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Full text of "National defense migration. Hearings before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, first[-second] session, pursuant to H. Res. 113, a resolution to inquire further into the interstate migration of citizens, emphasizing the present and potential consequences of the migraion caused by the national defense program. pt. 11-[34]"

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NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

HOUSE OF BEPEESENTATITES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
PUBSDANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 29 
SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

FEBRUARY 21 AND 23, 1942 



PROBLEMS OF EVACUATION OF ENEMY ALIENS AND 
OTHERS FROM PROHIBITED MILITARY ZONES 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




NATIONAL_DEFENSEMIGR^ION 

HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

HOUSE OE BEPEESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 



SECOND SESSION 



•-» 



PURS 



UANT TO 



H. Res. 113 



^D POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OE THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 29 
SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

FEBRUARY 21 AND 23, 1942 

PROBLEMS OF EVACUATION OF ENEMY ALIENS AND 
OTHERS FROM PROHIBITED MILITARY ZONES 

Printed for .be me of toe Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 



'ML 



60396 



UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1942 



in 



U. ». 3WERIHTENDENT Of DOCUMENT* 
JUL 13 1942 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING NATIONAL DEFENSE 

MIGRATION 

JOHN H. TOLAN, California, Chairman 
JOHN J. SPARKMAN, Alabama CARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska 

LAURENCE F. ARNOLD, Illinois GEORGE H. BENDER, Ohio 

Robert K. Lamb, Staff Director 

11 



CONTENTS 






Page 

List of witnesses vii 

List of authors ix 

Saturday, February 21, 1942, morning session 10965 

Testimony of A.ngelo J. Rossi 10965 

Testimony of Charles W. Dullea 10970 

Testimony of Leland W. Cutler 10970 

Testimony of Florence M. McAuliffe 10971 

Testimony of Earl Warren 10973, 11009 

Statement bv Earl Warren 10973 

Testimony of Ricard H. Neustadt 11024, 11048, 11058 

Statement by Richard H. Neustadt 11026 

Testimony of Ottorino Ronchi 1 1057 

Saturday, February 21, afternoon session 11059 

Testimony of Lerov McCormick 11061 

Testimony of Wendell G. Travoli 11061 

Testimony of Robert H. Fouke 11068 

Material submitted bv Robert H. Fouke 11074 

Testimony of H. L. Strobel 11087 

Monday, February 23, 1942, morning session 11093 

Testimony of John F. Hassler 11094 

Testimony of Frank S. Gaines 11095, 11101 

Statement bv Frank S. Gaines 11097 

Testimony of John S. Slavich 11102 

Testimony of B. A. Wallman 11103 

Testimony of Chester C. Fisk 11105 

Testimony of M. C. Godfrey 1110b 

Testimony of C. R. Schwanenberg 11107 

Testimony of Verne Smith 11108 

Testimony of W. J. Johnson 11108 

Testimony of Mrs. John Damato, testifying for Mrs. Francesca Cri- 

vello 11117 

Testimony of Mrs. Luciano Maniscalo 11121 

Testimony of Chauncey Tramutolo 11125 

Statement by Chauncey Tramutolo ' 11131 

Testimony of Milano Rispoli 11132 

Statement bv Milano Rispoli 11133 

Testimony of Mike J. Masaoka 11137, 11140, 11152 

Statement by Mike M. Masaoka 11137 

Testimony of Henry Tani 11148 

Statement by Henry Tani 11150 

Testimony of Dave Tatsuno 11153 

Mondav, Februarv 23, 1942, afternoon session - 11157 

Testimony of Tom C. Clark 11157 

Material submitted bv Tom C. Clark - 11173 

Testimony of Louis Goldblatt 11178 

Statement by Louis Goldblatt 11186 

Testimony of J. Murray Thompson - - - 11190 

Statement by J. Murray Thompson ^ _ 11194 

Testimony of Dr. W. P. Reagor - 11195 

Testimony of Galen M. Fisher - 11197 

Statement by Galen M. Fisher - 11199 

Testimony of Rev. Gordon K. Chapman 11203 

Statement by Rev. Gordon K. Chapman 11205 

Testimony of Rev. Frank Herron Smith 1 1207 

Testimony of William C. James 1 1208 

m 



IV CONTENTS 

Monday, February 23, 1942, afternoon session — Continued. Page 

Testimony of H. F. Slade 11214 

Testimony of Tatsu J. Ogawa 11217 

Testimony of Ernest Iiyama 11220, 11221 

Testimony of Michio Kunitani 11220, 11221 

Testimony of Anne Kunitani 11227 

Testimony of James M. Omura 11229 

Testimony of Caryl Fumiko Okuma 1 1232 

Introduction of exhibits 1 1235 

Exhibit 1. Position of the American Legion, Department of California, 
on Enemy Aliens and Restricted Areas, by Robert F. Garner, Jr., 
department commander 1 1235 

Exhibit 2. Resolution urging the evacuation and concentration of all 
Japanese and their descendants to a concentration camp under 
supervision of the Federal Government, by County Supervisors 
Association of California, Sacramento, Calif 11237 

Exhibit 3. Resolution of the San Benito County Chamber of Com- 
merce, by E. E. Sparling, president, Hollister, Calif 11238 

Exhibit 4. Resolution re disposition of Japanese enemy aliens; report 
by Leslie A. Cleary, chairman, Stanislaus County Defense Council, 
Modesto, Calif 11239 

Exhibit 5. A resolution adopted by the Fresno County Chamber of 
Commerce in relation to the Japanese and alien enemy situation on 
the Pacific coast 1 1239 

Exhibit 6. Statement by Harry L. Kingman, general secretary, Young 
Men's Christian Association of the University of California, Berk- 
eley, Calif 11240 

Exhibit 7. The Question of Transferring the Japanese From the 
Pacific Coast — an Example of War Hysteria and a Plea for Sanity 
in the Present Crisis; report by Eric C. Bellquist, Ph.D., of the 
department of political science, University of California, Berkeley, 
Calif 11240 

Exhibit 8. Letter from Representative Knute Hill, of Washington, 

enclosing letter bearing on the Japanese situation 11251 

Exhibit 9. Statement by Clarence E. Rust, attorney at law, 5837 

San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, Calif., on enemy alien evacuation 11254 

Exhibit 10. Statement by Donald Younger, Santa Cruz, Calif 11254 

Exhibit 11. Statement by Stuart R. Ward, 1035 Tehema Ave., Menlo 

Park, Calif 11260 

Exhibit 12. Japanese- American loyalty to the United States; report 
by Karl G. Yoneda, San Francisco Doho correspondent, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif 11265 

Exhibit 13. Letter to Lt. Gen. John L. DeWitt from Lincoln Kanai, 
Young Men's Christian Association, making recommendations on 
the problems of evacuations from military areas 11266 

Exhibit 14. An Appeal in Behalf of Anti-Fascist Aliens; report by 
Charles H. Tutt, secretary, San Francisco chapter, Mazzini Society, 
San Francisco, Calif 1 1267 

Exhibit 15. Hardship Cases Created by Evacuation Orders; report by 

Minnette Luckner, 1377 Broadway, Alameda, Calif 11269 

Exhibit 16. Letter discussing the refugee problem from Hugo D. New- 
house, San Francisco, Calif 11270 

Exhibit 17. Report by San Francisco Committee for Service to 

Emigres (Federation of Jewish Charities), San Francisco, Calif 11270 

Exhibit 18. Refugees from Axis Countries; report by Monroe E. 
Deutsch, vice president and provost, University of California, 
Berkeley, Calif 11273 

Exhibit 19. Text of a radio address given by Hon. Ralph L. Carr, 

Governor of Colorado, on February 28, 1942 11275 

Exhibit 20. Statement on problems of German-Jewish refugees by 

Edward Schreiber, February 25, 1942 11277 

Exhibit 21. The Jewish Refugee and the Enemy Alien Problem; report 

by Rabbi S. P. Wohlgelernter, 104 Seventeenth St., Seattle, Wash. 11278 

Exhibit 22. Status of Descendants of Nationals of Axis Countries 
with the California State Personnel Board, by William K. Smith, 
acting executive officer, Sacramento, Calif 11279 



CONTENTS V 

Introduction of exhibits — Continued. Pa s e 

Exhibit 23 The Japanese Farmer; report bv Lowell W. Berry, owner, 

the Best Fertilizers Co., 1459 Third Street, Oakland, Calif 11282 

Exhibit 24. Japanese Farm Labor; report by Wm. A. Ay res, editor, 

California Grange News, Sacramento, Calif 11283 

Exhibit 25. The Japanese and the Oyster Industry; report by J. 
Burton Bowman, Olympia Oyster Growers Protective Association, 
Shelton, Wash 11283 

Exhibit 26. Correspondence from T. M. Bunn, Salinas Valley Vege- 
table Exchange, Salinas, Calif., on evacuation and the farm labor 
problem 1 1284 

Exhibit 27. Farm labor in the sugar-beet area and the Japanese evac- 
uations, by Missoula Countv Farm Labor Committee, Missoula, 
Mont.! - H286 

Exhibit 28. The Garbage Collection Problem in Alameda, Calif., by 

Randal F. Dickey, California Legislature, Alameda, Calif 11288 

Exhibit 29. Number and Status of Men Engaged in Garbage Collec- 
tion in San Francisco, Affected by Enemy Alien Restrictions, by 
John B. Molinari, attorney for Scavengers' Protective Association, 
Inc., San Francisco, Calif 11289 

Exhibit 30. Petition to be relieved from order of evacuation, sub- 
mitted to Hon. Francis Biddle by Frederick Dubovsky, attorney, 
1916 Broadway, Oakland, Calif 11289 

Exhibit 31. Statement by the International Institute for Service to 
Immigrants and New Americans, 1860 Washington Street, San 
Francisco, Calif., submitted by Annie Clo Watson, executive 
secretary 11291 

Exhibit 32. Statement by Stanley S. Shimabukuro, the Japanese 
Young Men's Christian Association, 1530 Buchanan St., San 
Francisco, Calif 11292 

Exhibit 33. Position of the Japanese Church Federation of Northern 
California, 1500 Post Street, San Francisco, Calif., on the Resettle- 
ment Problems Attending Japanese Evacuation; submitted by 
Richard M. Neustadt, regional director, Social Security Board, San 
Francisco, Calif 11293 

Exhibit 34. The Expatriated German Jew; submitted by H. M. Jonas, 

L. L. D., 569 Twelfth Avenue, San Francisco, Calif 11297 

Exhibit 35. Letter on enemy alien evacuation submitted by Hon. 
Earl Warren, attorney general of California, State Building, San 

Francisco, Calif 1 1298 

Index (see last pages part 31). 



LIST OF WITNESSES 

San Francisco Hearings, February 21, 23, 1942 

Page 
Chapman, Rev. Gordon K., field representative for Japanese work on the 
Pacific coast, Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church, 

228 McAllister Street, San Francisoc, Calif 11203 

Clark, Tom C, coordinator of the enemy alien control for the western 
defense command, Department of Justice, Federal Building, Los Angeles, 

Calif- _ 11157 

Crivella, Mrs.Francesca, 2751 Hyde Street, San Francisco, Calif 11117 

Cutler, Leland W., chairman of the Subcommittee of the Morale Service on 
Racial and National Problems in San Francisco, Financial Center Build- 
ing, San Francisco, Calif |"??IS 

Damato, Mrs. John, San Francisco, Calif 11117 

Dullea, Charles W., chief of police of the city and county of San Francisco, 

Calif 10970 

Fisher, Galen M., adviser to the Institute of Pacific Relations and secretary 
to the Committee on National Security and Fair Play, 260 California 

Street, San Francisco, Calif 11197 

Fisk, Chester C, city manager, Berkeley, Calif 11105 

Fouke, Robert H., attorney representing the California Joint Immigration 

Committee, Russ Building, San Francisco, Calif 11068 

Gaines, Frank S., mavor, Berkeley, Calif 11095, 11101 

Godfrey, M. C, mayor, Alameda, Calif 11106 

Goldblatt, Louis, secretary, California State Industrial Union Council, 

Congress of Industrial Organizations, San Francisco, Calif 11178 

Hassler, John F., city manager, Oakland, Calif 11094 

Iiyama, Ernest, president, Nisei Democratic Club of Oakland, Calif- 11220, 11221 

James, William C, clerk, Society of Friends, Berkeley, Calif 11208 

Johnson, W. J., captain of police, Berkeley, Calif 11108 

Kunitani, Mrs. Anne, Berkeley, Calif 11227 

Kunitani, Michio, Berkeley, Calif 11220, 11221 

Maniscalo, Mrs. Luciano, 1846 Powell Street, San Francisco, Calif 11121 

Masoaka, Mike, national secretary and field executive, Japanese- American 

Citizens League, 2031 Bush Street, San Francisco, Calif-- 11137, 11140, 11152 
McAuliffe, Florence M., chief of the morale service of the San Francisco 

Civilian Defense Council, San Francisco, Calif 10971 

McCormick, Leroy, assistant district attorney, Tulare County, Orosi, Calif- 11061 
Neustadt, Richard H., regional director, Social Security Board, and regional 
director, Office of Defense, Health and Welfare Services, Federal 

Security Agency, San Francisco, Calif 11024, 11048, 11058 

Ogawa, Tatsu J., Berkelev, Calif 11217 

Okuma, Caryl Fumiko, managing editor, Current Life, San Francisco, 

Q alif ^ 11232 

Omura,~James~M., editor and publisher, Current Life, San Francisco, Calif- 11229 
Reagor, Dr. W. P., pastor, First Christian Church of Oakland and presi- 
dent, California Council of Churches, Oakland, Calif 11195 

Rispoli, Milano, executive secretary, Italian Welfare Agency, San Francisco, 

C a ijf 11132 

Ronchi, Ottorino, former professor of Italian at University of California and 

former editor of La Voce del Popolo, San Francisco, Calif 11057 

Rossi, Angelo J., mayor, San Francisco, Calif 10965 

Schwanenberg, C. R., citv manager, Alameda, Calif 11107 

Slade, H. F., assistant cashier, Federal Reserve Bank, San Francisco, Calif. 11214 

Slavich, John S., mayor, Okland, Calif 11102 

Superintendent, Board of Missions and church extension of the Methodist 

Church, 2816 Hillegar Avenue, Berkeley, Calif 11207 

Smith, Verne, chief of police, Alameda, Calif 11108 

VII 



VIII LIST OF WITNESSES 

Page 

Strobel, H. L., farmer, Monterey County, Calif _ 11087 

Tani, Henry, executive secretary, Japanese-American Citizens League, 

2031 Bush Street, San Francisco, Calif 11148 

Tatsuno, Dave, president, San Francisco chapter, Japanese-American 

Citizens League, 2031 Bush Street, San Francisco, Calif 11153 

Thompson, J. Murray, chief, Economic Section, Western Division, Agri- 
cultural Adjustment Administration, United States Department of 

Agriculture, San Francisco, Calif 11190 

Tramutolo, Chauncey, attorney, Alexander Building, San Francisco, 

Calif '- 1H25 

Travoli, Wendell G., representing the Tulare County Citizens Committee, 

Tulare County, Orosi, Calif 11061 

Wallman, B. A., chief of police, Oakland, Calif 11103 

Warren, Earl, attorney general of the State of California, San Francisco, 

Calif__.__. I 10973,11009 



LIST OF AUTHORS 

Of Prepared Statements and Exhibits 

Page 
Ayres, William A., editor, California Grange News, Sacramento, Calif. __ 11283 
Bellquist, Dr. Eric C, department of political science, University of 

California, Berkeley, Calif 11240 

Berry, Lowell W., owner, the Best Fertilizers Co., 1459 Third Street, 

Oakland, Calif 11282 

Bowman, J. Burton, Olympia Oyster Growers Protective Association, 

Shelton, Wash 11283 

Bunn, T. M., Salinas Valley Vegetable Exchange, Salinas, Calif 11284 

California Joint Immigration Committee, San Francisco, Calif 11083 

Carr, Hon. Ralph L., Governor of Colorado, Denver, Colo 11275 

Chapman, Rev. Gordon K., field representative for Japanese work on the 
Pacific coast, Board of National Missions of the Presbyterian Church, 

228 McAllister Street, San Francisco, Calif 11205 

Clearv, Leslie A., chairman, Stanislaus County Defense Council, Modesto, 

Calif . .- H239 

County Supervisors Association of California, Sacra, jento, Calif __ 11237 

Deutsch, Monroe E., vice president and provost, University of California, 

Berkeley, Calif 11273 

Dickey, Randal F., Alameda, Calif 11288 

Dubousky, Frederick, attorney, 1916 Broadway, Oakland, Calif 11289 

Fisher, Galen M., adviser to the Institute of Pacific Relations and secre- 
tary to the Committee on National Security and Fair Play, 260 Cali- 
fornia Street, San Francisco, Calif 11199 

Fresno County Chamber of Commerce, Fresno, Calif — 11239 

Garner, Robert F., Jr., department commander, the American Legion, 

Department of California, San Francisco, Calif 1 1235 

Goldblatt, Louis, secretary-treasurer of the California State Industrial 
Union Council, Congress of Industrial Organizations, San Francisco, 

Calif !__.„_ -r 1H86 

Hill, Hon. Knute, House of Representatives, Washington, D. C 11251 

Hagar, Gerald H., attorney, 1421 Central Bank Building, Oakland, Calif.- 11298 

Jonas, Dr. H. M., 569 Twelfth Avenue, San Francisco, Calif 11297 

Kanai, Lincoln, Young Men's Christian Association 11266 

Kingman, Harry L., general secretary, Young Men's Christian Association 

of the University of California, Berkeley, Calif 11 240 

Korematsu, Hi, acting chairman, Proponent Committee for Evacuated 

Alien Resettlement Program, Berkeley, Calif 11097 

Luckner, Minette, 1377 Broadway, Alameda, Calif 11269 

Masaoka, Mike J., national secretary and field executive, Japanese- 
American Citizens League, 2031 Bush Street, San Francisco, Calif 11137 

McClatchy, V. S., executive secretary, California Joint Immigration Com- 
mittee. San Francisco, Calif 11074 

Missoula Countv Farm Labor Committee, Missoula, Mont 11286 

Molinari, John B., attorney for Scavengers' Protective Association, 470 

Columbus, San Francisco, Calif 11289 

Neustadt, Richard H. regional director, Social Security Board, and regional 
director, Office of Defense, Health and Welfare Services, Federal Security 

Agency, San Francisco, Calif 11026, H293 

Newhouse, H. D., Russ Building, San Francisco, Calif 11270 

Rowell, Chester, The San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco, Calif 11242 

Rust, Clarence E., attorney at law, 5837 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, 

Calif 1J254 

San Benito County Chamber of Commerce, Hollister, Calif 11238 

IX 



X LIST OF AUTHORS 

Page 
San Francisco Committee for Service to Emigres, Federation of Jewish 

Charities, 1600 Scott Street, San Francisco, Calif 11270 

Schreiber, Edward 11277 

Shimabukuro, Stanley S., the Japanese Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, 1530 Buchanan Street, San Francisco, Calif 11292 

Smith, William K., acting executive officer, California State Personnel 

Board, Sacramento, Calif 11279 

Tani, Henry, executive secretary, San Francisco chapter, Japanese- 
American Citizens League, San Francisco, Calif 11150 

Thompson, J. Murray, Chief, Economic Section, Western Division, Agri- 
cultural Adjustment Administration, United States Department of 

Agriculture, San Francisco, Calif 11194 

Tutt, Charles H., secretary, San Francisco chapter, Mazzini Society, 

San Francisco, Calif 11267 

Ward, Stuart R., 1035 Tehema Avenue, Menlo Park, Calif 11260 

Warren, Hon. Earl, attorney general of the State of California, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif 10973 

Watson, Annie Clo, executive secretary, International Institute for 
Service to Immigrants and New Americans, 1860 Washington Street, 

San Francisco, Calif 11291 

Western Montana Beet Growers Association, Missoula, Mont 11286 

Wohlgelernter, Rabbi S. P., 104 Seventeenth Street, Seattle, Wash 11278 

Yoneda, Karl G., San Francisco Doho Correspondent, San Francisco, 

Calif 11265 

Younger, Donald, attorney, Santa Cruz Theater Building, 150 Pacific 

Avenue, Post Office Drawer 1000, Santa Cruz, Calif 11254 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 21, 1942 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 

The committee met at 9:45 a. m., in the Post Office Building, San 
Francisco, Calif., Hon. John H. Tolan (chairman), presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of 
California; Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois; and John J. Sparkman, of 
Alabama. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; John W. Abbott, 
chief field investigator; Leonard A. Thomas, counsel; and F. P. Weber, 
economist. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. ANGELO J. ROSSI, MAYOR OF THE CITY OF 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

The Chairman. Mr. Mayor, we appreciate your coming here this 
morning. We would like to say to you that at the request of several 
departments in Washington we were asked to come out here and obtain 
from the people of the Pacific coast the facts about the war conditions 
here and any recommendations that the people of the Pacific coast 
want to give to this committee concerning the problems associated 
with evacuations from military areas here, so that we may transmit 
them to Congress. This committee wants to make clear that we are 
not here to cross-examine any witnesses or put anyone "on the spot." 
We are here as a fact-finding body. I think that some good will 
come from this trip for, after all, the Pacific coast is 3,000 miles from 
Washington and you would be surprised at the number of worried 
delegations going to Washington from the Pacific coast. So it was 
thought best to send this committee out here to get the facts. _ 

Before I proceed, Mr. Mayor, will you state who you have with you, 
for the benefit of the record? 

Mayor Rossi. Chief Dullea, chief of police of San Francisco, Mr. 
Florence McAuliffe, chairman of the morale committee of the civilian 
defense committee, and Mr. Leland Cutler, who is chairman of the 
subcommittee of the morale committee. 

The Chairman. Thank you. We would like to say to you that we 
realize that San Francisco is only one of a large number of cities on the 

10965 



10966 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

west and east coasts which face some dislocations in their economic 
life because of the enemy alien problem. All of us, of course, are in 
firm support of President Roosevelt and his Executive order of yester- 
day, but we feel as Congressmen that these problems, which must be 
considered first from the military standpoint, have a number of other 
aspects which require public discussion. For example, evacuation 
orders seriously affect the economic life of various communities and 
will in many areas create artificial labor shortages of a temporary 
nature. In addition, there is the social question of the sort of labor 
which evacuees should be required to undertake, where they should 
be located, and what Federal agencies are best able to handle their 
evacuation. 

In addition, there is the question of whether there is need for a 
flexible policy of exceptions which will have to be made to any general 
wholesale evacuation order. It would seem impossible to treat alien 
mothers of soldiers in the United States Army in the same way as 
dangerous enemy aliens. 

Another aspect of the far-reaching ramifications of evacuation orders 
is the question of what will happen to the property of aliens. You can 
see, therefore, that there are many aspects of the removal of aliens or 
other persons from military areas which demand very careful and 
serious attention on the part of public officials and of Congress. 

In other words, Mr. Mayor, it has been shown in other countries 
and will be shown here, I am sure, that you cannot separate civilian 
morale from Army and Navy morale. We have all got to work to- 
gether. Now, I understand that you have a brief prepared statement 
that you would like to read at this time. 

Mayor Rossi. I have, Mr. Tolan. 

The Chairman. So you may proceed. 

Mayor Rossi. I shall be very happy to read this statement. 
[Reading:] 

At the outset I wish the members of this committee to know that 
I consider the alien problem to be one that is definitely under Federal 
jurisdiction. This conclusion is confirmed by the Executive order 
issued yesterday afternoon by President Roosevelt. 

Heretofore, the officials of San Francisco have been informed by 
Federal authorities that it was not only a Federal problem but that 
it wa& one to which they, themselves, intended to and would give 
exclusive attention. Although heed was given to this admonition, 
nevertheless, whenever requested, full cooperation has been furnished 
to the Federal authorities by the officials of San Francisco, particularly 
by those connected with its police department. 

While I am glad to furnish this committee with my views upon this 
most important subject — important to the individual involved, as 
well as to the city, State and Nation — I can readily appreciate that 
any opinion expressed by me must and undoubtedly will be assumed 
to be my personal opinion. However, my consideration of the 
problems here involved has led me to form certain rather definite 
conclusions. 

EFFECT OF EVACUATION ON RESIDENTS 

I am of the belief that the seriousness of having alien enemies in 
our midst is self-evident. Their presence might not only affect the 
property of our citizenry and our Government but it might also 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10967 

affect the very lives and welfare of all of our people. The problem 
is a most difficult one, but we are living in times when a delicate 
problem must be firmly dealt with. It is true that the recent drastic 
measures against enemy aliens have caused great anxiety and distress 
among this group of people. It is true also that as a result of these 
measures many San Francisco families will be deprived of their 
livelihood. Many families will have to abandon their homes, their 
businesses, and their occupations ; parents will have to abandon their 
children and go elsewhere. The great majority of noncitizens in 
this area is made up of elderly men and women whom I believe for 
the most part to be industrious, peaceful and law-abiding residents of 
this community. Most of them have native-born children. Many 
of them have sons in the armed forces and both sons and daughters 
engaged in defense industries and civilian defense activities. It is 
the well-considered opinion of many that most of these people are 
entirely loyal to this Nation; are in accord with its form of Govern- 
ment, believe in its ideals and have an affection for its traditions and 
that under no circumstances would they engage in any subversive 
activities or conduct. 

It has been said that the measures which are proposed to be taken 
against these aliens, instead of making for national solidarity and 
unity of effort in this emergency may cause dissatisfaction and resent- 
ment among those of alien parentage. In my opinion all of the above- 
mentioned elements should be given serious consideration before any 
more drastic measures are taken. In my opinion the above-mentioned 
facts apply particularly to the German and Italian alien problems. 
Their problems should be considered separately from those of the 
Japanese. 

The Japanese situation should be given immediate attention. It 
admits of no delay. The activities of the Japanese saboteurs and 
fifth columnists in Honolulu and on the battle fronts in the Pacific 
have forced me to the conclusion that every Japanese alien should be 
removed from this community. I am also strongly of the conviction 
that Japanese who are American citizens should be subjected to a 
more detailed and all-encompassing investigation. After investiga- 
tion, if it is found that these citizens are not loyal to this country they, 
too, should be removed from the community. 

The general statements I made at the outset, I repeat, pertain 
mainly to persons of German and Italian origin, many of whom are 
engaged in business, occupations pursued by them for years, the 
character of some of which necessarily enters into the welfare of San 
Francisco. The great majority of these aliens likewise have children, 
most of whom were born, reared, and educated in this community and 
are law-abiding citizens. 

It must be obvious that if these alien residents about whom I have 
just made mention are moved from San Francisco, separated from 
their children and families, and deprived of the occupations in which 
they are now and for years have been engaged, they will be subjected 
to extreme hardship, mental distress, and suffering. 

My opinion is that such results should be avoided, and that evacu- 
ation of Axis aliens, other than Japanese, should be avoided unless 
deemed imperative. If immediate removal is deemed necessary, as 
quickly thereafter as is conveniently practical, such aliens should be 



10968 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

permitted to make application to resume their former places of resi- 
dence (other than in prohibited areas) and their present occupations 
and such applications should be heard by some appropriate tribunal 
which could quickly and intelligently determine the same, and that 
in the event such applicant is found to be a person of loyalty and 
integrity, the desired permit be issued, subject, however, to such 
restrictions as might be deemed necessary. 

EFFECT ON COMMUNITY OF EVACUATION OF WORKERS 

It is my belief that what may happen to German and Italian aliens 
on and after February 24, 1942, as a result of their removal from this 
community should be given immediate consideration. I believe that 
some satisfactory and equitable solution of the problems that under 
such circumstances will arise should be immediately brought about. 
I refer particularly to fishermen, janitors, garbage collectors, produce 
and vegetable workers in markets, and the alien workers in various 
other fields of human activity, all of whom will have to be provided 
with special permits in order to enable them to carry on their occu- 
pations and engage in the conduct of their business after 9 p. m. if 
the ordinary commercial routine of our city is to be maintained. Aside 
from these manual workers there are a number of aliens engaged in 
the practice of then professions who likewise will be affected by the 
9 p. m. regulations to which attention should be given. 

In my opinion, in order to avoid injustice being done, the investi- 
gation of such individual case of German and Italian aliens is abso- 
lutely necessary. 

I believe it is appropriate that I should advise this committee that 
we have in our community many outstanding citizens of high stand- 
ing of all nationalities. These citizens are willing to cooperate in 
every possible way to assist the duly constituted authorities in solv- 
ing the problems above mentioned and would be glad to act upon 
request. The Department of Morale of the Civilian Defense Council 
is in touch with these citizens and will gladly recommend to the 
proper officials their names. 

I wish to urge upon this committee the necessity of executing every 
effort to bring about an increase in the staffs of the local Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, of the Department of Naturalization, and 
the Department of Immigration. Each of these departments is con- 
fronted with an enormous task. At the present time all these de- 
partments are understaffed. The dependency of this community 
upon these three organizations is enormous. 

Gentlemen, I submit these thoughts to you and if you are desirous 
of more detail than I have been able to outline, I believe it would be 
well to call upon either Mr. Florence M. McAuliffe, chief of the 
morale service of the San Francisco Civilian Defense Council, or Mr. 
Leland W. Cutler, chairman of the subcommittee of the morale serv- 
ice on racial and national problems in San Francisco. His committee 
has been studying this problem for some time past. I am reliably 
informed that Attorney General Earl Warren, who is the chief law- 
enforcement officer of the State of California, has personally pursued 
an intensive investigation with respect to the alien problem in this 
State, and that during the last few days he has personally commu- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10969 

nicated by teletype with a large number of peace officers located at 
various places throughout California for the purpose of obtaining 
their views respecting the subject matter of this inquiry. My under- 
standing is that this information has already been obtained by him. 
It is my opinion that, through Attorney General Warren, reliable in- 
formation can be obtained respecting many of the matters which are 
here involved. Moreover, his personal views and judgment should be 
of great value. 

As outlined in your letter, this committee is desirous of determining 
whether a coordinated policy is being followed in which all units of 
government — local, State, and Federal — are participating. This state- 
ment can best be made by Charles W. Dullea, chief of police of the 
city and county of San Francisco and local coordinator and director 
of civilian defense. It is my suggestion that you call upon Chief 
Dullea for such facts as are within his knowledge. [Ends reading.] 

The Chairman. I think, Mr. Mayor, that we will hear all of your 
testimony first, and then if the other gentlemen on the panel have 
anything' they desire to say, they will be heard. Regarding Attorney 
General Warren, he is here now and will follow you on the stand. 

Now, Mr. Mayor, the committee is much interested in your state- 
ment, particularly in regard to the effect of the present evacuation 
orders on various sections of the San Francisco population. Can you 
tell us something more about the effect on fishermen, on janitors, 
scavengers, and other occupational groups in the city affected by the 
order? Is there anything you want to add? 

Mayor Rossi. Well, Mr. Chairman, I probably could add to the 
general statement which I have made, but I understand that Mr. 
Chauncey Tramutulo is to be a witness later. He has all those facts 
and figures as to the number of aliens employed in those particular 
locations. 

SYSTEM OF APPEALS SUGGESTED 

The Chairman. Thank you for that suggestion, because we don't 
want duplication. We have a full clay's work. As I understand it, 
Mr. Mayor, in your statement you have suggested the establishment 
of some system of appeal by which each case could be reviewed so that 
loyal aliens and citizens evacuated from military areas could be per- 
mitted to return to their civilian occupation. Do you believe that 
such a system is necessary in order to give us a flexible approach to 
the handling of this problem? 

Mayor Rossi. There is no question about that. 

The Chairman. You think that the right of appeal would be a good 
idea? 

Mayor Rossi. Yes; and federally constituted authorities should set 
up such a tribunal. 

The Chairman. Without going into too much detail, could you tell 
us of any hardship cases that you think might result here on account 
of the evacuation order? 

Mayor Rossi. I am satisfied that Mr. McAuliffe or Mr. Cutler, 
who have made a study of this problem for the past year, can best 
answer that question. 

The Chairman. Fine. Do you know, Mr. Mayor, if any plans 
have been made regarding the disposition of property here as a result 
of the evacuation? 



10970 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mayor Rossi. You mean insofar as the aliens are concerned? 
The Chairman. Yes. Is there an office of the Alien Property 
Custodian on the west coast in San Francisco that you know of? 
Mayor Rossi. Not that I know of. 

TESTIMONY OF CHARLES W. DULIEA, CHIEF OF POLICE OF THE 
CITY OF SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Chief Dullea. The property that was recently taken up as a 
result of a Federal order, that is, the radios and cameras, are held in 
custody by the police and they are in the process of being; turned over 
to the United States marshal. United States Marshal Vice is going 
to take them over. I don't think there is an alien property custodian 
here. 

The marshal is making arrangements to take over now. We are 
holding about 6,000 pieces. 

The Chairman. It also occurs to me at this time that there is such 
property as furniture, livestock, and things of that kind. But you 
don't know of any regional office here so far, do you? I may say to 
you, Chief, that we tried to ascertain just what the set-up was yester- 
day by telephoning Washington. However, we intend to get first- 
hand information about just what has been done and what should be 
done. It is going to be a terrific problem, is it not? 

Chief Dullea. Well, I can tell you all I know. In the surrender of 
the cameras and the radios, approximately 6,000 pieces were taken into 
possession by the police and they are being held at our district stations 
until such time as the marshal can take them over. 

The Chairman. As the larger evacuation takes place, the property 
taken will be greatly in excess of radios. 

Chief Dullea. This was a minor surrender. 

The Chairman. Don't you think that there should be a regional 
office here in San Francisco for that purpose? Don't you think that 
there should be a regional office here of the Alien Property Custodian? 

Chief Dullea. I know the property of the aliens should be protected 
and taken into custody. 

The Chairman. Mr. Mayor, I might ask you this question. Has 
there been any confusion in the authority or coordination of the agen- 
cies here in San Francisco ? 

Mayor Rossi. None that I know of. 

The Chairman. As far as you know, they are working in harmony? 

Mayor Rossi. Absolutely. And, as I say, Chief Dullea has been 
working with the State and Federal authorities, cooperating with them 
in every possible way. 

The Chairman. Mr. Cutler, was there anything that you wanted 
to add at this time? 

TESTIMONY OF LELAND W. CUTLER, CHAIRMAN OF THE SUB- 
COMMITTEE OF THE MORALE SERVICE ON RACIAL AND NA- 
TIONAL PROBLEMS IN SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Cutler. The members of my committee, which deals directly 
with the racial and nationality groups and the alien problem, would 
without exception endorse fully everything that Mayor Rossi reported. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10971 

I know the great relief he felt in the Executive order of the President 
yesterday, which expressed the opinion of the community without ques- 
tion. The only thing that we hope for is that there be great flexibility 
in dealing with the problem of the regulations concerning these aliens 
after 9 o'clock at night, who have a great deal to do with the routine 
business of our city. It is very important that there should be great 
flexibility. 

But as to the different treatment of the Germans and Italians and 
Japanese, we also agree very fully with the mayor's attitude on that. 
However, we do stress the advisability of flexibility. 

The Chairman. Do any of you gentlemen know anything about 
Maurice Harrison's committee? I just heard about that this morn- 
ing. 

Mr. Cutler. Under Attorney General Biddle there was set up a 
commission of which Mr. Ira Lillick was the chairman, and Mr. 
Maurice Harrison a member, both attorneys, and Mr. Marshall Dill. 
This committee heard immediate cases which came before them and 
made the decision as to whether those cases should be interned or set 
free. They worked very steadily at it for a period of months and dis- 
posed of a great many immediate cases. 

I think the mayor had in mind a similar committee which might 
be set up by the Federal Government to take care of these cases. 

Is that substantially correct, Mr. Mayor and Mr. McAuliffe? 

Mayor Rossi. That is correct. 

Mr. McAuliffe. That is correct. 

TESTIMONY OF FLORENCE M. McAULIFFE, CHIEF OF THE MORALE 
SERVICE OF THE SAN FRANCISCO CIVILIAN DEFENSE COUNCIL, 
SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. McAuliffe. If I may interrupt right there, I believe that the 
mayor's statement is all-inclusive and states the opinion of San 
Francisco. The only supplemental remark I would make is this: 
That we in San Francisco know we are in a theater of war operations 
and know that the general of the Fourth Corps Area is our com- 
manding officer, and nothing that we say here today should be inter- 
preted as making any suggestions of a military nature of any kind. 
We are quite content to take his leadership. We do, however, believe 
that if some steps could be taken to put a tribunal of some kind, either 
under the Army or under some other agency of the Government, to 
pass on these worthy cases of alien citizens so that particular harm 
shall not be done to good citizens of San Francisco or their children 
and their dependents, that would break a bottleneck and would not 
in any way interfere with the orderly affairs of the Army in this 
district. 

The Chairman. In other words, after the war is over we still have 
to live in tins country, don't we? 

Mr. McAuliffe. Correct. 

The Chairman. Chief, is there anything else you have to offer? 



60306— 42— pt. 20- 



10972 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

COOPERATION BETWEEN STATE AND FEDERAL AGENCIES 

Chief Dullea. No; only that I want to repeat what the mayor said 
as to the cooperation that exists between the local police and the 
State and Federal agencies. We work in the closest cooperative spirit 
and absolute harmony, interchanging ideas and assistance. The 
F. B. I. and some other agencies are not as strongly manned as local 
police departments and they frequently call upon us for manpower, 
as they did this morning. It is no longer a secret, but we have about 
150 men working right at this minute with the F. B. I. on a round-up 
here in San Francisco. They reported at 8 o'clock this morning. 

The Chairman. Yes, Chief. We have heard about your good work 
away back in Washington. 

Chief Dullea. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Is there anything else, gentlemen? If not, we will 
excuse you and with deep appreciation on the part of the committee. 

Mr. Sparkman. There is one question, Mayor, that I want to ask 
you gentlemen before you leave. 

I was interested in the suggestion that all of you made with reference 
to some tribunal to review these cases in order to lend flexibility to 
the enforcement of any evacuation that we have. What would that 
tribunal be? Would it be civilian or military? 

Mr. McAuliffe. That would be up to General DeWitt. What- 
ever he said would be satisfactory to this community. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is what I wanted to be certain about. In 
other words, you would advocate flexibility, but you would leave the 
whole thing up to the one who has charge of the defenses of the area? 

Mr. McAuliffe. Yes. 

The Chairman. Are you all in agreement with that? 

Mr. Cutler. We are. 

Mr. McAuliffe. That is correct. We are all in concurrence with 
that. The only recommendation that Mayor Rossi makes in his 
statement is that any assistance that the authorities desire, we are 
prepared to give. We have a group of people in San Francisco who 
are quite all right. They can render valuable assistance if asked for. 

Mr. Sparkman. But you would leave final enforcement entirely to 
the person who has final responsibility for the defense of this area? 

Mayor Rossi. Absolutely. 

Mr. Cutler. Without any questions whatever. 

Air. Sparkman. I wanted to be sure that we were clear on that. 

Mayor Rossi. There is no question about that. 

The Chairman. I want to say before you gentlemen go that this 
committee hasn't any idea of coming out here and dictating to the 
Army any more than you have, but the Army and the Navy and the 
Department of Justice in Washington waiited us to come out here 
and get the views of the people of the Pacific coast, as they may be of 
great assistance to the Army. That is our position and I think that 
is your position, too, is it not? 

Mayor Rossi. That is right. 

Chief Dullea. Right. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. We appreciate your com- 
ing here. It is going to be a very valuable contribution. 

Mayor Rossi. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, we 
appreciate you gentlemen coming out here to get the facts at first- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10973 

hand, and we consider it a privilege to appear before you. If you wish 
any further information we would be very happy to give it to you. 

The Chairman. I would say, furthermore, if there is anything that 
occurs to you as a result of the hearings here in San Francisco that you 
think should go in the record, we will hold it open for you. 

Mayor Rossi. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Mr. Warren. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. EARL WARREN, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF THE 
STATE OF CALIFORNIA, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

The Chairman. Attorney General Warren, will you be seated 
please? I want to say to you that we appreciate your coming here 
because we think that you have some very valuable information. 
We shall give you the widest latitude. We are not here to cross- 
examine any witnesses — not that you could not take care of your- 
self. I found out 25 years ago that in the trial of a lawsuit you 
take very good care of yourself. But we do want to get the thought 
over to you gentlemen that you are to proceed in your own way. 
The statement you submitted will be incorporated in the record at 
this point. 

(Statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY HON. EARL WARREN, ATTORNEY GENERAL OF 
THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Location of Japanese in California as Shown by Maps of the Counties 

Early in February 1942, I requested the district attorneys of those counties of 
the State having a Japanese population to have prepared maps of their counties 
showing all lands owned, occupied, or controlled by Japanese, including American- 
born Japanese as well as Japanese aliens. The district attorneys, with the 
assistance of their sheriffs, county agricultural commissioners, and county and 
city assessors, have now completed such maps for the following counties of the 
State : 



Alameda 


Monterey 


Santa Cruz 


Butte 


Napa 


Shasta 


Colusa 


Placer 


Solano 


Contra Costa 


Plumas 


Sonoma 


Fresno 


Sacramento 


Stanislaus 


Glenn 


San Diego 


Sutter 


Humboldt 


San Francisco 


Tehama 


Kings 


San Joaquin 


Tulare 


Madera 


San Luis Obispo 


Ventura 


Marin 


San Mateo 


Yolo 


Mendocino 


Santa Barbara 


Yuba 


Merced 


Santa Clara 





The originals of these maps are in my possession and duplicates have been 
retained by the district attorney in each county. 

An inspection of these maps shows a disturbing situation. It shows that 
along the coast from Marin County to the Mexican border virtually every im- 
portant strategic location and installation has one or more Japanese in its imme- 
diate vicinity. The same situation exists in those counties of the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin Valleys that have any considerable Japanese population, and 
in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Imperial Counties. 

I am attaching to this extension of my testimony as exhibit A a list of some of 
the particular points where Japanese are immediately adjacent to strategic 
points as shown by the maps of counties of California. This list, lengthy though 
it is, by no means includes all such points. It does not even include all such 
points shown on the maps. It is intended to be merely illustrative and not 



10974 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

exhaustive. In addition, it should be understood that for obvious reasons the 
maps do not show our coastal defense and very few of our war industries. That 
there are Japanese in the immediate vicinity of many such establishments is 
unquestionably the fact. The sheriff of one coastal county has reported to me 
that in his county Japanese farmers are working within a grenade throw of coast- 
defense guns; and the sheriff of another that it is necessary to pass through the 
yards of three Japanese farmers to reach certain coast-defense installations 
located in his county. That our war industries also have numerous Japs in 
their vicinity is, I believe, quite clear from the file of letters from law enforcement 
officers in all parts of the State. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the county maps showing the location of Japanese 
lands have omitted most coastal defenses and war industries, still it is plain from 
them that in our coastal counties, from Point Reyes south, virtually every feasible 
landing beach, air field, railroad, highway, powerhouse, power line, gas storage 
tank, gas pipe line, oil field, water reservoir or pumping plant, water conduit, 
telephone transmission line, radio station, and other points of strategic importance 
have several — and usually a considerable number — of Japanese in their immediate 
vicinity. The same situation prevails in all of the interior counties that have any 
considerable Japanese population. 

I do not mean to suggest that it should be thought that all of these Japanese 
who are adjacent to strategic points are knowing parties to some vast conspiracy 
to destroy our State by sudden and mass sabotage. Undoubtedly, the presence 
of many of these persons in their present locations is mere coincidence, but it 
would seem equally beyond doubt that the presence of others is not coincidence. 
It would seem difficult, for example, to explain the situation in Santa Barbara 
County by coincidence alone. 

In the northern end of that county is Camp Cook where, I am informed, the 
only armored division on the Pacific coast will be located. The only practical 
entrance to Camp Cook is on the secondary road through the town of Lompoc. 
The maps show this entrance is flanked with Japanese property, and it is impossible 
to move a single man or a piece of equipment in or out of Camp Cook without 
having it pass under the scrutiny of numerous Japanese. I have been informed 
that the destruction of the bridges along the road to Camp Cook would effectually 
bottle up that establishment for an indefinite time, exit to the south being im- 
possible because of extremely high mountains and to the north because of a num- 
ber of washes with vertical banks 50 to 60 feet deep. There are numerous 
Japanese close to these bridges. 

Immediately north of Camp Cook is a stretch of open beach ideally suited for 
landing purposes, extending for 15 or 20 miles, on which almost the only inhabi- 
tants are Japanese. 

Throughout the Santa Maria Valley and including the cities of Santa Maria 
and Guadalupe every utility, airfield, bridge, telephone, and power line or other 
facility of importance is flanked by Japanese, and they even surround the oil fields 
in this area. Only a few miles south, however, is the Santa Ynez Valley, an area 
equally as productive agriculturally as the Santa Maria Valley and with lands 
equally available for purchase and lease, but without any strategic installations 
whatever. There are no Japanese in the Santa Ynez Valley. 

Similarly, along the coastal plain of Santa Barbara County from Gaviota south, 
the entire plain, though narrow, is subject to intensive cultivation. Yet the only 
Japanese in this area are located immediately adjacent to such widely separated 
points as the El Capitan oil field, Elwood oil field, Summerland oil field, Santa 
Barbara Airport, and Santa Barbara Lighthouse and Harbor entrance, and there 
are no Japanese on the equally attractive lands between these points. 

Such a distribution of the Japanese population appears to manifest something 
more than coincidence. But, in any case, it is certainly evident that the Japanese 
population of California is, as a whole, ideally situated, with reference to points of 
strategic importance, to carry into execution a tremendous program of sabotage 
on a mass scale should any considerable number of them be inclined to do so. 

The problems of a law-enforcement officer presented by this situation can only 
be appreciated when it is remembered that law enforcement officers do not know 
which of these Japanese are American citizens and which are aliens. 

JAPANESE ORGANIZATIONS 

An additional factor in the danger and one which would probably not be 
apparent to persons unfamiliar with the California Japanese lies in the fact that 
the Japanese in this State are very closely organized. There are a large number 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10975 

of Japanese organizations covering every branch of life. There are Japanese 
agricultural, commercial, educational, social, religious, and patriotic associations 
in every Japanese community. Almost every Japanese in the State is included 
in one or more of these organizations. 

The actions of individual Japanese have been in the past very largely controlled 
by the organizations to which they belong. Although the several organizations 
in Japanese communities are concerned with different fields of activity, they are 
all quite closely integrated by means of interlocking directorates and officers, 
honorary advisers, and interlocking membership among the ordinary members. 
This organizational machinery, reaching as it does into every phase of Japanese 
life and exercising very real control over the actions and conduct of most of the 
Japanese in the State, is a type of organization that is ideally adapted to carrying 
out a plan for mass sabotage. If the leadership of the main Japanese organizations 
fell into the wrong hands, it is quite conceivable that some, though certainly not 
all, of the Japanese organizations could be utilized for carrying on a program of 
sabotage and fifth-column activity. 

State and local law enforcement authorities have no other knowledge of the 
purposes and objectives of Japanese organizations than what has been acquired 
from common experience with the Japanese in their several communities, the 
investigation of all subversive matters having been left to the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation in accord with the request of the President. However, the inter- 
relationship of the many Japanese associations and their control over the Japanese 
population of the State has been a matter of general knowledge and has been 
apparent from items appearing in the Japanese newspapers. These Japanese 
newspaper items also show that in the past years there has been a close relation- 
ship between Japanese associations in California and parent or governmental 
organizations in Japan and that on many occasions the associations in California 
have contributed to and assisted in the war effort of the Japanese Government. 

While we have no complete information as to the number of Japanese organiza- 
tions existing in California, Japanese sources indicate that the number is large. 
Thus the public press carried an item from Tokyo April 25, 1941, to the effect 
that the Japanese "Central Council of Overseas Organizations announced that 
there are 2,700 Japanese organizations in the United States, representatives of 
which will meet for a convention in Tokyo in November 1941." 

The organization of Japanese in California follows a quite definite pattern. 
The associations are almost invariably broken down into very small units, de- 
pendent upon geographical location and graduating into larger and larger units 
of the association until all are embraced in at least a State-wide organization. 
A typical example is the Japanese Association of the Gardena Valley which at 
first glance would appear to be a very small organization. It is composed, 
however, of a large number of other smaller organizations and thus includes 
within its control a very large number of persons. At the same time it is a 
component of larger district and State organizations. The true situation appears 
from a petition filed by the Japanese Association of Gardena Valley under «date 
of September 4, 1932, directed to the Administrator of the National Industrial 
Recovery Act, disclosing that the association represents some 11 vegetable 
growers' associations in Gardena Valley, consisting of approximately 1,200 
members. 

Similarly, a resolution adopted on September 2, 1934, by the Japanese Vege- 
table Growers of Orange and Los Angeles Counties, protesting against certain 
provisions of the Code of Fair Competition for the Wholesale Fresh Fruit and 
Vegetable Distributive Industries in the cities of Vernon and Los Angeles, 
shows the resolution to have been signed by a large number of Japanese, each 
of whom in turn was the representative of a smaller Japanese organization, the 
total number of individuals who are members of all of the associations being of 
necessity quite large. In this case the resolution was signed by representatives 
of the following Japanese organizations: 

Irvine Farmers Association. 

San Fernando Industrial Association. 

Long Beach Farmers Association. 

Growers Association of San Gabriel Valley. 

Vista Vegetable Growers Association. 

Orange County Japanese Association. 

Garden Grape and Berry Growers Association. 

Nippon-California Farmers Association. 

Burbank Farmers Association. 



10976 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Laguna Beach Farmers Association. 

Norwalk Farmers Association. 

Industrial Association of Montebello. 

Growers Association of San Pedro. 

Japanese Association of Gardena Valley. 

Lomita and Walteria Industrial Association. 

Santa Ana Garden Grove Japanese Association. 

San Gabriel Valley Japanese Association. 

The Japanese social, cultural, and educational associations have a similar 
integrated structure. At the top of the pyramid is the Japanese Association of 
America in Northern California and the Japanese Central Association in Southern 
California. The connection between these associations and the Japanese Govern- 
ment has always been very close. The Japanese Association of America was 
organized many j~ears ago and its bylaws provide: 

"Article 3. This association is organized by the local Japanese association 
under the jurisdiction of the Japanese consulate general of San Francisco." 

That the Japanese associations as organizations have in the past supported 
and aided the military campaigns of the Japanese Government is beyond doubt. 
The contributions of these associations toward the Japanese war effort have been 
freely published in Japanese papers throughout California. Some of these news- 
paper items are as follows: 

"March 13, 1941. — Thirty-two bales of tinfoil were shipped to Japan through 
the Japanese consulate general and were contributed by Japanese associations 
of Fresno County, Kern County, Delano, and San Bernardino. 

"July 6, 1941. — Central California Japanese Association announces the col- 
lection and transmission to the War Ministry of the sum of $3,542.05. 

"March 6, 1938. — G. Yoshida, San Francisco Japanese Association, yesterday 
sent 400 pounds of tinfoil, making a record total of 2,800 pounds of tinfoil which 
he has collected, according to the records of the consul general's office." 

The Japanese Veterans Association was similarly engaged: 

"March 20, 1941. — It is announced that the War Veterans Associations in 
Japan, Germany, and Italy, in keeping with the spirit of the Axis Treaty, have 
formed joint and advisory committees to aid and establish the new world order. 
There are 3y 2 million veterans and reservists, headed by General Irnei, who have 
pledged their cooperation to Axis aims." 

"July 6, 1941. The Japanese Veterans Association of America, in its sixty-' 
sixth meeting, reported the collection of $5,968.60, making a total of 829,440.34 
yen collected and transmitted to Japan for use of the military services, the collec- 
tion being from Japanese organizations in the following places: Chico, Monterey, 
Tulare, Thornton, Richmond, Sonoma County, Eden Township, Alameda County, 
Marin County, Lodi, Mountain View, Alvarado, San Benito County, Contra 
Costa County, Watsonville, Santa Cruz, Redwood City, Vacaville, San Mateo, 
Bingham, Utah, Berkeley, Oakland, San Francisco, Pescadero, Salinas, Ogden, 
Utah, Reno, Nevada, Honeyville, Rock Springs, Wyoming, Idaho Falls, Idaho, 
Salt Lake City." 

The same item announces that during the 5 years since the outbreak of the 
China incident, the organization has collected 850,000 yen for the aid of Japanese 
soldiers and a tremendous number of bundles for Japanese soldiers overseas. It 
was announced further that because of the American freezing policy against 
Japan it would no longer be possible to transmit relief funds and that the organiza- 
tion had decided to disband. 

At one time it is said the association numbered 8,000 members and at the meet- 
ing at which dissolution was decided upon some 300 representatives were present. 
At that meeting it was announced that $2,300 which had not been transmitted to 
Japan was caught by the freezing order. The meeting clcsed with the showing 
of a Japanese motion picture entitled "Flaming Skies." 

This organization sponsored the tour of Maj. G. Tanaka, of the Japanese Army, 
and a member of the army general staff, who arrived in San Francisco January 1, 
1941, with full uniform, sword, and medals and toured the State lecturing before 
various Japanese groups, eventually returning to Japan via New York. While 
here, he is reported to have said: "Japan and the United States will go to war 
this autumn." 

PREFECTURAL ASSOCIATIONS 

These associations are composed of natives of a particular prefecture living 
in the locality where the association is located. They usually hold annual joint 
conventions attended by natives from that particular prefecture, who come from 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10977 

all over the United States. There are 21 prefectural societies in San Francisco 
alone. These associations, like most other Japanese organizations, have in past 
years actively engaged in the collection of money and materials for the Japanese 
war effort. Most of these funds are accumulated by the associations as gifts from 
members, usually made to commemorate some family occurrence, as a birth, death, 
marriage, or departure on a trip, the money being transmitted to Japan. No one 
knows how much material and money has been collected by these organizations, 
but the Japanese newspapers have been replete for years with items of which the 
following are typical: 

"March 6, 1938— Mr. Shidgu Oka, on behalf of the Okayama Overseas Associa- 
tion, has been appointed by the collection committee and is engaged in collecting 
army service funds in San Bernardino from natives of Okayama. 

"Visalia, February 13, 1939. — Natives of Hiroshima Prefecture, Anza Dis- 
trict, village of Yakki, each contributed $10 to buy bundles for the families of 
soldiers sent overseas from the village. The funds were sent to the Japanese 
Town Hall in Visalia." 

The Japanese produce associations have similarly supported the Japanese 
war effort. For example, Japanese papers in 1937 carried the thanks and ac- 
knowledgment of the Japanese Minister of War for contributions to army funds of 
the Chula Vista Mellon Growers Association as follows: 

"Referring to the recent incident and the service funds and packages con- 
tributed for the expeditionary forces, I am grateful, and hereby express my most 
sincere thanks. Signed General Sugiyama, Minister of War. Dated December 
19, 1937. 

"July 27, 1941. It was announced that the Niland Produce Association con- 
tributed $35 to the Japanese military attache of the Imperial Embassy in Wash- 
ington, D. C." 

Besides sending financial and material support to Japan, the Japanese associa- 
tions have also engaged as organizations, and almost uniformly, in promoting 
loyalty to Japan and the Japanese Emperor in the hearts of all Japanese in 
California. 

In Tokyo, under date of April 25, 1941, the Central Council of Overseas Organi- 
zations announced that there are 2,700 Japanese organizations in the United 
States, representatives of which will meet for a conference in Tokyo in November 
1941. The character of the Central Council of Overseas Organizations is easily 
determined from the nature of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, which 
is the most important organization in the central council. The Imperial Rule 
Assistance Association is the Japanese Fascist Party and its officers are the present 
heads of the Japanese Government. The Japanese papers in California have 
from time to time carried news items concerning the Imperial Rule Assistance 
Association which are not without significance. For example, under date of 
October 11, 1941, it was announced from Tokyo that the association has decided 
(1) to assemble and study all reports on the Far Eastern situation; (2) to com- 
pletely propagandize the advance Asia idea; (3) to work in cooperative planning; 
(4) to arrange to shift a portion of the work to Japanese leaders and organizations 
abroad. 

On September 4. 1941, the Imperial Rule Assistance Association announced the 
formation of a subsidiary organization of Japanese youth over the age of 21 years to 
follow the same policy as the parent organization, with branches in every pre- 
fecture in Japan, to be formed with the aid of officials of the War, Navy, Home, 
and Education Ministries. And on September 7, 1941, the Congress of Japan- 
Italian Cultural Society met at Rimini, Italy, the subjects under discussion 
including: (1) The Fascist Party and its political functions in the lives of the Italian 
people; (2) Japanese nationalists and the function of the Imperial Rule Assistance 
Association in the lives of the Japanese people; (3) Japanese youth organizations. 

While ostensibly there is no branch of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association 
in the United States, an organization in California with similar aims is the Military 
Virtue Society of North America, with headquarters at Alvarado, Alameda County, 
and a branch office in Tokyo. The purpose of this organization is to instill the 
Japanese military code of boshido and to teach fencing and other Japanese military 
exercises among the Japanese throughout North America. This organization is 
regarded as the most strongly nationalistic Japanese organization in the country 
and probably the most dangerous. 

Although not organized until 1931, its membership and activities have been 
widespread for several years. Simply as illustrative of its wide territorial extent 
and rapid spread, is the following item: 

"February 13, 1938, Visalia. Yesterday the local branch of the Military 
Virtue Society of North America in Dinuba met jointly with four other branches, 



10978 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

with all members in attendance. Henceforth meetings will be held Tuesday night 
every week. The southern California branch of the Military Virtue Society will on 
July 20, beginning at noon in the Koyasan Hall, Los Angeles, hold its yearly 
military virtue festival and military (fencing) exercises with groups from places as 
follows competing: Brawley, El Centro, Central School of Los Angeles, Uptown 
School of Los Angeles, Keystone, Gamita, Redondo Beach, Baldwin, Hawthorne, 
El Monte, San Bernardino, Riverside, Coachella, Pasadena, Sawtelle, Santa 
Monica, Alpine, Huntington Beach, Oceanside, San Diego, and Chula Vista, in all 
numbering 26 groups. A heated contest is anticipated." 

The manner in which the Military Virtue Society is closely integrated with other 
Japanese organizations, both business and social, is well illustrated by the postal 
addresses of some of its branches. For example, in Alvarado, Alameda County, 
post office box 215 is the address of the following: 

(1) Headquarters, Military Virtue Society of North America. 

(2) Kinyai Kumia Finance Association. 

(3) Japanese- American News correspondent. 

(4) New World Sun correspondent. 

(5) Hochi Shimbun correspondent. 

(6) Alvarado Japanese School. 

(7) Takichi Nakamura (president), Military Virtue Society of North America. 

In Sebastopol, post-office box 57 is the address of the following: 

(1) Military Virtue Society of North America. 

(2) Japanese Sunday school. 

(3) Hiroshima Prefectural Society. 

(4) Sabura baseball team. 

In Suisun, post-office box 252 is the address of: 

(1) Militarv Virtue Society of North America. 

(2) Mint Grill. 

(3) Suisun Fishing Club. 

In Auburn, post-office box 57 is the address of: 

(1) Military Virtue Society of North America. 

(2) Japanese School. 

(3) Young Men's Buddhist Association. 

(4) Young Women's Buddhist Association. 

(5) Buddhist Church. 

In Lindsay, 157 Mount Vernon Avenue is the address of: 

(1) Military Virtue Society of North America. 

(2) Japanese School. 

(3) Lindsay Women's Association. 

The locations of the regional headquarters of the Military Virtue Society of 
North America are: 

Southern California area: 230 Terminal Island. 
Seattle branch: 503 Main Street. 
Fresno area: 832 F Street. 
Sacramento area: 1300 Fourth Street. 

Another Japanese organizational activity which is worth noting is the Kibei 
Shimin movement. The Kibei Shimin movement was sponsored by Japanese 
Association of America and had as its policy the encouragement of the return to 
America from Japan of American-born Japanese. At the time the movement 
commenced it was ascertained that there were around 50,000 American-born 
Japanese in Japan. The Japanese Association of America sent representatives to 
Japan to confer with prefectural officials on the problems of financing and trans- 
portation, and a policy of publicity to induce these Japanese to return to America. 
The Japanese Association of America also arranged with the steamship companies 
for special rates for groups of 10 or more returning to America and requested all 
Japanese associations to secure employment for returning American-born Jap- 
anese. In addition, they printed leaflets and sponsored lectures throughout 
Japan to urge American-born Japanese to return to this country. That this 
campaign was successful in securing the return of a large number of American-born 
Japanese is apparent. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10979 

Newspaper items such as the following are typical: 

"May, 1936. Tatsuki Sahada, president of the Woodland Japanese Associa- 
tion, returned to America with several American-born Japanese whose return he 
sponsored, and reported on his efforts on behalf of the Kibei movement." 

Though born in America, most of the Japanese who have returned to this 
country as a result of the Kibei movement are unable to speak English. These 
American-born Japanese, educated in Japan, and who have returned to this 
country instilled with loyalty to the Emperor and with Japanese patriotic fervor, 
have formed an organization of their own known as the Kibei Shimin which is 
evidently of considerable size. On February 24, 1941, a San Francisco Japanese 
newspaper carried the following item, which gives some idea of the extent of 
the Kibei movement: 

"The convention committee of the Kibei Shimin, together with representatives 
of the Japanese organizations backing them, met at the Japanese Association 
Hall in San Francisco to discuss plans for the convention. It was decided to have 
a contest for a 50-word slogan for the convention for which prizes would be given. 
Slogans should be mailed to the Kibei Shimin convention, 1623 Webster Street, 
San Francisco." 

That Japanese in California are thoroughly conscious of and interested in their 
relationship to military figures in Japan is illustrated by the following item: 

[The Japanese-American News] 

"San Francisco, August 14, 1941.— Admiral Neimi, commander and chief of 
our squadron dispatched to the South Pacific, and upon whose shoulders rests the 
full power of the Japanese Navy and pressure in the South Pacific, has relatives in 
Fowler we heard. After seeking and looking for them it was disclosed that in 
the area lived a farmer by name of Akira Soraoka. We heard from his wife, 
'He is our younger cousin, not our brother. Three years ago Neimi was attached 
to the party of Prince Chichibu and attended the crowning of the former King 
George VI of England, and on his way through the United States back to Japan 
we saw him in Fresno, and later received from the admiral's elder sister Mineko 
detailed letters about our birthplace and about the admiral. Seich is a good man 
and we did not think he would go to the front. However, having been entrusted 
with great national responsibility, we pray from a distance that he will live com- 
pletely free from accident.' " 

There are also Japanese organizations devoted to the worship of particular per- 
sons. For example, the Meiji Kai, which is devoted to the worship of Emperor 
Meiji. Also the Togo Kai, devoted to the worship of Admiral Togo and holding 
observances, particularly on the 10th day of August, in commemoration of the 
Battle of the Japan Sea. This society has headquarters in Japan and branches 
throughout the United States; in San Francisco the Togo Society being at 1860 
Buchanan Street; in Sacramento at 1309>2 Fourth Street. At the same address in 
Sacramento is also located the Japanese Association of Sacramento, the Sacra- 
mento Produce Association, and the Sacramento Sewing School. The personnel 
of the Togo Kai is thought to be composed mainly of former naval officers and 
reserve officers. 

Another important Japanese organization existing in California is the Japanese 
Tourist Bureau, which, at the suggestion of the Imperial Rule Assistance Asso- 
ciation, changed its name to the East Asia Travel Agency. This organization 
is a subsidiary of the board of tourist industries operating under the Japanese 
Ministry of Communications. It maintained agencies in a number of cities in 
the United States, usually in connection with Japanese transportation companies. 
It published a series of pamphlets in English on Japan, Japanese art, culture, etc., 
and made available motion-picture films through the Japanese consulate on Japan. 
It also sponsored broadcasts in English from Japan for the benefit of American- 
born Japanese. 

One of these persons thus sponsored was Kazumaro (Buddy) Uno, an American- 
born Japanese formerly on the staff of the New World Sun newspaper. He was 
employed by the Japanese Tourist Bureau to travel to Japan, China, Korea, and 
Manchukuo, and returned to the United States where he was given office space 
in the office of the consulate general in San Francisco, from which headquarters 
he made trips over the entire west coast making speeches to groups of American- 
born Japanese. 



10980 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The significance of these integrated Japanese associations lies in the fact that 
through them it is possible for those at the head to exercise control over the 
conduct of other Japanese throughout the State. All persons coming into 
close contact with the Japanese in California have seen repeated manifestations 
of such control. Many examples could be cited. The experience of Mr. Homer 
Harris, secretary-manager of the Associated Produce Dealers and Brokers of 
Los Angeles, a concern which has one of the largest produce markets in the State, 
is typical. In 1939 the commission merchants in his market had under con- 
sideration the matter of charging an increased percentage as commission, and 
called a mass meeting of commission merchants in the market to consider the 
question. 

Although more than half of the commission houses in the market were Japanese, 
only one Japanese came, and lie was secretary of the Japanese Produce Merchants 
Association. The white commission merchants insisted on talking to his members 
as being merchants like themselves. The Japanese representative said he would 
try to get his people out for the week following. When the day arrived, only one 
Japanese merchant appeared with the secretary. However, about 10 days later 
the Japanese commission men through their secretary announced a willingness to 
increase their commission rate and notices were thereupon sent out to the growers. 
A week later the secretary of the Japanese Produce Merchants Association came 
back to the white commission men and informed them they could not stand by 
their agreement which they had made and signed. When they were asked why 
they could not the secretary informed Mr. Harris that although the Japanese 
commission men hated to welsh on the agreement they were compelled to do so 
by the Central Japanese Association, which was insistent on no increase in com- 
missions as a result of representations made to the Central Japanese Association 
by the Japanese Southern California Farm Federation, an organization of Japanese 
growers. Indeed through his years of experience, Mr. Harris states that every 
detail of the business of Japanese commission men in his market is subject to the 
control of the Japanese associations, and it has always been evident that no 
Japanese can take any action contran^ to the orders and dictates of the Japanese 
Associations to which he belongs. 

With integrated organizations such as these exercising such complete control 
over the conduct of all Japanese in the State, it is quite evident that it would be 
extremely easy for those at the top to direct the Japanese throughout the State 
and wherever located in a widespread simultaneous campaign of sabotage which 
could carry the most serious consequences. 

ALIEN LAND LAW 

The California alien land law is the only statute available to law-enforcement 
officers to meet the situation presented by the presence of Japanese in many 
strategic localities. The statute is, however, by no means a complete remedy for 
the condition. In some of the most menacing situations the citizenship of the 
parties has been found to be such that the alien land law has no application. 
However, in spite of its limitations I believe the statute is applicable in enough 
serious cases to be of some assistance at least in meeting the law enforcement 
problem. 

The purpose of the alien land law is to reserve ownership and control of the land, 
either to citizens or to those aliens who are eligible to become citizens. The 
statute denies to aliens who are ineligible to citizenship the right to acquire or 
possess real property or any interest in it except insofar as such rights may be 
conferred by a treaty between the alien country and the United States. The 
statute declares a conspiracy to violate its terms to be a felony. It also provides 
that the interest of any alien in real property held in violation of the terms of the 
law shall escheat to the State. These are the only sanctions provided. In pre- 
vious efforts to enforce the alien land law great difficulty was experienced because 
of the lack of evidence to prove the alien's place of birth from which his lack 
of citizenship and ineligibility thereto would appear. In 1927 two sections were 
added to the statute which were intended to place upon the defendant-alien the 
burden of proving citizenship, but these sections have been held to be uncon- 
stitutional by the United States Supreme Court for all practical purposes. It is 
to be hoped that the alien registration records of the United States Immigration 
and Naturalization Service will be made available for use in evidence in alien land 
law cases. I have requested Major Schofield, who is the special assistant to the 
United States Attorney General in charge of Immigration and Naturalization 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10981 

Service on behalf of all of the law enforcement officers of the State for such per- 
mission. 

If the alien registration records are not made available no doubt the same 
difficulties of proof will be experienced as in former years. On February 2 of 
this year, I called a meeting which was attended by the district attorneys and 
sheriffs of some 40 counties, at which it was decided that an immediate survey 
should be made of the land ownership in each county and that appropriate pro- 
ceedings should be commenced in cases where the alien land law was being vio- 
lated. The first step in the survey was the preparation of maps for each county 
showing all lands owned, leased, or occupied by Japanese. It was not until 
these maps were prepared that we realized how thoroughly the Japanese had 
infiltrated themselves into every strategic spot in our coastal and valley counties. 

CONSENSUS OF LAW-ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS UPON THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE SIT- 
UATION AND THE STEPS WHICH SHOULD BE TAKEN TO REMEDY IT 

Upon learning that the House Committee Investigating National Defense 
Migration desired to ascertain the nature and extent of the law-enforcement 
problem arising from the presence of enemy aliens in California, I wrote to all 
sheriffs, district attorneys, and chiefs of police in the larger cities of the State, 
asking their views on the matter, and particularly on — 

1. What, in your opinion, is the extent of the danger by way of sabotage and 
fifth-column activities in your jurisdiction and in the State as a whole arising 
from the presence of enemy aliens? 

2. Do you believe that the danger can be adequately controlled by treating 
all enemy aliens alike regardless of nationality, or do you believe that we should 
differentiate among them as to nationality? 

3. What protective measures do you believe should be taken with reference to 
each nationality or with reference to enemy aliens as a whole, in order to elimi- 
nate the danger of sabotage and fifth-column activities? 

Photostatic copies of the replies received to this inquiry are attached hereto as 
exhibit B. These letters make evident, I believe, that it is almost a universal 
conviction among law enforcement officers in California that there is grave and 
immediate danger of sabotage and fifth-column activities from the Japanese 
population and that their removal at once from the vicinity of vital establish- 
ments and areas is imperative in order to eliminate such danger. The letters also 
express their opinions as to the relative danger from Japanese, German, and 
Italian aliens. 

THE VIEWS OF FARM ORGANIZATIONS AS TO THE EFFECT UPON CALIFORNIA 
AGRICULTURE OF THE REMOVAL OF JAPANESE THEREFROM 

It seems quite plain that the necessities of the present situation require the 
removal of the Japanese from a considerable portion if not from all of California. 
Such a course will obviously have a definite effect upon agriculture in this State. 
While I do not feel qualified to prophesy on this subject, I have been asked to 
present to the committee the view of a considerable number of farm organizations 
which are undoubtedly so qualified. Consequently, I am attaching hereto as 
exhibit C photostatic copies of letters expressing the views of the Grower-Shipper 
Vegetable Association of Salinas, Western Growers' Protective Association of Los 
Angeles, Associated Produce Dealers and Brokers of Los Angeles, and the Farm 
Bureaus of Butte County, Fresno County, Imperial County, Kern County, Los 
Angeles County, Merced County, Orange County, Riverside County, Sacramento 
County, San Bernardino County, San Joaquin County, Siskiyou County, Solano 
County, Sonoma County, Stanislaus County, Sutter County, Tulare County, 
Yolo County, and Yuba County. While these letters must speak for themselves, 
the organizations are consistently of the opinion that the removal of Japanese 
from California would have an appreciable but not a serious effect upon California 
agriculture. 

CONCLUSION 

During these difficult times State and local law-enforcement officers have 
uniformly received the finest cooperation from the Intelligence Services of the 
United States Navy and the United States Army, as well as from the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation. This latter organization, charged as it is with our 
internal security, and our protection against espionage and sabotage, has had a 
tremendous task and one of peculiar difficulty in California by reason of the very 



10982 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

large number of aliens here, and the numerous vital war industries and defense 
installations. Those of us who are sufficiently close to law-enforcement work to 
realize the size and intricacies of the problem and the difficulties of investigation 
with which the Federal Bureau of Investigation has had to contend are of the 
opinion that the Bureau has always been on the alert, diligent in its efforts, 
cooperative with State and local authorities, and has done the best job possible 
under the circumstances to protect our State against all subversive activities. 



Exhibit A. — Particular Points Where Japanese Are Immediately Adjacent 
to Strategic Points in Counties of California 

alameda county 

Japs adjacent to new Livermore Military Airport. 

Japs adjacent to Southern Pacific and Western Pacific Railroads. 

Japs in vicinity of Oakland Airport. 

Japs in vicinity of Holt Caterpillar Tractor Co., San Leandro. 

Many Japs along Western Pacific and Southern Pacific Railroad rights-of-way. 

Many Japs on the approaches to the San Mateo-Hayward Bridge. 

Many Japs on the approaches to the Dumbarton Bridge, including the high- 
way bridge, Southern Pacific and Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct Bridges. 

Japs adjacent to the sugar refinery near Alvarado. 

Four Japs directly on the Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct, and many more in close 
vicinity. 

Eight or ten Japs within 1 mile of the western portal of the Hetch Hetchy 
Tunnel. 

BAY CITIES 

Heavy sprinkling of Japs in west Berkeley in vicinity of numerous defense 
industries. 

Heavy sprinkling of Japs in west Oakland in the vicinity of industries and the 
United States naval depot. 

In south Oakland, Japs in the vicinity of Moore Ship Yards, Southern Pacific 
and Western Pacific shops, and Santa Fe freight yard. 

Numerous Japs in Alameda within a few minutes of the naval air base, San 
Francisco Bay Airdrome and Bethlehem shipyards. 

BUTTE COUNTY 

Jap adjacent to Chico airport. 

Two Japs along Cherokee Canal and Northern Canal. 

Japs in the vicinity of numerous highway and railroad bridges near Gridley, 
Biggs, Oroville, and Chico. 

Numerous Japs in the vicinity of vital Feather River levees between Gridley 
and Oroville. 

COLUSA COUNTY 

Jap within 2 miles of East Park Reservoir Dam. 

Numerous Japs on vital Sacramento River levees in the neighborhood of Colusa 
and Grimes. 

CONTRA COSTA COUNTY 

Numerous Japs on Webb tract, Holland tract, Orward tract, all of which 
are inflammable islands enclosed by levees. 

Numerous Japs on main line Santa Fe Railroad in the vicinity of Oakley and 
on Southern Pacific main line in the vicinity of Brentwood and Byron. 

Japs adjacent to highway bridge across San Joaquin River between Byron and 
Stockton. 

Japs in vicinity of California Cap Works and within 2 miles of Richmond 
shipyards, Ford Motor Co., Standard Oil refinery, Standard Oil tank farm, and 
Giant powder works. 

Four Japs within 2 miles of Broadway low level highway tunnel. 

Japs within 1 mile of Lafayette Dam. 

Jap within 1 mile of St. Mary's College to be used as a Navy training school. 

Jap at mouth of vital Santa Fe tunnel, Glen Frazer. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10983 

Numerous Japs within 2 miles of very high Santa Fe viaduct at Muir. 
Numerous Japs within a few miles of Shell Oil refinery at Martinez. 
Numerous Japs within a few miles of Associated Oil refinery at Avon. 
Numerous Japs adjacent to air port at Concord, power station at Concord, and 
Cowell Portland Cement Co. 

FRESNO COUNTY 

Japanese located adjacent to the Shell Oil tank farm in the Coalinga oil field. 

Three Japanese tracts owned by the State Farm Co., adjacent to the main 
line railroad, main north and south telephone line, and Tidewater Associated 
Oil Co. pipe line. This corporation is known to have engaged in shipping farm 
machinery, under subterfuges, to Manchukuo. 

A number of Japanese not far from the new Fnant Dam. 

A tremendous dispersal of Japanese throughout the Fresno area, with in- 
numerable roads giving access to main facilities, including railroads, highways, 
telephone lines, pipe lines, Chandler Airport, and Hammond Field Airport. 

KINGS COUNTY 

Japanese oil company in Kettleman Hills oil fields. 
Jap in vicinity of Kettleman oil fields. 

Jap adjacent to Kings River Bridge close to Southern California Gas Co. pipe 
line and near Lemoore air base. 

MADERA COUNTY 

Jap adjacent to Madera City waterworks, and Pacific Gas & Electric sub- 
station. 

Japs in close vicinity to highway and railway bridge across the Fresno River. 
Japanese in vicinity of important warehouses. 

MARIN COUNTY 

Japs in Sausalito close to Fort Baker, Golden Gate Bridge, with full view of 
traffic in and out of San Francisco Bay. 

Japanese in Belvedere, with full view of all traffic through Racoon Straits and 
San Francisco Bay, and within 1 mile of naval depot at California City. 

In Sausalito, Jap across the street from boat works. 

Fifteen Japs adjacent to United States Coast Guard station, Drakes Bay, 
Point Reyes Lighthouse, United States naval compass station, telephone company 
trans-Pacific broadcasting, R. C. A. trans-Pacific broadcasting and United States 
Air Force bombing practice range. These people also have immediate access to 
25 miles of uninhabited open beach. 

Japs along water conduit supplying Hamilton Field. 

MENDOCINO COUNTY 

Japanese at bridge and important levee at Hopland. 
Japanese adjacent to airport at Ukiah. 

MERCED COUNTY 

Many Japs in vicinity of important railroad and highway bridges across the 
Merced River. 

MONTEREY COUNTY 

Japanese living in close proximity to the highway bridge across the Pajaro 
River, the sole highway connection between Fort McQuaide and Camp Ord. 

On tracts 8 and 55, Japanese are living immediately adjacent to Fort Ord. 

Tract 50 is located on the highway over which all traffic to Fort Ord passes. 

Japanese tract No. 75 is immediately adjacent to the experimental station 
where the only guayule seedlings in the United States are being grown and is 
directly across the road from the Salinas Airport. 

Tracts 21, 22, 28, 26, and 29 are immediately adjacent to an emergency landing 
field. 

Tracts 82, 34, and 79 extend on both sides of a railroad underpass of sufficient 
importance to warrant the continued presence of armed guards. 



10984 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Tract 133 is on the Salinas River and includes a stretch of levee regarded as 
extremely hazardous in the event of a break because it would result in flooding 
the Spreckels Sugar Refinery. 

Tract 100 is immediately adjacent to a quarry where explosives are stored. 

The map of the city of Salinas shows a large Japanese subdivision adjacent to 
the Pacific Gas & Electric substation and close to the Southern Pacific Railroad 
yards. 

NAPA COUNTY 

Japs in vicinity of the important bridge across the Napa River, at Napa. 
Japs in vicinity of Gordon Valley Dam. 

PLACER COUNTY 

A large number of Japanese congregated in the vicinity of Auburn with easy 
access to the railroad and highway through Donner Pass. These lines have a 
large number of vulnerable tunnels, trestles, and slides, and are not only main 
lines to the East but are supply lines between the naval ammunition dump at 
Hawthorne, Nev., and the Pacific naval bases. 

Roseville. — Japanese adjacent to Southern Pacific machine shops, roundhouses, 
and freight yards. 

SACRAMENTO COUNTY 

Many Japs along important Sacramento River levees and near important 
highway and railroad bridges across the river at Sacramento and other places. 
Many Japs adjacent to Sacramento Municipal Airport. 
Japs adjacent to Pacific Gas & Electric substation. 
Japs close to Mather Field. 
Japs close to McClellan Field. 
Japs close to American River bridges. 

CITY OF SACRAMENTO 

Japs immediately adjacent to State capitol and State offices, M Street Bridge. 
Southern Pacific shops and roundhouses, and Pacific Gas & Electric power plants. 

SAN DIEGO COTJNTY 

Thirty miles of open coast broken by small A\ater courses with a Jap on every 
water course. 

Thirty miles of main railroad and highway easily blocked by slides, etc., with 
Japs throughout their entire length. 

Large number cf Japs within few miles of naval an munition depot and on 
both sides of main highway from depot. 

Japs at bridge across San Luis Reyes River carrying all traffic to and from 
ammunition depot. 

Japs immediately adjacent to water wells, pumps, and pipe lines supplying 
important military reservations. 

Japs along water lines supplying all of central portion of the county. 

Jap adjacent to Camp Callin. 

Jap adjacent to marine rifle range. 

Jap adjacent to power line supplying Camp Callin. 

Japs adjacent to all highway and railroad bridges across the San Diego River. 

Japs adjacent to all dams supplying water to San Diego and vicinity. 

Japs surrounding Solar Aircraft plant at National City. 

Japs surrounding Rohr Aircraft parts plant at Chula Vista. 

Japs close to main water pumping plant supplying Coronado and naval air 
station at North Island. 

Japs adjacent to Navy airport at Reem Field. 

Japs adjacent to Army airport at Border Field. 

Japs adjacent to all power lines supplying the city of San Diego and vicinity. 

Numerous Japs sprinkled throughout city of Coronado with full view of all 
shipping in and out of San Diego Bay. 

Japs in the vicinity of United States destroyer, base. 

Japs in the vicinity of United States naval supply depot. 

Japs in the vicinity of Coast Guard depot. 

Japs in the vicinity of Ryan Airplane plant. 

Japs in the vicinity of three Consolidated Aircraft plants. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10985 

Japs in the vicinity of the United States Marine Corps base, naval training 
station, and Fort Rosecrans military reservation. 
Japs overlooking municipal airport. 

SAN JOAQUIN COUNTY 

Stockton. — Jap on the Stockton Deep Water Channel across from quarter- 
masters' motor depot. 

Japs adjacent to Pacific Gas & Electric power plant and Pacific Gas & Electric 
gas plant. 

Japs adjacent to Western Pacific and Southern Pacific railroad yards. 

Japs adjacent to United States Air Corps in transit depot. 

Japs adjacent to Stockton Field, United States Army airport. 

Japs surrounding San Joaquin County General Hospital. 

Japs along Southern Pacific and Western Pacific rights-of-way. 

SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY 

Tract 1 is occupied by Japanese at Cambria where a submarine recently 
torpedoed two American ships. 

Tracts 64 to 69, inclusive, are located on the bluffs along the ocean shore. 
Japanese in this vicinity have been reported to be farming within a grenade 
throw of coast defense guns. 

The strip of coast from Pismo south into Santa Barbara County is an extremely 
flat open beach, perfectly adapted to landing operations and is occupied almost 
exclusively by Japanese. 

SAN MATEO COUNTY 

Japanese along coast and in vicinity of Pescadero. 
Japanese in vicinity of Half Moon Bay. 
Jap near Half Moon Bay substation. 
Jap near San Mateo substation. 
Japs adjacent to Belmont Airport. 

Japs adjacent to important war industries in San Carlos. 
Japs in vicinity of San Carlos Airport. 

Japs on the approaches to Dumbarton Bridge, highway, railroad, and Hetch 
Hetchy Aqueduct. 

SANTA BARBARA COUNTY 

A strip of beach at the north end of the county extends to Pismo, which beach 
is entirely open to landing in both Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties, 
and in each county Japanese are living almost the entire length of the beach. 

In the city of Santa Maria the following Japanese-owned parcels are located 
in the vicinity of strategic points: 60, 61, and 63 are adjacent to the principal 
San Francisco-Los Angeles telephone lines, main power lines, and Pacific coast 
highway; 58, 102, and 53 are close to a gas storage plant and power substation ; 
65 is next to the hospital; 56 is next to the water reservoir and water works; 
56 and 96 are close to the United States airport and the latter tract is also close 
to a hospital. 

The Santa Maria oil field is practically surrounded by Japanese-occupied 
lands on the north side, and on parcel No. 113 there are Japanese actually living 
within the oil fields. 

Tract 70 is adjacent to the water plant and close to the Orcutt oil field. 

Japanese lands in the vicinity of Lompoc completely cover the only entrance 
to Camp Cook where the only armored division of the Army on the coast will be 
shortly located. The road to Camp Cook passes through the city of Lompoc and 
all traffic to and from the camp must pass under the scrutiny of several Japanese 
occupants on various tracts of land. Those Japs are also immediately adjacent 
to the Camp Cook water wells. They can, with very little difficulty, block the 
entrance to Camp Cook since the southern end of the camp is extremely moun- 
tainous and completely impassable and the northern end is almost the same by 
reason of mountains and barrancas with perpendicular sides, some of which are 
50 to 60 feet deep. 

The Santa Ynez Valley is noteworthy inasmuch as it is a valley equally fertile 
with the Santa Maria Vallej', but with no strategic points located in it, and not a 
single Japanese living in it. 



10986 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The El Capitan oil field is heavily infiltrated with Japanese. This is a par- 
ticularly important oil field because of the extremely high gravity of the oil 
produced there. These Japanese and many others farther south are abreast of 
the main railroad, telephone lines, power line, and highway between San Francisco 
and Los Angeles, and the only such highway between Camp Cook and points 
south. On the coast road there are a large number of high trestles and bridges, 
the destruction of any of which would make the roads, both vehicle and rail, 
impassable and would leave them in such a condition that it would take a very 
long time to repair them. 

Japanese parcel 14 is close to the Goleta oil field. Japanese parcels 13, 15, 16, 
18, and 19 are in close proximity to the Santa Barbara Airport, two important 
gas storage plants, gas lines, main railroad line, main highway and radio broad- 
casting station (shelled by Jap submarine). 

In the vicinity of the city of Santa Barbara the United States lighthouse on the 
coast is completely surrounded by Japanese-occupied lands which are situated on 
the bluff overlooking the sea. 

In the vicinity of Montecito the Summerland oil field, with oil wells located 
on long piers extending into the sea, is completely surrounded by Japanese- 
occupied lands. 

Japanese properties in Santa Barbara are so located that if their occupants 
acted in unison they could, within a space of a few hours, destroy railroad and 
highway communications with all points north and south, make the passage 
from Camp Cook south impossible, fire four important oil fields, destroy north 
and south telephone connections, several large gas plants, a lighthouse and a 
radio station and be in a position to assist an enemy landing on the coast. 

SANTA CLARA COUNTY 

Jap near Southern Pacific Railway and highway overpass at Sargent and 
Pajaro River Bridge. 

Many Japs along Southern Pacific right-of-way. 

Japs on Coyote Creek in vicinity of important dams. 

Number of Japs within 1% miles of Permanente magnesium and cement plants. 

Japs adjacent to Stanford Airport. 

Japs within less than 1 mile from Palo Alto Airport. 

Japs within 1 mile of Maekay radio station. 

Moffett Field surrounded by Japs on three sides. 

Jap adjacent to Hendy Iron Works at Sunnyvale. 

Japs on Southern Pacific right-of-way at Alviso. 

Japs in vicinity of radio station KQW. 

Japs along Southern Pacific right-of-way between Palo Alto and San Jose. 

Japs adjacent to San Jose Airport. 

Manv Japs along Southern Pacific right-of-way between San Jose and Morgan 
Hill. 

Japs along Southern Pacific and Western Pacific rights-of-way between San 
Jose and Milpitas. . 

SANTA CRUZ COUNTY 

Japs adjacent to Camp McQuaide. 

Japs adjacent to all highways leading to Camp McQuaide. 

Japs on Southern Pacific right-of-way between Aptos and Watsonville. 

Japs along beach in neighborhood of Watsonville. 

Japs at bridges across the Pajaro River. 

Japs in Chittenden Pass through which the main highway and railroad pass. 

SHASTA COUNTY 

Jap in vicinity of Hat Creek powerhouse and dam. 

SOLANO COUNTY 

Fairfield. — Jap adjacent to Pacific Gas & Electric substation and Pacific Gas 
& Electric gas plant. 

Jap in vicinity of Vacaville fire department and telephone exchange. 
Japs on Ryer Island, Liberty Island, and Prospect with important levees. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10987 

SONOMA COUNTY 

Number of Japs within 2 miles of Petaluma Airport. 

STANISLAUS COUNTY 

Large number of Japs in fire-hazard area. 

Japanese in immediate vicinity of two important reservoirs, one of which is 
emergencv seaplane landing area. 

Jap at "Southern Pacific railroad bridge across Tuolumne River at Waterford. 

Jap adjacent to Hetch Hetchy power line. 

Jap within 1 mile of Turlock bomb factory. 

Japs in vicinity of explosive-mixing plant at Modesto. 

Japs at important highway and railroad bridges across Tuolumne River. 

Japs at important highway and railroad bridges across Stanislaus River. 

Japs along main north and south telephone lines, railroad lines, and Highway 
99 between Turlock and Salida. 

Numerous Japs along railroad between bomb factory and Modesto. 

Japs in vicinity of important irrigation pumping plants. 

Jap on main highway and Southern Pacific right-of-way at Newman. 

SUTTER COUNTY 

Many Japs near important levees in the vicinity of Yuba City. 

Many Japs in vicinity of important levees along Feather and Yuba Rivers. 

TEHAMA COUNTY 

Jap on Southern Pacific right-of-way near important highway bridge across 
Sacramento River. 

Japs in vicinity of important highway bridge and Red Bluff. 

TILARE COUNTY 

Japs along electric transmission line from Big Creek to Los Angeles. 

V E N T C R A C O UNTY 

Jap in oil tank farm at Ventura. 
Japs surrounding water plant in Ventura. 

Japs at bridge for highway, gas lines, power lines, and power lines across 
Santa Clara River. 

Japs adjacent to power substations near Santa Paula and Oxnard. 

Harbor at Heuneme surrounded by Japs. 

Japs at important highway and railroad bridge across Santa Clara River. 

Japs along highway, natural gas and power lines between Santa Paula and Piru. 

YOLO COUNTY 

Jap on Southern Pacific right-of-way near Zamora. 

Japs surrounding important warehouses in Woodland. 

Many Japs along important Sacramento River levees. 

Japs along Pacific Gas & Electric power line. 

Japs adjacent to radio station. 

Japs adjacent to important railroad and highway bridges across Sacramento 
River at Sacramento. 

Japs in neighborhood of important pumping plant, failure of which would re- 
sult in flooding Sacramento Airport and import ant industrial areas. 

YUBA COUNTY 

Japs in vicinity of important levees around Marysville. 

Japs in vicinity of important railroad and highway bridges across Yuba and 
Feather Rivers, Marysville. 



60396— 42— pt. 29- 



10988 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Exhibit B. — Letters to Attorney General Warren From Law Enforce- 
ment Officers on the Enemy Alien Problem 

Department of Police, 
Los Angeles, Calif., February 19, 1943. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, State of California, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Dear Sir: The enemy alien presents numerous problems to the local law en- 
forcement agencies endeavoring to keep them properly supervised. 

Undoubtedly the most serious menaces are potential fifth-column activities, 
sabotage, and espionage. To properly control these activities, it is necessary to 
maintain constant police patrols and a constant investigative check on the 
activities of the enemy alien residing in these districts. 

The situation in the Los Angeles area is probably more acute than in any other 
district, due to the fact that there are approximately 25,000 Japanese within a 
5-minute walking distance of our city hall, county hall of justice, hall of records, 
and the Federal and State buildings. This number, plus an additional five or six 
thousand, are also within a very short driving distance of our numerous aviation 
plants and other defense projects, and numerous army encampments which are 
usually in close proximity to a major defense plant. 

The aviation industry presents the gravest situation because this area represents 
approximately 50 percent of the aviation production of the entire United States. 
While the sabotage possibilities are fairly well controlled with the protection now 
afforded, it is an utter impossibility to completely control espionage activities 
because the information as to production rates, types, and models of planes pro- 
duced can be readily ascertained from the scrutinizing or photographing of the 
planes while on the testing fields of these plants, by possible espionage agents 
living or residing within a reasonable radius. 

The method of handling these types of activities is that of additional police 
personnel being assigned to patrol and investigate units in these suspected areas. 
With the limited personnel that this department has at the present time, the release 
of sufficient officers from other required duties to properly supervise this is im- 
possible. In addition to the fire-prevention activities, there is also the increased 
service of investigating suspects and patrolling and policing of major public 
utilities. 

One condition which creates a hazard is the fact that near the beaches we have 
large open areas which are utilized by Japanese truck farmers. This is a very 
fertile field for short-wave receiving and sending sets, as well as signaling devices. 
A specific instance of this presented itself here on December 8 and 9, wherein a 
large amount of loose hay was piled in the shape of an arrow pointing to one of 
our major aviation plants. This was presumably done with the intention of 
directing aerial activities toward this location. 

Due to the complex problems presented in handling this enemy alien situation, 
I believe that all enemy aliens should be removed from the coastal areas for a 
distance of 250 to 300 miles, and be supervised in such a manner that they be 
continually under surveillance of responsible authorities. 

It is my opinion that your teletype request overlooked one of our most hazardous 
situations, which is that of the American-born Japanese. After a thorough and 
complete investigation of the relationship existing between parents and children, 
and the tendencies of the American-born Japanese, I feel that they present as 
difficult, if not a more difficult, problem than the enemy alien. They are cognizant 
of the American custom of living; they are capable of understanding the American 
language and inference; and, subject to small limitations, are allowed to associate 
and mingle with the general American public. 

It is a well-known Japanese family tradition that the father of the family is 
the dominating and guiding factor for the formulating of ideas in his children and 
there is no doubt that the American-born Japanese is, to a great extent, imbued 
with the same ideas of his parents. In addition to the family traits and the 
patriotism for the native country of Japan, you have racial characteristics, that 
of being a Mongolian, which cannot be obliterated from these persons, regardless 
of how many generations are born in the United States. 

You have, also, one other problem, that of about 40 percent of American-born 
Japanese having returned, either voluntarily, or at the request of their parents, to 
Japan, and having received the greater portion of their education in that country. 
A large number of these Ki-bei have even attended military schools in Japan and 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10989 

the fathers of a considerable number of them have received decorations for military 
bravery or military administrative work while residing in this country, either 
prior to, or since, the Ki-bei returned from Japan. 

Our officers personally interviewed a large number of the American born Japa- 
nese and while some of them stanchly maintained their patriotism to the United 
States, they all stated that if Japan should be victorious in this war they would 
have a certain amount of pride for the accomplishment of that country. 

It is my opinion that the danger, especially for fifth-column activities in this 
district, is serious. This is due to the fact that there are some twenty-five to 
thirty thousand Japanese in this area and the location of a large portion of these 
are in very strategic areas. These strategic areas are in the very close proximity 
of the coastal regions where an invasion party would necessarily be landed. I have 
no doubt that they would lend any and all assistance possible to a Japanese land 
invasion, and several of the Japanese who are believed to be as patriotic as any, 
have expressed the above opinion in interviews. 

Another situation presents itself in that the areas described above have full 
and complete view of all navigation in and out of our local harbor and have 
constant scrutiny of the activities maintained in the harbor districts. Some 
incidents have happened in our harbor district which lends very strongly to the 
opinion that espionage information is being, or has been, disseminated from that 
area. 

As to the Italian and German aliens, I feel that they present a lesser menace 
than the Japanese, due to the fact that we are fortunate in having a smaller number 
in our midst. However, the number is somewhat offset by the intelligence and 
viciousness of the German alien. It is a well-known fact that German aliens, 
before being permitted to come into this country by the German Government, 
were required to leave some of their immediate relatives or family in Germany, 
and that they were allowed to come into this country for one specific purpose only, 
and that was to develop and return certain information to the German Secret 
Service. If this information is not forwarded, the positive instructions are left 
with these individuals that their family and friends left in Germany will be mis- 
treated or placed in concentration camps. 

This same policy is maintained as to several of the countries which have fallen 
under German domination since the beginning of the war. To realize the serious- 
ness of this situation, you should consider the Army and Navy activities, etc., in 
this area and the number of manufacturing plants of defense implements which 
are readily accessible for sabotage and espionage purpose. 

I can see no reason to differentiate between different types of aliens. In my 
opinion there is only one procedure to follow in handling this situation, which is 
the concentration of each and every one of the three classes of enemy aliens and 
I do not feel that any material difference exists in their potential danger to the 
internal security of this country. 
Very truly yours, 

C. B. HORRALL, 

Chief of Police. 

County of San Diego, 
San Diego, Calif., February 19, 191+2. 

Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General of the State of California, State Building, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Dear General Warren: Replying to your letter of February 18, 1942, in 
which you request that I express my views concerning the situation in this county 
with reference to enemy aliens in order that you may be advised of the sentiment 
locally, as well as the conditions locally, so as to present the entire matter to the 
congressional committee on national defense migration, which is to commence 
its hearing in San Francisco on February 21, 1942, will say that I am making 
this reply jointly on behalf of Sheriff Bert L. Strand and myself. 

As to the three questions which you proposed, and which are as follows: 

(1) What in your opinion is the extent of the danger, by way of sabotage 
and fifth-column activities in your jurisdiction and in the State as a whole, 
arising from the presence of enemy aliens? 

(2) Do you believe that the danger can be adequately controlled by treating 
all enemy'aliens alike, regardless of nationality, or do you believe that we 
should differentiate among them as to nationality? 



10990 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

(3) What protective measures do you believe should be taken with refer- 
ence to each nationality or with reference to enemy aliens as a whole in order 
to eliminate the danger of sabotage and fifth-column activities? 
our answers are as follows: 

(1) It is difficult to estimate the extent of the danger by way of sabotage and 
fifth-column activities in this jurisdiction. This answer will be amplified, how- 
ever, by succeeding paragraphs of this letter. 

(2) We believe that the danger can be adequately controlled by treating all 
enemy aliens alike, but we emphasize particularly the possible menace of the 
Japanese alien in this area. 

(3) We believe that all enemy aliens should be interned and that they should be 
put to work under armed guard in guarded portions of the interior of the United 
States so that they can be used for the purpose of producing materials and supplies 
for this Government. 

I am enclosing a copy of a resolution adopted by the San Diego County Defense 
Counsel at a meeting held this morning, after a very thorough discussion of the 
Japanese situation here. At the meeting held this morning it was discussed, and 
we believe it to be a fact, that notwithstanding that there are a good many 
people born in the United States of Japanese ancestors, that these people maintain 
citizenship in the Empire of Japan although under our Constitution they are 
deemed to be American citizens. It occurs to me that this is a matter that should 
be strongly urged to the congressional committee, because it seems to me that 
this particular situation calls for immediate Federal executive action. 

Under separate cover Mr. Harry M. Baugh, chief investigator of my office, 
has mailed to vou certain maps which have been requested by your office, showing 
the location of land in San Diego County occupied by Japanese. The maps being 
sent show land or property located within the incorporated area of the city of 
San Diego occupied by Japanese aliens. Mr. Baugh, in a letter addressed to you, 
is also sending a key by which these maps may be read, and which is all explained 
in his letter to vou of this date. 

Mr. Baugh, I think, points out that the maps are at your earliest convenience 
to be returned to him so that he may indicate on the maps all enemy aliens, as the 
maps now show only the location of the Japanese aliens in the city of San Diego, 
and the farm lands' in the county of San Diego occupied by Japanese, some of 
whom are citizens and some of whom are Japanese nationals. 

Trusting this gives you the information you desire, at least in part, I beg to 
remain 

Very sincerely yours, 

Thomas Whelan, 

District Attorney. 

County of San Luis Obispo, 
San Luis Obispo, Calif., February 20, 1942. 

Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, Slate of California, 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Dear Mr. Warren: This will acknowledge your letter of February 18, and I 
hasten to reply to the questions mentioned therein. 

(1) I believe as long as there is a Japanese alien within accessible distance by 
foot, car, or train to the militarv fortifications and important military objectives 
such as oil, storage plants, railway tunnels, etc., that there is a definite danger of 
sabotage and fifth column activity. I believe there is a definite danger of sabotage 
and fifth column activities with reference to the German and Italian aliens but 
not to the extent or degree that is possible with reference to the Japanese. My 
opinion, of course, refers onlv to the State of California. 

(2) I am inclined to believe that we should differentiate among the aliens as 
to nationality and to illustrate my point will call attention to the fact that there 
are two or three Italians of unquestioned standing in this community whose loyalty 
to this country could not possibly be questioned. 

One man has been working for the Southern Pacific Railroad Co. for 25 years ; 
another man, as I understand it, is an employee of a bank and thought he was 
naturalized, but because of a technical difficulty finds himself an alien. Another 
case is a German alien who had taken her first papers and was stopped from finish- 
ing her naturalization because of the war. She has a son with the rank of lieuten- 
ant in the Navy. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10991 

I can cite other cases where I believe it could be proven beyond any question 
that the Italian or German alien is loyal. However, I do not mean to say or 
infer that there should not be a careful and thorough check of every alien. I 
have thought it would be a very good suggestion that a board be set up in each 
county consisting of the sheriff, district attorney, judge of the superior court 
and two or three of the well-known or prominent citizens, together with the 
Federal representatives of the Army and Navy, to determine the status of certain 
Germans and Italians. I would not apply this rule, however, to the Japanese 
alien and believe that all should be taken out of California. 

(3) If it were possible, I believe the best way would be to take every Japanese 
alien in the United States and in the possessions of the United States and send 
them to Japan or find ways and means of getting them there. I believe that 
we should have as our ultimate objective, the complete alienation from the United 
States soil of every single Japanese alien. There should be some way to get 
them back to Japan. 

As to the German and Italian aliens, there should be a determination of their 
status with regard to declaring their loyalty to the United States by application 
for citizenship, thereby renouncing loyalty to their mother country. I would 
apply the same rule as to all other German and Italian aliens who did not renounce 
their allegiance to their mother country and who were not able to convince 
those in authority of their loyalty to this country. 

I believe to an extent that if the aliens cannot be shipped out of this country, 
they should be placed where they will not compete against the interests of the 
American people. The best place for them is in a concentration camp without 
any frills and just the bare necessities for their existence. I personally am of 
the opinion that the restricted areas of this county are completely inadequate 
for efficient protection against sabotage. 

With reference to the American-born Japanese, there should be a concentrated 
effort to make them prove themselves, and in this connection, the Federal agencies 
should call upon the local law enforcement officials to assist. 

I have heard of too many cases where the Japanese-American has declared 
his loyalty, but his actions seemed to belie such a declaration. I believe that 
the situation will be much improved as soon as the Japanese-alien situation has 
been fully and completely taken care of and by drastic offensive action. 

My personal contacts with the average American citizen on the street has 
led me to believe that almost without exception they feel the presence of the 
Japanese alien here is a menace to the country and a hindrance to the war ac- 
tivities of our Government. 

I will be more than pleased to lend whatever assistance is within my power 
to effect any plan developed by the Federal authorities in relation to the alien 
problem as it affects the county of San Luis Obispo. 
Respectfully yours 

A. H. Brazil, District Attorney. 

City and County of San Francisco, 

February 19, 1942. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, State Building, Civic Center, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Dear General: I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of February 
18. The letter refers to a teletype sent on February 17. Neither I nor my office 
received the teletype. However, I am informed by your secretary that your 
letter of February 18 contains all the matters referred to in your teletype. 

Before answering the questions specifically, it occurs to me that I should state 
some general views I have, that to a great extent control my answers. I believe 
that if the Japanese should invade California, by airplane, submarine, or in any 
other way, they will have arranged to have in advance the assistance of various 
aides in our State. I can see no reason to anticipate that they will omit the pre- 
cautions they took at Pearl Harbor. Such assistance could take the form of 
destruction of water mains, interruption of telephone system, dislocation of the 
fire-prevention measures, significant failures to comply with black-out order, dis- 
ruption of transportation, and other matters. 

I am not in a position to judge how likely such an invasion is or to what extent, 
for the purpose of reasonable safety, we should guard against its occurrence. I 
think those are questions to be passed upon by others. 



10992 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

On the subject of sabotage, independent of invasion, I cannot set myself up as 
having full knowledge on the subject, but my view is that sabotage, independent 
of invasion, must be taken care of by proper precautions at the industries that 
would be subject to sabotage. 

(1) Directing my attention to the first question, my view is that there is grave 
danger of sabotage and fifth-column activities in m3 r jurisdiction, in the event of 
any invasion by the Japanese and, further, that even in the absence of such 
invasion, if utmost precautions are not taken, sabotage will be committed. 

(2) Directing my attention to your second question, I think that, as far as any 
general orders are concerned, there should be no differentiation as to enemy 
aliens. Whatever will be the rule, it should apply to all alike. This accomplished, 
then proper reconsideration may be afforded meritorious cases. Exceptions could 
be considered as to persons who can demonstrate their loyalty and their absence 
of alien interests, or physical unfitness to participate in fifth-column activities due 
to age or infirmity. I would put the burden of proof upon the applicant. This 
would result, no doubt, in large numbers of Italians, for instance, being permitted 
to return to their dwellings or possibly remain undisturbed. But the exceptions 
would be based, not upon the nationality, but upon the evidence they produce of 
their loyalty and lack of potentiality as dangerous characters. 

(3) Directing my attention to the third question, I believe that a general order 
should be made compelling all enemy aliens to remove from the jurisdictions and 
areas that could be subject to sabotage and invasion, but as hereinbefore indicated, 
some later reconsideration be afforded upon a proper showing being made by an 
enemy alien, regardless of his nationality, that he should be exempted from com- 
pliance with the order. I am definitely against taking any chances, and although 
I realize that many hardships may result, there can be no dispute that the safety 
of our commonwealth and citizens is second to no other consideration and aim. 

How this removal should be carried out, and to what point or points and under 
what conditions, doubtless will call for the combined views and cooperation of 
Government, State, and city authorities. 

The exodus should be made under proper supervision and guarding. 
One other important factor which comes to my mind is the need for careful 
investigation of workers in shipyards and defense industries, as a means of pre- 
venting inside jobs of sabotage. 

Also, there should be provided either by State Guard or other agency, proper 
guarding of established alien concentration areas and industrial plants, bridges 
and other vulnerable places. 

I trust the foregoing covers all of the points on which you desired my views. 
Very sincerely yours, 

Matthew Brady, 

District Attorney, 

City of Fresno Police Department, 

February 18, 191$. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, San Francisco, Calif. 

Dear Sir: Received your All Points Bulletin teletype of February 17, relative 
to my recommendations concerning aliens or enemy aliens in my jurisdiction. 

I have a number of people that I consider my friends among the enemy aliens in 
this particular community and have never particularly felt there was any danger 
from having the resident enemy aliens continue to live here. Since the Federal 
Government has run all the enemy aliens off the various coastal locations and 
they have moved into the valley it presents an entirely different picture. The 
law enforcement officers are continuously investigating reports of oversuspicious 
citizens and as long as the enemy aliens are permitted to stay in the combat zone 
they are going to be under suspicion by the officers and the citizens as well. 

I believe there is great danger in the entire San Joaquin Valley of sabotage, 
particularly by fire. There is also considerable feeling against both citizen and 
alien Japanese by the white race of this valley and I think probably by the white 
race of the entire State. As long as that feeling exists, we will continue to get 
exaggerated reports of suspected sabotage. I believe that the danger can be ade- 
quately controlled, or at least reduced to a minimum, by removing all enemy aliens 
from this State, or whatever portion of this State is considered by the Army as 
being the combat zone in addition to not allowing them in the vicinity of power 
houses, dams, etc., or even in our mountains where the fire danger is so great. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10993 

There should in my opinion be no difference among them as to nationality, 
unless with the possible Japanese- American citizens who have at any time during 
the past 10 years been back to Japan and in that case I believe they should be 
handled in a like manner as the enemy aliens themselves. 

In the event no action is taken relative to moving the enemy aliens out of the 
State, I would suggest that each alien registration card should show the name and 
address, as well as the occupation of the alien, and should show a definite area 
to which he should be restricted until such time as he applies for and receives a 
new registration card allowing him to change his place of living or working. 

Trusting these few suggestions will be of some material help and reaching a 
decision as to what should be done, and assuring you of my willingness at all times 
to cooperate, I am, 

Very truly yours, 

R. T. Wallace, Chief of Police. 

City of Sacramento, 
State of California, Department of Police, 

February 19, 1942. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, State of California, San Francisco, Calif. 
Dear Mr. Warren: Please see your letter of February 18th, with regard to 
the nature and extent of law-enforcement problems arising from the presence of 
enemy aliens in this State. It is a pleasure to submit below answers to the re- 
spective questions contained in your letter. 

(1) I do not believe there is any immediate danger of a serious epidemic of 
sabotage and other fifth-column activity in the vicinity of Sacramento arising 
from the presence of enemy aliens. Nevertheless, if at any time in the future 
the military might of Japan should be directed against the Pacific coast or the 
State of California, I believe a great percentage of those of Japaense descent in 
the locality being subject to attack would employ every possible means to assist 
the Japanese invaders. 

(2) I do not believe the danger can be adequately controlled by treating all 
enemy aliens alike — I believe we should differentiate among them as to nationality. 

I do not believe the aliens of Italian birth should be considered dangerous; 
neither do I believe that the aliens of German birth residing on the Pacific coast 
will prove to be a very grave menace. Also, I do not believe that a combination 
of Italian, German, and Japanese aliens will constitute a serious hazard because 
there is no unification of effort between these forces. This belief is substantiated 
by the fact that many of the Japanese aliens in the Sacramento area who have 
been questioned by the authorities have stated positively that in case of an at- 
tempted invasion by Japanese forces that they would assist Japan. However, 
these same Japanese aliens have stated just as positively that they would fight 
against an attempted German invasion of the United States. So it seems to be a 
matter of loyalty to Japan, their mother country. 

(3) I believe all Japanese aliens should be removed from coastal regions with 
the prohibited area extending at least 500 miles inland. 

I believe the German and Italian aliens should be considered individually. 
With kindest personal regards, I remain 
Sincerely yours, 

A. K. McAllister, Chief of Police. 

City of Santa Paula, 
Ventura County, Calif., February 19, 1942. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, San Francisco, Calif. 
Dear Sir: Referring to your letter dated February 18 regarding enemy aliens. 

(1) In my opinion there is great danger of sabotage to electric lines, high- 
pressure gas lines, bridges, and oil lines in my immediate jurisdiction, and various 
small oil fields which are within a short distance of this city. 

(2) I can see no reason why we should attempt to control this danger without 
treating all enemy aliens alike. While it is true that there are many more Japa- 
nese than other enemy aliens, at the same time it is easy to recognize a Japanese as 
such. Other enemy aliens can mix with citizens of the United States with less 
chance of being identified as enemy aliens, especially as the enemy alien registra- 
tion records are not available to local law-enforcement officers. 



10994 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

(3) I believe that all enemy aliens, regardless of nationality, should be moved 
back not less than 200 miles from the Pacific coast, and in this group I include all 
Japanese, whether enemy aliens or citizens. In view of the fact that so many 
Japanese hold dual citizenship and knowing that they are not allowed to mix 
with the white race, it is natural to expect them to sympathize with Japan.- 

At the writing of this letter there are very few Japanese in this city. However, 
we do expect them to move in as they are forced out of other restricted districts. 

Thanking you for the opportunity to express my views in this matter, I remain, 
Very truly yours, 

S. T. Primmer, Chief of Police. 

City of Marysville, Calif., Police Department, 

February 19, 1942. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, State Building, 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Dear Sir: In reply to your telegram of February 17, 1942. 
I feel that with the Army cantonment that is to be built in this territory and 
this city being as close as it is to the coast the danger of sabotage and fifth-column 
activity in this territory is very grave, as is the danger to the entire State of Cal- 
ifornia. It is my opinion that the Japanese are the gravest threat but that all 
enemy aliens should be treated alike regardless of nationality. 

All enemy aliens should be interned regardless of nationality. In my opinion 
all Japanese are a menace whether they are American born or not, however I 
realize that we probably cannot intern an American-born Japanese but, if possible, 
I believe that they should be concentrated in certain areas so that they can more 
easily be watched. 

I feel very strongly that there should be no exceptions that all enemy aliens 
should be interned and that this should be done at once without any more delay. 
Yours very truly, 

Dorell La Fortune, 

Chief of Police. 

District Attorney of Santa Clara County, 

San Jose, Calif., February 19, 1942. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, State Building, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

My Dear Mr. Warren: In reply to your inquiry relative to problems arising 
from the presence of enemy aliens in this State, will say: 

There can be no doubt that one of the most serious dangers that now confronts 
our Government is, or may shortly be brought about, by fifth-columnist activities. 
In this county we have not as yet had any demonstration of disloyalty but as men 
of common sense we know that it exists. We all realize that fifth-columnist 
activities are not confined exclusively to alien enemies; that we have within our 
borders men and women springing from every nation who, either for personal 
gain or for some real or fancied wrong, are not only disloyal to the principals of 
our Government but, also, are ready and willing to participate in activities against 
its interests. This being so, we cannot reach a solution of the present problem 
exclusively along racial lines. I will admit, however, that I believe there is a 
great danger today from the Japanese population, and particularly from those 
Japanese who, although born here, have received a liberal amount of their educa- 
tion in Japan. Still, I cannot bring myself to believe that the entire Japanese 
population is disloyal to this country. 

Again referring to Japanese born in this country and educated in Japan, I 
find that they show a feeling of being a little superior to the Japanese boy raised 
and educated in this country. This can only be attributed to a loyalty to Japan. 
I find among our school children that most of the Japanese students attending our 
schools still manifest a loyalty to our country, joining in patriotic songs, etc., 
but that occasionally there is a little hesitancy on the part of some to join in 
patriotic exercises, showing that there is some tendency somewhere to wean them 
away from us. 

As to what action is best to take or whether there should be a wholesale depor- 
tation of these people is something that I cannot answer until I have completed 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10995 

the survey that I am making at the present time. In passing, may I state that 
conditions here, in my opinion, do not justify any action that would disrupt too 
much our productive ability and our natural everyday business life. 

As to differentiating between different nationalities I might add that, in my 
opinion, there is a difference; that many of our old Italian people who came here 
years ago and who worked and raised families, and who have been law-abiding 
citizens, have very little, if any, respect for their native land and which would 
in no way interfere with their loyalty. Moreover, conditions in European coun- 
tries are such that many Italian people here today feel that the only solution for 
their problem over there is for the United States to win this war. These people, 
naturally, are going to be loyal to us. Locally, a very great percent of our young 
men who are joining the Army are of Italian parentage, and before any action 
should be taken to move their parents away from their homes, I believe we should 
consider seriously the result that that may have upon them as soldiers. 

Trusting the above will in some degree assist in answering your questions, 
although I realize that this problem is one that will take the best thoughts of all 
of us, I remain 

Sincerelv yours, 

John P. Fitzgerald, 
District Attorney of Santa Clara County. 

City of Madera, 
Madera, Calif., February 18, 1942. 
Re Japanese, Italians, and Germans. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, San Francisco, Calif. 

JAPANESE 

Dear Sir: The Japanese question on the Pacific coast appears to the officials 
of this community to have two things to be considered. One is that if we leave the 
Japanese loose they will be in position to do, and many of them will do, terrific 
damage if they get an opportunity. It is impossible for the police officials of the 
community to tell which Japanese are dangerous and which are not. For this 
reason, although it will work injustices to some persons, the only safe procedure 
would be to take up all Japanese and intern them. There are only two possible 
objections to this course. One is the size of the job. The size of any job is 
always immaterial if the need is great enough, and it would appear that the need 
here "is great enough. The other objection is that we need the Japanese to pro- 
duce vegetables. There are many large farmers in this community capable of 
developing vegetable growing on a large scale, providing they are asked to do the 
job. They have both the experience and the implements. A discussion with 
some of these leading farmers is that they believe the job can be done without the 
Japs. 

ITALIANS 

The general feeling about the Italians is that they are well assimilated, and we 
do not regard even the Italian aliens as alien in fact. We also know that loyal 
Italians would quickly disclose anything they might discover, if others of their 
race are inclined to get on the wrong side of the picture. This is not true with the 
Japs. We feel it is safe to let the Italians continue their normal life in this 
community. 

GERMANS 

So far as we know, there are no German aliens in this community. If there are 
any, they are unknown to the officials and they are probably regarded as nationals 
of this countrv. 

This letter is the result of a discussion on the part of the police force with the 
city attorney and mayor, and has been signed by all the parties as representing 
their concurring opinion. 
Sincerely, 

John G. Gordon, Mayor. 
Sherwood Green, City Attorney. 
Walter E. Thomas, Chief of Police. 



10996 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

El Centro, Calif,. 

February 18, 1942. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, State of California, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Dear Mr. Warren: Your teletype of February 17, 1942, addressed to "All 
District Attorneys, Sheriffs, and Chiefs of Police" received. This teletype was 
called to my attention by Sheriff Ware and we discussed the same at considerable 
length. The sheriff requested that I prepare an answer incorporating our views 
on the different questions asked in said teletype. 

I shall, therefore, discuss the questions in the order in which they appear in 
your teletype. 

FIRST: "What, in your opinion, is the extent of danger by way of sabotage and 
fifth-column activities in your jurisdiction and State as a whole caused by present 
enemy aliens?" 

In answering this question, it might be well to state that aside from enemy 
Japanese aliens we do not have more than six or seven enemy aliens of Germany 
and Italy combined in this county. As near as we can estimate, there are ap- 
proximately 800 Japanese enemy aliens in this county. It is our opinion that 
the danger from sabotage and fifth-column activities from these 800 alien Jap- 
anese enemies is tremendous and very serious. As you know, this is strictly 
an agricultural community which is entirely dependent upon water and the dis- 
tribution thereof through a gigantic irrigation system. The water is brought 
to this system from the Colorado River and consists of thousands of miles of 
main-line canals. There are thousands of tons of alfalfa hay scattered throughout 
the rural territory. There are thousands of acres of barley, wheat, and flax 
which is scattered over an area of approximately 850,000 acres. There are 
hundreds of miles of transmission lines which serve the people of this county 
with hydroelectric energy. The 800 alien enemies, above mentioned, are scat- 
tered over this vast territory, and it would be absolutely humanly impossible 
for the small force now available in the sheriff's office of this county to make even 
a pretense of guarding this tremendous farm territory and the irrigation system 
necessary for its preservation. The sheriff of this county has only 18 paid 
deputies. In addition to the foregoing, the county of Imperial is a border 
county. Immediately to the south of Imperial County lies Baja, Calif., in the 
Republic of Mexico. The Gulf of Lower California is only about 65 miles from 
Imperial County. All of these factors, combined, make this a very vulnerable 
field for sabotage and fifth-column activities. The only sane and sensible solu- 
tion to the entire problem is to evacuate every alien Japanese enemy from this 
county. This we have been demanding continuously since December 7, 1941. 
Many telegrams have been sent to the Attorney General of the United States 
and other Federal authorities demanding that steps be taken to evacuate the 
Japanese enemy aliens in this area. On February 14, 1942, 32 alien Japanese 
enemies were removed from this county by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 
It is our belief that the balance of the Japanese alien enemies should be treated 
in a similar manner in order to adequately protect the county of Imperial. 

Second: "Do you believe that danger can be adequately controlled by treating 
all enemy aliens alike regardless of nationality, or do you believe that we should 
differentiate among them as to nationality?" 

All of our alien enemies are joined together in a very closely knit alliance com- 
monly known as the Axis Powers and they should all be treated in the same man- 
ner. They are all dominated and controlled by the same ideals and principles, 
namely, to overthrow and destroy the democracies and subjugate the free peoples 
of this world; consequently, all alien enemies should be treated alike regardless 
of their nationality. 

Third: "What measures do you believe should be taken with reference to each 
nationality or enemy aliens as a whole in order to eliminate danger of sabotage 
and fifth column activities? 

It is our belief that immediate evacuation of all enemy aliens is the only solution 
of the problem. It is absolutely impossible with the small force of police officers 
available in any county of the State of California to provide adequate protection 
against the depredations and sabotage which will be committed in the future. 
The territory involved is so great and the number of enemy aliens so large that 
it would be impossible for the small forces available to cover the territory. 

In conclusion, we believe that the Federal Government is the only agency which 
can adequately handle this gigantic problem. The Federal Government has 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10997 

exclusive jurisdiction over aliens and unless the Government exercises this juris- 
diction local authorities are helpless to protect the people in their community. 
Criminal prosecutions under peacetime conditions are wholly inadequate to meet 
the urgency of the present situation. Any criminal prosecution is subject to long 
delays, and the result obtained is wholly inadequate to meet wartime conditions. 
What we must have at this time is immediate, swift, and certain action. This 
can only be provided by the Federal Government itself through evacuation of all 
alien enemies and their concentration in internment centers provided by the United 
States Government. Some argument has been put forward that we need these 
alien enemies to perform labor on farms and industries. Our answer to this 
contention is that the American people must realize that it is their duty to pro- 
vide adequate national defense, including agricultural production, and the pro- 
duction of war materials, and they cannot depend upon their alien enemies to 
perform this task. 

We again earnestly and seriously state and urge that, in our opinion, the only 
solution to this problem is immediate evacuation of all alien enemies from this 
county. We shall both be very glad to appear in person before the committee 
if you believe it advisable. 
Very truly yours, 

Elmer W. Heald, 
District Attorney, County of Imperial. 

R. W. Ware, 
Sheriff, County of Imperial. 

Office of District Attorney of~Madera County, 

Madera, Calif., February 19, 1942. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General of California, 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Dear General Warren: As requested in your letter of the 18th, I am setting 
forth my views in respect to the situation arising from the presence of enemy 
$ilif*ns 

1. At the present time there appears to be no imminent danger of sabotage. 
However, when the dry season comes on, the season from about May until 
October, when rainfall is practically nonexistent in this part of the State, the 
plains are covered with dry grass and dry grain and stubble fields, and the hills 
and lower mountains with dry grass, brush, and fallen leaves and limbs, the 
whole country is in a highly inflammable condition. A systematic campaign of 
incendiarism would cause terrific disaster. 

The opportunity for causing incalculable loss in this way is so obvious that we 
expect it as a matter of course, and are providing extraordinary fire-fighting 

We cannot tell what fifth-column activities are going on, but we believe they 
are going on. As an instance, both before and after December 7, the most 
influential Japanese in the county had an unusual number of Japanese calling 
at his residence at all hours of the day and night. These callers had good cars 
and seem to be persons of sorts. He had never had such string of callers before. 

2. I do not think that all aliens should be treated alike regardless of nationality. 
We should differentiate between them, both as to nationality and as to citizens 

and noncitizens, and as to native-born and alien-born. 

They should be handled by classes and perhaps individually besides. It is 
impossible to deal with them, particularly with the Japanese, individually. 

3. Our State and Federal laws, supported by a bill of rights, are entirely inade- 
quate to meet the situation. If we are not to run the risk of disaster we must 
forget such things as the writ of habeas corpus, and the prohibition against un- 
reasonable searches and seizures. The right of self-defense, self-preservation, on 
behalf of the people, is higher than the bill of rights. 

Martial law should be declared over aU of California. Military authorities 
and militarv police should then: . 

(a) Remove all Japanese irrespective of age, sex, or citizenship from consider- 
able areas near vital defense industries, and from places furnishing an oppor- 
tunity for considerable sabotage, and for conveying information to the enemy, 
say as far as east of the Sierras. . , ~ ■. 

(b) Remove all other enemy aliens and their families (Italian and German; 
from aU zones where they may be a menace, but not such a wide movement as 
with Japanese. 



10998 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

(c) Remove all persons irrespective of race or nationality or citizenship from 
such areas. 

(d) Intern all enemy aliens and their families who are suspected of being 
dangerous to the public safety, or keep them under surveilance. 

This may result in claims for damages after the war is over. It will be time 
enough then to adjust it. It may result in injustice but we cannot help it. This 
is the fortune of war. 

If there are then any Japanese who can show that they should be allowed to 
establish themselves in other places than where interned, adjust this as the 
occasion arises. 

Sheriff Justice agrees substantially with the above views. 
Respectfully yours, 

George Mordecai, District Attorney. 

Sheriff's Office, Merced County, 

Merced, Calif., February 19, 1942. 
In re Enemy aliens. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, San Francisco, Calif. 
Dear Mr. Warren: Replying to your letter of* February 18, the following 
are my opinions: 

(1) I believe that this county and the State of California as a whole are in 
great danger of a large-scale sabotage plot and fifth-column activity, due to the 
presence in our midst of so many enemy aliens. I will add that that is the opinion 
of everyone with whom I come in contact. 

(2) I think the danger can be adequately controlled by treating all enemy 
aliens alike, regardless of nationality, if they are placed in concentration camps 
under military guard. Too, that we should not try to differentiate among them 
as to nationality because I do not believe it can be done without running into a 
great deal of difficulty. 

(3) In answer to this question, I think that the only sure way to protect the 
State against sabotage and fifth-column activity is to place all enemy aliens under 
military guard. To us here in America, knowing that there are many loyal 
aliens amongst us, this seems like a very harsh procedure but after all we are at 
war and there is nothing nice about the whole business. It is impossible for us 
to do a thorough job of picking between the good and the bad; however, this 
could be done to some extent. Different types of individuals, background and 
history, could be segregated as to type and nationality and placed in suitable 
quarters, as near as possible to their home in this State. By going into the history 
and background of individual cases and placing them in different groups and 
having separate institutions for each type of group and nationality. Due to 
the fact, as stated before, that there are many loyal enemy aliens, great care 
must be taken in this "sorting" process and proper quarters and environment 
must be provided to avoid trouble now and in the future. 

To avoid disaster, I believe that action must be taken to protect both the 
State and enemy aliens, as there are already "rumblings" of vigilante activity 
which has been caused in the main, by the influx of Japanese from the evacuated 
areas. 

If and when all enemy aliens are under guard and properly segregated as to 
type and nationality and if the preferred class were located in the agricultural 
areas, then I think it would be possible and practical to allow great numbers of 
them to do agricultural work under proper guard and supervision. To handle 
the Japanese situation completely, and considering the fact that in most all cases 
they are living in Japanese colonies, and also the fact there is so little trust in 
them, I think it would be a good idea to place military guards around these areas 
at once, which would give immediate protection to the State and would also 
relieve the tension and anxiety of the people at large. Then after the alien 
Japanese have been removed, leave the guard there with instructions suitable to 
the circumstances. 

Yours very sincerely, 

N. L. Cornell, Sheriff. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 10999 

Police Department, 
City of Culver City, Calif., 

February 19 y 1942. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, Stale of California. 
Dear General: In regard to your inquiry of February 18, 1942, and in answer 
to your questions: 

1. It is my opinion that enemy aliens, particularly in our jurisdiction and in 
the State as a whole, could and probably are a decided threat to the security of 
our Nation. 

2. It is my firm conviction that all enemy aliens should be treated alike regard- 
less of nationality on a theory that the enemy aliens who are not of the Japanese 
race could be more active and a greater danger if not so regulated. 

3. It is my recommendation that careful and firm enforcement of total intern- 
ment is the "only answer to the problem of eliminating the dangers of sabotage 
and fifth-column activities. 

I am firmly convinced that internment of all alien enemies and in the par- 
ticular instance of Japanese, I would strongly recommend that the Xishi be 
■interned together with the Ishi, for the reason that those who have been born in 
this country are considered to be American citizens and until they are truly proved 
to be such in their hearts, they should be more than pleased to submit to intern- 
ment rather than place the security of our Nation in jeopardy. It of course stands 
to reason that if they should object to such treatment, they could not be looked 
upon as being true and loyal Americans. 

Trusting that the above personal opinions will be of assistance, I am, 
Very truly yours, 

W. A. McDonald, Chief of Police,. 

Offtce of Chief of Police, 
South San Francisco, Calif., February 19, f94&~ 
Hon. Earl Warren, 
Attorney General, 

Sacrar<>ento. Calif. 

Honorable Sir: In reply to your letter of February 18, regarding your teletype 
message issued on February 17 to all sheriffs, district attorneys, and chiefs of 
police, please be advised that to date we have not received a copy of same. 

However, in response to your inquiry regarding enemy aliens I wish to note the 
following. Here in South San Francisco their are 42 major industrial plants all in 
production of defense materials. Some of these plants are: W. P. Fuller, Swift & 
Co., Armour Co., United Packing, Union stockyards, Marine Chemical Co.,. 
Metal & Thermit Co., Bethlehem Steel Co., Enterprise Foundry, Edwards Wire 
Rope Co., Western Pipe & Steel Co. Shipbuilding plant, DuPont Paint Co.,. 
Hammond Aircraft, and Mills Field, known as San Francisco Airport. 

As to regards of extent of danger from sabotage, please be advised that severaL 
of these are large concerns such as Western Pipe & Steel, Bethlehem Steel Co.,. 
Enterprise Foundry and many others engaged in defense work. Quite a number of 
these factories are within 500 feet of the Bayshore Highway. There are several 
spc t* from Southern Pacific tunnel No. 5 to Mills Field where a small mortar could 
be placed at night and within a half hour several million dollars worth of damage 
could be done. 

Absolutely no protection is being furnished to forestall fifth column activities 
along this highway. Saboteurs could go without restriction to the gates and 
fences of many of these factories as there are so many enemy aliens in the sur- 
rounding territory the danger here from fifth-column activities is very pro- 
nounced, and the opportunities offered are extremely obvious. 

Our opinion is that all Japanese should be forced to leave defense areas and other 
enemy aliens controlled as to movements and places of residence. None allowed 
within one-half mile of any defense plant. 

United States Army should adequately patrol the Bayshore Highway from the' 
Southern Pacific Tunnel to a point beyond Mills Field and particularly within close 
proximity to the factories along the Bayshore Highway. A survey by someone in 
high authority should immediately be made to determine the extent of danger in 
leaving this area unguarded. 



HOOO SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

I have tried to obtain a list of enemy aliens here in South San Francisco accord- 
ing to the last alien registration and from the Federal Government but have been 
unable to do so. Your help in this matter would be greatly appreciated. There 
are no Japanese enemy aliens here in South San Francisco. 

If there should be any further information that you may want regarding this, 
kindly let me know. 

' Respectfully yours, 

Louis Belloni, Chief of Folicc. 



Exhibit C. — Communication From the Files of Attorney General Warren 
on the Agricultural Aspect of Enemy Alien Evacuation 

Grower-Shipper Vegetable Association, 

Salinas, Calif., February 20, 1942. 
Mr. Warren Olney, 

Assistant Attorney General, State Building, 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Dear Mr. Olney: In line with our conversation of yesterday, we are forward- 
ing you complete data on the Japanese acreage situation as compiled by our 
president, Mr. E. M. Seifert, Jr. 

We think that this statement will give you some of the vital facts that you have 
been looking for the past 2 or 3 weeks, and we sincerely hope it will assist you in 
convincing Congressman Tolan's committee that our stories in reference to the 
American farmer being able to produce all the necessary vegetables required by 
our Nation and that the loss of the Japanese farmer certainly will not affect 
California production. 
Sincerelv yours, 

Austin E. Anson, Secretary- Manager. 

Only 1 percent (0.00995) of all the vegetables produced in the United States for 
processing (canning, freezing, etc., excluding canned tomatoes) is grown or con- 
trolled by Japanese growers in California 

Authority for this statement is taken from the United States Department of 
Agriculture Crop Reporting Board of Acreage and Production of Commercial 
Truck Crops in the United States for 1941, released as of December 1, 1941. 

The following statements are made in an attempt to prove the relative unim- 
portance of truck crop production in California by Japanese. Those studying this 
report must bear in mind that all acreage and production figures are taken from 
the United States Department of Agriculture report above referred to. 

Only 3^ percent (0.0356) of all commercial truck crops grown in the United 
States are produced by Japanese in California (Japanese here include both aliens 
and American citizens.) . 

Only 4% percent (0.04772) of all the vegetables produced in the United States 
for processing (canning, freezing, etc., excluding canned tomatoes) is grown in 

Only Sy> percent (0.0868) of all the vegetables produced in the United States 
for processing including canned tomatoes, is grown in California. 

The largest important item for cannery purposes, and which is generally con- 
sidered a very important item for defense and for lend-lease to Britain is canned 
tomatoes. _ _ ,., . 1<D . 

Of all the production in the United States, California grows only 18 percent 
(0 1832) of the cannery tomatoes, and this percentage includes all Japanese pro- 
duction. On a tonnage basis, the 10-year average for the United States, 1930-39, 
shows that California produced, including Japanese production, only 18 percent 
of the cannery tomatoes. 

After a careful canvass of those in the industry, who should know, it was esti- 
mated that of the total acreage in California, on which cannery tomatoes are 
produced, the astoundingly large figure of 60 percent is credited to Japanese pro- 
duction, which means acreage either supervised, owned, or controlled by Japanese 
or on which acreage Japanese labor is used. Nevertheless only 11 percent 
(0 1094) of the tomatoes canned in the United States is produced by Japanese in 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11001 

California, and it is suggested that if this item is important enough, canned to- 
matoes be rationed to our citizens, curtailing supplies to them by 15 percent and 
we will then have an increased figure in canned tomatoes produced, instead of a 
decrease. 

Even if all Japanese acreage is completely eliminated and not any of the so- 
called abandoned acreage is either taken up by white growers or new acreage pro- 
duced by white growers. 

Only 25 percent (0.2296) of all the vegetables produced in California for fresh 
market and for fresh consumption is grown by California Japanese or Japanese 
influence in California, notwithstanding the various reports we have read and 
heard in the newspapers and over the radio, ranging from 37 to 80 percent. 

Only 4>2 percent (0.04508) of all the fresh vegetables grown in the United States 
are produced by California Japanese or Japanese influence in California. 

As above stated the largest single item, which seems to be important, is canned 
tomatoes. Thus far, no consideration has been given to whites taking over 
evacuated Japanese acreage or evacuated acreage being replaced by new acreage 
grown by whites. 

In the Wasco, Shafter, and Bakersfield area, approximately 35,000 acres of 
early potatoes are grown, most of which are harvested during April and May. 
The need for a replacement of probable evacuated Japanese acreage was brought 
to the attention of one grower in Bakersfield, who personally increased his already 
large acreage by 500 acres of canning tomatoes, and has called a meeting for Fri- 
day noon, February 19, at which time a total of 2,000 acres will be signed with 
the cannery. The climate in and around the Bakersfield area is suitable to the 
production of tomato plants on lettuce beds and open fields, whereas other dis- 
tricts must use hotbeds or coldframes. This one firm is in position to grow 10 
million plants for use in other districts, provided they can be furnished only 125 
pounds of tomato seed. By immediate action being taken, there seems little 
question but what this district alone would have an additional 5,000 acres on 
which cannery tomatoes could be planted. 

In the Salinas district, where very few tomatoes had been previously grown, 
already lettuce and carrot growers have signed with a local cannery for almost 
500 acres of cannery tomatoes. 

It is safe to assume that in even considering all the new acreage which growers 
could be persuaded to plant as a patriotic effort, undoubtedly no less than 50 per- 
cent of evacuated Japanese acreage would be taken up by white growers, thereby 
reducing the prospective shortage by the probable complete loss of all Japanese- 
grown acreage, to less than 5 percent of the pack for the United States. 

No actual figures are available showing the exact percentage of Japanese-grown 
or Japanese-influenced acreage for the various truck crops in California, but those 
who are in the best position to estimate have been conferred with and the average 
of their estimates has been increased, so that the estimates used as a basis for 
the above calculations and statements probably represent a higher percentage 
than actually exists. As an example: It was estimated that Japanese grow or 
influence or control the production of 90 percent of the strawberries; 75 percent 
of the cucumbers, onions, and spinach for fresh shipment; and 75 percent of the 
cucumbers and tomatoes for cannery; 65 percent of the fresh shipment of snap 
beans; 60 percent of the canned tomatoes acreage; 50 percent of the production 
for fresh shipment of cauliflower and celery; for processing — snap beans and 
spinach; which is followed on through down to 10 percent of the potatoes, 
asparagus, cantaloups, honeydews, honeyballs, and watermelons. The figure of 
10 percent is the lowest one used ui any case. 

Broccoli, brussel sprouts, chicory, parsley, parsnips, rhubarb, radishes, squash, 
turnips, and sweetpotatoes were omitted only because they are not included in the 
United States Department of Agriculture report used. 

Allowing for errors in judgment, it must be conceded by those who would 
study these figures carefully and sincerely — if all vegetable acreage produced, 
controlled, or influenced by Japanese were completely eliminated, the loss in 
available fresh food supply to the United States and Canada would be entirely 
insignificant, not to take into account the large volume of other foods, including 
meats and grains, etc., which would further reduce the percentage of loss in food 
to the people of this country. 



11002 



SAX FRAXCISCO HEARIXGS 



UNITED STATES AND CALIFORNIA VEGETABLES IX ACRES FOR PROCESSING, 1941 
[Authority: U. S. Department of Agriculture] 



Percent 

nsssss 



California 



All other 
States 



Total, 
United 
States 



Asparagus 39,550 

Limas 

Snap beans 640 

Beets 

Sweet corn 

Cucumbers 2,890 

Peas S5 

Pimento 730 

Spinach 7. 140 

Tomatoes 83,000 

Total 136. 100 

Exclusive of tomatoes 53, 100 




o 1 


39,550 


61,700 


61,700 


72,720 ; 


73,360 


14,870 


14, 870 


427,880 


427,880 


103, 110 1 


106.000 


358.690 


360.540 


12.000 


12, 730 


86.000 


16,040 


372.310 


455, 310 



1, 431, 880 
1, 059, 570 



1. 567, 980 
1, 112, 670 



UNITED STATES AND CALIFORNIA VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN ACRES FOR FRESH 

MARKET, 1941 



Artichokes. - 
Asparagus.. . 
Lima beans . 
Snap beans.- 

Beets 

Cabbage 

Carrots 

Cauliflower. 

Celery 

Corn (sweet) 
Cucumbers.. 

Eggplant 

Garlic 

Kale 

Lettuce 

Onions 

Peas 

Peppers 

Potatoes 

Spinach 

Tomatoes 

Total.. 



10.000 








9 


10. 000 


35,940 


3.594 


10 


52, 020 


87,960 











17, 650 


17,650 


11.450 


7.442 


65 


163.060 


174, 510 











12, 770 


12, 770 


7,100 


2,840 


40 


174.600 


181, 700 


22.900 


3,435 


15 


26,650 


49,550 


16,600 


8,300 


50 


16,200 


32,800 


12. 720 


6,360 


50 


28,970 


41,690 











23.000 


23, 000 


2.100 


1,575 


75 


40,470 


42, 570 











4,050 


4,050 


2,210 


1,105 


50 


1,770 


3,980 











1,100 


1,100 


94,700 


11.837 


12J-4 


64,070 


158, 770 


5,430 


4.073 


75 


89,800 


95,230 


31.200 


4.680 


15 


58,800 


90,000 


2, 750 


2.100 


75 


20,320 


23,070 


39.000 


3,900 


10 


303.900 


342,900 


2,800 


2,100 


75 


58.210 


61,010 


28,500 


11.400 


40 


172,870 


201, 370 


325,400 


74. 741 




1,330.280 


1, 655, 680 



UNITED STATES AND CALIFORNIA VEGETABLES IN ACRES FOR CANTALOUPS, 
HONEY DEWS, HONEY BALLS. WATERMELONS AND OTHER MELONS, AND STRAW- 
BERRIES FOR FRESH MARKET, 1941 



Cantaloups, honey dews, honey balls, etc.. 


38,420 1 
3,680 ! 
16,000 


3,842 

3,312 
1,600 


10 
90 
10 


87,490 
207, 430 
251, 630 


125, 910 
211,110 




267,630 






Total 


58,100 


8,754 


1.45 


546,550 


«H,650 



SUMMARY— SHOWING TOTAL ACREAGES FOR ALL TRUCK CROPS IN THE U. S 
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REPORT 



Processed vegetables 

Fresh vegetables 


136,100 
325,400 


60,881 

74. 741 


45 
23 


1, 431, 880 
1, 330, 280 


1. 567, 980 

1. 655, 680 


Total, vegetables 

Melons, strawberries .. . 


461,500 
58,100 


135, 622 
8,754 


30 
15 


2, 762. 160 
546,550 


3,223,660 
604,650 


Grand total 


519,600 


144,376 


273, 


3, 308, 710 


3, 828, 310 







1 Estimates, and therefore acreage arrived at in accordance with explanation in body of report. 



XATIOXAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11003 

Cooperative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home Economics. State 

of California 

Universitt of California, 
Fairfield, Calif., February 18, 1942. 
Mr. Roscoe E. Bell. 

Bureau of Agricultural Economics, 

. . : Mercantile Building, Berkeley, Calif. 

Dear Mr. Bell: Your letter of February 12 regarding housing of evacuated 
aliens was referred to the chairman and various members of the count}- farm 
labor subcommittee. They have gathered the following information: 

In the Suisun area, the two members of the committee believe that beginning 
May 1. they could employ about 500 alien Japanese. They believe, however, 
that these should be housed in a central camp, so they could be given close super- 
vision, and so that other workers in the district would have the first chance at 
available work. No definite arrangements have been made for location of a central 
camp. Perhaps arrangements could be made to use a large unused packing house 
for some of these men. 

In the Vacaville area, they could employ 200 to 300 Japanese aliens. There is 
some work available now. They prefer that these aliens be housed in a central 
camp and guarded by Federal agents. They have a piece of land available with 
water, but no buildings. 

The committee reports the following from the Delta district : 

In general, the buildings that are available are the asparagus cutter camps, 
that are not in use. There are no heating or cooking stoves and usually the 
bathing and sewage-disposal systems would be inadequate for permanent resi- 
dence. However, with the expenditure of a nominal amount on each camp, they 
could be made usable. There are a few exceptional camps. 

Furthermore, if a central camp would be more practical a site could be gotten 
from the Ryer-Xixon interests on Ryer Island free of charge, up to about 5 acres. 
Also, the work on the individual camps could be done under the supervision of the 
individual farmers and methods of payment for the work would be arranged. 
The accommodations would also be only for single men with the possibility of one 
family at each camp doing the cooking, etc., about the camp. 

Our position on this island would make it very easy to guard. Offhand, it 
seemed to be the consensus of those that I could contact that possibly a guard on 
the bridge going into the Holland Land would answer the purpose with a possible 
weekly check-up of all the individuals. In general, there seems to be no appre- 
hension about taking care of the aliens after they have been okayed by the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation. 

In detail then, for Italian aliens, the set-up on Ryer could be as follows: 

A. Guidi, 40 men in two camps. 

L. Brooks, 26 men in two camps. 

De Gandia, 70 men in three camps. 

F. Gwerder, 20 men in one camp. 

H. M. Karlstad, 15 men in one camp. 

A. M. Jongeneel, 25 men in one camp (needs more than average fixing^. 

Rio Farms, 20 men in one camp. 

J. Gwerder, 20 men in one camp. 

McGaughern, 20 men in two camps. 

In addition to these 286 men, I believe another 40 could be placed with a little 
more thorough investigation. Most of these men (all) could find seasonal em- 
ployment on the island. 

You know we have many camps scattered around the two Liberty farm islands 
but they are all in a radius of about 3 miles and all inside the levees. At present, 
there is only one entry at the north end of the Permanent District as the ferry is 
closed due to the flood and will be for several months. 

Liberty Farms Co. owns all the buildings and could be considered the farmers. 

We have both Japanese and Italians on this island so either would be acceptable 
but I believe in our case that Japanese would be preferred as they would better 
fit into our program. 



60396— 42— pt. 29- 



11004 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Here are the camps on the Permanent District and the capacities: 

Camp 2, 20 single men. 

Camp 4, 15 single men. 

Camp 5, 15 single men. 

Camp 8, 10 single men. 

Camp 9, 20 single men, plus camp place for up to 300 people if tents are sup- 
plied. Water and toilets O. K. 

Camp 1, family unit. 

The following camps are on the bypass and won't be available for at least 6 weeks: 

Camp 11, 20 single men and 1 family unit. 

Camp 14, 25 single men and 2 family units. 

Camp 15, 15 single men. 

Camp 15}^, 30 single men. 

Probably the California Packing Corporation could take care of 100 men 
additional: Ed Emigh, 15 additional also. 

The committee reports that aliens would not be acceptable on most of the 
ranches in the Montezuma Hills. The exceptions are these: The Fontana Farms 
Co. would like 10 single alien Italians or Germans. They have a camp available 
for that number, with electricity, and should have work for them about May 1. 
Mrs. Bertha Williams would like an alien German or Italian man and wife to live 
and work at her farm. She has housing. 

The committee reports for the Dixon District as follows: James Fulmer could 
use 25 single alien Italians or Germans. He has a sugar beet camp to house them. 
Roy Gill could use 6 married men and about 19 single men, all Italian or German 
aliens. He has housing scattered around his various farms. Both these men 
point out that they would reserve the right to fire these men if their work was 
unsatisfactory and would expect to pay only the usual wages in the community. 

As yet, no report has been received from the Wolfskill District. We expect 
this report some time this evening and will mail to you in the morning. 

At their last meeting, the United States Department of Agriculture War Board 
discussed this matter and suggested that aliens brought to this county should be 
under supervision at all times, either at central camps or on farms where the 
operator agrees to furnish this supervision. 
Sincerelv yours, 

V. W. De Tak, County Agent. 

Stanislaus County Farm Bureau, 

Modesto, Calif., February 19, 1942. 
(Re County housing facilities for alien labor. 
Mr. Ray B. Wiser, 

President, California Farm Bureau Federation, 

Berkeley, Calif. 

Dear Ray: Relative to your wire of February 18, I thought I would write 
you rather than wire since there are so many angles to this problem. 

I have been making a check-up for the past 2 weeks in our county on the 
question of aliens and their labor situation, and find that it is an extremely difficult 
problem to make any definite decision about. 

I wrote Mr. Dave Davison that a great many of our farmers were very much 
concerned about labor shortage, realizing that already our labor supply is becom- 
ing a problem in California. With this in mind, and since there seems to be no 
source of labor that can be brought into California, and since it is further apparent 
that continued shortages on our labor supply will persist, many farmers who have 
to hire most of their labor in the harvesting of their crops are very much worried 
over the prospect of removing large numbers of aliens from the producing sections 
of the State, realizing that this large shortage will become more embarrassing. 

In discussing the question with farmers who have to hire to any extent, the 
feeling seems to be that if it is at all possible, aliens should be concentrated in 
camps in our producing sections where they could be made to work in the pro- 
duction of food. For instance, it has been suggested that camps of 500 to 1,000 
might be established in the delta regions on the islands which would perhaps 
require a minimum of policing, where the aliens would employ themselves in 
useful occupations, and under which condition they would be much more easily 
cared for, and would be producing some of the food which the Federal Government 
is so much in need of. 

On the other hand, our townspeople, and likewise some of our farmers who are 
not subject to employing labor, have a very decided opinion that all Japanese, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11005 

particularly, should be evacuated entirely from the State of California. We 
do not hear a great deal of expression as to the Italian and German aliens in our 
county, but the feeling is very widespread that all Japanese, whether foreign 
or United States citizens should be hastily taken care of in some manner, whether 
concentrated within the State or removed entirely from the State. There seems 
to be a very decided feeling along this line. 

It is my opinion that something should be done very speedily to change the 
present alien situation, in order that public feeling should be allayed. 

Our county is very limited in housing facilities for groups of people such as 
these aliens would be; however, provision might be made to take care of small 
numbers. Stanislaus County is not greatly burdened with many Japanese, 
either foreign or United States citizens. 

Hoping this may help to answer some of your questions, I am 

Sincerelv yours, 

John T. Halford, 
Secretary County Farm Bureau. 

Western Growers Protective Association, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

The following recommendation was adopted by the board of directors of the 
Western Growers Protective Association, at its regular stated directors' meeting 
on February 8, 1942: 

The Western Growers Protective Association, whose membership is comprised 
of approximately 85 percent of the vegetable movement from California and 
Arizona, feeling that its experience with Japanese labor — both alien and American 
citizens of Japanese parentage — places it in a position to recognize the California 
agricultural situation better than any other body, calls to your attention the 
following facts : 

California fresh vegetables and melons, as grown for shipment to the entire 
United States, are grown by white growers in about 94 percent. The Western 
Growers Protective Association hereby goes on record as stating that the flow of 
California vegetables to the entire country would not be affected should either or 
both the alien Japanese or the American citizens of Japanese parentage be re- 
moved from the vegetable industry. 

The Western Growers Protective Association and its members, through their 
association with Japanese aliens and American citizens of Japanese parentage, 
both as employers and farmers, feel that they are in a position to better know the 
character and feelings of such Japanese than any other group of men. It is the 
consensus of opinion of the Western Growers Protective Association and its 
members that no individual alien Japanese, or that no individual American citizen 
of Japanese parentage, can be judged as to his loyalty solely by past experience. 
It is the opinion of said association and its members that a good proportion of 
both alien Japanese and American citizens of Japanese parentage are loyal to che 
United States of America, yet that some percentage of both aliens and citizens 
of Japanese parentage may be more loyal to Japan. Consequently, said Western 
Growers Protective Association and its members, realizing that both alien Jap- 
anese and American citizens of Japanese parentage who are loyal to the United 
States would be willing to endure any hardship to eliminate the possibility of any 
disloyal action on the part of any of their group— petition that all alien Japanese 
and American citizens of Japanese parentage be removed to a point where, in the 
opinion of the Army and Navy, there may be no possibility of such disloyal action 
affecting the security of the United States. 

And, in conjunction with the recommendations of the Los Angeles County 
Defense Committee, the Western Growers Protective Association concur in the 
following recommendations of the said Los Angeles County Defense Committee: 

That Japanese in the following classifications be moved to points in the Rocky 
Mountain sugar-beet areas, or other areas deemed safe by the military authorities 
where housing facilities are available, regardless of whether their labor can im- 
mediately be used. 

All Japanese who reside within 50 miles of the Pacific coast and Mexican border, 
or who reside in other areas within a 10-mile radius of munition plants or military 
camps; including — 

(a) Alien Japanese of all ages. 

(b) Nonalien Japanese under 18 years of age living with alien parents. 

(c) All other Japanese who have American citizenship, this to be attempted at 
first by an appeal that they remove themselves on their own volition. If this 



11006 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

voluntary action is not immediate and fully effective the necessary Federal action 
should be undertaken. 

Federal Security Administration should be charged with the responsibility of 
developing housing facilities. They should use wherever possible, the present 
facilities pending construction of other housing units. 

The United States Department of Agriculture should be charged with the respon- 
sibility of utilizing this labor to the fullest extent in the newly located regions. 

The services of the State department of agriculture and the county agricultural 
commissioners be utilized to assist landlords and farm operators in finding new 
farmers to take over leased lands for harvesting of crops now planted and planting 
of new crops. 

These recommendations are made with encouragement that action be complete 
and immediate. 

STATEMENT 

A substantial part of the Japanese population in southern California is located 
in rural areas. Farming operations particularly in the vegetable field are retarded 
pending definite and detailed instructions as to their disposition. The Japanese 
population is hesitating to prepare land and plant crops, fearing that they will 
shortly be removed from their present properties and other farmers are not making 
definite plans not knowing what the production from Japanese-tilled farms will be. 

Vegetable production is on the "must list" of the Department of Agriculture 
and must not only be maintained but increased during the current season. 

It is fully recognized that there is at present some difficulty in connection with 
obtaining farm labor, and while the removal of Japanese will further accentuate 
this problem temporarily, it will give a base for developing labor plans which can 
be used during the war emergency period. 

This recommendation is based upon the fact that they would be completely 
removed from coastal areas and that their labor could eventually be utilized to an 
advantage. They could probably relieve other labor in California from the 
necessity of migrating to those districts during the peak-load periods which are 
the spring and fall months. 

Land vacated by Japanese removed as hereinabove outlined would probably 
amount to 15,000 acres in Los Angeles County. No official figures from other 
counties are now available to this committee. It is believed, however, that the 
total will exceed 40,000 acres in the counties from and including San Luis Obispo 
southward, some of which is not being planted and will not be in all probability 
if present conditions are continued. Under the supervision as outlined in the 
above if handled promptly and before the season is further advanced the land can 
be put to proper use and severe additional losses avoided. It may result in 
changing of soire crops inasmuch as experienced labor would not be available to 
produce such items as celery. Other crops required by the Department of 
Agriculture would be substituted. 

Associated Produce Dealers and Brokers of Los Angeles, 

Los Angeles, Calif., February 18, 1942. 
Hon. Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, State of California, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

Attention Mr. Warren Olney. 

Dear Sir: I have been asked to give you a summary of what might be ex* 
pected to happen in the Los Angeles market with respect to feeding the metro- 
politan area if all Japanese were removed from the producing, wholesaling, and 
retailing of fresh fruits and vegetables. Incidentally, might I say this is now an 
academic question, because if the proper authorities do not take prompt steps 
to remove all Japanese, whether alien or citizens, from the coastal areas of this 
State, it seems inevitable that they will be removed in the near future by the 
public at large either through violence or insistent popular demand. I say this 
because the general public are much more apprehensive of the continued presence 
of Japanese running at large, with the most nominal of supervision, than the 
people in this industry, who know the Japanese characteristics and traits much 
more than the general public and on the basis of this information should be more 
apprehensive than the general public. 

There were in the 3 Los Angeles wholesale markets as of December 6, 1941, 
167 wholesale fruit and vegetable merchants handling fresh fruits and vegetables 
of which 29 were Japanese-owned, 94 were American-owned, and 44 owned by 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11007 

Chinese and Koreans. There were, as of the same date, in the open-market 
yards 232 permanent stall operators, who were conducting small wholesale busi- 
nesses limited to merchandise grown within a radius of 90 miles of Los Angeles. 
Of these 134 were Japanese, 81 were Americans, and 17 were Korean and Chi- 
nese. As of December 6, 1941, practically all of the Japanese businesses were 
owned and operated by alien Japanese with citizen Japanese employees and sub- 
ordinates. Since the war many of the stall businesses and a few of the large 
wholesale businesses have been 'sold or transferred by aliens to citizen Japanese. 

The exact figures are unavailable as there has never been any occasion in the 
past to make such studies, but it is probable that the Japanese wholesalers have 
handled 75 percent of the green vegetables and not more than 10 percent of the 
staple vegetables and fruits consumed in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. By 
green vegetables is meant the leafy succulent vegetables excluding staples such 
as potatoes, onions, squash, etc. Since the war began there has been a steady 
decreased volume of business handled by the Japanese due primarily to the un- 
willingness of the average housewife to buy from Japanese retailers. These Jap- 
anese retailers have been the principal outlet for the Japanese wholesalers, since 
over a period of years it is well-known that the Japanese invariably give business 
preference to others of their own race. The next reason of importance for their 
loss of business is the fact that the Japanese growers who in Los Angeles County 
have produced in the past a large percentage of the green vegetables are not 
replanting their fields as the season progresses. This was true before closed 
areas were set up by the Federal Government and has become much more 
pronounced since that time. 

It is my considered opinion, based on 21 years of constant service in the Los 
Angeles markets, first as representative of the United States Department of 
Agriculture and for the past 14 years a^ manager of the Associated Produce Dealers 
and Brokers of Los Angeles, a trade association composed of all wholesale mer- 
chants in Los Angeles, of all nationalities, that the removal of all Japanese from 
southern California will not cause any serious dislocation in the feeding of this 
community. 

There are more than 50 different vegetables sold commercially in our wholesale 
markets throughout the year. With the removal of the Japanese there may be a 
scarcity of nonessential vegetables such as celery root, escarole, chard, watercress, 
and leeks. However, there are enough American growers already producing the 
major protective crops such as carrots, cabbage, lettuce, cauliflower, potatoes, 
onions, peas, beans, and even celery to take up the slack in the Los Angeles mar- 
kets by slightly increasing their acreage already being planted for eastern ship- 
ment. I have talked to many wholesale growers of vegetables for the local market 
who have either gone out of business in the past 10 years or greatly reduced their 
operations due to Japanese competition of a type which they could not meet and 
who are willing to plant increased acreage especially for the local rrarket if they 
have any assurance they would not have to meet the competition of the Japanese 
family. 

The Japanese have not made any great inroad in the production of large com- 
mercial acreages of vegetables for carlot shipping to eastern markets because they 
have to compete with the white grower on an equivalent basis. Jn other words, 
the amount of Japanese family labor that can be used is negligible in acreages from 
500 to 5,000. Large-scale Japanese farmers employ Mexican or Filipino labor the 
same as the white grower and is on a comparable cost basis. Tn small acreages 
planted primarily for local markets the Japanese grower has had an advantage 
over the white grower that has pretty well driven the white grower out of small- 
scale vegetable production in many parts of Los Angeles County. These farms 
will average around 10 acres and the Japanese farmer can and does use his wife 
and children for practically all of his labor requirements giving him a production 
cost substantially below that of a small white farmer. 

A comprehensive system of associations set up for these small Japanese farmers 
has enabled them to* regulate market supplies and reduce prices at will, to the 
point that the competing white grower has been forced out of production. How- 
ever, there is a vast reserve of skilled white farmers who will resume the production 
of vegetables whenever they have any idea that it can be done without going up 
against this type of Japanese competition. This will not entail any serious rise in 
prices, generally speaking, as the difference between the Japanese controlled whole- 
sale price is only a few cents per package less than the white growers' actual cost 
of production. However, if white growers are to take up the production of vege- 
tables in place of Japanese quick action is imperative. The season is progressing 



11008 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

and as stated above many Japanese growers are not replanting their fields as the 
planting season comes along. If this problem is dallied around with many weeks 
longer there will develop a shortage of green vegetables during the summer months 
whether the Japanese are permitted to stay on the farm or whether they are 
removed by either proper governmental authority or public sentiment. 
Yours very truly, 

Associated Produce Dealers and Brokers of Los Angeles, 
By Homer A. Harris, Secretary-Manager. 

Fresno County Farm Bureau, 

Fresno, Calif., February 19, 1942. 
Mr. Ray Wiser, 

President, California Farm Bureau Federation, 

Berkeley, Calif. 
Dear Mr. Wiser: As to your first question of your telegram dated February 
18, there is a Government camp at Firebaugh, Fresno County. I do not know 
what the available space is there. My information is that the farmers do not 
desire such a camp in Fresno County. 

The other question, "Do farmers'in your county wish to provide employment 
for such labor and to what extent?" My answer and information is No. How- 
ever, we are requesting from this county that the Japanese who are now here 
remain here under the proper constituted supervision, local, State, and Federal, 
if necessary. 

We believe that the Japanese who are now performing agricultural labor in 
Fresno County should remain here for that purpose, but agriculture does not 
favor any addition of Japanese from other areas. 
Sincerely yours, 

Fresno County Farm Bureau, 
A. J. Quist, President. 

Bakersfield, Calif., February 19, 1942. 
Ray B. Wiser, 

President, California State Farm Bureau Federation, 

Berkeley, Calif. 
Kern County Farm Bureau, board of supervisors, agricultural committee, 
county defense council, and county-wide agricultural labor committee, all have 
gone on record recommending that all Japs be removed from California and 
placed under adequate guard at once and plans for utilizing their labor be made 
later. Letter follows. 

Frank Stockton, 
President, Kern County Farm Bureau. 

Hemet, Calif., February 20, 1942. 
California Farm Bureau, 

2161 Allston Way. 
We absolutely object to Japanese being located anywhere in vicinitj' of Hemet 
to be used as agriculture laborers. 

Hemet Valley Chamber of Commerce. 

Riverside, Calif., February 19, 1942. 

California Farm Bureau Federation, 

2161 Allston Way. 
Advise assemble committee our emphatic objection to any Japanese being 
located anywhere in Riverside County for use as farm labor. 

Riverside County Chamber of Commerce. 

El Centro, Calif., February 19, 1942. 
Ray B. Wiser, 

President, California Farm Bureau Federation. 
Your wire secretary Imperial County Farm Bureau concerning evacuation 
Japanese families to Imperial County called to attention of this office. Have 
had serious trouble between Japanese and Filipinos in this county. Some Jap- 
anese have been killed. Any evacuation of Japanese to, this county would be 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11009 

grave mistake at this time as it would only tend to aggravate present tense situa- 
tion. All Japanese have been evacuated from Baja, California, Republic of Mex- 
ico, just across international boundary line from Imperial County to interior of 
Mexico. Any proposition bringing additional Japanese into this area strictly 
opposed by Mexican authorities. Evacuation of any Japanese citizen or alien to 
this county would create a very serious and unsatisfactory situation. Making 
every effort at this time to have the Federal Government evacuate all alien Jap- 
anese from this county to some point of internment in the interior of the United 
States. Many alien Japanese have already been arrested by Federal Bureau of 
Investigation in this county and taken into internment centers. The bringing 
of any additional Japanese to this county at present time would only tend to 
aggravate and multiply present difficult law enforcement problems. For fore- 
going reasons would be opposed to any attempt to bring any additional Japanese 
into this territory. 

Elmer W. Heald, 
District Attorney, County of Imperial. 

Visalia, Calif., February 20, 1942. 
Ray B. Wiser, 

President, California Farm Bureau Federation, Berkeley, Calif. 
Under existing conditions as developed in the past few hours these alien Jap- 
anese or dual citizens could not be moved into the county unless the United States 
Armv has charge of them. There are camps available for Japs on the large 
ranches but due to public opinion we do not believe that Tulare County needs 
any more Japs unless as stated the Army has complete control over this situation. 
At the present time there is not strict enough regulation on the enemy alien in 
Tulare County especially the Jap dual citizen or alien. 

Tulare County Farm Bureau, 
J. E. Jordan, President. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. EARL WARREN— Resumed 

Attorney General Warren. Mr. Chairman, we feel in California 
that it is a fortuitous circumstance that this committee is here at this 
particular time. We believe that there has been no time in our entire 
crisis when the need of clarification of the alien situation is as apparent 
as it is today. There are some things transpiring in our State at the 
present moment that are rather dangerous and we believe that there 
is only one way that they can be prevented, and that is by a speedy 
solution of the alien problem. 

I had intended to present a prepared statement to the committee, 
but I have been working so diligently with the law enforcement officers 
since I received word from you in order to get the consensus of opinion 
from them that it has been impossible for me to do so. 

The Chairman. We will hold our record open for you to send in a 
prepared statement within the next 10 days or 2 weeks. Will that 
be plenty of time within which to prepare it? 

Attorney General Warren. Thank you. I think that would be 
more informative to the committee than what I have to say at the 
present time. 1 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Attorney General Warren. But had I prepared a statement prior 
to late yesterday afternoon, I think that the necessity of saying many 
of the things that I had intended to say have been obviated by reason 
of the latest order of the President in relation to this matter. We 
believe that the action that the President took yesterday was most 
wise and that it at least points the way to a real solution of our 
problem. 

i This material was submitted later and is included in the witness' statement beginning on p. 10973. 



11010 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The Chairman. If I may interrupt there, I might give you a little 
background of that recommendation to the President. The con- 
gressional delegations of Oregon, Washington, and California met 
almost daily trying to decide what recommendations we would make 
to the President on this alien problem. I have in mind Senators 
Downey, Johnson, Congressman Welch, Congressman Rolph. I 
mention them particularly because this is their district. They were 
in constant attendance and took deep interest. So, as the attorney 
general of the State of California, you know better than any of us 
the legal complications involved striking at any portion of our Ameri- 
can citizenship. That Executive order yesterday was the recommen- 
dation, in almost the same words, of the Pacific coast delegation. 

You may proceed now, Mr. Warren. I just wanted to give you a 
little background on that. 

Attorney General Warren. Yes. I am happy to have that; I had 
heard that from the press. We were following your action very 
closely and with great interest. 

ALIEN ENEMIES AS PROBLEM FOR THE MILITARY 

For some time I have been of the opinion that the solution of our 
alien enemy problem with all its ramifications, which include the 
descendants of aliens, is not only a Federal problem but is a military 
problem. We believe that all of the decisions in that regard must be 
made by the military command that is charged with the security of 
this area. I am convinced that the fifth-column activities of our 
enemy call for the participation of people who are in fact American 
citizens, and that if we are to deal realistically with the problem we 
must realize that we will be obliged in time of stress to deal with sub- 
versive elements of our own citizenry. 

If that be true, it creates almost an impossible situation for the 
civil authorities because the civil authorities cannot take protective 
measures against people of that character. We may suspect their 
loyalty. We may even have some evidence or, perhaps, substantial 
evidence of their disloyalty. But until we have the whole pattern of 
the enemy plan, until we are able to go into court and beyond the 
exclusion of a reasonable doubt establish the guilt of those elements 
among our American citizens, there is no way that civil government 
can cope with the situation. 

On the other hand, we believe that in an area, such as in California, 
which has been designated as a combat zone, when things have hap- 
pened such as have happened here on the coast, something should be 
done and done immediately. We believe that any delay in the adop- 
tion of the necessary protective measures is to invite disaster. It 
means that we, too, will have in California a Pearl Harbor incident. 

I believe that up to the present and perhaps for a long time to come 
the greatest danger to continental United States is that from well 
organized sabotage and fifth-column activity. 

OPPORTUNITIES FOR SABOTAGE 

California presents, perhaps, the most likely objective in the Nation 
for such activities. There are many reasons whv that is true. First, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11011 

the size and number of our naval nad military establishments in 
California would make it attractive to our enemies as a field of sabo- 
tage. Our geographical position with relation to our enemy and to the 
war in the Pacific is also a tremendous factor. The number and the 
diversification of our war industries is extremely vital. The fire 
hazards due to our climate, our forest areas, and the type of building 
construction make us very susceptible to fire sabotage. Then the 
tremendous number of aliens that we have resident here makes it 
almost an impossible problem from the standpoint of law enforcement. 

A wave of organized sabotage in California accompanied by an 
actual air raid or even by a prolonged black-out could not oniy be 
more destructive to life and property but could result in retarding the 
entire war effort of tins Nation far more than the treacherous bomb- 
ing of Pearl Harbor. 

I hesitate to think what the result would be of the destruction of 
any of our big airplane factories in this State. It will interest you 
to know that some of our airplane factories in this State are entirely 
surrounded by Japanese land ownership or occupancy. It is a situa- 
tion that is fraught with the greatest danger and under no circum- 
stances should it ever be permitted to exist. 

I have some maps here that will show the specific instances of 
that character. In order to advise the committee more accurately 
on this subject I have asked the various district attorneys through- 
out the State to submit maps to me showing every Japanese owner- 
ship and occupancy in the State. Those maps tell a story, a story 
that is not very heartening to anyone who has the responsibility of 
protecting life and property either in time of peace or in war. 

To assume that the enemy has not planned fifth column activities 
for us in a wave of sabotage is simply to live in a fool's paradise. 
These activities, whether you call them "fifth column activities" or 
"sabotage" or "war behind the lines upon civilians," or whatever you 
may call it, are just as much an integral part of Axis warfare as any 
of their military and naval operations. When I say that I refer to 
all of the Axis powers with which we are at war. 

It has developed into a science and a technique that has been used 
most effectively against every nation with which the Axis powers are at 
war. It has been developed to a degree almost beyond the belief 
of our American citizens. That is one of the reasons it is so difficult 
for our people to become aroused and appreciate the danger of such 
activities. Those activities are now being used actively in the war in 
the Pacific, in every field of operations about which I have read. They 
have unquestionably, gentlemen, planned such activities for California. 
For us to believe to the contrary is just not realistic. 

Unfortunately, however, many of our people and some of our 
authorities and, I am afraid, many of our people in other parts of the 
country are of the opinion that because we have had no sabotage and 
no fifth column activities in this State since the beginning of the war, 
that means that none have been planned for us. But I take the view 
that that is the most ominous sign in our whole situation. It con- 
vinces me more than perhaps any other factor that the sabotage that 
we are to get, the fifth column activities that we are to get, are timed 



11012 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

just like Pearl Harbor was timed and just like the invasion of France, 
and of Denmark, and of Norway, and all of those other countries. 

INVISIBLE DEADLINE FOR SABOTAGE 

I believe that we are just being lulled into a false sense of security 
and that the only reason we haven't had disaster in California is be- 
cause it has been timed for a different date, and that when that time 
comes if we don't do something about it it is going to mean disaster 
both to California and to our Nation. Our day of reckoning is bound 
to come in that regard. When, nobody knows, of course, but we are 
approaching an invisible deadline. 

The Chairman. On that point, when that came up in our committee 
hearings there was not a single case of sabotage reported on the Pacific 
coast, we heard the heads of the Navy and the Army, and they all 
tell us that the Pacific coast can be attacked. The sabotage would 
come coincident with that attack, would it not? 

Attorney General Warren. Exactly. 

The Chairman. They would be fools to tip their hands now, 
wouldn't they? 

Attorney General Warren. Exactly. If there were sporadic sabo- 
tage at this time or if there had been for the last 2 months, the 
people of California or the Federal authorities would be on the alert to 
such an extent that they could not possibly have any real fifth column 
activities when the M-day comes. And I think that that should 
figure very largely in our conclusions on this subject. 

Approaching an invisible deadline as we do, it seems to me that no 
time can be wasted in making the protective measures that are essen- 
tial to the security of this State. And when I say "this State" I 
mean all of the coast, of course. I believe that Oregon and Wash- 
ington are entitled to the same sort of consideration as the zone of 
danger as California. Perhaps our danger is intensified by the num- 
ber of our industries and the number of our aliens, but it is much 
the same. 

Gentlemen, it has become no longer a simple question of protecting 
life and property in this State, because people can't fight in the dark 
and you can't protect against things about which you don't know. 
We have all been good soldiers out here and we played the game. We 
have cooperated with the Federal authorities in every respect, and 
individual agencies have cooperated with us. As Chief Dullea told 
you, we work in complete harmony with the Federal authorities and 
I think that we have accomplished something, but we haven't scratched 
the surface and because of certain fundamental things. 

In our civilian defense we are supposed as State and local officers 
to protect the lives and the property of our people whether it is in 
normal times or whether it is in times of great emergency. But when 
this emergency comes along we are going to have to deal with enemy 
aliens and those who are acting in concert with them. 

civilian authorities instructed not to investigate subversive 

activities 

We don't know in this State who the enemy aliens are and it is not 
permitted for us to know. In the first place, the directive of the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11013 

President (and I think wisely) at the outset of this situation placed the 
internal security in the hands of a Federal agency, the F. B. I. All 
local and State officers were instructed not to investigate subversive 
activities, but immediately upon the receipt of any information to 
turn it over to the F. B. I. 

We have played the game in California. We have followed that 
directive, and everything we have had we have turned over to them. 
We have not made independent investigations concerning subversive 
activities or espionage matters or things of that kind. As a result, 
we don't have as local officers the pattern of the Axis plans for fifth 
column activities and sabotage. 

In addition to that, we are not permitted to have the names, even, 
of the alien enemies in our midst. And at the present time every 
police station in this State, every sheriff's office, every law-enforce- 
ment agency can be flanked by aliens with weapons that we know 
absolutely nothing about. 

Gentlemen, I say to you that if we expect local law enforcement 
officers to compete against a situation of that kind it is just like 
putting a blindfold over a man's face and asking him to go out and 
fight someone that he cannot see. 

The Chairman. What is the objection to your not having that 
information? 

Attorney General Warren. I am afraid you will have to get that 
from the Department of Justice. The only information I have is 
what I gathered at the first Federal-State Conference that we had at 
Washington in August 1940. At that time there was discussion as to 
what should be done in these matters and it was thought that if local 
authorities started independently to investigate things of that kind 
they would develop perhaps into witch hunts in some instances. In 
other instances local authorities might destroy the pattern that the 
F. B. I. was working on. They might stumble into something that 
should not be disclosed at the time and in various ways might cause 
bungling in the counter-espionage work. 

The Chairman. But we were not at war then. 

INFORMATION ON REGISTRATION OF ALIENS NOT AVAILABLE TO LOCAL 

AUTHORITIES 

Attorney General Warren. We were not at war at that time. 
Then the alien registration came along immediately after war was 
declared, and the local authorities then wanted to know who the aliens 
in their communities were, but they were not permitted to have their 
names. 

The registration, as you know, is through the Post Office Depart- 
ment, and the Postal authorities have their instructions not to give 
that information to the local authorities. 

The Chairman. Is that same procedure applicable throughout the 
United States? 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir; it is. Recently they had a 
second registration. It was thought at that time that it would be 
done through law-enforcement officers because of the tremendous 
problems that we have. But that registration also was made through 
the Postal authorities, and we were denied the right to get any infor- 



11014 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

mation concerning aliens, even to ask them a question after they had 
registered with the Government. 

We were investigating the alien land situation at the time and, of 
course, we wanted to know who the alien Japanese were. We have 
no way of knowing. We have almost 100,000 Japanese in California. 
The Census records show that 33,000 of them are aliens and 66,000 
are American-born. But we have no way on earth of knowing who 
the 33,000 are and who the 66,000 are. Still we are obliged to protect 
life and property against any activities in which they may engage 
during the war. 

We believe that that information should b'e made available to the 
law-enforcement officers and that they never can be of substantial 
help to any Federal agency that is charged with the solution of the 
alien problem unless they do have it. 

The Chairman. You see, that is the very object of these hearings. 
I did not know that. 

Attorney General Warren. I am sure that very, very few people in 
the country realize it. Maybe some know about it, but they have 
never thought of the significance of it. But if our civilian defense 
effort is to be what our Government wants it to be, if we are to assume 
our full responsibilities for protecting life and property in time of 
emergency, then we must have some tools to work with. We have at 
the present time absolutely none, and I say that without any reflection 
upon any agency. They have all been helpful within the limits of 
their instruction. 

So that is one of the things that led us to the conclusion that it was 
entirely a military problem and entirely a military decision as to what 
we do with these aliens. The fact that so many of them are citizens 
makes the situation far more dangerous. 

POTENTIAL DANGER FROM AMERICAN-BORN JAPANESE 

I want to say that the consensus of opinion among the law-enforce- 
ment officers of this State is that there is more potential danger among 
the group of Japanese who are born in this country than from the 
alien Japanese who were born in Japan. That might seem an anomaly 
to some people, but the fact is that, in the first place, there are twice 
as many of them. There are 33,000 aliens and there are 66,000 born 
in this country. 

In the second place, most of the Japanese who were born in Japan 
are over 55 years of age. There has been practically no migration to 
this country since 1924. But in some instances the children of those 
people have been sent to Japan for their education, either in whole or 
in part, and while they are over there they are indoctrinated with the 
idea of Japanese imperialism. They receive their religious instruction 
which ties up their religion with their Emperor, and they come back 
here imbued with the ideas and the policies of Imperial Japan. 

While I do not cast a reflection on every Japanese who is born in 
this country — of course we will have loyal ones — I do say that the 
consensus of opinion is that taking the groups by and large there is 
more potential danger to this State from the group that is bom here 
than from the group that is born in Japan. 

Mr. Arnold. Let me ask }^ou a question at this point. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11015 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, Congressman. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have any way of knowing whether any one 
of this group that you mention is loyal to this country or loyal to 
Japan? 

MANY AMERICAN-BORN JAPANESE EDUCATED IN JAPAN 

Attorney General Warren. Congressman, there is no way that we 
can establish that fact. We believe that when we are dealing with 
the Caucasian race we have methods that will test the loyalty of them, 
and we believe that we can, in dealing with the Germans and the 
Italians, arrive at some fairly sound conclusions because of our knowl- 
edge of the way they live in the community and have lived for many 
years. But when we deal with the Japanese we are in an entirely 
different field and we cannot form any opinion that we beli-eve to be 
sound. Their method of living, their language, make for this diffi- 
culty. Many of them who show you a birth certificate stating that 
they were born in this State, perhaps, or born in Honolulu, can hardly 
speak the English language because, although they were born here, 
when they were 4 or 5 years of age they were sent over to Japan to be 
educated and they stayed over there through their adolescent period 
at least, and then they came back here thoroughly Japanese. 

The Chairman. There are certain Japanese schools here, are there 
not? 

Attorney General Warren. Then we have the Japanese school 
system here. There is no way that we know of of determining that 
fact. 

I had together about 10 days ago about 40 district attorneys and 
about 40 sheriffs in the State to discuss this alien problem. I asked 
all of them collectively at that time if in their experience any Japa- 
nese, whether California-born or Japan-born, had ever given them 
any information on subversive activities or any disloyalty to this 
country. The answer was unanimously that no such information had 
ever been given, to them. 

Now, that is almost unbelievable. You see, when we deal with 
the German aliens, when we deal with the Italian aliens, we have 
many informants who are most anxious to help the local authorities 
and the State and Federal authorities to solve this alien problem. 
They come in voluntarily and give us information. We get none 
from the other source. 

Does that answer your question. Congressman? 

Mr. Arnold. That answers it fully. 

Attorney General Warren. There is one thing that concerns us at 
the present time. As I say, we are very happy over the order of the 
President yesterday. We believe that is the thing that should be 
done, but that is only one-half of the problem, as we see it. It is one 
thing to take these people out of the area and it is another thing to 
do something with them after they get out. Even from the small 
areas that they have left up to the present time there are many, 
many Japanese who are now roaming around the State and roaming 
around the Western States in a condition that will unquestionably 
bring about race riots and prejudice and hysteria and excesses of all 
kind. 



11016 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

I hate to say it, but we have had some evidence of it in our State 
in just the last 2 or 3 days. People do not want these Japanese just 
loaded from one community to another, and as a practical matter it 
might be a very bad thing to do because we might just be transposing 
the danger from one place to another. 

So it seems to me that the next thing the Government has to do 
is to find a way of handling these aliens who are removed from any 
vital zone. 

In the county of Tulare at the present time and in the county of 
San Benito and in other counties there are large numbers of the Jap- 
anese moving in and sometimes the suggestion has come from the 
place that they leave, that they ought to go to this other commu- 
nity. But when they go there they find a hostile situation. We are 
very much afraid that it will cause trouble unless there is a very 
prompt solution of this problem. 

VIGILANTISM 

My own belief concerning vigilantism is that the people do not en- 
gage in vigilante activities so long as they believe that their Govern- 
ment through its agencies is taking care of their most serious prob- 
lem. But when they get the idea that their problems are not under- 
stood, when their Government is not doing for them the things that 
they believe should be done, they start taking the law into their own 
hands. 

That is one reason why we are so happy that this committee is out 
here today because we believe that it will help us solve this problem 
quickly, which is just as important as to solve it permanently. 

The Chairman. We are certainly in a position to get the word 
right to the heads when we get back to Washington. 

Attorne3 r General Warren. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. We can give them the facts that you are just giv- 
ing us. We are the parties that can transmit them. . We can get the 
word there anyway. 

Attorney General Warren. Yes. There has been a lot of talk of 
how it would disturb the agricultural situation in the State to move 
the Japanese. I think that is a very debatable question and I think 
that the records of the Department of Agriculture or the Government 
will show that it is not as great a problem as it is generally supposed 
to be. We have seen some very fantastic figures as to what part the 
Japanese labor plays in California agriculture. I think the facts will 
not support those figures, and this is one thing that I think should be 
borne in mind by your committee: That we have a great many large 
Japanese agricultural operators in this State, and when they operate 
on a large scale they use exactly the same kind of help that white 
operators use. In other words, when their crops are to be harvested 
they don't necessarily harvest them with Japanese. They harvest 
them with Filipinos and Mexicans and even white people. There is 
one thing this year that makes it even less desirable to have the 
Japanese on the land, and that is the fact that the Filipinos and 
the Mexicans have resolved that they will not harvest crops for 
Japanese. So they might have their crops on the ground and still 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11017 

they would not be harvested. If those people don't work for them, 
I have an idea that probably white people won't work for them, either. 
The Chairman. We are going to have a representative from the 
Department of Agriculture to get those figures. 

JAPANESE LAND OWNERSHIP 

Attorney General Warren. Yes. I merely made that observation. 
Now, gentlemen, I have some maps which show the character of the 
Japanese land ownership and possessory interests in California. I 
will submit them at the time I submit a formal statement on the sub- 
ject. These maps show to the law enforcement officers that it is more 
than just accident, that many of those ownerships are located where 
they are. We base that assumption not only upon the fact that they 
are located in certain places, but also on the time when the ownership 
was acquired. 

It seems strange to us that airplane manufacturing plants should be 
entirely surrounded by Japanese land occupancies. It seems to us 
that it is more than circumstance that after certain Government air 
bases were established Japanese undertook farming operations in close 
proximity to them. You can hardly grow a jackrabbit in some of the 
places where they presume to be carrying on farming operations close 
to an Armv bombing base. 

Many of our vital facilities, and most of our highways are just 
pocketed by Japanese ownerships that could be of untold danger to 
us in time of stress. 

So we believe, gentlemen, that it would be wise for the military to 
take every protective measure that it believes is necessary to protect 
this State and this Nation against the possible activities of these people. 
Mr. Arnold. During the past years have the Japanese been shrewd 
investors when it comes to buying property in cities? Could they 
have bought this land near these airplane factories because of shrewd- 
ness in their investment ability? 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, that could be, Congressman. 
Mr. Arnold. I mean, does the history of the past 50 years show 
any shrewdness in that respect? 

Attorney General Warren. The Japanese have been good farming 
operators. They have competed on very favorable terms with our 
white farmers. 

Mr. Arnold. What I mean is, you say some of this farming land 
surrounding factories is not very productive. It might increase in 
value because of the large industry. Have they shown ability m the 
past to invest where land values go up? 

Attorney General W^arren. I have no knowledge of that, Congress- 
man. I would be inclined to doubt it because of the limited right 
they have to buy land in this State. You know, we have an alien 
land law which prevents them from owning agricultural lands; but it 
has been honored more in the breach than in the observance in recent 
years because of the fact that they have placed the ownership m the 
names of their California-born children. They have not been specu- 
lators in lands as far as I know. 

Mr. Arnold. One thing you are sure of— it just couldn t have 
happened that way? 



11018 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

PATTERN OF JAPANESE LAND OWNERSHIP 

Attorney General Warren. We don't believe that it could in all 
of these instances, and knowing what happened at Pearl Harbor and 
other places we believe that there is a pattern to these land owner- 
ships in California and possessory interests in California. 

The Chairman. In the last few years have purchases by these 
native-born Japanese increased in the surroundings close to these air- 
craft factories? 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. I was interested in your whole statement. As you 
were discussing it, I thought of testimony that was given before the 
House Military Affairs Committee, of which I am a member, by a 
French officer who was in the French Army prior to, and at the time 
of, the French capitulation. He told us of the difficulties that the 
French had in their own villages ; that always their strategy was given 
away; the enemy found out about it. Their final solution to the 
problem was simply, when they started operating in a territory, to 
evacuate everybody, citizens and all. Of course, that was the field 
of battle. 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Your thought is that this, too, is a possible combat 
area? 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. And those in charge of operations should have the 
authority to evacuate all whom they feel should be evacuated for the 
defense of the area? 

Attorney General Warren. Precisely. And regardless of citizen- 
ship or alienage. 

Mr. Sparkman. And is it your understanding that the Executive 
order of yesterday gave such authority to the military commander? 

Attorney General Warren. That is the way I read the newspaper 
report and that is the only thing that I have. The newspapers stated 
that specifically. 

Mr. Sparkman. I do want to add a word to what the chairman said. 
I am sure you people out here know it, but your congressional delega- 
tion in both Houses of Congress has been very much on the alert in 
discussing and making plans for the defense of this area. A week, 
10 days, or 2 weeks ago, this very recommendation was made to 
the President and, as I read the order, it follows out almost word for 
word the recommendation that was made by your congressional 
delegation. 

I have noticed suggestions in newspaper stories. I noticed a tele- 
gram this morning with reference to the civil rights of these people. 
What do you have to say about that? 

Attorney General Warren. I believe, sir, that in time of war every 
citizen must give up some of his normal rights. 

evacuation as military problem 

I believe that no good citizen should object to it. I do believe, 
however, that it should be done by proper authority and not by 
sporadic action on the part of agencies that do not function according 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11019 

to the law. That is the reason that I believe that his is a military 
problem and not a problem in civil government. We have had in- 
stances in this State where extra-legal action has been taken with 
regard to these very people, without regard to our statutes or our con- 
stitution or the Constitution of the United States. Now, I think, that 

is bad. . 

Mr. Sparkman. May I say there, when you say "without regard 
you don't consider this as being without regard of Constitution, be- 
cause isn't it true that the Constitution makes provision for just such 
things? . . 

Attorney General Warren. You mean the action the President 
took yesterday? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes. 

Attorney General Warren. I think that is entirely in keeping with 
it and that is why I commend it so highly. That is why I believe so 
sincerely in it because it does transfer the solution of this problem 
to the military authorities who are charged with the defense of this 
area and, therefore, have the right morally and legally and every other 
way to take any protective measures that are necessary to insure the 
security of the area. 

The Chairman. In other words, there are two alternatives — the 
suspension of the writ of habeas corpus, or martial law. Is that 
right? 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. We are putting them all on the same footing. 
I think, like you, that it is absolutely constitutional. But if we took 
it direct, we would be in the courts for the duration of the war fighting 
that thing out. Is that not so? 

Attorney General Warren. Yes. 

AUTHORITY FOR EXCLUSION OF PERSONS FROM MILITARY AREAS 

The Chairman. Well, we haven't the time to fight it out in the 
courts. That is the way we feel. Isn't that right? m 

Attorney General Warren. Yes. There was a time in the Civil 
War — I don't have the name of the case in mind at the moment, but 
I have it available— where the War Department through the com- 
mander of the Army, declared certain areas to be danger zones and 
directed that only those who were given permits were entitled to enter 
and move about.' Then Congress fortified that situation by declaring 
it in a statute to be a danger zone. When it went to the Supreme 
Court, the Supreme Court did not sustain the military commander 
but it did sustain the action of Congress in declaring it to be a zone of 
danger in which those things could be done by the military. 

It may be in this situation that if there is any question about the 
right of the military to do it, Congress could draw a line so far in from 
the coast and say that, because of the world conditions and the things 
that are confronting us, that constituted an area in which the military 
could do certain things. 

The Chairman. When you prepare your final paper, will you give 
us that citation? That will be very valuable to us. 



60396 — 42— pt. 29- 



11020 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

ORDERLY MOVEMENT OF EVACUEES REQUIRED 

Attorney General Warren. I will be very happy to do it. 

Mr. Sparkman. General, you do believe that these people who are 
evacuated ought to be moved with some system or some order? 

Attorney General Warren. I believe it must be. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, you don't believe that the order 
should be simply given, "Get out," and then leave it to them to get 
out? 

Attorney General Warren. No, sir; I think that the Government 
must provide some solution to that problem, because if we don't, 
it is not only going to entail hardship on the people who are told to 
move but it is going to entail hardship on every community to which 
they go. 

We have in California 109,000 enemy aliens. How many of those 
will be moved out none of us knows, but assuming that a substantial 
portion of them is moved out and just put on the road indiscrimi- 
nately. It would be an unspeakable situation for our country. 

There must be a solution for them. There must be some resettle- 
ment program. 

Mr. Sparkman. That, too, should be handled by the Army, in your 
opinion? 

Attorney General Warren. I believe that is a problem of civil gov- 
ernment. I believe that the problem of the Army would be to say, 
"You cannot come into this area because we don't believe that it is 
consistent with the security of the area." But once out of the area, 
it seems to me that it would be a problem of civil government to re- 
locate and resettle those people, unless they were dangerous people 
that the Army wanted to intern or otherwise keep under surveillance. 
But if they were just doing it as a protective measure, not knowing 
whether as individuals they were dangerous or not, it would seem to 
me that it is more of a resettlement program than an Army problem. 

Mr. Sparkman. You would divide the evacuees into two groups, 
then: One would be those considered to be dangerous? 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. The other group simply those who were not desir- 
able in a particular defense area and yet not considered necessarily 
dangerous? 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir. I think we must. 

In one situation the military would be in charge, and in the other 
situation it would be the civil government. 

The Chairman. Don't you see right away the problem is looming 
before us as to where they are going to go as the evacuation increases 
in the Pacific Coast States? It may run into hundreds of thousands of 
people. So we will have to feel out — probably this committee will do 
it — as to where they are going to go; that is, what States, whether 
Nebraska , Kansas, and so on. For instance, if it were the other way 
around, and if you evacuated three or four hundred thousand into 
California, I don't know how we would take care of them here, 
don't you see. 1 

Attorney General Warren. That is correct. And even in Cali- 
fornia, that is a problem. A community of Japanese moved out of 

i See pp. 27-30, House Report 1911, preliminary report by this committee. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11021 

one city in our State and just moved over a little range of hills and 
started moving into another community. There was a tremendous 
uproar there and it hasn't subsided yet. Every time you move them 
en masse you create big problems not only for them but for the 
communities to which they go. 

REVIEW OF HARDSHIP CASES 

Mr. Sparkman. In the mayor's statement he made some mention, 
I believe, of the hardship cases that might arise. 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you agree with his panel to the effect that 
there should be some tribunal that could review hardship cases and 
perhaps give permits or licenses to reenter? 

Attorney General Warren. Well, Congressman, I don't believe 
that there should be any civil panel that would review the action of 
the military commander taken as a protective measure. 

Mr. Sparkman. I didn't say "civil tribunal." I simply said "a 
tribunal." 

Attorney General Warren. I believe this: That the Army is in 
the very nature of things not equipped to know or to find out by itself 
who is loyal and who is not loyal among all of these hundreds of thou- 
sands of aliens that we have. I believe that it calls for the assistance 
of all the local authorities. For instance, when we are dealing with 
Italians in San Francisco, most of them came here years ago. They 
have been in established lines of business, and I believe by their con- 
duct through the years the local authorities could come pretty close 
to telling the Army who at least would unquestionably be loyal. I 
think that the Army would probably call upon the local authorities 
and set up some agency for advising them and helping them on that 
subject. But I wouldn't have any council to which a man could 
appeal from the decision of the military commander in a situation 
like this. 

Mr. Sparkman. I didn't intend to imply that. The point I was 
trying to get is this. I agree with you that final decisions should rest 
with those who are charged with responsibility for defending the 
area. That, of course, is the military. 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. The point I was trying to get at is this: Do you 
think that there ought to be flexibility in the order so as to permit 
those people whom the military command believed to be hardship 
cases and worthy cases to allow them to reenter under a permit or a 
license? 

Attorney General Warren. I do without question. There are 
thousands of people who are in this State who are nationals of coun- 
tries with which we are at war, who would be just as loyal to this 
country as you and I. I think they can be ascertained. 

identification cards 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you operate that through a system of 
identification cards or permits? 

Attorney General Warren. After it was determined which was 
which? 



11022 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes. 

Attorney General Warren. I would. Yes, sir. I am of the opin- 
ion that in these areas that are vital everybody ought to operate 
under a permit. I see no reason why I shouldn't have a permit to go 
into a vital military area or to move around, and I think about the 
only way that you can make it effective in an area is to give every- 
body a license or a permit, because if you just give the aliens a license 
or a permit all they have to do is to lose their permit or fail to bring 
it with them and they are in the same position as the rest of us. But 
if every man has to have a permit to move around in that area, whether 
he is a citizen or whether he is an alien, and he is called upon to pro- 
duce his permit, it will show at a glance what his status is and whether 
he is violating the orders of the military in the area. 

The Chairman. Of course, you are right about that. Now even 
Congressmen going down to the War and Navy Departments in 
Washington have to register. 

Attorney General Warren. Certainly. 

The Chairman. We have to get a permit. What's wrong about 
that? There is nothing wrong about it. 

Attorney General Warren. We don't consider that an invasion 
of our civil rights. 

The Chairman. Not at all. 

Mr. Sparkman. And if you or I went over to Hamilton Field and 
tried to go in, we would certainly have to make some showing. I have 
no reluctance to carry my permit for entering the public buildings in 
the Nation's Capital. 

Attorney General Warren. That's right. 

Mr. Sparkman. And no other person should feel any infringement 
on his civil rights, you feel, if he should have to carry a permit to go 
about in strategic areas? 

Attorney General Warren. Positively. And I think that every 
loyal citizen should welcome such a system. 

care op property of evacuees 

Mr. Sparkman. What about the care of these alien properties? 

Attorney General Warren. I am afraid that that is a situation 
that has not been adequately taken care of up to the present time. 
There is no Alien Property Custodian in these parts. 

Mr. Sparkman. I believe the first evacuation is coming next week, 
is it not? 

Attorney General Warren. The 24th; yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is a limited evacuation, is it not? 

Attorney General Warren. Well, it prohibits alien enemies from 
being in certain very small zones, and then there are other restricted 
areas in which they operate under a curfew regulation. 

Mr. Sparkman. I presume there are enemy aliens who own property 
within those areas from which they are to be prohibited? 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. You say there is no provision so far as you know 
for taking care of the aliens' property? 

Attorney General Warren. I said there was no Alien Property 
Custodian appointed for this area. The Federal Reserve bank has 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11023 

been the agency of the Treasury Department handling the Trading 
with the Enemy Act, and they may have some prerogatives in that 
regard, I can't say. But I believe that there has been no procedure 
set up here for handling of enemy property such as you have men- 
tioned. 

The Chairman. General, there is a little uncertainty as to the 
jurisdiction. We hope to get ironed out very soon who shall have 
the jurisdiction, the Treasury, the Army or someone else. 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. That is the hold-up in the matter. 

Mr. Sparkman. What is going to happen to perishable goods that 
are owned by these people? 

Attorney General Warren. When they move out? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes. 

Attorney General Warren. I suppose until there is some plan for 
taking care of it, it is very likely to result in waste. 

EXPLOITATION OF ENEMY ALIENS 

Mr. Sparkman. Has there come to your attention any buying of 
this property for very low prices, speculating in it? 

Attorney General Warren. The statement was made to me a few 
days ago that in areas like the city of Alameda, where aliens are not 
permitted to be, there was considerable selling of household effects at 
a great sacrifice. Now, it was a member of a governmental agency 
who told me that, but I did not investigate it to see how widespread it 
was or just what the facts were. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is it your feeling that there should be an office of 
the Alien Property Custodian established in this region? 

Attorney General Warren. Yes, sir; I think so without question. 
I don't believe that people should be permitted to exploit even our 
enemy aliens. I think there should be some Federal agency that 
would supervise those matters to see that no one is taken advantage 
of by designing people. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all. 

The Chairman. Mr. Warren, on behalf of the committee we want 
to thank you. You have certainly made a very valuable contribu- 
tion to our hearings here, and we are very grateful to you. We shall 
hold the record open for you so you can send us what you think 
should be included in addition to what you have said today. 

Attorney General Warren. Thank you very much, gentlemen of 
the committee. I want to say to you personally, Mr. Chairman, 
that it is a great pleasure to see you back here in California. I 
might say to you gentlemen, he is my Congressman. 

The Chairman. We will take a 5-minute recess. 

(Whereupon a short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. Will the committee please come to order? 

Mr. Neustadt, will you take that seat there, please? 

This committee is very pleased to have you with us again. You 
always give us a very valuable contribution and I know that you will 
help us out on this occasion. 1 I wish you would give your name, 
please, to the reporter and your official designation. 

> See pp. 4947-4962, pt. 12, San Diego hearings. 



11024 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARD H. NEUSTADT, REGIONAL DIRECTOR, 
SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD, AND REGIONAL DIRECTOR, OFFICE 
OF DEFENSE, HEALTH, AND WELFARE SERVICES, SAN FRAN- 
CISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Neustadt. I am the regional director of the Social Security 
Board and also the regional director of the Office of Defense, Health, 
and Welfare Services. 

The Chairman. Over what States do you have jurisdiction? 

Mr. Neustadt. In the Social Security Board it is just the four 
States of California, Oregon, Washington, and Nevada. In this 
particular assignment of help to the western command, I follow the 
western command's eight-State region. 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold, will you interrogate Mr. 
Neustadt, please? 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Neustadt, the committee understands that the 
Federal Security Agency has been handling certain problems con- 
nected with the evacuation of enemy aliens. In the following ques- 
tions we will use the term "alien" to designate aliens of Axis countries. 
Wherever your answers are also relative to alien citizens of American 
parentage, will you so indicate? 

In my first questions I shall interrogate you with regard to the 
work of your office prior to the President's Executive order of yester- 
day. Is the committee correct in understanding that aliens to be 
evacuated from prohibited areas are registered with the Social Security 
Board's local offices? 

PLACE OF FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY IN EVACUATION 

Mr. Neustadt. May I make clear that, in the first place, there is 
nothing mandatory about that. We are charged with the task, on 
behalf of the Department of Justice, of facilitating the transfer of 
enemy aliens from the prohibited areas to what are called the restricted 
areas. There is no compulsion on the part of those people to come to 
our office. We are a service agency acting on behalf of the Depart- 
ment of Justice. 

Do I make myself clear, Congressman? 

The Chairman. What do you do for money, Mr. Neustadt? 

Mr. Neustadt. The President allocated $500,000 to Governor 
McNutt as Administrator, and he, in turn, vested the power in me 
to spend that money as it was needed. The determination of need 
and the allocation of funds is done in the usual way upon the request 
of the individual. 

Right there, if you care, I might interject the fact that of approxi- 
mately 6,500 enemy aliens who have come to our offices voluntarily — 
6,500, out of the expected nine to ten thousand who are involved in 
this transfer — most of them have come for information, information 
with respect to whether their residence is in the prohibited zone or 
whether where they contemplate moving to is in another prohibited 
zone or in a restricted area. Of those, only 140 have asked for financial 
assistance of any kind. 

However, that small number is not to be taken as a measure of 
their need. Rather, it is to be taken as a measure of their pride and 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11025 

their desire to understand the reason for this order and their desire 
to be as cooperative with the Government as possible. In other 
words, we know of many cases who will need money, who have strained 
every resource to move out of the prohibited area, but they prefer to 
exhaust their own resources before asking for any aid of any kind. 

Mr. Arnold. Then the registration with your agency is optional. 
Are these people required to register elsewhere? 

REGISTRATION OF ENEMY ALIENS 

Mr. Neustadt. If I may follow the course of the order, all "alien 
enemies," as we now call them, were required to register with the 
Department of Justice through the post office the last week of January. 
Then the Department of Justice decreed certain areas prohibited. 
Those who were living within those prohibited areas had to move. 
Under the regulations of the Department of Justice they were entirely 
free to move outside of the prohibited areas anywhere they wanted as 
individuals. If they moved into the B, or restricted, area they were 
subject to the regulations of the Department of Justice, which meant 
the constant carrying of their certificates, observance of the curfew, 
and the restriction not to move beyond 5 miles of their residence ex- 
cept to go to work or to school. So that movement was entirely 
voluntary on their part except that they could not stay within the 
prohibited areas except at the risk of being arrested. 

Mr. Arnold. Is it true that under present evacuation plans evacuees 
ordinarily bear the expense of this movement? 

Mr. Neustadt. At the present time that is true, certainly. 

Mr. Arnold. How is their nonmovable property disposed of? 

Mr. Neustadt. Unfortunately, no provision has been made, and 
many of them are just sacrificing it. 

Mr. Arnold. You have knowledge that many are sacrificing their 
property? 

Mr. Neustadt. I can't give you statistics, but we certainly have 
knowledge of many agriculturalists, and also others, who are sacri- 
ficing such little property as they have. There has been no provision 
for any custodianship of any kind. 

Mr. Arnold. Does your office render purely informational service 
or does it provide assistance in cash at times to aliens who lack 
resources in moving? 

ASSISTANCE TO EVACUEES 

Mr. Neustadt. We have provided cash and kind, mainly cash, to 
those who have asked for it. We are continuing to do so. The 
needs are mounting, so that we expect by the 24th there will be many 
more than this 140 asking for financial assistance. We can continue 
to take care of those with this money so long as this money lasts, 
provided the order continues. We are not sure whether or not the 
order of the President last night cancels our rights to give aid to 
people who have not yet asked it. We know we can continue to aid 
so long as the money lasts for those who have already applied. 

The Chairman. Mr. Neustadt, is there any limitation on the 
amount of money to give to the individual cases? 



11026 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Neustadt. What we are doing, Congressman, is to take the 
most generous standard of aid given by the State. In other words, 
we are not giving these people more than we would give other people, 
but we are trying to give them a liberal, decent, minimum basis. 
The budget guide we are using here is the same guide as California 
uses for aid to those with dependent children. If the case is that of 
a single man, the same aid is given as that for old-age assistance. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know whether the Employment Service is 
accepting aliens for registration and referrals in the normal course of 
its operations? 

Mr. Neustadt. Most assuredly they are. The Employment Office 
is where we have put up these centers. The United States Employ- 
ment Service is part of those agencies. 

Mr. Arnold. What type of employers are accepting these referrals? 

Mr. Neustadt. At the moment, due to the hysteria, a great many 
employers are not accepting them. Indeed, they are discharging 
those that they have in spite of the President's desire. That is not 
animosity on the part of the employers as much as uncertainty. They 
have not known whether to continue to employ these people. But I 
would say all kinds of employers are employing aliens just as much 
as anyone else, provided they are not working within a prohibited 
area. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you be able to provide the committee with a 
tabular summary of the data on alien activities handled through your 
office? 

Mr. Neustadt. Yes. I already have. 

Mr. Arnold. That will become a part of the record of this case. 

(The statement referred to above and supplementary exhibits are 
as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY RICHARD H. NEUSTADT, REGIONAL DIRECTOR, 

SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD, AND REGIONAL DIRECTOR, OFFICE 

OF DEFENSE, HEALTH, AND WELFARE SERVICES, SAN FRANCISCO, 

CALIF. 

I. General Information 

AUTHORITY UNDER WHICH PROGRAM OPERATES 

Upon the request of and on behalf of the United States Attorney General, on 
January 31, 1942, Mr. Paul V. McNutt, Federal Security Administrator and 
Director of Defense, Health, and Welfare Services, accepted the responsibility 
of facilitating the transfer of alien enemies from areas designated by the Attorney 
General and to relocate and reestablish such aliens in appropriate places and in 
appropriate activities. 

Under authority of regulation 9 of the Presidential proclamation of December 
7 and 8, 1941, the Secretary of War recommended that certain areas be designated 
by the Attorney General of the United States as prohibited areas from which all 
alien enemies be absolutely excluded. Eighty-eight areas in California have as of 
this time been so designated. 

REASON FOR REQUESTING ASSISTANCE OF FEDERAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATOR 

The Department of Justice offered the following as the reasons why the Federal 
Security Administrator's assistance was requested: 

1. Because the Department of Justice is not itself equipped to resettle these 
enemy aliens. . 

2. Because resettlement involves processes which are basically associated with 
the social services, including investigation of the needs and means of the aliens 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11027 

affected, helping them to obtain appropriate employment, and otherwise assisting 
those who are not able to resettle and reestablish themselves in other locations. 

3. Because the operating units of the Federal Security Agency already include 
many of the Federal services which are involved in such an undertaking. 

4. Because, as Director of the Office of Defense, Health, and Welfare Services, 
the Federal Security Administrator had been designated to coordinate health 
and welfare services of all departments and agencies of the Federal Government, 
and of other agencies, public and private, to meet the needs of States and local 
communities arising from the defense program and make available to States and 
localities the services of specialists to assist in the planning and execution of State 
and local programs in the field of health, welfare, and related activities. 

FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY REGIONAL ACTIVITIES IN CONNECTION WITH THE 

PROGRAM 

The Federal Coordinator of the Office of Defense, Health, and Welfare Services 
has designated the director of region XII of the Social Security Board and regional 
coordinator of defense, health, and welfare services as the person responsible for 
developing and putting into effect plans for the relocation and reestablishment 
of this alien group. Plans formulated so far include the offering of the following 
types of service: Registration and referral for employment, the issuance of unem- 
ployment compensation to those eligible for it, and the offering of social and finan- 
cial assistance. The first two services will be offered through the regularly estab- 
lished Federal employment offices, and other assistance will be offered by a social 
assistance staff located in the employment offices, operating under the general 
supervision of the regional representative of the Bureau of Public Assistance. 

PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM 

The purpose of this program is to provide financial assistance and other serv- 
ices, on an emergency basis, to enemy aliens and their families whose normal liv- 
ing arrangements have been disrupted as a result of residence in areas now pro- 
hibited to them. Forms of assistance offered include- — ■ 

1. Information, or referral to the proper source for information, needed by aliens 
in order that they may conform to existing regulations. 

2. Services in connection with resolving problems of housing, moving, emer- 
gency medical care, and related contingencies. 

3. Financial assistance on an emergency basis to cover immediate expenses 
directly attributable to moving from prohibited areas, and for which the alien 
has no immediately available resources. 

Wherever available without delay, resources of existing social agencies and 
other organizations shall be used to secure forms of assistance needed by clients. 

II. Organization of Social Assistance Staff 

PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR PROGRAM 

The regional representative of public assistance, acting in her capacity as a 
member of the Coordinator's cabinet on evacuation of enemy aliens, is responsible 
for the administration of the assistance program to this group of persons. All 
of the social service staff of the program are under her general supervision, and 
through the regional coordinator she will make joint plans with the regional repre- 
sentative of employment security with respect to the work. 

In discharging these responsibilities, the regional representative of public assist- 
ance will function in the areas of general administration, policy determination, and 
clearance with other Federal agencies. More immediate supervision of the staff 
is assigned to one of the assistant regional representatives of public assistance. 

CENTRAL OFFICE, SUPERVISORY AREAS, AND UNIT OFFICES 

The regional office of the Social Security Board, 785 Market Street, will be 
considered the central office. To facilitate the offering of services to the alien 
group, it is contemplated that the region will be divided into four supervisory 
areas — Washington, Oregon, Northern California and Nevada, and Southern 
California. Within each area there may be a number of unit offices, some cover- 
ing portions of a county, some covering one county only and others covering 
more than one county. The size of the staff in each unit office will vary. The 



11028 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

larger offices may be staffed by a unit supervisor, a case supervisor, and a staff 
of intake interviewers and social workers. In some unit offices the functions of 
the unit supervisor and case supervisor may be combined, and in others the func- 
tions of all four groups of staff may be performed by one person. All selection 
and assignment of staff will be made through the central office. 

Intake and information centers within the area covered by a unit office will be 
located in the offices of the United States Employment Service. 

RESPONSIBILITIES OF STAFF 

The unit supervisor will be responsible for the work performed within the unit 
and more specifically will be responsible for setting up the office, putting into 
effect procedures that will assure smooth functioning of the office, and for secur- 
ing information with respect to, and mobilizing community resources. 

The case supervisor will supervise the work of the intake interviewers and 
social workers, will interpret to staff rules, regulations and policies, will review 
recommendations of intake interviewers and social workers, and will offer guid- 
ance and assistance to this staff in performing its functions. 

The intake interviewers will, in general, perform the following activities: 
(a) To interview persons referred to the office, (b) to give information or refer to 
the proper source for information, (c) collect and record all significant financial 
and social data, (d) determine disposition to be made of case, (e) develop and 
execute assistance plan if such is needed, (/) plan additional investigation if 
indicated, (g) arrange for utilization of any available service which may assist 
in meeting problems directly connected with resettlement. 

FIELD STAFF 

A field staff working out of the central office in San Francisco will offer con- 
sultant service to the staff in unit employment security offices and will act as 
liaison officers between the central office and the unit offices. Plans call for one 
field staff member for each supervisory area. This field staff will continue to 
perform its other usual activities in addition to the duties outlined above. 

III. Case Procedures 

FIRST INTERVIEW 

Interviewer (local Division of Social Assistance representative). 

Persons seeking assistance of any nature are seen by the social-assistance in- 
terviewer. These persons may come directly to the interviewer or may be 
referred by the employment interviewer or by other agencies. 

Purpose of interview. 

The purpose of this interview is to determine the nature of the individual's 
problem, and other problems which may arise as a result of his situation, and to 
determine what can be done under the policies of the division to assist in the 
solution of his problem. This interview should result in a definite decision as to 
whether it will be a "minor service case" or a "major service case." (See Defi- 
nitions, sec. Ill— 6.) 

Information to be obtained. 

The first step in the interview is to secure from the applicant his own state- 
ment of the problem which has brought him to the office and the assistance he 
believes he needs. Financial and social factors should be learned so that an as- 
sistance plan can be formulated. In all instances, the inquiry card (FSA-dsa-1) 
is completed. If it is determined that a major service case classification will be 
made, the record card (FSA-dsa-2) is completed in this interview, if possible. 

Information to be given clients. 

If only information has been requested, and the need for further assistance 
does not appear probable, it should be ascertained that the individual's questions 
have been answered as completely as possible, and that he has a clear under- 
standing of the information given him. 

If any further contacts are necessary after the first interview, as definite a 
statement as possible should be made to the client including (a) what assistance 
he may be able to secure, on the basis of the information he has given, and (b) 
what arrangements will be made by the worker to follow up the first interview. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11029 

Those seeking information regarding any questions of United States citizenship 
are to be referred to the nearest office of the Bureau of Immigration and Natu- 
ralization of the Department of Justice. A list of offices of this Bureau will 
be provided. 

If employment is needed, or an individual may be eligible for unemployment 
compensation benefits, he is to be referred to the United States Employment 
Service staff in the office in which the Division of Social Assistance representative 
is located. 

MECHANICAL PROCEDURES 

Definitions. 

1. "Minor service case" means a case in which all necessary action is taken on 
the day of the initial interview, and no further contact is anticipated. It may 
not, therefore, remain active beyond the date of that interview. It may be 
reopened and changed to a major service case by preparing a case record, con- 
taining a record card (FSA-dsa-2), and assigning a case number. A copy of the 
record card is transmitted to the central office without an injury card being 
attached. 

2. "Major service case" means a case in which contacts will continue beyond 
the date of initial interview and for which a record card has therefore been pre- 
pared and a case number assigned. 

S. "Active case" means either a major or minor service case in which all 
necessary action for closing the case has not been completed. 

4. "Closed case" means a case in which all action has been completed and it is 
reasonably certain that no further contacts with the client will occur. Cases 
will not be closed because individuals move from the vicinity of the local United 
States Employment Service office. During the emergency period, major service 
cases will not be closed in most instances. 

Minor service case procedures. 

One copy of completed inquiry card (FSA-dsa-1) is filed alphabetically in the 
central file containing these forms following completion of the inquiry. One 
copy of the form is forwarded to the central office not later than the close of 
business on the date of the initial interview. Enter a check in the box opposite 
"Inquiry completed * * * this " prior to filing and transmittal of the form. 

Major service case procedures. 

Filing and transmittal of the inquiry card is identical with that for minor service 
cases, except that a check is entered in the box opposite record card made, and 
the case number is entered in the proper space. In addition, a completed copy 
of record card (FSA-dsa-2) is filed with other case material in a case folder, 
on the tab of which is placed the client's name and case number. A copy of 
the record card, attached to the central office copy of the inquiry card, is trans- 
mitted to the central office not later than the date prepared, in as complete form 
as possible. 

Assignment of case number. 

Each local office has been assigned an identifying number in accordance with 
the attached list. This number will be used as a prefix number in connection 
with numbering of all cases. Example: Berkeley office is No. 2. Case No. 10 
in Berkeley office will be marked 2-10. This prefix and case number will be used 
on all forms where case number is requested. 

The local office number should be used on all forms to designate the office. 
Use the office number in place of the name of the office as heretofore. 

The Division of Social Assistance representative in the local office will prepare 
a simple case number register, consisting of a notebook in which are listed num- 
bers 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. The name of the household head in major service cases will 
be entered in ink to correspond with each number. The number corresponding 
with his name is the family case number for all purposes of recording, and this 
must be entered on the record card before it is transmitted to the central office. 
It must also be entered on both copies of the inquiry card. 

Procedures for closed cases. 

A minor service case automatically becomes a closed case at the close of date the 
interview is held. The inquiry card (FSA-dsa-1) is filed in the master index file, 
after indicating on it the disposition. 

When a major service case is to be closed, a notice of case change is prepared in 
duplicate, one copy of which is placed in the case record, the other being trans- 



11030 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

mitted to the central office. The case record is then filed in a location known as 

the closed case file. 

Case records, files, and transmittals. 

1. Case records will contain all case forms in the United States Employment 
Service office except inquiry cards, which are separately filed. Brief narrative 
entries, chronologically identified, will when necessary be entered on the reverse of 
the record card and on additional pages. The narrative will contain case plans 
and activities of the worker and the client in solving difficulties. Records are not 
to be removed from the local office. Local representatives of the Division of 
Social Assistance are not authorized to release any information contained in 
records to individuals or organizations unless cooperatively engaged in working 
on behalf of the client. 

2. Files. — A master file containing all inquiry cards will be maintained alpha- 
betically in the local United States Employment Service office. A copy of each 
daily transmittal will be filed chronologically in a folder. An active case record 
file and a closed case record file will be maintained in local offices. Case records 
will be filed numerically in these files. 

3. Transmittals.— A daily transmittal (FSA-dsa-5) will be prepared in duplicate 
on each day on which forms are to be transmitted to the central office. This 
transmittal is to contain only the total number of each type of case form being 
forwarded on that day. One copy is retained in the local office, one going to the 
central office on the date for which it is prepared, accompanied by the forms listed 
on it. No forms are to be transmitted without being accompanied by this form. 

LIST OF U. S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE OFFICES TO WHICH SOCIAL WORKERS 
HAVE BEEN ASSIGNED, CALIFORNIA 

Numbers indicate the Division of Social Assistance number for each location; these are not the numbers 
already in use by each United States Employment Service office. The numbers given here will be used 
as prefix for case numbers originating in these offices] 

No. 

1. Alameda, 1536 Park Street. Phone: Lakehurst 2-7300. 

2. Berkeley, 2459-63 Shattuck Avenue. Phone: Thorn wall 1389. 

4. Eureka, 239 G Street. Phone: 624. 

5. Fresno, 2146 Inyo Street. Phone: 36184. 

7. Inglewood, 319 East Hillcrest Boulevard. 

8. Long Beach, 416 Pine Avenue. 

9. Los Angeles, 623 East Eighth Street. Phone: Ri. 4181. 

10. Monterey, 266 Pearl Street. 

11. Oakland, 115 Twelfth Street. Phone: Glencourt 3782. 

12. Pittsburg, 480 Black Diamond. Phone: Pittsburg 413. 

13. Richmond, 601 Nevin Avenue. 

14. San Diego, 1165 Front Street. 

15. San Francisco, 1690 Mission Street. Phone: Hemlock 3800. 

16. San Jose, 393 South Second Street. Phone: Columbia 4646. 

17. San Luis Obispo, 967 Osos Street. 

18. San Mateo, 15 B Street. 

19. San Pedro, 250 West 17th Street. 

20. San Rafael, 1557 Fourth Street. Phone: S. R. 1637. 

28. Santa Cruz, 23 Front Street. Phone: Calif. 555. 

21. Santa Monica, 1558 Fifth Street. 

22. Santa Rosa, 501 Third Street. 

23. Stockton, 201 North San Joaquin Street. 

24. Ukiah, 20 Smith Street. 

25. Vallejo, 515 Marin Street. 

29. Watsonville, 21 West Lake Avenue. 

FORMULATION OF A SOCIAL PLAN 

Responsibility of social-assistance worker. 

The primary responsibility of the social-assistance worker is to assist the 
applicant in making a social plan, the need for which has arisen because of a re- 
quired move in connection with Department of Justice orders. Such a plan must 
have a verified factual basis and should contain assurances that the applicant 
will be able to reestablish himself after relocation. This plan should take into 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11031 

consideration employment opportunities and therefore should be made in coopera- 
tion with the employment service. 

Referral for employment interview. 

If an applicant is unemployed he should be referred immediately to the em- 
ployment interviewer for job registration if he has not already registered. Gen- 
erally, the registration for a job should precede the discussion with the social 
worker of the plan for relocation. 

Home visit. 

A home visit should be made whenever possible in every case when financial 
assistance is requested. The primary purpose of the visit is to verify the present 
residence in a prohibited area inasmuch as assistance is granted only to meet needs 
arising as a result of Department of Justice orders concerning prohibited areas. 
Additional verification of need and information necessary for the formulation of 
a social plan should also be procured at the time of the home visit. 

Relocation and resettlement plan. 

Insofar as possible, families should be relocated within the county of residence 
when the worker does not have full assurance that the family will be able to man- 
age independently in another county. This should be done even though such a 
move may represent a temporary relocation which will necessitate a second 
move later on. The important thing to remember is that prohibited areas must 
be cleared by specified dates, and that there may not be sufficient time to work 
out with the individual or family a complete plan for relocation and resettlement 
before the deadline date for evacuation from the prohibited area. 

If the individual or family requests assistance in moving out of the county of 
residence, one of two facts must be known — that there is a job or other employ- 
ment opportunity available in the county of new residence and/or that there is 
other evidence of support in such a county. There may be some instances in 
which, because of the extent of the prohibited area, a move outside the county of 
residence is necessary even though there is no evidence of support in the county of 
new residence. It is not anticipated that the number of such cases will be large, 
and any such plans should be approved by a representative of the Social Security 
Board office. 

Generally, plans for moving out of the State should not be made. Any such 
contemplated plans are to be submitted for approval to the central office with full 
information as to the reason for the plan and with some indication as to how the 
validity of such a plan may be verified. 

Verifications. 

The following are the facts that should be verified and the methods of verifica- 
tion to be used: 

(a) Residence in a prohibited area. — To be verified by a home visit, unless the 
worker, usually in a small community, has other assurances that the present 
residence of the individual or family is as stated by him. 

(b) Need. — To be verified by a discussion with the family of its financial con- 
dition, and where necessary and feasible, by references, clearance with present or 
past employer and with banks. 

In connection with need, it should be borne in mind that there are varying 
degrees of need. A family with income, able to meet all normal and usual require- 
ments, may not be able to meet the additional expense of moving and/or expenses 
incident to moving, and in such situations, assistance may be granted to meet these 
extra expenses. 

(c) Moving costs. — If the family plans to move by common carrier and to 
transport household effects by a transfer or express company, the cost is to be 
verified by a telephone call to the companies concerned. 

If the family plans to move through the services of friends, which services are 
to be reimbursed, the cost is to be verified by discussion with the family and/or 
friends of the estimated cost, and by checking the reasonableness of such esti- 
mated mileage cost with automobile associations, gas and oil companies, etc. 

(d) Employment in a county of nonresidence. — To be verified by clearance with 
the United States employment office in which social worker is located, with 
United States employment office in county of nonresidence or with prospective 
employer. The clearances with employment offices and employers in other 
counties may be made by wire or telephone. These wires and/or telephone calls 
may be charged to the employment service office. (See next item.) 



11032 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

(e) Other evidence of support in county of nonresidence. — If a family claims sup- 
port by relatives or friends in another county this claim should be verified through 
the county welfare department of the county of nonresidence. In securing such 
verification, a wire or telephone call may be made to such county department 
requesting that a visit be made for the purpose of ascertaining the authenticity 
of the new address and the claim that continued support is available. The reason 
for the request should be made clear by indicating that it is in connection with 
evacuation of aliens. 

Such wires or letters should be addressed to the director of the county welfare 
department and should be signed by the social worker as a representative of the 
Federal Security Agency. These wires and/or telephone calls may be charged 
to the Employment Security Office. The form of the wire is as follows: 
Name. 

Director, County Welfare Department. 
Address. 

Re enemy alien evacuation. John Doe and family of six children have re- 
quested assistance in moving to 201 Main Street, X County. Claim that John 
Brown brother will support family in his home. Will you please visit Brown 
family and advise us by wire or phone of correct address and authenticity of Doe 
family claim. 

Jane Smith/ Worker, Social Security Board. 

(/) Employment and! or other evidence of support in another State. — Full informa- 
tion with respect to the reason for such a contemplated move, the address to 
which the family wishes to move, the addresses and names of persons in the other 
State who know the family, should be transmitted to the central office by wire, 
letter, or telephone for clearance with the other State. Such wires and/or tele- 
phone calls may be sent collect to the Social Security Board office, 785 Market 
Street, San Francisco. 

IV. Determination of Assistance Payments 

ELIGIBILITY 

Assistance payments are designed to provide for specified emergency needs 
arising from removal of aliens and their dependents from prohibited areas. As- 
sistance may be in cash, kind or congregate care, and may include transportation 
of aliens and their dependents to approved destination, transportation of such 
household and personal effects as are immediately essential to maintenance, and 
assistance not to exceed the assistance standards of the California aid to dependent 
children program (Budget guide is in appendix) . 

Funds allocated to the Federal Security Agency for this program are intended 
to provide assistance to aliens whose need arises directly and immediately as a 
result of the actions of the Department of Justice in prohibiting the presence of 
enemy aliens in certain areas and restricting or curtailing their activities in other 
areas. In other words, the funds have been allocated to meet temporary and 
emergency needs essential to relocation and resettlement resulting from Depart- 
ment of Justice actions, and in no sense are they intended to provide for another 
category of assistance. 

If the applicant is able to provide for the specific requirements allowed in this 
program, or if his needs are not the result of the above-mentioned actions of the 
Department of Justice, he is not eligible for financial assistance. In other words, 
eligibility for this assistance does not depend solely on the fact that the applicant 
is an alien of an enemy nationality, but rather upon this fact plus the fact that 
his needs are a result of Department of Justice orders. Where current grants of 
other forms of public assistance, received by aliens living in prohibited areas, do 
not cover the extra expense of moving, and/or expenses incident to moving, sup- 
plementary assistance to cover moving costs may be given from this program. If 
moving plans are made for such persons, they should not interfere with this other 
regular assistance. In general, it is required that all immediately available costs 
or other resources be used for meeting the needs. 

Eligibility for assistance and the amount to be issued are determined by (a) 
evaluating a specified group of needs and (b) determining what resources are avail- 
able to the applicant for meeting them. If the total under (b) is less than that 
under (a) that amount is the amount of the assistance payment. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11033 

PERSONS TO BE INCLUDED IN ASSISTANCE PLAN 

1. The base of assistance plan, wherever possible, is the portion of the normally 
constituted family group which remains intact during the following resettlement. 
(Example: An employed adult son who is a citizen will remain with his family 
after it moves. He would be included in the need section of the assistance plan, 
and his immediately available resources would be included in the resources 
section.) 

2. If only a portion of the family moves from a prohibited area (i. e., an alien 
grandfather, or an entire family except for self-supporting citizen members) the 
assistance includes the portion of the family which moves, and resources of those 
remaining in the prohibited area are considered in the amount which is above 
and beyond normal expenses of those who remain. 

3. If, in separations occurring in normal family groups, members of the family 
dependent upon enemy aliens but separated from them for some reason are 
included in separate assistance plans and given separate assistance payments. 

4. Unattached enemy aliens. 

ASSISTANCE PLAN 

The assistance plan to be followed is the State of California aid to dependent 
children assistance plan (budget guide included in appendix). Assistance plans 
are to be made for a 2-week period. 

1. Requirements. 

Amounts provided in all budgets for requirements are determined as follows: 

(a) Food. — One-half of monthly allowance as listed in the quantity-cost budget 
for each member of the household, for the county in which the family resides. 
Percentage increases and decreases by size of family provided in the budget are 
to be followed. 

(b) Housing. — Actual rental with a maximum, unless clearly unfeasible as 
listed in the standard budget. No allowance for housing if living in own home 
or in the home of friends or relatives permanently residing in the locality. 

(c) Utilities. — Light and fuel for heat and cooking are allowed on the basis of 
actual cost, with no restrictions as to the type of utility used. The standard 
utilities allowance provided in the State department of social welfare standard 
budget is the maximum as a general policy, and is the amount allowed if the cost 
is not known. 

(d) Moving. — Actual cost with a maximum amount. When arrangements are 
made by the applicant without any expenditure, no amount will be included in the 
plan as estimated. 

(e) Transportation. — Actual amount involved in going to work, looking for 
work, or properly located housing or securing medical care. 

(/) Medical care. — Where no medical facilities are available and health problems 
of a nature requiring immediate medical care, medicine, diets, or nursing service, 
these will be allowed on the basis of verified need and verified costs (following the 
receipt of services and medicine by the recipient). 

(g) Clothing. — Will be allowed only when the need arises directly from condi- 
tions involved in resettlement. 

(h) Other. — Any special needs can be authorized only when approval has been 
given by the area supervisor. 

2. Resources. 

All resources, including real and personal property, must be listed and described 
showing location, value, encumbrances, and any other significant information. 

Total family income showing nature and source must be recorded. This is to 
include any contribution and benefits. 

In computing needs immediately available resources (assets in usable liquid 
form) and income are to be deducted from estimated requirements. 

Expenditures necessary to the maintenance of existing investments are not 
considered immediately available for purposes of this program. 

If free housing and/ or utilities are available through funds or relatives, they 
will not be considered as requirements so therefore the means through which they 
are provided need not be considered resources. 

Income will be computed as net income which is the difference between total 
income secured and all direct cost incurred in obtaining it. 



11034 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 

After determination of the need for financial assistance, same will be granted by 
the social worker through the medium of the disbursing order Form FSA-dsa-3. 
(Detailed instructions in appendix.) 

The disbursing order provides for granting assistance in cash, and/or in kind 
and services. The disbursing order is prepared by the worker in four copies, 
which are utilized and routed as described below. 

(a) Cash grant of assistance. — If a cash grant of assistance is to be provided to the 
client, the social worker sends the original (white) copy and the yellow copy of the 
disbursing order-, properly filled out, to the local certifying officer, and the check, 
in the amount indicated, will be mailed by the certifying officer directly to the 
client's address. Cash grants cannot be promised clients earlier than 2 days 
after the disbursing order is written by the worker. If this is too much of a 
delay, other provisions should be made. (See below.) 

Social workers in the Los Angeles area, San Diego, and San Luis Obispo will 
direct the white and yellow copies of the disbursing order for cash to the local 
certifying officer, Mr. Emory H. Johnson, room 446, United States Post Office and 
Courthouse Building, Los Angeles. In all other offices and areas these copies 
will be directed to the regional office, Social Security Board, 785 Market Street, 
San Francisco, Calif. 

The green copy of the disbursing order is mailed at the end of the day to the 
regional office together with Forms FSA-dsa-1 and FSA-dsa-2 via the transmittal 
sheet. 

The pink copy is attached to the case record. 

(b) Assistance in kind and/ or in services requiring payment. — If assistance is pro- 
vided by payment of rent, payment for medical services, clothing, transportation 
of household goods, or any type of merchandise or service in which a third person 
(the vendor) is involved, the worker gives the original (white) copy and the 
yellow copy to the client. The client presents the disbursing order for delivery of 
the e;oods or services in lieu of payment. 

Wherever possible the transportation of household goods should be arranged 
to be paid for by the client out of the cash grant. If necessary, a disbursing 
order should be issued on the draying or moving concern, same as on any other 
vendor. 

The green copy of the disbursing order is again mailed at the end of the day 
to the regional office. 

The pink copy is attached to the case record. 

(c) Assistance in form of transportation by rail or bus. — Unless it seems more 
desirable to cover the cost of transportation in the client's cash grant, all trans- 
portation expenses will be provided through the medium of the regular Govern- 
ment request. The workers are supplied with books of Government requests 
for transportation. These must be treated by the worker as though actual cash 
were disbursed. 

If a Government request for transportation is issued to the client, the worker 
will indicate on the disbursing order the number of the request, on what com- 
pany or railroad, and the amount represented. The value will have to be ob- 
tained, prior to issuance of the request, from the railroad or bus company 
involved. Prepare only one request for transportation of a family group. See 
detail instructions for use of Government requests for transportation in the 
appendix. 

The worker will obtain the client's signature in original on the white copy of 
the disbursing order and in carbon on the three remaining copies when she 
delivers the travel request to the client. 

In these transactions the worker will retain the white copies of the disbursing 
order in a separate personal file as a receipt to account for the requests issued to 
clients. 

The yellow and green copies of the order are mailed at the end of the day to 
the regional office. 

The pink copy is attached to the case record. 

V. Limitations on Aliens of Enemy Nationalities Imposed by the 

Department of Justice 

use of information in this section 

The conduct of aliens of enemy nationalities is the responsibility of the United 
States Department of Justice. Aliens of enemy nationalities will have many 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11035 

questions regarding the effect of restrictions imposed by the Department of 
Justice. This statement of information and interpretation has been prepared to 
aid in answering many of these questions, and has been cleared with the Depart- 
ment of Justice. The statement is purely informational, and replies to any ques- 
tion of conduct, location, and activities of an alien of enemy nationality must be 
given with that understanding. 

GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS JN WHICH ACTIVITIES OF ALIENS OF ENEMY NATIONALITIES 
ARE SPECIALLY CURTAILED OR LIMITED 

There are two categories of restricted areas: 

Category A. — Those areas within or through which no alien of enemy nation- 
ality may be permitted under any circumstances. 

Category B. — Those areas through or within which enemies of alien nationalities 
may be permitted on pass or permit. 

In your kits are lists describing prohibited and restricted areas in California, 
as designated by the Attorney General, upon recommendation from the Army 
and the Navy. 

These lists also set forth the effective date for the restrictions for each of the 
areas. 

General public notices have been given through the press and by radio announce- 
ment to the effect that aliens of enemy nationality must move from prohibited 
areas prior to the effective dates. No individual notices have been given to the 
particular aliens affected. 

INTERPRETATION OF LIMITS OF AREAS 

(a) In the official descriptions of the class A areas, it is frequently stated which 
side of a street or highway constitutes the boundary line of the prohibited area. 
This is for the purpose of determining whether the street or highway is included 
in or excluded from the prohibited area. 

1. Where the boundary line is on the side of the street or highway across from 
or opposite to the prohibited area, the street or highway is included in the pro- 
hibited area. Aliens of enemy nationalities are denied all use of such streets or 
highways. Further, they must vacate and will thereafter be denied access to 
buildings and other structures on both sides of such prohibited streets or highways. 

2. Where the boundary line is on the same side of the street or highway as the 
prohibited area, the said street or highway is excluded from the prohibited area. 
In such case aliens of enemy nationalities may use and travel over the said street 
or highway. They may remain in and have access to the buildings and other 
structures on the free or open side of the street or highway, but must vacate and 
will thereafter be denied access to the buildings and other structures on the closed 
side of the street which is within the prohibited area. 

For example, the boundary of prohibited area No. 19 within the city of San 
Francisco is described in part as follows: 

"* * * thence west along the south line of North Point Street to the west 
line of Van Ness Avenue, thence south to the north line of Bay Street, thence 
west along the said north line of Bay Street to the east line of Webster Street, 
* * *" etc. 

In this instance the prohibited area lies north of the above boundary line. 
Hence North Point Street is closed to all enemy alien travel and must be evacuated 
on both sides since the boundary is on the south line of said street. On the other 
hand, Bay Street is open to enemy alien travel since the boundary line is on the 
north side of said street. 

(b) The official descriptions of other class A prohibited areas simply refer to 
a street or highway being the boundary line. Thus, prohibited area No. 13 is 
described in part as follows: 

"* * * commencing at the west end of Berkeley Municipal Fishing Pier. 
The line runs then east along said pier to University Avenue, then east along 
University Avenue to Grove Street, then north along Grove Street to Arlington 
Avenue, then continues along Arlington Avenue * * *" etc. 

In such cases the streets named as the boundaries are not within the prohibited 
areas. Aliens of enemy nationalities may use and travel over these boundary 
streets. They may have access to and remain in buildings and other structures 
on the free and open side of such streets, but must vacate and will thereafter be 
denied access to buildings and other structures on the closed side of the street 
which is within the prohibited area. 

60396— 42— pt. 29 6 



11036 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

GENERAL RESTRICTIONS ON ACTIVITIES OF ALIENS OF ENEMY NATIONALITIES 

The activities of all aliens of enemy nationalities (i. e., citizens or subjects of 
Germany, Italy, or Japan) are subject to restrictions throughout the entire 
United States.' In addition, special restrictions on their activities have been 
imposed in the two general classifications of areas described in section V-2. 
Explanation of the special restrictions applicable in these two types of areas is 
set forth in the ensuing pages. 

All aliens within the United States were lequired to register under the Alien 
Registration Act of 1940. Since the outbreak of war a special registration of 
aliens of enemy nationalities was conducted commencing Monday, February 2 
and closing on Monday, February 9. In this resigtration aliens of enemy nation- 
alities applied for certificates of identification, which will be issued to them. 
Enemy aliens permanently confined to their homes were not required to register. 
Persons temporarily confined were required to complete a special form which was 
obtained for them at the post office registration center. Within 5 days after they 
are no longer bedridden these persons must register. 

You are being supplied with Form AR-AE-26, Summary of proclamations of 
the President of the United States, etc., which under items 1 and 2 describes the 
persons who have been required to apply for these certificates of identification. 
A copy of this summary was supplied to each registrant. Any persons who have 
any questions as to registration requirements should be referred to the nearest 
office of the Immigration and Naturalization Service. A list of these offices is 
included in vour set of instructions. 

The fact must be borne in mind at all times that the administration of all 
regulations pertaining to the conduct of enemy aliens has been entrusted to the 
Department of Justice, and that authoritative answers to questions as to the 
administration and interpretation of the regulations may be made only by repre- 
sentatives of that Department. For the present, when questions arise for which 
you do not have clear and explicit instructions, you must refer such questions 
immediately to the regional office of the Social Security Board in San Francisco. 
Accordingly, you will not make any contacts in this regard with other Government 
agencies. 

GENERAL REGULATIONS REGARDING TRAVEL BY ALIENS OF ENEMY NATIONALITIES 

General comments. — The regulations of the Department of Justice pertaining to 
travel by aliens of enemy nationalities generally have been summarized in printed 
Form AR-AE-26, paragraph 11, as follows: 

"No alien of enemy nationality shall travel or move from place to place without 
having obtained permission of the United States attorney for the judicial district 
in which he resides with the exception that such permission is not required for 
travel within the urban or rural community in which the alien resides, for com- 
muting to business or for travel to places of worship or school, or to transact busi- 
ness with public officials. Such permission may be granted by the United States 
attorney in accordance with the provisions of the Attorney General's revised 
regulations." 

Until further modified, the foregoing regulations will continue to apply through- 
out the entire State of California, with two important exceptions, viz, (a) they 
do not apply in prohibited areas on and after the effective date of the prohibitions 
applicable to each such area (after such effective date an alien of enemy nationality 
may not live or work or travel or be within a prohibited area for any reason what- 
soever), and (b) after February 24, 1942, further restrictions on travel of aliens 
of enemy nationalities will apply in the restricted areas designated in the orders 
of the Attornev General. 

Restrictions applicable in restricted areas. — Aliens of enemy nationalities residing 
and employed within class B areas may remain therein, provided they obey all 
regulations. The more important of these are as follows: 

A. They must remain in their residences from 9 p. m. to 6 a. m. 

(In special cases United States attorneys are authorized to grant exceptions 
upon proper application to them. This application must be made in writing. 
Such exceptions will be granted only for compelling reasons and after investiga- 
tion.) 

B. They mav travel between their residences and their places of business or 
employment. Except when they are at work or going to and from work, they 
must at all times be within 5 miles of their residences. This means that they may 
be employed at distances of more than 5 miles from their residences and may 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11037 

travel to and from work. For any other purpose, however, they may not travel 
more than 5 miles from their residences. 

(In special cases, United States attornevs are authorized to grant exceptions 
upon applications made in writing. Exceptions will be granted only in compelling 
cases and after suitable investigation.) 

C. Exceptions when finally granted must be endorsed on the alien's certificate 
of identification by the United States attorney. 

D. Aliens of enemy nationalities must obey such further regulations as may 
hereafter be promulgated. 

Any alien of enemy nationality is liable to internment for the duration of the 
war for any infraction of regulations. Aliens not interned but deemed by the 
authorities to be undesirable are subject to removal from the limits of class B 
areas by revocation of permission granted. Revocation of the permission shall 
be endorsed on the alien's identification certificate by the United States attorney. 

Provisions applicable in prohibited areas.- — Since aliens of enemy nationalities are 
subject to summary apprehension and internment if they violate the restrictions 
relating to prohibited areas, it is important that all questions regarding the boun- 
daries of these areas be referred immediately to the regional office of the Social 
Security Board, which will undertake to secure an authoritative answer. Under 
no circumstances should you assume responsibility for answering such a doubtful 
question. 

No aliens of enemy nationalities may be permitted within or through a pro- 
hibited area under any circumstances on and after the effective date of the restric- 
tions. Consequently, the alien may neither work nor reside or enter upon such 
an area for any purpose. An incapacitated alien of enemy nationality may not 
remain in a prohibited area even though his abode is with a citizen family. Such 
an alien must leave a prohibited area, regardless of his or her marital status or 
family responsibility. An alien of enemy nationality may have his business, if 
located within a prohibited area, operated by a citizen, but the alien may not 
enter the area at any time. Under existing regulations, his interest in his busi- 
ness is not otherwise impaired. 

The Department of Justice has advised that no exceptions will be made to these 
prohibitions. 

TRAVEL BY ALIENS OF ENEMY NATIONALITIES IN CHANGING RESIDENCES TO COMPLY 
WITH ORDERS OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL 

(For more complete detail on this subject, see "Regulations Governing Travel by Enemy Aliens" in 

Appendix) 

In order to meet the special situation presented by the orders of the Attorney 
General designating certain areas as prohibited to such aliens, and requiring their 
removal thereform, the United States attorneys for both the northern and south- 
ern districts of California have adopted the following regulations and procedures 
respecting the travel of enemy aliens involved in their evacuation from prohibited 
areas. These are: 

1. Change of residence to place within same community. 

If residence is changed from one place to another within the same urban or rural 
community, no prior permission to travel for this purpose need be secured. How- 
ever, promptly after arrival at the new residence, the enemy alien must give written 
notice of the change of residence to the United States attorney for the judicial 
district in which the alien formerly resided. In addition, the enemy alien must 
mail (a) a similar notice to the local office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
nearest his former residence, and (6) a notice of the change of residence to the 
Alien Registration Division of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 
Washington, D. C. 

8. Change of residence to place outside rural or urban community. 

In order to lawfully travel from a prohibited area to a new place of residence 
in a nonprohibited area which place is outside the urban or rural community of 
present residence, the enemy alien must secure prior permission from the United 
States Attorney for the judicial district in which he has been residing. If time 
will allow, and the distance is not so great as to cause inconvenience or impede 
evacuation from the prohibited areas, alien enemies needing permission to travel 
to a new place of residence under the above regulations should be sent to the 
nearest United States attorney's office to secure such permission prior to de- 
parture. However, whenever it appears advisable to do so, in the interests of 



11038 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

expediting evacuation from prohibited areas prior to the effective date of the 
Attorney General's orders, a permit to travel may be issued by the employment 
office manager, if he has been expressly designated by letter from the regional 
director to exercise such authority. In all cases in which a travel permit is issued 
by either the United States attorney or an authorized person in the local employ- 
ment office, the enemy alien should be advised that upon arrival at the new place 
of residence, notices of the change of residence should be promptly mailed by him 
to (a) the United States attorney of the district where the alien formerly resided, 
(b) the local office of the Federal Bureau of Investigation nearest his former 
residence, and (c) the Registration Division of the Immigration and Naturalization 
Service in Washington, D. C. Forms of notices to these agencies should be sup- 
plied to the alien, as explained in the preceding paragraph 1 of these instructions. 
Since enemy aliens who fail to comply with the regulations are subject to summary 
apprehension and internment, it is important that they observe the regulations. 

3. Instructions governing issuance of travel permits. 

Certain of the Employment Office managers, expressly designated by a letter 
from the regional director, are authorizde to issue travel permits to enemy 
aliens, but only for the purpose of traveling from a prohibited area to a nonpro- 
hibited area for the purpose of effecting a permanent change of residence. This 
means that permits can only be issued to facilitate evacuation from prohibited 
areas. They cannot be issued for any other purpose. The phrase "permanent 
change of residence" refers to a change of residence of indefinite duration. It does 
not mean that the permittee must intend to remain at the new address forever. 
No one, except a person expressly designated by letter from the regional director, 
has authority to sign these permits, and he cannot delegate his authority to any 
other person. 

4. Travel by enemy aliens seeking employment. 

The existing regulations authorize limited travel by enemy aliens for specified 
purposes and within fixed limits (i. e., the limits of the urban or rural community 
of residence, and after February 24, 1942, in restricted areas — class B, within 
5 miles of such residence). Travel for other purposes or beyond these limits is 
not authorized unless the enemy alien has first obtained the permission of the 
United States attorney for the judicial district in which he resides. 

The authority delegated to the Federal Security Agency by the United States 
attorneys in California, which has been assigned to certain of the employment 
office managers, to issue travel permits is strictly limited to granting permits, in 
accordance with the instructions set forth above, only (1) to aliens living in the 
prohibited areas, (2) for the exclusive purpose of traveling to effectuate a per- 
manent change of residence to some nonprohibited area. It does not include 
authority to grant such permits to any other class of enemy aliens or for any other 
travel purpose. Specifically, permits cannot be granted by employment office 
managers to any enemy alien for the purpose of traveling in search of employment. 
All enemy aliens seeking travel permits for such a purpose should be advised to 
apply to the nearest United States attorney. 

PROPEETT TRANSACTIONS OF ALIENS OF ENEMY NATIONALITIES 

1. Japanese nationals, domiciled and residing only in the United States at all 
times on and since June 17, 1940, and who have not acted or purported to act 
directly or indirectly for the benefit of any enemy country, may transact business' 
concerning their property under General License 68A, issued by the United States 
Treasury Department. 

Japanese nationals having property interests of $1,000 or more in value must 
file report TFR 300, series J, with the Federal Reserve bank on or before February 
28, 1942. Such nationals must not by any transaction, either directly or indirectly, 
substantially diminish or imperil or otherwise prejudicially affect their assets or 
financial position. 

2. German and Italian nationals, domiciled and residing only in the United 
States at all times on or since June 1, 1940, may deal freely with their property. 
(Executive Order No. 8389, as amended, and General License 42, United States 
Treasury Department.) 

3. Aliens of .enemy nationalities are prohibited from having in their possession, 
custody, or control or from using or operating certain prohibited articles. These 
prohibited articles include among other things, radio transmitters, short-wave 
radio receiving sets, cameras and firearms. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11039 

Aliens of enemy nationalities having questions relating to property and business 
transactions should be referred to the nearest bank which is a member of the 
Federal Reserve System. 

4. The United States attorney for the judicial district in which an alien of 
enemy nationality resides may, under certain specified conditions, grant per- 
mission to an alien of enemy nationality to use or operate or possess short-wave 
radios, cameras, or other prohibited articles. To obtain information as to the 
circumstances under which such permission will be granted, an alien of enemy 
nationality should consult the Attorney General's revised regulations. If he 
needs further information, he should consult the United States attorney nearest 
his residence. 

Exhibit A. — Summary of Proclamations of the President of the United 
States of December 7 and 8, 1941, and January 14, 1942, and of Regu- 
lations of the Attorney General Thereunder 1942, Prescribing the 
Conduct To Be Observed by Aliens of Enemy Nationalities 

The proclamations of the President of December 7 and 8, 1941, direct the 
conduct to be observed by aliens of enemy nationalities in the United States 
who have not been naturalized as citizens of the United States. The proclama- 
tion of the President of January 14, 1942, requires that aliens of enemy nationali- 
ties shall apply for certificates of identification in the manner required by the 
regulations of the Attorney General. Under the authority of the proclama- 
tions the Attorney General has issued revised regulations governing the 
possession of radios, cameras, firearms, and other prohibited articles and the 
travel of alien enemies, and regulations requiring applications for certificates of 
identification at specified times. It is their duty to become acquainted with 
these regulations and to become familiar with any other regulations which are 
hereafter issued. For convenience and merely as a guide, a summary of these 
regulations follows but the summary does not take the place of the regulations. 

1. The aliens of enemy nationalities required to apply for certifications of 
identification and to observe the regulations include all persons of the age of 14 
years or over who are German, Italian, or Japanese citizens or subjects or who 
are stateless but who at the time at which they became stateless were German, 
Italian, or Japanese citizens or subjects. 

2. Persons not required to apply for certificates of identification or to comply 
with the revised regulations include German, Italian, and Japanese citizens or 
subjects who became citizens or subjects of any nation other than Germany, 
Italy, or Japan, before December 7, 1941, in the case of former Japanese citizens 
or subjects, and before December 8, 1941, in the case of former German or Italian 
citizens or subjects, and also Austrians, Austrian-Hungarians, and Koreans who 
registered as such under the Alien Registration Act of 1940. 

3. Aliens of enemv nationalities are required to preserve the peace toward the 
United States and refrain from any hostility to the United States or from in any 
way aiding the enemies of the United States. 

4. Aliens of enemy nationalities are prohibited from having in their possession, 
custody, or control or from using or operating certain prohibited articles. These 
prohibited articles include among other things, radio transmitters, short-wave 
radio receiving sets, cameras, and firearms. 

5. The United States attorney for the judicial district in which an alien enemy 
resides may, under certain specified conditions, grant permission to an alien of 
enemy nationality to use or operate or possess short-wave radios, cameras, or 
other prohibited articles. To obtain information as to the circumstances under 
which such permission will be granted, an alien of enemy nationality should 
consult the Attorney General's revised regulations and if he needs further infor- 
mation he should consult the United States attorney. 

6. Aliens of enemy nationalities are forbidden to make any flight in any type 
of airplane or aircraft and are forbidden from entering or being found in or upon 
any highway, waterway, airway, railway, subway, public utility or building not 
open and- accessible to the public generally and not generally used by the public. 
All aliens of enemy nationalities are forbidden to enter or leave the United States 
except under the regulations in the proclamation of the President of November 
14, 1941, and all the regulations promulgated thereunder. 

7. No alien of enemy nationality shall be found within any area which shall be 
designated by the Attorney General as an area within which alien enemies shall 
not be found and no alien enemies shall reside within an area which shall be 



11040 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

designated by the Attorney General as an area within which alien enemies shall 
not reside. 

8. No alien of enemy nationality shall change his place of abode or residence or 
his place of employment or of occupation without having at least one week before 
such a change filed with the United States attorney for the judicial district in 
which he then resides, a written notice of intention to change his place of residence. 

9. No alien of enemy nationality shall assume or use any other than his legal 
name except as authorized by or under law. 

10. Whenever an alien of enemy nationality who is a holder of a certificate of 
identification changes his name, residence, address, or place of employment, a 
written notice shall immediately be given to the Alien Registration Division of the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service and the local office of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation shown in the holder's certificate of identification. 

11. No alien of enemy nationality shall travel or move from place to place 
without having obtained permission of the United States attorney for the judicial 
district in which he resides with the exception that such permission is not required 
for travel within the urban or rural community in which the alien resides, for 
commuting to business or for travel to places of worship or school, or to transact 
business with public officials. Such permission may be granted by the United 
States attorney in accordance with the provisions of the Attorney General's 
revised regulations. 

12. An alien of enemy nationality who fails to comply with the provisions of 
the proclamations and regulations prescribing the conduct to be observed by alien 
enemies, is subject to apprehension, detention, and internment for the duration 
of the war. 

Francis Biddle, 

Attorney General. 

Exhibit B. — Letter From Attorney General Biddle to Hon. Paul V* 
McNutt, Asking Him to Undertake the Task of Facilitating the 
Evacuation of Enemy Aliens From Restricted Areas 

Department of Justice, 
Office of Attorney General, 
Washington, D. C, January SI, 1942. 
Hon. Paul V. McNutt, 

Administrator, Federal Security Agency, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Mr. McNutt: Under authority of regulation 9 of the Presidential proc- 
lamation of December 7 and 8, 1941, the Secretary of War has recommended that 
certain areas be designated by me as prohibited are?,s from which all alien enemies 
are absolutely excluded. Over 40 areas in California have already been so desig- 
nated, in which a sizable but as yet undetermined number of aliens either live 
or work. Other larger areas along the west coast are to be designated as restricted 
and these restrictions make it difficult to resettle in these locations the persons 
removed from the prohibited areas. 

The Department of Justice is not itself equipped to resettle these alien enemies. 
Resettlement involves processes which are basically associated with the social 
services, including investigation of the needs and means of the aliens affected, 
helping them to obtain appropriate employment, and otherwise assisting those 
who are not able to resettle and reestablish themselves in other locations. 

The operating units of the Federal Security Agency already include many of 
the Federal services which are involved in such an undertaking. As Director of 
the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services you have been designated to 
coordinate health and welfare services of all departments and agencies of the Fed- 
eral Government, and of other agencies, public and private, to meet the needs of 
States and local communities arising from the defense program and make avail- 
able to States and localities the services of specialists to assist in the planning and 
execution of State and local programs in the field of health, welfare, and related 
activities. 

I am, therefore, requesting you, as Federal Security Administrator and as Direc- 
tor of Defense Health and Welfare Services, to undertake, on behalf of the Depart- 
ment of Justice, the task of facilitating the transfer of alien enemies from areas 
designated by me and to relocate and reestablish such aliens in appropriate places 
and in appropriate activities. If you see fit to accept this responsibility on behalf 
of the Attorney General, you will of course call upon the services of other Federal 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11041 

agencies which can contribute to the effectiveness of this migration; my own 
Department stands ready to assist you with its services and authority in any 
operations which you find necessary in carrying forward this assignment. We 
will cooperate with you in making available the lists of names and addresses of 
the persons who are affected by the removal orders which I issue and any other 
appropriate information on file in the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Alien 
Enemy Control Unit, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, or other 
branches of this Department. My agents in the field will similarly make avail- 
able such information to your designated representatives. 

No money is now available for me to transfer to your Agency to accomplish this 
migration. If you are willing to undertake it, I will request the President, through 
the Director of the Bureau of the Budget, to make available to you as Federal 
Security Administrator, from the emergency fund of the President, such moneys 
as are necessary, for the purposes I have outlined, pending any congressional 
appropriation that may prove necessary. 

Many of the alien enemies affected by these plans are now performing functions 
which contribute directly to the success of our American war effort. The proper 
reestablishment of these dislocated aliens is important to certain types of labor 
supply and to the maintenance of our agricultural output. For these reasons it 
is in the interest of the United States that this operation be carried out with the 
smallest possible loss of human resources. 
Sincerely yours, 

Francis Biddle, 

Attorney General. 

Exhibit C. — Statement to the Personnel of the Social Security Board 

in the Area of the Western Command by Richard M. Neustadt, Regional 

Director 

February 6, 1942. 

Both by law and by Executive order of the President of the United States, the 
responsibility for the custody, surveillance and care of all alien enemies is vested 
in the Department of Justice. On January 31 the Attorney General assigned to 
Governor McNutt, in his dual capacity as Administrator of the Federal Security 
Agency and Director of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, "the 
task of facilitating the transfer of alien enemies designated by me and to relocate 
and reestablish such aliens in appropriate places and appropriate activities." 
Governor McNutt in turn has called upon me to represent him in carrying out this 
responsibility in the area of the western command. 

We have decided to utilize the offices of the United States Employment Service 
as the information and service centers for such alien enemies who will be forced to 
move out of the prohibited areas (also designated as A areas), either into restricted 
areas (also referred to as B areas) or in the unrestricted areas. After the 24th of 
February in California, and after such date as yet undetermined in other States, 
no alien enemy can either live or work or be in any prohibited or A areas (official 
fists of which will be forwarded shortly) . At these offices alien enemies who need 
help in finding work or in relocating and sustaining their families will be accorded 
courteous and friendly treatment by the assigned representatives of the employ- 
ment office and of the Division of Social Assistance who will be stationed therein. 
These representatives of the division of social assistance will be Federal employees, 
and will have the authority to requisition on me for whatever travel allowances or 
cash aid may be required, and it will be granted upon my certification to the San 
Francisco Disbursement Office of the United States Treasury Department. 

The line of administrative authority will follow the regular channels of the 
United States Employment Service and of the division of social assistance being 
set up in this office. The division of social assistance is under the regional rep- 
resentative of the Bureau of Public Assistance and functions through specially 
designated representatives in the State and in the local offices. In addition to 
their regular functions, some offices of the United States Employment Service 
will be utilized as temporary offices of the local representatives of the division 
of social assistance. More detailed instruction will be issued through these 
administrative channels within the next few days. 

Through initial and unfortunately premature and overly generalized publicity, 
it is probable that alien enemies or representatives of agencies interested in them 
will call at any of the offices of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, United States 
Employment Service, or county-welfare departments. Pending clarification^of 



11042 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

the announcement which will direct such people to the proper local office of the 
United States Employment Service, you are asked to see to it that all such in- 
quirers are given courteous treatment and referred to the nearest United States 
Employment Service office in which a representative of the division of social as- 
sistance will furnish them concrete advice. (List of these offices is attached.) 
It is highly important that these people be treated with dignity and with courtesy. 
They should be made to feel that while because of war it is necessary to move 
them out of the prohibited areas and to prevent their working therein, the United 
States Government wishes to help them avoid unnecessary hardships in such 
transfer. 

No contact should be made locally with the Department of Justice or the 
western command. 

Sincerely yours, 

Richard M. Neustadt, Regional Director. 



Exhibit D. — Statement by the President of the United States 

January 2, 1942. 

I am deeply concerned over the increasing number of reports of employers 
discharging workers who happen to be aliens or even foreign-born citizens. This 
is a very serious matter. It is one thing to safeguard American industry, and 
particularly defense industry, against sabotage; but it is very much another to 
throw out of work honest and loyal people who, except for the accident of birth, 
are sincerely patriotic. 

Such a policy is as stupid as it is unjust, and on both counts it plays into the 
hands of the enemies of American democracy. By discharging loyal, efficient 
workers simply because they were born abroad or because they have "foreign- 
sounding" names or by refusing to employ such men and women, employers 
are engendering the very distrust and disunity on which our enemies are counting 
to defeat us. 

Remember the Nazi technique: "Pit race against race, religion against religion, 
prejudice against prejudice. Divide and conquer." 

We must not let that happen here. We must not forget what we are defending: 
Liberty, decency, justice. We cannot afford the economic waste of services of 
all loyal and patriotic citizens and noncitizens in defending our land and liberties. 

I urge all private employers to adopt a sane policy regarding aliens and foreign- 
born citizens and to remember that the sons of the "foreigners" they discharged 
may be among those who fought and are fighting so valiantly at Pearl Harbor 
or in the Philippines. 

There is no law providing against employment of aliens except in special 
defense work of a secret nature, and even in such work the employer may hire 
an alien with the permission of the Army or Navy, depending on the contract. 



Exhibit E — Letter from Hon. Paul V. McNutt to Richard Neustadt 
Assigning Responsibility of Coordinating and Planning Activities 
Relevant to the Problems of Evacuations on the West Coast 

Federal Security Agency, 
Office of the Administrator, 

Washington, February 4> 1942. 

Dear Mr. Neustadt: The Department of Justice has requested the Federal 
Security Agency to assume responsibility for the resettlement of alien enemies 
from areas designated by that agency as prohibited areas. The following excerpts 
are quoted from the letter which I received from the Attorney General dated 
January 31, 1942. 

"The Department of Justice is not itself equipped to resettle these alien enemies. 
Resettlement involves processes which are basically associated with the social 
services, including investigation of the needs and means of the aliens affected, 
helping them to obtain appropriate employment, and otherwise assisting those who 
are not able to resettle and reestablish themselves in other locations. 

"The operating units of the Federal Security Agency already include many of 
the Federal services which are involved in such an undertaking. As Director of 
the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services you have been designated to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11043 

coordinate health and welfare services of all departments and agencies of the 
Federal Government, and of other agencies, public and private, to meet the 
needs of States and local communities arising from the defense program and to 
make available to States and localities the services of specialists to assist in the 
planning and execution of State and local programs in the fields of health, welfare, 
and related activities. 

"I am therefore requesting you as Federal Security Administrator and as 
Director of Defense Health and Welfare Services, to undertake, on behalf of the 
Department of Justice the task of facilitating the transfer of alien enemies from 
areas designated by me and to relocate and reestablish such aliens in appropriate 
places and in appropriate activities. If you see fit to accept this responsibility 
on behalf of the Attorney General, you will of course call upon the services of 
other Federal agencies which can contribute to the effectiveness of this migration; 
my own Department stands ready to assist you with its services and authority 
in any operations which you find necessary in carrying forward this assignment. 
We will cooperate with you in making available the lists of names and addresses 
of the persons who are affected by the removal orders which I issue and any other 
appropriate information on file in the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Alien 
Enemy Control Unit, the Immigration and Naturalization Serfice, or other 
branches of this Department. My agents in the field will similarly make available 
such information to your designated representatives." 

In your capacity as Regional Director of the Office of Defense Health and 
Welfare Services I wish you to accept responsibility for the coordination and 
planning of all the necessary activities and services which will be involved in 
meeting this problem. This will include both the relationships with the various 
agencies of the Federal Government whose programs may be utilized in connec- 
tion with the resettlement of these alien enemies, and the relationships with 
State and local agencies whose cooperation should be secured in carrying out this 
responsibility. 

I wish you to assume this responsibility for the entire Ninth Corps Area, and 
I am advising Mr. Heber Harper of region XI accordingly. You will, of course, 
work closely with Mr. Harper in connection with problems involving States 
within his region. 

I am sure that I need not point ou*t to you the importance of our dealing with 
this matter on a basis which is both consistent with the needs of national security 
and with the principles of human welfare. 
Sincerely yours, 

Paul V. McNutt, Administrator. 



Exhibit F. — Statement by Attorney General Francis Biddle Concerning 
the Employment of Aliens in Private Industry 

December 28, 1941. 

Two weeks ago the Department of Justice issued an appeal to State and local 
law-enforcement agencies and to the general public to help guard at home the 
freedoms our country is now fighting to defend by protecting the civil liberties of 
our loyal noncitizen population. There was a heartening response to this appeal — 
a minimum of hysteria and of the antagonism toward noncitizens as a class which 
marred our wartime record of 2 decades ago, and a willingness to leave to the 
qualified Federal authority the problem of dealing with whatever disloyal or 
treacherous elements, citizen and alien alike, which may still exist. 

There still remains, however, a serious problem in adjusting our sights to our 
one great objective; it is the problem of discrimination against aliens in private 
employment. 

No more short-sighted, wasteful or un-American policy could possibly be 
adopted at this time than that of barring noncitizens from legitimate private 
employment. In the first place, it is a most effective method of creating disunity, 
of breaking faith with people who have come to America as a haven of liberty and 
fair play. It is a complete disavowal of our American institutions, our freedoms, 
and the principles upon which our democracy was founded. 

I am sorry to say that numerous instances have come to the attention of the 
Department of Justice of employers discharging workers because of some vague 
suspicion that they may be disloyal aliens, and even because they have foreign- 
sounding names. I should like to remind such employers that of our total 
noncitizen population of about 5,000,000, fewer than 3,000 — 6 out of 10,000— 



11044 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

have been regarded as dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States. 
Those have been taken into custody by the Federal authorities. 

I should also like to point out to these employers that many of the "foreigners" 
they have discharged now have sons serving in our Army and Navy. Among 
those who died fighting off the treacherous attacks upon Manila and Pearl Harbor 
were men named Wagner and Petersen and Monzo and Rossini and Mueller and 
Rasmussen. 

To bar aliens from employment is both short-sighted and wasteful. Our coun- 
try needs the skills and services of every able-bodied and loyal person, citizen or 
alien, and to deprive it of such services is an economic waste and a stupid error. 

There appears to be some confusion, in this connection, as to the policy of the 
Federal Government and as to the requirements of Federal statutes concerning 
the employment of aliens. As to the first, it is the stated policy of the Federal 
Government that there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in 
defense industries because of race, creed, color, or national origin. 

As to the law, there is only one restriction: In the case of secret, confidential 
or restricted Government contracts, and in the case of contracts for aircraft parts 
or accessories the employer must secure permission from the head of the Federal 
Department concerned for the employment of aliens. The War and Navy De- 
partments have established regular procedures for handling such applications and 
have passed upon thousands of them. It should be noted that the percentage of 
cases in which permission has not been granted to employ aliens even on such 
confidential work is negligible. 

There are no other Federal laws restricting the employment of aliens by pri- 
vate employers in national defense industries, and there are no Federal laws what- 
soever restricting the employment of foreign-born American citizens of any par- 
ticular national origin. 

There is no reason in the world why loyal persons, either aliens or Americans 
of foreign birth, should not be employed by American industry; and there is no 
possible justification for discharging such employees. The Federal Government 
condemns such discrimination and urges all employers not to adopt such a policy. 

War threatens all civil rights; and although we have fought wars before, and 
our personal freedoms have survived, there have been periods of gross abuse, 
when hysteria and hate and fear ran high, and when minorities were unlawfully 
and cruelly abused. Every man who cares about freedom, about a government 
by law — and all freedom is based on fair administration of the law — must fight 
for it for the other man with whom he disagrees, for the right of the minority, for 
the chance for the underprivileged with the same passion of insistence as he claims 
for his own rights. If we care about democracy, we must care about it as a 
reality for others as well as for ourselves: yes, for aliens, for Germans, for Italians, 
for Japanese, for those who are with us as those who are against us: For the Bill 
of Rights protects not only American citizens but all human beings who live on 
our American soil, under our American flag. The rights of Anglo-Saxons, of 
Jews, of Catholics, of Negroes, of Slavs, Indians — all are alike before the law. 
And this we must remember and sustain— that is if we really love justice, and 
really hate the bayonet and the whip and the gun, and the whole Gestapo method 
as a way of handling human beings. 



Exhibit G. — Communications Dealing with Japanese Problem 

San Francisco, February 11, 1942.' 
Richard Neustadt, 

Social Security Board. 
Following telegram just received: "Your letter February 7, 1942, addressed to 
Isaac Schlatter, chairman board of supervisors of this county has been called to 
our attention. This letter proposes to evacuate alien Japanese and citizen Japan- 
ese from Los Angeles area to Imperial county. Have had serious difficulties be- 
tween Japanese and Filipinos in this county and situation serious some Japanese 
have been killed. Any evacuation of Japanese to this county would be serious 
and grave mistake at this time as it would only tend to aggravate the present tense 
situation. All Japanese aliens have been evacuated from Baja California Republic 
of Mexico to the State of Chihuahua. The Mexican officials much concerned 
over the possibility of more Japanese being brought into Imperial County Cal- 
ifornia just across international border. As law-enforcement officers strenuously 
oppose the bringing of any more Japanese into this county and have also advised 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11045 

the board of supervisors such action would Only tend to aggravate and multiply 
law enforcement problems. Considerable effort now being made to have the 
United States Government evacuate all alien Japanese from this county action 
proposed in letter would jeopardize this program. Elmer W. Heald, district 
attorney; R. W. Ware, sheriff, County of Imperial." 

Martha A. Chickerixg, 
Director State Department of Social Welfare. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

February 5, 1942. 
Re Disposition of Japanese. 
Hon. Culbert L. Olsen, 

Governor of California, Sacramento, Calif. 

Dear Sir: Just a suggestion which might be helpful in the matter of locating 
the Japs in a safe and perhaps a helpful place. 

There is a considerable body of desert land that could be watered and leveled 
cheaply in the eastern part of" Imperial County, beginning north and east of the 
Southern Pacific station Knob and extending west to the sand hills and south to 
the All- American Canal, all of which is Government land, except a portion of one 
township owned by private citizens, who, no doubt, would be willing to let the 
Government use it'for the duration. I have 160 acres of this township and would 
be willing to let the Government use it for the duration without rent. I feel sure 
the other owners would do the same. My land lies across Highway SO, 12 miles 
west of Yuma, just east of Springers Service Station. 

With plenty of cheap electricity generated at nearby dams, there could be a 
pumping plant installed at the nearest point on the canal to the northeast, or 
highest corner, of this land. The cost would not be great, the land is almost level, 
hence little cost to prepare for irrigation. Of course, the Japs would do the work. 

Also west of the sand hills there is much more land that could be put into culti- 
vation ; while it is not so level, the water lift would be less. 

This seems like a good way to develop our desert and a good place for the 
Japs, Germs, etc. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Hugh M. Gallagher. 

Los Angeles, Calif., 

February 7, 1942. 
Federal Security Agency, 

Washington, D. C. 

Gentlemen: I though you might be interested in knowing good location 
where the aliens would not be mixed with other people and where the land and 
water could be supplied at a small cost. This land mentioned is all desert, very 
nearly level, and the water cost would not be great, it being so near to the Ail- 
American Canal. (See copy of letter enclosed.) 

The people of the West, the ones that have given this matter any serious thought, 
know that Japan began sending its people to this coast and other Pacific lands to 
act in this, present, long planned for cri.sis, they come with instructions not 
onlv to be loyal to Japan but to rear their children to be loyal; they send them to 
the" hundreds of Jap schools scattered throughout the Pacific coast (one two 
blocks from me), and we know what they are taught. If you are sent to Japan 
to work and you had children born there, would you expect them to be loyal to 
Japan? No; absolutely no. Neither can we expect a Jap to be loyal to the white 
race that he has eternally, for generations, been taught to despise. Nope, just 
because a Jap is born here does not make him white, loyal, trustworthy, or even 
a citizen in the true sense of the meaning. 

The people of the West know that if and when the Japs attack us that all these 
Japs will turn on us and with the knowledge they have gained all these years 
will be put to a great advantage. They are so bold that they even write letters 
to authorities asking for detail information of our water system, location of dams, 
and all details. Also of the detail of many other things, such as gasoline refineries, 
location, amounts, and, so on, too much to give in a letter. I might mention 
that Japs are employed in our power system, water works, in fact about every 
political branch of our Government. I have a son taking a flying course at 
Phoenix, Ariz., and there is a Jap servicing planes, Sky Harbor Airport. For- 
tunately for the Jap, he does not service the planes in my boy's class, but some- 



11046 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

body's boy, some one's son, has to fly a plane that a Japanese American citizen 
is servicing. It only takes a drop of acid, a loose nut, or a little sugar to destroy 
life and plane. 

America should wake up. 
Respectfully yours, 

Hugh M. Gallaher. 

Federal Security Agency, 

Social Security Board, 
Washington, February 17, 1942. 
Mr. Hugh M. Gallaher, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
Dear Mr. Gallaher: Your letter of the 7th, addressed to the Federal Security 
Agency in Washington, enclosing a copy of your letter of the 5th to Governor 
Olson, has been referred to me. 

As you know, the responsibility for the care, surveillance and, custody of 
enemy aliens is vested exclusively in the United States Department of Justice. 
They have established certain specific areas from which such people are pro- 
hibited. Furthermore, the Department of Justice has asked this agency to aid 
such families in the actual process of resettling outside of the prohibited areas. 
We are doing this through the facilities of the United States Employment Service 
and other Bureaus of this Agency on an individual basis. We hope to be of such 
help that all the families that must move at this time, under the orders of the 
Department of Justice, wil 1 have so moved without undue hardship by the 
effective date of the order, which in most instances is February 24. 

If the need develops for handling these people on a mass basis involving the 
use of large acreage, I shall be very glad to see to it that your proposal is given 
consideration. 

Sincerely yours, 

Richard M. Neustadt, 

Regional Director. 

Cutler, Calif., February 19, 1942. 
Richard M. Neustadt, 

Office of Defense, Health, and Welfare Services, 

Social Security Bureau, San Francisco, Calif. 
We the citizens' committee of Orosi Township, after a discussion held last 
night, demand that some action be taken at once regarding the Japanese situation 
in this vicinity. Further, we demand that all Japanese that are now here and 
those that are being moved in here be removed not only for our safety but also 
for their safety. We fear that unless immediate action is taken the situation may 
get out of hand. Urgent action must be taken. 

Orosi Citizens' Committee, 
Wendell G. Travioli, Chairman. 

San Francisco, Calif., 

February 19, 1942. 
Mr. Wendell G. Travioli, 

Chairman, Orosi Citizens' Committee, 

Orosi, Calif. 
Reurtel 19th, please be advised that Department of Justice is vested exclusively 
with authority to handle all problems pertaining to alien enemies. It is their 
exclusive duty to determine what areas these poeple will be prohibited from living 
and working 'in, and they do so at the request of the United States Army and 
Navy. At request of Department of Justice, this Agency is facilitating removal 
of these aliens and their families from prohibited areas to those called restricted 
areas or free areas. General De Witt, commanding western command, has 
reported to the Attorney General the following which has been decreed by Attorney 
General: "That restricted areas, or B areas, are those areas through which or in 
which alien enemies may be permitted on pass or permit." May I remind you 
further that these people are entitled to full protection of law as long as they are 
outside of the prohibited areas and obey the regulations of the Department of 
Justice. Are you fully conscious of the fact that the alien enemy regulations affect 
the Italians and Germans as well as Japanese. These matters must be left to the 
Federal Government, and it is the duty of all Americans and all local law enforce- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11047 

ment agencies to observe the law and keep the peace. If you desire to testify- 
before the congressional committee Saturday at their meeting here, they certainly 
will be glad to hear from you. 

Richard M. Neustadt. 



Exhibit H. — Some Employment Possibilities for Japanese 

INTEROFFICE COMMUNICATION TO RICHARD M. NEUSTADT, REGIONAL DIRECTOR, 
FEDERAL SECURITY AGENCY, SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD, FROM JAMES G. BRYANT, 
REGIONAL REPRESENTATIVE 

March 12, 1942. 

FARM LABOR DEMAND FOR JAPANESE EVACUEES 

The Amalgamated Sugar Co., with headquarters in Ogden, Utah, with sugar 
refineries in Nyssa, Oreg., and a new plant being built in Nampa, Idaho, expect 
to have under contract 30,000 acres of sugar beets in the Boise Valley, with the 
total labor requirement of 3,000 workers needed, beginning work about May 1, 
and 25,000 acres of sugar beets at Twin Falls, total requirement of 2,500 workers. 
Mr. Benning, general manager, indicates that in these two operations his company 
could use 1,600 Japanese. 

Housing. — There are 4 Civilian Conservation Corps camps, approximately 200- 
man capacity, located in Harper, Vale, Nyssa, and Ontario, and 2 other usable 
Civilian Conservation Corps camps at Rupert and Malta. 

There are also two large permanent Farm Security Administration camps at 
Caldwell and Twin Falls, Idaho. Mobile Farm Security Administration camps 
also operate in the area. 

The Amalgamated Sugar Co. has company camps at Nyssa, Oreg., and Twin 
Falls and Paul, Idaho. These camps would accommodate 90 single workers and 
the company has recently purchased 50 additional tents. 

Season of employment. — The blocking and thinning operation will last from 6 
weeks to 2 months, followed by hoeing and irrigation operations, and then the 
harvest during October and November. 

The area in which the sugar-beet acreage occurs grows a wide variety of other 
crops requiring labor so that it is practicable to conclude that workers arriving 
in this area in the spring could be employed throughout the entire summer season. 

OTHER SUGAR-BEET COMPANIES 

"The other sugar companies operating in the area of the western command will 
likely need Japanese labor, if it can be made available, as follows: 

Great Western Sugar Company — operations in Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, 
and Montana; 250,000 acres sugar beets, using 25,000 workers. 

Spreckles Sugar Co. — California, 100,000 acres sugar beets, using 10,000 
workers. 

American Crystal — Cahfornia, western Montana, and Colorado; 50,000 acres 
sugar beets, using 5,000 workers. 

Holly — California, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana; 75,000 acres sugar 
beets, using 7,500 workers. 

Utah-Idaho — Utah, Idaho, and Montana; 100,000 acres sugar beets, using 
10,000 workers. 

The above are rough estimates, indicative of acreages and labor requirements. 

I have been personally contacted by Spreckles and Great Western, evidencing 
their interest in the use of Japanese help this year. 

Mr. Benning, of Amalgamated Sugar Co., tells me that a definite statement by 
the Army and the United States Employment Service, indicating that Japanese 
workers will be made available for sugar-beet operations, will definitely result in 
an increased planting of sugar beets and consequential production of sugar in the 
area of the western command. 

Mr. Robert K. Malcolm, Dixon, Calif., whose farming interests are located on 
Liberty Island in the Sacramento Valley, and who at present has his land leased to 
4 Japanese families, comprising 20 people, and farming 800 acres devoted to 
asparagus, onions, tomatoes, and corn, is anxious to continue the use of these 
farm families and could use 15 Japanese men at once and would need 50 more 
within 3 or 4 weeks. The operations have formerly been handled by Japanese 
and Filipinos. Wages set for cutting pay $1.50 for 100 pounds but will pay what- 
ever is the going wage, probably 45 cents an hour. Housing: Mr. Malcolm has 



11048 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

housing for the number of workers indicated and could probably accommodate 
several more families with his present housing. He is concerned particularly in 
determining whether or not he can arrange to keep the present farm families as 
tenants and whether or not he can use Japanese help during the current asparagus 
harvest. 

The B. E. Maling Co. at Hillsboro, Oreg., have under contract 1,000 acres of 
strawberries, owned and operated by Japanese in Washington County, in Oregon, 
in prohibited area zone 1-A. The company has advanced considerable funds for 
growing the strawberries and have chattel mortgages on the crop. Harvest of the 
crop will occur during June. 

Mr. Henderson, manager for the Maling Co., is interested in knowing whether 
or not the Japanese will be permitted to remain on their land until the crop is 
harvested, and whether or not it will be possible to use Japanese labor of the 
vicinity in which the harvest operates. 

Mr. Joe Brooks, representing California Asparagus Growers, Walnut Grove, 
Calif., represents the interest of his association in using Japanese labor during the 
asparagus harvest and has suggested the use of 81 cabins used by Libby, McNeill 
& Libby on the site of an old cannery along the Sacramento River near Ryder. 

If the Japanese can be used in the asparagus harvest in the vicinity of Stockton, 
Mr. Brooks will be glad to take up the matter of such control measures as might 
be required by the Army in the assignment and use of these workers through the 
United States Employment Service. 

The Jesse Valley Peat Products Co. at Likely, Calif., have indicated that they 
would like to use a crew of about 50 Japanese workers. They indicate they have 
an ideal place as the peat moss beds or deposit are about 20 miles from the nearest 
town, in an isolated type of area. 

Mr. Henderson, representative potato grower, of Klamath Falls, Oreg., sug- 
gests the use of Japanese labor in the potato and sugar-beet harvest for October 
and November. 

Mr. Lloyd Hughes, Yakima, Wash., indicates the willingness of the hop 
growers to use Japanese labor during the spring training and fall harvest of hops 
in the Yakima Valley. Adequate housing, is available. Mr. Hughes also 
indicates that, if labor was available, he would be willing to lease land to Japanese 
to grow tomatoes and hire them to do the work, if the Government wants the 
tomatoes. 

The above illustrations are typical of many inquiries that have been coming to 
the Farm Placement Service since the possibility of evacuation of Japanese has 
become public information. 

Many of these large growers have indicated that they would be glad to appear 
before the Army and present definite detailed propositions for employment and 
housing of the Japanese labor if this labor is available for seasonal agricultural 
work. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARD H. NEUSTADT— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. What agencies, local, State, or national, are render- 
ing welfare services in the evacuating of aliens? 

Mr. Neustadt. There are no local agencies that I know of that 
are playing any part in it. The State Welfare Department has loaned 
to us about 20 of their workers. The county welfare departments in 
three cases have loaned us staff services. We are taking those social 
workers and assigning them to the employment offices. People come 
in to register for work, to file unemployment compensation claims, 
and to seek information, advice, and assistance. In the case of the 
State department, due to State law we have had to take that staff 
over on the Federal pay roll. The Farm Security Administration 
has helped materially. The C. C. C. and the other Federal agencies 
having facilities have helped us examine those facilities to determine 
whether they could be used for this purpose. 

We have endeavored not to have any mass evacuation, insofar as 
possible under the present rules of the Department of Justice. We 
have sought from the State as a possible last resort, if we needed it, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11049 

the right to use the barracks of what was formerly the S. R. A., the 
State Relief Administration, now under the control of the State 
Department of Finance. 

But because of this new order of the President we are abandoning 
any idea of using such large-scale camps. 

UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION PAYMENTS TO EVACUEES 

Mr. Arnold. Is the Social Security Board permitting the payment 
of unemployment compensation to unemployed aliens who are other- 
wise eligible for benefits? 

Mr. Neustadt. Most certainly. 

Mr. Arnold. Is it discretionary with the State to make such 
payments? 

Mr. Neustadt. I wouldn't think so under the standards of the 
Social Security Act. They would have to pay them to all alike. 

Mr. Arnold. What is the situation regarding other social-security 
benefits? 

Mr. Neustadt. They may receive any benefits to which they are 
entitled under the law. The unemployment compensation is the one 
that would affect the most. When you come to public assistance 
grants, of course that varies State by State. In California, for ex- 
ample, the Old Age Assistance Act of California, or the Old Age 
Security Act, as they call it, bars any grants to anybody but citizens. 
In the dependent children grant that is not true, but unfortunately in 
this State their law bars or narrows the definition of the right to grant 
benefits to children except for clear cases of half-orphans, and their 
interpretation of that is much narrower. They will not give grants to 
a family, for example, if the location of the man is known. Therefore, 
it is doubtful whether they could give under their State law grants 
to these cases even if the man were interned. W T e could give grants 
out of this particular new Federal fund, or this temporary Federal 
fund, of course. 

Mr. Arnold. It is true, of course, that all aliens are at the present 
time barred from W. P. A. employment. Do you know whether 
American citizens, naturalized or born of parents who are aliens, 
encounter special difficulties in obtaining W. P. A. work? 

Mr. Neustadt. I never heard of any. 

Mr. Arnold. We have heard numerous reports that citizens in 
various parts of the State have threatened to take matters into their 
own hands if the State or National Government does not act. What 
is your opinion of this situation? 

need for prompt federal action 

Mr. Neustadt. There have been certain direct instances, all of 
which I have turned over to the attorney general, Mr. Earl Warren, 
and he is looking into them. We hear a good many others that are 
rumors. We have never been able to track them down. We have 
had two or three direct, straightforward statements giving names and 
instances, and those have been -forwarded to the attorney general 
promptly and he has taken action. 



11050 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

I think a great many of the rumors are well founded and that there 
would be a great deal of this local trouble 

Mr. Arnold. If the Federal Government does not act promptly? 

Mr. Neustadt. That's right. If we don't get a thoroughly con- 
sidered and accepted plan. It must be thoroughly considered, thor- 
oughly accepted, and thoroughly respected, and the average individ- 
ual or the local law-enforcement officer must somehow be induced to 
accept the responsibility as that of the Federal Government and not 
take the law into his own hands. 

Mr. Arnold. Apparently the President's Executive order of yester- 
day places full control over the evacuation problem in the hands of 
the War Department. Do you know what measures the War De- 
partment expects to use in the evacuation of citizens and aliens? 

Mr. Neustadt. No, sir. . 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know whether the War Department plans 
to call on the Federal Security Agency to assist in the evacuation? 

Mr. Neustadt. No, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. That is, you don't know? 

Mr. Neustadt. I don't know. 

The Chairman. We are going to ask General DeWitt this after- 
noon about that. 

Mr. Neustadt. That is fine. He has promised to let me know. 

Mr. Arnold. Has there been any discussion of the type of work 
which the people evacuated will do in their new locations? If so, 
would you tell us in some detail of these discussions? 

employment of aliens 

Mr. Neustadt. There has been a great deal of discussion. There 
are somewhere between nine and ten thousand enemy aliens involved 
in or living in the present prohibited areas. We have seen about 
6,500 of them, that is, up to the day before yesterday — I don't know 
of yesterday's count — so that I think by the 23d or the 24th we will 
have seen practically all of them. There is a great deal of discussion 
in California which assumes that these people are primarily agricul- 
tural workers. That is an incorrect assumption. I have no statistics 
but we do know that a great many of these people are not agricultural 
workers. 

If you think of the Italians, they are primarily vineyardists and 
fishermen. While they undoubtedly as a people know and love the 
land, they are not agricultural workers by most recent, long-time 
employment. 

With respect to the Japanese, I again cannot give you the figures. 
A great many of them are on the land, but there are also a great many 
urban people following the usual vocations in the city. 

Of course, the Germans involved are for the most part clerical and 
professional people; very few agriculturalists. 

We have had a good many proposals made to us by large-scale agri- 
cultural companies of their need for alien enemies to work on their 
land. The total, I think, runs to 22,000. That is the number they 
say they want. But that is for short-time occupation, several months, 
perhaps, and it does not start now. The only crop that is up now is 
asparagus. They will take enemy aliens there and several of them are 
now being placed. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11051 

The canneries undoubtedly will take a great many of them during 
the canning season. In fact, the picture is one of both wanting their 
cake and wanting to eat it too. The same people who are protesting 
and demanding that all these people be driven out of the State also 
want all of them to work in the fields and in the canneries. They will 
talk to you about the agricultural shortage. At the same time they 
will talk to you about driving all these people out of the State. 

Mr. Arnold. What Federal agencies are best equipped to handle 
the evacuation of aliens and citizens? 

Mr. Neustadt. In vast numbers? 

Mr. Arnold. Yes. 

Mr. Neustadt. None. 

Mr. Arnold. No Federal agencies are equipped? 

Mr. Neustadt. At this time? No. You could theoretically work 
it out with the Farm Security. 

Mr. Arnold. Farm Security might be better? 

housing problems 

Mr. Neustadt. But it wouldn't mean anything. The problem of 
housing would have to be faced and faced realistically. None of the 
camps are big enough now to handle it. Certainly none have staff 
big enough to handle it. Farm Security has had more knowledge 
and experience than anyone else. Of course, the C. C. C. has had 
a great deal of experience. But when you think of where their camps 
are and the fact that they are set up only for boys, not for families, 
the problem is aggravated. 

We have had the authority from Washington to open up Indian 
schools in Oklahoma, but they would require certainly a new set-up, 
a new staff, and they are not built for this purpose. Nor would you 
want, I assume, to have these people kept in utter idleness. In 
addition to housing, you have to think of work opportunities. 

Mr. Arnold. Then it is your considered opinion that no Federal 
agency is now equipped to handle the problem. Apparently some 
Federal agency or agencies will have to become equipped speedily? 

Mr. Neustadt. Well, I want to say this. I can't speak for all the 
Federal agencies, but from my knowledge of them they could impro- 
vise a sketchy, inadequate form of handling these people. It would 
be done kindly but not well. A combination of such agencies or even 
any one that you selected, especially if authorized to handle it and 
given additional finance to handle it, certainly could get itself in shape 
to do so. The task is not an impossible one, but it has to be defined 
in clear-cut lines and it has to be thought through. I am begging 
for the "thought through" process. 

FEW RESTRICTIONS ON EMPLOYMENT OF EVACUEES 

Mr. Arnold. What types of work do you think these evacuees 
should be employed in? 

Mr. Neustadt. Any kind of work that they can do, and that 
runs the whole gamut. The only prohibition on the use of alien 
enemies in plants now is in parts of plants using confidential informa- 
tion and in airplane factories. The President has issued a proclama- 
tion asking all employers, even those on defense work not involving 

00306 — 12— pt. 29 7 



11052 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

secret or confidential plans, to employ them. And that should be 
carried out. They can work anywhere. 

Mr. Arnold. In their present skills? 

Mr. Neustadt. In their present skills. Now, you do catch, of 
course, a very unfortunate group of Italian fishermen. Their skill is 
fishing. They are not so young. Whether they could be retrained 
is a question. There is much doubt in my mind. Obviously, if you 
take the prohibited area away from them, there "ain't no place to 
fish." 

Mr. Arnold. Should evacuation be wholesale, or should a flexible 
policy be established by which exceptions could be made of enemy 
aliens or citizens whose loyalty the Army or Navy or other officials 
will vouch for? 

Mr. Neustadt. I have a fairly definite answer to that as a recom- 
mendation. Would you mind my reading it? 

Mr. Arnold. I would be glad to have you read it. 

SUGGESTS A "SURGICAL" EVACUATION 

Mr. Neustadt. I would say, if you are talking in large numbers, 
larger than this 10,000 that you would have to have a mass evacuation. 
May I say that the most unfortunate part of this whole thing is the 
uncertainty that has been bred in the minds of those people who are 
going to be evacuated. The kindest thing you could do would be 
"surgical." Make up your mind that you are going to evacuate these 
people and evacuate them, then start over again. You cannot expect 
people to keep their poise, to put it mildly, if they are ordered to 
move out of one area into another today, and then fear that tomorrow 
they are going to have to move again. Nor can they afford to do it. 
So that I say, let's think clean and cut clean. I plead for surgery. 

More in answer to your question, may I say that the declaration of 
areas should take into full consideration the possibility of effective 
portions of the population finding other residences as well as other 
work. I want to emphasize that. You have a housing problem on 
your hands anywhere in California or in the West, and I don't doubt 
in the East, too. 

Whenever possible, and where no other resources are available, 
public housing on as decent a scale as possible should be provided. 

ALIENS WHO SHOULD NOT BE EVACUATED 

Some legal way should be found to narrow the classification of 
enemy aliens so as to eliminate, if possible, these groups: 

(a) Those known by Federal authorities to have come to this 
country because our enemy countries have canceled their citizenship 
but who have not been here long enough to acquire American citizen- 
ship. There are a great many such, primarily perhaps among the 
Germans, the refugees from Hitler, but also among other races as 
well. 

(b) Those who because of circumstances of long residence in this 
country, age, infirmity, having sons in the armed forces or otherwise, 
satisfy Federal investigators as to their loyalty to the United States. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11053 

(c) Those who are elderly or mature individuals, such as a wife or 
a mother, where all of the other members of the family are citizens 
and where there is clear record that failure to obtain citizenship is 
caused by reasons other than disloyalty to this country or loyalty to 
other countries with which we are at war. 

I do not want to cite individual cases unless you are interested m 
them, but the hardships over and above the economic hardships of 
moving that are caused by disruption of family life could catch any 
sob sister's interest, if you want them. I don't want to put this on 
the sentimental side, but what we are doing by a mass evacuation is 
catching a great many innocents as well as any who might be subjected 
to suspicion. And I plead against that as an individual American 
citizen. Certainly some scheme should be improvised so that those 
who are obviously by record known to be not only innocent but 
incapable of harm", because of age or infirmity or other reasons, should 
be exempt. 

I certainly think that we can give you instances of an old Italian 
family, or others as well, with sons in the Army. What you are doing 
is moving the mother. That isn't what you intended or the President 
intended or the Attorney General intended, and I don't think it is 
what the Army will intend. 

Mr. Arnold. What would you say with respect to the Japanese? 
Mr. Neustadt. I would say the same thing as far as I know, but I 
am not a detective or law-enforcement officer. Personally I feel the 
same way about the Japanese as I feel toward anybody else. They 
are obviously subject to more suspicion because the war, on this coast 
at least, is with Japan. Also because the Japanese, not being entitled 
to citizenship in California or the rest of the country, are subject to 
suspicion. Also because there is, unfortunately, a race prejudice 
against the Japanese that has been long existent. But there are cases 
of Japanese families in which the one you are moving is the mother, 
and the son is in the Army. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have. If you have further material that 
you wish to insert in our record it will remain open for 10 days or 2 
weeks and you may have that opportunity. 

Mr. Neustadt. I have, I think, given everything I have that exists 
in the form of a report. 

The Chairman. Mr. Neustadt, my reaction to the testimony that 
I have heard this morning is not very favorable. I think there is a 
deplorable situation on the Pacific coast here regarding evacuation 
and I think Congress is going to know about it in our report. 
Mr. Neustadt. Surely. 

The Chairman. But we can't pin any blame onto any particular 
agency. It has come upon us all at once, but that shouldn't stop us 
now preparing and doing something about it. 
Mr. Neustadt. That is correct. 

The Chairman. It is possible that the entire Pacific coast may be 
evacuated. They tell me back in Washington that it is not only pos- 
sible but probable that the Pacific coast will be bombed. That has 
come to me from men who are supposed to know. So the evacuation 
may run into hundreds of thousands of people. 
Mr. Neustadt. That is right. 



11054 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

TASK TOO GREAT FOR SINGLE FEDERAL AGENCY 

The Chairman. The first thing we should have — and I am surprised 
that we haven't it as yet — is a regional office for the Alien Property 
Custodian. That should be done first. 

Mr. Neustadt. That is one of the most deplorable features of it. 

The Chairman. Do you think that the Social Security alone, if 
given the money, could handle the evacuation ; that is, taking care of 
these people? 

Mr. Neustadt. No; I do not. I am grateful for the fact that the 
Army is going to handle it. 

The Chairman. Now, the Army is interested primarily in the 
national defense. 

Mr. Neustadt. That's right. That is, primarily. 

The Chairman. And the Army is in no position to go into these 
hardship cases, so far as that is concerned, to see where they should 
go. They have got to get them out of here, and they have got to get 
them out in a hurry. 

Mr. Neustadt. That's right. 

The Chairman. But the thought occurred to me — you gave a hint 
of it — that a combination of agencies, the Farm Security, the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, your agency, might be the solution. Then if we 
have a man like you at the head of it, or some control at the head of it, 
I think it could be attended to. 

Mr. Neustadt. Thank you very much for that, Congressman. 
May I say this? As far as the combination of Federal agencies is 
concerned, there is through the Office of Defense Health and Welfare 
Services, which is an office set up by the President with Governor 
McNutt as the director, a coordination of some 32 Federal departments 
having anything to do with health, welfare, education, nutrition, and 
recreation. 

Out on the coast here we have a very fine coordinating council of 
those 32 agencies. I am the chairman. I don't know that you need 
any more legal coordination than you already have. 

What I was saying was in no way a criticism of anybody. If you 
are going to have such a mass evacuation, and only the Army can 
know how large that should be and what areas it should be and should 
direct that, then I would plead that that be done surgically and those 
people be removed to a prepared camp. Right away. Under Army 
supervision, plus any civilian supervision they desire. And then we 
can begin to go back and let out those people who can prove their 
loyalty. 

The Chairman. Mr. Neustadt, from the Mississippi on west you 
know our country about as well as anyone I personally know. Where 
are these people going to go? 

NOBODY WANTS EVACUEES 

Mr. Neustadt. That has haunted me night and day, sir. I have 
seen resolutions of the governors, the chambers of commerce, and all 
the hospitality centers west of the Rocky Mountain States. They 
don't want them either. 

May I say that all they are talking about is Japanese. We have had 
telegrams from all the towns in California protesting. One of them 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11055 

bothered me a bit because the signer had a very Italian-sounding 
name. He demanded that all those of Japanese origin, the citizens 
and aliens, should be evacuated. I don't think he realized that if this 
were done governmentally, he also might join the evacuees. 

The Chairman. You can't put them in Nevada, you can't put them 
in Arizona very well. You haven't the housing. 

Mr. Neustadt. No, sir. 

The Chairman. And you haven't the soil. 

Mr. Neustadt. No, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. Supposing you picked out Nebraska, 
just as a hypothetical case, and Nebraska didn't want them? 

Mr. Neustadt. I think what you have to do is to face it. If you 
are going to have mass evacuation of a hundred thousand or more, 
prepare camps for them and put them there. Have as fine a camp as 
you can and under regular Army routine and discipline. And set up 
your courts and, as you get jobs for them, let them come back. The 
Employment Service, although the shortage of labor is very real in 
our defense plants, could not take these people and put them in in a 
week's time with all the uncertainties there are. And they have got 
to go Tuesday. Ten thousand. And whenever the Army speaks it 
will be "that" Tuesday. We are not equipped to do that. All the 
Federal Government agencies and civilian agencies that I know of are 
set up, planned, and directed to work on the basis of individuals. 
But when you are talking in terms of a hundred thousand, you had 
better plan that and do it and then go back on the individual basis. 

The Chairman. Yes; Mr. Neustadt. 

Mr. Neustadt. None of these States will object, by the way, I am 
sure, to a camp supervised by the Army. 

FIRST EVACUATION ORDER 

The Chairman. The evacuation order goes into effect on Tuesday; 
does it not? 

Mr. Neustadt. Yes; the 24th. 

The Chairman. There will be about 10,000 evacuated; is that right? 

Mr. Neustadt. I can't tell you exactly how many. The first date 
was the 15th, and they will all be out of those prohibited areas on the 
24th. 

The Chairman. All right. The responsibility of the Army is to get 
them out of the areas? 

Mr. Neustadt. That is the responsibility of the Department of 
Justice. 

The Chairman. Oh, they get them out? 

Mr. Neustadt. We facilitate. We were asked on behalf of the 
Department of Justice to facilitate the removal. We are just a service 
agency. We have done the interviewing of these people. We have 
done the advising of where they cannot be and where they can be. 
We have at the request of the Department of Justice issued travel 
permits and we know they will be gone. We don't expect to find very 
many in the prohibited areas. There may be a few who can't find 
housing. 

The Chairman. So the mechanics are simply this. The Army 
fixed the strategic areas? 



11056 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Neustadt. The Army asked the Department of Justice to 
decide on the areas up until the time the new order becomes effective. 
The Department of Justice decrees those areas. Now, of course, in 
the new order of the President that is all swept away and the Army 
decrees. 

Mr. Arnold. Let me ask, they don't need to move any further 
than the border line of the prohibited area; is that correct? 

Mr. Neustadt. As far as the law goes, General DeWitt himself has 
issued a letter saying that they may go anywhere outside the pro- 
hibited area. They are doubling up with their relatives and friends. 
Certainly, that is all they can do. That is all we could have done in 
the same circumstances. 

The Chairman. Supposing you haven't got relatives or friends? 

Mr. Neustadt. Well, we have had all kinds of help from all kinds 
of agencies trying to dig out places they could rent. The difficulty 
of that is the fact that the particular areas, like the East Bay from 
Pittsburg right straight down to Alameda, include all the low-cost 
housing area in the prohibited zone. I am still afraid that there will 
be some people wanting to move on the 23d for whom no housing will 
actually be available. 

The Chairman. Is there anything else you desire to add, Mr. 
Neustadt? 

IMMEDIATE NEED FOR PROPERTY CUSTODIAN 

Mr. Neustadt. I would like to plead again, if there is any way by 
law, that some way be found to have a custodian of property right 
now, and not wait for the appointment of any custodian. There 
must be some way whereby Congress could designate Federal Reserve 
banks or someone else to be custodian of these small properties. It 
should have been done 2 weeks ago. 

The Chairman. I understand that jurisdiction lies within the 
Treasury Department. 

Mr. Neustadt. Well, I don't know. 

The Chairman. We phoned to Washington yesterday. 

Mr. Neustadt. We cannot make up the loss, and it is not only the 
loss to the small individual shopkeeper or rancher, but it is the loss 
to the crops. I am sure Mr. Thompson of the Department of Agri- 
culture will tell you that a great many of the crops that are badly 
needed for lend-lease and for victory have already been planted, 
and there is involved a serious loss because of a fear and uncertainty 
of what is going to happen. I know you know that situation. 

The Chairman. We had hardly arrived here, Mr. Neustadt, when 
we were impressed with the absence of any agency or official who 
could take care of alien property. So we immediately phoned to 
Washington and we probably will have more information today. 
But that must be attended to, even before we turn in our report, if 
possible. 

Mr. Neustadt. Certainly. You might be interested in this sum- 
mary of the people who have not been able to completely help them- 
selves. Of the 6,500 who have come in, 4,100 have sat down long 
enough to tell us their problems and how they are solving them 
themselves. The others just came in and got information and they 
have gone on their way. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11057 

Of these families 2,300 had already moved or found their own 
homes; 1,300 others said they could find housing for themselves; 
500 must be helped to find homes. This was a report as of Thursday. 
Of these, at least 100 will have to be given some emergency care. 
I might add there that agencies like the Friends Service Committee, 
the Quakers, Japanese-American Citizens League, German societies 
and Italian societies are all pitching in to help on that emergency 
care type of thing. 

You might also be interested in one or two stories, if you so desire. 
I don't know whether you do or not and I don't want to indulge 
in them if you don't wish them. 

The Chairman. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Neustadt. We engaged Mr. Ottorino Ronchi, former professor 
of Italian at the University of California, and editor of La Voce del 
Popolo, for the specific purpose of going around to the Italian groups, 
particularly in the Pittsburg-Vallejo area, both of which are prohib- 
ited now, and down to the Monterey-Santa Cruz area where the 
fishing groups are. Mr. Ronchi was engaged to go down and circulate 
among the Italian people, who are not very well organized among 
themselves and do not read the American press or listen to the radio 
and very often don't even read their own press, just to see if they 
knew that they had to move. Mr. Ronchi would be glad, I am sure, 
to give you one or two instances. 

TESTIMONY OF OTTORINO RONCHI, FORMER PROFESSOR OF 
ITALIAN AT UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AND FORMER EDITOR 
OF LA VOCE DEL POPOLO, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Ronchi. I just got back from Monterey. In Monterey the 
situation is very drastic. They are all fishermen, oh, from 100 to 175, 
and have to leave. So I interviewed many people. Among them I 
interviewed a woman about 60 years old. She was a widow. Her 
son was killed at Pearl Harbor and the next day the other son enlisted. 

Now she is alone. She is not an American citizen. She has no 
property and she will have to go away from Monterey. So I asked her 
about how she felt. 

"Well," she said, "I wish I had a couple of more children. I will 
send them to fight. My interest is in America." 

There is another case of a young woman, about 25 or 26, I think, 
married to a soldier. She has two children. They have to move. 
And those people, they have no money, they have no place to go. 
We try at the employment office. Its staff works very hard. They 
are very human, they try very hard, and they have tried to find work 
for the evacuees in Salinas, Santa Clara Valley, but with little success. 

In Pittsburg you find very many families where they have one or 
two sons in the Army and they have to move. Also in Monterey, 
the Government took the boats of the fishermen. And now they have 
no money, they have not been able to fish and they could not do any- 
thing else; only fishing, you know. They try to find jobs. They 
try to go ahead in that. But I think the next 2 or 3 months they will 
have a tragic situation. They will not know what to do, and the 
different counties of the State and Federal Government will have to 
support them and there will be a tremendous disruption of life. 



11058 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Suppose you have a mother who is not an American citizen, the 
father is a citizen and the children are American citizens. The mother 
will have to go away and leave the father there, or vice versa, you see. 
So something must be done for those people there. 

You see, I must have talked with more than 1,000 people, you 
know, from Martinez down to Monterey. They have no American 
citizenship in their pockets, but America is in their hearts. 

The Chairman. You have to think along a little bit further in the 
future. Some day this war is going to be over. You say that this 
Italian mother had one son killed at Pearl Harbor? 

Mr. Ronchi. Yes. 

The Chairman. One son killed at Pearl Harbor, another son 
enlisted. 

Mr. Ronchi. Right away. Volunteered. 

The Chairman. But when the future comes I don't know how that 
enlisted boy will feel if his mother doesn't have some sort of care. 

Mr. Neustadt. That's right. 

Mr. Ronchi. That's human. That's the human side of the 
question. 

TESTIMONY OF RICHARD H. NEUSTADT— Resumed 

Mr. Neustadt. I don't think any of us think of that mother as 
an alien enemy. I think that is a point to make. One can't question 
the loyalty of the son, but I also want to point out that one can't 
question the loyalty of that mother. 

Mr. Sparkman. Under the terms of the Executive order of yes- 
terday do you understand that the military commander would have 
the right to give her leave to work? 

Mr. Neustadt. He would have complete right to do anything he 
likes. He could make exceptions or not, as he saw fit. 

Mr. Sparkman. Don't you assume that cases such as these out- 
standing hardship cases will be dealt with? 

Mr. Neustadt. I certainly would gladly assume so, but I thought 
one way of helping that assumption is just to say it to you. That's all. 

The Chairman. And your point is also that there should be some 
agency on top of that problem now? 

Mr. Neustadt. And it should be the Army. 

The Chairman. And it should be the Army. Thank you very 
much, gentlemen. We appreciate your coming here. 

The committee will stand adjourned until 2 o'clock this afternoon. 

(Whereupon, at 12:15 p. m. the committee recessed until 2 p. m.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



saturday, february 21, 1942 

afternoon session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 

The committee met at 2 p. m. in the Post Office Building, San 
Francisco, Calif., Hon. John H. Tolan (chairman) presiding. 

Present were Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of Cali- 
fornia; Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois; and John J. Sparkman, of 
Alabama. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; John W. Abbott, 
chief field investigator; Leonard A. Thomas, counsel; and F. P. 
Weber, economist. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

Mr. Sparkman, I understood you had something to offer for the 
record. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Chairman, I thought it might be well for the 
sake of the record to insert a copy of the President's Executive order. 
We have referred to it quite frequently this morning. Here is a reprint 
of it taken from today's paper and I would like to offer that at this 
time to be inserted in the record. 

The Chairman. Do you want to read it? 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, I don't believe I will take the time to 
read it, but I would like to call attention to the fact, since something 
was said about it this morning, that the Executive 'order that the 
President issued yesterday provides that the Secretary of War in 
removing any of these people shall furnish transportation, food, 
shelter, and other accommodations that may be necessary. Further- 
more, it provides, I believe [examining Executive order] that he can 
call upon any of the other executive departments, independent 
establishments, and Federal agencies to assist the Secretary of War 
and the military commanders in carrying out the provisions of the 
Executive order. 

Another thing I think might be of interest. Mr. Neustadt was 
telling us about that particular case down at Monterey, the widow 
who had the son that was killed at Pearl Harbor, and another son who 
is now an enlisted man in the United States Navy. Just a short time 
before that a telegram had been laid before us from the Secretary of 
the Navy urging upon the proper officials that attention be paid and 
consideration be given to that particular case. 

It seems to me that it might be well to bear in mind that the armed 
services have already shown that they do intend to take into considera- 
tion individual cases. 

11059 



11060 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The Chairman. And that they are on the alert on the hardship 
cases. 

Mr. Sparkman. I offer this Executive order for the record. 
(Executive order referred to above is as follows:) 

Executive Okder 
authorizing the secretary of war to prescribe military areas 

Whereas the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protec- 
tion against espionage and against sabotage to national defense material, national 
defense premises, and national defense utilities as defined in section 4, act of 
April 20, 1918, 40 Stat. 533, as amended by the act of November 30, 1940, 54 
Stat. 1220, and the act of August 21, 1941, 55 Stat. 655 (U. S. C, title 50, sec. 
104): 

Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the 
United States, and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I hereby author- 
ize and direct the Secretary of War, and the military commanders who he may 
from time to time designate, whenever he or any designated commander deems 
such action necessary or desirable, to prescribe military areas in such places and 
of such extent as he or the appropriate military commander may determine, from 
which any or all persons may be excluded, and with respect to which, the right 
of any person to enter, remain in, or leave shall be subject to whatever restric- 
tions the Secretary of War or the appropriate military commander may impose 
in his discretion. The Secretary of War is hereby authorized to provide for 
residents of any such area who are excluded therefrom, such transportation, food, 
shelter, and other accommodations as may be necessary, in the judgment of the 
Secretary of War or the said military commander, and until other arrangements 
are made, to accomplish the purpose of this order. The designation of military 
areas in any region or locality shall supersede designations of prohibited and 
restricted areas by the Attorney General under the proclamations of December 
7 and 8, 1941, and shall supersede the responsibility and authority of the Attorney 
General under the said proclamations in respect of such prohibited and restricted 
areas. 

I hereby further authorize and direct the Secretary of War and the said military 
commanders to take such other steps as he or the appropriate military commander 
may deem advisable to enforce compliance with the restrictions applicable to each 
military area hereinabove authorized to be designated, including the use of Federal 
troops and other Federal agencies, with authority to accept assistance of State 
and local agencies. 

I hereby further authorize and direct all executive departments, independent 
sstablishments and other Federal agencies, to assist the Secretary of War or the 
faid military commanders in carrying out this Executive order, including the 
lurnishing of medical aid, hospitalization, food, clothing, transportation, use of 
and, shelter, and other supplies, equipment, utilities, facilities, and services. 

This order shall not be construed as modifying or limiting in any way the 
authority heretofore granted under Executive order No. 8972, dated December 
12, 1941, nor shall it be construed as limiting or modifying the duty and responsi- 
bility of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, with respect to the investigation of 
alleged acts of sabotage or the duty and responsibility of the Attorney General 
and the Department of Justice under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 
1941, prescribing regulations for the conduct and control of alien enemies, except 
as such duty and responsibility is superseded by the designation of military areas 
hereunder. 

The White House, 
February 19, 1942. 

The Chairman. Mr. McCormick and Mr. Travoli would like to 
testify. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11061 

TESTIMONY OF LEROY McCORMICK, ASSISTANT DISTRICT 
ATTORNEY, TULARE COUNTY, CALIF. 

The Chairman. What is your full name, Mr. McCormick? 

Mr. McCormick. Leroy McCormick. 

The Chairman. You are an attorney? 

Mr. McCormick. I am assistant district attorney, of Tulare 
County. 

This is Mr. Wendell G. Travoli [indicating], who represents the 
citizens committee from that county. 

The Chairman. We understand you gentlemen desire to be heard. 
We haven't any set questions so suppose we proceed this way, in- 
formally, and you go ahead and make a statement concerning the 
things that you think would be interesting to the committee and 
valuable to us when we report to Congress. 

Proceed, Air. McCormick. 

Mr. McCormick. We come from the central portion of the State. 
Our county is largely agricultural and we have many Japanese in the 
county. 

The Chairman. Is that Congressman Elliott's district? 

Mr. McCormick. Yes, we are in Mr. Elliott's district. 

Mr. Sparkman. His whole county. 

Mr. McCormick. We know him very well. 

You have had this morning reports from many of the attorneys and 
other fact-finding men. I would prefer now to let Mr. Travoli, who 
represents the citizens, speak. I know Air. Travoli, and what he 
says can be depended upon 100 percent. 

Mr. Travoli. 

TESTIMONY OF WENDELL G. TRAVOLI, REPRESENTING THE 
TULARE COUNTY CITIZENS COMMITTEE, TULARE COUNTY, 
CALIF. 

Mr. Travoli. I wish to state that there is a mass movement of 
Japanese into Tulare County. We have sent quite a few telegrams 
and have received replies, one in particular from Air. Neustadt 
stating that he knew of no mass movement to our county. 

From my own local township, I have a statement here by the con- 
stable that, if you so desire, I will read. 

The Chairman. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Travoli [reading]: 

Orosi, Calif., February 20, 1942. 
To Whom It May Concern: 

Within the last week I have checked six Japanese families into the Orosi 
township. Many more have no doubt come in without bothering to be checked. 
The number of strange Japanese cars and faces is increasing daily. 

In addition to those already here, there has been a request by the Japanese 
minister and other local Japanese residents to locate homes for 40 more families. 
The situation from a law and order viewpoint is serious. 

Floyd H. Clapp, 
Constable, Orosi Toimship. 



11062 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Yesterday, the district attorney received a telegram from the south- 
ern part of the State asking if he could place 200 Japanese families 
from the Palo Verde Hills district. He replied that he could not. 
We were supposed to have a letter from him today but it failed to 
come in the mail, but that can be checked. 

It was discussed over the phone with Mr. McCormick and you can 
consult Walter Haight to verify the statement. 

We have had a lot of Japanese in the community. They have been 
there for a long time. I have been a resident of the community for 
15 years and there were lots of them when I came there. Some of the 
old residents have been there 30 years and there were lots of them 
there when they came. We have had no particular trouble with the 
local residents but more are moving in all the time and the feeling is 
very high in the Orosi district. 

The Los Angeles group figure that they are a menace to them and 
they send them to us. They have stated several times in Los Angeles 
that they are a menace to their power facilities. We have two big 
lines, the Edison lines from Big Creek that run to Los Angeles. They 
go on the east side of Tulare County from one end to the other, and a 
third line from the Big Creek area. The Huntington Lake area is in 
the hills 6 miles east of the double line. 

DANGERS FROM SABOTAGE 

I have pictures here of that big double line that goes through the 
community. There is a picture of the line with Japanese camps with 
hot caps and everything underneath them. Here is a picture of a 
Japanese camp that shows the double power line standing right behind 
the buildings. Here is a picture of our local Orosi substation and the 
Japanese holdings that are immediately diagonally across the road. 

There has been no trouble with the local residents but if these 
aliens are undesirable to Los Angeles and are a menace to their power 
lines we feel that they are still a menace to the Los Angeles power 
lines as they are living underneath them. Those big steels are put 
together with bolts. They are not even riveted. If they don't 
want to use dynamite or a cutting torch to drop one they can do it 
with an ordinary wrench. 

The third line that is in the hills — I have no picture of that — is not 
patrolled at all. Even these others are not patrolled to anybody's 
knowledge. Run through open hills and cattle country and can be 
destroyed, and there would be no way to check it at all. 

The Chairman. How many resident Japanese have you in Tulare 
County, approximately? 

Mr. Travoli. The district attorney might be able to answer that. 

Mr. McCormick. About 2,000. 

The Chairman. Do the native-born children own some land there? 

Mr. Travoli. Plenty of it. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Travoli. During the hard times when good, hard-working 
white people went broke in the Orosi community the Japanese did not. 

The Chairman. Yes. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11063 

Mr. Travoli. We gathered from that that they must have had aid 
from the outside. How else they could have made it nobody in that 
community could figure out. The white people went broke and they 
didn't. They have acquired more land continuously. 

The Chairman. And the land they acquired, some of it is in prox- 
imity to these power lines, you say? 

Mr. Travoli. Yes, sir. I know some of that land. I think all of 
that is owned by the Japanese. I know that several places are. 

The Chairman. Where are these incoming Japanese going to be 
located? 

Mr. Travoli. They just drop in any place. 

The Chairman. With other Japanese? 

MOVEMENT INTO TULARE COUNTY 

Mr. Travoli. Yes, in vacant houses. There was one Japanese 
family from Inglewood that tried to rent a place. The people found 
out they were from Inglewood and they refused to let them move in. 
They are camping everywhere. 

I was out with the constable yesterday morning interviewing one of 
the Japanese boys who he figured was reliable for information. I was 
in company with the constable. We drove into his place and asked 
him how many new families had moved in close to him. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Travoli. He talked a little to one of the other boys and he 
said "three." So immediately Floyd Clapp said "Well, who moved 
into a certain place over there?" "Oh, I forget; one move in there; 
that makes four." 

He asked him if there were any more. "No, I don't think so." 

"Well, who moved in over here?" 

"I forget that fellow; that makes five." 

Before we got through with him he remembered six. 

The Chairman. In other words, the thought you are trying to get 
over to this committee is simply this: The Government should not 
only be concerned with getting them out of a certain area but they 
should be concerned with where they are going? 

Mr. Travoli. Yes, sir; I certainly do. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Travoli. A lot of the fellows that have been answering your 
telephone calls say there is no mass movement. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Travoli. That is one thing I wish to put over, that there is a 
mass movement to Tulare County. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

organization of home guard 

Mr. Travoli. Now, as far as law and order goes everything is in 
hand. We have a constable and he is a deputy that serves 400 square 
miles in that township of Orosi. It runs way back into the hills. He 
is very much excited. This citizens group bunch of us went down and 
talked it over with the sheriff and the district attorney and with their 
advice we organized an Orosi Home Guard to serve within that town- 



11064 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

ship. There are approximately 70 members in that home guard. I 
know of two others that are organizing and a couple of others are being 
organized. We are not organizing against law and order. We are 
organizing to make sure that the situation does not get out of hand. 

I am also a deputy fire warden in Tulare County. I have the 
authority to speak for the county. As you can notice in those 
pictures those places join our foothill area. 

That, gentlemen, is the foothill area that lays immediately below 
General Grant National Park and Sequoia National Park. There is 
about 10 miles of that grass area, then you run into a bunch of 
brushland, then you run into the redwood timber. There is no use 
going into that redwood timber. Everybody knows it is the most 
valuable timber in the whole world. Those trees have taken 5,000 
years to grow. They can be destroyed very easily. There are three 
roads outside of our local township alone that lead into those moun- 
tains; those roads are not guarded at any time day or night. Japanese 
fellows go up and down those roads as they please. There have been 
reports of many going up nights. The constable has tried to catch 
them. He has never been able to ascertain for a fact if they have 
gone. The roads are not guarded. 

Mr. Sparkman. Let me ask you this. You speak wholly of Jap- 
anese. What about Germans and Italians? 

Mr. Travoli. That is another question. I am glad you brought it 
up. Mr. Neustadt called me on that, too. There is not a German or 
Italian alien within Orosi township to my knowledge or the assistant 
district attorney's knowledge. 

Mr. Sparkman. You mean not even living there, nor moving in? 

Mr. Travoli. No, sir; not to our knowledge. 

Mr. Sparkman. What about these Japanese that are moving in? 
What portion of them are aliens and what portion native born? 

Mr. Travoli. Well, there are a few kids coming in that are going 
into our schools. There are families coming in, maybe, families with 
two or three children; some with one. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you think most of the adults are aliens or are 
they native born? 

ATTITUDE OF TOWNSPEOPLE TOWARD NATIVE JAPANESE 

Mr. Travoli. I think the constable would say they are mostly 
natives. The ones I saw personally were. I haven't seen them all. 

Mr. Sparkman. What about the 5,000 that live in that county? 
Are most of those natives of this country or are a good many of them 
aliens? 

Mr. Travoli. Well, there are a few older aliens but I would say 
the biggest majority are native-born Japanese, educated in our own 
high schools, and they are the most feared of any of the Japanese 
residents of our county. 

The fire hazard in our territory is the main thing. I don't believe 
there will be any trouble if those fellows stay there and mind their 
own business and don't get out of hand because we have a good tight 
organization under the sheriff and the district attorney's orders and 
our constable. I don't believe there will be any violence unless they 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11065 

stay there until the country is dry enough to burn and I am afraid, 
gentlemen, there will be trouble then. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you think the Government ought to put these 
evacuees into concentration camps? 

Mr. Travoli. I think they are in a more dangerous place where 
they are than if they were on the coast because of that timber and the 
watershed of that county. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, I am still trying to get this. Do you think 
the Government ought to move them further east or do you think 
they ought to put them into concentration camps? 

INDIAN RESERVATION LAND OPEN FOR RESETTLEMENT 

Mr. Travoli. They definitely should be moved. If you are asking 
me where I think they should be moved, I would say that I agree 
with Mayor Bowron, of Los Angeles, on the 182,000 acres of irrigable 
Indian reservation land at Parker. That is now uninhabited accord- 
ing to his piece in the paper. 

Mr. Sparkman. Where is Parker? 

Mr. Travoli. Parker is on the Arizona side of California. 

Mr. Sparkman. In Arizona? 

Mr. Travoli. It is one side or the other. I wouldn't definitely 
state which side right now. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, how far is that from the forests on the other 
side of the mountain? 

Mr. Travoli. A long way, gentlemen; a long way. 

The hills on the Death Valley side are not timber. There is no 
fire hazard on that side of the mountains, that is, that far over. 

The Chairman. It appears to me one of the solutions is that the 
Americans should come home. The Japs should go back to their 
home. That would solve part of it, wouldn't it? 

Mr. Travoli. Definitely. I probably could make some state- 
ments on what I think about the exchange of prisoners or tlie exchange 
of our citizens but, maybe, this is not the time and place. 

The Chairman. Yes; probably not. 

Where are these Japanese coming from? Los Angeles County? 

Mr. Travoli. The constable checked in one family, that I know of 
personally, from San Luis Obispo. Their traveling orders were from 
the sheriff of San Luis Obispo County. The designation was Dinuba, 
which is east 6 miles of Orosi, in a different township. They came to 
Orosi. We sent them back to Dinuba and they immediately came 
back to Orosi. 

The Chairman. The more you think about it the more you will 
come to the conclusion, I am quite sure, that when evacuation takes 
place there should be some orderly procedure as to where they are 
going to go, not hit and miss, scattered throughout the different 
counties and States. Isn't that true? 

Mr. Travoli. Positively. 

The Chairman. We have got to get at that. 

Mr. Travoli. I believe in law and order. I am an Army man, 
served during the World War. I believe in law and order a hundred 
percent. 



11066 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The Chairman. In other words, suppose all these evacuees made 
up their mind to go to Tulare County. You couldn't handle them. 

Mr. Travoli. That is the situation now. Even if our district at- 
torney were to tell these 200 families from the Palo Verde hills they 
could not come, they could still come. There is no way to stop them. 

FIRE HAZARD IN TULARE COUNTY 

But it is the fire hazard that is the dangerous situation to Tulare 
County. That is the biggest menace. 

Some of you eastern fellows that have never fought fires through 
those hills can't appreciate this danger. You can start a fire from a 
cigarette. I can show you territories. One started last year right 
below my place. It burned half a section on a Sunday afternoon 
before it could be put out. That grass land does burn. 

The Chairman. Well, anyway, it appears to me that the problem 
is so big that the Government must tackle it just to determine where 
these people are going to go. 

Mr. Travoli. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. When they are sent into other States they lose 
then residence here and they don't acquire it in the others. They 
are not entitled to go on relief. It possesses possibilities that need 
attention because we are going to run right up against that very 
critical problem of the different States not wanting these people and 
different counties not wanting them. _ 

Mr. Travoli. It is the same situation as police floating undesirable 
citizens out of one city on to the next city to take care of them. If 
we float them off the coast they come back to us; if we float them 
somewhere else they come back to us. 

I think Mayor Bowron's solution of that Indian reservation is the 
best solution I have read. 

The situation that I speak of in Orosi Township extends through 
five or six townships, all along the east side of Tulare County. It is 
all bad fire-hazard country and those three power lines run parallel 
to those lulls, the entire length of the county, about 60 miles. 

The Chairman. I know your Congressman, Congressman Elliott, 
very well. He is deeply concerned about this. He has been very 
much on the alert about it and he presented the matter probably a 
little bit more emphatically than you are right now. 

Mr. Travoli. I am acquainted with Mr. Elliott. 

The Chairman. If the condition gets worse or changes in any way, 
feel free to send the committee an additional statement. We will 
have our records open for 10 days or 2 weeks for you. 

Mr. McCormick. Yes. I was going to ask permission to do that, 
Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. McCormick. We have a number of people in the county who 
wanted to express their views. We knew you couldn't hear them 
today. I was requested to ask permission if I couldn't reduce some 
of these statements to affidavit form and send them direct to you. 

The Chairman. I will tell you, you send it to us and tell us what 
these people told you. We will put it in the record just as if they had 
testified. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11067 

FARM LABOR SITUATION IN COUNTY 

Mr. Sparkman. Let me ask you this: Is there any likelihood of 
farm labor shortage in Tulare County this year? 

Mr. Travoli. Positively not. 

Mr. Sparkman. Don't you depend to a large extent on migratory 
farm workers? 

Mr. Travoli. There is quite a bit of Mexican labor through there. 
As far as this cry goes on shortage of vegetables, people are thinking 
about the penny and letting the dollar run away from them. What 
little our vegetables amount to compared to the damage that could 
be done in case of a raid on the coast, and if the people there wanted 
to go to town, which they may not — there may not be any raids there — 
there may not be any cause for alarm — but what the vegetable 
industry of Tulare does wouldn't be a drop in the bucket compared to 
a disastrous fire through our foothills. 

Mr. Sparkman. Suppose the Government took a great many of 
these evacuees who were agricultural workers back here on the coast 
and by maintaining them as registered groups, and keeping close 
supervision over them, put them to work in the various agricultural 
sections, do you think that might be practical? 

Mr. Travoli. Yes, sir; I do, and that is one reason that I agree 
with Mayor Bowron on that Indian-reservation land. I have never 
been on that particular piece of land, but I have been up and down the 
Colorado River. 

WANTS JAPANESE REMOVED FROM STATE 

Mr. Sparkman. That is purely a resettlement proposition, as I 
understand. I am talking about using them to make up for the 
shortage in migratory farm labor which we are likely to have this 
year in various sections of the United States. 

Mr. Travoli. Oh, you mean outside of tins State? 

Mr. Sparkman. I don't know. 

Mr. Travoli. Well, I am not in favor of letting them stay in this 
State. 

Mr. Sparkman. You would take them completely outside of 
California? 

Mr. Travoli. Oh, positively; unless you want to put them in a 
camp and I don't believe that would work out extra good. It would 
take lots of guards and they, themselves, probably would rather go to 
areas not quite as restricted as a camp. I wouldn't advise a camp 
when I know there are other places to put them. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all. 

The Chairman. We have heard from Washington the importance 
of the Japanese in growing and producing vegetable crops in Cali- 
fornia. 

Now, the attorney general of California, Mr. Warren, tins morning 
said that the Japanese employ Filipinos, Mexicans, and whites just 
like the white grower does, and we heard in Washington, repeatedly, 
the importance of keeping the Japanese growing vegetables. 

Now, I have some figures. I don't know who gave them to me. 
I guess they are all right. They are taken from the United States 
Department of Agriculture. 

60396— 42— pt. 29 8 



11068 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Only 1 percent of all the vegetables produced in the United States 
for processing, canning, freezing, excluding canned tomatoes, is grown 
or controlled by Japanese growers in California. 

Authority for this statement is taken from the United States 
Department of Agriculture, Board of Acreage Production of Com- 
mercial Truck Crops of the United States for 1941, released December 
1941. 

Only 3K percent of all truck crops grown in the United States are 
produced in California. Japanese here include both aliens and 
American citizens. 

Only 4% percent of all the vegetables produced in the United States 
for processing, canning, freezing, and so forth, excluding canned 
tomatoes, are grown in California. 

Only 8% percent of all the vegetables produced in the United States 
for processing, including canned tomatoes, are grown in California. 

So, you see, it isn't quite as critical as depicted to us. Is that right? 

Mr. Travoli. That is correct. It is not nearly as critical as some 
people make believe it is. 

MEXICAN FARM LABOR SUGGESTED 

Right now on the farms that are in those pictures some of the older 
aliens might still do a little work. As for the young Japanese who 
have graduated from our high schools, they don't do what you 
call stoop labor. They hire Mexicans. They used to hire a lot of 
Filipinos but they had a few Filipino insurrections around there. 
They have kind of laid off the Filipino. The Filipino isn't quite so 
anxious to work for them. The Japanese don't want them either. 
They hire a lot of Mexicans. The California labor situation, if we 
need migratory labor, can be helped by loyal Mexicans. 

The Chairman. Well, I think you will still agree with me that 
something orderly should be done about not only the evacuees but 
where they are going, whether they are the Japanese or the Italians 
or the Germans or what? 

Mr. Travoli. Yes, sir; I do. 

The Chairman. At least, we can't kick human beings around no 
matter who they are. 

Mr. Travoli. No, sir. 

The Chairman. We have got to get on the job and see what is the 
best thing to do for them. 

Mr. Travoli. I am not in favor of abusing any of them. I am in 
favor of getting them out of Tulare before the last of May. The first 
of June the fire season is very, very acute in Tulare County. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, gentlemen. We appre- 
ciate you coining here. 

Mt. Fouke. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT H. FOUKE, REPRESENTING THE CALI- 
FORNIA JOINT IMMIGRATION COMMITTEE, SAN FRANCISCO, 
CALIF. 

The Chairman. State your name and capacity, for the reporter. 
Mr. Fouke. Robert H. Fouke. I am appearing as a member of and 
representing the California Joint Immigration Committee, which 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11069 

committee has been established for many years, and is composed of 
the American Legion of the State of California, the State federation 
of labor, the Native Sons of the Golden West, and the California State 
Grange, as well as individual members who include former State 
Attorney General U. S. Webb and Mr. J. McClatchy. 

Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, the California 
Joint Immigration Committee has studied the problem of the Japanese 
as well as other Asiatics, for, perhaps, the last 20 to 30 years, hence, 
is familiar with the problem. (See Exhibits A and B.) We were 
largely instrumental in the passage of the 1913 Alien Land Act. At 
that time the committee was known as the Japanese Exclusion League, 
subsequently being termed, as it is today, the California Joint Immi- 
gration Committee. And it was instrumental, in 1924, in securing 
the adoption of the present immigration law which now excludes any 
Asiatics from a quota, as such, as distinguished from the quota of 
100 that is accorded to all nations if there are people therein eligible 
for citizenship. In correlation with our century-old policy adopted 
in 1790, that law prohibits the naturalization of any person unless 
they were a member of the white race. With one modification, cover- 
ing the question of those of African descent and nativity, that policy 
has been adhered to throughout these years. 

The things that have happened in recent months are events that 
we predicted would occur or were likely to occur. That is history, of 
course, and the committee would not wish, probably, to go into the 
academic problems leading up to that particular situation. Rather, 
I judge from the testimony that you have heard thus far, that you are 
concerned with the immediate problem and what can be done in con- 
nection with that immediate problem in order to handle it expedi- 
tiously, with due regard for the rights of all parties, be they alien, 
alien enemies or citizens of the United States. 

And it was with that thought in mind that I requested your con- 
sent for the chairman of our committee to appear here. In his ab- 
sence, may I at this time request, the opportunity of submitting in 
document form additional data for the committee to be incorporated 
in your report to Congress. 

In that connection I would like to call your attention specifically to a 
report of the California Joint Immigration Committee issued on May 
27, 1936, entitled "The Dangers Created by Japanese Dual Citizen- 
ship" (see Exhibit C) which is really the basic problem that we have 
now. It is because of that particular problem that the committee has 
recently passed a resolution (see Exhibit D), a copy of which will be 
made available to your committee, to the effect that we believe that 
the military authorities should be entrusted with the responsibility 
and supervision and the right to declare what may constitute a com- 
bat area, landward to such distance from the coast as may be deemed 
advisable, or setting up various areas within the State adjacent to any 
defense areas or communities, large populated communities or else- 
where, wherein no persons, be they citizens or aliens, would be per- 
mitted unless it has been first established that their presence there 
was desirable or not inimical to the welfare of the country. 



11070 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

JAPANESE DUAL CITIZENSHIP 

And in that connection, in order that the committee may realize the 
seriousness of the problem that we have, as has been testified to, there 
are in the neighborhood of 100,000 Japanese in the State of California, 
a large number of whom are in possession of dual citizenship, under a 
law of December 1, 1924, that Japan passed called the New Xational- 
itv Law. 

'Under that law Japanese born in the United States after that date 
automatically lost Japanese citizenship unless within 14 days they 
were registered at the Japanese consulate. The law further provided 
that those who registered, as well as those born here before December 
1924. could renounce Japanese citizenship by declaration at the 
Japanese consulate after reaching their twentieth year. 

The records that we have accumulated during the years (see Ex- 
hibit E) show that the Japanese so born do not repatriate themselves 
by renouncing their Japanese citizenship other than to the extent of 
about one-third, the remainder retaining their citizenship. In fact, 
there are many who are citizens of the United States who have returned 
to Japan, to be educated in the Japanese schools, and for all intents 
and purposes, and practically speaking, are Japanese. Some have 
been, of course, impressed info service in the Japanese Army, United 
States citizens who are fighting the country of which they are also 
citizens. 

POSITION OF KIBEI SHIMIN 

Likewise, through the years there have been what are known as 
Kibei Shimin, meaning those who are the sons or daughters of a United 
States citizen, one who was born in the L'nited States of Japanese fore- 
bears who have returned to Japan. There are instances where, if the 
parent was a United States citizen, even if they were born in Japan, 
they would be entitled, under our immigration laws, to be considered 
as a citizen of the United States, provided before reaching the age of 
18 thev have come here, probably at the age of 14, to be educated 
and continue forth and declare themselves a United States citizen. 

In this eroup there are many thousands. The exact number we are 
not in a position to say. But we do know, according to the Japan 
foreign office announcement, that there were about 50,000 of these 
Kibei Shimin. Many thousands of them returned to the State of 
California and to Hawaii and there they became a part of and par- 
tiallv responsible for the conditions that existed at the time that the 
1924 Exclusion Act was passed. Those particular individuals, being 
foreign in ideas and background and purposes and so forth, have cre- 
ated^ very bad situation so far as the native-born American-Japanese 
citizen is concerned, who was born here and educated here, because 
by their actions and conduct they have indicated their lack of loyalty 
to this country. There may be Japanese who are loyal to this country, 
yet there is no wav of proving that loyalty. 

Admiral Yates Sterling, retired admiral of the United States Navy, 
in an article in the Liberty magazine of June 17, 1919, in speaking 
about Hawaii, doubted whether there were any Japanese whose 
lovaltv could be counted upon in the event of an emergency. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11071 

All of this leads to the conclusion of our committee, that all aliens 
or citizens whose loyalty to this country may be in doubt should be 
evacuated immediately from the combat areas. 

LAND OWNERSHIP BY JAPANESE 

In the State of California most of the Japanese who migrated here 
went into our farming communities, and, in effect, took over the larger 
portion of the farming land. This resulted eventually in the passage 
of the Alien Land Act of 1913. It was because of that that there is 
a popular concept that the Japanese are controlling the agricultural 
production of the State of California, or other areas, whereas the testi- 
mony here indicates otherwise. 

As has been pointed out, it is true many of them have acquired and 
now hold property in the names of their children as American citizens. 
There is some doubt as to the legality of it, but nevertheless they have 
been operating the land and hiring others such as Filipinos and Mexi- 
cans who are willing to work for the wages they are prepared to offer. 
Following the same practice, as was true in Hawaii, many Japanese 
have gone out into other occupations. In some cases they are shop- 
keepers and merchants and they are engaged in all types of businesses. 

So the problem here is not merely one of transferring a group of 
people of one class alone to another area and thinking that you can 
rehabilitate them by putting them on farm land in Nebraska or 
Kansas, because many of those people know nothing whatever about 
farming. They should be permitted to follow the particular vocations 
they are best equipped for as long as there is no question about any 
activity that might be detrimental to the welfare of this country. 
In the State of California, in particular, they have developed, for all 
purposes, a little Japan in those farming areas, their own language, 
schools, and churches. 

JAPANESE-LANGUAGE SCHOOLS 

Well, that in itself might have been all right had they not estab- 
lished Japanese-language schools. In the establishment of these lan- 
guage schools, Japanese Buddhist teachers were brought in under the 
exceptional provision of the immigration laws. Their religious as well 
as the educational background was Japanese both as to culture, ideas, 
ideals, action, and thought. In the Japanese-language schools, from 
the information we have been able to receive, the Japanese indoctrina- 
tion of American-born Japanese occurred. 

Likewise, we have had the problem presented wherein there hasn't 
been the assimilation of those people as there has been in the case of 
our other alien enemies, the Italians and the Germans, who, after a 
generation or so, became American in thought, ideas, and actions. 

We note also that in the single case of the Japanese we have the 
only situation in which the question of race, religion and nationality, 
in that the Emperor of Japan not only is the head of a nation but like- 
wise he is the head of the church and the descendent of the Sun God. 
As such all Japanese who profess the religion of which he is the leader 
naturally have that particular religious obligation, even if the national 
element was not thrown into the picture. 



11072 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

And it is because of that that we have every reason to doubt whether 
Japanese are loyal or would be loyal in the present war between the 
Empire of Japan and the United States of America, although we know 
that with some other power, probably, we could count upon the loyalty 
of these dual citizens. 

In addition we have had the bringing in of the so-called Japanese 
culture and that in itself has caused considerable difficulty. 

Much more can be said which we will supply by way of exhibits 
to be furnished because I do not wish to take this committee's time 
unduly. We believe that it is essential and important that some pro- 
vision be made for the military authorities — and by "military" I 
include the Navy and the Marine Corps as well as the Army — to be 
entrusted with the authority to determine wherein or where there 
should be established combat zones, and to that extent landward or 
within such areas as they may deem fit and proper with admission 
thereto subject to permits for either citizens or aliens. But in con- 
nection with this whole program, while we must recognize and remem- 
ber we are at war; that the welfare of the Nation is paramount; and 
that people who are loyal, including Japanese or Italians or Ger- 
mans, as the case might be, may best show their loyalty by acquiescing 
and assisting in carrying out these things so as to minimize the sus- 
picion or the assertions that they are not loyal being made against 
them. They, in that way, will be best serving our country even if 
they are not called into the armed forces to serve. In time of war we 
must recognize as well that many of the rights of people are dependent 
upon the protection and the defense of those rights. You can only 
defend those particular rights by seeing to it that the military is not so 
involved or so handicapped by acts or possible acts of espionage or 
sabotage or interference with the evacuation of people of this area. 
Hence, all those whose loyalty is not unquestioned should be removed 
from that area. 

SUGGESTS CONTROL OF EVACUATION BY SINGLE BOARD 

As a personal opinion in connection with how this may be done. 
Some suggestion has been made that there is no agency established 
at the present time among the governmental agencies capable of 
handling this problem. In view of the fact that this is an emer- 
gency, that something must be done immediately, it would be a 
personal suggestion that a new agency be established to be known 
by some title such as the National Security Department or Adminis- 
tration or Board, which department would be entrusted with full 
power and control to handle all matters arising out of or in any way 
connected with this particular problem, other than the rights of the 
military to declare what zones exist and the evacuation from those 
areas. I would include within that agency such groups as the Un- 
employment Insurance group, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the 
National Youth Administration, the Farm Security Administration, 
the Treasury Department, and utilize those agencies to the extent 
that may be necessary until the proper organization can be set up, 
if at all, recognizing the emergency and having that agency ad- 
minister the properties of any of these aliens or citizens who are evacu- 
ated from this area, and handling the question of the taking care of 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11073 

the crops or the leasing of the property, as the case might be. All 
groups would act through the proposed National Security Adminis- 
tration, that name being suggested because there is no discrimination 
implied. 

ADDITIONAL HARDSHIP CASES 

I am mindful of the fact that there are many people who believe 
that our civil rights should not be transgressed, not recognizing the 
fact that we are in war at the present time, and that this affects 
the welfare of the Nation rather than the welfare of a few, or that a 
few only may be involved. 

I would like to suggest to the committee for serious consideration 
the so-called hardship cases we have. Of course, I know of one case 
here where the Federal Bureau of Investigation removed an enemy 
alien who was blind, dumb, deaf, and paralyzed, if you please, because 
under the tenor of the law the alien enemy had to be out of that 
restricted zone. 

Now, we have here in California, many thousands of Germans and 
Italians. Many Italians, in particular, came here who are not able 
to read or to take the examinations, or who didn't see fit to do so, 
who have been here since childhood. Many of those people have had 
large families. All of them are citizens, many serving in our armed 
forces. Their loyalty, without doubt, is unquestioned. 

I recall the statement made this morning that there was a situation 
in Monterey of two boys in the armed forces whose mother would 
have to be removed. Now, it seems to me that it would not be an 
advisable move to make, as was suggested, to perform a surgical oper- 
ation and remove everyone and then to come back and say whether 
or not some should be permitted to return. 

I feel in the case where there is no doubt as to the loyalty of the 
individual, be he Japanese or be he of any other racial group or religion, 
citizen or alien, that if there is no question about the loyalty of that 
person, -as can be established by the military or reputable groups, that 
that party should be permitted to remain, having in mind the so-called 
hardship cases. And we know the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
is very active in connection with the removal of those about whom 
there is any question or doubt. 

PROVISION FOR EMPLOYMENT 

Upon removal, through these various agencies, under the coordina- 
tion of the one central agency, it would be my suggestion that evacuees 
be placed in some of the temporary camps, C. C. C. camps if they 
are available, or any other hospitals or institutions that could be made 
available for this purpose, and through the unemployment groups 
provision be made for the rehabilitation, that is, providing employ- 
ment for them throughout the United States in the various locations 
and in trades in which they were accustomed to follow, whether it 
be farming or whether it be manufacturing, or what-not can be secured. 
If the military limited a zone within 100 miles of our border, that 
probably would be the best solution because I feel that after. this war 
is over our acts now will aggravate or minimize our future problems. 
It is important to keep this in mind and not remove, unnecessarily, 



11074 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

many people who are valuable citizens, who have established them- 
selves in communities. 

We should minimize the losses of life and property and investments, 
to the extent that we can, and those are aU factors that can be con- 
sidered in connection with this proposal. 

1 merely call that to your attention and suggest it to you for the 
consideration of your committee. 

In concluding, then, I would ask again that we be given the oppor- 
tunity to submit a prepared statement or exhibits. 
The Chairman. Yes, sir. 

DIFFICULT TO ESTABLISH LOYALTY OF JAPANESE 

Mr. Fouke. Calling attention to the fact that in view of the long 
record over some 30 years of time we are satisfied that it is very doubt- 
ful to be able to establish the loyalty of any person who came from 
the Empire of Japan, whether the descendent of one who came here 
or not, and that we also have a general problem of dealing with all 
alien enemies. 

Our committee is concerned only with the Asiatic group, as such, 
and with the Mexican problem. 

It is with that in mind that we recommend that the committee 
recommend to Congress the establishment of combat zones, the 
evacuation of all persons, aliens or citizens alike, from such zones, 
and under the supervision of the authorities that are constituted and 
at the expense of those authorities make provision for the removal of 
those people as expeditiously and as efficiently as possible. 

Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Well, I want to say this to you, I have heard a 
good many talkers in Congress, but I think you match right up with 
them. You don't seem to have much trouble at all — effortless. I 
just want to give you that compliment. I don't think we have any- 
one there that can beat you. 

Mr. Fouke. Thank you very much, sir. 

Are there any questions? 

(The following exhibits were submitted for the record. Exhibits 
A and B, which are very similar in content, were both submitted for 
the record.) 

Exhibit A. — The Story of Japanese Immigration 

JAPAN DEMANDS WHAT MAY NOT BE CONCEDED 

(V. S. McClatchy, executive secretary, California Joint Immigration Committee) l 

Japan has made demand that the United States repeal that part of the law of 
1924 which excludes aliens ineligible to American citizenship and then open the 
gates to Japanese immigration (and necessarily to all other Asiatic immigration 
as well). . . 

Widely publicized notice of the contemplated demand was given before the 
Japanese Diet, March 23, 1937, assertedly based on information (which had no 
foundation in fact) that public opinion in the United States on the subject had 
changed, and that a bill to comply with Japan's desires had been introduced in 
Congress. 2 Previous thereto, on March 10, Ken Sato, a prominent journalist of 

■ Article published in the Labor Clarion, San Francisco, September 3, 1937. 

2 The "information" apparently was furnished by Seijiro Yoshizawa, counselor to the Japanese Embassy 
at Washington, who was called to Tokyo to act as spokesman for the Foreign Office there. In an interview 
in the San Francisco Japanese- American News, February 5, 1937, he referred to an assumed change in 
American opinion on the subject and to an immigration bill by Kvale, H. R. 3798, as proposing quota for 
Japan. That bill, however, contained no reference to Japanese immigration. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11075 

Japan, stated in Honolulu that he was on the way to the mainland on a "mission" 
to inform "American editors, Congressmen, and the President" that this conces- 
sion was necessary to insure friendly relations between the two countries. That 
mission was fulfilled in a number of cities, commencing on the Pacific coast in 
early April and winding up later in New York and Washington. 3 

Japan's demand, therefore, is sufficiently explicit. What shall the answer be? 
The exclusion provision of 1924 was the only plan of the five then or since pro- 
posed (three thereof favored by Japan) which, without discrimination and without 
surrender of national sovereignty or congressional prerogative, would effectively 
shut out the only element of Asiatic immigration then still pouring in contrary to 
law or agreement. 4 That law and its basic principle, once abandoned, may 
never be recalled. 

japan's kecord in immigration 

Immigration quota, if granted to Japan, will be regarded only as a proof of our 
weakness and an incentive for further demands. She has said, through various 
spokesmen, that quota will not satisfy; that she must have "racial equality"; 
and "racial equality" in this matter means ultimately entrance for as many 
immigrants from Japan as may be admitted from Canada or any first-class nation 
of Europe. The experience of the world with Japanese immigration in the past 
offers ample material to support a prompt decision by the United States in this 
matter; and a brief outline of that experience is presented herewith. 

Up to 1885 Japan forbade any emigration of her people. In 1891 she com- 
menced to send out emigrants for settlement in favorable lands, and by 1900, with 
the aid of emigrant associations and government appropriations, was shipping 
them in thousands. 5 Australia and the west coast of the United States took alarm 
at the menace offered by the entrance of such unassimilable elements of immigra- 
tion. Australia, refusing Japan's plea for a "gentlemen's agreement," promptly 
enacted an exclusion law which Japan protested as discriminating and insulting, 
but finally accepted and has since found no bar to friendly relations. 6 Australia's 
Japanese population steadily decreased and in 1920 was only 5,261. 7 

THE TWO GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENTS 

The United States unwisely acceded to Japan's request that the agreed exclusion 
of Japanese from the United States mainland, and, with certain reservations, from 
Hawaii, should be accomplished by Japan's control of visas. The first agreement, 
made in August 1900, remained in effect until July 1, 1908, when it was supplanted 
by the second agreement, made in 1907 by President Theodore Roosevelt. 
Warned by the flood of immigration which poured in in violation of the terms of 
the first agreement, 8 the agreement of 1907 was carefully safeguarded so that if 
Japan failed to (a) exclude Japanese laborers and (b) prevent increase of Japanese 
population in continental United States, the agreement would be replaced by an 
exclusion law. 9 In addition, the President, under congressional authority, for- 
bade entrance into continental United States of Japanese or other ineligibles 
coming under Japan's visa through Hawaii or any foreign country; and in 1911 
the Senate refused to approve the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation with 
Japan until the Japanese ambassador, in a footnote thereto, guaranteed on behalf 
of his government that the terms of the agreement as to exclusion of Japanese 
laborers would be maintained. 10 

Notwithstanding all those precautions, the terms of the agreement, after 
Roosevelt's incumbency, were steadiy and openly violated in entrance of laborers 

3 Honolulu Advertiser, March 10, 1937; also interview in New York Herald Tribune, May 6, 1937. See 
also C. J. I. C. Docs. 492, 495. 

4 Quota or Exclusion for Japanese Immigrants?, Commonwealth Club, San Francisco, December 20, 
1932, p. 314, footnote 10 

» According to U. S. Census Japanese population in continental United States was, in 1880, 148; 1890, 2,039; 
1900, 24,326; 1910, 72,157; 1920, 111.010. The actual population in 1920 was approximately 150,000— in Cali- 
fornia 100,000 in other States 50,000. See Senate Committee Hearing, March 1924, pp. 20, 25, 164-165; 
also McClatchy Brief, 1921, sees. 68-83. 

9 Racial Discrimination in the Attitude of Australia Towards the Japanese, Cyril Wynne, Widener 
Library, Harvard University; also Queensland Parliamentary Papers, A-5, 1899, and A-56, 1901. 

7 Japanese Yearbook, 1923, p. 45, 46. 

• Theodore Roosevelt and the Japanese American Crises, Bailey, p. 2. 

• See President Theodore Roosevelt's telegram to California Legislature, February 9, 1909; also his auto- 
biography, pp. 411-414; and correspondence with William Kent and others— explained in Senate Immigra- 
tion Committee Hearing, March 1924, pp. 12-16. 

10 Senate Immigration Committee Hearing, March 1924, p. 16; also statement of Y. Uchida, February 
24, 1911, at p. 245 of Percentage Planf or Restriction of Immigration, House Immigration Committee Hear- 
ing, 1919. 



11076 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

and of picture and kankodan brides, who served the double purpose of field laborers 
and mothers. 11 It developed that the agreement could not be enforced under our 
laws. 12 Protests from the Pacific coast were unheeded by the Federal Govern- 
ment, and certain States sought to protect themselves and their citizens by passage 
of alien land laws. 

japan's policy forces congressional action 

In California the Japanese established a state within a State wherein every 
Japanese, whether alien or American citizen, was forced, through registration in a 
minor association, subject to control of the Japanese Association of America 
(which in turn acted under direction of the consulate general of Japan) to obey the 
orders of Japan in peace and in war. 13 

In 1915 the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, hoping to 
secure thereby Japan's aid in evangelizing that country, promised to obtain for 
her nationals immigration and naturalization privileges in the United States; 
inaugurated a Nation-wide campaign therefor; had two bills introduced in Con- 
gress for the purpose in 1919 and actively championed those bills in committee 
hearings. 14 

In 1920 the Japanese population of the United States, including Hawaii, had 
become over three times as great as that of all other countries of the world, outside 
of Asia, combined. 14 * 

An aroused Nation demanded abrogation of the "gentlemen's agreement" and 
exclusion of Japanese by law. Hearings were held before the congressional com- 
mittees in 1919 and the following years, and in 1924 Congress included in the 
immigration restriction act the provision excluding all aliens ineligible to citizen- 
ship. In the final hearing before the Senate Immigration Committee in March 
of that year the cause of Japan was presented by the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America under direction of Sidney Gulick, while the case for 
general exclusion of all ineligibles was presented on behalf of the California Joint 
Immigration Committee, under authority of its then four sustaining California 
State bodies — American Legion, Federation of Labor, Grange, and Native Sons 
of the Golden West — by ex-United States Senator J. D. Phelan, State Attorney 
General U. S. Webb, and V. S. McClatchy. Enforcement of that law stopped 
further entrance of Japanese for permanent settlement, and in consequence the 
Japanese births in California alone dropped from 5,010 in 1923 to 1,448 in 1936. 

JAPAN'S ACTIVITIES SINCE 1924 

In other countries outside of Asia which failed to take precautionary measures 
the Japanese population rapidly increased after 1920, until in 1934 their combined 
Japanese population was nearly as great as that contained in the United States, 
which was 304, 670. 15 

South American countries, notably Brazil and Peru, awoke to the danger in 
1934, and have since sought by exclusion and restriction to guard against it. 16 

Since 1924 Japan has sought steadily — without success, however — to induce a 
change in American public opinions as to the exclusion law. An elaborate cam- 
paign for that purpose from 1930 to 1934 in the three Pacific Coast States provoked 
letters to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in January 1934 from the 35 congressional 
representatives from those States declaring themselves, on behalf of their respective 
constituencies, unalterably opposed to any modification of the existing law. In 
January 1933 the members of the Commonwealth Club of California, after reading 
the report of a year's investigation by its immigration section, voted by large 
majorities against any form of immigration quota for Japan. 17 Since January 

ii Statement of House Immigration Committee March 24, 1924, in Report No. 350, "The purpose of the 
agreement * * * as explained bv Roosevelt, has not been carried out. * * * The Japanese popula- 
tion of continental United States has very materially increased; * * * thousands of Japanese women 
have come in as laborers, designated on the manifests and in the reports as such, and have performed the 
double duty of field laborers and mothers of families averaging five children." 

' 2 Letter/Secretary of State Hughes to House Immigration Committee, August 16, 1921, in Labor Prob- 
lems in Hawaii, House Immigration Committee Hearing, 07th Cong., pt. 2, p. 928. Also decision of Judge 
M. T. Dooling, U. S. District Court, San Francisco, Calif., case of M. Nakao, May 1916. 

13 Japan's Secret Policy, Senate Doc. No. 55, 1921, p. 63. 

i< "Quota or Exclusion for Japanese Immigrants'"' cited, p. 313 and footnote. House Immigration Com- 
mittee Hearing 1919-20-22: Senate Committee Hearing March 1924; Brief V. S. McClatchy, "Political 
Activities of the F. C. C. C. A." presented to House Immigration Committee, January 6, 1926; "Japanese 
Conquest of American Opinion,'' Montaville Flowers, 1917. 

"» Japanese Yearbook, 1923, p. 45, 46. 

'» Japanese Census 1934, quoted bv San Francisco Japanese American News, April 26, 1937. 

i° Associated Press story, April 26, 1937; editorial Washington Star, April 28, 1937. 

i' C. J. I. C. Doc. No. 312. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11077 

1934 there has been no reference to the subject, either on the floor or in committee 
of either House of Congress. 

Japan's efforts did not cease then, however. Within the past 3 years published 
statistics show that in Hawaii two-thirds of the citizens of Japanese ancestry, and 
even of those registered as voters, retain Japanese citizenship through choice, and 
are bound to obey Japan's orders in peace and in war. Similar conditions exist 
in California, though access to the statistics cannot be had. * * * In Hawaii, 
now demanding statehood, two-thirds of the population is Asiatic and 40 percent 
Japanese, while the largest racial group of registered voters is Japanese. 18 

In Hawaii and California withdrawal of certain public school books has been 
forced because they contained misrepresentations, in Japan's interest, of the facts 
concerning Japanese immigration and current events in Asia. 19 * * * The 
Japanese American Citizens' League in California has pledged its members to 
"solidarity" — the use of their position and united strength for the benefit of 
Japanese generally, alien as well as American citizens. As part of that policy 
admission of alien Japanese relatives from Japan and naturalization of alien 
Japanese resident in the United States are now urged. Grant of such privileges 
would force repeal of the 1924 exclusion provision and abandonment of its basic 
principle. * * * The Japan Foreign Office has recently urged the return of 
50,000 "Kibei Shimin," now in Japan, to California and other Pacific coast States, 
where their American citizenship can be of most service. The Japanese Associa- 
tion of America is promoting the movement. "Kibei Shimin" are Japanese born 
in the United States and sent back in early childhood to Japan and there trained 
through youth to maturity in the duties and loyalty of Japanese citizenship. 
"Kibei Shimin" are received without question into full membership by the Jap- 
anese American Citizens' League. 20 

WHAT SHALL OUR ANSWER BE? 

Apparently Japan believes the time is now ripe for a final decisive drive to force 
entrance for her emigration into the largest English-speaking nation of the world. 
Hence the present widely publicized demand for the necessary change in our laws 
to serve her purpose. Japan's ground for complaint, if she has any in this matter, 
is not against the exclusion law, which is not discriminatory, but against our 
century-old naturalization law which, as amended 70 years ago, creates a basic 
barrier against admission of races other than white and black. 

As between Japanese and Caucasian there does not arise, and has not been 
suggested, any question of racial superiority. Both races are so strong in char- 
acteristics that make for racial dominance, but at the same time so dissimilar, 
that absorption of one by the other is out of the question. The attempt to assimi- 
late the two in the land of either is, as frankly stated by President Theodore 
Roosevelt, Japan's consistent friend, certain to provoke disaster. Japan, many 
years ago after determined protest, gracefully conceded the issue in three British 
dominions. She has permitted herself to be misled here by the counsel of certain 
American influences, some not disinterested, and others manifestly uninformed 
as to the facts. The American Nation cannot permit its permanent welfare to 
be jeopardized by conceding a demand which, aside from its assumption of the 
right to dictate to a friendly power in a matter of domestic policy, has no founda- 
tion in fact or in justice. 



Exhibit B. — The Story of Japanese Immigration 

THE RECORDS IN A VEXED QUESTION 

The immigration question created serious disturbances in Japan's relations with 
Australia and with the United States, respectively, at the opening of the present 
century. 

In one case the misunderstanding disappeared after a few years without injury 
to either nation. In the other it increased, and in time assumed grave proportions. 

The reason? In both cases there was friendly agreement as to the wisdom of 
exclusion and difference only as to the method for insuring it. In one case, 

" 8 C. J. I. C. Doc. No. 451; statistics in letter Governor Poindexter to C. J. I. C. February 15, 1936; Hono- 
lulu Advertiser, August 10, 1935. 

>» C. J. I. C. Docs. Nos. 458-9, 476, 501. 

m Osaka Mainichi, March 19, 1937, C. J. I. C. Doc. No. 506. 



11078 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Australia, as a sovereign state, enforced exclusion. In the other, Japan, at her 
request, was permitted by the United States to secure the agreed result. 

After 24 years' experience the United States was compelled to abandon that 
plan and follow the example of Australia. Japan now demands what she origi- 
nally agreed was not to be granted. 

The facts, with verification, are covered briefly in the following article, "The 
Story of the Japanese Immigration." That they may be known generally to the 
citizens of both nations, and particularly to students of Pacific relations, the 
California Joint Immigration Committee permits the article to be quoted in whole 
or in part. 

Japan has recently demanded that the United States repeal that part of the 
Immigration Restriction Act of 1924 (sec. 13c) which is commonly but mistakenly 
called the Japanese Exclusion Act. It provides that "No alien ineligible to citi- 
zenship shall be admitted to the United States * * *," and applies to half the 
population of the globe, of which half the Japanese constitute about 7 percent. 
It will be understood that if this measure is repealed and Japanese admitted, all 
other Asiatics must, in fairness, be admitted as well. 

On March 23, 1937, it was announced in the Japanese Diet that public opinion 
in the United States on the subject of Japanese immigration had changed (a 
statement which had no foundation in fact) and that a bill permitting Japanese 
immigrants to come into this country under quota x had been introduced in Con- 
gress. 2 About 2 weeks before this announcement was made in the Diet, Ken Sato, 
a prominent journalist of Japan, stated in Honolulu that he was on his way to the 
mainland on a "mission" to inform "American editors, Congressmen, and the 
President" that to insure friendly relations between the two countries Japan's 
demands in the immigration matter must be met. Sato traveled from the Pacific 
coast to New York and Washington in fulfillment of his "mission." 3 

Japan's demand is clear. What shall the answer be? The exclusion provision 
of 1924 was the only plan of five proposed then or since which met the conditions 
satisfactorily. Those plans were — 

(1) A Japanese exclusion law. — Rejected as insulting and discriminatory. 

(2) A treaty.- — Not acceptable because regulation of immigration is solely the 
right of Congress, since it is purely a domestic question, and a treaty would 
intrude on that right. 

(3) New agreement. — This would put the regulation of immigration into the 
hands of a foreign nation. No country should permit such a condition. It 
would also be a violation of the right of Congress to regulate immigration; and 
since two previous agreements with Japan had failed there was no reason to 
believe a new one would prove more satisfactory. 

(4) Quota. — Would concede to Japan equality in immigration matters with the 
countries of Europe and preference over the countries of Asia. It would nullify 
our naturalization law and force abandonment of our basic policy of excluding 
unassimilable elements from our population. 

A Japanese quota might be small, but nonquota immigrants (admitted from all 
countries in addition to those coming in under quota), and alien wives for Amer- 
ican citizens of Japanese ancestry (much desired by them), would bring the total 
annual entries to a large number. And these conditions would apply necessarily 
to all other Asiatic countries. 

Such nullification of the exclusion measure would permit the entrance without 
restriction of every person born of oriental parents in the Western Hemisphere. 

(5) Exclusion of all aliens ineligible to citizenship. — The latter plan, exclusion of 
ineligibles, was decided by Congress to be the only satisfactory one. It excludes, 
without discrimination and without the loss of the sovereign rights of this country 
and the rights of Congress, the only Asiatics who were still pouring in contrary to 
law or agreement. 4 The Chinese were excluded by the Exclusion Act of 1882 with 
later amendment; Hindus and Malays by the Barred Zone Act of 1917; and the 
gentlemen's agreement of 1907 (the 'details of which were secret) provided that 
Japan should send no laborers into continental United States, and that the 

1 "Quota" is the number of immigrants of each elieible nationality permitted to enter this country 
annually under the terms of the Immisration Restriction Act of 1924. 

2 The "information" apparently was furnished by Seijiro Yoshizawa, counselor to the Japanese Embassy 
at Washington. He is quoted in San Francisco Japanese-American News, February 5, 1937, and referred 
to an assumed change in American opinion on the subject and to a bill by Kvale, H. R. 3798, as proposing 
quota for Japan. That bill contained no reference to Japanese immieration. 

3 Honolulu Advertiser, March 10, 1937; also New York Herald Tribune May G, 1937. C. J. I. C. Docs. 
Nos. 492 and 49i. , _ 

* "Quota or Exclusion for Japanese Immigrants?" Commonwealth Club, San Francisco, December 
20, 1932, p. 314, footnote No. 10. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11079 

Japanese population of continental United States should not increase. Neither 
provision was carried out; laborers entered in large numbers, and the Japanese 
population increased greatly. 

The exclusion measure is in harmony with our century-old naturalization law 
which, with its amendment, permits grant of naturalization only to "free white 
persons and persons of African nativity"; and with the policy of excluding unas- 
similable elements from our population when their numbers became menacing. 

japan's record in immigration 

If we grant quota to Japan she will merely regard it as a proof of weakness and 
will continue to make further demands. She has said through various spokesmen 
that quota alone will not satisfy; that she must have "racial equality"; and racial 
equality in this matter means that she will surely demand in the future entrance 
for as many of her people as may be admitted from Canada or any first-class 
nation of Europe. The experience of various countries of the world with Japanese 
immigration in the past proves that the United States is following the wisest course 
in this matter. 

Up to 1885 Japan did not allow her people to leave the country. In 1891 she 
commenced to send out emigrants for settlement in favorable lands and by 1900, 
with the aid of "emigration associations," and money appropriated by the Govern- 
ment, was shipping them out in thousands. 5 Australia and the west coast of the 
United States became alarmed at the menace offered by the entrance of large 
numbers of aliens who did not assimilate with the basic population. Australia, 
warned by the experience of Queensland, refused Japan's plea for a "gentlemen's 
agreement," and promptly enacted a law which used the so-called education 
test to exclude arbitrarily any objectionable immigrants, in accordance with her 
strict "White Australia" policy. Japan protested that law as insulting, but she 
finally accepted it and has since found it no bar to friendly relations. 6 Australia's 
Japanese population steadily decreased and in 1920 was only 5,261. 7 

New Zealand and South Africa also excluded by law similar to Australia's. 

In 1906 Canada negotiated a secret gentlemen's agreement with Japan, pro- 
viding for entrance under Japan's passport of only 400 immigrants annually; but 
that number increased each year until in 1920 it had reached 1,178. British 
Columbia protested continuously and finally in 1928 the number to be admitted 
was reduced; but Japan still controls the issuing of passports. British Columbia 
continues to fight for complete exclusion. 

THE TWO GENTLEMEN'S AGREEMENTS 

In 1900 Japan agreed with the United States that it was desirable to keep her 
laborers out of this country. But she asked that exclusion be accomplished by 
allowing her to control the issuing of passports. This was the first gentlemen's 
agreement, entered into in August 1900. 

But by 1907 such a flood of Japanese had been pouring in, in violation of that 
Agreement 8 that President Theodore Roosevelt made a second one with Japan 
in an attempt to settle the question without humiliating her. The terms of this 
agreement provided that if it failed of its twofold purpose of excluding Japanese 
laborers and preventing increase of Japanese population in continental United 
States it would be replaced by an exclusion law. 9 In addition the President, 
under congressional authority, forbade entrance into continental United States 
of Japanese or other ineligibles coming with Japan's passport through Hawaii or 
any foreign country; and in 1911 the Senate refused to approve the Treaty of 
Commerce and Navigation with Japan until the Japanese Ambassador, in a 
footnote thereto, guaranteed that his government would live up to the terms of 
the agreement as to exclusion of laborers. 10 

8 According to U. S. Census, Japanese population in continental United States was, in 1880, 148; 1890, 
2,039; 1900, 24,326; 1910, 72,157; 1920, 111,010. The actual population in 1920 was approximately 150,000— 
in California 100,000 and in other States 50,000. See Senate Committee Hearings, March 1924, pp. 20, 25; 
164, 165. 

6 "Racial Discrimination in the Attitude of Australia Towards the Japanese," Cyril Wynne— Widener 
Library, Harvard University; also Queensland Parliamentary Papers A-5, 1899, and A-56, 1901. 

? Japanese Yearbook, 1923, pp. 45, 46. 

« "Theodore Roosevelt and the Japanese American Crises," Bailey, p. 2. 

» Roosevelt's telegram to California Legislature, February 9, 1909: his autobiography, pp. 411-414; cor- 
respondence with William Kent — Senate Immigration Committee Hearing, March 1924, pp. 12-16. 

»° Senate Immigration Committee Hearings, March 1924, p. 15; Y. Uchida, February 24, 1911, p. 245 
of "Percentage Plan for Restriction of Immigration." House Immigration Committee Hearings, 1919. 



11080 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Notwithstanding all of these precautions, the terms of the agreement were 
openly violated after President Roosevelt left office, by entrance of laborers (so- 
called in ships' manifests) and picture and kankodan (excursion) brides. These 
brides served the double purpose of field laborers and mothers of families averaging 
five children each. 11 Thus the Japanese population increased rapidly. It devel- 
oped also that the agreement, being neither law nor treaty, had no standing in our 
courts, 12 and could not therefore be enforced under our laws. The Federal 
Government in Washington paid no attention to repeated protest from the Pacific 
coast against this alarming situation; and certain States sought to protect them- 
selves against peaceful penetration of Japanese by passage of alien land laws. 

japan's policy forces congressional action 

In California the Japanese established a state within a State. Every Japanese, 
whether alien or American citizen, was forced to register in a minor association, 
subject to control of the Japanese Association of America, which in turn acted 
under direction of the Consul General of Japan, and to obey the orders of Japan. n 

In 1915 the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America, hoping there- 
by to win Japan to Christianity, promised to obtain immigration and naturaliza- 
tion privileges for her nationals in the United States. A campaign was organized 
by the Council for this purpose and in 1919 two bills therefor were actively advo- 
cated in congressional committee hearings. 14 

In 1920 there were over three times more Japanese in the United States, includ- 
ing Hawaii, than in all other countries of the world combined, outside of Asia. 14a 

The Nation became aroused and demanded that the agreement be ended and 
the Japanese excluded by law, as other Asiatics were excluded. Extensive hear- 
ings were held before the congressional committees in 1919 and the following 
years, and in 1924 Congress included in the Immigration Restriction Act the 
provision excluding aliens ineligible to citizenship for permanent residence but 
granting to them the courtesy of entrance for students, merchants, travelers, 
diplomats, and all others of the nonquota classes, as granted all nationalities. 

Enactment of the exclusion measure was not the unexpected and undeserved 
blow to Japan's national pride she claims. It was the result of 24 years of evasion 
by her of her agreement to keep Japanese laborers out of the United States. 

In the final hearing before the Senate Immigration Committee in March 1924 
Japan's cause was presented by the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in 
America, under direction of Dr. Sidney L. Gulick, born in the Orient, a missionary 
professor in a Japanese university, on leave to propagandize Japan's cause in 
this country. 15 California's case "for exclusion was presented for the California 
Joint Immigration Committee under authority of its then four constituting State 
bodies — American Legion, Federation of Labor, Grange, and Native Sons of the 
Golden West — by Hon. U. S. Webb, State attorney general of California; Hon. 
James D. Phelan, former United States Senator from California; and V. S. 
McClatchy. 

Enforcement of the exclusion law stopped further entrance of Japanese for 
permanent settlement, and in consequence Japanese births in California alone 
dropped from 5,015 in 1923 to 1,448 in 1936. Anti-Japanese agitation disap- 
peared gradually when the question was settled. 

JAPAN'S ACTIVITIES SINCE 1924 

In other countries outside of Asia which failed to take precautionary measures, 
the Japanese population rapidly increased after 1920, until in 1934 their combined 
population was nearly as great as that contained in the United States, 304,670. lft 

ii House Immigration Committee Report, No. 35(1, March 24, 1924: "The purpose of the agreement 
* * * as explained bv Roosevelt, has not been carried out * * *. The Japanese population of con- 
tinental United States has very materially increased * * * thousands of Japanese women have come 
in as laborers, designated on the manifests and in the reports as such, and have performed the double duty 
of field laborers and mothers of families averaging five children." . 

12 Letter Secretary of State Hughes to House Immigration Committee, August lh. 1921, in Labor Prob- 
lems in Hawaii," House Immigration Committee Hearing, 67th Cong., pt. 2, p. 928. Also decision Judge 
M T Dooling, U. S. District Court, San Francisco, Calif., case of M. Nakao, May 1916. 

is "Japan's Secret Policv." Senate Doc. No. 55, 1921. p. 63. 

it "Quota or Exclusion for Japanese Immigrants?" cited, p. 313 and footnote. House Immigration 
Committee Hearings, 1919, 1920, i922; Senate Committee Hearings, March 1924. "Japanese Conquest or 
American Opinion," Flowers. 

"» Jananese Yearbook, 1923, p. 45, 46. 

" "Japanese Conquest of American Opinion," Flowers, pp. 78, 88. 

is Japanese Census 1934, quoted San Francisco Japanese- American News, April 26, 1967. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11081 

Brazil, Peru, and other countries of South America have recently sought by 
restriction and exclusion to guard against the danger of Japanese penetration. 17 
Japan protested vigorously when Brazil placed her immigration under quota, 
claiming hurt national pride, yet she demands that privilege of quota from the 
United States as the only thing that will heal the wound inflicted upon that 
pride by passage of the exclusion measure. 

Since 1924 Japan has tried steadily, but without success, to change American 
public opinion with regard to the exclusion law. After an elaborate campaign 
for that purpose from 1930 to 1934 by church, commercial, and idealistic groups, 
the congressional delegations from the three Pacific Coast States sent a letter to. 
President Franklin D. Roosevelt, declaring themselves, in behalf of their respec- 
tive States, as unalterably opposed to any modification of the existing law. In 
January 1933 the members of the Commonwealth Club of California, after read- 
ing the report of a year's investigation by its immigration section, voted by large 
majorities against any form of immigration quota for Japan. 18 Since January 
1934 there has been no reference to this subject either on the floor or in committee 
of either House of Congress. 

Japan's efforts did not cease then, however. Within the past 3 years pub- 
lished statistics show that in Hawaii two-thirds of the American citizens of 
Japanese ancestry, and even of those registered as voters, have failed to expatriate 
themselves from Japan, though free to do so under Japanese law, enacted in 1924. 
Thus they are citizens of both countries, owing allegiance to the United States, 
but also bound to obey Japan's orders in peace and war. This dual citizenship 
is most undesirable from the American standpoint. Similar conditions exist in 
California — though statistics on the subject cannot be had. * * * In 
Hawaii, now demanding statehood, two-thirds of the population is Asiatic and 
40 percent Japanese; and the largest group of registered voters is Japanese. 19 

The Japanese American Citizens League in California has pledged its members 
to solidarity — the use of their citizenship and voting strength for the benefit of 
Japanese generally, aliens as well as American citizens. As part of that policy,, 
-admission of Japanese relatives from Japan and naturalizing of alien Japanese 
resident in the United States are urged. Grant of such privileges would in effect 
repeal the exclusion measure and force abandonment of its basic principle. 
Representatives of the league have appeared before the State Legislature of 
California in an attempt to block measures pertaining to fishing by aliens, which 
were for the best interest of the State. Oregon and Washington have long had 
such laws. 

It has been the custom among alien Japanese in this country to send their 
young children to Japan to be trained there through youth to maturity in the 
duties and loyalty of Japanese citizenship. They are known as Kibei Shimin 
(there are 50,000 now in Japan), and the Japanese Foreign Office has recently 
urged their return to California and other Pacific Coast States where their Ameri- 
can citizenship can be of most service to Japan. These Kibei Shimin are received 
into full membership by the Japanese American Citizens League 20 even though 
they are practically alien Japanese. 

That the Japanese do not and cannot assimilate with our population is proved 
by the fact that even those born and educated here complain of the difficulty they 
experience in finding and holding good jobs, locating residence in desirable 
neighborhoods and entering public places of amusement and recreation. Further- 
immigration of alien Japanese would only perpetuate these conditions. 

In accordance with a plan announced by the Society for International Cultural 
Relations in the Japan Times and Mail of December 4, 1934, 21 Japanese propa- 
ganda has been introduced into the schools of California and Hawaii. With- 
drawal of certain textbooks has been forced because they contained misrepresenta- 
tion in Japan's interest of the facts concerning Japanese immigration and current 
events in Asia. 22 

WHAT SHALL OUR ANSWER BE? 

Apparently Japan believes the time is now ripe for a final drive to force entrance 
for her immigration into the largest English-speaking nation of the world; hence 

» A. P. story, April 26, 1937; editorial Washington Star, Aoril 28, 1937. 
i8C. J. I. C. Doc. No. 312. 

» C. J. I. C. Doc. No. 451; Letter Governor Poindexter to C. J. I. C. February 10, 1936; Honolulu Ad-, 
vertiser, August 10. 1935. 
J" Osaka Mainichi, March 19, 1937; C. J. I. C. Doc. No. 506. 
»i C. J. I C. Doc. No. 409. 
» C. J. I. C. Docs. Nos. 458, 459, 476, 501. 



11082 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

the present demand for the necessary change in our laws to serve her purpose. 
Japan's complaint, if she has any in this matter, is not against the exclusion 
measure, which is not discriminator}', but against our century-old naturalization 
law, which created a basic barrier against admission of races other than white and 
black, and against our policy of excluding unassimilable elements from our 
population. But it would seem that no nation has the right to protest against 
application to herself of a policy established before mutual contact had taken 
place. And Japan herself excludes Korean and Chinese laborers, who are of her 
own color, by Imperial Order No. 352. 

As between Japanese and Caucasians there does not arise, and has not been 
suggested, any question of racial superiority. Both races are so strong in char- 
acteristics that make for racial dominance but at the same time so dissimilar that 
absorption of the one by the other is out of the question. The attempt to as- 
similate the two in the land of either is, as frankly stated by President Theodore 
Roosevelt, Japan's consistent friend, certain to provoke disaster. Japan, many 
years ago, after determined protest, accepted the decision of three British Do- 
minions to exclude her emigrants. She has permitted herself to be misled here 
by the counsel of certain American influences, some not disinterested and others 
manifestly misinformed as to the facts, into believing that she may eventually 
receive the concessions she demands. The American Nation cannot permit its 
permanent welfare to be jeopardized by conceding a demand which, aside from its 
assumption of the right to dictate to a friendly power in a matter of domestic 
policy, has no foundation in fact or in justice. If the exclusion measure, with its 
basic principle, is ever abandoned it may never be recalled. 



Exhibit C 

The following statement on the Japanese citizenship situation is issued by the 
California Joint Immigration Committee, composed of representatives of the 
American Legion, California State Federation of Labor, Native Sons, and 
California Grange: 

The California Joint Immigration Committee recognizes the existence of the 
following facts and conditions: 

That the United States of America is at war with the Empire of Japan. 

That the Pacific Coast States are in a combat zone and are now in danger. 

That there are Japanese residing in the Pacific Coast States of which approxi- 
mately 93,717 reside in California, and of this number 33,569 are alien Japanese; 
that the remainder by reason of birth are citizens of the United States, but of 
this number 25,177 are also citizens of Japan, and about 25 percent of those born 
in the United States have relinquished their Japanese citizenship. 

That Japanese residents of the Hawaiian Islands furnished information that 
made possible the success of the attack on Pearl Harbor. 

That more than 25,000 United States citizens of Japanese parentage have been 
educated in schools in Japan, many of whom now reside in the Pacific Coast 
States; that other United States citizens born in this country of Japanese parents 
have been educated in Japanese language schools sponsored and supported by the 
Government of Japan in this country, and that many of these citizens are not 
loyal to the Government of the United States or its institutions. 

That it is true that about 25 percent of the Japanese citizens residing in Cali- 
fornia have renounced their Japanese citizenship, but experience has demonstrated 
that such renunciation cannot be accepted as proof of their loyalty to the United 
States while the two countries are at war. 

That though it is recognized that some of the Japanese citizens are entirely 
loyal to this country and her institutions, it is impossible now with required 
certainity to separate the loyal from the disloyal. While we recognize the mis- 
fortune and hardship that the loyal citizens may suffer, these are conditions 
which must be borne bj r the individual rather than that the welfare of the nation 
be endangered. 

That the presence of people in the combat zone whose loyalty is in doubt should 
not be tolerated, lest the welfare of the nation be imperiled. 

That civil rights and liberties of all persons within the United States is recog- 
nized and must be protected in all proper ways and at all times, but in time of 
war, the civil rights and liberties of the individual must yield to the common 
good. 

Pearl Harbor has caused a quickening effort in the production of war material 
but with Japanese in, around, and within reach of every productive energy, it is 
idle to cry: "Remember Pearl Harbor." 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11083 

Neither fear, timidity nor cost should delay action. 

Japanese should be removed now! 

In recognition of the foregoing facts, It is 

Resolved, That the entire Pacific coast to such extend landward as may be 
required to insure safety should be declared a combat zone; and be it further 

Resolved, That the Japanese, including Japanese citizens of the United States, 
be removed as quickly as possible from said zone; and be it further 

Resolved, That where like dangers exist in the interior, other combat zones be 
established and like removals made therefrom; and be it further 

Resolved, That all civil authorities of the State aid Federal authorities to such 
extent as Federal authorities may request. 

James K. Fisk, Chairman, 
H. J. McClatchy, Executive Secretary. 

San Francisco, Calif., February IS, 1942. 



Exhibit D. — California Joint Immigration Committee, San Francisco, 

Calif. 

dangers created by japanese dual citizenship 

A serious problem exists, particularly in Hawaii and California, because most 
of the Japanese born under the American flag and exercising the right of American 
citizenship still elect to retain Japanese citizenship with its obligations, although 
they are now free to expatriate. It is charged that many of these dual citizens 
would use their American citizenship under direction or influence to further the 
purposes of Japan. 

As late as the early 1920's, Japan maintained in California a state within a 
State in which every Japanese, whether alien or native-born American citizen, 
was under orders of Japan, in peace and in war. He was forced to belong to a local 
association subject to the Japanese Association of America and all under control 
of the consul general of Japan at San Francisco (S. Doc. No. 55, 1921, p. 63; also 
Japanese Immigration and Colonization, V. S. McClatchy, 1921, sees. 196 to 218). 

Publication of the facts and the passage in 1924 of that provision of the Immi- 
gration Restriction Act excluding as immigrants all aliens ineligible to American 
citizenship induced Japan to put into operation on December 1, 1924, a new 
nationality law. Under that law Japanese born in the United States after the 
date named automatically lost Japanese citizenship unless within 14 days they 
were registered at the Japanese consulate. The law further provided that those 
so registered, as well as those born here before December 1924, could renounce 
Japanese citizenship by declaration at the Japanese consulate after reaching their 
twentieth year. 

Under that system it was assumed that dual citizenship would disappear if the 
Japanese themselves really desired to renounce all obligations to Japan as the price 
for American citizenship. The records prove, however, that various factors, 
including the insistence of the first generation, the pull of heredity, the Japanese 
law of family, the teachings of alien Buddhist instructors in the Japanese language 
schools, and the encouraged study of "Japanese culture," tend to nullify the pur- 
pose of the law. In Hawaii, for instance, "the total number of American citizens 
of Japanese ancestry who had relinquished Japanese citizenship was, as of June 
30, 1934, 34,270, approximately 33 percent of those eligible for expatriation." 
Of that number 28,459 are Japanese born since December 1, 1924, who lost Japa- 
nese citizenship automatically at birth under the terms of the law; 5,811 is the 
total number of those who lost Japanese citizenship by formal declaration at the 
consulate after reaching the age of 20 years (letter of Gov. Joseph Poindexter to 
California Joint Immigration Committee, February 15, 1936). In other words, 
two-thirds of the Hawaiian-born Japanese still retain their Japanese citizenship 
with all obligations thereof. That situation is attracting special attention because 
the Territory is now asking for Statehood, and the Japanese who constitute 38 
percent of the total population have already passed every other racial group in 
the number of registered voters. 

In California it must be assumed that conditions as to dual citizenship are 
somewhat similar, although the figures are not available because the consulate 
general at San Francisco no longer keeps statistics of such matters, as was formerly 
done (letter Shuh Tomii, consul general of Japan at San Francisco, December 
19, 1935). 

60S96— 42— pt. 29—9 



11084 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The following facts in connection with the California situation are of interest: 
The Japanese American Citizens League, a powerful organization with approx- 
imately 50 chapters in the Pacific States, has for its main proclaimed purpose the 
training of American-born Japanese so that they may properly discharge their 
obligations as American citizens. The league admits to membership without 
question, however, all Japanese born under our flag, many if not most of whom, it 
would seem, still retain Japanese citizenship. It even admits the Kibei Shimin, 
Japanese born here and sent in early childhood to Japan and there brought up to 
manhood and womanhood as Japanese citizens. They are, to all intents and 
purposes when they return here, alien Japanese immigrants who have the privileges 
of American citizenship. Japanese authorities place the total number of Kibei 
Shimin at between 40,000 and 50.000 and say they are returning now at the rate of 
1,000 per year. The Japanese Association of America is planning to bring back 
at once to California all the Kibei Shimin still in Japan who will come. 



Exhibit E. — California Joint Immigration Committee 

(Copy of report prepared at the request of the Dies Committee, House of Repre- 
sentatives, on Japanese problems and propaganda) 

The 150,000 Japanese in continental United States form one of the country's 
most foreign-minded racial groups. The native-born among them are American 
citizens, but they are dominated by their ineligible alien parents, whose patriotism 
for Japan and its emperor, whom they worship as a god, is almost fanatical. 
Because of this domination and their strongly Japanese racial characteristics, 
these American-born Japanese are not assimilated into the social structure of this 
country. 

Japanese immigrants have never been welcome here because of their aggressive- 
ness, unassimilability, and low living standards. In 1892 the first unsuccessful 
attempt was made to keep them out of San Francisco, and soon so many coolie 
laborers were coming that there was much agitation for an exclusion law similar 
to that barring the Chinese. Congress was unsympathetic, but Japan, fearing 
the stigma of an exclusion law because 12,000 Japanese came in in 1 year, agreed 
in 1900 to keep her laborers out of continental United States. This was the first 
gentlemen's agreement. 

In violation of this agreement, from 1901 to 1908, inclusive, 51,689 Japanese, 
most of whom were or became laborers, entered. California continued to protest, 
and in 1907 President Theodore Roosevelt, to save Japan's pride, negotiated 
another gentlemen's agreement, the details of which were secret, although it was 
announced that Japan had again agreed not to send laborers to continental 
United States. 

This agreement was also violated, and the American courts were powerless to 
enforce its terms, since it was neither law nor treaty. Between 1909, when it 
went into effect, and 1924, when the agreement was terminated, the Japanese 
population of continental United States increased from 76,714 to 131,357. Pro- 
lific picture brides contributed to this increase, each family averaging five children. 

The Japanese quickly acquired land, not being content to work as day laborers, 
and frequently depleted it. Women and children worked with the men, and this 
sort of competition helped to drive out the Caucasian population, notably in cer- 
tain communities in the Sacramento Valley. The Japanese were assertive, 
antagonistic, and not too honest. 

Failing to get relief from Congress, California in' 1913 enacted an alien land 
law, prohibiting aliens ineligible to citizenship from purchasing land or leasing 
agricultural land. The Japanese circumvented this law in a measure by operating 
in the names of their American children. The agricultural communities of Cali- 
fornia seemed overrun with Japanese. Feeling against them ran high, but there 
was little violence. The other Pacific Coast States had the same problem, in a 
lesser degree. 

In 1924 California and her neighboring States made such a convincing presenta- 
tion of their Japanese problem to Congress that the exclusion measure, barring 
aliens ineligible to citizenship as permanent residents, was included in the Immi- 
gration Restriction Act. The fight was a hard one, for Japan had enlisted many 
friends to her cause — church people, idealists, foreign traders, employers of cheap 
labor, and uninformed Government officials. 

Japan protested against the measure, claiming discrimination and hurt national 
pride. She has even claimed that because we have thus insulted her she is 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11085 

avenging herself by her present predatory course in Asia and will close the door 
to us in China unless we open our door. This attitude overlooks the fact that 
the open door of trade in China is guaranteed by international treaty, while immi- 
gration is a purely domestic matter. But Japan brought exclusion on herself 
by 24 years of evasion of the spirit and letter of two agreements not to send her 
laborers to the United States. 

A number of extensive campaigns to break down the exclusion measure have 
been inaugurated during the years since 1924, but each has failed. Japan has 
spent much money on these campaigns, and has even attempted to propagandize 
in our schools through a textbook giving an erroneous statement of the exclusion 
problem. This book was written in Hawaii under the joint auspices of the Terri- 
torial Board of Education, the Institute of Pacific Relations, and the Japanese 
Government, and introduced into the schools there. After protest it was re- 
written, but because of serious omissions leaves much to be desired as an authentic 
textbook. 

The Japanese have been disliked and distrusted wherever they have migrated. 
Australia excluded them summarily and even contemptuously in 1900, but because 
of that firm attitude they have long since ceased to protest. Today there are 
less than 2,500 Japanese in the Commonwealth. Canada wanted to exclude them 
but was induced to accept a gentlemen's agreement, which has been violated 
since its inception, and British Columbia's long protests are now culminating in a 
demand for deportation of all Japanese. Canada does not grant the franchise 
to orientals, nor does she accept them for military duty. Several South American 
countries, notably Brazil and Peru, have had trouble with the Japanese, and even 
South Africa excludes them. 

Although no more are coming in, there are still many alien Japanese in Cali- 
fornia, living a typically Japanese life and controlling in large measure, by 
tremendous industry, skill and incredibly low living standards, the fruit, berry, 
and vegetable industry of the State. This control of much of our food supply is 
disquieting, as they are distrusted. The Tanaka memorial calls for control of 
the food supply of desirable localities. 

But the main problem now is the second generation Japanese, or Nisei, of 
wdiom there are more than 50,000 in California. They apparently want to be 
part of the social structure but are not welcome because of their too evident racial 
characteristics. They complain constantly of racial discrimination, but their 
plight is the direct result of their parents forcing themselves unwanted on this 
country. They are splendid people in many ways, good students and workers, 
but they are "Americans with Japanese faces." They cannot find work except 
among their own kind, and while intermarriage is forbidden in California, they 
really do not desire it, considering it an insult to the pride and glory of the Yamato 
race. Even in Hawaii there is little intermarriage between the Japanese and other 
races, particularly the Caucasian. They must live in segregated districts, which 
they resent, but are accepted on equal terms into the Army, where most of them 
seem quite happy. 

These conditions, while unfortunate, are the result of the determination of the 
Caucasians to keep their country and their blood white, and involves no claim of 
superiority. Our laws against which the Japanese protest were enacted to keep 
out immigrants who cannot be absorbed into the lifeblood of the country, and who 
form unassimilated racial blocs. The Founding Fathers of the Republic stipu- 
lated that citizenship should be granted only to free white persons. But a 
grave mistake was made when citizenship was granted to all born here, regardless 
of fitness or desire for such citizenship. Another grave mistake was the granting 
of citizenship to the Negroes after the Civil War. 

One of the greatest handicaps which the Nisei must fight is the possessive atti- 
tude of Japan. Koki Hirota, former foreign minister, said in 1938 that the 
Japanese in America must be educated as Japanese to retain their Japanese vir- 
tues, and that the Migration Association of Japan keeps close connection with 
them for that purpose. More than 60 percent of their number are citizens of 
both Japan and the United States because they were registered as Japanese at 
birth and have not expatriated, although free to do so under Japanese law. Much 
publicity has been given to expatriation campaigns, and there is much public 
affirming of allegiance to the United States and much flag waving, but no official 
expatriation figures are forthcoming or available. American official sources say 
there is little actual expatriation. Japanese births are still being registered at 
the consulate. Loss of family standing and inheritance in Japan are the chief 



11086 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

reasons given for lack of expatriation, but how much property in Japan did 
coolie immigrants leave behind? 

Japanese consuls and visiting dignitaries play a large part in the life of the 
Nisei, who are constantly being advised by them to be "good Americans." Even 
Matsuoka, educated in the United States but hating it, has advised this. 

The influence of the Japanese language schools may be responsible for many 
of the troubles of the Nisei. There are 248 of these alien-controlled schools in 
California, teaching about 18,000 children the culture and emperor worship of Japan 
daily after public-school hours. In 1939 these schools cost the Japanese $398,000. 
Textbooks printed in Japan, superseding those approved by the California State 
Board of Education, and teaching patriotism to Japan and emperor worship, were 
used in these schools until the Japanese learned the fact was known, when they 
were stacked away and the approved books again used. This occurred on Feb- 
ruary 14, 1941. An attempt was made by the California Joint Immigration 
Committee to have the recent California Legislature enact a law prohibiting the 
teaching in language schools of allegiance to a foreign government, but the 
Japanese lobby, much in evidence, was apparently successful in having the bill 
killed. 

This Japanese lobby was able to defeat a measure in the 1939 California Legis- 
lature to curb espionage activities of Japanese fishermen in southern California. 
The F. B. I. questioned the source of the large sum of money spent in that fight. 
The activities of these fishermen have been too persistently exposed to be mere 
fiction. 

Walter Tsukamoto, former national president of the Japanese American 
Citizens League, a Sacramento attorney and United States Army Reserve officer, 
is the guiding spirit of the Japanese lobby in the State legislature. In 1940 he 
received an award from the Japanese Young People's Society of Chicago as "the 
Nisei of the year" for his activities in helping to defeat the afore-mentioned fishing 
bill. 

The Nisei are urged by their leaders to be active in American politics and to use 
their bloc of 25,600 California votes for the benefit of the Japanese, alien as well 
as native born. They are even urged to join with the Negroes to make a sizable 
bloc which may swing an election, or break down the laws which Americans have 
enacted for their own protection and welfare. They have been very active 
recently in entertaining publicly newspapermen and politicians, getting the latter 
to bestow their trophies and laud them for their "Americanism" — 25,600 is a 
large number of votes. 

Study trips to Japan for young Nisei are financed by the Japanese Government. 
One such party leaves early in July. A 3-months trip costs $190. This goes on 
each year, and the returning children frequently engage in lecture tours to spread 
the word about the wonders of Japan among their fellows. Entrance examina- 
tions in Japanese universities are eased for Nisei wishing to study there, and 
money for the purpose is loaned to them by the Japanese Government. Some 
are trained to propagandize in this country. 

Many American-born children are sent to Japan in early childhood for educa- 
tion, and when they return are practically alien Japanese, frequently speaking no 
English. There were about 50,000 of these Kibei Shimin in Japan until recently, 
when the passage of the 1940 American nationality law, presuming expatriation 
of those who have been in the country of their parents for more than 6 months 
was passed. To avoid losing their American citizenship under this law many of 
them are scurrying back before the deadline in the middle of July. After that 
time they will be in grave danger of losing it. 

The California Joint Immigration Committee is maintained primarily to protect 
the exclusion measure against repeal or modification and notify the public in 
regard thereto. It contends that these unfortunate and highly undesirable 
conditions are proof of the unassimilability of the Japanese and the necessity of 
their exclusion as permanent residents. All Japanese, both here and in Japan, 
are constantly agitating for immigration quota, claiming that the number that 
could enter thereunder (185 annually) would be negligible. But added to that 
basic quota would be all those coining in under nonquota classification — visitors, 
students, ministers, diplomats, businessmen, and particularly alien wives for 
American-born Japanese (much desired). These wives would become the 
mothers of large, unassimilable families, and so the Japanese problem would be 
aggravated and perpetuated. Quota would also necessarily be extended to all 
other oriental countries, bringing the annual immigration from the Orient to well 
over 1,000. The basic principle of exclusion of those ineligible to citizenship 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11087 

must not be destroyed or weakened, either by grant of quota or by grant of 

naturalization to the colored races of Asia. 

Dorothy Kaltenbach, Secretary, 
California Joint Immigration Committee, 

San Francisco, Calif. 

The Chairman. No. Thank you very much. We have another 
witness. 

Mr. Strobel. 

TESTIMONY OF H. L. STROBEL, FARMER, MONTEREY 
COUNTY, CALIF. 

The Chairman. State your name and capacity, please. 

Mr. Strobel. H. L. Strobel, farmer from Monterey County. 

The Chairman. Mr. Strobel, in which capacity do you appear? 
Do you represent the Associated Farmers? 

Mr. Strobel. Not in this particular instance, sir. I think I repre- 
sent the vegetable interests in Monterey County more than any other 
particular group. 

The Chairman. Proceed, Mr. Strobel. 

Mr. Strobel. Mr. Chairman: I think that a great deal has been 
said here today regarding the participation of the Japanese in the 
production of fruits and vegetables. I am primarily interested in 
dispelling some of the misinformation that has apparently gone 
throughout the Nation. 

Much has been said, that if the Japanese were removed from the 
California area or from their farming occupations in California, it 
might result in a serious shortage of necessary vegetables for the rest 
of the Nation. I think that I can make a statement to the contrary 
without fear of being contradicted. 

I believe that the American farmers, or the farmers of California, 
are entirely capable, and with the land now occupied by Japanese, 
will produce in just as large a quantity the vegetables that have been 
formerly produced by the Japanese in our farming areas. I think 
the rest of the Nation need have no fear as to the amount of vege- 
tables that will come from California. There will be no appreciable 
lessening of the flow to the eastern markets and to those canning and 
processing agencies which have formerly carried on their operations 
with some Japanese production. 

OPPOSES UNDIRECTED RESETTLEMENT OF JAPANESE 

I might say that many of us have been concerned with the Japa- 
nese problem. I think, without taking anything else into considera- 
tion, that we must realize that we are at war now and that there is 
a very serious problem, as has been stressed by speaker after speaker 
here, in maintaining the status of the Japanese as it is at the present 
time, where they have freedom of access throughout our entire State 
and are not confined, you might say, to the areas of the State of 
California. They are free to roam around more or less. It is impos- 
sible to maintain any vigilance over all of their activities and their 
actions and many of them are constantly moving from one place to 
another. 



11088 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS. 

I do not agree with some of the speakers or some of the farmer 
speakers who say that the mere removal of the Japanese from Cali- 
fornia would, perhaps, serve the end that we seek. I think that it 
would be a mistake to evacuate the Japanese from California, and 
then turn them loose without any supervision of their activities in 
some other location or some other State. I feel that that would merely 
make a harder job then ever for the military authorities to try to follow 
the movement of those Japanese throughout the many different areas 
that they might be resettled in if there was no proper supervision of 
their movements and their activities. 

RETENTION OF ALIENS IN CALIFORNIA 

We have had some recommendations that these people be moved 
into the Mountain States where they might work in the beet harvest 
and other types of agricultural produce. I notice that in some of the 
suggested States opposition is now arising as to the removal of the 
Japanese to those particular points. As a personal observation I feel 
that, perhaps, we are entitled to kill our own snake, so to speak, and 
if there are areas within the State of California which are acceptable 
to the military authorities where thes*e people might be evacuated, and 
for their own protection where they might be put under restraint of 
one kind or another with the proper supervision of the military author- 
ities, or whatever authorities they might designate to do that job, and 
that if these people were maintained in these particular localities, their 
services could be utilized under proper supervision. They might be 
taken out to work, if they desired to work, in the morning, and be 
brought back at night. Their labor could be utilized, and I think that 
that would, perhaps, be as good a solution of this problem as any you 
might offer. 

Of course, we all must realize that the military authority has the 
power to move these people to any place which they deem safe and 
necessary. I don't think that any of us have any right to oppose the 
removal' of these Japanese, no matter where they are being moved, 
if it is the judgment of the Navy or the Army or the military authori- 
ties so charged that their removal to these particular areas constitutes 
a method of safety for the balance of the country. 

I think that we, perhaps, very often take our own particular prob- 
lems into consideration too much. I have heard a great deal of stress 
laid here before this committee on the hardships that might be visited 
upon certain aliens by evacuating them from one area to another 
area, or by removing them. 

I want to call the committee's attention to the fact that many of 
our own citizens are being inconvenienced, many of our small business- 
men are going out of business owing to the war effort and due to the 
fact that materials they formerly dealt in and that are necessary to 
maintain their business life are now being given priorities as far as 
the Army and Navy are concerned. Those men are going out of 
business. Many inconveniences are being visited upon our own 
citizens. So I do not feel at this time it works any great hardship 
upon a group of aliens to have their activities supervised, and in the 
interest of safety of our own country have them removed from one 
point to another. 






NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11089 

CANNING-TOMATO SITUATION 



I would like to say in connection with some of the figures that 
you read, the participation of the Japanese in the production of 
fruits and vegetables in California has been overemphasized to a 
very great extent, with the possible exception of canning tomatoes. 
The canning-tomato situation is indeed a serious one, and upon the 
most authoritative figures that we have been able to obtain we 
arrived at the conclusion that Japanese are growing somewhere in 
the neighborhood of 45 to 60 percent of the canning tomatoes that 
are canned in the State of California. Now, it does not necessarily 
mean that if the Japanese are removed from the occupations that 
they are now engaged in that this 60,000 acres of tomatoes, or any 
appreciable part of it, will not be produced. The only thing that 
might stand in the way of many American farmers taking over this 
acreage, or as much of it as is necessary, that they are not now pro- 
ducing, would be the ability of the processors, or some agency to 
furnish them with tomato plants. 

I don't know whether you gentlemen are familiar with the growing 
of tomatoes or not but sometime around the 1st of February hot 
beds are set out, or plants are planted in hot beds, and these plants 
are maintained and kept there until sometime around the middle 
of April, or whatever time the weather breaks, and then these plants 
are transplanted. 

Now, we can't go out overnight and say to the canning industry 
that we will get an acreage pledged by American farmers to take up 
the acreage that is vacated by the Japanese unless the tomato plants 
are available. I believe if the tomato plants are available that we 
can go out to our American farmers and from a patriotic standpoint, 
if nothing else, get them to take up any part of the acreage that the 
canners deem sufficient or deem necessary to maintain California's 
position in the production of canned tomatoes. 

CALIFORNIA FARMERS WILL PLANT MORE TOMATOES 

In checking on this particular phase, we called a man who was 
formerl} 7 a produce grower in Monterey County, who is now located 
in Kern County. We discussed this situation with him over the 
telephone and asked him to what extent tomatoes were produced in 
the Kern County area for canning. He didn't have a great deal of 
information on it at that particular time, but he called us back about 
a week later and said that he had gone out and talked to some one of 
the canning producers who operated in that particular area, and that 
he himself was increasing bis tomato acreage to 500 acres; that lie was 
going to produce enough plants, provided he could get the necessary 
seed, that would take care of some 2,000 acres for that particular 
processor in that area. He would endeavor to secure — and I under- 
stand now that he has secured — the sign-up of other American 
farmers of approximately 2,000 acres of tomatoes in that particular 
area. 

Now, that is 2,000 acres of tomatoes that have not been grown in 
past years. That is an entirely new acreage. It is an acreage that 
follows some of the new potato acreage, and some of the land that 
the farmers of Kern County are utilizing in this defense picture. 



11090 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

So I feel that the part that the Japanese played in the production 
of fruits and vegetables has been very much overemphasized and that 
the American farmer can and will take up wherever they leave off. 

TAKING OVER JAPANESE FARMS 

Much has been said here about the method of taking over and taking 
care of the property of these people who are evacuated. We have 
two or three exchanges of leases and property in Monterey County. 
I talked to one of the men yesterday who was a party to one of the 
deals. This Japanese had certain land that was leased and he had 
certain crops that had been planted. Certain operations had already 
been performed, and he had machinery. They got the two largest 
implement dealers in Monterey County to act as a board of appraisers. 
They went down to this Japanese ranch. Separately they arrived 
at an evaluation of the machinery that the Japanese owned. Their 
figures were taken together. Where there was a discrepancy they 
were arbitrated and put into shape where all parties were satisfied. 
An appraisal of the amount of work and fertilizer and other things 
that the Japanese had invested in the process of growing this par- 
ticular crop were taken into consideration and he was remunerated 
for his interest in his particular crop, his lands and machinery on the 
basis of what this so-called informal board arrived at, and I believe 
that everybody was satisfied. The Japanese was satisfied that he 
had gotten a fair deal. The other people were satisfied that they had 
performed their obligations to the Japanese. 

I do not think it is the intent of anyone in California to take any 
advantage of or exploit the Japanese in their evacuation of lands or 
vocations that they might now occupy. But it is necessary that this 
problem be met. 

I think it has also been touched upon here today that many of these 
Japanese farmed and controlled huge areas of land, large acreages, 
and that they have to hire of necessity the same labor that the white 
farmers in that particular occupation or area use. 

FILIPINOS REFUSE TO WORK ON JAPANESE FARMS 

Now, the Filipinos have had numerous meetings, and I think this 
committee is familiar with the fact that some of these Filipino or- 
ganizations have gone on record that they will no longer work for 
Japanese or on Japanese-controlled acreages, which makes it almost 
impossible for some of these Japanese to continue their occupation 
and the production of vegetables and other crops on the land that they 
now occupy. Any of the services that are now performed by the 
Japanese I feel certainly can be performed by the American farmers, 
or the native California farmers without any let-down in the amount 
of production that the Nation might need in this time of stress. 

Mr. Sparkman. What about fresh vegetables? 

Mr. Strobel. Fresh vegetables? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11091 

VEGETABLE PRODUCTION 

Mr. Strobel. I would say that the Japanese produce, as a whole, 
somewhere between 8 and 12 percent of the vegetables that are pro- 
duced in California. 

Now, those figures would not be applicable to California as a State 
because in certain localities the Japanese produce a much greater 
percentage of the fresh fruits and vegetables such as, we will say, in 
the Santa Maria Valley, than they do, perhaps, in other locations. 

Now, in our particular area I believe it is safe to say that the Jap- 
anese produce somewhere between 10 and 12 percent of the fresh 
vegetables that are shipped out of Monterey County. That includes 
San Benito and Watsonville because that whole area is included in 
one shipping area. There would be other localities where there would 
be practically no Japanese farmers, so the larger percentage that 
exists in one is offset by the lesser percentage in another. 

Taking the State as a whole, I believe the fresh fruits and vegetables 
they produce amount to somewhere between 10 and 12 percent of the 
total. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you been associated with Japanese people in 
your business or your operations? Have you been pretty closely 
associated with them? 

Mr. Strobel. I know lots of Japanese all throughout the State, 
and while my business connections with the Japanese have consisted 
entirely of shipping, handling lettuce for one Japanese, I do know 
the Japanese because of the nature of the work that I do for farmers. 

Mr. Arnold. Is it your opinion that most all the Japanese will 
have to be included in these aliens who are sent out of this area? 

Mr. Strobel. I would say so, yes: because I do not see how the 
Army or any other agency could do the job that is necessary to be 
done unless they were all included. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you think it is impossible to determine whether 
or not Japanese aliens and citizens are loyal to this country? 

LOYALTY OF JAPANESE CITIZENS QUESTIONED 

Mr. Strobel. I would say that it would be almost impossible for 
any man or for any agency to determine the extent of the loyalty of 
any Japanese to our country when you take into consideration some 
of the statements that the gentleman who preceded me on this stand 
made, when you take into consideration the fact that the Japanese 
children in my particular area and throughout practically the entire 
State of California and, perhaps, the United States, as far as I know — I 
am only familiar with California — attend our schools for a certain 
time and then they in turn attend a Japanese language school at 
which, we have from very good authority, they are taught the Jap- 
anese customs that are brought down to them from the old country; 
that the Japanese religion enters into it, and that they have in many 
cases been taught that the Japanese Emperor is their Emperor, no 
matter if they, by accident of birth, happen to be born in California or 
any other part of the world. 



11092 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. Their Emperor and their god? 

Mr. Strobel. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. They are in a different category from a German or 
Italian? 

Mr. Strobel. I believe to a certain extent, to a great extent that 
they are in a different category; yes, sir. 

I believe that you have a better opportunity to determine whether 
a German or an Italian is loyal to this country than you would have 
with the Japanese. The Japanese have a racial similarity so that is 
very hard for the average man to note any difference between them 
when he sees them just occasionally. Unless they are all under 
restraint you will have no way of knowing who is who and ascertaining 
unless you stop each and every one of them and by very minute in- 
spection of his permit, or whatever it was, know what he was doing 
in a particular area. 

Mr. Arnold. And if the military authorities are forced to evacuate 
practically all the Japanese it is because of their inability to convince 
them that they are loyal to this country? 

POSITION OF RESETTLEMENT OF JAPANESE 

Mr. Strobel. I think that that would be the case, sir. A word as 
to those who object to the Japanese being evacuated into their locality. 
I think that we are adopting a selfish attitude when we say that we 
don't want the Japanese here or there. I think that wherever the 
military authorities deem it the best and safest place to put them is 
the place that they will be put and that they should be put, and that 
we should cooperate with the military authorities in time of crisis by 
not placing any undue obstacles in then handling of this situation. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't think any prejudice should enter in. It 
should be a case of ability to prove loyalty to this Government of ours? 

Air. Strobel. I feel that; yes, sir. I think that any citizen during 
this time of crisis is going to be subjected to more or less, we will say, 
infringement on his civil rights. I have heard that so much until I 
am beginning to be a little fed up with it. But nevertheless all of 
us are going to have to forego certain civil rights that we have enjoyed 
in peacetime because we are now at war and war is a serious business. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all. 

The Chairman. Well, thank you very much, Mr. Strobel. 

Mr. Strobel. Thank you, Mr. Chairman, for the opportunity of 
being heard. 

The Chairman. We appreciate it very much. 

Mr. Ayres of the State Grange? (No response.) 

Well, the committee will stand recessed until Monday morning 
at 9:30. 

(Whereupon, at 3:45 p. m., the committee adjourned until 9:30 a. m., 
Monday, February 23, 1942.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



MONDAY, FEBRUARY 23, 1942 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 

The committee met at 9:40 a. m., in the Post Office Building, San 
Francisco, Calif., pursuant to notice, Hon. John H. Tolan (chair- 
man) presiding. 

Present were Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of Cali- 
fornia; Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois; and John J. Sparkman, pf 
Alabama. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; John W. Abbott, 
chief field investigator; Leonard A. Thomas, counsel; and F. P. 
Weber, economist. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

We would like to have the East Bay panel come forward. 

Will you announce your names and your official capacity for the 
reporter? 

Mr. Hassler. John F. Hassler, city manager of Oakland. 

Mayor Gaines. Frank S. Gaines, mayor of Berkeley. 

Mayor Slavich. John S. Slavich, mayor of Oakland. 

Chief Wallman. B. A. Wallman, chief of police of Oakland. 

Mr. Johnson. W. J. Johnson, captain of police, Berkeley. 

Chief Smith. Verne Smith, chief of police, Alameda. 

Mr. Schwanenberg. C. R. Schwanenberg, city manager of 
Alameda. 

Mayor Godfrey. M. C. Godfrey, mayor of Alameda. 

Mr. Fisk. Chester C. Fisk, city manager of Berkeley. 

The Chairman. I now want to say to you gentlemen that this 
committee appreciates your coming over here. We are simply a 
fact-finding body. We are a sort of sounding board of the Congress of 
the United States, to take back to Congress your facts and your 
fears and any suggestions or recommendations you have to make. So 
just treat this hearing this morning as informal. 

Who of the panel should talk first as to the East Bay conditions? 
Mr. Slavich, will you start out first? 

Mr. Slavich. Let Mr. Hassler talk first. 

The Chairman. All right. Mr. Hassler, Congress knows very little 
about the East Bay. I think the best way to approach the problem 
would be to tell us what you have in the East Bay. 

11093 



11094 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN F. HASSLER, CITY MANAGER OF OAKLAND 

CALIF. 

Mr. Hassler. I feel we are very vulnerable in the East Bay. We 
have both the naval supply base and the port of embarkation in 
Oakland. In Alameda we have the naval aviation base, connected 
by an underpass, as you know, from Alameda to Oakland; all very 
Vulnerable and veiy exposed. We feel in Oakland, and I know that 
the mayor and our council feel the same way, that, as regards the alien 
problem, the great majority of alien Japanese and American citizens 
descendants of Japanese are loyal to this country. However, we feel 
that the time has passed for an investigation of each case, and I feel 
that the loyal Japanese and the loyal aliens could better show their 
loyalty to this country by leaving the area at the request of the 
Federal Government. 

Certainly when they have left the area each case could be decided 
on its merits and those who are proved to be loyal could return to 
their homes. 

I have a different feeling as regards the older people who are alien 
Germans or alien Italians. I feel that a great number of those were 
unable to obtain citizenship when they came to this country because 
of lack of education. Many of them are the parents of fine Americans, 
a great number of whom are serving in the armed forces. I feel that 
those cases should be investigated fully before any of them are re- 
moved from the area. 

Oakland, Alameda, Berkeley, and our East Bay cities are in a defense 
zone. They are subject to raids by the enemy and we should have 
the protection of the Federal Government. 

I don't know of anything else to add to that statement, Congress- 
men. 

The Chairman. About how many people have you in the East 
Bay? 

Mr. Hassler. Oh, I imagine we have around 750,000 in Alameda 
and Contra Costa Counties. 

The Chairman. And what municipalities are there? 

Mr. Hassler. Well, in Alameda County we have Hay ward, San 
Leandro, Oakland, Alameda, Berkeley, Albany, Emeryville, and Pied- 
mont. In Contra Costa County we have Pittsburg, Martinez, Wal- 
nut Creek, Orinda, and several other smaller cities. Richmond, of 
course, is a very vulnerable point. 

The Chairman. Outside of the naval air base at Alameda, the Oak- 
land supply depot and the War Department embarkation improvement 
there, j t ou have a lot of oil industries, have you not? 

DEFENSE PLANTS IN EAST BAY 

Mr. Hassler. We have defense plants, we have shipyards that are 
employing probably at the present time 40,000 people and that will 
run up to 75,000 people. We have oil refineries. We have every- 
thing that is used in war. We have defense plants throughout the 
district. We have there probably 150,000 men working in defense 
projects. I don't know of any part of the country that is more tied 
up with the defense set-up at the present time than the East Bay cities. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11095 

The Chairman. I hope that you, as well as some of the other wit- 
nesses, keep touching on this point. I am very much interested in it. 
How are they being guarded? Do they have sufficient guards for 
those different places? 

Mr. Hassler. At the present time we need many more guards to 
properly safeguard them. We are using our local police forces, which 
are very small in all the cities, including the larger cities. They are 
not adequate to protect the civilian population and also the defense 
plants. Neither the Coast Guard nor the State Guard has put any- 
body in Oakland on our own defense projects. They are guarding 
the bridges and some of the naval and army establishments; but there 
are many others over there that should be guarded. 

It shouldn't be a local problem. Cities like Oakland, Alameda, 
and Berkeley are not financially able to take care of increasing the 
personnel of the police and fire" department without levying taxes at 
an irregular tax-budgeting time. To put a hundred men on the 
Oakland police force would cost a quarter of a million dollars, and we 
could probably use a thousand. 

The Chairman. Of course, you don't mean to give us the impres- 
sion that while you are short in numbers you are short in efficiency? 

Mr. Hassler. We are not short in numbers for our own needs at all. 

The Chairman. Chief WaHman there is pretty well recognized in 
this country for his police work. 

Mr. Hassler. I am only talking about the burden that was added 
because of the war. 

The Chairman. Mayor Gaines, do you have anything to add? 
Give us a picture of Berkeley. That is what we would like to have. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. FRANK S. GAINES, MAYOR OF BERKELEY, 

CALIF. 

Mayor Gaines. Mr. Chairman, in Berkeley we have a number of 
important defense industries, also important research laboratories 
having to do with the war effort, located at the University of Cali- 
fornia. Hence, our position too is quite vulrerable. 

The Chairman. What is the approximate enrollment at the 
University of California now? 

Mayor Gaines. About 14,000 students at the Berkeley campus 
itself; about 23,000 on the 7 campuses which make up the University 
of California. But we are conducting important research at the 
University campus itself, and that is a thing that justifies careful 
safeguarding. 

We have in Berkeley itself approximately 1,500 enemy aliens, 
including Japanese, Germans, and Italians. Of the 1,500 approxi- 
mately one-third are Japanese. We have a total Japanese population 
estimated at approximately 1,300, a great many of whom are native- 
born American citizens. 

THREE CATEGORIES OF ENEMY ALIENS 

I should like to suggest for the consideration of the committee a 
method for dealing with the whole problem of enemy aliens, namely, 



11096 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

that of dividing them into three general categories: Dangerous, 
suspicious, and friendly. 

Of the dangerous and suspicious groups there seems to be little 
doubt as to who should handle the cases. There it should be the 
established agencies, it seems to me. But within the friendly cate- 
gory, the expatriated Jews from Germany, for instance, it seems to 
me it might be well, having sorted them out to Federal agencies, to 
leave the matter of determining the degree of their loyalty and 
friendliness to local police authorities. They, by reason of their more 
direct and intimate knowledge of the persons themselves are likely to 
be in a better position to pass upon their loyalty than would a de- 
tached Federal agency, which perhaps would have to adhere to some 
sort of routine formula. 

I suggest that for consideration as a method which I understand 
was used with satisfactory results in dealing with a similar situation 
in England at the outset of war there. 

The Chairman. In other words, Mayor, you feel that the local 
enforcement officers should play a little bit more important part in the 
decision as to who are dangerous enemy aliens or not. Is that the fact 
you are trying to get over to this committee? 

Mayor Gaines. Yes; that is correct. 

The Chairman. Now it is up to the Army about these areas. 

Mayor Gaines. That's right. 

The Chairman. They consult with the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation. Attorney General Warren on the stand Saturday said that 
while the local enforcement and State enforcement agencies trans- 
mitted to the F. B. I. all information, no information came back to 
your police officers as to who are the enemy aliens or the names of the 
enemy aliens. We will have the Department of Justice in this after- 
noon to answer that proposition. But that is your fact, anyway: 
That the local enforcement agencies should play a more important 
part than the F. B. I. as to who are dangerous aliens and also with 
regard to hardship cases, people that the local enforcement agencies, 
like your police officers, know. They have lived there for years and 
they know that they are absolutely loyal. That is the point you want 
to get over, is it not? 

Mayor Gaines. That is correct. 

The Chairman. And I think you are right about it, too. 

Mayor Gaines. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Mayor. 

Mayor Gaines. I have one other thought to present for considera- 
tion by the committee. Obviously there will have to be some con- 
siderable transfer of those who can properly be called enemy aliens to 
places where they can be kept in safe custody, but at the same time 
can be offered an opportunity to utilize their time advantageously. 

OBJECTIVES FOR COOPERATIVE FARMS 

I have in mind the Japanese more particularly. I have had pre- 
sented to me, and I shall pass it on to this committee for its records, 
a master plan for the development of cooperative, farms, the objectives 
of which are: 

1 . To enable voluntary evacuation inland away from strategic areas. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11097 

2. To keep from the public relief rolls those Japanese aliens who, 
through removal of their means of livelihood, face eventual want. 

3. To add to the economic resources of the United States in these 
critical times by maintaining these Japanese aliens in productive 
activity. 

4. To sequester approved Japanese aliens where proper Govern- 
ment agencies may easily supervise their conduct and foster continued 
loyalty to the United States of America. 

5. To reduce post-war destitutions among alien families. 

This is a plan which has been carefully developed by a committee. 

The Chairman. Will you be able to leave that with us and make 
it a part of our record? 

Mayor Gaines. Yes. I shall be glad to submit this for the con- 
sideration of the committee. It is a thing that has been very care- 
fully worked out and I think offers a partial solution at any rate to the 
cases, voluntary or otherwise, which should perhaps in the public 
interest be placed outside of the combat area. I shall be very happy 
to submit this. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

(The material referred to above is as follows:) 

A Master Plan for Cooperative Farms, Inc. 

(Hi Korematsu, acting chairman, proponent committee for evacuated alien 

resettlement program) 

We present this as a possible solution to an economic and social problem which 
faces the State of California during these critical times. 

We, the proponents of this plan, are Americans. 

While we want to be humane, to uphold the common goals of decency, human- 
ity, and liberty, we are not permitting any undue sympathies to mislead our good 
judgment. We are for any and all programs which have as their object the 
advancement of our American interests and we are eager to contribute in every 
way possible toward the downfall of everything that is beneficial to the Japanese 
Government. 

We would like to recommend the plan attached herewith because we believe 
that the law-abiding aliens, especially the Japanese, residing in the State of 
California to be of economic value, and because gathering aliens in Government 
camps or indifference by the Government to evacuees will only add to the expense 
of the Government and we feel will not produce the return which is so desirable 
from the viewpoint of the American people. 

This war, like many others, can be won through unity, coordination, and mutual 
sacrifice. 

Therefore, your kind attention is respectfully requested. 

OBJECTIVES 

1. To enable voluntary evacuation inland away from strategic areas. 

2. To keep from the public relief rolls those Japanese aliens who, through 
removal of their means of livelihood, face eventual want. 

3. To add to the economic resources of the United States in these critical times 
by maintaining these Japanese aliens in productive activity. 

4. To sequester approved Japanese aliens where proper Government agencies 
may easily supervise their conduct and foster continued loyalty to the United 
States of America. 

5. To reduce post-war destitutions among alien families. 

THE PROBLEM OF THE JAPANESE ALIEN 

The sudden onslaught of war in the Pacific has not only plunged the United 
States into the throes of a mighty conflict, but fn line with many other changes in 
our national life has brought up a question of vital importance! — what to do with 



11098 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

aliens in this country, particularly with those who have been residing in localities 
designated as strategic areas. 

Many thoughts have been expressed and many schemes have been presented. 
These have crystallized in the recent action by Pacific coast Members of Congress 
who, in our Nation's Capital, have recommended programs to the President of the 
United States. 

Briefly, these programs would place the control of enemy aliens under the 
War Department, would immediately evacuate such aliens and their families 
from strategic areas, would intern them temporarily in available Civilian Con- 
servation Corps camps pending the working out a long-range resettlement project, 
and would provide Federal assistance for all uninterned aliens whose means of 
livelihood are affected by the war. 

In close conformity to these recommendations we propose the immediate estab- 
lishment of Cooperative Farms, Inc., which, it is intended, shall be the forerunner 
of similar establishments sufficient in number to care for all Japanese aliens who 
are subject to evacuation from restricted localities where they have been living 
and working. 

The authors of this plan are definitely not concerned with disloyal Japanese 
aliens. These subversive elements have been or are being taken into custody 
by the proper governmental agencies, according to official announcement by 
Attorney General Francis Biddle. 

This plan is a result of our interest in seeking a feasible solution to the problems 
created by recent evacuation orders. 

Originators of the plan are Christian leaders who are American citizens of 
Japanese parentage, who have worked it out in collaboration with outstanding 
citizens of other national and racial backgrounds. Continuous thought has been 
directed to the matter since the attack upon Pearl Harbor, and the project has now 
reached the point where endorsement of leading Americans and approval of the 
public in general is sought. 

Those governmental agencies most directly concerned have been kept constantly 
advised, so that this plan is not unfamiliar to them. 

COOPERATIVE FARMS, INC. 

Cooperative farms are planned because the production of food is essential to 
the winning of the war by the United States. The majority of Japanese aliens 
are well experienced in the production of foodstuffs. Those whom the war has 
forced out of other pursuits may readily be trained in the art of farming, so that 
they, too, may again become productive. Farm labor is scarce, because main- 
are turning to better-paid work in defense industries. The cooperative farms, 
with their available manpower, will aid in offsetting a part of this labor shortage. 

GENERAL CHARACTER OF THE FARMS 

1. Location. — The location and establishment of Cooperative Farms, Inc., is 
subject strictly to Government approval. They may be established away from 
the seacoast and strategic areas, in regions where the pursuit of agriculture is 
possible, and where essential transportation and communicative facilities and 
electric power are readily available. 

2. Size.- — Each unit of the cooperative farms will be of such size as may be 
deemed practicable in light of vaiious circumstances. As many families as 
feasible will be permitted to work on these farms and thus support themselves, 
and produce food for public and Government markets. 

S. Products. — Products of the farms should be thoroughly diversified. They 
may include dairv products, poultry, eggs, livestock, vegetables, berries, grains, 
sovbeans, sugar beets, cotton, and sach important experimental crops as guayule, 
as" substitute source of rubber supply. Whatever is deemed by governmental 
authorities to be most needed will be produced, so as to fit closely into the general 
scheme of national defense and the winning of the war. 

4. Experimental stations. — Close touch will be maintained with agricultural 
colleges and experimental stations. Cooperative faims may themselves become 
an important adjunct of the United States experiment stations of the Federal 
and State Department of Agriculture, as an emergency governmental project 
to insure production of food products vitally needed to maintain the health of 
the Nation and its armed forces. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11099 

5. Control and management — (a) Board of directors. — Full executive authority 
for the creation, management, and control of the farms will be vested in a board of 
directors of 15 members, all loyal, approved citizens of the United States. 

(b) Advisory committee. — Serving under the board of directors will be an 
advisory committee. To this committee will be appointed representatives of 
various governmental agencies — Federal, State, and county, who are long ex- 
perienced in farming, livestock, and poultry raisins; and in agriculture in general. 
This committee will possess no executive authority. All its acts will be subject 
to approval by the board of directors. 

(c) Administrative staff. — Also serving under the board of directors, and with 
the cooperation of the advisory committee, is to be an administrative staff, all 
American citizens, including a group graduated in agriculture and animal hus- 
bandry, who will serve as technical supervisors. 

FINANCING 

It is obvious that financing is required by the corporation to purchase the 
necessary acreage, adequate housing, buildings necessary for livestock and 
poultry, provide farm equipment, proper seed and fertilizer storage space, and 
other necessary expenses. There are several methods by which adequate financing 
of the project can be attained: 

1. Federal Security Agency. — The Federal Security Agency supported by vast 
sums of money advanced by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, lays great 
stress in its operations upon the creation of cooperatives among small farmers. 
Considerably more than 200,000 farmers, scattered through every State in the 
Union, have been helped by the Farm Security Administration to form themselves 
into more than 10,000 small cooperatives which are today doing business with 
marked success. 

If a Federal Security Agency loan were granted in the form of a Government loan 
to aid for the establishment and execution of the cooperative farms, the Federal 
Government would secure eventual return of funds which otherwise it might be 
called upon to extend outright in the form of charity for poverty-stricken Japanese 
aliens. 

2. Personal contribution. — Voluntary contributions are anticipated from Ameri- 
can citizens of Japanese parentage, the Nisei, as well as from other Americans who 
are conversant with the need for prompt, constructive, intelligent action to meet 
the situation brought about by the war. However, the funds from these last- 
named sources may be used for the preliminary expenses of organizing the project 
and placing it in operation. 

8. Establishment of cooperative farms in which aliens, as well as citizens, may 
invest through special licenses issued by the United States Treasury Department. — 
According to recent reports (February 3) from the United States Treasury De- 
partment, "A special license ruling required that the foreigners get special licenses 
before buying more than 1 percent of any class of stock of any corporation. 
Since foreign assets tied up in this country by freezing orders cannot leave the 
United States, they are frequently permitted to be invested here." (Foreign 
Funds Control, Circular No. 222). 

4. Direct Government aid. — Direct governmental financial aid, for reestablish- 
ment of law-abiding aliens removed from strategic areas, as an emergency govern- 
mental project. 

LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE PROJECT 

In 1913 the California State Legislature enacted the alien land law, which 
provided that no alien who was ineligible for citizenship (which includes the 
Japanese) could own land in this State, though he could lease land for 3-year 
periods. To meet the situation brought about by this law, many so-called "family 
corporations" were formed among the Japanese. Such corporations had the 
privilege of owning land, provided the majority of their stockholders were citizens 
of the United States. Japanese nationals could be members of the board of di- 
rectors, and could legally be paid salaries for their services. 

In 1920 the voters of California adopted an initiative measure which made 
unlawful the land-leasing privilege and also deprived the ineligible alien of the 
right to acquire shares in any landholding corporation. 

The Supreme Court of California has held, however, that an ineligible alien has 
the legal right to make an outright gift of money, land or other property to his 
American-born children, and that these children have the same right to name 
their own father as trustee of their property as has any other American citizen. 

60396— 42— pt. 29 10 



11100 BAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

In conformity with the alien land law, the cooperative farms will be an organ- 
ized corporation, incorporated under the laws of the State of California, with no 
individual owning any proprietary interest therein. Only citizens of the United 
States may be incorporators, or directors. The corporation may engage in all 
such agricultural, marketing, and other production and business pursuits as may 
be covered in the scope of its articles of incorporation and may, of course, acquire 
and hold land. 

Thus, in the cooperative farms, Japanese aliens may be productive, self-sup- 
porting and self-respecting, and without extra expense upon the Government for 
their detention and care. They can receive no profits from the crops they help 
raise, however, and can have no proprietary interest therein. They may not 
even receive a bonus or any similar gratuit}^ but will receive only regular wages. 

There will be no undue competition with neighboring farms and agencies. All 
products may be handled through proper Federal and State agencies. 

ONLY LOYAL JAPANESE ALIENS CONSIDERED 

In evolving the plan for the establishment of cooperative farms, there has been 
no desire to depict the problem of the Japanese alien and his dependents other 
than it really is. 

No sympathy is felt by the originators of this plan, nor should be felt by them 
or others, toward those subversive aliens who would harm the country which has 
given them shelter. 

Cooperative Farms, Inc., is a patriotic endeavor to accomplish the five major 
objectives set forth on the title page of this brief outline, and which are repeated 
here: 

1. To enable voluntary evacuation inland away from strategic areas. 

2. To keep from the public relief rolls those Japanese aliens who, through re- 
moval of their means of livelihood, face eventual want. 

3 To add to the economic resources of the United States in these critical times 
by maintaining these Japanese aliens in productive activity. 

4. To sequester approved Japanese aliens where proper Government agencies 
may easily supervise their conduct and foster continued loyalty to the United 
States of America. 

5. To reduce post-war destitutions among alien families. Therefore 

COMMITTEE FOR ORGANIZATION OF COOPERATIVE FARMS, INC. 

Desires approval of the public- — As hereinafter indicated, the plan for Coopera- 
tive Farms, Inc., was first conceived by a group of American-born college gradu- 
ates of Japanese stock. Now there is sought, for placing the plan in operation, 
the approval of those leaders who believe that such farms will go far toward 
alleviation of the present difficulties faced by both the United States Government 
and by the loyal Japanese who have been law-abiding and who are being evacuated 
from their homes and farms. 

These aliens who arc being evacuated without security may turn their sym- 
pathies toward the Axis; it will bring their distrust, in the democratic principles 
of America, and it will be defeating the very thing we are defending as a nation 
at war. 

Thus, a constructive program has been developed. Care has been taken to 
keep interested Government agencies advised of this plan during its develop- 
ment. This practice will be continued. It has been in a spirit of cooperation, 
•not with the ideas of assuming or interfering with any Government prerogatives, 
that the Cooperative Farms, Inc., has been advanced. We submit this plan 
with the belief that it is both constructive and thoroughly practical. 

This plan is respectfully submitted for your kind consideration. An acknowl- 
edgment will be sincerely appreciated. 

Committee for Evacuated Alien Resettlement Program. 

advisory committee (pro tem) for cooperative farms, inc., for evacuated 
alien resettlement program 

Dr. Galen M. Fisher, Institute of Pacific Relations. 

William C. James, Friends Service Committee. 

Robert R. Gros, Public Relations, Pacific Gas & Electric. 

Dean C. B. Hutchison, College of Agriculture, University of California. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11101 

Dr. Lawton Harris, Church Federation, Young Men's Christian Association. 

Dean Walter J. Homan, San Francisco State Teachers College. 

Dr. Alfred G. Fisk, San Francisco State Teachers College. 

William F. Benedict, former assistant secretary to Mayor Rolph, of San 
Francisco. 

Harry L. Kingman, general secretary, University of California, Young Men's 
Christian Association. 

Russell Profntt, Associated Cooperatives. 

Cooperative farm programs as now familiarized have had the sympathies and 
the assistance of such important offices concerned with alien problems, as United 
States Department of Agriculture; State Attorney General; United States At- 
torney; Farm Security Administration; Church Federation; Friends Service 
Committee; College of Agriculture, University of California - and others. 

TESTIMONY OF MAYOR GAINES— Resumed 

Mayor Gaines. I might have other suggestions to offer later or 
to submit to the committee before it concludes the hearings. 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. Before we ask questions of Mr. Slavich, 
I want to say to this panel that we might as well meet this thing 
head on. We didn't come out of the clouds. We are sent out here 
to find out what the people of the Pacific coast feel about this problem, 
their facts and fears, and any solutions they have. You are 3,000 
miles away from Washington. It is the finest opportunity the Pacific 
coast has, because we take this word -right back there. The Army 
and Navy and the F. B. I. will read this report. So we have got 
to meet this thing head on. This is the most vulnerable part of the 
United States. They tell us in Washington that the Pacific coast 
can be bombed. They also tell us that we can lose this war. Maybe 
we are a little bit jittery back there, but that is what the highest 
authorities tell us in Washington. 

What we want to obtain from this panel as much as anything 
else is what you are doing over there, the picture of the East Bay 
which we can' bring back to Washington. 

There is another thing that keeps bothering me all the time. We 
have got to think in terms of reprisals, too. We have prisoners 
back in Japan, Singapore, and different places. We have prisoners 
there. 

Another thing that keeps bothering me is that this war is going to 
end. The United States, it has often been said, is a melting pot of 
all races and religions on down the line. We have got to live here in 
the future. How best can we handle this situation with the least 
hardship to anybody? Under the Executive order of the President 
issued Friday it is all up to the Army. The reason for that Executive 
order is that the representatives of California, Oregon, and Washing-* 
ton met almost daily back there and we finally evolved this recom- 
mendation that the President outlined in his Executive order. 

How much the evacuation of those on the Pacific coast is going 
to be, I don't know. We met with General DeWitt Saturday after- 
noon for over an hour. He cannot appear because the border line 
between what is confidential and not confidential is very close. He 
said that he would permit us to say this, though: The order that 
goes into effect tomorrow stands just exactly as it is. He has received 
as yet no instructions from Washington under this new Executive 
order. Not one. But he said that we could tell the people that 



11102 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

there will be no mass evacuation. It will be taken step by step, and 
every hardship case will be looked into. 

That is where you are going to play a very important part. You 
know you have Italians over there in your districts who are just as 
loyal as any citizens. They are among the best people we have over 
there. So there is where you are going to play an important part. 

That is the longest talk I have made in all the hearings I have been 
in so far, but I did want to get that thought over to you. 

Mayor Slavich, what have you got to add to this? 

-TESTIMONY OF HON. JOHN S. SLAVICH, MAYOR OF OAKLAND, 

CALIF. 

Mayor Slavich. Mr. Chairman, you just said something that I 
have in my mind; in fact, talked about it with the boys coming over 
here this morning. I refer to the wholesale exodus and wholesale 
evacuation of the aliens. I don't think it should be done on a whole- 
sale basis. I think it would throw a lot of hardship on various 
people who are not able to take out citizenship papers possibly due to 
lack of formal education, although they are fine citizens. I think 
possibly the Japanese question has to be approached a little differently. 
I don't know whether or not we are able to get the necessary informa- 
tion on Japanese American-born citizens or not. The F. B. I. seems 
to have a lot of information we haven't got, because we have evidently 
had reports on some that don't quite agree with the F. B. I. reports. 

I don't think it is a local problem when it comes to its final solution. 
I think the case should be more of a Federal problem to be solved by 
some referee appointed by the Federal Government or some board 
set up to determine whether or not we should tolerate them longer in 
our midst. 

But I will say tins: That I think we should approach the question 
very carefully. I have read Mayor Rossi's and Chief Dullea's 
interpretation. I think I quite agree that the German and Italian 
aliens primarily should be given special treatment, because personally 
I know a lot who have boys in the Army and it would be a crime, I 
think, to send them away in these prohibited areas when their own 
flesh and blood is fighting for the cause. We have got to be very 
careful of that particularly. 

DELAYS IN NATURALIZATION 

The Chairman. Of course, with respect to what you say about 
naturalization cases, as I understand it they are about 18 months 
behind — where people who have taken out their first papers can't get 
a hearing. Also there are cases where they have had their hearing 
but the order has not yet been signed. They are so-called enemy 
aliens. 

Chief Wallman, I want to give you this information. If anybody 
asks you or the rest of the panel about those cases, technically they 
are enemy aliens, but we have a bill before the House Judiciary Com- 
mittee, which will probably be reported out this week, giving a 
discretionary power with the Department of Naturalization, don't 
you see, in those kind of cases. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11103 

Now they are out as far as their status is concerned. If anybody- 
asks you about that, that is the answer. We are going to try to take 
care of that. It is very, very bad. 

Chief Wallman, what have you to say? 

TESTIMONY OF B. A. WALLMAN, CHIEF OF POLICE OF OAKLAND, 

CALIF. 

Chief Wallman. Mr. Chairman, I am in accord with everything 
that has been said. I know that you are very familiar with our set-up 
in the city of Oakland. We have, as you know, 60^ square miles and 
I would safely say that there are 325, 000 people in the city of Oakland, 
with approximately 400 peace officers. Overnight many of those 
men have been given duties that are rather unusual to those of 
regular police officers. 

We also know that we have no budget prepared to take care of 
employing the necessaiy number of men that must guard vulnerable 
points, and there are any number there, both in our industries and our 
utilities. I believe that if we are going to take any action it should be 
taken now, and just as quickly as possible, because it may be too late 
next week or next month. As Mr. Gaines has said, I believe that we 
can do our duty. If it is the duty of the peace officers to pass upon 
the alien, I believe that we can do that. Again we must have more 
employees, and I am also sure that we must get much information 
from the Department of Justice. 

The Chairman. What are you getting now, generally speaking? 

Chief Wallman. Well, the system is this: We give whatever infor- 
mation we may receive or obtain through investigation to the Depart- 
ment of Justice. I believe that if we wanted that information or any 
additional information later we could get it. I have not asked for it, 
but I believe they would give it to us. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you right there — I am sort of talking 
out loud with you here. Don't you think that regarding hardship 
cases, the local enforcement officers know more about that than the 
F. B. I.? 

LOCAL ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS COULD PASS ON HARDSHIP CASES 

Chief Wallman. I certainly do, and we have those contacts. I 
think we are in a better position to pass upon them. Of course, I 
have heard of some cases about which I wouldn't know just what to 
do, such as dependents. Those are now being supported by either 
the State or the county charity. They have to be moved, of course, 
the same as anybody else. Possibly we could pass upon them. We 
may make some mistakes. But, again, if they are going to be moved 
has there been any preparation made for a camp? I have always 
believed that that is the logical place for them instead of scattering 
them throughout other parts of the city or probably into another 
county or State, and particularly in the city where they probably 
will have to be moved again and again as the areas increase in extent. 

But I think uppermost in my mind, Mr. Chairman, is this: That 
whatever we are going to do we should do quickly. That is upper- 
most in my mind — speed. 



11104 • SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The Chairman. Could you outline just what you have in mind in 
regard to speed; that is, what steps you think should be taken? 

Chief Wallman. Well, I understand that we couldn't move out 
this morning and probably not tomorrow, but it seems to me that 
there should be some preparation made if it hasn't already been made. 
If it has, I have no knowledge of it. If we have to move tomorrow or 
the next clay, these aliens could be sent to certain points provided for 
by the Federal Government. I think that is very important. 

The Chairman. I think I can tell you what ideas we had in mind 
when the three delegations of the Pacific coast met. That is that 
everyone, citizens and noncitizens alike, would have to register and 
who remains in certain districts will depend upon the judgment of the 
Army. 

"When we go down to the different departments of the Navy and 
War, we have to register. We have to have a badge and one thing 
and another. I don't know whether it will get that far or not, but 
it may be on a permit basis as to who remains, because the Executive 
order is directed against all citizens. The details have not been worked 
out as yet, but it is probably going to be on a permit basis. There 
is not going to be, a great big fanfare or anything like that about it. 
However, the trouble is that just one enemy alien can do a great deal 
of damage in any one district. Is that not correct, Chief? 

Chief Wallman. Yes, sir. 

VULNERABILITY OF PACIFIC COAST 

The Chairman. And I think the Pacific coast with our aircraft 
factories, power lines, dams, and other such things is particularly 
vulnerable. So, after all is said and done, we have got to do this job 
with p.s little hardship as we can. But it is still war. I think that is 
the way it is going to be handled. However, you can say to your 
people over there that the details have not been worked out as yet. 
It will all depend on the instructions that General DcWitt will receive 
from Washington. He may have them today, I don't know. But 
I think that is the way it is going to be worked. 

Was there anything else, Chief, that you wanted to ask? 

Chief Wallman. No. I can't think of anything right now, Mr. 
Chairman. 

The Chairman. You did make one point there. You think that 
your police force should be increased? 

Chief Wallman. Well, I think that it should be, under the present 
conditions. On the other hand, if we would speed up on the evacua- 
tion of enemy aliens, probably it wouldn't. We could get by with our 
present force. 

The Chairman. Of course, if there is an attack on the Pacific coast 
here — and they tell me that it is not only possible but it is probable— 
because Japan has to win this war quick or she is not going to win it 
at all. So I am trying to think along with you gentlemen this morn- 
ing and see if there is anything that we can anticipate. I don't look 
upon England as comparable with the Pacific coast. England, or 
rather London, is built of brick and stone. A few incendiary bombs 
in San Francisco alone could sweep the city and that also holds for 
the East Bay. We are anxious about it and we would like to get a 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11105 

picture of the East Bay, what is being done and what can be done to 
make us a little bit more secure. 

Captain Johnson, have you anything to add? 

Mr. Johnson. Mr. Chairman, if you don't mind a suggestion, it 
might be well to call upon Mr. Fisk, the city manager, before calling 
on me. 

The Chairman. That is all right. We will hear from you, Mr. 
Fisk. 

TESTIMONY OF CHESTER C. FISK, CITY MANAGER OF BERKELEY, 

CALIF. 

Mr. Fisk. Mr. Chairman, I have just jotted down a few points Here 
rather hurriedly. In the first place, I think we all must keep in mind 
the danger from sab >tage. That is something that none of us can 
afford to overlook. It has been pointed out here that additional 
personnel is needed in the police and fire departments, probably of all 
cities in this area, and I think they are a very necessary part of this 
general picture. As a matter of fact, there is so much personnel 
needed that I doubt whether any city can ever find adequate money 
to take care of that. It is something that goes far beyond any normal 
set-up. Therefore, I think that some consideration should be given 
by this committee to the matter of some Federal aid in connection 
with this sort of thing. 

Fundamentally, those of us in this room are charged with the 
responsibility of protecting our own people insofar as we possibly can. 
I don't mean to raise any question about the Army's authority or 
anything of that kind, but it is our job to take care of our own people 
as best we can through our civilian defense and through the duly 
constituted authorities which are parts of city government. 

Let us just take the police and fire as an example. It has been 
pointed out to you already that we might have serious problems grow- 
ing out of fire. I believe you pointed that out, Mr. Chairman, your- 
self. I am not going to go into a lot of detail about it, but there is 
no question about the seriousness of that situation. Our buildings 
are in a large measure frame throughout the bay area, and I think 
we have to keep that in mind in studying this general question. 

I think action should be taken quickly along whatever lines are to 
be followed on a constructive basis to solve this particular problem. 
I don't think we can afford to wait very long so far as this thing is 
concerned. 

SUGGESTS REVIEW OF MILITARY AREAS 

There are two other points I would like to raise. One of them 
has to do with the areas which have been restricted and prohibited. 
I realize, of course, that those areas are established by the Army. 
However, in the case of our own city I would like to raise a question 
as to how the determination of those areas was made and whether or 
not they were properly established for the best interests of the public 
or for the city as a whole. I don't know whether this committee can 
take that under consideration or not, but I would like to raise that 
question. I think that there ought to be some careful study made, 
perhaps not only in our own city but in some of the other cities. 



11106 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Again, I am not going to go into great detail, but so far as the city 
of Berkeley is concerned I think that matter needs to be very care- 
fully reviewed on the basis of this present set-up and consideration 
of some revisions thereto. 

One other thing that I want to mention, and this probably is not 
a part of this hearing, but it may be of interest to you and the other 
two gentlemen with you as Members of Congress. All of us agree 
that the situation out here is not one to be trifled with and I know 
Congress has that feeling in mind. This is a critical area and I 
believe every step should be made to expedite the delivery to the 
cities of the materials which have been made possible under this 
$100,000,000 grant by Congress, so that the materials may be in the 
hands of the cities where they can be used at the earliest possible date. 

I believe that covers the points which I have in mind at the moment, 
Mr. Chairman. Perhaps before the close of the hearing I might have 
another word to add. 

The Chairman. You see, you can get all the facts you want and 
then it depends on what you do about them. As a result of your 
remarks, Mr. Fisk, I was just thinking, shouldn't there be some 
official or some department to check back, for instance, like on the 
Pacific coast, to see how the Army and F. B. I. and enforcement 
officers are getting along? It would be a sort of clearing house. 

Mr. Fisk. I think there is no question about that, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The war came on us all at once. There should be 
a clearing house. I am still convinced that the city of Oakland and 
the city of Alameda and the city of Berkeley know more about hard- 
ship cases than any department of the Government. You know. 
You have lived there for years. I was trying to think in terms of our 
recommendation: Shouldn't there be some sort of a clearing house of 
this information between the local, State, F. B. I., and Army? 

Mr. Fisk. Definitely. I think it should be coordinated. 

The Chairman. The Army simply cannot take care of all these 
matters. It is just too much for them. They are fighters and they 
are getting ready to fight, as far as that is concerned. They are in 
good shape here on the Pacific coast. I can give you that information. 
But that is the opinion that I have. So our visit out here is just abso- 
lutely a futile gesture unless we go back to Washington with some 
recommendations. 

Now, Mr. Mayor, what have you got to say? 

TESTIMONY OF HON. M. C. GODFREY, MAYOR OF ALAMEDA, 

CALIF. 

Mayor Godfrey. Generally speaking, my thoughts are quite in 
agreement with expressions that have already been made. Because 
we are situated geographically as we are and because of physical con- 
ditions, I believe every possible effort should be made by the Federal 
Government to assist with our problem, not only with enemies from 
without but those from within. 

As far as hardship cases are concerned, I think your thought is 
correct in stating that local authorities are better qualified to pass on 
those cases than anyone else might be. However, any plan that may 
be adopted should be worked out, I think, by the Army or the F. B. I., 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11107 

or some Federal Government agency rather than by local authorities. 
Our local peace officers are not very many and have a big job to do. 
They would be very happy and are able to cooperate with any plan 
that is worked out, but the definite plan should come from sources, 
I believe, other than the individual municipalities or the collective 
municipalities. 

I am very definite in my thinking as regards the establishment of 
camps, if and when alien enemies or others whose loyalty may be 
questioned are removed from the area. There should be some definite 
plan as to where they are going, not any haphazard removal. I am 
not saying there is no such plan, but I thoroughly believe that that is 
a very important angle. 

The Chairman. Mr. Schwanenberg. 

TESTIMONY OF C. R. SCHWANENBERG, CITY MANAGER OF 

ALAMEDA, CALIF. 

Mr. Schwanenberg. I would just like to stress one or two points 
and bring them to your attention. The East Bay area is definitely 
very vulnerable. In the city of Alameda we have the naval air 
station at one end of the island. It is an island about 7 miles long 
and from a mile to 2 miles wide. There are five major shipyards along 
the northern edge and there is the Oakland Airport at the eastern end 
of the island. While the Oakland Airport is in Oakland, it is really 
in Alameda. 

The whole situation is very vulnerable, and steps should be taken 
to remove immediately all enemy aliens and all American citizens 
whose loyalty can in any way be questioned. We are at war and 
we can't afford in this area to take any chances. 

We have always had the reputation in this country of being tolerant 
and giving consideration to everybody. It is very possible that 
injustices will be done. That will be necessary. There are many 
injustices done during wartimes. If there are any, they can be 
rectified later. But in the present situation I don't believe we can 
afford to take any chances at all, and something should be done 
immediately to remove the enemy aliens and to remove any citizens 
whose loyalty is in the least bit questioned. If later it is proved 
that they are loyal, they can then be returned to their homes. It is 
something that must be done and, in my opinion, immediately. 

I agree with the other gentlemen in regard to some of the alien 
cases. I think the local authorities could be of very great assistance 
to the Federal authorities in most of these cases, because I believe 
that we know the cases. We know the aliens, or at least some of 
the aliens, that possibly could be trusted and are, maybe, as good 
citizens as we are. There isn't any question but what some of them 
are better citizens than a lot of the citizens that we have in this 
country today. 

I think that is about all I have to say. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Mr. Smith, please. ' 



11108 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF VERNE SMITH, CHIEF OF POLICE OF ALAMEDA, 

CALIF. 

Chief Smith. With your permission, Congressman, I won't be 
quite as tactful. I think from your remarks that you are considering 
the Italian, German, and Japanese question as a whole. T think that 
is a mistake. I think that there are two divisions — the question of the 
Italian and German aliens, and the question of the Japanese citizen. 

I say that even though we are showing our racial tolerance by hav- 
ing some of the Japanese citizens in the audience listening today. 

I think they are two entirely different questions, because for years 
we have known ItaJian and German aliens and there is a common 
meeting ground between their minds and our own. 

There is, so far as I can ascertain, no particular common meeting 
ground for the oriental and occidental mind. In other words, as an 
experienced police officer, I find it practically impossible to obtain 
information, to obtain true impressions of the Japanese. It is much 
more difficult, in fact more nearly impossible than it is with the other 
two classes of aliens. 

Therefore, I think it should be treated as a different problem and, 
to be perfectly blunt about it, I would recommend the internment 
in the very near future of all male Japanese on the coast here. That 
is my recommendation. 1 wish you gentlemen would consider it. 

I say that for very obvious reasons. I think speed is a very im- 
portant factor. It isn't a question of injustice because you know very 
well that the Government will treat all the interned people in a very 
humane manner, make them comfortable, and all that sort of thing. 
Then at our leisure, as opportunity offers, any injustice can be recti- 
fied. But I think it is a very important question of speed, Congress- 
men, and I wish that you gentlemen would consider that. 

That is the principal point I wanted to make. 

The Chairman. Thank you, sir. 

Mr. Johnson? 

TESTIMONY OF W. J. JOHNSON, CAPTAIN OF POLICE, BERKELEY, 

CALIF. 

Mr. Johxsox. Mr. Chairman, up to the time that Chief Smith 
spoke, I found myself very much in accord with all of the recom- 
mendations that had been made, up to that time. However, strictly 
speaking from a police standpoint, the situation with reference to the 
Japanese is quite different than it is with reference to the Italians 
and the Germans. I believe both Chief Wallman and Chief Smith 
will agree with me, that the police are able to get the information 
that we should have in order to know just what our position is in the 
cases of the Italians and the Germans, but we cannot get the infor- 
mation that we should have with reference to the Japanese. 

I might just as an example state that one young Japanese has ap- 
proached us recently. He was California born, and he told us that 
he wanted to aid the local authorities. He pointed out to us that 
today he is a man without a country. His decision is to aid the 
local authorities. 

The Chairman. Right there, Captain, the attorney general of Cali- 
fornia, Earl Warren, testified Saturday — I am asking this question to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11109 

see if you agree with him — that he has never received a report from 
any of the city or county enforcement officers where a Japanese has 
divulged any information that would be of value. 

Mr. Johnson. Mr. Chairman, that is substantially correct. I 
would say that is substantially correct. 

The Chairman. They have had it from Germans and they have 
had it from Italians and they have had it from every other nationality, 
but never from the Japanese. Is that correct? 

OFFERS OF AID FROM JAPANESE 

Mr. Johnson. Quite true. Up to within the last few days, no 
information whatsoever, to my knowledge, has come voluntarily from 
the Japanese to the police. None whatsoever. However, just 
recently now, and what the motives might be I am unable to say, 
certain 3 T oung California-born Japanese have approached us and, as 
1 was relating, are attempting to lead us to believe that they are on 
our side and do want to aid us. So, whether they do or not we don't 
know. It is virtual!} 7 impossible to tell. 

The Chairman. Captain, in the discussions of the Senators and the 
Representatives from the three Pacific Coast States, several times it 
was pointed out to us that there has not been a single case of sabotage 
so far on the Pacific coast. But we have finally come to the conclusion 
that that was really an anomalous, dangerous condition. Sabotage 
will come when the attack comes. Do you agree with us on that? 

Mr. Johnson. Emphatically so. There is no question in my 
mind about that, Mr. Chairman. None of us knows what is going 
to happen here, but there is one thing of which we are dead certain. 
That is what has already happened at Pearl Harbor and we all know 
how it was brought about there. There is no question about that. 
That is factual, that is history. We know what happened there, but 
we don't know what might happen here in the future. However, it 
seems to me that it is fairly good thinking to believe that what hap- 
pened there might well also happen here. 

The Chairman. In other words, at Pearl Harbor, Honolulu, there 
wasn't a single indication of sabotage until the attack happened? 

Mr. Johnson. Not until the correct time, the proper time. 

The Chairman. It was timed very well. 

Mr. Johnson. Surely. 

The Chairman. Did you finish? 

no instructions for accepting contraband property 

Mr. Johnson. I have two other minor comments. One is that 
the local authorities would like to receive official instructions from 
whatever Federal agency is going to bring about or direct any of 
these movements or projects. I have reference now to the surrender 
of certain contraband alien property. We have received no instruc- 
tions whatsoever by the Attorney General, but by reading the news- 
papers and listening to our radios we learn that on certain days up to 
certain hours certain property was to be surrendered to the local police. 

In certain cities the police refused to receive that property. And 
properly so. They had no official instructions whatsoever, but just 



11110 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

taking it for granted that newspaper publicity was correct and perhaps 
the radio people were correct, we in Berkeley set about to prepare our 
receipts so that we would be properly protected. Our printer worked 
all night in order that we would be ready. We had to staff our offices, 
and in about 3 days I believe over 400 different aliens brought in 
property worth thousands of dollars. Some of it was very bulky. 
All of that movement was carried on without any official instructions 
whatsoever from any Federal agency. 

The Chairman. Of course, that is right in line with this investiga- 
tion. We were hardly here before we came across the situation with 
respect to a custodian for alien property. The reason for that is 
simply this, that the pressure from the Pacific coast for a solution of 
that problem is greater than from any part of the United States. In 
New York, in the New England States, it is not present there at all. 
So it has been sort of lagging here on account of jurisdiction. The 
problem is the jurisdiction of the agency that should handle it. There 
should be a regional custodian right here for this alien property. 
Whether it is livestock or whether it is furniture or what not, there 
should be someone in charge to see that they are not cheated out 
of the value of their property by reason of forced sale or something 
of that kind. 

I think that is the most immediate thing. Speaking for myself as 
one member of this committee, we are not going to wait for our report 
but we are going to wire them to that effect. When this evacuation 
starts tomorrow, it is simply going to be terrible. I am glad you 
brought that out. We have been constantly considering that situa- 
tion, Captain. 

Mr. Johnson. I would also like to add that the police in the East 
Bay cities have any number of times daily endeavored to obtain 
official instructions from somebody here in San Francisco, but the 
official information is just not available. We cannot get it either 
from the United States attorney's office or from anybody else's office. 

The Chairman. Maybe they don't know. 

Mr. Johnson. I couldn't say. 

The Chairman. We have been moving pretty fast back there. 
We have quite a problem. 

BOUNDARIES OF MILITARY AREAS 

Mr. Johnson. Just one more point and then I will be finished. On 
this matter of the prohibited areas and restricted areas, in Berkeley, 
Mr. Fisk already mentioned this and I just wanted to add a little 
emphasis to what he said. A quarter of our city has been cut out 
and designated as a class A prohibited area. That is on the north 
side of University Avenue, but on the south side of University Avenue 
I believe we have more important national defense industries than we 
do on the north. That is in the wide-open area. It is not in the pro- 
hibited area. The larger part of our aliens live in the south, in the 
open area. 

I don't know who laid out the boundary line, but I do know that 
the local authorities were not consulted and the boundary line was 
cut out at a street that was straight and then another at right angles. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11111 

Then there were two streets that run parallel, and then there was a 
twilight zone and nobody knew where the line was for several blocks. 

That is all I have. 

The Chairman. Of course, there should be coordination. That 
is why we are out here — to learn from the people themselves who 
are directly involved in the problems. We are more or less of a 
sounding board to get that back to Washington. I think that is 
very valuable. 

Mr. Schwanenberg. I would just like to make one comment to 
bear out what Chief Smith and Captain Johnson have stated. At a 
certain golf course in California where they make reservations for 
Sunday golf playing, it is frequented by a large number of Japanese 
who hold reservations for every Sunday morning. Some of these 
Japanese, part of them at least, are American citizens. On the 
morning of December 7 there wasn't a Japanese that showed up on 
that golf course to claim his reservation and play golf that morning. 

Now, you can draw your own conclusions, but that is a fact. 

The Chairman. Mayor Gaines, I think you said you probably 
would have some more remarks to make. Is there anything further 
that occurs to you? We are about finished now because we have so 
many more witnesses. 

multiplicity of investigations 

Mayor Gaines. Congressman Tolan, I had in mind dealing with 
the point that has been emphasized by Captain Johnson and by your- 
self in your comments. I do feel that there is great need for more 
coordinated effort. For instance, in the case of the intelligence serv- 
ices themselves, at the present time the F. B. I. and the intelligence 
services of the Army and Navy are working on this problem. So far 
as I can see they are not coordinating their own efforts. The result 
is that there are a great many enemy aliens who are subjected to a 
series of investigations. 

The Chairman. May I interrupt you there? Why don't you gen- 
tlemen who appeared here this morning reduce to writing and send 
to this committee to Washington recommendations on just that point, 
coordination between the local officers, and the Army, and the F. B. I., 
and the Navy Intelligence? That will be of great assistance to us 
and it may be very helpful in our national defense program. I think 
you can do it as applicable to the East Bay district. I think that can 
be done because, after all is said and done, on March 16 we have to 
get a report in with certain recommendations. 

You can give us some cases where it works out. Also in regard to 
that area that you mentioned in Berkeley. I don't know how those 
areas were established. I have no idea about that. The jurisdiction 
is in the Army. 

Mayor Gaines. I have in mind particularly the matter of intelli- 
gence at the moment, although the area problem quite obviously 
needs some attention. 

I have just one other comment at the moment. I may submit some 
information to the committee subsequently. I understand the record 
is to be kept open for a time. 

The Chairman. Yes. 



11112 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

SHOULD NOT RELAX VIGILANCE TOWARD ITALIANS AND GERMANS 

Mayor Gaines. I do feel that while there is an important difference 
between Japanese aliens and Germans and Italians that it would be 
unwise to relax vigilance so far as the Italians and the Germans are 
concerned. We are well aware of the activities of Fritz Weidemann 
and his staff here on the coast prior to the time he was returned to 
Germany by our own Government, and undoubtedly there has been 
a continuing, subtle, persistent Nazi activity. Therefore, while we 
do need to differentiate to a degree, it is nevertheless wise to keep a 
vigilant eye on both German and Italian nationals as well. 

I think that is all for the present, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hassler? 

Mr. Hassler. I just want to say one word, Congressman, and 
that is this. You say to write a letter to the committee, but that 
takes so much time. I think we need immediate action on one 
matter, and that is this: That in the East Bay cities we should have 
a representative of the military forces to advise with local govern- 
ment. I think that should be done by recommendation of your 
committee by wire to the proper authorities immediately. In other 
words, when they established this prohibited area it was not done 
by taking it up with the local authorities and the twilight zone 
spoken of here may have been also done in other cities. One repre- 
sentative of the armed forces in our entire county would be enough, 
but he could advise with us and find out if we are doing the job 
right. I think it would show where other prohibited zones could be 
established. 

Procrastination has been shown in the burning of the Normandie 
and fires in the East and many other catastrophes in other parts of 
the country. But we wait for advice, we w r rite letters, and time 
passes. 

Mr. Fisk. May I say this, Mr. Chairman? I wrote to the Army 
about a week or 10 days ago and asked them if they had somebody 
to sit down with us and tell us how these areas were established. I 
have had no reply to that, I was out of the city Friday and Saturday. 

I know the Army has a lot of things to do, but I think this is a 
matter of some immediacy, and I am certain that we can all work 
together to the general interests of the public. But I agree with 
what Mr. Hassler has said. This is not the time to wait on these 
things. It is the time to act, We ought to act in a proper manner. 
That is what all of us want to do, but I think we should do it now and 
not 30 days from now T or some other time. 

The Chairman. I don't think it will take long. I think all we 
have to do is to ask General DeWitt, He has the jurisdiction. 

Mr. Hassler. That would be the thing to do. There should be 
some way to get them over tomorrow or this afternoon. Immediately, 
anyhow. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you this question. In regard to these 
statistics has the Army consulted with you local officials at all about 
it? 

Mr. Hassler. I have never seen any of them. 

Mr. Fisk. No, sir. 

The Chairman. Who makes the survey of it? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11113 

Mr. Fisk. Of the districts? That is something that we have been 
unable to find. 

ARBITRARY DESIGNATION OF MILITARY DISTRICT 

Chief Smith. They evidently took a map, Mr. Chairman, and arbi- 
trarily made the districts. 

Mr. Johnson. Mr. Chairman, one point I would like to mention 
just because it is specific. For weeks we have been told through the 
medium of the press that on February 24 large numbers of aliens 
would be evacuated from certain districts. Now we understand that 
the local authorities are not going to do it, that it is probably going 
to be done by some Federal agency. Which one we don't know. 

NO INSTRUCTIONS TO LOCAL OFFICERS CONCERNING EVACUATION 

Recently the newspapers have said it was to be done by the Army. 
However, today is the 23d and we have received no official instruc- 
tions whatsoever as to how it is to be done, who will do it, and any 
other details. I know we haven't in Berkeley and I don't believe the 
other jurisdictions have either. And today is the day preceding the 
evacuation. We don't know who is going to do it or how it is going 
to be done. Still, understand, normally when a State or Federal 
officer comes into our city he immediately contacts the local police 
forces for assistance. He doesn't know what the streets are, he 
doesn't know the people. So the customary thing is to contact our 
officers. 

The Chairman. In other words, if this committee had not come out 
here it would have remained in status quo? This problem would not 
have been solved at all; isn't that right? This is about the only way 
we could get it to the Government? 

Mr. Fisk. That is perhaps the only way Congress would have 
gotten it. I think we would have had to find some way of getting 
act on. 

The Chairman. We will take that up with General DeWitt today. 

Mr. Hassler. You will be in contact with the general today? 

The Chairman. I will have to call him up. We will be in hearings 
all day today. But it is too bad we did not have this panel on Satur- 
day. We were with him an hour Saturday afternoon and we could 
have discussed that right with him. Now, we will have to call him 
up before we leave. 

I think that is very, very important. I am glad you brought it up, 
because those are the things that count. 

Mayor Gaines. I might point out that midnight tonight is the 
deadline really on this thing 

The Chairman. Yes; I know. 

Did you have anything, Congressman Arnold? 

Mr. Arnold. I would like to ask a few questions on my own 
responsibility without having consulted you. 

I realize, Mr. Chairman, that you are familiar with this area and 
this is the area from which you come. Anyone can answer these 
questions who sees fit. 



11114 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Is it your idea that the local authorities should have the responsi- 
bility of saying which Italian and German aliens are evacuated and 
which remain? 

Chief Smith. No. 

DECISION ON CATEGORIES FOR ALIENS 



Mayor Gaines. I may answer that, since I believe I raised the point. 
First of all, I think there should be three categories established: The 
dangerous, the suspicious, and the friendly. 

Mr. Arnold. How are you going to determine that? 

Mayor Gaines. Within the" friendly category, I think the local 
authorities should be consulted without question on the ground that 
they are most familiar with local folk and are best qualified to deal 
with local situations. 

Mr. Arnold. Who can say who is friendly and who is unfriendly? 
Do you think your local authorities want to take that responsibility? 

Mr. Schwanenberg. No, no. 

Mayor Gaines. I think the Federal authorities can determine first 
of all who are dangerous. Certainly they would have a pretty good 
idea as to who are suspicious. That of necessity leaves a residue that 
might be counted friendly but subject to further investigation. 

Mr. Arnold. Of course; I hope the F. B. I. has all that information, 
but their force is not large and there are a great many aliens on this 
coast of Italian descent and perhaps of German descent. I don't 
know how many German aliens you have. 

Mayor Gaines. A great many. 

Mr. Arnold. I come from a district that is one-third German; very 
few aliens, however. I don't know just how any agency of the Gov- 
ernment, or local agency either, would determine who is loyal and who 
is not loyal, even among the citizens. 

Mr. Hassler. Congressman, I feel that the Department of Justice 
cooperating with the local police force could determine that. It 
wouldn't be any problem there at all. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you think we have time for all that? 

Mr. Hassler. No ; not now. 

Mayor Slavich. Midnight tonight is the border-line point. 

Mr. Hassler. We have been in the war 3 months almost and we 
are just taking that question up now. 

Mr. Arnold. I mean as to the future. I am not referring to the 
ones who are to be evacuated tomorrow, but we all know of this 
recent Executive order. Do you think we have time to study indi- 
vidual situations? 

Mr. Hassler. We presumed that the Department of Justice had 
all these cases investigated and ready for the evacuation, because they 
didn't contact us and we, of course, took it for granted that they knew 
what they were doing and that they would handle the cases. 

Mr. Arnold. Don't you believe that the Army will have to take 
into consideration the fact that if they leave one alien Italian family, 
for instance, and remove another there will be a great deal of hard 
feeling toward the Government on the part of those who are removed? 
They will claim they are as loyal as the ones who remain. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11115 

Mayor Gaines. Congressman, I might suggest that perhaps it is 
necessary to act under a sweeping order in this case, but that does not 
necessarily need to be final. Those persons, who by reasonable test 
can be determined to be loyal, can later be restored to then own sur- 
roundings. 

Mayor Slavich. Would you remove them in the meantime? 

Mayor Gaines. Well, tonight is the deadline. I don't know if you 
can do anything else. But it can be straightened out later. 

no mass evacuation anticipated 

The Chairman. Tonight is the deadline for this evacuation, but 
there are going to be more evacuations. General DeWitt said 
Saturday afternoon to the public that there is not going to be any 
mass evacuation, it is going to probably be done over weeks and 
months. So what we are now talking about is not on the borderline of 
tonight, but the future evacuations. I thought that your ideas were 
simply to cooperate with the F. B. I. and the Army. That was the 
idea, was it not? To give them whatever information you have? 

Mayor Gaines. That is all right, too. But so far as enemy aliens 
are concerned tonight is the deadline. Now, as to second generation 
folk, that is left under the Presidential order, as I understand it, to the 
discretion of the Army. That can take place over a period of time. 
But so far as enemy aliens are concerned, midnight tonight apparently 
is the deadline. 

Mr. Arnold. You gentlemen don't think that men in politics 
should have the final say as to who is removed and who isn't? 

Mayor Slavich. No. Don't ask the mayor to appoint a committee. 

Mr. Arnold. I know. As a Member of Congress, I have been 
glad that we didn't have to say who was to go into the Army and who 
wasn't, especially before December 7. It was pretty "hot." These 
mothers all wanted their boys out of the Army and I was very glad 
to leave those decisions to the War Department. I just wondered 
if you, out here in the Bay Area, wanted political considerations to 
enter into it. 

Mayor Slavich. We are rationing tires. We don't want to ration 
anything like tins. 

Mr. Fisk. All we want is to get it done on the best basis possible 
and we want it done quickly. We don't want it put on a political 
basis. 

Mr. Arnold. You want everybody who is disloyal to this country 
removed, and people who are loyal to remain? 

Mayor Gaines. That is right. Speaking for myself, it makes no 
difference who accomplishes it, the Army, the Navy, or what you 
call "political" so long as it is done. I think it is a public duty. 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, the Army is responsible for the defense 
of this coast and you, as city officials, are mighty glad that you have 
someone who is defending the coast and is responsible for it. 

Mr. Fisk. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. And I take it you don't want to interfere with this 
defense, but you don't want hardships to be worked on people whom 
you feel are loyal? 

Mayor Gaines. That is correct. 

60396— 42— pt. 29 11 



11116 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

SHOULD REALIZE MILITARY NECESSITY FOR EVACUATION 

Mr. Schwanenberg. I would rather see 50,000 people put in a 
camp and be sure that we were protected than to have one person 
stay out of an internment camp who was a danger to the protection 
of this coast. That is my position. 

The Chairman. And you say that because just one individual 
can cause a lot of damage? 

Mr. Schwanenberg. That is right. Ard there are nearly a million 
people in our area that we, as city officials, feel definitely responsible 
for. 

Mr. Sparkman. Don't you feel that a person of alien ancestry 
should, if he is a loyal American citizen, realize that this evacuation 
is necessary for the security of our Nation, and be willing to abide 
by the military decision and simply count it as a sacrifice necessary 
in war time? 

Mr. Schwanenberg. If he is a good American citizen he should 
be glad to do it. 

Mr. Sparkman. Now, there has been some complaint, and I 
think a just complaint, about the lack of coordination. You gentle- 
men understand, of course, that prior to this Executive order there 
wasn't any well-defined authority as to who was to do these various 
things. General DeWitt, as a matter of fact, did not receive his 
instructions until yesterday. I am wondering if you have made any 
effort in the last day or two to form a committee for the purpose of 
contacting General DeWitt, or anyone whom he might designate, 
to discuss these matters with you? 

Mr. Schwanenberg. We haven't formed a committee, but we 
have a very active committee in Alameda County, in which all of 
the defense council and all of the municipalities are represented. 
All of these problems are taken up and discussed and handled through 
them. We could have a meeting within an hour from now. 

Mr. Sparkman. Has that council or committee or any committee 
made any effort to have a meeting? 

Mr. Schwanenberg. I don't believe so, although we have contacted 
the various Government agencies, the F. B. L, the United States 
attorney's office and all the agencies that we knew about. 

Mr. Sparkman. That was prior to Friday. 

Mr. Schwanenberg. That's right. 

Mr. Sparkman. But we understand now that the authority is 
vested in one man. 

Mr. Schwanenberg. Up to this moment I didn't know. I 
wasn't aware of that fact. 

EFFORTS TO CONTACT AUTHORITIES 

Mr. Fisk. Congressman, as I said a few minutes ago, I mailed a 
letter and was told it should have gone, after a lot of time was wasted 
trying to find the right person, to the commanding general of the 
Army in this area. That letter was sent to him; it has been there for 
some time and I have yet to hear from him. 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes; but you must appreciate this fact: That 
prior to the President's Executive order and prior to his receipt of 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11117 

instructions under that Executive order he was probably as badly in 
the dark as you were. 

Mr. Fisk. I am perfectly willing to grant that, but let us not have 
the idea prevalent here that nobody has made any attempt to find out. 

Mr. Sparkman. No; the thing I am trying to get across is that 
things have been changed materially since Friday, and I simply offer 
it as a suggestion that you gentlemen make an effort to establish 
contact with General DeWitt or someone. 

Mr. Fisk. I am willing to keep trying. 

Mr. Sparkman. Or someone under him whom he charges with that 
responsibility. Personally, I think that such a contact would be 
welcomed by those in authority, and I think it would be a fine thing 
for you to do it. 

Here is one other point that I want to be sure that we get clear. 
Reference has been made several times to the fact that in dealing with 
these hardship cases, and even in defining dangerous zones or strategic 
areas, and so forth, the local authorities probably knew more about it 
than the others. Of course, that is true and they should be used; 
any information that they have should certainly be made use of. 
But I don't believe anv of you gentlemen want to leave the impression 
that the final decision in any of these matters should rest with anyone 
except the one who has the responsibility of the coast defenses. 
Isn't that correct? 

Mr. Fisk. Right. 

Mr. Schwanenberg. Right. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, in every instance final decision 
would be his? 

Mr. Fisk. That is right. 

Mr. Schwanenberg. I just want to say this in order to clear any- 
thing that might have been said. As far as the cities on our side have 
been concerned, we have received the finest of cooperation from both 
the Army and the Navy. The cooperation has been wonderful and 
they have assisted us to the limit of their ability and possibly to the 
limit of their power to do so. We have very friendly relations with 
all of them. 

Mr. Fisk. That is correct. That goes for our city. 

The Chairman. Gentlemen, we appreciate very much your coming 
here this morning. We have learned some very valuable facts from 
this panel. We are very grateful, as I say, for your attendance here. 
I have traveled about 50,000 miles and it is nice to be back home 
looking into the faces of my constituents. We thank you very much. 

We will stand in recess for 5 minutes. 

(Whereupon a short recess was taken.) 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

Mrs. Crivello? Congressman Sparkman will ask the questions. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. JOHN DAMATO, TESTIFYING FOR MRS. 
FRANCESCA CRIVELLO, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Rispoli. I am Mr. Rispoli, of the Italian Welfare Agency. 
Mrs. Crivello does not speak English and I prefer her daughter, 
Mrs. Damoto, speak. 

Mr. Sparkman. You are the daughter of Mrs. Crivello? 



11118 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Rispoli, are you connected with the family? 

Mr. Rispoli. No, no. I am executive secretary of the Italian 
Welfare Agency, which is a Community Chest agency. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mrs. Damato, will you give Mrs. Crivello's full 
name? 

Mrs. Damato. Francesca Crivello. 

Mr. Sparkman. Where does she live? 

Mrs. Damato. 2751 Hyde Street, San Francisco. 

Mr. Sparkman. Who lives with her? 

Mrs. Damato. Two sons and one daughter are living there at the 
present time. 

Mr. Sparkman. What are the names of the children? 

Mrs. Damato. One is Nicholas Crivello. The second is Vincent 
Crivello, and the other Tillie Crivello. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do these children work? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. What do they do? 

Mrs. Damato. Nicholas is a police officer in San Francisco and 
Vincent had his own business until 3 days ago when he entered the 
Naval Reserve on Treasure Island. He is in the Navy now. Tillie 
stays home. She takes care of the house with my mother. 

Mr. Sparkman. Who supports your mother? 

Mrs. Damato. My brother, Nicholas. 

Mr. Sparkman. She is a widow? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is her home in a prohibited or restricted area? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes; it is in a prohibited area. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is she a citizen? 

Mrs. Damato. No. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are the children citizens? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes; we were all born here in the United States. 

Mr. Sparkman. How many children are there in all? 

Mrs. Damato. Eight. 

Mr. Sparkman. And all eight are American citizens? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. One is a police officer of the city of San Fran- 
cisco? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. One is in the United States Navy? 

Mrs. Damato. The United States Navy. Then I have another 
one in the United States Navy in Pearl Harbor. 

Mr. Sparkman. You mean another brother? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. You have two brothers in the Navy? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Will it be necessary for your mother to move 
tomorrow? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. She will be the only member in the family 
who has to move and she owns her own home here. The family owns 
the home. 

Mr. Sparkman. The family owns the home? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11119 

Mrs. Damato. The family owns the home; yes. She is the only one 
who has to leave home. She has to leave and she feels badly about 
leaving the rest of the family. She is the only one that has to go. 

Mr. Sparkman. Where will she go? 

Mrs. Damato. To my sister. I have a married sister living in 
Greenwich Street in San Francisco. 

Mr. Sparkman. In the same city? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. And she will go over to the home of your married 
sister? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. But she feels she should be in her own home. 
She feels more independent. 

Mr. Sparkman. And how long has she lived in the United States? 

Mrs. Damato. Forty years. 

Mr. Sparkman. Where was she born? 

Mrs. Damato. In Palermo, Sicily, Italy. 

Mr. Sparkman. How old is she now? 

Mrs. Damato. Sixty-two. 

Mr. Sparkman. How does it happen that she never became an 
American citizen? 

ILLITERACY AS BAR TO NATURALIZATION 

Mrs. Damato. She was illiterate. She didn't know how to read 
or write Italian either, and then when she came here she started to 
raise this large family and she didn't have time for anything. She 
just worked night and day and it never entered her mind in any. way 
that she should become a citizen for any reason, because she always 
felt loyal to the United States. In fact, she always feels that this is 
her own country. And now when she is ordered to evacuate she feels 
that she is a citizen and shouldn't be treated that way. 

Mr. Sparkman. Your father was not an American citizen? 

Mrs. Damato. No. He was illiterate also and it never entered 
his mind either to become a citizen because he didn't know how to 
read or write and it is difficult for anyone who doesn't know a language. 

Mr. Sparkman. Suppose later it becomes necessary to move still 
farther into the interior, where will she go? 

Mrs. Damato. She has nowhere to go. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do all of the children live in San Francisco? 

Mrs. Damato. We all live here in San Francisco. 

Mr. Sparkman. With the exception of the one that is at Pearl 
Harbor? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Does she feel that some provision should be made 
whereby cases such as hers would be taken care of? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes; she does. She feels that there should be some- 
thing done. 

Mr. Sparkman. I am sure, however, she realizes that in a time of 
great national emergency such as this is all of us are going to be called 
upon for sacrifices. 

Mrs. Damato. Yes; she understands that. 

Mr. Sparkman. And that if she does go or if she does have to 
move farther into the interior, that will be reckoned as her sacrifice 
in winning the war. 



11120 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mrs. Damato. Yes; she realizes that. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have anything further to say, or I wonder 
if your mother would like to add anything to what you have already 
said? 

Mrs. Damato. She can't speak very good English, though, but she 
does feel as if she shouldn't be treated as an enemy alien — as a dan- 
gerous alien. She thinks she ought to have a little more consideration 
because she has two sons in the service and she has been here for years, 
most of her life. As far as she is concerned she feels as much a citizen 
as we American-born citizens. All her sentiments, all her feelings are 
for the United States. She has no thought of Italy in any way. 

Mr. Sparkman. And any distinction between her and the rest of us 
would be technical? 

Airs. Damato. Yes. She raised all her children here and we are 
all Americans. We all have American sentiments and feelings. She 
always thought of this country as her own country and she thinks she 
ought to be treated in a more considerate manner, that she shouldn't 
be sent away from her home. That is the way she feels about it. 
She feels that she is being sent away, while the rest of the family are 
being allowed to stay. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, you appreciate the difficulty of our 
drawing the line at some particular dividing point? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes; I understand. But she thinks that something 
should be done to sort out the friendly people and send them back to 
their homes. 

Mr. Sparkman. You think there might be some system of registra- 
tion? 

Mrs. Damato. I think so. I think there should be. 

Mr. Sparkman. A requirement to carry an identification card, a 
permit of some kind? 

Mrs. Damato. And then people who have known her all these years, 
know her character and know her ways, could sponsor her. She could 
have sponsors for her. 

Mr. Sparkman. I believe you agree with me that we all have a 
feeling that in solving this problem every effort will be made to see 
that proper provision is made for deserving cases? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. This is one problem that must be solved without 
a great deal of time in which to work out the details? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. But I believe that we can feel certain that every 
effort will be made to see that all deserving persons receive full and 
proper consideration. 

Mrs. Damato. And then she is under a doctor's care. She goes 
there about once a month for her heart condition and blood pressure. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you feel that after she is removed from her home 
to that of your sister that, if it is possible, the Government should 
have a reviewing agency? 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. To carefully go into individual cases, and where 
they are satisfied beyond a doubt that such persons as your mother 
are loyal to the United States, they should then be allowed to return 
to their home imder some sort of license or identification? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11121 

Mrs. Damato. Yes. I think that there should be. Yes, that is 
what I think should be done. 

Mr. Arnold. And then not be removed in future evacuations? 

Mrs. Damato. Especially if they should have to evacuate into the 
interior. We don't want to see her go away because she is alone and 
she isn't well. 

Mr. Arnold. We hope that will be worked out. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have any of the children been educated in Italy? 

Mrs. Damato. No. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have any of them been back to Italy? 

Mrs. Damato. No. We have always been here in San Francisco. 

Mr. Sparkman. What degree of education have they received in 
this country? 

Mrs. Damato. Most of them just went through grammar school 
and a few of them had 1 or 2 years of high school, but they have never 
been to college. None of us has been to college. 

Mr. Sparkman. All of them have been engaged in various activities? 

Mrs. Damato. All of them have been engaged in various activities, 

y es - 

Mr. Sparkman. They have all been law-abiding citizens? 

Mrs. Damato. Oh, yes. They have all got jobs, you know. 

Mr. Sparkman. Thank you very much. We appreciate your com- 
ing and presenting this case to us. 

Mrs. Damato. Thank you. 1 

Mr. Sparkman. Mrs. Maniscalo. 

Mr. Arnold. Let us have the entire family. We will make room 
for you up here. 

Mr. Kjspoli. This is just part of the family. There are 12 in the 
family. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. LUCIANO MANISCALO, SAN FRANCISCO, 

CALIF. 

Mr. Arnold. What is your name and address? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Luciano Maniscalo, 1846 Powell Street. 

Mr. Arnold. North Beach? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. What are the ages of you and your husband? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. My husband was 59 years old on February 14th 
and I was 48 January the 12th. 

Mr. Arnold. And how long have you been married? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Thirty years on "Disaster Day," the 7th of 
December. 

Mr. Arnold. How many children do you have? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Twelve. 

Mr. Arnold. Are some of the children in the armed services? 

FOUR CHILDREN IN THE ARMED SERVICES 

Mrs. Maniscalo. One is in the United States Navy; he has been 
there 7 years. One is on a United States transport; he has been there 
a couple of months. One is in the Army; he is in Tacoma, Wash; 

' The committee was later advised by Mrs. Damato that her mother had been allowed to return to her 
home. 



11122 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

My daughter is in the ambulance corps and the other was reclassified 
for the Army. I don't know what class yet. We are waiting for his 
class. 

Mr. Arnold. The one in the Navy is a volunteer? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. He volunteered 7 years ago. He finished 7 
years on the 18th of January. 

Mr. Arnold. And the one in the transport service, of course he 
volunteered for that service? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. He volunteered for the transport. And there 
is one in the Army. He was drafted on June the 3d of 1941. My 
daughter volunteered in September. I don't remember the date; 
she is the one in the Ambulance Corps. 

Mr. Arnold. Which children are here with you today? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Well, there is one more small, one between 
them [indicating]. 

Mr. Arnold. Give their ages. 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Luciano, he is 14. Rosie, she is 6. Michael is 
10 and Angelino will be 4. 

Mr. Arnold. And where are the other four children? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Home. 

Mr. Arnold. What are their ages? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Marion, she is 21; Joseph, 16; and Theresa, she 
is going to be 9, and Frances is 12. 

Mr. Arnold. What occupation has your husband practiced for the 
last 20 years? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Well, at first he used to work at the Union Iron 
Works and he went to Alaska. Then he got his boat and he has 
been a fisherman for 20 years. 

Mr. Arnold. He bought a boat and has been a fisherman? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. For 20 years? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Twenty years he has been a fisherman. 

Mr. Arnold. Was he able to make a good living at crab fishing? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Well, when they was catching crab they was 
doing all right. Sometimes yes, sometimes no. 

Mr. Arnold. He raised a pretty good sized family, though. 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. And apparently a fine, patriotic family. Has your 
husband been able to obtain any work since the 7th of December? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. He was barred from fishing after December 7? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. That's right. 

Mr. Arnold. And he has been without work since? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. He hasn't been working since. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you rent your own home? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. What rent do you have to pay? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Thirty dollars beside gas and electric. 

Mr. Arnold. How are you able to make ends meet since your 
husband became unemployed? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Well, one of my boys, the one that is on the 
transport, he gives me $50 and another boy gives me $20 a month, 
and whatever my daughter makes, what she can spare, she gives me. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11123 

She makes $18 a week and she gives me whatever she can spare out 
of it. 

Mr. Arnold. None of your children are married, are they? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. My son in the Navy got married just before he 
left for Pearl Harbor. 

Mr. Arnold. His wife is back with her folks? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. She is in Long Beach. 

Mr. Arnold. Are you a citizen and is your husband a citizen? 

Mr. Maniscalo. My husband is not a citizen, but I am a citizen. 
I lost my rights, but I took my citizenship. I lost my rights when I 
married him, and then in 1934 I got my papers out. 

Mr. Arnold. When did he come to the United States? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. August 2, 1901. 

Mr. Arnold. And where has he lived since he came to this country? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. He arrived in New York City and then he went 
to Buffalo, N. Y. Then he went to New Orleans and he came to 
Pensacola where I was born, and we got married there. 

Mr. Arnold. How long has he been in San Francisco? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Since March 12, 1917. 

Mr. Arnold. You say you were married in Pensacola? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Yes. I was born there. 

Mr. Arnold. That is your home? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. That is my home. 

Mr. Arnold. Has your husband made any effort to become a 
citizen? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Oh, yes; many times. He went in 1932. He 
was examined and he passed a hundred percent, him and his two 
witnesses. But he don't know how to write his name, and I have 
tried since and he can't learn yet. 

Mr. Arnold. He can't learn it? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No. Sometimes he even cried. He tries ot 
write and he can't do it. 

Mr. Arnold. Can he write in Italian? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No. 

Mr. Arnold. He has no education in Italian? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No, none at all. 

Mr. Arnold. Is that the only thing that prevents him from being a 
citizen? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. That is all. We have been trying many times. 
We even tried as soon as the outbreak of war. 

Mr. Arnold. Is he as loyal an American as you are? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. I think he is more loyal than I am. 

Mr. Arnold. Has he ever returned to Italy? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. He has never gone back to Italy. In fact, I 
don't think he ever wrote to Italy for the last 16 years, so he is more 
American than I am. 

Mr. Arnold. And none of your children has been back there, 
unless it would be the boy in the Navy? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No. He was born in Pensacola. Three of them 
were born in Pensacola and nine of them in San Francisco. 

Mr. Arnold. And, in fact, he has severed all connections with Italy? 
I mean, with anyone in Italy? He hasn't written back there for 17 
years? 



11124 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No; for 40 years. He hasn't been to Italy in 
40 years. 

Mr. Arnold. I say he hasn't written back there? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No. We don't know what became of his people 
or anything. He says his mother is dead and we never write .his 
father. 

Mr. Arnold. He has never been arrested for any crime? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. For what? 

Mr. Arnold. Your husband has never been arrested? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No. He brought me two crabs one time. He 
brought me two crabs home one time. He got arrested for bringing 
some crabs home one day, but I don't call that arrested. 

Mr. Arnold. I wouldn't think so. Am I correct that you were 
only on relief during the depression years? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. During the depression, and there was another 
time. Well, it was during depression, I guess. One time they had a 
very bad season of crab. I was on relief, too, but I don't remember. 

Mr. Arnold. Does he have any membership in any Italian organiza- 
tions? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No. 

Mr. Arnold. He attends no meetings of any kind? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No. 

Mr. Arnold. In other words, you want to repeat that you think he 
is as loyal as you, a native-born American? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. I think he is just as good an American as I and 
his sons and his daughters. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you live in a restricted area? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No; I don't think that is in a restricted area. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't have to move tomorrow? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. No. He used to own his own boat and then he 
gave it to me. 

Mr. Arnold. Now, I want a picture of the group. I think that 
would make a very good picture. 

(Whereupon a picture of Mr. and Mrs. Maniscalo and the children 
present was taken by a photographer.) 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. I want to say that you certainly speak veiy fine 
English yourself. The only thing that you can say against the record 
of your husband is that they took two crabs away from him? 

Mrs. Maniscalo. Well, he took a couple of crabs and brought them 
home, and so he got arrested. 

The Chairman. Is that the only time he ever did some "crabbing" 
with you? 

_ Mrs. Maniscalo. No. Now, don't say that. We do that some- 
times. That is the reason we have gotten along for 30 years. 

The Chairman. That is all. 

Mr. Tramutolo. 






NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11125 

TESTIMONY OF CHAUNCEY TRAMUTOLO, ATTORNEY, FORMER 
ASSISTANT UNITED STATES ATTORNEY, ALEXANDER BUILD- 
ING, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

The Chairman. You may sit down, Mr. Tramutolo. Who is with 
you, Mr. Tramutolo? 

Mr. Tramutolo. I represent, together with Mr. Rispoli, executive 
secretary of the Italian Welfare Agency (member agency Community 
Chest of San Francisco), Citizens' Committee to Aid Italians Loyal 
to the United States. 

The Chairman. Give his full name to the reporter. 

Mr. Tramutolo. Milano Rispoli. 

The Chairman. I want to say that I have known Mr. Tramutolo 
for 25 years. He is one of the leading attorneys in San Francisco. 
I have great respect for him. We are pleased to have you appear here 
Mr. Tramutolo. Congressman Sparkman will interrogate you. 

Mr. Tramutolo. Thank you veiy much. May I make a state- 
ment, gentlemen, that will clarify my position here? 

REPRESENTS ITALIANS OF SAN FRANCISCO 

I speak for a committee of businessmen and merchants of Italian 
descent, all of whom are citizens, which committee represents the 
Italian population, citizens and noncitizens, of San Francisco. The 
estimated population of Italians here, both citizens and noncitizens, 
is 70,000. Fully appreciating the present emergency this committee 
met and at its initial meeting unanimously approved my acting as 
its spokesman in order to present to you what we regard as hardship 
cases which will be affected by the existing order of evacuation. At 
this meeting we formulated a plan to present definite problems needing 
immediate solution. We are not unmindful of the fact that the upper- 
most and most important thing that should concern everyone is the 
safety of our country. 

You have already heard testimony that a large percentage of our 
scavengers are aliens. I would rather use the word "noncitizen" 
than "alien" because many of them have tried to become citizens but 
were unable to do so because they cannot read or write the English 
language. May I at this point make this observation, that there 
are many Italians, who are unable to become citizens under the 
present law, who are as loyal as many who have obtained their citi- 
zenship papers, because they could read and write our language. 
My remarks will be confined to the Italian situation existing here 
because I am more familiar with it than I am with the others. I 
desire to go on record as stating that there is no group in this area, 
or elsewhere, who are more loyal than those of Italian descent. And 
we would be delighted to know of any who are disloyal so that we 
could assist the Government in getting rid of them. Our committee 
is willing to cooperate at its own time and expense with the Army, 
Navy, or any other branch of the Government in ferreting out those 
who are disloyal, because it is to our interest as Americans to get rid 
of them and to do so expeditiously. In an emergency such as we are 
now confronted with there are many cases that you would not be 
aware of unless they were brought to your attention. 

You heard this morning a few cases which are examples of many 
and I shall be pleased to give others to your committee should you 



11126 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

desire them, provided that for the time being their names be not 
revealed. The reason for making this request that their names be 
withheld temporarily is that the parents do not like the attendant pub- 
licity because they have children who are of school age and the pub- 
licity would have a tendency to affect these children. 

The scavengers' situation presents an important problem that must 
be dealt with. These people of necessity must start their work after 
midnight and in the early hours of the morning and finish as soon as 
possible as the size of their wagons and the number of people who 
work upon them, if they were to work after 7:30 in the morning, would 
congest our already overcongested city. 

The janitors' organization comprises in membership approximately 
3,000, 1,200 of whom are noncitizens, and they must do their work 
after office hours and work through midnight and until the early 
hours of the morning and they cannot do so unless the curfew require- 
ments are modified. Under the present military order aliens are 
required to be off the streets and public places between 9 p. m. and 
6 a. m. 

I have turned over to Dr. Lamb the scavengers' and janitors' 
problems and the problems of those who bring vegetables and produce 
to our markets. The original letter containing these facts and signed 
by their authenticated representatives have been delivered to Dr. 
Lamb. In appearing before your committee I want to furnish you 
with authentic information and not my personal views and con- 
jectures for I know as legislators you want facts and not fiction. 

SEVEN TYPICAL HARDSHIP CASES 

A case typical of many that I could present is that of a family 
present in this court today. The mother of this family is married to 
an American citizen but upon attempting to prove it she was unable 
to do so. This family has two children and they must vacate under 
the existing military order of evacuation and they do not know where 
to go. The two children, who are 9 and 11 years of age, were born 
here and are attending school. The parents merely ask that the 
order of evacuation be stayed until the school term ends around 
May or June of this year. The loyalty of the mother can be vouched 
for by her neighbors and if a bond were necessary her friends would 
put up any reasonable bond so as to assure anyone of her loyalty. 
May I state, Congressman Tolan, that this family lives in your district. 

Another case that has been brought to my attention, typical of 
many others, is that of a widow with eight children, who was born in 
the United States and who resides in Salinas, Calif. With her eight 
children she resides on a dairy farm, a half interest in which was left 
to her by her deceased husband. This widow was born in the United 
States but lost her citizenship by reason of the fact that she married 
a noncitizen prior to 1922. As you are undoubtedly aware, anyone 
who married an alien prior to 1922 lost her citizenship even though 
born here. This widow has never been out of the United States and 
her only means of livelihood is the dairy farm of which she owns a 
half interest and the other half is owned by her brother-in-law, who 
must vacate because he is an alien. I am sure you can readily appre- 
ciate that it would be a tremendous hardship to ask this woman and her 
children to remove from the dairy farm, which is in a prohibited area. 
The attorney who represents this woman informs me that he has 
applied for her repatriation. But I feel that unless more help is 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11127 

given to the local naturalization office the tempo of their work cannot 
be stepped up. I do not want to be understood as criticizing the 
immigration and naturalization bureau, or the United States district 
attorney's office, or the office headed by Mr. Clark, who represents 
United States Attorney General Biddle in alien problems, because all 
of them have been most cooperative, but as they are flooded with an 
unusual amount of work they are unable to handle it because they 
are understaffed. The naturalization bureau in this district is some- 
thing like a year behind in its work. 

SUGGESTS CHANGES IN NATURALIZATION LAWS 

The Chairman. Eighteen months, I believe. 

Mr. Tramutolo. As I said heretofore our committee wants to 
cooperate with any agency in determining those who are loyal and 
those who are disloyal, whether they be citizens or noncitizens. 
Another hardship case that I have in mind is that of the father of a 
San Francisco born boy who is very prominent and who is now in 
the Navy and is one of Commander Tunney's righthand men. His 
father has been a member of the carpenters' union for twenty-odd 
years and his family consists of his wife and eight children all of 
whom were born in the United States. The father is unable to 
become a citizen because he cannot read or write the English language. 
I am of the opinion that the naturalization laws should be amended 
so that the determining factor in granting citizenship should be the 
moral character of the applicant rather than the ability to read and 
write. I think some modification or recommendation should be 
made and that in determining one's qualifications for citizenship 
the test should be, Is the applicant a person of good moral character? 

Another case is that of a married man whose wife was born here. 
They have five children who also were born here. The wife lost her 
citizenship by reason of her marriage to this man prior to 1922. The 
husband thereafter acquired his citizenship, but this fact did not 
automatically restore his wife to citizenship. This situation becomes 
merely a question of repatriation which she has applied for, but she 
will not be restored to citizenship for many months to come because 
of the congested condition of the naturalization office in this district, 
and the Government in tins emergency should resort to using auxiliary- 
help which is available here in California. I do not believe the tax- 
payers should be burdened any more than they are at the present time 
and the way to obviate any further load being placed on the taxpayers 
is for the Government to avail itself of the services of patriotic in- 
dividuals and groups who are willing to aid Government agencies 
gratuitously. 

Under the direction of Hon. C. J. Goodell, judge of the superior 
court, local members of the bar association selected in excess of 22,000 
air-raid wardens here in San Francisco who are to perform their work 
at no expense to the taxpayers; likewise auxiliary police and firemen 
were selected, none of whom are to be paid, who are rendering their 
services for patriotic reasons. There should be established a com- 
mittee or committees for determining the loyalty of the people who 
are affected by the existing military order of evacuation. 



11128 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The Chairman. All right. 

Mr. Tramutolo. Our executive committee comprises 15 members 
and we can increase this number if the military authorities or the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation or any other Government agency 
should ask that it be done, and we would be willing to function as a 
committee to determine the loyalty of the Deople affected by the 
existing order of evacuation. We are mindful of the fact that we are 
not fighting to preserve property rights but that we are fighting for 
our lives and to preserve our liberty. 

THE DIMAGGIO FAMILY 

The Chairman. Tell us about the DiMaggios. Tell us about 
DiMaggio's father. 

Mr. Tramutolo. Neither of the DiMaggio seniors is a citizen. 
They have reared nine children, five boys and four girls, eight of whom 
were born in the United States and the other one is a naturalized citi- 
zen. Three of the boys are outstanding persons in the sports world. 
Joe, who is with the Yanks, was leading hitter for both the American 
and National Leagues during the years 1939 and 1940. His younger 
brother Dominic is with the Boston Red Sox and his other brother, 
Vincent, is with the Pittsburgh team of the National League. All 
three are so outstanding in their profession that their record is well 
known to every sports follower. With the DiMaggio children and 
grandchildren they are a sizable number and if you could have 
attended, as I did, the wedding of Joe DiMaggio here a few years ago, 
you would have some realization of the size of the DiMaggio clan. 
The senior DiMaggios, though noncitizens, are as loyal as anyone 
could be. 

The Chairman. What is the older DiMaggio's occupation? 

Mr. Tramutolo. DiMaggio, Sr., is a fisherman and his two older 
boys, Tom and Michael, are also fishermen. Joe and his brother 
Dominic and the oldest boy of the family, Tom, own and operate a 
splendid restaurant among the many located in the North Beach 
section of our city. To evacuate the senior DiMaggios would, in 
view of the splendid family they have reared and their unquestioned 
loyalty, present, I am sure you will agree with me, a serious situation. 
Many of the people affected by the existing order have boys and girls 
in the armed forces or some branch of the Government doing defense 
work. I believe that it would be destructive and have a tendency to 
lower morale, which all of us are interested in building up, if infor- 
mation should reach those in the armed forces that their relatives 
have been ordered to move out of this area because unfortunately 
they are not citizens. As I have stated, all of us are interested in 
building up morale which is indispensable in our winning this war 
and preserving our liberty. 

most of us are descendants of aliens 

The Chairman. In other words, this war is going to be over some 
day and we still have got to deal with different races. Is that true? 

Mr. Tramutolo. Ours is a cosmopolitan nation and as to many 
of us it would not be necessary to go back farther than one generation 
to establish the fact that we are descendants of aliens. As I stated 
heretofore we should evolve some plan whereby we could determine 
the loyalty of the people under consideration by your legislative com- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11129 

mittee. I am positive that none of the members of our committee 
nor the people whose cause we are pleading are in sympathy with 
Italy's entry into this war. Mussolini's following, if it exists, is at 
best negligible, and his followers in this area can be numbered on one's 
hand cutting off four fingers. This is a crude way of expressing it 
but what I am trying to convey to you is this: How could there pos- 
sibly be any sympathy for Mussolini who plunged his country into 
war and hasn't the faintest idea why he is in it and by his stupid act 
has used and is using millions of boys and girls as cannon fodder? 
There is no possible way that this war can end by which Italy will 
come out successfully. So if there is any doubt in the minds of your 
legislative committee or anyone else as to any person of Italian descent 
having any sympathy for Mussolini's cause, I want to add that we 
would like to know them as we are convinced that we could handle 
their cases very effectively ourselves. Obviously, it would be to our 
interest to do so. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, you recognize the fact that there are 
some areas from which everybody must be evacuated? 

Mr. Tramutolo. Yes. That would apply to citizens and non- 
citizens as well. 

Mr. Sparkman. Citizens and noncitizens alike, yes. What would 
be your recommendation as to the method of taking care of these hard- 
ship cases? Would it be some kind of a permit to remain or move 
back in? 

COMMITTEE WOULD INVESTIGATE LOYALTY OF INDIVIDUALS 

Mr. Tramutolo. Yes. Let me explain what we have in mind, Mr. 
Sparkman. Suppose you were the one in authority in this area and 
you said, "All right, Mr. Tramutolo, I will give your committee a list of 
aliens in the San Francisco area to vouch for." In that event we would 
bend backward in our care in making our investigation of such people, 
for the instant you distrusted any of our recommendations, we would 
be hurting the people whom we were endeavoring to help. This work 
would not be undertaken for pay from the city, State, or Federal 
Government, but we would do this work in the knowledge that we 
were not only undertaking a worthy cause but that we would also be 
rendering a patriotic service to our country. We would undertake to 
give you every possible assurance as to the loyalty of the individual 
involved. 

We have in San Francisco, and I assume this is true elsewhere, 
many cases where the husband is a citizen but the wife is not, and 
vice versa, and many of these people have children who were born 
here. 

Mr. Sparkman. You would not develop a system whereby there 
would be any group permits? 

Mr. Tramutolo. No. 

Mr Sparkman You would let each case stand upon its merits? 

Mr. Tramutolo. Each case should be thoroughly investigated, for 
we would realize that if the investigation were slipshod it would hurt 
the people whom we were trying to help and certainly would hurt our 
country with whose safety we are all concerned. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you would not advocate, I am sure, taking 
the final decision away from the one who is responsible for the defense 
of this area? 



11130 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Tramutolo. Not at all. There should be no difference as to 
where responsibility should lie. It should lie with those in charge of 
our defense. And if in the wisdom of General DeWitt, who is in charge 
on the west coast, after submitting to him the problem of the individual 
involved, he should say, "Well, I am sorry, but the individual has to 
be evacuated," that should be final, as authority should rest with the 
one in charge of the defense of this State. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you made any effort to contact General 
DeWitt or anyone under him with reference to some such plan? 

Mr. Tramutolo. Well, we have gone so far as to have had a meeting 
with State Attorney General Earl Warren, who in turn suggested that 
we should contact General DeWitt with respect to the problems we 
explained to him (State Attorney General Earl Warren). I am sure 
you will agree that General DeWitt is tremendously overworked and 
nothing would please us more than, at his convenience, to sit down 
and give him our views in line with what I have explained here today. 
If I recall correctly, England went through the very same thing 
that we are going through now and England determined, so far as 
aliens in her country were concerned, that they would have to prove 
their loyalty before any consideration would be given them and, mind 
you, they required Americans to do the very same thing as they were 
classed as aliens. I do not believe it should be done on a group basis. 
I believe each case should be presented individually. Further, some 
machinery should be set up so as not to put additional burden upon 
the Army authorities or Government bureaus, and it is in this respect 
that we recommend that auxiliary help be resorted to from groups that 
can be trusted to do this work of investigating. There are in this 
area many loyal persons who are awaiting their citizenship but whose 
cases cannot be acted upon because the naturalization office is already 
overburdened with work and in my opinion is understaffed. This 
situation could be relieved if the Government were to accept auxiliary 
help along the lines that I have indicated heretofore such as was used 
in selecting air raid wardens and auxiliary police and firemen. 

Mr. Sparkman. In the event it should be necessary to evacuate 
large numbers of Italian aliens from this area what proposal would you 
offer with reference to the handling of the evacuation and also with 
reference to employing those people after they have been evacuated? 

EVACUATION AID 

Mr. Tramutolo. I have not given thought to the question that you 
have asked me nor do I at present have a solution for it. However, if 
an order should be issued requiring Italian aliens to remove from the 
Coast inland, say twenty-five, fifty or more miles, we would endeavor 
to ascertain what counties would receive them and I feel that the 
counties would welcome them for they would be of a desirable type. 

Mr. Sparkman. I believe that is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Chauncey, I think you have a pretty good idea 
there. In other words, you are not quarreling with the jurisdiction 
of General DeWitt? 

Mr. Tramutolo. Not at all. 

The Chairman. Or the Army and the Navy. But you want to be 
helpful. Now, the evacuation goes into effect tonight; of course we 
can't do anything about that. But there will be other evacuations 
ordered under the Executive order of the President. That is what we 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11131 

are concerned about. That order provides, of course, that all citizens 
can be evacuated. 

Mr. Tramutolo. That is true. 

The Chairman. If I get your testimony clear, you feel this: That 
the law enforcement officers of the State of California as well as com- 
mittees such as you describe can be helpful to General DeWitt in the 
reduction of hardship cases? 

Mr. Tramutolo. That's correct. 

The Chairman. All right. I think that Attorney General Warren 
should see General DeWitt. We saw him Saturday afternoon. 
You feel, Chauncey, that you could take the block where you live, 
for instance, and you could discover and report to General DeWitt or 
the F. B. I. any disloyal person in that block pretty accurately, could 
you not? 

Mr. Tramutolo. Without any doubt. 

The Chairman. I think you have got something there. We will 
contact h'im again before we leave and tell him what you say and 
what the other witnesses have said here. I want to repeat again that 
the war is going to be over sometime. We hope it will be very soon. 
And we will still have to live with our people. Is that true? 

Mr. Tramutolo. Yes. 

The Chairman. Mr. Tramutolo, the papers you submitted citing 
two hardship cases will be made a part of the record. 

(The papers referred to above are as follows:) 

Two Samples of Hardship Resulting from Evacuation 

MARGUERITE VALDEZ VEZZOLO 

Born at San Ardo, Calif., February 22, 1898. Resides in Salinas, Calif. 

Married Battista Vezzolo, a native of Italy, on January 3, 1917, at Gonzales, 
Calif. Battista Vezzolo died in this country January 27, 1941. 

By reason of her marriage to an alien, Mrs. Vezzolo lost her citizenship. A peti- 
tion for her repatriation is now pending. 

She has eight children; the oldest is 25 years old and the youngest 5 years old. 
All were born in this country. 

She owns a one-half interest in dairy property which is in prohibited area. 
The other half interest is owned by her brother-in-law who is an alien. Mrs. 
Vezzolo and her children and also her brother-in-law will have to move out of the 
prohibited area. 

MR. AND MRS. EMILIO RESTANI 

Mr. Restani has been in the United States since 1901. He married Mrs. 
Restani, who was an American citizen, prior to 1922 and by reason of her marriage 
Mrs. Restani lost her citizenship and there is now pending a petition for her 
repatriation. 

They have five children, all born here. 

Inasmuch as they are in prohibited area they will have to move out of San 
Francisco as soon as the military authorities put into effect the present order that 
all aliens of enemy countries must move out of area No. 1 in which San Francisco 
and Alameda Counties are included. 



Chauncey Tramutolo, Attorney at Law, 

San Francisco, March 18, 194.2. 
Mr. Leonard A. Thomas, 

Tolan Congressional Committee, San Francisco, Calif. 
Dear Len: Following our conversation of yesterday and our previous ones, 
I suggest that pending appropriate amendments to the naturalization laws the 



60396—42 — pt. 29 12 



11132 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

following classes of persons should be exempt from the existing military evacua- 
tion orders: 

(1) Persons who have lost their citizenship (expatriated) by reason of marriage 
to aliens. This, of course, applies only to those who married aliens prior to the 
passage of the Cable Act in September 1922. 

(2) Persons whose applications for citizenship were filed and/or pending prior 
to December 7, 1941. 

(3) Persons who are married to citizens and have lived in the United States 
since July 1, 1924, and whose moral character can be proven. 

(4) Persons who are now eligible to file for their second papers. 

(5) Persons, though unable to read or write the English language, who have 
dependents (residing in the United States) and who have themselves resided in 
the United States since July 1, 1924. 

The Dickstein bill which I understand has passed the House and is now pending 
before the Senate is a step in the right direction, but in my humble opinion does 
not go far enough. 

If the naturalization director of this district is in need of additional help to 
hasten action on the foregoing enumerated classes of cases, the committee of 
which I am chairman will gladly furnish competent help without expense to the 
Government. 

Please don't forget to let me hear from you before you return to Washington. 

I trust that the foregoing few suggestions will be of some help to you in work- 
ing out the program you contemplate with the military authorities and the 
naturalization bureau. 

With kindest regards, I remain, 
Sincerely yours, 

Chauncey Tramutolo. 

Mr. Tramutolo. Mr. Rispoli of the Italian welfare would like 
to say a few words. 

TESTIMONY OF MIIANO RISPOLI, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, 
ITALIAN WELFARE AGENCY, AND MEMBER AGENCY COM- 
MUNITY CHEST OF SAN FRANCISCO, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Rispoli. I just want to say a few words. In the first place, 
there are naturally quite a few social problems that will arise. All 
the people come to our agency, we being the recognized agency. 
Mr. Tramutolo has covered most of the hardship cases, so I would 
just like to draw my conclusions. 

I recommend that the Government, needing employable persons in 
defense industries, consider the employable Italian aliens for work in 
any industry, providing that complete allegiance to the war effort can 
be properly established. 

Secondly, that legislation be passed by Congress permitting Italian 
alien residents, of good moral character, who have resided in America 
continuously since July 1, 1924, to obtain citizenship, although 
illiterate. 

Thirdly, in the event that an evacuation is necessary, Federal funds 
be provided for relief to prevent hardship to cases of needy individuals 
because of State and county indigent and settlement laws and the 
inability of these Government units to provide adequate funds im- 
mediately. 

Fourth, for the unity in this country the Government should aug- 
ment the publicity program, which will strengthen the morale of 
these evacuees. 

I can say that the people are a little nervous, due to all these regu- 
lations coming through at this time. However, I am sure that they 
are all willing to cooperate, but we would like to know if this is the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11133 

end, and if not, what is eventually coming, so we can advise them. 
As the previous group has said, local representatives and the heads 
of the Federal agencies are more or less at a loss to advise them, as 
all the regulations come direct from Washington. If we could explain 
these regulations to them it would probably stop a lot of people going 
to the Government agencies. We are always glad to be of service to 
the community chest agencies. Some members of the community- 
chest agencies are here and they can testify, if you wish. 

We are interested in people. We are also interested in the fact 
that we are at war. 

The Chairman. Of course, I think we all appreciate the fact that 
this crisis came on us all at once. I know that everything that is said 
here is not in criticism of the Government or any of its agencies. 
We are simply here to get the facts and to pass them on to Congress 
so that we can be helpful. 

Mr. Tramutolo. No criticism at all is intended. Any suggestions 
are with a view to alleviating the conditions. We have nothing but 
praise for those who have contacted us as well as your committee. 

Mr. Rispoli. The Post Office Department was very good to those 
who applied for certificates of registration. The people felt right at 
home and they did an extra fine job. 

(The following reports were submitted by Mr. Rispoli subsequent 
to the hearings.) 

Summary of Problems Affecting the Italian Community of San Francisco 

(Report by Milano Rispoli, Executive Secretary, Italian Welfare Agency, and 
Member Agency Community Chest of San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif.) 

I shall present the problems which have arisen since December the 7th in the 
Italian colony of San Francisco, and which affect the Italian aliens of this group. 

The most important and immediate problem is that of unemployment. The 
first factor is the complete loss of employment to Italian alien fishermen for the 
duration of the war. The second factor is the loss of employment for all Italian 
aliens working in prohibited areas. This group includes men who have been 
working in certain shipyards, fisherman's wharf concerns, and other business 
establishments located in these zones. 

The third factor is that the curfew law in restricted areas, affects several 
hundred Italians employed as scavengers or garbage collectors, janitors, restaurant 
and hotel employees, produce market employees; who must work late at night 
and early in the morning. 

The fourth factor is that the fishermen are not entitled to unemployment in- 
surance benefits, since they have worked independently from organized industry. 
While some of these can be supported by children of working age, most are in 
bad financial straits due to their lack of resources, as well as their inability to 
secure future employment. This particular situation causes many to apply for 
public relief, which is inadequate today in view of the rise in the cost of living. 

The second major problem which has arisen since December the 7th is the one 
of morale at home. Characteristically, the Italian is a home-loving man. His 
wife and his children come first in his mind and emotions. He is also a highly 
emotional individual by nature. We constantly find in our welfare work much 
fear in our people that families will be broken up through new regulations. One 
example is Mrs. Crivello who fears that she will be separated from her children 
and grandchildren. 

Another factor in the field of morale, is the psychological effect upon the second- 
generation Italians who are serving in the armed forces of the United States 
when these young men know there is great trouble going on in their own homes. 
An example of this is the Maniscalco case. 

The third morale factor is that of tremendous fear among the Italian aliens of 
more drastic action on the part of the United States Government. They fear 



11134 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

the loss of personal property and that they will be forced to enter internment 
camps, although they are 100 percent American in feeling and in action. One 
result of these pressing fears are the three suicides of last week : Martino Battis- 
tessa, Stefano Terranova, and one other. 

My recommendations to alleviate the present situation are as follows: 
I recommend that all employable Italian aliens be considered by the Govern- 
ment for employment in any industry, providing that complete allegiance to the 
war effort can be properly established. Second, that legislation be passed by 
Congress permitting Italian alien residents of good moral character, who have 
resided in America continuously since July 1, 1924, to obtain citizenship although 
illiterate. Third, that in the event that mass evacuation is necessary, Federal 
funds be provided for relief to prevent hardships to cases of needy individuals 
because of the State and county indigent and settlement laws, and the inability 
of these government units to provide adequate funds immediately. Fourth, 
that for the unity in this country, the Government augment the publicity program 
which will strengthen morale of all peoples, regardless of their nationality to unite 
for victory for America. 

In behalf of the Italian community, I wish to commend officials of Federal 
agencies, such as those of the Department of Justice, the United States Attorney 
General's office, the United States Post Office and others, for their very fine 
treatment of our people in enforcing the enemy alien regulations. 

Italian Welfare Agency, 
Milano Rispoli, Executive Secretary, 

STATISTICS OF ITALIAN ALIENS IN CALIFORNIA 

California 51, 000 

San Francisco (city and county) 12, 000 

Monterey (city and county) l' t 700 

Alameda (not including Oakland) 4, 500 

Oakland 2, 800 

Contra Costa County l[ 739 

San Mateo County 2, 400 

Marin County 650 

Total. 25,789 

1940 United States Census 

Italians in California (born in Italy) 100, 910 

Italians in San Francisco (born in Italy) 24, 036 

HISTORY OF CASES AFFECTED BY FEDERAL REGULATIONS 

Cases of Giovanni Peirano and Angelo Romero. — These are individuals who have 
become public charge and responsibilities of Santa Cruz and Santa Clara Counties, 
respectively. Both are over 60 years of age and in poor health, and permanently 
unemployable. They have no resources whatsoever nor relatives who could assist, 
necessitating their applying for public aid through the public welfare department. 
However, during normal times they would have been advised to return to their 
county of legal residence where we would be sure that care could be provided. 
Since there have been many changes we do not know how to advise these cases 
nor would we ask them to secure permission to travel until definite plans can be 
worked out. Both cases will be permanent charges for the remainder of their lives. 

Case of Rodolph Monciardini. — This is a single man about 43 years of age, 
employed by Ghirardelli Chocolate for the past 20 years. He was required to give 
up his job and home because both were located in a prohibited area. 

He speaks no English at all and although entitled to unemployment benefits 
will have difficulty in reestablishing himself in another industry since he is not 
known in other sectors of the State where he may be required to move. 

I am sure this type case should be given a license, his loyalty to the United 
States be determined as well as provide necessary bond from his employer or 
other reliable person. 

Case of Vittoria Santo, Castroville, Calif. — An alien mother whose husband is a 
citizen. She has three sons in the United States Army in the Philippines, while 
another son is with the Navy in this country. I do not have the exact details of 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11135 

this case but these are the approximate facts and I am sure her history can be 
obtained if it is required. 

Case of Ermete Vanni. — This case is typical of family alien, without funds, 
because of the internment of Mr. Vanni who was the sole support of wife and two 
children. Mrs. Vanni is about 35 years of age, in very poor health, has been 
hospitalized twice in the last 3 years and is unable to find employment. It is 
necessary that she remain at home to take care of the children ; one of whom has 
been confined to bed for heart trouble for over 3 years. Mr. Vanni was interned 
as he was a member of toe Italian War Veterans, which organization is known as 
"Ex Combattenti." 

Mrs. Vanni applied for public assistance, but there has been much delay in her 
case since the public assistance agency was of the opinion that this case should 
have received Federal aid through the United States Employment Office, which, 
of course, was incorrect. Nevertheless, this family had been accustomed to a 
higher standard and if it will receive public aid it will be far below its standard of 
living. If more would be known regarding disposition of Mr. Vanni's case by the 
Federal authorities, plan could be made for the care of family. 

There are many Italian families affected by the internment of the wage earner 
and we believe that in cases requiring assistance consideration should be given for 
possible Federal aid. 

STATEMENT BY VICTOR DI SUVERO, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

I was born in Venice, Italy, in 1888, of Jewish parentage. I went through 
college and the naval academy, and in 1908 I was given a commission in the 
Italian Navy. During the last World War, as a lieutenant, I was in command of 
submarines and also a liaison "officer to the British Adriatic Squadron (awarded 
the British Distinguished Service Cross). In 1921-22 I was in command of a 
gunboat on the China station. Subsequently, I resigned from the active service; 
I married and worked in Italy and elsewhere in Europe and Africa for industrial 
corporations. 

In 1931 I left Italy for the last time, having been appointed to Shanghai, 
China, as the general agent for China of the Italian Shipbuilding Corporations, 
Ansaldo, Genoa, and Cantieri Riuniti, Triest, accredited to the Government of 
Chiang [Kai-shek. In this capacity I have had several negotiations with the 
minister of the navy, Admiral Chen Shao-Kuan and the minister of finance, 
Dr. H. H. Rung. 

In 1936 I became the secretary of the municipality of the Italian concession, 
Tientsin, China, a nonpolitical situation with administrative responsibilities. 

In 1938, when the German-Italian collusion began and when the Nazis con- 
fiscated in Vienna an inheritance of mine from a relative on my mother's side, I 
planned to come to the States, an issue that I considered natural, not having any 
next of kin alive in Europe. 

In 1939 the Fascists put in effect their anti-Semitic laws. I was struck from 
my rank as a commander, naval reserve. I was deprived from all my civil rights 
and considered as an enemy alien. I was subjected to strict police surveillance 
and advised to carry on in the capacity of a bookkeeper's clerk. My money was 
frozen in Italy and I had no resources to pay the voyage for my wife, my four 
children, and myself. In my struggle to survive until my 5-year contract would 
be over, I have been valiantly assisted by my wife, who is by birth Italian and 
Catholic, and who is also vehemently anti-Fascist. As she is the only daughter 
of a famous Italian admiral who had been a minister of the navy and who died in 
1930, the Fascists felt themselves compelled, although very reluctantly, to pay 
me the money I was entitled to on December 31, 1940. 

Two months later, on February 27, 1941, we arrived safely in San Francisco. 
The Permanent Immigration Visas (N. 5492-7) had been secured through the 
American consulate general, Tientsin, China, whose officials were well acquainted 
with the indignities to which I had been subjected, and with the persecution that 
had reached a dangerous climax. 

Here I tried at once to find employment in a suitable capacity in the shipyards; 
I have visited Bethlehem's, Moore's, Todd's, and so forth, but already in the 
spring last year there were no defense jobs for aliens. 

Then I have worked during 4 months as a janitor in 32° chambers in a cold- 
storage plant. At last, in November, the Pacific Bridge Co., Alameda, intended 
to hire me, provided I had a clearance from the Navy Department. Congressman 
Richard J. Welch and Dr. Max Ascoli, the president of the anti-Fascist Mazzini 
Society, have sponsored my request in Washington, D. C, but with no results for 



11136 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

the time being. In the afternoon of December 7, 1941, I have immediately 
volunteered for the naval reserve, the polite answer being in the negative on 
account of age and citizenship requirements. 

I resent to be labeled as an enemy aline. I am here not only as a loyal future 
citizen, but as an allied alien in time of war. I have exhausted all my resources 
and, under the present circumstances, I am unable to make a living for my 
family. My four children, ages from 6 to 15, all speak English as their own 
language and are doing well at school. During their stay in China, and two were 
born there, they have learned to hate the Japs and to love America. 

COPY OF RECOMMENDATIONS OP SAN FRANCISCO SOCIAL WORKERS REGARDING 
EVACUATION OF ENEMY ALIENS AND CITIZENS 

Representatives of immigrant serving agencies of the San Francisco Community 
Chest met on February 27, 1942, to discuss the alien situation and made the 
following recommendations to their respective national offices in New York City : 

1. The Federal Government to assume total responsibility for the movement of 
these groups under military orders to evacuate. 

2. The Federal Government to designate areas to which they may go and in 
which they will be given complete military protection. 

3. The total cost of this moving and resettlement to be borne by the Federal 
Government. 

4. Complete legal custodianship of property for aliens and citizens so evacuated. 

5. Public health protection, including medical care and sanitation. 

6. Families to move and remain as a unit except in rare cases where certain 
members must be isolated. 

7. A rehabilitation program to offer these people opportunity to be self- 
maintaining. 

8. The Federal Government to continue financial responsibility until such a 
rehabilitation program may be accomplished. 

Copy of these recommendations has been sent to the Honorable Henry L. Stim- 
son, Secretary of War, Washington, D. C, inasmuch as the War Department had 
complete control of the situation following the President's proclamation. 

The recommendations were made by experienced social workers who considered 
all factors involved. 

LIST OF AGENCIES INTERESTED IN PROBLEM 

From minutes of meeting of Committee of Immigrant Serving Agencies, Family Wel- 
fare Council, Community Chest of San Francisco, Friday, February SO, 191+2 

Present: Allen Blaisdell, chairman, International Institute Board, Berkeley; 
Miss Elizabeth Baker, American Friends Service Committee; Mrs. Sidney Kahn, 
National Council of Jewish Women; Mrs. Mary Kimber, American Friends Serv- 
ice Committee; Herbert Picard, Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society; Rev. Rugene 
J. Shea, Affiliated Catholic Charities; Miss Henrietta Tichner, National Council 
of Jewish Women; Sanford Treguboff, San Francisco Committee for Service to 
Emigres. 

Absent: Frank deAndreis, Department of Immigration and Housing; Mrs. 
Josephine Duveneck, American Friends Service Committee; Mrs. Russell Hast- 
ings, International Institute Board; Mrs. Marjorie Leonard, National Council 
Committee for Foreign Born; Miss Persis Miller, American Committee to Save 
Refugees; Milano Rispoli, Italian Welfare Agency, Inc.; Miss Emilie Taylour, 
Travelers Aid Society; Mark Tomas, American Red Cross; Miss Annie Clo 
Watson, International Institute; Louis Miniclier, American Red Cross. 

Also present: R. Plank, International Institute; Virginia Heck, Young 
Women's Christian Association; Ruth W. Kingman, Berkeley Community 
Chest; Wilhelmine Yoakum, Oakland International Institute; Lincoln Kanai, 
Young Men's Christian Association; Henry Tanis, Japanese American Citizens 
League; Curtis Roberts, Community Chest of San Francisco; Helen Musser, 
Travelers Aid Society; Miss Phoebe Bannister, Social Security Board; Emma 
Gadbury, American Friends, Service Committee; Gorman Y. Doubleday, 
Berkeley; Mary Coxnard, Plymouth Church, Oakland. 

The Chairman. Mike Masaoka. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11137 

TESTIMONY OF MIKE J. MASAOKA, NATIONAL SECRETARY AND 
HELD EXECUTIVE, JAPANESE AMERICAN CITIZENS LEAGUE, 
2031 BUSH STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Sparkman. First, will you give your name to the reporter? 

Mr. Masaoka. Just to show you how Americanized we are, I have 
an English name and Japanese tag-end there. Mike Masaoka, I am 
the national secretary and field executive of the Japanese American 
Citizens League. This gentleman is Mr. Dave Tatsuno, president of 
the San Francisco chapter of the Japanese American Citizens League. 
And Mr. Henry Tani, the executive secretary of our group. 

May I make"a few statements before going into the general question? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes, go right ahead. 'Be seated, if you wish. 
Your prepared statement and the material you submitted will be 
inserted in the record at this point. 

STATEMENT BY MIKE M. MASAOKA, NATIONAL SECRETARY AND 
FIELD EXECUTIVE OF THE JAPANESE AMERICAN CITIZENS 
LEAGUE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

On behalf of the 20,000 American citizen members of the 62 chapters of the 
Japanese American Citizens League in some 300 communities throughout the 
United States, I wish to thank the Tolan committee for the opportunity given 
me to appear at this hearing. The fair and impartial presentation of all aspects 
of a problem is a democratic procedure which we keeply appreciate. That this 
procedure is being followed in the present matter, which is of particularly vital 
significance to us, we look upon as a heartening demonstration of the American 
tradition of fair play. 

We have been invited by you to make clear our stand regarding the proposed 
evacuation of all Japanese from the West coast. When the President's recent 
Executive order was issued, we welcomed it as definitely centralizing and coordi- 
nating defense efforts relative to the evacuatioi problem. Later interpretations 
of the order, however, seem to indicate that it is aimed primarily at the Japanese, 
American citizens as well as alien nationals. As your committee continues its 
investigations in this and subsequent hearings, we hope and trust that you will 
recommend to the proper authorities that no undue discrimination be shown to 
American citizens of Japanese descent. 

Our frank and reasoned opinion on the matter of evacuation revolves around 
certain considerations of which we feel both your committee and the general 
public should be apprised. With any policy of evacuation definitely arising from 
reasons of military necessity and national safety, we are in complete agreement. 
As American citizens, we cannot and should not take any other stand. But, also, 
as American citizens believing in the integrity of our citizenship, we feel that any 
evacuatioi enforced on grounds violating that integrity shold be opposed. 

If, in the judgment of military and Federal authorities, evacuation of Japanese 
residents from the West coast is a primary step toward assuring the safety of this 
Nation, we will have no hesitation in complying with the necessities implicit in 
that judgment. But, if, on the other ham , such evacuation is primarily a 
measure whose surface urgency cloaks the desires of political or other pressure 
groups who want us to leave merely from motives of self-interest, we feel that we 
have every right to protest and to demand equitable judgment on our merits as 
American citizens. 

In any case, we feel that the whole problem of evacuation, once its necessity is 
militarily established, should be met strictly according to that need. Only these 
areas, in which strategic and military considerations make the removal of Japan- 
ese residents necessary, should be evacuated. Regarding policy and procedure 
in such areas, we submit the following recommendations: 

1. That the actual evacuation from designated areas be conducted by military 
authorities in a manner which is consistent with the requirements of national 
defense, human welfare, and constructive community relations in the future; 

2. That, in view of the alarming developments in Tulare County and other com- 
munities against incoming Japanese evacuees all plans for voluntary evacuations be 
discouraged ; 



11138 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

_ 3. That transportation, food, and shelter be provided for all evacuees from pro- 
hibited areas, as provided in the Presidential order; 

4. That thoroughly competent, responsible, and bonded property custodians be 
appointed and their services made available immediately to all Japanese whose 
business and property interests are affected by orders and regulations ; 

5. That all problems incidental to resettlement be administered by a special 
board created for this purpose under the direction of the Federal Security Agen- 
cies ; 

6. That the resettlement of evacuees from prohibited areas should be within 
the State in which they now reside; 

7. That ample protection against mob violence be given to the evacuees both 
in transit and in the new communities to which they are assigned; 

8. That effort be made to provide suitable and productive work for all evacuees; 

9. That resettlement aims be directed toward the restoration, as far as possible, 
of normal community life in the future when we have won the war; 

10. That competent tribunals be created to deal with the so-called hardship 
cases and that flexible policies be applicable to such cases. 

Although these suggestions seem to include only the Japanese, may I urge that 
these same recommendations be adapted to the needs of other nationals and 
citizens who may be similarly affected. 

I now make an earnest plea that you seriously consider and recognize our Ameri- 
can citizenship status which we have been taught to cherish as our most priceless 
heritage. 

At this hearing, we Americans of Japanese descent have been accused of being 
disloyal to these United States. As an American citizen, I resent these accusa- 
tions and deny their validity. 

We American-born Japanese are fighting militarist Japan today with our total 
energies. Four thousand of us are with the armed forces of the United States, the 
remainder on the home front in the battle of production. We ask a chance to 
prove to the rest of the American people what we ourselves already know: That 
we are loyal to the country of our birth and that we will fight to the death to defend 
it against any and all aggressors. 

We think, feel, act like Americans. We, too, remember Pearl Harbor and know 
that our right to live as free men in a free Nation is in peril as long as the brutal 
forces of enslavement walk the earth. We know that the Axis aggressors must 
be crushed and we are anxious to participate fully in that struggle. 

The history of our group speaks for itself. It stands favorable comparison 
with that of any other group of second generation Americans. There is reliable 
authority to show that the proportion of delinquency and crime within our ranks 
is negligible. Throughout the long years of the depression, we have been able to 
stay off the relief rolls better, by far, than any other group. These are but two 
of the many examples which might be cited as proof of our civic responsibility 
and pride. 

In this emergency, as in the past, we are not asking for special privileges or 
concessions. We ask only for the opportunity and the right of sharing the com- 
mon lot of all Americans, whether it be in peace or in war. 

This is the American way for which our boys are fighting. 

Exhibit A. — The Japanese American Creed 
(Courtesy, Japanese American Citizens League) 

I am proud that I am an American citizen of Japanese ancestry, for my very 
background makes me appreciate more fully the wonderful advantages of this 
Nation. I believe in her institutions, idelas, and traditions; I glory injier heri- 
tage; I boast of her history; I trust in her future. She has granted me liberties 
and opportunities such as no individual enjoys in this world today. She has 
given me an education befitting kings. She has entrusted me with the responsi- 
bilities of the franchise. She has permitted me to build a home, to earn a liveli- 
hood, to worship, think, speak, and act as I please — as a free man equal to every 
other man. 

Although some individuals may discriminate against me, I shall never become 
bitter or lose faith, for I know that such presons are not representative of the 
majority of the American people. True, I shall do all in my power to discourage 
such practices, but I shall do it in the American way — above board, in the open, 
through courts of law, by education, by proving myself to be worthy of equal 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11139 

treatment and consideration. I am firm in my belief that American sportsman- 
ship and attitude of fair play will judge citizenship and patriotism on the basis 
of action and achievement, and not on the basis of physical characteristics. 

Because I believe in America, and I trust she believes in me, and because I have 
received innumerable benefits from her, I pledge myself to do honor to her at all 
times and in all places; to support her constitution; to obey her laws; to respect 
her flag; to defend her against all enemies, froeign or domestic; to actively assume 
my duties and obligations as a citizen, cheerfully and without any reservations 
whatsoever, in the hope that I may become a better American in a greater America. 
— Mike Masaoka. (as read before the United States Senate and printed in the 
Congressional Record, May 9, 1941). 

Exhibit B.— A Declaration of Policy by the Japanese American Citizens 

League 

In these critical days when the policies of many organizations representing 
various nationality groups may be viewed with suspicion and even alarm by 
certain individuals who are not intimately acquainted with the aims, ideals, and 
leadership of such associations, it becomes necessary and proper, in the public 
interest, that such fraternal and educational orders as the Japanese American 
Citizens League to unequivocally and sincerely announce their policies and 
objectives: 

Now, therefore, in order to clear up any misconceptions, misunderstandings 
and misapprehensions concerning the functions and activities of this body, the 
National Board of the Japanese American Citizens League issues the following 
statement and declaration of policy: 

We, the members of the National Board of the Japanese American Citizens 
League of the United States of America, believe that the policies which govern 
this organization and our activities as their official representatives are fourfold 
in nature and are best illustrated by an explanation of the alphabetical sequence 
of the letters J-A-C-L. 

"J" stands for justice. We believe that all peoples, regardless of race, color, 
or creed, are entitled to enjoy those principles of "life, liberty, and the pursuit 
of happiness" which are presumed to be the birthright of every individual; to 
the fair and equal treatment of all, socially, legislatively, judicially, and eco- 
nomically to the rights, privileges, and obligations of citizenship. To this end, 
this organization is dedicated. 

"A" stands for Americanism. We believe that in order to prove ourselves 
worthy of the justice which we seek, we must prove ourselves to be, first of all, 
good Americans— in thought, in words, in deeds. We believe that we must 
personify the Japanese American creed; that we must acquaint ourselves with 
those traditions, ideals, and institutions which made and kept this Nation the 
foremost in the world. We believe that we must live for America— and, if need 
be, to die for America. To this end, this organization is consecrated. 

"C" stands for citizenship. We believe that we must be exemplary citizens in 
addition to being good Americans, for, as in the case of our parents, one may 
be a good American and yet be denied the privilege of citizenship. We believe 
that we must accept and even seek out opportunities in which to serve our 
country and to assume the obligations and duties as well as the rights and privi- 
leges of citizenship. To this end, this organization is committed. 

"L" stands for leadership. We believe that the Japanese American Citizens 
League, as the only national organization established to serve the American 
citizens of Japanese ancestry, is in a position to actively lead the Japanese people 
residing in the United States. We believe that we have the inspired leadership 
and membership necessary to carry into living effect the principles of justice, 
Americanism, and citizenship for which our league was founded. We offer 
cooperation and support to all groups and individuals sincerely and legitimately 
interested in these same aims, but we propose to retain our independent and 
separate status as the Japanese American Citizens League. To this end, this 
organization is pledged. 

Summed up briefly, the Japanese American Citizens League is devoted to those 
tasks which are calculated to win for ourselves and our posterity the status out- 
lined by our two national slogans: "For better Americans in a greater America" 
and "Security through unity." 



11140 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF MIKE M. MASAOKA— Resumed 

Mr. Masaoka. I would like to say, very frankly, that my colleagues 
and I represent pretty much the sort of dilemma that we are in. We 
are a rather young group, being one of the latest of all the immigrant 
groups here. Our parents are old, and because of the laws of the 
United States they cannot become citizens and we, their children, are 
citizens. We have that difficult problem. 

Moreover, we have the difficult problem of having physical charac- 
teristics which cause us to be easily singled out for whatever course 
certain parties may deem necessary. Frankly, I woidd like to say 
that the loyalty of our group has been questioned. Perhaps my own 
loyalty would be questioned. In that respect I would like to offer 
in corroboration the fact that the Honorable Senator Elbert D. Thomas 
of Utah in the Congressional Record for Thursday, May 8, 1941, ex- 
plained something of my background and had printed in the Congres- 
sional Record the Japanese- American Creed, which was long before the 
war, and still, I hope, exemplifies the spirit which we have toward 
America. I have letters from the United States Senator, Abe Mur- 
dock; another again from Senator Thomas. I have a letter from the 
Governor of the State of Utah, Herbert B. Maw. I have another 
letter from the mayor of Salt Lake City, Ab Jenkins. I have a letter 
from the United States District Attorney of Utah, Mr. John Borden. 
I have a letter from the Secretary of State of Utah, E. E. Monson, 
who was president of the American Secretaries of States Association. 
I have a letter from Mr. Douglas O. Woodruff, who was executive 
secretary of the University of Utah Alumni Association. I have a 
letter from the postmaster, I. A. Smoot, who was the president of the 
National Association of Postmasters of the United States. I have a 
letter from the president of the chamber of commerce of Salt Lake 
City, Earl J. Glade. I have another letter from our dean of school 
of social workers and professor of sociology at the University of Utah, 
Arthur L. Beeley, and I have a letter also from the State superinten- 
dent of education, Charles A. Skidmore, and letters from other people. 

These are merely to substantiate the fact that I believe I am a loyal 
American. And when anyone doubts that loyalty, I feel that, as an 
American citizen, I am entitled to say what I believe about that. 

LOYALTY OF ONE JAPANESE FAMILY 

My mother was born in Japan, so was my father. My father was 
killed when I was 9. There were eight children in the family. We 
struggled through that, and today, out of that family of eight, one is 
a volunteer in the armed forces of the United States, serving I know 
not where; two more of us are 1-A; I myself am ready to go. I 
have been classified as 1-A and this may be my last appeal on behalf 
of the Japanese Americans, whom I believe are grossly misunderstood. 

Frankly, gentlemen, when this committee first came here and when 
we heard the testimony Saturday afternoon people said "Don't 
show up, Mike. It is just a witch hunt." But after hearing what 
has gone on, after talking to your staff I know that you gentlemen 
are typical of the fair play which represents the American system. 
And so I want to say in all fairness that we present to you the facts 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11141 

which we feel are true in this case, realizing always, just as any other 
American citizen, that the defense of our country is paramount. 
But I would like to offer some refutation to the various arguments 
offered, because I feel that you gentlemen want to know both sides 
of the question. My colleagues will substantiate the claims insofar 
as they regard San Francisco. With your permission, gentlemen, 
I would like to briefly go through a number of statements which were 
made. 

I believe that you would be interested to note the great discrepancy 
which occurs in statistics, and so on, which all goes to prove that — 
well, I used to teach debate, for example, in high school. When we 
wanted to present one side we went and looked at isolated cases and 
just presented those to build a good case. On the other side we would 
do the same thing. 

Now, gentlemen, very frankly I am prejudiced. I am prejudiced 
for the Japanese-Americans, because I think they are loyal. I know 
that I am. I know that the great majority of us are. I think 
that some of the other gentlemen are prejudiced for the other side. 
I think somewhere between the two lies the truth, and I hope and 
trust that you gentlemen will be able to find that truth. 

The Chairman. What are you going to say about your people at 
Pearl Harbor? 

Mr. Masaoka. Very frankly, I think that is a little different situa- 
tion. 

The Chairman. I am asking that not in criticism but just to ask 
you about it. 

Mr. Masaoka. What was the question again? 

The Chairman. What about your people at Pearl Harbor? Did 
they remain loyal Americans? 

JAPANESE AT PEARL HARBOR 

Mr. Masaoka. Well, there seem to be some conflicting reports as 
to that. In other words, frankly, Secretary of the Navy Knox him- 
self admits that there were some Japanese who turned guns on the 
invaders. Then, on the other hand, the reports would seem to indi- 
cate another thing — sabotage. But I would like to make this a point, 
which I think ought to be considered. Here in the United States of 
America we are distinctly the minority group. We can be singled 
out because of our characteristics. In the Hawaiian Islands or Philip- 
pine Islands the Japanese are either in the majority or look like the 
majority, and, therefore, I think they could hide more easily in the 
general identity of the mass than we could here. 

Furthermore, I think we are further removed from the domination 
of the Imperial Japanese Government and I think that most of us 
are cognizant of the things which America has to offer. 

The Chairman. There are authentic pictures during the attack 
showing hundreds of Japanese old automobiles cluttered on the one 
street of Honolulu so the Army could not get to the ships. Are you 
conversant with those things? 

Mr. Masaoka. Only insofar as the general public is also informed, 
I believe. 

The Chairman. I am just thinking out loud with you now, don't 
you see. 



11142 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. I understand, very frankly, the situation in 
which you gentlemen are. I understand the terrific spot that we are 
in, and I think that, as announced in this prepared statement, when 
the military decides for military necessity or otherwise we should go; 
we, as any other American citizens would be glad to cooperate and go' 
i Jf v? believe that certain facts should be brought out relative to 
the California situation. 

The Chairman. All right. You may proceed. 

Mr. Arnold. Before you start, could I ask you if your league 
operated in Hawaii? 

MEMBERSHIP IN LEAGUE 

Mr. Masaoka. No. Our association is incorporated under the 
laws of the State of California June 21, 1937. We have absolutely 
no members m Hawaii. We have approximately 20,000 members 
and have chapters in 300 communities in the United States. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is your league a political organization? 

Mr. Masaoka. No. It is nonpolitical, nonsectarian. 

Mr. Sparkman. Nonpolitical? 

Mr. Masaoka. I believe "nonpartisan' ' is better than "non- 
political," because we do encourage our members to vote, to urge the 
franchise and do anything else which any good American could do. 

Mr. Sparkman. I was just interested in reading a little while ago 
a letter that was addressed to this committee and written apparently 
by a Japanese student. I noticed this paragraph in it [reading]: 

I do not know what weight is given to testimony presented by representatives 
ot the Japanese American Citizens League. 

That is your league, is it not? 
Mr. Masaoka. Yes. 
Mr. Sparkman (reading): 

However, I think that I can safely state that many thinking people have con- 
demned that organization as a spokesman for the Japanese population Its 
officials are notoriously fearful of answering questions directly or formulating upon 
policy which will reflect the desires and opinions as well as actions of the group 
which they are purported to represent, Moreover, it is a political organization 
and, hence, cannot be representative of those who prefer to hold their own political 
views. * ^ 

I may say this: that the writer of this letter made a statement very 
much akin to the one that you just made, that if, while all rights were 
pleaded for, yet in the decision of those having the responsibility it 
was decided that it was necessary to evacuate a certain area, that, of 
course, loyal Japanese who were loyal Americans could be expected 
to comply with those orders without complaint and simply count it 
as part of their sacrifice in the interest of national security. 

SIZE OP GROUP 

Mr. Masaoka. I think that letter is indicative of one fact and an 
interesting fact: that even the Japanese people themselves here in this 
country are not directed from above and entirely unified to do one 
great thing. In other words, we have the democratic process there, 
we have diversity, we have contentions within our own group. And 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11143 

I personally say this: we are the largest group of American citizens of 
Japanese ancestry. 

Mr. Spakkman. What is the size of your group? 

Mr. Masaoka. Approximately 20,000 members. 

Mr. Sparkman. In California? 

Mr. Masaoka. No; throughout the United States. We have them, 
of course, largely concentrated in the Western States, but we have 
some farther east, not as chapters, but as members who moved from 
San Francisco or coastal areas to eastern points. 

Mr. Sparkman. How old is the organization? 

Mr. Masaoka. It officially was incorporated in 1937, as I said be- 
fore. The beginnings of the organization were about 1921 in Seattle. 
Officially the first convention was held in 1930. It is a comparatively 
young organization. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is it made up only of citizens of the United States? 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. Every person is required to furnish proof of 
citizenship before being permitted to become a member. 

Mr. Sparkman. And limited, of course, to Japanese-American 
citizens? 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you have no organization outside of the con- 
tinental United States? 

Mr. Masaoka. That is correct. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have any connection whatsoever with the 
Japanese Government? 

Mr Masaoka. No. 

Mr. Sparkman. Or with any agency functioning within Japan? 

Mr. Masaoka. No. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you maintain contacts with any such or- 
ganization? 

Mr. Masaoka. No. We have been repudiated many times and 
denounced in the past by many pro-German people for the fact that 
we have refused to cooperate with the Japanese Government on seem- 
ingly educational projects. 

Mr. Sparkman. You were born, of course, in the United States? 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Educated here? 

Mr. Masaoka. College degree. 

Mr. Sparkman. Where were you educated? 

Mr. Masaoka. University of Utah. 

Mr. Sparkman. Let us go back of that. Where did you do your 
grammar-school work? 

Mr. Masaoka. All my work was done in Salt Lake City. I was 
born in Fresno, Calif., but my folks moved to Nevada, then Idaho, 
and then Utah. I am a graduate of the Westside High School at 
Salt Lake City and also the University of Utah of Salt Lake City, 
and I have spent all my educational career there. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you ever been back to Japan? 

Mr. Masaoka. No. I was offered a trip as a contest winner, and 
the people thought maybe I would enjoy the trip. 

Mr. Sparkman. Now, wait. Who offered you the trip as a contest 
winner? 



11144 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Masaoka. The whole thing is that every year they select what 
they call the outstanding Japanese of the year; Japanese- American. 

Mr. Sparkman. Who does? 

Mr. Masaoka. The Young People's Chicago group that Senator 
Thomas is cognizant of, as well as Mrs. Roosevelt. Then they, in 
connection with this trophy that they offer to the outstanding Japanese- 
American born citizen contemplate a trip to Japan. 

Mr. Sparkman. Did you ever attend Japanese schools in this 
country? 

Mr. Masaoka. Personally I did not, but frankly 

Mr. Sparkman (interposing). A great many of your people do? 

Mr. Masaoka. Oh, yes. But I did not. 

RELIGION 

Mr. Sparkman. What is your religion? 

Mr. Masaoka. To show you how American I am, Latter Day 
Saints, Mormon. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you ever served as a missionary? 

Mr. Masaoka. For the Mormon Church? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes. 

Mr. Masaoka. Only as a block missionary within Salt Lake City. 

Mr. Sparkman. Within Salt Lake City? 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have any adherence whatsoever to the 
national religion of the Japanese people? 

Mr. Masaoka. Do you mean I, personally? 

Mr. Sparkman. You or other members of your family. 

Mr. Masaoka. None in our family; no. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are all of your family members of the Latter Day 
Saints? 

Mr. Masaoka. No. Three of them are. Others are members of 
the Presbyterian Church. 

Mr. Sparkman. Three of them are members of the Presbyterian 
Church? 

Mr. Masaoka. No. Three are members of the so-called Mormon 
Church and the other six are members of the Presbyterian faith. 

Mr. Sparkman. What about the membership of your organization? 
Could you say what percentage of them have received at least a part 
of their education in Japan? 

Mr. Masaoka. Those figures are rather hard to get. We estimate 
approximately 20 to 30 percent, which I think is a rather generous 
estimate. 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder if you could give us some estimate as 
to a portion of your membership who have received a part of their 
education in Japanese schools in this country. 

Mr. Masaoka. That would be large; say 85 percent. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is more or less characteristic, is it not, of the 
Japanese to have these Japanese schools? 

JAPANESE SCHOOLS 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. It is characteristic, but at the same time I 
think it is the same as any other immigrant group. I have corre- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11145 

spondence here which we will file to show that we have attempted 
from time to time to get the State of California to include it in their 
public-school curricula and other evidence of the sort. 

Mr. Sparkman. Let me ask you this: You talk about including 
it in the curricula of the public-school system. What is your under- 
standing as to what is taught to the Japanese in these schools? 

Mr. Masaoka. I have not too intimate a knowledge because I 
never did attend. 

Mr. Sparkman. I understand that. 

Mr. Masaoka. But from speaking to many of the people, they 
generally attend after school, and they attend from about 4 to 6 
three times a week or something of the sort. Now, they are rather 
tired after that. Practically none of them go to Japanese language 
schools after they reach the junior high or high school age. They 
generally go in order to converse with their parents or because they 
can find no employment among other groups except generally the 
Japanese or the civil service. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you understand the school systems to be for 
the purpose of teaching the language? 

Mr. Masaoka. Some schools; yes. Others are doubtful. I think 
that the proper Federal authorities have investigated them, and I 
am not a professional man in that respect and I want to speak frankly. 
I don't know. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, isn't it your understanding, though, that a 
great deal of Japanese nationalism is sought to be instilled into the 
young Japanese of these schools? 

SCHOOLS WERE CLOSED VOLUNTARILY 

Mr. Masaoka. That may be true. You understand, of course, 
that they are all closed now, not by mandate of the Government, but 
by voluntary action. 

Mr. Sparkman. You appreciate the fact, I believe, that there is a 
great difference in the religion and nationalism and the close connec- 
tion between religion and government as between the Japanese 
Government and the United States Government, do you not? 

Mr. Masaoka. By that do you mean you are concerned with the 
Buddhist Church? 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, in this country we have long advocated 
separation of state and church. 

Mr. Masaoka. That is correct. 

Mr. Sparkman. As a matter of fact, just the opposite is true in 
Japan, is it not? 

Mr. Masaoka. I am not cognizant of that fact. In other words, 
don't know too much about Japan. And that is an honest statement. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, is it not true that among the Japanese there 
is an intense nationalistic feeling generally? 

Mr. Masaoka. No; I don't think so. But, first of all, let us define 
"nationalism." What do you think is "nationalism"? That might 
help. 

Mr. Sparkman. When I speak of it in this connection I think of it 
as verging very closely upon and, in fact, almost merging with re- 
ligion. 



11146 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

RELIGION OF JAPANESE-AMERICANS 

Mr Masaoka. Figures might be helpful there. About 50 percent 
or a little less would be Buddhist. I think a little more in America 
are Christian than Buddhist. It is noticeable, too, that the older the 
children become they tend to congregate toward the Christian 
churches. Furthermore, the Buddhist churches as such seem to be 
declining in popularity, if that is an indication. 

I feel that I should make this statement at this time: That before 
Fearl Harbor many of us had been teaching, or at least attempts had 
been made to teach, concerning the honor of Japan as a nation But 
1 think the attack at Pearl Harbor demonstrated to those who were 
on the fence that there wasn't anything honorable in that and I 
think most of us condemned more than Americans condemned the 

fed that 7 g WaS d ° ne there ' and * think the first g eneration 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you think you could say with reference to the 
membership of your organization that there is not a feeling of a 
definite connection and loyalty to the Emperor of Japan? 
t Mr Masaoka. No. I don't think our league subscribes to that. 
1 don t think the great membership of our league subscribe to that 
In lact, 1 am quite sure. 

Mr Sparkman. Do you think you could truthfully and sincerely 
say thai there is not in your membership a feeling of pride on the 
accomplishments of the Japanese Empire? 

Mr. Masaoka. Well now, there are a lot of things that I think we 
ought to recognize that are fine about Japan, possibly courtesy, and 
so on. But I think that the Japan of our parents is certainly not the 
Japan of today, and I think there that we may have been misguided 
as to many things there, too. 

The Chairman. I would like to ask you a question. Are you a 
full-time secretary for the Japanese American Citizens League? 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. I was the first paid official they ever had. 

Ihe Chairman. How much money do you receive? 

Mr. Masaoka. $150 a month. 

?? e p HAIRMAN - When did you become a full-time secretary? 

Mr. Masaoka. The 1st of September of last year 

The Chairman. 1941? 

Mr. Masaoka. That is correct. 

LEAGUE CHANGED ITS OBJECTIVES 

The Chairman. And prior to that time your league was concerned 
more or less with social events. Isn't that true? 

Mr. Masaoka. Well, to be honest with vou there is a matter of 
opinion there. The officers frankly felt that we were doino- verv 
constructive work. 

The Chairman. Why in September 1941 were you put in as full- 
tune secretary, and why did you start increasing the enrollment of 
members? 

Mr. Masaoka. Well, it was felt by the national board, which is the 
board of the highest officers, who represent the different districts 
that an emergency was at hand and that in order to do our best as 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11147 

Americans we needed an integration and coordination. Up to that 
point, you see, we had very little coordination, very little concerted 
action along a definite policy, Americanism policies, if you please, 
and they felt that they should bring me in. 

The Chairman. Have you ever received any literature or instruc- 
tions from any officials or people in Japan? 

Mr. Masaoka. No. 

The Chairman. Never? At no time? 

Mr. Masaoka. I personally have never received such a thing. 

The Chairman. Well, do you know of anyone who has? 

Mr. Masaoka. Oh, yes; people have received letters and books. 
As to other information I wouldn't be cognizant of that. Naturally 
they would try to hide such information from me. 

The Chairman. And did any of those books or literature give you 
or any of your members instructions what to do? 

Mr. Masaoka. Not that I know of. In other words, very recently 
some books did come to our attention which I turned over to the Naval 
Intelligence without even looking at them because, frankly, I can't 
read Japanese. It is a rather difficult language, and I have concen- 
trated more or less on English. 

The Chairman. But you could get somebody to read it for you, 
couldn't you? 

Mr. Masaoka. Oh, yes. But I did not. 

The Chairman. You don't read Japanese at all? 

Mr. Masaoka. Well, very frankly, I oftentimes don't even recog- 
nize my name in Japanese print. 

The Chairman. You can certainly speak English all right. 

Mr. Masaoka. Well, I was brought up in a purely American com- 
munity, more or less — Salt Lake City — where there are relatively few 
Japanese. And my professors, well, Senator Thomas was one of my 
professors; Governor Maw was another of my professors. They more 
or less looked upon me as a prodigy, and I have often visited with 
them. I have discussed theories of government with them, and so on. 

The Chairman. But you tell this committee that you personally 
have never received any literature or books or anything of that 
character from Japan? 

Mr. Masaoka. That's right. 

The Chairman. But you know of others who have received them? 

Mr. Masaoka. Well, I should assume there are others who have 
received them. 

The Chairman. Let us forget about the assumption. Do you 
know of anybody else receiving anything? 

Mr. Masaoka. Who have received letters from friends, and so on? 

The Chairman. You said a minute ago something about books 
that you turned over to the Naval Intelligence. 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. I turned them over to the Naval Intelligence. 

Mr. Sparkman. What comment do you have to make on the state- 
ment that has been made several times to the effect that no Japanese- 
American citizen has given information to any of these American 
agencies seeking to get information bearing upon national defense and 
antisabotage? 

Mr. Masaoka. I believe that that is not true. In fact, I know that 
information has been given, but I believe it has largely been given to 
the Federal agencies, notably the F. B. I. 

60396— 42— pt. 29 13 



11148 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Sparkman. Let me ask you this. Of course, you appreciate 
that the feeling which you have heard expressed here does exist? 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes, I do. I certainly do. 

Mr. Sparkman. You acknowledge that fact.^ Do I understand 
that it is your attitude that the Japanese-American citizens do not 
protest necessarily against an evacuation? They simply want to 
lodge their claims to consideration? 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. But in the event the evacuation is deemed neces- 
ary by those having charge of the defenses, as loyal Americans you are 
willing to prove your loyalty by cooperating? 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. I think it should be 

Mr. Sparkman (interposing). Even at a sacrifice? 

Mr. Masaoka. Oh, yes; definitely. I think that all of us are 
called upon to make sacrifices. I think that we will be called upon to 
make greater sacrifices than any others. But I think sincerely, if the 
military say "Move out", we will be glad to move, because we recog- 
nize that even behind evacuation there is not just national security 
but also a thought as to our own welfare and security because we may 
be subject to mob violence and otherwise if we are permitted to 
remain. 

Mr. Sparkman. And it affords you, as a matter of fact, perhaps the 
best test of your own loyalty? 

Mr. Masaoka. Provided that the military or the people charged 
with the responsibility are cognizant of all the facts. 

Mr. Sparkman. Certainly. That is assumed. 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. You wanted to say something, Mr. Tani? 

STATEMENT OF HENRY TANI, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, JAPANESE- 
AMERICAN CITIZENS LEAGUE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Tani. Yes, please. With reference to the line of questioning 
that you are asking Mr. Masaoka, about the influence of the Japanese 
culture in us. We don't walk around with our heads bowed because 
we are Japanese, but we can't help being Japanese in features. My 
mother left Japan over 30 years ago, and the Japan of which she 
speaks to us of 30 years ago is not the Japan of today. I feel it is 
different from that of my mother's day. And so in the culture that 
she instilled in us, and by "culture" I mean courtesy, loyalty to the 
State and country in which we are, obedience to parents, those are 
cultures of Japan with which most of us have been brought up. And 
I don't think those things are things of which we should be ashamed, 
those things which we should ignore. 

As for influences upon us today I, as an individual, or as a leader 
of a group, have never been approached officially, unofficially, directly, 
or indirectly in any respect in all my years. 

Mr. Sparkman. You were born in this country, of course? 

Mr. Tani. Right here in this city. 

Mr. Sparkman. And where did you receive your education? 

Mr. Tani. High school, grammar school, right here in San Fran- 
cisco. My college degree was at Stanford University. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you ever been to Japan? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11149 

Mr. Tani. Never. 

Mr. Sparkman. Did you attend Japanese schools? 

Mr. Tani. One year when I was 6 years old, when I lived in a so- 
called Japanese area, and then my father moved in the so-called 
Baker movement, which was supposed to be an Americanization pro- 
gram. We moved from out of the Japanese area where our closest 
Japanese neighbor was 3 or 4 miles away. 

Mr. Sparkman. And with the exception of that 1 year you did 
not visit Japanese schools? 

Mr. Tani. None other than what my mother taught me at home. 

Mr. Sparkman. May I ask you what your religion is? 

Mr. Tani. I am Protestant. My sect is Evangelical and Reformed. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you feel any allegiance whatsoever to the 
Emperor of Japan or the Japan Government? 

Mr. Tani. None at all. 

question of dual citizenship 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you feel that he or his government has any 
claim upon your services under dual citizenship? 

Mr. Tani. Personally I have no dual citizenship. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is that acknowledged by the Japanese Govern- 
ment? 

Mr. Tani. I don't know what they acknowledge. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, there was a law passed, I believe, or a regula- 
tion established by the Japanese Government that would allow you to 
deny or give up the Japanese citizenship. 

Mr. Tani. Let us put it this way. My understanding of the 
procedure of obtaining dual citizenship is this: I was born here; I am 
an American citizen; my father had the privilege of recording me in 
Japan to the consulate there by having my name recorded in the 
Japanese census and thereby I would become a Japanese subject. 
But my father neglected to do that. Therefore, as far as the Japanese 
Government is concerned, I don't exist. That is my understanding. 
And I have been told very recently that the law in Japan says that if I 
was born prior to 1924 — I may be mistaken in that — then the Japanese 
Government may have some claims against me. But if they have, 
they have never done anything about it. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you agree with Mr. Masaoka in this statement 
that he made, that if it is finally determined by those having the 
ultimate responsibility^ of defending this area, that even Japanese- 
American citizens should be evacuated, that it would be the duty of 
such Japanese-American citizens to comply with such orders without 
complaint? 

Mr. Tani. Yes; I agree. 

Mr. Sparkman. And cooperate wholeheartedly to that effect? 

Mr. Tani. Yes; definitely. 



11150 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

(The following statement was submitted subsequent to the hearing:) 

STATEMENT BY HENRY TANI, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, SAN FRAN- 
CISCO CHAPTER, JAPANESE-AMERICAN CITIZENS LEAGUE, SAN 
FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

The Japanese in San Francisco 

the PEOPLE 

In any consideration of the Japanese people on the Pacific coast there is the 
necessity of understanding the various classifications into which these Japanese 
people fall. 

THE ISSEI FIRST GENERATION 

There is, first, the real immigrant Japanese group which made its main appear- 
ance in the United States from 1890 to 1920. Immigration figures will reveal the 
extent of this movement more accurately. The important observation to be made 
at this time is the fact that with the Immigration Act of 1924 the flow of Japanese 
immigration was effectively blocked. 

This will naturally show that every single alien Japanese (with the exception 
of a few merchants and ministers) in this country at this time have been resident 
of the United States for 18 years at the least. It also follows that of this group 
that is remaining in this country at this time practically all consider themselves 
permanent residents. 

One speaks of this first group as the first-generation Japanese. The common 
term used to describe this group is the "Issei" (pronounced "iss-say," meaning 
"first generation"). Our laws deny naturalization rights to these aliens, who 
otherwise might have become good American citizens. Only in passing might it 
be mentioned that, by and large, the Issei have been law-abiding and respectful 
citizens, and that they had contributed largely to the economic wealth of their 
neighborhood. 

THE NISEI SECOND GENERATION 

The offspring of the Issei is the Nisei, (pronounced "nee-say," meaning "second 
generation"), who are born, reared, and educated in the American culture and 
are inherently American in all manifest ways, except that there are occasional 
cultural inclinations showing their Japanese home influence. 

It is no exaggeration that by their own admission the Nisei consider themselves 
far more American than Japanese. Testimonies to the contrary notwithstanding, 
school teachers, business associates, religious leaders, and those who have come 
to learn the Nisei in their normal ways of life will add their evidence to this 
fact. The Nisei is a citizen. He takes his citizenship seriously. He meets his 
obligation to society by cooperating with the civic authorities. Physically the 
Nisei conform more* to the American standards than do their parents — the result 
of the vigorous athletic program, the diet, and the relative free expression usual 
to American growth. 

THE KIBEI THOSE WHO RETURNED 

Of the Nisei group, there is within them but yet apart from them another group 
which is usually referred to as the "Kibei" (pronounced "ki-bay," meaning "those 
who came back"). Like the Nisei, the Kibei was born in the United States and 
thus is entitled to citizenship in the United States. Unlike the Nisei, the Kibei 
receives his education in Japan and is therefore more culturally Japanese. 

Of course, the degree to which the Kibei is more Japanese than American de- 
pends largely on the number of vears and the age during which he was in Japan. 
Many of them returned to Japan with their family at a young age and returned 
to America in their late teens. It is unfair to classify the Kibei in one large group 
and generalize too freely with them since the variation is so largely dependent 
upon the many factors involved. 

These things can be said of them, however: That their English is relatively 
poor, mainly because they missed the American schooling which their Nisei 
brothers and sisters got; their mastery of the Japanese language is definitely 
superior than what little Japanese the local Nisei got in the language schools here; 
their emotional life is definitely more unstable than for the Nisei, because the 
Kibei missed the family life which the Nisei had. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11151 

THE JAPAN-BORN NISEI 

In all fairness to that very little minority within the Japanese community, one 
must mention the few individuals who were born in Japan and came to this coun- 
try with their parents in their early childhood. Such individuals missed out in 
getting their United States citizenship by being born in Japan, but otherwise are 
Nisei in all other aspects. This group is culturally American, and, though tech- 
nically they are Issei, they are so only because of their birth in Japan. 

POPULATION BREAK-DOWN 

According to the 1940 United States census, there were in California a total of 
93,717 Japanese, of which 33,569 were aliens and 60,148 were citizens. This 
makes a ratio of 36 percent alien as opposed to 64 percent citizens. When cast 
upon the whole State population, which is 6,907,387, there are 135 Japanese for 
each 10,000 Californians. 

For the city of San Francisco, the census figures show 2,276, or 43 percent, 
aliens as against 3,004, or 57 percent, citizens, making a total of 5,280 Japanese 
out of the city's population of 634,536. The ratio, therefore, in San Francisco 
of Japanese to the total population is 83 out of 10,000. 

NISEI BREAK-DOWN 

According to the Nisei survey conducted by the San Francisco Chapter of the 
Japanese American Citizens League in October 1940, a further break-down of the 
total Nisei group revealed that 73.5 percent were Nisei, 22.8 percent were Kibei, 
and 3.7 percent were Japan-born Nisei. This is true of San Francisco only since 
the metropolitan area reflects the greater Kibei element. 

Of all the Nisei who are 18 years of age and over, the concentration by age 
showed that 61 percent of the total were between the ages of 19 to 25, inclusive, 
and that 46 percent were between the ages of 20 to 24, inclusive. This substantiates 
the fact that the average of the Nisei is 21 years old, further proved by the fact 
that the birth rate of Japanese in California hit its peak in the year 1921. This 
can also be verified by the high attendance of Nisei students in our universities 
at this time. For instance, there were 500 at the University of California last fall. 

JAPANESE TOWN 

That the Japanese people in San Francisco are concentrated in their own 
Japanese town is proven by the fact that in an area of 24 square blocks 73.3 per- 
cent of the total Nisei in San Francisco, according to the Nisei survey, are stated 
to be living within this area. 

RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION 

It is interesting to note that the Nisei survey showed the religious affiliations 
distributed as follows: 42 percent Protestant, 35 percent Buddhist, 7 percent 
Catholic, 3 percent others, and 13 percent none. 

DUAL CITIZENSHIP 

It is true that the Nisei themselves are very vague about their dual-citizenship 
status since they are not well acquainted with the many laws that affect their 
status. However, 32 percent seem to hold this dual-citizenship status to the 
best of their knowledge, according to the Nisei survey. This figure includes 
those who are not certain of their status, and therefore the percentage figure is 
increased thereby. 

CRIME AND DELINQUENCY 

It is safe to say that, according to the best reliable sources, there is practically 
no crime or delinquency record involving the Japanese in San Francisco. It is 
also safe to say that relief cases (pre-war) have been very scarce and practically 
unknown though there were a few isolated cases now and then. 

SELECTIVE SERVICE 

The number of selectees in the United States Army from San Francisco has 
been variously estimated as being between 175 to 200, of which about 20 percent 



11152 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

are volunteers. Of the total Nisei population, it is further estimated that 3,000 
are probably in the United States armed forces. 

PUBLIC CHARITIES 

The community chest in its history of fund-raising campaigns have always 
received 100-percent response from the Japanese group. The usual quota for the 
Japanese community has been between $3,500 to $4,000, which is almost a dollar 
a head. Even since the outbreak of war the Japanese contribution to the Red 
Cross fund exceeded the expectation of local Red Cross officials. 



TESTIMONY OF MIKE M. MASAOKA— Resumed 

The Chairman. How many Japanese have you in California? 

Mr. Masaoka. I have exact figures on that. This is taken from 
the United States census figures for 1940. In continental United 
States in April 1940 there were 126,947 Japanese. Out of that group 
47,305 are Japanese nationals and 79,642 are American citizens. 

Broken down, 80 percent of all the Japanese in the United States 
reside on the Pacific coast. California alone has 93,713 Japanese, 
or 73.8 percent of the total. 

The Chairman. Do you attach any significance to the fact that 
the Lockheed airplane factory at Los Angeles is surrounded by 
Japanese? 

Mr. Masaoka. Well, I am not particularly familiar with that 
exact set-up, but I would like to state for the record that many of 
these places were purchased long before the airports were ever there; 
long before that. 

The Chairman. You have approximately 93,000 Japanese in 
California? 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes. Almost 94,000. 

The Chairman. As the spokesman for the Japanese here today, 
would you say each and every one of that 93,000 is loyal to this 
country? 

r|Mr. Masaoka. No, not each and every one. I think that would 
be impossible of any group. But I agree with the gentleman who 
preceded me. We are also interested in finding those people out, 
because if we don't find them out they are going to wreck our entire 
society. We American citizens, especially, are not so much con- 
cerned with ourselves as we are with our children. We would like 
to commend you officially, publicly, and in every way for your appre- 
ciation of the fact that after this is all over we must once again live 
together as neighbors and fellow Americans. 

The Chairman. What do you think about the statement of Attor- 
ney General Warren here Saturday to the effect that in his reports 
from law-enforcement officers, and he contacted several hundred of 
them, that he knew of no instance where a Japanese gave any of 
these officers any information as to a disloyal Japanese? 

Mr. Masaoka. I don't know exactly what to say about that. I 
wouldn't like to doubt his word, and yet I do know that personally a 
number of people that I know of have contributed information. 

The Chairman. The reason I am asking that is simply this — to give 
you tbe benefit of a witness' right to tell you what has been said here 
in order to have your views about that. 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes, I understand that. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11153 

TESTIMONY OF DAVE TATSUNO, PRESIDENT, SAN FRANCISCO 
CHAPTER, JAPANESE-AMERICAN CITIZENS LEAGUE, 2031 BUSH 
STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Tatsuno. I am quite sure, many of the Japanese-American 
citizens do not know of any case that should be turned in to the 
authorities. Let us take my case, for example. I reside in the so- 
called heart of Japan Town here in San Francisco. We have a dry- 
goods store. It has been in existence since September 1902, and ever 
since I have graduated from college back in 1936 I have been working 
there. . 

Most of our trade is with the Japanese, both alien and citizens, and 
naturally I, of all persons, being in the heart of the Japanese commu- 
nity, have talked with them heart to heart. I am trusted. Yet the 
F. B. I. agents have approached me on a number of occasions and I 
have had to profess that I don't know a thing. If I did, I would be 
glad to say so. But what I don't know I can't say, because it would 
be of no use. 

SABOTAGE IN HAWAII 

The Chairman. Let me ask you this: The sabotage at the time 
of the attack of Pearl Harbor and the disloyalty of the Japanese 
there was so widespread that the details have never as yet been fully 
given to the public. Now, what I would like to get from you is this: 
Do you think the Japanese of Hawaii stand on a different basis than 
the Japanese in California? 

Mr. Tatsuno. Yes; I would definitely like to say so. Let me give 
you an example. I have a dry-goods store. We carry oriental goods 
and we have imported some directly from Japan and we have bought 
many from the local importers here. Yet, naturally, the amount we 
sell of the native Japanese goods is very small, while in Hawaii you 
will find that their dealings in Japanese native goods are a number of 
times greater than those on the mainland here, which goes to show 
that in Hawaii there was much of the Japanese influence among the 
Japanese there. Also you must recognize the fact that one-third of 
the population of Hawaii is Japanese whereas over here we are a very 
small minority and we are not affected. 

At the same time I would like to put into the record that I am quite 
sure that the attack and the treacherous attack, much of it was com- 
mitted by agents of the Japanese Government who came in different 
disguise. I am quite sure of that. 

The Chairman. Do you know of any of those agents here? 

Mr. Tatsuno. Pardon? 

WOULD REPORT SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES 

The Chairman. Do you know of any of those agents in California? 

Mr. Tatsuno. I do not know. If I did I would report them to the 
F. B. I. As I said, since I am in the heart of Japan Town, the Naval 
Intelligence, the Army Intelligence, and the F. B. I. make the rounds 
and any time they ask questions I am always glad to help them. 



11154 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The Chairman. You sound to me to be a pretty fair witness, but 
you wouldn't go so far as to say that Japan hasn't these agents in 
California? You know they have; don't you? 

Mr. Tatsuno. Well, I couldn't say because I don't know. As one 
American person put it, in total war that we have today there is a 
great possibility — in fact, any nation that hasn't got fifth-column 
activity to carry on a war — well, something is lacking. 

The Chairman. I don't think Japan lacks it. You are not worried 
about Japan in that regard, are you? 

Mr. Tatsuno. But as far as California is concerned, as I say — and 
I have been in close contact with the alien Japanese — since I have 
been in contact with the many travelers from Japan, and they come 
into our store regularly, many members of the different banks, the 
import and export houses here in San Francisco, treaty merchants 
sent from Japan. I may be pretty ignorant but I don't know. I 
haven't had any signs. 

Mr. Sparkman. Was your education all in this country? 

Mr. Tatsuno. No. I was in Japan away back in 1924 immediately 
after the earthquake for half a year. I attended fourth-grade gram- 
mar school in Japan when I was 10 years old. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is that the extent of the time you spent there, just 
the 6 months? 

Mr. Tatsuno. That is all. 

Mr. Sparkman. May I ask your religion? 

JAPANESE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 

Mr. Tatsuno. I am an elder of the local Presbyterian Church. 
Before that I was a deacon. I am also a member of the local board of 
management of the Y. M. C. A., and also last night I spoke at the First 
Presbyterian Church at Van Ness and Sacramento. We had a joint 
meeting with the American young people. 

Mr. Arnold. Do the Japanese have a Presbyterian Church of their 
own? 

Mr. Tatsuno. We have a church of our own. 

Mr. Arnold. You belong to the Japanese Presbyterian Church? 

Mr. Tatsuno. Yes. It is controlled by the board directly, yes; 
the national board. 

Mr. Arnold. Is it organized about the same as the American 
Presbyterian Church? 

Mr. Tatsuno. It is typical. The only thing is that the older 
people did not understand English well and they organized this 
church. In fact, in our church we had a very earnest man working 
for us, Dr. Sturge, who passed away in 1934. He spent 50 years 
among the Japanese here in the United States working for us, and 
we have such men with those ideals to look up to. 

Mr. Arnold. He was an American? 

Mr. Tatsuno. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. A white American? 

Mr. Tatsuno. A white American. 

Mr. Arnold. Does the Presbyterian Church belong to the same 
diocese or whatever you might call it? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11155 

Mr. Tatsuno. Yes. It is directly connected with the national 
Presbyterian board. Also we have among our group the Young 
People's Christian Conference groups. Henry was chairman of the 
northern California chapter of the Young People's Christian Confer- 
ence in 1938 and I was chairman of it in 1937. Therefore, with such 
a background, we like to cooperate as much as possible. 

Mr. Arnold. I was interested in your saying that even though you 
are a merchant and come in contact with many Japanese customers 
and others, that you never talked to each other about anything in 
connection with Japan or this Government. 

Mr. Tatsuno. No; I didn't say that. I said that although we do 
have heart-to-heart talks I haven't found any inkling; any, shall I 
say, evidence of fifth-column activity or sabotage, you see. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you think you would learn of it if it existed 
among those with whom you come in contact? 

Mr. Tatsuno. If anybody, I should. If anybody, I am right in 
the heart there, and I am sure that most of them trust me. You see, 
Saturday, Attorney General Earl Warren said that because so far 
there hasn't been a single sign of fifth-column activity that is a sign 
that there is fifth-column activity. But I disagree with that. I 
don't think that is real logic. 

PRAISES JAPANESE RECORD IN AMERICA 

Mr. Masaoka. For example, I would like to challenge the conclu- 
sion drawn by the gentleman from Tulare, because in the depression 
years very few Japanese, if any, went on the relief rolls that it was 
an indication that we were receiving financial assistance from others. 
I think that is an attitude of thrift and simple living which is char- 
acteristic of the American pioneers. I think that is an evidence of 
Americanism. We have a wonderful record of staying out of jail. 
The only time I was in jail was on the night of December 7 when I 
was in North Platte as a stranger there. They got me for vagrancy 
and it was cleared up immediately from Washington. That was the 
only time I was in jail. The Japanese have a fine record, I believe, 
of abiding by the law. We stay off the relief rolls. We have a 
wonderful record of contribution to the Community Chest, to the 
Red Cross, and other civic groups. I think that all of those are an 
indication of loyalty. 

The Chairman. You have a wonderful record of keeping out of 
jail. Don't you think that is smart? 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes, I think it is smart for anyone. But I also 
think that it is a sign of good Americanism that you have been taught 
to do that. 

Mr. Arnold. I have two questions and any one of you may answer. 
Do Japanese aliens or their children have any feeling of animosity 
toward the Government of the United States or the State of California 
because such aliens are deprived of the right to own property in this 
State? 

Mr. Masaoka. I think it is possible that some would have. I 
think it is only natural, to be honest, you understand? 

Mr. Arnold. Some aliens and some of their children feel that? 



11156 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Masaoka. Possibly. But the children may own land. 

Mr. Tani. We are children. We can own land. 

Mr. Arnold. But do you have any animosity because aliens can't? 

Mr. Tani. It wouldn't exist now because most of us are of age and 
can handle our own business. So if there was animosity, it wouldn't 
exist now. 

JAPANESE LAND PURCHASES 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know of any instances where Japanese aliens 
have acquired property in this State in the name of their children in 
order to avoid the property laws? 

Mr. Tani. Sure. My father bought a house in my name and my 
sister's name and he had a lawyer named as trustee. That was the 
usual procedure, but we lived in that house. 

Mr. Masaoka. I would like to say that the California Supreme 
Court, I understand, in two cases — the Fujita and Yano cases — gave 
some countenance to a type of guardianship. I would also like to 
say that a number of people tried, in fact encouraged, the Japanese to 
use this type of subterfuge. 

The Chairman. Mr. Kido is the president of your league? 

Mr. Masaoka. He is an attorney and he is ill today. He has an 
impacted tooth. 

The Chairman. Well, gentlemen, it is getting late. However, I 
would like to say this to you — that you are speaking now to part of 
the Congress of the United States. 

Mr. Masaoka. We appreciate that. 

The Chairman. I would like to ask you if you know of any place 
in Japan or the Philippines or Wake Island where any agency or part 
of the Japan Parliament is according to the American evacuees or 
interns a hearing such as this. 

Mr. Masaoka. No. We appreciate that, very frankly. That is 
what makes us like Americans more. 

The Chairman. So you think that we can go back to Washington 
now and rest absolutely and perfectly safe that there won't be any 
disloyalty from the Japanese on this coast? 

Mr. Masaoka. I think the great majority won't. 

The Chairman. But it doesn't take many. 

Mr. Masaoka. Yes, I understand that. But I would like to make 
this request of you. Just as I pointed out, the tension is increasing 
all around and immediate action would be very helpful, I think, to 
all concerned to protect us from mob violence, to protect against 
sabotage, which may come. Now, I think a decision will permit us 
to inform our people as to proper procedure, to help them to get 
ready to leave, if necessary; to contact the proper Government 
agencies and otherwise. But I do not think it should be voluntary 
evacuation for the simple reason that I am afraid of what is happening 
in Tulare and other counties. If they just go voluntarily out without 
knowing where they go, they may not only inconvenience the com- 
munities to which they go, but they may disrupt those communities. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

The committee will stand in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12:45 p. m. a recess was taken until 2 p. m.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGBATION 



MONDAY, FEBRUARY 23, 1942 

afternoon session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 

The committee met at 2 p. m. in the post office building, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., Hon. John H. Tolan (chairman) presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of Cali- 
fornia; Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois; and John J. Sparkman, of 
Alabama. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; John W. Abbott, 
chief field investigator; Leonard A. Thomas, counsel; and F. P. Weber, 
economist. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

Mr. Clark, you will be the first witness. 

TESTIMONY OF TOM C. CLARK, COORDINATOR OF THE ENEMY 
ALIEN CONTROL FOR THE WESTERN DEFENSE COMMAND, 
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE, FEDERAL BUILDING, LOS ANGELES, 
CALIF. 

The Chairman. Mr. Clark, will you please give your full name to 
the reporter. This is for the purposes of the record. 

Mr. Clark. Yes. My name is Tom Clark and I appear here as 
Coordinator of the Enemy Alien Control for the Western Defense 
Command. 

The Chairman. That is the Justice Department? 

Mr. Clark. Department of Justice; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold will interrogate you. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Clark, we are going to divide our questions to 
you into two groups, the first dealing with the evacuation tomorrow 
and the previous work of your office in connection with this problem, 
and the second dealing with the President's Executive order of last 
Friday. 

We would like you to hold yourself in readiness to appear again in 
about 10 days in Los Angeles to testify on later developments arising 
from this Executive order. 

Would you briefly outline for us the functions of your office and 
what your office has done on the alien problem on the west coast to 
date. 

11157 



11158 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Clark. Well, that is a pretty big job. I will do the best I 
can, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. All right. 

Mr. Clark. I came into this 4 weeks ago this coming Thursday. 
At that time there were so many agencies that were engaged in the 
work of trying to solve the problem that there was no coordina- 
tion between them. Since the President, in his Executive order of 
January 6 and 7, I believe it is, appointed the Attorney General to 
designate certain areas as recommended by the War Department 
from which alien enemies might be evacuated, and since the duty was 
upon the Attorney General — he had written several of the other civil 
agencies requesting their cooperation in affecting an orderly evacua- 
tion—it was thought that someone might be necessary to coordinate 
the various activities of the various civil authorities that might come 
into the picture. I have been out here for a couple of years with the 
Department of Justice and have three offices out here in the vital 
areas. So, they thought that possibly I might be the fellow to do 
that work and that was the reason I was selected and that, I think, 
outlines in a general way the functions I have to perform and the 
duties that I have attempted to perform so far. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you just been engaged in this work about 4 or 
5 weeks? 

Mr. Clark. As 1 stated, 4 weeks next Thursday. 

Mr. Arnold. In your opinion, should there be a wholesale evacua- 
tion from the military areas of all citizens and aliens whose origins are 
in enemy countries? 

Mr. Clark. 1 think it depends 

The Chairman (interposing). May I interrupt, Mr. Clark and 
Congressman Arnold? We want you to feel absolutely free, Mr. Clark, 
not to disclose anything to this committee that gives comfort to the 
enemy but also feel free to go as far as you can. 

Mr. Clark. I appreciate that. If any question like that comes up 
you can depend on me to be the first to say "I am sorry; I can't 
answer." I will be glad to talk to the committee about other matters 
that I find it not possible to discuss here if there are some of those 
matters. 

As far as the question you just asked I would say this: If the military 
authorities, in whom I have the utmost confidence tell me it is neces- 
sary to remove from any area the citizens as well as the aliens of a 
certain nationality or of all nationalities I would say the best thing 
to do would be to follow the advice of the doctor. Whenever you go 
to a doctor if he tells you take aspirin you take aspirin. If he tells 
you to cut off your leg so you can save your body you cut off your leg. 
So I think it is is up to the military authorities to decide that question. 

The Chaieman. Well, it is not only up to them but we all have to 
obey them. 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. That is right. 

The Chairman. We have no discretion about it. 

Mr. Clark. That is right. 

The Chairman. But we thought we could give them some facts 
that might help them. That is the reason for these hearings. 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11159 

RESETTLEMENT OF ALIENS IN CALIFORNIA 

Mr. Arnold. Now, in your opinion, is it necessary to remove these 
evacuees from the State of California and, in fact, from the entire 
west coast? If so, what areas do you think they should be placed in? 

Mr. Clark. Well, from my study up to date I would say that 
California can take care of the problem, providing the military 
authorities decide what the strategic military areas are, and if we know 
those, then, we can move these people, such persons as we think 
should be evacuated from certain areas. We could establish some 
place where they might be able to go. I think that California could 
solve the problem without much interference with other States. 

Mr. Arnold. You think there is enough area in California away 
from the coast to take care of the situation? 

Mr. Clark. Well, Congressman, I would say this: That largely 
depended upon the military areas that might be created. General 
DeWitt asked me this morning if I might release to the committee 
and to the press some of his ideas about the matter. He said, "You 
know, Tom, we have the deadline on the orders of the Attorney 
General." And the General stressed the fact that these orders were 
still in effect and that the alien enemies that were in the areas, or the 
prohibited areas which became effective tomorrow night at midnight 
would have to evacuate. If they don't, why, we intend for the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation to see that they are evacuated. In 
the meanwhile, the General is working on such military areas as he 
and his staff deem necessary. 

The Chairman. Mr. Clark, if I may interrupt there. The Attorney 
General of the State of California, Mr. Warren, testified here Saturday 
that while they give information to your department they have no 
return information as to who are enemy aliens. 

Would you care to comment on that? This committee thinks that 
is very, very important. 

PREPARING LIST OF ENEMY ALIENS 

Mr. Clark. Well, the only comment I would make on that, 
Congressman, would be that the list of enemy aliens, of course, has 
not been prepared as yet. For example, we only had the list, had the 
cards, the Form 22, as they call them, on the night of February 9. 

The Chairman. Y s. 

Mr. Clark. There was a considerable number of those Form 22 's. 
In fact, in these eight States there are, I would say, at least four or 
five hundred thousand, so you can see what a job it is when you say 
"get up a list." I am satisfied of this: That the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation will cooperate with any enforcement agency, local or 
otherwise, in order to solve the problem. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. You made reference to the effective date of this 
order, tomorrow night at midnight. Isn't that tonight at midnight? 

Mr. Clark. No, sir. We construed the last order, the 15th, having 
come on Sunday, as being effective Monday morning, so we are con- 
struing this one as being effective at midnight, the 24th, the date that 
is stated in the order itself, so tomorrow is the last day. 



11160 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

PREFERS VOLUNTARY EVACUATION 

The General further asked me to state that he was hopeful that the 
enemy aliens in these areas would move out voluntarily. He thought 
that they would. And while he was studying the problem of additional 
military areas that he would create under the Presidential order, or 
the Executive order, he hoped that the alien enemies would be pre- 
paring themselves to evacuate voluntarily. 

The Chairman. I don't think all of the American people recognize 
the importance of the time element in this matter. Everything has 
come on us in a rush. On Saturday we were with General DeWitt for 
an hour and a half, and he told us to tell the public: "There will be no 
mass evacuation. Hardship cases will be taken care of." 

The Executive order of last Friday changed everything. So the 
point is that as far as your Justice Department is concerned, you are 
going to cooperate with the civil and local enforcement agencies of this 
State, aren't you? 

Mr. Clark. We are going to do everything that General DeWitt 
requests us to do. In our conference this morning, he asked me to 
see about coordinating matters much in the same way that we had 
done in the past. Of course, the primary party responsible to carry 
out the Executive order of last Friday is the Army. Personally, I 
think, like I am sure you do, sir, and like the other congressmen of 
California, evidenced in their statements in the public press, that the 
Army is the proper party to carry this out because they are the only 
department of government that have the facilities and the personnel 
with which to do it in an effective way. 

The Chairman. Yes; but the reason that we are here, Mr. Clark, 
is that the high officials at Washington thought we should come out 
here and get the opinion of the coast people who are directly involved, 
don't you see? They might have some ideas too. 

TVTt C">t at?.tc ~± gs sir 

The Chairman, in other words, we are not telling you what to do 
but we can give you some facts in these open hearings? 

Mr. Clark. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now, as far as the Army is concerned, General 
DeWitt told us Saturday afternoon that he has never been so pleased 
in his entire army life as he is with the work that your department is 
doing. 

Mr. Clark. Well, that pleases me very much. 

The Chairman. But still you are human and therefore not a 
hundred percent perfect as far as this is concerned? 

Mr. Clark. That is right, sir. 

The Chairman. We have to live in this country after this war is 
over and we have nationalities no other country has. We are a 
melting pot of the world. Maybe, we will get some ideas here. But, 
at least, the people of the Pacific coast are going to be helped anyway. 
We are not telling you what to do but we might give you some ideas. 

help needed to solve problem 

Mr. Clark. Well, I might say on that we certainly do need some 
ideas. We need your help. I know personally I would welcome it 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11161 

and I feel certain, although I haven't talked to the General, that 
he would be happy to have them. We all have to work out this 
problem together. I told that to the State defense councils I had the 
pleasure of meeting with over the State during the past couple of 
weeks. To solve this problem we will all have to put our shoulders 
to the wheel. 

I am happy to see your committee here, sir. I am sorry I couldn't 
be here Saturday, but I only left Washington Saturday afternoon 
about 2 o'clock, and we were grounded yesterday morning in Denver 
and only arrived here last night. We have these three offices, one in 
Los Angeles, one here, one in Seattle. They are staffed by experienced 
lawyers, the staff we have gotten in the past 2 years. They are at your 
disposal, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Now, Mr. Clark, do you know in a general way where 
the people moving on the 15th of February have gone? 

Mr. Clark. There were less than 400 that were required to move 
from those specific areas on that day. I am sure that several groups 
moved out of other areas. Mr. Neustadt could give you that infor- 
mation better than I. I understand that he is preparing a list which 
will be available, possibly, in a couple of days and he will be happy to 
furnish that for you. 

The Chairman. He is here now. 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. My ideas would be just a guess and if you 
don't mind I would rather not guess on a matter like that. 

COMMUNITIES RESISTING RESETTLEMENT OF EVACUEES 

Mr. Arnold. All right. Have any protests been received by your 
office from communities which do not wish to receive evacuees? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. We had testimony here on Saturday to the effect that 
the citizens of Tulare County were resisting the entrance of Japanese 
enemy aliens into that county. If this be true what action is your 
office prepared to take with respect to this situation? 

Mr. Clark. The Tulare citizens have wired several of us about the 
problem there. They say that it would be better for the community 
if there were no further migration of Japanese into that area. Frankly, 
we don't have any idea of evacuating any Japanese into Tulare. 
But if any of them happen to come in there, why, I hope the patri- 
otism of the resident will be longer than their noses and that they will 
at least receive them until we can find a little better place in which to 
place these unfortunate folks. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you not think this arises from the emphasis placed 
to date on the machinery for evacuation rather than for locating these 
people? 

8,067 ALIEN ENEMIES IN AREAS 

Mr. Clark. The best statistics that we had on the areas that the 
Army requested the Attorney General to designate showed that there 
were 8,067 enemy aliens within all of the areas. Of that number there 
were only about 2,800 of Japanese lineage. Two thousand of those 
live around the municipal airport in Los Angeles. So after consulting 



11162 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

with Mr. Neustadt, who has done, by the way, a splendid job on this 
whole proposition 

The Chairman (interposing). He is blushing now on account of 
that compliment. 

Mr. Clark. Well, I mean that, sir. I told him that last night, and 
I wired him from Washington. 

Mr. Arnold. We think so, too. 

Mr. Clark. The Department of Agriculture, likewise, has done a 
splendid job in telling us where the agricultural areas that were suited 
to these particular types of people are located and where labor is 
needed at certain periods and dates. We decided that these 2,800 
Japanese could be easily cared for in different areas without creating 
any concentration or reservoir place. You might establish a registra- 
tion center. We proceeded along the theory that those 8,000 could 
be assimilated easily into the various areas of California. And I think 
our position has been proven true. 

EVACUATION FROM AIRPORT AREA 

I sent a man around to the Municipal Airport last Friday and he 
telephoned me he couldn't find any Japanese there. I think that we 
have shown that they can be evacuated from those areas that have 
been designated by the Attorney General at the request of the War 
Department, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Can you tell us how much of the movement on the 
15th of February disrupted the employment pattern of the areas 
affected? 

Mr. Clark. I am a lawyer and I don't know about that. How- 
ever, I would say it didn't affect it at all. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know if any of these people have found 
employment? 

Mr. Clark. Mr. Neustadt can tell you that. I don't imagine he 
has that information in his head but he can get it from his records. 
But the whole program, sir, was predicated on the proposition that 
they would find employment. In fact, that is why I insisted on hav- 
ing Mr. Neustadt and his group, because the United States Employ- 
ment Service operates in California and Washington and Oregon. 

On every poster we put up in an area and on every piece of news- 
paper publicity I stated that these enemy aliens should go to their 
local employment office and Social Security Board, not only for infor- 
mation as to what restricted areas were created and whether they 
lived in them but to secure advice and counsel and assistance in 
evacuating an area. 

Mr. Arnold. I wonder if your office has adequate statistics as to 
the age, the sex, and the occupational characteristics of those who 
are being evacuated? 

Mr. Clark. No. We don't. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know whether there has been any discussion 
of using evacuees in reclamation work or on strategic military roads 
or farm work? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. There has been. Our form 22 on the regis- 
tration will have all that information. I am sure Mr. Neustadt's 
information includes all that. We also require the enemy aliens to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11163 

secure permission from the district attorney before they can move so 
we will know every one that moves and where they have moved to. 
Then, by reference to form 22 we could give you the information that 
you would like to have. 

Mr. Arnold. Has any arrangement been worked out with the 
United States Department of Agriculture for the employment in 
agriculture in California of evacuees? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir; they have been out here. Mr. Dodd came 
out from Washington. Mr. Thompson, who sits here [indicating], 
came out and has been working very closely with the war boards in 
all the counties. 

ALIENS SACRIFICING PROPERTY 

Mr. Arnold. We understand that no provision has been made for 
disposing of the nonmovable property of aliens and that many of them 
are sacrificing it. 

Do you not feel a custodianship should have been instituted before 
the evacuation on the 15th of February? 

Mr. Clark. Well, sir, I think that that is a condition that should 
never have existed. 

And it is rapidly becoming worse. I have some letters indicating 
that persons not informed as to which areas are being and to be 
evacuated have sold their machinery and their property for practically 
nothing. Frankly, I think that if your committee could bring about 
the appointment or the designation of the proper party to take care 
of the property of these unfortunate people, you would have done a 
splendid day's work. In fact, it would be well worth all your trip out 
here if you could get that done and done immediately. 

The Chairman. Well, Mr. Clark, we were not here 12 hours when 
we immediately phoned Washington about this serious proposition. 

Mr. Clark. That is fine, sir. 

The Chairman. I think the reason for the delay is that Washington 
is 3,000 miles away. They still don't have the story about vulner- 
ability of the Pacific coast. We found it was a question of jurisdic- 
tion. Then, we found out that the Treasury Department has the 
jurisdiction. 

Mr. Clark. Well, it doesn't matter who has the jurisdiction just so 
they get busy. 

URGENCY OF NEED FOR CUSTODIAN OF ALIEN PROPERTY 

The Chairman. We have to have a regional office here to take care 
of the property of aliens. That is true, isn't it? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. We have got to do it at once. Isn't that true? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. In other words, it should precede the evacuation, 
is that right? 

Mr. Clark. I think that would have been the orderly process, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. You just returned from Washington, Mr. Clark. 
Do you know if there are any plans to establish such an office or make 



60396— 4L>— pt. 29 14 



11164 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

other arrangements before the invocation of the President's recent 
order? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. There are plans? 

Mr. Clark. There are, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know whether the War Department plans to 
call on the Department of Justice to assist in the evacuations under 
the President's order? 

Mr. Clark. General DeWitt told me he intended to do that, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know whether the Federal Security Agency 
plans to call on the Department of Justice to assist in evacuations 
under the President's order? 

Mr. Clark. I don't know. Mr. Nuestadt? 

Mr. Neustadt. If the Army wants us to help or the Department 
of Justice wants us to help they call on us. 

all agencies must cooperate 

Mr. Clark. Under the President's order the General can call on 
any governmental agency. 

Mr. Arnold. In other words, you intend to all cooperate? 

Mr. Clark. I'll say we do. 

Mr. Arnold. And do the job to the best of your ability? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. We understand that the enemy aliens evacuated 
bear the. expense of movement. Are any plans contemplated for 
changing this arrangement under the President's recent order? 

Mr. Clark. Yes; the order provides for it. 

The Chairman. From under what appropriation will that money 
come? 

Mr. Clark. That is what I have been wondering about. I talked 
to some of your good colleagues. They told me they would be 
happy to request an appropriation for this purpose. The War De- 
partment is taking care of that. 

The Chairman. I think it is being taken care of through the 
emergency fund. 

Mr. Clark. The President gave Mr. McNutt, who is Mr. Neu- 
stadt's boss, a half million to take care of this emergency that we have. 

Mr. Arnold. I realize you can't commit yourself on the size of 
future evacuations. However, Mr. Neustadt testified that at present 
no Federal agencies are equipped to handle the evacuation of a large 
number of aliens or citizens. 

Would you agree with this statement? 

QUESTIONS NEED FOR MASS EVACUATION 

Mr. Clark. Well, I don't think that there is going to be any mass 
evacuations. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't think there will be any mass evacuations? 

Mr. Clark. Just as Congressman Tolan said a moment ago. Gen- 
eral DeWitt doesn't intend to have any mass evacuations. Frankly, 
I think it is just a question of our being able to tell these people 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11165 

where they can go. Then those that don't go, will be evacuated. 
But the Army can take care of that without any trouble. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't know of any plans for organizing a new 
agency to take care of this? 

Mr. Clark. No, sir; there are no plans. 

The Chairman. May I interrupt at this point. I am trying to 
think this thing out, as we go along. 

The Army is working on this problem. We have the civilian defense 
organizations in cities. We have a Justice Department; we have the 
Social Security. 

Should there be some place, on the Pacific coast, a sort of a clearing 
house, a central body that checks in to see how you folks are getting 
along, to make contacts with the law enforcement agencies of Oregon, 
Washington, and California? Do you think that something like that 
would be helpful? 

Mr. Clark. I don't believe so, sir. Well, it all depends on the 
jurisdiction that you gave them and the size of the agency and just 
what their function would be. Frankly, I think, we have gotten 
along a hundred percent. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, that is really your job, anyhow, isn't it? 

Mr. Clark. That is what I have been doing. 

Mr. Sparkman. You are a clearing house for those agents? 

Mr. Clark. I have been clearing them 24 hours a day. It is hard 
on my wife but it is not so hard on me. 

The Chairman. Yes; you are clearing the people out. 

Mr. Clark. No. I talk to Mr. Neustadt and he talks to his folks 
and his lawyer, and I get together with them and we talk over his 
problems. Mr. Thompson and I got together every time I was in 
Washington. Mr. Dodd came out, and I talked to him. He is an 
agricultural commissioner. We have talked to the W. P. A. Mr. 
Hunter was out, and he sent Mr. Nicholson from Salt Lake City. 
I talked to Earl Warren two or three times. I talked to Mayor 
Bowron down in Los Angeles, where our trouble is, and Mr. Allen, 
who is in charge of my office here in San Francisco and up north. He 
contacted people up there. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you right there, Mr. Clark: The mayor 
of Oakland, or the mayor of Berkeley he can't come over here and see 
General DeWitt. 

Mr. Clark. No, sir. 

The Chairman. He is busy and he can't talk to your boss, Mr. 
Hoover. They have got certain ideas. Now, where can they go? 

Mr. Clark. They have been coming to me, sir. 

The Chairman. They have been coming to you? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir; or to my office. Of course, when I am not 
here my office goes on. 

The Chairman. I want to ask another question. Do you think 
the Justice Department knows any more, for instance, as to who the 
disloyal citizens of Oakland or Berkeley, Calif., are than the local 
police officers? 

Mr. Clark. I think that is a problem for all of us to consider, sir. 

The Chairman. Well, do you pay any attention to them? 

Mr. Clark. To the local police? 



11166 • SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

ASSISTANCE OF LOCAL POLICE 

The Chairman. Yes, to the local police. 

Mr. Clark. I do, yes sir. They have been very helpful in our 
various raids that you no doubt read about in the newspapers. 

The Chairman. They have been very helpful? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Well, now, I just wanted to get that thought over 
to the people over there. I wanted to get that thought over. Who 
do they go to? Do they go to you, or do they go to DeWitt; do 
they go to give information? 

Mr. Clark. They have been. 

The Chairman. Have you got a clearing house 

Mr. Clark (interposing). They have been coming to me. And 
the General, whenever anybody contacts him, has been sending them 
to me. He gets letters, of course, and usually sends them over if he 
thinks that is anything to it at all. 

We have an office here that takes care of that. Then, Mr. Harring- 
ton, of my office, is in Los Angeles, and Mr. Burdell takes care of 
Seattle and Portland. 

We are lawyers. We don't presume to know much about some of 
the problems that are involved here. We think that is largely a mili- 
tary problem. We are trying in an emergency that came up very 
suddenly, as you have already stated, to fill in a gap. It is going to 
be a program that is going to take a long time to work out. 

I think your over -agency idea would be all right, or that one such 
agency, other than the Justice Department, should be designated, 
such as the Social Security, for example. You have here a resettle- 
ment problem. We are not resettlement people, we are lawyers. 

Mr. Arnold. Have plans been made in connection with the Farm 
Security Administration and the Work Projects Administration to 
assist in the forthcoming evacuations out of prohibited areas? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. I talked to Baldwin. He is head of the 
Farm Security, and to Mr. Hunter of the W^ork Projects Adminis- 
tration. 

Mr. Arnold. And they are going to cooperate in this movement? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. There isn't presently any alien property custodian 
out here, is there? 

Mr. Clark. Well, the Federal Reserve bank, through Mr. Hale, as 
I understand it, has charge of what you might call the stop accounts or 
the frozen accounts in banks. I don't think there is any other agency. 
When I left Washington last Saturday there was no other. 

The Chairman. Mr. Clark, you are familiar, of course, with the 
Executive order of the President issued last Friday? 

Mr. Clark. Yes. 

The Chairman. And you took part back in Washington in the 
conversations in relation to that Executive order, is that true? 

Mr. Clark. That is true; sir. 

MEANING OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 

The Chairman. Will you state briefly for the record and for the 
people here what you understand that Executive order to mean? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11167 

Mr. Clark. I think the Executive order simply places in the 
Secretary of War the authority that is vested in the President under 
his war powers to create such military zones as the Secretary of War 
or any commander designated by the Secretary of War may think is 
necessary to protect any part of the United States. 

The Chairman. Mr. Clark, the congressional delegations of Oregon, 
Washington, and California met almost daily. That Executive order 
followed the recommendation of this Pacific coast delegation. 

Mr. Clark. I think you did a swell job. 

The Chairman. So far I haven't heard one single complaint about 
j^our Department or General DeWitt. 

Mr. Clark. Well, that is mighty nice. 

The Chairman. But I still think that the local enforcement agencies 
ought to get into this picture a little bit more and be heard. 

Whether or not you are going to be the clearing house for them to 
come to, we don't care. But there should be some place and some- 
where that this could be done. We have got to back it up — this work, 
with the men and women of California and Oregon and Washington. 

Now, let me tell you something further. It is admitted in Wash- 
ington that the most vulnerable part of the United States is the Pacific 
coast. They tell us there that the West coast can be bombed and 
probably will be bombed, so we haven't any time to lose. We are 
here as a sort of a sounding board to get the opinions of you people. 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. First I think an alien property custodian should be 
appointed at once so that we don't hurt any more people out here 
than we have to. Secondly, I think the enforcement officers in these 
cities should have a clearinghouse to go to — either to you, or to who- 
ever has that capacity. 

POSITION OF F. B. I. IN EVACUATION 

Mr. Clark. Well, I agree with you on the first point. On the 
second, the President in his Executive order, issued 2 or 3 days after 
Pearl Harbor, designated the Federal Bureau of Investigation and 
called upon all law enforcement officers and other persons, citizens or 
otherwise, to report to the Federal Bureau of Investigation itself and 
various offices over the United States any matter that they thought 
would be of benefit to insure the proper enforcement of our laws and 
the prevention of sabotage and espionage in the United States. 

Frankly, Mr. Hoover, has, I think, one of the finest organizations 
that has ever been set up of this type. 

The Chairman. We agree with you. 

Mr. Clark. I think you have to have an over-all picture of the 
United States. I grant you that you have a peculiar situation in 
California, but we have to look at it on a broad plane. If these law- 
enforcement agencies will report and cooperate with the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation I think you have the answer to your prob- 
lem. But that is out of my line. I am not an investigator. I am 
under the Attorney General of the United States; those matters are 
entirely up to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. They have been 
doing a swell job, as I think you will agree. 

The Chairman. Absolutely. 



11168 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Clark. Now, if these local officers or any citizens will report 
any matter that they think the F. B. I should know, they will find 
that prompt attention will be given to it and absolute cooperation. 

POINTS BROUGHT OUT IN EAST BAY PANEL 

Mr. Sparkman. You would have been interested in hearing the 
testimony of the panel of officials from the East Bay area this morn- 
ing. They were not particularly complaining but they did mention 
some things that might easily be smoothed out. 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Such things as this: For instance, when the seizure 
of alien property began — cameras, radios, and so forth — they said the 
only information they ever had of that was through the newspapers 
and the radio. They stated that aliens brought their property in and 
that they had had no instructions whatsoever from anybody in the 
Federal Government, asking them to receive that property, or telling 
them what to do with it, or how to handle it. 

It seems to me that cooperation is a matter that works both ways 
and that in all fairness to those local officials they should have re- 
ceived some definite instructions or requests from some agency of the 
Federal Government as to how to operate. 

Here is another thing they mentioned. In picking out some of 
these defense areas and strategic military areas, the local officials, 
who know a great deal more about their own community than some 
of the outside people can possibly know, were never consulted and the 
result was that some very peculiar situations developed. In one of 
the East Bay cities it was stated that the most important military area 
had not been designated as a restricted or prohibited area, whereas, 
other areas of much less importance had been so designated. 

I am just wondering whether in your capacity as coordinator some- 
thing can't be done to let these local people, who feel their responsi- 
bility to report irregularities and cases of disloyalty to the F. B. I., 
also participate in the whole program? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir; I think that is a good suggestion. As to the 
cameras, that order was entered back in December. As I stated, I 
didn't come into this picture until about 3 or 4 weeks ago. I found 
out then that some of the material that had been picked up was being 
kept in various offices, so I got Washington to enter an order requiring 
everybody to turn it over to the United States marshal so we could 
have it one place. 

F. B. I. IN CHARGE OF EVACUATION 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, to make it more recent, they say this evacua- 
tion order is going into effect tomorrow but not one word has been 
said to the law-enforcement officers with reference to moving the 
people out of these areas. 

Who is going to move them out? 

Mr. Clark. The F. B. I. 

Mr. Sparkman. Without the cooperation of local officials? 

Mr. Clark. Oh, they will ask for that when it is necessary. The 
local officials, in fact, posted those whole areas for us. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11169 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, now, that is contrary to these mayors and 
chief of police this morning. 

Mr. Clark. Well, the civil-defense boards did. 

Mr. Sparkman. I believe we even had some of those here too and 
they said not. 

Mr. Clark. They have been very cooperative. All we did was to 
have the posters printed and then called in the local defense board 
chairmen. They had them distributed and posted in the various 
areas. It was most effective in southern California particularly. 
We have done the same thing up here. 

Mr. Sparkman. I hope when the testimony of the morning session 
becomes available you will read particularly what these gentlemen said 
from over in that area because it did give a picture of lack of coordi- 
nation and lack of cooperation, even though they were anxious to 
cooperate. 

Mr. Clark. I will be happy to get that testimony. Everybody 
knows where the areas are; the local defense board posted them. 

As far as evacuation is concerned, frankly, I don't think we are 
going to need anybody to evacuate them other than the F. B. I. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, now, that is true, probably, on this particular 
evacuation but as other areas are set up and the people are moved 
farther and farther inland, it seems to me that you are probably 
going to have to change from a voluntary evacuation to one of actual 
moving of the people. 

COOPERATION OF LOCAL OFFICIALS 

Mr. Clark. I think so, too. I think, in that instance the Army 
would be charged with that responsibility and if they decide, like the 
F. B. I. has in the past, to call upon local officials. I am sure they will. 
We have found local officials not only anxious but willing to cooperate 
in every request that we have made. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, these gentlemen signified their willingness 
and their desire. 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. But I did gather from their statements that there 
was a feeling of lack of instructions, lack of knowledge, and lack of 
coordination. 

Mr. Clark. Well, I am sorry that they have that feeling. 

Mr. Sparkman. I just wanted to call your attention to that. I 
thought it would be of interest to you. That is all. 

Mr. Clark. I appreciate that very much. 

The Chairman. Mr. Clark, I just have one or two questions to ask 
you. We don't want you to get the idea that we are here in criticism 
of you. We think you have done a fine job. General DeWitt thinks 
so too. What is the number of your staff? 

Mr. Clark. We have 31 lawyers and about 15 stenographers. 

The Chairman. And what area do you cover? 

Mr. Clark. We cover three States. 

The Chairman. How many people are involved in this evacuation, 
would you say? 



11170 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

8,000 TO BE EVACUATED 

Mr. Clark. In the evacuations, up to date, around 8,000. 

The Chairman. 8,000. 

Dr. Lamb. Does that include the evacuation effective on tomorrow, 
the 24th? 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you think your staff is sufficient? 

Mr. Clark. I spoke to the Attorney General about that and we 
are increasing the staff, sir. 

The Chairman. How much? 

Mr. Clark. He told me to put on any number I thought was 
necessary. I don't think we are going to need very many more. 
The Army has indicated that they have plenty forces to help. Frankly 
we don't need lawyers to do this type of work. 

The Chairman. Congressman Sparkman's questions, I think, hit 
the heart of the whole tiling and that is the coordination between 
the local enforcement agencies and you. 

POSTING OF AREAS 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. I just received a note from Mr. Allen, who 
manages this area up here. He tells me the East Bay area was posted 
by the Civil Defense Council of Alameda County, that the city 
manager and the Civil Defense Board of Antioch posted them. The 
sheriff posted them along the coast points and the Oregon State 
police posted them in Oregon and the highway police posted them in 
Washington. 

Now, there are a lot of these people that are anxious to help and 
we are anxious to get them to help. But when you get too many it 
just creates confusion, so we have called upon those whom we think 
are best suited geographically or otherwise to do the work that we 
have in hand at that particular time and, frankly, we have gotten a 
hundred percent cooperation. 

The Chairman. But have you been designated by Washington as 
a sort of a clearing house for the contacts with the local officials or have 
you just taken that authority and are doing the best you can? 

Mr. Clark. Well, I think the people, possibly from the newspaper 
stories, decided they would call somebody and they began calling me. 
In fact, I had to move my hotel because they called me so much. 

The Chairman. Take the city of Oakland. If they have a situation 
there or have some ideas about the areas or who should be evacuated, 
who are loyal and who are disloyal, who would they go to? 

DESIGNATION OF MILITARY AREAS 

Mr. Clark. The Army has designated all of the areas and they have 
picked those areas from a military standpoint. Personally, I wouldn't 
quarrel with them from a military standpoint. 

The Chairman. We can't. They have the jurisdiction. 

Mr. Clark. They know where the defense areas are; they know 
where the defense plants are. They know what their problem is. 
I am not going to quarrel with them about that. I have had several 
protests which I have taken up with the general and he has had investi- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11171 

gations made by his staff. Of course, what you must remember is 
that these original designations are just beginning in an effort to solve 
the problem. It is a progressive problem. It is one that you can't 
solve overnight. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Clark. So the general, in designating these areas, was desig- 
nating those that he thought were the most strategic and that should 
be evacuated as soon as possible. Later he is going to add additional 
areas. 

The Chairman. I am satisfied about that area proposition because 
we can't do anything about it. That is up to the military authorities. 
Let's not waste any time on that. 

Whom do the local enforcement officers go to in Oakland to report 
cases of loyalty and disloyalty? 

Mr. Clark. The F. B. I. 

Dr. Lamb. On that point, Mr. Clark, it isn't a question of loyalty or 
disloyalty. As far as this evacuation is concerned it is a question of 
alien or citizen. You evacuate them because they are in a certain 
category. 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir. 

Dr. Lamb. Appeal at this time makes no difference. 

The Chairman. Oh, yes, Doctor. 

Mr. Sparkman. Not yet. 

The Chairman. Oh, yes; it does. There is absolutely going to be 
discretion. 

NO EXCEPTIONS FOR LOYALTY 

Dr. Lamb. I would like to ask Mr. Clark that question with respect 
to the 24th. 

Is it true, Mr. Clark, that so far there have been no exceptions made 
on the basis of appeals because the person is said to be loyal? 

Mr. Clark. It has not been based on that at all. There are no 
exceptions for that. 

Mr. Sparkman. Not yet. 

Mr. Clark. Under the new order it is a different proposition. 

The Chairman. Yes. Let's get down to brass tacks now. The 
wording of the Executive order is such as to include the evacuation of 
all citizens. Well, it won't mean exactly that in practice; we know 
that. It is going to be put on a registration permit basis with dis- 
tinction made between loyal and disloyal. It has not been set up 
yet. It will be set up because we discussed that for days back in 
Washington. There is no question about that. 

But what I would like to know, who do those people go to? Do 
they go to you? 

Mr. Clark. You see, the Doctor is talking about the old order that 
the Attorney General had jurisdiction over, while you are talking 
about the Executive order of the President. Is that right? 

Dr. Lamb. I had reference to the fact that to date there is no 
machinery set up for such decision. 

Mr. Clark. Yes. Now, of course, under the President's order, 
that is up to General DeWitt. 

The Chairman. Oh, yes, we agree on that; it has not been set up 
yet. 



11172 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Clark. That is right. 

The Chairman. But I am still thinking in terms of how these local 
officials act? Who do they go to, what agency? 

GENERAL DE WITT WORKING ON PLANS 

Mr. Clark. Well, sir, under the order of the President of last 
Friday, they will go to whatever agency General DeWitt tells them 
to go to. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Clark. He is getting up that. He is working night and day 
on the areas and on what agencies. 

The Chairman. He is doing a good job. 

Mr. Clark. Yes, sir; a splendid job. I think the people of the 
west coast should be thankful for having him here. They are very 
fortunate. 

The Chairman. You see why we are puzzled about that. We get 
puzzled in Washington. There are so many agencies we get lost. 

Mr. Clark. The thing about this order, he can pick his agencies. 
He doesn't have to have all of them. He can say "I want you to do 
this and you that." 

The Chairman. Yes. This is Dr. Lamb's question, if you care to 
answer. There are no definite steps yet, or are there, in regard to 
this evacuation, under the new Executive order of the President? 

Mr. Clark. No, sir. 

The Chairman. To be absolutely fair with you, Mr. Clark, Gen- 
eral DeWitt told us Saturday afternoon that he had not received 
definite instructions under the Executive order as yet. So that is 
correct, is it? 

Mr. Clark. No; the general has got his instructions and he is 
working on them, sir, but I frankly can't discuss his plans. 

The Chairman. Yes. Supposing, Mr. Clark, as long as we are 
talking man to man, that there was an attack on the Pacific coast. 
If it comes, undoubtedly it will come quite soon. Japan has got to 
win this war quickly or she hasn't got a chance at all; we all know 
that. Well, suppose there is a mass evacuation of the Pacific coast 
people — where would they go? 

Mr. Clark. Well, I don't know. If they have to go, I don't think 
the Pacific coast is going to get panicky about it. I have been out here 
a couple of years. I am very much sold on the folks out here. I 
was here in the first black-out. During the second or third one I 
was trying a case here in Judge St. Sure's courtroom and I didn't 
notice any change. The people here are not the panicky type. If 
there had to be an evacuation I imagine they would go inland. Of 
course, we would be glad to have them down in Texas. We are the 
same kind of folks. 

The Chairman. For instance, the city of Los Angeles, or the 
county there. I do not know how many people they have got there. 
I used to know years ago. They had a couple of million then. 

Mr. Clark. That is just south of your town, Congressman. They 
have extended the limits so far that it has practically got in your 
town now. You ought to know about that. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11173 

The Chairman. But, you know, England had the very fond hope 
that they wouldn't have to evacuate. We heard in Washington 
Malcolm MacDonald, the son of the late Premier Ramsay MacDon- 
ald. He told us about the evacuation there and the way they handled 
it. I thought it was wonderful. They have gone out in the country 
and they have taken these old English mansions. They had to evacu- 
ate. The reason I asked that question was to look into that in case 
something like that did happen, you see. Of course, you haven't 
gone quite that far. 

Mr. Clark. Well, sir, I would say this — I am sorry that I have to 
keep on referring to this but it is my opinion: I think evacuation is a 
military problem. I think that is a problem which should have been 
solved in France so that they wouldn't have been troubled the way 
they were. I think the general has got that in mind; he is pretty far- 
seeing. 

As far as Walter Lippmann's article was concerned, I think they are 
going to have a lot of hurdles before they get to fighting here in 
California. Mr. Lippmann doesn't think so. I think so, and I think 
General DeWitt has plans. In fact, I know he has. 

The Chairman. So do we. 

Mr. Clark. I don't think we have to talk so much about the 
evacuation. I think it is well to think of it, to have some plan. I am 
sure the general has something along that line if it becomes necessary. 

The Chairman. All right; thank you, Mr. Clark, very much. 

Mr. Clark. Yes. Any time I can serve you just let me know, sir. 

The Chairman. Mr. Clark, the two exhibits you submitted will be 
inserted in the record at this point. 

(The exhibits referred to are as follows:) 

Exhibit A. — Typical Letters of Hardship Cases 

Federal Bureau of Investigation, 

111 Sutter Street, San Francisco, Calif. 

Gentlemen: After watching nay mother worrying and suffering for several 
weeks over the thought of being separated from the rest of her family due to alien 
moving act, I write this appeal to your sense of justice to consider her case to 
determine if any other adjustments are possible. In a brief summary of our 
family history, I will attempt to show you why I am making this appeal to you. 

In 1920, after my father, • ■ — — — , had been living in McCloud, Calif., 
for 10 years, my mother arrived from Italy. They were married the same year, 
and in 1921 I was born and followed later by a brother and sister, all born in 
California. 

From McCloud we moved to Richmond in 1924 where my father has been work- 
ing in factories since. At present, my sister is attending high school, and my 

brother has been working for the ■ ■ since his graduation last month. 

Since 1930 my mother has been managing a combination grocery store-gasoline 

station (which incidentally has been serving the owners of our neighbor, — 

Co., for years) in the front portion of our home. Closing of the store, with unpaid 
balances on some of the equipment, will be necessary if my mother is required to 
move. As for myself, I am in my fourth year of study in mechanical engineering 
at the University of California and am in the process of applying for appointment 
as ensign, — • — ■ — •, United States Naval Reserve. 

Since my folks received very little education in Italy due to impoverished con- 
ditions and since they have always worked here, it made it very difficult for them 
to obtain their citizenship here. However, my father, beginning by learning the 
alphabet, studied enough so that he was able to obtain his citizenship over a 
year ago. 



11174 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

After my father was naturalized, we children taught our mother, and she made 
her application for her second papers last December. Since then, in addition 
to our teaching her, she has been closing the store to attend school. She hopes 
to be called for her test soon. 

Since her arrival here, my mother has always done her best to do what a good 
citizen should. As soon as war broke out, she invested a good portion of her 
life's savings to buy $1,100 of defense bonds, and my father is buying them through 
weekly deductions in his wages. 

If you desire any further information, please let us know. We would feel 
deeply obligated if after consideration of this letter you would make any sugges- 
tions as to a more adaptable plan. 
Sincerely yours, 



February 6, 1942. 
Attorney General, 

Seventh and Mission Street, 

San Francisco, Calif. 
Your Honor: I am a widow who unfortunately haven't got my final papers. 

I now live in Monterey. I came here because my son — — was stationed 

here at the Presidio of Monterey. My son has been in the Army a little over 5 
years. I as a widow had to give my consent and I gladly gave it. I have a 

daughter who works at at the and she is my 

only child living with me. I also rent out a room to a young lady a citizen. Now 
I hear and read that all enemy aliens have to leave Monterey which, I believe, 
includes me. I went to the police station here to try to find out officially what one 
has to do and where one can live at and the sergeant told me he did not know 
officially and that maybe there will be a change in the rules later on. I would like 
to know just what to do because it will be hard to make a move at the last moment 
because of the great confusion which will be on hand, because if all the enemy 
aliens in Monterey will move at the last moment I know I won't be able to find a 
place to live. I am a stranger here. Someone also told me that if one stays at 
home and does not leave their homes at any time that one can stay where they 
now reside. I would be very glad and happy to do that if I could. If you could 
give me any information I would appreciate it very much and if you can't will you 
please tell me who can. Thanking you a lot and awaiting your answer, I remain, 
Yours truly, 



February 9, 1942. 
Office of Mr. Tom C. Clark, 

Alien Coordinator, San Francisco. 
Re request for curfew extension. 

Gentlemen: The undersigned had to leave Germany in 1933 because he saw 
no possibility to continue his studies, being of Jewish race. For this reason he 
went to Italy and in 1938 was forced to leave the old country, when Italy declared 
her scheme of racial persecution. 

At the present time I am employed with the and working at the 

, Street. My regular working hours are from 4 p. m. to 12 m., 

and it takes me approximately 45 minutes to get to Boulevard, where I' 

live with my parents. 

I would be more than grateful, if you could extend the curfew in my particular 
case till 1a.m., because that would mean that I could hold my present job, and 
it would keep me from becoming unemployed. 

I arrived in the United States on May 8, 1939, and took out my first papers on 
September 6, 1939, here in San Francisco. 

I was deferred in the draft, and put in class 4-F, due to a serious heart ailment, 
contracted in connection with a septic pneumonia, I had in November 1940. My 
brother is serving with the United States Army. 

As personal references I might mention Mr. , attorney, 

Building, San Francisco, and Mr. , Building, San Francisco, 

both of whom have known me and my family for a number of years. 

I enclose a statement from my employer and have sent a copy of both letters 
to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. San Francisco. 

Hoping to receive a favorable reply, I am 
Sincerely yours, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11175 

Eureka, Calif., February 6, 19^2. 
Earl Warren, 

Attorney General, Sacramento Calif. 

Dear Sir: In view of the present alien situation I doubt whether this letter 
will reach you personally, but I do wish I could have my questions answered if 
possible. 

In writing this letter I am speaking of my mother and father who are con- 
sidered enemy aliens. They were both born in Austria in the late 1880's. My 
mother came to the United States in 1923 and I was born a year later. My 
mother and father lived on the edge of the woods in Eureka for the next 11 or 
12 years. My father worked on a ranch that was below our home and my mother 
did the work at home. There were only 2 children in the household; me and my 
bigger sister. In 1930 my younger sister was born. My mother never got a 
chance to speak to many English-speaking people and my dad was at home little 
of the time to talk English himself. About 7 or 8 years ago we moved to a place 
closer to the town. We bought the place and had a mortgage on it for several 
years. My father was employed as a dishwasher in a local restaurant, and there 
bit by bit learned to talk better English. My mother still couldn't speak good 
English but had a better chance to learn as there were many English friends living 
around us. In 1940 or 1939 they both applied for their citizenship papers, with 
the understanding that they would have to learn to read and write by the time 
their 2 years was up for their second papers. They had never gone to school 
in the old country so they could neither read nor write their home language. 
This made it more difficult for them to learn, but my mother started to go to school 
for the foreign born. She had a hard time of it, but now she had come to the 
point where she could read a considerable amount. My father did not have 
much of a chance to learn as he had to work at night and sleep during the day 
and do his work at home that I did not do. 

I am a senior in the Eureka Senior High School and I was looking forward to 
get a job in some defense industry when I graduate in June and help out my 
mother and father. They have always been poor and have had a hard time of it. 
My father only makes $3.50 a day and this has to support a family of four. 
Under this new alien ruling my father who has work in a restaurant approximately 
200 feet into restricted area. Unless my father gets a permit to get into this 
area for his work and back he will be forced to work elsewhere. Now an alien 
would have a hard time to find a job other than what he is fitted for. There are 
not many other restaurants in which he could work if the job at which he is work- 
ing now is taken away. They are known, that is my mother and father, by many 
people in town who are respectable citizens and hold important offices. They 
are known by most of the law-enforcing officers of the city. They have never 
been in trouble of any sort and have always complied with the laws of our city. 
We have an acre and a half of land and own cattle and fowl. 

With the information told above I would like you to answer the following ques- 
tions for me if it is possible. 

Due to the fact that they are Austrians and are under the Axis domination 
would that mean that he would be restricted from this work which is only 200 
feet or so from the boundary? 

Would it mean that I could not get a job in a defense industry or hold a govern- 
ment job? 

Is there any danger of them having to evacuate under any condition for any 
reason that I have stated above? 

Could he get a pass to go to his work and back if the verification of the people 
I mentioned was stable enough? 

Would the Government offer any job to him if he was unable to find a different 
one in this city? 

If you have any other information that might relieve me in my anxiety and 
worry for their safety, please let me know. I would like to receive an answer 
before February 25 if possible. 
Respectfully yours, 



11176 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Exhibit B. — Petitions of Italian Aliens Requesting To Remain in Mili- 
tary Areas and Continue in Present Occupation 

petition of and , , for permission to 

continue to live in their homes which are within the so-called re- 
stricted area 

, 29 years of age, born in Italy, has lived in Santa Cruz, Calif., 

continuously for 23 years, and has petitioned for naturalization to become a 

citizen of the United States. His wife, , is a native-born citizen of the 

United States. They were married in June 1937 and have three children aged 4, 
2, and 2 months, respectively. 

He lives in property owned by them at '- Avenue, Santa Cruz, Calif. 

, 59 years of age, a widow, born in Italy, has lived in the United 

States continuously for 23 years and now resides in property owned by herself, 

at Street, Santa Cruz. Her two sons and are her sole 

support. 

Brother and son, respectively, of petitioners, , is a citizen of the 

United States, and is now in the United States Navy. Previous to entering 
service, the two brothers conducted a retail fish market on the municipal pier at 

Santa Cruz, the ownership of the same being vested in the name of ., 

single. 

None of the family has ever been arrested or accepted public or private charity. 
They are all stanch believers in the form of government of the United States, 
sincerely attached to the principles of the Constitution of the same, and pray 
that it may survive. 

If petitioner , is required to leave, it will work a great hardship 

on the family, as citizen wife, minor children, and dependent mother, have no 
means of support other than from his brother's business conducted by himself. 
They pray that their petition may be granted. 

PETITION OF AND WIFE, , TO CONTINUE. TO RESIDE 

IN THEIR HOME 

, 74 years of age, born in Italy, has continuously resided in the 

United States since 1900 and in Santa Cruz, Calif., since 1908 and has declared 
his intention to become a citizen of the United States. He is blind in one eye 
and has not been employed for the past 9 years. 

, 58 years of age, born in Italy, has continuously resided in the 

United States since 1913 and has declared her intention to become a citizen of 
the United States. She is an invalid and under the care of a physician. 

They have four adult (two native-born) children; three sons, who are married, 
and one daughter also married, and all are living apart from them. 

They reside in property owned by them at Street, Santa Cruz, Calif., 

where they have lived for the past 10 years. 

None of the family has ever been arrested or accepted public or private charity, 
the children having provided for and supported petitioners. They are all stanch 
believers in the form of government of the United States, sincerely attached to 
the principles of the Constitution of the same, and pray that it may survive. 

If petitioners are required to leave their home, it will work a great hardship on 
them because of their advanced age and physical condition. 

They pray that their petition may be granted. 

PETITION OF AND WIFE, — , FOR PERMISSION TO 

CONTINUE TO LIVE WITH THEIR CHILDREN, AND THAT BE 

ALLOWED TO RESUME HIS OCCUPATION AS A COMMERCIAL FISHERMAN 

-, 58 years of age, born in Italy, has continuously resided in the 



United States since 1903, and has declared his intention to become a citizen 
thereof. arrived in the United States in 1908, was married im- 
mediately thereafter on January 12, 1909, and has never departed from the 
United States. 

Since their marriage they have resided in Santa Cruz, Calif., and now live at 

■ Street on property which they own. They have six children. Two sons, 

and , enlisted in the United States Navy, and their son, , 

enlisted in the United States Army, and all three are now in active service. 
These sons were the support of the family. Three daughters, ages 29, 18, and 14, 
respectively, are now living at home. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11177 

has a tumor in her eye, and has been receiving medical treat- 
ment at San Francisco, Calif., regularly. 

owns his own boat and has been a commercial fisherman, having 

been assisted by his sons, who are now in military service. He has no other 
means of support for his family at home. 

None of the family has ever been arrested or accepted public or private charity. 
They are all stanch believers in the form of government of the United States, 
sincerely attached to the principles of the Constitution of the same, and pray 
that it may survive. 

If they are required to leave their home, there will be no one to care for and 
support their three daughters, nor have they any means of support unless the 

father, , can resume his lifelong occupation as a commercial 

fisherman. 

They pray that their petition may be granted. 

PETITION IN BEHALF OF TO CONTINUE TO RESIDE AT PRESENT 

ADDRESS 

is an Italian national who has been the subject of United States 

immigration proceedings on account of his being a seaman who has been forced 
to remain in the United States on account of the seizure of the vessel upon which 
he arrived, said seizure by Federal action. 

After due consideration of all the facts, the central office of the United States 
Immigration Service, at Washington, D. C, authorized his release on bond in 
the sum of $500. 

Mrs , citizen of the United States, is the aunt of . 

She resides at Street, Santa Cruz, Calif., with her family of American-born 

children. One of her sons has been in the United States Navy since May 1941, 

and another is ready to enlist. It is evident that the privilege accorded 

was granted only upon the relationship and moral and financial standing 



of Mrs. 

has now been in the United States for nearly 2 years, and his 

association with his relatives who are citizens of the United States and his famili- 
arity now with the system of government of the United States, etc., have brought 
him to the conclusion that he will be as loyal to said Government as are his rela- 
tives with whom he resides. At some future time he hopes to be permitted to 
become a legal resident of the United States and become a citizen thereof. 

Reference is made to file No. of the central office of the United States 

Immigration Service, Washington, D. C. 

PETITION OF FOR PERMISSION TO CONTINUE TO LIVE WITH HER 

HUSBAND AND CHILDREN 

-, 46 years of age, born in Italy, has continuously resided in the 



United States since her arrival with her husband, , who is a citizen 

of the United States, having been naturalized on May 4, 1927. She petitioned 
for citizenship in September 1941, and has just been notified to appear for examina- 
tion by the United States Naturalization Service at San Francisco, Calif., so that 
she might complete her naturalization in the near future. 

She resides at Street, Santa Crus, Calif., in their own property. They 

have twin sons, 20 years of age, who will automatically become citizens of the 
United States on August 4, 1942. 

She is a firm believer in the form of government of the United States, sincerely 
attached to the principles of the Constitution of the same, and prays that it may 
survive. 

If petitioner is required to leave her home, it would work a great hardship on 
her to be separated from her family. 

She prays that her petition may be granted. 

PEITTION OF FOR PERMISSION TO CONTINUE TO LIVE WITH HIS 

FAMILY AND SUPPORT THEM BY BEING ALLOWED TO FOLLOW HIS OCCUPATION 
AS A COMMERCIAL FISHERMAN 

I am 53 years of age; born in Italy. I came to the United States in May 1914 
and have never departed therefrom. I have filed my petition for naturalization 
to become a citizen of the United States. 



11178 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

My wife, , is a citizen of the United States. We were married 

on November 4, 1916, and have seven children. My oldest son, , enlisted 

in the United States Navy in May 1941, and is now at . My next 

two sons, aged 20 and 18, respectively, are ready to join the United States armed 
forces when called. My son-in-law has applied for entlisment in the United States 
Navy, and, when accepted, my daughter will be compelled to reside at my home. 
My wife has been under medical treatment with a spinal injury for the past 3 years. 

We own our own home at Street, Santa Cruz, Calif, in which city we 

have lived for the past 26 years, 20 years at the present address. At present our 
household consists of wife and self, and five children. 

I own two registered fishing boats and have been a commercial fisherman for 
many years and until recently deprived of the privilege. 

Neither I, nor any member of my family, have ever been arrested, nor have we 
accepted public or private charity. I am a firm believer in the form of govern- 
ment of the United States, sincerely attached to the principles of the Constitution 
of same, and pray that it may survive. 

If I am required to be separated from my family and also continue to be deprived 
of an opportunity to engage as a commercial fisherman, it will work a hardship on 
us which I feel sure it is not the desire of the Government to impose. 

I pray that my petition may be granted. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Goldblatt. 

TESTIMONY OF LOUIS GOLDBLATT, SECRETARY, CALIFORNIA 
STATE INDUSTRIAL UNION COUNCIL, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Goldblatt, will you give your name and 
official capacity in which you appear to the reporter. 

Mr. Goldblatt. My name is Louis Goldblatt. I am secretary of 
the California State industrial Union Council, affiliated with the 
Congress of Industrial Organizations. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Goldblatt, you did not supply us with a 
prepared statement. Will you just make your statement as you 
see fit? 

Mr. Goldblatt. Yes; I would like to. 

Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, I have several 
notes jotted down here and I would like to supplement them as I 
go along. I can also submit a written copy later on. Is that 
satisfactory? 

Mr. Sparkman. If you will, we will appreciate it and be glad to 
have it. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. As I understand, you made a request that you be 
heard by the committee. 

Mr. Goldblatt. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. We would be very glad to have you make your 
offhand statement and then give us such prepared statement as you 
care to submit. 

Mr. Goldblatt. This is a sort of semiprepared statement. I will 
also give you a finished copy. 

The attitude of the California State Industrial Union Council on 
the establishment of restriction governing the movements and work 
of aliens of enemy nationalities stems from the basic policies of the 
Congress of Industrial Organizations, which is committed to the 
speedy and successful prosecution of the war. The touchstone of 
this policy is the belief that democracy can wage ar all-out war against 
the Axis Powers and that the forces generated by a system of free 
government can and will triumph over facsism. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11179 

As labor-union members we recognize the urgent need for discipline, 
responsibility, and loyalty by all the people and support of their 
Government in the conduct of the war. Labor organizations, per- 
haps more than other civic bodies, know the dangers and inade- 
quacies of individual action in times of crises. Consequently we 
support the relegation of matters dealing with sabotage and espionage 
to the proper Federal agencies. Regulation of Axis aliens is regarded 
in the same light. 

INTEREST OF LABOR UNIONS IN EVACUATION 

I might add here, Mr. Chairman, that the unions have a particular 
interest in this entire question of migration of workers as a result of 
these evacuation orders because, naturally, that would directly affect 
labor supply, the question of replacement of certain people, and an 
adequate backlog of labor, where that is necessary, in order to keep 
defense production going. 

So our purpose in appearing here is on several scores, one, of course, 
to follow the entire proceedings and to try to get an idea how ex- 
tensive this entire movement will be, so that we in turn can see what 
labor can do to help to see to it that there aren't whole strings of 
difficulties and hardships created within the defense production 
program or related to the production programs. 

Secondly, we want to express some opinions on the entire matter of 
evacuation because it is not only the questions that arise now. The 
crux of the matter eventually will be how extensive shall the evacua- 
tion become. And in that regard we believe that some of the opinions 
we hold may be of value in the committee's mind. 

The Chairman. Yes. Let me make a suggestion to you. You 
forget about that paper there. You just go ahead and talk the way 
you are talking now. We have a lot of witnesses here that we have 
got to hear and finish tonight. 

Mr. Goldblatt. Surely. 

denounces racial antagonism 

The Chairman. Why don't you get those points right off the reel 
to us? We will permit you to put the entire statement in the record. 

Mr. Goldblatt. Surely. We naturally go along and concur with 
all the recommendations that the Government deems necessary to 
safeguard this territory. We feel, however, that a good deal of this 
problem has gotten out of hand, Mr. Tolan, inasmuch as both the 
local and State authorities, instead of becoming bastions of defense, 
of democracy and justice, joined the wolf pack when the cry came out 
"Let's get the yellow menace." As a matter of fact, we believe the 
present situation is a great victory for the yellow press and for the 
fifth column that is operating in this country, which is attempting to 
convert this war from a war against the Axis Powers into a war against 
the "yellow peril." We believe there is a large element of that partic- 
ular factor in this present situation. 

I am referring here particularly to the attack against the native-born 
Japanese, an attack which, as far as we can find out, was whipped up. 
There was a basis for it because there has always been a basis on the 



60396— 42— pt. 29 15 



11180 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Pacific coast for suspicion, racial suspicion, which has been well fos- 
tered, well bred, particularly by the Hearst newspapers over a period 
of 20 to 25 years. 

Well, the result is that during this present situation local authorities 
simply ran out on the problem. We are happy to see the Federal 
Government step in and handle it. We are happy to see your com- 
mittee here, because, frankly, to date we haven't seen either civic or 
State leadership that is competent to handle the problem or that has 
shown a great enough degree of impartiality to merit being even as- 
signed the problem. 

So that, in addition to the fact that this entire alien matter is 
naturally one that belongs in the province of the Federal Govern- 
ment, it is particularly important at this time because, frankly, I 
think the only people who have shown a semblance of decency and 
honesty and forthrightness in this whole situation are the second- 
generation Japanese who, on then own accord, have made the state- 
ment — some of these people are members of our unions — that in their 
opinion the thing they ought to do is get out of here. They are in 
accord with evacuation now, not in accord in principle but in accord 
simply because they realize that, perhaps, the only thing they can do 
now to avoid vigilantism, mob rule, and hysteria, beatings, and riots 
is to evacuate. Of course, that doesn't speak very well for either our 
State or local authorities that such a situation was permitted to arise. 

WHERE WILL IT END? 

What we are concerned with, Mr. Chairman is this: That if this 
is to become the index of our dealings with the alien problem — in other 
words, that if we are not to deal only with aliens but also with the 
descendants of aliens — then there is no limit to this problem and the 
program, and tins vitally affects our unions. It affects the principles 
upon which we stand, affects the nature of our work, our entire job in 
the administration of contracts and everything else, because once 
this policy of making distinctions or determining espionage or sabotage 
along racial, national lines, has begun there is no end. You know, I 
am sure, and I am positive the military authorities know that neither 
Hitler nor Mussolini will hesitate a moment to sacrifice any Germans 
or Italians in tins country if that will suit their purpose in an all-out 
war. 

So that we can expect, I think, that if this campaign of isolating the 
Japanese is successful the next step will be for several incidents to 
occur winch involves Germans or Italians; then the whole of the wolf 
pack will scream to the moon again and tins time it will be "Evacuate 
all Italians, evacuate all Germans." The principle will have been set; 
the pattern will have been cut as it has been by the Hearst press, by 
the rabid, hysterical elements. 

The Chairman. Suppose you were General DeWitt or the head 
of the Justice Department on the Pacific coast and you had 120,000 
Japanese. 

How would you determine the loyalty and disloyalty of these 
Japanese? 

Mr. Goldblatt. In exactly the same way I would proceed to tell 
who was a loyal or disloyal Italian or German. 

The Chairman. Where would you get the information? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11181 

INFORMATION GIVEN TO F. B. I. 

Mr. Goldblatt. From many sources. I take it for granted that 
the Federal authorities that are entrusted with this job, such as the 
F. B. I., the Governmental Intelligence Service, and so forth, have, for 
over a period of years been at work and undoubtedly have gathered a 
great deal of information. For instance, I know that the unions I 
myself am personally familiar with have turned over to the F. B. I., 
documents that involve Japanese espionage, particularly down along 
the coastal sections of California. We got information on the activi- 
ties of the German Bund at the Consolidated Aircraft Manufacturing 
Co. That was all turned over to the F. B. I. 

We are sure that after all a department of this sort that has been 
working over a period of years has gathered its files. 

We suggest in addition, if there is anything they believe we can 
do — and our unions are patriotic organizations — let them give us our 
instructions and we will go to work and do anything we possibly can. 

The Chairman. We had our F. B. J. in Honolulu, yet they had 
probably the greatest, the most perfect system of espionage and 
sabotage ever in the history of war, native-born Japanese. On the 
onlv roadway to the shipping harbor there were hundreds and hundreds 
of automobiles clogging the street, don't you see? There they sought 
to distinguish the Japanese in Pearl Harbor from our American 
Japanese. 

SECOND-GENERATION JAPANESE 

Do you think there is a distinction yourself? Do you think we can 
trust them? 

Mr. Goldblatt. The Japanese? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Goldblatt. I think that the second generation of Japanese 
in this Nation should not be distinguished from the second generation 
of any other nationality. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Goldblatt. Unless the F. B. I. or the military authorities 
have documents and facts to indicate differently. In that case we 
would naturally want to know. I am sure the public would want to 
know. Where can this thing end? Let us say that the first case 
is successful insofar as those people who want to disunite this Nation 
are concerned. They succeed in two things. No. 1, driving a 
big wedge in the direction - of their entire program which is, at least, 
as far as the Hearst press, the ex-American firsters, who still are the 
same thing, which is to convert this war from a war against the 
Axis Powers into a war against this elusory "yellow peril." Lot's 
say they succeed in doing that, Mr. Tolan. They take their next 
step. The next step is a simple one, in my opinion. They have a 
few Italians or a few Germans commit sabotage. After all, I am sure 
that .neither Hitler nor Mussolini cares an awful lot what the conse- 
quences are to a few Germans or Italians in this country. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you something about the Italians and 
the Germans. An Italian, for instance, has lived here for 30 or 40 
years, has a family. That man is very easily checked up. But now 
supposing you have 100 Japanese and you are the enforcement officer; 



11182 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

you are the F. B. I. man. How are you going to check them? The 
attorney general of this State told us Saturday that at no time have 
they ever received any information as to the disloyalty of a Japanese 
from a Japanese. They have with the Germans; they have with the 
Italians. 

Mr. Goldblatt. All I can say, it certainly doesn't speak very 
well of our attorney general's office, that is all. 

The Chairman. Uh-huh. 

HAS PRESENTED INFORMATION ON DISLOYAL JAPANESE 

Mr. Goldblatt. Because we have had information and we have 
offered this information time and time again, offered it to various local 
district attorneys, offered it to the F. B. I. We have given informa- 
tion. There are local Japanese here who have given information. 
There is every indication that at various times certain companies that 
have employed Japanese, such as the Van Camp interests in southern 
California, have made it their business to completely isolate the Jap- 
anese, also to see to it that the Japanese have no contacts with various 
local agencies of governmental law enforcement. We know those 
things are true. Shall we, therefore, blame those local Japanese for 
th,e activities of the company? 

The Chairman. I get your idea exactly. You are of the firm 
Opinion there is no race, including the Japanese, 100 percent wrong. 
That is your thought, is it not? 

Mr. Goldblatt. Well, of course. 

The Chairman. What we are trying to worry about, how are we 
going to discover those who are wrong? 

Mr. Goldblatt. That is the same problem with everyone. There 
are a bunch of small-fry fishermen out here. They are looking 
around for a bunch of little fishermen right now. That is all they are, 
just small fry. We let the big fishes get away such as Andriano 
Sylvester, a man who is registered as a governmental agent of 
Mussolini, and we allow him to serve on the draft board in San 
Francisco, a man who has had a connection with every Fascist agency 
in this city, a man who has been in constant contact with Mussolini, 
a man who has spoken of him proudly all the way. 

There is the editor of the D 'Italia, who wrote a book praising 
Mussolini, who received all sorts of decorations from Mussolini, who 
said it would be a mistake to send an expeditionary force, including 
Italian boys. They are known all over as great patriots while we are 
going against the little fry. 

The Chairman. So you are not worried about Japan. They seem 
to be winning a good many battles over there. 

doesn't want to see nation divided against itself 

Mr. Goldblatt. We are worried about Japan, deeply worried 
about it. Insofar as we are concerned, we pledge here now that we 
want every single possible step that can be taken by the Govern- 
ment to be taken and we offer our fullest cooperation to the Govern- 
ment in their efforts to detect espionage and saboteurs, not only 
among Japanese but among Italians and among Germans, among 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11183 

Americans, among any source, no matter where it be, no matter what 
their wealth is, no matter what their political position, or no matter 
what they happen to know. We are not concerned where a spy came 
from. We don't care if he came over on the Mayflower or came out 
of the humblest Japanese home; we don't care where he came from. 
Get him and we will help out. But we don't want to see, in the 
course of this program, a situation arise where this country will be 
divided against itself, where one-half the Nation will be standing on 
guard over the other half. 

Where is this to end, Mr. Tolan? Italians will be the next to be 
evacuated, then the Germans. Why stop with the Germans? Ac- 
cording to the present Federal order Hitler could stay in San^Fran- 
cisco in a prohibited area and one of German nationality would have 
to leave because Hitler is an Austrian. So it will extend to Austrians. 
It will go to Hungarians, to Bulgarians, to Finns, to Danes. These 
are countries, many of them, which have declared war on us. "Where 
is the mark to be drawn? 

And, Mr. Tolan, if we follow such a procedure we can land in only 
one place. We will do a perfect job for those who want to sabotage 
the war effort. We will have the American people at each other's 
throats. I know mining camps that are split right down the middle 
between nationalities, where you have a group of Poles at one end of 
the camp and a group of Germans at the other. You will have them 
fighting in the streets against each other. You have Italians in the 
mining camps alongside of Welshmen. 

Where is this going to wind up? This country is a nation made up 
of nationalities. The so-called American is only a product. He 
came out of a crystal into which has been poured the peoples of all 
the world. We forget what was written on the Statue of Liberty. 
I have the words here. I would like to read them. 

The Chairman. I don't think you better. Did you ever intend to 
run for Congress? 

Mr. Goldblatt. No ; I never intended to run for Congress. 

The Chairman. I think you would make a very dangerous talker 
the way you are going here today. I think you are wonderful. 

Mr. Goldblatt. May I make some specific proposals that we have 
in mind on antisabotage and antiespionage? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Goldblatt. The C. I. O. stands ready and willing to give its 
full cooperation to the proper Federal agencies in their efforts to 
detect sabotage and espionage and provide safeguards against these 
dangers. 

I would like to have any questions on that, Mr. Tolan, because we 
would like to be perfectly clear and not be misunderstood. We realize 
that I, as representing the State C. I. O., am not taking a popular 
position. I will be much more popular if I get my wolf's clothing 
on and join the pack and start hollering for the nearest Japanese 
scalp^ because that is popular. 

WHAT IS A REALISTIC ATTITUDE? 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you think you are taking a realistic attitude? 
Mr. Goldblatt. I think I am. Let's get this clear. I think the 
Japanese have to evacuate here. I think there is no choice. But it 



11184 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

is not round one for us, by Americanism or by decency or honesty or 
justice; it is round one for the opposition. All we want of your 
congressional committee is a recognition that this is a victory won by 
the opposition and that it cannot be the pattern for the future. Let 
it' be the pattern for the future and you can stop the war against 
Japan because we will be too busy here fighting among ourselves. 

Mr. Sparkman. It seems to me you completely disregard the fact 
that it was the action of the Japanese, both native-born and second- 
generation Japanese, in Hawaii that very largely caused this present 
situation. 

Mr. Goldblatt. Oh, now, let's get this point clear. That may be 
absolutely true. The only point I am making is that there doesn't 
happen to be large groups of Italians or Germans or Bulgarians or 
Finns or Rumanians in the Hawaiian Islands. They haven't settled 
there. If this pattern is used here it will automatically extend. It 
won't extend because you and I want it. It will extend because there 
are forces powerful enough in this country, the America First forces, 
the Hearst press, people like Dies, people li,ke Hamilton Fish, and his 
tie-up with Viereck and the rest of them. These forces are strong 
enough to see to it that this policy extends because that is the one 
weapon by which they can beat America. They can divide it against 
itself. That is what we are concerned with because then what will 
happen? People will be fighting at each other's throats. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, you are entitled to that view but I 
think that it is not at all a proper view or a correct view. I don't 
believe that there are such forces in America that are playing for the 
defeat of America as you have pictured them and I believe that had 
the Germans or had the Italians pulled upon us the same stunt that 
the Japanese pulled at Hawaii this country would rightfully be just 
as indignant toward them, but they have not done such a thing. And 
I believe, regardless of what our feelings may be with reference to the 
native-born American citizens, that we need to be realistic about this 
thing and realize that the situation exists, and then try to see what the 
best solution is that we can find for it. 

Mr. Goldblatt. Congressman, may I ask you a question? From 
the reports of your committee, you have done a very good job and I 
have the highest esteem for the work that your committee has done — 
I think it has been splendid — do you, in your opinion, believe that 
there is a higher percentage of espionage, or rather of spies or saboteurs 
among the second-generation Japanese than there are, let us say, 
among the second-generation Germans in Yorkville, N. Y.? 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, the only thing I can go by is what seems 
to be the case thus far — we know that we have lost ground so far 
because of the espionage, the sabotage conducted by the Japanese 
whom we trusted to a certain extent in Hawaii. 

Mr. Goldblatt. But that is only because in the particular case 
that we are speaking of, in the case of Hawaii you had only a single 
one of those groups to deal with; in this case it was Japanese. 

Mr. Sparkman. I realize that is true. That is the reason I am 
arguing that we ought to face the situation realistically. 

Mr. Goldblatt. You are giving substance to the only argument I 
am trying to make and that is this: The reason that you think these 
Japanese ought to be evacuated is because they really knifed us in the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11185 

back with the help of local residents in Hawaii. Correct? All right. 
Mussolini and Hitler will arrange to see that we are knifed in the back 
by some local Italians. Then, people will ask you "Why don't you 
do the same with Italians and Germans here as you did with the 
Japanese?" And away we will go and what a merry-go-round that 
will be because it won't come out any place; it will just bog down. 

CONTINUES RECOMMENDATIONS OF LOCAL UNION 

We believe the efforts of the Federal Government should not be 
based on making distinctions by race, nationality, or citizenship. 
We favor a campaign that will detect sabotage no matter what its 
source and from which there will be no immunity by virtue of wealth, 
political connections, or position in society. 

We support the inclusion of aliens of enemy nationality from re- 
stricted military and strategic areas. We favor the speedy establish- 
ment of governmental machinery to provide for fair hearings and 
examination to expedite the segregation of anti-Facsist from Fascist 
elements. 

Something, I believe, has been mentioned here before on the 
Japanese question. We recognize that this problem falls within 
Federal jurisdiction and believe the Federal Government and military 
authorities should assume full responsibility in providing adequate 
safeguards for the Japanese, both alien and citizen. 

We urge protection of personal property and real property from 
seizure. It must be the obligation of the Federal Government to 
prevent land grabbing, raiding of homes or racketeering at the expense 
of the Japanese ana other aliens who are evacuated by military order. 

The Government should be responsible for providing humane treat- 
ment in the course of evacuation and for the settling of Japanese 
where they can perform useful work for the Nation. Under no cir- 
cumstances should families be broken up. This may be accomplished 
through the establishment of cooperative farms or placing Japanese 
in various industries. It is most important that Japanese, particu- 
larly the second-generation Japanese Americans, be given the fullest 
opportunity to demonstrate their loyalty to this Nation in the per- 
formance of useful work. 

No concentration camps or forced labor should be imposed upon 
Japanese or other aliens. Following their removal from military and 
strategic areas, tribunals should provide for examination and an 
opportunity to establish loyalty. Those Japanese who are enemy 
agents, or where there is reasonable doubt of their loyalty, should be 
interned and others should be accorded full civil liberties, the right 
of movement outside restricted areas, and the right to work and 
perform service to this country. 

The same principles apply — I will skip most of them. I should like 
to mention one point. In cases where aliens of enemy nationality 
must perform night work arrangements should be made either to 
switch them to day shifts or, where this is impossible, grant them per- 
mits to move to and from work during restricted hours. 

We also suggest in the case of certain aliens like Italian fishermen 
that there be speedy hearings because those men are vital for industry, 
to determine their loyalty and availability within the community. 



11186 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FRIENDLY ALIENS 

One other point we would like to stress before the committee, Mr. 
Tolan. There has been very widespread discrimination against aliens 
of friendly nations. We are referring to Norwegians, Chinese, and 
Latin Americans, in addition to very harsh discrimination against 
Filipinos, who, although not aliens are also not citizens, they are in 
this middle zone. These people are actually helping in the war. 
Lots of them are doing the fighting. We know the percentage of 
sacrifices they have made. These people are fighting; they are not 
being given a break in this country. 

We urge upon your committee to see to it that these people are 
given a break and allowed to contribute here locally. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Goldblatt. We will have your 
entire statement inserted in the record. If there is anything addi- 
tional that you want to insert in the record we will be glad to have it. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT OF LOUIS GOLDBLATT, SECRETARY-TREASURER OF 
THE CALIFORNIA STATE INDUSTRIAL UNION COUNCIL, CON- 
GRESS OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONS 

The attitude of the California State Industrial Union Council on the establish- 
ment of restriction governing the movements and work of aliens of enemy national- 
ity stems from the basic policies of the Congress of Industrial Organizations, 
which is committed to the speedy and successful prosecution of the war. The 
touchstone of this policy is the belief that democracy can wage an all-out war 
against the Axis Powers, and that the forces generated by a system of free govern- 
ment can and will triumph over fascism. 

As labor-union members we recognize the urgent need for discipline, responsi- 
bility, and loyalty by all the people in support of their Government in the conduct 
of the war. Labor organizations, perhaps more than other civic bodies, know the 
dangers and inadequacies of individual action in times of crisis. Consequently 
we support the relegation of matters dealing with sabotage and espionage to the 
proper Federal agencies. Regulation of Axis aliens is regarded in the same light. 

To say there is no danger of fifth-column activity by espionage or sabotage is to 
ignore criminally one of the most important lessons of this war. The collapse of 
many of the European countries is attributable in large part to the activities of 
enemy agents who assisted the Axis Powers by espionage, fifth-column work, and 
sabotage during the moments of great crisis. There are no facts to indicate this 
country will be immune to this type of attack. 

The California State Industrial Union Council endorses and'supports a policy 
of vigorous precautions against fifth-column activity. We urge a diligent, 
energetic campaign by Federal and military authorities to ferret out the enemy 
agents within our boundaries. We pledge our cooperation and assistance to this 
end. 

When the first restriction on movements and work of aliens of enemy nation- 
ality were issued, the California Congress of Industrial Organizations officially 
stated: 

"Because we are a democratic, liberty-loving nation, because our labor unions 
have been the most militant crusaders for the rights of all Americans, citizens and 
noncitizens, we regret any hardships which the Nation's crisis must inflict on these 
aliens of Axis extraction and their families. Yet it is for these very reasons that 
we must support the measures necessary to protect American freedom and what is 
left of world democracy against the tyrants and butchers of Tokyo, Berlin, and 
Rome. * * * Firmness must be matched with fairness, vigilance with good 
sense. The Congress of Industrial Organizations will support all the action 
necessary for a democratic victory ; it will be on guard to see that all these actions 
actually strengthen democracy and contribute to victory." 

We assumed that the exclusion of aliens of enemy nationality from specified 
military areas was based upon information in the hands of the Government and 
performed as part of a general program against fifth-column danger. Almost 



NATIONAL. DEFENSE MIGRATION 11187 

immediately following the initial moves against aliens of enemy nationality came 
a widespread campaign demanding the removal from coastal areas of all Japanese, 
whether alien or born in this country. The old flames of racial suspicion were 
fanned to full blaze. Publicity seekers spouted ill-considered and vigilante- 
inciting epithets against the Japanese born in this country. The Hearst press 
found new field for its rantings about the "yellow menace." Politicans saw a 
good occasion to garner publicity. Soon the wolf pack was in full cry. 

POSITION OF SECOND-GENERATION JAPANESE 

Let it be said that within this State there was heard but one voice of reason and 
understanding. It came from second-generation Japanese, some of them members 
of our unions. They proposed the evacuation of all Japanese, both alien and 
citizen. Their proposal did not come from agreement with those who were leading 
the pack. It rose out of a realization that the forces of hysteria and vigilantism 
had won out over decency and government. 

It is well that the Federal Government has stepped into this situation, because 
the problem is national in scope and because there has been convincing demon- 
stration that State and local authorises are not qualified to act in this matter. 
Most of our State and local officials, rather than standing as bastions of justice 
and equal protection under law, have joined the hue and cry against the Japanese 
native-born. In the light of these developments no choice remained for the 
thousands of loyal Americans of Japanese parentage but to agree to general 
evacuation. To remain was to invite lawlessness and mob violence, to become a 
source of constant irritation. 

As some of these Japanese express it: "We want to leave. Perhaps that is the 
greatest contribution we can make right now to the war. Maybe people will 
settle down to fighting the enemy instead of us and go after the real fifth colum- 
nists." At this reading these men and their families stand ready to comply with 
all recommendations and regulations established by the Federal Government. 
All they ask is fair treatment and a chance to show their loyalty and devotion 
to our Nation by contributing to and participating in the war effort. 

This entire episode of hysteria and mob chant against the native-born Japanese 
will form a dark page of American history. It may well appear as one of the 
great victories won by the Axis Powers. Surely it is a battle won by those 
isolationist and America First Committee forces who have labored since the out- 
break of hostilities to convert this into a war against the "yellow menace." 
They won this round. All of us who failed to speak in time contributed to this 
victory of the isolationist fifth column in America. 

PRESERVATION OF FREEDOM 

The words of Woodrow Wilson bear repetition: "Are we preserving freedom in 
this land of ours, the hope of all the earth? Have we, inheritors of this con- 
tinent and of the ideals to which the fathers consecrated it, have we maintained 
them, realizing them, as each generation must, anew? Are we, in the conscious- 
ness that the life of man is pledged to higher levels here than elsewhere, striving 
still to bear aloft the standards of liberty and hope; or, disillusioned and defeated, 
are we feeling the disgrace of having had a free field in which to do new things 
and of not having done them? 

"The answer must be, I am sure, that we have been in a fair way of failure — 
tragic failure. And we stand in danger of utter failure yet, except we fulfill 
speedily the determination we have reached, to deal with the new and subtile 
tyrannies according to their deserts. Don't deceive yourselves for a moment 
as to the power of the great interests which now dominate our development. 
They are so great that it is almost an open question whether the Government 
of the United States can dominate them or not. Go one step further, make 
their organized power permanent, and it may be too late to turn back. The 
roads diverge at the point where we stand." 

Yes, the roads diverge at the point where we stand. Shall the persecution 
and hounding of the Japanese be the mark of our future policy? Shall we follow 
in the footsteps of Hearst and turn our war effort into an illusory battle against 
the "yellow menace"? Shall we desert our Allies of the United Nations and 
desert the cause to which we have dedicated our work and our lives — the obliter- 
ation of world fascism? Shall the persecution of minorities rise in place of the 
standard of democracy? 



11188 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

If our treatment of the Japanese becomes the index of the future, we can readily 
foresee the course of America. Hitler and Mussolini will not hesitate to sacrifice 
the Italians and Germans in this country if it suits their policy of total war. 
New incidents will occur, in which Americans of Italian and German descent 
are involved. Then the fifth column in America will demand the evacuation 
of all Germans and Italians. 

And this is not the end. What of the other European nations that are coop- 
erating with the Axis Powers, some of which have declared war upon us? Austria, 
Rumania, Hungary, Finland, Bulgaria, Denmark — right down the list of Fascist 
satellite states. If we do not call a halt — and call it now — America will be a 
nation divided against itself. It will be an armed camp with half the population 
guarding the other half. 

AMERICAN UNITY 

No matter how great our resources, no matter how strong our manpower, this 
country of ours can never withstand the pressure of internal conflict arising out 
of this policy of hunting down saboteurs and spies by race, nationality, or creed. 

During a period of hysteria there are always those who think they can save their 
own skins by joining in the persecution of another minority group. When it comes 
their turn to be kicked around it is too late to reconsider. 

The great need of America is the unity of its people. Much damage has already 
been done to this unity by such practices as discrimination against Negroes and 
minority groups, the refusal of officeholders to drop their political bias and work 
for the general welfare, and the rejection by employers of all offers of labor cooper- 
ation. If to these is to be added a policy of demarcation of Americans by race 
and nationality, national unity will be nothing but a tragically empty phrase. 

The American emerged from a crucible into which had been poured people from 
all nations of the world. We are a nation of nationalities. Our system of govern- 
ment rests upon the civil liberties and freedom of all races, creeds, and colors 
within our boundaries. Out of the unity of these people has sprung our system 
of government. The inscription on the Statue of Liberty is as much a part of 
our American tradition as the Constitution and the Bill of Rights: 

"Give me your tired, your poor, 
Your huddled masses, yearning to breathe free, 

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore: 

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed, to me: 

I lift the lamp beside the golden door." 

We think it is a sacred obligation of all governmental officials whether city, 
State, or Federal, together with all right-thinking people, to join in a Nation-wide 
effort to put an end to this growing tide of hysteria against our foreign-born and 
the descendants of foreign-born. 

If this is not done the consequences that will accrue are now visible in outline. 

First, a growing campaign to sidetrack the war effort of this Nation from an 
all-out fight against fascism, whether it be the Berlin, Rome, or Tokyo brand, to a 
war against the so-called yellow menace. If this effort of the Hearst press and 
fifth columnists is successful, America will fall prey to the well-known policy of 
Fascist nations. Divide the anti-Fascists of the world and pick them off one by 
one. America will then either fall in turn or be forced to deal with the Nazis 
on their own terms. This may be part of the negotiated peace plans of America 
First and Hearst, but it is not part of the pattern of life of the American people 
or their Government. 

Second, if this campaign against racial and national minorities continues, the 
people of America will be thrown off guard in their fight against the espionage 
and sabotage conducted by many other groups. They will be given the impres- 
sion that security lies in the evacuation of the Japanese and thereby fall prey to 
the activities of other dangerous elements. Time may well show that among those 
who yell most loudly for the evacuation and hounding of the Japanese are fifth- 
column elements who are quietly going about their work under the smoke screen 
of protective hysteria. 

Third, discrimination against races and nationalities will ultimately end in 
race riots, national antagonisms, bitterness, and hatred. An ill-considered policy 
will convert loyal Americans into fifth columnists. The Nation will be divided 
against itself and exhausted in internal wrangling. 

We make the following recommendations: 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11189 

ANTISABOTAGE AND ANTIESPIONAGE 

1. The Congress of Industrial Organizations stands ready and willing to give its 
full cooperation to the proper Federal agencies in their efforts to detect sabotage 
and espionage and provide safeguards against these dangers. 

2. We believe the efforts of the Federal Government should not be based on 
making distinctions by race, nationality, or citizenship. We factor a campaign 
that will detect sabotage no matter what its source and from which there will be 
no immunity by virtue of wealth, political connections, or position in society. 

3. We support the exclusion of aliens of enemy nationality from restricted 
military and strategic areas. We favor the speedy establishment of governmental 
machinery to provide for fair hearings and examination to expedite the segrega- 
tion of anti-Fascist from Fascist elements. 

THE JAPANESE QUESTION 

1. We recognize this problem falls within Federal jurisdiction and believe the 
Federal Government and military authorities should assume full responsibility 
in providing adequate safeguards for the Japanese, both alien and citizen. 

2. We urge protection of personal property and real property from seizure. 
It must be the obligation of the Federal Government to prevent land grabbing, 
raiding of homes, or racketeering at the expense of the Japanese and other aliens 
who are evacuated by military order. 

3. The Government should be responsible for providing humane treatment in 
the course of evacuation and for the settling of Japanese where they can perform 
useful work for the Nation. Under no circumstances should families be broken 
up. This may be accomplished through the establishment of cooperative farms 
or placing Japanese in various industries. It is most important that Japanese 
particularly the second-generation Japanese-Americans, be given the fullest 
opportunity to demonstrate their loyalty to this Nation in the performance of 
useful work. 

4. No concentration camps or forced labor should be imposed upon Japanese 
or other aliens. Following their removal from military and strategic areas, 
tribunals should provide for examination and an opportunity to establish loyalty. 
Those Japanese who are enemy agents, or where there is reasonable doubt of 
their loyalty, should be interned and others should be accorded full civil liberties, 
the right of movement outside restricted areas, and the right to work and perform 
service to this country. 

5. The Federal Government should assume the obligation of fair treatment 
and protection against vigilantism for the Japanese aliens and citizens following 
their evacuation and resettlement in other parts of the country. 

OTHER ALIENS OF ENEMY NATIONALITY 

1. The same principles governing evacuation cited above should be applied. 

2. After the evacuation, hearings should be provided so that those who can 
demonstrate loyalty and good citizenship may return to their present employ- 
ment. . .,. 

3. In cases of specific groups, such as fishermen, where evacuation will cause 
severe dislocation in a vital industry, provision should be made for immediate 
hearings, so that those who can demonstrate their reliability can continue to 
work. 

4. In cases where aliens of enemy nationality must perform night work, ar- 
rangements should be made either to switch them to day shifts or, where this is 
impossible, grant them permits to move to and from work during restricted 
hours. 

5. Consideration should be given to special treatment of hardship cases 
among aliens of enemy nationality, which will permit invalids or aged and infirm 
persons to live with members of their immediate families who are American 
citizens, even though such residence be in a restricted area. 

ALIENS OP FRIENDLY NATIONALITY 

Discrimination against aliens of friendly nations, such as Norwegians, Chinese, 
Latin Americans, etc., should be ended at once. They should be given full work 
opportunities in all industries. 



11190 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The Chairman. We will take a 5-minute recess. (A short recess 
was taken.) 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. 

Mr. Thompson is the next witness. Step right up, Mr. Thompson. 

TESTIMONY OF J. MURRAY THOMPSON, CHIEF, ECONOMIC SEC- 
TION, WESTERN DIVISION, AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT AD- 
MINISTRATION, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL- 
TURE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Arnold. You are Mr. Murray Thompson, representative of 
the Department of Agriculture? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. You have been designated by the Department on the 
West coast to deal with the problems of enemy aliens in agriculture 
since some time late in January? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. We have a few questions here, Mr. Thompson. 
Would you please detail for the committee what your activities 
have been and what your responsibilities and functions are on the 
West coast? 

EFFECT ON AGRICULTURE OF DELAY IN EVACUATION PLANS 

Mr. Thompson. Well, I came out here early in January with two 
representatives of the Treasury Department to survey this situation. 
After a week we returned to Washington and reported considerable 
uncertainty in agricultural areas as to whether they should go ahead 
with their production or not. There was a certain amount of fear, 
on the part of the public, from sabotage, and we recommended that 
as soon as possible very definite plans be made for any evacuations 
that might be needed. From the agricultural point of view we ex- 
plained that the sooner these were made and the more carefully they 
were worked out the more production we would have for our "food 
for freedom" program. 

Mr. Arnold. In other words, it is very essential that these decisions 
be made as early as possible in order that arrangements for planting 
may go ahead before the season is advanced too far? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. Of course, we wish to point out 
that the military reasons are the sole reasons for determining any 
areas to be designated and are the primary reasons to consider in 
picking the locations to which they should go. But whatever is 
done will have some effect on agricultural production. We are just 
trying to hold ourselves in readiness to do whatever we can to assist 
the Army and the Department of Justice and Social Security and the 
farmers so that we will have as much production, particularly vegetable 
production, as possible in 1942. 

Mr. Arnold. Does your Department of Agriculture have any 
plans for resettling evacuees? 

Mr. Thompson. No; we have discussed it somewhat with General 
DeWitt. 

Mr. Arnold. You are cooperating in the matter? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11191 

Mr. Thompson. Yes, and also with Mr. Clark. But we have 
no definite plans because we feel under the orders that have been 
given it is not quite our job to make those arrangements. 

Mr. Arnold. Are you with the Farm Security Administration? 

Mr. Thompson. No, sir. Of course, we have no enemy alien 
units in the Department of Agriculture. My regular work is in the 
A. A. A. 

Mr. Arnold. Well, what function will the Farm Security Adminis- 
tration play in the evacuation of these people? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, they have indicated that they want to do 
everything they can to help us. As your committee knows, these 
mobile farm labor camps are very important in the ordinary course of 
our agricultural production. It is hoped that they may continue their 
normal use, if possible, but they will do anything that they can to help. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you been in conversation with or made any 
arrangements with the Federal Security agencies or the W. P. A. on 
how evacuation should take place? 

Mr. Thompson. No. We have discussed it informally and offered 
our services to assist in locating any areas that might be suitable for 
agriculture and to also furnish information regarding the needs for 
agricultural labor in various areas. 

Mr. Arnold. With what agricultural groups have you worked most 
closely since you have been on the coast and in what areas? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, of course, I have worked most closely with 
the California Agricultural War Board which is made up of repre- 
sentatives of the Department of Agriculture from the various agencies. 
I have worked with some of the county war boards and some individual 
farmers. 

Mr. Arnold. What plans have been made for the use of the 
evacuees in the agriculture of California? Was there any plan made 
to put them in other areas? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, there again we feel all we can do is discuss it 
until the Secretary of War makes his next decision. 

Mr. Arnold. I guess you could answer these questions better a 
week from now than you could today? 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you expect that housing will have to be provided 
for evacuees? 

• Mr. Thompson. That, of course, depends upon the number. 
Under the present number that have been evacuated there have been 
no difficulties, but if we start talking in terms of 20,000 and above, 
I think we will have to furnish some housing. 

DESIRABLE WAGE POLICIES 

Mr. Arnold. What wage policy does the Department believe will 
be desirable in the employment of evacuees? 

Mr. Thompson. If we should set up some camps, say, in some 
interior points and permit these people to hire out as agricultural wage 
earners we believe that they should be paid the going wage. It 
might be possible to use a part of that wage for their keep and care, 
thereby decreasing the expense to the Government. 



11192 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. What has been the response of agricultural employers 
in California to the proposal that evacuees be used in California 
agriculture? 

Mr. Thompson. It has been a very mixed response. Some groups 
don't want any of them around, and other individuals have beema 
very desirous of keeping their present labor and have indicated that 
they could use more if they were under proper supervision so as to 
avoid any possibility of sabotage and so as to convince the public 
that it was safe to have them in their area. 

Mr. Arnold. What groups of agriculture in the State have been 
especially cooperative? 

Mr. Thompson. They have all cooperated as citizens in their desire 
to keep the country safe in a military way. 

Mr. Arnold. Well, one more question, and you might want to 
enlarge on it. 

What provision has the Department made in order that the lands 
previously operated by Japanese will be continued in production this 
year if their owners or operators are evacuated? 

AGRICULTURAL WAR BOARDS 

Mr. Thompson. We have in each county an agricultural war board 
which will consider this problem whenever the number of evacuees in 
that county is sufficient to require any special attention. If necessary, 
we will assign certain people to that work as a full-time proposition 
in order to help others farm the land and learn how to grow the crops 
and help others find labor when they need it. We have certain labor 
committees in each county also that are set up for that purpose. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you anticipate that sufficient labor can be had to 
replace a large number of evacuees? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, we anticipate a shortage of agricultural labor 
in California this coining summer. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have. 

The Chairman. Dr. Lamb? 

Dr. Lamb. Mr. Thompson, I would like to ask you about two 
things which you said. 

The first is on your statement about paying part of this money for 
their keep. Do you contemplate that these evacuees will be wards of 
the Federal Government? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, that all depends on what happens. That 
was just one possibility. 

Dr. Lamb. And what do you mean by the use of the word 
"supervision"? 

supervision of evacuees 

Mr. Thompson. Well, I believe that in most areas if any large 
groups are evacuated the people in that area are going to expect 
supervision of these people of some nature so that they will feel that 
it is safe to have them in that area, and they will feel also that the 
people who have been evacuated to that area will be safe. 

Dr. Lamb. If the President's Executive order means what it seems 
to, these evacuees will include citizens. Do you contemplate that the 
supervision will be military? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11193 

Mr. Thompson. That is up to the Secretary of War. 

Dr. Lamb. What do the farmers in these areas seem to want? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, 6 weeks or 2 months ago this supervision 
might not have had to be too formal, but now there are certain areas, 
I believe, that would take very obvious supervision to convince the 
people. 

Dr. Lamb. In your opinion, would it be a good idea to have the 
evacuees located in those areas where such supervision would be 
necessary? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, that is a good question. From our point of 
view we would like — if it is safe from the military point of vievv — to 
see some productive work obtained from these people. 

Dr. Lamb. Wouldn't it be better to have other workers perform the 
labor in those areas rather than to subject the area to the atmosphere 
of tension that you imply? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, that depends upon the supervision. I 
haven't outlined in detail as to how much tension there would be. 

Dr. Lamb. There would be quite a lot? 

Mr. Thompson. If you take a lot of these people in any of these 
areas there is going to be tension whether there is supervision or not. 
I think there would be less tension if there is supervision. 

JAPANESE AGRICULTURAL WORKERS 

Dr. Lamb. But you are in favor of the location of agricultural 
workers. 

Have you any estimates of what proportion of the Japanese popula- 
tion are experienced in agriculture? 

Mr. Thompson. Oh, roughly a third in this State. 

Dr. Lamb. About a third? 

Mr. Thompson. I mean that a third of the population of Japanese 
in the State live on farms. 

Dr. Lamb. Yes, so that for the two-thirds who would be evacuated 
from nonfarm areas you would advocate locating in farm areas, work- 
ing as agricultural workers under supervision? 

Mr. Thompson. Well, if it is possible to draw such fine distinctions. 
Of course, the agricultural people who are experienced in agriculture 
would be much better as agricultural workers. 

Dr. Lamb. Well, I am only drawing the fine distinction, for example, 
with reference to the possible labor supply which these people repre- 
sent. 

Mr. Thompson. That is right. 

Dr. Lamb. Would they be more profitable as workers in agriculture 
if they were hitherto experienced in agriculture or would they be more 
valuable if they were used in some other capacity? 

Mr. Thompson. You are talking about the ones who have had no 
experience in agriculture? 

Dr. Lamb. Yes. 

Mr. Thompson. I couldn't answer as to where their service would 
be most valuable. They would certainly not be nearly as valuable 
to agriculture as those who have had experience in agriculture. 

Dr. Lamb. I asked because there seems to be a disposition in some 
quarters to find the logical solution for evacuation in the location of 



11194 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

agricultural camps under military supervision, and all the workers 
who are evacuated, whether they have had previous experience in 
agriculture or not, would be put into such camps. 

I wondered if that would be your view? 

Mr. Thompson. There would be some problems if you tried to make 
everybody, regardless of his experience, become an agricultural 
worker. 

Dr. Lamb. That is all. 

Mr. Thompson. I offer this document in evidence. 

(The statement referred to is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY J. MURRAY THOMPSON, CHIEF, ECONOMIC SEC- 
TION, WESTERN DIVISION, AGRICULTURAL ADJUSTMENT AD- 
MINISTRATION, SAN FRANCSICO, CALIF. 

The Agricultural Aspects of the Evacuation of Enemy Aliens 

Representatives of the Department of Agriculture have offered their assistance 
to Army and Justice Department authorities in this evacuation problem on the 
Pacific coast because of our interest in a large production of food, however, it is 
evident without saying that military factors should be the sole basis for the deter- 
mination of areas to be evacuated and the primary consideration in the choice 
of places in which the evacuees are permitted to locate. The "food for freedom" 
program of the Department of Agriculture is attempting to reach large 1942 pro- 
duction goals of the many crops that are vital to the conduct of this war. Vege- 
tables or truck crops are among the important items in this production program 
and California produces far more than any other State. The enemy aliens and 
Japanese- American citizens have been an important factor in California vegetable 
production. However, we in agriculture will strive to maintain as much produc- 
tion as possible even though, for military reasons, a large number of these people 
are moved from the areas of their normal farming operations. 

In this connection it should be emphasized that the earlier the Secretary of 
War, and others that may assist him, complete the arrangements for the neces- 
sary evacuations, the more vegetables will be grown in 1942. In many areas 
California farmers are now engaged in farming operations in preparation for and 
production of this year's vegetable crops. Large operators, both American and 
Japanese, who depend upon Japanese labor, and Japanese operators who use 
family labor are hesitating to proceed with normal farming operations because of 
the fear that they may not be able to harvest their crops. The prospective over-all 
labor shortage in California will, no doubt, also cause some farmers to switch from 
vegetables and other crops requiring large amounts of labor to those with smaller 
labor requirements. If a large number of Japanese are removed from vegetable 
production, some farmers, if they have access to enough "stoop" labor, will attempt 
to grow more vegetables in the expectation of a higher return, and at the same time 
assist in meeting the vegetable production goals. The Department of Agriculture 
will, of course, assist these farmers. 

This assistance will be furnished by our agricultural war boards made up of 
representatives of the various agencies of the Department in each State and 
county. If necessary, we are prepared to take additional steps in order to keep 
farm land from remaining idle. This work will include aid to farmers looking for 
land or labor and also advice to alien property custodians in their efforts to 
properly handle the farm land and equipment formerly controlled by enemy 
aliens. 

Because of the many remaining uncertainties, it is impossible to estimate the 
amount of loss of vegetable acreage or production that will result from the evacu- 
ation of enemy aliens and Japanese-American citizens from various areas in 
California; however, some indication of the problem may be gained by a know- 
ledge of the essential figures involved. In 1941, California-grown truck crops for 
fresh market had a value of $85,000,000, or 32 percent of the total for the country, 
and for the same year California truck crops for processing had a value of 
$14,000,000, or 15 percent of the United States total. The value per acre of 
truck crops in California far exceeds that for the other States; in terms of acres 
alone, California had only 13 percent of the United States 1941 truck-crop acreage 
for market and 9 percent of the acreage for processing. After a review, crop by 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11195 

crop and county by county, with the Federal-State statistician and others, it has 
been estimated that enemy aliens and Japanese-American citizens produced about 
200,000 acres of vegetables in 1940, or about 40 percent of the California vegetable 
acreage. In some commodities, such as snap beans, cauliflower, celery, peppers, 
spinach, strawberries, and tomatoes, these groups farm over 50 percent of the 
State acreage. It appears most likely that the removal of these people from their 
farms in the near future will cause a material reduction in the acreage of certain 
crops requiring special care and unusual amounts of hand labor, such as celery, 
peppers, spinach, and strawberries. It is obvious that interference with the 
production of such items should not be allowed to influence the decision as to the 
necessity for evacuation or removal of any persons for military reasons. 

In order to avoid confusion and minimize the loss of productive effort, it is 
desirable that the supervision and location of all people moved be carefully 
planned. If military safety permits, we should attempt to avoid the loss of the 
agricultural labor of these enemy aliens and any citizens who may be moved. It 
has been suggested that many of them could be resettled on land at some interior 
points under military or police supervision. A careful survey might loeate 
certain areas with soil and other facilities suitable for vegetable production, but 
it may be that such agricultural areas cannot be located in which large groups 
could be resettled quickly. A more practical solution might consist in the 
location of those with agricultural experience in camps in areas that would be 
safe from a military standpoint, but would be accessible to areas requiring agri- 
cultural labor, particularly "stoop" labor. These evacuees could, under proper 
supervision, be hired in groups at the going wage. They could migrate at various 
seasons in accordance with the labor needs of the different areas, again under the 
necessary supervision and control. By furnishing this labor in militarily safe 
areas, they might free some Filipino and Mexican labor for farms located in the 
more strategic military areas. A part of the earnings of these evacuees could be 
applied to the cost of the camps and thus decrease the expense to the Government. 

In summarizing, we in agriculture wish to emphasize strongly that after con- 
sideration of the need for military safety and the prevention of sabotage, it is 
highly desirable that early and definite plans and procedures be developed for 
the prospective evacuation, so that a minimum of confusion, unused labor, and 
loss of production will occur. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Thompson. We ap- 
preciate your coming here. 

Dr. Reagor, Mr. Fisher, Reverend Chapman, Reverend Smith, Mr. 
James. 

Will you introduce yourselves for the convenience of the reporter? 

Reverend Chapman. Gordon K. Chapman, in charge of the Pres- 
byterian Japanese work on the Pacific coast. 

Mr. Fisher. Galen M. Fisher, adviser to the Institute of Pacific 
Relations and secretary of the Committee on National Security and 
Fail - Play. 

Reverend Smith. Frank Herron Smith, in charge of the Methodist 
Japanese missions west of the Mississippi River. 

Dr. R.eagor. W. P. Reagor, pastor of the First Christian Church of 
Oakland and president of the California Council of Churches. 

Mr. James. William C. James, businessman from Berkeley, also 
clerk of the religious Society of Friends of Berkeley. 

The Chairman. Dr. Reagor, I think wejwill hear you first. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. W. P. REAGOR, PASTOR, FIRST CHRISTIAN 
CHURCH OF OAKLAND, AND PRESIDENT, CALIFORNIA COUNCIL 
OF CHURCHES, OAKLAND, CALIF. 

Dr. Reagor. I have prepared my statement, Mr. Tolan. With 
your permission I will read it. 
The Chairman. Proceed. 

60396— 42— pt. 29 16 



11196 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Dr. Reagor [reading]: As Christians and as Americans, we are 
gratefully pleased at the treatment which has been accorded to the 
enemy aliens up to date. The F. B. I. has been thorough and pains- 
taking in investigations, but it has" been uniformly gentlemanly in its 
conduct. We have not heard of a single case of roughness. We have 
been constantly represented at the Silver Avenue Immigration Station. 
The treatment there has been generous and considerate. One of our 
ministers spent 5 days at the Missoula camp. In spite of the fact that 
there are 1,000 Italians and 650 Japanese within rather narrow 
confines, the morale is excellent. 

The Chairman (interrupting). Right there, Doctor, Missoula, 
Mont.? 

Dr. Reagor. Yes. 

The management seems to be wise, practical, and kindly. We 
believe no other nation today furnishes more boards of hearings to 
assist aliens. Our boards are made up of our best citizens, who are 
freely giving their time to these investigations that none may be 
unjustly nor unnecessarily detained. The representatives from the 
Social Security Board are located in every section where aliens must 
be evacuated. They, too, have proven to be capable, sympathetic, 
and constant in their endeavor to assist those who must move. We 
are grateful for the way in which America has been managing these 
difficult problems. 

SELECTIVE EVACUATION 

We believe that the method of selective evacuation ought to be 
continued under properly constituted authority rather than the 
acceptance of the policy of mass evacuation which has been proposed, 
and for the following reasons: 

First, the primary objective is that of the defense of our country 
from attack from within. Most certainly there is a danger. There 
are enemies within our gates. And we believe that properly con- 
stituted authorities, particularly the F. B. I., are capable of handling 
this problem, for most certainly it does represent a minority of aliens 
who are involved, and that no such severe measure as mass evacuation 
is necessary to protect our Nation from the dangers within. 

Second, there is another objective which is before us. We need to 
think not only of the protection of our country, but of building a 
spirit of friendship and good will toward our Nation for the sake of 
the future. There are undoubtedly large numbers of Japanese, both 
aliens and American citizens, who are loyal to this country and who 
deeply deplore the tragedy of our conflict. Undoubtedly, most of our 
Japanese Christians are to be placed in this category. [Reading ends.] 

DECLARATION OF LOYALTY 

I would like to present this statement here now. It is a declaration 
recently made by a group of Japanese Christians and signed by 
1,400. I would like to read that statement, Mr. Tolan. I think it 
is very significant. I have here approximately 1,400 signatures to 
this statement which have been gathered from Japanese Christian 
churches in northern California. These are all aliens, by the way. 
[Reading:] 

We, the undersigned, subjects of Japan, do hereby solemnly declare that we 
shall do nothing whatever either to aid the belligerent activities of Japan against 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11197 

the United States, or to impede the military and other activities of the United 
States and the State of California. 

We further declare our deep appreciation of the security, justice, and freedom 
of faith and life vouchsafed to us by the laws and authorities of this Nation and 
State. 

There are 1,400 of these signatures here. 

To continue, it would seem to be a policy of wise statesmanship to 
seek to preserve large bodies of friendly support, not only for the 
present, but for the future as well. We can do that by refraining 
from the policy of indiscriminate mass evacuation 

Third, I do not see how the Japanese could well be evacuated with- 
out taking the Germans and the Italians. It has been reported that 
the most dangerous individuals so far to be discovered are not Jap- 
anese. It would seem to be an impossibility to move the nationals of 
these three countries. If the Japanese alone are removed, the unfavor- 
able reaction in the Orient would be tremendous. Several thousand 
Americans are in Japanese control in the Far East and would be sub- 
ject to reprisal. We would seem to the Japanese to be doing what 
Germany does to the Jews and to the other European peoples. 

Fourth, evacuating indiscriminately citizen Japanese would greatly 
snake their faith in America. We find almost all of these second 
generation young people, and particularly the Christian group 
pathetically anxious to serve America and help us win this war. 
They have no use and no sympathy for European dictators, nor for 
the military party of Japan. Would it not be the part of wisdom 
in America to help develop this spirit, and to build in their hearts 
now a deeper loyalty for this country? 

Finally, we pledge the Protestant churches of the State of Cali- 
fornia the utmost cooperation to the national committee and to all of 
the forces in authority in the solution of this problem. We realize 
that it is pressing and important. Our only anxiety is that it shall be 
conducted in a true American spirit, thus seeking not only to defend 
this country, but to protect likewise, and to defend the things for 
which we stand, even in the midst of war. 

The Chairman. Well, thank you, Doctor. 

TESTIMONY OF GALEN M. FISHER, ADVISER TO THE INSTITUTE 
OF PACIFIC RELATIONS AND SECRETARY TO THE COMMITTEE 
ON NATIONAL SECURITY AND FAIR PLAY, 260 CALIFORNIA 
STREET, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

The Chairman. Mr. Fisher, I notice in your statement that no 
satisfactory plan for settling evacuees in large numbers has yet been 
made. 

Has your organization any suggestions for settling or supervising 
evacuees? 

Mr. Fisher. One of the plans that has come to my attention is that 
made by a number of graduates in agriculture — Japanese-American 
citizens — which is entitled "Cooperative Farm Project for Alien 
Resettlement." It has been submitted to a number of the agricultural 
authorities, both Federal and State, as well as to other authorities, 
and has met with their invariable approval. I will not here recount 
its details. 



11198 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

The Chairman. Yes. Well, I would like to have you give it to 
the reporter, though, and mark it as an exhibit. Can you leave it 
with us? 

Mr. Fisher. I will, yes. 1 

INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS 

The Chairman. You belong to the Institute of Pacific Relations? 

Mr. Fisher. Yes. 

The Chairman. What is that? 

Mr. Fisher. That is an international body comprising 11 national 
groups— Great Britain, Canada, United States, China, Japan, the 
Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, and, now inactively, France, the 
Netherlands and Russia. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Fisher. Those 11 groups have maintained for the last 17 years, 
under the lead of President Wilbur, of Stanford University, who is now 
the international chairman, a series of studies and conferences, which 
have had very wide circulation and use by publicists, journalists, 
educators, and social leaders. The Pacific area and its economic, 
political, and social problems constitute the field of study. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Fisher. I am not speaking for that body today, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. No, I know, but you are connected. I notice 
from your statement that you do not think that many of the Japanese 
evacuees will be suited for farm work. 

Mr. Fisher. I said that a considerable minority would not be be- 
cause they are residents of the cities. I should guess that about 
one-half of the Japanese city dwellers, and that means about one-fourth 
of the total Japanese population in the State, would not be well suited 
to agriculture. 

The Chairman. Do you care to express any opinion as to the public 
feeling at the present time against enemy aliens? 

Mr. Fisher. I think that a large part of it has been whipped up by 
interested parties who are not thinking primarily of the national secur- 
ity and winning the war but are thinking of group interests or individ- 
ual interests. On the other hand, I would not impugn the sincerity 
of a number of others who believe that only by large mass evacuation 
can the State and the Nation be protected, but I think that a great 
many have not thought it through. As Mr. Neustadt and others have 
testified, and as Mr. Clark and others have implied today, it is prac- 
tically impossible to resettle such large populations as, say 90,000 
Japanese and the 200,000 and more Germans and Italians, supposing 
they were embraced in the same plan. 

The Chairman. Now, you have a statement, haven't you? 

Mr. Fisher. I have. 

The Chairman. It will be inserted in the record in full. 

Mr. Fisher. I offer the document in evidence. 

(Statement referred to above is as follows:) 

J See p. 11097. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11199 

STATEMENT OF GALEN M. FISHER, ADVISOR TO THE INSTITUTE 
OF PACIFIC RELATIONS AND SECRETARY TO THE COMMITTEE 
ON NATIONAL SECURITY AND FAIR PLAY, SAN FRANCISCO, 

CALIF. 

I, Basic Position 

I fully accept as our paramount aim: Win the war — maintain national security. 
Therefore, I approve any measures for control of either aliens or citizens that 
may be required to achieve these ends, in line with the President's proclamation 
of February 20. 

But I am convinced that the sweeping evacuation of Japanese residents, whether 
aliens or citizens, would hinder, not help, the attainment of these ends. Removal 
of persons of any race or nationality should be confined to such as special investi- 
gation shows to be dangerous or decidedly suspicious. Identification cards, 
fingerprinting and photographs are all desirable. 

II. Some Reasons for the Foregoing Position 

1. The huge numbers involved make sweeping evacuation impracticable. Mr. 
Neustadt's testimony seemed to me to imply this. There are in California over 
90,000 Japanese residents alone, not to mention the much larger numbers of 
Germans and Italians. 

2. No definite plans have been made by any Government department for 
settling or supervising large numbers of evacuees. The most specific plan I have 
heard of is that proposed by several Japanese-American citizens, graduates in 
agriculture, for establishing farm cooperatives, but that would require huge 
Government loans to accommodate the 50,000 rural Japanese resident population, 
and would not care for the many city dwellers who are unsuited to agriculture. 

3. Some two-thirds — over 60,000 — -of the Japanese in California are American 
citizens. Very few of them are dangerous, if we may judge by the fact that during 
December only 2 or 3 of them were detained by the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation, and I have not heard of many more being detained since them. Evidently, 
the few who are found to be dangerous can be interned, without disturbing the 
large majority. 

4. Several "thousand citizens of Japanese parentage are serving in our armed 
forces. Keeping their morale high is desirable for military efficiency; but to 
evacuate their families, or even their alien parents alone, would impair their 
morale and breed disaffection among the whole body of Japanese-American 
citizens. 

5. Any organized and extensive fifth-column activity by residents of Japanese 
stock would presumably have to be led by experienced alien Japanese. Most of 
the natural leaders have already been detained, and others can be, without 
evacuating the thousands of rank and file Japanese. 

6. Harsh treatment of the Japanese residents will give the military rulers of 
Japan the finest sort of propaganda to support their claim to be "the protectors 
and deliverers of the colored races of Asia from the arrogant and race-biased 
white nations." The Nazis have already made much of our maltreatment of the 
Negro. If we violate in any degree the equal rights of our fellow citizens of Jap- 
anese stock, we mock our pretensions of fighting to defend democracy. 

7. Since we are confident of winning the war, the Japanese residents are a 
possible menace to our national security only during the war. Upon the coming 
of peace, we shall presumably wish them to continue as heretofore to take their 
place in our general life. If, however, we isolate them and give them cause to 
resent unnecessary discriminations imposed during the war, then they will not 
fit smoothly into our national life, but will present another acute race problem. 

8. Our citizens of Japanese parentage are just as trustworthy now as they were 
a few weeks ago when Governor Olson and other publicists paid tribute to their 
loyalty and civic devotion. Has the set-back given to the Allied arms by the 
military machine of Japan made our political leaders in State, county, and munici- 
pality play the bully and turn against our Japanese citizens as scapegoats for 
the remote culprits, in Japan, whom our Japanese-American citizens have re- 
peatedly denounced? Like many other Americans who have long known hundreds 
of Japanese, I would testify that among their most marked traits are loyalty and 
gratitude. I strongly believe that the Nisei citizens will, with few exceptions, be 
as loyal to the United States as any other group of citizens. The exceptions 
are likely to be found chiefly among the Kibei, or American-born Japanese who 



11200 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

are sent to Japan for their schooling, especially those who go before they have 
finished grammar and high school here. The Kibei, however, are reliably esti- 
mated to number less than a quarter of the total of the Nisei. 

9. In connection with the whole question of citizens of Japanese stock, I wish 
to testify to the great service to our Nation already rendered by the Japanese- 
American Citizens' League. It is the only inclusive organization touching the 
Nisei and it can be of great value in maintaining their undivided loyalty to the 
United States. 

10. Little evidence pointing to fifth-column activity seems yet to have been 
discovered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation or the naval and military 
intelligence, although they have been hunting hard to find it. A high military 
authority recently told me that he took no stock in the alarmist predictions that 
fifth-columnists in California were only waiting for the ides of March. I hope 
that our intelligence services will not relax for a moment their vigilance, but I 
also hope that a panicky public will not try to stampede our military and judicial 
authorities into evacuating thousands or tens of thousands of people, in order to 
avert a possible danger than can probably be averted by evacuating a few hundreds. 
In all the clamor about the Japanese residents, it may be that we are overlooking 
a greater menace in the form of the Nazi partisans in our midst. The Japanese 
spies and saboteurs can be much more easily spotted because of their color and 
physiognomy than can Nazi or Italian plotters. 

Galen M. Fisher is a native of Oakland, Calif., a brother of Ralph T. Fisher, 
of the American Trust Co. He is adviser to the Institute of Pacific Relations, 
of which President Ray Lyman Wilbur is chairman, and President Robert G. 
Sproul is a vice chairman ; research associate in the department of political science 
in the University of California; secretary of the Committee on National Security 
and Fair Play, of which Dr. Henry F. Grady (president of American President 
Lines) is chairman, and among the vice chairmen are Gen. David P. Barrows, 
Alfred J. Lundberg, F. J. Koster, Maurice Harrison, and Presidents Sproul and 
Wilbur; formerly, executive secretary for 12 years of the Rockefeller Institute of 
Social and Religious Research, New York, and before that, for 21 years senior 
secretary in Japan of the international committee of the Y. M. C. A. 

Exhibit A. — Press Release by Northern California Committee on Fair 
Play for Citizens and Aliens of Japanese Ancestry, December 29, 
1941 

Gov. Culbert L. Olson, honorary chairman; Gen. David P. Barrows, chairman; 
Frederick J. Koster, Alfred J. Lundberg, Joseph S. Thompson, Monroe E. 
Deutsch, J. Hugh Jackson, Aurelia Henry Reinhardt, Robert Gordon Sproul, 
Ray Lyman Wilbur, Frank S. Gaines, Richard R. Perkins, James K. Fisk, 
George G. Kidwell, George Wilson, Mrs. Wallace Alexander, Mrs. Robert 
McWilliams, Mrs. Duncan Robinson, Mrs. Agnes Morley Cleaveland, Karl 
Morgan Block, Benjamin W. Black, Chauncey Leake, Chester H. Rowell, 
Arthur Cushman McGiffert, Irving S. Reichert, J. S. Curran, Ralph T. Fisher, 
C. C. Young, Gerald H. Hagar, vice chairman; Galen M. Fisher, secretary of 
committee. 

RESIDENT JAPANESE SINCE OUTBREAK OF WAR WITH JAPAN 

The central objective of our Committee on Fair Play has been supported by 
the California public, even under the stress of Japan's treacherous attack. Cali- 
fornians have kept their heads. There have been few if any serious denials of 
civil rights to either aliens or citizens of Japanese race, on account of the war. 
The American tradition of fair play has been observed. 

We also have three other reasons for satisfaction : 

1. All the organs of public influence and information — press, pulpit, school, 
welfare agencies, radio, and cinema — have discouraged mob violence and have 
pleaded for tolerance and justice for all law-abiding residents of whatever race. 
Governor Clson [Aid Attorney General Biddle have issued proclamations to the 
same end. 

2. Federal and local officials charged with maintaining order and suppressing 
subversive activities have shown both vigor and sympathetic consideration in 
the fulfillment of their duty. 

3. Private civic agencies have acted promptly to handle the many difficulties 
encountered by Japanese residents on account of necessary wartime restrictions 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11201 

on persons and property, and also to interpret to the public and to the aliens 
affected the sometimes sweeping and technical Government regulations. 

College students of Japanese ancestry, anxious to return to distant homes at 
the close of the semester, were confronted by restrictions on travel and funds. 
The International House in Berkeley quickly led the way in overcoming these 
obstacles. The immigrant and family welfare agencies associated with the com- 
munity chest in San Francisco grappled with the problems of other Japanese. 
The Council of .Social Agencies in Berkeley appointed a special committee, and 
Oakland Community Chest designated the International Institute to act in the 
same capacity. In all these groups officers and members of the Committee on 
Fair Play took an active part. 

We now urge that members of the Committee on Fair Play, who live in other 
northern California cities having numbers of Japanese residents, bring about the 
formation of similar committees of consultation, or make sure that existing 
agencies are meeting the need. The function of such committees is twofold: 
To give counsel and relief to the Japanese residents at a time when many of the 
Japanese-language papers on which they have depended for information have 
been suppressed; and to utilize all local channels of publicity to make known the 
following authentic information: 

1. All law-abiding aliens who have lived in the United States continuously 
since June 17, 1940 may transact financial and other business as before the war 
and any citizen is free to employ them or deal with them. 

2. Needy aliens are entitled to assistance from county relief funds on the same 
basis as are citizens. 

3. Unemployed aliens and naturalized citizens may register with the State 
employment department. Those who have paid into the unemployment insurance 
fund are eligible for unemployment benefits. 

4. Enemy aliens are prohibited from traveling in public carriers and from 
changing their abode, but they may travel reasonable distances in private auto- 
mobiles. They may not possess firearms, cameras, short-wave sets, or explosives. 

5. About 150 Japanese nationals in northern California have been detained for 
investigation by the Department of Justice. Many of them have been sent to 
Missoula, Mont., for lack of adequate accommodations in San Francisco. Civil- 
ian boards to conduct hearings and make recommendations have been appointed 
by the Department of Justice. Each person detained may call one witness, but 
no attornev, to testify in his behalf. Final decision as to internment is to be 
made by the Department in Washington. Only one citizen of Japanese stock has 
been detained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in California, and he was 
released after a few days. Cases of subversive or suspicious activity by Japanese 
or anyone else should, of course, continue to be reported to the proper authorities. 

6. American citizens of Japanese stock enjoy the same rights as any other citi- 
zen, but on account of the difficulty of differentiating between them and alien 
Japanese, public carriers and other parties, may when necessary, ask for the 
presentation of a birth certificate, to prove citizenship by virtue of birth in the 
United States. . 

7. Speakers connected with the councils of civilian defense, ministers of religion, 
and radio commentators are urging fair play and protection of Japanese residents 
in the enjoyment of their legal rights, both as a demonstration of the American 
way and as a contribution to national morale. 

8. The Japanese-American Citizens League, consisting of some 8,000 citizens 
of Japanese ancestry, has made repeated pronouncements of loyalty to the United 
States and of opposition to the aggressive policies of Japan. Furthermore, sev- 
eral bodies of long-resident first-generation Japanese aliens have made similar 
declarations. Many such Japanese have encouraged their sons to enter the 
United States armed forces and have subscribed to Defense bonrla 

We appeal to all our members and to all citizens who see this statement to 
make its contents widely known, and to cooperate actively in ensuring fair play 
and security to all law-abiding Japanese residents. 

Selective Evacuation of Japanese-Amebican Citizens 

proposals presented to lt. gen. john l. dewitt by the committee on 
national security and pair play 

San Francisco, Calif., March 9, 19^2. 
1. Controlling principles. — We assume that you are guided by the following prin- 
ciples: The maintenance of national security is the controlling factor in deter- 



11202 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

mining execution of the mandate given you by the Secretary of War. If, therefore, 
either aliens, or citizens living in the most vital military areas constitute a military 
hazard, they should be removed. A secondary, but very important factor is to 
keep the infringement of the civil rights of citizens to the lowest possible minimum, 
and to base it on military necessity — not on race or any other consideration. 

2. Objective of our proposals. — We desire to aid you in applying the foregoing 
principles by suggesting methods of discriminating between those citizens of 
Japanese parentage (Nisei) who do and do not constitute a military hazard. 

3. Alternative methods. — Method A: Let all Nisei be given the opportunity of 
being examined as to their loyalty or disloyalty by hearing boards in the communi- 
ties where they now reside. The appeal boards of the Selective Service appear to 
be made to order for this purpose. If the number of appeal boards were insuffic- 
ient, additional similar boards could be set up through local councils of civilian 
defense or boards of education. The judgment of the hearing boards could be 
made subject to review of whatever authority you might designate. Examinees 
would appear voluntarily and have the privilege of bringing witnesses. 

We urge that the evacuation of Nisei from other than the most vital areas be 
deferred until after they have been examined. The process could be completed 
in 6 weeks at the outside, as shown by this calculation: Assuming that half of the 
Nisei, or 40,000, are minors who would elect to accompany their alien parents, and 
that 10,000 adult Nisei would prefer to be evacuated without examination, the re- 
maining thirty-five or forty thousand could be examined within 5 or 6 weeks, if 
each of 100 boards passed on an average of 10 or 12 cases a day. 

Method B: If, however, you deem it quite unwise to defer the evacuation of 
Nisei from all of military area No. 1, then let them all be examined at the reception 
camps as soon as possible, and let those who are found to be above suspicion re- 
leased. This method seems to us to have two serious drawbacks: (1) The great 
expense and difficulty involved in setting up competent boards at distant camps 
and in summoning witnesses; and (2) the breaking up of the living arrangements 
and occupational connections of examinees. 

4. Some general considerations. — The proposed evacuation of the entire group of 
Nisei, but of no other group of citizens, apparently on the basis of race, is already 
embittering some of them and making them turn a ready ear to Communist and 
other subversive ideas. It is also causing acute distress to many white citizens 
like ourselves who are concerned over every violation of the democratic principles 
for which we are fighting. 

Since the Nisei are full-fledged American citizens by virtue of birth and up- 
bringing in this country, certainly they should be given not less consideration than 
German and Italian aliens, sympathetic as we are with those among them who are 
thoroughly loyal to democratic ideals. 

Furthermore, the indiscriminate evacuation of Nisei citizens will, in our judg- 
ment, weaken rather than strengthen the civic morale which is an essential element 
in national security during the war and of national unity after the war. 

We are deeply sensible of the weight of responsibility resting upon you, and 
desire to do all in our power to help you discharge it. Only in that spirit do we 
venture to lay these proposals before you. 

Dr. Henry F. Grady, Chairman, 
(And names and positions of Vice Chairmen.) 

COMMITIEE ON NATIONAL SECURITY AND FAIR PLAY 

Chairman, Dr. Henry F. Grady; vice chairmen: Gen. David P. Barrows, 
Joseph S. Thompson, President Aurelia Henry Reinhardt, Mayor Frank S. 
Gaines, George Wilson, Mrs. Robert McWilliams, Rt. Rev. Karl Morgan Block, 
Dr. Chester H. Rowell, John S. Curran, Gerald H. Hagar, Robert A. Millikan, 
Frederick J. Koster, Provost Monroe E. Deutsch, President Robert G. Sproul, Dr. 
Richard R. Perkins, Mrs. Wallace Alexander, Mrs. Agnes M. Cleaveland, Presi- 
dent Arthur C. McGiffert, Dr. Benjamin W. Black, Ralph T. Fisher, Maurice E. 
Harrison, Alfred J. Lundberg, Dean J. Hugh Jackson, President Ray Lyman 
Wilbur, George G. Kidwell, Mrs. Alfred McLaughlin, Mrs. Duncan S. Robinson, 
Rabbi Irving F. Reichert, Dr. Chauncey D. Leake, Hon. C. C. Young, and Galen 
M. Fisher. 

THE PRESIDENT'S PROCLAMATION AND THE CALIFORNIA SITUATION 

As a group of citizens concerned first and foremost with winning the war, 
we welcome the President's proclamation of February 20, placing all residents 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11203 

in vital militarv areas under the control of the Secretary of War and the military 
commanders. We believe that the extreme gravity of the situation justifies this 
drastic step. And as Californians, no less than as American citizens, we accept 
it as a wise solution of the vexed problem of handling enemy aliens and dangerous 
citizens. . 

Freedom of speech is still unimpaired, and we are glad to know that Aational 
Government authorities, including the military, desire constructive, nonpartisan 
criticisms and suggestions. In that spirit we venture to offer a few suggestions 
to them and to our fellow citizens. 

Let the actual care of evacuated persons be committed as heretofore to civilian 
governmental agencies experienced in matters of social welfare. 

Let the removal of aliens and citizens be kept at the minimum consistent with 
military necessity and national security. The uprooting of alien Japanese and 
Italian farmers living outside vital military areas obviously would reduce produc- 
tion of the food essential to winning the war, and the indiscriminate removal of 
citizens of alien parentage might convert predominantly loyal or harmless citizens 
into desperate fifth columnists. 

The problem of providing permanent homes for the evacuated persons cannot 
be solved by Government agencies without the cooperation of local officials and 
private citizens. Thus far, the 9,000 evacuees are reported, for the most part, 
to have found onlv temporary homes. In some communities the entry of Japa- 
nese refugees has been resented to the point that long resident Japanese have been 
warned not to harbor them. 

There appear to be only three methods of caring for the evacuees: Either allow 
them to settle where they can work freely and produce ; or set up supervised work 
projects; or support them in whole or in part at public expense. If they are 
to find places to settle down and become self-supporting, then some interior com- 
munities in California itself or in other States must allow them to settle. This 
may seem to certain communities like demanding a heavy sacrifice, but without 
various kinds of sacrifice we cannot hope to win the war. If we mean it when we 
glibly agree to bear any necessary hardship, then perhaps communities as well as 
individuals will have to accept this as one of the inescapable sacrifices. 

The integrity of our Nation and all the liberties guaranteed by it are at stake. 
It is a national fight, and only the Government should call the signals. In the 
spirit of the President's proclamation, it behooves us all — public officials and 
private citizens alike — to set up no impediments in the way of the military and 
other Federal authorities, and to place ourselves at their command. 

Engaged as we are in a life-and-death struggle to preserve our hard-won demo- 
cratic heritage, we should be traitors if we flouted democratic principles of justice 
and humanity in our treatment of either aliens or citizens, even under the stress 
of war. We therefore appeal to our official representatives, municipal, county, 
State, and national, and to our fellow citizens of whatever origin, to maintain 
order under law and the respect for persons summed up in the words "fair play." 

Note. — The Committee on National Security and Fair Play is the direct suc- 
cessor of the Northern California Committee on Fair Play for Citizens and Aliens 
of Japanese Ancestry, but it embraces the wider scope implied in its title. Its 
primary purpose is to support the Government and the armed forces in preserving 
national security and winning the war, and at the same time, to foster fair play, 
especially toward law-abiding and innocent aliens and citizens of alien parentage. 

Galen M. Fisher, 
Secretary of the Committee. 

TESTIMONY OF REV. GORDON K. CHAPMAN, IN CHARGE OF THE 
PRESBYTERIAN JAPANESE WORK ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

The Chairman. Now, Reverend Chapman, what has been your 
experience with the Japanese people? 

Reverend Chapman. You mean in Japan or in California? 

The Chairman. Your contacts with them in Japan or elsewhere. 

• Reverend Chapman. Well, during my 20 years' residence in Japan 

I think I can say that my experience has been on the whole favorable. 



11204 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Generally speaking, they have shown consideration and kindliness 
toward American citizens who happened to be residents there. 

The Chairman. How have they treated our missionaries? 

Reverend Chapman. Very well up until recent years; even the 
Government has been cooperative. 

The Chairman. How long a time did you spend in Japan? 

SPENT 20 YEARS IN JAPAN 

Reverend Chapman. Twenty years. 

The Chairman. In what capacities? 

Reverend Chapman. As a missionary educator, professor in a 
theological college. Since returning here I have had some opportunity 
to meet Japanese people as I have traveled about from church to 
church and I would like to give several of those observations. 

Two of our churches are involved thus far in prohibited zones. 
That means, of course, that the alien members, and in both cases they 
constituted nearly half, have already moved out. 

The Japanese people, as far as I have been able to observe, have 
been and are very cooperative. They are disinclined to ask for aid 
of any kind. In fact, our churches made plans some time ago to care 
for all our evacuees through the courtesy of people in inland churches. 
However, much of that plan has been obstructed because of local 
antagonisms. Just as you heard from the people from Tulare County 
and other sections, particularly the valley sections of California, the 
local people are opposed to almost any influx of Japanese. And so 
we are very much put out at this time in order to provide housing, 
not to say work, for these people. 

I believe it is true to say that our Christian group is in the main 
free from any subversive or suspicious activities of any kind. I think 
that is proven by the fact that there have been practically no arrests 
of active Christians, and I am speaking right up to date. 

HARDSHIP CASES 

The problem of divided families, and we have been hearing about 
it — we heard about that this morning — is a very acute one. I could 
have matched the stories that were told this morning many times over 
from Japanese sources. 

There are Japanese parents and Japanese widows who have sons 
in the armed forces of the United States. I have been doing some work 
in the American Army under the chaplains among the Japanese 
soldiers. I think it is true to say that Army officers, as far as I have 
been able to talk with them, testify that they believe them to be loyal 
and to be faithfid soldiers. 

Now, I think that there is a great danger that we shall overempha- 
size the influence of Japanese-language schools and also the effect of 
trips to Japan and sojourns in Japan. There is very much in the 
Japanese system which does not commend itself to people who have 
already tasted of American life and American privileges. The^ 
Japanese who returns to Japan — I am speaking of the second genera-" 
tion — they are very likely to have unpleasant experiences. They are 
more or less on the spot. I think that in many cases it has had a 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11205 

salutary influence for them to go to Japan, to see what Japanese life 
is, to sense the spirit of oppression and suppression that more or less 
prevails there. I have had a great deal to do with such people while 
they have been in Japan and I think on the whole that rather than 
encouraging them to support ideas like the new order in Asia and the 
divine destiny of the Japanese and the Emperor and so on, it has 
turned them the other way. 

FEARS EFFECT OF DISCRIMINATORY POLICY 

Personally, I am very much concerned at one point that was 
voiced by our C. I. O. friend, although I am not a member of the 
C. I. O. I do feel that any treatment, any policy that appears to be 
discriminatory will not only open the way for very serious future 
repercussions and problems in this country, but that it will have a 
very unfortunate effect upon Japan and her policy regarding the 
treatment of American citizens there, also it will have an unfortunate 
effect in countries like China where there is a great deal of feeling 
because of the policy of western nations in the past toward the yellow 
race. And I trust that whatever is done we will keep that in mind. 

Now, when it comes to conceptions like the idea of a divine ruler 
and a divine state I think it must be recognized that that same 
philosophy is increasingly common in nations which belong to the 
Axis in Europe and that these philosophies may have just as sub- 
versive an influence upon people who adopt them or who are sym- 
pathetic with them in this country as does the Japanese philosophy. 
In my experience with Japanese young people I have not detected any 
of this difficulty that has been mentioned over and over again of 
getting information as to whether or not a person is loyal. This 
difficulty of getting information from Japanese is something that I 
have not experienced. I want to say today that on several occasions 
information has been given me by Japanese young people with the 
intent that I should take it up with the F. B. I. and I have done so.. 
I could not agree for a moment with the declaration of the Attorney 
General that there have been no cases of that kind. I believe in the 
main they are not conscious of such activity because subversive 
workers know that these young people are in the main loyal and thus 
they are not sharing any of their plans or purposes with any of these 
second generationers. I thank you for this privilege and I would 
like to submit this statement. 

(The statement referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY REV. GORDON K. CHAPMAN, IN CHARGE OF 
PRESBYTERIAN JAPANESE WORK ON THE PACIFIC COAST 

Some Phases of the Japanese Problem in California 

Qualifications: The writer, Gordon K. Chapman, was born and educated in 
the State of California and has had lifelong associations with Japanese people. 
He spent 20 years in Japan as a missionary of the Presbyterian Church, engaged 
in evangelistic and educational work. He has a working knowledge of the Jap- 
anese language and is quite familiar with their culture and customs. He is now 
acting as official representative for the board of national missions of the Presby- 
terian Church in the United States of America for Japanese work on the Pacific 
coast. 



11206 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Control of enemy aliens and others engaged in subversive activity: It is the 
considered opinion of the writer that the Federal Bureau of Investigation was 
doing an excellent piece of work in uncovering subversive activity and apprehend- 
ing potentially dangerous Japanese. This conclusion is based on observation and 
some contact with Federal Bureau of Investigation agents in various places. 
The present evacuation from "prohibited zones" is working great hardship on a 
people who are in the main loyal and is accomplishing little or nothing as a defense 
measure. It would have been better to have left these aliens in all places except 
those in close proximity to strategic installations. While our inland churches 
had made plans to house and provide some measure of work for such evacuees, 
these plans were largely hampered because of the opposition to further influx of 
Japanese into most communities. It is the opinion of the writer that any and all 
plans which make a special class of the Japanese and provide restrictions from which 
Germans and Italians are exempt are manifestly unfair and contrary to Ameiican 
principles and ideals. Any scheme for the control of enemy aliens and other po- 
tentially dangerous persons should be equally applicable to Germans and Italians. 
Long and wide experience with American citizens of Japanese race has convinced 
the writer that they have become more thoroughly Americanized than is the case 
with the children of certain other racial groups. And it is true that these young 
people of Japanese parentage have again and again demonstrated their loyal 
Americanism. I shall enlarge on these points below: 

The question of loyalty: This is admittedly a very difficult question in that 
even citizens of European origin have proven disloyal and engaged in subversive 
activity. The writer has had a good deal to do with the members of so-called 
Japanese-American citizens leagues and knows of no other young peoples' groups 
which have been exerting so much influence for Americanism among their own 
people. Pressure has been brought to bear on their members to renounce Jap- 
anese citizenship when it was known to be involved and there is reason to believe 
that this is no longer a major problem in most places; though the writer has found 
some young people, especially girls, who seemed to have no knowledge about the 
question at all and supposed that they were only Americans. As a class these 
young people are mentally alert and very well versed in American ideals. In 
spite of the fact that they have acquired a slight smattering of Japanese language 
in language schools, in most cases this particular training did not take and the 
trip to Japan usually is but a demonstration to them of the superiority of American 
ways. The writer personally knows many who have become intensely anti- 
Japanese because of their experiences when they visited the native land of their 
parents. As the President of a Japanese-American citizen league said to the 
writer last night: "'We are striving to be loyal and cooperate with the Government 
in this time of crisis. We thought that this war was going to give us our great 
opportunity to prove our loyalty as American citizens, but now we are being dis- 
charged from the Army and made to feel that we are not wanted. If they don't 
want us to fight Japan, why don't they give us a crack at Hitler,. etc." Any 
policy which involves racial discrimination at this time is likely to embitter a 
generation of fine young people who have proven that they can become loyal 
Americans and drink more deeply of our culture than is the case with many Mexi- 
cans, Italians, and certain other races. 

The assertion has been made that the Japanese-Americans have not been 
cooperative in exposing Japanese who were engaged in subversive activity. How- 
ever, the writer can testify that he has received information from such young 
people which he has passed on to Federal Bureau of Investigation agents. And, 
it must be admitted that it is not easy to secure such information. Enemy 
agents are likely to be working under cover and thus are undisposed to take 
Japanese-Americans into their confidence. The alien parents of these young 
people are for the most part industrious people of rather advanced years and it is 
not to be expected that such are engaged in subversive activity. 

Japanese Christian churches: There are quite a large number of Christian 
churches among Japanese people in California and it is a notable fact that most 
of those who have been suspected of subversive activity have not been members 
of these Christian groups. One of the hardest things to bear just now is to see 
these churches which happen to be located in prohibited areas losing their older 
members and in most cases their pastors. And if the Japanese-American citizens 
are also to be evacuated to other localities, then we shall have to face the dissipa- 
tion of the work of years. These churches are centers of Christian-American 
culture and it will be a great pity to drive out these Japanese Christians from 
their church homes. The boundaries which mark the present prohibited areas 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11207 

have been so drawn that in several cases the church buildings are located within 
a block or block and a half of the line. It would appear right that some provision 
be made whereby these older believers will be able to continue to attend churches 
which are within such a short distance of such a boundary line. It is also to be hoped 
that some special permit will be issued, whereby alien pastors can continue to 
minister to their scattered flocks. 

Repercussions in the Far East : Reports which have come to our foreign mission 
board through the Swiss Legation indicate that thus far our missionaries in Japan 
and occupied areas of Asia have for the most part been treated with kindness and 
consideration. However, the Japanese Government has made it known that its 
policy in this respect will be largely guided by our treatment of their people in 
America. Furthermore, any racial discrimination which robs Japanese-Americans 
of their rights as American citizens will also have an effect on Asiatic attitudes 
toward America. It is likely to appear as a repudiation of the rights of human 
freedom at a time when we are having a difficult enough time proving to the world 
that we are actually fighting such a battle for the world. These factors should 
be kept in mind in any formulation of policy. 

A fair and constructive policy : It appears to the writer that it should be possible, 
within the scope of the recent Presidential or Executive order, to formulate a policy 
which would provide for the examination of all potentially dangerous persons and 
the licensing or issuing of permits to those who can be proven loyal. The same 
tests can be applied to Japanese as to Germans and Italians, together with any 
supplemental tests that seem necessary. The writer knows of no reasons why it is 
difficult or impossible to test the loyalty of Japanese aliens or Japanese-Americans. 
The fact that Japanese Government agents were allowed to carry on their sub- 
versive activity in Hawaii with resultant evil is no reason for being discriminatory 
here where the authorities are "on the alert." To allow Japanese who are 
exceedingly skillful in certain industries to continue to work and produce for the 
Nation at this time would seem to be the part of wisdom. And mass evacuation 
policy is unnecessarily drastic, contrary to our American principles of fair play, 
destructive of some of our best human resources and likely to help to defeat some 
of the chief aims of the war. 

TESTIMONY OF REV. FRANK HERRON SMITH, IN CHARGE OF 
METHODIST JAPANESE MISSIONS WEST OF THE MISSISSIPPI 
RIVER 

The Chairman. Reverend Smith, do you have any statement to 
make in regard to the loyalty of the Japanese-American citizens? 

Reverend Smith. Yes, sir. Will you permit me to protect my 
Americanism a little bit, since I am friendly to the Japanese, by say- 
ing that when you were in Kansas University and an all-star orator 
there — I think you won all the contests of the year, and that was 
when oratory was as important as football — I was an underclassman 
and one of your admirers. 

The Chairman. Reverend Smith, I want to say to you that you 
delivered that much better than I ever delivered any speech. 

Reverend Smith. I am friendly to the Japanese because after 
finishing my theological education at Northwestern University I was 
for 21 years in the Orient. Twelve and one-half years of that time 
I was superintendent of our Japanese missions in Korea and Man- 
churia and I was called back from there by our board in 1926, and 
since 1926 I have given all of my time day and night to these Japanese 
in America. 

JAPANESE CHRISTIANS 

I have now 55 paid workers in these three coast States and Idaho, 
Arizona, and Colorado. We think there are a little more than 5,000 
Christians among the fifty or sLxty thousand — these new figures are 



11208 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

not yet clear — first-generation alien Japanese. In other words, about 
one-tenth of the alien Japanese are Christians. About one-half of the 
Japanese Americans are favorable to Christianity and prefer Chris- 
tianity and probably 15,000 of them are working now as ardent 
Christians. Now, it is my belief from this close association over many 
years with these Japanese that fully 90 percent of the first-generation 
Christian aliens are loyal to America. They are gladly sending their 
sons to the Army. They are buying bonds. They send their children 
to our schools and most of them would already have become American 
citizens and be beyond this doubtful stage had we allowed them 
naturalization, which we do not allow. 

I believe that the second generation Japanese Christians, like David 
Tatsuno and Henry Tani whom you heard here this morning, boys 
whom I have known 15 years, boys whom I married to their wives, 
are as truly American as your son, Congressman Tolan, or my son 
with whom these boys went to school and where they received the 
same education. 

So far as my observation goes, these young Christians are loyal to 
America almost to a man. 

I regret that I do not know the young Buddhists very well but I am 
quite confident that in spite of their un-American practices and leader- 
ship the great majority of them too are loyal to America. 

The Chairman. I think you have got me mixed up in winning 
those debates down there in Kansas. I think you were the debater 
yourself. I want to tell you a story about that. 

We had a little debating team against Missouri in 1901 and 1902. 
So one day my son Jack came to me and said "Dad, I thought you 
won those three debates, according to your story." He said, "I met 
a fellow today that debated against you and you lost two out of three. 
He was from Missouri." 

Reverend Smith. He is a story teller. 

TESTIMONY OF WILLIAM C. JAMES, CLERK OF THE SOCIETY 
OF FRIENDS, BERKELEY, CALIF. 

The Chairman. Mr. James, will you briefly describe the activities 
of the Friends Service Committee? 

Mr. James. Well, I should state, Congressman Tolan, that I really 
don't officially represent the Friends Service Committee. I happen 
to be a member of that organization but here today I represent the 
Societ} 7 of Friends which, of course, is associated with the American 
Friends Service Committee. 

Our executive committee of the Friends Service Committee didn't 
have the opportunity to meet after we knew that I would have the 
privilege of appearing here, so I merely represent our meeting in 
Berkeley, but if you want any statements from the Friends Service 
Committee I could submit them. However, I don't think that is 
necessary. I think they are pretty well known. 

The Chairman. What do you think about the employment of 
these people who are evacuated? Have you any ideas about that? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11209 



OPPOSES MASS EVACUATION 



Mr. James. I think that many of these evacuees can be employed. 
I am somewhat familiar with the plan that Galen Fisher presented. 
I think it and some other plans have much to commend them. Per- 
sonally I am strongly opposed to mass evacuation. I have it here in 
a statement if you want me to read it. 
The Chairman. Go ahead. 

Mr. James. It composes the statement that was drawn up rather 
hastily by three or four of us this afternoon. [Reading:] 

The concern of the Society of Friends at this time is that those in 
authority realize and appreciate that the majority of the people in- 
volved in the problem before us are valuable human beings who are 
loyal to our institutions and are contributing to the welfare of our 
local communities and the State. 

We have true sympathy for and want to help those faced with the 
responsibility and duty of making and carrying out governmental 
policy and edict. We greatly appreciate the tolerance and under- 
standing already shown, particularly in this area. 

As a result of religious and racial persecution which many of those 
involved have received from other countries, they are particularly 
appreciative of American ideals and are ready and willing to become 
good and useful United States citizens. Many of them have sons 
who are in our Government service. This latter statement applies 
to aliens of all enemy nationalities. 

Realizing as you do that efforts should be made to distinguish care- 
fully between the loyal individuals and the few others, we trust that 
too hasty action will not be taken. We hope that the general policy of 
the Government will provide for other than mass evacuations and 
that any necessary evictions be made on an individual rather than an 
indiscriminate basis. 

Our concern then leads us to the serious consideration of some of 
the proposed plans for resettlement and rehabilitation of those for 
whom evacuation is necessary. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Society of Friends of 
Berkeley. [Ends reading.] 

The Chairman. You see, Dr. Reagor and you gentlemen here, there 
is nothing comparable to our situation in the entire world. 
Dr. Reagor. That is right. 

The Chairman. In Japan you have Japanese, in Italy you have 
Italians, but here we have them all. Isn't that true? 
Dr. Reagor. That is correct. 

The Chairman. So it is a very, very delicate proposition because, 
as I have repeated and repeated again, after the war is over we still 
have to live with all the nationalities, don't we? 
Dr. Reagor. Yes. 

The Chairman. There is no question about that and the war's 
end is bound to come. 

Now, the only good that we could do with your ideas is to submit 
them to Congress, but it is in the hands of the military. We were 
sent out here as a sort of a sounding board for the military, and the 
Justice Department. I think what you have said here today will 
probably be a very valuable contribution to us. 



11210 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Is there anything else you want to add? 

Reverend Chapman. Mr. Chairman, there is one matter that I 
promised to present and I am speaking on behalf of our Japanese alien 
pastor. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

CHURCHES IN PROHIBITED AREAS 

Reverend Chapman. As I understand, it has been necessary for 
them, for the pastors of churches in prohibited zones, to leave these 
zones, and they are no longer permitted to minister in their churches. 
Their hope and desire is, and also the desire of the church members 
is, that some plan be worked out by which these pastors at least can 
be permitted to minister to their flocks on both sides of the line, as 
it were. In two cases, for instance, our churches are located within 
a block and a half or two blocks of the boundary line and they can 
come within a block and a half or two blocks of the churches but' can't 
enter. 

And so if, in the future, a plan can be worked out by which permits 
can be given to pastors after ascertaining their loyalty, and possibly 
also to members, to enable them to attend these churches it would be 
very much appreciated. I am sure we can assume that the Christian 
churches are very important when it comes to the matter of the main- 
tenance of morale. That is recognized in the Army by our system of 
chaplains. So in order to keep up the spirit of these people some plan 
should be worked out by which Christian groups can be kept intact 
and by which Christian workers can go on with the very valuable 
service that they are performing. 

Reverend Smith. May I mention two points there, Air. Tolan? 
One point, the possibility of deciding which Japanese are loyal and 
which are disloyal. I am interpreter for the San Francisco Board of 
Hearing which has been operating under Mr. Biddle, and also I in- 
terpreted 3 days in a crisis for the Board of Hearing in the State of 
Washington. These men here, Mr. Lillick and Mr. Harrison and Mr. 
Dill, I consider high-grade citizens, and I believe that if you ask them 
whether they could tell who are loyal and who are disloyal of the men 
whom they examined that they would tell you that in many cases 
the}' can, many cases they cannot. Well, of course, men whom they 
deem disloyal or doubtful should be put in one class and those whom 
they deem loyal, perhaps, should be given the identification card of 
which you spoke. • 

WOULD MAKE LOYAL JAPANESE WARDS OF AMERICA 

Now that the military has come into it, it is my belief that these 
committees set up, say, one representative of the military and two 
civilians who could very easily pass on these matters. A committee 
like that could tell who are loyal and who are disloyal in many cases; 
most cases, I believe. The loyalty of the second generation young 
people can be tested as easily as that of any American and the best 
witness would be the school teacher, the American school teacher. 
These aliens who pledge their loyalty to us now, in my opinion, 
should be sworn in as wards. They can't be citizens. 'They can 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11211 

never go to Japan again. They should be sworn in as wards of 
America before they are given these identification cards. 

The other point, the matter of these zones, that belongs to the 
military. We are cooperating. Alameda is our zone. We have 
done, I think, more than any organization there. J. C. Elliott has 
done fine work, too, in keeping up the morale of the people of Alameda 
so that there was no hysteria there and no excitement, and that 
movement has been carried out smoothly and without any difficulty, 
and we can help with the others. 

It is my belief that the women and children are not dangerous. 
These old ladies, very few of them under 50, are not a dangerous 
element and might well be left in their homes where most of these 
women and children can work as they have been working, and sup- 
port themselves, and will not disrupt society. The old men and the 
sick men, I believe, can well be left alone. We had there in Missoula 
one man who died of T. B. and another died of cancer when I was 
there. If an investigation was made some months previous, such 
men would not have been taken there. 

DOES NOT FEAR A SECOND PEARL HARBOR 

Mr. Warren spoke of the danger here of sabotage and there being 
a timed attack. Now, in my judgment, there is little danger of that 
for one reason, because within a very few hours after the Pearl Harbor 
incident the F. B. I. picked up practically all of the Japanese brains 
of every community here and put them under detention immediately. 
That leadership is under detention now. And I believe that it is 
possible to make these distinctions and it is possible to handle this 
question safely and wisely and humanely without tins tremendous 
mass movement and mass evacuation. 

And I pledge toyou, sir, or to General DeWitt, or to any organi- 
zation the assistance of — I pledge my own 55 workers as interpreters 
and helpers and I wouldn't hesitate a moment to pledge the Presby- 
terian friends, the Catholic friends, the Congregational friends. All 
of us who are engaged in this work will be glad to take our part in 
doing tins sifting. 

Mr. Fisher. Two days ago I was conversing with a high military 
officer as well acquainted, I suppose, with conditions in California as 
almost any man. He said he placed no confidence at all in the pre- 
dictions of the fifth-column coordinated activity for the one reason 
that has just been given by Dr. Smith", that the brains had been 
seized and further leaders can easily be seized. He said for his part 
he thought that the Nazi elements in our State were far more menacing 
than any Japanese menace. 

The second comment I wanted to ask, if I may, is that while the 
Japanese-American Citizen League, composed of American-born 
Japanese, has not been a model in all respects, I think it has rendered 
a very substantial service to our country and is the only organization 
now in existence which can help to build moral and interpret Ameri- 
canism to a good many of the Japanese. The churches are doing 
splendid work in that direction but the Japanese-American Citizen 
League also is a very valuable factor. 



60396— 42— pt. 29 17 



11212 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

COMMITTEE PANEL 

The Chairman. Now, let me get my own reaction of this com- 
mittee here. First, you are not in favor of mass evacuation of 
Japanese, is that right? 

Reverend Chapman. That is right. 

Mr. Fisher. That is right. 

Reverend Smith. That is right. 

Dr. Reagor. That is right. 

Mr. James. That is right. 

The Chairman. This panel here is in favor of treating them on the 
same basis as the Italians or the Germans? 

Reverend Chapman. Yes. 

Mr. Fisher. Yes. 

Reverend Smith. Yes. 

Dr. Reagor. Yes. 

Mr. James. Yes. 

The Chairman. You think it can be done by a careful investiga- 
tion to ascertain who are loyal and who are disloyal Japanese, the 
same as Italians and Germans? 

Dr. Reagor. Yes. 

Reverend Chapman. Yes. 

Reverend Smith. Yes. 

Mr. Fisher. Or who are dangerous, that is. 

The Chairman. Yes; or who are dangerous. 

What would you suggest? There are about 6,000 Japanese down 
at the Lockheed Aircraft factory in Los Angeles. Would you segre- 
gate the Japanese, that is, wholesale? 

Reverend Smith. That is a question for the Army to decide. 

The Chairman. I know, but I want to get your idea about that. 
The Army will decide it, there is no question about that, I think. 

Reverend Smith. If I were a general, I would certainly make a zone 
3 miles or 5 miles around every vital project. 

The Chairman. Well, that is what we are doing. 

Reverend Smith. Well, I see. I am not an Army man but you 
asked me what I would do, and that is what I would do. 

The Chairman. Would you take them all? 

Reverend Smith. You mean the second generation? 

The Chairman. Second, third, fourth, fifth, right on down the 
line, see? 

Mr. Fisher. I should stop. 

The Chairman. Yes? 

Mr. Fisher. I should discriminate even there. 

Mr. James. I don't think so. 

Mr. Fisher. Just as I would among Americans, I mean white 
Americans. 

Mr. James. I have confidence that the Army will do it better than 
it might be done by other groups. W"e won't mention any certain 
ones but that is my own confidence. 

The Chairman. You see, you are very distinguished citizens, rep- 
utable men. The Army is listening to you on this now. This is 
just a futile gesture unless we can tell them what you people think. 
They have a problem. You say you will leave it to the military. 






NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11213 

Well, that is no conclusion ; it is left to them anyway. But we thought 
we might be able to give them some ideas. 

Reverend Smith. I wouldn't allow anyone within 2 or 3 miles of a 
vital plant, I don't care what his color or ancestry is, without an 
identification card. 

The Chairman. Mr. Fisher doesn't seem to agree with you. 

Dr. Reagor. There is a vast difference in that and evacuation from 
military areas. 

The Chairman. I am just trying to think out loud with you; trying 
to get some information. 

Mr. James. We appreciate that. 

Reverend Chapman. Mr. Tolan, I think that we can make this a 
little bit clearer if we can give a specific instance or two. Now, I am 
very well acquainted with the Monterey Bay area. I know many 
Japanese there. I know the Army authorities quite well, for instance 
at Fort Ord. I have had a great deal of conversation regarding this 
particular problem. Down there certain highways were made the 
boundary lines. It appeared to me that the first areas named were 
where certain important installations were, and then a line was drawn, 
or a highway was taken that would embrace all of the strategic 
installations. But between these installations there are great areas 
which are included in prohibited zones where there are no installations 
of any importance, and people have been evacuated from those areas. 
I think that certain discrimination should be shown as for example in 
the case of a Christian church or a community that is just over the 
line, over on the other side of the highway. In Watsonville you have 
a highway running right through the town and people are apt to move 
from one part of the town to the other, and, unfortunately, on the 
wrong side of the line. Now, I would hope that in cases like that 
that there could be an investigation and if there are no strategic 
installations on the other side of the highway that be taken into account. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you, you have great information with 
regard to Japan, being there for years. Have you any knowledge as 
to how Americans are being treated in Japan? 

TREATMENT OF AMERICANS IN JAPAN 

Reverend Chapman. Yes; our board of foreign missions has been 
able to secure information through the offices of the Swiss Govern- 
ment. They are acting on our behalf in Japan, as you know, and 
we have learned that approximately one-third of our group have been 
taken into custody. Two-thirds are still allowed considerable free- 
dom and some, for instance, are continuing to teach in certain schools. 
The Swiss authorities have also assured us that all are being treated 
with kindness and that as far as they know there has been no bad 
treatment as far as Americans are concerned. 

The Chairman. One third are interned? 

Reverend Chapman. Yes; one-third of our group are interned and 
two-thirds, apparently, are not interned at this time. 

The Chairman. W^ell, you have about 100,000 Japanese in Cali- 
fornia. A third of them would be about 33,000. No such numbers 
like that have been taken into custody here. 



11214 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Reverend Chapman. Of course, it must be recognized that we rep- 
resent a special class, that is, people who are engaged in a form of 
propaganda. Christian propaganda is regarded by the Japanese 
military authorities as something which is antagonistic to the ideals 
of the new order in Asia, or the Asiatic coprosperity sphere, and 
because they regard us as propagandists of an order which they do 
not admire, I think that more of our number would be interned than 
would be the case with the general civilian population where most of 
the people are engaged in the ordinary pursuits of life and are not 
engaged in propaganda of any kind, presumably. 

The Chairman. Well, this is a very interesting panel and, of course, 
we could spend a lot more time. 

Dr. Reagor. Would you like to have these 1,400 signatures in your 
record? 

The Chairman. Yes, we will mark it as an exhibit. 1 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Slade is the next witness. 

TESTIMONY OF H. F. SLADE, ASSISTANT CASHIER, FEDERAL 
RESERVE BANK, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Sparkman. Will you give your name and official capacity in 
which you appear here, to the reporter for the record? 

Mr. Slade. My name is H. F. Slade. I am assistant cashier of the 
Federal Reserve bank. I am in charge of one division of foreign 
funds control. 

Mr. Sparkman. Tell us just what activity that office embraces, 
the scope of your authority, and some little history of the activity of 
your office. 

Mr. Slade. As an officer of the Federal Reserve bank we act as 
fiscal agents of the Treasury Department, by request of the Treasury 
Department, in administering foreign funds control, which I need not 
take your time to describe. As you know, that authority is derived 
from Executive order of the President known as Executive Order 
8389. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is the Executive order freezing the funds of 
aliens? 

Mr. Slade. Of "nationals", which is a slightly different term from 
"aliens." A national may be a citizen, a resident of a foreign country, 
or an American citizen who is domiciled in a foreign country. 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you tell us something aDout the difference 
between a generally licensed national and a blocked national? 

GENERALLY LICENSED AND BLOCKED NATIONALS 

Mr. Slade. I might go one step further. We speak of native-born. 
Naturally, a native-born citizen is an American citizen, regardless of 
his race or creed. 

A generally licensed national is one who, under a definition of the 
regulation of the Treasury Department, is accorded certain privileges 
practically equal to an American citizen, with the exception of report- 
ing requirements. 

1 Material referred to is held in committee files. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11215 

As a rule a generally licensed national is one who has been in the 
United States continuously since June 17, 1940. It takes in many of 
the aliens who come here, but have not obtained citizenship papers as 
differentiated between the newcomers since June 17, 1940. 

Those who have been out of the country, or who came here since 
June 17, 1940, or who represent foreign interests in some manner, are 
so-called blocked nationals. 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you briefly outline for us the difference in 
the situation between those who are in a position to apply for a license 
and those who are not available to make such application — the situa- 
tion of a bank, the situation of some of these steamship companies, 
and so forth? 

PERMISSIVE LICENSES 

Mr. Slade. The licenses issued under the Treasury regulations 
with few exceptions, have been permissive licenses. They would 
permit a national to perform some act that he wished to perform. 
Naturally, if there is not a duly authorized representative available 
to apply for a license to do some act that he might want to do, under 
the present set-up that act is not performed. If, however, there is 
a representative, a relative with power of attorney, or an official who is 
available, or possibly, in case of the bank you mentioned, the State 
superintendent of banking, who is authorized to act for that institu- 
tion, they may apply for a license and receive a license to perform 
that act. 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you tell us briefly what disposition was made 
of any perishable cargoes that may have been left on the doc^s at the 
time of the freezing order? 

Mr. Slade. Well, there have been listings made for the benefit of 
the armed services in locating strategic materials. In some instances 
of a semiperishable nature, in order to do what seemed to be obvious, 
to conserve the properties of those who could not be contacted or 
communicated with, the Treasury Department has issued a directive 
license. 

As a rule, where there were any representatives who could take such 
action on their own behalf, they have acted without directive licenses. 

Mr. Sparkman. It is our understanding that under certain Execu- 
tive orders of the President, a Japanese national cannot diminish his 
assets. Would you explain to us just what that means? 

GENERAL LICENSE 68~A 

Mr. Slade. We spoke of generally licensed nationals. Under a 
general license, 68-A, issued by the Treasury Department to Japanese 
who have been here continuously since June 17, 1940, could carry on 
business, withdraw money from banks, and do many of those commer- 
cial acts, with the provision that the license did not authorize them 
to substantially diminish their assets in the United States; meaning 
either take them out of the country, or give them to relatives or 
friends without consideration. 

Mr. Sparkman. We are aware, of course, that your office is not in 
any way a custodian of the property of the enemy alien, but could you 
make a distinction for us between the activities of your office and 



11216 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

those activities which might conceivably be administered by an alien 
property custodian, or a similar officer? 

Mr. Slade. Well, as I said previously, the licenses issued in our 
capacity as fiscal agents of the Treasury Department have been per- 
missive licenses. They have not been of a nature of management, 
or the carrying on of businesses. 

There have been some instances in which properties were put under 
the seal of the Treasury Department and guards, or supervisors in- 
stalled at the premises, but those were merely for the sake of preserv- 
ing the properties in their present status, and not for operating them. 

Mr. Sparkman. Could you tell us whether any data or statistics 
have been collected concerning the holdings of property or assets by 
enemy aliens? 

FOREIGN PROPERTY REPORTS 

Mr. Slade. Yes. The regulations of the Treasury Department 
provide for the filing of foreign property reports. There have been 
many hundreds of thousands of property reports filed, both by aliens 
and by citizens, or domestic institutions holding credits or properties 
of aliens. That applies not only to enemy aliens, but to friendly 
aliens as well. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is your office aware of any trading or transferring 
of title without having obtained a license? 

Mr. Slade. There would, of course, be exceptions to any such 
sweeping regulation as the one we are discussing, possibly through 
ignorance of the regulations. If we were aware of any transfers of 
property without a license we would be required to turn it over to an 
investigative unit of the Treasury Department, who would look into it. 

There have been some transfers without a license which are under 
investigation. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Slade, with the increase in the evacuation of 
these people from this area, don't you think that there should be 
established here some office of custodian of alien property? 

Mr. Slade. Well, that is a problem that is beyond the scope of 
my official position, or beyond my recommendation. It seems ob- 
vious that if people are moved away from their properties, unless 
some legal representative in the form of an attorney in fact, or a 
relative, can administer those properties they will be subject to 
depreciation and deterioration and be at the mercy of people who 
want to buy them at less than real value. But I don't feel that 
that comes under the foreign-funds control because most of those 
can be moved at will, or traded at the will of the present owners. 
They will sell or move out, as they like. 

Mr. Sparkman. In short, the function of your office is to license 
transfers, whereas the custodian would be one of management and 
control? 

Mr. Slade. Yes. It is a different operation. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Slade. We appreci- 
ate your coming here. 

Tatsu Ogawa. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11217 

TESTIMONY OF TATSU J. OGAWA, FORMER FLORIST, BERKELEY, 

CALIF. 

The Chairman. Please state your name. 

Mr. Ogawa. Tatsu J. Ogawa. 

The Chairman. Where were you born? 

Mr. Ogawa. In Hawaii, on the island of Maui. 

The Chairman. How long ago? You are not sensitive about your 
age, are you? 

Mr. Ogawa. Not at all. In 1896. 

The Chairman. How long have you resided in the United States? 

Mr. Ogawa. Ever since 1915, during the first San Francisco Fair. 

The Chairman. Where did you go to school? 

Mr. Ogawa. I attended school here in Oakland, Los Angeles, San 
Diego, and the university at Davis. 

The Chairman. Are you married? 

Mr. Ogawa. Yes, I am. 

The Chairman. Any children? 

Mr. Ogawa. Four children, sir. 

The Chairman. Have you been in business in this country? 

Mr. Ogawa. I have been, sir. 

The Chairman. Where? 

Mr. Ogawa. In Berkeley, on University Avenue. 

The Chairman. What sort of business? 

Mr. Ogawa. In the floral business. 

The Chairman. How long were you in business? 

Mr. Ogawa. Approximately 12 years. 

The Chairman. In one place? 

Mr. Ogawa. In one place, sir. 

The Chairman. Well, you are not in business now; are you? 

Mr. Ogawa. No, sir. 

The Chairman. What caused you to go out of business? 

Mr. Ogawa. I think it is due to — I don't know exactly — but I 
think it is due mostly to depression. 

The Chairman. What? 

Mr. Ogawa. Depression. I think so, but not exactly discrimina- 
tion, but business fell off. 

The Chairman. You have been 12 years in business. It took quite 
a while for depression to catch up with you, didn't it? 

Mr. Ogawa. Yes, sir; it finally caught up with me. 

The Chairman. That partner didn't help you out any, did he, the 
partner that you had in business? 

Mr. Ogawa. Not very much. 

The Chairman. Except to help you out of business, is that the 
idea? 

Mr. Ogawa. Yes; that is right, sir. 

The Chairman. Was he a Japanese? 

Mr. Ogawa. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. How long were you in partnership with him? 

Mr. Ogawa. Ever since we started in together. 

The Chairman. Don't you think that that was the real depression 
that caused your loss of business, this partnership as much as any- 
thing? 



11218 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Ogawa. Probably so; yes. 

The Chairman. He sort of held out on you, didn't he? 

Mr. Ogawa. Well, I don't like to say. 

SERVED IN FIRST WORLD WAR 

The Chairman. Did you ever serve in the armed forces of the 
United States? 

Mr. Ogawa. I am glad to say I did, sir. 

The Chairman. For how long? 

Mr. Ogawa. From October 1917 until discharged in April 1919. 

The Chairman. Did you go to Europe? 

Mr. Ogawa. Yes, sir. I served with Company G, Three hundred 
and Sixty-fourth Infantry, Ninty-first Division. 

The Chairman. Did you see any action over there — did you get 
in any battles? 

Mr. Ogawa. Yes. 

The Chairman. Did you win any? 

Mr. Ogawa. I hope to say we did. We were in the St. Mihiel drive 
and the Meuse-Argonne offensive. 

The Chairman. Were you wounded? 

Mr. Ogawa. I was wounded on the morning of October 2, 1918, at 
Meuse-Argonne offensive. 

The Chairman. Then were you discharged on account of disability, 
or what? 

Mr. Ogawa. I was discharged with good health, but my health 
has been failing ever since. 

The Chairman. Are you drawing any compensation for that? 

Mr. Ogawa. Yes. 

The Chairman. How much do you receive? 

Mr. Ogawa. $24. 

The Chairman. $24 a month? 

Mr. Ogawa. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are you a member of any patriotic organization 
in this country? 

Mr. Ogawa. Yes, I am, I belong to the San Francisco Three 
hundred and sixty-third Infantry Association, and across the bay I 
belong to the Veterans of Foreign Wars, American Legion, Disabled 
American Veterans, of which I am chaplain, and I am sergeant at 
arms of the Ninety-first Division Association. 

The Chairman. That is about all you can belong to because I 
think that is about all there are. 

Mr. Ogawa. They won't leave a good man out. 

The Chairman. What are you doing now? 

Mr. Ogawa. I am working at the Moore Shipyard. 

The Chairman. What kind of work are you doing? 

Mr. Ogawa. I am a helper there. 

The Chairman. How much money are you making now? 

Mr. Ogawa. It depends on the work I do; depends on the days 
that I put in. 

The Chairman. Well, approximately how much a week? 

Mr. Ogawa. It varies from $35 to $50. 

The Chairman. Where is your family? 






NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11219 



Mr. Ogawa. My wife and four children are back in Hawaii visiting. 
She was just about ready to return when war was declared. 

The Chairman. They went before the Pearl Harbor attack? 

Mr. Ogawa. Yes; she left here last July. 

The Chairman. Do your people live over there, your father and 
mother? 

Mr. Ogawa. Her folks are all there. 

The Chairman. Do you hear from her now? 

Mr. Ogawa. I haven't had a letter for about 5 weeks from her. 
Where she is, how she is getting along, I haven't any idea. I am 
very anxious about it. 

The Chairman. Do you own your own home? 

Mr. Ogawa. I am glad to say that I am purchasing it under the 
Veterans' Welfare Board. 

The Chairman. When did you buy it? 

Mr. Ogawa. 1935. I have a beautiful home and enjoy it very 
much. 

The Chairman. Have you been able to keep up your payments on 
your home? 

^ Mr. Ogawa. I am trying my best to keep them up, because I love 
my home so well. I think I have one of the best homes in Berkeley. 

The Chairman. Are you able to send any money to your family 
in Hawaii? 

Mr. Ogawa. I am sending them some; yes. 

The Chairman. How old are your children? 

Mr. Ogawa. The oldest is 12, then 10, 6, and 5. 

Mr. Sparkman. Just where is your family in Hawaii? 

Mr. Ogawa. On the island of Maui, in the town of Puunene. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are you a citizen of the United States? 

Mr. Ogawa. I am glad to say that I am, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you anticipate that you are to be affected in 
any way by any of these orders, that is, do you live within a restricted 
area? 

Mr. Ogawa. My home is in a restricted zone. 

Mr. Sparkman. Not in a prohibited zone? 

Mr. Ogawa. Well, I am in the north of University Avenue and west 
of Grove Street. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are you going to be required to move out tomorrow, 
day after tomorrow? 

Mr. Ogawa. I haven't heard anything like that yet. 

Dr. Lamb. You are in the curfew zone, aren't you? 

Mr. Ogawa. I don't know just how it is. 

Mr. Sparkman. There is no order that applies to you as yet? 

JVIr. Ogawa. No. 

Mr. Sparkman. You simply anticipate that there may be some 
order later? 

Mr. Ogawa. If it comes through; yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is there any likelihood of your losing your job? 

Mr. Ogawa. The dark cloud seems to be hanging before me now 
and I may lose my job tomorrow, or at least in a very short time. 

Mr. Sparkman. No one has actually told you so? 

Mr. Ogawa. I was called into the office last Thursday afternoon 
and I was surprised to hear that my services were no longer needed at 
the Moore Shipyard. 



11220 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Sparkman. If you lose your job you will also lose your home? 

Mr. Ogawa. I suppose as long as I keep up my payments I can 
maintain my home, but when I am not able to pay I don't know what 
the Veterans' Welfare Board will do. I haven't discussed with Mr. 
House that matter. I am doing everything possible to keep my home. 
We are thinking very dearly of that home, my wife and I. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

Call the panel. 

Mr. Arnold. We have two witnesses next, Mr. Kunitani and Mr. 
Iiyama, appearing in behalf of the Nisei Democratic Club of Oakland. 

The committee will be glad to have you proceed in as brief a man- 
ner as you can. I have no questions. Just make your own state- 
ment. 

TESTIMONY OF ERNEST IIYAMA, PRESIDENT, NISEI DEMOCRATIC 
CLUB OF OAKLAND, CALIF. 

Mr. Iiyama. I will give a brief outline of the background of our 
organization and then there will be a short introduction from one of 
our members. 

Mr. Arnold. Yes. You may proceed. 

Mr. Iiyama. We were organized during the 1938 campaign, and 
the purpose of our organization was to bring about democratic edu- 
cation of Nisei Japanese and also action in the political field. 

Our members are Young Democrats. We have approximately 50 
members now. 

Mr. Sparkman. Is your organization opposed to Republicans or 
any other political party? 

Mr. Iiyama. We were affiliated with the Young Democrats, Inc., of 
California. 

Mr. Sparkman. All of you? 

Mr. Iiyama. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. All of you now? 

Mr. Iiyama. Well, we were until the Young Democrats split, and 
although we are not members of the organization now we are still 
Young Democrats. 

The Chairman. You don't mean to tell the committee that 
Democrats ever split, do you? 

Mr. Iiyama. There was some difference, I believe. 

TESTIMONY OF MICHIO KUNITANI, BERKELEY, CALIF. 

Mr. Kunitani. I want to qualify that. As I am a Federal em- 
ployee, I have been hatched out. I am not speaking as a member pf 
the organization, but in behalf of the organization, as a former member. 

The Chairman. When did you get hatched out? 

Mr. Kunitani. You ask Senator Hatch. 

Mr. Sparkman. Weren't you on the committee that reported out 
that Hatch Act? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. You may proceed, Mr. Iiyama. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11221 

Mr. Iiyama. We have joined the Young Democrats in the political 
and social field, and we have participated in pro-Democratic resolu- 
tions, in presenting pro-Democratic resolutions to vocational organiza- 
tions. We supported the embargo on war materials to Japan, and 
the embargo of oil to Japan before the war broke out. 

We have supported President Roosevelt's present program to defeat 
the Axis Powers. 

Since the war has broken out we have increased our meetings to 
once a week to keep up with the events that are breaking so fast. 

That is, briefly, an outline of our organization. 

Now, I would like to have Mr. Kunitani present a brief introduction. 

TESTIMONY OF MICHIO KUNITANI, BERKELEY, CALIF.— Resumed 

Mr. Kunitani. We come here as Americans prepared to take a 
frank attitude and make frank statements, and speak to the members 
of this committee here just as people probably would in the cloakroom 
of the House of Representatives. We are going to be very informal. 
We would like to be able to present our statements in very brief 
outline and then we would like to have questions asked later, if that 
is all right with the Congressmen. 

We come here as Americans, not by virtue of our birth in America, 
but by virtue of the social and cultural forces in America. We come 
here to be treated as Americans and we want to live as Americans in 
America. 

As I say, we are Americans, not by the mere technicality of birth, 
but by all the other forces of sports, amusements, schools, churches, 
which are in our communities and which affect our lives directly. 

Some of us are Yankee fans; some of us are Dodger fans; some like 
to sip beer ; some like to go up to the Top of the Mark once in a while ; 
we enjoy Jack Benny; we listen to Beethoven, and some of us even 
go through the Congressional Record. That is something. 

The main idea that our group wanted to present here today was 
that we didn't want to be treated as a special group of enemy aliens 
and as descendants of enemy aliens. We want to be treated as 
Americans, or as other groups, such as Italians, Yugoslavs, or Finns. 

It seems that among the reasons put forth by the committee, and 
the witnesses who testified this morning, and last Saturday, on why 
they thought that we should be treated as a special group were the 
following: 

No. 1. Our physical characteristics. 

No. 2. The question of dual citizenship. 

No. 3. The vague question of Shintoism and national religion. 

No. 4. The question of the language schools which many of us 
have attended. 

SUGGESTED POLICIES FOR TREATMENT OF EVACUEES , 

Our group is in favor of evacuation if the military authorities of 
the United States deem it necessary. But if we do evacuate we think 
certain considerations should be taken into account: 

No. 1. If we are evacuated we would like to have food, shelter, 
and clothing, whether it be in North Dakota, Arizona, or Florida. 



11222 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

No. 2. We think some plan should be instituted so that the 
evacuees can participate positively in the defense effort and that we 
can, by our efforts in some way help gain a quicker victory for the 
anti-Fascist forces. 

No. 3. We want the evacuees who are in the various professions, 
such as doctors, opticians, lawyers, and so on, to continue to act in 
that capacity. 

I would like to touch on the question of loyalty. There has been a 
hue and cry by a lot of the people in California that there has been no 
anti-Fascist action on the part of any Japanese group. I would like 
to refute that statement right here and now. 

Our organization, since the Democratic campaign of 1938, has come 
out on numerous occasions against shipments of oil and scrap iron to 
the Fascist war lords of Japan, and we opposed aggression in Ethiopia. 
Our records are filled with communications to our Congressmen, even 
to our Representative, who happens to be Mr. Tolan, urging them 
to vote against such measures in Congress. 

I want to touch upon the question of the language schools. I would 
like to point out to the members of the committee that our parents, 
most of them, have had very little education. You will find in any 
group, whether they be Jews, Yugoslavs, Finns, Danes, or Japanese, 
that the people who do migrate to other lands are usually those who 
have not had economic security in their native lands and, therefore, 
have come to new areas in order to gain a livelihood. Most of our 
parents fall into that category. 

REASONS FOR JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOLS 

They set up these language schools for various reasons. 

No. 1. They thought that since they enjoyed the fruits of American 
life that they should contribute something to America. They thought 
that the fine parts of Japanese culture could be integrated into 
American life and that the second generation of Japanese, if they were 
able to read and write, could thereby discover the better side of Jap- 
anese culture and they could give that as their contribution to 
America and, if they could do that, the parents would die happy. 

No. 2. This so-called indoctrination on the part of our parents 
hasn't been only along Japanese lines, but it has also followed Amer- 
ican lines. We had 500 students registered at the University of 
California last semester. That is the largest enrollment of any 
minority group in the State of California. The record will also show 
a large number of Japanese students attending universities and high 
schools. 

There is another reason why a" study of the Japanese language is 
encouraged and that is because a knowledge of the Japanese language 
is essential to the economic picture into which the Japanese man or 
woman has to fit. At least, in this generation most of our employers 
happen to be Japanese. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11223 



DISCRIMINATION AND ITS EFFECT 



We were discriminated against in private industry and, therefore, 
the only other channel into which the Japanese people could gain an 
economic livelihood was in the Japanese group. It was essential for 
us to learn the Japanese language so that we could converse intelli- 
gently with our employers. 

Another point that I want to bring out is that there aren't very 
many Japanese in the civil service of the Federal Government, or in 
the State and local governments. That those who are working for the 
Federal Government are in there because they are discriminated 
against in private industry. It is usually in the case of professional 
workers rather than, we will say, those who fall in the category of 
laborers. 

Another point I want to bring out is that the time spent in language 
schools amounts to about an hour a day, maybe two or 
three times a week. 

Most of the time of the Japanese student is spent in the public 
schools. He spends from 6 to 8 hours in public schools. After school 
he goes into the extra-curricular activity of the public schools. His 
Sundays and Saturdays are taken up by participation in athletic 
events, Boy Scout activities, and such. 

The time element there is not present in which the young Japanese 
could be indoctrinated with Shintoism or anything else. 

Mr. Arnold. What is taught in those language schools? 

Mr. Kunitani. I went to a Japanese language school for about 4 
years. I did not like to go at all. I went home and told my mother 
I had attended school when, as a matter of fact on some occasions I 
had not. She said, "What did you do?" 

I lied, and said, "I did this and I did that." 

I memorized a couple of poems. I knew that Yokohama was so 
many miles away from Tokyo. I learned something about geography. 
There was nothing indoctrinating me in the worship of my ancestors, 
or anything like that. I didn't go high enough to learn what they 
taught in the higher grades. I just went to the equivalent of about 
the third grade in the Japanese school. Even then I attended only 
haphazardly. 

My case, I think, is typical of most of the Japanese who attend 
Japanese language schools. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have any knowledge of what they teach 
higher up in these Japanese language schools? 

Mr. Kunitani. That I don't know. 

Mr. Arnold. Haven't you ever inquired? 

Mr. Kunitani. No. I wasn't interested. 

Another point is this: Most of the second generation Japanese do 
not know the language sufficiently to be indoctrinated. In fact, most 
of our homes are places where, after dinner, we don't congregate 
around the living room, or at the dinner table and talk. Usually 
after 6 or 6:30 it is: "Well, I have to go to the basketball game," or 
"I have to go to a show." 

That point is well brought out by the fact that the Army had to 
hire Japanese students to teach Japanese enrollees the Japanese 



11224 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

language. That has been the case at Camp Roberts and at Fort 
Orel. It bears out my point that most of the Japanese, the young 
Japanese, don't know the language at all. 

Mr. Arnold. Were those college graduates? 

Mr. Ktjnitani. I mean all second generation Japanese. 

DUAL CITIZENSHIP 

Now, I want to touch on the question of dual citizenship. I do 
not know very much about its history and background, but I can 
present my case in point. 

I didn't even know that I was a citizen of Japan until I was about 
17 years old, and a freshman in college. My father happened to tell 
me that I was a citizen of Japan. Therefore, I went through the 
legal channels and expatriated myself. 

Mr. Arnold. You expatriated yourself as a Japanese? 

Mr. Kunitani. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. You have renounced your Japanese citizenship? 

Mr. Kunitani. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. How did you do it? 

Mr. Kunitani. The only legal channel set up at that time was to 
renounce your citizenship through the medium of the Japanese 
consulate. They sent some papers to my father's prefecture and they 
crossed my name off the record, or something like that. 

I have a record of all that at home, but it is all in Japanese and it 
would have to be translated. 

Another thing I would like to point out to the members of the 
committee is the indivisibility of citizenship in the eyes of American 
law. If we are citizens here that is enough. I don't think all this 
cry about the question of dual citizenship is that important. I mean 
it doesn't play a major role in our lives. 

Another thing in connection with dual citizenship that I would like 
to point out is that since the only other channel of expatriation has 
been closed to us by the closing of Japanese consulates, we favor the 
bill which was before Congress which provides that legal means be 
set up so that Japanese who have dual citizenship could expatriate 
themselves through American courts. Our organization is in favor of 
such a measure and we have written to our Congressman to support it. 

Another tiling I would like to point out, and it is probably a ques- 
tion you would ask me, is this: What about the recent raids by the 
F. B. I., when they found thousands of rounds of ammunition, sabers, 
binoculars, flashlights, and what not, in some of the homes, after the 
date set for turning in such contraband? 

Our answer to that question is this: That our organization has in- 
structed its members many times to tell their friends, and their 
parents, to surrender such things. I think most Japanese people have 
done this, and have carried out the regulation of the Department of 
Justice and the War Department in that connection. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11225 

JAPANESE IN DEFENSE AREAS 

Another tiling I would like to point out is this: Which came first, 
the defense areas or the Japanese farms that are around the defense 
areas? 

I would like to point out that agriculture was the first occupa- 
tion open to the Japanese people. The people who came here first 
were agriculturalists. One-third of the present Japanese population 
in the United States is engaged in agricultural pursuits. It just 
happens that they have followed a pattern. It is a similar pattern in 
Des Moines, Iowa, in Jamestown, Va. as well as in California. It is a 
social pattern which is not peculiar to California, or to Washington. 
The fundamental basis is the same all over the United States. 

Mr. Arnold. How do you account for the fact that Japanese 
citizens own all the land around the Lockheed plant in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Kunitani. Well, I don't know about that. 

Mr. Arnold. Attorney General Warren testified that the land that 
had been bought up by Japanese in and near these plants couldn't 
grow enough to hide a jack rabbit. Do you know anything about 
that? 

Mr. Kunitani. I don't know anything about that. I couldn't 
refute Attorney General Warren on that point at all. 

But I would like to point out the principle of these things. I think 
all these other things can be taken up later by the committee. I don't 
think we should waste time on them at the moment. 

Mr. Arnold. We must move along for we have two more witnesses. 

Mr. Kunitani. I will be through in another 5 minutes. 

JAPANESE ON TERMINAL ISLAND 

I now come to the matter of the question of Terminal Island. 
Those fishermen on Terminal Island were there 20 years ago and that 
military airport that happens to be there was just completed in 1938. 
I know that for a fact. I think you could go through the records of 
the Navy Department and find out when that field was put on 
Terminal Island. 

Another thing that I want to point out is that there is no conscious 
movement of Japanese to these areas. It is just simply a matter 
of following their occupations — farming. If it were third- or fourth- 
generation Japanese probably there might be — I mean if we found 
farms were around strategic areas, probably there would be a conscious 
effort by the Japanese to move around to certain areas, but I don't 
think at the present time, in this generation at least, there is any 
conscious movement on the part of the Japanese as a whole. 

There may be some Japanese who have started farms around 
certain defense areas. Mr. Warren brought that out last Saturday. 
That I cannot refute. But I would like to point out the other side 
of the picture at this present time. 

Another thing that I want to point out is our position in the war. 
Our club has been against any aggression, whether it be Japanese, 
Italian, Fascist, Spanish, or otherwise. Our records are just filled 
with resolutions which we passed against the action of those countries. 



11226 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. How long ago? 

Mr. Kunitani. That was before the war; we started our organiza- 
tion in 1938. Our hands are clean and our houses are open. You 
are welcome to come to any member of our organization to discover 
whether or not he is loyal. We have no hesitancy on that part. 

SABOTAGE AT PEARL HaRBOR 

Another point I want to bring out is about Pearl Harbor. We hear 
lots about sabotage at Pearl Harbor. 

Mr. Tolan pointed out frequently this morning, and this after- 
noon, that he heard of Army trucks put in the road. I don't know 
where Mr. Tolan got that information. I don't know whether that 
is true or not. I cannot say. I can only go on the Roberts report, 
which was the only official United States document put out, as to 
what happened at Pearl Harbor, and why things happened as they 
did. I think if you gentlemen look into the Roberts report again 
you will find that no mention was made of sabotage on the part of 
Japanese-Americans. They pointed out that 200 members operating- 
out of the Japanese consulate were the most active participants in 
fifth column activities in Hawaii. 

I mean to say the average Japanese in California isn't intelligent 
enough to go about and engage in fifth column activities. The odds 
are against him. He has an oriental face that can be easily detected. 

I am not saying there wasn't any fifth column activity in Pearl 
Harbor on the part of Japanese, but I don't think there was wholesale 
fifth column activity on the part of the Japanese-Americans or the 
aliens in Pearl Harbor. 

The Chairman. You don't want to leave the impression that 
Japanese are not smart, do you? 

Mr. Kunitani. No, not that. I think some of them are alert and 
intelligent. 

The Chairman. Did you read the report of Secretary Knox about 
sabotage in Pearl Harbor? 

Mr. Kunitani. As I said before, the only report that I could 
believe, as a citizen, is the official report of the Government, and that 
was the Roberts report. 

I think President Roosevelt said in his press conference the other 
day, when asked by Pearson, and some of the other reporters, if it 
were not true that even the Spaniards and Arabs knew about what 
happened at Pearl Harbor, his answer was, "Complete rot," and he 
spelled out r-o-t. That is the report I got. As far as our organization 
is concerned, it is standing by the only official report put out by the 
United States Government, which is the Roberts committee report. 

I don't know where Mr. Tolan got his information. It may be 
true. I am not saying that it isn't. 

Mr. Sparkman. The Roberts report did not deny the idea of 
sabotage and fifth-column activity. It simply didn't mention it. 

Mr. Kunitani. Yes. There was no positive statement in the 
report itself. It didn't say they didn't do it nor that they did do it. 
What they said was that there were 200 operators under the Japanese 
consulate and they were the main saboteurs in Pearl Harbor. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11227 

Another point I want to make is this idea of hardship cases. I think 
Congressman Tolan pointed out numerous times this morning what 
should be done about hardship cases. 

PLANS FOR EVACUATION 

Our organization has a definite plan as to what should be done about 
such cases if evacuation is to be instituted here in California. 

No. 1. Our prime purpose is that we should not be treated any 
differently than Italians, Germans, Finns, or Yugoslavs. We want to 
be treated equally. 

No. 2. We think that the Federal authorities should handle such 
cases. We don't believe that local authorities have the time, or the 
money, to set up agencies to take care of such cases. 

We believe that the Federal Security Administration, under the 
able direction of Paul G. McNutt, should take the matter into its 
hands. I don't think the Army and Navy should do it. They have 
a big fight on their hands outside. I think they would be willing to let 
civilian bureaus handle this job of hardship cases. We think that 
the United States Employment Service, or the State social security 
board, should take such cases and deal with them. 

I do not think any individual in America has any idea as to the 
numerous problems which will arise when you transplant a whole 
economy from one area to another. There are so many variables 
involved that I do not think anybody could begin to comprehend them. 

We have tried to point out what, in our opinion, should be done. 

Mr. Arnold. Who is the young lady beside you? 

Mr. Kunitani. She happens to be my wife. 

Mr. Arnold. Is she a member of your organization? 

Mrs. Anne Kunitani. Yes, I am a member. 

Mr. Arnold. I might ask Mrs. Kunitani the same question I asked 
an Italian lady this morning. 

Is your husband a 100 percent loyal American? 

TESTIMONY OF ANNE KUNITANI, BERKELEY, CALIF. 

Mrs. Kunitani. He is a Democrat and has been ever since I have 
known him. Does that make him a 100-percent American? 

Mr. Kunitani. That puts me on the spot. 

The Chairman. Do you think that the Democrats alone can win 
the war in this country? 

Mrs. Kunitani. Not necessarily. 

Mr. Arnold. As one Democrat to another, I want to commend 
you 

Mrs. Kunitani (interposing). I might tell you it was on the basis 
of his anti-Fascist activities that I met him and married him. 

The Chairman. Are you sorry? 

Mrs. Kunitani. Not as yet. 

Mr. Arnold. Does that include anti-Japanese activity? 

Mrs. Kunitani. Oh, yes. We don't discriminate among the 
Fascists. 



60396—42 — pt. 29 18 



11228 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. Japan became a member of the Axis after Italy did. 

Mrs. Kunitani. Yes. I want to bring out the fact that both the 
president of our organization and my husband have been to Japan 
and their reaction to what they saw there in the way of military ac- 
tivity did not affect them favorably. It had just the opposite effect. 
It was because of what they saw there that they have become especially 
ardent in championing the cause against the Axis Powers. 

Mr. Arnold. I think perhaps your statement has more effect in 
the record than what these two gentlemen have said. 

Mrs. Ktjnitani. I think you are prejudiced. 

The Chairman. Well, a woman must always have the last word. 

What do you think about this proposition: Do you think the United 
States today is more in danger of sabotage from Germans and Italians 
than it is from Japanese? 

Mrs. Ktjnitani. No; I wouldn't say that they are in greater danger. 
But I think there is just as much danger. Of course, here on the 
Pacific coast I think everyone has a tendency to be prejudiced more 
against the Japanese as a potential saboteur than against the others, 
because the danger seems more imminent. 

As my husband stated, we feel we would be perfectly willing to 
abide by the regulations set down by the Federal Government, pro- 
vided they are set down with equality toward all of these descendants 
of Axis aliens. 

JAPANESE REPORT FIFTH-COLUMN ACTIVITIES 

Another thing we forgot to mention is the fact that in our own 
membership we have had people who actually reported fifth-column 
activity. I don't care to divulge the names in public, but if you care 
to have them 

The Chairman. Reports against Japanese fifth columnists? 

Mrs. Ktjnitani. Yes. 

The Chairman. Then there are some fifth-column Japanese? 

Mrs. Kunatani. Yes — if not actual fifth-column activity, there are 
people who have definite pro-Japanese sympathies. 

Mr. Kunatani. I think that the Army and Navy Intelligence, and 
the F. B. I. have known that for a long time. I wouldn't say at the 
present time there aren't foreign agents here. I think there are lots 
of them here, as well as native agents — I mean people who are Amer- 
icans and who would like to see our country defeated. This question 
of fascism is not delegated to one country or to one race. It is uni- 
versal, a universal pattern. 

Mr. Arnold. You have presented your testimony in a splendid 
manner. We appreciate your coming and would like to hear more, 
but we have two other witnesses. 

Mr. Iiyama. May I mention a couple of things before closing? 

We would like to have the Japanese-Americans represented on the 
committees which will plan evacuation, and things like that, because 
it is our problem and I think we could contribute something to it. 
If there is any committee set up to plan these things we would like 
to have representation on that committee. 

Another thing that we would like is that some centralized Govern- 
ment body be established so that Japanese can go to them to get 
information on their problems and how they can solve them. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11229 

Another thing is the control of the press. I think the Government 
should control the press, as far as the Japanese press is concerned, and 
to some extent the American press. They are playing up the racial 
line which only goes to break up the unity of the people. I would like 
to see some Government control over those things too. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Mr. Arnold. We have two more witnesses — James M. Omura and 
Miss Okuma. 

These witnesses have requested to be heard, as I understand it, as 
they do not feel that what was said by the representatives of another 
Japanese-American organization has properly presented their case. 

Mr. Omura. Do you want me to proceed? 

Mr. Arnold. A woman should always have the last word. You 
may proceed. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES M. OMURA, EDITOR AND PUBLISHER, 
CURRENT LIFE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Mr. Omura. I appear before this committee informally. I have 
just come from work and I am not dressed properly for an appearance 
before such a committee. 

Mr. Arnold. What is your work? 

Mr. Omura. My regular work is that of a buyer and head packer 
for the Amling Wholesale Florists. 

Of course, on the side, I publish Current Life, a magazine dedicated 
toward better understanding. It is entirely supported by what 
income I gain from my regular job. It was originated in October 1940. 
Since then we have been doing our best to present the factual side of 
the Nisei problem. 

Of course, we understand and recognize the fact that much of what 
is being said in the Japanese newspapers and in the Japanese com- 
munities is in a great measure propaganda. 

We are opposed to what we believe is a one-sided presentation of 
the issue. 

Since this publication, Current Life, came into being, we have 
attacked our own racial society as well as the greater American public 
in what we believe is unfairness and injustice. 

I requested to be heard here due largely to the fact that I am 
strongly opposed to mass evacuation of American-born Japanese. 
It is my honest belief that such an action would not solve the question 
of Nisei loyalty. If any such action is taken I believe that we would 
be only procrastinating on the question of loyalty, that we are afraid 
to deal with it, and that at this, our first opportunity, we are trying 
to strip the Nisei of their opportunity to prove their loyalty. 

I do not believe there has ever been, or ever could be again, a 
situation of this kind where the Nisei can prove their loyalty. 

I suppose you understand that I am in some measure opposed to 
what some of the other representatives of the Japanese community have 
said here before this committee. Unfortunately, I wasn't here, and 
I have no report on it, so I do not know actually what was said, but I 
do know generally what they are promoting. 

I specifically refer to the J. A. C. L. It is a matter of public record 
among the Japanese community that I have been consistently opposed 



11230 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

to the Japanese-American Citizen League. I have not been opposed 
to that organization primarily in regards to its principles, but I have 
felt that the leaders were leading the American-born Japanese along the 
wrong channels, and I have not minced words in saying so publicly. 

I do not know what else I could say, except that I desire to have 
an unpublished editorial of Current Life read into this record. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have it there? 

Mr. Omura. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Just leave that with the reporter and it will become 
a part of the record. 

(Editorial referred to above is as follows:) 

In Spirit, We Are Americans 

Promoters of racialism — the gulf which seems to eternally divide oriental 
Americans from fellow Americans of Caucasian ancestry — have enjoyed a virtual 
field day to date in their vigorous campaign to oust resident Japanese, including 
bona fide citizens, from their hard-won economic niche * * * modest as such 
may be. The theory of racial "divine creation" is a theory which gains greater 
and more ominous impetus with the progress of war in the Pacific, especially 
intensified at the current hour by virtue of repeated Allied losses in the Far East. 

The Nisei Americans, the unfortunate children of destiny in this Pacific war, 
are mere stepping stones for political aspirants and self-seekers. They are being 
utilized today as political footballs for ambitious officeholders and aspiring dema- 
gogs who find it quite opportune to grind their personal axes on the fate of these 
oft-vilified and persecuted voiceless Americans. The extent to which bigotry arid 
racial antipathy can go in denying civil liberties — a vital cornerstone of democ- 
racy — to a segment of the population is witnessed in the summary dismissal of 
Nisei civil-service employees in the city and county of Los Angeles. 

Racialism doubtlessly will play a significant and important role in the war over 
the Pacific. And the brunt of the guilt for the criminal act of December 7, at 
Pearl Harbor seems destined to fall upon the guiltless brow of the poor, hapless 
Nisei — merely because they wear the outward features of the race whose people 
committed the now historic crime. For that act, the Caucasian population on the 
Pacific coast will find fiendish glee in exacting punishment upon citizen Americans 
with Japanese faces. What could be more unjust and un-American? 

The future of Nisei Americans is indeed dark. They walk through life in fear, 
dreading that with each passing moment new restrictions and edicts, disrupting 
the normal conduct of their daily lives will be adopted. They have watched with 
saddening brows the pathos and confusion of their alien parents being uprooted 
forcefully from the homes which took some of the best years of their oppressed 
lives to "build commanded by the stern measures of a nation at war to go else- 
where in some distant alien" surroundings to build anew. Will the hour arrive 
when they, too, must unwillingly follow after? 

Should that hour come, the history of our American Republic will never again 
stand high in the council chambers of justice and tolerance. Democracy will 
suffer deeply by it. The forceful evacuation of citizen Americans on the synthetic 
theory of racial fidelity — "Once a Jap, always a Jap" — would be an indictment 
against every racial minority in the United States. It would usher in the bigoted 
and misguided belief that Americanism is a racial attribute and not a national 
symbol. The scar that will be left will be broad and deep — a stigma of 
eternal shame. 

We must stand shoulder to shoulder in these critical hours. National unity 
is not best served bv discriminating against a segment of the citizenry merely 
because of physical differences. It would be well to remember that the Nisei 
Americans and their alien parents have contributed generously and are con- 
tinuing to contribute in like fashion to the cause of national defense. In spirit, 
we are Americans. 

Mr. Arnold. How much circulation does Current Life have? 

Mr. Omura. We have approximately 500. This circulation, may 
I add, is made up of American people as well as Nisei. We have been 
driving into the American field to present what we believe is our prob- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11231 

lem to them and have not been concentrating so much on our own 
people because we believe they know the problem just as well as we do. 

(The following material was received subsequent to the hearing 
and accepted for the record.) 

Mr. Omtjra. It is doubtlessly rather difficult for Caucasian Ameri- 
cans to properly comprehend and believe in what we say. Our 
citizenship has even been attacked as an evil cloak under which we 
expect immunity for the nefarious purpose of conspiring to destroy the 
American way of life. To us — who have been born, raised, and 
educated in American institutions and in our system of public schools, 
knowing and owing no other allegiance than to the United States — 
such a thought is manifestly unfair and ambiguous. 

I would like to ask the committee: Has the Gestapo come to 
America? Have we not risen in righteous anger at Hitler's mistreat- 
ments of the Jews? Then, is it not incongruous that citizen Americans 
of Japanese descent should be similarly mistreated and persecuted? I 
speak from a humanitarian standpoint and from a realistic and not a 
theoretical point of view. This view, I believe, does not endanger 
the national security of this country nor jeopardize our war efforts. 

Let me here insert an editorial published in the San Francisco 
Call-Bulletin of December 17 and excerpts from which have appeared 
in various metropolitan dailies in the United States: 

A Plea for Tolerance 

The war that every loyal Nisei American had dreaded and wished to avoid is 
upon us. We each are faced with the darkest and bitterest hours of our lives — 
and the supreme test lies before us. It is our duty — and it should be our wish — 
to prove the unflinching and unswerving loyalty that we have professed so often 
in the past. The sacrifice is indeed great, but our courage and our faith should be 
equal to the task. 

Japan's act of aggression on American soil at Pearl Harbor and in the Philip- 
pines was a dastardly crime. It was a criminal assault upon an unsuspecting 
nation. We condemn it as a felonius and shameful attack. There can be no 
satisfaction until the forces of Imperial Japan are crushed — and they shall be 
crushed. American men and American resources will triumph in the end. 
P But in the confusion of national peril, we dread the flight of reason. It is our 
fervent hope that Occidental Americans will make some distinction between 
Nisei, who are citizens, and alien and enemy Japanese. We trust that they will 
not lose sight of the salient fact that American does not signify a racial trait but a 
national symbol. The loyal Nisei, many of whom are in the Army, deserve as 
much consideration as other fellow Americans. The bombs that fall on American 
soil peril their lives as well. 

We recognize the fact that there are in our midst a number of Japanese, citizens 
as well as aliens, who constitute a threat to the security of our Nation. We 
firmly believe that such individuals should be interned, as they are being interned. 
We approve of those protective measures followed by the F. B. I. and the Secret 
Service and heartily endorse the course which they have invoked. We call upon 
every loyal Nisei to cooperate to the fullest with these agencies, for a traitor 
among us is an enemy to us as well. And may Almighty God be with us in these 
grave hours. 

I believe that this editorial explains quite amply what a number of 
us Nisei sincerely think and believe. We cannot understand why 
General DeWitt can make exceptions for families of German and Ital- 
ian soldiers in the armed forces of the United States while ignoring the 
civil rights of the Nisei Americans. Are we to be condemned merely 
on the basis of our racial origin? Is citizenship such a light and tran- 
sient thing that that which is our inalienable right in normal times can 
be torn from us in times of war? We in America are intensely proud 



11232 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

of our individual rights and willing, I am sure, to defend those rights 
with our very lives. I venture to say that the great majority of Nisei 
Americans, too, will do the same against any aggressor nation — though 
that nation be Japan. Citizenship to us is no small heritage; it is a 
very precious and jealous right. You have only to look back on our 
records in social welfare and community contributions to understand 
that. 

May I ask the committee members if any or all of you are acquainted 
with the Nisei? I believe that much of this distrust of citizen Japa- 
nese is based on ignorance. It would seem more compatible in the 
sense of fair play and justice that we should not be prejudged and that 
racialism should not be the yardstick by which our loyalty is measured. 
Our words, in current times, have no meaning, and so I ask you to 
examine our records, for there I beleve that to a large measure, if not 
necessarily so, lies the true determination of our oft-questioned loyalty. 

It seems to me that we are less fortunate than our alien parents. 
They, at least, are subjects of Japan and are entitled to recourse and 
redress through the Japanese Government. Not so is our case. We 
are but children of destiny — citizens by birth but citizens in virtually 
name only. 

May I further state here that the above additional material would 
have been incorporated into the Tolan committee record in San Fran- 
cisco had we been properly prepared. 

Mr. Arnold. Now, Miss Okuma, you may proceed in your own 
way. 

TESTIMONY OF CARYL FUMIKO OKUMA, MANAGING EDITOR, 
CURRENT LIFE, SAN FRANCISCO, CALIF. 

Miss Okuma. I would just like to say something about the ammu- 
nition that has been collected as contraband by F. B. I. agents down 
the peninsula. I was down there on business for my magazine the 
other day, and it was called to my attention by my subscribers that 
a great many of the aliens were taken with contraband. I think that 
was clue primarily because either proper instructions were not given 
to these people, or that those who did have the information had re- 
ported to the sheriff and the chief of police, and were told that they 
didn't want this so-called contraband. Most of it, I believe, was 
ammunition and equipment for sporting goods stores and they said, 
"We don't want to take that since they operate sporting-goods stores. 
How would they live if they didn't have this equipment to sell?" 

So you see these aliens brought that in, but they said, "Oh, no. 
You can have it." 

Then as a result of the last round-up by the F. B. I. agents they 
were interned on account of this contraband in their possession. 

I would like to stress the point that cooperation should be more 
thorough on the part of the Federal Government and local authorities. 
If you are going to classify certain equipment as contraband there 
should be some way to notify these people to that effect, 

This confiscating of contraband is a strike against the Japanese- 
Americans. Many of those Japanese-Americans live with their par- 
ents, who are aliens, and when newspapers publish facts about 5,000 
bullets, or things like that, it is a black mark against the Japanese- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11233 

Americans. It doesn't give us a chance to prove our loyalty. For 
all we know, perhaps they did report them and they were turned back. 
I have had evidence that they were turned back. 

As far as evacuation is concerned, 1 guess it is mostly the press prop- 
aganda that is sliding toward mass evacuation and it is picking up 
momentum. The Japanese-Americans can be questionable, if you are 
going to judge by our faces. I don't think it is fair at a time like 
this. We should be given a chance to prove our loyalty. I believe 
there should be some way, some method established by which we 
could be evacuated safely and without hardship in breaking up families 
unnecessarily. 

Mr. Arnold. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Abbott. Mr. Chairman, I should like at this time to offer for 
the record a group of exhibits from sources not represented by wit- 
nesses. 

The Chairman. The exhibits will be made a part of the record. 
If there is nothing further, the committee will stand adjourned. 

(Whereupon, at 6 p. m. the committee adjourned; subject to the 
call of the chairman.) 



EXHIBITS 

Exhibit 1. — Position of the American Legion, Department of 
California, on Enemy Aliens and Restricted Areas 

The American Legion, 
Department of California, 
San Francisco, February li , 1942. 

Hon. John H. Tolan, 

House Office Building, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Congressman Tolan: Enclosed you will find copies of letters to Secretary 
of War Stimson and to General John L. DeWitt, together with resolution adopted 
by the American Legion war council of the Department of California. I believe 
the resolution represents the general feeling not only of The American Legion but 
also of all the loyal people in our State. 

General De Witt has the authority to close certain streets and areas here in San 
Francisco in order to protect the loading of transports. In so doing he has exer- 
cised his authority as commanding general to establish martial law in a modified 
form, but to date the War Department and the commanding general have failed 
to take any adequate action concerning the two hundred thousand Axis aliens, 
agents and sympathizers who now reside in California. 

As commander of the Department of California, and on behalf of our 75,000 
members here in this State, I urge you to see that some immediate drastic action 
is taken which will eliminate all possibility of a repetition of the catastrophe which 
occurred at Pearl Harbor, which I feel, along with other Legionnaires, was made 
possible by the fifth column activities of the Axis aliens and agents residing in 
that Territory. 

The American Legion, Department of California, has definitely placed the 
responsibility for the protection of our people and the vital defense industries in 
the State of California in the hands of the Secretary of War and the commanding 
general (John L. De Witt) of the Fourth Army. 

With kindest personal regards— 

Robert F. Garner, Jr., 

Department Commander. 

The American Legion, Department of California, 

San Francisco, February 17, 1942. 
Hon. Henry L. Stimson, 

Secretary of War, Washington, D. C. 

My Dear Sir: The American Legion, Department of California, war council, 
at its meeting held in San Francisco, Saturday, February 14, passed a certain 
resolution, copy of which I am enclosing for your information. 

As you will note from the resolution, the Department of California contends 
that the 200,000 Axis aliens who now reside within this State constitute a well 
organized fifth column, which force is a menace to our national security. We 
feel, also, that Fritz Weidemann and other capable Axis aliens have organized a 
perfect system wherewith to conduct the same sort of activities that made the 
Pearl Harbor attack a success. 

The Department of Justice has done a good job as far as it has gone but its 
action to date is and has been entirely inadequate. We contend, also, that the 
problem is of a military nature and one which the Army rather than the Depart- 
ment of Justice should handle. The responsibility for the protection of this area 
has been definitely placed in the hands of Gen. John L. DeWitt and we believe 
that the War Department should order General DeWitt to take some immediate 
drastic action which will eliminate all possibility of fifth column espionage and 
sabotage in the State of California. 

11235 



11236 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

I have written this date to General DeWitt expressing these same ideas and am 
sending copies of this letter together with the resolution and my letter to General 
DeWitt to our California congressional delegation in Washington. 
Very truly yours, 

Robert F. Garner, Jr., 

Department Commander. 

The American Legion, Department of California, 

San Francisco, February 17, 1942. 
Lt. Gen. John L/De Witt, 
Commanding Fourth Army, 

Presidio of San Francisco. 
My Dear General: The enclosed resolution was passed by the American 
Legion war council at its meeting held in San Francisco, Saturday, February 
14th, after much discussion had been heard concerning the Japanese, German, 
and Italian population now residing in the State of California. 

It was the consensus of opinion that the problem of protection against all 
fifth column activities in this combat zone was purely one of a military nature 
and particularly concerned yourself as commanding general of the Fourth 
Army. 

We of the American Legion believe that Fritz Weidemann and other capable 
representatives of the Axis group have established a well organized, well planned 
tactical set-up to conduct fifth column activities within our State. The fact 
that there are some two hundred thousand of these aliens in California leads us 
to conclude that, as I have wired you before, some immediate drastic action 
should be taken by the Army. We feel, also, that the Department of Justice 
has only scratched the surface of this problem and that its precautions are entirely 
inadequate. 

I am writing to the Secretary of War along this same line as I have written 
you and am sending copies of both letters to our California congressional delega- 
tion in Washington. 

Very truly yours, 

Robert F. Garner, Jr., 

Department Commander. 

The American Legion, Department of California, 

San Francisco, February 16, 1942. 

The following resolution was adopted by the War Council of the American 
Legion, Department of California, Saturday, February 14, 1942. 

Whereas California has been designated & s a combat zone, which presupposes 
the likelihood of enemy activity therein; and 

Whereas the extent of the danger therefrom is known only to the Army and 
Navy whose responsibility it is to insure the safety of the area; and 

Whereas there are, in the State of California, tens of thousands of enemy aliens 
living almost without restriction, and in a position to endanger the security of 
our State; and 

Whereas the Army has taken some steps to control the activities of such aliens 
in small areas of the State; and 

Whereas in the opinion of this council said action is in no sense sufficient to 
insure the protection of our State from sabotage and other fifth-column activities; 
and 

Whereas the civil authorities of our State and local communities have neither 
the necessary information nor the jurisdiction essential to the adequate regulation 
of alien enemies; and 

Whereas in the opinion of this council the solution of the enemy alien problem 
is one for the military rather than the civil authorities; now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the American Legion, Department of California War Council, 
assembled in meeting at the War Memorial Building, San Francisco, this 14th 
day of February 1942, does recommend as follows: 

1. That the military authority in this combat zone should be extended to every 
part of California deemed by the Army to be vital to the security of this State; 
and 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11237 

2. That all alien enemies and other persons suspected of subversive activities 
be removed from the area or subjected to such mode of living as will, in the 
opinion of the military authorities, adequately guarantee the security of life and 
property in California. 

Robert F. Garner, Jr., 

Department Commander. 

Attest: James K. Fisk, 

Department Adjutant. 

Exhibit 2. — Resolution Urging the Evacuation and Concen- 
tration of All Japanese and Their Descendants to a Con- 
centration Camp Under Supervision of the Federal Gov- 
ernment 

Whereas since the 7th day of December 1941 the United States has been at 
war with Japan; and 

Whereas during the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the Japanese 
were aided and abetted by fifth columnists of the Japanese race living and residing 
in and about Pearl Harbor; and 

Whereas there are located along the Pacific coast more Japanese than in all 
other States of the Union combined; and 

Whereas it is impossible to know those enemy Japanese who are loyal to the 
United States from those who are disloyal; and 

Whereas, the State of California is one of the first States in production of essen- 
tial products, and its products are absolutely and vitally essential to the successful 
war efforts; and 

Whereas the temper of the people of the Pacific coast has risen to such a point 
that it is becoming dangerous for loyal enemy aliens to reside in close proximity 
to the Pacific Ocean; and 

Whereas by reason of their situation, the Military and Naval Establishments, 
the war industries and natural resources are in the most critical situation of any 
part of the Union; and 

Whereas all Japanese persons residing in British Columbia have been removed 
from the Pacific coast line; and 

Whereas all Japanese persons residing in Mexico have been removed from the 
Pacific coast; and 

In order that those enemy aliens and their descendants who are now disloyal, 
or may become disloyal, to the United States, may be taken to a point where 
they can do no damage to the State of California and the United States; 

Now, therefore, on motion of Director W. J. Buchanan of Contra Costa 
County, seconded by Director W. O. Russell of Yolo County, and unanimously 
carried; Be it 

Resolved by the board of directors of County Supervisors Association of California, 
assembled in meeting in Sacramento, State of California, this 20th day of February, 
1942, That we go on record as urging the Attorney General of the United States, 
and the Department of Justice of the United States, that all alien Japanese and 
their descendants be forthwith evacuated to a concentration camp under the 
supervision of the Federal Government; Be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be mailed to the President of the 
United States, Secretary of State, Secretary of War, Secretary of the Navy, and 
the Attorney General of the United States; and a copy to the two Senators rep- 
resenting the State of California in the United States and to each Congressman 
representing the Pacific Coast States in the House of Representatives, and the 
Commandant of the Twelfth Naval District, and General DeWitt, United 
States Army, Presidio, San Francisco, Calif. 

County Supervisors Association of California. 

[seal] By Robert W. Lefever, President. 

By J. H. Hunter, Secretary. 



11238 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

Exhibit 3. — Resolution of the San Benito County Chamber of 
Commerce, E. E. Sparling, President, Hollister, Calif. 

February 11, 1942. 

Whereas the cowardly and dastardly attack by Japan on the armed forces of the 
United States at Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declaration of war by the 
United States on Japan and the Axis Powers has made the citizens of San Benito 
County aware of the presence of enemy aliens, particularly Japanese, and un- 
American Japanese citizens holding dual citizenship with the Japanese Empire; 
and 

Whereas raids conducted by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the adjoin- 
ing counties of Monterey and Santa Cruz within the past few days disclosed the 
indisputable fact that enemy aliens, particularly Japanese, had in 'their possession 
an appalling quantity of contraband articles including firearms, weapons, ammuni- 
tion, cameras, short-wave radios, and like apparatus, in defiance of rules and 
regulations established by the Federal Government when this region was desig- 
nated as a combat zone; and 

Whereas it is well known to the citizens of San Benito County that resident 
enemy aliens, particularly Japanese, and their descendants known as Japanese- 
American citizens, suspected of holding dual citizenship with the Empire of Japan, 
have in their possession and control in this county, farm equipment consisting of 
heavy and light trucks, tractors, tools, and other equipment which could be 
used by said aliens most effectively destroying and damaging highways, bridges, 
railroads, and communication, water, power, gas, and oil lines within this county 
as effectively as was the case at Pearl Harbor, in event of an invasion by our 
wartime enemies or as a separate act of sabotage which might be committed, at 
any time; and 

Whereas it is noticeable that the actions of most enemy aliens, particularly 
Japanese and their descendants, are not now, nor have they ever been, such as 
would lead us to believe that in event of an emergency, or at a given opportunity, 
they would maintain strict neutrality or be loyal to the United States of America; 
and 

Whereas a large part of this county is devoted to agricultural crops and grazing 
lands which become highly inflammable during the early summer, which is fast 
approaching, and would afford a most favorable opportunity for these enemy 
aliens and disloyal citizens to stage a disastrous and widespread conflagration, 
and 

Whereas numerous requests have been made to this body that it take immedi- 
ate action in urging and requesting the proper authorities to take immediate 
action to prevent the repetition of the Pearl Harbor incident or a worse disaster, 
and 

Whereas it is well known that the American people do not wish to be unfair or 
unjust to the loyal American-born Japanese-American citizens but do wish to be 
protected against any and all disloyal Japanese-American citizens, and 

Whereas it appears to this body that in view of the seriousness of the present 
war with the Japanese Government and the lack of time in which to carefully 
evaluate the standing and loyalty of the American-born Japanese-American 
citizens that both the alien Japanese and the Japanese-American citizen should 
be removed from the entire Pacific coast for the proper defense of our Nation; 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the San Benito County Chamber of Commerce does and it 
hereby urges that the proper civil and military authorities take immediate 
action to cause the removal of all enemy alien citizens and Japanese-American 
citizens from the entire Pacific coast area; and be it further 

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to commanding officers of the 
Army and Navy, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, to each Senator and 
Representative from California in the Congress of the United States, to the 
Governor of California, the Adjutant General, and the Attorney General. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11239 

Exhibit 4. — Resolution Re Disposition of Japanese Enemy 

Aliens 

REPORT BY LESLIE A. CLEARY, CHAIRMAN STANISLAUS COUNTY DEFENSE COUNCIL, 

MODESTO, CALIF. 

At a meeting of the Stanislaus County Defense Council on Friday, February 6, 
1942, the following resolution was unanimously adopted: 

Whereas the State of California, because of its geographical location is of im- 
mense strategic importance in a war with Japan; and 

Whereas more war industries and manufacturing plants are located in the State 
of California than in practically any other State in the Union; and 

Whereas the large part of the entire Japanese alien population of the United 
States is located in the State of California; and 

Whereas it is essential for the protection of the people, industries, and property 
of this State that some immediate effective and orderly plan be adopted for 
eliminating danger of sabotage and fifth column activities: Now, therefore, it is 
hereby 

Resolved by the Stanislaus County Defense Council in regular meeting assembled 
as folloivs, to wit: 

1. That the Federal Government of the United States through its proper 
agencies should take immediate steps to remove all Japanese enemy aliens from 
the territory in the State of California within 200 miles of the Pacific coast line; 

2. That said Japanese enemy aliens so removed should be placed in some 
suitable portion of the United States where they may be kept under constant 
surveillance and cared for in such a way as to eliminate as far as possible the 
possibility of a repetition of the fifth column activities that occurred at Pearl 
Harbor; 

3. That this defense council respectfully requests that the President of the 
United States, the Attorney General of the United States, and all other respon- 
sible officials take action on this matter without further delay; 

4. That a copy of this resolution be sent to the President of the United States, 
the Attorney General of the United States, all Senators, and Congressmen repre- 
senting the State of California, and to other county defense councils and to 
ex-service men's organizations in the State of California. 



Exhibit 5. — A Resolution Adopted by the Fresno County 
Chamber of Commerce in Relation to the Japanese and 
Alien Enemy Situation on the Pacific Coast 

Whereas there now seems to be a tendency on the part of authorized Federal 
agencies to remove certain aliens from vital defense areas into other sections of 
the Pacific slope without proper supervision and surveillance, thereby intensifying 
the already acute problem; and 

Whereas investigation by local, State, and Federal officers have unearthed an 
amazing amount of evidence in the Pacific coast area establishing clearly the 
presence of fifth-column activities by alien enemies and disloyalty among American- 
born Japanese, creating a situation of a most explosive nature; and 

Whereas even now the San Joaquin Valley, with its military posts, important 
railroad and highway systems, rich oil fields, great expanse of highly inflammable 
grain fields, foothill pasturelands and mountain watersheds, containing valuable 
timber and essential hydroelectric development, is receiving known alien enemies, 
who because of the lack of proper restraint could in a few hours wreck vital de- 
fense activities and destroy much farm produce needed in our all-out effort: Now, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the board of directors of the Fresno County Chamber of Com- 
merce, an organization representing business, professional, and agricultural 
interests in the central San Joaquin Valley, urge Federal authorities to remove 
from the Pacific Coast States all Japanese and aliens of other countries now at 
war with the United States to a restricted area eastward where their activities 
and influence could not affect the national defense effort: and be it further 

Resolved, That in the interest of national defense and the prevention of possible 
local disorders that those American-born Japanese who are loyal to the flag of 



] [240 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

the United States, be urged to lead the movement of their countrymen and alien 
enemies from the Pacific coast areas to designated points beyond the zone of 
effective sabotage thereby proving conclusively their loyalty as American citizens; 
and be it further . . 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be forwarded to the California Con- 
gressmen and Senators, to Attorney General Francis Biddle, and military authori- 
ties on the Pacific coast and officials of Japanese and other alien organizations. 



Exhibit 6. — Statement by Harry L. Kingman, General Secre- 
tary Young Men's Christian Association of the University 

of California, Berkeley, Calif. 

March 2, 1942. 

I have read your excellent statements regarding the necessity of treating Axis 
aliens and their descendants with fairness. It seems important from the stand- 
point of our own national welfare as well as from their own personal well-being that 
this policy be followed. It is likely that your position will meet with criticism 
from some but I hope that you will maintain it nevertheless. 

Federal appointment of a national coordinator and of an alien property custodian 
appears absolutelv essential. I hope, too, that all those who are evacuated as a 
precautionarv move will be generously aided by the Government — they should be 
financed whether or not they possess savings which they could use. Certainly 
their moving and their placement in some self-sustaining economy should be the 
responsibility of some agencv such as the Federal Security Administration— it is 
unthinkable'that they be left to shift for themselves. Furthermore, all those who 
are not considered potentially dangerous should be enabled to remain within 
their own family units. Some provision for exceptions in behalf of evacuees who 
are proven loyal should also be made. 

This would seem to me to be a minimum provision for the needs of these un- 
fortunate people if our national future is not to be seriously harmed. I am glad 
that vou and your committee could come to the west coast at this critical time. 
I am' sure that you will have a great deal of support throughout the Nation in 
urging the tvpe of program I have outlined. 

I am especially hopeful that the Federal Government will see to it that evacuated 
college students and high-school seniors are enabled to continue their education 
in colleges outside prohibited areas. „ . P ^ ^ , , , 

When the war emergencv is over we 11 be better off if these potential leaders 
of Japanese ancestry possess the training and the morale to restore themselves 
and their fellow evacuees to a normal and productive place in American life. 
Scholarships should be provided through Federal grants. 



Exhibit 7. — The Question of Transferring the Japanese From 
the Pacific Coast — an Example of War Hysteria and a 
Plea for Sanity in the Present Crisis 

report by eric c. bellqtjist, ph. d., of the department of political science, 

■UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

On the night before the United States entered World War I, President Woodrow 
Wilson spoke the following words to Frank I. Cobb: "Once lead this people into 
war and they'll forget there ever was such a thing as tolerance. To fight you 
must be brutal and ruthless, and the spirit of ruthless brutality will enter the 
verv fiber of our national life, infecting the Congress, the courts, the policeman 
on the beat, and the man on the street. * * * Yes, it means that we will 
lose our heads along with the rest, and stop weighing right and wrong. As the 
members of the committee will recall, what President Wilson predicted soon 
developed and that despite his efforts to meet the danger. 

A score of so-called patriotic leagues and societies sprang up, and whatever 
their original purpose, in the end they appealed to the basest in human nature. 
Reckless rumors, designed to breed distrust and fear, were their principal stock in 
trade and under such inspiration a wave of hysterical suspicion swept the country. 
Fven our most reputable newspapers aided by the publication of gross exaggera- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11241 

tions or downright fakes; and, tragically enough, clergymen and educators were as 
prolific a source of hate as the "patriotic" organizations. As a result, thousands 
of our citizens, mostly innocent, were the victims of unjust suspicion, ostracism, 
and, in aggravated cases, of persecution. The horrors of our domestic scene in 
1917-18 should have been a warning of what happen when America went to war 
again. Hysteria is well-nigh inseparable from war, or even talk of war, and hate 
follows inevitably, for its simplicity makes an almost irresistible appeal to certain 
types of mind. 1 

HYSTERIA AND HATE 

There was already ample evidence of this before we entered the war. When I 
returned from Europe in the autumn of 1940, after spending the first year of the 
war over there, I was astounded at the hysteria and hate which had arisen here 
at home. There was nothing like it in Finland during the magnificent fight I was 
able to follow at close range in 1939-40. There is nothing like it in the two re- 
maining democratic states on the Continent — Sweden and Switzerland. These 
two little countries are completely surrounded by brutalitarian forces and almost 
daily condemned over the German radio and in the Nazi press. Yet in neither of 
them is there any fear or hysteria. Certainly they wonder if the maelstrom will 
not also seek to engulf them, but that does not cause them to resign themselves to 
whatever fate may have in store. On the contrary, they are arming to the limit 
of their ability, resolved to face what the future holds, and continuing to practice 
democracy. Surely we have not read of any hysteria in Great Britain, where, 
instead, a morale has been builded such as hardly anyone could have anticipated 
before Dunkerque. 

Coming home, however, I was struck by an unparalleled case of jitters on the 
part of the American people, which was producing an onrushing wave of repression. 
All varieties of infringements of civil liberties were popping up throughout the 
country, and the general nervousness was reflected in the Congress and even in the 
courts. A regular disease of "fifth columnitis" appeared to be prevalent. As 
President Robert Gordon Sproul, of the University of California, put it in an 
address to the California Newspaper Publishers' Association at Del Monte in 
January 1941, "the rising tide of fear in this country, pulled by the twin moons of 
depression and aggression, has already made precarious many of the civil liberties 
which we have hitherto taken for granted." 

In repeated addresses before audiences in various parts of California I have 
stressed this problem. I have stressed it because I feared that unless the leaders 
of our communities gave this problem immediate and intelligent consideration 
there would be much trouble — much that we would later have cause deeply to 
regret. To the members of the committee, moreover, I would stress that it is 
not just a California or Pacific coast problem. Of course, now there are those 
who maintain that at a time like the present such things as-civil liberties will have 
to be set aside. The true American, however, will remember that, whether it be 
peacetime or wartime, there could be nothing more unpatriotic in this land of 
many peoples and many creeds than the persecution of minorities and the forma- 
tion of hatred and strife on the basis of race or religion. As Justice Frank Murphy 
has stated, he will also realize that if, in the atmosphere of war, we allow civil 
liberty to slip away from us, it may not be long before our gains in social and 
economic justice will also have vanished; for a nation that is calloused in its atti- 
tude toward civil rights is not likely to be sensitive toward the many grave prob- 
lems that affect the dignity and security of its citizens. 2 

We must not be oblivious to what is becoming one of the most disturbing factors 
in the present crisis. Certainly few things are ever quite so dangerous to civil 
liberties as a patterned patriotism on the loose, no matter how high and pure the 
aims and motives of those who shape it. What must everlastingly be driven home 
is that the intolerances of native prejudices are just as much a part of subversive 
activity as Japanese sabotage, Nazi spies, and Communist intrigue. We must 
guard against this today, because there is no way of making reparations for pain 
and shame. We must guard against it because it is one of the most disruptive 
factors in the morale which we are trying to build. 

1 George Creel, Beware of the Superpatriots, American Mercury, September 1940, 33-41. This theme is- 
further developed in the writer's On the Position cf Our Democracy in the Present Crisis. Los Angeles, 1911. 

2 See the address of Justice Frank Murphy, then Attorney General of the United States, October 13, 
1939, reprinted in the Appendix of the Congressional Record, October 16, 1939, extension of remarks of 
Charles H. Leavy. 



11242 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

DISCRIMINATION 

But let me be more specific. As the committee has had ample evidence al- 
ready, popular resentment toward the enemy is already finding expression in dis- 
crimination and even physical violence against fellow residents of alien extraction; 
distrust, for example, of the Japanese government being transferred to all persons 
of Japanese race, citizens and aliens alike. 

Here on the coast we have a radio commentator who views the news at 9 o'clock 
in the morning. For some time he has been urging that every Japanese, alien or 
citizen, be transplanted to the other side of the Rockies. In appeal after appeal he 
has incited the people and aroused their suspicion. We'have a former far eastern 
newspaper correspondent who, toward the end, had difficulties in Japan and has 
since been reviling the Japanese in our country and urging restrictive action of 
far-reaching scope against both aliens and citizens. We have certain interests in 
the State — some agricultural, some "patriotic," some closely affiliated with 
certain newspapers — which have long been hostile to orientals in general as well 
as other aliens, and which have now found a golden opportunity to come out 
against the Japanese on the Pacific coast. City councils and county boards of 
supervisors have been passing restrictive ordinances, petitioning the Congress to 
enact legislation against our Japanese, and in many respects to take over functions 
properly belonging to the National Government. The mayors of our two largest 
cities, as well many smaller ones, have lost their composure along with the rest. 
The State personnel board at Sacramento has sought to take action contravening 
the Constitution as well as the expressed sentiment of our highest officials, in- 
cluding the President. 

Altogether, as the committee has witnessed, the State of California, as well as 
Oregon and Washington, has been giving a demonstration of lack of balance and 
outright intolerance which will blacken its record for many years to come. If 
our public authorities have thus succumbed to hysteria, one can well understand, 
if only deplore, the housewives who dismiss Japanese gardeners and servants 
and farmers who discharge help because of citizenship or extraction. On the 
whole, the public has not shown so much hate or spite, except as it has been incited 
to do so. But pressure groups and shortsighted politicians facing an election 
year are out for blood and wholesale internment. Jingoes are endeavoring, under 
the cover of wartime flag-waving patriotism, to do what they always wanted to 
do in peacetime — get rid of the Japanese, harness labor, and frighten the liberals, 
as Louis Fischer has just pointed out in one of his reports from the coast. 

From the hearings which the committee has conducted, I am sure that its 
members must have obtained a suspicion that the attitude which now prevails 
cannot be a matter of mere chance; that it is rather the result to no small extent 
of organized pressure. Certainly the course of events would appear so to indicate. 

Despite the treacherous nature of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, there was 
no immediate reaction of suspicion of aliens in California. While at the outset 
our people were naturally somewhat confused and alarmed at the events of early 
December, there was little hysteria. Californians kept their heads remarkably 
well. There were few if any serious denials of civil rights to either aliens or citizens 
of Japanese race on account of the war. As late as December 29, 1941, the 
Northern California Committee on Fair Play for Citizens and Aliens of Japanese 
Ancestry 3 could issue a statement expressing general satisfaction with the manner 
in which the American tradition of fair play had been observed. As its release 
of that date indicated, all the organs of public influence and information had 
discouraged mob violence and pleaded for tolerance and justice for all law-abiding 
residents of whatever race. Federal and local officials charged with maintaining 
order and suppressing subversive activities had shown both vigor and sympathetic 
consideration in the fulfillment of their duties, and private civic agencies had 
acted promptly to handle the many difficulties encountered by Japanese residents 
on account of necessarv wartime restrictions on persons and property. 

In brief, up to the end of the year, there had been no panic and little infringe- 
ment upon rights and liberties. The people were calm and went about their 
business in getting ready to face the war, maintain morale, and put forth the 
common effort necessary to meet and defeat the forces of brutalitarianism. 

s This committee is headed by Gen. David P. Barrows and has as its honorary chairman, Gov. Culbert 
L. Olson. Among its distinguished members are Presidents Reinhardt, Sproul, and Wilbur, Chester H. 
Rowell, J. S. Curran, C. C. Young, George G. Kidwell, and Mrs. Wallace Alexander. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11243 

CLAMOR FOR RESTRICTIVE MEASURES 

This sound common-sense American attitude of doing the job and paving the 
way for victory was not allowed to continue, however. In January the commen- 
tators and columnists, professional "patriots", witch hunters, alien haters, and 
varied groups and persons with aims of their own began inflaming public opinion. 
Reason was not to be allowed to prevail. Clamor for un-American restrictive 
measures became rife. The ancient western curse of vigilante rule was once more 
raising its head. 

This is not to say that public opinion had previously been complacent. Cali- 
fornia and the coast was fully aware that more care should have been exercised 
long ago, that in case of war there were many potential saboteurs in our midst, 
and that traditional American freedom of movement and lack of suspicion might 
easily lead to instances of sabotage and treachery. At the same time, there was 
confidence in our public authorities. There was appreciation of the fact that 
even before the war and all the more after its outbreak the Federal Bureau of In- 
vestigation as well as Military and Naval Intelligence were doing their duty, and 
that most of those who might become dangerous were known and would be taken 
care of. There was realization of the fact that through cooperation with the 
leaders of the minority groups the duly constituted authorities could most effec- 
tively deal with the problem. Our citizens generally, moreover, were themselves 
helpful and cooperative. Instead of thinking of taking matters in their own 
hands, they communicated with those properly charged with the apprehension of 
subversive elements. 

In short, there was no popular clamor for comprehensive restrictions or mass 
evacuation. Not until inflammatory commentators on the "enemy-alien 
menace" undermined popular confidence did the present hysteria arise. I cannot 
believe that this is just a matter of chance. The committee will do well to 
endeavor to ascertain just what lies behind present clamor. What are the real 
motives? 

The appraisal which I have here made has been confirmed by several of the more 
thoughtful witnesses appearing before the committee. It is shared by most 
persons who are really familiar with the problem and have no ax to grind, persons 
farsighted enough to consider the Nation's interest in the future as well as the 
present. I take the liberty to quote, in this regard, from a letter which I received 
from Mr. Philip Bancroft, prominent California agriculturist and former Repub- 
lican candidate for the Senate from this State. Written on February 14, this 
letter comments upon a plea for tolerance which I made, some days earlier and 
which was given some publicity over the wires of the Associated Press. 

"My Dear Professor Bellquist: I want to congratulate you upon the fine 
stand you have publicly taken as to the attitude our people should assume toward 
enemy aliens within our borders. 

"In going about the country districts I have been gratified to find much more 
of sympathy and understanding for the plight of these unfortunate people than 
would generally be expected from what appears in the papers. 

"Apparently most of our politicians think they can increase their popularity by 
attacking these people who have very few defenders rather than by leaving* the 
handling of the subject to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the War 
Department, and then backing up those two agencies 100 percent in protecting 
our country against the danger from those few enemy aliens who constitute a 
real threat. 

"Your fearless stand will be of great value, not only to those aliens but even 
more to our own citizens, by preventing some of them from committing foolish 
and cruel acts which they would later deeply regret." 

Several of our more responsible newspapers have written thoughtful editorials 
against the current trend. By the unfortunate headlining and sensational play 
which the whole press has given the situation, however, it has greatly contributed 
in promoting the prevailing hysteria and fear. Indeed, in speaking with many of 
the Nation's educators attending their national conferences being held in San 
Francisco at the same time as your committee was sitting, I ascertained that many 
of them definitely received the impression that we had completely lost our com- 
posure out here. Some of them wondered if it would be safe to remain for their 
sessions, and it is a matter of fact that not only have tourists been frightened away 
but some of our own people have given thought to moving inland because they are 
convinced that if California can thus easily allow its emotions to prevail against 
reason it will be safer to live elsewhere in the event a crisis should really come. 

60396— 42— pt. 29 19 



11244 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

CONGRESSIONAL SPEECHES 

The problem is more than a California or Pacific coast problem, however. As the 
committee has good reason to know, already the authorities of most of the Western 
States have given evidence of succumbing to similar fear and hysteria. Moreover, 
the Congress itself has given indications along the same line. On February 18, 
for example, Representative Rankin, of Mississippi, stated on the floor of the 
House that the west coast was teeming with spies and fifth columnists. "Once a 
Jap, always a Jap," asserted Mr. Rankin, whose State certainly does not have 
many aliens in its midst, although the gentleman from Mississippi might well 
accord his attention to the large suppressed minority which does exist there. 
Even so, Mr. Rankin announces: "I'm for taking every Japanese * * * and put 
him in a concentration camp." 4 

By February 23, Mr. Rankin has become even more concerned. Now he sees 
the Japanese stirring up so much race trouble among the Negroes in Harlem "that 
the city authorities have entirely lost control." Moreover, "they are behind this 
drive to try to stir up trouble between the whites and the Negroes here in Wash- 
ington." The gentleman from Mississippi then proceeds to place himself above 
the Constitution of the United States and decisions of the Supreme Court in 
declaring that Japanese born in this country actually are not citizens at all, but 
instead "are aliens in our midst and should be deported at the earliest oppor- 
tunity." 5 Moreover, while your committee has been holding its hearings here 
on the coast, a bill has been introduced to establish this novel doctrine and the 
regular House committee is now holding hearings on it. 

AMMUNITION FOR NAZIS 

I am sure that all of the members of your committee fully realize the implica- 
tions of what I have stated above. I am sure that you all realize that by such 
actions we are diametrically opposing everything for which this country stands in 
this war. We are assisting in destroying the unity which we now must have. 
We are copying the very methods of Hitler and the substitution of the term 
"reception center" for "concentration camp" does not alter this fact. We are 
furnishing both the Nazis and Japanese with propaganda material which may 
easily strike a responsive chord among the peoples of Asia and have much to do 
with making our winning of the war more difficult. We are opening the door for 
retaliation against thousands of our own citizens now situated in occupied and 
conquered countries. . We are also opening the portals for doubt in the minds of 
millions of subjected people who are only awaiting the massing of our strength to 
join us in the common effort against the enemy. We all realize, I think, that it is 
a war of aggression against the democracies, not only physically and materially, 
but also against democratic ideals — free speech, free institutions, dignity and 
security for the individual. But if the democratic countries are to win this war, 
they have to show that, not only does democracy mean what it says, but that it 
knows how to put into effect what it says. We have to convince the world that 
we mean what we say and that we know how to put into effect what we say. Does 
our handling of the alien and citizen situation on the Pacific coast give very 
comforting demonstration of this? 

Moreover, we have anti-Negro, anti-Catholic, anti-Semitic, as well as anti-alien 
groups in this country. There is no little latent feeling of racial, ethnic, and re- 
ligious prejudice and conflict in our midst. Once let loose a movement against 
one minority group, such as our Japanese or Italian citizens and aliens, and the 
floodgates are open for blind hatred also against other minority groups. On all of 
this, furthermore, our enemies can play; in fact, are already playing. These 
tensions may easily be exploited for the purposes of stimulating and fostering 
disunity leading to internal paralysis. Axis propaganda against us is based upon 
a detailed analysis of the American character structure, with most astute diagnoses 
of its abundant weaknesses. It tries to set into motion subtle programs, not only 
to make our minorities self-conscious and to impregnate them with an oppression 
psychosis, but also to set one minority against the other — Gentiles against Jews, 
Protestants against Catholics, and whites against Negroes. We must realize, 
furthermore, that among the many marginal people in our midst — not least of all 
the Negro — the feeling of being rejected, or not being wanted, creates in each 
instance a center of morale infection, and every such area is the more vulnerable 
to some phase of Axis propaganda. 

* Congressional Record, February 19, 1942, A691-692. 
' Ibid., February 28, 1942, AS39-841. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11245 

The accentuation of our differences which is now going on may very well become 
one of the most insidious factors in the sapping of our national strength. We 
cannot possibly mobilize our full potential force as a nation to fight the enemies 
from without if we must dissipate our strength and divert our passions toward a 
largely imaginary enemy within. By allowing racism and antialienism to'flourish, 
we will deflect our attention from those recruiting stations of the fifth column 
which are far more dangerous than our racial minorities and our immigrant 
groups. 

The above assertions are made in all seriousness. As has been indicated, I was 
in northern Europe during the first year of the present war. I personally experi- 
enced the Nazi onslaught in Scandinavia in the spring of 1940. That part of the 
world, moreover, constitutes the special field of my research. I am as familiar 
with it, in some respects, as I am with my own country. I mention this only to 
give more support to what I am going to state now. 

NORWEGIAN SITUATION REPRESENTED 

Much of the emphasis now given to so-called fifth columns is based on what was 
reported to have been the situation in Norway. The story of the fifth column in 
Norway, however, is largely fiction woven by irresponsible and sensational report- 
ing by journalists who did not understand Norwegian, who had no knowledge of 
the country, and who substituted gossip and rumor for the information they could 
not obtain. This is not the place to analyze the true situation, but I would say 
that the attitude of the Norwegian people during and after the Nazi invasion 
constitutes a complete refutation of the fifth-column accusation. 6 The way for 
the invaders was not prepared by Norwegians. Norway was not betrayed from 
within. The occupation was, in no real sense, an inside job. It was not made 
easy by Norwegian connivance. Far from having reason to be ashamed of her 
own people, Norway can be proud of what they did when the test came. It is 
important that this be realized. As the members of the committee undoubtedly 
realize, in every country that has fallen before the overwhelming force of the 
enemy, stories are at once spread that the victory has been the result of treachery. 
Nothing more demoralizes a people than rumors that they have been betrayed by 
their neighbors, by members of their own government, even by officers in their 
defense forces. Such rumors are in effect a most effective Axis propaganda 
weapon and should be considered as such, instead of an explanation for the fall 
of countries before superior organization, complete surprise, and greater military 
strength. In the case of Norway, they were largely untrue. Elsewhere also 
there was probably less activity of this kind than the sensational accounts which 
have appeared in our press, accounts at times also dignified by official approval. 

By fifth columnism I refer to treachery on the part of natives or trusted aliens 
long established and respected in a country. Of that we have few verified ex- 
amples in Norway or other defeated countries for that matter. Unrestrained 
espionage on the part of agents of the enemy is another matter. Systematic ac- 
tivity of that kind has preceded almost every enemy attack — from Norway to 
Pearl Harbor, and since. That, however, is a matter for the proper authorities 
to handle. It is no matter for individual or group hysteria and fear. Actually, 
as I see it, it is a cruel injustice to blame the -Norwegian, Dutch, Belgian, French, 
and other peoples for the crimes of Germany or Japan. It suits Hitler's pur- 
pose perfectly for others to believe and spread stories that the democracies were 
ratted with treachery from within. The Germans and Japanese work chiefly 
with natives from their own countries in their propaganda and espionage efforts. 
They use disgruntled native citizens when they can find them at times, but in 
the last analysis they rely on their own agents, as they did in Norway, as they 
would in this country if the opportunity came. 

Contrary to popular impression, then, country after country has not fallen 
because of the fifth column. Even in Pearl Harbor is this true. Secretan- Knox 
to the contrary notwithstanding, fifth columnism and sabotage actually had 
little to do with that debacie. Espionage paved the way, to be sure, but for 
that we should blame our own laxity and not elderly Japanese residents long 
established in Hawaii or Nisei with no loyalty save that to the country in which 

' Among the recent books giving a more accurate account of what happened in Norway are C. J. Hambro. 
I Saw It Happen in Norway, 1940; Herman K. Lehmkuhl, The Invasion of Norway, 1940; Halvdan Koht 
Norway Neutral and Invaded, 1941; J. Worm-Muller, Norway Revolts Against the Nazis, 1941; and Sigrid 
Undset, Return to the Future, 1942. An article by Edvard Hambro, Fact and Fiction in the Norwegian 
War, published in the American-Scandinavian Review, 1940, effectively refutes the most exaggerated tales 
published in our press. 



11246 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

they were born and whose flag is the same glorious Stars and Stripes that flies 
from the dome on Capitol Hill. If some day the Pacific coast should meet the 
same fate that has been that of so many parts of the world it will not be because 
of treachery on the part of our people here — Japanese, Italians, or Germans. It 
will be rather because we have not sufficiently profited from mistakes elsewhere, 
because we have not adequately prepared. No one has better stated this than 
the eminent French Catholic philosopher, Jacques Maritain. He writes: 7 

"The great mistake of the democracies was that they did not believe in the 
war even when it was there, that they imagined the war could be won without 
being fought, that they counted on time and the blockade to bring to terms 
madmen who were armed to the teeth, that they complacently accepted the 
notion of a war of limited liability, cheap in blood as well as in money." 

Apply that to France. Apply it to England also. And apply it above all 
to the United States. Brutalitarianism cannot be defeated that way. 

At the outset of this statement reference was made to the hysteria of the first 
World War. We still remember the notorious Palmer raids of that period. On 
the way home after attending the first day of the committee's hearings in San 
Francisco, two other members of the University of California faculty and I 
were discussing that story. Suddenly one of them remarked: "Why, what we 
have been listening to today — the proposals made by some persons before the 
committee — are far worse than anything that transpired during the World War 
and I have always believed that what happened then could not possibly occur 
again." He was right. During the last war there were at least 2,000,000 enemy 
aliens in this country and several million naturalized citizens from Germany 
and her allies. Yet only 6,000 were adjudged sufficiently disaffected to be 
detained under Presidential warrants, and a large percentage of these, were soon 
released. Surely our population should be more homogeneous now than then. 
Before the World War more than a million immigrants arrived to the United 
States annually. Our population contained huge elements which had but recently 
come here; we had paid little attention to the Americanization process; our 
schools were far fewer, and educational opportunities far more restricted than 
has been true during the last quarter century. Surely there must have been 
far more reason then to be alarmed over the homogenity of our people and their 
unalloyed loyalty than is the case now. Yet then we apprehended only 6,000 
and detained only some of these. 

Since the World War our immigration has been selective and strictly limited. 
Our Americanization process has been greatly expanded. Our educational 
facilities have been developed tremendously. Moreover, for years we have had 
the revolting spectacle of brutal aggression flaunted before us by the Japanese, 
Italians, and Germans. All of these factors must have contributed to some 
progress — toward a somewhat greater welding together of our people than could 
have been accomplished prior to 1917. And yet testimony before your committee 
appears to discount all this — to suspect and wish to crucify tens of thousands now 
instead of a handful then. Can it really be true that we have so little faith in 
America? 

It may be stressed also that steps taken by local authorities and private 
groups and individuals and the more severe action advocated by many before the 
committee are directly opposed to the pronounced position of the President of the 
United States and the head of the Department of Justice. 

EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS 

On January 2, 1942, for example, President Roosevelt urged us to take a sane 
policy regarding aliens and foreign-born citizens. That we could do otherwise 
towards our own native citizens hardly occurred to the President. Among other 
things, he stated: 

"I am deeply concerned over the increasing number of workers who are being 
discharged because they happen to be aliens or even foreign-born citizens. This 
is a very serious matter. Such a policy is as stupid as it is unjust, and on both 
counts plays into the hands of the enemies of American democracy. It engenders 
the very distrust and disunity on which our enemies are counting to defeat us. 
Remember the Nazi technique: 'Pit race against race, religion against religion, 
prejudice against prejudice. Divide and conquer.' We must not let that happen 
here. We must not forget what we are defending: Liberty, decency, justice." 

' A Travers Le Desastre, 1941. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11247 

The Attorney General of the United States has repeatedly spoken in the same 
vein. In an interview shortly after taking office, Mr. Biddle remarked: 8 

"In tense times such as these, a strange psychology grips us. We are oppressed 
and fearful and apprehensive. If we can't get at the immediate cause of our 
difficulties, we are likely to vent our dammed-up energy on a scapegoat. That 
scapegoat may be someone whose views are contrary to our own. It may be some- 
one who speaks with a foreign accent, or it may be a labor union which stands up 
for what it believes to be its rights. That sort of psychology is the very essence 
of totalitarianism. On the other hand, civil liberties are the essence of the democ- 
racy we are pledged to protect. Insofar as I can by the use of the authority and 
influence of my office, I intend to see that civil liberties in this country are pro- 
tected; that we do not again fall into the disgraceful hysteria of witch hunts, 
strike-breakings, and minority persecutions which were such a dark chapter in 
our record of the last World War." 

On several occasions since our entry into the war, the Attorney General has 
indicated his intention to continue this enlightened attitude. In the current 
number of Collier's, for example, he writes: 9 

"All alien enemies could be incarcerated for the duration, were such a course 
considered wise. But it was determined to be more in accordance with our 
American tradition, wiser, more humane, to hold only those who were dangerous 
to our safety, or who might become so. Others are being paroled, some released. 
* * * Surveillance will last through the war. It will be very strict as far as 
it goes — alien enemies must keep us informed as to exactly where they are and 
what they are doing. They are not allowed to possess firearms, cameras, short- 
wave radios. Their travel is restricted. But otherwise their lives should con- 
tinue normally as before. * * * Many must suffer this temporary incon- 
venience so that a very few will have no scope for treachery. But except for those 
very few, there is no reason to suppose that so-called alien enemies are disloyal. 
The United States is their adopted country, and most of them have chosen to live 
here because they loved our ways and longed for our opportunities. * * *" 

The viewpoint expressed here by the Attorney General is exactly that which is 
held by myself and which is the theme song of this statement. In further support 
of this thesis might be cited the attitude in Hawaii, where there is a far greater 
percentage of Japanese aliens and Nisei than anywhere on the Pacific coast. 
The same issue of the above-cited periodical from which Mr. Biddle's article was 
quoted contains a story on The New Honolulu, written by the mayor of that city, 
Lester Petrie. Mayor Petrie somehow gives the impression of looking much more 
calmly and sensibly on this whole problem than the heads of so many Pacific 
coast municipalities. So do the people of the territory in general. "There is no 
hysteria, no persecution — only intent watchfulness." One of the illustrations 
accompanying the article shows Governor Joseph B. Poindexter being finger- 
printed as part of the defense program. The person performing the fingerprinting 
appears to be a Japanese, undoubtedly one of the tens of thousands of loyal Nisei. 
Evidently the government of Hawaii does not adopt the same viewpoint as the 
State personnel board at Sacramento, Calif. 

STATEMENT OF ATTORNEY GENERAL OF CALIFORNIA 

With respect to the latter, the attorney general of California, Mr. Earl Warren, 
made a statement which was released to the press on February 8, 1942, which I 
hope was observed by the members of the Tolan committee inasmuch as it was 
perhaps the most thoughtful public utterance made by a ranking State official 
during the present controversy. In an opinion delivered with regard to the 
ruling of the State personnel board to bar citizens of enemy alien parentage, Mr. 
Warren struck hard against the action of the board, stating that its ruling was 
discriminatory, and, as such, constituted a direct violation of civil liberties 
guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States, as well as that of California. 
"Soon we will have everybody hating everybody else," the attorney general 
said, in announcing his ruling. "We want unity, not disunity. If we start dis- 
criminating against people because of their forebears, it will bring about disunity 
in our war effort. Anybody can think of individuals who will be affected by 
such a ruling. Even Wendell L. Willkie could hardly hope to hold public office, 
as his parents were emigrants from Germany." That, of course, is profoundly 

8 New York Times Magazine, September 21, 1941. 
» March 21, 1942. 



11248 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

true. Of our white population today, about forty millions are either foreign- 
born or the children of immigrants, and of these about one-sixth are Germans 
and one-eighth are Italians. The committee can easily see the effects of a policy 
such as our State personnel board was advocating, any criticism of which one 
member designated as "nonsense" at a hearing in San Francisco on February 5. 

As Mr. Warren stated, orders of that character "will vitally and adversely 
affect a tremendous number of both naturalized and native-born citizens whose 
loyalty no one has the right to question without affirmative proof of disloyalty." 
We have already been at war for over 3 months. As yet there has been very 
little in the way of affirmative proof of disloyalty on the part of the persons so 
many are anxious to discriminate against, even to move out of the whole Pacific 
coast area. I would point out also, that if our Japanese citizens are to be moved 
indiscriminately the same should also apply to those of German and Italian 
extraction. In other words, not only would Mr. Willkie be unable to hold public 
office, he might properly be placed in a reception center. So might the mayor of 
San Francisco himself. And, possibly, also the mayor of New York. 

How, then, should we as individuals and leaders of public opinion face the 
problem before us? Most of us, for example, have difficulty in distinguishing 
between our Chinese friends and our Japanese antagonists. The pictures in Life 
magazine some weeks ago will not be of much assistance along that line either. 
And despite frequent attacks upon California Japanese by Filipinos, some people 
cannot tell a Filipino from an Oriental. The members of the committee may have 
read a news dispatch of February 5 relating how the police of a New York town 
apologized to Brig. Gen. Henry W. Baird, commanding officer of the Fourth 
Armored Division at Pine Camp. It seems that an alarmed store manager in 
Watertown, N. Y., called police and notified them that a "suspicious Japanese" 
was in his store. Two policemen closed in and snapped handcuffs on the suspect. 
At headquarters, however, the man identified himself as Vincente H. Gliane, 41, 
General Baird's Filipino houseboy for 23 years. Gliane, moreover, stated that 
he had been in the police station only a half-hour earlier to turn in some scrap 
metal. If one has this difficulty in distinguishing between brown-skinned Fili- 
pinos and the lighter skinned Chinese and Japanese, there is, of course, equally 
great difficulty in distinguishing between Germans and Italians and other 

This being the case, it appears to the writer that the best solution for the whole 
problem is to follow the advice given by Gov. Culbert Olson of California in 
an unequivocal statement just before the outbreak of the war: "If the friction 
aroused by relations with Japan should generate much heat, in dealing with them 
I shall rely upon the fact that recognition and protection of the rights and safety 
of minorities has always been a basic tenet of American Government and the 
American sense and practice of fair play." As the statement continued, "with 
that in mind, all patriotic fellow Californians will foster in their own communities 
a popular attitude which will assure security, personal dignity, and livelihood to 
all resident Japanese, citizens and aliens alike." That is a statement which I 
wish to endorse. It should be applied, of course, also to German and Italian 
residents. Even though Governor Olson has since forgotten his high-minded 
attitude of last autumn, the best solution for the whole problem is to behave 
courteously toward anv law-abiding foreigner, and citizen, whatever the slant 
of his eyes. It is the slant of the heart that counts, and that is no matter for 
offhand judgment. 

LESSON FROM THE LAST WAR 

Just as important is the lesson which we should have learned from the last war. 
That lesson should have taught us that while very small elements within some of 
our minorities mav become serious menaces to national unity and the national 
effort, the great bulk of these minorities can also be used constructively to heighten 
national morale and to increase our capacity for collective action on a national 
scale. Among the lessons we should have learned is that the greater part of our 
minorities have a direct stake in our national enterprise, and that they do want 
to give of their resources and their enthusiasm, and that they do want their groups 
also to have a high morale. We should have learned that they can be solidified 
into collaborative action with the Nation as a whole more effectively through 
their own leaders than through outsiders, and that the more they understand, 
approve, and share our national objectives, the more thoroughly do they devote 
themselves to their attainment. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11249 

.However it is defined officially, morale for most of us means enthusiasm of 
others for the causes we believe in ourselves. Naturally we cannot expect these 
minorities— who have remained as distinctly marginal people in our midst, to 
respond as warmly as those who have been here much longer, to American tradi- 
tions, to appeals to our past. The United States is not merely a territory, a politi- 
cal unit, and a body of traditions, however, but also a promise. It is a promise 
for all of us, but especially for those who, whether they came here to escape oppres- 
sion and poverty or to seek opportunity and adventure, have given to this country 
a strength which lies in the very motive that brought most of us or our ancestors 
here. The American dream goes far beyond the four freedoms and acquires new 
meaning with every new day. If it were not a fluid and expanding idea, the many 
diverse peoples who embrace it would have difficulty in identifying themselves with 
it as something real. 

America is accomplishments, to be sure, but it is largely aspirations. America 
is unfinished. Our principal source of national unity and strength, therefore 
lies less in past tradition than in the present and in the future. America belongs 
to the future, and it is in this sense that our minorities can share and must be al- 
lowed to share with the rest of the population a common set of objectives. To the 
old Americans these may be largely composed of aspirations for security, but to 
the new Americans, to those who have chosen this Nation as their home, they 
shade in the direction of keeping open the road of opportunity. To old and new 
alike, they mean a maximum of personal freedom and personal dignity. Democ- 
racy is the only system which can provide this. It is the only system which in- 
spires its leaders with some degree of humility and its followers with some degree 
of dignity. 

If we can keep our imperfect realization of these values from hardening, and if 
we can prevent the obvious frustrations and disadvantages of wide sections of our 
people from being accepted as permanent, if those who have not yet been fully 
accepted into the community can become convinced that if not they, then at least 
their children may become so, then our so-called minorities will not be a threat to 
national morale but its chief contributing factor. 10 

Truly, the diversity of origin of our people, if properly understood, can become 
one of the greatest of morale-building factors in the United States. It is almost 
certain to guard against the tendency to think of ourselves as a superior race or to 
identify our Nation with the Anglo-Saxon peoples, for we could not do so without 
doing violence to the origins of a substantial portion of our population. More- 
over, in the heterogeneous composition of our national cultural complex, we have 
potentially the broadest base for the development of a civilization which more 
nearly than any other in the world would embrace all the others. 

As leaders of public opinion, then, we are charged with the duty of doing our 
best to prevent the recurrence of any large-scale psychological strife within the 
country, either now or after the war. There is need of a continual educational 
movement built around the fact that our population is an extension of about 60 
different national, racial, and religious backgrounds, and that this fact constitutes 
perhaps one of the greatest advantages enjoyed by the United States and the world 
as a whole. Indeed, America would be dull if it were cast all in one pattern. 
Variety enriches and ennobles the design. Yet, out of our diversity can come 
unity, "unity within diversity," as Louis Adamic likes to put it. 11 Given an en- 
lightened approach to this crisis, we can achieve unity in essentials — above all in 
the essential democratic faith which has room for all sorts of experimentation, and 
which can use healthy human nature in all its forms. 

RESPONSIBILITY RESTS WITH LAW-ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS 

I do not mean by what I have said that we should not be vigilant. In many 
respects greater vigilance is necessary than was the case in the last war because of 
the much stronger emphasis placed by the enemy upon endeavors to break down 
the home front. But matters dealing with espionage, sabotage, and subversive 
activities must be referred to experienced officers of law enforcement, responsible 
employees of the National Government, acting in cooperation with the duly 
constituted law-enforcing agencies of State and local governments. This is no 
field for independent judgment, nor for inexperience. The Government, particu- 

10 See the excellent article by Louis Wirth, Morale and Minority Groups, 47 American Journal of Sociology 
(November 1941), 415-433, from which the writer has freely drawn at this point. 

11 Tolerance Is Not Enough, New York Times Magazine, February 15, 1942. 



11250 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

larly the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation, has been 
training men for many years to meet just this sort of problem. They are experi- 
enced. They know where to look for sabotage and espionage, and they know just 
what groups to suspect. We must let them do it. If we try to do it on our own, 
we will be accusing innocent people, and, just as important, we will be getting in 
the way of our experienced investigators who undoubtedly know what we know 
but don't want to reveal it just now. In other words, we must have faith in our 
Government. 

To a very limited extent, it may be that in some circumstances the military 
will prove the most suitable instrumentality. It must be remembered, however, 
that the Army mind is apt to move inevitably toward a radical solution : clear all 
"enemy aliens" out of the coastal regions and take no chances. This would 
appear unnecessary in view of the fact that the Department of Justice has gone 
on record that to date it "is satisfied with the general conduct of alien enemies. 
Most of them understand what is required of them and promptly comply with 
our regulations. They realize that the restrictions are no reflection on the loyalty 
of the majority of them. They understand that there has not been anj' time to 
separate the sheep from the goats and that for the sake of protecting the Nation 
from the few disloyal aliens, a great many innocent persons faithful to the prin- 
ciples of our democracy must be inconvenienced." 12 

In any case, the Army decisions must be made strictly because of military 
necessity and not because of civilian pressures. The statement of Gen. John L. 
DeWitt on March 2, 1942, was comforting in this regard. Speaking on the subject 
of the proposed evacuation of aliens and citizens from the Pacific coast, the chief 
of the Fourth Army promised that "public clamor for evacuation from nonstrate- 
gic areas and the insistence of local organizations and officials that evacuees not 
be moved into their communities cannot and will not be heeded." As the Daily 
Californian, daily student paper at the University of California, editorialized on 
the following day: "The hysterical, would-be vigilantes who have been crying 
aloud for evacuation of aliens and Japanese citizens alike from inland counties, 
and the profiteers who have hoped to gain from the evacuees' misfortune would 
do well to heed the general's admonitions." Certainly whatever action proves 
to be absolutely necessary must be done under responsible direction and not by 
inexperienced and overzealous laymen. Individuals and citizens' groups will 
achieve their patriotic purposes much more effectively and expeditiously if their 
energies are directed toward strengthening and supporting the authorities rather 
than in seeking to take over their duties. 

This was stressed by Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, the Director of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, some time ago when he stated: 13 "The surging wave of patri- 
otism, encouraging as it is, has its dangers. Unbridled activities and loose 
statements of individuals investigating subversive activities are distinctly un 
American, no matter how patriotic the aim. The vigilante method is distinctly 
contrary to American ideals of justice." 

It is because the vigilante method is so contrary to the principle of liberty 
governed by law, but at the same time is so very much a part of the American 
tradition, that I hope the committee in its report will make a stirring appeal to 
the Nation and particularly the people out here on the Pacific coast now to address 
themselves to the problem of establishing an American unity and morale strong 
enough to face this war without losing too many of the finest elements which 
have been brought together to fashion the democracy for which we are fighting. 
For in that, each one of us must be brought to a realization that he has a part 
to play. As Jay Franklin writes in his new book, "The citadel of freedom is 
defended only by the spirit which animates those who man its ramparts." H 

» Radio address of James Rowe, Jr., Assistant to the Attorney General, February 20, 1942, reprinted in 
the Congressional Record, February 23, 1942, A732-33. 

13 In an address before the International Association of Chiefs of Police, Septomber 9, 1940, reprinted in 
the Congressional Record, September 13, 1940, extension of remarks of Joseph J. O'Brien. 

11 Remaking America, 1942. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11251 

Exhibit 8.— Letter from Representative Knute Hill, of 
Washington, Enclosing Letter Bearing on the Japanese 
Situation 

House of Representatives, 
Washington, D. C, February 17, 1942. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, House Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, 
Washington, D. C. 
My Dear Colleague: In response to your recent letter, I am enclosing a 
letter which I have received from my niece bearing on the Japanese situation. 
With kindest personal regards, I am 
Sincerely, 

Knute Hill, M. C. 

Orange, Calif., February 7, 1942. 

Dear Uncle Knute: I notice by the papers that you have been appointed 
for the study of the Japanese question on the coast so I thought I might write 
you a few observations that might interest you. It is 2 months today since 
Pearl Harbor and I, for one, think it took altogether too long to get down to facts 
in this situation. 

It is a credit to the Japanese that nothing has happened to date and I think 
they should have credit on that. I am in favor of moving them back from the 
coast, and 9 out of 10 people feel this way. We also feel that the removal should 
include Germans and Italians as well as Japanese. I have in the past years had 
a good deal of contact with the Japanese here. I conducted an investigation 
for a Los Angeles newspaper and wrote an article on the Los Angeles Japanese 
colony, their newspapers, etc., some time ago. I have attended many of their 
Japanese-American Citizenship meetings. This latter organization is composed 
of Japanese voters and each Japanese may join when he is 21. They take their 
citizenship seriously and when an election comes up they invite speakers on both 
sides of the issue. Speakers have told me (and I have observed myself) that the 
questions asked are really far above the average in intelligence. They take citizen- 
ship seriously and not lightly as so many of our own youngsters do, and it is my 
sincere belief that most of them are loyal, dependable citizens. However, I believe 
that they all have to face the fact of war and that if they are really good citizens, 
they can take removal in their stride as no more of a sacrifice than being drafted. 
It is foolish to be sentimental about this and try to not hurt their feelings, for after 
all, if they are sincere, they will do what is right and not turn against this country 
because of a war measure. I know we will be surprised to discover enemies in our 
midst, not only aliens, but undoubtedly some whose ancestors were here in colonial 
days. (I think the country can be thankful that Gaston Means is dead but we 
will no doubt discover other American opportunists.) 

The problem here is a great one, for Americans have never been able to com- 
pete with the Japanese in vegetable gardening. The removal of this large popu- 
lation will be a big operation. The important thing, it seems to me, is that we 
should find some way to help all Americans to take the right attitude too. I have 
noticed a well-known businessman talking at the top of his voice within hearing 
of Japanese- Americans and stating "that it's their hard luck for being Japs and 
we should shoot every one of them." A local Democratic paper even went so far 
as to state something to the effect that we should reduce Japan to ashes and hang 
the military leaders to the charred stumps of their favorite cherry trees. This, 
it seems to me, is unfortunate. I think most of us want to look forward to a day 
when we will understand and live peaceably with all countries. Race prejudice 
is one of the worst barriers against that possibility. The greatest asset the United 
States has is the fact that we have all kinds of nationalities here. We have learned 
to live with them and discover that they have good and bad points just as we do. 
We should keep that balanced keel even while we fight them. I believe that the 
Germans in training the children to hate and to believe that all other races are 
inferior, turn out better fighting men in the same way that the old Vikings were 
good fighters when they went berserk. For a while it looks like it will work. In 
the long run I'll take an intelligent soldier who knows that a system has to be 
wiped out, that we must have victory and nothing can stop us, but that once we 
have that victory, we must use it to make this world a place where all people can 
live peaceably. If Germany should come out the victor with a whole nation of 



11252 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

people in control, believing that the Jews must be wiped out, this civilization we 
have built is lost. The Jews would only be the first step. On the other hand 
we, in fighting against the Germans or the Japanese, should not lose sight of the 
fact that they are human and there are all kinds of people among them. 

In some instances, very old Japanese nationals who are sympathetic to Japan 
were taken into custody in the middle of the night; for example, one old fellow 
was not allowed to get his teeth or his socks. I have talked to some of the Japa- 
nese and have found they understood that it was fear and haste that made these 
things happen, and they did not feel it was a deliberate policy. Yet, I think we, 
as Americans, should be very careful about this sort of thing. I think it is per- 
fectly practical to move the Japanese back from the coast through their own co- 
operation and do it in an impersonal way. I hope that when it is done you, who 
are working on it, will spend less time on the physical removal and more time on 
seeing that those with understanding, sympathy, and a real talent for human rela- 
tions are in charge. I don't approve, either, of appointing some wishy-washy 
woman who has been to Japan and thinks flower arrangements and kimonas are 
just too darling. What we need is someone who is constantly alert, always look- 
ing for signs of disloyalty not only in Japanese but in any citizen, and one who 
has the intelligence to recognize the s3anptom and then without fear and hysteria, 
act quickly and effectively. You know, one can be courteous, friendly, and yet 
on the alert, in dealing with the situation. For example, I hope someone thinks 
of Manchester Boddy, publisher of the Illustrated Daily News in Los Angeles, in 
this connection. He made a complete study of the Japanese many years ago, 
and has a balanced outlook. There must be many others. 

I think also that if the right people deal with the young Japanese-Americans, 
they can work out a plan to take the farm population and set them up in the 
Middle West or the South where they can produce the farm products we are going 
to need. They are industrious and have real skill, and it seems to me if the young 
Japanese were asked to organize a constructive plan for doing their share they 
might work wonders. 

I wish you could come to the coast to make your study. I could put you in 
touch with so many people who have worked with the Japanese in Americaniza- 
tion work, and you could get so many important angles. I deal with a great 
many Japanese in the library and have always been interested. I do not take 
the stand that some recommend; that is, to never mention the war because the 
Japanese may lose face. I take the stand that this is America and American 
methods are direct, and the Japanese, too, can conform to this idea. I talk about 
the war, tell them that war is unfortunate because it means a lot of unpleasantness 
but that this is the time to show what you are in spite of what anyone else may 
do or say. They are just about like Germans and Italians. Some of my Japa- 
nese readers have taken to reading Kathleen Norris novels, etc., with the frank 
statement that they just can't stand to read about the war and want to escape. 
Others face the facts and try to find a way to work out their problems. I attended 
a meeting of all the Japanese-American Citizenship Leagues in southern Cali- 
fornia last month. One man who had been adopted by a white family and raised 
in the Middle West wanted to ask Congress to take away the citizenship papers 
of an American-born Japanese who had gone on the Tokyo radio to state that 
this was a race war, and the group did put through the resolution. Another 
wanted to bar all those with dual citizenship — a most serious thing. To answer 
this, a young newspaperman on the Japanese daily in Los Angeles got up and 
made a talk which impressed me very much. He had been taken in on Decem- 
ber 7 and had been released. He said that no one could appreciate fully what the 
war was about unless he had seen and talked to the rulers of Japan and also those 
in the Government in Washington, D. C, and then saw the difference in motifs. 
He asked them to not be upset about being arrested or being stopped. He said 
that he sat in the county jail on December 8, and wrote down 72 reasons that he 
could think of that would cause the authorities to arrest him and suspect him, and 
he said that in any country at war, this would be justified and each one must take 
it as part of war. I felt that this speaker hit the fundamental issue and suggested 
a solution. Listening to him, I felt that those who have charge of moving the 
alien population can do a lot in creating a constructive attitude in the group that 
will not only keep them from turning into enemies but will actually give them 
something for which to work. If they can be given the objective of proving by 
their constructive, willing cooperation that they are really on our side, it will mean 
a big step in the right direction. Also they will no doubt have to take in their 
stride a lot of insults, but I believe they can do it. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11253 

This week our county hospital let four Japanese nurses go stating that because 
there were fewer patients in the hospital, they had to reduce the staff and so let 
the Japanese go, although their work was perfect. I think this is all tommyrot. 
Everyone knows why they let them go, and why should Americans try to work 
out the old Japanese custom of trying to save face? It doesn't fool anyone. 

Young Japanese-Americans own the orange grove across from us, and I have 
watched them grow up. I have watched them grow up so I now talk to the 
young men just as I would talk to Roger. I had talked to them only once since 
the 7th as they have been confined to their home which is some 12 miles from 
here. Yesterday, they came up to tractor their grove, the four boys doing the 
work. I went out to talk to them, and they said at first on the 7th, they were 
very much alarmed, but after that, they had thought everything would work 
out. Now, with the talk of removal, they were alarmed. They asked me 
what I thought about the statement they had heard had been issued that Mexicans 
were to be ready to take over Japanese crops at a minute's notice, even though 
the Japanese had been told by the Agricultural Department to go ahead as usual 
and plant their crops. I told them that there was no doubt in my mind that 
should the Japanese make even an attempt at bombing on the coast, then removal 
was almost certain to come, and come quickly. I told them I thought they 
should be prepared with a plan to be removed and what they could do just as a 
precautionary move. I asked him if it wouldn't be possible for them to lease a 
large tract, say in Midwest and move there for the duration. He said that he 
thought it could be done, but he felt sure wherever they went, they would not 
be welcome. 

He then asked me what I would do about a most interesting thing. These 
Japanese (American citizens raised and educated here) as a family have been 
growing chili peppers for several years on a piece of land they have leased. It is 
right next to the site bought by Douglas and now the place where the big plant is 
erected and one of the vital defense spots. They hold a lease and have put down 
a well and will stand to lose $2,000 if they move out, especially in view of the fact 
that the white man who owns the land will not release them from their lease. 
They have been told to go ahead and plant peppers as usual, and yet they feel 
jittery. What would I do? I told them I would certainly not plant anything 
or be seen in the area and pointed out that a German agent could plan sabotage 
so that it would appear that the Japanese were the saboteurs and leave them 
holding the bag. I don't know as they will take this advice but situations like 
this are dynamite. The Agricultural Department, a peaceful minded Depart- 
ment that thinks in terms of supplying food for the Nation, mildly suggests that 
Japanese who are American-born have al 1 the rights of American citizens, and 
should go ahead as usual, and the Japanese who have always learned to take 
advice from the farm adviser trust them first. They don't seem to realize that 
when sabotage occurs, another department comes in and there is apt to be trouble. 
I don't think anyone would blame the Federal Bureau of Investigation for being 
very suspicious. In fact, I think any ordinary citizen has the right to ask that 
the Japanese place themselves beyond suspicion by staying away from defense 
areas but just the same, some rank injustices can develop out of this type of situa- 
tion. Those in the community who know the Japanese will either feel that an 
injustice has been done or they may go off in hysteria and think there is something 
wrong. In either case it is bad and could have been avoided if taken in time. 

I am rambling on, setting down thoughts as they crop up, because I think 
maybe I may be able to give you information that will be useful. I am in fairly 
close touch with Japanese here and am watching their reaction to events. I 
believe most of them are all right but I don't think it is safe to allow them to 
concentrate in defense areas any more than I think it is safe for Germans or 
Italians to do the same in time of war. The family I spoke of above who ow n 
the grove across from us make an interesting group. The father is an alien and 
went home to visit Japan in spite of the protests of the sons. When the father 
got stuck in Japan and only got home by the skin of his teeth on the last boat, 
the sons didn't hesitate to say it served him right. In fact, in his absence, one 
of the sons enlisted in the Medical Corps, which upset the old man very much. 
He told me that his son hadn't even bothered to let him know so that a stranger 
had told him about it. There is a fierce fight here between the two generations 
and the fact they cannot be assimilated as the Germans or Italians makes it more 
difficult. It is a tough problem but it is an opportunity and a challenge too. 
If we could ever manage to be firm, sensible, and keep justice in sight, I think 
we might turn the handling of the removal of Japanese from the coast into an 



11254 SAN FRANCISCO HEARINGS 

example of how the east and the west can work together recognizing the rights 
of each other, and making a few compromises, keeping away from hysteria which 
breeds future trouble and working together for the good of all. It could be true 
democracy at work. If we could have the executive ability to show the Japanese 
the need for the move and then show them that they have a constructive part to 
play in preserving our democracy, it would be true democracy at work. I am 
really very much interested in this subject and if there is any information I can 
get for you don't hesitate to let me know. In the meantime, perhaps it is just 
as well to read this over, pick out any grains from the chaff and then burn it. 
After all, this is not a series of opinions thought out or worked over, but rather a 
quick reaction of events as I see them. 
Lots of love and write when you can. 
Yours as ever, 

F. H. E. 



Exhibit 9. — Statement by Clarence E. Rust, Attorney at 

Law, 5837 San Pablo Avenue, Oakland, Calif., on Enemy 

Alien Evacuation 

Februaru 20, 1942. 

I find no popular demand for the efforts to drive the so-called