportion of manufacturing 
workers was exceptionally sm.all. There were a few oil field workers am.ong the 
m.igrants, and one worker in ten had come from agriculture. 

The industrial distribution of the workers on their last full-tim.e jobs at last 
residence and on their jobs when interviewed in Corpus Christi was as follows: 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Corpus 
Christi 



No job at last residence 1 

Unemployed in Corpus Christi 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Crude petroleum and natural gas production. . 

Construction 

Manufacturing 

Transportation, communication, and utilities- 
Trade 

Personal services 

Other services 



Total- 



100 



' The status of these workers at last residence was: Students, 4 percent; housewives, 1 percent; unem- 
ployed, 2 percent; and others, 1 percent. 

Corpus Christi migrants were principally employed as skilled and white-collar 
workers both before and after migration. The most significant occupational 
shift after migration occurred among farm workers, who were mainly employed 
in Corpus Christi as operatives and "other" service workers (janitors, charwomen, 
barbers and beauticians, waitresses, etc.). The distribution of migrants by 
occupations at their last residence and in Corpus Christi was as follows: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution- 



At last 
residence 



In Corpus 
Christi 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Corpus Christi 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials 

Clerical, sales, and kindred workers 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 

Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



100 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGBATION 10489 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 3,200 migrant workers in Corpus Christi, approximately 290 or 9 percent 
were seeking work at the time of the migration survey. In other survey cities, 
migrant unemployment ranged from 3 percent in Baltimore, Md., to 17 percent 
in Fort Smith, Ark. 

Unemployment by sex. — The unemployment rate for women workers was five 
times higher than for men. Among women migrants 25 percent were unemployed, 
and among men, 5 percent. 

Unemployment by race. — Negro workers reported approximately twice th6 un- 
emplojanent rate of white workers or of workers of other races. The unemploy- 
ment rate for Negroes was 18 percent as compared with 8 percent for white 
workers and 10 percent for workers of other races. 

Unemployment by age. — -Workers in the age group 20 to 24 years reported the 
highest unemployment rate, 15 percent. (Among males in this age group, 5 per- 
cent were unemployed.) The workers under 20 years reported the lowest rate, 
5 percent. The unemployment rates of the various age groups were as follows: 

Percent unemployed 
Age of workers : »'« Corpus Chrisii 

Total 9 

Under 20 vears 5 

20 to 24 years 15 

25 to 44 years 7 

45 years and over 10 

Unemployment by distance traveled. — Unemployment rates increased as the 
distance traveled by workers increased. Unemployment rates by distance 
traveled are shown below: 

Percent tmemployed 

Distance traveled: in Corpus cfirisii 

Total 9 

Less than 200 miles 8 

200 to 499 miles 6 

500 to 599 miles 13 

1,000 miles and over 14 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — More than two-fifths of the workers who 
came to Corpus Christi during the survey month were unemployed. Workers 
who had arrived in the city earlier reported progressively lower unemployment. 
The tabulation below shows unemployment rate of migrant workers by month of 
their arrival in Corpus Christi. 

Percent unemployed 
Month of arrival: '« Corpus Christi 

Totals 9 

October 1940 to February 1941 6 

March to April 1941 4 

May to June 1941 6 

July to August 1941 6 

September 1941 8 

October 1941 i 42 

' Does not include the whole month. 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — Personal service workers, oil-field 
workers, and those who had no jobs at their last residence reported the highest 
unemployment rates. Relatively few construction workers and manufacturing 
workers were unemployed in Corpus Christi at the time of the survey. 

Percent unemployed 
Industry at last residence: '« Corpus Christi 

Total 9 

No job 12 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7 

Crude petroleum and natural gas production 13 

Construction 5 

Manufacturing 4 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 4 

Trade 9 

Personal services 33 

Other services 4 

60396 — 42— pt. 27 18 



10490 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

In terms of occupations, over half of the domestic service workers were unem- 
ployed in Corpus Christi. "Other" service workers, nonfarm laborers, and 
clerical workers reported above-average unemployment rates. There were few 
unemployed skilled and semiskilled workmen, and few unemployed agricultural 

workers of Corpus Christi. 

Percent unemployed 

Occupation at last residence: ^« Corpus Christi 

Total 9 

No job 12 

Professional and proprietory 5 

Clerical, sales, and kindred workers 10 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers 3 

Operatives and kindred workers 8 

Domestic service workers 53 

Other service workers 16 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 4 

Laborers, except farm 12 

HOUSING 

Half of the migrant families in Corpus Christi had doubled up with other -er- 
sons. An exceptionally large number of migrants lived in tourist and trailer 
camps. 



Living arrangements 



Total 



1 -person 
families 



Multiperson 
families 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others. 
In hotels 

Trailers and tourist camps 

Total 



14 



100 



100 



CONCLUSIONS 



Corpus Christi enjoyed a phenomenal growth between 1920 and 1940, its 
population increasing nearly six fold during the two decades. The rapid growth 
of Corpus Chrsti continued the first year of the defense program. Among 30 
cities covered to date by the migration survey, only 3 — Wichita, Kans., Burling- 
ton, Iowa, and Wichita Falls, Tex. — showed a higher migrant rate. 



February 9, 1942. 
Recent Migration Into Dayton, Ohio 

A survey of migration into Dayton, Ohio, was conducted by the Work Projects 
Administration Division of Research in the latter part of December 1941. The 
survey was concerned with civilians who moved to Dayton from places outside of 
Montgomery County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living in Dayton 
at the time of the survey. Operating on a simple basis, the survey covered the 
residential districts, lower priced hotels, and trailer camps within the corporate 
limits of Dayton. Higher priced hotels were not surveyed and no attempt was 
made to gather information about persons who left the city during the survey 
period. 

industrial activity 

Between June 1940 and October 1941, Montgomery County received prime 
defense contracts valued at approximately $95,000,000." A part of this sum was 
for construction work at Wright and Patterson air fields and part for the manu- 
facture of airplane parts, machine guns, machine tools, etc. Manufacturing 
employment between November 1940 and November 1941 in Dayton increased 
14.5 percent. This increase, however, placed Dayton in only sixtieth rank among 
84 -American cities. Except for certain skilled categories, no labor shortages were 
reported in Dayton during the survey period. 



NATIONiAL DEFEKSE MIGRATION 10491 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

An estimated 5,400 families, containing 5,800 workers and a total of 11,400 
persons, living in Dayton at the time of this survey had moved to the city after 
October 1, 1940. Migrants made up a group equal to 5.4 percent of the city's 
1940 popluation. 

ORIGINS 

Ohio was the principal source of migrants, contributing 47 percent. Kentucky 
was the second most important source, contributing 17 percent. Other States 
contributing over 5 percent of the migrants were Indiana, 6 percent and Tennessee, 
6 percent. The average distance traveled by migrants was 130 miles; 10 percent 
Lad traveled 500 miles or more. 

The largest group of migrant workers (28 percent) originated in cities of 100,000 
population or over. Three percent came from open country and 26 percent from 
rural villages. Towns (2,500 to 25,000 population) contributed 24 percent of'the 
migrants and cities of 25,000 to 100,000 contributed 19 percent. 

Only a small proportion, 9 percent, of the migrant families were former Dayton 
residents. Of these returning Dayton residents about half had been absent from 
the city for 4 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of migrant workers was 27.7 years. Tn one- 
person families the average age was 24.1 years and for heads of multiperson 
families it was 32.3 years. Workers under 20 years of age comprised 12 percent 
of the migrant labor force and those 45 years or over, 10 percent. 

Women workers constituted 12 percent of the migrants. The average age of 
women was 24.0 years as compared with 29.9 years for men. 

Race.- — Negroes constituted 5 percent of the migrants and white persons con- 
stituted 95 percent. 

Size of family. — The average size of migrant families was 2.1 persons. One- 
half of the families were composed of one person. 

Percent 
Size of family in Dayton: distribution 

1 person 50 

2 persons 23 

3 and 4 persons 21 

5 persons or more 6 

Total 100 

Many of these families were not complete when interviewed; 36 percent of the 
one-person families and 22 percent of the multiperson families had left a spouse or 
dependent children at their last residences. Before migration the families con- 
tained 15,200 persons; of these, 75 percent had moved to Dayton and 25 percent 
had remained at the migrants' last residences. 

Month of arrival. — More than three-fourths of the workers arrived in Dayton 
during the month of September or earlier. The tabulation below shows the dis- 
tribution of the migrant workers by the month of their arrival in the city. 

Percent 
Month of arrival: distribution 

October 1940 to April 1941 21 

May toJune 1941 18 

July to August 1941 25 

September 1941: 14 

October 1941 9 

November 1941 7 

December 1941 1 6 

Total 100 

' Does not include the entire month. 

OCCUPATION AND INDUSTRY 

The industries contributing the highest proportion of migrants, in order of 
their relative importance, were: manufacturing, trade, agriculture, and "other" 
service industries. Nearly a fifth of the workers had no jobs at their last resi- 
dence. In Dayton, manufacturing absorbed over two-fifths of the migrant 



10492 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



workers. One-fifth of the migrants obtained jobs in "other" service industries 
and one-sixth were employed in trade. 

The industrial distribution of the workers on their last full-time jobs at last 
residence and on their jobs when interviewed was as follows: 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Dayton 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in Dayton 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining 

Construction 

Mahufacturing: 

Iron and steel and their products 

Mach inery 

Transportation equipment 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities. 

Trade 

Personal service 

Other service 



(») 



Total. 



100 



100 



1 The status of these workers at last residence was: Students 10 percent; unemployed 5 percent; house- 
wives 1 percent; and others 2 percent, 
a Less than 0.5 percent. 

In Dayton, as in most of the other cities surveyed, migrant workers were 
principally clerks, craftsmen, and operatives. Before migration, these three 
groups made up 44 percent of the workers, and after migration they made up 
62 percent. The proportion of professional workers was relatively large. 

The occupations of the migrants before and after migration were as follows: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Dayton 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Dayton 

Professional and sen, iprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials.. 

Clerks and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. 
Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



100 



1 Less than 0.5 percent. 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 5,800 migrant workers in Dayton, an estimated 175, or 3 percent, were 
unemployed and seeking work during the week preceding the survey. 

Unemployvient by sex. — Unemployment among women migrant workers was 
twice as great as among the men. Six percent of the women were unemployed, 
as compared with 3 percent among the men. 

Uneinploytnent by age. — Unemployment was heaviest among the oldest and 
the youngest workers: 

Percent 
unemployed 
Age of workers: in Dayton 

Under 20 years 5 

20 to 24 years... 2 

25 to 44 years 3 

45 years or over 6 

Average 4 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10493 



Unemployment by month of arrival. — No group of workers arriving in the city 
at different periods showed high unemployment. 

Percent 
unemployed 
Month of arrival: in Dayton 

Total 3 

October 1940-June 1941 3 

July-August 1941 4 

September-October 1941 2 

November 1941 4 

December 1941 6 

Unemployment by industry and occupation.- — Except for personal service workers, 
no industry group reported high unemployment in Dayton. Unemployment 
rates by industrj' at last residence are shown below. 

Percent unemployed 
Industry at last residence: «« Dayton 

Total 3 

No job 4 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5 

Mining . (0 

Construction • 0) 

Manufacturing 2 

Iron and steel (0 

Machinery (') 

Transportation equipment 3 

Other 2 

Transportation, communication, and utilities (') 

Trade 2 

Personal service i 14 

Other services 4 

> Less than 0.5 percent. 

Except for domestic and other service workers, all occupational groups reported 
very little unemployment in Dayton. Rates by occupation follow. 

_ , . , . , Percent unemployed 

Occupation at last residence: in Dayton 

Total . 3 

No job 4 

Professional and semiprofessional 3 

Proprietors, managers, and officials (') 

Clerks and kindred workers 3 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 1 

Operatives and kindred workers 2 

Domestic and other service workers 10 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 3 

Laborers, except farm (0 

' Less than 0.5 percent. 

HOUSING 

Only about a third of the migrant families were living in separate dwelling units 
when interviewed; the great majority were sharing a dwelling with other persons. 
A small proportion were living in hotels and a few were living in tourist or trailer 
camps. 





Percent distribution 


Living arrangements 


Total 


1 -person 
families 


Multiperson 
families 


Occupying a separate dwelling .__ .. 


34 

64 

2 


8 

88 
4 


60 


Sharing a dwelling 

In hotels . . . . . - -. 


38 

1 


In tourist and trailer camps 


1 








Total 


100 


100 


100 







' Less than 0.5 percent. 



10494 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

CONCLUSIONS 

In terms of its population, Dayton has recently attracted a moderately large 
volume of migration. Although far below the hottest defense centers, its migrant 
rate nevertheless stands substantially above the rates for such cities as San 
Francisco and Baltimore. 

Migrants to Dayton were unusually successful in finding work. Only two cities 
among the 51 covered in these surveys showed a lower unemployment rate than 
Dayton. 



December 16, 1941. 

Recent Migration Into Des Moines, Iowa 

A survey of migration into Des Moines, Iowa, was completed early in November 
1941, by the Work Projects Administration Division of Research. The survey 
was concerned with civilians who moved to Des Moines from places outside of 
Polk County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living in the city at the time 
of the present survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered the resi- 
dential districts, lower-priced hotels, and trailer camps within the corporate limits 
of Des Moines. Higher priced hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt was 
made to gather information about persons who left the city during the survey 
period. 

Industrial Activity 

Between June 1940 and September 1941, Des Moines received direct defense 
contracts valued at about $34,000,000, equal to half the value of all Des Moines 
manufactures during 1937. Practically the entire sum of defense contracts was 
allotted for the construction of facilities, and particularly for a small-arms ord- 
nance plant. This plant was still under constructio'n at the time of the present 
survey, employing about 7,000 construction workers. 

Manufacturing in Des Moines enjoyed only a very minor increase in activity 
during the first year of the defense program. Between September 1940 and 
September 1941, manufacturing employment increased only 4.2 percent, giving 
Des Moines eighty-second rank among 84 American cities. But insurance and 
other local service industries, which play a particularly important part in Des 
Moines' economic life, were reported to be active. 

NUMBER of migrants 

Approximately 3,200 families living in Des Moines at the time of this survey 
had moved to the city after October 1, 1940. These families contained 3,400 
workers and a total of 7,700 persons. Migrants made up a group equal to 4.8 
percent of Des Moines' 1940 population. 



The State of Iowa was the origin of 53 percent of the Des Moines migrants. 
Missouri was second largest contributor, with 8 percent; Texas third, with 6 
percent; and Illinois fourth, with 5 percent. The average distance traveled was 
155 miles, but 23 percent of the migrants had traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places contributed about one-fourth of the migrants; i. e., 2 percent had 
come from open country and 22 percent from rural villages. Towns (2,500 to 
25,000 population) contributed 29 percent of the migrants; small cities, 19 per- 
cent; and cities of over 100,000 population, 28 percent. 

Less than one-fifth (18 percent) of the migrants had formerly lived in Des 
Moines. Half of these families had been absent from the city for 3 years or more. 

characteristics 

Age and sex. — The average age of all workers in the migrant families was 29.7 
years. In one-person families the average age was 24.1 years, and for heads of 
multiperson families, 32.5 years. Workers under 20 years made up 5 percent of 
all workers, and those over 45 made up 12 percent. 

One-fourth of the migrant workers were women. The average age of women 
workers was 23.3 years, as compared with 32 years for men. 

/^ace.— Practically all Des Moines migrants were white; Negroes constituted less 
than one-half of 1 percent of the migrants. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10495 



Size ojjamily. — When interviewed in Des Moines, about one-third of the families 
consisted of one person: 

Percent 
Size of family: distribution 

1 person 32 

2 persons 25 

3 and 4 persons 37 

5 persons and over 6 

Total 100 

Some of these families were not complete when interviewed; 19 percent of the 
l-person families and 9 percent of the multiperson families had left a spouse or 
dependent children behind when they moved to Des Moines. Before migration, 
the families had contained 8,600 persons. Of these, 90 percent had migrated and 
10 percent had stayed at the migrants' places of origin. 

Month of arrival.- — Half of the migrants had come to Des Moines within about 
3 months of the time of the present survey: 

Percent 
Month of arrival: distribution 

October 1940-Fehruary 1941 18 

March- April 1941 8 

May-June 1941 16 

July-August 1941 20 

September 1941 I 18 

October 1941 20 

Total 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Both before and after migration, the most important single industry was con- 
struction, which occupied about one-fifth of the migrants at last residence and in 
Des Moines. Trade and "other" services were each nearly as well represented as 
construction, but manufacturing employment was relatively minor. The princi- 
pal indu^Tial shift was into finance, insurance, and real estate. 

The industrial distribution of the migrants on their last full-time job at last 
residence and on their jobs when interviewed in Des Moines was as follows: 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Des 

Moines 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in Des Moines 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

M ining 

Construction 

Manufacturing 

Transportation, communication, and utilities- 

Trade 

Finance, insurance, and real estate 

Personal services 

Other services 



Total. 



(2) 



100 



' The status of these workers at last residence was: Students, 7 percent; housewives, 3 percent: others, 
1 percent. 
2 Less than 0.5 percent. 



Recent migration to Des Moines was predominantly a movement of white- 
collar workers; both before and after migration, a good majority of the migrants 
had engaged in professional, proprietary, or clerical work. There were relatively 
few craftsmen or operatives among the migrai>ts, and very few laborers. 



10496 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



The occupational distribution of the workers before and after migration to Des 
Moines was as follows: 



Occupation 



No job at last residence 

Unemployei in Des Moines.-. 

Professional and semi professional — 
Proprietors, managers, and officials.. 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. 
Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Des 

Moines 



EMPLOYMENT 

Out of 3,400 migrant workers in Defe Moines, an estimated 170, or 5 percent, 
were unemployed and seeking work during the week preceding this survey. 

Unemploijment by sex. — The unemployment rate for female migrant workers in 
Des Moines was three times greater than for males. Among female workers, 
9 percent were uemployed, as compared with 3 percent for men. 

Unemployment by age. — Workers 20 to 24 years of age reported the lowest 
unemployment rate in Des Moines, and those over 45 years reported the highest 

rate. 

PiTcent 
unemployed 

Age of worker: '" -D«« Moines 

Total 5 

Under 20 years 0) 

20 to 24 years 4 

25 to 44 years 5 

45 years and over 7 

' Base too small for computation. 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — Migrant workers who had been in Des 
Moines longest reported the highest unemployment rates: 

Percent 
Month of arrival: unemployment 

Total 5 

October 1940-April 1941 7 

May- June 1941 9 

July-August 1941 3 

September-October 1941 3 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — Workers from other services fared 
worst in Des Moines, and lower-than-average unemployment was reported by 
workers from construction, transportation, and manufacturing. Unemployment 
rates by industry at last residence follow: 

Percent 
unemployed 

Industry at last residence: '« -0«« Moines 

Total 6 

No job 4 

Agriculture, forestry and fishing (0 

Mining 0) 

Construction 3 

Manufacturing 4 

Transportation, communication and utilities {^) 

Trade 5 

Personal services (') 

Other services 9 

1 Base too small for computation. 
» Less than 0.5 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10497 



In terms of occupation at last residence, clerical workers reported the lowest 
unemployment rate in Des Moines, and operatives reported the highest rate. 
Unemployment by occupation was as follows: 

Percent 
unemployed 

Occupation at last residence: '" Des Moines 

Total 5 

No job: 4 

Professional and proprietory 4 

Clerical and kindred workers 3 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 7 

Operatives and kindred workers 5 

Domestic and other service workers (0 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 0) 

Laborers, except farm (') 

1 Base too small for computation. 



The great majority of Des Moines migrants occupied separate living quarters 
when enumerated. About one-third shared a dwelling with other persons, and a 
few lived in tourist and trailer camps. 



Living arrangements 



Occupying a separate dwelling 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

In tourist and trailer camps 

Total 



Percent distribution 



Total 



100 



] -person 
families 



100 



Multi- 
person 
families 



86 
11 



CONCLUSIONS 

In terms of its population, Des Moines has recently attracted a large flow of 
migrants. Its migrant rate exceeds, for example, the rates reported for such 
important defense centers as Portland, Maine, Baltimore, and Indianapolis. 
Unlike all other cities surveyed to date, Des Moines migrants consist principally 
of white-collar workers attached to trade and service industries. The construction 
job at the Des Moines small-arms ordnance plant was also an important attrac- 
tion for Des Moines migrants. 

July 14, 1941. 
Recent Migration Into Detroit and Environs 



SURVEY COVFRAGE 

A survey of migration into Detroit, Mich., and environs was conducted by the 
Work Projects Adn-inistration Division of Research during the early part of 
June 1941. The survey was concerned with persons who moved into the survey 
area from places outside of Wayne, Oakland, and Macomb Counties after October 
1, 1940, and who were still living in the survey area in June 1941. ^ Migrants 
living in both residential and roon.ing-house districts were covered in the survey, 
and special surveys were conducted in low-priced hotels and in- trailer camps 
within com.rr.uting distance of Detroit. Higher-priced hotels were not surveyed, 
and no attem.pt was m.ade to gather information about persons who had left the 
Detroit area during the survey period. 

1 The following satellite cities were included in the survey: Highland Park, Hamtramck, Dearborn, 
Ecorse, River Rouge, Melvindale, Allen Park, Lincoln Park, Wyandotte, Inkster, East Detroit, Roseville, 
St. Clair Shores, Berkeley, Clawson, Royal Oak, and Ferndale. Open country areas were not included 
in the survey. Persons were not considered migrants if they had moved between Wayne, Oakland, and 
Macomb Counties. Had they been so considered, the migration estimates for Wayne County would have 
been 12 percent greater than actually reported here. 



10498 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Midyear in 1941 found the tempo of Detroit's industrial activity increasing 
rapidly. As early as March, the Bureau of Employment Security reported acute 
labor shortages in several highly skilled trades. Unlike m.ost American cities, 
however, Detroit had not yet recovered the ground lost during the slump of the 
late 1930's. According to the Bureau of Labor statistics, Detroit's index of 
factory employment for April 1941 was 15.2 percent higher than in April 1940, 
but it was stiU 10.7 percent below the 12-ro.onth average for 1937. 

During the past year both Work Projects Administration and direct relief loads 
m the Detroit area have dropped steadily. On June 13, 1941, however, about 
18,000 Wayne County workers nvere still employed on Work Projects Adminis- 
tration, and the proportion of the Wayne County population on Work Projects 
Adnanistration was onlj' slight!}^ below the proportion for the country as a whole. 

In short, Detroit at midyear in 1941 offered broad opportunity for several im- 
portant categories of workers, but only restricted opportunity for others. An 
indiscrin.inate mass migration was obviously not yet justified by the condition 
of Detroit's industry. 

This memorandum is an analysis of the response of outside workers to these 
opportunities. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 16,300 families living in the Detroit area in early June 1941 had 
moved into the area from outside of Wayne, Oakland, and Macomb Counties 
after October 1, 1940. These families contained 16,300 workers (a few of the 
families had no workers and a few had m.ore than one worker). And they con- 
tained 33,900 persons, equal to 1.8 percent of the 1940 population of the area 
surveyed. 

By comparison, a survey of Akron, Ohio, showed that migrants entering the 
citj' after October 1940 and remaining in the city in April 1941 made up a group 
equal to 0.8 percent of the 1941 population. In May 1941 a similar study of 
Chicago showed a migrant rate of 0.7 percent, and in Fort Wayne, Ind., a rate of 
2.6 percent. 

About four-fifths of the migrants were located in Detroit proper, and one-fifth 
were located in the 17 satellite cities. Migrants in Detroit proper made up a group 
equal to 1.7 percent of the 1940 population, not significantly below the proportion 
for the entire survey area. In the satellite cities, the migrant rate was 2.2 percent. 

ORIGINS 

The principal origins of the migrants were the large industrial cities of the 
East and Midwest, the depressed areas of northern Michigan, and mountain 
communities lying south of the Ohio River. 

The average distance traveled by Detroit migrants was about 340 miles; 
that is, half the migrants came from within a circle roughly bounded by Ishpem- 
ing, Mich.; Madison, Wis.; Champaign, III.; Lexington, Ky.; Harrisburg, Pa.; 
and Syracuse, N. Y. Although few workers came from the immediate neighbor- 
hood of Detroit, (16 percent came from within 100 miles), there were also few 
workers who came exceptionally long distances. Only 1 worker in 4 had traveled 
500 miles or more, and only 1 in 25 had traveled upward of 1,000 miles. 

Rural places (i. e., places of less than 2,500 population) contributed an excep- 
tionally high proportion of the migrants. Among all the migrant families, 41 
percent came from rural places, 22 percent from towns (2,500 to 25,000 popula- 
tion), 12 percent from small cities, and 25 percent from cities of over 100,000 
population. 

Most of the families had moved to the Detroit area for the first time; 68 
percent contained no member who had ever lived in the Detroit area before. 
(Among the Negroes, 84 percent had never lived in the area before.) Among the 
families who had formerly lived in the Detroit area, about half had been absent 
for 4 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of all workers in the migrant families was 30.4 
years, substantially below the average for local workers. In one-person families 
the average age was 26.7 years; in multiperson families the average was 32.5 
years. One migrant worker in ten was 45 years and over. 

Women workers constituted one-sixth of all the migrant workers, a proportion 
considerably smaller than that prevailing in the Detroit labor market. 



NATIOiNiAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10499 



Race. — Negroes were underrepresented among Detroit migrants. White 
families made up 96 percent of the migrants, and nonwhite families (practically 
all of them Negroes) made up 4 percent. Nonwhite migrants constituted 1.1 
percent of the 1940 nonwhite population of the Detroit area, as against a migrant 
rate of 1.8 percent for white persons. 



INDtrSTRY AND OCCUPATION 



Industry before and after migration. — The industrial distribution of Detroit 
migrant workers on their last full-time jobs at their last place of residence, and on 
their jobs in the Detroit area at the time of this survey, was as follows: 



Indiistry 



No job at last residence i 

Unemployed in Detroit 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Transportation eqtiipment 

Iron and steeL, 

M achinery _ 

Other. _ - 

Transportation and communication. 

Trade. 

Domestic and personal service 

Other services 

Other 



Total. 




' Included persons unemployed and persons not in the labor market. 
2 Less than 0.5 percent. 

This table reveals important industrial shifts. Before migration, nearly half 
of the workers fell into four classes: Persons engaged in agriculture, in mining, 
in construction, and persons without jobs. After migration, these same four 
classes contained only 15 percent of the workers. Migration to Detroit resulted 
in a substantial shift to the trade industries, more than doubled the proportion 
of the migrants in all manufacturing, and multiplied fivefold the porportion of 
migrants in the manufacture of transportation equipment. 

OCCUPATION BEFORE AND AFTER MIGRATION 

The occupational distribution of Detroit migrants at their last residence and 
in Detroit was as follows: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution — 



At last 
place of 
residence 



In Detroit 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in Detroit 

Professional and semiprofessional workers. 

Farm owners and managers 

Other proprietors, managers, and officials.. 

Clerical, sales, and kindred workers 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. 

Operatives and kindied workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm laborers and foremen 

Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



100 



100 



• Includes persons unemployed and persons not in the labor market. 



10500 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

The Detroit labor market drew a substantial proportion of its migrants from 
unskilled occupations, but it offered few unskilled jobs. Before migration, 30 
percent of the workers were in unskilled occupations; but in Detroit, only 17 
percent held unskilled jobs. Professional and proprietary workers also declined, 
but less sharply. On the other side of the scale, there was a small increase among 
clerical workers, and a doubling of persons engaged in skilled and semiskilled 
occupations. 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 16,300 migrant workers in Detroit, a total of 1,600, or 10 percent, were 
unemployed and seeking work when enumerated. According to current surveys 
of the Detroit labor market, approximately the same proportion of Detroit's 
resident workers was unemployed at midyear. 

Among the different groups of migrant workers there was a wide and significant 
divergence in the incidence of unemployment. 

Unemployment by race. — The rate of unemployment among Negro migrants 
was more than three times greater than among white workers. While 9 percent 
of the white workers were unemployed, Negro migrants reported an unemploy- 
ment rate of 30 percent. 

Unemployment by sex.- — Women migrant workers had about twice the unem- 
ployment rate of men. Among the men, 8 percent were unemployed; among 
the women, 17 percent. 

Unemployment by age.- — Migrants aged 25 to 34 years were the most fortunate 
group in securing work, and the greatest difficulty was experienced by the very 
young and the very old. 

Percent if 
Age : workers unemployed 

Total 10 

Under 20 years 20 

20 to 24 years 11 

25 to 29 years 4 

30 to 34 years 3 

35 to 44 years 10 

45 to 54 years 12 

55 years and over 20 

Unemployment by distance traveled. — There was little difference in the unem- 
ployment rates of migrants who came from within a 500-mile radius of Detroit. 
Beyond 500 miles, however, the unemployment rate increased progressively. 
The rates by distance traveled follow: 

Percent 
Distance traveled: unemployed 

Total 10 

Less than 200 miles 8 

200 to 499 miles 1 9 

500 to 999 miles 14 

1,000 miles and over 19 

Unemployment by industry. — Workers engaged in manufacturing on their last 
full-time jobs at their last residences had found the least difficulty in securing 
work in the Detroit area, only 1 percent of these workers were unemployed when 
interviewed. Workers in the trade industries likewise had little unemployment 
in Detroit. The highest unemployment rates were reported by workers from the 
domestic and personal-services industries and workers without jobs at their last 
residence. Rates by industry were as follows: 

Percent un- 
employed in 
Industry at last residence: Detroit 

Total 10 

No job 20 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 12 

Mining 7 

Construction 9 

Manufacturing ; 1 

Transportation and communication _ 10 

Trade 3 

Domestic and personal services _ _. 18 

Other 4 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10501 



Unemployment by occupahwii. — Migrant workers who came from white collar, 
skilled, and semiskilled occupations had the lowest rates of unemployment in 
Detroit, laborers had about the average rate, and high rates were reported by 
domestic and personal-service workers and persons without jobs at their last 
residence. The rates by occupation follow: 

Percent un- 
employed in 

Occupation at last residence: Detroit 

Total 10 

No job 20 

Profession and proprietary workers 5 

Clerical, sales, and kindred workers 4 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers 5 

Operatives and kindred workers 6 

Domestic and personal-service workers 26 

Laborers 12 



Only about one-third of the migrant families occupied a separate dwelling unit 
when enumerated. Well over half of the families had doubled up with others, 
and one-tenth were living in hotels and trailers. The distribution of the families 
according to living arrangements follow: 



Living arrangements 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others 

In hotels. _ 

In trailers -. 

Total.- - •. 



Percent distribution 



Total 



100 



1 -person 
families 



(') 



52 



Multiper- 
son families 



(') 



' Less than 0.5 percent. 

It should be noted that many of the families had moved to the Detroit area 
without all their normal family members. Every fifth family had left dependents 
behind at the place of origin and dependents who had not migrated with their 
families totaled 7,500 persons. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The recent movement of workers to the Detroit area has obviously involved a 
certain amount of difficulty for many individual migrants. Mere presence in the 
Detroit labor market has not proved to be a guarantee of a job for all outside 
workers, any more than for all Detroit resident workers. 

By and large, however, the movement into Detroit appears to have proceeded 
with reasonable smoothness. Although disadvantaged economic groups among 
Detroit migrants consistently reported high rates of unemployment, all such 
groups for which comparisons are possible were underrepresented in the migrant 
population. In general, the migrants appear to have made a remarkably realistic 
appraisal of the economic opportunities of the Detroit area. In any case, one 
finds in Detroit to date no evidence to support the belief that the national defense 
program has brought a great mass of unneeded workers to this important industrial 
center. 



December 9, 1941. 

Recent Migration Into Fort Smith, Ark. 

A survey of migration into Fort Smith, Ark., was conducted by the Work 
Projects Administration, Division of Research, at the end of September 1941. 
The survey was concerned with persons who moved to Fort Smith from places 
outside of Sebastian County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living in 
Fort Smith at the time of the survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey 
covered residential districts, lower priced hotels, and trailer camps inside the city 



10502 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

limits. Higher priced hotels were not surveyed and no attempt was made to 
gather information about persons who left Fort Smith during the survey period. 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

At the time of the migration survey, Fort Smith was enjoying the greatest 
activity it had seen for many years, due mainly to the beginning of construction of 
new Army facilities. Between June 1940 and August 1941 Fort Smith received 
$5,848,000 in defense contracts. In September this sum was increased by 
$15,500,000, allotted for the construction of an armored-division camp. Some 
of the local industries in Fort Smith have also expanded production recently, 
mainly those engaged in glass, furniture, and fabricated steel manufacture. 

During the 1930's Fort Smith suffered unusually high unemployment; and 
before this recent defense activity, it was still severely depressed. In October 
1941 the city still had a small backlog of unemployed, estimated at 1,400 workers, 
particularly concentrated among the miskilled, both male and female. No 
general shortage of labor was evident in Fort Smith, but shortages were feared 
in certain skilled categories. 

This situation brought a relatively large number of migrant workers to Fort 
Smith. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 1,500 families living in Fort Smith at the time of the survey had 
moved into Fort Smith after October 1, 1940. These families contained 3,600 
persons and 1,500 workers. Migrants made up a group equal to 9.9 percent of 
the 1940 population of Fort Smith. 



Over two-fifths (42 percent) of the migrant workers were drawn to Fort Smith 
from other parts of Arkansas outside of Sebastian County. Oklahoma was the 
second most important source, contributing 20 percent; Missouri was third with 
9 percent; and Texas fourth with 7 percent. Fort Smith migrants traveled on the 
average of 130 miles; and only 11 percent had traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places, i. e., places of less than 2,500 population, were the source of almost 
one-third of the migrants; 2 percent had come from open country, and 30 percent 
from rural villages. Towns (2,500 to 25,000) contributed 40 percent; small cities 
13 percent; and 15 percent had come from cities of more than 100,000 population. 

One-fifth of the families reported having lived in Fort Smith before. Among 
former Fort Smith residents, half had been absent for 3 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex.— The average age of all migrant workers in Fort Smith was 32.8 
years, substantially higher than in any other survey city covered to date. Only 
one worker in about 12 was under 20 years of age, but one in 5 was 45 years of 
age and over. Heads of multiperson families reported about the same average 
age as the unattached workers; these averages were 33.4 years and 33.7 years^ 
respectively. 

Women workers made up 12 percent of all workers in the Fort Smith migrant 
families. The average age of women workers was 23.7 years, as against 33.7 
years for men. 

Race. — Practically all of the migrants in Fort Smith were white. Negroes 
made up 1 percent of the migrants and white persons made up 99 percent. 

Size of family. — Fort Smith migrant families were relatively large, averaging, 
two and one-half persons per family. About one-third of the migrant families 
contained only one person. 

Percent 
Size of family : distribution 

1 person 30 

2 persons 28 

3 and 4 persons 33 

5 persons 9 

Total : 100 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10503 



Most of the migrant families were complete units when interviewed. However,. 
10 percent of the multiperson families and more than two-fifths of the 1-person 
families had left some family member behind when they moved to Fort Smith. 
Before migration these families contained 4,200 persons. Of these, 86 percent 
migrated to Fort Smith and 14 percent had remained at the places of origin. 

Alonths lived in county. — Over a third of the migrant workers had arrived in 
Fort Smith immediately before the present survey, when construction work on 
Army facilities was getting under way. The distribution of the migrants accord- 
ing to the time of arrival in Fort Smith was as follows: 

Percent 
Month of arrival: distribution 

October 1940 to Januarv 1941 13^ 

Februarv to March 1941 _ 7 

April to Mav 1941 10 

June 1941 6 

Julv 1941 12 

August 1941 13 

September 1941 39 

Total : 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Fort Smith migrants were drawn mainly from industries similar to the ones 
which they entered in Fort Smith. One-fifth of all migrants were construction 
workers. The most important manufacturing industries contributing to Fort 
Smiths' labor supply were: Lumber, furniture, and lumber products (4 percent), 
and stone, clay, and glass products (2 percent). Trade was the former industrial 
background of 17 percent of the migrant workers and 11 percent came from 
"other" service industries. A very small proportion (8 percent) of the workers 
held no jobs at their last residence, and 11 perc(>nt came from agriculture. 

In Fort Smith construction work absorbed 22 percent of the migrants. Lumber, 
furniture, and lumber products supplied employment to 5 percent, and stone, 
claj', and glass products employed 3 i)ercent of the migrants. Trade absorbed 
18 percent of the workers and 9 percent entered "other" services. More than a 
sixth of the workers, however, were still seeking employment during the calendar 
week preceding the survey. 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Fort 
Smith 



No job at last residence i 

Unemployed in Fort Smith-. 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing ._ 

Mining 

Construction 

Mar.u'acturing: 

Lumber, furniture and lumber products-.. 

Stone, clay, and glass products 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities- 
Trade .-. 

Personal services 

Other services 



Total- 



100 



' The status of these workers at their last residence was: students, 6 percent; housewives, 3 percent; and 
others less than H of 1 percent. 



10504 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



The occupational distribution of the migrant workers before and after migration 
was as follows: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Fort 
Smith 



No job 

Unemployed in Fort Smith 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials 

Clerical, sales, and kindred workers 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. 

Operatives and kindred workers --- 

Domi'Stic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 

Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



100 



Both before and after migration, Fort Smith migrants were engaged prin- 
cipally as sliilled and semiskilled workers, and to a somewhat less degree, as 
clerks. There were few workers from "other" service industries, and very few 
nonfarm laborers among the migrants. The principal occupational shift took 
place among farm workers, who turned to skilled and semiskilled work in Fort 
Smith. 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

A relatively high proportion (17 percent) of the migrant workers were unem- 
ployed and seeking work during the calendar week prior to interview. In other 
survey cities the unemployment rates among migrants were: 3 percent in Balti- 
more, Md.; 13 percent in Wichita, Kansas; 11 percent in Macon, Ga. ; and 16 
percent in St. Louis, Mo. 

Une7nplo7j7nent by sex. — Proportionately more women migrant workers were 
unemployed in Fort Smith than men. Almost one-fourth (24 percent) of the 
women workers reported themselves unemployed and seeking work, while less 
than one-sixth (15 percent) of the men were unemployed. 

Unemployment by age. — The youngest workers reported the highest unemploy- 
ment rate. Among migrant workers under 20 years of age, 31 percent were 
unemployed. Of the age group 20 to 24 years, 12 percent; among those aged 
25 to 44 years, 14 percent; and among the workers 45 years of age or over, 23 
percent were unemployed. 

Unemployment by size of place of origin. — The unemployment rate for workers 
from different sized localities showed little variation. Migrants from small 
cities reported the lowest unemployment rate (8 percent) as against 19 percent 
from farms, rural villages, and the open country, and 12 percent for large cities. 

Percent 
_,. . . unemployed in 

bize of place of origm: Fort Smith 

Total 17 

Open country • 19 

Rural villages (less than 2,500) 19 

Towns (2,500 to 25,000) 19 

Small cities (25,000 to 100,000) 8 

Large cities (over 100,000) 12 

Unemployment by distance traveled. — The variations in unemployment rates 
of workers who traveled various distances to Fort Smith were as follows: 

Percent 
T^. . J , T unemployed in 

Distance traveled: Fort Smith 

Total 17 

Less than 200 miles 13 

200 to 499 miles 27 

500 to 999 miles _ 14 

1 ,000 miles and over . . . _ 22 



NATIONAL DEFENSE IVnCRATION 



10505 



UnemploT/ment by month of entering county. — Workers who had arrived in Fort 
Smith during the month of the survey showed a higher unemployment rate than 
those who had been in the city for longer periods. 

Percent 
unemployed in 
Month of arrival: Fort Smith 

Total 17 

October 1940 to January 1941 17 

February to March 1941 17 

April to May 1941 13 

June 1941 _ _ ___ 8 

July 1941 8 

August 1941 10 

September 1941 23 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — Particularly high unemployment 
rates were reported by construction and personal service workers,^ and by new 
entrants into the labor market and those unemployed at last residence. Workers 
in "other" services (including professional and related services; amusement, 
recreation, and related services; business and repair services; and workers in 
finance, insurance, and real estate) reported the lowest employment rate. 

PeTcent 
unemployed 

Industry at last residence: «n Fori Smith 

Total • 17 

No job : 22 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 12 

Mining (i) 

Construction 28 

M an uf acturing 10 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 10 

Trade 13 

Personal services 38 

Other services 5 

' Base too small for computation. 

In terms of occupations, white collar groups, semiskilled workers, and farm 
workers of all types reported below-average rates of unemployment in Fort 
Smith. "Other" service workers (including protective service workers, and 
waiters, waitresses, beauty parlor workers, barbers, cooks, housekeepers, hospital 
attendants, etc.,) and craftsmen and kindred workers, reported especially high 
unemployment rates. Domestic service workers and unskilled non-farm workers 
reported average rates of unemployment. 

Percent 
unemployed 

Occupation at last residence: »'« Fort Smith 

Total 17 

No job 22 

Professional, proprietary, and clerical 7 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 25 

Operatives and kindred workers 14 

Personal service workers 17 

Other service workers 33 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 13 

Laborers, except farm 17 



Almost two-thirds of the migrant families in Fort Smith secured separate 
living quarters. Over four-fifths of the multiperson families were occupying a 
separate dwelling when enumerated. 



Living arrangements 



Total 



1-person 
families 



Multiper- 
son families 



Occupying a separate dwelling- 
Sharing a dwelling with others. 
In hotels 

Trailers and tourist camps 

Total 



0) 



100 



100 



100 



Less than 0.5 percent. 

60396—42 — pt. 27- 



-19 



10506 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

CONCLUSIONS 

The rate of recent migration into Fort Smith is relatively high, running almost 
4 times higher than in Greenville, S. C; 10 times higher than in Philadelphia; 
and half as high as in Wichita, Kans., one of the most active defense boom towns 
in the country. 

A large part of the movement of workers into Fort Smith was in answer to 
the opening of the army's construction program, and many were still not ab- 
sorbed by the local labor market at the time of the survey. 



June 11, 1941. 
Recent Migration Into Fort Wayne, Ind, 



A survey of migration into Fort Wayne, Ind., was conducted by the Work 
Projects Administration Division of Research during the first week of May 1941. 
The survey was concerned with persons who moved to Fort Wayne from places 
outside of Allen County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living in Fort 
Wayne during the first week of May 1941. Aligrants living in both residential 
and rooming-house districts were covered in the survey, and a special survey 
was made in low-priced hotels. Trailer camps outside the city limits and higher- 
priced hotels were not included in the survey. No attempt was made to gather 
information about persons who had moved away from Fort Wayne during the 
survey period. 

industrial activity 

At the time of the migration survey, Fort Wayne was enjoying intense indus- 
trial activity. Factory employment had increased rapidly after October 1940 
as a result of defense subcontracts and generally increased activity in the elec- 
trical and farm implement industries. In addition, construction work was under 
way on an Army airfield and a plant for the manufacture of airplane motors. 
In spite of this increased activity, however. Fort Wayne still had a small backlog 
of enemployed residents in May 1941, particularly concentrated among the un- 
skilled workers. 

This situation had brought a large number of newcomers to work in the Fort 
Wayne labor market. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 1,800 families living in Fort Wayne during the fir.st week of 
May 1941 had moved into Allen County after October 1, 1940. These families 
contained about 1,600 workers; there were fewer workers than families since 1 
family in 9 contained no workers. The families included approximately 3,200 
persons. Migrants thus made up a group equal to 2.6 percent of Fort Wayne's 
1940 population. The comparable figure for Akron was 0.8 percent; for Chicago, 
0.7 percent. One-half of 1 percent of the migrants were Negroes; the rest were 
white. 

employment 

Practically all of the Fort Wayne migrant workers were employed. Out of 
1,600 workers in the migrant families, 97 percent were employed at the time of 
the survey, and only 3 percent were unemployed and seeking work. 

industry before and after migration 

The industrial distribution of Fort Wayne migrant workers on their last full- 
time jobs at their last place of residence, and on their jobs in Fort Wayne at the 
time of the survey, was as follows: 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10507 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Fort 
Wayne 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Fort Wayne.- 

Agriculture 

Construction _ 

Manufacturing: 

Electrical machinery and equipment- 
Transportation equipment 

Other manufacturing 

Transportation and communication 

Trade --. 

Other 



TotaL 



100 



Both before and after migration, Fort Wayne migrants included a particularly 
large proportion of workers engaged in construction, manufacturing, and, some- 
what less to be expected, in trade. Industrial shifts were relatively minor. 
They consisted principally in shifts out of agriculture and "no job" (either because 
of unemployment or absence from the labor market) and a sizable increase in 
electrical machinery manufacturing. 

OCCtrPATION BEFORE AND AFTER MIGRATION 

The occupational distribution of Fort Wayne migrant workers at their last 
place of residence and in Fort Wayne was as follows: 



Occupation 



No job at last residence.. 

Unemployed in Fort Wayne 

Professional and semiprofessional workers- 
Farm owners and managers 

Other proprietors, managers, and officials. . 

Clerical, sales, and kindred workers. 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers- 
Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers - 

Other service workers 

Farm laborers and foremen 

Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



Percent distribution 



At last 
place of 
residence 



In Fort 
Wayne 



ICO 



100 



Fort Wayne migrants included an unusually small proportion of unskilled 
workers. Both before and after migration, 8 percent of the workers were engaged 
in vmskilled occupations. The largest broad grouping was in white-collar occu- 
pations, which supplied nearly two-fifths of the migrants' jobs in Fort Wayne. 

TURN-OVER 

The Fort Wayne survey provides no direct information on the turn-over of 
migrants. Obviously, the number of migrants who had moved to Fort Wayne 
after October 1, 1940, and left before the survey was conducted in the first week 
of May 1941 could not be measured. The survey does, however, provide a 
basis for inferences about one type turn-over. If there were a high turn-over of 
"floaters," unemployed workers moving from city to city in search of work, one 
would expect two conditions to exist at any given time: (a) A high proportion of 
migrants would have arrived in the city shortly before the survey was made; 
and (b) the rate of unemployment among migrants would be high. 

In Fort Wayne the first of these conditions did obtain: 39 percent of the mi- 
grants interviewed in May had arrived during March and April, while only 7 
percent had arrived in October and November 1940. Moreover, a considerable 



10508 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



number of the migrants were construction workers, a group known to be highly 
mobile during recent months. As noted above, however, the rate of unemploy- 
ment among Fort Wayne migrants was exceptionally small. It appears to be 
improbable, therefore, that any great number of unemployed floaters were 
passing through the Fort Wayne labor market at the time of the survey. 

AGE 

The average age of all workers in the migrant families was 28.2 years, far below 
the average age of local Fort Wayne workers. In one-person families, the average 
was 25 years; in multiperson families the average age of family heads was 31 years. 
Only one worker in seven was 45 years of age or over. The very marked youth 
of the Fort Wayne migrant workers accounts, in part, for the fact that practically 
all were able to secure work in a labor market which still contained some resident 
unemployed workers. 

ORIGINS 

Fort Wayne migrants had traveled somewhat greater distances than is common 
among American migrants. Counties adjoining Allen County (including three 
counties in Ohio) were the origin of 22 percent of the families, other counties in 
Indiana contributed 26 percent, adjacent States contributed 34 percent, and 
nonadjacent States contributed 18 percent. 

A marked rural-to-urban population shift is revealed in the origins of Fort 
Wayne migrants. Rural places (places of less than 2,500 population) contributed 
34 perqent of the migrant families; that is, 20 percent came from villages and 14 
percent from places in the open country. Urban places contributed 66 percent 
of the migrants. 

The great majority of the families had moved to Fort Wayne for the first time. 
Among all the migrant families, 76 percent contained no member who had ever 
lived in Fort Wayne before, and 24 percent contained one or more members 
reporting a previous Fort Wayne residence. About two-thirds of the former 
Fort Wayne residents had moved away from Fort Wayne after 1936. 

LIVING ARRANGEMENTS 

Only about two-fifths of all the migrant families occupied a separate dwelling 
unit when enumerated in the survey. The distribution of the families according 
to their living arrangements was as follows: 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1 -person 
families 



Multiper- 
son fami- 
lies 



Occupying a separate dwelling 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels ■ 

Total— - — 



100 



100 



100 



CONCLUSION 



The recent flow of migrants into Fort Wayne has been relatively large. In 
terms of its population, Fort Wayne has absorbed about four times as many 
migrants as Akron and Chicago in recent months. Judging, however, from the 
exceptionally low rate of unemployment among the migrants, the movement into 
Fort Wayne has — to date, at least — involved little hardship or waste motion. 



November 5, 1941. 
Recent Migration Into Gre.\ter Greenville, S. C. 

A survey of migration into Greater Greenville, S. C.,' was completed by the 
Work Projects Administration Division of Research at the end of September 

' Originally, the city of Greenville was laid out in the form of a perfect circle with a radius of 1 mile. The 
population long since overran this boundary, but the original limits were never changed. Today Green- 
ville proper contains less than half of the 75,000 population of the compact economic unit known as "Greater 
Greenville." Greater Greenville is not a political unit, but it has "city limits" accepted by common usage. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10509 

1941. The survey was concerned with persons who moved into Greater Greenville 
from places outside of Greenville County after October 1, 1940, and who were still 
living there a year later. Every section of the area was represented in the survey, 
with the exception of higher priced hotels. No attempt was made to gather 
information about persons who had left Greenville during the survey period. 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Greenville is not a center of large-scale direct defense activity. Between June 
1940 and August 1941, Greenville County received prime defense contracts valued 
at about 2 million dollars, equal to only 3 percent of the 1939 value of manufactures 
in the county. In the State of South Carolina during the same period, defense 
contracts equalled 55 percent of the 1939 value of manufactures. 

Indirect defense orders, however, and the general increase in the demand for 
cotton goods have recently brought e.xtraordinary activity to the Greenville textile 
mills. Textile production has been increasing rapidly for the past two years, and 
particularly within the past nine months. According to local reports, unemploy- 
ment in Greenville decreased about 50 percent between September 1940 and 
September 1941. Early in 1941 three-shift mill operation became the general 
rule, and by the time of the present survey, Greenville was enjoying one of the 
most active periods in its history. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

In response to this activity approximately 1,050 families had moved to Greater 
Greenville from places outside of Greenville County between October 1940 and 
September 1941, and were still living there in September 1941. These families 
contained 1,090 workers and 2,450 persons. Migrants made up a group equal to 
3.2 percent of the 1940 population of Greater Greenville. 

Greenville proper contained fewer migrants than that part of Greater Green- 
ville lying outside the Greenville city limits; 44 percent of the migrants lived inside 
the city limits and 56 percent lived outside. The migration rate was also slightly 
higher outside. Migrants in Greenville proper equaled 3.0 percent of the 1940 
population. In Greater Greenville outside the city limits, the migration rate was 
3.4 percent. 

ORIGINS 

The great majority of the migrants had come to Greenville from nearby moun- 
tain and Piedmont counties in South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia. 
A sizable minority of workers, particularly those in the service industries, had 
migrated from Atlanta, Charlotte, and Knoxville. Practically none had come 
from the Tidewater. 

The distance traveled by Greenville migrants was relatively short, averaging 
about 70 miles. By comparison, the average distance traveled by Baltimore 
migrants was 170 miles; and by Detroit migrants, 340 miles. 

Rural places, i. e., places of less than 2,500 population, contributed about 
one-fourth of the migrants. Most of these (24 percent) came from villages, and 
only 2 percent came from open country. Towns (2,500 to 25,000 population) 
contributed 43 percent; small cities, 18 percent; and cities of over 100,000 popula- 
tion, 13 percent. 

Most of the migrant families had not lived in Greenville before; only 25 percent 
reported previous Greenville residence. Among the families who formerly lived 
in Greenville, about half had been absent for 5 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — Greenville migrants were exceptionally young. The average age 
of all workers in the migrant families was 26.0 years. Among single workers, the 
average was 23.1 years; in multiperson families, the average age of heads was 32.3 
years. 

Because Greenville is a cotton-mill city, a relatively large proportion of the 
migrant workers (28 percent) were women. Women were still underrepresented 
among the migrants, however, since Greenville contains an even larger proportion 
of women in its resident labor supply. 

Race. — There was a striking underrepresentation of Negroes among the Green- 
ville migrants; Negroes constituted only 5 percent of all the migrants. The 
migrant rate (based upon Greenville's 1940 population) was 0.6 percent for 
Negroes, as against 4.1 percent for white persons. 



10510 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Months lived in county. — A distribution of workers according to the month of 

their arrival in Greenville follows: 

Per cent 
of Greenville 

Month of arrival: migrants 

October to December, 1940 __ 19 

January to Februarv, 1941 18 

March"to April, 1941 14 

May to June, 1941 12 

July to August, 1941 27 

September 1941. _ 10 

Total -- 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

The industrial distribution of Greenville migrant workers on their last full-time 
job at their last place of residence, and on their jobs in Greenville, was as follows: 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In 

Greenville 



No job at last residence • 

Unemployed in Greenville 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Tevtiles - 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and public utilities. 
Trade. 



Finance, insurance, and real estate. 

Personal services 

Other services 



Total. 



100 



100 



' The status at last residence of these workers was: students, 9 percent; housewives, 3 percent; and others, 
2 percent. 

Both before and after migration, the majority of Greenville migrants were 
engaged either in textile manufacturing, or in trade and in "other" service in- 
dustries. Two principal industrial shifts accompanied the migration of the 
workers; first, a shift out of agriculture into textile manufacturing, and, second, a 
shift from nonworker status at last residence (principally involving students) 
into finance, insurance, and real estate and into "other" service industries. 

The movement of workers into Greenville was predominantly a migration of 
clerks and cotton-mill operatives. There were few craftsmen among the migrants, 
and very few unskilled workers. The occupational distribution of Greenville 
migrants before migration and at the time of interview was as follows: 





Percent distribution 


Occupation 


At last place 
of residence 


In 
Greenville 


No job at last residence , 


14 




Unemployed in Greenville 


S 


Professional and semiprofessional 


9 
3 

17 
11 
30 
(') 

5 
8 
3 


9 


Other, proprietors, managers, and officials 


3 


Clerical, sales, and kindred workers 


26 


Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers . 


10 


Operatives and kindred workers . 


38 


Domestic service workers 


(') 


Other service workers . . 


4 


Farm owners, managers, and laborers 


1 


Laborers, except farm 


1 






Total 


100 


100 







> Less than 0.5 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10511 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 1,090 migrant workers in Greenville, a total of 95, or 9 percent, were 
unemployed and seeking work at the time of the survey. Comparative figures 
for migrants in other cities are: Akron (April), 10 percent; Chicago (May), 20 
percent; Fort Wayne, Ind. (May), 3 percent; Detroit (June), 10 percent; and 
Baltimore (September), 3 percent. 

Unemployment by race. — The rate of unemployment for the few Negroes who 
migrated to Greenville was nearly five times greater than for white workers. 
Among Negroes, 33 percent, and among white workers, 7 percent, were unem- 
ployed. 

Unemployment by sex. — Women migrants to Greenville had three times the 
unemployment rate of males. Among the women migrants, 15 percent were 
unemployed; among the men, 5 percent were unemployed. 

Unemployment by age. — The age group 25-44 suffered least unemployment in 
Greenville, and the highest unemployment rate was that of the very young and 
the very old. Among workers under 25, the unemployment rate was 13 percent; 
for those aged 25-44 years, 4 percent; and for those 45 years and over, 17 percent. 

Unemployment by size of place of origin. — The migrants from rural places reported 
the highest unemployment rate, 13 percent. Among migrants from towns (2,500 
to 25,000 population), the rate of unemployment was 4 percent; and for migrants 
from places of over 25,000 population, 9 percent. 

Unemployment by month of entering county. — Greenville migrants who had 
arrived during September 1941, the month during which the survey was conducted, 
reported the highest unemployment rate; 13 percent of these latest arrivals were 
unemployed. Among those who arrived during June and August, 4 percent were 
unemployed; and among those who arrived between October 1940 and May 1941, 
inclusive, 8 percent were unemployed. 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — Workers engaged in textile manu- 
facturing, trade, finance, and transportation and communication industries at 
their last place of residence before migration reported little or no unemployment 
in Greenville. The highest rates were reported by workers from the personal 
service and construction industries, and by workers who held no job at last 
residence (i. e., former students, housewives, unemployed, etc.). The unem- 
ployment rates by industry follow: 

Percent 

unemployed 

in Green- 

Industry at last residence: "^'« 

Total 9 

No job 18 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 9 

Construction 25 

Manufacturing 3 

Textile manufacturing 3 

Other manufacturing 7 

Transportation and communication 

Trade 3 

Finance, insurance, and real estate 

Personal services 33 

Other services . 7 

In terms of occupation the highest unemployment rates were reported by 
persons who had been skilled workers at last residence, by persons from non-farm 
laborers jobs, and persons without jobs at last residence. The rates by broad 

occupational groups follow: 

Percent of 
unemployment. 

Occupation at last residence: Greenville 

Total 9 

No job 18 

Professional, proprietory, and clerical 3 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers 18 

Operatives and kindred workers 3 

Domestic and other service workers 15 

Farm owners, managers, and laborers 9 

Laborers, except farm 9 



10512 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



About one-third of the migrant families were occupying a separate dwelling in 
Greenville and more than three-fifths had doubled up with other families. Even 
among the multiperson families, the majority had doubled up with other families. 
Only a small number of migrants were living in hotels, and none lived in tourist 
or trailer camps. 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1-person 
families 



Multiperson 
families 



Occupying separate dwelling 

Sharing dwelling .. 

In hotels 

Total- 



100 



33 



67 



Only a very few of these families had moved to Greenville without all family 
members. One migrant family in 40 had left dependents behind at the place of 
origin, and dependents who had not migrated with their families totaled 75 
persons. 

CONCLUSION 

During the 1930's, Greenville's growth resulting from in-migration was rapid. 
In the decade, the population of the city increased 19.1 percent, considerably 
more than expected natural increase. In this period, Greenville's Negro popula- 
tion increased much faster than the white population. 

Rapid in-migration into Greenville has continued through the first year of the 
national defense program, but with an important difference. During the past 
year the in-migration of Negroes has dwindled to insignificance, and has been 
overshadowed by a large influx of white mill hands and clerks. One important 
reason for this shift may be seen in the widely divergent rates of unemployment 
reported by different groups of Greenville migrant workers. 



February 11, 1942. 
Recent Migration into Hackensack, N. J. 

A survey of migration into Hackensack, New Jersey, was conducted by the 
Works Progress Administration Division of Research in the latter part of Novem- 
ber 1941. The survey was concerned with civilians who moved to Hackensack 
from places outside of Bergen County after October I, 1940, and who were still 
living there when this survey was conducted. Operating on a sample basis the 
survey covered the residential districts within the corporate limits of the city. 
No attempt was made to gather information about persons who left the city 
during the survey period. 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Hackensack is a small segment in the great industrial area of northern New 
Jersey, one of the most important defense centers in the country. The city itself 
has large defense contracts, and in addition, it lies 7 miles from the aircraft 
factories of Paterson 2 miles from those at Bendix, and 12 miles from the shipyards 
at Kearny. 

NUMBER of MIGRANTS 

An estimated 200 families, containing 210 workers and a total of 560 persons, 
who were living within the corporate limits of Hackensack at the time of this 
survey had moved to the city after October 1, 1940. Migrants made up a group 
equal to 2.2 percent of the city's 1940 population. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10513 

ORIGINS 

New York was the principal source of Hackensack migrant workers, contri- 
buting 55 percent. New Jersey was the second most important source with 27 
percent, and Massachusetts was third with 11 percent. The average distance 
traveled by migrants was 60 miles and only a very few, 1 percent, had traveled 
500 miles or more. 

The majority of migrants, 66 percent, moved to Hackensack from cities of 
100,000 population or more. Small cities (25,000-100,000) contributed 16 percent 
of the migrants; towns (2,500-25,000) contributed 8 percent; and rural places 10 
percent, i. e. 1 percent came from open country and 9 percent from rural villages. 

Returning Hackensack residents comprised 12 percent of the migrant families. 
Of these former resients, about half had been absent from the city for 3 years 
or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of migrant workers was 31.8 years. In 1-person 
famihes the average age was 23.8 years and for heads of multiperson families 
33.0 years. Workers under 20 years constituted 6 percent of the migrants and 
workers 45 years or over, 17 percent. 

Women workers constituted 13 percent of the migrant labor force. The aver- 
age age of women workers was 25.0 years and of men, 32.8 years. 

Race. — Negroes comprised 4 percent of the migrants and white persons com- 
prised 96 percent. 

Size of family. — Migrant families averaged 2.8 persons. Only one-sixth of the 
families were composed of one person. 

PeTcent 
Size of family in Hackensack: distribution 

1 person 16 

2 persons 32 

3 and 4 persons 43 

5 persons or more 9 

Total __ 100 

Only a few of the families left a spouse or dependent children at their last 
residences. One percent of the multiperson families and 21 percent of the 
1-person famiUes were incomplete when interviewed. Before migration the 
families contained 570 persons, of whom 99 percent had migrated and 1 percent 
had remained at the migrants' last residence. 

Month of arrival. — Approximately half of the workers arrived in Hackensack 
during July or earlier. 

Percent 
Month of arrival: disirioution 

October 1940 to May 1941 25 

June to July 1941 24 

August to September 1941 31 

October 1941 10 

November 1941 10 

Total ^ 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

One third of the workers at their last residences were employed in manufac- 
turing, and a large proportion were in trade and "other" services. In Hacken- 
sack manufacturing increased, employing well over two-fifths of the workers. 
Trade and "other" services decreased only very slightly. The manufacturing 
industry employing the highest proportion of migrant workers in Hackensack 
was tlie manufacture of transportation equipment. Virtually no workers had 
come from agriculture, and the proportion of new workers was very small. 



10514 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



The industrial distribution of the workers on their last full-time jobs at last 
residence and on their jobs when interviewed in Hackensack, was as follows: 



Industry 



No job at last residence ' - 

Unemployed in Hackensack -.- 

Acriculture, forestry, and Ashing 

Mining 

Construction -- 

Manufacturing: 

Transportation equipment 

Apparel and other fabricated textile products- 
Machinery.. 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 

Trade - 

Personal services 

Other services... - 



Total. 




1 The status of these workers at last residence were: Students 3 percent; hous cwives 1 percent; unemployed 
2 percent; and others less than 0.5 percent. 
» Less than 0.5 percent. 

White-collar workers made up the largest single occupational group among the 
Hackensack migrants, accounting for 44 percent of the workers before migration 
and 43 percent in Hackensack. Semiskilled workers were the second largest 
group, and craftsmen were third. There were few laborers among the migrants. 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
place of 
residence 



In Hacken- 
sack 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Hackensack 

Professional and seniiprofessional 

Proprietors, manasiers, and officials 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 

Laborers, other than farm 

Total 



0) 



0) 



100 



• Less than 0.5 percent. 



UNEMPLOYMENT 



Nearly all of the migrant workers found employment after migration. Of the 
estimated 510 migrant workers there were only 15, or 3 percent, who were seeking 
work during the calendar week preceding interview. 



The great majority of migrant families in Hackensack were occupying a separate 
dwelling unit when interviewed. One-third were sharing a dwelling with other 
persons. 



Living arrangements 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling 

Total , 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1-person 
families 



100 



Multi- 
person 
families 



lOO 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10515 



CONCLUSIONS 



The rate of migration to Hackensack during the first year of the defense pro- 
gram was exceptionally low. Among the 51 cities covered in this survey, only 
5 showed a lower migrant rate. 

Hackensack migrants were notably successful in finding jobs. Only 2 of the 
51 cities surveyed reported a lower migrant unemployment rate than Hackensack. 



February 16, 1942. 
Recent Migration Into the Hampton Roads Area, Virginia 

A survey of migration into the Hampton Roads area, Virginia, was conducted 
by the Work Projects Administration, Division of Research, between September 
and November 1941. The survey covered Portsmouth, completed in September; 
Norfolk, completed in October; and the Newport News area (including Hampton 
and Phoebus), completed in November. The survey was concerned with civilians 
who moved to the survey cities from places outside Warwick, Norfolk, and 
Ehzabeth City Counties after October 1, 1940, and who were still hving there at 
the time of this survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered resi- 
dential districts, rooming houses, defense housing projects, lower-priced hotels, 
and tourists and trailer camps within or immediately adjacent to the corporate 
limits of the five survey cities. Higher-priced hotels were not surveyed, and no 
attempt was made to gather information about persons who left the cities during 
the survey period. 

industrial activity 

The Hampton Roads area is one of the most intensely active war-production 
centers in America. Between June 1940 and October 1941, the area received 
direct defense contracts valued at over $900,000,000. Defense contracts in 
Norfolk and Portsmouth were about five times greater than the value of 1937 
manufactures, and in Newport News they were nine times greater. Between 
November 1940 and November 1941, manufacturing employment in the area 
increased 47.4 percent; among the 84 largest American cities, only 8 reported a 
greater increase during the same period. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

The number of migrant persons, families, and workers, and the migrant rates 
(migrant persons as a percent of 1940 population) in the Hampton Roads area 
were as follows: 



City 


Persons 


Families 


Workers 


Rate 


Portsmouth 


6,400 
16,700 

7,300 
400 
250 


2,900 

8,400 

3,850 

215 

135 


2,950 

7,350 

3,7fi0 

210 

130 


12.6 


Norfolk 


11.6 


Newport News . 


19 7 


Hampton 


7.0 


Phoebus - . 


7.2 






Total 


31,060 


15,500 


14,400 


12.9 







In all of the cities except Portsmouth, there were fewer migrant workers than 
migrant families. The reason was that a number of wives and children came to 
the area after October 1940 to join family heads who had moved to the area for 
jobs before October 1, 1940. In the terms of the definitions used in the survey, 
such family heads were not migrants, but their wives and children were. 



10516 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



The States which contributed the greatest proportion of Hampton Roads 
migrants are shown below: 



state 



Percent distribution 



Total 



Ports- 
mouth 



Norfolk 



Newport 
News 
area 



Georgia 

New York 

North Carolina 
Pennsylvania.. 

Virginia 

West Virginia. - 
All other States 

Total 



100 



100 



100 



The majority of the migrants had moved from outside the State of Virginia, 
and principally from North Carolina. Newport News was the only city in which 
Virginia was the most important source of migrants, but even there only two- 
fifths originated within the State. 

The average distance traveled by migrants to the area was 170 miles. In 
Portsmouth, the average was 190 miles; in Norfolk, 170 miles; and in Newport 
News, 150 miles. 

An exceptionally high proportion of the migrants came from rural places, and 
particularly from the open country. 



Size of place of origin 



Percent distribution 



Total 



Ports- 
mouth 



Norfolk 



Newport 
News 
area 



Open country... 
Less than 2.500. 
2,.'i0n to 25,000 - , 
25,000 to 100,000. 
100,000 and over. 

Total 



100 



100 



100 



CHARACTERISTICS 



Age and sex. — Migrant workers in the Newport News area were exceptionally 
young, averaging only slightly over 26 years. Although somewhat older, the 
migrants in the other two cities still averaged less than 30 years of age. The 
average (median) age of the workers was as follows: 





Average age (years) 


Type of worker 


Total 


Ports- 
mouth 


Norfolk 


Newport 
News area 


All workers 


28.2 
29.0 
24.5 
25.5 
30.5 


29.4 
31.1 
23.7 
27.3 
31.8 


29.1 
30.4 
24.9 
26.8 
30.7 


26.3 


Male workers 


26.7 




24.4 


1-person families 


24.1 


Heads of multiperson families 


29.4 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10517 



Female workers made up 16 percent of all the migrant workers in the Hampton 
Roads area. In Portsmouth, females made up 14 percent; in Norfolk, 20 percent; 
and in the Newport News area, 13 percent. 

Race. — Negroes comprised 15 percent of the migrants in the entire survey area. 
In Portsmouth, Negroes comprised 18 percent; in Norfolk, 14 percent, and in the 
Newport News area, 16 percent. 

Size of family. — When interviewed, migrant families in the Hampton Roads 
area averaged 1.9 persons per family. In Portsmouth, the families averaged 2.1 
persons at interview; in Norfolk, 2 persons; and in the Newport News area, 1.9 
persons. 

The following table shows the number of persons in the migrant families: 



Size of family 



Percent distribution 



Total 



Ports- 
mouth 



Norfolk 



Newport 
News area 



1 person 

2 persons 

3 and 4 persons 

5 persons and over 

Total 



100 



Many of these families were not complete when interviewed; in the entire area, 
24 percent of the one-person families and 12 percent of the multiperson families 
had left a spouse or dependent children behind when moving to the five cities. 
Before migration, the families had contained 36,100 persons, of whom 86 precent 
migrated and 14 percent stayed behind. In Portsmouth, 13 percent were left 
behind; in Norfolk, 16 percent; and in the Newport News area, 13 percent. 

MONTHS LIVED IN AREA 

About half of the Hampton Roads migrant workers had lived in the area 5 
months or more when enumerated: 





Percent distribution 


Months lived In area 


Total 


Ports- 
mouth 


Norfolk 


Newport 
News area 


8 months and aver . . . .. . . . 


23 
16 
19 
12 
11 
11 
8 


19 
17 
16 
13 
14 
12 
9 


24 
14 
20 
12 
10 
11 
9 


29 


6 and 7 months..- 


17 


4 and 5 months 


21 


3 months 


12 


2 months 


9 


1 month. ...... 


7 


Less than 1 month 


5 






Total-. 


100 


100 


100 


100 







INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

No one industry predominated among the workers before they moved to the 
Hampton Roads area. Farm workers made up the largest single group before 
migration, but they accounted for less than one-fifth of the total. A sizable 
proportion of the workers had been engaged in each of several industries: Con- 
struction, manufacturing, trade, and other service industries, and a large number 
were new workers. 



10518 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



The industrial attachment of the workers on their last full-time jobs before 
migration was as follows: 



Industry at last residence 



Percent distribution 



Total 



Ports- 
mouth 



Norfolk 



Newport 
News area 



No job: 

Students - 

Housewives ..- - 

Unemployed 

Other 

Apriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mininp -- -- 

Construction -- - 

Manufacturing: 

Transportation equipment - 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 

Trade .- 

Personal service 

Other services 

Total.. 



100 



100 



100 



In the Hampton Roads area, shipbuilding became by far the most important 
single employer of migrant workers. Norfolk, however, differed from the other 
two cities in this respect; only one-sixth of the Norfolk migrants worked in the 
shipyards, as compared with a good majority of the migrants in Portsmouth and 
the Newport News area. 

A relatively large proportion of the migrants were employed in construction 
work, and as usual, a large number were employed in trade and other service 
industries. 

The industries employing migrant workers at the time of interview are shown 
below : 



Industry when interviewed 



Total 



Percent distribution 



Ports- 
mouth 



Norfolk 



Newport 
News area 



Unemployed 

Ai^riculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining .. - 

Construction -- 

Manufacturing: 

Transportation equipment 

Other --- - 

Transportation, communication and utilities 

Trade --- 

Personal service 

Other service 

Total- - - 



(') 



(') 



100 



100 



100 



100 



I Less than 0.5 percent. 

Before migration to the Hampton Roads area, the workers were principally 
engaged as craftsmen, operatives and farm workers, or held no jobs. An un- 
commonly small proportion held white-collar jobs, and domestic and "other" 
service workers were relatively few. 

The following table shows the occupations of the workers on their last full-time 
jobs at their last residence: 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10519 



Occupation at last residence 



Total 



Percent distribution 



Ports- 
mouth 



Norfolk 



Newport 
News area 



No job _.- 

Professional and semiprofessional... 
Propriclors. managers, and ofEciaJs. 

rierical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers, _ 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 
Laborers, except farm 

Total - 



100 



100 



After migration to the Hampton Roads area the proportion of migrant workers 
engaged in skilled and semiskilled jobs increased sharply. 

Before migration, these two groups made up 36 percent of the workers; after 
migration, the proportion increased to 59 percent. The increase in the number 
of skilled workers resulted largely from the shifting of workers formerly employed 
in white-collar, semiskilled, and farm work. The new semiskilled workers were 
drawn principally from former farm workers and from workers who held no jobs 
at their last residence. 

The occupations of the migrants on their jobs in the Hampton Roads area 
were as follows: 



Occupation when interviewed 



Total 



Percent distribution 



Ports- 
mouth 



Norfolk 



Newport 
News area 



Unemployed 

Professional and semiprofessionaL.. 
Proprietors, managers, and ofhcials. 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 
Laborers, except farm 

Total 



(') 



(') 



(') 



(') 



4 
4 
3 

10 
29 
35 
2 
6 



100 



100 



100 



100 



> Less than 0.5 percent. 

EARNINGS 

The average weekly earnings of employed migrant workers in the Hampton 
Roads area were $32.49. The averages according to race and sex were as follows: 

White males $38. 77 

White females 15. 26 

Negro males 20. 23 

Negro females 6. 71 

The average weekly earnings for all workers in the three cities were as follows: 

Portsmouth $33. 16 

Norfolk 29. 18 

Newport News area 34. 07 



UNEMPLOYMENT 



Out of the 14,400 migrant workers in the Hampton Roads area, an estimated 
700 workers or 5 percent, were unemployed and seeking work during the week 
prior to interview. Migrant unemployment in both Portsmouth and Norfolk 
was also 5 percent; but in the Newport News area only 4 percent were unemployed. 



10520 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Unemployment by sex. — Female migrants reported about five times higher 
unemployment than males. Among females, 15 percent, and among males, 3 
percent, were unemployed. 

Unemployment by race. — Negro migrants reported more than double the unem- 
ployment rate of white workers. Nine percent of the Negroes and 4 percent of 
the white workers were unemployed. 

Unemployment by age. — The youngest migrant workers were least successful 

in finding jobs in the Hampton Roads area: 

Percent unemployed in 
Aee of worker : Hampton Roads area 

Total. __.' 5 

Under 20 years 8 

20 to 24 years 5 

25 to 44 years 4 

45 years and over 5 

Unemployment by months lived in county.- — Workers who arrived in the Hampton 
Roads area shortly before the present survey was conducted reported the highest 
unemployment rates: 

Percent unemployed in 
Months lived in county: Hampton Roads area 

Total 5 

8 months and over 5 

6 and 7 months 4 

4 and 5 months 2 

3 months 4 

2 months ' 8 

1 month 8 

Less than 1 month 8 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — E.xcept for workers formerly 
engaged in personal services and those who held no job at their last residence, 
all industry groups reported very low unemployment rates in the Hampton 
Roads area. Unemployment r tes by industry at last residence follow: 

Percent unemployed in 
Industry at last residence: Hampton Roads area 

Total 5 

No job ■- 9 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 4 

Mining 2 

Construction 2 

Manufacturing 3 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 4 

Trade 3 

Personal services 17 

Other services 3 

In terms of occupations, craftsmen and operatives reported exceptionally 
low unemployment rates in the Hampton Roads area. Rates markedly higher 
than average were reported by workers formerly employed as domestics, clerical 
workers, and as non-farm laborers. 

Unemployment by occupations was as follows: 

Percent unemployed in 
Occupation at last residence: Hampton Roads area 

Total 5 

No job 9 

Professional and semiprofessional 4 

Proprietors, managers, and officials 3 

Clerical and kindred workers 8 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 2 

Operatives and kindred workers 2 

Domestic service workers 26 

Other service workers 1 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 3 

Laborers, except farm 7 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10521 



The great majority of the migrant families in the Hampton Roads area were 
sharing a dwelling with other persons when enumerated. About one-third were 
occupying a separate dwelling, and a few lived in hotels and trailers camps. The 
following tables show the living arrangements of the families: 



1. ALL FAMILIES 



Living arrangements 



Total 



Percent distribution 



Ports- 
mouth 



Norfolk 



Newport 
News area 



Occupying a separate dwelling 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels .-. 

In tourist and trailer camps. -. 

Total 



100 



W 



100 



100 



2. ONE-PERSON FAMILIES 





5 

93 
2 
0) 


3 

90 

7 

(!) 


8 
92 
(') 
(>) 


1 


Sharing a dwelling with others 


98 


In hotels 

In tourist and trailer camps 


1 






Total 


100 


100 


100 


100 







3. MULTIPERSON FAMILIES 



Occupying a separate dwelling 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

In tourist and trailer camps. -. 

Total'. 



(') 



(') 



(0 



(') 



100 



1 Less than 0.5 percent. 



CONCLUSIONS 



The volume of migration into the Hampton Roads area was extremely large 
during the first year of large-scale defense activity. Newport News reported the 
third highest migrant rate among the 51 cities covered in these surveys, and 
Portsmouth and Newport News were the si.xth and eighth highest cities, respec- 
tively. 

Unlike migrants in the majority of the other high-migration war-production 
cities, migrants in the Hampton Roads area were notably successful in finding 
jobs after migration. 

December 10, 1941. 

Recent Migration Into Houston, Tex. 

A survey of migration into Houston, Tex., was completed by the Work Projects 
Administration Division of Research in mid-October 1941. The survey was con- 
cerned with civilians who moved to Houston from places outside of Harris County 
after October 1, 1940, and who were still living in Houston at the time of the sur- 
vey Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered the residential districts, 
rooming house districts, lower-priced hotels, and tourist camps within the Houston 
corporate limits. Higher-priced hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt was 
made to gather information about persons who left Houston during the survey 
period. 



60396 — 42— pt. 27- 



-20 



10522 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Between June 1940 and September 1941, Houston received direct defense 
contracts totaling about $60,000,000, equal to approximately one-third the value 
of its manufactures in 1937. More than nine-tenths of tiie defense contracts 
were for the construction of facilities — shipyards, an aircraft parts factory, ord- 
nance plants, and a flying field. In the first year of the defense program, a sub- 
stantial part of Houston's defense activity was related to the preparation of these 
facilities. 

During the same period, employment in Houston's manufacturing, industries 
increased as a direct and indirect result of the defense program. Between Sep- 
tember 1940 and September 1941, the index of factory employment in Houston 
increased 25.8 percent, or slightly less than in Indianapolis, and considerably less 
than in Baltimore. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 6,400 families living in Houston at the time of the present 
survey had moved to the city from places outside of Harris County after October 
1, 1940. These families contained 7,100 workers and 15,900 persons. Migrants 
made up a group equal to 4.4 percent of Houston's 1940 population. 



Texas was the principal source of Houston migrants, contributing 74 percent 
of the migrant workers. The next most important sources were Oklahoma, 6 
percent; Louisiana, 5 percent; and Illinois, 3 percent. The average distance 
traveled by the migrants was 175 miles; 14 percent had traveled more than 500 
miles. 

Rural places (less than 2,500 population) were the origin of one-third of the 
migrant workers; i. e., 5 percent had come from the open country and 28 percent 
from rural villages. Towns (2,500 to 25,000 population) contributed 34 percent; 
small cities, 14 percent; and cities of over 100,000 population, 19 percent. 

Less than one-fifth of the families (18 percent) had formerly lived in Houston. 
Half of these families had been absent from the city for 4 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of all workers in the migrant families was 29.1 
years. In one-person families the average was 24.7 years, and for heads of multi- 
person families, 31.6 years. Workers under 20 years made up 10 percent of the 
migrants, and those 45 years and over 12 percent. 

Women workers made up 19 percent of the Houston migrant workers. The 
average age of women workers was 24 years, as compared with 29.9 years for 
the men. 

Race. — Negroes constituted 7 percent of the Houston migrants, and Spanish- 
Americans made up a fraction of 1 percent. Based on 1940 population, the mi- 
grant rate for nonwhite persons was 1.3 percent, as against 5.3 percent for white 
persons. 

Size of family. — Migrant families in Houston were relatively large; only slightly 
more than one-fourth consisted of one person, and close to half contained three 
persons or more. 

Percent 
Size of family in Houston: distribution 

1 person 28 

2 persons 26 

3 and 4 persons 35 

5 persons and over 11 

Total .. 100 

Most of these families were complete when interviewed; only 18 percent of 
the 1-person families and 7 percent of the multiperson families had left a spouse 
or dependent children behind when they moved to Houston. Before migration 
the families had contained 16,850 persons; 94 percent of these had migrated and 
6 percent had stayed at the migrants' last residence. 

Month of arrival. — The distribution of migrants according to the month of 
their arrival in Houston was as follows: 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10523 



Percent 
Month of arrival: distnbution 

October 1940 to January 1941 18 

February to March 1941 12 

April to May 1941 16 

June to Julv 1941 23 

August 1941 16 

September 1941 » 15 

Total _ 100 

Includes a part of October 1911. 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

No one industry played a predominant part either in supplying Houston's 
migrant workers, or in employing migrant workers after their arrival. A sub- 
stantial number of migrants came from each of five industry grou])s: Agriculture, 
construction, manufacturing, trade, and "other" services. In Houston, the most 
important employer of migrants was manufacturing, with construction, trade, 
and "other" services as important secondary employers. 

The industrial attachment of Houston migrant workers on their last full-time 
jobs at last residence and on their jobs when interviewed in Houston was as 
follows: 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Houston 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in Houston 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing. 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Iron and steel 

Transportation equipment... 

Other 

Transportation, communication.. 

Trade 

Domestic service . 

Other services 



Total. 



100 



1 The status of these workers at last residence was: Students, 6 percent; housewives, 2 percent; unem- 
ployed, 5 percent; and others, 1 percent. 

Both before and after migration, most of the Houston migrants were engaged 
in clerical, skilled and semiskilled occupations. There were two occupational 
shifts involved in the migration: Farm workers tended to shift to skilled and 
semiskilled jobs, and new workers shifted to clerical jobs. The occupational 
distribution of the workers at last residence and in Houston was as follows: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Houston 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Houston 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials. - 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. 
Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



100 



10524 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 7,100 workers in Houston, an estimated 800, or 11 percent, were unem- 
ployed and seeking work during the calendar week preceding interview. 

Unemployment by sex. — Women migrant workers reported an unem.ploym.ent 
rate three tin.es greater than m.en. Among the wom.en 24 percent were unem- 
ployed; among the inen, 8 percent. 

Unemployment by race. — Negro migrants had m.ore than double the unem.ploy- 
m.ent rate of white workers. Am.ong the Negroes, 22 percent were unem,ployed, 
as compared with 10 percent for white workers. 

Unemployment by age.— The highest unem.ploym.ent rates were reported by 
workers under 20 years and by those over 45 years: ^^^^^^^ unemvloyei 

Age of workers: in Houston 

Total 11 

Under 20 years 16 

20 to 44 12 

25 to 44 9 

45 years and over 16 

Unemployment month of arrival. — The highest unemployment rates were reported 
by workers who arrived in Houston during the m,onths just preceding the present 
survey. Percent unemployed 

Month of arrival: in Houston 

Total 11 

October 1940-January 1941 9 

Februarv-May 1941 4 

June-July 1941 12 

Au£;ust 1941 15 

September 1941 23 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — In term.s of industry at last resi- 
dence, the highest unem.ploym.ent rates were reported by workers formerly engaged 
in personal service; and workers from agriculture, m.ining, and construction were 
som.ewhat above average. The lowe&t rate was reported by workers who were 
em.ployed in nianufacturing at their last residences. Rates by industry follow: 

Percent unemployed 
Industry at last residence: in Houston 

Total 11 

No job at last residence 11 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 16 

Mining 16 

Construction 16 

Manufacturing 5 

Transportation, com.m.unication, and utilities 6 

Trade 10 

Personal services 32 

Other services 6 

In term.s of occupation at last residence, the highest rates were reported by 
dom.estic workers and operatives. Unem.ploym.ent was relatively slight am,ong 
craftsm.en, "other" service workers, and nonfarm laborers. Rates by industry 

■ Percent unemployed 

Occupation at last residence: in Houston 

Total 11 

No job at last residence 11 

Professional, proprietory, and clerical 7 

Craftsm.en and kindred workers 6 

Operatives and kindred workers 23 

Dom.estic service workers 39 

Other service workers 5 

Farm, owners, tenants, and laborers 16 

Laborers, except farm.. (') 

' Less than 0.5 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10525 



The majority of the Houston migrant families occupied a separate dwelling unit 
when enun.erated. About two-fifths had doubled up with other families, and a 
small number were living in hotels and tourjst camps. 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1-poTson 
families 



Multiper- 
son families 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

In tourist and trailer camps 

Total -.. 



100 



(') 



100 



(') 



100 



' Less than 0.5 percent. 



CONCLUSIONS 

In the 1930's, the speed of Houston's growth was second only to Washington, 
D. C, among the largest cities of the country. Its rate of population gain in 
the decade was 31.5 percent, half again greater than Los Angeles, and five times 
greater than Indianapolis and Baltim.ore. Judging from the volume of in-migra- 
tion during the past year, Houston's rapid growth is continuing under the defense 
program. With proportionately less defense activity than Baltimore or Indiana- 
polis, Houston nevertheless shows a substantially higher rate of recent in-migration 
than either. 



December 4, 1941. 
Recent Migration Into Indianapolis, Ind. 

A survey of migration into Indianapolis, Ind., was completed by the Work 
Projects Administration Division of Research early in October 1941. The survey 
was concerned with civilians who moved to Indianapolis from places outside of 
Marion County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living there at the time 
of the survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered the residential 
districts, rooming-house districts, and lower-])riced hotels inside the Indianapolis 
corporate limits Higher-priced hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt was made 
to gather information about persons who left Indianapolis during the survey 
period. 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Between June 1940 and September 1941, Indianapolis received prime defense 
contracts valued at $164,000,000, equal to slightly more than half the 1937 value 
of manufactures in Indianapolis. Actual production, however, had not yet 
reached peak tempo at the time of the present survey, and maximum employment 
was not anticipated before the spring of 1942. 

Between August 1940 and August 1941, employment in Indianapolis manu- 
facturing industries rose 27 percent. In filling the resulting large number of 
new jobs, employers have generally given preference to white males under 25 
years of age. According to local reports, practically all the unemployed workers 
in this preferred group had been rehired by the time of this survey, but the unem- 
ployed in other unskilled categories remained relatively numerous. In October 
1941, local estimates set the number of these unemployed at 10,000 workers^ 

number of MIGRANTS 

Approximately 5,200 families living in Indianapolis at the time of the present 
survey had moved to the city from places outside of Marion County after October 
1, 1940. These families contained 5,100 workers (a few families contained no 
workers, and a small number contained more than one worker). Present in the 
families were 12,600 persons. Migrants made up a group equal to 3.2 percent of 
Indianapolis' 1940 population. 



10526 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Indiana was the principal source of Indianapolis migrants, contributing 53 
percent. The next most important sources, in the order of their contribution, 
were: Kentucky, 10 percent; Illinois, 7 percent; Ohio, 6 percent; and Tennessee, 
5 percent. The average distance traveled by the migrants was 95 miles, and 1 
migrant in every 12 had traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places (less than 2,500 population), were the origin of more than one- 
fourth of the migrants, i. e., 3 percent had come from open country and 24 percent 
from rural villages. Towns (2,500 to 25,000 population) contributed 34 percent; 
small cities, 19 percent; and cities of over 100,000 population, 20 percent. 

About one-fifth of tlie families (21 percent) had formerly lived in Indianapolis. 
Half of these families had been absent from the city for 4 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of all workers in the migrant families was 29.2 
years. In 1 -person families, the average was 24 years, and for heads of multi- 
person families, 32 years. Workers under 20 years made up 10 percent of the 
workers, and those 45 years and over, 12 percent. 

Women workers made up 15 percent of all Indianapolis migrant workers. The 
average age of the women was 24.2 years, as compared with 30.0 years for the 
men. 

Race. — Negroes constituted 4 percent of the migrants. Based on 1940 popula- 
tion, the migrant rate for Negroes was 0.9 percent as against 3.6 percent for white 
persons. 

Size of family. — Migrant families in Indianapolis were relatively large; only 
one-third consisted of one person, and approximately two-fifths contained three 
persons or more: 
Size of family in Indianapolis: Percent distribution 

1 person 33 

2 persons 27 

3 and 4 persons 32 

5 persons and over 8 

Total 100 

A large number of these families were not complete when interviewed; 40 
percent of the 1-person families and 11 percent of the multiperson families had left 
a spouse or dependent children behind when they moved to Indianapolis. Before 
migration, the families had contained 14,800 persons; of these, 12,600 had migrated 
and 2,200 had remained at the migrants' places of origin. 

Month of arrival. — The distribution of the migrant workers according to the 
month of their arrival in Indianapolis was as follows: 

Month of arrival: Percent distribution 

October 1940-January 1941 15 

February-March 1941 13 

April-Mav 1941 20 

June-Julv 1941 . 24 

August 1941 17 

September 1941 11 

Total 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Indianapolis migrants at their last residences had been engaged principally in 
manufacturing, trade, and "other" service industries. Agriculture also con- 
tributed a relatively large number of workers, but the proportion who had held 
no job at last residence was relatively small. In Indianapolis, the most important 
employer of migrants was manufacturing, which occupied about half the workers; 
and the largest single manufacturing industry was the manufacture of trans- 
portation equipment. 

The industry of migrant workers on their last full-time jobs at their last resi- 
dence and on their jobs when interviewed in Indianapolis was as follows: 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10527 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Indian- 
apolis 



No job at last residence ' ..- 

Unemployed in Indianapolis 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining - 

Construction.. 

Manufacturing: 

Transportation equipment 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities. 

Trade. 

Domestic service 

Other services 



(') 



Total. 



100 



1 The status of these workers at last residence was: Students, 6 percent; housewives, 1 percent; unemployed 
percent; and others, 1 percent. 
' Less than 0.5 percent. 

Although Indianapolis migrants were principally clerks, craftsmen, and opera- 
tives both before and after migration, two kinds of occupational shifts were in- 
volved in the movement. Ex-students tended to shift into clerical and opera- 
tive's jobs; and former farm workers turned to operatives' and laborers' jobs in 
Indianapolis. 

Occupations before and after migration follow: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Indian- 
apolis 



No job at last residence... 

Unemployed in Indianapolis 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials.. 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers . 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. 
Laborers, except farm 



(0 



Total. 



100 



' Less than 0.5 percent. 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 5,100 migrant workers in Indianapolis, approximately 290, or 6 percent, 
were -unemployed and seeking work during the calendar week preceding interview. 
Comparable figures for other recently surveyed cities are: Baltimore, 3 percent; 
Wichita, Kans., 13 percent; and St. Louis, Mo., 16 percent. 

Unemployment by sex. — Women migrants reported about four times the unem- 
ployment rate of men. Among the women, 15 percent were unemployed; among 
the men, 4 percent. 

Unemployment by race. — Negroes reported more than double the unemploy- 
ment rate of white workers. Among the Negroes, 13 percent were unemployed; 
among white workers, 5 percent. 

Unemployment by age. — The youngest migrants reported the highest unemploy- 
ment rates in Indianapolis, and the least unemployment was reported by workers 
over 45 years. Rates by age were as follows: Ptrcent 

unemployed 
Age of workers: '" Indianapolis 

Under 20 years 14 

20 to 24 years 5 

25 to 44 years 5 

45 years and over v) 

Total 6 

• Less than 0.5 percent. 



10528 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Unemployment hy month of arrival. — The highest unemployment rates were 
reported by workers who had arrived in Indianapolis during the months shortly 
before the present survey was conducted. percent 

unemployed 

Month of arrival: '« Indianapolis 

October 1940-January 1941 3 

February-May 194 1 3 

June-July 1941 5 

AuE^ust 1941 8 

September 1941 H 

Total - 6 

Unemployment by induKtry and occupation. — Except for workers who were 
domestic servants at their last residence, no industrial group showed a particularly 
high unemployment rate in Indianapolis. New entrants to the labor market 
reported below-average unemployment, and the rate was very low among con- 
struction workers. Rates by industry at last residence were as follows: 

Percent unemployed 
Industry at last residence: in Indianapolis 

Total 6 

No job at last residence 4 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 6 

Mining (0 

Construction (') 

M anufacturing — __ .- 7 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 7 

Trade 5 

Domestic service 13 

Other services 2 

1 Less than 0.5 percent. 

In terms of occupation, professional, proprietory and clerical workers and 
craftsmen reported very little unemployment, while operatives and service workers 
were well above average. Ex-farm workers reported average unemployment in 

Indianapolis. Rates by occupation at last residence follow. „ , , j 

^ •' ^ Percent unemployed 

Occupation at last residence: '» Indianapolis 

Total 6 

No Job 4 

Professional, proprietory and clerical 2 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 2 

Operatives and kindred workers 11 

Personal and other service workers 10 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 6 

Laborers, except farm 3 

HOUSING 

Half the migrant families were occupying a separate dwelling unit when 
enumerated in Indianapolis; somewhat less than half were sharing a dwelling 
with another family; and a small number lived in hotels. 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1-person 
families 



Multiper- 
son families 



Ocoupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

Total... 



0) 



34 



> Less than 0.5 percent. 



CONCLtrsiONS 



In Indianapolis, as in several of the other large industrial cities surveyed 
(particularly in Baltimore and St. Louis) immigration during the first year of the 
defense program reached significant volume. This movement had been generally 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10529 

successful in the case of Indianapolis; among 11 cities covered to date by this 
survey, only 2, Baltimore and Fort Wayne, Ind., reported a lower general rate 
of unemployment among migrants. 



February 7, 1942. 
Recent Migration into Johnstown, Pa. 

A survey of migration into Johnstown, Pa., was conducted bj' the Work Projects 
Administration Division of Research in October 1941. The survey was con- 
cerned with civilians who moved* to Johnstown from places outside of Cambria 
County after October 1, 1940, and who were stiU living there at the time of the 
survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered the residential districts 
and lower priced hotels within the corporate limits of Johnstown. Higher priced 
hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt was made to gather information about 
persons who left the city during the survey period. 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Although Johnstown had received practically no direct defense contracts at 
the time of this survey, the local iron and steel industry was extremely active 
with indirect defense orders. The number of persons employed in Johnstown 
increased by 4,500 between October 1940 and October 1941, reabsorbing a large 
proportion of the local unemployed and attracting a number of outside workers to 
the city. According to local reports, however, the great majority of the out-of- 
city workers originated within Cambria County. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 350 families living in Johnstown at the time of the Work 
Projects Administration survey had moved to the city from places outside Cambria 
County after October 1, 1940. These families contained 450 workers and a total 
of 700 persons. Migrants made up a group equal to 1 .percent of Johnstown's 
1940 i)opulation, 

ORIGINS 

Pennsylvania was the principal source of Johnstown migrants, contributing 
65percent of the total. West Virginia was second, with 7 percent, and New York 
third with 6 percent. The average distance traveled by the migrants was 90 
miles, and only 10 percent had traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places were the origin of about one-quarter of the migrants; i. e., 8 per- 
cent came from open country and 15 percent from rural villages. Towns (2,500 
to 25,000) were the source of 37 percent; 14 percent came from small cities; and 
26 percent from cities of over 100,000 population. 

More than one-fourth (27 percent) of the families had formerly lived in Johns- 
town. About half of these families had been absent for 6 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of migrant workers in .Johnstown was 32.5 years. 
In one-person families, the average was 29.6 years, and for heads of multiperson 
families, 36.0 years. Eleven percent of the workers were under 200 years, and 
13 percent were 45 years and over. 

Ten percent of the migrant workers were females. The average age of female 
workers was 33.5 years, and for males, 32.2 years. 

Race. — Negroes constituted 6 percent of the Johnstown migrants, and white 
persons constituted 94 percent. 

Si<:e of family. — Migrant families in Johnstown averaged 1.9 persons per family. 
Nearly half consisted of one person. 
Size of family in Johnstown: -P«'"«"^ distribution 

1 person 48 

2 persons *_ 23 

3 and 4 persons 19 

5 persons and over 10 

Total 100 



10530 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



A number of these families were not complete when interviewed; 29 percent of 
the one-person families and 17 percent of the multiperson families had left a 
spouse or dependent children behind when they moved to Johnstown. Before 
migration the families had contained 850 persons. Of these, 82 percent had 
migrated and 18 percent had remained behind. . 

Month of arrival— About half of the Johnstown migrants had arrived during 
August or later. 
Month of arrival : -P«''«"' distribution 

October 1940-February 1941 14 

March- April 1941 8 

May-June 1941 19 

Julv-August 1941 35 

September 1941 19 

October 1941 5 

Total. 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Johnstown migrants were engaged principally in manufacturing, transportation , 
trade, and "other" services at their last residences. A small proportion were 
engaged in mining, but very few had been farm workers. The proportion of new 
workers among the migrants was also unusually small. In Johnstown, steel 
manufacturing became the principal industry of the migrants, but a sizable pro- 
portion was also engaged in construction, transportation, trade, and "other" 
services. 

The industrial attachm.ent of the workers on their last full-time jobs at their 
last residence and on their jobs when interviewed in Johnstown was as follows: 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In 
Johnstown 



No job at last residence ' - 

Unemployment in Johnstown 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing -.. 

Minine 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Iron 

Other. , 

Transportation, communication and utilities . 

Trade _ 

Domestic service - 

Other services - - -.. 



7 

1 

2 

10 

35 
9 

10 

10 
1 

15 



Total. 



100 



100 



' The status of these workers at their last residence was: Students 6 percent; all others, less than 0.5 per- 
cent. 

White-collar workers constituted the largest single broad occupational group 
among the migrants, accounting for 32 percent of the total before migration and 
25 percent in Johnstown. Both before and after migration, operatives were the 
second most in\portant occupational group, and craftsmen were third. There 
was a sizable shift, however, into laborers' jobs, and the proportion working as 
laborers in Johnstown was uncomm.only large. 

The occupational distribution of the workers before and after migration was 
as follows: 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10531 



Occupation 



No job at last residence.- 

Unemployed in Johnstown 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials. 

Clerical and kindred workers.. 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers... 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers- 
Laborers, except farm 



Total. 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



100 



In 
Johnstown 



(') 



100 



1 Less than 0.5 percent. 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 450 migrant workers in Johnstown, an estim.ated 30 workers, or 7 per- 
cent, were unemployed and seeking work during the week preceding interview. 

Unemployment by sex. — Feir.ale migrants reported about five tin.es higher un- 
employn\ent than males. Am.ong fem.ales, 24 percent, and am.ong n.ales, 5 per- 
cent, were unem.ployed. 

Unemployment by race. — Negroes reported about seven tim.es higher unem.ploy- 
ment than white workers. Among Negroes, 33 percent were unem.ployed, as 
com.pared with 5 percent for white workers. 

Unemployment by age. — Unem.ployn.ent was reported by 11 percent of the work- 
ers under 20 years, 11 percent of those aged 20-34 years, and 1 percent of those 
35 years and over. 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — Unem.ploym.ent was highest am.ong the 
workers who had arrived in Johnstown during the months just preceding the 
Work Projects Administration survey. 

Percent 
Month of arrival: unemployed 

Total 7 

October 1940 to April 1941 (0 

May to June 1941 6 

July to August 1941 7 

Septem.ber 1941 16 

October 1941 13 

' Less than 0.5 percent. 

HOUSING 

The majority of the m.igrant fam.ilies in Johnstown had doubled up with other 
persons. About one-fourth occupied separate living quarters, and about one- 
fifth lived in hotels. 





Percent distribution 


Living arrangements 


Total 


1 -person 
families 


Multiper- 
son families 




28 

52 

19 

1 


11 

47 

39 

3 


44 


Sharing a dwelling with others . 


56 


In hotels . . 


(') 


In trailers 


(') 






Total 


100 


100 


100 







• Less than 0.5 percent 



CONCLUSIONS 



The volume of recent migration into Johnstown from places outside Cam.bria 
County was unusually sm.all during the first year of the defense program. Among 
the 51 cities covered in this survey, none reported a lower migrant rate than 
Johnstown. By com.parison with the m.igrants in other cities, however, Johns- 
town migrants reported about average success in finding jobs. 



10532 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

January 16, 1942. 
Recent Migration Into Kalamazoo, Mich. 

A survey of migration into Kalamazoo, Mich., was conducted by the Work 
Projects Administration Division of Research during November 1941. The 
survey was concerned with civihans who moved to Kalamazoo from places 
outside Kalamazoo County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living there 
at the time of the survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered the 
residential districts and lower-priced hotels within the corporate limits of Kala- 
mazoo. Higher-priced hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt was made to 
gather information about persons who left the city during the survey period. 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Kalamazoo is not directly a defense production center. Between June 1940 
and October 1941 the city received defense contracts valued at only about 
$250,000, equal to less than one-half of 1 percent of the product value of the 
city's 1937 manufactures. Indirectly, however, Kalamazoo's industries, par- 
ticularly the paper mills and metal-products plants, had benefitted from defense 
activity and the general rise of industrial production levels. A shortage of 
certain categories of skihed workers had been experienced during the 14 months 
period covered by this survey, but the local supply of unskilled workers was 
reported to be more than ample. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 850 families living in Kalamazoo at the time of this survey 
had moved to the city from places outside Kalamazoo County after October 1, 
1940. These families contained 850 workers and a total of 1,730 persons. Mi- 
grants made up a group equal to 3.2 percent of Kalamazoo's 1940 population. 



Michigan was the principal source of Kalamazoo migrants, contributing 55 
percent of the total. Illinois and Indiana each contributed 12 percent, and 
3 percent came from Ohio. The average distance traveled by the migrants was 
95 miles, and only 8 percent traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places were the origin of nearly one-third of the migrants; i. e., 12 percent 
came from open country and 20 percent from rural villages. Towns (2,500 to 
25,000 population) contributed 27 percent; small cities, 20 percent; and cities of 
over 100,000 population, 21 percent. 

One-fourth (25 percent) of the migrant families had formerly lived in Kala- 
mazoo. Half of these families had been absent about 4 years before their return. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — ^The average age of Kalamazoo migrants was 28.0 years. In 
one-person families, the average age was 23.8 years, and for heads of multiperson 
families, 34.3 years. Twelve percent of the migrants were under 20 years, and 
13 percent were 45 years and over. 

P'emale workers constituted 26 percent of all the migrant workers. The 
average age of female workers was 23.1 years, as compared with 29.8 years for 
males. 

Race. — Negroes constituted 3 percent of the Kalamazoo migrants. 

Size of family. — ^When interviewed, Kalamazoo migrant families averaged 2.0 
persons per family. Nearly half of the families contained only one person. 

Percent dis- 
Size of family in Kalamazoo: tribution 

1 person 47 

2 persons 22 

3 and 4 persons 28 

6 persons and over 3 

Total 100 

Most of these families were complete when interviewed. Only 8 percent of 
the one-person families and 9 percent of the multiperson families had left a spouse 
or dependent children behind when moving to Kalamazoo. Before migration, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10533 



the families had contained 1,900 persons. Of these, 92 percent had migrated and 

8 percent had stayed at the migrants' places of origin. 

Month of arrival.- — About half of the migrants had arrived in Kalamazoo during 

or before August 1941: 

Percent dis- 

Month of arrival: tribution 

October 1940-March 1941 13 

April-May 1941 13 

June-July 1941 19 

August-September 1941 __ 22 

October 1941 19 

November 1941 14 

Total 100 



INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Kalamazoo migrant workers were drawn principally from manufacturing, 
trade, and "other" service industries. The proportions of both farmers and new 
workers among the migrants were relatively small. In Kalamazoo, manufacturing 
(especially paper manufacturing) was the most important employer of migrant 
workers, with trade second and "other" service indu.stries third. 

The industrial distribution of the workers on their last full-time jobs at their 
last residence, and on their jobs when interviewed in Kalamazoo, was as follows: 





Percent distribution 


Industry 


At last 
residence 


In Kala- 
mazoo 


No job at last residence ' 


12 




Unemployed in Kalamazoo .-. .._ 


3 


Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 


8 
3 
6 

3 
2 
3 

14 
7 

20 
5 

17 


1 


Mining - 




Construction . . 


7 


Manufacturing: 

Paper _. 


13 


Iron and steel . _ 


5 


Machinery 


5 


Other 


15 


Transportation, communication, and utilities 


G 


Trade ,. 


21 


Personal services . 


g 


Other services 


15 






Total — 


100 


100 







1 The status of these workers at their last residence was: Students, 6 percent; housewives, 2 percent; un- 
employed, 3 percent; others, 1 percent. 

Both before and after migration, Kalamazoo migrants were engaged principally 
as white-collar workers and operatives. There were few craftsmen among the 
migrants. The principal occupational shifts involved in the migration were shifts 
into operative and dome.stic and other service jobs. 

The occupational distribution of the migrants before and after migration follows: 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Kala- 
mazoo 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Kalamazoo.. 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials.. 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers.. 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. 
Laborers, except farm 



0) 



Total. 



100 



100 



' Less than 0.5 percent. 



10534 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Unemployment was slight among Kalamazoo migrants. Out of 850 workers, 
only 25, or 3 percent, were unemployed and seeking work during the week pre- 
ceding the survey. 

Unemployment btj sex. — Female migrant workers reported an unemployment 
rate of 5 percent, as compared with 3 percent for males. 

Unempioyment by age. — Workers under 25 years reported practically no unem- 
ployment, and the highest rate was reported by workers 45 years or over. 

Age of worker: Percent unemployed 

Total 3 

Under 20 years 1 

20 to 24 years 1 

25 to 44 years 5 

45 years and over 8 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — Only minor variations in unemployment 
were shown by workers who arrived in Kalamazoo at different times during the 
14 months covered by the survey. 
Month of arrival: Percent unemployed 

Total 3 

October 1940 to May 1941 4 

June to July 1941 2 

August to September 1941 2 

October 1941 3 

November 1941 6 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — The least successful migrants in 
Kalamazoo were those formerly engaged in farming and transportation; even 
among these workers, however, only 8 percent were unemployed. There were 
practically no unemployed migrants from either manufacturing or "other" 
service industries. Unemployment rates by the migrant's industry at last resi- 
dence were as follows: 

Percent unemployed 
Industry at last residence: in Kalamazoo 

Total 3 

No job 4 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 8 

Mining (') 

Construction 5 

Manufacturing 1 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 7 

Trade 3 

Personal service (') 

Other services 1 

1 Base too small for computation. 

In terms of occupations, farmers, nonfarm laborers, and domestic and other 
service workers were least successful in Kalamazoo. White-collar, skilled, and 
semiskilled workers reported the lowest unemployment rate. Rates by occupa- 
tion follow: 

Percent unemployed 
Occupation at last residence: m Kalamazoo 

Total 3 

No job 4 

Professional and proprietary (i) 

Clerical and kindred workers 3 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 2 

Operatives and kindred workers 2 

Domestic and other service workers 6 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 8 

Laborers, except farm 7 

1 Less than 0.5 percent. 

HOUSING 

The majority of the migrant families were sharing a dwelling with others when 
enumerated. More than one-third found separate living quarters, and a small 
number lived in hotels. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10535 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1- person 
families 



Multiperson 
families 



Occupying a separate dwelling 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

Total 



100 



100 



100 



CONCLUSIONS 

The number of workers migrating to Kalamazoo during the 14-month period 
covered in this survey was not particularly large. The majority of the cities 
covered to date in this survey had attracted a larger number of migrants in rela- 
tion to their 1940 population. Kalamazoo migrants were, however, unusually 
successful in finding work; only a negligible number of unemployed workers were 
included among the migrants. 

Febkuary 11, 1942. 
Recent Migration into La Fayette, Ind. 

A survey of migration into La Fayette, Ind., was conducted by the Work 
Projects Administration Division of Research during October 1941. The survey 
was concerned with civilians who moved to La Fayette from places outside 
Tippecanoe County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living there at the 
time of the survey. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered the resi- 
dential districts and lower-priced hotels within the La Fayette corporate limits. 
Higher priced hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt was made to gather 
information about persons who left the city during the survey period. 

industrial activity 

Although La Fayette has received only small direct defense contracts, local 
employment increased rapidly during the first year of the defense program. 
The chief new employment was provided at the local aluminum plant, which 
employed about three times more workers in October 1941 than in October 1940. 
Meantime, however, material shortages had begun to curtain employment in 
other La Fayette industries, and according to local reports, a sizable backlog 
of resident unemployed workers had accumulated by the time of the survey. 

number of migrants 

Approximately 1,050 families living in La Fayette at the time of this survey 
had moved to the city from places outside Tippecanoe County after October 1, 
1940. These families contained 1,100 workers and a total of 2,500 persons. 
La Fayette migrants made up a group equal to 8.5 percent of the city's 1940 
population, 

ORIGINS 

Indiana was the major source of the migrants, contributing 75 percent of the 
total, Illinois was second, with 9 percent, and Kentucky third with 5 percent. 
Two percent had moved from Tennessee. The average distance traveled by 
the migrants was 70 miles, and only 4 percent traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places were the origin of more than one-third of the migrants; i.^ e., 1 
percent came from open country and 35 percent from rural villages. Towns 
(2,500 to 25,000 population) contributed 36 percent; small cities, 12 percent; and 
cities of over 100,000 population, 16 percent. 

Sixteen percent of the families had formerly lived in La Fayette. About half 
of these families had been absent for 3 years or more. 

characteristics 

Age and sex. — The average age of migrant workers in La Fayette was 27.7 
years. In one-person families, the average was 23.4 years, and for heads of 
multiperson families, 31.5 years. Twelve percent of the workers were under 
20 years, and 12 percent were 45 years and over. 



10536 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Female workers made up 24 percent of the migrant labor force. The average 
age of female migrants was 22.9 years, as compared with 29.2 years for males. 

Race. — Negroes constituted 2 percent of the La Fayette migrants, and 98 
percent were white. 

Size of family. — The average size of migrant families in La Fayette was 2.4 
persons. About two-fifths contained one person when interviewed. 

Percent 

Size of family: distribution 

1 person 38 

2 persons 22 

3 and 4 persons 32 

5 persons or more 8 

Total 100 

A large proportion of these families were not complete when interviewed; 
46 percent of the 1-person families and 4 percent of the multiperson families had 
left a spouse or dependent children behind when they migrated. Before migra- 
tion, the families had contained 3,100. Of these, 80 percent migrated and 20 
percent remained at the migrant's last residences. 

Month of arrival. — About half of the La Fayette migrants had arrived during 
May or earlier. 

Percent 

Month of arrival: distribution 

October 1 940-February 1941 20 

March-April 1941 15 

May-June 1941 21 

July-August 1941 22 

September 1941 11 

October 1941 , 11 

Total. _._ 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

La Fayette migrants came principally from trade, agriculture, and from the 
group reporting "no job" at their last residence. Only one in seven had been 
engaged in manufacturing. In La Fayette, however, manufacturing was the 
largest single employer of migrant workers, and the majority of these were engaged 
in aluminum manufacturing. A large proportion of workers were also employed 
in La Fayette trade industries. 

The industrial distribution of the migrants on their last full-time jobs at their 
last residence and on their jobs when interviewed in La Fayette was as follows: 



Industry 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In La 
Fayette 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in La Fayette 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Nonferrous metals 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities. 

Trade 

Personal services 

Other services 



Total. 



100 



100 



• The status of these workers at their last residence was: Students, 8 percent; housewives, 1 percent; 
unemployed, 5 percent; others, 1 percent. 
2 Less than 0.5 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10537 



La Fayette migrants were predominantly clerks, craftsmen, and operatives. 
Before migration these three groups made up half the workers, and in La Fayette, 
they made up nearly two-thirds. The principal occupational shifts were from 
the "no job" group to clerical work and from farm jobs to operative work. 



Occupation 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In La 

Fayette 



No job at last residence 

Unemployment in La Fayette 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials-. 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

■Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. 
Laborers, except farm 



(0 



Total. 



100 



' Less than 0.5 percent. 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 1,100 migrant workers in La Fayette, an estimated 50 workers, or 5 

percent, were unemployed and seeking work during the week preceding interview. 

Unemploymeni by sex. — Among female migrants, 12 percent, and among male 

migrants, 2 percent, reported unemploj^ment. The majority of the unemployed 

workers were females. 

Unemployment by race. — Four percent of the white workers, and 20 percent of 
the Negroes, were unemployed. 

Unemployment by age. — Workers aged 25 to 44 years reported the lowest 
unemployment rate in La Fayette. 

Percent 
Age of worker: unemployed 

Under 20 vears 6 

20 to 24 years 6 

25 to 44 years 3 

45 years and over 6 

Total 5 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — There was little variation in unemployment 
according to the month in which workers arrived in La Fayette. 

Percent 
Month of arrival: unemployed 

October 1940-April 1941 4 

May-July 1941 3 

August-September 1941 7 

October 1941 3 

Total 5 

Unemployment by indvstry and occupation. — The most successful industr.'al 
groups migrating to La Fayette were workers from manufacturing and "other" 
service industries; and farm workers reported below-average unemployment. 



■60396 — 42— pt. 27- 



-21 



10538 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Personal service workers were the least successful. Unemployment rates by 

industry follow: 

Percent 
unemployed 

Industry at last residence: '« -^^ ^'''2'«"« 

No job 5 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3 

M ming -• (') 

Construction 4 

Manufacturing (^) 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 7 

Trade 4 

Personal service 23 

Other service (?) 

Total ' 5 

1 Base too small for computation. 

2 Less than 0.5 percent. 

In terms of occupations, nonfarm laborers and professional persons reported 
unusual success in finding jobs, and skilled and semiskilled workers showed less 
than average unem,ployment. Clerks and domestic and other service workers 
reported the highest unemploynient rates. Rates by occupation follow: 

Percent unemployed 
Occupation at last residence: '« -^a Fayette 

No job 5 

Professional and proprietory workers (') 

Clerical and kindred workers 9 

Craftsm.en and kindred workers 2 

Operatives and kindred workers " 2 

Domestic and other service workers 15 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. ^ 3 

Laborers, except farm . (i) 

Total 5 

« Less than 0.5 percent. 

HOUSING 

The m.ajority of the La Fayette migrant families occupied separate living 
quarters when interviewed. About two-fifths were sharing a dwelling, and a 
few lived in hotels. 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1 -person 
families 



Multiper- 
son families 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

Total 



(') 



100 



Less than 0.5 percent. 



CONCLUSIONS 



In terms of its population, La Fayette has recently attracted a large volume of 
in-migration. Among the 51 cities covered in these surveys, only 12 reported a 
higher m.igrant rate. La Fayette migrants were relatively successful in finding 
jobs; their unemployment rate is well below the average reported by migrants in 
all the cities surveyed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10539' 



January 8, 1942. 

Recent Migration Into Los Angeles, Long Beach, and Nine Other Cities 
IN Los Angeles County, Calif. 

A survey of migration into Los Angeles, Long Beach, and nine Los Angeles 
satellite cities ' was conducted by the Work Projects Administration, Division of 
Research during October and Novem.ber 1941. The survey was concerned with 
civilians who moved to these cities from places outside of Los Angeles County 
after October 1, 1940, and who were still living there in October and November 
1941. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered residential districts, 
rooming-house districts, lower-priced hotels, and tourist and trailer camps within 
the corporate lim.its of the survey cities. Higher priced hotels were not surveyed, 
and no attempt was made to gather inform.ation about persons who left the cities 
during the period covered by the survey. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approxim.ately 79,000 families living in Los Angeles, Long Beach, and the 9 
Los Angeles satellite cities at the time of this survey had m.oved to Los Angeles 
County after October 1, 1940. These families contained 157,300 persons, dis- 
tributed as follows: 103,400 persons in Los Angeles, 22,000 persons in Long 
Beach, and 31,900 persons in the 9 other cities. 

Migrants in the entire survey area made up a group equal to 7.8 percent of the 
1940 population of the area. In the city of Los Angeles, migrants equaled 6.9 
percent of 1940 population; in Long Beach, 13.4 percent; and in the 9 other cities, 
.■5.9 percent. 

Unlike all other cities covered in this survey, the Los Angeles County cities 
reported considerably fewer migrant workers than migrant families; in the 79,000 
migrant fam.ilies there were but 73,500 workers. Fifteen percent of the families 
in Los Angeles, 19 percent of those in Long Beach, and 10 percent of those in the 
9 other cities contained no workers, but had come to Los Angeles County to join 
relatives, for the clin^ate, for m.edical care, etc. The estim.ated number of fam.ilies 
and workers in the 11 cities was as follows: 



Cities 


Families 


Workers 


Los Angeles 


52, 100 
10, 300 
16, 600 


48 200 


Long Beach 


9,000 
16,300 


9 other cities -. - .- 





The principal origins of the migrants to the Los Angeles area were the West 
North Central States, particularly Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri. 
The West South Central States were less important, although Texas contributed 
from 6 to 7 percent and Oklahoma 4 to 7 percent of the migrants. A relatively 
small proportion of the migrants came from the State of California or from other 
Pacific States. The following table shows the origins of the migrants by census 
geographical regions: 





Percent distribution 


State and region of origin 


Los 
Angeles 


Long 
Beach 


9 other 
cities 


New England _. 


1 

8 
15 
29 
3 
1 
14 
12 

3 

1 
13 


1 

5- 

7 
28 

2 

1 

15 
13 

2 
3 
23 


1 


Middle Atlantic - - - 


4 


East North Central 


12 


West North Central ._ 


31 


South Atlantic - - 


1 


East South Central 


2 


West South Central 


15 


Mountain. - .. 


14 


Pacific: 

Washington , . . ... 


1 


Oregon 


2 




17 






Total 


100 


100 


lOO 







= These 9 cities are Alhambra, Belvedere Township Beverly Hills, Burbank, Olendale, Huntington 
Park, Inglewood, Santa Monica, and Southgate. 



10540 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



The distance traveled by the migrants was exceptionally great. In Los 
Angeles, half the migrants had traveled 1,270 miles or more; in Long Beach, 
1,070 m'iles or more; and in the nine other cities 1,190 miles or more. Among 
other recently surveyed cities, the average distance traveled by migrants ranged 
from 60 miles in Brockton, Mass., to 340 miles in Detroit. 

Los Angeles migrants came principally from large cities. Long Beach migrants 
from towns, and migrants in the nine satellite cities from rural places, The size 
of the migrants' places or origin was as follows: ^»* 



Size of origin 



Rural: 

Ooen country 

Villages (less than 2,500). 

Towns (2,.'i00 to 25,000) - 

Small cities (25,000 to 100,000) 
Large cities (over 100,000) 

Total 



Percent distribution 



Los 
Angeles 



100 



Long 
Beach 



100 



9 other 
cities 



100 



Some of the migrant families had previously lived in Los Angeles County. 
In Los Angeles, these families constituted 20 percent of the total; in Long Beach, 
28 percent; and in the nine other cities, 15 percent. Half of these families had 
been absent about 5 years in Los Angeles, 3 years in Long Beach, and 4 years in 
the nine other cities. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

j^gg — Migrant workers in the nine satellite cities were exceptionally young, 
but those in Los Angeles and Long Beach were no younger than migrants in many 
other cities covered by this survey. The following table shows the average 
(median) age of migrant workers in Los Angeles County: 



Type of worker 



All workers -- 

Male workers 

Female workers 

1-person families 

Heads of multiperson families 



Average age (years) 



Los An- 
geles 



29.9 
29.9 
29.7 
25.9 
32.7 



Long 
Beach 



29.5 
29.7 
28.2 
25.3 
32.8 



9 other 
cities 



26.4 
26.3 
27.1 
23.2 
31.4 



ggx. — In Los Angeles, 25 percent of the migrant workers were females; in Long 
Beach, 18 percent; and in the nine other cities 17 percent. 

Race. — Practically all Los Angeles County migrants were white. In Los 
Angeles, 2 per.;ent were Negroes and 1 percent "other" races; in Long Beach 
and the nine other cities 1 percent were Negroes and less than half of 1 percent 
were of other races. 

Size of family. — Migrant families in Los Angeles County averaged approxi- 
mately 2.0 persons w.hen interviewed. Among other recently surveyed cities, 
migrant family size ranged from 1.4 persons in Washington, D. C, to 2.6 persons 
in Oklahoma City, Okla. A distribution of migrant families by family size 
foUows: 



• 


Percent distribution 


Size of family when interviewed 


Los An- 
geles 


Long 
Beach 


9 other 
cities 




47 
24 
25 
4 


38 
31 

26 
5 


51 




25 




20 




4 






Total -.- 


100 


100 


100 







NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10541 



A large number of these families were not complete when interviewed. In 
Los Angeles, 38 percent of the 1-person families and 10 percent of the multiperson 
families had left a spouse or dependent children behind when they migrated. 
In Long Beach, corresponding figures were 21 percent for 1-person families and 
14 percent for multiperson families; and in the nine other cities, 35 percent for 
1-person families and 7 percent for multiperson families. 

Before migration, the families in tne entire survey area had contained 195,000 
persons; of these, 81 percent had migrated and 19 percent had remained behind. 
In Los Angeles, 21 percent had been left behind; in Long Beach, 12 percent; and 
in the nine other cities 20 percent. 

Month of arrival. — In Los Angeles and Long Beach, half the migrants had 
arrived in Los Angeles County about 4 months before interview; in the 9 other 
cities half had been in the county approximately 5 months before interview. 





Percent distribution 


Month of arrival 


Los An- 
geles 


Long 
Beach 


9 other 
cities 


October 1940 to February 1941 


21 
10 
18 
20 
14 
17 


18 
12 
20 
26 
12 
12 


24 


March to April 1941 . 


15 


May to June 1941 


20 


July to August 1941 


21 


September 1941 


12 


October to November 1941 


8 






Total 


100 


100 


100 







INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Before migration. — No one industry predominated among Los Angeles County 
migrant workers at their previous residences. Trade and "other" service in- 
dustries were among the largest contributors, but each accounted for only about 
one-fifth of the migrants, or less. Manufacturing contributed less than one-fifth 
of the migr3,nts in all three sections of the survey area. New workers and workers 
from agriculture were not particularly, important, except in the nine satellite 
cities, where they made up nearlj^ one-third of all workers. 

The following table shows the attachment of the migrants on their last full-time 
jobs at their last residences: 





Percent distribution 


Industry at last residence 


Los Angeles 


Long Beach 


9 other 
cities 


No job at last residence: 

Students-.. 


6 
4 
1 

1 
9 
3 
7 

4 
13 

5 
19 

6 
22 


7 
2 
2 

1 
8 
5 
10 

5 
13 

5 
21 

6 
16 


11 


Housewives 


2 


Unemployed . 


2 


Other. - - 


1 


Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 


15 


Mining... ._ 


2 


Construction 


3 


Manufacturing: 

Transportation equipment.. - 


3 


Other - 


15 


Transportation, communication, and utilities. 


6 


Trade.... 


21 


Personal service - 


3 


Other services . .. 


16 






Total 


100 


100 


100 







In terms of occupations at their last residence, the migrants in Los Angeles 
and Long Beach were principally clerks, craftsmen, and operatives; and those 
in the nine other cities were, in about equal proportion, clerks, operatives, farm 



10542 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



workers, and new workers. The following table shows the occupational distribu- 
tion of the migrants at their last residence: 



Occupation at last residence 



Percent distribution 



Los Angeles 



Long Beach 



9 other 
cities 



No job at last residence 

Professional and semiprofessional.-. 
Proprietors, managers, and officials- 
Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers. 
Laborers, except farm 

Total 



100 



In Los Angeles County. — After arrival in Los Angeles County, manufacturing, 
and particularly shipbuilding and aircraft manufacturing, became by far the 
most important single industry of the migrants. In the nine satellite cities, 
manufacturing absorbed three-fifths of all the migrant workers, and in Los 
Angeles, where manufacturing was least important, it still occupied more than 
one-third of the workers. Trade and "other" service industries absorbed a 
relatively large proportion of migrants in Los Angeles. 

The industrial distribution of the workers on their jobs when interviewed was 
as follows: 



Industry when interviewed 



Unemployed when interviewed 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Transportation equipment 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 

Trade 

Personal service 

Other services 

Total 



Percent distribution 



Los 
Angeles 



(•) 



100 



Long 
Beach 



(') 



16 



100 



9 other 
cities 



100 



' Less than 0.5 percent. 

Migration to Los Angeles entailed a sharp occupational shift into operative 
work, which became the largest single occupation in all the cities. Clerical and 
craftsmen's occupations also absorbed a large proportion of the migrants. Very 
few migrants held unskilled jobs in Los Angeles County. 

The occupational distribution of the migrants when interviewed was as follows: 



Occupation when interviewed 



Unemployed -. 

Professional and semiprofessional... 
Proprietors, managers, and ofiicials. 

Clerical and kindred workers. 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 
Laborers, except farm 

Total... 



Percent distribution 



Los 
Angeles 



(') 



100 



Long 
Beach 



(') 



9 other 
cities 



0) 



100 



' Less than 0.5 percent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10543 



UNEMPLOYMENT 

Unemployment among Los Angeles County migrants was extremely high; 16 
percent of the migrant workers in Los Angeles and Long Beach, and 12 percent 
in the 9 other cities, were unemployed during the calendar week prior to inter- 
view. In the entire survey area, an estimated 10,800 migrant workers, or 15 
percent, were unemployed. In other recently surveyed cities, migrant unemploy- 
ment ranged from 2 percent in Bristol, Conn., to 17 percent in Fort Smith, Ark. 

Unemployment by sex. — Unemployment among female migrant workers was 
excessive in all sections of the survey area: 





Sex of workers 


Percent unemployed in— 




Los Angeles 


Long Beach 


9 other cities 


Male - 


12 
30 


12 
35 


7 


Female - - --- - - - - 


35 








Total 


16 1R 


12 











Unemployment by race. — In the city of Los Angeles, the only part of the survey 
area where the number of migrants interviewed was large enough to permit race 
comparisons, Negroes reported highest unemployment and migrants of "other" 
races reported least unemployment. Among white migrants, 16 percent were 
unemployed; among Negroes, 25 percent; and among "other" races, 9 percent. 

Unemployment by age. — Workers 45 years and over uniformly reported above- 
average unemployment; and those under 20 years reported high unemployment 
except in the city of Los Angeles: 





Age of workers. 


Percent unemployed in— 


, 


Los Angeles 


Long Beach 


9 other cities 


Under 20 years 

20 to 24 years 


8 
20 
15 
18 


20 
14 
15 
23 


19 
11 


25 to 44 years 


11 


45 years and over _ 


14 








Total 


16 


16 


13 







Unemployment by month of arrival. — Unemployment was largely concentrated 
among the migrants who had arrived in Los Angeles County during the months 
just preceding the present survej': 



Month of arrival 



Percent unemployed in- 



Los Angeles 


Long Beach 


9 other cities 


9 


5 


5 


9 


5 


8 


10 


22 


9 


21 


23 


20 


40 


40 


54 


16 


16 


12 



October 1940 to April 1941. 

May to June 1941 

July to August 1941 

September 1941 

October to November 1941 

Total 



Unemployment by industry and occupation. — Migrant workers from agriculture, 
construction, and, in the nine satellite cities, workers from manufacturing indus- 
tries were most successful in finding work in Los Angeles County. Workers from 
trade and "other" service industries, had, in general, about average success in 
finding work. Workers from mining, new workers (except in Los Angeles) and, 



10544 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



in the nine satellite cities, workers from personal service industries were least suc- 
cessful. Unemployment rates by industry at last residence follow: 



Industry at last residence 



No job 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturing 

Transportation, communication, and utilities 

Trade..- 

Personal services 

Other services 

Total 



Percent unemployed in- 



Los 
Angeles 



Long 
Beach 



9 other 
cities 



(') 



• Base too small for computation. 

In terms of occupations, professional and proprietory workers, farm workers, 
and nonfarm laborers were, in general, the most successful in finding jobs in Los 
Angeles County. Clerical workers were, in general, the least successful among 
the migrants. Craftsmen reported unemployment only slightly below the 
average, but operatives were below average except in the city of Los Angeles. 
Unemployment rates by the occupation of workers at their last residence follow: 



Occupation at last residence 



Percent unemployed in- 



Los 
Angeles 



Long 
Beach 



9 other 
cities 



No job _ 

Professional and semiprofessional... 
Propriotors, managers, and ofhcials. 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 

Operatives and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 
Laborers, except farm 

Total 



(■) 



12 



> Base too small for computation. 



In Los Angeles and the nine satellite cities, the majority of the migrant families 
were found to be sharing a dwelling unit with other persons. In Long Beach, 
however, the majority were occupying separate living quarters. A small pro- 
portion of the families were living in hotels and trailer camps. 

The following tables show the living arrangements of the migrant families 
according to family size: 

1. ALL FAMILIES 





Percent distribution 


Living arrangements 


Los 
Angeles 


Long 
Beach 


9 other 
cities 


Occupying a separate dwelling unit . . _- 


43 
50 
6 

1 


53 

40 

5 

2 


36 


Sharinc a dwelling with others 


60 


In hotels 


2 


In tourist and trailer camps 


2 


Total 


100 inn 


100 











NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 
2. 1-PERSON FAMILIES 



10545 





Percent distribution 


Living arrangements 


Los 
Angeles 


Long 
Beach 


9 other 
cities 


Occupying a separate dwelling unit 


12 
76 
12 


8 
78 
12 
- 2 


4 


Sharing a dwelling with others . - 


92 




3 


In tourist and trailer camps 


1 


Total 


100 


100 


100 







3. MULTIPERSON FAMILIES 



Occupying a separate dwelling unit 

Sharing a dwelling with others 

In hotels -. 

In tourist and trailer camps 

Total 




1 Less than 0.5 percent. 



CONCLUSIONS 



In terms of the absolute number of migrants attracted during the first year of 
the defense program, Los Angeles County cities exceed by far all other cities cov- 
ered in this survey. An estimated one hundred fifty thousand-odd migrants 
were found in the Los Angeles County survey area, and more than 100,000 in 
the city of Los Angeles alone. The cities approaching nearest to this volume were 
Washington, D. C., and San Diego, with slightly more than 50,000 migrants 
each; Seattle with approximately 40,000; and Baltimore, with about 30,000 
migrants. When recent migration is related to 1940 population, the position of 
Los Angeles is still impressive, though exceeded by many smaller war boom 
cities such as San Diego, Wichita, Burlington dowa), and Seattle. 

In comparison with other cities covered in this survey, the Los Angeles County 
migrants have been notably unsuccessful. While unemployment among migrants 
in other defense cities has usually ranged between 3 and 6 percent and has seldom 
exceeded 10 percent, unemploy^nent among migrants in Los Angeles County 
ranged from 12 to 16 percent and averaged 15 percent throughout the survey 
area. During the first year of the defense program, Los Angeles was one of the 
few cities which attracted migrant workers faster than they could be absorbed. 



novembek 26, 194l 

Recent Migration Into Macon, Ga. 

A survey of migration into Macon, Ga., was conducted by the Work Projects 
Administration Division of Research at the end of September 1941. The survey 
was concerned with civilians who moved to Macon from places outside of Bibb 
County after October 1, 1940, and who were still living in Macon in September 
1941. Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered residential districts and 
lower-priced hotels. Higher priced hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt 
was made to gather information about persons who left Macon during the survey 
period. 

INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY 

Macon is a center of large-scale military activity. In or near Macon are Camp 
Wheeler, built to house 12,400 soldiers; a $15,000,000 air corps supply depot; 
Cochran Air Field; and a small ordnance plant for manufacturing fuzes. Early 
in 1941 as many as 12,000 construction workers had been employed in building 
these facilities. At the time of the present survey, however, the bulk of the 
work was completed, and the greater part of the construction workers had gone 
to other defense centers, leaving behind only enough workers for clean-up jobs 
at Camp Wheeler and for the defense-housing projects and numerous private 
homes still under construction. 



10546 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Macon's trade and service industries had benefited from the new acti\ity, 
not only during the construction phase, but afterward as well, when the new 
Army facilities were put into service. In addition, most of Macon's cotton mills 
changed from two- to three-shift operation during the year preceding the present 
survey, and had added a large number of operatives to their pay rolls. 

This activity had brought a relatively large number of migrant workers to Macon. 

NUMBER OP MIGRANTS 

Approximately 1,800 families living Inside the corporate limits of Macon in 
September 1941 had moved to the city after October 1, 1940. These families 
contained 2,050 workers and 4,050 persons. Migrants made up a group equal 
to 7 percent of the 1940 population of Macon. 

ORIGINS 

The majority of the migrants came from nearby Georgia farms, villages, and 
small towns. Georgia supplied 77 percent of all the migrants, 'and the next 
largest contributors were Florida, with 6 percent, and Alabama, with 4 percent. 
The average distance traveled by the migrants was only 70 miles, and only 1 m 
16 had traveled more than 500 miles. 

Rural places were a particularly important source of Macon migrants; 15 per- 
cent had migrated from the open country and 30 percent from rural villages 
(places of less than 2,500 population). Towns (2,500 to 25,000 population) 
contributed 32 percent; small cities, 8 percent; and cities of over 100,000 population, 
15 percent. 

The great majority of the migrants had not lived in Macon before; 83 percent 
reported no previous Macon residence. Among the 17 percent who formerly 
lived in Macon, half had been absent for about 7 years. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — 'The average age of all workers in the migrant families was 28.1 
years. In one-person families, the average was 24.5 years; and for heads of multi- 
person families, 31.3 years. Workers under 20 years made up 12 percent of the 
total, and those over 45 made up 12 percent. Since Macon is a cotton-mill town 
many of the migrants were women; women constituted 28 percent of all the workers. 
The average age of women workers was 23.8 years, as compared with 29.8 years 
for males. 

Race. — ^ Negroes constituted 20 percent of the Macon migrants. Negroes make 
up close to half the resident population of Macon, however; hence, the migrant 
rate for Negroes was lower than for white persons. 

Size of family. — Migrant families in Macon were relatively large; less than two- 
fifths consisted of one person. 

Percent 

Size of family in Macon: disiritution 

1 person 38 

2 persons 26 

3 and 4 persons 29 

5 persons or more 7 

Total 100 

A large number of these families were not complete when interviewed; 50 percent 
of the 1-person families and 10 percent of the multiperson families had left a spouse 
or dependent children behind when they moved to Macon. Before migration, the 
families contained 5,150 persons. Ot these, 4,050 had migrated to Macon and 
1,100 had remained at the migrants' place of origin. 

Months lived in county. — The distribution of the m.igrant workers according to the 
month of their arrival in Macon was as follows: 

Percent of 
Macon 
Month of arrival: migrants 

October 1940-January 1941 20 

February-March 1941 ._ 15 

April-May 1941 _ _.__._.__ _ 13 

June-July 1941 _ 27 

August 1941 __. _ 15 

September 194 1 10 

Total 100 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10547 



INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

Macon drew heavily upon farm workers and new entrants to the labor market 
for its migrants; 17 percent of the workers had been in agriculture at last residence 
and 13 percent were new workers. A large part of these shifted into construction 
and manufacturing — especially textile manufacturing — upon arrival in Macon. 
Both before and after migration, the trade and "other" service industries occupied 
about one-fourth of the migrants. 

The industrial distribution of Macon migrants on their last full-time job at 
their last place of residence, and on their jobs when interviewed in Macon, was as 
follows : 



Industry 



No job at last residence ' 

Unemployed in Macon 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing 

Mining ._. 

Construction 

Manufacturing: 

Textiles 

Other 

Transportation, communication, and utilities. 

Trade 

Personal services 

Other services 



TotaL 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



100 



In Macon 



11 
12 

7 
16 

6 
12 

100 



1 The status of these workers at last residence was: Students, 6 percent; housewives, 6 percent; unem- 
ployed, 3 percent; too young to work, 1 percent. 

The occupational distribution of the workers at last residence and in Macon 
was as follows: 



Occupation 



No job at last residence 

Unemployed in Macon 

Professional and semiprofessional 

Proprietors, managers, and officials. 

Clerical and kindred workers 

Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers. 

Operativcs and kindred workers 

Domestic service workers 

Other service workers 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers 

Laborers, except farm 



TotaL 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



In Macon 



(') 



100 



1 Less than 0.5 percent. 

Three important occupational shifts were involved in the recent migration 
to Macon. Persons who were students at last residence tended to shift into 
clerical jobs in Macon; housewives became machine operatives; and farm workers 
turned to operative jobs and unskilled labor. 



UNEMPLOYMENT 

Out of 2,050 migrant workers in Macon, 220, or 11 percent, were unemployed 
and seeking work during the calendar week preceding interview. Comparable 
figures for other recently surveyed cities are: Baltimore, 3 percent, Greenville, 
S. C, 9 percent; Wichita, Kans", 13 percent; and Philadelphia, 8 percent. 

Unemployment by sex. — Women migrants reported about four times the unem- 
ployment rate of men. Among the women, 23 percent were unemployed, as 
compared with 6 percent for the men. 



10548 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

Unemployment by race. — Negro workers reported nearly three times the unem- 
ployment rate of white workers. Among the Negroes, 22 percent were unem- 
ployed; among the white workers, 8 percent. 

Unemployment by age. — The highest unemployment rates were reported by the 
very young workers and by workers over 45 years. Rates by age were as follows: 

Percent 
unemployed 
Age of workers: in Macon 

Under 20 years 17 

20 to 24 years 9 

25 to 44 years ^ 

45 years and over 14 

Total 11 

Unemployment by distance traveled.— The unemployment rate of Macon migrants* 
was highest for those who had traveled considerable distances: percent 

unemployed 
Distance traveled: in Macon 

Less than 200 miles 10 

200 to 499 miles 9 

500 miles and over 21 

Total 11 

Unemployment by size of place of origin. — The highest unemployment rate was 
reported by migrants from small towns, and the lowest by migrants from large 
cities. Unemployment among workers from rural places was about average. 

Percent 
unemployed 
Size of place of origin : ' '» -'^^acon 

Rural (less than 2,500 population) :. 12 

2, .500 to 10,000 population. _• 15 

10,000 to 25,000 population 7 

25,000 to 100,000 population 4 

Over 100,000 population 4 

Total 11 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — Workers who had arrived in Macon during 
the months just preceding the survey showed a higher unemployment rate than 
those who had been in the city longest. Percent 

unemployed 
Month of arrival: »" M°<:or> 

October 1940- January 1941 9 

February-May 1941 8 

June-July 1941 6 

August 1941 21 

September 194 1 18 

Total 11 

Unemployment by industry and occupation. — Particularly high unemployment 
rates were reported by housewives and by workers who were in personal service 
industries at their last residence; and construction workers and workers from 
"other" service industries showed the lowest unemployment. Workers in agri- 
culture and manufacturing at last residence had about average unemployment. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10549 



Unemployment by industry at last residence was as follows: 

Industry at last residence: unemphtied 

No job : in Macon 

Students 10 

Housewives 17 

Other 17 

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing- 10 

Mining (i) 

Construction ■ g 

Manufacturing 12 

Transportation, communication, and utilities (i) 

Trade 10 

Personal services J 30 

Other services 4 

Total 11 

' Base too small for calculation. 

In terms of occupation at last residence, the professional, proprietor}', and 
clerical workers and the craftsmen showed characteristically little unemployment 
operatives were about average, and personal service workers extremely high. 

Unemployment by occupation at last residence was as follows: 

Percent 
unemployed 
Occupation at last residence: in Macon 

Total 11 

No job 14 

Professional, proprietory, and clerical 5 

Craftsmen and kindred workers 6 

Operatives and kindred workers 9 

Personal service workers . 50 

Other service workers 20 

Farm owners, tenants, and laborers . 8 

Laborers, except farm 14 

HOUSING 

Nearly half of the Macon migrants were occupying a separate dwelling when 
enumerated and about half were sharing a dwelling with other persons. Only a 
very few were in lower-priced hotels. 



Living arrangements 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels.. - 

Total-. 



Percent distribution 



Total 



100 



J -person 
famQies 



100 



Multi- 
person 
families 



100 



CONCLUSIONS 

The rate of recent migration into IMacon is relatively high, running twice that 
of Baltimore and Greenville, S. C, seven times higher than Philadelphia, and 
one-third as high as Wichita, Kans., one of the most active defense boom towns 
in the country. The number of civilian migrants attracted to Macon during the 
first year of the defense program was roughly equal to its net population gain 
during the entire decade of the 1930's. 

One part of this movement consists of "boomers" who follow temporary 
defense construction jobs. A large number of these workers had already left 
Macon before the present- survey, and most of the remainder were expected to 
follow as soon as their work ended. The greater part of the movement, however, 
was made up of migrants of a less temporary sort — manufacturing operatives, 
tradespeople, and workers in various kinds of service industries. 



10550 WASHINGTON HEARINGS 

February 13, 1942. 
Recent Migration Into Marion, Ohio 

A survey of migration into Marion, Ohio, was conducted by the Works Projects 
Administration Division of Research in November 1941. The survey was con- 
cerned with civihans who rcfoved to Marion from places outside of Marion County 
after October 1, 1940, and who were still living there at the time of this survey. 
Operating on a sample basis, the survey covered residential districts, lower-priced 
hotels and tourist and trailer camps within the corporate limits of Marion. The 
higher-priced hotels were not surveyed, and no attempt was made to gather in- 
formation about persons who had left the city during the survey period. 

industrial activity 

Between June 1940 and October 1941 Marion County received defense con- 
tracts valued at approximately $2,700,000, equal to about one-eighth the value 
of the county's manufactures in 1937. According to local reports employment 
in the city increased by approximately 500 workers during the period covered by 
this survey. Unemployment, however, was reported to have declined by about 
twice this amount, partly as :: result of the out-migration of many skilled workers 
to nearby defense cities in northeastern Ohio. 

NUMBER OF MIGRANTS 

Approximately 650 families living in Marion at the time of this survey had 
moved to the city from places outside Marion County after October 1, 1940. 
These families contained 675 workers and a total of 1,700 persons. Migrants 
made up a group equal to 5.5 percent of Marion's 1940 population. 



Ohio was the principal source of Marion migrant workers, contributing 68 
percent of the total. Michigan was second with 10 percent. Pennsjdvania con- 
tributed 4 percent and Indiana, New York, and West Virginia each contributed 
3 percent. The average distance traveled by migrants was 90 miles; only 3 per- 
cent had traveled 500 miles or more. 

Rural places were the origin of nearly one-third of the workers; i. e., 8 percent 
had moved from open country and 22 percent from rural villages. Towns (2,500 
to 25,000 population) contributed 33 percent; small cities, 14 percent, and cities 
of over 100,000 population, 23 percent. 

Seventeen percent of the migrants had formerly lived in Marion. About half 
of these former residents had been absent from the city for 7 years or more. 

CHARACTERISTICS 

Age and sex. — The average age of migrant workers in Marion was 29.7 years. 
In one-person families the average age was 24.1, and for heads of multiperson 
families, 32.3 years. Seven percent of the workers were under 20 years of age 
and 13 percent were 45 years or over. 

Female workers made up 14 percent of all the migrant workers. The average 
age of female workers was 23.6 years as compared with 31.0 years for males. 

Race. — Negro migrants in Marion made up less than 0.5 percent of the total. 

Size of family. — Migrant families in Marion averaged 2.6 persons per family. 
Less than one-third consisted of one person when interviewed: 

J^CTCCTlt 

Size of family: distribution 

1 person 30 

2 persons 28 

3 and 4 persons 29 

5 persons and over 13 

Total 100 

Some of these families were not complete when interviewed; 34 percent of the 
1 -person families and 7 percent of the multiperson families had left a spouse or 
dependent children behind when moving to Marion. Before migration, the 
families had contained 1,900 persons. Of these, 89 percent had migrated and 
11 percent had stayed behind. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



10551 



Month of arrival. — About half of the migrants arrived in Marion during June 
or earUer: 

Month of arrival: dist^bution 

October 1940 to April 1941 33 

May to June 1941 12 

July to August 1941 18 

September to October 1941 24 

November 1941 12 

December 1941 1 

Total 100 

INDUSTRY AND OCCUPATION 

The migrant workers came principally from manufacturing, trade and "other" 
services. The proportion coming from agriculture was larger than in most 
survey cities, but relatively few of the migrants were new workers. In Marion, 
manufacturing was the most important single employer of migrant workers, 
followed by "other" services and trade. 

The industrial distribution of the migrants on their last full-time jobs at their 
last residence, and on their jobs when interviewed in Marion, was as follows: 

Unemployment by sex. — Unemploj-ment among female migrant workers was 
more than seven times higher than among males ; 30 percent of the females were 
unemployed, as compared with 4 percent of the males. 

Unemployment by age. — Workers under 20 years reported the highest unemploy- 
ment rate in Marion: 

PCTCCTlt 

Age of worker: unemployed 

Under 20 years 14 

20 to 24 years 9 

25 to 44 years 7 

45 years ^nd over 7 

Total 8 

Unemployment by month of arrival. — Workers who arrived in Marion several 
months before the present survey reported the highest unemployment rates: 

P€TC€7lt 

Month of arrival: unemployed 

October 1940-June 1941 6 

July-August 1941 3 

September-October 1941 14 

November 1941 8 

December 1941 (i) 

Total _ _ 8 

1 Base too small for computation. 

HOUSING 

The majority of the migrant families in Marion occupied a separate dwelling 
when enumerated. About two-fifths were sharing a dwelling with other persons, 
and a few lived in hotels and tourist camps. 



Living arrangements 



Percent distribution 



Total 



1-person 
families 



Multiper- 
son families 



Occupying a separate dwelling. 
Sharing a dwelling with others 
In hotels 

In tourist and trailer camps 

Total.. 



100 



100 



(') 



100 



1 Less than 0.5 percent. 



10552 



WASHINGTON HEARINGS 



Industry 



No job at last residence i 

Unemployed in Marion 

Aericulture, forestry,,and fishing 

Mining 

Construction 

Manufacturinp:: 

Iron and steel 

Machinery 

Other --- 

Transportation, communication and utilities . 

Trade 

Personal service 

Other services ^ 



Total. 



Percent distribution 



At last 
residence 



100 



In Marion 



W 



1 The status of these workers at their last residence was: students, 5 percent; housewives, 1 percent; unem- 
ployed, 1 percent; others, 2 percent. 

2 Less than 0.5 percent. 

A substantial part of the migrants were white-collar workers; before migration 
this group made up one-third, and after migration, two-fifths of the workers. 
Skilled and semiskilled workers were attracted to Marion in about equal numbers. 

The occupations of the migrants before and after migration were as follows: 



Occupation 



No job at last residence. 

Unemployed in Mari