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Full text of "National defense migration. Hearings before the Select Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, House of Representatives, Seventy-seventh Congress, first[-second] session, pursuant to H. Res. 113, a resolution to inquire further into the interstate migration of citizens, emphasizing the present and potential consequences of the migraion caused by the national defense program. pt. 11-[34]"

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGKATION 

HOUSE OF EEPRESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGEESS 

SECOND SESSION 

PDESTJANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 30 
PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

FEBRUARY 26 AND 28, AND MARCH 2, 1942 



PROBLEMS OF EVACUATION OF ENEMY ALIENS AND 
OTHERS FROM PROHIBITED MILITARY ZONES 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



HEARINGS 

BEFORE THE 

SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING 

NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 

HOUSE OF EEPEESENTATIVES 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 
PURSUANT TO 

H. Res. 113 

A RESOLUTION TO INQUIRE FURTHER INTO THE INTERSTATE 
MIGRATION OF CITIZENS, EMPHASIZING THE PRESENT 
AND POTENTIAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE MIGRA- 
TION CAUSED BY THE NATIONAL 
DEFENSE PROGRAM 



PART 30 
PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

FEBRUARY 26 AND 28, AND MARCH 2, 1942 



PROBLEMS OF EVACUATION OF ENEMY ALIENS AND 
OTHERS FROM PROHIBITED MILITARY ZONES 



Printed for the use of the Select Committee Investigating 
National Defense Migration 




UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
€0396 WASHINGTON : 1942 



U. 8. SUPERlKTENOtNT OF DOCUMENT* 

JUL 13 1942 



SELECT COMMITTEE INVESTIGATING NATIONAL DEFENSE 

MIGRATION 

JOHN H. TOLAN, California, Chahman 
JOHN J. SPARKMAN, Alabama CARL T. CURTIS, Nebraska 

LAURENCE F. ARNOLD, Illinois GEORGE H. BENDER, Ohio 

Robert K. Lamb, Staff dhector 
II 



CONTENTS 



Page 

List of witnesses vii 

List of authors ix 

Thursday, February 26, 1942, morning session 11 301 

Testimony of Earl Riley 11301 

Testimony of Elmer R. Goudy 11307 

Testimoiiv of Ronald E. Jones 11312 

Testimony of Walter W. Underwood 11316, 11319 

Material submitted by Walter W. Underwood 11316 

Testimony of R. F. Bessey 11321 

Testimony of Joseph K. Carson, Jr 1 1325 

Testmiony of J. E. Klahre 11329 

Testimony of John Ross and Barclay Henderson 1 1332 

Testimony of N. J. L. Pieper 11335 

Thursday, February 26, 1942, afternoon session 11337 

Testimony of" panel of members of Japanese- American Citizens 

League! 11337, 11347 

Statement of the Portland Chapter, Japanese-American Citizens 

League 1 1338 

Testimony of John E. Cooter and Emory Worth 11356 

Testimony of Palmer Hoyt 11363 

Testimony of Walter A. Duffy 11367 

Statement by Walter A. Duffy 11370 

Testimony of W. G. Eyerson 11376 

Testimony of Robert Taylor 1 1380 

Testimony of Azalia Emma Peet 1 1386 

Introduction of exliibits 1 1388 

Exhibit 1. Resolution adopted by the city council of Portland, Oreg., 
February 19, 1942, submitted by Kenneth L. Cooper, commissioner, 

department of finance, Portland, Oreg 11388 

Exhibit 2. Resolution of the United States grand jury for the district 
of Oregon, submitted by IVIason Dillard, assistant United States 

attorney, district of Oregon, Portland, Oreg 11389 

Exhibit 3.' Resolution of Federal Post, No. 97, Department of Oregon, 

American Legion, Portland, Oreg 11389 

Exhibit 4. Statement by the Portland Council of Churches, Portland, 

Oreg : 11390 

Exhibit 5. Statement by Hermann P. Kuhn, president. United 
German- American Societies, Inc., 1337 Southwest Washington 

Street, Portland, Oreg 11391_ 

Exhibit 6. Effect of Japanese Remoyal on Vegetable Production in 
the State of Oregon; report by Ray W. Gill, master, Oregon State 

Grange, 1135 SE. Salmon Street, Portland, Oreg 11391 

Exhibit 7. Letter from Senator Charles L. McNary enclosing state- 
ment from F. M. Sweet, yice president of the port of Astoria, Oreg- . 11392 

Saturday, February 28, 1942, morning session 11397 

Testimony of Arthur B. Langlie 11397 

Testimony of Earl Millikin 11404 

Testimony of Harry P. Cain 11410 

Testimony of Frank Messenger 11415 

. TestimonV of J. W. Spangler 11417,11418 

Statement by J. W. Spangler 11417 

Testimony of Floyd Oles 11422, 11425 

Statement by Floyd Oles 1 1422 

Saturday, February 28, 1942, afternoon session 11433 

Testimony of Fred Fueker 11433, 11446 

Resolut ions presented by Fred Fueker 11434 

III 



IV INDEX 

Saturday, February 28, 1942, afternoon session — Continued. J'^gfr 

Testimony of. James Y. Sakamoto 11449, 11470. 

Statement by Emergency Defense Council, Seattle Chapter, Japanese- 
American Citizens League, Seattle, Wash 11450 

Statement by John W. Grant 11478 

Testimony of John W. Grant 11482 

Statement by Orville E. Robertson 1 1484 

Testimony of. Orville E. Robertson 11486 

Testimony of Edward W. Allen 11491 

Testimony of D. K. MacDonald 11464 

Statement by the Seattle Chamber of Commerce, Seattle, Wash 11496 

Monday, March 2, 1942, morning session 11499 

Testimony of Smith Troy 11499 

Testimony of Mary Farquharson and Dr. Dolf Simons 11512 

Statement by Ernest Levy 11518 

Statement by Herman Schocken 11518 

Statement by Clara S. Neider 11519 

Testimony of Robert Bridges 11520, 11523 

Resolution presented by Robert Bridges 1 1523 

Testimony of Floyd W. Schmoe and Bernard G. Waring 11526, 11530 

Statement by Floyd W. Schmoe 11526 

Testimony of Miller Freeman 11536, 11538 

Statement by Miller Freeman 11536 

Testimony of Rev. Thomas Gill 11541, 11547 

Statements presented by Rev. Thomas Gill 11542 

Testimony of John E. Carroll 11553 

Monday, March 2, 1942, afternoon session 11555 

Testimony of J. F. Steiner 11557, 11559 

Statement by J. F. Steiner 11557 

Testimony of Rev. Harold V. Jensen 11564, 11568 

Statement by Rev. Harold V. Jensen 11564 

Testimony of P. O. D. Vedova and Louise LaSalle 11573 

Material submitted by P. O. D. Vedova 11578 

Testimony of Esther S. Boyd and Dan McDonald 11582, 11584 

Statements by Esther S. Boyd and Dan McDonald 11582 

Statement by Fred H. Lysons 11588 

Testimony of Fred H. Lysons 11589 

Statement by Curtis AUer 11590 

Statement by Hildur Coon 11590 

Testimony of Hildur Coon and Curtis AUer 11591 

Introduction of exhibits 11597 

Exhibit 1. Statement by Thomas Robel, chairman, defense committee. 

State, County, and Municipal Workers of America, Local No. 109- _ 11597 
Exhibit 2. Statement by Rev. U. G. Murphy, Superintendent (Metho- 
dist Church), Northwest Oriental Evangelization Societv, Seattle, 

Wash 11597 

Exhibit 3. Statement by Robert W. O'Brien, assistant to the dean, 
college of arts and sciences. University of Washington, Seattle, 

Wash 11598 

Exhibit 4. Statement by R. T. Shannon, sales manager, R. D. Bodle 

Co., Seattle, Wash 11600 

Exhibit 5. Statement bv Rudolph W. Cassirer, 2407 Warren Avenue, 

Seattle, Wash ." 11601 

Exhibit 6. Letter from Seattle Glove Co., manufacturers of cotton 

gloves, Seattle, Wash., March 2, 1942 11602 

Exhibit 7. Letter and enclosure, from Lemolo Greenhouses, T. M. 

Nakamura, Poulsbo, Wash., March 4, 1942 11603 

Exhibit 8. Statement by welfare department, King County, Seattle, 

Wash., February 26, 1942 11604 

Exhibit 9. Statement by Henry B. Ramsey, chairman, United States 

Department of Agriculture War Board (State of Washington) 11606 

Exhibit 10. Statement by Chang Kun Cheng, Seattle, Wash 11606 

I^xhibit 11. Statement by E. W. Thompson, pastor, Japanese- 
Methodist Church, Seattle, Wash 11607 



INDEX V 

Introduction of exhibits — Continued. Page 

Exhibit 12. Statement by Japanese members of the Industrial Wood- 
workers of America, Congress of Industrial Organizations, Local 
157, Enumclaw, Wash 11609 

Exhibit 13. Resolution by Disabled American Veterans of the World 

War, Seattle Chapter No. 2, Seattle, Wash 11609 

Exhibit 14. Resolution by Olympia Chamber of Commerce, Ofympia, 

Wash 11610 

Exhibit 15. Statement by Asahel Curtis, Jr., executive secretary, 

Seattle Retail Florists' Association, Inc., Seattle, Wash 11610 

Exhibit 16. Resolution by Building Service Employees' International 
Union, Local 6, American Federation of Labor, Merwin L. Cole, 
business agent, relating to evacuation problems affecting enemy 
aliens and citizens of Japanese extraction and refugees from Axis 
countries 11611 

Exhibit 17. Resolution by Building Service Employees International 
Union, Local 6, O. J. Falkenberg, secretary, relating to so-called 
"enemy aliens" who are actually refugees from Hitler Germany and 
other Nazi-dominated countries 11612 

Exhibit 18. Resolution by Seattle (Downtown) Kiwanis Club, 

Seattle, Wash 11612 

Exhibit 19. Statement by Mrs. Claude H. Eckart, president. Young 

Women's Christian Association, Seattle, Wash 11613 

Exhibit 20. Statement by Terry Pettus, executive secretary of the 

Washington Commonwealth Federation, Seattle, Wash 11613 

Exhibit 21. Information relative to the control of alien enemies during 
the World War, prepared by the Special Defense Unit, Department 
of Justice, Washington, D. C 11614 



LIST OF WITNESSES 

Portland and Seattle Hearings, February 26, 28, and 

March 2, 1942 

Page 
Allen, Edward W., chairman, International Fisheries Commission, North- 
ern Life Tower, Seattle, Wash 11491 

Aller, Curtis, 5012 Twenty-second Avenue, Northeast, Seattle, Wash 11591 

Bessev, R. F., counselor, National Resources Planning Board, Portland, 

Oreg 11321 

Boyd, Mrs. Esther S., Wapato, Wash 11582, 11584 

Bridges, Robert, representative. Valley Protective Association, Auburn, 

Wash _-_-. 11520, 11523 

Cain, Hon. Harry P., mayor, Tacoma, Wash 11410 

Carroll, John E., chairman, executive committee of Association of Wash- 
ington Cities, and Seattle city councilman, Seattle, Wash _ — 11553 

Carson, Joseph K., Jr., state commander, Oregon Department of American 

Legion, 1010 Bedell Building, Portland, Oreg 11325 

Coon, Miss Hildur, 4706 Twentieth Avenue Northeast, Seattle, Wash 11591 

Cooter, John E., regional farm placement supervisor. Social Security Board, 

Region 12, San Francisco, Calif 11356 

Duffy, Walter A., regional director. Farm Security Administration, Port- 
land, Oreg 11367 

Everson, Dr. W. G., chairman, Oregon Alien Hearing Board, Linfield 

College, McMinnville, Oreg 11376 

Farquharson, Mrs. Mary, State senator, 2126 East Forty-seventh Street, 

Seattle, Wash 11512 

Freeman, Miller, publisher, Seattle, Wash 11536, 11538 

Fueker, Fred, department adjutant, American Legion, Seattle, Wash_ 11433, 11446 
Gill, Rev. Thomas, Puget Sound Chapter, American Association of Social 

Workers, Seattle, Wash 11541, 11547 

Goudy, Elmer R., Oregon State Public Welfare Commissioner, Spalding 

Building, Portland, Oreg 11307 

Grant, John W., farm placement supervisor, United States Employment 

Service, Federal Security Agency, Olympia, Wash 11482 

Henderson, Barclay, B. E. Maling, Inc., Hillsboro, Oreg 11332 

Hoyt, Palmer, publisher, Portland Oregonian, Portland, Oreg 11363 

Jensen, Rev. Harold V., representing Seattle Council of Churches, Pastor 

of the First Baptist Church, Seattle, Wash 11564, 11568 

Jones, Hon. Ronald E., State senator, Brooks, Oreg 11312 

Klahre, J. E., Hood River, Oreg 11329 

Langlie, Hon. Arthur B., Governor, State of Washington, Olympia, Wash. 11397 
LaSalle, Mrs. Louise, 1332 Twenty-third Avenue South, Seattle, Wash_._ 11573 

Lysons, Fred H., lawyer, Seattle, Wash 11589 

MacDonald, D. K., president, Seattle Chamber of Commerce, Seattle, 

Wash 11494 

McDonald, Dan, Wapato, Wash 11582, 11586 

Messenger, Frank, manager, Seattle field office. Social Security Board, 

Federal Security Agency, Seattle, Wash 11415 

Millikin, Hon. Earl, mayor, Seattle, Wash 11404 

Okada, Hito, national treasurer, Japanese- American Citizens League, 

Portland, Oreg : 11337, 11347 

Oles, Floyd, manager, Washington Produce Shippers' Association, Seattle, 

Wash 11422, 11425 

Peet, Miss Azaha Emma, Methodist Missionary, Gresham, Oreg 11386 

Pieper, N. J. L., special agent. Federal Bureau of Investigation, San 

Francisco, Calif 1 1335 

VII 



Vin INDEX 

Page 

Riley, Hon. Earl, mayor, city of Portland, Portland, Oreg 11301 

Robertson, Orville E., executive secretary, Familj' Society of Seattle, 

Seattle, Wash A I 11486 

Ross, John, B. E. Maling, Inc., Hillsboro, Oreg 11332 

Sakamoto, James Y., general chairman, emergency defense councU, 

Japanese-American Citizens League, and editor, Japanese-American 

Courier. Seattle, Wash 11448, 11470 

Schmoe, Floyd W., local representative, American Friends Service Com- 
mittee. Seattle, Wash 11526, 11530 

Simons, Dr. Dolk, 714 Thirty-third Avenue South, Seattle, Wash 11512 

Spangler, J. W., vice president, Seattle First National Bank, Seattle, 

Wash 11417, 11418 

Steiner, J. F., professor, department of sociology, University of Washington, 

Seattle, Wash 11557, 11559 

Tavlor, Robert, chairman, Oregon agricultural war board, Oregon State 

College. CorvaUis, Oreg. 113S0 

Troy. Smith, attorney general. State of Washington 11499 

Underwood. Walter W., secretary, Astoria Chamber of Commerce, Astoria, 

Oreg - ■- 11316, 11319 

Uyesugi, Dr. Xewton, president, Portland chapter, Japanese-American 

Citizens League. Portland, Oreg 11337, 11347 

Vedova, P. 0. D., 554 Central BuUding, Seattle, Wash 11573 

Wakasugi, Mamaro, grower. Banks, Oreg 11337, 11347 

Worth. Emory, farm placement supervisor, United States Employment 

Service for the State of Oregon, Portland, Oreg 11356 

Waring. Bernard G.. member, board of directors, American Friends Service 

Committee, Philadelphia, Pa 11526, 11531 



LIST OF AUTHORS 

Of Preparep Statements and Exhibits 

Page 

Aller, Curtis, student, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash 11590 

American Legion, Federal Post, No. 97, Department of Oregon, Portland, 

Oreg 1 1389 

Boyd, Mrs. Esther S., Wapato, Wash 11583 

Bridges, Robert, representative, Valley Protective Association, Auburn, 

Wash .----r-;;--!------- ^^^^^ 

Building Service Employees' International Union, Local 6, American 

Federation of Labor 11611, 11612 

Cassirer, Rudolph W., 2407 Warren Avenue, Seattle, Wash llbUl 

Cheng, Kun Cheng, Seattle, Wash 11606 

Coon, Hildur, student, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash 1159U 

Cooper, Kenneth L., commissioner, Department of Finance, Portland, 

Oreg- ^ ^^^^ 

Curtis, Asahel, Jr., executive secretary, Seattle Retail Florists' Association, 

Inc. Seattle Wash 11610 

Davis,' R. B., president, Seattle Glove Co., Seattle, Wash 11602 

DiUard, Mason, assistant United States attorney, district of Oregon, Port- 
land, Oreg \r--^- ^^^^ 

Disabled American Veterans of the World War, Seattle Chapter No. 2, 

Seattle Wash 1 160" 

Duffy, Walter A., regional director. Farm Security Administration, United 

States Department of Agriculture, Portland, Oreg _-- 11367 

Eckhart, Mrs. Claude H., president. Young Women's Christian Associa- 

tion, Seattle, Wash 1161^ 

Freeman, Miller, publisher, Seattle, Wash i7^o^ 

Fueker, Fred M., State adjutant of the American Legion, Seattle, Wash 1 14c54 

Gill, Ray W., master, Oregon State Grange, 1135 SE. Salmon Street, 

Portland, Oreg .-- ^^^^^ 

Gill, Rev. Thomas, representing Puget Sound Chapter, American Associa- 
tion of Social Workers, Seattle, Wash 11542 

Grant, John W., farm placement supervisor. United States Employment 

Service, Federal Security Agency, Olympia, Wash .. . 11478 




Japane^ ^ „ , . . 

Japanese Members of the Industrial Woodworkers of America, Congress 

of Industrial Organizations, Local 157, Enumclaw, Wash 52^ 

Jensen, Rev. Harold V., pastor, First Baptist Church, Seattle, Wash 11564 

Kuhn, Herman P., president. United German-American Societies, Inc., 

1337 Southwest Washington Street, Portland, Oreg 11390 

Levy, Ernest, professor at University of Washington, Seattle, Wash ]]rln 

Lysons, Fred H., attorney, Seattle, Wash iifco 

McDonald, Dan, farmer, Wapato, Wash 11582 

Murphy, Rev. U. G., superintendent (Methodist Church), Northwest 

Oriental Evangelization Society, Seattle, Wash ]]rrJ> 

Nakamura, T. M., Lemolo Greenhouses, Poulsbo, Wash ic?n 

Neider, Clara S., secretarv of the Washington Emigr6 Bureau, Inc 11519 

O'Brien, Robert W., assistant to the dean, college of arts and sciences, 

Universitv of Washington, Seattle, Wash -cr""i"" 

Oles, Floyd,' manager, Washington Produce Shippers' Association, Seattle, 

Wash 11422 



IX 



X INDEX 

Page 

Olympia Chamber of Commerce, Olympia, Wash 11610 

Pettus, Terry, executive secretary, Washington Commonwealth Federa- 
tion, Seattle, Wash . 11613 

Pickett, Clarence E., executive secretary, American Friends Service Com- 
mittee, Philadelphia, Pa 

Portland Council of Churches, Portland, Oreg 11389 

Ramsey, Henry B., chairman, United States Department of Agriculture 
Puget Sound Chapter, American Association of Social Workers, Seattle, 

Wash 11540 

War Board (State of Washington) 11606 

Robel, Thomas, chairman, defense committee, State, County, and Munici- 
pal Workers of America, Local No. 109 11597 

Robertson, Orville E., executive secretary. Family Society of Seattle, 

Seattle, Wash -- 11484 

Schmoe, Flovd W., local representative of the American Friends Service 

Committee, Seattle, Wash 11526 

Schocken, Herman, vice president of Washington Emigr^ Bureau, Inc., 

Seattle, Wash 11516 

Seattle Chamber of Commerce, Seattle, Wash 11496 

Seattle (Downtown) Kiwanis Club, Seattle, Wash 11612 

Shannon, R. T., sales manager, R. D. Bodle Co., Seattle, Wash 11600 

Spangler, J. W., vice president, Seattle First National Bank, Seattle, 

Wash 11417 

Special Defense Unit, Department of Justice, Washington, D. C — 11614 

Steiner, J. F., professor, department of sociology, University of Washing- 
ton, Seattle, Wash 1 1557 

Sweet, F. M., vice president of the Port of Astoria, Astoria, Oreg 11392 

Thompson, E. W., pastor, Japanese-Methodist Church, Seattle, Wash 11607 

Underwood, Walter W., secretary, Astoria Chamber of Commerce, As- 
toria, Oreg 11316 

Vallev Protective Association, Auburn, Wash 11521 

Vedova, P. O. D., lawyer, 554 Central Building, Seattle, Wash 11578 

Welfare Department, King County, Seattle, Wash 11604 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



THURSDAY FEBRUARY 26, 1942 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 

The committee met at 9:30 a. m. in the United States Circuit 
Court Room, in the United States Courthouse, Portland, Oreg., 
pursuant to notice, Hon. John H. Tolan (chairman) presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. ' Tolan (chairman), of 
Cahfornia; John J. Sparkman, of Alabama; and Lam-ence F. Arnold, 
of Illinois. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; Jolm W. Abbott, 
chief field investigator; Herbert Roback and Charles E. Cockey, 
Jr., field investigators. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. Mayor 
Riley, you will be the fu"st witness. 

Mayor Riley, we appreciate your coming here today. The com- 
mittee would like to make it clear to the people of Oregon that we are 
not here to put any witness on the spot, or anything of that kind, but 
to take back to Washington the picture as the people of Oregon see it 
here; and what are your worries, and what are the facts, and what are 
any recommendations you care to make. 

In these hearings in Portland, Mayor Riley, this committee hopes 
to obtain additional information with reference to the problems 
involved in the evacuation of enemy ahens. As you know, we are 
here by request of the Federal agencies concerned with this problem, 
including the Army and Navy, the Justice Department, the Social 
Security Agency, and others. We want to find out how the Pacific 
coast communities feel about the alien problem, and what they think 
should be done about it. I have a few questions to ask you. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. EARL RILEY, MAYOR OF THE CITY OF PORT- 
LAND, OREG. 

Mr. Mayor, what proportion of the total alien Japanese, German, 
and Italian population of Oregon is in your city? 

The Mayor. I couldn't give you the percentage exactly, but I 
feel that close to 80 percent of the alien population of the State is in 
this city, or in close proximity to this city. 

The Chairman. How many American-born Japanese are in 
Portland? 

11301 



11302 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

The Mayor. The census report gives it. I haven't the exact num- 
ber here. 

The Chairman. Regarding their occupations, for instance, the 
Japanese, Itahans, or Germans, what occupations do they follow? 

occupations of axis aliens 

The Mayor. I have here the licenses issued to Japanese, both 
American-born Japanese and nationals, at the beginning of this year: 
46 nationals and 3 American-born were in the hotel busmess; 5 
nationals and 13 American-born were in the grocery and meat business; 
7 nationals and 2 American-born were operating restaurants; 3 
nationals and 1 American-born were in the confectionery and tobacco 
business; 6 nationals and no American-born were m the produce 
business; and 3 nationals and 4 American-born were in the pressmg 
business. Now, that is not a cleaning establishment; that is merely 
pressing; 2 nationals and no American-born were in the flower business; 
1 national and 2 American-born were in the laundry business; and 
1 national and no American-born were in the food products business; 
and 1 national and no American-born were in the processed fuel 
business. That processed fuel here is usually some combination of 
pressed products or other sawmill materials. There was 1 national 
and no American-born in the general merchandise or Japanese mer- 
chandise business. 

The Chairman. Are any Japanese now engaged in business here in 
Portland, or have their licenses been revoked? 

REVOCATION OF LICENSES 

The Mayor. All licenses of Japanese nationals and other aliens 
of Axis governments have been revoked. There are, I think, between 
three and five that are still up for revocation. The trouble has been 
that they have been away from their business, and they could not be 
located. They will be up today. 

The Chairman. Regarding German and Italian aliens, with whom 
do you work, the Justice Department? 

The Mayor. The Justice Department; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And the cooperation is all right, is it? 

The Mayor. Fine, fine; we could not ask for better. Well, that is, 
if you are speaking locally. 

The Chairman. Yes; that is what I mean. 

One of the troublesome things that we found in the San Francisco 
hearing was the lack of a property custodian for the property of aliens. 
In other words, the evacuation order went out, but no real planning 
had been done in regard to the property of these aliens. As the 
evacuation increases, that is quite a troublesome problem. They are 
told to go on very short notice, and to bring you up to date on that, 
that is one of the first things that attracted our attention in San 
Francisco, so we wired and talked to Washington. The jurisdiction 
is in the Treasurj^ Department, and we are waiting today to get some 
information as to just how many custodians are going to be appointed 
and how it is going to be handled. But so far, it has been a little bit 
weak, so we are trying to do our very best on that proposition. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11303 

Now, how do you handle the property of ahens here? Do you do 
anything about it? 

ALIENS MADE OWN BUSINESS ARRANGEMENTS 

The Mayor. So far, to the best of my Imowledge, all the aliens 
whose business licenses or professional licenses have been revoked, 
have made some arrangements through legal counsel to transfer owner- 
ship, in a great many instances, to some member of the family who is 
a citizen. In other instances, they have placed their affairs in th& 
hands of an attorn ev, a near relative, or someone in whom they have 
confidence, with power of attorney to act for them. In other words, 
they have made the arrangements regarding their property and their 
holdings, their estates, in their own manner. 

The Chairman. As the prohibited areas are increased. Mayor Riley, 
and the number of aliens affected— I am speaking now in terms of 
Germans and Italians— is increased— you can readily see, can't you., 
that that is going to be quite a problem; isn't it? 

The Mayor. No; not here. 

The Chairman. You don't think so? 

The Mayor. No. We haven't enough of them. As far as ther 
Germans and Italians are concerned, most of them are people who 
have been estabhshcd here for a considerable length of time; they have 
connections here; they are in a position to make a fair disposition of 
their estates or their holdings, and their business, and as far as I know, 
there isn't going to be any hardship on any large number of people. 
There will be remote cases; yes. 

The Chairman. Of course, I do not think your situation here is 
comparable to San Francisco. 

The Mayor. It isn't. 

The Chairman. You don't thmk, Mr. Riley, that you will have 
much trouble to find out who are loyal and who are disloyal among the 
Italian and German aliens, do you? 

The Mayor. As far as I am concerned, I do not propose to have 
any trouble; because the only way I look at it at this tune is that 
every Axis alien is under suspicion, so far as I am concerned, and I 
do not want them in my locality. 

Mr. Sparkman. How about those who are not aliens, but are second 
generation? 

WOULD evacuate JAPANESE-AMERICANS 

The Mayor. That would only apply with" the Japanese. 
Mr. Sparkman. That would not apply to Germans and Italians? 
The Mayor. No. 

Mr. Sparkman. Would it applv to the Japanese? 
The Mayor. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. You think that they ought to be evacuated, too? 
The Mayor. I do. 

Mr. Sparkman. Even though they are American citizens? 
The Mayor. Indeed. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you had any area here set up as a prohibited 
or restricted area so far? 



11304 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

The Mayor. No; not in the metropoHtan area. The first order 
that came out from the Department of Justice created only one area 
in Oregon, and that was the Bonneville Dam area. 

Mr. Sparkman. You haven't had any evacuated yet, have you, 
unless done so volu.ntarily? 

The Mayor. Yes; a few that were known to the F. B. I. have been 
taken over by the F. B. I. and a few have voluntarilv left. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Riley, you say you would have evacuated from 
the coastal area all American-born Japanese as well as the aliens? 

The Mayor. I would make no exceptions. I will say, if I may, 
that the Japanese have a very pronounced facial characteristic. 
Japanese, many times, though, are confused with Koreans, Filipinos, 
Chinese, and others from that part of Asia and the islands. For their 
own protection, they should be evacuated; and for the protection of 
our coastal area and our vital industries, they should be evacuated. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you care to commit yourself as to whether 
you think they are loyal to this country? 

The Mayor. I rather feel that 50 percent or more of the second 
generation are loyal; but I do not think anyone is in position to ferret 
out the 50 percent. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't think that you can take the chance? 

The Mayor. I wouldn't take a chance with one. 

Mr. Arnold. And it is for their own protection, as well as for the 
protection of the Nation? 

The Mayor. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. In evacuating alien Germans and Italians, of course, 
there would be a hardship worked? There would be, naturally, a 
great many aliens who are loyal to this country who would have to be 
evacuated if there is a general evacuation? 

The Mayor. No doubt. 

WOULD MAKE EVACUATION COMPLETE 

Mr. Arnold. Would you recommend that there be any tribunal or 
board set up to repatriate them to this area, as those cases are in- 
vestigated and found to be hardship cases? 

The Mayor. No; I wouldn't for this reason: I don't think that it 
would be possible for any board, irrespective of whom the personnel 
may be composed, that could, by interviews or other methods of 
investigation, be 100-percent correct in ferreting out the good from the 
bad. 

The Chairman. How about loyal Italians and Germans, mothers 
and fathers, say, 60 or 75 or 80 or 100? 

The Mayor. I can't see that age would make any difference. We 
know that there are people more alert and with keener minds, at 60, 
75, and 80, than a lot of people that are 25 and 30. 

The Chairman. Wliat about invalids and cripples? 

The Mayor. I don't know as that would make any difference. 
They still would have contacts, if they wanted to use them. 

The Chairman. Of course, we are just thinking out loud with you 
now. We are not trying to cross-examine you. 

The Mayor. No; and I am not arguing. 

The Chairman. We are not like England, and we are not like 
Germany, and we are not like Italy. Here, we have a country of all 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11305 

nationalities, and some of these days, Mr. Mayor, this war is going to 
be over, and we will still have to live with them. At the same time, 
as you indicated, it is war, and your thought is that there is only one 
thing to do, and that is to evacuate them, whether they are Japanese 
aliens, Germans, or Italians. 

Is there anything else, Mr. Mayor, that you care to say, that we 
have not covered? 

The Mayor. Well, only this: I hope that we shall receive orders at 
an early date — I would like to have them today, if possible — to evacu- 
ate all Axis aliens and second generation Japanese from this area, as 
soon as possible. We feel — and I think that I am speaking the senti- 
ment of the great majority of our people — that they are definitely a 
hazard, and that the longer they are permitted to have the freedom 
that they now have, the more danger there is to themselves personally, 
and the greater is the hazard that is created for our defense situation. 

One of your advance men asked me what I thought should be done 
with them. I don't believe they should be abused. I think that 
they should be put to productive labor of some character, and be 
properly remunerated for it, so that they would be making a contribu- 
tion to our defense problem. We have acres and acres and acres of 
beets in the interior that, for the lack of farm labor, probably will not 
be harvested. More acres would be planted if they had the labor. 
Most of these people are good at that sort of work, and I do not feel, 
sir, that they should be left in this area. 

WOULD REMOVE ALIENS FROM STATE 

The Chairman. You wouldn't recommend that they be moved 
out of the State, would you? 

The Mayor. Well, there are portions of the State very close to the 
Idaho line that might be a good place to place them, but I would feel 
better, and I think that our people would feel better, if they were 
taken far into the interior and on the other side of the Rockies. 

The Chairman. How do you think those people in the interior 
States are going to accept that situation? For instance, if we send 
them, into Kansas, Montana, or Nebraska, I wonder how thy are going 
to receive them? 

The Mayor. Well, I don't know — rather, I don't feel that that 
should be our concern. We are in a war. How would they feel if we 
leave those people here and because we have left them here, we have 
left the gate open for them to attack the people of Kansas, the Dakotas, 
Minnesota, and the other States. Now, it is for their protection. 

The Chairman. In other words, I think that you will agree with 
me, that we are in the most vulnerable part of the United States today. 
Is that right? 

The Mayor. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Mayor Riley. We ap- 
preciate your coming here, sir. 

The Mayor. I took the privilege of bringing with me. Commissioner 
Bowes, who, for a year or more, has been the Governor's chairman, 
on the distribution of labor, and so forth. I have not asked the 
commissioner if he has anything in mind; I don't know that you care 
to, but knowing that you are interested in the problem of migratory 



11306 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

labor, I thought possibly the commissioner might have something 
that you would want. 

The Chairman. Well, we will be glad to have anything he desires 
to present to the committee. I want to say to you furthermore, Mr. 
Mayor, that if you think of anything further, all you have got to do is 
to send it to our committee at Washington. Our record will be open 
for 10 days. As the days go by, things are happening pretty fast, and 
if you have anything, we will be glad to have it. 

The Mayor. Thank you, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Mr. Bowes, do you have anything to present at this time? 

William A. Bowes. I haven't anything. 

The Chairman. If you do want to send us a statement, we will be 
glad to put it in the record. 

(The following copies of resolutions passed by the Comicil of the 
City of Portland were received subsequent to the hearing and accepted 
for the record:) 

RESOLUTION NO. 22113 

Whereas a state of war exists between the Government of the United States and 
the Government of Japan and it is of paramount importance to the people of this 
Nation that the possibilities for fifth-column activities be reduced to a minimum; 
and 

Whereas there are on the Pacific coast of the United States many Japanese 
nationals and persons of Japanese descent irrespective of American citizenship, 
including many residents of the State of Oregon, who, under the existing circum- 
stances, should be subject to restrictions by the United States in order that possible 
fifth-column activities be minimized; and 

Whereas it may be true that many such Japanese nationals and persons of 
Japanese descent irrespective of American citizenship are not in accord with the 
aggression practiced by the Japanese Government, the public welfare demands 
that the paramount importance of the safety of this Nation subjugates such 
individual attitude on the part of individual Japanese nationals and persons of 
Japanese descent irrespective of American citizenship, residents of this country, 
inasmuch as it is impossible to determine by any known process the actual loyalty 
of such resident Japanese nationals and persons of Japanese descent irrespective 
of American citizenship; and 

Whereas the report of the special commission appointed by the President to 
investigate circumstances incident to the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 
1941, clearly indicates the extent to which fifth-column activities had been oper- 
ating in the islands of the Hawaiian group: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the council of the city of Portland in regular session assembled 
does by this resolution memorialize the Government of the United States through 
its respective agencies and departments to take appropriate steps immediately 
to intern and remove from the coastal areas of the United States all Japanese 
nationals and persons of Japanese descent irrespective of American citizenship, 
that the same be interned for the duration of the war and thus kept under proper 
supervision by the Government of this Nation; and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution signed by the mayor and auditor and 
bearing the seal of the city of Portland be forwarded to the President of the 
United States, to the Secretary of War, and to the Secretary of the Navy, and that 
copies be forwarded to the Secretary of the Treasury and to the Attorney General 
and to the Oregon delegation in the Houses of Congress; and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be entered upon the minutes of this 
meeting of the council. 

Adopted by the council, February 19, 1942. 



RESOLUTION NO. 22127 

Whereas the failure and neglect on the part of the Government of the United 
States to promptly evacuate and intern enemy aliens who are residents of the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11307 

Pacific coast, together with the descendants of these aliens, particularly Japanese, 
whether the latter be citizens of the United States or not, is presenting a serious 
problem to the economic welfare of the Western States; and 

Whereas this problem is first a problem of military security for the Pacific 
coast, which has been heretofore called to the attention of the proper authorities 
by resolution of this council; and 

Whereas a further problem is presented in that many of these aliens and their 
descendants, and particularly Japanese, are truck gardeners who in the past 
have provided a large share of the vegetables, berries, and fruits consumed by the 
residents of this area; and 

Whereas because of a reported evacuation at some future time of Japanese 
nationals and their descendants by the Government of the United Statc'^, these 
persons are not cultivating or planting their holdings, with the result that if the 
property is not promptly cultivated and planted there will be a decided shortage 
in fresh vegetables, berries, and fruits for the population of the Pacific coast 
this year: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the council of the city of Portland does by this resolution petition 
and memorialize Congress, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Attorney- 
General, and the United States Army to take prompt and decisive steps to the 
end, particularly, that Japanese nationals and their descendants be immediately 
evacuated and removed to some inland point where they will be less liable to be of 
military menace to the Pacific coast, and that the properties now occupied by 
these Japanese nationsls and their descendants be put into cultivation by those 
who are authorized to remain in this area, proper protection and consideration to 
be given to the evacuee in order that he may not be deprived of his property 
without consideration; and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be sent to the Oregon delegation in 
Congress, to the American Municipal Association, United States Conference of 
Mayors, the National Institution of Municipal Law Officers, the Attorney General 
of the United States, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and 
such other persons or agencies as the council may deem advisable. 

Adopted by the council, April 2, 1942. 

The Chairman. Mr. Goudy, will you please come forward and take 
the chair? 

TESTIMONY OF ELMER E. GOUDY, OREGON STATE PUBLIC WEL- 
FARE ADMINISTRATOR, SPALDING BUILDING, PORTLAND, OREG. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Goudy, we are glad to see you again. We 
remember your appearance before us back in Washington in January. 
It is our understanding that you are here this morning as a represen- 
tative of the Governor, who was unable to attend. If you have any 
recommendations to make on behalf of the Governor, with reference 
to this problem of alien evacuation, we shall be very glad to hear them, 
and then probably we will ask you some questions later. 

Mr. Goudy. Mr. Chairman, and members of the committee, I am 
here as the official representative of the State public welfare com- 
mission, which, of course, has many difficult problems with respect 
to the welfare, not only of the citizens, but also of a certain number of 
noncitizens within the State. 

FEW ALIENS IN PROHIBITED AREAS 

So far as the Governor is concerned, I am here, to speak officially 
for the State public welfare commission and the welfare program, 
although I am not officially here as spokesman for the Governor. The 
question of the removal of Japanese (aliens and American citizens) has 
raised in this State certain limited problems up to this time. I am 
referring particularly to the prohibited areas established by the United 

60396 — i2— pt. 30— — 2 



11308 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

States Attorney General. The State Public Welfare Commission of 
Oregon and the county public welfare commissions, acting under 
instructions from the regional office of the Social Security Board in San 
Francisco, have established certain procedure for assisting enemy aliens 
who are required to move from the prohibited areas into areas in the 
same communities that were not prohibited. That was set upon direct 
instructions from the regional office of the Social Security Board. 
Incidentally, the prohibited areas that were established, in the main, 
were in areas in which there were very few, or in some cases no enemy 
aliens residing; so it has not created at this time, and within those very 
limited areas, any very difficult problems. Apparently that plan of 
handling enemy aliens is being changed. I had a wire from the 
regionat office of the Social Security Board on February 23, advising 
that other plans were being considered ; and what the extent of those 
other plans may be, we don't know at this time. 

On the question of evacuating any large number of enemy aliens, 
also including the citizen Japanese, it woidd generally be considered 
by public-welfare people that the problem of the single man is rela- 
tively a simple problem. In the case of the Japanese, particularly, 
many of those are men with families in which there are a considerable 
number of minor children. Those minor children are almost all 
citizens, by reason of birth in the United States. 

We feel that in the evacuation movement of those people that the 
families should be kept as units and not broken up. We feel that 
that is in the interests of the family, and, other things being equal, 
probably the most economical way of handling the whole problem. 

RESETTLEMENT OF PEOPLE OF DIFFERENT OCCUPATIONS AND SKILLS 

On the problem of resettlement there is only one point that I 
would like to make, and that is the question of resettlement dealing 
particularly on the question of Japanese and people of different 
occupations and skill. On January 22, a committee of Japanese 
called upon us, and from their statements, it was indicated that a 
hundred — approximately a hundred of those Japanese — are hotel op- 
erators. Now, again, I am merely taking the statement of this Jap- 
anese committee. Approximately 100 were hotel operators, and it 
was estimated about 80 percent were aliens. It was estimated by 
that committee that there were some 60 grocery stores operated 
by Japanese, of which 50 percent were operated by aliens. This 
committee indicated there were probably some 18 or 19 restaurants, 
operated by Japanese, mostly aliens. 

There are approximately 20 Japanese laundry and dry-cleaning 
establishments, most of them operated by aliens. And they indicated 
there were some 10 barber shops. These figures may have been before 
this committee before, but I am merely citing them to raise the point 
that we are dealing with people who are in a variety of types of 
work. This delegation also indicated that there were a considerable 
number of them working as common laborers in the sawmills. Now, 
that is apart from persons who are employed in truck gardening or 
agricultural work. 

The question of resettlement of those people, then, raises different 
problems as you deal with different groups. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11309 

USE OF CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMPS 

Some question has been raised about the use of the abandoned 
C. C. C. camps, particularly in the eastern part of the State. In the 
main, those camps were built to house single men, with an average 
of about 200 men in a camp. They are equipped for that purpose. 
If those camps were to be used — I am merely raising this point be- 
cause the question has been discussed, and it has come before us — if 
those camps were to be used to house single men, they would probably 
be pretty well adapted to that purpose. If, however, they were to 
be used for the care of women and children, and assuming that were 
suitable practice — I am not saying that it is — but if that were done, 
then most of those camps would probably have to have substantial 
remodeling to care for family groups. In addition to that, a question 
would be raised — certainly should be considered — the location of 
camps. Some of those camps, particularly in the eastern Oregon area, 
are in forested areas, and it seems that competent authority on that 
matter might well be considered, with respect to the establishment of 
those in the forested areas. Others are located in areas which are 
relatively dry. For example, where there is no gardening or farming 
that could be done. I am merely citing those things, because they 
are matters that have been discussed, and have been called to our 
attention. 

Mr. Chairman, those are the principal matters that we would raise 
on this point. 

DIVISION OF PROGRAM 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Goudy, does the Social vSecurity, through the 
employment service, render assistance, or is that agency responsible 
for rendering assistance to these evacuees? 

Mr. Goudy. The plan developed in this State is slightly different 
from the California plan, if that is the plan you are referring to. 

Mr. Sparkman. In California, Mr. Neustadt told us, I believe, 
that some such plan as that had been worked out. I wondered if it 
was uniform, or if each State adopted a separate plan. 

Mr. Goudy. The plan is different in this State in this respect: 
the enemy aliens, who needed certain advice with respect to employ- 
ment and the like, were referred immediately to the employment 
service, the employment service assuming responsibility for finding 
them employment, and also advising them with respect to the matters 
that came within the jurisdiction and the plan of the employment 
service. 

When it was determined, however, that that person was in need of 
assistance to move out of the prohibited area, and he had no resources 
out of which to meet that need, then he was referred to the public 
welfare office in the local community. 

This was set up on a rather informal basis until it could be cleared 
officially. Our understanding was that that plan would work out 
and would be financed through funds made available by the Federal 
Government through the Federal Security agency. It diff'ered from 
California in that the public welfare work was to be administered in 
this State by the public welfare commission, not by the employment 
service. 



11310 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you had any increase in the requests for 
assistance on the part of differeiit ahen groups since the war started? 

Mr. GouDY. No appreciable increase. 

Mr. Sparkman. As a matter of fact, you have not had any ahens 
in this State actuahy evacuated yet? 

Mr. GouDY. No ahens assisted by our office in evacuation, Be- 
yondjthat, I don't know the answer. 

MAINTENANCE OF EVACUEES 

Mr. Sparkman. In the event that persons may be evacuated to 
other States, do you think that Oregon will be charged with the re- 
sponsibihty of providing care at the place of settlement of these 
people? 

Mr. GouDY. You ask me, do I think they will be charged, or do you 
ask me if they will assume the cost? 

Mr. Sparkman. What arrangement is contemplated? 

Mr. GouDY. There has been no provision made for the care of 
aliens outside of the State of Oregon, to my knowledge. Now, when 
I say that, I am referring to the funds of the State of Oregon. My 
understanding would be, however, that aliens transferred out of the 
State of Oregon would be provided assistance through Federal funds 
that might be made available through the Social Security agency. 
With respect to that, however, I am not entirely clear. 

Mr. Sparkman. I gather from your statement that it is your opinion 
that these aliens ought to be put to some useful work? 

Mr. GouDY. Yes. I think that an enemy alien in that respect, is- 
the same as any other person. If useful work can be found for him,, 
he certainly should have it. 

Mr. Sparkman. What type of work would you suggest? 

Mr. GouDY. I assume there would be required as many different 
kinds of work as there are people in the different businesses. If you 
are to move enemy alien persons into certain parts of the State of 
Oregon, there are only certain types of work available in that com- 
munity. It is going to depend very largely on where you move them 
and the type of work that they are going to do. 

employment DEPENDENT ON TYPE OF SUPERVISION 

Mr. Sparkman. It will also depend upon the nature of supervision 
that is exercised over them, would it not? 

Mr. GouDY. I assume so; yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, if you moved them as family 
groups, scattered with very little, if any, supervision, then it depends 
very largely upon the work that is available in that community? 

Mr. GouDY. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. But if you should place them under control, such 
as you mentioned in the C. C. C. camps, or in any group control, then 
work could be more or less made for them, could it not? 

Mr. GouDY. Well, if you place those men in a camp which has been 
doing, let us say, soil-erosion work in a community that requires that 
type of work, I assume that type of work could be made; it would be 
made work, however. That would be so understood, if you were to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11311 

place those persons in a forested area, in that type of a camp, similar to 
the work that the C. C. C. has been doing, I suppose that it should be 
that type of work. 

Now, if you were to place them in agricultural areas, there, again ■ 

Mr. Sparkman. I was just starting to ask you that very thing. 
Down in California, particularly, there seems to be considerable con- 
cern as to the effect on agriculture by the evacuation of these people. 
Do you see any reason why these evacuees could not, under close 
supervision, be used as agricultural workers? 

Mr. GouDY. I think as far as the individuals themselves are con- 
cerned, they could; certainly most of them probably could be used as 
agricultural workers. Now, whether or not the circumstances in the 
local community are such that it will permit that, I am not qualified to 
speak upon; I don't know the answer to that. 

Mr. Sfarkman. Do you believe that the aliens in this State should 
be evacuated completely out of the State? Down in California, a 
good many people want them completely out of the State of California. 

Do you think that they should be removed completely out of the 
State of Oregon, or east of the Cascades, or just where? 

Mr. GouDY, You are asking me now for my personal opinion? 

Mr. Sparkman. Yes. 

RELOCATION OF ALIENS 

Mr. GouDY. I assume those enemy aliens should be evacuated as 
far away as it is necessary in the interests of the defense of this part 
of the country. Now, how far that is, and where it is, is a question, 
I think, which the military authorities are competent to answer and I 
am not. 

Mr. Sparkman. You would leave that up to the ones who have 
the responsibility of defending the area? 

Mr. GouDY. Yes. I think that is the proper thing. I think that 
is really a question of military requnements. It is a national problem. 
The defense of the whole area is a national problem that affects the 
■entire country. I don't feel qualified to answer that question. 

Mr. Sparkman. A suggestion has been made that the male aliens 
be removed, and the women and children left to run the businesses or 
professions, whatever the work may be. I gather from your principal 
statement, that it would be yoiu- opinion that the better plan would be 
to keep the families together? 

Mr. GouDY. Yes; qualifying that to tliis extent: that it is in the 
interest of the whole defense program, and we feel that it would be 
much sounder to maintain the families as units. Otherwise, there will 
be many instances where you will have families with small children, 
who are going to be a public charge in the community. 

Mr. Sparkman. Not only would it be a good social thing to do, 
but also economically wise? 

ALIEN population 

Mr. GouDY. Yes; I think so. I think it is in the interest of those 
families, themselves, whether they are citizens or not citizens. There 
are not a large number of them, incidentally, if you are limiting it to 



11312 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

the Japanese in the State of Oregon. There are probably something 
shghtly over 4,000, both ahen and citizens, in the entire State. 

Mr. Sparkman. What about the German and Itahan aUens? 

Mr. GouDY. Do you mean as to number? 

Mr, Sparkman. Yes. 

Mr. GouDY. They are relatively small in number. The information 
we have indicates that there are 1,707 Japanese aliens, and there are 
2,454 American-born Japanese in the State of Oregon. The informa- 
tion we have indicates that there are about 1,707 alien Japanese, 
1,814 German aliens, 1,941 Itahan ahens. I think those figures 
originally came from the United States Census of 1940, or at least, 
most of them. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all I have. 

The Chairman. Mr. Goudy, we appreciate very much your appear- 
ance before us, and the presentation that you have given us. If 
there occurs anything further that comes to you that you would like 
to submit, we would be glad to have any supplementary statement 
you may want to offer. 

Mr. Goudy. Thank you. 

Mr. Sparkman. Senator Jones? 

TESTIMONY OF HON. RONALD E. JONES, OREGON STATE SENATOR, 

BROOKS, OREG. 

Mr. Arnold. Senator, will you state your name for the reporter, 
please? 

Mr. Jones. Ronald E. Jones. 

Mr. Arnold. You are State Senator? 

Mr. Jones. State Senator. 

Mr. x\rnold. In Oregon? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. And a large farm operator? 

Mr. Jones. Farm operator in the Brooks area, 6 or 8 miles north 
of Salem. 

Mr. Arnold. We have asked you to appear today as a person 
intimately acquainted with some of these problems, because of your 
membership in the State legislature, and because of your experience 
in farm production. You say your place is located in the Brooks area. 
Where is that area? 

Mr. Jones. It is 8 miles north of Salem on the main Pacific highway. 
That is the Lake Labish area, right in the heart of the celery shipping 
business. 

Mr. Arnold. What crops are grown in that area? 

Mr. Jones. Mostly celery and onions. We grow in that area about 
90 percent of the celery that is shipped out of the State of Oregon. 

Mr. Arnold. There is a large amount shipped from there, is there? 

Mr. Jones. Around 600 cars per year. 

JAPANESE population IN AREA 

Mr. Arnold. How many operators are growing crops and what is 
the total Japanese population in the colony on your place? 

Mr. Jones. In the entire area, and most of it is under my close 
supervision, there are about 120 Japanese, about 40 of them aliens. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11313 

They come from about 20 families, who are the main operators of this 
celery business. 

Mr. Arnold. Twenty families constitute the 120 you are speaking 

of? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Do the Japanese operators use mostly family labor, 
or do they have some hired labor? 

Mr. Jones. They vary quite a bit. The larger operators use mostly 
hired labor, and there are some smaller families whose labor is con- 
tained entirely within their own families. 

EFFECT OF EVACUATION ON CELERY PRODUCTION 

Mr. Arnold. In the event that the Japanese would be ordered to 
be evacuated from this area, would there be any difficulty, in your 
opinion, in maintaining production? 

Mr. Jones. Celery production would be affected materially. The 
onion production would not be affected except that it might be in- 
creased because of some celery land diverted to the onions. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you say that white growers are not as good 
farmers as the Japanese, with respect to celery? 

Mr. Jones. No; I wouldn't say that. It is a question — celery is a 
very hard vegetable crop to raise. It takes a lot of patience and a lot 
of finesse and a lot of skill in the handling, and the white people have 
not tried to develop that skill. They have been content to go along 
with the other farming operations. Onions are an ef^sier crop to 
grow, and on most of this land, which is similar to the land that they 
are raising celery on, onions will grow, and they can make a fairly good 
living from onions, so they have not tried to grow celery. I think, 
ordinarily, that if a white farmer wanted to take the time, in a year or 
two, he would be as adept at it as the Japanese; but they have not 
done it. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have plenty of labor in that area available? 

Mr. Jones. We have had; yes. There are about 40 FiHpino 
laborers in that area that work mostly for the Japanese farmers. 

Mr. Arnold. Are they thoroughly familiar with the raising of 
celery so that they could go ahead without the aid of the Japanese, if 
the Japanese were evacuated? 

Mr. Jones. They have not taken much initiative and are not the 
type of people that are able to show initiative. They are good work- 
men, most of them, and they have been there a long while, and they 
like that type of work; but they are not reliable enough to be able to 
turn over a farming operation; they would need quite a bit of super- 
vision. 

Mr. Arnold. Is it your opinion that the land would be farmed in 
that area, if the Japanese were removed; but it might have to be a 
different type of product raised? 

Mr. Jones. Yes. Of course, it would depend a good deal on the 
time of removal. 

Mr. Arnold. Are the Japanese farmers going ahead with their 
spring planting now? 

Mr. Jones. They are going ahead. They are going ahead as 
though they were going to stay there all year, not knowing whether, 
they are or not. 



11314 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. Senator, you have been pretty closely associated 
with Japanese people, and if you would care to, we would like to have 
you express your opinion as to whether any distinction should be 
made between alien Japanese and American-born Japanese, in the 
evacuation order. 

LOYALTY OF LOCAL JAPANESE 

Mr. Jones. That is a pretty difficult question to answer. Afost of 
the American-born Japanese are younger. Of course, my association 
with them has been only with those in that area; not with the boys 
that are in the city, or not with the aliens that are in the city, and 
their type of operation is a good deal different. I think, in the main, 
that among the farming class that I know, there is very Httle difference, 
as far as any danger would be concerned. I don't mean by that, 
that there is no danger from aliens, or no danger from citizens. 
These fellows have been here so long in the farming area — most of 
them in our area have been there about 20 years — that their feelings 
are pretty much tied up. Some families feel a good deal different 
than others, and I don't think the difference is because they are an 
alien or a citizen born Japanese. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you think that some of those people have greater 
regard for Japan than for the United States? 

Mr. Jones. I don't think there is any question about that. I 
think that varies by families, and it is an awfully hard question to 
determine, as to the dividing line. I know some of those families, 
especially the heads of the families, that there is no question about 
their affiliation with the Japanese people; their sympathies are 
entirely with them. 

Mr. Apnold. And none of the children of those farmers have gone 
back to Japan to school? 

Mr. Jones. Some of them have, but not in the last 10 or 15 years. 
They used to do that quite a bit; but in the last 10 or 15 years, they 
have discontinued that practice. 

effect of religion on LOYALTY 

Mr. Arnold. Does religion have anything to do with it? Are the 
Christians more likely to be loyal to this country than the others? 

Mr. Jones. I would say that it had quite a bit to do with it. The 
Buddhist religion is looked on as a national Japanese custom, as 
far as the people here are concerned; and I have noticed that even 
among the children, there isn't much social mixing between the 
Buddhist and the Christian children. 

Mr. Arnold. But you would say that if aliens of German and 
Italian origin, and Japanese are to be removed from these areas, 
then all Japanese should go, for the welfare of this Coastal area? 

Mr. Jones. "Well, that is a question that I would leave entirely 
to the Army. I don't know whether they would need to move them 
all or not. If it was a case of danger of invasion, I would say that 
they should all be removed. 

Mr. Arnold. And if that happens, do you feel that you would get 
along some way and produce crops of some useful kind on that land? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11315 

Mr. Jones. Yes; I would say that we would. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all, Mr. Chamnan, that I have. 

The Chairman. Senator, I would like to say to you that your 
two Senators, Holman and McNary, and your three Representatives, 
Mott, Pierce, and Angell, met almost daily — that is, the congressional 
delegates from California, Washington, and Oregon — and we made a 
recommendation to the President that he give the right to the Army 
to evacuate all citizens. So the President issued that Executive order, 
giving the right to evacuate any citizen, to the Army. 

Mr. Jones. That is entirely right. 

The Chairman. I don't know whether that is going to be handled 
through a permit or registration system; but I don't think the Ameri- 
can people in these strategic areas will have much complaint about it. 
When we go down to Washington and the War Department and the 
Navy Department, we have to sign up, and we are given a badge, and 
before this is over, we might all be wearing badges. 

Do you Imow anything about the Astoria district, the Astoria 
waterfront? 

Mr. Jones. No ; I do not. I know just a little about it, havnig been 
there a few times. 

The Chairman. Let me read you a telegram from the Astoria 
Harbor Defense Committee, and see if you can throw any light on it. 
It is addressed to this committee. [Reading]: 

ALIENS ON ASTORIA WATERFRONT 

There are 27 enemy aliens residing on the Astoria waterfront. Many of these 
were prior to the war engaged in the fish-packing industry. It is entirely im- 
practicable to consider using them in the future in this industry. Therefore they 
are of no further use here. Many of them would welcome an opportunity to be 
employed in other areas. Their idleness contributes to further menacmg our 
waterfront. Urge that immediate steps be taken for their removal. 

Have you any views to express about that? It is signed by the 
Astoria Harbor Defense Committee. In the first place, do you know 
anything about that committee? 

Mr. Jones. No, I do not; no. 

The Chairman. And, therefore, you don't know much about the 
facts of this particular telegram? 

Mr. Jones. No; I do not know anything about it. 

The Chairman. Thank you. Senator, very much. Is there any- 
thing else you have to say? 

Mr. Jones. We might have to take immediate steps on account of a 
boycott; there is always that threat. In our area, about half of those 
operators are dependent on labor outside of theu' own families, and 
that might or might not be of immediate consequence. If this order 
comes — that is, if this order for evacuation comes after the 1st of 
June, it wouldn't have nearly as much effect on this year's crop; and 
for next year's crop, we would make different arrangements, and raise 
a different type of crop. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Senator, very much. 

Mr. Underwood, I understood you wanted to make a brief state- 
ment to the committee. 



11316 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF WALTER W. UNDERWOOD, SECRETARY, ASTORIA 
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, ASTORIA, OREG. 

The Chairman. Have you a statement you wish to make? 

Mr. Underwood. Yes, My name is Walter Underwood, and I am 
from Astoria. I think perhaps I can answer some of the questions 
you asked one of the preceding witnesses. 

The Chairman. Having in mind that telegram, have you any com- 
ment to make on it? 

Mr. Underwood. Yes, sir. I have here a map of the Astoria 
water front. We are very much alarmed about this situation, as 
brought forth in that telegram, and I might mention that that com- 
mittee is composed of interests along the water front in Astoria, and 
I think perhaps they have a Coast Guard representative, as well. 

We have the largest concentration of fish canneries on the Pacific 
coast in that area. That fish is of a very high food content, and about 
80 percent of the pack during the last year was shipped to foreign 
countries who are at war, or purchased by our Government for troops. 
It is easily shipped. It is a good food, and will help to sustain these 
countries during this war. We have had our city burned twice. It 
is a very easy city to burn in view of the fact that it is located as it 
is; it is a string community along the water front, and one man very 
easily could start a fire. This map will illustrate the point, and places 
where it would be very easily damaged by one determined person with 
incendiaries. These Japanese who have formerly been employed in 
the Astoria cannerieSj live in bunkhouses right on the water front, and 
they still live in those bunkhouses. These Japanese are within 1,700 
feet of the ships leaving Astoria — and I might mention that convoys 
are going out of there. It is very obvious that there are signal sys- 
tems within that community now, because every time we have a 
black-out, we find blinking lights, and they move from time to time. 
We also discovered 2 days ago, 20 sticks of dynamite under Tenth 
and Bond Streets, wrapped up in newspaper; so we know that those 
Japanese know that they are going to be searched. They have had 
plenty of time to cache any materials that they have for sabotage in 
their preparations. 

There were 27 Japanese there, but now there are 26, because one 
was picked up by the F. B. I. He was apprehended with weapons. 
I don't know the details. I want to leave this material as an exhibit. 

The Chairman. That will be included in the record at this point. 

EXHIBITS SUBMITTED BY WALTER W. UNDERWOOD, SECRETARY 
ASTORIA CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, ASTORIA, OREG. 

The City of Astoria, Oreg., 

February 25, 19^2. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, Committee Investigation of Enemy Aliens. 

Sir: In behalf of the officials of the city of Astoria, I wish herewith to voice 
our protest against the policy of permitting enemy aliens to reside unguarded 
and unmolested within our community. 

Our vital industries, such as docks, oil plants, ship yards, etc., need not be 
listed in detail, nor should the necessity of their maintenance be referred to, of 
such you, no doubt, have full comprehension. 

Our police force has made many investigations and secured much data indi- 
cating the danger, which data is too voluminous and of such character as to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11317 

prevent transmission herewith. All such data has been presented to F. B. I., 
Army and Navy representatives; and to us, indicates a definite organization of 
Japanese aliens with a definite leadership thereof. 

We believe the danger is present, that it is acute, and that fine point of per- 
sonal feelings should be disregarded, all to the end that enemy aliens be removed 
from the community. 

Respectfully yours, 

G. T. McClean, City Manager, 



Astoria, Oreg., February 25, 1942. 
Mr. John H. Tolan, 

Room 524, United States Courthouse, 

Portland, Oreg. 
Dear Sir: The evacuation of aliens from the Astoria and lower Columbia 
River district, concurring with and cooperating with other industrial industries 
in this section, the Port of Astoria desires to call attention particularly to the 
very easy nature in which the oil industries, particularly in this section, all of 
which are located on the water front as an extreme vulnerable point of attack 
for saboteurs or enemy aliens which can be brought about by small explosives 
mainly. Most all of the oil companies, including their storage tanks and facil- 
ities, are located on the water front. Any damage that would burst tanks either 
by demolition or incendiary bombs would raze and at the same time destroy low 
walls surrounding such tanks and the burning oil on the water front which would 
be impossible to put out before the probable destruction of all industries on the 
water front. Same is true of all oil industries located on port property which 
alone have investments of $4,000,000 and which is being planned now for one 
point of embarkation and the loading and handling of its boats in national de- 
fense. We feel and trust that every effort will be made to eliminate enemy 
aliens in this district, and while various industries have gone to great expense for 
additional deputized guards and watchmen, the menace remains constant as long 
as such aliens are permitted to reside in this district. 

While the Japanese submarines were on the coast in the outbreak of the war, 
every ship that left the Columbia River passed within 1,000 feet of the Japanese 
bunkhouses. These were the only ships leaving coast ports that were either 
torpedoed or fired upon. This is particularly noticeable inasmuch as similar 
ships leaving Puget Sound were not molested, as it is 130 miles from Cape Flattery 
to Seattle, so the Japanese did not have as close a check on them as they did from 
departures from the Columbia River. We therefore urge the removal of these 
aliens. 

Very truly yours, 

R. R. Bartlett, 
Manager of the Port of Astoria. 
F. M. Sweet, 
Vice President and Harbor Master. 



Astoria Chamber of Commerce, 

Astoria, Oreg., February 18, 1942. 
Hon. Franklin D. Roosevelt, 

President of the United States, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: Attached is a petition signed by 50 citizens of Hammond, Oreg., 
requesting removal of aliens from that area and designation of same as defense 
zone. 

It is our pleasure to forward this to you, supplementing our telegrams of 
February 14 and telegrams which we have also sent to Senator McNary and 
Congressman Mott. 

We urge that this action be taken. 
Sincerely, 

Astoria Chamber of Commerce, 
Walter Underwood, 

Managing Secretary. 



11318 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Astoria Chamber of Commerce, 

Astoria, Oreg., February 18, 1942. 
Hon. Frank Knox, 

Secretary of Navy, Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: Business interests of this community are much concerned over the- 
presence of enemy aliens in this area. According to statements just made by 
the President of the United States, even cities as far inland as Detroit may be 
justified in expecting bombings. It therefore would appear absolutely essential 
that we protect ourselves for all possibility of sabotage, especially in such strategic 
areas such as the lower Columbia. 

It is therefore our wish to acquaint you with the wish of this community as 
expressed in the enclosed telegrams and a petition which has been forwarded to 
the President of the United States, requesting and urging designation of this area 
as a defense zone from which enemy aliens shall be removed. 

You will find attached copies of wires sent to Congressman Mott, Senator 
McNary, and wire sent on February 14 to the President of the United States, 
which telegram was duplicated by the labor council. Also a petition signed 
by 50 citizens of Hammond, Oreg., has been forwarded to the President. 

There can be little doubt that the great majority of public opinion in this area 
favors removal of these aliens, particularly as at present these aliens cannot 
find lucrative employment here and many of them individually desire to be 
removed to areas where they may safely be employed to earn a livelihood. 

We also understand that interested parties along the water front in this area 
have formed a committee for the protection of the water front, and that this 
committee will communicate with the Government requesting removal of these- 
aliens. 

Sincerely, 

Walter W. Underwood, 

Managing Secretary. 



Chamber of Commerce, 
Astoria, Oreg., February 25, 1942. 
Mr. W.\LTER Underwood, 

Secretary, Chamber of Commerce, Astoria, Oreg. 
Dear Mr. Underwood: It is my understanding you are to attend a meeting 
to be held in Portland, Thursday, February 26, at which time evidence is to be 
submitted to the investigating committee concerning the desirability and/or 
advisibility of moving all aliens from the Pacific coast district, which would of 
course include Astoria. 

As president of the chamber of commerce and also as manage of the Astoria 
branch of the United States National Bank of Portland, Oreg., I feel that such a 
move is absolutely necessary and essential. These aliens, particularly the 
Japanese, are in a position to do inestimable damage, and it is my thought all 
Japanese, both nationals and citizens, should be removed, at least pending a 
thorough investigation of each of the individuals and a determination made as 
to their right to enjoy their citizenship. I sincerely hope the investigating com- 
mittee will recognize the potential danger and take steps to immediately clear this 
territory of all aliens. 

Charles A. Reynolds, 
President, Chamber of Commerce; Manager, Astoria Branch United States 
National Bank of Portland, Oreg. 



Columbia River Packers Association, Inc., 

Astoria, Oreg., February 25, 1942. 
Re alien enemies. 
Mr. Walter Underwood, 

Astoria Chamber of Com^nerce, Astoria, Oreg. 
Dear Sir: We wish to call to j^our attention that we have on our property at 
the present time eight alien enemy Japanese. Though these people were em- 
ployed by us previous to the outbreak of the war, the nature of the salmon business 
is such that it makes it impracticable for us to consider reemploying them. They 
are, therefore, a direct menace to our property, and as you well know the Japanese 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11319 

never lose allegiance' to their country and they are so situated they could cause 
us untold damage at any time they might see fit. We therefore urge that you take 
any steps that you can to have them removed. 
Yours very truly, 

Columbia River Packers Association, Inc. 

Floyd L. Wright, Treasurer. 



Central Labor Council of Astoria and Vicinity, 

Astoria, Oreg., February 10, 1942. 
Secretary Chamber of Commerce, 

Astoria, Oreg. 
Dear Sir: The Central Labor Council of Astoria and Vicinity are heartily in 
accord with your action in requesting that Astoria and vicinity be designated as 
a defense zone. The presence of enemy aliens in this district is a constant threat 
to the safety of the northwest district. 

At a regular meeting Monda}^ night, Februar} 9, a resolution carried to endorse 
your action and the secretary was instructed to acquaint your body with our 
action. Feel free to call on us for any assistance that we may be able to render 
you. 

Very truly yours, 

Central Labor Council, 
R. C. Cole, Secretary. 

TESTIMONY OF WALTER W. UNDERWOOD— Resumed 

Mr. Underwood. I was asked to come here and testify, not just 
by the chamber of commerce, but I have letters from the city manager, 
from the Labor Council, from the haibor mastei', and from the 
American Legion there. I think that the public opinion in this matter 
is at least 95 percent in favor of removal of at least the Japanese aliens. 

Now we would also like to see removed from that area the second 
generation Japanese, but anything would be an improvement over the 
present situation. We feel that we are not unduly alarmed, but we 
are alarmed over the presence of the 27 Japanese aliens in the area 
because of the fact that it would be so easy to damage our equipment. 
We have absolutely inadequate equipment to take care of a severe fire 
on our water front, which would damage not only our docks but all 
of our oil tanks and destroy our canneries. 

I have had some conversation with one or two of the Japanese ahens 
themselves, and as it now is, they have used up all but one week of 
theu- unemployment compensation. They are not allowed to work in 
the canneries, because we have more Chinese in the canneries than 
we have Japanese, and they simply won't work with them. 

UNEMPLOYED JAPANESE 

I talked to Ted Deister, who is in the lumber business, and they 
cannot employ them. The laborers refuse to work with the Japanese 
in the back country in the lumber camps. They are demanding their 
removal from those lumber camps and from our canneries, and we 
cannot have them work there. They are public charges. They know 
they are, and they, themselves, would like to be removed to some point 
where they can safely find employment and earn a living. The longer 
they stay here in these bunkhouses the more sullen they become, and 
the more apt they are to become fifth columnists. 

Mr. Sparkman. I wonder how many second-generation Japanese 
there are in that same area. 



11320 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Underwood. I have had various estimates, all the way from 
a dozen up to 18 or 19. 

Mr. Sparkman. ^Vliat about German and Italian aliens? 

Mr. Underwood. I am not qualified to answer anything on that. 
They are a very minor problem in our area. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you or any of your group ever taken this 
matter up with General DeWitt, down at San Francisco, with the 
idea of having that declared a strateric area? 

Mr. Underwood. We have wired Senator McNary and Congress- 
man Mott with a request that they do that, and they have responded 
that they favor removal of the aliens. What they have done, I 
couldn't say. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, of course, since last Friday, the matter has 
lodged completely in the hands of the Pacific coast defense com- 
mander, who is General DeWitt. I was just wondering if it had been 
called to his attention. 

Mr. Underwood. No, sir; we were on the verge of doing that 
when we heard that there was a hearing here, and they asked me to 
come here first. We have made our military and naval officers in 
our area all aware of what we have done, I will leave with you copies- 
of all the telegrams that we have sent. We have been alarmed about 
this for quite some time. 

Mr. Sparkman. I should like to make the suggestion that you 
prepare a report, something similar to what you have given us here 
this morning, and send it to General DeWitt, and ask that that be 
declared a critical area, setting up your reasons why you think it 
should be, and that these aliens be evacuated. 

Mr. Underwood. We have sent that to the War Department and 
the Navy Department already. Will that get to him? 

Mr. Sparkman. I suggest that you send it direct to General 
DeWitt. He is the one that is directly responsible for it. 

Mr. Underwood. We will do that, anyway. 

The Chairman. The Navy and the Army have received quite a 
number of communications at Washington. As I understand the 
mechanics of it, it is up to General DeWitt, and he has his Army 
Intelligence officers ; then he works with the Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation. It would be very valuable to him. 

Mr. Underwood. We feel this way in Astoria — may I interject a 
personal opinion here? 

NEAREST MAINLAND POINT TO THE WAR 

We are the nearest mainland point to the eastern war. We feel 
that it would be much easier to defend our area, so that we could 
send more men abroad, if we made ample precautions against fifth- 
column activities; and we feel that the way to do that is first to remove 
the aliens so that they can look then for the citizen fifth columnists. 
We would like to see the second-generation Japanese removed, surely,, 
as preceding witnesses here have testified; but anything, as I say, will 
be an improvement over the present situation. We feel that we must 
get at least the 26 or 27 enemy Japanese out of our area first. The 
other steps, I think, will come later. 

The Chairman. You see, that is just the very idea back of this 
committee coming out on the Pacific coast, so as to give you art 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11321 

opportunity to be heard regarding the problems, and particularly 
about certain districts like this. 

Mr. Underwood. Yes. 

The Chairman. And, in other words, probably we can get the 
word out just about as fast as you can. 

Mr. Underwood. I might say that there has been one solution 
offered, and tliis is going to come, I am sure. The Navy and Army 
will set up restricted areas, say 1,000 feet from our docks. Now, 
I might point out that in the case of Astoria, that is not practical, 
because Astoria is on a peninsula, and it would leave just about 5 
percent of our physical area for those people to live and do business 
in. They have to be removed from the community. You cannot 
set up restricted areas there because the whole community, practically, 
would be restricted. 

The Chairman. Let me say to you, Mr. Underwood, that we will 
have our record open for the next 10 days, anyway, and if you want 
to produce what you have said in a written statement, we will be glad 
to have it for the record. Thank you. 

The committee will take a 5-minute recess. 

(Whereupon, a 5-minute recess was taken, after which the hearing 
was resumed, as follows:) 

The Chairman. The hearing will come to order, please. 

Air. Arnold. Is Mr. Bessey here, of the National Resources Plan- 
ning Board? Did you want to make a statement for the committee, 
Mr. Bessey? 

Mr. Bessey. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF R. F. BESSEY, COUNSELOR, NATIONAL RESOURCES 
PLANNING BOARD, PORTLAND, OREG. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you a statement you wish to make? 

Mr. Bessey. Yes. My full name is R. F. Bessey. I am the regional 
officer for the National Resources Planning Board, covering the ter- 
ritory of Wasliington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. 

Mr. Arnold. With offices here in Portland? 

Mr. Bessey. With offices here in Portland; yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Just proceed, Mr. Bessey. 

Mr. Bessey. I have a prepared statement that will take 6 or 8 
minutes to read. If the committee pleases, I shall be glad to read 
that. 

Mr. Arnold. W^e shall be glad to have it. 

Mr. Bessey [reading]. The Pacific Northwest regional office of 
the National Resources Planning Board has noted, with considerable 
interest and concern, reported plans for the evacuation of certain 
enemy alien and related groups from military areas on the Pacific 
coast. This office has not been directly concerned with plans for 
meeting the problem. • Its interests lie in the full use of the material 
and labor resources of the region and in regional conservation and 
development — from both short- and long-term standpoints. It is 
hopeful that the paramount needs of security can be met with a mini- 
mum of dislocation or loss of material resources or productive labor. 
It is hopeful that location solutions can be found that will fit well with 
long-range conditions and needs — with the inevitable post-war recon- 
struction and readjustment as well as with the urgent war needs. 



11322 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

This office will, of course, be very glad to assemble and to furnish 
any available data and otherwise to assist in the solution of the 
problem. 

TWO MAJOR PROBLEMS OF EVACUATION 

From our viewpoint — admittedly limited as to knowledge of the 
magnitude of movement and of governing policies and plans for any 
proposed evacuation — it would appear that there would be two major 
problems: That of maintaining production and services in areas that 
may be evacuated, and that of relocating evacuees in nonmilitary 
areas where their productive capacity may also be maintained and 
where camp and settlement establishment will be most feasible from 
the area and community standpoint. 

On the basis of data presently available we are not in a position to 
elaborate upon the problems of the evacuation areas. It is, of course, 
essential that the production of the evacuated areas be maintained — 
whether that is a matter of replacing productive work in agriculture, 
industry, or necessary services. It will be particularly important to 
insure continuing production of alien groups operating truck gardens 
in western Washington and Oregon (as well as California). Substan- 
tial increases — past, current, and prospective — in the population of 
certain coastal districts due to war activities add considerable signifi- 
cance to the output of truck gardens. 

The relocation of aliens and related groups outside of restricted 
zones wUl require planning that must be both quick and comprehensive 
if unnecessary loss of effort or other difficulties are to be avoided. 

It is assumed that camp or settlement units must be neither too 
large nor too small; that they should be of such size as to be effective 
from administrative, working, and community standpoints. 

It is assumed that they must be located where land is available for 
productive and conservation work. It is further assumed that public 
land should be available. 

It is assumed that certain kinds, of areas wUl be avoided, for ex- 
ample, coastal areas, defense areas, strategic points or utilities, and 
fire hazard areas. 

It is assumed that settlement units wUl be self-managed and ad- 
ministered and self-provided with distribution and other services to 
the maximum extent consistent with security and other practical con- 
siderations. 

WORK PROGRAM FOR EVACUEES 

It is assumed that programs of useful work for relocated groups will 
be developed. Such programs should be designed for urban as well as 
rural population elements. The programs might well cover conserva- 
tion and development work, agricultural production, agricultural 
labor, industrial production other than agricultural, and necessary 
service activities. The following lists of possible items are illustrative: 

Conservation and development; land development and improve- 
ment; clearing; irrigation and drainage (small projects); water facili- 
ties; range improvement; soil conservation; erosion control; flood con- 
trol and bank protection; range improvement work (water facilities, 
fences, shelters, etc.); weed control; rodent control; fish and wildlife 
habitat; windbreak plantings; forage planting; road and roadside 
improvement; parks and national monuments. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11323 

Agricultural production; garden truck, sugar beets, and so forth. 
In this connection, it is assumed that the Department of Agriculture 
will be consulted. 

Agricultural labor: harvesting, farm improvement work, and so 
forth. Here also it is assumed that the Department of Agriculture 
will be consulted. 

Productive labor program (nonagricultural): Possibilities are con- 
servation works (see above) ; fertilizers, weed killers, farm equipment 
(fencing, racks, tanks, and so forth), parts, equipment, furnishings, 
and so forth, for defense housmg and community facilities projects; 
minerals, chemicals (coal, phosphates, alcohol, starch, rubber mate- 
riak^nd so forth, for example) ; and so forth. 

RELOCATION SITES 

The selection of relocation sites is a matter of considerable impor- 
tance and widespread concern and, accordingly, procedure warrants 
careful consideration. 

It is believed that selection of general areas should be on the basis 
of a broad and cooperative study of large regions. This process may 
be expedited by examination of maps showing physical and economic 
features. 

Coming down to examination of smaller areas, it would be very 
desirable quicldy to examine each of those under consideration from 
such standpoints as the following: basic employment characteristics; 
resources; essentials of the area economy, current problems; needed 
read] ustments ; potential work and read] ustment programs. 

Inventory of camp and other shelter facilities and determination of 
their availability and applicability in solution of this problem would be 
an important part of the area examination. Camps for soil, range, 
reclamation, and recreational conservation work may be found most 
adaptable. 

To get the best practicable solutions to the relocation problem, it is 
believed that Federal and State agencies should be asked for appro- 
priate data and also for advice and consultation. Such consultative 
arrangements might include, for example, in addition to the Depart- 
ment of Justice and the Federal Security Agency, the Department of 
Agriculture, Department of the Interior, and State executives and their 
planning boards, 

ANALYSES AND INVENTORIES BY PLANNING BOARD 

This office has available some information which will be of value in a 
solution of the problem and is in position quicldy to obtain other 
pertinent information. The National Resources Planning Board has 
carried out (primarily for public works and general planning purposes), 
on a quick and more or less experimental or demonstrational basis, a 
number (about 30) of integrated regional analyses. About two- 
thirds of the areas covered are in the part of the country west of the 
Mississippi River — that is, in the Coastal, Mountain, and Plains 
States, Four of those areas are in the Pacific Northwest. The re- 
ports on these areas will illustrate the kind of material available for 
the particular areas very briefly yet comprehensively studied, 

60396 — 42— pt. 30 3 



11324 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

The Pacific Northwest Regional Planning Commission, composed of 
planning representatives of the States of the region and of the National 
Resources Planning Board, has made some studies of the development 
of resources and of economic opportunity in the entire Pacific North- 
west. These studies include, particularly, a joint inventory (by the 
Bureau of Agricultural Economics and the Regional Planning Com- 
mission) of potential agricultural land development in the Pacific 
Northwest. The inventory covers lands reclaimable by irrigation, 
clearing or drainage, in large or small projects. The printing and 
release of this report have not been completed, but basic data could, no 
doubt, be made available if and as desired. [Reading ends.] 

That completes the statement, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you submit that as an exhibit for the record? 

Mr. Bessey. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. It will be printed in full. 

The Chairman. What portion of the land in Oregon is in timber? 

Mr. Bessey. I could give you an exact statement for the record 
later, but I would say it is about a third. 

FIRE HAZARDS ON PACIFIC COAST 

The Chairman. Would you say that the fire hazard in Oregon is a 
very critical one? 

Mr. Bessey. Yes; and it would cover very large areas. 

The Chairman. What material is used in the construction of homes 
and buildings in Oregon? Is it wood or brick or what? 

Mr. Bessey. Very predominately, timber. Most of the urban 
areas, as well as the forest areas, are fire risks. 

The Chairman. That is the thought that I have, particularly the 
Pacific coast, the buildings are of wooden construction; that is, it is 
not comparable to England, where they have stone and brick. It is a 
different situation entirely, isn't it? 

Mr. Bessey. Quite right. 

The Chairman. Where do you think these people should be sent? 

Mr. Bessey. Mr. Chairman, I would hesitate to say, specifically. 
I think that should be studied by the several agencies which have the 
needed information; perhaps studied jointly. I would not like to 
arrive at definite suggestions entirely on my own, without consulting 
other agencies. But the kind of areas, I think, would be those in the 
irrigated areas and more or less removed from the forest areas — in the 
potential irrigation areas, and the range areas. In Oregon, there are 
such areas in the Deschutes and Columbia Basins, and the Harney and 
Snake Basins. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you feel that useful work projects can be pro- 
vided, and ought to be provided, for these evacuees? 

Mr. Bessey. Decidedly. I think it will be easier to provide useful 
work projects for the agricultural workers, than it will be for the 
urban workers. However, if the communities are fairly self-sufficient, 
the urban workers can be used to serve their own communities. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Carson? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11325 

TESTIMONY OF JOSEPH K. CARSON, JR., DEPARTMENT COM- 
MANDER OF OREGON DEPARTMENT OF AMERICAN LEGION, 
1010 BEDELL BUILDING, PORTLAND, OREG. 

The Chairman. Mr. Carson, Mr. Sparkman will ask you some 
questions. Will you be seated, and give your full name and in what 
capacity you appear here? 

Mr. Carson. My name is Joseph K. Carson, Jr., Department 
commander of tlie American Legion, Department of Oregon. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr, Carson, you have been invited to appear 
before us to present the view of the Oregon Department of the Amer- 
ican Legion on the question of the evacuation of these alien groups. 
The committee would like to hear what you have to say concerning 
the size of the problem; also would like to receive any recommenda- 
tions which the Legion wishes to present. We would be very glad 
for you to proceed in your own way and present your statement, or 
any suggestions you may have to offer, and we shall probably ask 
you some questions later. 

POSITION ON INTERNMENT 

Mr. Carson. Gentlemen of the committee, I made inquiry of the 
various posts of the Legion, of which there are 125 throughout this 
State, in connection with this question. I believe it is practically 
unanimous that Japanese nationals should be interned for the duration 
of the emergency. They seem to take that position for three reasons: 
(1) If they were so hiterned, there would be no chance of acts of war 
or sabotage against the United States from them. (2) Innocent ones 
would not be under suspicion or likely to be attacked in case trouble 
ensues. (3) If justified or not, any of our citizens should take sum- 
mary action against any of these nationals in a time of emotion and 
stress, that might be used as a basis for reprisals against our nationals, 
who were unfortunate enough to be in the hand? of the Japanese. 
Most of these men of the Legion are men, as you know, of mature 
years. They don't approach this from the standpoint of hysteria or 
bitterness, but what they believe to be for the benefit and good of 
all concerned, and they feel that internment is necessary. 

Now, I cannot say just how the opinion is with regard to all German 
nationals and Italian nationals. Certain it is that there are some that 
bear the label of German nationals who are not in sympathy with the 
Nazi Government at all and find themselves in that position by virtue 
of the recognition in part at least by our State Department, of the 
Anschluss into Austria by the Nazi forces in '38, which, I believe, was 
later recognized as a part of the German Reich. I can say to you, I 
believe that insofar as the Italian population of this section is con- 
cerned, there is very little question about their loyalty and their 
fealty. They intermarry with people of all-white ethnic background 
and if there is anything of any considerable amount of concern about 
them, I haven't heard it. 

I speak, not only from the experience which I have gained as 
department commander of the American Legion, but also from that 
gained in the 8 years that I was mayor of this city and head of the 



11326 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

bureau of police, and where we had under surveillance from time to 
time, persons accused and thought to be guilty of subversive acts. 

The Chairman. In other words, you feel that the average Italian 
ranks right up with any other American, so far as law-abiding citizen- 
ship is concerned? 

EFFECT OF CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS 

Mr. Carson. Yes; and I think the record here proves that. I 
think that there must be a distinction made between nationals who 
are permitted to become citizens, and those who are not eligible for 
citizenship. One would naturally find a difference between those who 
came here with the idea of being citizens and who have the opportunity 
and those who could not, under the law, ever become citizens. That, 
I think, is the difference between the Japanese nationals and those 
other nationals, such as the Italians and Germans who are, technically, 
at least, at war against the United States. 

Mr. Sparkman. Would that same spirit be respected in the second 
generation? 

Mr. Carson. I think it reasonable to assume that to a degree it 
would. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, you thinlv that in the case of those 
who can be citizens, there is a certain attachment for our country 
which is lackmg in those who cannot, who, perhaps, carry some 
resentment? 

Mr. Carson. I think perhaps that is a reasonable conclusion. 

LEGION HAS MADE NO SURVEYS 

Mr. Sparkman. Has the Legion made any surveys as to new areas 
for resettlement of these enemy aliens, either within Oregon or other 
States? 

Mr. Carson. It hasn't made any survey, but the action taken by 
the posts of their own initiative, before I sent a communication to 
them, was to the effect that the Japanese should be moved from what 
might later become a combat area. That particularly referred to was 
the 300-mile zone off the Pacific coast. That has been expressed in 
resolution after resolution, which have come in from the various posts. 

Mr. Sparkman. But that has been just a general idea; there hasn't 
been any particular area thought of, or surveyed, to determine 
whether or not it could be used for resettlement? 

Mr. Carson. No. The common expression is, "Send them east of 
the mountains, where they could not be of any menace." 

Mr. Sparkman. What about activities in which the evacuees might 
engage? * 

Mr. Carson. I believe that in this area most of the Japanese 
nationals have been engaged in some form of agriculture. 

Just what the percentage is that have been engaged in agriculture— 
in producmg green vegetables and the like — in this area, I cannot tell; 
but it is a considerable portion. 

Mr. Sparkman. Well, if and when they are evacuated, would you 
propose that they be engaged in some useful work project? 

Mr. Carson. Yes; for their own good, as well as for the good of 
the country. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11327 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you favor a plan for agricultural produc- 
tion on a subsistence level for these people? 

Mr. Carson. As nearly as possible. 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you leave it up to the individual famihes, 
or individual persons, to find work for themselves, or would you have 
some kind of a supervised work project? 

LEGION favors INTERNMENT 

Mr. Carson. Oh, I think the views generally expressed by the 
Legion are to the effect that they should definitely be interned. There 
has been no question expressed but that they should be in custody, so 
it would follow from that that suitable quarters be provided and areas 
in which they might work. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, if you are gomg to intern them, or if 
you are going to put them under close guard, their work is going to 
have to be set up for them? 

Mr. Carson. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. Would you make no distinction as to that intern- 
ment between ahen groups, that is, nationals of other countries and 
the second generation, for instance, of the Japanese? 

Mr. Carson. Well, of course, if the Constitution means anything, 
there isn't any way that one who is not accused of a crime can be 
kept in custody, excepting that the writ of habeus corpus be suspended, 
in my opinion. I think if there is danger suspected from that source, 
that nothing short of martial law would be proper. 

I am unable to see how one who is a citizen might be kept in custody 
when the writ of habeus corpus may still be invoked, unless there are 
proven charges against him. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, you can set up combat areas and defense 
zones and remove everyone from that area? 

Mr. Carson. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. And only allow those to return who have secured 
permits from the defense commander. 

Mr. Carson. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. Then it would be your idea to take all who are 
nationals and actually intern them? 

Mr. Carson. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. And those that are not nationals, you would 
prohibit from particular areas? 

WOULD SUPPORT THE CONSTITUTED AUTHORITIES 

Mr. Carson. I should say that in connection with that, I believe 
the American Legion, in keeping with its traditional policy of support- 
ing constituted authority, would be perfectly willmg to let that 
question he with the military commanders. 

Mr. Sparkman. It is, after all, a question that must be left to the 
one who has the responsibility of defending the area, isn't it? 

Mr. Carson. I think, Mr. Sparkman, that the record of the 
American Legion shows that it has always believed in supporting the 
constituted authorities, and it has never believed in any Government 
within the Government, or any attempt made to do anything other 



11328 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

than support the constituted authority.- Certainly that would apply 
insofar as the military commanders are concerned. 

Mr. Sparkman. You would advocate, I presume, a plan whereby 
hardship cases may be satisfactorily adjusted? 

Mr. Carson. Yes. Let me repeat I haven't found any sentiment 
among the members of the Legion that they want to do acts of cruelty 
or anything by way of retribution. They want our people to be safe 
and secure, and they are not asking that things be done in a retaliatory 
manner, or through spite or vengeance or ill feehng. 

The Chairman. But they want to win this war, too? 

Mr. Carson. They want to win this war. They have been talking 
about that for more than a generation — about this country being 
prepared and being alert, and the people haven't listened very well. 

DANGER TO FORESTS 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Carson, a proposal has been made from time 
to time that evacuated aliens be placed in C. C. C. camps in various 
sections of the West, including Oregon. Of course, one objection that 
has been raised is that that might be all right for single aliens, but it 
should not be used for family groups. There is another objection, and 
that is that so many of these C, C. C. camps are located in heavily 
timbered areas. What would be your thought with reference to that? 

Mr. Carson. Well, perhaps the greatest problem, the greatest 
menace that there is in the Northwest is the question of our forests. 
And nothing should be left undone to see to it that every possible 
menace to those forests is removed, because nearly all of it belongs 
to the United States, and practically half of the stand of merchant- 
able timber in the United States lies here. 

The Chairman. Mr. Carson, of course, the Executive order of the 
President, issued last Friday, affects all citizens from these combat 
areas, and as you were testifying here, I was trying to think along with 
you. As far as the combat areas are concerned, it applies to all 
citizens; that is absolutely constitutional? 

Mr. Carson. That is right. 

The Chairman. The congressional delegation of Oregon, Washing- 
ton and California was in session daily, and that was our recom- 
mendation to the President. But thinking along with you in what 
you say about the writ of habeas corpus, that has not been suspended 
as yet. Also, we are still in the dark as to where these people are 
going to go. Can we send them into other States, and if we do, will 
they invoke the writ of habeas corpus; also, the people of the other 
States, do they want these evacuees? It still requires a lot of think- 
ing, doesn't it? 

Mt. Carson. Oh, yes, indeed. 

EVACUATION AS PRUDENT COURSE 

The Chairman. But I get from your testimony that the American 
Legion's idea is that the Japanese should be evacuated? 

Mr. Carson. Yes. They believe that the temper of the people is 
such, after the Pearl Harbor attack, that for the good of all concerned, 
the nationals as well as our own people, there should be no possibility 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11329 

of any fifth-column activities from anyone. The prudent thing to do 
from our standpoint, is to take the step I suggested, and that the 
merciful thing to do to the other fellow, is to do" the same thing. 

The Chairman. Of course, you also mentioned another point, too, 
as to keeping your eye on possible reprisals against our own people who 
are in Japan? 

Mr. Carson. Yes. 

The Chairman. But, so far as I know, there is no hesitancy in Japan 
or Germany to intern our people. 

Mr. Carson. Oh, I think one could guess and be 100 percent right, 
that all of our nationals are interned in any of those enemy countries, 
and for the duration of the emergency. 

The Chairman. And, therefore, they couldn't logically or reasonably 
make any reprisals if they were interned. 

Mr. Carson. No; I don't think so. But suppose there were 
Japanese around and the city was bombed and there were suspected 
acts of sabotage, and one Japanese should be found guilty. People 
in times of panic always revert to about the same instincts, and the civil 
authority might have difficulty in preventing acts of violence upon 
others who might not be guilty. 

The Chairman. And, of course, the problem is critical, because 
just one individual alone can do a lot of damage, can he not? 

Mr. Carson. That is right. Our facilities are so exposed; our water 
line in the city comes from 35 miles away. Our electric utilities, our 
gas utilities, and all of those things are very vulnerable. The more 
modern a city is, of course, the more vulnerable it is, insofar as those 
services we know as conveniences like water, heat, and electricity, 
and the like, are concerned. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Carson. If you want 
to amplify your statement, or give us any more facts, we will keep the 
record open. Just send it to us in Washington, and we will incor- 
porate it in the record for you. 

Mr. Carson. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Is Mr. Klahre m the audience? 

Mr. Klahre. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF J. E. KLAHRE, HOOD RIVER, OREG. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Klahre, will you please state your name, address, 
and whom you represent, to the reporter? 

Mr. Klahre. J. E. Klahre, Hood River, Oreg. I am one of a com- 
mittee of eight, representing the various interests in the Hood River 
Valley, who have come here to testify with respect to the Japanese 
situation in the Hood River Valley. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you mean that the other seven also wish to make 
statements? 

Mr. Klahre. No. My statement represents the views of the other 
seven who are with me. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have it in written form, Mr. Klahre? 

Mr. Klahre. No; I do not. 

Mr. Arnold. Just proceed in your own way, Mr. Klahre. 

Mr. Klahre. The American Legion in Hood River, and the cham- 
ber of commerce adopted resolutions and made recommendations to 



11330 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

the civil defense council with respect to the Japanese situation in the 
Hood River Valley. 

HOOD RIVER VALLEY 

The Hood River Valley is about 8 miles wide, about 25 miles long, 
located about 67 miles east of Portland. The lower part of the valley 
is bounded by the transcontinental highway, the transcontinental 
railroad, and the Columbia River. Otherwise, the county is sur- 
rounded entirely by forest areas, and it is adjacent to certain of the 
water-supply areas that contribute to the Portland water supply. 

Those in the Hood River Valley who belong to the American 
Legion and the Hood River Chamber of Commerce, and the civil 
defense council, proposed action which reflected the views of the 
valley. They proposed that not only the foreign-born Japanese, but 
the Americans, as well, should be removed from the valley for the 
duration of the war, primarily because of the possibility of one or two 
committing acts of sabotage, which, under stress of emotion, might 
lead to serious consequences, not only to the whites in the valley, but 
also to the Japanese, as well. The action was taken with the best 
interests of the Japanese as well as of the Americans, in mind. 

There are other factors which influenced them to take that action. 

The Hood River Valley is primarily a fruit-growing valley; from 
four to five thousand itinerant laborers are employed every fall, and 
it is impossible for us to determine when those laborers come, what 
their views are, or how responsible they are. Since the Japanese 
properties are scattered throughout the valley, it would be impossible 
to supervise the activities of those itinerant laborers, and it is quite 
possible that riots might be created which would be beyond the ability 
of the civil authorities to quiet, without any incitement on the part 
of the Japanese themselves. That, again, was an important reason 
for this action. 

There are, in the Hood River Valley, 98 tracts of orchard land op- 
erated by 77 Japanese nationals and Americans, comprising a farm 
acreage of 2,898 acres, out of 36,800 acres, or, an orchard acreage of 
1,596 out of a total of about 10,160. In other words, about 15 percent. 

The residents of the Hood River Valley, particularly the orchardists, 
are very anxious that the Army make a prompt investigation of the 
situation to determine what their action is going to be, so that the 
orchardists may prepare to make what preparations they need to 
handle the situation resulting from the decision of the Army. 

I think that is all I have to say. 

JAPANESE FAMILIES IN AREA 

Mr. Arnold. Is that all the Japanese that there are in that area? 

Mr. Klahre. There are between 500 and 600, total population; I 
can't give you the number of families, but there are between 500 and 
600 population over 17 years old. 

Mr. Arnold. Are they mostly engaged in agricultural pursuits? 

Mr. Klahre. Practically all engaged in fruit growing or vegetable 
groM^ing; mostly fruit growing. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11331 

Mr. Arnold. Of the 4,000 to 5,000 itinerants who come in, what is 
their nationahty, if you know? 

Mr. Klahre. They come from all parts of the country, 

Mr. Arnold. They are not Japanese? 

Mr. Klahre. Practically no Japanese, and practically no Filipinos. 
Occasionally, there are some Filipinos. 

Mr. Arnold. In the evacuation of these Japanese, would you make 
any distinction between aliens and American-born Japanese? 

Mr. Klahre. The views of the residents of the valley are that no 
distinction should be made. They feel that in the event of difficulties 
it would be hard for anyone outside the valley to determine who is an 
alien and wdio is an American citizen. It is for their welfare, as well 
as for the welfare of ourselves. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you believe the removal of these Japanese would 
retard the raising of fruit and other crops that you produce there? 

Mr. Klahre. Yes, it certainly would, but the valley feels that 
national defense comes first and agriculture second. It would be a 
serious problem to the valley. 

DISPOSITION OF property 

Mr. Arnold. What disposition should be made of the properties of 
these 98 tracts that you spoke of? 

Mr. Klahre. We assume that the Alien Property Custodian has 
ample rules and regulations to govern the handling of that; some 
discussion has been had already to determine practical means by 
which they might be operated, subject to the regulations of the Alien 
Property Custodian, and for the benefit of the owners. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have any other aliens, German or Italian? 

Mr. Klahre. Practically none. There is one further statement 
which I think should be made in connection with these properties. 

Orcharding is different than the planting and growing of annual 
crops, in that you can't stop and start each year. These trees are 
here. These orchards are here, and they are subject to various 
orchard pests which must be kept in control by constant spraying and 
attention. The welfare of the people in the county, in the event that 
the Japanese should be evacuated, depends to a certain extent upon 
the ability of the Alien Property Custodian and the valley itself to 
keep these properties in reasonable operation — at least, keep them 
free from pests. Otherwise, the quality of fruit grown in the valley 
would suffer materially. 

The Chairman. Do you raise any strawberries in the Hood River 
VaUey? 

Mr. Klahre. Yes, we do; not in large quantities; not nearly as 
large as the Willamette Valley. 

The Chairman. Are many Japanese employed in the strawberry 
business there? 

Mr. Klahre. They are almost entirely responsible for the producing 
and harvesting of the strawberries. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, sir; we appreciate your 
coming here. 

Mr. Ross and Mr. Henderson? 



11332 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN ROSS AND BARCLAY HENDERSON, OF B. E. 
MALING, INC., HILLSBORO, OREG. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you please each give your name to the reporter? 

Mr. Henderson. Barclay Henderson of B. . E, Maling, Inc., 
Hillsboro, Oreg. 

Mr. Ross. John Ross, of B. E. Maling, Inc. 

Mr. Arnold. Where is this firm located? 

Mr. Ross. This firm is located in Hillsboro, Oreg. It is about 18 
miles west of Portland. 

Mr. Arnold. What is the B. E. Maling, Inc., engaged in? 

Mr. Ross. We are engaged in the canning and quick freezing of 
fruits and vegetables grown in this area. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you give us some indication of the volume of 
produce processed for freezing or canning by your company? 

Mr. Ross. We freeze about 20,000 tons of produce, gross weight, 
during the season, and about 4,000 tons of canned produce, making 
a total of about 24,000 tons of produce processed. 

Mr. Arnold. And you gentlemen are ofiicials of that company? 

Mr. Ross. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. What are the principal areas in which your products 
are marketed? 

Mr. Ross. Our products are marketed all over the country. Our 
quick frozen products are sold in the East and Middle West and on 
the west coast. Our canned goods are also sold all over the country. 

Mr. Arnold. Wliat percent of your total produce is obtained from 
Japanese growers, and what percent from other alien groups? 

OBTAIN HALF OF PRODUCTS FROM JAPANESE 

Mr. Ross. Well, there is close to 30 percent obtained from Japanese 
growers, or growers of Japanese extraction. They are not all aliens. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have products grown by German or Italian 
aliens? 

Mr. Ross. There are a few Italian growers, but not very many. 
" Mr. Arnold. What effect will the withdrawal of Japanese growers 
from that production have upon the operation of your company, 
and upon the general supply of frozen foods? 

Mr. Ross. We believe that it will have a rather material effect. 
As I said, there are probably 7,000 tons of gross weight of produce 
grown by Japanese for our company. We will not lose all of this if 
the Japanese are removed from this area, but a considerable part of 
it will be lost to our company. 

Mr. Arnold. I might ask you, Mr. Henderson, whether you think 
the Japanese are replaceable by native white American growers? 

Mr. Henderson. Om- experience in gardening has been that the 
Japanese are more adapted to that class of work. They seem to 
ha-ve taken over that class of work and have been very efficient in 
their operations, especially in certain crops, such as broccoli, cauli- 
flower, brussels sprouts and spinach. This area has been developed by 
Italian and Japanese gardeners, mostly Japanese, especially brussels 
sprouts and broccoli. Our company thinks that this is the best area 
in which broccoli can be grown in the United States. And this has 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11333 

been a very successful crop grown by Japanese, and it would be very 
hard for us to replace this crop without the help of the Japanese. 
It might take us quite a little time to educate new growers. As to 
spinach, we are in a position now where we have to plant spinach, 
and the spinach has been grown to a large extent by the Japanese. 
The Japanese now do not know whether to plant or not to plant, 
and we feel that it might be possible for us to act in time to replace 
these growers if the American people are willing to do this class of 
work in this area. 

Mr. Arnold. One of you is connected with the financial end of 
the arrangement. What tj'-pe of credit and financial arrangements 
does your company make with these growers? 

Mr. Henderson. In any intensified crop, the expense is quite large, 
and under the present conditions the growers have not had sufficient 
capital to operate their own crops. Therefore, our company has been 
advancing the fertilizer and the seed, and has, on occasions, arranged 
whereby growers might have assistance in producing the crop, to a 
limited extent. 

Mr. Arnold. Therefore, you have to know what is going to be done 
with the Japanese before you begin advancing money? 

Mr. Henderson. We must; yes. 

Mr. Arnold. And it is getting to the time of year when the seeding 
of some crops should begin? 

Mr. Henderson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. We are here to get your views. What do you recom- 
mend be done in that area? 

alien labor needed 

Mr. Henderson. We have been proceeding upon the statement 
by the Attorney General and the President, and we recommend that 
aliens who are producing crops — those that are being employed in any 
production that is a benefit to the country — should not be replaced at 
this time. 

We are operating on that basis, and we are waiting for further 
instructions, as to what to do; but in the meantime, we are recom- 
mending that these growers go ahead and plant the spinach. We 
feel that if we do not have the spinach planted, the country will lose 
the spinach. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Carson, who is connected with the American 
Legion, fears that if the Japanese remain in this area, and an attack 
occurs such as they had in Los Angeles, and some of these Japanese 
nationals are injured or killed, reprisals might be taken against our 
own citizens who are prisoners in Japan or Germany or Italy. Have 
you ever thought of that? 

Mr. Henderson. Yes, sir; I believe that the Government officials 
should take care of that. 

Mr. Arnold. Is there any feeling against the Japanese in your area, 
as yet? 

Mr. Henderson. Well, I have had quite a little experience in 
observing their operations, and among the neighbors, we would say 
that there is no feeling; that they make good neighbors. Of course, in 
any section there may be a feeling against the Japanese which would 
be quite natural. 



11334 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

OWNERSHIP OF LAND 

Mr. Arnold. Will either of you answer this: Do the Japanese, 
Italian, and other alien growers own the lands which they operate? 

Mr. Ross. No. None of the land is owned by alien Japanese. I 
believe some of it is leased, though, by aliens. Most of the leases are 
in the control of the native-born Japanese. 

Mr. Arnold. Is any of the land owned by native-born Japanese? 

Mr. Ross. There are a few native-born Japanese who own land. 

Mr. Arnold. Then, if they are taken out of this area, this land 
will, no doubt, be leased to other operators? 

Mr. Ross. Yes; if other operators are available, it could be handled 
that way. I might add that the majority of the acreage that we 
are talking about now is in the Portland area, not in the HiUsboro 
area. It is out here at Troutdale and Gresham, and East Portland. 

The only acreage or crops that are operated by Japanese in Wash- 
ington County, \\dth which we are concerned, are the strawberries 
and a small amount of broccoli ; it doesn't amount to much, 

Mr. Arnold. Have you anything to add. Air. Ross, about whether 
these Japanese can be replaced as growers of spinach and other crops? 

Mr. Ross. Well, as Mr. Henderson said, we believe they can be 
replaced eventually; but for this coming year, that could not be 
accomplished, we beUeve. It is too short notice for other people to 
take over these crops, because it is intensified farming, and it cannot 
be learned in one year. 

Mr. Arnold. You are aware that most everyone from this coastal 
area feels that alien Japanese, Germans, and Italians, and American- 
born Japanese should be removed beyond the Cascades,' and that 
some action uill soon be taken? 

Mr. Ross. If restricted or prohibited areas should be set up by 
the Army that could be defined at this time and the Japanese kept 
from those areas, we might be able to operate in the territory that is 
left to us. 

Mr. Arnold. How far is your area from the coast? 

Mr. Ross. We are 80 miles from the coast. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Have you any Mexican laborers up here in this 
section? 

Mr. Henderson. No. 

The Chairman. Is any of your labor migratory? 

Mr. Ross. The only labor that is migratory is at harvest time, 
and we don't expect a great deal of that this year. We expect to 
depend on the local people, the school children and the housewives 
and unemployed men to do the work in the harvest fields; whereas, 
in other years, considerbale transient labor has come into these 
fields to pick strawberries and harvest the other crops. 

Mr. Arnold. In some of the testimony before this committee in 
San Francisco, it was said that Filipinos and most every other type 
of laborer is refusing to work for the Japanese operators. Has 
anything come to your attention in your area in that connection? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11335 

FILIPINOS WORKING FOR JAPANESE 

Mr. Henderson. We have some Japanese growers that have 
Filipinos working for them now, and they don't seem to have any 
trouble. They have worked for them for many years, and I don't 
think they let tliis war spirit enter into it. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, gentlemen, 

Mr. Pieper. 

TESTIMONY OF N. J. L. PIEPER, SPECIAL AGENT IN CHARGE OF 
FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION, AT SAN FRANCISCO, 
CALIF. 

The Chairman. Please give your name to the reporter, Mr. Pieper. 

Mr. Pieper. My name is N. J. L. Pieper. I am a special agent in 
charge of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, at San Francisco, Calif. 

An article appeared m the San Francisco Examiner on February 22, 
1942, stating that Mr. Earl Warren, attorney general for the State of 
California, had appeared before the committee on February 21, 1942, 
and had revealed that local law-enforcement officers are fighting in 
the dark against fifth columnists because the F. B. I. will not take 
them into its confidence. This statement is not true. 

In order that there can be no misunderstanding relative to the 
matter of cooperation by the F. B. I., I desire to call to the com- 
mittee's attention the fact that the newspaper item which appeared 
in the San Francisco Examiner on February 22, 1942, was not based 
on fact, and that I have so advised Mr. Clarence R. Lindner, the 
publisher of the San Francisco Examiner. 

cooperation between f. b. i. and local authorities 

In a conversation with Congressman Tolan, relative to any possible 
misunderstanding regarding the cooperation extended by the F. B. I. 
to local law-enforcement agencies, I advised that this newspaper 
article was not based on fact, and that Attorney General Earl Warren, 
on reading the article, called me and stated that he had made no 
such statement, that the facts were to the contrary, since the F. B. I, 
had been cooperating fully with local law-enforcement officers and 
himself. 

Attorney General Warren expressed concern over the article, since 
it was not true, and might cause misunderstanding and unjustified 
criticism of the F. B. I. He added that he was going to include in his 
statement to the committee, a statement clearly showing that the 
cooperation of the F. B. I. had been excellent. The F. B. I., under 
the direction of J. Edgar Hoover, through the F. B. 1. and law-en- 
forcement officers' mobilization plan for national defense, has been 
carrying out the directives of the President since his directive of 
September 6, 1939, designating the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
as a national clearing house to receive and investigate complaints 
concerning matters affecting national defense and internal security. 

The F. B. I. for years has been the Federal agency designated to 
cooperate with the local, county, and State agencies by furnishing 
information as to criminal records based on fingerprints; by receiving, 



11336 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

compiling, and publishing statistics furnished by police agencies with 
reference to offenses; by making available its technical laboratory as 
an aid to local officers without cost to the local authorities; by pro- 
viding training through the F. B. I. National Police Academy; and by 
jointly cooperatmg in the investigation of problems of mutual 
interest and obligation. Not only have these services continued, but 
even before the war, there was taking place the greatest mobilization 
of law-enforcement officers in the history of this country. Under the 
leadership of J. Edgar Hoover, local, county, State, and F. B. I. 
officers waged an intensive warfare against the forces seeking to under- 
mine the country's program of national defense and internal security. 

Likewise, law-enforcement officers throughout the country were 
also given training in civilian defense duties, since the F. B. I. was 
designated as the official agency for such training. Tliis training has 
continued since the war has begun. 

To show further that there has been full cooperation and con- 
fidence between the local law-enforcement agencies and the F. B. I., 
one needs but to observe the continuous successful operation of the 
F. B. I. law enforcement officers' mobilization plan for national 
defense in the safeguarding of our internal security and in defense of 
the Nation. 

In connection with taking into custody those enemy aliens poten- 
tially dangerous and possessing contraband, the coordinating efforts 
and cooperation of the F. B. I. with the local law-enforcement officers 
has been well demonstrated. There has been a pooling and full ex- 
change of information between the local law-enforcement agencies and 
the F. B. I., not only relative to general law-enforcement problems, but 
national defense and internal security matters as well. 

This open and free exchange of information has been maintained 
not only through constant personal contact between the local authori- 
ties and the agents of the F. B. I., but in constant exchange of cor- 
respondence and in regular conferences held for the specific purpose of 
discussing national defense and internal security matters. The com- 
mittee's attention is directed to the fact that the F. B. I. had no re- 
sponsibility in and took no part in the registration of enemy aliens. 
There has been and will continue to be a close cooperation and free 
and full exchange of information betweeen the F. B. I. and local law- 
enforcement officers. 

The Chairman. Thank you veiy much. The committee will be in 
• recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 12:10 p. m., a noon recess was taken until 2 p. m. 
of the same day.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 26, 1942 

afternoon session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 

The committee met at 2 p. m. in the United States circuit court 
room, in the United States Court House, Portland, Oreg., pursuant 
to notice, Hon. John H. Tolan (chairman) presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan (chairman), of Cali- 
fornia; John J. Sparkman, of Alabama; and Laurence J. Arnold, of 
Illinois. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; John W. Abbott, 
chief field investigator; and Herbert Roback and Charles E. Cocke, 
Jr., field investigators. 

The Chairman. The committee wiU please come to order. WiU 
you gentlemen please come forward? 

TESTIMONY OF HITO OKADA, NATIONAL TREASURER JAPANESE- 
AMERICAN CITIZENS LEAGUE; DR. NEWTON UYESUGI, PRESI- 
DENT, PORTLAND CHAPTER, JAPANESE-AMERICAN CITIZENS 
LEAGUE; MAMARO WAKASUGI, JAPANESE-AMERICAN GROWER, 
OF BANKS, OREG. 

Mr. Arnold. You gentlemen will have to pronounce your names 
for the reporter and spell them, perhaps, and tell what you represent 
and where you live. 

Mr. Wakasugi. My name is Mamaro Wakasugi. I am from 
Banks, Oreg. 

Mr. Uyesugi. My name is Newton Uyesugi. I am president of 
the Portland Chapter of the Japanese-American Citizens League. 

Mr. Okada. Hito Okada. I am national treasurer of the Japanese- 
American Citizens League, Portland, Oreg. 

Mr. Arnold. The committee wants you to know, Mr. Okada, 
that we heard the national secretary of the Japanese-American 
League, Mr. Masaoka, at our San Francisco hearing on Monday. 
It will not be necessary, therefore, to describe your organization. 
I will direct a few questions to Mr, Uyesugi and Mr. Wakasugi, 
and you may amplify when you wish. 

Mr. Uyesigi, how many Japanese aliens and American citizens are 
there in the State of Oregon? 

11337 



11338 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Uyesugi. Around 4,071; that is taken from the Oregon Voter. 

Mr. Arnold. Do j^ou have these figures for the city_of Portland? 

Mr. Uyesugi. Yes. Citizens, 955; ahens, 725. 

Mr. Arnold. Not quite half, then, of the Japanese within the 
State are within Portland? There are 1,680 out of 4,071 here in 
Portland? 

Mr. Uyesugi. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. We would like to have you give us a brief description 
of the Japanese community here in Portland. 

Mr. Uyesugi. Well, as was said, there are approximately 1,600 
Japanese and Japanese-American citizens in the city of Portland. 
I presume the average age of the alien Japanese is about 65 ; the citi- 
zens are about 18 to 20. Their type of busmess is mostly hotels 
and apartments, barber shops, laundries, cleaners and dyers, grocery 
stores, and fruit stands. That will probably take in the majority. 
I have some figures here. I don't know just exactly what you wanted, 
but I will be glad to give you these figures. I have had them com- 
piled for you. 

The Chairman. You can leave them with the reporter. You 
put m anything .you desire. 

(Statement and material referred to above are as follows:) 

STATEMENT OF THE PORTLAND CHAPTER, JAPANESE-AMERICAN 

CITIZENS LEAGUE 

In behalf of the Portland chapter of the Japanese-American Citizens League 
I want to thank the Tolan committee for the opportunity to appear before it. 
I wish to say that we are here to aid in every manner possible the work of your 
committee. 

As we understand it, you wish us to make a report on the conditions and prob- 
lems that will arise with the migration of the Japanese from these areas. Because 
we are much closer to the problem, we have facts and statistics that may help in 
the general picture. With this thought in mind we wish to present to you a few 
pertinent facts; in the meanwhile, we emphasize again that whatever our Govern- 
ment may decide, we, as an organization and as individuals, will cooperate to the 
fullest extent. Certainly, no one would wish to evacuate from a locality which he 
calls home. But understanding the problems that face our Government, we will 
cooperate to whatever extent may be necessary. 

There are two general problems — agricultural and urban. There are approxi- 
mately 405 families, in the areas of Salem, Milwaukie, Hood River, Gresham 
Banks, Hillsboro, Gaston, Oreg., and Vancouver, Wash. The total value of the 
crops raised by tliem is $2,711,836. Approximately 85 percent of this crop is for 
shipment out of the State and 15 percent for local consumption. These farmers 
raise crops such as carrots, cabbage, spinach, lettuce, peas, onions, asparagus, 
berries, tomatoes, celery, beans, broccoli, cabbage, squash, cucumbers, parsnips, 
cauliflower, potatoes, beets, celery, dill, grapes, hops, and fruits such as apples, 
cherries, pears, and peaches. In the event of evacuation of the Japanese farmers, 
there are various problems which must be taken into consideration. The problem 
of the rising cost of vegetables and products which have been raised by these 
people, the probability of a definite lack of these products both for local consump- 
tion and interstate commerce, and the problem of labor shortage on the farms. 
The need for trained, specialized laborers, who cannot be readily replaced, is 
particularly important in truck and fruit farming. The prevalence of the coddling 
moth in the Hood River Valley is an example of the necessity for constant special- 
ized care if the crops are to be produced at a maximum. This moth breeds 
eight times a year and, therefore, must be sprayed an equal number of times. 
You or I with no knowledge of farming could not operate a farm nearly as eflB- 
ciently as people who are experienced over long years in chmatic conditions, 
problems peculiar to the crop, planting, spraying, tilling of soil, use of farm equip- 
mient, harvesting, and so forth. It would take time to replace these people and 
there is the battle of production factor in the present war. Now we must also 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11339 

face the realization that many States do not wish to have those evacuated from 
these areas in their particular locality. Idaho, Colorado, Montana, Utah, and 
other bordering States have already protested against having evacuees in their 
particular States. That is a brief summary of the agricultural problem. 

The urban problem is as follows: There are 340 families in the Portland area 
which represent about 1,000 people in a city of 350,000. There are 100 hotels 
and apartmenis, 64 grocery stores and fruit stands with other business such as 
tailors, dyers, laundries, produce dealers, and so forth. In these 100 hotels and 
apartments there are approximately 4,000 people residing, of the lower-income 
bracket, it is true, but the fact remains that there is a definite need for these 
hotels in the face of the influx of workers seeking employment in the Portland 
area. The problems affecting the urban people in the event of evacuation would 
be much the same as that of the rural peoj^le as far as adjustments are concerned. 
The problem of employment, small children, transportation, and adaptation would 
be great. 

I realize that many of these facts are known to all of you because they would 
remain similar in any case if families were to be removed from their homes, busi- 
nesses, or farms after years of building up such businesses. These Japanese 
families have lived in this country of their adoption on an average of 40 years, 
which makes self-evident the depth of the roots they have struck down in this soil. 

For myself and for the several hundred American citizens of Japanese parents 
of Oregon, whom I represent, let me stress the point that we only ask an oppor- 
tunity to fulfill our obligations as citizens as well as to receive the benefits of such 
citizenship. We are entirely in accord with the statement read by our national 
secretary and field executive, Mr. Mike Masaoka, before your committee of 
February 21 and 23, 1942. This is our home, our Government, our country. 
We only ask our inalienable right to live in it, to love it and to protect it with our 
lives. To this end we are ready and willing to give our all for the common good of 
America. 

Sample of Result of Evacuation 

(Around Columbia Airport, eight families involved) 

There were eight families evacuated from the Columbia Slough area. These 
families were located near the Columbia Airport and the various Army canton- 
ments in the immediate neighborhood. Some of these families were located 
adjacent to the airfield itself while others were close by. The eight families are 
composed as follows: 

I. Mother, aged 45; son, aged 21; son, aged 19; daughter, aged 11. 

Up until the present situation they have been working as transient laborers for 

, and absolutely dependent upon Mr. for their livelihood. 

This family has the one son, , working at the Westport Laundry, but his 

financial means are rather limited. Family are awaiting orders and are not work- 
ing at the present time, and have no other visible means of support. No farm 
equipment involved in this case, 

II. Father, aged 51; mother, aged 50; son, aged 25; daughter, aged 18; son 
aged 12. 

This family purchased their farm a short time before the war. No equipment 
involved in this case. Farm was 2}^ acres in size. Family is not working, are 

awaiting orders and only means of support is son who has a wife and child 

to support. This family never had a contract as they just purchased their place. 

III. Father, aged 43; mother, aged 43; grandfather, aged 63; son, aged 17; 
son, aged 16; son, aged 13; daughter, aged 10; daughter, aged 9; daughter, aged 6; 
son, aged 2. 

This family offers an interesting problem due to its very size, which is seven in 
number. Father has small bank account, and the amount is nothing to speak of. 

Is at present located at , Columbia Boulevard, which was just empty house 

and has no farm land. This family has a greenhouse upon their evacuated farm, 
and desires the Japanese-American Citizens League to ask the proper authorities 
for its removal to their present location. The reason stipulated is that an indi- 
vidual known as Mr. , believed to be an official in some capacity at the 

Columbia Airport, said that the Government merely wished the land and not the 
property. However, when owner sells the property, the land, house, barn, and 
bunkhouses, and greenhouses are included in the purchase price, and since the 
Government merely wishes to destroy the said property, it could be used by the 

people, and he would greatly appreciate Japanese-American Citizens 

League's efforts in this consideration in asking the proper authorities for this 
60396— 42— pt. 30 4 



11340 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

greenhouse. This family had a 30-acre farm, on which they are at date of writing 
not working, and have no visible means of support. They have left their farming 

equipment at farm. The father in this family is the spokesman 

for the whole group of evacuees. 

IV. Father, aged 50; mother, aged 41; son, aged 21; son, aged 19; daughter, 
aged 16; daughter, aged 13; son, aged 12; daughter, aged 10; son. aged 7. 

Obviously a family of large size with one son , working at 

Produce Co. Have a 25-acre farm, not working, and only means of income is 

son. At present residing at 's farm located at , Columbia 

Boulevard. 

V. Father, aged 70; mother, aged 46; son, aged 24; daughter, aged 20; son, 
aged 17; daughter, aged 14. 

This family is now located at two places — the parents residmg at the new 

address of the 's at and living in the bunkhouse at this 

place because of lack of proper facilities. 

The four children reside at the farm in question which is located at , 

Columbia Boulevard. Family are not planting and have no means of income; 
are awaiting orders. Equipment is being left at the farm in question. The size 
of the farm is 25 acres. The farm in question refers to the fact that authorities 
rescinded their order and said that the parents may return, but that they have 

not done so. ,„,,,,,«« 

VI. Father, aged 53; mother, aged 44; son, aged 21; daughter, aged 20; son, 
aged 19; daughter, aged 15; son, aged 9. ^ , , . -r> , j 

Family is now located at place at , Columbia Boulevard. 

Their farm equipment is at 's located at Columbia Boulevard, 

and also at 's located at Columbia Boulevard, Have a farm 

of 50 acres in size and at present are not working nor have they any means of 

VII. Father, aged 43; mother, aged 43; daughter, aged 21; daughter, aged 19; 

son, aged 11. -,. , , t^ , , t^ 

Family located at 's farm at , Portland Boulevard. Farm 

equipment is at his brother's farm in Gresham. This family is not working nor 
are they planting, and have no means of support. 

VIII. Father, aged 36; mother, aged 31; grandfather, aged 65; son, aged 6; 
son, aged 3; daughter, aged 1, r. , u- t> i ^ 

At present time living at 's farm at Columbia Boulevard. 

Have a farm of 30 acres. Farm equipment left on evacuated farm and half at 

. Urge Japanese- American Citizens League to help get their equipment 

off of their evacuated farm. No means of income. 

Summary 

Reasons why they are not planting: 

1. Fear of evacuation. 

2. Economic factor of money. 

3. Lack of proper support by canneries. 

4. Difficulty in obtaining suitable contracts. 

5. Lack of land. 

Generally speaking, the houses to which the evacuees have moved are much 
worse than those that they have been living in, if such a condition is possible. The 
contracts with the farmers are being offered as per usual by the canneries but with 
different conditions, and hence are not being taken by the farmers. All the evacu- 
ated farmers have had only an oral agreement with the canneries and also have 
had an oral lease arrangenient with the owners of the farm property. Canneries 
give the farmers seed and fertilizer, taking a crop mortgage, assuring the canneries 
part of their crops in order to pay for the advances. Fanners fear evacuation and 
hence until definite word arrives, refuse to even negotiate with the canneries. 
Spring is the season at which time they must fertilize their land. Moreover, they 
must now make a part pavment in cash for fertilizer and seed, which obviously 
they are unable to do; therefore, the canneries are hesitant. Slough farmers are 
not planting and thev must do so now in order to have a crop this summer. 

Ages and members "of families are listed so that persons concerned may see the 
problem more readilv. 

All families have cooperated to the fullest extent with least trouble to au- 
thorities. "■ 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11341 

Of paramount and primary importance is the fact that six farms with eight 
families tiUing them produced the following on 180 acres of land: 

All of these were produced on contract: 

Beans tons.. 800 

Spinach do 200 

Cauliflower crates . . 10, 000 

Sprouts tons. . 100 

Broccoli •- do 200 

Carrots do 25 

Dill weed do 30 

Sold in open market by farmers themselves: 

Peppers orange boxes. _ 300 

Tomatoes crates.. 15, 000 

Cabbage tons.. 100 

Celery crates.. 6, 500 

Peas. _ .' tons. . 30 

They also produce cucumber, squash, lettuce, and other small truck garden 
vegetables. These figures are accurate as the farmers must produce a certain 
amount for the canneries which serves as a check on the amount of their crops. 
Over and above what they prodvice as per contract, they may sell in the open 
market. Another means of checking is to contact the two canneries with whom 
the slough people do business: The Mailing Cannery in Hillsboro and the 
Golden West Cannery in Portland. One could check their income for last year, 
or with the Agricultural Department, which can show^ you how much an acre or 
plot of land will yield. 

Columbia Boulevard, Milwaukie, Sherwood and Tigard, Gresham, Banks 
AND Hillsboro, Gaston, Hood River, Salem and Independence Areas 
IN Oregon and Vancouver, Wash. 

1. The total number of farms operated by Japanese, citizens and 

nationals 304 

2. The total number of families on these farms 405 

3. The total number of Japanese nationals (average age ranges from 

60to 65) 678 

4. The total number of American citizens (average age ranges from 

16 to 18) 1.104 

Citizens in the Army 75 

5. The total acreage is 9. 583 

6. The approximate value of crops raised in 1941 $2, 711, 836 

7. The total percent of crops raised by the farmers in this area 

percent-- 60 

This includes products such as — 

Lettuce. Peas. Carrots. 

Strawberries. Dry onions. Cabbage, 

Asparagus. Sprouts. Turnips. 

Spinach. Cucumbers. Cauliflower. 

Tomatoes. Celery. Parsnips. 

Green beans. 

Of the above products 85 percent is shipped interstate. 

8. The number of people needed to operate these farms as a skeleton 

crew 1| ^50 

The number of people needed to harvest these farms (a substan- 
tial portion of the harvesting crew is duplicated due to the fact 
that these crops are seasonal and the workers are therefore 
migratory) 7, 480 

(These figures and percentages are as accurate as can be obtained) 

BANKS AND HILLSBORO ARE.V 

1. Number of farms 31 

(a) Owned by citizens 5 

(b) Leased by citizens 26 

2. Total acreage in cultivation 1> 100 

(a) Owned by citizens 300 

(6) Leased by citizens °00 



11342 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

BANKS AND hillsboro AREA — Continued 

3. Value of crops raised by nationals and citizens $275, 000 

4. Percentage of strawberry crops of area raised by citizens- .percent. _ 50 

5. Percentage of total strawberry acreage operated by citizens M 

percent-- 35 

6. Percentage of total strawberry acreage owned or leased by citi- 

zens ^ percent. - 83 

7. Farm crops produced by citizens: 

Strawberries (2,500 tons) acres. _ 1, 048 

Tomatoes (250 tons) do 25 

Sprouts do 20 

Broccoli. Peppers. Garlic. 

Squash. Cucumbers. Youngberries. 

Corn. Asparagus. Boysenberries. 

Green beans. 

8. Percentage of crop foi interstate commerce: Strawberries 

percent.- 95 

9. Percentage of crop for local consumption : Vegetables do 90 

10. Total number of families involved 31 

(a) Number of persons in families 120 

(b) Total of Japanese nationals 39 

(c) Total of citizens 81 

11. Total number of people dependent on farm for livelihood 200 

12. Employees: 

(a) Skeleton crew 400 

(b) Harvesting labor 3, 000 

13. Problems peculiar to that area: Due to the highly perishable nature 

of strawberries, the 3,000 harvest hands are needed at a certain 
time and crops will go into waste if not properly harvested. 

COLUMBIA BOULEVARD AREA 

1. Number of farms 26 

(a) Owned. 
(6) Leased. 

2. Total acreage 604 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals and citizens 14 

(6) Leased by Japanese nationals and citizens 590 

3. Value of crops 

4. Percentage of crops of the area raised by nationals and citizens 

percent. _ 70 

5. Percentage of total acreage operated by nationals and citizens. 

6. Percentage of total acreage owned or leased by nationals and citizens, 

7. Farm crops produced by nationals and citizens. 

Carrots. Tomatoes. Parsnips. 

Spinach. Beans. Cauliflower. 

Lettuce. Broccoli. Potatoes. 

Peas. Cabbage. Celery. 

Berries. Cucumber. Dill. 

8. Percentage of crop for interstate commerce percent _ . 70 

9. Percentage of crop for local consumption do 30 

10. Total number of families involved 18 

(a) Number of persons in above families 75 

(b) Total of Japanese nationals 34 

(c) Total of citizens 41 

11. Employees. 

12. Total number of people dependent on farm for livelihood. 

13. Problems peculiar to that area. 

14. Recommendations for the solution of these problems. 

GASTON AREA 

1. Number of farms: (a) Leased by citizens 13 

2. Total acreage: (b) Leased by citizens 125 

3. Value of crops raised by nationals and citizens $175, 000 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11343 

GASTON AREA — Continued 

4 Percentage of crops of area raised by nationals and citizens 

percent-- 50 

5 Percentage of total acreage operated by nationals and citizens 

percent-- 45 

6. Percentage of total onion area leased by citizens _--do 50 

7 Farm crops produced by nationals and citizens: Dry onions 

carloads.- 225 

8. Percentage of crop for interstate commerce percent.-. 95 

9. Percentage of crop for local consumption do 5 

10. Total number of families involved 15 

(a) Number of persons in above families 7b 

(b) Total of Japanese nationals 21 

(c) Total of citizens o5 

11. Employees: _ 

(a) Skeleton crew i^ 

(b) Harvesting labor ^.V"-; Toe 

12. Total number of people dependent on farm for livelihood i-io 

13. Problems peculiar to that area: None. 

14. Recommendations. 

GRESHAM, GREG., AREA 

1. Number of farms '^ 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals ' 

Owned by citizens "** 

(6) Leased by Japanese nationals. 
Leased by citizens. 

2. Total acreage '*- ^^' 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals. 

Owned by citizens. 
(6) Leased by Japanese nationals. 

Leased by citizens. 

3. Value of crops raised by nationals and citizens ^iov, uuu 

4. Percentage of crops of the area raised by nationals and citizens. 
5 Percentageof total acreage operated by nationals and citizens: 

(a) Berries percent.. 35 

(b) Sprouts, broccoli, spinach do yo 

(c) Other vegetables .'-'a 

6. Percentage of total acreage owned or leased by nationals and 

citizens. 

7. Farm crops produced by nationals and citizens: 

(a) Berries: Blackberries, strawberries, raspberries, logan- 
berries, boysenberries. 
(6) Vegetables: Sprouts, broccoli, spinach, etc. 

8. Percentage of crop for interstate commerce percent. . »U 

9. Percentage of crop for local consumption do -^U 

10. Total number of families involved: 

(a) Nationals ^Vx. 

(6) Citizens '^'" 

11. Employees: ^r.^. 

(a) Skeleton crew /."" 

(fe) Harvesting labor ^' """ 

12. Total number of people dependent on farm for hvehhood. 

13. Problems peculiar to that area: (1) Need of assurance to continue 

to operate farms as in the past; (2) fear of labor shortage. 

14. Recommendations for the solution of these problems. 

HOOD RIVER, GREG., AREA 

84 

1. Number of farms oe 

(o) Owned by Japanese nationals ^° 

Owned by citizens ^^ 

(b) Leased by Japanese nationals -- 

Leased by citizens _ qaa 

2. Total acreage ,' p-go 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals i ^4fi 

Owned by citizens ^' ^*" 

(6) Leased by Japanese nationals. 

Leased by citizens 



11344 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Thood river, oreg., area — continued 

3. Value of crops raised by nationals and citizens $750, 000 

4. Percentage of crops of the area raised by nationals and citizens 

percent-- 25 

5. Percentage of total acreage operated by nationals and citizens of 

mid-Columbia area devoted to fruit and vegetable acreage 

percent-- 6 

6. Percentage of total acreage owned or leased by nationals and 

citizens of Hood River Valley percent-- 20 

7. Farm crops produced by nationals and citizens: 

(o) Fruits: Apples, pears, peaches, apricots. 

(6) Truck farm products: Asparagus, potatoes, lettuce, to- 
matoes, beans, peas, spinach, onions, carrots, and 
squash. 

(c) Small fruits: Strawberries, grapes, and ground cherries. 

8. Percentage of crop for interstate commerce: 

Fruit percent- . 85 

Vegetable do 20 

9. Percentage of crop for local consumption: 

Fruit do 15 

Vegetable do 80 

10. Total number of families involved 125 

(a) Number of persons in above families 579 

(b) Total of Japanese nationals 184 

(c) Total of citizens 395 

11. Employees: 

(n) Skeleton crew. 
(b) Harvesting crew. 

12. Total number of people dependent on farm for livelihood 546 

13. Problems peculiar to that area: (1) "Coddling moth"^ — This par- 

ticular moth in its larva stage must be sprayed or else it will 
spread to all parts of the valley. The moth breeds 8 times a 
year; therefore, it must be sprayed 8 times a year. If the 
Japanese are moved out, there will be a greater labor shortage 
and this work will not be done properly. 

MILWAUKIE AND OREGON CITY AREA 

1. Number of farms 24 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals 2 

Owned by citizens 4 

Total 6 

(b) Leased by Japanese nationals 

Leased bj' citizens 14 

Total 14 

2. Total acreage 388 

(a) Owned bj' Japanese nationals 10 

Owned by citizens 39 

Total 49 

{b) Leased bj' Japanese nationals 

Leased by citizens 339 

3. Value of crops raised by nationals and citizens $125, 000 

4. Percentage of crops of that area raised by nationals and citizens 

percent-- 60 

5. Percentage of total acreage operated by nationals and citizens. 

6. Percentage of total acreage owned or leased by nationals and citizens. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11345 

MILWAUKIE AND OREGON CITY AREA Continued 

7. Farm crops produced by nationals and citizens: 

Celery. Cabbage. Peppers. 

Lettuce. Spinach. Onions. 

Strawberries. Beans. Parsnips. 

Cauliflower. Squash. Cucumbers. 

Carrots. Potatoes. Tomatoes. 

Sprouts. Peas. 

8. Percentage of crop for interstate commerce percent- . 70 

9. Percentage of crop for local consumption do 30 

10. Total number of families involved 22 

(a) Number of persons in above families 136 

(b) Total of Japanese nationals 37 

(c) Total of citizens 58 

11. Employees: 

(a) Skeleton crew. 
{b) Harvesting labor. 

12. Total number of people dependent on farm for livelihood. 

13. Problems peculiar to that area: Labor shortage is the biggest 

problem because of the short distance to Portland where a laborer 
makes bigger wages with shorter hours. 

SALEM AND INDEPENDENCE, GREG., AREA 

1. Number of farms 21 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals. 

Owned by citizens 4 

(b) Leased by Japanese nationals. 

Leased by citizens 21 

2. Total acreage 500)^ 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals. 

Owned by citizens 127 

(6) Leased by Japanese nationals. 

Leased by citizens 373 J4 

3. Value of crops raised by nationals and citizens $604, 136. 50 

4. Percentage of crops of the area raised by nationals and citizens 

percent- _ 95 

5. Percentage of total acreage operated by nationals and citizens. 

6. Percentage of total acreage owned or leased by nationals and 

citizens. 

7. Farm crops produced by nationals and citizens: 

Celery. Beets. Hops. 

Lettuce. Spinacli. 

Carrots. Onions. 

8. Percentage of crop for interstate commerce percent-- 80 

9. Percentage of crop for local consumption do 20 

10. Total number of families involved: 

(a) Number of persons in above families. 

(6) Total of Japanese nationals 73 

(c) Total of citizens 130 

11. Employers: 

(a) Skeleton crew. 
(6) Harvesting labor. 

12. Total number of people dependent on farm for livelihood. 

13. Problems peculiar to that area: (1) Blight disease in celery year 

around; (2) labor shortage, hops and all other crop farming; 
(3) high cost of rent. Brooks area, average $100-$120 per 
acre; (4) disease in onions, thrip, yellow dwarf, maggots pres- . 
ent during entire crop season. 

14. Recommendations for the solution of these problems. 



11346 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

SHERWOOD AND TIGARD, OREG., AREA 

1. Number of farms 10 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals 3 

Owned by citizens 2 

Total 5 

(b) Leased by Japanese nationals. 

Leased by citizens 5 

2 . Total acreage 50 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals. 

Owned by citizens 120 

(6) Leased by Japanese nationals. 

Leased by citizens 190 

3. Value of crops raised by nationals and citizens ^ $32, 700 

4. Percentage of crops of the area raised by nationals and citizens. 

5. Percentage of total acreage operated by nationals and citizens. 

6. Percentage of total acreage owned or leased by nationals and citizens. 

7. Farm crops produced by nationals and citizens: 

Grape. " Beans. Onions. 

Orchard. Cauliflower. Strawberry. 

Cane berry. Carrots. Hay. 

Cabbage. Garlic. Grain. 

Sprouts. Tomatoes. 

8. Percentage of crop for interstate commerce. 

9. Percentage of crop for local consumption. 

10. Total number of families involved 8 

(a) Number of persons in above families 29 

(6) Total of Japanese nationals 13 

(c) Total of citizens 16 

11. Employers: 

(a) Skeleton crew. 
(6) Harvesting labor. 

12. Total number of people dependent on farm for livelihood. 

13. Problems peculiar to that area. 

14. Recommendations for the solution of these problems. 

VANCOUVER, WASH., AREA 

1. Number of farms 24 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals. 

Owned by citizens 3 

(fe) Leased by Japanese nationals. 

Leased by citizens 17 

2. Total acreage 695 

(a) Owned by Japanese nationals. 

Owned by citizens 27 

(6) Leased by Japanese nationals. 

Leased by citizens 629 

3. Value of crops raised by nationals and citizens. 

4. Percentage of crops of the area raised by nationals and citizens. 

5. Percentage of total acreage operated by nationals and citizens. 

6. Percentage of total acreage owned or leased by nationals and citizens. 

7. Farm crops produced by nationals and citizens. 

Lettuce. Cabbage. Rhubarb. 

Strawberries. Rutabagas. Beets. 

Celery. Turnips. Asparagus. 

Beets. Squash. Pepper. 

Onions. Cauliflower. Wheat. 
Carrots. 

8. Percentage of crop for interstate commerce Percent 98 

9. Percentage of crop for local consumption do-- 2 

10. Total number of families involved 20 

(a) Number of persons in above families 95 

(6) Total of Japanese nationals 37 

(c) Total of citizens 58 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11347 

"VANCOUVER, WASH., AREA — Continued 

11. Employees: 

(a) Skeleton crew 65 

(b) Harvesting labor 680 

12. Total number of people dependent on farm for livelihood. 

13. Problems peculiar to that area: (1) Getting pickers; (2) root rot of 

lettuce and cauliflower; (3) celery blight. 

14. Recommendations for the solution of these problems: (1) Cooperation 

with U. IS. Government; (2) cooperation with State employment 
service to hire unemployed alien Japanese. 

Statistics of Japanese in Portland, Oreg., Area 

Number of famiUes 340 

Hotels and apartments 100 

Grocery stores and fruit stands 64 

Restaurants and cafes 18 

Barber shops and beauty shops 14 

Dye works, tailoring, laundries 41 

Produce dealers 8 

Professions ■ 13 

Miscellaneous — tire shop, radio, garage, etc 17 

Others 25 

Total 300 

Hotels and apartments: 

Number of roomers 3, 856 

Rates: 25 cents to $2.50 (average 50 to 75 cents). 

We wish to bring out the following facts: There are approximately 3,856 
people living in these hotels. Many of them are on old-age pensions, others are 
ex-soldiers of past wars, and others are in Portland looking for jobs. In regard 
to the last, an article is found on the next page, which was published on February 
12. 

If the Japanese are evacuated, then those people who would take over the 
management could not operate the hotels frugally, as the Japanese; therefore 
the rent prices would naturally rise, causing a handicap for the job seekers. 
Certainly the people living on pensions could not stand too high an increase in 
rent. 

Also there is a definite housing shortage in the Portland area. These people 
are being of service to the community, as in the same light are the cleaners, 
dyers, and grocery stores. 

TESTIMONY OF JAPANESE-AMERICAN PANEIr— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. Wliat other occupations, other than those that you 
have named, do the Japanese carry on? 

Mr. Uyesugi. Restaurants and cafes, 18; hotels and apartments, 
100; grocery stores and fruit stands, 64; barber shops and beauty 
shops, 14; dye works, tailoring, laundries, 41; produce dealers, 8; 
professions, that includes M. D.'s, dentists, doctors, and so forth, 13; 
miscellaneous, about 17; that is, garages and tire shops and radios and 
others, about 25. 

Mr. Arnold. What are the educational opportunities for the 
Japanese in Portland? 

Mr. Uyesugi. Educational opportunities? 

Mr. Arnold. Yes. 

Mr. Uyesugi. Well, you can go to any grammar school, hke any- 
body else; high school, college. I am sure that they have taken care 
of those things. 



11348 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOLS 

Mr. Arnold. How many Japanese language schools are there in 
Portland? 

Mr. Uyesugi. In Portland, I would say there are about four, to 
my knowledge. 

Mr. Arnold. There were four. How many are there now? 

Mr. Uyesugi. They have disbanded for the diu-ation. 

Mr. Arnold. When? 

Mr. Uyesugi. I don't know when, but that is commonly accepted, 
because under the present circumstances, the Japanese-American 
citizens do not feel it would be a wdse thing to do, and we recom- 
mended such a move. 

Mr. Arnold. Did they disband prior to December 7, or right after 
December 7? 

Mr. Uyesugi. I presume that it was after December 7. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have any figmes on the attendance at these 
foreign-language schools when they were operating, that is, how many 
attended? 

Mr. Uyesugi. Roughly, I would say around 240. 

Mr. Arnold. Can you tell me how many" have made trips to Japan? 

Mr. Uyesugi. I haven't those figures. 

Mr. Arnold. Any considerable number? 

Mr. Uyesugi. I don't think as many as was usual in the past. 
I don't know. You coidd check with the Immigration Department, 
I presume. 

Mr. Arnold. Did you have many from Portland going back to 
Japan to go to school in years gone by? 

Mr. Uyesugi. A certain number; yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have any data on the number of Japanese 
in Portland possessing dual citizenship, both Japanese and American 
citizenships? 

Mr. Uyesugi. No, I do not have. 

FEAR OF future 

Mr. Arnold. What recommendations do you have on the question 
of evacuation? 

Mr. Uyesugi. Well, the farmers don't know what to do, because 
of the fact that they don't know whether they are going to be evac- 
uated or not. Somethmg should be done in the future to more or less 
crystalize what is going to happen, because of the spring planting. 

I take it, that because of the public hysteria, and so forth, some 
sort of military custody should be worked out, if it could be. I pre- 
sume the public is scared of the fact that perhaps Japanese parachute 
troops may land over here back from the coast, and the farmers, 
according to the public opinion, may harbor them and feed and clothe 
them, and so forth. 

Mr. Arnold. And aid them? 

Mr. Uyesugi. And aid them, that is right. Therefore, if soldiers 
are to keep the Japanese on these lands, they should at least produce 
and be of some aid. That is just a personal opinion, because of the 
fact that I have seen so much hysteria among the American public 
and also in the Japanese communities. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11349 

Mr. Arnold, In the event the Government orders a complete 
evacuation from this area, do you have any suggestions as to what 
areas, or emplojnments, are suited for Japanese evacuees; that is, 
what place and what type of employment? 

Mr. Uyesugi. Well, that of course — Japanese have been pre- 
dominately engaged in agricultural work and in the cities in hotels. 
It seems to me that a congregation of Japanese only seems to arouse 
suspicion in the minds of the American public. In other words, the 
more Japanese there are congregated and living or working together, 
the more is the hysteria and suspicion. Individually, there aren't 
so many, but if you mix them all together and take them as a whole, 
there certainly must be more than 100,000. They should be more or 
less scattered, if possible. That is my own personal opinion. 

Mr. Arnold. And perhaps engage in the type of occupation they 
are engaged in at the present time, if possible? 

Mr. Uyesugi. If possible, yes. 

Mr. Arnold. I have some questions for Mr. Wakasugi. Mr. 
Wakasugi, you are a farmer? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. How many acres do you farm? 

Mr. Wakasugi. About 125. 

Mr. Arnold. What are the principal crops that you raise? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Strawberries and tomatoes. 

Mr. Arnold. How are these crops marketed? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Strawberries, mostly to canneries for interstate 
commerce; tomatoes are for consumption in the local market. 

Mr. Arnold. You dispose of all of the tomatoes on the local 
market? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes. They are brought into Portland, and from 
here they are distributed to the various warehouses, and a lot of 
them are shipped to distances from 15 to about 200 miles. 

Mr. Arnold. How may farm workers do you employ, seasonal and 
regular? 

Mr. Wakasugi. I hire about 10 or 15 as a skeleton crew, and about 
300 during harvest. 

Mr. Arnold. You have 10 to 15 working all the time? - 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. And about 300 when harvest comes on? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes, sir. 

suspended farm operations 

Mr. Arnold. What are you doing about the spring planting this 
year? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Well, I had been going ahead until a week ago, 
when it seemed almost certain that the citizens, as well as the aliens, 
would be evacuated, and I have just suspended operations. 

Mr. Arnold. Are you a citizen? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. How far is Banks from here? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Thirty-five miles. It is about 20 miles air line 
west. 

Mr. Arnold. In which direction? 



11350 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARLSfGS 

Mr. Wakasugi. West of Portland. 

Mr. Arnold. What type of soil is that? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Our land that grows strawberries is on the hill, 
and we grow our tomatoes in the rich bottom land which is adjacent 
to that. 

Mr. Arnold. And you own that land? 

Mr. Wakasugi. I own the place that I live on, and I lease two 
other places. 

agricultural operations 

Mr. Arnold. Will you give us a brief description of agricultural 
operations of the Japanese farmers? Here are the questions: Do 
you know how many Japanese farms there are in the State? 

Mr. Wakasugi. The acreage that the Japanese growers till does 
not constitute a very large percentage of the State. But the crops 
that they grow are more or less highly cultivated; it takes quite a bit 
of experience and skill to grow those crops. In other words, I am 
not saying that there is no one else that can grow these crops, but it 
will take time for other people to take over these operations. The 
total number of farms operated by Japanese citizens and nationals 
in western Oregon; that is, west of the Cascade Mountains, is 304. 

Mr. Arnold. Three hundred and four farm units? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes. The total number of families on these farms 
is 405. The total number of Japanese nationals is 678. The average 
age of these nationals is in the late 50's and early 60's. The number 
of American citizens are children, which are 1,104; and their average 
age is in the late teens, from 16 to 18. In other words, these people 
that are 25 are of the older group. 

In regard to that point, many of the older boys who have been 
farming and managing farms have either enlisted or been drafted 
into the Army, and many of the parents have had to take over the 
operations, which, according to law, they cannot do. 

The total acreage is 9,583. The approximate value of these crops 
raised in 1941 is $2,711,000. The value of the crops in 1941 is some- 
what higher than they have been in previous years. 

Mr. Arnold. What are the principal crops raised? 

Mr. Wakasugi. The principal crops are strawberries, spinach, 
tomatoes, green peas, dry onions, sprouts, celery, and cauliflower. 
Then there are the minor items such as lettuce, asparagus, peas, 
cucumbers, cabbages, turnips, and parsnips. 

LAND ownership 

Mr. Arnold. Are the farms mostly owned outright by the Japanese, 
or are they leased, or both; do you have any figures on that? 

Mr. Wakasugi. I do not have the figures here on the number of 
farms that are owned. But in certain areas, the Hood River section, 
where the orchards are, most of the land is owned by the Japanese. 

However, in the vegetable-producing areas, the leased lands pre- 
dominate. 

Mr. Uyesugi.*^ Maybe it is similar to your arrangement. You own 
part and lease part? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11351 

Mr. Arnold. But the leasing predominates? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes; the leasing predominates. 

Mr. Arnold. Outside of the Hood River Valley? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. What are the chief sources of credit for farming 
operations among the Japanese? 

Mr. Wakasugi. I think that the main source of credit for the small 
fruit and vegetable growers are the banks and the various packing 
companies. I do not know the credit arrangements which they have 
in the orchard districts. 

Mr. Arnold. What are the credit arrangements in your area? 

Mr. Wakasugi. In my area, the arrangements are made with the 
banks and the packers — the people that buy these products for packing 
and shipping out of the State. 

market outlets 

Mr. Arnold. What are the main market outlets for produce? 
Do these packers provide the main market? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes. I would say three-fourths of the produce 
grown by the Japanese goes into the packing channels outside of 
the Hood River Valley. Their products are mostly shipped through 
a cooperative association for Eastern markets. There is quite an 
export market for dry onions, but now these are all consumed within 
the United States. 

Mr. Arnold. Can you tell us how fresh produce is marketed in the 
city of Portland? 

Mr. Wakasugi. From the time that it arrives in town, do you mean? 

Mr. Arnold. It is brought into town by the producer? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes. Most of the fresh produce is brought in by 
the individual growers, either to the wholesale market, which is oper- 
ated by an association up in the east side of Portland here, or to the 
various distributing houses such as, for example, the Safeway organi- 
zation, which has their own buying houses; and the Pacific Fruit, and 
through those means— the large distributois — most of the fresh 
vegetables are handled. 

Mr. Arnold. They are not Japanese, are they, those wholesalers? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Most of them are not. There are a few Japanese. 

Mr. Arnold. Are there any Italians? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes; a few Italians, also. There are quite a few 
Japanese grocery stores m the city, and they buy mostly through the 
Japanese wholesale houses. 

Mr. Arnold. The wholesalers sell to the grocery stores? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. The growers do not have much contact with the 
retailers? 

Mr. Wakasugi. No; except a certain trade. There is a certain 
trade that buys out of the wholesale market. This market opens 
about 3 o'clock in the morning in the summertime, and all the business 
is completed by about 5 A. M. 

Mr. Arnold. Did you give me the total number of farm workers 
employed by Japanese workers? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes, su". The skeleton crew, there is approxi- 
mately 1,850. The number of people needed at harvest times is 



11352 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

approximately 7,480. There may not be that many, actually, because 
of the fact that one person may help harvest in one field, and later 
on help harvest in another field. The actual number of persons may 
not be that many. 

Mr. Arnold. What recommendations do you have on the question 
of evacuation? 

What do you think ought to be done? Or should it be done? 

PROPERTY OF EVACUEES 

Mr. Wakasugi. I don't know what they are going to do with their 
property, implements and things like that. If the evacuation is 
imminent, they would either have to sell or get rid of these implements, 
because it would be impossible to move them a very long distance; 
and whether they would be able to continue their farms where they 
were moved, I don't know. It would take quite a bit of time, I 
imagine, to get them prepared to evacuate. 

Mr. Arnold. This committee has recommended that there be 
appointed by the Government alien property custodians in this area, 
who would take charge of that and look after the property and make 
sure that it is not sacrificed at a low price. In other words, that those 
who are evacuated might get a fair price for what they have to dispose 
of. 

Mr. Wakasugl They still have to find a buyer, you know. Then, 
the other thing would be what our President mentioned, which 
would be protective custody. 

could not continue farm operations without help 

Mr. Arnold. If you were evacuated into a rural area, you would 
want to continue your farming operations there if you could, wouldn't 
you? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes, if I could, but under the circumstances, if I 
were forced to leave, I couldn't continue wherever I would go, be- 
cause I would be broke. My investment is in the land, and I cannot 
get it out. We have, in other words, a perennial crop. I don't 
know whether you could find a buyer for that crop that is in the 
ground. 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, the Government would have some agency, 
like, for example, the Farm Security Administration would have to 
set you up again. 

Mr. Wakasugi. If that was the case, I would like to continue 
what I am doing. 

Mr. Arnold. In the event the Government orders a complete 
evacuation from this area, do you have any suggestions as to what 
area should be used to send you to? Do you know about the areas 
farther east? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Well, the question comes up, what could we 
raise, you know, and that would be different from here, because we 
are raising crops that are suitable for this area. Take strawberries, 
for example; you could not grow them east of the mountains, and, as 
far as fresh vegetables are concerned, you would not have any market 
for those to speak of. You couldn't get anything for your produce 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11353 

competing with the local market and with the local growers, because 
of the high cost of transportation if you went east of the mountains. 

Mr. Arnold. Would the ones evacuated necessarily have to engage 
in about the same occupations they are in now? In other words, 
would people here in Portland be able to farm, and you would be 
able to do something else besides farming? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes, I guess we could adapt ourselves; it would 
be a question of a matter of sustenance. 

Mr. Arnold. These Portland Japanese haven't had farming ex- 
perience for the most part ; have they? 

Mr. Wakasugi. I don't believe so. I am not familiar with that 
question. You see, the average age of the nationals is, as I say, in 
the late 50's and 60's. 

Mr. Arnold. They probably could not adjust themselves to any- 
thing other than what they have been doing. Of course, the younger 
ones might? 

Mr. Wakasugi. Yes. Another thing is that the people in these 
areas are more or less prohibiting the migration of Japanese into 
their States, as you have noted in the papers. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Okada, I don't have any questions especially 
for you. What do you have to say about this subject matter we 
have been discussing? 

cannot increase production of evacuated 

Mr. Okada. Well, so far as evacuation is concerned, I believe that 
the aliens should be evacuated. However, the Government has 
asked the farmers to increase their production, and our Japanese 
farmers are unable to do that at the present time. There is a con- 
flict of two Government opinions, one asking us to increase our 
production more, and the other one to evacuate. If we can possibly 
leave these farms here under some kmd of protection and let them 
grow these products and win this battle against the Axis Powers, I 
think it would be a good thing. 

ARMED guards FOR FARMS 

To send them back east of the moimtains under Government pro- 
tection, with the Government to feed them and transport them; I 
think that is asking too much of the Federal Government. They 
can be better left here under armed guards, if necessary, to produce 
food for the country. But as far as our alien parents are concerned, 
they are willing to go wherever the United States Government wants 
them. They are not arguing on that point at all. As far as our- 
selves are concerned, as citizens, we have our homes here, and like 
other American citizens, we like to have the opportunity of defend- 
ing them. However, for the best interests of the Nation, we are 
w3ling to sacrifice our homes, our money, and our lives, if necessary, 
in order that the United States might win this war, and will win this 
war. 

Mr. Arnold. Suppose the city of Portland would get a good, heavy 
bombing by Japanese planes, don't you think it is very likely there 
might be warfare right here? 



11354 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

SIMILARITY OF JAPANESE AND CHINESE 

Mr. Okada. Yes. However, in that case, I would suggest that 
the Chmese be moved out at the same time. They are oriental 
people. The American people cannot tell the difference between a 
Chinese and a Japanese. 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, no Chinese planes would bomb the area. 

Mr. Okada. I mean that some Chinese people might be hurt 
by American people, unless we evacuate all the Japanese. The 
Ajnerican people cannot tell the difference between a Chinese and a 
Japanese. 

Mr. Arnold. I see what you mean. 

Mr. Sparkman. Some of your officials testified before us down at 
San Francisco, and gave very much the same statement, I believe, 
Mr, Okada, that you just gave. In other words, that while pro- 
fessing absolute loyalty to the country and a desire to prove that 
loyalty, yet they recognized the difficult position in which they were 
placed by the present circumstances. They expressed a willingness, 
if, in the opinion of those responsible for the defense of this area, it 
became necessary to evacuate, even the Japanese-American citizens, 
to abide by that decision and count that as their sacrifice toward 
proving their loyalty. If I understand you correctly, that is your 
statement? 

Mr. Okada. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you think that is the attitude generally of 
the Japanese-American citizens? 

Mr. Ok,\da. I believe so; yes, sir. 

MAJORITY OF JAPANESE-AMERICANS DECLARED LOYAL 

Mr. Sparkman. There is no question, I take it, in your own mind, 
as to the loyalty of the Japanese- American citizens? 

Mr. Ok\da. WeU, that is a hard question to answer. I can't say 
100 percent. Like any other nationality, there is always a bad apple 
in the box; but I believe the majority are loyal, and true Americans. 

Mr. Sparkman. There has been considerable discussion about the 
second generation of Japanese, particularly those that have been 
educated back in Japan. Have most of your people up in Oregon 
received their education back in Japan, or a part of them? 

Mr. Okada. Well, I haven't any figures, but there is no doubt 
that some have gone back to Japan to study the Japanese language. 

Mr. Sparkman. Did you ever study back in Japan? 

Mr. Okada. No; I have never left the United States. 

Mr. Sparkman. Any of the three of you? 

Mr. Okada. No. 

Mr. Uyesugi. No. 

Mr. Wakasugi. No. 

Mr. Sparkman. Did you, or either one of you, ever attend a Japa- 
nese school in this country? 

TEACHING in JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOLS 

Mr. Okada. Yes; I attended a Japanese school of language in 
Tacoma for 8 years, until I got through grammar school. Then I 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11355 

attended liigh school. I wanted to play American football, basketball, 
baseball, just as much as the other American students, and so, against 
parental objections, I quit going to the Japanese school and I played 
football. I made three letters in football and two in basketball and 
several in baseball, and I had a good time. However, when I grad- 
uated from the university, I made my application for a job. I made 
application to some of the larger companies on the coast, and the first 
thing they asked me was "Can you speak and write Japanese?" 
Now, whether I got a job depended on whether I could speak and 
write Japanese, and at that time I thought maybe I should not have 
played football. Perhaps I should have studied the Japanese lan- 
guage a little bit more. 

Mr. Sparkman. There has been considerable speculation as to the 
teachings of the Japanese schools here in America. During the 8 
years that you studied there, did you find that the primary function 
was to teach you the Japanese language? 

Mr. Okada. Yes; I did. However, they taught me how to sing the 
Japanese national anthem. 

Mr. Sparkman. Did they also ground you in the history and 
traditions, and pride, I might say, of the Japanese Empire? 

Mr. Okada. Well, they taught history, I remember that. You see, 
that was quite a few years ago, but I remember they taught us history, 
and some of the traditions; yes. 

JAPANESE-AMERICANS DON't UNDERSTAND BUDDHISM 

Mr. Sparkman. There is a great deal of speculation in this country, 
and probably a great deal of misunderstanding about the religious 
connection of the Japanese; that is, those that have adhered to the 
religion of their country. I don't know whether it is correct or not, 
but we have always heard that the religion was so closely tied in with 
the State, that it became almost impossible for a Japanese or one who 
had been steeped in the Japanese traditions and who adhered to that 
religion, to break off his loyalty to the Emperor and the Japanese 
Empire; I wonder what your comments on that would be? 

Mr. Okada. I couldn't answer that, because I am a pretty good 
Methodist; I wouldn't be able to tell you about that. 

Mr. Sparkman. You are what? 

Mr. Okada. A Methodist. 

Mr. Uyesugi. On that score, I will say that the Buddhists in the 
church don't know the principles of it. In other words, they just go 
there for a social function. I have gone to a few of their meetings 
and there is so much ritual that you can't tell what it is about, to the 
American mind, and that is what you find to be the situation with the 
Japanese-Americans, you just can't tell. 

The Chairman. Mr. Okada, I take it from your testimony here 
that you do not think wholesale evacuation is 'the answer? 

Mr. Okada. Well, I have heard pro and con. I haven't made up 
my mind as to that. I have talked to several of our officials, and one 
said, mass evacuation; another one said partial evacuation. I haven't 
made up my mind myself. However, I believe if it is necessary, 
from the danger standpoint, then all should be evacuated. 

60396— 42— pt. 30 5 



11356 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

WOULD REMOVE JAPANESE FROM NATIONAL DEFENSE AREAS 

The Chairman. In other words, like the Lockheed Aircraft Co. of 
Los Angeles, where the landholdings contiguous to it are held by 
Japanese, you would get them out of there? 

Mr. Okada. I think so. For our national defense, we should not 
be near there. 

The Chairman. You would get them out of there? 

Mr. Okada. I think so. 

The Chairman. Mr. Okada, maybe we could get some education 
from how Japan handles our people. Do you know how they handle 
our prisoners over there? 

Mr. Okada. Well, I would rather be here than over there. 

The Chairman. I don't suppose that they are holding hearings 
over in Japan this afternoon as a part of the Japanese Parliament to 
find out from the Americans what they want. You don't think they 
are doing that, do you? 

Mr. Okada. No, I agree with you, and I think our parent groups 
understand that, too, and they are willing to go if they are required 
to go. 

The Chairman. Of course, we have got to face the fact that this 
is war— bloody war. They are killing each other over there today, 
and, of course, we are here to get the facts and give people the oppor- 
tunity to present their views. 

As I get it from ypu, Mr. Okada, with reference to combat areas, 
strategic areas, power lines, bridges, and things of that kind, you would 
move the Japanese out, wouldn't you? 

Mr. Okada. I think so; I think I would, not only for the protection 
of the country, but also for the protection of the Japanese themselves. 

The Chairman. Do you think that the loyalty of the Japanese to 
the Japanese Government is different from the loyalty of a German 
or Italian, or an Irishman, to his Government? 

Mr. Okada. I wouldn't know. 

The Chairman. There is a private opinion in this country that 
the loyalty is greater on the part of the Japanese for their Govern- 
ment than for the German or Italian group. 

Mr. Okada. Well, readmg from the papers, I believe so — that they 
consider their Emperor a semi-God. 

The Chairman. Do you believe he is? 

Mr. Okada. Not me. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Worth and Mr. Cooter? 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN E. COOTER, REGIONAL FARM PLACEMENT 
SUPERVISOR, SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD, REGION 12, SAN FRAN- 
CISCO, CALIF., AND EMORY WORTH, FARM PLACEMENT SUPER- 
VISOR, UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE FOR THE STATE 
OF OREGON, PORTLAND, OREG. 

Mr. Sparkman. You gentlemen are with the Farm Placement 
Division of the U. S. Employment Service; is that correct? 
Mr. Worth. Yes, sir. 
Mr. Cooter. Yes, sir. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11357 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Worth, what is your connection? 

Mr. Worth. I am the farm placement supervisor for the U. S. 
Employment Service for the State of Oregon. 

Mr. Sparkman. And Mr. Cooter, you are area supervisor? 

Mr. Cooter. Yes. Regional farm placement supervisor, Social 
Security Board, region 12, with headquarters in San Francisco, com- 
prising the states oi Oregon, Washington, California, and Nevada. 

Mr. Sparkman. These States are involved in the evacuation of 
ahens; these problems figure prominently in the hearing today as 
they did, to some extent, in San Francisco, and as they must in all 
other areas on this Pacific coast. I wonder if you would tell us in 
your own way, briefly, what your problems are with reference to the 
evacuation of the enemy aliens? 

DUTIES OF EMPLOYMENT SERVICE IN EVACUATION 

Mr. Cooter. When the evacuation problem first arose, the employ- 
ment service was charged with the responsibility of setting up its 
agency in the four States, or in the three States — Nevada, as yet, has 
not presented the problem — so that these offices could serve as 
information offices to the aliens who were contemplating evacuating 
from certain prescribed areas. 

These offices were set up in California first, because there the areas 
were designated where operations w^ould begin earlier than in Oregon 
and Washington. 

We have had a little difficulty in serving as an information center, 
because of the fact that a whole lot of questions which the aliens asked 
of the people in our offices could not be answered. 

I think the committee will be interested in knowing what some of 
those questions were. 

QUESTIONS ASKED BY ALIENS 

If the alien came to the office and asked if he lived in a prohibited 
area, we could answer that question directly. But if he said to us, 
"I am in a prohibited area, and I want to move to some other area, 
where shall I go?" The Employment Service was in an unfortunate 
position, because of the fact that as the program developed in Califor- 
nia, and later in Oregon and Washington, the objection to the evacuees 
coming into other areas made it very difficult to suggest a location for 
the enemy aliens, and for citizens as well, now that the possibility of 
evacuating them is being considered, also. 

The second question they would ask us would be, "Wliere can I 
get a job?" That was the second function of the office; first, to give 
information, and second, to give them a job, if possible. 

CHANGING ATTITUDE TOWARD EMPLOYMENT OF JAPANESE 

Now, to begin with, it was easy for the Employment Service to 
interest employers in the use of enemy aliens, if they were evacuated. 
We held many conferences with large employers, particularly of sea- 
sonal labor: Sugar beet growers, bean growers, strawberry growers, 
fruit growers, hop growers. In the early stages, they indicated they 



11358 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

would be willing to use this type of labor. But as soon as this ob- 
jection on the part of the communities developed, those figures that we 
began with have dwindled until we are not sure at all of our ability to 
send aliens in certain areas and have any chance of their being em- 
ployed. 

Then, we ran into another difficulty. For instance, last week in 
San Francisco, employers at Santa Rosa, north of San Francisco, gave 
us a direct order for Japanese workers. ^Ylicn the Japanese came into 
the office, there was a question as to whether or not we should send 
them to Santa Rosa, because of the possibility of that area being one 
from which it would be necessary later to evacuate them. The Japa- 
nese would say to us, "Can you assure us, if we go up there, that we can 
stay?" And we could not, and therefore, they would answer back, 
"Well, I think that we had better stay here until this thing takes 
definite form." 

The matter of taking care of their needs for unemployment com- 
pensation was apparently simple, and yet some very definite problems 
have developed in that regard. 

EFFECT OF CURFEW ON TRAVEL 

As soon as the curfew was established in the restricted areas in 
California, the rules were that an enemy alien would not be permitted 
to travel more than 5 miles, except when he was going to or from work. 

Well, that prohibited the enemy alien from traveling far enough, in 
many instances, to file his claim, or to come to the employment office, 
or even to apply to the United States district attorney in person to 
get a permit to travel; so, that, as the program has gone along, there 
have been so many of those tlimgs developing in our offices that it 
makes it very difficult to give a direct answer on many of these ques- 
tions. We found considerable confusion, and we find considerable 
confusion yet developing in that respect. 

SHOULD BE PERMITTED TO DIRECT JAPANESE TO DEFINITE RELOCATION 

AREAS 

As to what might be done about it, expressing my personal opinion 
rather than committing the department that I represent, I would say 
that the opportunity of the Employment Service to do a job will 
depend upon, first, very definite areas being designated from which 
enemy aliens are to be evacuated. 

Second, the designation of areas not included in those areas, to 
which it is not advisable to send aliens. Then, to have some area 
designated some place by the Army or by the Federal Government, to 
which the Employment Service can direct these workers. 

Up to now, the program has been simply an order to get out of an 
area. We have had a lot of trouble in the vicinity of some of our 
offices in regard to the Japanese respondmg to that order, and gettmg 
into trouble where they tried to go, so I thmk that we should have 
some authority to designate areas to which the Employment Service 
can send these people. Then, if the Employment Service is going to 
be able to employ aliens, it appears necessary that the employers 
have some assurance from the Federal Government and from the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11359 

local and State authorities that the plan of sending ahens to that 
area for employment be approved officially, rather than the employer 
having to take the responsibihty of bringing in aliens to do the work 
in his community. In fact, I doubt very much if we are going to get 
any employers to give us direct orders in any volume, unless the 
Government takes a hand in helping back them up in that program. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Cooter, of course, up to now, there has been a 
great deal of uncertainty about the whole program. You do feel, 
though, that now it will take shape very fast, do you not? 

Mr. Cooter. Yes; we have confidence now that the Army is in a 
position to make definite decisions. I am not blanung anybody for 
decisions that were not made before; we didn't have the means or a 
method by which we could get a definite answer. Now that the Arniy 
official in the immediate area can make defuiite decisions, that will 
help out the program very much. I might say that we have had no 
trouble up to date in interesting employers in German or ItaUan 
workers. The whole opposition of the problem seems to be with the 
Japanese groups. 

FEW EVACUEES HAVE REQUIRED FINANCIAL AID 

The fourth fimction that the office is engaged in is the aid program, 
in which we offer to assist evacuees move out of an area. Sur- 
prisingly, there has been very little of that needed. I think the last 
figures that I have from California show that to date the evacuations 
down there have not cost the Government over a couple of thousands 
of dollars in cUrect assistance. Of course, that amount will increase as 
time goes on. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, there hasn't been any great movement 
yet, or over any great distance. Most of these who have moved out 
of the prohibited areas have simply moved a very short distance; 
isn't that true? 

Mr. Cooter. The bulk of them have moved short distances, 
although some of them have crossed State lines. 

Mr. Sparkman. You were down in San Francisco during our hearing 
there, were you not? 

Mr. Cooter. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Were you there when the Tulare witnesses testified? 

Mr. Cooter. Yes. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you think that the objections voiced by those 
gentlemen from Tulare County might be, or might become typical 
of agiicultural counties to which these Japanese might move? 

government should prepare way for migrants 

Mr. Cooter. Yes; unless something is done by the Governnient 
and Army to prepare the way ahead of time, in the communities into 
which these people wUl migrate. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, a great deal of the agricultural labor 
down through California — and I presume it is true even up in this 
country, to a less degree — is migratory. Agriculture is dependent 
each year upon transient workers. Could not these evacuees be used 
in lieu of that transient labor which is bound to be smaller this year? 



11360 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. CooTER. There is no question about that. In fact, employers 
who use that mobile type of labor were enthusiastic at the beginning 
of this program about the possibilities of giving them a supply of labor 
which they didn't see available from any other source this year. I 
believe that is still possible if the evacuees are taken under protective 
custody by the Government and their movement from one place to 
another carried out under official sanction. 

Mr. Sparkman. It will require close supervision by the Federal 
Government, will it not? 

PROTECTIVE CUSTODY FOR WORK GROUPS 

Mr. CooTER. In the State of Washington, when we made a canvass 
recently to determine what the attitude of the employer was, and if 
he had an opportunity to use evacuees, he stated that he wanted 
them to have more than protective custody. A great many of the 
employers asked for military guards, having in rnind that a military 
guard would protect their property against anything that might hap- 
pen, and it would protect the Japanese or the evacuees against any 
kind of local activities that might be disturbing, and it would assure 
the public that the program was being taken care of. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, I should think that even that type of 
protective custody, if you want to call it such, would be more desirable 
than an internment camp or even a camp in the interior on made- work 
projects, don't you think so? 

Mr. CooTER. There is no question about that. A great many of the 
employers with whom I have talked are still very hopeful that the 
very useful skilled labor of the Japanese, particularly Japanese agri- 
culturist, can be used in some manner. Where they are to be used, 
they are wilhng to let the Government and the Army say. The 
method by which these people are handled or transported, whether 
they are kept in congregate groups, or whether tliey are dispersed, 
the Army is in the best position to say, and I believe the employers 
will be satisfied with that kind of a plan. 

HYSTERIA CREATED BY UNSUPERVISED EVACUATION 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, all of the movements so far have been 
more or less of a voluntary nature and without very much supervision 
on the part of any Government agency? 

Mr. CooTER. Practically no supervision, and I think that is where 
our trouble, and the hysteria that has developed in the various areas, is 
coming from. In fact, right now it is questionable whether or not 
that frenzy on the part of the public generally can be halted in time to 
make it possible to use this labor. 

Mr. Sparkman. Has the Farm Placement Division of the United 
States Employment Service been called upon yet? I presume not, 
because the tune is so short. Has it been cafied upon yet by the 
defense area commander to aid in this program? 

Mr. CooTER. No. We have heard nothing about what the new 
plan is to be. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, that is less than a week old yet. 

Mr. CooTER. Yes. We are willing and ready and glad to be in a 
position to assist if and when they might call. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11361 

Mr. Sparkman, You have been giving it attention and study in 
your own agency to such an extent that you feel that you are ready 
and able to make a definite contribution? 

Mr. CooTER. Yes. 

ALIENS AS EMPLOYERS OF FARM LABOR 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Worth, I wonder if I might ask you some 
questions with particular reference to the State of Oregon. Are the • 
alien growers in this State employers of a considerable number of 
hired farm labor? 

Mr. Worth. Yes, sir; they are; the labor that they use, aside from 
that which they use for their year-round production, has, in the past, 
been all white persons. We haven't had other types of workers com- 
ing into this State to be employed by the Japanese. 

Mr. Sparkman. Are these growers calling on the Farm Placement 
Service for help? 

Mr. Worth. Yes, sir. In the major crops here in Oregon, we have 
for some time, almost from the beginning of the period, assisted the 
Japanese and Italian growers — mostly the Japanese because they are a 
larger number — in their employment needs. 

The area in which most of the workers are needed lies in about five 
counties in the northwestern part of the State. Several years back, I 
would say that the Japanese growers using this service were propor- 
tionately' larger in number than the white employers were in the same 
area. 

The white people employed by the Japanese in the strawberry, 
beans, hops, and orchards in Hood River County, have usually found 
better yields and better crops and somewhat better conditions than 
their neighboring white employers. It has been sort of an induce- 
ment to the workers, and it has not been difficult at all to supply 
workers. Many of the Japanese farmers in the area in the past month 
have conferred with me and others in the Farm Placement Division 
here in the State. Their problem, as Mr. Cooter has stated, is 
general in the region, and has invariably been whether or not they 
would be in a position to start production. 

In this immediate area of Portland, they will need to start workmg 
the berries within a very few days. The spinach crops, and some of 
these other crops that are used for packing, should begin within the 
next 10 days. As time goes on, these incidents that have come up 
in the past week or 10 days become more disturbing. My observa- 
tion in this particular area has been that more and more of the 
Japanese have suspended operations, and that would indicate that it 
is going to seriously hamper our production in the State of Oregon. 

USE OF ALIENS IN SUGAR-BEET AREAS 

Mr, Sparkman. What is your opinion as to the use of this alien 
labor in the sugar-beet areas, not only in Oregon, but also in other 
States? 

Mr. Worth. Well, my experience in assisting in furnishing labor 
for that type of a crop in the past and the contacts that I have been 
able to make with several of the large sugar-beet concerns, indicates 
to me that it would be very desu-able in that particular crop. How- 



11362 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

ever, on a trip through eastern Oregon last week, in which there will 
be approximately 20,000 acres of sugar beets this year for us to help 
care for, I found that the growers in that section and people in those 
communities were very bitterly opposed, with the little information 
that they had, to the Employment Service bringing any aliens into 
the area, particularly Japanese. 

Mr. Sparkman. If the Government exercised a degree of super- 
vision and control, such as Mr. Cooter suggested, over those Japanese 
workers, then do you think these communities would be satisfied? 

Mr. Worth. Well, 2 weeks ago, the contacts that I made indicated 
that that would be desirable, but that was the only condition under 
which they cared to accept the Japanese evacuees. 

Since that time, right up until this morning, I have made a check 
of all the offices I could get in touch with, and there seems to be a 
steadily growing opposition, even to that, because of some peculiar 
incidents in that area. 

REASON FOR OPPOSITION 

Speaking now of this sugar-beet area in Malheur County, the reason 
people are considerably upset up there is that Morrison Knutson 
Construction Co., with headquarters in Boise, Idaho, had very some 
large contracts on the islands. As nearly as I could get the figures, 
something over 300 men were sent out of that area some time ago, 
many of whom are not accounted for. The press, of course, is inter- 
ested in letting their relatives know of their whereabouts. The rela- 
tives of these people are scattered all through that area, and as these 
incidents occur from day to day, it changes the opinion of those 
people in there, principally, I beheve, because there is no understanding 
as to how these people might be moved. 

Now, I found in all the eastern Oregon area that they supposed that 
the Employment Service might direct the aliens, particularly the 
Japanese, into that area, without any supervision; that is, direct them 
to individual employers or into specific communities. They strenu- 
ously objected to me about that. 

Mr. Sparkman. You would agree, would you not, that with all of 
these people, whether they are Japanese nationals who might be 
interned, or whether they are Japanese-American citizens, who would 
move out of these various areas, all of them should be engaged in 
some kind of useful work? 

Mr. Worth. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. And that it is up to the Federal Government to 
see that work opportunity comes as well as the movement, and the 
protective custody or guardianship of them, that all of that should be 
provided by the Federal Government? 

Mr. Worth. I don't think it can be handled locally. I think the 
Federal Government in their various agencies are the only ones that 
can handle it. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Cooter, I wonder if you have anything to add? 

position of employment service in program 

Mr. Cooter. Only to say that the Employment Service doesn't 
want to make any policy with reference to what is done about the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11363 

aliens. They are willing to serve in their capacity as an employment 
service, and to tell you that at the present time it is practically im- 
possible for us to do anything of much help in referring the enemy 
aliens who are coming to our offices now to a place to go to work, because 
of the uncertainty that now exists. But I feel that as soon as the Army 
command definitely designates the areas from which the Japanese are 
to be excluded, and then give us some assurance as to where, in their 
views as a military group, they can be safely moved, and then preferably 
a public-relations job is done in that community by the Government, 
then, I believe, the Employment Service will be able to render a very 
helpful service in getting these people into useful work. 

ALIENS WANT TO DO USEFUL WORK 

In talking with these enemy aliens themselves, they, without ex- 
ception, seem to want to do something useful in this program. From 
the standpoint of the Japanese as a whole, if the Government can 
work out a plan with the employers so that they can be used for labor, 
I foresee very little of an aid program in handling the use of large 
groups of Japanese workers. 

Of course, the older Italians who are unable to work will probably 
be an aid problem. But the Japanese will do hke they have done under 
civilian life; they will stih take care of the old ones if they are all 
together, and I think there tvtII be no aid problems developing there. 

I look forward to this program hopefully, feeling that the Govern- 
ment is, through the Army command, going to take a very definite 
stand, that will better the whole program. 

Mr. Sparkman. Thank you very much. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, gentlemen. 

Mr. Hoyt is the next witness. 

TESTIMONY OF PALMER HOYT, PUBLISHER, PORTLAND ORE- 
GONIAN, PORTLAND, OREG. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hoyt, you have something to do with the 
Oregonian, I understand? 

Mr. Hoyt. That is right. 

The Chairman. You are publisher? 

Mr. Hoyt. That is right. 

The Chairman. We appreciate your coming here. This com- 
mittee feels that yo-u have a fairly good understanding of the people of 
Oregon, as well as the people of Portland in particular, and that you 
can estimate very well the feeling of the people. I would like to ask 
you personally if you are of the opinion that the danger of sabotage in 
Oregon is great or small, or how do you feel about it? 

DANGER OF FIRES IN TIMBER AREAS 

Mr. Hoyt. I think, Mr. Tolan, there is a general feeling that the 
danger is rather great in Oregon because of the possibilities of sabotage, 
in the civilian as well as the military areas. For example, there is 
a great deal of concern in many circles as to the potentiality of sabotage 
in our forests, when the proper season comes. 



11364 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

The Chairman. I understand that about a third of your area is in 
timber? 

Mr. HoYT. Well, I don't know whether that is true. If you mean 
timber, probably that is somewhere near the fact, but as you probably 
know, in the States of Oregon and Washington, there are, combined, 
approximately one-third of the commercial forests of the United States, 
where there is the greatest virgin stand of Douglas fir and hemlock in 
the world, of any substantial size. In the States of Oregon and 
Washington there are 502,000,000,000 feet of commercial Douglas fir. 
One-fifth of the commercial standing timber of the United States is in 
Oregon alone; and in the coastal areas, this, of course, includes Douglas 
fir, western hemlock, spruce, and so on. The latest figure is that there 
are 276,000,000,000 feet west of the Cascade Mountains, and approxi- 
mately 127,000,000,000 feet of ponderoso pine east of the mountains. 
Of course, the danger of fires west of the mountains is much more 
severe than east of the mountains, because of the undergrowth. 

The Chairman. When you talk in terms of biUions, we, being 
Members of Congress, of course, understand something about that. 

INTERSTATE RESETTLEMENT 

Do you think Oregon possesses any possibilities for resettlement of 
aliens, without sending them out of the State? 

Mr. HoYT. Well, I would think that in the areas of far eastern 
Oregon; yes. The gentlemen that preceded me were talking about 
Malheur County and the sugar-beet crops there, and there are some 
areas that are away from the forests; but, of course, none of the areas 
of Oregon, where there are crops that permit a great deal of hand work, 
are very far from our forests, by and large. 

The Chairman. Mr. Hoyt, from our hearing here, as well as in San 
Francisco, we are very cognizant of these evacuation orders, but so 
far the record is a little bit slim as to suggestions about where to send 
them, or what to do with them. 

Mr. Hoyt. That is right. 

NEED FOR ALIEN-PROPERTY CUSTODIAN 

The Chairman. Don't you think, Mr. Hoyt, that there should be 
an alien-property custodian in the different districts like Portland and 
San Francisco, to take care of the property of these aliens who are 
evacuated? 

Mr. Hoyt. Yes, sir; by all means. 

The Chairman. I might say to you, that as soon as the committee 
arrived at San Francisco, we were impressed with that. Outside of 
police officials taking the cameras, radios, and so forth, we didn't find 
any arrangements being made to take care of their property, or any- 
thing being done to protect the aliens as to their property rights. 
You think that is very necessary, don't you? 

Mr. Hoyt. Yes, indeed; yes, sir. 

The Chairman. After all is said and done, this country was settled 
by aliens, and we will have aliens after this war is over; isn't that right? 

Mr. Hoyt. That is right. 

The Chairman. And there is the great problem of civilian morale 
back of this whole story, isn't there? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11365 

Mr. HoYT. Yes, sir. . 

The Chairman. Of course, there will be quite a senous problem in 
our neighboring States in the case of a large evacuation, as to whether 
they will take them or not. I don't know of any law by which you can 
force them to take them; and we have heard some grumblings already. 
Have you given that problem any thought at all? 

Mr. HoYT. Yes, sir. We have had a number of reports from 
Montana. I came here from Montana, and I have many friends there, 
and there has been in that State quite a little unrest. 

The Chairman. Where did you live there? 

Mr. HoYT. In the Gallatin Valley. That is a good valley, too. 

DESTRUCTION CAUSED BY FOREST FIRES 

Mr. Tolan, for the record, I think that you might be interested in 
this point of view on these forests. It isn't so much the danger that 
the citizens of Oregon will be subject to, but, as you know, where 
there are shortages on steel and shortages on various other metals, 
there is a tremendous need for timber for structural purposes for 
cantonments, and so on. There are only a few places in the United 
States where 12 x 12 timbers can be obtained, for example, and that 
is in Oregon and Washington. I want to give you a viewpoint that 
I think you might be interested in, which was expressed to me the 
other day, and that was that 10 or 12 individuals, in the western part 
of Oregon when the weather is at the right point and the humidity low,, 
and with an east wind blowing, coidd set a fire that would virtually 
destroy our entire forest area, at least the commercial aspects of it. 

Just to give you an idea of the thing, in 1934, the so-called Tillamook 
burn, which started in a logging operation had, in 24 hours, killed 
10,000,000,000 feet of trees. That destroyed the largest stand of 
hemlock, tamarack, and spruce in the entire world. In 24 hours, 
that fire had ranged some 26 miles, and had destroyed or killed these 
trees. This area is peculiar in that these fires were struck, as far as 
could be determined, by premeditation, started by sabotage, and 
started in the logical place, and, as I say, under the described climatic 
conditions. It destroyed virtually the entire stand of commercial 
timber in western Oregon and Washington. 

Now, to give you some idea of the importance of lumber in our 
national defense, the last order that I heard of which was placed by 
the Govermnent, was for 150,000,000 board feet for military purposes. 

The Chairman. In other words, protection of the timber of Oregon 
has a very prominent place in our national defense program? 

Mr. HoYT. That is correct. That is because, to a large degree, 
lumber and timber for national defense and for all purposes are 
going to have to come pretty largely from the two Northwestern 
States of Oregon and Washington. 

The Chairman. Was there any other matter that you desired to 
■ discuss? 

Mr. HoYT. No; I think that is all, Mr. Tolan. 

The Chairman. I would like to make it clear to you that this 
particular committee didn't come out on the coast to show anybody 
up. We just came out here to get the facts from the people, and some 
of their recommendations and transmit them to Congress. It is just 



11366 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

like the picture you gave of the timber; I didn't know anything about 
that. Now, that will become a part of the record, and will enter into 
our recommendations. We thank you very much, Mr. Hoyt. 

Mr. Hoyt. Well, we are glad to have you here, sir. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Hoyt, there was a very mteresting editorial in 
the Oregonian this morning with reference to this particular work. 
Would you object to my inserting it in the record, along with your 
remarks? 

Mr. Hoyt. No. I would be very pleased to have you do so. 

(The editorial referred to above is as follows:) 

Here in the west coast danger zone, most of us have given little thought to the 
discomfort that would be suffered by aliens who were transferred inland or to 
the feelings of inland residents who would be asked to receive these aliens. We 
have been engaged with the very obvious hazards involved in leaving things as 
they were. 

Now, however, the Army has the matter in hand. And we have no doubt 
that the Army will move as rapidly as possible, which means as rapidly as the 
trouble some details of such evacuation can be worked out. Consequently we 
can give attention to such questions as are being asked by the congressional com- 
mitt'Ce which is holding hearings in Portland today under the chairmanship of 
Eepresentative Tolan of California. To what extent will local production be 
disturbed by such evacuation? How much will this disturbance be increased if 
Japanese-Americans are included with alien Japanese? What about the property 
of these people? How far inland should they go? How does the public attitude 
concerning German and Italian citizens differ from the feeling toward the Japanese? 
What about the reaction in the inland areas when they have to receive evacuees? 

For the purposes of an intelligent answer to these questions, it is necessary 
to bear in mind that Oregon has approximately 4,300 Japanese, of whom some 
1,900 are aliens. Most of them are small farmers, more often than not, truck 
gardeners. A number have neighborhood groceries. Some have other businesses. 
Unfortunately for themselves and for the state of the public mind, they have 
tended to cluster in dangerous areas, around Bonneville Dam, around the Port- 
land Airfield, on the hills overlooking the Oregon shipyards and the Linnton 
industrial district. 

As we see it, it is absolutely essential that the aliens be evacuated, and that they 
be transferred inland beyond the Pacific coast forest belt. This is necessary not 
only for public safety, but for the safety and the well-being of the aliens themselves. 
Here they are under constant suspicion. Their businesses are disappearing. 
They might easily become the victims of race riots if there were sudden evidences 
of sabotage — if, for example, unexplained fires appeared in the Northwest forests. 
And, besides, it is important that we remember that such fires, or other sabotage, 
actually do remain a possibility so long as the aliens are here. Not all of the aliens 
would necessarily be wrongfully accused. 

In the matter of the Japanese who are American citizens, the problem is far 
more difficult. It is a hard decision, in view of our traditions, to take action 
against men and women upon whom citizenship has been conferred. But we 
cannot overlook the fact that dual citizenship has been discovered in a number 
of instances — and America is fighting for its life. The Army will have to decide 
in this particular. All we can say is that the Army must not be wrong. 

In regard to the reactions of the inland areas, aren't they being on the unreason- 
able side? They will find the Japanese likeable people, in the main loyal, and 
always industrious. As for the few who are suspected of being disloyal, one 
would think that the inland districts would want these particular persons removed 
from the gateways to the country. It should not be such a great chore to guard 
them for a while, out of harm's way. 

The Chairman. We will take a 5-minute recess at this time. 

(Whereupon, a 5-minute recess was taken, after which proceedings 
were resumed as follows:) 

Mr. Arnold. I would like to introduce into the record at this tirne, 
a copy of a resolution of the United States grand jury, for the district 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11367 

of Oregon, presented to me by Mr. J. Mason Dillard, assistant to the 
United States attorney. 

The Chairman. Yes; that will be admitted. 

(Resolution referred to above is as follows:) 

Whereas the United States grand jury for the district of Oregon, assembled 
pursuant to an order of the United States Court for the District of Oregon for the 
November term of said court and now in session, has in the pursuit of deliberations 
affecting the public interest, which considerations have been initiated by members 
of this body, entered upon a discussion of the safety of the people and public 
property in the existing wartime emergency ; and 

Whereas it is the consensus of the opinion of this grand jury that a grievous 
emergency and imminent danger exist by reason of the fact that there are residing 
in the Pacific coast area of the United States and within the district of Oregon 
numerous enemy aliens and citizens of questionable loyalty; and 

Whereas the members of this grand jury, based upon their observation of events, 
believe that at an opportune time for such conduct, both concerted and individual 
aid to the enemy will be attempted by said alien enemies and native-born or 
naturalized citizens residing in the United States: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That it be declared to be the sentiment of this grand jury that any 
persons of questionable loyalty to the United States now residing in the strategic 
areas of the Pacific coast and near the forest areas of the Pacific coast should be 
immediately removed from such areas and interned in a place in the United States 
far removed from the coast and forest areas and from the areas of military and 
defense production establishments, in order that greater security to the public 
and public property and the defense establishments of the United States be 
assured; and be it further . ,, -,- 

Resolved, That this grand jury make known its sentiment respectmg the thmgs 
herein mentioned to the proper officials of the United States Government, both 
military and civil. 

Dated at Portland, Oreg., this 25th day of February 1942, 

The Chairman. Mr. Duffy. 

TESTIMONY OF WALTER DUFFY, REGIONAL ADMINISTRATOR, 
FARM SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, PORTLAND, OREG. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr, Duffy, will you state your name in full for the 
reporter, please? 

Mr. Duffy. Walter Duffy. 

Mr. Arnold, And your capacity? 

Mr, Duffy, Regional administrator, Farm Security Administra- 
tion. 

Mr. Arnold. With headquarters where? 

Mr. Duffy. Portland, Oreg. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Duffy, the Farm Security Administration has 
been mentioned as the agency with the most experience in managing 
the transfer of large groups of people. In the event the Army requests 
your assistance in dealing with the problem of alien evacuation in 
your region, how will this affect your normal operations? 

Mr. Duffy. I think that we should call attention to our equipment, 
the amount of it and type of the facilities generally that are available. 
This equipment is now being used for migratory farm labor, referred 
to previously in the discussion here. The group of people who assist 
in the planting and harvesting of our crops here in the Northwest. 

Any diversion from the present use of that equipment would mean 
that to that extent the labor supply would be affected. And this is 
especially important because of the probable stringency in the labor 
situation that has been developing during the past year and which, 
very probably, will be a critical problem m this year's operation. 



11368 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

MOBILE CAMP FACILITIES 

I would like to list some of our facilities and to give you just a 
picture of what that equipment is. We have here in the Northwest 
what are known as standard camps, 6 in number. Now, the standard 
camp consists of sanitary set-up facilities, which include toilets, 
laundries, and that sort of thing, a recreational hall, and then approxi- 
mately 200 shelters; so that in addition to that, varying in the several 
camps, from 25 to 50 platforms upon which tents may be placed, that 
would make a possibility of a maximum of 250 families which might 
be served in each one of these camps. 

It varies some as between camps. That is the standard equipment. 
In addition to that, we have what is known as the mobile unit, some 
19 sets of such equipment at the present time. 

That equipment consists of a movable boiler engine set-up, which 
may be arranged so as to provide bathing facilities and laundry tubs ; 
and then, in addition, a varying number of tents, usually about 200, 
providing 200 families with the means of carrying on in any one setting. 

We hav,e provided, in this last year, 20 such locations for mobile 
units in our plans with the prospect of being able to secure, if priorities 
permit us, some 7 new units. In the past season we supplied 9,160 
families a means of location at one time or another during the operating 
season. 

Mr. Arnold. That is in what area? 

Mr. Duffy. That was all in the area of the Northwest. And for 
the record, I would be glad to supply the map showing the exact 
location of those camps as carried on this past season. 

Mr. Arnold. We shall be glad to have that for the record at this 

Mr. Duffy. I would like to describe a little something of what 
takes place in the operation of those camps. 

self-government in MOBILE CAMPS 

I think this is rather a significant bit of information, as it bears on 
this particular problem. We early discovered in the operation of 
our camps that it was not possible to supply outside control in the 
way of police services, in the way of general services that might tend 
to keep the folks in the camp in a happy or comfortable, peaceful frame 
of mind, but we did find that when we gave them the opportunity 
to supply their own means of carrying on— you might say, then- 
own self-government— that seems to be the best method under which 
to operate. So we have endeavored to encourage them, through our 
management set-up, in their recreational facilities, and also their 
social facihties, including church services and that sort of thing, and 
permitted them and encouraged them to form their own self-govern- 
ment group, their own police system, and all the facilities that go 
with an organized community. We have found that method has 
given just about the minimum of difficulty or trouble in carrying on 
in this whole camp experiment. 

The Chairman. Mr. Duffy, this committee is very familiar with 
that. We visited many of those camps; in fact, we have reported 

1 Map referred to held in committee files. 



NATIOiSTAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11369 

to Congress on them. You are mentioning now the migratory 
Bardwood camps? 

Mr. Duffy. Yes. 

Mr. Chairman. We are very famihar with that, and with the set-up 
with regard to recreational facihties, schools and churches, and how 
they are permitted to run the camps themselves. We are very 
familiar with that. 

PATTERN FOR ALIEN CAMPS 

Mr. Duffy. Very well. I merely mentioned that, Mr. Chairman, 
in connection with the possibilities of a similar type set-up for enemy 
aliens. That might furnish the basis in experience for the handling 
of them. 

Mr. Arnold. In other words, they become a community unto 
themselves, the same as a regularly established community? 

Mr. Duffy. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Is there any other agency at present equipped to do 
the job dealing with the alien evacuation? Is there any other besides 
the Farm Security Administration? 

Mr. Duffy. I am not aware of such an agency, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Of course, I don't think, Mr. Duffy, you mean to 
move into these camps the German, Itahan, and Japanese ahens and 
mix them up? 

Mr. Duffy. What I wanted to say, Mr. Chairman, was that if 
you were to take the facilities of the Farm Security Administration 
for this purpose— they would not be available for the purpose for 
which they were brought into being under the act of Congress — but 
you might take the experience that has been had, or you might set 
up by supplying the funds, a parallel type of equipment and plan of 
operation, and in that way effect the end that you are seeking in the 
handling of evacuees. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't have enough of these camps to take care 
of present migratory labor, do you? 

Mr. Duffy. No; because we have been endeavoring to increase 
the amount of equipment to meet the demand and the requests that 
have come to us from the various communities throughout the three 
Northwest States this year; and, as I indicated, we have only the 
prospect of possibly six new sets of equipment, if we secure the 
priorities to get such equipment. 

Mr. Arnold. Has your agency made any surveys w^th regard to 
suitable relocation sites for farming operations to be carried on by 
■evacuees? 

AREAS suitable TO RELOCATION 

Mr. Duffy. I cannot say that we have made any survey, or sur- 
veys, A\^th that particular object in mind. We do have some know- 
ledge of areas where operations might be carried on in which you 
would use the labor of a number of people. I have in mind certain 
reclamation areas; I have in mind, also, areas where you might use 
people in regular farm labor, say areas several hundred miles from 
the coast, where you have more or less of an intensive type of agri- 
culture being carried on. In fact, reference was made to one of those 



11370 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

areas by a previous speaker, the Malheur County area ha eastern 
Oregon; but I have areas m mmd, also, m the State of Idaho. 

Then, m addition to that, not only in eastern Oregon, but also in 
Idaho, we have knowledge of areas where you might establish camps, 
or you might use faciUties that are now present, say C. C. C. camps, 
where some type of operation could be carried on, exclusive of forest 
work. Certain of these camps are located far enough away from the 
forests so that they might be used Avithout any possible danger to 
the forests, and where labor might be used in range development 
work, such as water holes and fencing and that sort of thing. 

Mr. Arnold. It would require some alteration of these camps, 
would it not, to make them desirable for family use? 

COST OF CONVERSION OF CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS CAMPS 

Mr. Duffy. I can answer that by saying that insofar as we have 
knowledge of the C. C. C. camps, it would be necessary to carry out 
some alterations. In fact, I might say that we have under negotia- 
tions at the present time a certain C. C. C. camp which we had in 
mind to use for migratory labor this year. We made a study of the 
cost through our engineering section. I have in my file our estimates 
of that cost, and for the particular camp that I have in mind, in 
order to provide a satisfactory set-up for 125 families. Forty-eight 
of those families would be housed in the present buildmgs, and the 
balance would be in tents. And the cost, to make the changes in 
the buildings and to provide the tent platforms on the basis of our 
estimate, is about $4,000. It would be necessary to build partitions 
in the barracks, and put in the doors, and perhaps a few extra wmdows, 
and that sort of thing. 

The Chairman. Thank you, very much, Mr. Duffy, and if you will 
leave your prepared paper with the reporter, it will be incorporated 
in the record. 

Mr. Duffy. I shall be glad to. 

(The paper referred to above is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY WALTER A. DUFFY, REGIONAL DIRECTOR, FARM 
SECURITY administration, REGION XI, OREGON-WASH- 
INGTON-IDAHO 

I realize that this committee is facing a problem which is profoundly hard to 
solve with fairness, speed, and safety. The totalitarian answer would be a con- 
centration camp. I feel certain that a more constructive solution can be worked 
out. The fact that these hearings are held indicates to me that an inteUigent, 
democratic course of action will be followed. 

The Administrator of the Farm Security Administration has expressed the 
viewpoint of our agencv with respect to this problem of moving enemy people 
from the Pacific coastal" area: We are ready to do anything within our power to 
contribute to its solution. We have some facilities and experience which may 
be drawn upon in case of necessity, and if appropriate plans are made. I refer 
to the migratory labor camp facilities and program 

I wish to make one point verv clear, however, in this statement. That is the 
predominant importance of an uninterrupted migratory labor camp program in 
1942 to assure an adequate supply of agricultural workers in the Northwest to 
produce and harvest farm crops. Perhaps some camp facilities can be used for 
temporary shelter of these people. Perhaps the labor of some of them can be 
used to harvest crops. Certainly, the migratory labor camp pattern, or the 
Civilian Conservation Corps pattern, connected with suitable work projects, 
offers some possibility in providing a solution. But I want to emphasize again the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11371 

absolute need to keep the farm-labor avenues open and the camps mainly at their 
task, in order to avoid a critical farm-labor shortage this year. Any other course 
of action would be shortsighted. Fortunately, this committee is well informed 
concerning the situation I am referring to, and is therefore in a position to deal 
intelligently with any suggestion that the migratory labor camps be used in the 
movement of enemy aliens or their descendants. 

As you know, the migratory labor camp facilities of the Farm Security Ad- 
ministration are established and operated throughout the Northwest region. 
During 1941, 6 standard and 14 mobile camp units were in operation. The 
mobile units are moved from site to site as the harvest season progresses. In 
1941, the 14 mobile units were operated at 27 different locations. 

Migratory labor camp facilities available (for standard camps and mobile 
camps are shown in Exhibit A of this statement. 

In 1942 we plan to operate 21 mobile camp units at 40 locations, and in addition 
of course, to operate the 6 standard camps. Although some expansion is pro- 
vided, these facilities will be critically short compared with the demand and 
need. We have on hand a waiting list of over 20 additional communities which 
probably cannot be served in the 1942 season. Leaders in these communities 
have asked for camps, since they realize that the only immediately effective 
way of coping with a possible farm labor shortage is through the combined 
facilities of the Farm Security Administration camps and the Federal Employ- 
ment Service. 

I am submitting to you, as exhibit B, a copy of a letter which Mr. Baldwin, 
Administrator of the Farm Security Administration, sent to Mr. James Rowe, 
Jr., Assistant Attorney General, Department of Justice, on January 31, 1942, 
discussing the migratory labor camp program in relation to the removal of enemy 
persons from the Pacific coast area. In this letter Mr. Baldwin amplifies the 
viewpoint which I have discussed above. 

In summary of this particular phase of the discussion, I wish to enumerate the 
following points: 

1. Existing migratory labor camp facilities, if used at all in the movernent 
of these people, should be used only temporarily, and not while these facilities 
are required to accommodate farm workers. Crop production and harvesting 
is also critical and important in the ^"ar emergency. 

2. The standard camps should not be used at all since they are constantly 
occupied by farm workers, and they are located in areas of relatively dense 
population, where interracial friction might be intense. 

3. If any of the existing mobile facilities are to be used, temporarily, the pro- 
visions of Mr. Baldwin's letter relative to administration and maintenance 
should be observed. 

I wish now to discuss several other phases of the problem, and possible ap- 
proaches to its solution. 

PEOVISION OF COMMUNITY FACILITIES AND SERVICES 

Insofar as enemy people are handled in groups and sheltered in groups, the 
administration of a relocation program will be greatly simplified by provision of 
necessary facihties for maintenance of health and sanitation, and by promotion of 
minimum cultural activities. Schools should be provided for children. A health 
clinic will be needed in each camp or settlement. A recreation program will 
be indispensable. Some degree of self-government and use of responsible leader- 
ship from within the groups that are moved will be highly desirable. 

All of these features are included in the migratory camp administration. Our 
experience leads me to believe that they are essential in any type of temporary 
housing program. Constructive channels of social and physical activity must 
be provided or the result will be a restless community requiring rigid discipline 
and policing. In the migratory labor camps, a council chosen by the inhabitant^ 
of the camp is given the responsibility of settUng local problems, policing, and 
maintaining reasonable order and sanitation of premises. Considering the fact 
that an unknown majority of the people who must be moved are presumed to be 
trustworthy and loyal to our country, it would seem desirable to use some modi- 
fication of this pattern. 

PROVISION OF EMPLOYMENT 

The types of work projects which are suitable for this program are restricted. 
Settlements of enemy people must not be made near forests or other strategic 
resources or communication lines; nor in densely settled communities. The 

60396— 42— pt. 30 6 



11372 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

experience and skill of many of these people are in industrial and service occu- 
pations. The new setting will be in the open country or rural. Transportation 
of materials, finished products, and workers must be taken into account. The 
solution must involve several different types of settlements, and several com- 
binations of projects and employment. 

1. Range ivork. — One possibility is the establishment of camps or settlements 
in open areas where range, soil, and water conservation work, already begun 
by the Civilian Conservation Corps program, can be continued or extended. 
This work includes range grass planting and care, trail and road building, con- 
struction of drift fences, other erosion checking operations, improvement of 
range water facilities, and similar work. 

2. Farm land improvement. — Similar camps can be established in areas being 
developed for farming. In the newer irrigation projects a great deal of work 
needs to be done on irrigation ditches and roads, clearing and leveling land, 
installing check dams or other erosion-prevention facilities, and otherwise im- 
proving these communities. 

I have in mind several areas east of the Cascades where both types of work 
camps mentioned would be adaptable. If such a course of action were contem- 
plated, I would suggest that the responsible agency make a systematic investi- 
gation of suitable areas. Civilian Conservation Corps camps are already in 
existence in certain of these localities. 

Attached, as exhibit C, is a statement prepared by Mr. Coppin, maintenance 
supervisor. Farm Security Administration, in which an estimate is made of the 
cost to convert a Civilian Conservation Corps camp at Dayton, Wash., into a 
migratory labor camp to accommodate 250 single men and 48 families. 

The cost excludes stoves, tents, and certain other necessary equipment. It 
illustrates the order of cost which might be expected if a Civilian Conservation 
Corps camp is used as the nucleus around which expanded shelter facilities could 
be provided. 

3. Farm work. — The possible critical need for farm workers during the war 
justifies consideration of a plan to use evacuated people in this type of employ- 
ment. The experience of many of these people qualifies them for this work. It 
is recognized that the dispersed location of fields would increase problems of 
policing and transportation, and the destiny of settlement in farming areas might 
involve problems of interracial friction. 

Both the Japanese and the Italian people, however, are already notably present 
in the ranks of working farmers and this occupation is considered suitable for 
evacuees. 

It would be necessary to house the workers in mobile camp facilities and pro- 
vide transportation and supervision. A check in and out of workers, for whom 
responsibility is given to guard, would be possible for any crews not considered 
trustworthy. 

We are prepared to submit further recommendations on this subject concern- 
ing suitable crops, areas, and methods, which would take excessive space there. 

4. Minor industrial work. — The qualifications of many of these people, especially 
from urban centers, are along industrial and service lines. 

It should be possible to arrange for the subcontracting of some minor construc- 
tion, fabricating, or assembly to evacuee camps or settlements. Items which 
come to the mind of a layman in this field are gas masks, life preservers and rafts, 
knock-down furniture, and office equipment. Undoubtedly there are suitable 
enterprises which require a minimum of transportation, machinery, and critical 
materials, and where the product is of such a nature that it can be inspected. 

5. Production of farm crops. — There would appear to be no serious obstacle to 
the leasing of larger tracts of extensively used farm land, for intensive cultivation 
by experienced truck gardeners. Many of the evacuees will have a high degree 
of skill along this line. The food products will be critically needed. 

Such a project is not too difficult to establish. In my opinion, suitable land 
could be more available. Shelter facilities, on a semipermanent basis, for these 
farm workers would be needed. Several of the intensive crops require at least 
25 man-days per acre per year, so the number of people who can be employed at 
one settlement might be appreciable. 

6. Gathering rabbit brush. — Rabbit brush contains from 2 to 6 percent of rubber, 
depending upon the age of the plant and other circumstances. This plant is dis- 
tributed in varying density over the entire western desert area. Its harvest and 
use is impractical under commercial conditions. It is possible, however, that the 
gathering and piling of this plant by evacuees would be a desirable project, even 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



11373 



though further concentration and processing were delayed or even never com- 
pleted. Technical chemical advice would be needed to determine whether the 
rubber content of the plant would deteriorate, if the brush were left in piles near 
roads in the desert. Preliminary economic analysis should be made to determine 
if a cheap labor supply in harvesting would render such a project feasible, con- 
sidering alternative sources. 

Mobile camp facilities would be required by such a project. 

7. Interior emergency air field construction. — The hand labor, supplemented as 
far as desirable by machinery, of enemy people could be used to build many 
emergency or regular plane landing fields. These fields would undoubtedly be 
an asset to the Nation considering the greatly expanedd use of airplanes, both 
military and commercial. 

Mobile camp facilities would be suitable for such a project. 

The above types of employment have occurred to me. Undoubtedly others 
will be suggested. My view would be that considerable diversity of employment 
administered under a pattern which provides necessary mobility, flexibility, and 
needed social and sanitary facilities, would be the framework for desirable action. 

SUMMARY 

In summary I want to enumerate several points: 

1. This problem can be properly handled only by provision of funds, equip- 
ment, priorities, personnel, and administration especially for the purpose. Im- 
provised use of existing facilities, except temporarily, will not provide a solution. 

2. Serious disruption of the Northwest farm labor program must be avoided. 

3. However, mobile and permanent camp facilities, similar to those used in 
the migratory labor camp program, would seem to be indispensable. 

4. Use of some of the evacuees as farm workers to harvest crops, under a suit- 
able plan, may help meet a labor shortage. 

5. Use of people experienced as truck gardeners to produce needed food supplies, 
at interior locations, would appear to be desirable. 

6. Establishment of work camps associated with land development, range 
improvement, and soil conservation projects would seem to be a highly construc- 
tive course of action. 

7. Other camps to house workers who build roads, irrigation facilities, and air- 
fields should have a place in the program. 

8. Provision of minor industrial enterprises in the settlements will be desirable 
to use experience and aptitudes of the people who are moved, especially those 
from urban areas. 

9. An administration of the program which provides schools for children, 
medical and sanitation service, a recreational program, and some participation by 
the evacuees in local self-government would appear to be by far the most practi- 
cable in the long run. 

I thank the committee for the opportunity to present this statement, and I 
hope it will prove to be of some value. 



Exhibit A. — Migratory Labor Camp Facilities Available in States of 
Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, 1941 

6 standard camps 



1 -room 
wooden 
shelters 



Tent 
plat- 
forms ' 



Nurse 

and 

clinic 

building 



Nursery 
school 
kitchen 



Recrea- 
tional 
building 



Toilets (a), lavato- 
ries (b), showers 
(e), laundry tray 
(d) 



Caldwell, Idaho... 
Twin Falls, Idaho. 

Dayton, Ore? 

Yaliima, Wash 

Walla Walla, Wash 
Granger, Wash 



224 
224 
176 
200 
86 



None 
None 
44 
142 
61 
63 



a-67, b-64, c48, d-39. 
a-67, b-64, r-48, d-39. 
a-67, b-64, c-48, d-39. 
a-99, b-80. c-48, d-39. 
a-34, b-27, c-24, d-19. 
a-34, b-27, c-24, d-19. 



I Cement platforms only, no tents. 



11374 



PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 
14 mobile camps 





Tents 


Wood 
tent 
plat- 
forms 


Privies 


Nurse 

and 

clinic 

trailer 


State of Oregon (equipment located at Dayton, Oreg.) 

State of Idaho (equipment located at Caldwell, Idaho) 

State of Washington (equipment located at Dayton, Oreg.) 


1,000 
681 
275 


1,900 

878 
340 


135 
100 
50 


3 
2 

1 



Note.— Almost all labor homes are now occupied, either by stall or migrant families, 
percent available for emergency use. 



Probably not 25 



Exhibit B. — Migratory Labor Camp Program and Enemy Alien Evacuation 

January 31, 1942. 
Mr. James Rowe, Jr., 

The Assistant to the Attorney General, 

Department of Justice, Washington, D. C. 
(Attention Mr. E. H. Hickey.) 

Dear Mr. Rowe: At one of the recent conferences on the problem of enemy 
aliens on the west coast, Mr. Hickey asked my assistant, George Mitchell, to 
supply information about the migratory labor camp facilities of the Farm Security 
Administration, with any other comments the Farm Security Administration 
might have as to the general problem. 

You are familiar with the fact that the camps were established and are operated 
to serve the needs of migratory agricultural labor. They have an extremely im- 
portant direct bearing upon agricultural production in the fruit and vegetable 
areas of the west coast, and it is essential to continued production that they con- 
tinue to be used to provide residence and sanitation for these workers. Never- 
theless, in the serious emergency which has arisen on the west coast, some of the 
facilities may be for short periods of time quite useful to your Depaitment or to 
others who will be handling the problem. 

The camps fall into two main groups, standard and mobile. On the attached 
map, the standard camps are shown in red and the equipment in them is listed in 
exhibit I. The mobile camps are shown in green and the facilities they comprise, 
and the sites which they served last year are described in exhibits II, III, and IV. 

The greater part of the standard camps, except those in the colder climates, have 
a substantial occupancy through most months of each year, and their facilities are 
crowded in the busy crop seasons in their localities. The mobile camps are most 
heavily used in the months from May through October and are moved from site to 
site as the labor follows the crops. The mobile camps available on the west coast, 
including Arizona and Idaho, have a total of about 2,000 usable tents, each large 
enough for a family. The total number of tent platforms available on the west 
coast for the mobile camps is slightly in excess of 3,000. You will see that we are 
short of tents and any full use of mobile equipment in an emergency would require 
a large number of additional tents which, we suppose, at the present time could 
only be obtained as a practical matter from the Army. Most of the tent platforms 
are stored at sites which have been customarily used as stopping places of the 
mobile camps and the platforms are therefore not with the mobile equipment. 
It will require considerable extra transportation to bring them to sites other than 
those recently used for mobile camps. 

If emergency use of camp facilities became necessary, it would be important to 
the Farm Security Administration that mobile equipment be released for the use 
of migratory agricultural labor at dates ranging from March 15 to May 1, 1942. 
The standard camps are such important links in the chain of migration that we 
should be very reluctant to see them used for anything other than their intended 
purpose. 

If temporary emergency use were made of mobile camp equipment, it is sug- 
gested that inquiry should be made of the Civilian Conservation Corps to see 
whether they have available Civilian Conservation Corps camps either presently 
empty or about to be abandoned which could be used alternatively or additionally. 
It might be an excellent plan to send a number of mobile camp units to the vicinity 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11375 

■of an existing, but unused, Civilian Conservation Corps camp, letting the Civilian 
Conservation Corps camp serve as the nucleus for a large number of temporary 
structures, upon completion of which in adequate numbers the mobile camps could 
be withdrawn and employed again for movements of agricultural labor. 

We would wish, in any case, to retain custody of the camps and responsibility 
for the maintenance of their equipment (trucks, generators, pumps, etc.), though 
we would assume that responsibility for the care, quarters, or employment of the 
occupants would be placed elsewhere. 

In case temporary relocation of large numbers of persons of Japanese descent — 
aliens or citizens — should become necessary, it is suggested that something in the 
nature of a public works program might be considered in isolated agricultural 
valleys, well back from the coast, which are at the present time marginal or sub- 
marginal as agricultural areas, but which could be made valuable agricultural land 
with the expenditure of reasonable amounts of capital and the labor of persons 
moved to such areas. 

Another suggestion which has occurred is that in the event public feeling mounts 
so greatly against United States citizens who are of Japanese descent that they feel 
their safety endangered, a formal offer, guaranteed by an appropriate department 
of the Government, could be made that any such persons who might lequest it 
could have their property inventoried and negotiations undertaken on their behalf 
for its lease, sale, or storage with provision that upon reclaim within a certain 
period after the end of hostilities any failure by the persons to recover former 
properties would be compensated by the Government. As to Japanese nationals, 
it is assumed that the arrangements of alien property custodianship would apply. 

We have been in touch with our regional director in San Francisco, Mr. Laurence 
I. Hewes, Jr., and requested him to offer every facility of his local offices in con- 
nection with the special declaration of prohibition as to the area in Los Angeles 
County. His organization will also be available for any additional help that can 
be given as the entire problem of removal of enemy aliens proceeds. 

Our camp equipment in the States of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho is under 
the supervision and local control of Mr. Walter A. Duffy, regional director. Farm 
Security Administration, Portland, Oreg., and that in the States of California and 
Arizona is under the supervision and control of Mr. Hewes. 

Attached is also a list for the entire country of the migratory labor camp facili- 
ties presently operated by the Farm Security Administration. 
Sincerely, 

C. B. Baldwin, Administrator. 



Exhibit C. — Cost of Converting Civilian Conservation Corps Camp at 
Dayton, Wash., to Migfatoby Labor Camp 

314 Terminal Sales Building, 

Portland, Oreg., February 24, 1942. 
To: Mr. R. T. Magleby, assistant regional director, R. P. 
From: E. T. Coppin, Regional Maintenance Supervisor 

Enclosed please find a break-down of labor and material which would be neces- 
sary if the Civilian Conservation Corps camp at Dayton, Wash., is to be used for 
a migratory labor camp. 

This estimate assumes that two of the barracks buildings will be used for single 
men, and the remaining six will be converted into 48 rooms to handle 48 families. 
Each room would be 10 by 20 feet, would have one outside door, and a 6-inch 
metal chimney attached to the stoves. 

It is felt that 75 platforms would have to be installed besides the space in the 
barracks in order to handle adequately the expected number of families in the 
camp. Women's toilets and showers would have to be constructed, and it is 
possible that all of the buildings which would be used would need cleaning and 
some repair work. 

This estimate does not include stoves, tents, or any other camp equipment which 
might be necessary for the normal operation of such a camp. 

These facilities will accommodate 250 single men and 48 families, or 140 families, 
or 500 single men. 



11376 



PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 



Estimated cost to convert Civilian Conservation Corps camp into Farm Security 
Administration migratory labor camp 



Barracks for singles— 2 each, clean and repair (no partitions) 

Barracks for families (6 barracks to hold 48 families): 

Partitions (7 in each building) — 42 each, average height 12 feet 

Doors, sills, etc. — 42 each 

Chimneys 6-inch metal— 36 each 

Platforms for 75 tents -. 

Women's toilets 

Women's showers 

Cleaning and repairing other buildings in camp 

Total '- 



Labor 



$50 

320 
210 
ISO 
450 
145 
80 
175 



1,610 



Material 



$25 

486 
420 
142 
800 
380 
55 
125 



2,433 



Total 



$75 



630 
322 
1,250 
525 
135 
300 



4,043 



Note.— These facilities will accommodate 250 single men and 48 families, or 140 families, or 500 single men. 



The Chairman. Mr. Everson. 

TESTIMONY OF DR. W. G. EVERSON, CHAIRMAN, OREGON ALIEN 
HEARING BOARD, LINFIELD COLLEGE, McMINNVILLE, OREG. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you give your name, and in what capacity you 
appear, to the reporter, Mr. Everson? 

Dr. Everson. William G. Everson, chairman, Oregon Enemy Alien 
Hearing Board. 

Mr. Arnold. As chairman of the Oregon Enemy Alien Hearing 
Board, you have been living from day to day with these problems 
that we have been talking about here. Will you indicate to the com- 
mittee what disposition is to be made of the property left by interned 
aliens? 

Dr. Everson. We have no responsibility for that phase of it. To 
our knowledge, it is handled entirely by relatives of the ahens who 
have been sent away. In some cases, local charitable or philanthropic 
organizations have assisted in immediate needs for the families. 

Mr. Arnold. Are many cases of family dependency resulting as the 
result of the internment of aliens? 

Dr. Everson. Yes; there are some. The percentage, I cannot 
state. 

Mr. Arnold. Is it a large percentage? 

Dr. Everson. No; I wouldn't think that it was more than perhaps 
a thu'd of them. 

Mr. Arnold. We understand that you visited the internment camp 
at Missoula, Mont. Will you tell us briefly the structure of those 
camps and something of the daily workings and living habits of tha 
persons interned? 

operation of internment camps 

Dr. Everson. We have been in two of the camps, the one at 
Missoula, and the one at Bismarck, both of which are old small Arrny 
posts, old Fort Missoula and Fort Lincoln. They are cared for in 
harmony with the Geneva Treaty, which provides for so many square 
feet of floor space, so many cubic feet of air, certain types of food, 
certain recreational facilities. In both of these camps, they have 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11377 

wooden barracks set up for living quarters. They liave their kitchen 
equipment. The mess is handled somewhat on the mess basis found 
in the Army. They have a large tract for recreation, walking, prome- 
nade, I suppose thi-ee-quarters of a mile of track, 15 feet wide. 

Mr. Arnold. Outdoor track or an indoor track? 

Dr. EvERSON. Outdoor track. And then there are certain spaces 
set aside for games. Around it is a heavy galvanized iron fence, and 
every so far is a tower in which there is a guard. The floodlights are 
played on the fence during the night, so that it provides a pretty 
sound area for keeping those who are sent to these places. 

Mr. Arnold. Do these internees perform any work? 

Dr. EvERSON. At Missoula, there are Japanese and Italians. At 
Bismarck and Fort Lincoln there are Germans and Japanese. Each 
group is organized as a group. They fill in a questionnaire, a part of 
which tells the particular things that they can do; whether it is a part 
of the recreation or education or a part of the work. For instance^ 
they have a laundry. I think the laundry at Missoula is run entirely 
by Japanese. They have an Itahan doctor at one of the camps, and 
that doctor is on duty over at the infirmary. 

In the mess haUs, the cooks and waiters are people who have been 
interned there. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you indicate, if you can, how many Japanese, 
Italian, and German aliens are now interned at these camps? 

Dr. EvERSON. I can't give you the exact figures. 

Mr. Arnold. Approximately. 

Dr. EvERSON. There were around 1,100 Italians, and probably 700 
Japanese at Missoula; there are probably close to 800 Germans and 
600 or 700 Japanese at Fort Lincoln and Bismarck. Each of these 
camps is built to take care of 2,000. 

Mr. Arnold. Neither of them is filled to capacity, as yet? 

Dr. EvERSON. No, sir. 

ALIEN HEARING BOARDS 

Mr. Arnold. The committee heard testimony at San Francisco, a 
few days ago, regarding the California Enemy Ahen Hearing Board, 
which is similar to this one. It was suggested there that such boards 
might serve as a model for similar local organizations in each of the 
larger communities, possibly under the jurisdiction of the War De- 
partment, but composed of civihans. Such boards would act as hear- 
ing committees for reviewing cases to establish the loyalty of aliens 
now evacuated or about to be evacuated. By this means, it was 
suggested that persons might be returned to good standing in the 
community from whence they came at an early date. 

Will you give us your opinion regarding this proposal? 

Dr. EvERsoN. I think it has merit. The program has been set up 
so quickly, and the personnel involved goes up into the thousands, and 
I feel confident that out of those who find themselves enemy aliens, 
there are a great many who are loyal to the United States and would 
be very happy to render any service they can in this time of stress;, 
and any hearing board that should be set up to select from the general 
group those which should be returned to society, I think would be 
found valuable. However, it is a big task, and I thmk instead of 



11378 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

having a group of men who use part of their time, it might be well to 
consider a board that would give all of its time in this coast area to 
hearing such cases as you have in mind. 

Mr. Arnold. Can you tell the committee what proportion of 
those coming before the board it was necegsary to intern? 

Dr. EvERSON. It is a pretty large proportion. I don't think I 
would be in a position to state the exact percentages, nor do I think 
it would be the smart thing to do. 

Mr. Arnold. Very good. 

Dr. EvERSON. I would say this: That all of the cases that have 
come before the hearing board have a record, and this record has 
been investigated by the representatives of the F. B. I., and as the 
result of that investigation, they have been placed under arrest. 
Out of that group you can readily see that the percentage who would 
be detained would be quite large. However, the board is authorized 
to recommend to the Attorney General that they be interned, released 
under a bond, paroled to a representative of the naturalization 
immigration board, or that they be released without any strings at all. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Is this just a State of Oregon board that you are 
talking about. Doctor? 

Dr. EvERSoN. No. The board of which I am chairman is the 
Oregon board. Each judicial district is entitled to a board, and 
boards have been set up by the Attorney General in all of the Western 
States. Now, I don't know about the Eastern States. 

The Chairman. Where does the final authority rest? 

COMPOSITION OF HEARING BOARD 

Dr. EvERSON. The responsibility rests with the Attorney General 
in Washington, D. C. The various boards conduct the hearings. The 
boards consist of three members— United States attorney, a repre- 
sentative of the naturalization immigration department, and a repre- 
sentative of the F. B. I., the three members, after hearing the case, 
send in through the United States attorney a recommendation to the 
Attorney General in Washington, and he only has the final dis- 
position. 

The Chairman. Doctor, is there anything obligatory on the 
Justice Department to turn these cases over to you? 

Dr. Everson. No. 

The Chairman. In other words, can they intern them without 
coming to you at all? 

no obligation to grant hearing 

Dr. Everson. Yes. The ahen is not entitled to hearing; it is not 
a trial. It is a courtesy that is granted the enemy alien by the 
Government. The Government is under no obligation to conduct 
a hearing in any of these cases. 

The Chairman. What you are trying to fix is the loyalty or dis- 
loyalty of the particular aliens who come before you? 

Dr. Everson. We are trying to determine their present loyalty to 
the United States, or possible subsequent acts of disloyalty. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11379 

The Chairman. Don't you think, Doctor, from your experience, 
that some such board of the character you belong to should be set up 
for the property of these aliens? 

Dr. EvERSON. I think some provision should be made for the care 
of the families involved, and also for the care of the property of these 
aliens. 

The Chairman. And inquiry made into hardship cases, as well? 

Dr. EvERSON. Absolutely. I am thinking ahead. One of these 
days, this war will be over, and when it is over, these people are going 
to live in the United States, unless some plan is made for deporting 
a certain number. I think that we should have some sort of a pro- 
gram to intensify loyalty on the part of these enemy aliens, rather than 
creating additional disloyalty. 

The Chairman. I might say to you. Doctor, that that is almost 
verbatim w^hat was stated by members of this committee this morning 
about that. Of course, you can very readily see, after this war is 
over, we will have another war on, that is, an economic war, probably. 

Dr. EvERSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. As I understand, your board is set up as a con- 
v^enience to the Attorney General and as a courtesy to the alien? 

Dr. EvERSON. Exactly. 

Mr. Sparkman. And these people who are interned so far, are what 
might be classed as dangerous enemy aliens, aren't they? 

Dr. EvERSON. We feel that they have done things that mdicate they 
are disloyal to the United States Government, or, perhaps they have 
done things that would lead us to believe that they would be dangerous 
if left in their communities. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you intern both men and women, whole fami- 
lies, or 

Dr. EvERSON. Yes, sir; men or women. 

children not INTERNED 

Mr. Sparkman. And I suppose that in some cases there are native 
born children in the families. What do you do with the children? 

Dr. EvERSON. They are not interned. We have no provisions in 
our set-up to take care of the family in any way. 

Mr. Sparkman. Have there been many instances in which both 
father and mother have been interned? 

Dr. EvERSON. None. There has been one instance where a woman 
and family has been interned. There have been, however, very few 
women before the board. 

Mr. Sparkman. Most of them are men? 

Dr. EvERSON. Yes, sir. 

Mr, Sparkman. Has any provision been made for taking care of 
those children who are American citizens? 

hardship cases 

Dr. Everson. That is the distressing feature of it, and we appre- 
ciate the difficulties, we being placed on the one side with the neces- 
sity of making a recommendation concerning somebody's freedom. 
We have our loyalties to the United States Government, and at the 



11380 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

same time we appreciate the distressing feature of a man leaving his 
family, and in some cases leaving his family without any particular 
provision. We are helpless in that. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, none of us would advocate a slackening 
of your functions. It seems to me the action ought to be on the 
other side, making some provision for the families. 

Dr. EvERSON. I feel that ultimately there must be some plan made 
by the Federal Government to help in the care of families in need. 
One surprising feature to us has been the number of families who 
seem to be self-contained. We have grocerymen that found it very 
simple to turn the business over to grown sons. We have found 
people running a hotel that have found it entirely feasible to turn 
that hotel over to the wife, or to grown children. The large number 
of families who seem to be able to adapt themselves, has been rather 
encouraging. 

Mr. Sparkman. Of course, those things enter into your considera- 
tion only incidentally? 

Dr. EvERSON. That is all. 

Mr. Sparkman. Just one more question. In response to a ques- 
tion by the chairman, with reference to hardship cases, you stated 
that you felt there ought to be some board or at least somebody 
who would exercise a review over the hardship cases. You would 
not have it understood, I presume, that the final authority in such 
-cases should be taken away from the one who is responsible for the 
defense of the alien, would you? 

Dr. EvERSON. Oh, no. 

Mr. Sparkman. In other words, he is to be regarded as the final 
authority, isn't he? 

Dr. EvERSON. Absolutely. 

Mr. Sparkman. And any review by any board or committee, such 
as you mentioned, would be purely advisory or fact-finding? 

Dr. EvERSON. Absolutely. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all. 

The Chairman. Of course. Doctor, you said that this war has come 
onto us all at once ; but the hearing hasi disclosed so far that there are 
some gaps, as you depicted yourself. Now, we are still 3,000 miles 
away from Washington. So far, we haven't had this evacuation 
problem as keenly on the Atlantic as you have here? 

Dr. Everson. We have certain groups out here in wide stretches of 
space, and the problem has been perhaps agitated because of our 
seeming nearness to the Pacific. Maybe we are more jittery out here 
than they are in the East; I don't know. 

Mr. Chairman. Well, when they begin shooting at you, you are 
bound to get a little bit jittery, aren't you? 

Thank you. Doctor, very much for coming here. 

Mr. Taylor? 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT TAYLOR, CHAIRMAN, OREGON AGRICUL- 
TURAL WAR BOARD, OREGON STATE COLLEGE, CORVALLIS, 
OREG. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Taylor, will you give your name and the official 
•capacity in which you appear, to the reporter? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11381 

Mr. Taylor. Robert B. Taylor, chairman of the United States 
Department of Agriculture War Board, for the State of Oregon. 

DUTIES OF AGRICULTURAL WAR BOARD 

Mr. Sparkman. Will you tell us something about the duties of the 
agricultural war board? 

Mr. Taylor. The agricultural war board has been set up in all the 
States to provide for the increased production of agricultural com- 
modities necessary for lend-lease and for the war effort; and also, our 
responsibility extends to any limiting factor that might come up as a 
hindrance to this production. 

Mr, Sparkman. Such a board is set up in every State of the Union, 
is it? 

Mr. Taylor. In every State, and a sub-board in each county. 

Mr. Sparkman. And you are chairman of this board for the State 
of Oregon? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. Will you briefly indicate to the committee the types 
of agricultural production carried on by alien groups in this State? 

AREAS OF ALIEN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 

Mr. Taylor. There are three areas in which Japanese are more con- 
centrated. Now, you used the term "alien." I understand that this 
committee is concerned with enemy aliens. However, in this State, 
the Japanese are segregated, somewhat, from the other enemy aliens, 
both physically and in the thinking of the people, and most of the 
statements made to us in various parts of the State have been regard- 
ing the Japanese, rather than the other enemy aliens. 

Consequently, most of the information I have is in that regard, par- 
ticularly since in this area they do produce quite a large percentage of 
the fresh vegetables. These three areas are very or fairly close to the 
city of Portland. The area of Salem, where the Japanese engage in 
the production of onions, celery and lettuce, that is in Marion County; 
the other area is close to Portland, and is comprised of Multnomah 
County, Washington County, and Clackamas County, where the 
Japanese engage in the production of berries and fresh vegetables; and 
a third area, Hood River County to the east, where the Japanese pro- 
duce vegetables as well as fruits and a small amount of general farm 
products. 

There are other areas where there are some Japanese. We recently 
had occasion to make an investigation in this regard at the request of 
a representative of ours in San Francisco, which showed that there 
were some Japanese farmers in Malheur County, to which reference 
has been previously made, as well as Wasco and Yamhill Counties; 
but not in a number comparable to those in the previous areas men- 
tioned. 

Mr. Sparkman. In these three concentration areas, are the types of 
agricultural production practically the same, or are they fresh vege- 
tables generally? 

Mr. Taylor. Fresh vegetables and some for processing and canning. 
Washington County, west of here, has the largest acreage of straw- 



11382 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

berries. There are about a thousand acres there that the Japanese 
have out of a total of 3,000 in that count}'-. In Hood River County^ 
quite a few of the Japanese are engaged in the production of fruits, 
that is, orchardists; but in this area, they are mainly engaged in the 
production of fresh vegetables and small fruits, such as berries. 

Mr. Sparkman. Wliat about the fishing and fish canning industry 
in this State? Isn't this quite a fish State? 

Mr. Taylor. In some sectious it is. I am sorry that I cannot give 
you definite information; but it is my impression that it is mostly on 
the coast, on the lower Columbia River. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do the Japanese, particularly, engage in that? 

Mr. Taylor. I cannot say. Our investigation has been in regard 
to agricultural products. 

Mr. Sparkman. Your board is more interested in the growing of 
crops? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

percentage op crops produced by JAPANESE 

Mr. Sparkman. Have you any figures to show the percentage of 
crop production that is accounted for by aliens? 

Mr. Taylor. In this county, Multnomah, approximately 50 per- 
cent of the production of fresh vegetables is by Japanese. I am not 
saying Japanese aliens, because it is hard to tell which is which. Often- 
times a lease is in the name of an American Japanese, and a lot of the 
work is done by the aliens. But that shows the situation here. 

In Washington County, a thousand acres of strawberries are farmed 
by Japanese, out of 3,000 acres in the county. In other words, about 
a third of the berries there; and in the Salem area, Marion County, I 
understand that they produce quite a high percentage of the vege- 
tables. 

Mr. Sparkman. How would you say that this labor is divided 
between the growing of the crops and the processing of them? 

Mr. Taylor. The Japanese provide their own labor for the actual 
production of the crop in the field. When it comes to harvest time, 
they require additional help, which is usually white help, both in the 
field and in the processing. 

curtailment of food production 

Mr. Sparkman. Has there been any curtailment in the production 
arrangements for this crop year? 

Mr. Taylor. Very much so. The whole thing is just up in the air. 
They are just waiting to see what is going to be done in regard to this 
evacuation ; and that does present a very serious problem from several 
standpoints. 

Mr. Sparkman. May I ask this question, as a stranger? How 
near are you to your planting season? 

Mr. Taylor. Right up against it; just a very short time. 

Mr. Sparkman. And there is a great deal of uncertainty? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right. 

Mr. Sparkman. Which you fear will cause some curtailment? 

Mr. Taylor. Unless a definite plan is put into action in the near 
future. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11383 

Mr. Sparkman. You have received no instructions or information 
as to what planting may be counted on yet? 

Mr. Taylor. No; we haven't. 

Mr. Sparkman. Do you have any recommendation as to the 
transferring of these alien groups to agricultural production in other 
areas? 

Mr. Taylor. With your permission, and in order that you might 
have a little idea of how the folks in the field feel about this thing — the 
folks who are neighbors to the Japanese and who might have to take 
care of this land in case of this evacuation — I would like to read a 
few statements. They are quite brief. They are from these five 
counties in which the Japanese farm. I secured these a,s the result 
of Mr. Roback's callmg me, and in a short time I got in touch by 
phone with these folks. These are statements by the secretaries of 
the U. S. D. A. War Board in these counties. 

Mr. Sparkman. We shall be very glad to have them. 

Mr. Taylor. I am just reading a portion which is of interest to 
this committee, I believe. 

From Clackamas County to the south of here, the statement is 
made [reading]: 

opinions on loyalty of JAPANESE 

The members of the Clackamas County War Board have talked to many citizens 
concerning this problem, and so far as we can ascertain, the general feeling is that 
American citizens do not wish to be unjust, and wish to give due credit to the 
loyalty of those who may be loyal; but experience has shown that it is very difficult 
to differentiate between the loyal and the disloyal, and it is the general feeling that 
all Japanese should be evacuated, as a matter of safety. 

Mr. Sparkman. May I ask you with reference to the last county 
that you referred to, is that in any area of military importance? 

Mr. Taylor. It is right close to the Portland area. It borders 
this county in which Portland is located, right to the south. 

All of this area west of the mountains is in intensified production, 
close to the timber areas as has been pointed out previously. 

Then, from the secretary of the war board in Hood River County, 
he states [reading]: 

That generally the sentiment here is one of fear, both as to what the Japanese 
might do, and as to what might happen to them when some of our boys are killed. 
The draft board here reports that 15 Japanese boys have been inducted into the 
service, and we know they have been very responsive to bond sales. Personally, 
I am reluctant to yield to what seems to me to be more or less war hysteria; but 
I can see the other side, and do not feel like being too positive they are wrong_ 

Now, that statement, of course, was made rather hurriedly, without 
much time for preparation. 

Then, from Marion County, which is the county in which Salem is 
located, in the Lake Labish vegetable-production area [reading]: 

Upon talking with several farmers and others in this area, I found that the 
general feeling is that they probably should be removed from this area. 

Referring to the Japanese [reading]: 

Others felt that there would be considerable disruption in the production of 
celery, but that this should not be too serious if they are removed from this area. 
Those with whom I talked who felt they should be allowed to stay and produce 
their vegetables, all were of the same opinion; that they should be very carefully 
supervised and guarded and probably that they should be allowed to remain on 



11384 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

their own property and not allowed to circulate around in the community, or 
travel the highways, or come into town. If the Japanese in the Labish area were 
to be removed, now would be the logical time for such movement, since the working 
of the land has not really begun yet, and the plans for the crops have not been 
entirely completed. 

And this next statement is from this county. It happened that 
the Multnomah County Labor Committee was in session, and so 
this statement is the result not only of one man's opinion but of 
the whole group that was in session yesterday [readingl: 

WOULD SUBSTITUTE WHITE LABOR IN CROP PRODUCTION 

t 

It is our unanimous opinion that all Japanese, both alien- and native-born 
should be removed out of this vital defense area at once. This should be done 
for their own protection as well as for ours. There is no way of distinguishing 
between alien and nonalien operations, as they are tied together, and have been 
for years, in evasive leases signed by nonaliens, and for the most part operated 
and managed by the aliens. It appears to be our unanimous opinion that there 
is more danger with a nonalien than there is with the alien, and the percentage of 
nonaliens who are trustworthy is almost nil. The public sentiment in the com- 
munity is becoming very tense with all the people who know the Japanese and 
their methods. It is the opinion that if they can be moved and the legal entangle- 
n ent^ straightened out very soon, that other fanners can be placed on this land » 
with emphasis on vegetable production, and that possibly 75 percent of their 
normal production could be secured. 

Our commercial vegetable production and marketing was developed by white 
growers, who were later forced out of business by the Japanese growers operating 
on a lower standard of living. Many of these growers are still in the community 
and can produce vegetables when Japanese competition is removed. If adjust- 
ments are to be made, it should be done at once, as the planting season for early 
crops is at hand. Both the Japanese and Italian gardeners are marking time, 
not knowing what they can do, or what plans to make. Delay in making deci- 
sions will result in curtailed production practically as serious as if they are moved 
out. Replacement on these vegetable farms should be made very quickly so 
production can go ahead. 

Mr. Sparkman. Mr. Taylor, as chairman of the agricultural 
board, you are charged \vdth the responsibility of stepping up pro- 
duction in the State of Oregon? 

Mr. Taylor. In regard to some commodities; yes, sir. 

Mr. Sparkman. How are you going to meet this problem, assum- 
ing that the Japanese are evacuated, as I think most of the people 
think they ought to be? 

Mr. Taylor. With that very thought in mind, we have already 
discussed with various county war boards as to how they thought 
this should be done in their own community — conditions vary in 
different communities. In most cases they have told us that, in their 
estimation, this production could be taken care of, as these state- 
ments indicate. I don't know that I could make a general statement 
as to just what the actual process would be. Some people might be 
able to take care of a little more land — it might be divided up. In 
cases where the land is owned by an American citizen who has leased 
10 the Japanese, he might be able to arrange leasing it to white opera- 
tors to do the same work that the Japanese had done. That group of 
landowners is quite concerned at the present time, because they 
don't know whether to try to find white tenants or whether the 
Japanese are going to be permitted to farm it themselves. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11385 

FARM LABOR SHORTAGES 

Mr. Sparkman. Is a considerable portion of your farm labor each 
year migratory labor? 

Mr. Taylor. In the State as a whole, yes. It varies, of course, 
by areas. 

Mr. Sparkman. That migratory labor you expect to be cut down 
this year, do you not? 

Mr. Taylor. Very much. 

Mr. Sparkman. So you are confronted with the possibility of a 
shortage on two hands: First, these resident Japanese laborers that 
you have been accustomed to having, and also curtailment in the 
available migratory labor? 

Mr. Taylor. That is right; and with that thought in mind, that 
adds importance to the advisability, if possible, of moving these 
people to an area where they can continue their production. 

Mr. Sparkman. Within the State of Oregon? 

relocation of aliens 

Mr. Taylor. Wherever that area might be. Now, when it comes 
to a matter of making recommendations for relocation, it is very 
hard to do that. As has been pointed out previously, in western 
Oregon they would not fit into the picture because, aside from the 
vegetable production area, the rest of it is all farming and livestock 
production and dairying and general farming, in which they do not fit. 

East of the mountains there isn't land suitable for them, unless 
you get over into the irrigated section of the extreme eastern part of 
Oregon, in Malheur County; and there has been quite an influx into 
that area in recent years from folks from the Middle West and the 
drought areas. We find about the same response from all areas which 
1 have contacted: they just hope they will be sent some place else, and 
not to their area. 

Mr. Sparkman. You do believe that utilization should be made of 
this agricultural labor somewhere and under some conditions? 

Mr. Taylor. I do, very strongly. 

Mr. Sparkman. I think that perhaps if it is closely supervised and 
given protective custody by the Federal Government, use can be 
made of it? 

Mr. Taylor. I think so, and I think it should be. If they can 
help us win this war, so much the better; we need this production. 
Several plans have been suggested. Some have suggested taking 
these groups out to work from concentration camps, under guard, 
which might work in areas where they need an extreme number of 
men in the fields in seasonal harvesting. It has been suggested, if 
possible, to find an area which they can move into and continue their 
farming production of vegetable crops on their own. 

Mr. Sparkman. That is all I have. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Taylor. 

Miss Peet. 



11386 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF MISS AZAIIA EMMA PEET, METHODIST MIS- 
SIONARY, GRESHAM, OREG. 

The Chairman. Miss Peet, I understand that you desire to make a 
statement. 

Miss Peet. I would like to ask a question or two. May I? 
The Chairman. Yes. 

IS HYSTERIA THE BASIS FOR EVACUATION DEMANDS? 

Miss Peet. If need for complete evacuation of Japanese is so appar- 
ent, what evidence is there to show that they have done wrong, 
wrong that would justify such heavy expense on the part of the 
Government? If it is merely fear of war hysteria, may we stop and 
think a minute? I am living in Gresham. I am a missionary to the 
Japanese people, with 25 years' experience in the Japanese language 
in Japan. I came back from Japan within the last year. 

In Gresham, I find farmers on 67 farms, living there from 20 to 40 
years continuously, some of them on the same farms for almost that 
length of time. I find one family for 50 years in this locality. They 
were married 50 years ago here. These are law-abiding, upright people 
of our community. What is it that makes it necessary for them to 
evacuate? Have they done anything? Is there anything in their 
history in this area to justify such a fear of them developing overnight? 

To put 126,000 Japanese on the Pacific coast into concentration 
camps, 85,000 of whom are American citizens, educated in the demo- 
cratic schools of America, would deprive Caucasians in this area of 
much-needed food for the defense program. It will put the burden 
of their support on the already overtaxed and overburdened taxpayers. 
It will cause a serious social problem, to say nothing of taking from 
85,000 American citizens their civil liberties. All this, besides 
causing untold suffering among our Japanese neighbors. 

As a social worker, I am thinking of the aged ; I am thinking of the 
sick in the hospitals today, in the Japanese community; I think of 
the babies that have been born since Christmas time and those about 
to be born; I am thinking of the young people in the schools and 
colleges of this State. Are they a menace to this community, that they 
must all be moved now? I am speaking as an evacuee, having been 
evacuated only last year from Japan — not evacuated by the Japanese 
Government, but by the American. Thank you. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you want an answer to your questions? 

Miss Peet. I would like one, but I don't know whether I can have 
one or not. 

The Chairman. You see, Miss Peet, we are here in Oregon, as we 
have been in California and Washington, to get the facts from the 
people themselves. We haven't the answer to all the problems of 
evacuation or war. We are going to attempt, when we go back to 
Washington, to give our recommendations to Congress. 

But let me ask you a question. 

Miss Peet. All right. 

The Chairman. Do you think those 126,000 Japanese are all loyal? 

Miss Peet. I don't know. But personally, I know of no disloyal 
Japanese, here. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11387 

The Chairman. Of course, you make a point there that we have 
heard several times in Washington; that there is no evidence so far of 
sabotage on the west coast. So far, there are no cases of sabotage; 
that is, generally speaking. Well, there weren't any in Pearl Harbor, 
either, were there, until the attack came? There wasn't any sabotage ; 
it all happened at once. 

In other words. Miss Peet, if the Pacific coast is attacked, that is 
when the sabotage would come, with the attack, wouldn't it? 

Miss Peet. Perhaps. 

REMOVAL FROM STRATEGIC AREAS 

Mr. Arnold. I would call your attention, Miss Peet, to the fact 
that the attorney general of California testified that surrounding the 
Lockheed airplane plant down there, all of the ground is owned by 
Japanese. From your experience over in Japan, or if you have been 
in Germany or Italy, do you think that those countries would permit 
our nationals that were former United States citizens to occupy those 
strategic areas? 

Miss Peet. No, I think you are right in removing them from 
strategic areas. I was in such a strategic area in Japan, and I was 
removed from it. 

Mr. Arnold. You w<'re removed from it? 

Miss Peet. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. And all other Americans were? 

Miss Peet. Yes; from that strategic area. 

Mr. Arnold. And if you had become a Japanese citizen and still 
had American blood, do you think that you would have been removed? 

Miss Peet. I am not so sure that I would have been. 

Mr. Arnold. Anyway, you have made a statement that expresses 
your views, and we are glad to have it in the record. That is what we 
are here for. 

Mr. Abbott. Mr. Chairman, I should like at this time to offer for 
the record an additional group of exhibits. 

The Chairman. The exhibits will be made a part of the record. 

Thank you very much. The committee will stand adjourned. 

(Wliereupon, at 4:30 p. m. February 26, 1942, the hearing was 
adjourned.) 



00396— 42— pt. 30- 



EXHIBITS 

Exhibit 1. — Resolution Adopted by the City Council of Port- 
land, Oreg., February 19, 1942 

SUBMITTED BT KENNETH L. COOPER. COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE, 

PORTLAND, OREG. 

Resolution 22113 

Whereas <a state of war exists between the Government of the United States 
and the Government of Japan and it is of paramount importance to the people of 
this Nation that the possibilities for fifth-column activities be reduced to a mini- 
mum; and 

Whereas there are on the Pacific coast of the United States many Japanese 
nationals and persons of Japanese descent irrespective of American citizenship, 
including many residents of the State of Oregon, who, under the existing circum- 
stances, should be subject to restrictions by the linited States in order that possible 
fifth-column activities be minimized; and 

Whereas it may be true that many such Japanese nationals and persons of 
Japanese descent irrespective of American citizenship are not in accord with the 
aggression practiced by the Japanese Government, the public welfare demands 
that the paramount importojice of the safety of this Xation subjugates such 
individual attitude on the part of individual Japanese nationals and persons of 
Japanese descent, irrespective of American citizenship, residents of this country, 
inasmuch as it is impossible to determine by any known process the acturJ loyalty 
of such resident Japanese nationals and persons of Japanese descent irrespective 
of American citizenship; and 

Whereas the report of the 'Special Commission appointed by the President to 
investigate circumstances incident to the attaci< on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 
1941, clearly indicates tlie extent to which fifth-column activities had been operat- 
ing in the islands of the Hawaiian group; now, therefore, be it 

Resnlred, That the council of the city of Portland in regular session assembled 
does by this resolution memorialize the Government of the United States through 
its respective agencies and departments to take appropriate steps immediately to 
intern and remove from the coastal areas of the United States all Japanese 
nationals and persons of Japanese descent, irrespective of American citizenship, 
that the same be interned for the duration of the war and thus kept under proper 
supervision by the Government of this Nation; and be it further 

Resolve'], That a copy of this resolution, signed by the mayor and auditor j^nd 
bearing the seal of the city of Portland, be forwarded to the President of the 
United States, to the Secretary of War and the Secretary of Navy and that copies 
be forwarded to the Secretary of the Treasury and to the Attorney General and to 
the Oregon deleg.ation in the Houses of Congress; and be it furtlier 

Re.-'olveil, That a copy of this i-esolution be entered upon the minutes of this 
meeting of the council. 

Adopted by the council, February 19, 1942. 

[seal] R. E. Riley, 

Commissioner Cooper. Mayor of the City of Portland. 

Will E. Gibson, 
Auditor of the City of Portland. 



Exhibit 2. — Resolution of the United States Grand Jury for 
THE District of Oregon 

SUBMITTED BY MASON DILLARD, ASSISTANT UNITED STATES ATTORNEY, DISTRICT OF 
OREGON, PORTLAND, OREO. 

Whereas the United States grand jury for the district of Oregon, assembled 
pursuant to an order of the United States court for the district of Oregrm for the 
November term of said court, and now in session, has, in the pur.-:uit of delibera- 
tions affecting the public interest, which considerations have been initiated by 

11388 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11389 

members of this body, entered upon a discussion of the safety of the people 
and public property in the existing wartime emergency, and 

Wliereas it is the consensus of the opinion of this grand jury that a grievous 
emergency and imminent danger exist by reason of the fact that there are residing 
in the Pacific coast area of the United" States and within the district of Oregon 
numerous enemy aliens and citizens of questionable loyalty; and 

Whereas the members of this grand jury, based upon their observation of events, 
believe that at an opportune time for such conduct, both concerted and individual 
aid to the enemy will be attempted by said alien enemies and native-born or natur- 
alized citizens residing in the United States; now, therefore, be it 

Remlvcd, That it be declared to be the sentiment of this grand jury that any 
persons of questionable loyalty to the United States now residing in the strategic 
areas of the Pacific coast and near the forest areas of the Pacific coast, should be 
immediately removed from such areas and interned in a place in the United States 
far removed from the coast and forest areas and from the areas of military and 
defense-production establishments in order that greater security to the public and 
public property, and the defense establishments of the United States be assured; 
and be it further 

ResoJvfiJ, That this grand jury make known its sentiment respecting the things 
herein mentioned to the proper officials of the United States Government, both 
militarv and civil. 

Dated at Portland, Oreg., this 25th day of February 1942. 



Exhibit 3.^ — Resolution of Federal Post, No. 97, Department 
OF Oregon, American Legion, Portland, Oreg. 

Whereas Federal Post, No. 97, Department of Oregon, American Legion, did 
on January 20, 1942, pass a resolution urging removal of all enemy aliens, espe- 
cially Japanese, from the critical coast areas; and 

Whereas daily discoveries disclosed after sporadic raids (in California, United 
States Army uniforms and much contraband, and in Oregon caches of arms, 
ammunition, and explosives) indicate probability of widespread sabotage held in 
leash until a critical moment for most telling eflfect; and 

Whereas notwithstanding this certainty that the situation is becoming more 
serious each day and enemy aliens, especially Japanese, are still roaming around 
apparently at will and their business establishments are in some cases being 
permitted to reopen; and 

Whereas this is in most striking contrast to the treatment being accorded our 
nationals in enemy countries; and 

Whereas it is the unanimous opinion of Federal post of the American Legion, 
in keeping with the established policy of the national body since its founding of 
safeguarding our national integrity, that such treatment of our enemy aliens is a 
sore trial to the patience of the vast majority of our loyal citizens; and 

Whereas the situation is so acute that drastic and severe action is justified to 
prevent widespread sabotage and the arising of a serious fifth-column element: 
Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That this is no time for namby-pamby pussyfooting, fear of hurting 
the feelings of our enemies; that it is not the time for consideration of minute 
constitutional rights of those enemies but that it is time for vigorous, whole- 
hearted, and concerted action in support of the Pacific Coast Committee on Alien 
Enemies and Sabotage toward the removal of all enemy aliens and citizens of 
enemy alien extraction from all areas along the coast and that only those be 
permitted to return that are able to secure special permit for that purpose; and 
be it further 

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to newspapers and all members 
of that committee. 

Passed by unanimous vote at the regular meeting of Federal Post No. 97, 
American Legion, held February 17, 1942. 

XoEL A. Frost, Adjutant. 

C. T. Blakeslee, Commander. 



11390 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Exhibit 4. — Statement by the Portland Council of Churches 

Portland, Orkg., March 12, 1942. 
The Portland Council of Churches, Thursday, March 12, adopted the following 
recommendations regarding the evacuation of enemy aliens, made by its com- 
mission on international justice and goodwill, Mr. Frank L. Shull, chairman: 

(1) The Federal Government should assume total responsibility for movement 
of any groups or individuals under military orders to evacuate. 

(2) The Federal Government should designate areas to which they may go and 
in which they would have complete military protection. 

(3) The Government should discourage the movement of groups or individual 
families until adequate arrangements have been made as to place and living con- 
ditions and should also discourage their going to undesignated areas. 

(4) Total cost of this moving and resettlement should be borne by the Federal 

Government. ^ r t j -i- 

(5) Complete legal custodianship of finances and property of aliens and citizens 
should be provided. The interests of the owners should be jealously protected, 
to the end that absolute justice be assured aliens as well as citizens. This pre- 
caution should be taken in such a manner as to make it possible for them to return 
when peace is declared. 

(6) Public health protection, including medical care, should be provided. 

(7) Rights of famines to move as a unit should be respected. 

(8) Rehabilitation program should offer opportunity to be self-mamtaming. 

(9) Provision should be made that the uninterrupted schooling of children of 
evacuees be assured, and adult education be offered in the reception centers. 

L. P. PuTN.\M, President. 
I. George Nace, 

Executive Secretary. 

Exhibit 5. — Statement by Hermann P. Kuhn, President, United 
German-American Societies, Inc., 1337 Southwest Washington 

Street, Portland, Oreg. 

Portland, Orec, March 7, 1942. 

The United German-American Societies, Inc., was founded for the purpose of 
combining all existing societies into one unit.. Until the outbreak of the war there 
were 18 societies in Portland. Now there are only the Sons of Hermann (3 lodges), 
and the Austrian-Hungarian lodge with ladies' auxiliary, and the Liedertafel, a 
male chorus. All the others have been dissolved for the duration and it can be 
said that all these societies will not function any more when the war is over. 
The membership of these societies before the war was about 3,000. I would say 
that about 90 percent are citizens of the United States. 

Purpose and aims of the United German-American Societies: 

1. Charitable, cultural. (No officer receives any compensation.) 

2. To celebrate the arrival of the first German settlers under Pastorius, 1683. 

The societies are entirelv i^atriotic American; having no connection with Ger- 
many. We have a certain feeling for our homeland, because we do not believe 
that anyone who throws dirt on the country he came from will make a good citizen 
here This feeling we have for our homeland has nothing to do with the present 
Government. When we became citizens of the United States we were fully aware 
of all our duties. , . , , . , 

Statistics in Washington, D. C, show that m every war America has fought, 
citizens of German descent were in the front lines. We have the highest figures 
of all other citizens of foreign descent for voluntary service and of those killed in 
action according to percentage. We are proud of what citizens of German descent 
have done for the United States and will do again if treated rightly. W e from the 
United German-American Societies can prove: , 

That we have given considerable sums for American chanty (American Ked 
Cross, etc.), and bought the first defense bonds 8 months before America was m 

When the United States declared war after Japan cowardly attacked us, with- 
out declaring war, we turned everv dollar in our treasury over for defense bonds. 
We know what war is and that we must win this war in order to give our children 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11391 

the security wo want for them. Through my experience I liiiow that 70 percent 
of the American people do not know yet that we are in the war. I ^^ as a minute 
man for the defense bond pledge and people who work in the shipyard earning 
from $50 to $80 a week pledged $1 a month. On the other hand, I can prove that 
most of the citizens of German descent, including myself, pledged from 10 per- 
cent to 15 percent of our earnings for defense. (A friend of mine, Frank Yunker, 
born in Germany, took all his savings, $8,000, and bought defense bonds.) 

But, if after all we do, our loyalty is still doubted by the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation, there is nothing we can do. 

Now to the other problem — to take the Axis citizen out of defense districts. If 
this can be done without undue hardship it certainly will be appreciated. I 
know very many, and all are hard-working people and do their part also in help- 
ing America win the war. But on the other hand, if a person is here for 20 or 30 
years and has not taken out papers he should have gone back where he came 
from. Of course, there are very many that just neglected to take out papers for 
some reason or other and live as a good citizen should live, but I guess that 
cannot be helped now. 

If you have to move all these people, a very important factor is to appoint 
admiiiistrators, and very good ones, for their property. It would be a good idea 
that some on the board are of German descent because they know how these 
people feel. And if they know^ that everything will be taken care of in the right 
way, there should not be any hard feeling at all. Most of them have houses and 
have worked hard many years to pay for them. In Portland the city council 
has refused licenses to aliens of the Axis. Therefore, no Axis aliens now own 
businesses. 

It also will be easy to move those who are single or married without dependents. 
A bigger problem will be couples with children and mixed marriages where one 
party is a citizen and the other is not. No families should be separated if possible. 

Also important is that these people should get work in the same line they are 
now engaged in. This will be for the best for our country because we cannot 
afford that a single man or woman is idle. Everyone who is able to work should 
do his part. 

Perhaps it could be arranged that these people get notices, and as much time 
as possible to get their affairs in order and move to districts open for them to 
resettle. 

I have another suggestion to make. As an agent for all the steamship lines, 
I worked with the problem of exchanging the property of refugees from Europe 
with property of Germans returning to Germany. The exchanging of these 
properties, for the most part, worked out considerably satisfactorily. 

If experienced people handle the exchange here, there should be no difficulties, 
as we do not have the all-important problem of difference in money exchange and 
a foreign government red tape to deal with. 

Portland, on account of the defense industry, is booming. There will be very 
many people coming to work here. These people have homes in areas where 
Axis citizens could move. Exchange of property could be arranged according to 
true value and this w^ould give homes for defense workers here, and homes for 
Axis nationals elsewhere. 

These are about all the suggestions I can make at present. If some are useful 
to your department, I should be very glad. You may call on me at any time, and 
if I can be of any service, I will do my part, whatever it may be. 

We have to win this war and every citizen, no matter where he came frorn, 
has to do his part to accomplish our aims. We citizens of German descent will 
do our part 100 percent if given a fair chance. 



Exhibit 6. — Effect of Japanese Removal on Vegetable Pro- 
duction IN the State of Oregon 

KEPORT BY RAY W. GILL, MASTER, OREGON STATE GRANGE, 113.5 SE. SALMON STREET, 

PORTLAND, GREG. 

Regarding the effect upon vegetable production which would be caused by the 
removal of Japane.se aliens and American-born Japanese, we have discus-sed this 
with our salesmen and estimate that .lapanese gardens were producing on the 



11392 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

basis of 1941 the percentages as listed below. This is estimated on a basis of 
production in Oregon plus the territory ranging about 25 miles from Portland 
on the Washington side of the river.' 

Asparagus, 15 percent. Green peppers, 50 percent. 

Green beans, 45 percent. Mustard greens, 10 percent. 

Beets, 20 percent Onions, dry, 25 percent. 

Brussel sprouts, 90 percent. Green bunch onions, 25 percent. 

Egg plant, 50 percent. Green peas, 60 percent. 

Cabbage, 45 percent. Pumpkin, 10 percent. 

Green broccoli, 90 percent. Radish, 5 percent. 

Cauliflower, 90 percent. Rhubarb, 35 percent. 

(>arrots, 40 ])erceiit. Rutabagas, 10 jiercent. 

Sweet corn, 5 percent. Spinach, 65 percenti. 

(yucunibers, 40 i)ercenl. Squash, 35 percent. 

I^ittuce, 65 i)ercent. Tomatoes, 50 percent. 

Canteloui)es, 20 i^ercenl. Turnips, 45 percent. 

Parsnips, 35 percent. Celery, 75 percent. 

I have made no estimate on potatoes, but it probably would not exceed 10 
percent. 

ExHiiuT 7.- Letter from Senator Charles L. McNary Enclosing 
Statement from F. M. vSweet, Vice President of the Port 
OF Astoria, Oreo. 

L'nited States Senate, 
Washington. D. C, Fehriinry 18, 1942. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, House Commiltcc Investigating National Defense Migration, 
Washington, T). C. 
My Dear Mr. Tolan: As suggested in your recent letter, I am enclosing a 
statement from Mr. F. M. Sweet, vice president of the i)ort of Astoria, Oreg., con- 
taining information on the Japanese situation on the Pacific coast which I believe 
might be of value to your committee. 
With kindest n^gards, I am, 
Sincerely yours, 

Charles L. McNary. 



Port ok Astoria. 
Astoria, Oreg., Fehrnary 14, 1942. 
Hon. Charles L. McNary, 

United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 

Dear Sir: I wish to express the desire of others and myself of moving Japanese 
residents, foroign-born and native, from Astoria as they are located here next to our 
docks, our canneries, gasoline storage tanks, and along the water front. The 
public seems unable to take seriously a war in which the enemy is to be seen walk- 
ing around more freely and with more privileges, such as drawing unemployment 
compensation, than many Americans. 

Nearly all Pacific coast cities have a concentration of alien Japanese residents — 
among jirineipal occupations are laundry and cleaning establishments, all of which 
possess varying quantities of inflammables, such as cleaning fluids and gasoline. 
Another is the grocery business, most grocery stores carrying stocks of kerosene. 
These businesses are generally scattered throughout the community, and should 
the Japanese plan a sabotage attempt, many fires, too many for any city fire 
department to handle at any one time, could be easily started with the supplies at 
hand. Farmers and truck gardeners also have stocks of gasoline, kerosene, and 
other explosives used for blasting stumps and roots. 

Piecemeal raids by the Federal Bureau of Investigation have been conducted 
over several weeks, and, due to publicity, all aliens now know their homes and 
places of business are subject to search, giving dishonest or subversive elements 
plenty of time and warning to hide or cache any contraband such as firearms, 

• The above estimates do not include canning crops, but the fresh market production. Vrry Httle can- 
ning crops by Japs. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



11393 



cameras, field glasses, and explosives. Thus, the Federal Bureau of Investigation 
raids only bag the less smart or clever and, therefore, definitely less dangerous, 
aliens. .... 

Highways, railways, through bridges, tunnels, etc., and power transmission lines 
are particular! v vulnerable to sabotage by explosives placed by nearby enemy alien 
farmers and truck gardeners with possible cached supplies of explosives purchased 
before records of such purchases were required by law. This is also true of com- 
munication lines, such as telephone and telegraph. 

Foreign-born .Japanese (Isei) can very seldom be considered loyal. American- 
born Japanese (Nisei) can be divided into three general groups: 

First, the true Nisei, born in the United States and educated only in our public 
or private schools. This group will have the greatest possibility of loyalty to the 
United States. , , , , 

Second, the Nisei born in the United States but who has received dual educa- 
tion — receiving our regular school training but also attending the established 
Japanese-language school, where he is taught that Japan is the chosen land of 
destiny and due to rule the world, reverence and unquestioning loyalty and obe- 
dience to the Emperor. An accident of location of birth in no way alters or changes 
his duty as Japanese. This group may have a fair percentage of loyal American 
cit-izGns 

Third, the Kibei, born in the United States but sent to Japan for his education. 
This group will produce very few loyal Americans. 

Enemy aliens located on or near the seacoast or along navigable waterways 
have all of our shipping under observation and can freely make reports in the 
Japanese language to centers provided to receive and pass on this information. 
It would be impossible, even if tapping of telephone lines were permissible, to tap 
all the telephone lines used by Japanese and have persons capable of understand- 
ing conversational Japanese listening in on all of the conversations. 

Following are some data on the Japanese situation in the State of Oregon: 

Japanese-language schools in Oregon 



Portland 

Montaville (Portland) 

Columbia Boulevard (Portland). 

Milwaukie 

Gresham 

Troutdale 

Salem 



Independence. 

Sherwood 

Hood River— . 



Jee. 



Medford. 



Total schools 14 



PORTLAND 

18 Japanese clubs and associations. 

2 Japanese newspapers. 

2 Japanese doctors. 

5 Japanese dentists. 

4 Japanese midwives or nurses. 

2 Japanese photo studios. 

3 Japanese florists. 

8 Japanese commission merchants (wholesale produce). 
61 Japanese grocers, fruit and vegetable markets. 
102 Japanese hotels and apartment houses. 
17 Japanese restaurants and cafes. 

2 Japanese optometrists (instruments and field glasses). 

3 Japanese beauty shops. 
13 Japanese barber shops. 
23 Japanese laundries. 

2 Japanese cleaning and dye works. 
15 Japanese tailors and pressing shops. 
2 Japanese garages. 
10 Japanese miscellaneous businesses. 



11394 



PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 



LOCATION OF JAPANESE RESIDENTS IN OREGON 



Portland (including sepa- 


Clatskanie. 


Scappoose. 


rate associations in 


Parkdale. 


Hood River. 


Montavilla and Colum- 


Bates. 


Rufus. 


bia Boulevard). 


Willowcreek. 


Ontario. 


Milwaukie. 


Ridgefield, Wash. 


Brogan. 


Salem. 


Gresham. 


Dallesport, Wash. 


Beaverton. 


Independence. 


Troutdale. 


Gaston. 


Hillsboro. 


Tigard. 


Westport. 


Wilask. 


Banks 


Dee, 


Hammond. 


Wauna. 


Pendleton. 


The Dalles. 


Mosier. 


Vale. 


Whitney. 


Hilgard. 


Orchards, Wash. 


Jamieson. 


Nyssa. 


Medford. 


Mary hill, Wash. 


Vancouver, Wash 


Brooks. 


Astoria. 


Sifton, Wash 


Forest Grove. 


Sherwood. 




Vernonia. 


Cornelius. 




Japanese railway employees in following: 






OREGON 




Portland. 


Meacham. 


Pleasant Valley. 


Redmond. 


Culver. 


Bend. 


South Junction. 


Celilo. 


Astoria (no longer here) 


Goble. 


Houlton. 

WASHINGTON 


Cayuse. 


Washougal. 


Goodnoe Hill. 


Roosevelt. 


Hover. 


Wishurm. 


Vancouver. 


Dallesport. 


Center ville. 


Snake River. 


Patterson. 


Khckitat. 




Lyle. 


Plymouth. 





The fact that some of the Japanese whose place of abode was searched were 
found to be without guns, cameras, etc., does not mean that they do not have these 
items. Onl^ the more stupid and slow would be caught after 10 days of publicity 
on raids in other places. 

To illustrate the possible dangers from the Japanese resident aliens alone, and 
using the city of Seattle as an example, the Japanese directory of the New World 
Sun lists: 

31 Japanese clubs and associations. 

23 prefecture associations (same as our State societies). 

9 language schools. 

6 Japanese publications, 
6 doctors. 

10 dentists. 

12 drug stores 

5 printshops. 

6 tailors. 

214 hotels and apartments. 

155 groceries. 

95 dye works (cleaners) and laundries. 

4 furniture stores. 

39 cafes. 

33 barber shops. 

9 florists. 

7 sporting goods stores (firearms and munitions). 

13 fish and meat dealers. 

12 eating places. 

10 wholesale houses. 

14 miscellaneous retailers, 

13 peddlers. 

8 garages and gas stations. 
17 taverns. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11395 

Looking at the above with the fifth cohimn in mind, and supposing that the 
Japanese fleet can get a few carriers off our coast loaded with bombers, fires could 
be started to guide them, and it is impossible for any city on the coast to take care 
of more than a few fires at once. 

All of the garages, groceries, dye works, barber shops, etc., have incendiary 
materials on hand; i. e., gasoline, alcohol, kerosene, cleaning fluids, etc., and can 
have these without arousing suspicion. 

There is not a good-sized town on the Pacific coast that does not have Japanese 
living and doing business along every principal highway entering the town for 
purposes of gaining information on troop movements, etc., and also for possible 
sabotage to prevent these movements. 

Likewise, when it comes to spreading confusion and panic during an attack or 
possible attack, such as the turning in of false fire alarms before incendiary fires 
are started, these aliens are in good proximity. 

There has been sufficient evidence of disloyalty to the United States on the part 
of American-born Japanese so that they should all be moved east of the Rockies, 
then if Japan should drop parachute troops, the soldiers can easily be recognized 

and taken care of. 

F. M. Sweet, 
Vice President and Harbor Master, 

Port of Astoria, Astoria, Oreg. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MICtEATION 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 1942 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
The committee met at 9:30 a. m. in the Commissioner's Assembly 
Room, in the County-City Building, Seattle, Wash., pursuant to 
notice, Representative John H. Tolan (chairman) presiding. 

Present were Representatives John H. Tolan, of California; Lau- 
rence F. Arnold, of Illinois; and Carl T. Curtis, of Nebraska. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff director; Harold G. Tipton 
and Joan Pascal, field investigators. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. Gov- 
ernor Langlie, you will be the first witness, please. 

TESTIMONY OF GOV. ARTHUR B. LANGLIE, GOVERNOR OF THE 
STATE OF WASHINGTON 

The Chairman. Governor Langlie, I know that you are here this 
morning at considerable personal inconvenience. I know, too, that 
you want to get back to Olympia as soon as possible for your defense 
council meeting. I merely want to say to you. Governor, that this 
committee is here on the west coast by request of several Federal 
agencies, including the Army and Navy, who are concerned about the 
problems of evacuating enemy aliens. We desire to know what the 
States think about the problem. One of the most important tilings 
about deahng with this whole problem is to see that the morale of 
our citizens is maintained. 

The public, as well as you and this committee, are ready to follow 
the Army's leadersliip on this question; but our people should see that 
tliis problem requires careful, intelligent action. In other words, 
Governor, we are not here to incriminate anyone or anything. We 
were sent out here by the Government to get the views and recom- 
mendations of the people of the Pacific coast, those who are directly 
involved. I think we all agree that the Pacific coast is the most vul- 
nerable part of the United States. Anyway, the Army and Navy and 
other Washington authorities receive daily reports of these hearings — 
how you feel about it yourself out here, what your particular problems 
are — and when we return to Washington we shall make a report to 
the Congress. 

Now, Governor, in the evacuation of enemy aliens, what State 
agencies are available to assist? 

11397 



11398 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

STATE AGENCIES AVAILABLE FOR EVACUATION AID 

Mr. Langlie. Well, the Social Security Department has already- 
assisted in some work in preparation for whatev(>r action the Army 
may take. The highway patrol, the health department — every de- 
partment of the State government — has been encouraged and directed 
to give every assistance to all Federal agencies in the problems that 
confront us here by reason of the war. We arc ready to go all the 
way on any program that is set up by the Army or by the Federal 
agencies in the interest of getting the job done that is ahead of us. 

The Chairman. Governor, as soon as we arrived in California, we 
saw a weakness in the plan — that while the evacuation orders had been 
issued, and more will be issued, very little had been done as to the 
care of these aliens after they were evacuated; care of them personally, 
care of their property. We have already recommended to Washing- 
ton — and are going to re-recommend it today — the appointments of 
regional — and State and Federal, if necessary — alien cutodians of the 
property. Do you think that that is a necessary thing? 

Mr. Langlie. I think every precaution should be taken to be 
humane and American, in the way we do this particular job. I can 
assure you that the State agencies will be very hap])y to cooperate in 
every way that we can. 

The Chairman. We found in San Francisco where the offices of the 
police d(>partment were ]Kicked with cameras and radios alone; that evi- 
dently no planning had been done as to the disposition or care of their 
property. If this evacuation j-uns into thousands or hundreds of 
thousands, that is going to be a very important thing to attend to, 
don't you thitds:? 

Mr. Langlie. I would say it would be very important. 

The Chairman. Then there is another thing that this rommittee 
is very much interested in. We have the State agencies, we have the 
county agencies, we have the city agencies, and we have several 
Federal agencies. Don't you think. Governor, that it would be a 
pretty good idea if we had a coordinator out here for all those agencies, 
some sort of a clearing house? 

Mr. Langlie. Well, we have already had calls from coordinators 
representing the Federal Government, who have been in my office 
twice in the i)ast few days. They say that they are ready and willing 
to go ahead, functioning as a coordinating agency in doing this job. 
I don't recall what agency they said they represented, but they have 
been there talking about thcMr work and the responsibilities which 
they are assuming. 

The Chairman. Governor, if you had a particidar problem today, 
whom would you contact? 

state officials cooperating with f. r. i. 

Mr. Langlie. Of course, our contacts have been primarily with the 
F. B. I., in all of this work. We>have had instructions and directions 
for some 2 or 3 months to work with the F. B. I. in all of this relation- 
ship with aliens, enemy aliens particularly; so our agencies of the State 
government have been doing that. Very few, if any moves have 
been made on our part without taking them up first with the F. B. I. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11399 

and with the Army and the Navy. In every action that we have 
taken we have had their complete cooperation and have been in 
accord with it. 

The Chairman. That is fine. Have you any information as to the 
sentiment prevaihng in any particular inland areas of your State as 
to the feasibility of relocating enemy aliens from the coastal areas? 

RELOCATION OF EVACUEES 

Mr. Langlie. Well, there isn't any question but what the sentiment 
favors not locating them in the inland areas. We have a State that, 
industrially, and from the standpoint of producing foodstuff's and war 
materials, is active in practically every section of it. You appreciate 
what a strategic State this has become. In eastern Washington we 
have the irrigation canals and dams and facilities; we have huge 
wheatfields and peafields which, in the summer months, become a 
tremendous fire hazard. We have the forested areas and the apple 
orchards, and in practically every section of this State they are 
producing foodstuffs. In eastern Washington they have the feeling 
that they have as much in their way to protect against sabotage and 
difficulties as in the western part, where we have our industrial plants. 
I am satisfied that as far as the people in eastern Washington are con- 
cerned, their sentiment about this problem is relatively the same as 
those on the west side of the State. 

STATE RESPONSIBILITY IN EVACUATION 

The Chairman. What do you think. Governor, is the responsibility 
of your State in this evacuation problem? 

Mr. Langlie. I feel that we owe a responsibility to the Federal 
Government, to go along on what program they outline. In the first 
place, safety is the most important factor that we have to deal with 
here. We have production of ships, airplanes, machinery, alumiiuim, 
foodstuff's; all are going along at relatively a higher and higher speed 
of production. We are concerned, primarily with the safety of those 
operations, so that those productive capacities may continue to func- 
tion eff'ectively. That is our first, and must be our first, consideration. 

Now, we do not have the information to properly appraise all of 
the details of this problem. We haven't tried to seek it out, because 
too many investigating agencies might very seriously complicate the 
job that needs to be done. For that reason, we have given what 
leads, what information, and what reports we have gathered, to the 
F. B. 1. and have assisted them where they have wanted help. But 
we are not in the position that the Army and the F. B. I. are, to 
thoroughly appraise this situation and predetermine just what should 
be done. 

EVACUATION IN EVENT OF ATTACK 

Now, there is another factor that enters into this evacuation prob- 
lem. Being closest to the enemy and being a possible point of first 
attack, we have some responsibility to our civilian population that 
may have to be moved and evacuated in case of bombings, in case of 
any kind of attack or disorders here. It is pretty necessary to keep 



11400 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

some reserve in eastern Washington for facilities of one kind and an- 
other, for evacuation of the injured, evacuation of families, and other 
things of that type. It is our first line of movement here for our 
people, and we have to keep our channels of transportation and facil- 
ities open, at least as far as we can control them, in this State. 

It is a part of our over-aU problem. But I can say to you that we 
are ready to give every help, that the agencies of State government 
can give, to the Army. We assume that they know what they are 
doing in this situation, because they have the factual information to 
develop the program, and we are ready and willing to go along with 
them, because we know that our defense and our own set-up is de- 
pendent upon the success with which they do their work, and we 
want to help them. 

The Chairman. WliUe all that is true about the Army, as to the 
fixing of the combat areas, the Army still has to turn over to other 
agencies the care of the property of the persons evacuated, don't 
they? 

Mr. Langlie. That is right. 

The Chairman. Of course, this whole thing has all come on us very 
hurriedly. We can't get too excited by it; we have to keep going 
and use our heads to the best of our ability. What we are here for 
is to get some ideas, to try to think it out with you; that is our only 
purpose. 

Congressman Curtis will ask you some questions now. 

JAPANESE population OF WASHINGTON STATE 

Mr. Curtis. Wliere is your Japanese population located in Wash- 
ington, for the most part? 

Mr. Langlie. We have, according to the best figm-es that we can 
gather, about 14,400 Japanese aliens and American-born in the State 
of Washington. Of that number, about 9,600 are in King County, 
right here where we are holding this hearing. About 2,000 are in 
Pierce County, and the rest are scattered around. 

Mr. Curtis. Where is Pierce County? 

Mr. Langlie. Pierce County is the next county to the south, where 
Tacoma is the largest city. 

Mr. Curtis. In the Seattle-Tacoma area, then, you have the greater 
portion of the Japanese? 

Mr. Langlie. That is right. Eleven thousand of the 14,000 are 
here. 

Mr. Curtis. What do they do for a living? 

EMPLOYMEN-T of JAPANESE 

Mr. Langlie. I would say the most important activity is agri- 
culture, that is, truck gardening, berry raising, fruits and potatoes. 
Of the area in King County that is devoted to those purposes, it is 
estimated that the Japanese work about 56 percent of the land that 
is in that activity. In Pierce County, it would be about 39 percent. 
It has been estimated that west of the Cascades, of all the land that 
is devoted to those purposes, some 30 percent of it is worked by 
Japanese. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11401 

Mr. Curtis. What type of farming are they engaged in? 

Mr. Langlie. Truck gardening, primarily. The Japanese also are 
engaged in many other lines here. You will find a great many of 
them in retail business — flowers, grocery stores — operating small 
hotels, and in a number of other lines — service agencies of one kind 
or another. There are Japanese janitors, and you will find them 
working for railroads, as redcaps, and other work of that type. There 
are among them some professional people — lawyers, doctors, and den- 
tists. Generally speaking, however, their basic activity is in the 
agricultural field. 

Mr. Curtis. The 14,000 — are those foreign born and citizens? 

Mr. Langlie. Yes; and of that 14,400, about 5,600 are aliens, and 
the balance of 8,800 would be American born. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, of those American born, some eight or nine 
thousand, do you know how many were educated in Japan? 

Mr. Langlie. No, I do not. 

Mr. Curtis. A portion of them were, were they not? 

Mr. Langlie. Well, it has been the custom, as I understand it, for 
many of them to go back there and get a course of education. Many 
of them, of course, did not. Many Japanese schools in our State were 
conducted by the Japanese people, where their children have attended 
after the regular public-school sessions. Those, of course, have now 
been discontinued. 

Mr. Curtis. Discontinued since the war, do you mean? 

Mr. Langlie. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. Were most of them taught in the Japanese schools, 
then, up until the war? 

Mr. Langlie. I think a great many of them were. I could not 
give you accurate figures on that, because I haven't that information. 
I can get it for you. 

concentration in SEATTLE- TACOMA AREA 

Mr. Curtis. Apparently, your concentration of Japanese is in the 
Seattie-Tacoma area. Is that also your most strategic position in 
the State, so far as the war is concerned? 

Mr. Langlie. That is where the greatest amount of our industrial 
activities are, although there are many important plants scattered in 
other sections of the State. 

However, our shipyards, our airplane factories, our machine shops, 
our mills, many of them are here; it is the greatest concentration of 
industrial activities that we have in the State. In this area here is 
about one-fourth of the population of the State, just in King County 
alone. In Pierce County, the population would probably run some- 
where between 150,000 to 200,000 people. 

Mr. Curtis. Any evacuation is going to cause a certain amount of 
difficulty and hardship, especially on the small children and the women 
and the old people, isn't that true? 

Mr. Langlie. I hardly see how it can possibly be otherwise. 

Mr. Curtis. It is your recommendation to the committee, how- 
ever, that this problem should not be decided upon the basis of 
convenience or inconvenience or hurtmg somebody's feelings, but on 
what is the safest thing to do? 



11402 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Langlie. Well, as I have said, we are in a war, and there is 
no one that I have found who is able to make infaUible judgments in 
matters of tliis kind. We have, primarily, the job of keeping our 
power plants, our industries, and all these thmgs going. The safety 
factor is, of course, very important, and I thmk that it must be 
given first consideration, in dealmg with this problem. 

Mr. Curtis. What is the reaction of the rest of the people to the 
presence of the Japanese here? Does it make them jittery? 

JSIr. Langlie. WeU, in a measure, yes; but I want to say I think 
that the people of Wasliington have been rather sane about tliis 
thing m all the excitement that we have had, there has been very 
httle difficulty. Ahens and Japanese have been treated rather 
kindly. I flunk that many people recognize the problem, but we 
have had no really serious difficulties that would indicate that there 
is a lot of malice and such mtense jitteriness, as jou call it, that would 
lead to riots or other serious conditions. How long we can continue 
that way, with the war developmg as it is, is another question, but 
up to the present time, our people have kept their feet on the ground 
very well. 

GERMAN AND ITALIAN ALIENS IN WASHINGTON STATE 

Mr. Curtis. How about your Italian and German ahens? Do 
voii have many of them here? 

Mr. Langlie. Yes; we have in this State about 15,400 German 
aliens. I would say occupationally the}^ are distributed through 
practically all lines of endeavor, with no particular emphasis on 
any one field, as far as we are able to determine. As far as Italians 
are concerned, there are about 8,600 Italians. They will be found hi 
construction work, road work, highway contracting, and hi addition 
to that, m the agricultural field. All of these aliens, including the 
citizen Japanese, constitute about 2 percent of our population. 

Mr. Curtis. I beheve that is all. 

EFFECT OF EVACUATION ON FARMING OPERATIONS 

Mr. Arnold. Governor, just one or two questions. If these ahens 
and citizen Japanese and alien Italians and Germans are taken from 
this area, how do you feel about the fanning situation? Would you 
be able to operate this land in Washington? 

]Mr. Langlie. Weh, that is a rather difficult question. Some have 
estunated that it would result hi, perhaps, a 20 percent lowering in 
the amount of production from those lands in vegetables and fruits 
and thmgs of that kind. 

It depends on whether the crops produced will bring sufficient 
returns to attract additional effort on the part of other people. It 
depends upon what assistance these people who have this land get 
from governmental agencies, such as the Deparlrr.ent of Agriculture, 
in both State and Federal Governments. It depends also upon what 
assistance is obtained from other types of labor. It has been a prac- 
tice for Filipinos to gather here and go north to the fishhig banks and 
work up there durhig the summer months. It is doubtful if much of 
that will so on this vear. It mav be that tliere will be some labor 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11403 

available from that source. It is hard to estimate just how much 
drop in production of these essential foodstuffs there may be. 

We are initiating, in line with the Department of Agriculture 
program in the next week, a victory garden campaign in this State 
that is going to be far-reaching and thorough, to encourage a great 
expansion in the production of foodstuffs from gardens. We realize 
that the Army and Navy are going to need large quantities of those 
things, and that there won't be enough to supply the demand, no 
matter how much we produce here in this particular field. 

Mr. Arnold. If all these people should be evacuated, no doubt some 
farm labor will liave to be imported into Washington to carrj^ on the 
farming of this soil? 

Mr. Langlie. Possibly, dependhig, of course, on management and 
its ability to draw other available manpower into the field, on a part- 
time or full-time basis. I haven't had a chance to make any thorough- 
going study, nor to talk to those who might have given the matter 
consideration, and who might have a practical knowledge of the details 
of the job. 

Mr. Arnold. You would say that it is important that a decision be 
made as quickly as possible, so that the season could be planned far 
enough in advance? 

Mr. Langlie. That is right. A delay of 30 days in the planting of 
a crop is just the dift'erence between no crop and some crop. 

Mr. Arnold. The planting season is coming on pretty rapidly here, 
is it? 

Mr. Langlie. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all. 

WASHINGTON TIMBERLAND 

The Chairman. Governor, what part of the State of Washington 
is in timber? 

Mr. Langlie. Well, on the west side, a minimum of three-fourths. 
It probably would be a little more than that. 

The Chairman. I understand that Washington ranks first of any 
State in the amount of timber it has. 

Mr. Langlie. It did. It doesn't rank quite that high now, because 
we have harvested so much of it. If we could protect our second 
growth in future years, we probably again would rank first. I believe, 
though, that Oregon has more uncut timber than we have at the present 
time. 

The Chairman. Oregon and Washington have a very great fire 
hazard as to the timber areas, haven't they? 

Mr. Langlie. We have a tremendous fire hazard during the sum- 
mer months. We have been making plans in the last 2 months, to 
afford a greater protection to our forests than we have ever given 
before. We recognize a tremendous hazard there. 

The Chairman. Especially from sabotage or an attack, the hazard 
would be great? 

Mr. Langlie. It is a possibility that in case of either serious devel- 
opments might take place. 

The Chairman. Governor, we thank you very much for coming 
here this morning. You have given us a very fair, frank statement, 

f,():{!»(5— 42— pt. SO 8 



11404 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

and I think it will be a fine contribution to our record. Thank you 
very much. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Chairman, may I ask one question? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. In reference to a possible shortage of farm labor, or 
the possibility that some land that might go unf armed, do the people 
of Washington feel that that would be an adequate reason for not 
evacuating the Japanese? 

Mr. Langlie. I doubt it. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you. Governor, Thank you very much for 
coming here. 

The next witness will be Mayor Millikin. 

TESTIMONY OF HON. EARL MILLIKIN, MAYOR OF SEATTLE, WASH. 

The Chairman. Mayor Millikin, we thank you for coming here 
this morning. During our work in various parts of the United States, 
we have heard from many governors and many mayors. We like 
to get your viewpoint, because you mayors are at the top of the local 
government set-up. We hope that you will report to us, as best as 
you can, the prevailing sentiment of the people of Seattle on this 
problem of evacuating enemy alien population. After you have given 
us your extemporary statement. Congressman Curtis has a few 
questions to ask. You can proceed now in your own way. 

attitude of SEATTLE CITIZENS TOWARD EVACUATION 

Mr. Millikin. I understand the question is the attitude of the 
citizens of Seattle on the evacuation of aliens? 

The Chairman. That is true. 

Mr. Millikin. I feel that, due to the events of Pearl Harbor and 
events since that tune, the sentiment of the people in Seattle is over- 
whelmingly in favor of evacuation. Perhaps there should be a 
declaration of military, or semimilitary law, the setting up of a pro- 
hibited area west of the Cascades in Washington and west of highway 
97 in Oregon; from those prohibited areas thousands of Japanese 
would move williilgly. The others could be transported through 
Army, Navy, and city facilities. That is my idea— and I am pretty 
sure it is the correct one— of the attitude of the city of Seattle. They 
think that it is a clanger. They regret the train of circumstances that 
lead up to this decision today; but they know that we can't take the 
chance of leaving them here and having another Pearl Harbor or 
something worse right here in Seattle or in the Pacific Northwest. 

The Chairman. The trouble is that just one individual saboteur 
could do a lot of damage, couldn't he? 

Mr. Millikin. That is correct; yes. 

The Chairman. Go ahead, Mr. Curtis. 

Mr. Curtis. The feeling that you have described is in reference to 
citizen Japanese as well as aliens? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11405 

LOYALTY OF JAPANESE ALIENS 

Mr. MiLLiKiN. Particularly the Japanese aliens, yes; but it carries 
over to the Japanese American bom, who are citizens. A tendency 
has grown up to believe that the danger lies in the Japanese aliens. 
There might be a few of them disloyal, but, in the main, we find that 
our Japanese aliens — those that came here 30 or more years ago, as 
most of them did, and settled here — we find them most loyal. It is 
the element that may have come in, say, in the last 3 or 4 years, since 
the attack of Japan upon China, or individuals sent here for espionage 
purposes by the Japanese Government in the last 3 or 4 years that 
should be regarded as dangerous. There are very few aliens who are 
dangerous; even among our American born, there are some that are 
thoroughly disloyal. 

In the main, the American-born Japanese, and even the aliens, are 
fine, good citizens — hard working. They contribute nothing to our 
juvenile delinquency; they are out of our courts almost entirely; they 
are very fine citizenry. It is just a situation developed by Japan 
herself. Her 4-year framing attack on China was training for an 
attack on the United States all the time. This was revealed by the 
Pearl Harbor attack. 

We can't afford to take chances on losing a big plant or shipyards, 
or several thousand of our citizenry, through leaving one questionable 
individual, or an individual whose loyalty is questionable, in this 
community. 

Mr. Curtis. And you are faced with the problem — not you, partic- 
ularly, but all of the interested agencies of Government — with the 
problem of separation of the loyal citizens and that one who is danger- 
ous. Is it not your opinion that that would be an impossible task? 

Mr. MiLLiKiN. I thinlv that it is utterly impossible. 

JAPANESE IN SEATTLE 

Mr. Curtis. I had the Governor give me some figures with refer- 
ence to the Japanese in the State of Washington. Here in Seattle 
about how many Japanese do you have? 

Mr. MiLLiKiN. The Census of April 1, 1940, gives it as 7,000 — or 
6,975. That number has been augmented since. I don't know how 
much, but I would say at least another five or six hundred, although 
there has been some lost by the return of some people to Japan. Of 
that number, 5,000 were citizens, that is, American-born. About 
2,900 were foreign-born aliens, among the Japanese. So we have 
about seven to eight thousand Japanese in the city of Seattle, alone. 
South of us, in King County in the White River Valley, the Duwamish 
Valley, there are two or three thousand more engaged in truck garden- 
ing and smaU agriculture. The Japanese do not engage in large-scale 
agriculture. One, two, or three acres, or slightly more, perhaps, run 
upon a sort of family basis with no outside employees, or only one or 
two. So the loss of the Japanese would not cause a great deal of 
unemployment through removing the employing group, because it is 
mainly carried on as a family enterprise. I notice 600 Japanese 
greenhouses, for instance, only employed 866 people. That is a 
fraction over 1 employed to a greenhouse ; so the ratio of employment 



11406 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

to the business is not great. But they do carry on truck gardening, 
and they distribute vegetables. 

There are two Japanese big distributing agencies in the Pacific 
Northwest. There is going to be some dislocation among the middle- 
men ; that is — the brokerage or the commission firms — in the methods 
of distribution, even after the crops are raised. 

REPLACEMENT OF JAPANESE LABOR 

I don't know whether you want me to comment on a question that 
was asked a while ago or not, about dislocation, or the necessity of 
moving new labor into this area to take the place of those who may be 
moved out. I don't tliink that would be necessary, for this reason: 
We have a great deal of Filipino labor here that follow^s the same line 
of activities, and has about the same skill. Then we have another big 
industry in which there is going to be a bad dislocation, and that is our 
commercial fishing industry. Many of these men in the fishing 
industry are Filipinos, or others adapted or trained for truck garden- 
ing or small agricultural production. 

Mr. Arnold. May I ask a question? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. xVrnold. In Portland, we had a Japanese farmer — a citizen 
farmer — who said he employed 12 to 15 at all times of the year, and 
about 300 at harvest time. You do not have so manj^ operations on 
that large a basis in this area, do you? 

Mr. Millikin. We may have two or three, but not generally. 
Most of the operations are on a smaller scale, with onh^ one or two 
employees, if any, other than the immediate family. 

Mr. Arnold. Then, the question of management does not enter 
into it, so much in those small farms as they do on a larger tract? 

Mr. Millikin. No. I mentioned these two big distributing 
agencies. 

GERMAN AND ITALIAN ALIENS IN SEATTLE 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat is your situation here in Seattle in reference to 
Italian and German aliens? 

Mr. Millikin. We have some of each. We have never had any 
trouble w^th the Italian alien. Most of them are hardworking and 
loyal. I think the F. B. I. has picked up only two or three of them 
right after the war; that is, since the war started. Despite the 
research of the F. B. I. and other agencies, they have never been 
cased as being dangerous individuals. 

Now, the Gennan alien is scattered throughout our population. He 
is very clever in keeping concealed, as to his actual thought, so that he 
is an uncertain quantity. 

Mr. Curtis. The alien Germans, are they recent immigrants? 

Mr. Millikin. Very few; very few. Of course, we have some 
Germans classed as German aliens, that were forced here by the attack 
upon them by Hitlerism. Of course, they are distinctly loyal and 
anti-Hitler, although technically classed as German aliens. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you feel that this evacuation is somethng that 
could be handled by local governments? 

Mr. Millikin. No. It would take aid from the Army and other 
Federal authorities or agencies. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11407 

CONTRIBUTION OF SEATTLE TOWARD EVACUATION PROGRAM 

Mr. Curtis. What is the city of Seattle able to contribute to the 
various accompanying problems when this is undertaken by the 
Federal Goverimient? 

Mr. MiLLiKiN. Well, we can contribute a great deal. We can 
contribute aid through the police de])artnient, the home defense 
infantiy regiments raised here under civilian defense but assigned as 
auxiliary police. We have ambulances and nurses and field hospital 
units and doctors that could be assigned to help take care of evacuees. 
We have material, such as trucks, both those owned by the city and 
also those loaned or made available to emergency units for trans- 
portation and evacuation. 

We have a big civic auditorium here that could be used as a con- 
centration point of families, to keep them together and transport 
them intact and make this thing as humane as possible. The city, in 
other words, can aid. I think I have pointed out the chief ways. 
Oh, yes ; there is another one. We have a Cavalry Brigade made up of 
horseback riders here, 500 or 600 in number, that can patrol routes 
and lead the way over difl'erent routes over the mountains. We can 
transport them east of the Cascades. In fact, I expect if I went into 
it, I could find several other ways in which the city coidd aid, and is 
perfectly willing to aid. In fact, a great deal of the immediate aid 
would have to come from the city, like making available buildings 
and facilities and things of that kind. The city can arrange to do 
that to the utmost. 

Mr. Curtis. One question I want to ask here. The Governor, as 
well as yourself, has used the expression, "east of the Cascades. " How 
far east of Seattle would that be, approximately? 

Mr. MiLLiKiN. It is 57 miles to the top of the Cascades nearest 
Seattle, I believe. That is to the top of Snoqualmie Pass. However, 
as you go over the other side, you would probably have to move 100 
miles-or more from Seattle to be across the Cascades into a region that 
is habitable. 

Mr. Curtis. By referring to the area east of the Cascades: that is 
your recommendation of the minimum distance that they should 
be moved back from the coast, is it? 

Mr. MiLLiKiN. That is correct. I favor a prohibited area in Wash- 
ington west of the Cascades, and a prohibited area in Oregon west of 
Highway 97, which goes down central Oregon through Bend to 
Klamath Falls. 

Mr. Curtis. Have any of the legal authorities here in the West 
and Northwest come forward with any suggestions on certain of the 
legal problems involved in dealing with the citizen? 

Mr. MiLLiKiN. No; they haven't; although, I think you have 
called today the attorney general of the State. He probably has 
made some' research on that. They have been depending upon the 
bill now pending, or the resolution in Congress, which abridges, I 
believe, certain rights of aliens or citizens that are suspects or of a 
nationality or race now at war with the United States. I think some- 
thing hke that would have to be done, unless there is just a ruthless 
abridgment of citizenship rights. 



1140S POKTL.\ND ANP SE.\TTLE HEARINGS 

OCCVPATIOXS OF SE-\TTLE ALIENS 

Mr. CvKTis. Now, 1 am not referring to the farmer or the truck 
gnrilener. In what aveimes of business are most of the enemy alien 
popuhition ongaired here in Seattle? 

Nlr. MuLiKiN. The Japanese are in small stores. They are great 
distributors of prv^duoe. green irrooeries, vegetables, and so forth. 
They run many of the stalls in vur system of public markets here. 
As I Siiy. they have small stores. Some of thorn are laborer's; a few 
of them are prc»tVs;iional men. iu the law or doctors or dentists. That 
applies to Unh the Japanese citizen and the Japanese alien. 

Now, as to the Germans, they may be found all through the com- 
munity. They have been here so long and are so imbedded that I 
don't think there is an activity in this community that does not have 
svnne Germans in it. A great many of the Germans, of course, have 
come here as teachers. AVe have them in our universities, on our 
faculties. 

As to the Italians. 1 would answer alxnit the way that Governor 
l^inglie answortxl- -there are s*.">me agricultural workers. Many others 
are either ui coutnu'ting tirms or are employet.1 as laborers by con- 
tracting tirms. They will als^^ be found in greenhouses and in the 
sale of tlowei-^: in Knh the prvniuction and sale of them. That 
twers the main Italian gn>ups. 

Mr. CvRTis. That is all. 

The Chaikmax. Mr. Arnold? 

GERMAN NONCITIIENS 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Mayor, why is it you have so many German 
aliens' AMiv haven't they btvoine citizens? 

Mr. MiLi.ihLiN. 1 can't answer that exactly except that some of 
them have come over here since the Hitler regime started in Europe, 
ai\d they have not had lime to gv.> through with their citizenship. 
Many of them do have their tirst papers. On the other hand, some 
have come here. 1 think, with the idea that Hitlerism is going to be 
crushed, and then they could go back and resmne German citizen- 
ship. That is the only explanation that 1 could make as to why they 
have not taken out citizenship. However, that is true of a ^reat 
nu\ny classes that come here. We have in this coimnunity a situa- 
tion that is somewhat alarming, of a certain type of Jew that came 
here frc»m the Isle of Kluxlos. about 30 years. 40 years ago. and raised 
families here. In 1915 Italy acquired the Isle of Rhodes, so either 
they are a people without a country, or they are an Italian-Jew aHen 
now: because of ignorance of our language, and because of procrasti- 
nation, some of them have not beciune citizens. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you say that half of these German aliens have 
come here since the Hitler n^gime? 

Mr. MiLLiKiN. No: 1 don t think that many havo. 

Mr. Arnold. I am interested to know why so many are still aliens, 
because in the district I represent in Illinois. I think about a third of 
the population is German: but there are very few aliens: they have aU 
btx-ome citizens. So it is surprising to me to find so many aliens of 
German extraction here. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11409 

Mr. MiLLiKiN. I cannot answer in more ddail Lluin I have, except 
that 1 do know that we Imvc uequirod quite a Cxernian alien population 
since 19:i3. 

Mr. AitNOLD. Naturally, all of (hem are going to suffer, th(;n, for 
not having seen fit to take out eiti/enship papers? 

Mr. MiLLiKiN. That is their hiiid luck. 

Mr. AuNOLi). That is all, Mr. Chainnan. 

HABOTAGK TO COINCADK WITH ATTATK 

The Chaiuman. Mr. Millikin, it has Ijeen pointed out to us in 
Washington — 1 have heard the statement several tunes, and 1 have 
heard it on the coast — that there lias been scarcely a case of sabotage 
since war has been declared, liut that is not very persuasive to me 
as an argument that we shouldn't be on the alert, Ix'cause the history 
of this Woild War, in Norway and Europe, and Hawaii and wherever 
the Axis has struck, is that sabotage conu*s coincident with the attack. 

Mr. Millikin. That is right. 

The Chairman. That is the new scheme of modern war. 

Mr. Millikin. There hasn't been any sabotage, because it lias 
been ordered withheld by Tokyo. 

Th(! Chairman. I think that is obvious, don't you? 
■ Mr. Millikin. Very much so; yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Do any of th(iS(! citiz(!n Japanes(! — I am referring to 
some of those in whom we would have; reason to have confidence as 
to their loyalty and honesty. Have they (;xpr(;ss<!d themselves as to 
what they think should be doiu; with all of the Japanese? 

ATTITUDE OF JAPANESE TOWARD SUJJVERSIVE INDIVIDUALS 

Mr. Millikin. Well, of course, they are ho]ung to avoid a mass 
evacuation. They would like to aid in the arrest of subversive indi- 
viduals in their own group. In fact, the Japanese here do have a 
very fine functioning Japanese citizens' league which is quick to 
stop any subversive activities. However, there is this difference in 
the Japanese trait and the Italian: 'J'h(! Japaiujse don't inform. The 
Italian will come in and tell you if he has got a fellow^ Italian that is 
dangerous, but the Japanese Citizens' League and other organizations 
keep down the subversive activiti<.'s of this individual through threat 
or coercion because, "If you do something, you are going to bring 
trouble on us." And so the Japanese, I think, would desire that in- 
dividuals known to be dangerous or whose loyalty is in doubt be 
removed or arrested or placed in concentration camps; that a system 
of licensing and report be followed of the individuals that remain 
here. There is no doubt about those 8,000 Japanese, that 7,900 
probably are above question but the other 100 would burn this town 
down and let the Japanese planes come in and bring on something 
that would dwarf Pearl Harbor. 

Mr. CuRTLS. I think that is all I have. 

The Chairman. The committee is very grateful to you, Mr. Mayor, 
for coming here this morning. 

Mr. Millikin. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Mayor Cain. 



11410 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF MAYOR HARRY P. CAIN, OF TACOMA, WASH. 

Mr. Arnold. Ma3'^or Cain, will you give your name and title to 
the reporter? 

Mr. Cain. Harry P. Cain, mayor of the city of Tacoma, Wash. 

Mr. Arnold. You were here during the time that Mayor Millikin 
was being questioned, and therefore you know what we are here 
for, and what sort of information we want. 

Mr. Cain. I was here part of the time; 3^es, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Can you tell us approximately how many aliens you 
have in the city of Tacoma? 

ALIEN POPULATION OF TACOMA 

Mr. Cain. In the city of Tacoma, we have approximately 1,480. 
The 1,4F0 represents all aliens, of which 317 are Japanese aliens. 

Mr. Arnold. What information can you give us as to the number 
of American citizens of German, Italian, and Japanese parentage? 

Mr. Cain. As of our last census, there were 4,632 Germans; 
of Italians, there were 1,511; of Japanese, there were 1,193. That 
census, however, is 1930. No figures have, to my knowledge, been 
established for the 1940 census. 

Mr. Arnold. Are most of the enemy aliens of Pierce County 
residents of Tacoma, or are they scattered throughout the county? 

Mr. Cain. A majority of them are residents of the city. The 
Japanese aliens in the city of Tacoma are 317 in number; in the town of 
National, Wash., there are 37; in the town of Eatonville, there are 
42; in the Puyallup Valley, there are 181. 

Mr. Arnold. Those are engaged in farming there, are they? 

Mr. Cain. In the valley; yes, sir. They are engaged in sawmills 
and lumber camps in National and Eatonville. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know whether those are lai'ge farmers or 
small farmers, such as the Governor described? 

Mr. Cain. I wasn't here at the time wdien the Governor was giving 
his testimony. 

Mr. Arnold. Do they employ many, or are those principally family 
operations? 

Mr. Cain. Generally family operations, I would say, sir. 

FARMS LEASED TO JAPANESE 

The Puyallup Valley has a total number of 89 leased farms to 
Japanese, and 25 farms are owned outright. Of Japanese citizens in 
the Valley, there are 367; of aliens, there are 181. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you feel that most of this land would be leased 
to others and operated this season if a decision were reached soon on 
this question of evacuation? 

Mr. Cain. Approximately 42 farms would not be able to cary on. 
If the aliens were removed from the valley, about 72 farms woidd be 
taken care of by the citizens, children of alien parents. 

Mr. Arnold. Why would the others not be operated? 

Mr. Cain. Well, their children, presumably, would leave with 
them, or would be too young to continue that production, and the 
closest approximation I can arrive at is that there would be a reduc- 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11411 

tion in production of approximately 50 percent of the total produce 
of the valley in the event of alien evacuation. 

Mr. Arnold. In Tacoma, what has been the principal occupation 
in which aliens are engaged? 

PRINCIPAL OCCUPATIONS OF TACOMA JAPANESE 

Mr. Cain. Groceries and markets have 52; that includes both citi- 
zens and aliens, with reference to the Japanese problem. Laundries 
and cleaners have 26; hotels, in number, 25; garages and service 
stations, 8; restaurants, 8; or a total of 119 business operations. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have figures for German and Italian aliens? 

Mr. Cain. No, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. They are undoubtedly scattered throughout your 
economic life? 

Mr. Cain. They are, indeed. 

Mr. Arnold. Just the same as they are here? 

Mr. Cain. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Would serious dislocations of the city's economic 
life occur in case of evacuation of enemy aliens? 

Mr. Cain. I very much doubt it, as far as the city itself is con- 
cerned. Most of the groceries and markets for example, are small 
ones, continuing open on Sundays and holidays when the rest of us 
have forgotten, sometimes, to buy what we should have purchased 
during the week — a service, but not tremendously important. 

The laundries and cleaners are those establishments in which the 
alien has been in the habit of doing his work by hand; a product one 
enjoys but can very well, if necessary, get along without. 

The hotels are small transient hotels. It would likely mean that the 
city would go into the hotel business for the simple reason that we 
are badly in need of housing accommodations and for no reason 
would we permit those hotels to go out of operation; generally, I 
think that we could get along very well, as- far as our economip 
structure is concerned. 

Mr. Arnold. You would recommend that an alien property cus- 
todian be appointed for this area, so that this property that belongs to 
aliens could be taken care of? 

Mr. Cain. If that is the very best thing which could be done, yes, 
sir; to give a full measure of protection to the property left behind 
by anyone who has been moved by his Federal Government. 

CITY OFFICIALS OFFER TO COOPERATE 

Mr. Arnold. What aspects of alien control or alien evacuation do 
3^ou expect to come within the jurisdiction of the city government? 

Mr. Cain. I think that is a difficult question to answer, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. I do, too. 

Mr. Cain. My own feeling is, as an administrator of a city in 
days like these, that whatever orders are received by us from those 
in higher authority will be carried out to the letter. 

Mr. Arnold. You are willing to cooperate fully, but you know that 
the initiative must come from the National Government, and you will 
do your best to carry out your part of the job? 



11412 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Cain. I feel that, as our Constitution is drawn, someone else 
must be responsible for determining what is to be done with this par- 
ticular problem; but we will do exactly as we are — not necessarily- 
ordered — but as suggestions are made to us by the Federal Govern- 
ment we will carry them out. 

Mr. Curtis. Do I understand you to suggest that in Tacoma your 
problem is confined to Japanese aliens, or is it to the Japanese gen- 
erally, including the citizens and aliens? 

Mr. Cain. Well, as I conceive oiu" situation in the city of Tacoma, 
we have a very small problem. We have only 859 total of Japanese, 
for example, 542 of whom are citizens. They could all be removed 
without injuring us permanently from the economic point of view. 

ATTITUDE OF TACOMA CITIZENS TOWARD EVACUATION 

Mr. Curtis. I am referring to the matter of public safety, in case 
this became a battleground. Do your people of Tacoma feel that the 
citizen Japanese need not be removed? 

Mr. Cain. They feel very strongly, as I daresay most communities 
do, on both sides of this question. I can only judge, of course, by 
those letters which I receive from those living within the city. They 
are violently in opposition, or as vigorously in support. Leave them, 
some say; move them, others contend. 

Mr. Arnold. Who is in opposition, the Japanese or the non- 
Japanese? 

Mr. Cain. Opposition to removal, sir? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 

ATTITUDE OF JAPANESE TOWARD EVACUATION 

Mr. Cain. The Japanese thus far, with reference to this particular 
problem, have provided me with any information desired to be col- 
lected about them, and they have taken no position, I would say. 
They definitely would prefer to remain, because the roots of property 
ownership and family life of 542 citizens are tied up in this particular 
community; but they will do exactly as they are told. 

I have had no letters whatsoever on this subject from the Japanese. 
I have had certain personal comments, of course, from those Japanese 
with whom I have consulted, calling them into my office from time 
to time for the purpose of making them "their brothers' keeper" in 
days like these. Their general expression is that "Uncle Sam will 
tell us, after due consideration of the merits of this case, what he 
wants us to do, and we, the American-Japanese citizens, will subscribe 
to those regulations in their entirety." 

Mr. Curtis. That is all I have. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Mayor, for coming here. We 
appreciate it very much. Is there anything you want to add to 
what you have already stated? 

Mr. Cain. I think that I should like to make one comment, merely 
for the record; for, as I conceive it, you gentlemen are here for 
information. 

The Chairman. That is right. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11413 

EFFECT OF EVACUATION ON ECONOMY OF COMMUNITY 

Mr. Cain. In one of the questions directed to me by Mr. Tolan, 
he was desirous of finding out what an evacuation would do to the 
economic Hfe of our county, as well as to our city. I had some figures 
prepared to indicate what would likely follow. 

In the year 1941, produce, consisting of lettuce, peas, cauliflower, 
and so on, having nothing to do with dairy products, the production 
amounted, for local consumption, to the sum of $713,831. Interstate 
produce shipped amounted to $312,593. A total of 2,783 acres were 
involved, but including additional acreage in this district, we have an 
actual acreage of approximately 3,980 acres cultivated. This sum 
of something in excess of a million dollars represented approximately 
95 percent of the production annually coming out of the Puyallup 
Valley. 

It seems obvious from those figures, both city and county, that our 
city problem would be a minor one; our county problem would be a 
veiy considerable one. 

That decision, of course, must be made by those in authority; but, 
with your permission, I want to read that into the record, because it 
is a statement of fact. 

The Chairman. Yes, it will go in. 

Mr. Cain. In that coimection, you have asked me what suggestions 
I may have for handling the problem of alien control in the event of 
evacuation. I would rather not be misunderstood, and I think that 
I have maintained, firmly, anyway, that we shall do as the Federal 
Government dictates. But with a relatively small number of aliens, 
181 in the valley, and 367 in addition being citizens, would it or 
would it not be logical to maintain — ^with due protective procedures, 
as determined by those in authority — this productive power, lacking 
which we must necessarily find others to do that work? 

SELECTIVE EVACUATION PROPOSED 

I have been serious about the Japanese in Pierce County, as to 
what they could do under certain circumstances. If a protective 
cordon were to be placed around Pierce County, the Puyallup Valley 
could, if it were necessary, maintain all of the Japanese of Pierce 
County within its own confines, for the purpose of continuing their 
production. 

We have a problem in our city with reference to the evacuees from 
Germany in the recent past. Most of them are Jewish people. They 
are responsible, and are held responsible by certain outstanding citi- 
zens in our own city. They, too, would be remoyed, if others thought 
it wise. 

Might I be so bold as to ask a question of the committee, for there 
is much about this problem that I do not understand? In the recent 
past, the President by Executive order directed either the Depart- 
ment of Justice or the United States Army to remove from west 
coast areas anyone whom in their opinion would be detrimental to 
our own country. Is it wise or is it unwise to have that as a policy 
to be followed by our country — that anyone who is injurious to the 
direction in which we are moving should be removed, be he Italian, 



11414 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

German, Japanese, Irisli, English, Welsh, Greek, or anybody else? 
America has always been interested in selection, and I feel it would 
be preferable to make careful selection of those to bo evacuated, 
rather than just say "Let's get rid of our problem by the easiest, 
most obvious way, of moving everybody out." 

ISSUANCE OF EXECUTIVE ORDER 

The Chairman. The Executive order made by the President, as 
you say, provided for the possible evacuation of all citizens. 

Mr. Cain. Yes. 

The Chairman. Of course, all citizens will not be evacuated; you 
know that. But the situation presented one of the most difficult 
constitutional questions we had. The Executive order could not 
direct evacuation of any certain class of American citizens. The 
other alternatives were the suspension of the writ of habeas corpus 
or martial hxw. Your Senators from Washington, Oregon, California, 
and all the Representatives from those States, were in almost daily 
session. We talked it over, and talked it over, and that was our 
recommendation to the President. 

Mr. Cain. Yes, sir.- 

The Chairman. And he followed it. Now; it is there. What are 
we going to do about it? It was a tough problem, Mr. Mayor. 

Mr. Cain. I agree with you, sir. 

The Chairman. It had to be one of the alternatives. That is the 
reason for that Executive order. 

responsibility toward JAPANESE-AMERICANS 

Mr. Cain. We in this section are looking for information, seriously, 
gentlemen. We are endeavoring to support the other levels of 
government. There is, on our part, an admission that there is 
much about this problem which w^e do not understand. Some of us 
feel that the word "alien" has meant, to too many people, the one 
word, "Japanese." That has disturbed some of us, for we recognize 
that the Constitution must be maintained and we have not been in 
the habit of giving citizenship to others lightly. Therefore, we must 
hesitate before we take it away from them lightly. I think that I, 
together with everyone else I know in authority, is only anxious to 
find out who is good and who is bad, and those who are bad im- 
mediately. But we might even lean over a little backward putting 
that responsibility for judgment on our own shoulders. 

The Chairman. Mr. Mayor, it is my belief that you local officials 
know, just as well as any Federal agency, who are loyal and who are 
disloyal in'your community. And I think that the Federal agencies 
should work with you. Of course, they will. 

Mr. Cain. They do very well. 

The Chairman. And they will, so there will be no trouble. But I 
still think that the local officials can be of great assistance. 

Mr. Cain. That is w^iy I came here this morning. 

The Chairman. They can be of great assistance as to hardship 
cases, and as to loyalty or disloyalty or dangerous persons. 

Mr. Curtis. I want to get the mayor's idea on one more thing. 

Mr. Cain. Yes, sir. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11415 

BELIEVES LOYALTY OF JAPANESE CITIZENS CAN BE DETERMINED 

Mr. Curtis. I came from a territory where we do not have any 
Japanese. 1 don't think there is one in my district. Do you think 
that it is possible for anybody, any agency of the Government, to 
separate the loyal Japanese citizen and the dangerous Japanese 
citizen? 

Mr. Cain. That is a very easy question, isn't it? 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think that can be done? 

Mr, Cain. I think, within reason, it can be done; but it is going to 
place upon the person who makes that decision a lot of work. I think 
that a man's background, regardless of who he is, very generally has 
much to do with what he is going to do. If born in this country; if a 
Christian; if emplo^^ed side by side with others who fill that same 
classification, for years; if educated in our schools; if a producer now 
and in the past; if maintained in a position of production — I should 
think that person could be construed to be a loyal American citizen. 

If we take the other assumption, wq are just going to say that 
there are no loyal Japanese citizens. I don't know whether I have 
made myself clear. That is a very difficult thing to say, and I speak 
as a person, and not as a mayor, not as one representing the community 
of the city of Tacoma, for the citizens of Tacoma are vigorously of 
two different opinions. Many people wouldn't agree with my asser- 
tion that it is possible to differentiate among any class of people, 
between good citizens and bad citizens. 

The Chairman. As a matter of fact, Mr. Mayor, we have many 
people in this country, as in other countries, that want the other 
fellow to be able to give a 100-percent solution, but that is not possible 
in this case, is it? 

Mr. Cain. It is difficult. 

The Chairman. How large is Tacoma? Is it larger than Seattle? 

Mr. Cain. No, sir; not as to size. I would say it has between 
125,000 and 130,000 persons within our city limits. The last census 
we had 109,000 plus, but the influx has greatly increased in the recent 
past. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Mr. Mayor, for coming here. 

Mr. Cain. I have enjoyed being here, sir. Thank you. 

The Chairman. The committee will take a 5-minute recess for the 
reporter. 

(Whereupon at this time a short recess was taken, after which the 
hearing was resumed.) 

The Chairman. The committee will be in order. Is Mr. Messenger 
here? 

Mr. Messenger. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF FRANK MESSENGER, MANAGER, SEATTLE FIELD 
OFFICE, SOCIAL SECURITY BOARD 

The Chairman. Mr. Messenger, we had the pleasure of hearing 
from Mr. Naustadt, regional director of the Social Security Board and 
of the Office of Defense, Health, and Welfare Service in San Francisco, 
the other day. We have asked you here to give us any additional 
information you may have on the situation as it exists here in Seattle. 



11416 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Wliat new and additional duties has your office assumed since the war 
started? 

Mr. Messenger. The only additional duty we have at the present 
time is to fill out any request and return it to the Employment Service, 
as to financial aid or any other aid that we may give any of these aliens. 

The Chairman. Have you any specific funds for this purpose? 

Mr. Messenger. Not that I know of officially, but I understand 
that there has been $500,000 set aside for it, although nothing has come 
into this office as yet. 

The Chairman. So far, you have not actually paid out any money 
to aliens? 

Mr. Messenger. No, sir; nothing. 

The Chairman. Do you turn them over to the employment office? 

Mr. Messenger. Yes, sir ; those are our instruction at the present 
time. 

Mr. Chairman. If this evacuation order goes into effect, Mr. 
Messenger, you will need some money, won't you? 

Mr. Messenger. I am sure we will. 

The Chairman. What steps do you expect to take in case evacu- 
ation orders are issued? 

Mr. Messenger. The only steps that I could take are the orders 
that I would receive from above. 

The Chairman. Do you mean from Washington? 

Mr. Messenger. No. I receive my orders through Mr. Naustadt, 
at San Francisco. 

The Chairman. We note in your statement that a good many 
people are coming in from the Middle W^est. In your opinion, would 
they be able to replace aliens in agriculture who might be evacuated? 

Mr. Messenger. Not in all types of agriculture. Most of those 
men who are coming in are from the plains area, who have been 
accustomed to certain types of farming and dairying, not the kind of 
farming done by the Japanese. 

The Chairman. Are there any of them from Nebraska, Congress- 
man Curtis' district? 

Mr. Messenger. Yes, sir; a lot of them from Nebraska, as well as 
from Iowa, the Dakotas, and Minnesota; that is where most of them 
are coming from at the present time. 

The Chairman. What about Congressman Arnold's district, the 
State of Ilhnois? 

Mr. Messenger. A few. 

The Chairman. Anythmg, Mr. Curtis? 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat things are handled out of your office? Do you 
have the Employment Service? 

old-age insurance paid to aliens 

Mr. Messenger. No, sir. We do not handle that at all. We 
have the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, as outlined by the act 
itself. 

Mr. Curtis. Are aliens covered under that? 

Mr. Messenger. Yes, sir; aliens, as well as others. We are already 
giving out old-age insurance to aliens, if they have qualified under the 
act, and that goes to them regularly. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11417 

Mr. Curtis. What do you administer in addition to the old-age 
service? 

Mr. Messenger. That is all. We do have quite a picture of 
people moving in and out — for instance, in reference to this FUipino 
situation, where the Filipinos are going to Alaska tliis year. That 
will have an effect here, no doubt. Of course, the fishing has been 
restricted. Those men usually are itinerant laborers, that move 
down to California in the winter, and then go north to Alaska in the 
summer. There are about 10,000 of them each year. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Messenger. Mr. 
Spangler? 

Mr. Spangler. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF J. W. SPANGLER, VICE PRESIDENT, SEATTLE- 
FIRST NATIONAL BANK, SEATTLE, WASH. 

The Chairman. Mr. Spangler, we appreciate your coming here, and 
Congressman Arnold of Illinois, a farmer and a banker, will question 
you; he will understand you perfectly. 

Mr. Spangler. Thank you. 

Mr. Arnold. I don't think I am as large a banker as Air. Spangler. 
However, I understand there is another Laurence Arnold here who is 
a. banker, and the two of us might equal Mr. Spangler's ability. 

Mr. Spangler. That is right. He happens to be an associate of 
mine. 

Mr. Arnold. Well, then — you are J. W. Spangler, and I understand 
that you are vice president of the Seattle-First National Bank, and 
that you have played a prominent part in Seattle's business and 
financial life for a number of years. 

We have asked you to appear before this connnittee to present the 
composite view of the business community. We also understand that 
you have conferred with some other people, and desire to make some 
statements in addition to the written statement you have submitted 
to us. Of course, that written statement will go in the record in full. 
We will be glad to have you make any additional statements, Mr, 
3pftngler, that you have in mind, and then I might ask you some 
questions. 

(The statement of Mr. Spangler is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY J. W. SPANGLER, VICE PRESIDENT SEATTLE 
FIRST NATIONAL BANK, SEATTLE, WASH. 

No evacuation of aliens, or citizens whose parents are aliens, or of both g;roups, 
can occur without some economic dislocation, not to mention physical and mental 
disturbance. 

To some extent the inevitable economic dislocation will be adversely visited 
upon both the evacuee and the community from which he is evacuated. In the 
case of the community, some time will necessarily elapse before a measurable 
adjustment can occur. 

In the case of the evacuee, the time of adjustment and the extent of its adverse 
influence must, of necessity, remain uncertain and, indeed, the adverse influence 
may be enduring. 

Foreign trade, an important factor in normal times, invites no consideration 
now, since, with the exception of South America and Africa, foreign trade has 
practically vanished. 



11418 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Two activities come to mind, Vjoth of which have some significance, i. e., hotels 
and agriculture, the former in the city of Seattle and the latter in contiguous 
territory. Both of these are conducted by a con.siderable inimber of Japanese, 
and in agriculture Italians are also found. Both lines are essential to the various 
areas in which the,y exist. A])parently accurate figures touching the number of 
individuals or properties operated at date are not available, but it is reported 
that in 1941 there were 181 hotels, rooming houses, and small apartments being 
conducted by the Japanese in the city of Seattle. The capacity varied from 7 to 
440 rooms each, with a total estimated capacity of 10,557. It is believed that 
some of the 181 have already been given over to operators other than Japanese. 
These living quarters are understood to house a substantial number of defense 
workers for whom living accommodations have been and still are in great demand. 
It is not necessary that the removal of the present operators would mean the entire 
extinguisliment of the quarters, for it seems reasonable to presume that they might 
rapidly be replaced by other nonforeign operators. In most instances the real 
property involved is not owned by the Japanese operator, his investment being 
represented by furniture and equipment. No insurmountable difficulty, there- 
fore, is presented in the living-quarter phase of the evacuation, this provided a 
reasonable time could be consistently afforded to provide successors to the present 
operators. 

Concerning the agricultural activities, this is a subject that requires quick 
action as the preparation season and growing season are at hand. Indeed, it 
would have been desirable to have the determination of the agricultural question 
concluded approximately 30 days ago. 

In the fresh vegetable producing areas of King and Pierce Counties and in 
certain areas in the Yakima Valley, a large percentage of the farm production 
has been under operation by Japanese farmers and Japanese distributors, many 
of whom are now enemy aliens. Because of the removal of many alien Japanese, 
and likewise the uncertainty of the disposition of Japanese citizens, it is apparent 
that the production is going to be materially curtailed unless steps are promptly 
taken to remedy the situation. 

The present Japanese operators have apparently delayed the purchase of fer- 
tilizer, seed, etc., pending the determination of their future status. If, in their 
farming operations, they are to be succeeded by others, promptness of action is 
imperative. This seems axiomatic since the activit}' is a seasonal one. In this 
connection, the following resolution adopted by the Chamber of Commerce of 
Seattle is significant: 

"It is recommended that the Seattle Chamber of Commerce prevail upon the 
War Department, the Department of Justice, and others who are to decide the 
disposition of the Japanese in the State of Washington that this decision be made 
and announced without delay; and further that the Seattle Chamber of Com- 
merce urge the United States Department of Agriculture War Board, or other 
organizations interested in increased farm production to recognize the production 
problem in the areas in the State of Washington that have normally been operated 
by Japanese and to take steps to bring this land under fullest possible production." 

The two lines of activity mentioned above are the ones that may correctly be 
classified as essential and they are also the ones that will experience dislocation 
and result in consequent curtailment to the public if precipitately disturbed. 

It is desirable in the case of each that the present class of operators be permitted 
to continue for a period of not to exceed 1 year, provided the national interest 
would not be imperiled thereby. Clearly, complete and immediate detention 
should occur if reasonable doubt exists. 

TESTIMONY OF J. W. SPANGLER^Resumed 

Mr. Spangler. Since the publicity recently occin-red in the news- 
papers with respect to this hearing, there have been quite a number 
of commimications to me upon that subject. The majority of them, 
the burden of the utterances, was negative as to the retention of the 
Japanese. 

There were a few exceptions, however; but most of those who 
expressed themselves to me thought that, without doubt, evacuation 
should occur with the Japanese. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11419 

Mr. Arnold. Both the ahens and the citizens? 

Mr, Spangler. Yes. Perhaps it would be presumptions for me 
to attempt to indicate how they reached that decision, since in no 
case was a discussion extended. In the statement which I submitted 
to you, I offered no personal opinions. I merely made a general 
statement. My reason for failing to indicate my personal views as 
to whether this should be done or that should be done, was due to the 
fact I believe that in order to make an intelligent statement before a 
group as important as this, one should be in possession of all the facts, 
and I am not in possession of all the facts. 

HOTELS OPERATED BY JAPANESE 

Mr. Arnold. I notice m your statement that there are over 10,500 
hotel rooms in hotels in Seattle operated by Japanese. What sug- 
gestions would you make to keep these hotels operating in case the 
present operators were evacuated? 

Are these buildings, Mr. Spangler, owned by Japanese, or are they 
leased? 

Mr. Spangler. Very few of them are o\vned by Japanese. I am 
not in possession of any figures later than 1941. In 1941, the best 
authorities that I could contact indicated 181 different hotels, small 
lodging houses or apartment houses, with about 10,550 capacity, 
approximately. 

Normally, so far as I know, there are very few of these hotels op- 
erated by the Japanese where the real property is owned by the 
operating company or the individual. There are two rather promi- 
nent hotels, considering the type and the group, that are owned by 
the Japanese. I think they are Japanese corporations in each in- 
stance. Therefore, that leaves the operator being the owner of the 
equipment and furniture. Most of the property, therefore, is leased, 
and I suppose— and this is only a guess— if the evacuation were to 
occur and was not too hasty, that it would not be very difficult to 
find those other than Japanese who might take these properties over. 
Of course, that would take a little time. I do suppose that perhaps 
some branch of the Government, if the necessity arose and was so 
recognized, could provide the protection for all concerned, rather than 
make too hasty an effort to transfer these leases and the property and 
the operation of hotels or apartment houses. 

Mr. Arnold. Obviously, the hotels will need to be operated, m 
view of the shortage of housing here and these rooms, of course, will 
be rented without any difficulty? 

Mr. Spangler. That is, I think, quite correct. It is said— I can't 
state it in more definite terms— that a gi-eat number of defense workers 
are housed in these quarters to which I have made reference, and as 
we have been short of housing both for defense workers and others, 
it would be unfortunate if they were deprived of these facilities. 

Mr. Arnold. The evacuation of aliens will relieve the housing 
shortage here somewhat, although, of course, that is not the purpose 
of it. But it will serve to relieve the housing shortage? 

Mr. Spangler. To some extent; yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Just the same as we need to evacuate from the city of 
Washington, D. C, a number of people who come there simply for the 
social life. The President called them "parasites," I believe. 

60396 — 42— pt. 30 9 



1142U PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Spangler. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. They also occupy hundreds of apartments and resi- 
dences there — those who have come from other parts — and it has 
rendered it rather difficult for those who need to be there on business 
to find a place to live, at a price they can aft'ord to pay, 

Mr. Spangler. I have had that experience, myself. 

MAINTENANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 

Mr. Arnold. In case of evacuation, what suggestions would you 
make as to plans to maintain agricultural production in this area? 
How would you replace these alien producers? 

Mr. Spangler. Well, to respond intelligently to that question, one 
should know what percentage of the properties arc operated or owned 
by the Japanese citizenry. In the absence of that, my statement 
would have to be rather general. In the fii'st place, that is a rather 
seasonal matter. It is axiomatic that it should be very promptly 
accomplished, because for the most part, the season presently will be 
so far advanced that in many instances the property could no longer 
be utilized, at least, not to its full benefit, because the seasonal 
planting would have advanced too far. 

I had thought but casualty concerning it, but it seems to me that 
it would not be difficult unless, again, the evacuation were too hasty, 
to find those who were not competent or capable to serve the country 
in other capacities. That is persons of advanced years who are beyond 
the draft age that might have the experience and be willing to under- 
take the operation of these agricultural properties which are, for the 
most part, garden properties. 

Mr. Arnold. It was testified here that, for the most part, these are 
small gardens and operated by family groups. In your experience as 
a banker, you haven't found many large Japanese operators in this 
area? 

Mr. Spangler. No, sir. 

Mr. Arnold, Have you any suggestions as to where 6vacu6es could 
be resettled? 

resettlement of evacuees 

Mr. Spangler, No, sir; I wouldn't venture to make a suggestion, 
I should think, however, not having given it any consideration pre- 
viously — one of those who testified made some suggestion about just 
west of the mountains; that is to say, to evacuate from west of the 
mountains to east of the mountains, 

Mr. Arnold, That is right, 

Mr, Spangler. I think that has some objections. Among the 
objections are that there is lots of tunber over there. There are 
several very important power projects east of the mountains. I 
should think, if you are going to evacuate at all, send them to the 
interior. 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, the situation might be different in eastern 
California. 

Mr. Spangler. Quite so. 

Mr. Arnold. Or in parts of eastern Oregon; but here in eastern 
Washington, you think that those factors that you have mentioned 
should be taken into consideration? 

Mr. Spangler. Yes, sir. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11421 

FINDS IT DIFFICULT TO UNDERSTAND JAPANESE 

Mr.. Arnold. Would you care to express your opinion as to whether 
citizen Japanese as well as alien Japanese should be included in any 
evacuation order? . . , , 

Mr. Sp ANGLER. I do not object to expressing my opinion, with the 
qualification that it is only an opinion, and I do not claim to be a 
competent authorit3^ From my own experience and observation, I 
have found it exceedingly difficult to divine the oriental. By that I 
mean apparentlv their mental processes may not be identical with 
our own. Reference has been made to the German and Italian 
aliens. We here on the coast — I think I am correct in including the 
whole coast — are more disposed to consider the Japanese as a problem 
for the reason that they, differing from the Germans and Italians, 
remain in blocs, so to speak. They preserve a group identity which 
you will not find generally to be the case with the other nationahties. 
Therefore, I think that we are more disposed to think of them, not 
only in terms of numbers, but in their adhesiveness as groups. L 
would be very loath to think that a vast number of friends of mine 
who are Japanese, who have been living here for many years, some 
of them — and many of them are citizens — I should be very loath to 
believe that any considerable number of them lack loyalty to the 
extent of being a dangerous element to the Government. At the 
same time, I perhaps should confess that I have very scant, and 
perhaps not sufficient, basis for knowing which is the correct inter- 
pretation; that is, whether or not you can rely upon them. In the 
organization with which I am connected, we have had a Japanese 
there for, I think, 30 years. He is not with us now. I cannot con- 
ceive of him being other than reliable. At the same time, I can't 
divine the character. 

EVACUATION AS PROTECTION TO JAPANESE 

Mr. Arnold. Evacuation, if it takes place, will be as much for the 
protection of the Japanese and other aliens themselves, especially 
the Japanese? 

Mr. Spagnler. I think that is very important, sir, because the 
American people are somewhat emotional, and it is conceivable that 
under the stress and strain of war incidents, that action might not 
always be controlled. I am speaking of group or mob action. I 
think that it would be distinctly to the advantage of both those who 
are evacuated and the communities from which they are evacuated. 

Mr. Arnold. I think that is all. 

Mr. Curtis. If I understand you correctly, Mr. Spangler, you 
recognize the overwhelming problem it would be to separate the 
dangerous from the nondangerous Japanese citizens, do you not? 

Mr. Spangler. Yes, su\ 

Mr. Curtis. And that, perhaps, for the benefit of all concerned, 
including the Japanese, they should be treated as a group and not 
risk separation in setting up the method of evacuation? 

Mr. Spangler. That is my opinion, in view of the position in 
which this Nation now is. 

Mr. Curtis. I think, Mr. Spangler, we appreciate your frankness 
about it. I think it should be said for the benefit of Mr. Spangler 



11422 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

and many others, that we are all aware that that will involve some 
mighty fine people who are 100 percent loyal; but considermg all the 
factors, many people have arrived at the same conclusion as has Mr. 

Spangler. , >r o i i. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. bpangler, tor appear- 
ing here this morning. 

Mr. Spangler. Thank you for the opportunity. 

The Chairman. Mr. Oles. 

Mr. Oles. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF FLOYD OLES, MANAGER, WASHINGTON PRODUCE 
SHIPPERS' ASSOCIATION, SEATTLE, WASH. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Oles, can you tell us approximately the number 
of Japanese and aliens of other nationalities engaged in farming in 
this State? 

Mr. Oles. I have submitted a formal statement to the committee. 

Mr. Curtis. Yes; we have that, and it will be printed in full. 

STATEMENT BY FLOYD OLES, MANAGER, WASHINGTON PRODUCE 
SHIPPERS' ASSOCIATION, SEATTLE, WASH. 

This statement is in response to the suggestion made that the writer prepare 
such a statement for inclusion in the records of your committee on the question 
of alien control on the west coast. The writer's comment is, of course, confined 
to the State of Washington and the conditions there. 

ALIEN POPULATION 

There are in western Washington 5,447 Japanese aliens, of whom 1,866 have 
been found by survey of the unemployment compensation and placement division 
to be working on farms. Including their children, who are American citizens, 
it is estimated that there are about 5,000 Japanese altogether working on farms 
in western Washington. The principal Japanese area in eastern or central 
Washington is in the Yakima Valley, where there are about 750 Japanese alto- 
gether working on farms, of whom 252 are known to be aliens. It is evident that 
about one-third of the agriculturally employed Japanese are aliens. 

As to Italians and Germans, there are 3,017 Italians and 2,254 German aliens 
in western Washington, according to R. P. Bonham, of the Bureau of Immigra- 
tion. Very few Germans are working on the soil. About one-fifth of the Italian 
aliens are believed to be working on farms. 

EFFECT ON AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY 

The evaluation of the eflfect upon our agricultural economy of the evacuation 
of these aliens appears to be one of the points of interest to this committee. 
Any such evaluation would, of course, be gravely affected by the kind of evacua- 
tion, whether or not it included all enemy aliens or only Japanese, and whether or 
not it included second-generation Japanese, all of which questions appear to be 
undetermined at this time. If only the alien Japanese are evacuated, the sta- 
tistical effect may be quite readily estimated from the above figures. The 
effect upon the production of crops, however, is probably much more serious than 
would be indicated by the above statistics. 

In the Yakima Valley the vegetable crops grown by the Japanese community 
include primarily lettuce, tomatoes, cantaloups, and other early vegetables. 
They are already considerably impeded by inability to secure usual credit from 
business firms and banks. I have conferred with the bankers involved at some 
length, and find that their stand-off attitude is due to doubt as to the evacuation 
policy of the Government. Both in western Washington and central Wash- 
ington it would be very helpful if a definitive statement of policy were made as 
soon as possible. In fact, if such a policy is not enunciated at once, a great deal 
of the usual agricultural production will not take place. There is no source of 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11423 

substitute farm labor available which could be arranged for in time materially 
to affect 1942 production. 

Land ownership by Japanese in this area is extremely limited, most of the land 
they are farming being on lease from others. Italians on the other hand are to a 
large extent owners of land, though this ownership is principally confined to 
citizen Italians. Noncitizen Italians and Japanese for the most part are simply 
workers on lands owned or leased by others. 

EXTENSION OP CREDIT 

Normal credit arrangements available to alien farmers and second-generation 
Japanese come both from the banks and from fertilizer firms, supply houses in 
other lines, shippers, and processors. Of the three banks that largely serve the 
agricultural areas where these people operate, two have clamped down pretty 
tightly on all credits to Japanese and Italian aliens and to Japanese-American 
citizens. One of them, the National Bank of Washington, has continued fairly 
normal operations in the matter of loaning to farmers regardless of citizenship, 
but when taking on new accounts has required an endorsement from the shipper 
or processor who will handle the produce of the farm in question. Restriction of 
bank credit in the Yakima Valley has had a somewhat more serious effect. Exten- 
sion of credit with respect to fertilizer and seed in Western Washington has been 
carried on by shippers and processors to an extent that, barring an evacuation, 
can produce pretty close to a normal crop insofar as it is affected by available 
credit. The only continuing deterrent at the moment is increasing doubt amongst 
those extending the credit as to the attitude of the Government on evacuation of 
aliens and citizen Japanese from agricultural areas. This again emphasizes the 
need for prompt determination of that point. 

Agricultural products of these areas are marketed through cooperative societies 
and shippers as to the fresh market, and through a number of processing, freezing, 
and canning plants as to materials grown for processing. All of these outlets are 
functioning and available. In the event of evacuation they would, of course 
suffer a very severe loss, probably running into the hundreds of thousands of 
dollars. This loss would be borne in large part by shippers, processors, and in a 
lesser measure by the one bank which is carrying out its usual functions despite 
the current situation. There would, of course, be a drastic curtailment of rail- 
road movement, since the vast majority of this material moves by rail. 

1942 CROPS 

It has been suggested that other groups may be willing to farm land left by the 
Japanese and Italians. As to 1942 crops, it is much too late to discuss any such 
arrangement at this time. Evacuation of the Japanese and Italians would 
remove the only available farm labor which could be had in sufficient quantity to 
accomplish very much in the way of agricultural production. Farming in this 
area is largely done by independent, small operators, quite unlike the large-scale 
corporation farming done in California and elsewhere. Farmers here do their 
own work in large measure, as to the planting and production care, large-scale 
employment of outside or other labor being used mainly in harvest. Most of the 
harvest labor comes from the local communities, much of it from school children, 
and this would still be available, particularly after school is out. It should be 
emphasized again that it is quite useless even to discuss the possibility of having 
others farm these lands at this late date, at least as to 1942 crops. 

In western Washington the alien Japanese and Italians in the farming business 
are largely located in King and Pierce Counties; the overwhelming majority in 
King County. Both here and in the Yakima Valley, as to vegetable crops for 
canning, freezing, and the fresh market, I would estimate, I think conservatively, 
that about 70 to 80 percent of such crops are grown by Japanese and Italians. 
The earliest of these crops is lettuce, which starts moving into the local markets 
here early in May, and is ready for carlot shipment to the East late in May. The 
plants are grown under glass and there is apparently an adequate supply of such 
plants now under glass and ready for transplanting. However, the transplanting 
must take place between now and the 10th of March or it will be too late, I have 
examined the situation personally and find many of the plants already oversize. 
Transplanting is not being done to any great extent because of lack of a definite 
policy on the part of the Government as to evacuation. If these people could be 
told whether or not they are to remain on the soil, they could be prevailed upon 
quite readih' either to get to work or get off. I feel that it is a major mistake on 



11424 • PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

the part of Federal authorities to fail to take definite action and to give it adequate 
publicity at once. 

The next crop in order will be peas, closely followed by cauliflower, cabbage, 
and incidental crops. During the period from late May until the middle of July 
this area is the principal United States source of fresh peas. It is also one of 
two major sources for cauliflower. It is one of the principal sources of fresh peas 
for canning and freezing purposes. About 2,000 carloads of these commodities 
go into eastern markets, and into markets up and down the coast during our 
season. Probably about that much goes into the local markets in this State 
and into the Armv camps. Furnishing the Army and Navy is, of course, becom- 
ing a much larger outlet all the time. While it is a little difficult to estimate the 
canning and freezing outlet on the same basis, it is altogether likely that the equiva- 
lent of a similar amount goes into those two outlets. It is somewhat hard also to 
estimate the value of this material, but it is certain that it runs into several millions 
of dollars in a normal season. 

The planting of peas will have to be completed by the middle of March if we 
are to have a crop. Transplanting of lettuce will have to be undertaken and com- 
pleted within the next 10 days from the writing of this letter, if we are to have a 
crop. Planting of cauliflower will have to take place within the next 2 or 3 weeks 
if we are to have a crop. The items of cabbage and celery can be somewhat de- 
ferred, but are ordinarily planted from May on through to July. 

COMBATTING HYSTERIA 

The writer, as manager of the Washington Producer Shippers Association, an 
over-all cooperative group handling standardization and other regulation of the 
shipping of vegetables from this area, has been using every endeavor to encourage 
aliens of all kinds to remain on the soil and keep at work. I believe that this action 
on the writer's part has had a large measure of effect in stabilizing the situation 
and keeping these people busy. It is becoming increasingly difficult to keep them 
at work in view of the hysteria and fear psychosis which seems to have gripped the 
people of the coast, concentrating their attention more on our local aliens and their 
children than on the war itself. If this could be terminated by a firm and definite 
statement of Government policy it would be a very fine thing for all concerned^ 

ECONOMIC WASTE IN WHOLESALE EVACUATION 

It is the writer's belief that these aliens, supervised as they are by the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation, or as they may be by additional administrative or 
legislative provisions, are certainly no detriment to the public security when they 
are digging in the soil in agricultural areas. On the contrary, they are producing 
food, and food is something we need in abundance and without needless interrup- 
tion. If a way can be found by your committee to give some assurance of con- 
tinued agricultural production, under conditions which do not put the public 
security in jeopardy, you will be making a very great contribution to our common 
defen.se effort. 

It is my understanding that there has already been suggested, by a committee of 
Congressmen and Senators representing the Pacific coast, what would seem to be 
a rational solution of the entire problem. As I understand it, this involves making 
the coast, or most of the coast area, a restricted defense zone of some kind, and 
providing for the evacuation therefroin of all civilians save only those found upon 
proper investigation to be both essential and loyal. Adequate facilities for the 
determination of these classifications are, of course, available through the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation and the Department of Justice. This would probably 
involve licensing of all those civilians who remain here, but the resulting difficulties 
of investigation and licensing would be amply repaid by the added public security, 
improvement of public inorale, and the continuance of essential activities such 
as agriculture. Wholesale evacuation and termination of the productive activities 
of aliens and their children would be, in the words of Attorney General Biddle, 
"an economic waste and a stupid error." 

I want to pay a special tribute to the Department of Justice and the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation for the effective way in which they have handled this 
situation to date. They know exactly what they are doing, and they are doing a 
very fine and efficient job. I feel that public morale would be greatly improved if 
the efficiency and thoroughness of these agencies could be brought more forcibly 
to the attention of the pubic than has been done to date. Moreover, public 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11425 

confidence in our Federal agencies would be improved, and certainly the work 
they are doing deserves public confidence and respect in the highest degree. 

I may add that the fact of this committee's investigation and the thorough 
way in which it seems to be going about its task is one of the most hopeful things 
on the horizon at this time. If this can result in such an arrangement as wiU 
permit continued agricultural production while at the same time continuing 
adequate safeguards of the public security, your committee will have performed 
a very great public service. 
Yours sincerely, 

Floyd Oles. 

TESTIMONY OF FLOYD OLES— Resumed 

Mr. Oles. I don't have the figures as to the number of Japanese 
and other aHen farmers for the State of Washington as a whole, but 
only for western Washington, with which I am primarily concerned. 

I would like to say one other thing in this connection: I have heard 
myself introduced as chairman of the agricultural committee of the 
defense commission. I want to make it clear that your letter to me 
requesting my presence was directed to me as an individual, and 
that I am here as an individual, and not representing the defense 
commission in any sense. 

Mr. Curtis. What is your business, Mr. Oles? 

Mr. Oles. I am manager of the Washington Produce Shippers 
Association; also of the Washington State Taxpayers' Association. 

Mr. Curtis. What is this Washington Shippers Association? 

MARKETING COOPERATIVE 

Mr. Oles. It is an overall cooperative group engaged in the market- 
ing in eastern markets of fresh produce that is grown in this area. 

Mr. Curtis. In western Washington? 

Mr. Oles. In western Washington. 

Mr. Curtis. By produce you mean primarily vegetables and fruits? 

Mr. Oles. That is right. "^ 

Mr. Curtis. Is it a cooperative? 

Mr. Oles. It is a nonprofit corporation which is operated on a 
cooperative basis. 

Mr. Curtis. The people participating in this are Japanese and 
Americans? 

Mr. Oles. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. What percentage of your membership is made up of 
Japanese — that is, Japanese people, both citizens and aliens? 

Mr. Oles. I think that there are about 9 or 10 shipping organiza- 
tions at this time — or, rather, there have been that many in the last 
previous year, 1941, and of those, I think 5 are Japanese organizations. 
They are cooperative societies of citizen Japanese. 

Mr. Curtis. Your organization is an organization of the local units 
of cooperatives? 

Mr. Oles. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. How many farmers are in this over-all picture of your 
organization? 

Mr. Oles. Of the farmers themselves; it is a little difficult to say. 

Mr. Curtis. Approximately? 

Mr. Oles. I would say about 2,500. 



11426 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. And what proportion of those are Japanese, both 
citizens and ahens? 

Mr. Oles. Probably three-fourths of them. 

Mr. Curtis. What are the crops grown by the Japanese? 

Mr. Oles. Largely lettuce, peas, cauliflower, celery, cabbage, and 
quite a lot of root crops. Also, to a considerable extent, although 
not in our concern as an organization, are berries, 

Mr. Curtis. Where do you ship to? 

Mr. Oles. To all of the eastern markets. They go, largely, east 
of Chicago during our season. 

Mr. Curtis. Are they shipped by rail? 

Mr. Oles. Almost entirely by rail, because of the distance. 

position in NATIONAL MARKET 

Mr. Curtis. Do you know to what extent you fill the national 
market in this area here? 

Mr. Oles. In the season during which we ship, we are one of two 
major sources of supply for most of those commodities, and with 
regard to peas, the major source. 

The other source of supply during that season is southern Idaho. 
There is no other source of supply, save those, of any consequence. 

With regard to cauliflower, we are one of two major sources during 
our season; the other being Oregon. With regard to lettuce, we are 
always a very small factor, because California has the bulk of that. 

Mr. Curtis. Are many of the Japanese farmers in King and Pierce 
Counties continuing their farming operations? 

Mr. Oles. They have continued up to this point. They have 
very largely continued preparations for this season. I have noticed 
in the last week or so, since this indecision and this doubtful situation 
has arisen, that there has been a slackening of effort. That is particu- 
larly true in the transplanting of lettuce. The plants are under glass 
and ready to be transplanted, and some of them are oversize, but the 
transplanting is not being done, due to doubt on the part of both the 
citizen Japanese and the aliens, as to whether they will be here for 
the harvest. 

Mr. Curtis. Is it affecting their credit? 

effect on credit 

Mr. Oles. Yes. There has been ample credit available to the 
Japanese. They are, by and large, good farmers, and I understand 
from the banks and supply houses of various kinds who extend them 
credit, that they have been good credit risks. It is usually done on 
the basis of a crop mortage, and those have been consistently good 
paper. However, because of the doubt as to their ability to harvest 
this year, and as to their retention in this area, their credit has been 
very drastically curtailed. Of the banks in the business, there are 
three major banlvs who extend credit to the Japanese farmers, and 
two of them have clamped down very tightly on credit, and are hardly 
extending any. The other one is continuing normal operations. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat are those three banks? 

Mr. Oles. The Peoples National Bank of Seattle, and the Seattle- 
First National Bank, whose vice president has just preceded me. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11427 

They have practically termmated credit to the Japanese. The 
National Bank of Washington, with headquarters in Tacoma, is 
apparently continuing normal operations. 

Mr. Curtis. Does your organization finance growing operations to 
members? 

Mr. Oles. No; they do not. Our members, however, do. 

Mr. Curtis. What do you mean by that? 

Mr. Oles. I mean the member cooperatives borrow from the 
banks and in turn finance their growers to some extent. The other 
financing of the growers comes through the supply houses, primarily 
fertilizer firms — many of whom are not this year extending such 
financing — and again, through some of the shippers — that is, the 
people who handle the products. Quite a large amount of financing 
has been done by, and continues to be done by, the shippers them- 
selves. 

JAPANESE FARM FAMILIES 

Mr. Curtis. Coming back to the figure that you cited. I believe 
you said your organization represented sort of an over-all picture of 
perhaps about 2,500 farmers. Do you mean by that, heads of 
families? 

Mr. Oles. Yes; I mean heads of families, and farmers actually 
having some interest in the crops themselves other than as workers. 

Mr. Curtis. About how many people are there in a Japanese 
family with the head of the family as a farmer? How many people 
would be engaged in agriculture, ordinarily? 

Mr. Oles. Well, the size of their families does not differ much from 
the families of Caucasian citizens in the same area, around four or 
five people in each family. 

Mr. Curtis. And at what age do the young women and the young 
men leave? 

Mr. Oles. Well; in the agricultural areas, for the most part, they 
don't leave; they have grown into a place where now a major portion 
of the production is in the hands of citizen Japanese. 

Mr. Curtis. So of 2,500 farmers, there may be four times that 
many people actually engaged in producing food? 

Mr. Oles. Well, that is possible. 

Mr. Curtis. At least a part of the time? 

Mr. Oles. At least a part of the time. I thinlv that we have 
estimated that there are somewhere around five to six thousand alien 
and citizen Japanese engaged in agriculture in western Wasliington, 
in one way or another. 

Mr. Curtis. In your statement submitted to the committee, we 
find this position taken by you: 

supervision of aliens 

It is the writer's belief that these aliens, supervised as they are by the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation or as they may be by additional administrative or legis- 
lative provisions, are certainly no detriment to the public security when they are 
digging in the soil in agricultural areas. 

How do you believe these people, living onscattered farms through- 
out the countryside could be adequately supervised? 



11428 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Oles. I don't think they are at the moment supervised in the 
sense of continuing surveillance. They have been thoroughly combed 
over by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, which, as a matter of 
fact, apprehended those whom it regarded as dangerous on the 
morning of December 8, following the outbreak of the war. 

I believe those that have been apprehended since that time have 
been largely rather stupid people who failed to turn in things like 
cameras and radios. The subversive ones that the F. B. I. had on its 
list were picked up very promptly, 

WOULD RETAIN ALIENS UNDER SUPERVISION 

When I say I feel that they could be supervised, I am going back 
to the suggestion made by Mayor Cain, of Tacoma, or, at least, quoted 
by him; that we have a need for this agricultural production which 
should be filled and yet the public security fully protected. If those 
evacuated from defense areas, such as are being established, were put 
on the soil in places such as we are discussing, in the agricultural 
areas, under whatever safeguards the Army and the Department of 
Justice found to be adequate, I haven't the slightest doubt that that 
could be done. 

As a matter of fact, even if it required the stationing — perhaps not 
altogether for the public security, but perhaps possibly for the public 
morale — of an armed guard at every third fence post, it would be 
weU repaid in the way of agricultural returns. 

Mr. Arnold. Don't you think that we have other places where our 
armed forces should serve rather than in guarding our own people? 

Mr. Oles. Yes; Mr. Arnold, and I would like to point out, if I may, 
an aspect of this problem that has apparently been forgotten by many 
people. 

BATTLE OF MORALE ON WEST COAST 

It seems pretty evident that the best battle the Japanese could win 
at this time would be a battle of morale on the Pacific coast. If suffi- 
cient jitters could be established here, by desultory shelling and by 
bringing about a public hysteria about our Japanese and other alien 
residents, to a degree where political pressure would be brought to 
bear on the Government to remove some of our forces from the Orient 
and bring them back here for the protection of the jittery populace, 
the Japanese would have won a battle that they would be a long time 
winning while our Navy and Army are over there knocking hell out 
of their lines of communication, which is what they are doing now 
quite successfully. 

I feel the public morale aspect of this thing is a matter of vital 
importance, and it reflects one more thing that I would like to men- 
tion, if I may have the chairman's permission. 

The Chairman. Go right ahead. 

Mr. Oles. This is quite aside from any interest that I have in the 
agricultural end of it. It reflects what to my mind is a very serious 
lack of public confidence in the Government. I have been in a posi- 
tion to know that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has done a most 
remarkable piece of work. It has not failed at any point. I hav e been 
in contact with it for a year. It was ahead of the game a long time. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11429 

When the war broke, it didn't waste 24 hours in taking the steps 
needed to protect the public security. 

PUBLIC HYSTERIA 

The attitude of the Government with respect to continued employ- 
ment and continued production has been stated forcefully and 
repeatedly by the President, by the Attorney General, and by the 
Secretary of War. The statement of February 14 by the Secretary 
of War and the Attorney General assuring the people on the west 
coast that the public security was well in hand, was not given any 
space whatsoever in any Seattle newspaper. We have been pushed 
around by a public hysteria which I seriously fear may not be emanat- 
ing wholly from friendly sources. I refer, for example, to a person 
calling himself a Korean superspy. Personally, after a generation of 
Japanese rule in Korea, I fail to distinguish between the Koreans 
and any other kind of Japanese. This was a man whom the papers 
told me themselves they had not checked at all as to his background, 
but he sets himself up as an adviser to the American people on how 
to conduct themselves regarding aliens. It seems to me when we 
ignore the attitude and expressed position of our national leaders and 
substitute for them suggestions that plainly emanate from enemy 
sources, that we have before us a serious condition of public morale 
that should have the attention of the Govermnenfc. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, coming back to the question that we were on 
a bit ago. By keeping these people on agricultural land, you mean 
the lands where they are now? 

Mr, Oles. Not altogether, because they will undoubtedly be 
removed from areas directly contiguous to defense plants. That has 
not, I think, been done yet, but I understand that it is being done. 

Mr. Curtis. How far do you suggest that they be moved? 

WOULD EVACUATE DANGEROUS ALIENS 

Mr. Oles. I am not suggesting. So far, they have been removed 
from only a very limited area; something like a thousand feet or so, 
which seems to me extremely inadequate. It seems to me they 
certainly should be removed to a distance where there would be no 
possible connection between them and defense plants. I am not 
meaning only Japanese when I say this at all — because our preoccupa- 
tion with the Japanese is another evidence that we seem to regard our 
enemies as being extremely stupid people, which they probably are 
not. The best, the most effective agents that our enemies could 
secure would not be people already under suspicion and liable to 
immediate incarceration. I thinlv that we should have that in mind. 
Any move made, I earnestly hope, will be made with respect, not only 
to Japanese and aliens of all kinds, but also with respect, as the 
President's order permits, to any person under suspicion or doubtful 
in any way. I am heartily in favor of evacuation of all persons about 
whom there is the slightest question, of all citizens about whom the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation has the slightest doubt, from any 
area close to defense plants or defense installations. 



11430 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. But you do not concur in the recommendation of a 
mass evacuation being made? 

Mr. Oles. No, I do not. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think that it is possible to separate the loyal 
from the dangerous citizen Japanese? 

SECURED MORE CONTRABAND FROM GERMAN ALIENS 

Mr. Oles. I think one can do it with the Japanese to precisely the 
same extent that we can do it with any other citizens, and no more. 
I — and there is some reason behind my belief — believe that it is going 
to be extremely difficult to separate loyal from disloyal citizens, quite 
aside from their racial characteristics or background. I think that 
we have that problem in- this area. It was touched upon somewhat 
by Mayor Millikin. I think we have a problem that probably tran- 
scends the difficulties of the Japanese situation very considerably in 
this area. I might call to the attention of the committee that in one 
raid here in this town, the F. B. I. secured more contraband and more 
dangerous contraband from a gi'oup of German aliens than they have 
collected altogether from all of the Japanese since the war started. 

I think a little further attention to some of our real problems in 
this connection would be helpful. 

Mr, Curtis. Do you subscribe to the view that it might be danger- 
ous to the Japanese themselves not to evacuate them? 

THREAT TO ALL ASIATICS IN EVENT OF INVASION 

Mr. Oles. There is that possibility. I can see one point where we 
have to give very thoughtful consideration to evacuation. That is 
the point that would be involved in the event of an actual invasion 
here, or the immediate threat of one. There is the situation where, 
if we had parachute troops dumped upon us, it would be impossible 
to distinguish local, and perhaps loyal Japanese, from the invaders. 
But I might also point out that it would be equally impossible to 
distinguish Filipinos and Chinese from the invaders, so it seems to me 
that that was probably pretty well thought out by the committee of 
Congressmen from the coast when they made the recommendation 
they did to the President, and that the President's order, which I 
understand was at their suggestion, has covered the situation pretty 
thoroughly. Anyway, any time the Army feels now that there is the 
imminence of any such situation, they are in a position, for their own 
protection and for the public security, to remove, not only Japanese, 
but anybody and everybody from any zones they choose. 

It seems to me the President has pretty well met this problem 
already. 

Mr. Curtis. But there is the possibility that there could be mob 
violence in case of invasion, parachute troops, or otherwise, if they were 
aided or assisted by a small handful of Japanese? That would im- 
mediately become very dangerous for all the Japanese, would it not? 

Mr. Oles. I think that is undoubtedly true, but I have in mind, 
also, and I repeat again, that that is equally true of the Chinese, be- 
cause you nor I nor anyone can distinguish between and among them. 
To a very large extent, it is impossible to distinguish certain types of 
Filipinos from other orientals. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11431 

Mr. CtJRTis. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Mr. Ai-nold? 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Oles, do you have any information from the 
F. B. I. that they have picked up all of the subversive aliens, Japanese 
or German or Italian? 

Mr. Oles. I am in no position to quote the F. B. I. You must 
understand that. And in saying what I say, I am merely repeating 
the definite impression given me, without quoting anybody, and that 
is that they have picked up all of the Japanese ahens whom they 
believe to be dangerous. That doesn't necessarily apply to the other 
nationalities, because those are much more difficult to distinguish 
and find. 

Mr. Arnold. And you would not know, of your own knowledge, 
whether or not they have apprehended all of the subversive or 
disloyal Japanese? 

Mr. Oles. No, I don't think that even they would know that, 
although they would probably come closer to it than most of us have 
any idea they have. 

DISLOYAL AMERICANS 

Mr. Arnold. I thought that you were going to say a while ago that 
there were American citizens other than Japanese-Americans who are 
not behind us in this war effort; that is, in this area. Do you have 
many of them here? 

Mr. Oles. I think we do. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you mean after the way we were attacked in Pearl 
Harbor, there are still those in this area who doubt that we need to 
be at war? 

Mr. Oles. I don't thinlv that is the issue. I think that we have dis- 
loyal elements in this city — I don't know how many other places we 
have them — who are in a position to hide behind the cloak of citizen- 
ship and wave the flag and stand upon their constitutional rights. I 
think those people are the most dangerous we have, for the reason that 
they are able to wave the flag, and because they would be the most 
useful to the enemy. 

Mr. Arnold. Are they necessarily of German or Italian extraction? 

Mr. Oles. Not necessarily at aU. I have felt it a duty to report 
such matteis to the F. B. I. direct where they have c'ome to my 
attention, and I have done so. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Oles. Is there any- 
thing else you desire to say? 

Mr. Oles. Yes; there is another thing: I don't know that it is a 
controlling factor, and yet I suggest it for the committee's consider- 
ation. 

I think that we should put first things first, and I do not want to 
be misunderstood about this. The first thing is the public security 
above anything and everything. Quite a secondary consideration is 
the matter of this agricultural production. Nevertheless, it seems to 
me that we should not quite ignore it, and that we should have in 
mind that if we may continue this production and still adequately 
provide for the public security, then we have performed a double 
patriotic service at one time. 



11432 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARESTCS 

MOTIVES BEHIND INSISTENCE ON EVACUATION 

Now, there is another angle of this thing that I must call to your 
attention, and I didn't mention it in my written statement. I have 
been approached by quite a number of interests who have a commer- 
cial motive in seeking the evacuation of the Japanese. 

In this area, farming is done, as you have already discovered, by 
small individual farmers — independent farmers. In our largest com- 
peting area in California, the major portion of the production is in 
the hands of farming corporations who do busmess on a grand scale. 
As one of them explained it to me on the phone the other day, "You 
people have been a pin prick in our back for a long time up there, with 
your small production, and we think now we can get rid of you." 

Whether that is a large or small issue, or activating motive, I think 
that it should not be overlooked, because I receive in the mail every 
day now, from these people in California, considerable volumes of 
propaganda on this point, eagerly seeking evacuation for commercial 
reasons. 

Now, let me say it again, the last thing I want to say, Mr. Chair- 
man, that one should balance very carefully the question of agricul- 
tural production against the question of public security; and I feel 
that your committee is in a very crucial position to balance these 
issues and come forth with a solution which will preserve as much of 
the agricultural production as can be saved, with complete regard for 
the public security. 

The Chairman. Thank you verv much, Mr. Oles. Anv questions, 
Mr. Arnold? 

TELEGRAM FROM CIVILIAN DEFENSE COUNCIL 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Chairman, I have a telegram sent to the Tolan 
committee reading as follows, and I wish to insert it in the record at 
this point: 

The Bainbridge Island Civilian Defense Council recommends that all enemy 
aliens and American-born Japanese be removed from Bainbridge Island at once 
in the interests of national security. This resolution was passed at a defense 
council meeting held February 25, 1942, at Winslow, Wash. 

It is signed by Robert B. Rodal, district coordinator for civilian 
defense. 

The Chairman. This Commission wishes to thank the county 
commissioners and Mr. Kennedy, their clerk, for making this room 
available to us. They agreed to hold theu* monthly meeting else- 
where so that we could use their meeting room. We certainly ap- 
preciate their cooperation very much. 

However, w^e have found that this building is closely guarded on 
Saturday afternoon. The Army kindly made arrangements for us to 
continue here; but we were able to make other arrangements, so that 
they would not have this additional duty. We are meeting after 
lunch in the fifth-floor courtroom of the Federal Courthouse at Fifth 
and Spring. The afternoon hearmg will open at 2 o'clock, and this 
committee will recess until that time. 

(Whereupon, at 11:50 a. m. a noon recess was taken until 2 p. m. to 
reconvene in the fifth-floor courtroom of the Federal Courthouse, 
Fifth and Spring, Seattle.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 28, 1942 
afternoon session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. Con- 
gi-essman Cm'tis, do you desire to enter something in the record? 
Mr. Curtis. Mrs. Dale J. Marble has submitted this statement: 

We, the executive committee of the Seattle Council of Parent-Teacher Asso- 
ciations, are in favor of direct action by the Government toward the evacuation 
from this State of all aliens, and the American-born children of all aliens, whose 
home government are at war with the United States, as a protective measure fo 
all children. 

Respectfully yours, 

Mary F. Hoffman, 
Corresponding Secretary. 

Mrs. Marble states that she is president of the Seattle Council of 
Parent-Teacher Associations, and resides at 8316 Dayton Avenue, 
Seattle, Wash. She also states that the council represents 111 units, 
or a total membership of 18,000. 

The Chairman. Mr. Fueker. 

Mr. Fueker. Yes; Mr. Chairman. 

TESTIMONY OF FRED FUEKER, DEPARTMENT ADJUTANT^ 
AMERICAN LEGION 

Mr, Curtis. If you will give your name to the reporter, please. 

Mr. Fueker. Fred M. Fueker, State adjutant of the American 
Legion. 

Mr. Curtis. And where do you live, Mr. Fueker? 

Mr. Fueker. Seattle. 

Mr. Curtis. Has the American Legion taken a position on the 
problem of alien evacuation, Mr. Fueker? 

Mr. Fueker. They have, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. How was that conclusion arrived at? Did they have 
a convention? Tell the committee about it, please. 

Mr. Fueker. The national commissions of the American Legion — 
consisting of the national defense, the naval affairs, merchant marine, 
aeronautic, and civil defense — at a meeting held in Washington, D. C., 
on January 19 to 21, inclusive, of this year, adopted this resolution: 

Calling for immediate action by the Government in evacuating and interning 
all enemy aliens and nationals in combat zones, such as the Pacific coast and other 
critical areas. 

11433 



11434 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARENGS 

They, being a national organization, composed of the national com- 
missions, with the authority of the national organization, have passed 
such a resolution. We, of course, have carried it on down through the 
States. We had no convention, of course, since in Milwaukee in 
September. 

Air. Curtis. But you appear now as the representative of that 
organization? 

Mr. FuEKER. The State department. 

Mr. Curtis. The State department? 

Mr. FuEKER. The Washington State Department; yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Fueker, we would be very pleased if you would 
proceed in your own way and touch such points in regard to evacua- 
tion and who should be evacuated, together with any such suggestions 
as you have to make, and then I may ask you some further questions, 

Mr. Fueker. Well, sir, I have resolutions here to be read into the 
record, from a number of posts of the American Legion, from Belling- 
ham, Tacoma, Bremerton, Toppenish, Granite Falls, several in Seattle, 
Spokane, Port Angeles, Yakima, Elma, Grandview, Concrete, We- 
natchee, Richmond, Longview, Cashmere, Auburn, Kennewick, 
Bothell, Kelso, Zillah, all pertaining to the evacuation of aliens. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have a copy of those? 

Mr. Fueker. I have a copy of those; yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Will you give them to the reporter? 

(The following resolutions were presented and accepted for the 
record:) 

The American Legion, Department of Washington 

The following national commissions of the American Legion — national defense, 
naval affairs, merchant marine, aeronautics, and civil defense — at a meeting held 
in Washington, D. C, January 19 to 21, inclusive, 1942, adopted the following 
resolution unanimouslj- : 

resolution 

Calling for immediate action by the Government in evacuating and interning 
all enemy aliens and nationals in combat zones, such as the Pacific coast and other 
critical areas. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas bitter experience has already taught us that subversive fifth column 
activity and sabotage by alien Japanese residing in United States Territories and 
possessions has been of material assistance to our enemies and considerable damage 
to our country and its welfare; and 

Whereas it is believed that the Pacific coast area of the United States, with 
its many vital war industries, is ever in danger of attack by our enemies; and 

Whereas alien Japanese now residing in this area are in such large numbers as 
to make impractical, if not impossible, the task of adequate supervision, as a 
result of which fact such aliens are now largely unrestricted in their movements 
and actions and constitute a grave menace to our welfare and prosperitv, partic- 
ularly so in case of attack ; and 

_ Whereas it is believed that a plan similar to that now under serious considera- 
tion in Canada should be adopted for operation in the United States: Now, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, by Albert J. Hamilton Post, No. 7 of the American Legion, That the 
national executive committee, State commander, and adjutant and our State 
department of the Legion be hereby urged to use its best efforts to the end that 
a plan be adopted at the earliest possible date and be put into effect in the United 
States removing all alien Japanese from the Pacific coast area to inland points 
into concentration camps, or otherwise there placed under effective supervision 
for the duration of the present war. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11435 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of 
the Albert J. Hamilton Post, No. 7, the American Legion, BeUingham, Wash., 
this 26th day of January 1942. 

J. Harold Stevenson, 

Post Commander. 
Attest: 

S. E. RuGG, Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas the best efforts of all Americans will be used to constant capacity 
to pursue this war that has so ruthlessly been forced upon us; and 

Whereas any impairments of our best efforts by saboteurs would be costly in 
time and blood; and 

Whereas this west coast is almost a continuous network of defense industries, 
and numerous enemy alien residents in this same area, among whom some con- 
stitute a definite menace to our defense production: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, by Edward B. Rhodes Post No. 2, the American Legion, assembled in 
regular session this 2d day of February 1942, That we commend the efforts of our 
Congressmen and Members of the Senate in their support of the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation and other authorities in the speedy round-up of the dangerous 
enemy aliens and their segregation in concentration areas, and thereby relieve our 
people of this physical and mental hazard. 

B. B. BussELLE, Post Commander. 

Attest: 

Harry J. C. Berg, Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of W^ashington 
resolution 

At a regular meeting of Bremerton Post, No. 149, the American Legion, Depart- 
ment of Washington, the following resolution was duly made, seconded, and 
carried, to wit: 

Whereas a vast population of Japanese are now residing within the west coast 
area of the United States of America, and it is impossible to segregate the loyal 
Japanese from the disloyal Japanese; and 

Whereas the experiences of other invaded nations have shown conclusively 
that the invading forces were materially assisted by forces within the territory 
invaded; and 

Whereas the recent attack upon Pearl Harbor was a glaring example of Japanese 
trickery and indicative of the disastrous results that may be obtained by fifth- 
column activities operating in conjunction with the enemy from without; and 

Whereas the preservation of the security of the west coast area of the United 
States of America and of the security of the whole of the United States is jeopard- 
ized by reason of the presence of any Japanese within said coastal area; and 

Whereas the rights of an individual during the present conflict are secondary 
to the security and preservation of the Nation as a whole; and 

Whereas the removal of the Japanese aliens from coast defense areas is not 
sufficient to insure against sabotage and fifth-column activities along the west 
coast, and to secure the careful protection to these United States which is de- 
manded by every deserving citizen thereof: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the proper governmental authorities of these United States 
take prompt and efficient measures for the removal of all Japanese from the west 
coast area of the United States of America; and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be transmitted to the headquarters 
of the Department of Washington, and that the adjutant thereof notify the 
various posts throughout the State of Washington pertaining to the action of this 
post on said resolution. 

Dated at Bremerton, Wash., this 2d day of February 1942. 

R. W. Miller, Post Commander. 

Attest: 

E. U. Degarimore, Post Adjutan* 

60396 — 42— pt. 30 10 



11436 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

The American Legiox, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas a large number of enemy aliens and American-born Japanese are now 
residing in the Pacific coast and central Washington areas of the United States of 
America; and 

Whereas it is necessarj- for the preservation of the lives and property of loyal 
Americans against sabotage and fifth column activities: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the proper governmental authorities of these United States take 
prompt and efficient measures for the internment of all Japanese aliens and of all 
other enemy aliens suspected of being disloyal to the United States of America; 
and be it further 

Resolved, That the proper governmental authorities of these United States im- 
mediately take the necessary steps which will permit the internment of all Ameri- 
can-born Japanese now residing in the Pacific coast and central Washington areas 
of the United States of America; and be it further 

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to The American Legion, De- 
partment of Washington, and to all Members of the Congress (Representatives 
and Senators) from the State of Washington. 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of 
Malcolm Crabtree Post, Xo. 50, the American Legion, Toppenish, Wash., this 3d 
day of February. 1942. 

Freeman Barkuloo, 

Post Commander. 

Attest : 

Ungell Iverson, 

Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Granite Falls Post, Xo. 125, the American Legion, Department of Washington, 
regularly convened, adopted the following resolution as presented: 

Whereas the protection of the people and defenses of the Pacific coast must be 
protected at any cost; and 

Whereas foreign aliens residing in the defense areas constitute a danger to our 
coastal defense: Therefore be it 

Resolved, That Granite Falls Post, Xo. 125, Granite Falls, Wash., Department 
of Washington, the American Legion, urge the Xational Defense Committee to 
take action toward having said aliens removed from coastal defense areas. 

Unanimously passed February 3, 1942. 

Howard H. Strock, 

Post Comviander 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 

resolution 

Whereas, the United States of America is at war with the Japanese Empire and 
our experience has been already that subversive, fifth-column activity and sabot- 
age by both alien Japanese and American-born Japanese residing in the LTnited 
States, particularly in the Pacific coast area, has been of material assistance to 
our enemy and considerable damage to our country and its determination to win 
this war; and 

Whereas we believe that the Pacific coast area of the United States with its 
many vital war industries is in danger of attack by our enemy, the Japanese 
Empire; and 

Whereas all Japanese aliens and American-born Japanese that are now resid- 
ing in this area are in such large numbers as to make it difficult for the authorities 
to determine whether or not thej' are loyal to the United States; and 

Whereas we believe that a plan similar to that now under serious consideration 
in the State of California should be adopted for immediate action, placing all 
Japanese aliens and American-born Japanese into concentration camps: Xow, 
therefore, be it 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11437 

Resolved, by the Rizal Post, No. H2, of the American Legion, That the national 
executive committee, State commander and adjutant, and our State department 
of the American Legion be hereby urged to use its best efforts to the end that a 
plan be adopted at the earliest possible date and be put into effect in the United 
States removing all Japanese aliens and American-born Japanese from the Pacific 
coast into concentration camps for the duration of the war. 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of the 
Rizal Post, No. 142, the American Legion, Seattle, Wash, this 8th day of February 
1942. 

John S. Ayamo, Post Commander. 

Attest: 

Jesus Yambao, Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas bitter experience has already taught us that subersive fifth-column 
activity and sabotage by alien Japanese residing in United States territories and 
possessions has been of material assistance to our enemies and considerable damage 
to our country and its welfare; and 

Whereas it is believed that the Pacific coast area of the United States with its 
many vital war industries is ever in danger of attack by our enemies; and 

Whereas alien Japanese now residing in this area are in such large numbers as 
to make impractical, if not impossible, the task of adequate supervision, as a 
result of which fact such aliens are now largely unrestricted in their movements 
and actions and constitute a grave menace to our welfare and prosperity, partic- 
ularlv so in case of attack; and 

Whereas it is believed that a plan similar to that now under serious considera- 
tion in Canada should be adopted for operation in the United States: Now, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, by the board of trustees, Spokane Post No. 9, the American Legion, That 
the national executive committee. State commander and adjutant and our State 
Department of the Legion be hereby urged to use its best efforts to the end that 
a plan be adopted at the earliest possible date and be put into effect in the United 
States removing all alien Japanese from the Pacific coast area to inland points 
into concentration camps, or otherwise there placed under effective supervision 
for the duration of the present war. 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of the 
board of trustees, Spokane Post, No. 9, the American Legion, Spokane, Wash, 
this 9th day of February 1942. 

Paul P. Browne, Post Commander. 

Attest : 

Elwin Lang, Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas bitter experience has already taught us that subversive fifth-column 
activity and sabotage by alien enemies residing in United States territories and 
possessions has been of material assistance to our enemies and considerable damage 
to our country and its welfare; and 

Whereas it is believed that the Pacific coast area of the United States with its 
many vital war industries is ever in danger of attack by our enemies; and 

Whereas alien Japanese and other alien enemies now residing in this area are 
in such large numbers as to make impractical, if not impossible, the task of 
adequate supervision, as a result of which fact such aliens are now largely unre- 
stricted in their movements and actions and constitute a grave menace to our 
welfare and prosperity, particularly so in case of attack; and 

Whereas it is believed that a plan similar to that now under serious considera- 
tion in Canada should be adopted for operation in the United States: Now, 

therefore, be it , . . t • r^ . ^ ^ 

Resolved by Walter Akeley Post No. 29, the American Legion, Departrnent of 

Washington, That the national executive committee, State commander and adju- 



11438 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARESTGS 

tant, and our State department of the Legion be hereby urged to use its best 
efforts to the end that a plan be adopted at the earhest possible date and be put 
into effect in the United States removing all enemy aliens from the Pacific coast 
area to inland points into concentration camps, or otherwise there placed under 
effective supervision for the duration of the present war. 

Adopted by unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of the 
Walter Akeley Post No. 29, the American Legion, Port Angeles, Wash., the 9th 
day of February 1942. 

William J. Ghrames, 

Post Commander. 
Attest: 

Emmett O. Groves, Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas a large number of enemy aliens and American-born Japanese are now 
residing in the Pacific coast and central Washington areas of the United States 
of America, and 

Whereas it is necessary for the preservation of the lives and property of loyal 
Americans to segregate dangerous individuals in order to insure the lives and 
property of loyal Americans against sabotage and fifth-column activities: Now, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the proper governmental authorities of these United States take 
prompt and efficient measures for the internment of all Japanese aliens and of all 
other enemy aliens suspected of being disloyal to the United States of America; 
and be it further 

Resolved, That the proper governmental authorities of these United States 
immediately take the necessary steps which will permit the internment of all 
American-born Japanese now residing in the Pacific coast and central Washington 
areas of the United States of America; and be it further 

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to the American Legion, depart- 
ment of Washington, and to all members of the United States House of Repre- 
sentatives and Senate from the State of Washington. 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of the 
Logan Wheeler Post No. 36, the American Legion, Yakima, Wash., this 9th day 
of February 1942. 

W. S. Le Van, Post Commander. 
Attest: 

Tom Granger, Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas bitter experience has already taught us that subversive fifth-column 
activity and sabotage by enemy aliens residing in United States territories and 
possessions has been of material assistance to our enemies and considerable 
damage to our country and its welfare; and 

Whereas it is believed that the Pacific coast area of the United States with its 
many vital war industries is ever in danger of attack by our enemies; and 

Whereas enemy aliens now residing in this area are in such large numbers as 
to make impractical, if not impossible, the task of adequate supervision, as a 
result of which fact such aliens are now largely unrestricted in their movements 
and actions and constitute a grave menace to our welfare and prosperity, particu- 
larly so in case of attack; and 

Whereas it is believed that a plan similar to that now under serious considera- 
tion in Canada should be adopted for operation in the United States: Now, there- 
fore, be it 

Resolved, by Hyder Harlow Post No. 119, the American Legion, That the national 
executive committee. State commander and adjutant, and our State department 
of the Legion be hereby urged to use its best efforts to the end that a plan be 
adopted at the earliest possible date and be put into effect in the United States 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11439 

removing all enemy aliens from the Pacific coast area to inland points into con- 
centration camps, or otherwise there placed under effective supervision for the 
duration of the present war. 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of the 
Hyder Harlow Post, No. 119, the American Legion, Elma, Wash., this 9th day 
of February 194-2. 

Ernest Monjay, Post Commander. 
Attest: 

Glen W. Fowler, Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas bitter experience has already taught us that subversive fifth-column 
activity and sabotage by Japanese residing in United States Territories and pos- 
sessions has been of material assistance to our enemies and considerable damage 
to our country and its welfare; and 

Whereas it is believed that the Pacific coast area of the United States with its 
many vital war industries is ever in danger of attack by our enemies; and 

Whereas all Japanese now residing in this area are in such large numbers as to 
make impractical, if not impossible, the task of adequate supervision, as a result 
of which fact such Japanese are now largely unrestricted in their movements and 
actions and constitute a grave menace to our welfare and prosperity, particularly 
so in case of attack; and 

Whereas it is believed that a plan similar to that now under serious considera- 
tion in Canada should be adopted for operation in the United States: Now, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, by Fred E. Hayes Post, No. 57, of the American Legion, That the na- 
tional executive committee, State commander and adjutant, and our State de- 
partment of the Legion be hereby urged to use its best efforts to the end that a 
plan be adopted at the earliest possible date and be put into effect in the United 
States removing all Japanese from the Pacific coast area to inland points into 
concentration camps, or otherwise there placed under effective supervision for 
the duration of the present war. 

Adopted this 11th day of February 1942 by unanimous vote of those present 
at the regular meeting of the Fred E. Hayes Post, No. 57, the American Legion, 
Grandview, Wash. 

H. Stilwell, Post Commander. 
Mildred Krous, Auxiliary President. 

Attest : 

Ed Babcock, Post Adjutant. 

Ada Babcock, Auxiliary Secretary. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas experience has taught us that fifth-column activity and treachery by 
Japanese residing in United States Territories and possessions has been of assist- 
ance to our enemies and considerable damage to our country; and 

Whereas it is believed that the Pacific coast area of the United States with its 
war industries is always in danger of attack by our enemies; and 

Whereas Japanese now residing in this area are in such large numbers as to make 
impossible the task of adequate supervision, as a result of which fact such Japanese 
are now largely unrestricted in their movements and constitute a menace to our 
welfare, particularly so in case of attack: Now, therefore be it 

Resolved by North Seattle Post No. 112 of the American Legion, That the national 
executive committee, State commander and adjutant, and our State department 
of the Legion be hereby urged to use its best efforts to the end that a plan be 
adopted at the earliest possible date and be put into effect in the United States 
removing all Japanese from the Pacific coast area to inland points in concentra- 
tion camps, or otherwise there placed under effective supervision for the duration 
of the present war. 



11440 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of 
North Seattle Post, No. 112, the American Legion, Seattle, Wash., this 11th day 
of February 1942. 

J. Strange Hopper, Post Commander. 
Attest: 

C. B. Montgomery, Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 

resolution 

Whereas bitter experience has already taught us that subversive fifth-column 
activity and sabotage by enemy aliens residing in United States Territories and 
possessions has been of material assistance to our enemies and considerable damage 
to our country and its welfare; and 

Whereas it is believed that the Pacific coast area of the United States with its 
many vital war industries is ever in danger of attack by our enemies; and 

Whereas enemy aliens now residing in this area are in such large numbers as to 
make impractical, if not impossible, the task of adequate supervision, as a result 
of which fact such aliens are now largely unrestricted in their movements and 
actions and constitute a grave menace to our welfare and prosperitj^ particularly 
so in case of attack; and 

Whereas it is believed that a plan similar to that now under serious consideration 
in Canada should be adopted for operation in the United States: Now, therefore, 
be it 

Resolved by Heskett Arnold Post No. 132, the American Legion, That the national 
executive committee. State commander and adjutant and our State department 
of the Legion be hereby urged to use its best efforts to the end that a plan be 
adopted at the earliest possible date and be put into eff"ect in the United States 
removing all enemy aliens from the Pacific coast area to inland points into con- 
centration camps, or otherwise there placed under efl"ective supervision for the 
duration of the present war. 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of the 
Heskett Arnold Post No. 132, the American Legion, Concrete, Wash., this 11th 
day of February 1942. 

D. S. Allen, Post Coinmander. 

Attest : 

Vernon A. Bacher, Post Adjutant. 



The AmericanLegion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas the recent experiences of our Army and Navy have shown that a great 
danger exists from the presence of enemy aliens residing in the United States and 
its territories, and that acts of subversive nature have been performed; and 

Whereas the increasing danger of an attack upon our Pacific coast is eminent; 
and 

Whereas the presence of these potential saboteurs is a menace to our peace and 
safety; and 

Whereas the possibility of controlling the activities of such aliens is beyond the 
scope of duly constituted authorities unless such persons are restricted: Now, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That Wenatchee Post, No. 10, of the American Legion, recommend to 
the State Department of the Legion that suitable steps be taken to present this 
matter to the national executive committee and urge that immediate efforts 
be made to remove all such enemy aliens from the Pacific coast States to some 
inland concentration camps, where the}- ma}' be kept under proper supervision 
for the duration of the present war emergenc}'. 

Adopted this 12th day of February 1942 by the unanimous vote of this post in 
regular meeting assembled. 

Joseph Schuster, Post Commander. 

Attest : 

C. Warren Reid, Post Adjutant. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11441 

The American Legion, Department of Washington 

resolution 

Evacuation of enemy aliens 

Now, therefore, be it resolved by the Elmer Lindskog Post, No. 135, the American 
Legion, Department of Washington, That the national executive committee, 
State commander, adjutant, and the State department of the American Legion be 
hereby urged to use its best efforts to the end that a plan be adopted at the 
earliest possible date and be put into effect in the United States removing all alien 
Japanese from the Pacific area and other enemy aliens necessary to the proper 
protection of the United States, to inland points, either in concentration camps or 
otherwise there placed under effective supervision for the duration of the present 
war. 

H. L. COPELAND, 

Post Adjutant. 
Passed at the regular meeting, February 12, 1942. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas a vast population of Japanese are now residing within the west coast 
area of the United States of America, and it is impossible to segregate the loyal 
Japanese from the disloyal Japanses; and 

Whereas the experiences of other invaded nations have shown conclusively that 
the invading forces were materially assisted by forces withm the territory invaded; 
and 

Whereas the recent attack upon Pearl Harbor was a glaring example of Japanese 
trickery, and indicative of the disastrous results that may be obtained by fifth 
column activities operating in conjunction with the enemy from without; and 

Whereas the preservation of the security of the west coast area of the United 
States of America and of the security of the whole of the United States is jeopard- 
ized by reason of the presence of any Japanese within said coastal areas ; and 

Whereas the rights of an individual during the present conflict are secondary to 
the security and preservation of the nation as a whole; and 

Whereas' the removal of the Japanese aliens from the coast defense areas is not 
sufficient to insure against sabotage and fifth column activities along the west 
coast, and to secure the careful protection of these United States which is de- 
manded by every deserving citizen thereof: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the proper governmental authorities of these United States take 
prompt and efficient measures for the removal of all Japanese from the west coast 
area of the United States of America; and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be transmitted to the headquarters of 
the Department of Washington and that the adjutant thereof notify the various 
posts throughout the State of Washington pertaining to the action of this post on 
said resolution. 

Dated at Longview this 13th day of February 1942, at a regular meeting of 
Longview Post, No. 155, the American Legion, Department of Washington. 

James D. McKercher, 

Post Commander. 

Attest : 

E. W. Faulconer, 

Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

The following resolution was adopted at a regular meeting of the University 
Post, No. 11, the American Legion, held on Wednesday, February 18, 1942: 

Now, therefore, be it resolved by University Post, No. 11, the American Legion, 
That the national executive committee, the department commander and adjutant, 
and our State department of the American Legion be hereby urged to use its best 



11442 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARIN'GS 

efforts to the end that a plan be adopted at the earliest possible date and be put 
into effect in the United States removing all Japanese and alien enemies, including 
Germans and Italians, and citizens with dual citizenship from the Pacific coast 
area to an inland point into concentration camps or otherwise there placed under 
effective supervision for the duration of the present war. 

R. A. McLean, 
Post Commander. 
Attest: 

William H. Forstthe, 

Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion. Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas bitter experience has already taught us that subversive fifth column 
activity and sabotage by alien enemies and all Japanese residing in United States 
Territories and possessions has been of material assistance to our enemies and 
considerable damage to our country and its welfare; and 

Whereas it is believed that the Pacific coast area of the United States, with its 
many vital war industries, is ever in danger of attack by our enemies; and 

Whereas all Japanese now residing in this area are in such large numbers as to 
make impractical, if not impossible, the task of adequate supervision, as a result 
of which fact such persons are now largely unrestricted in their movements and 
actions and constitute a grave menace to our welfare and prosperity, particularly 
so in case of attack; and 

Whereas it is believed that a plan similar to that now under serious considera- 
tion in Canada should be adopted for operation in the United States: Now, there- 
fore, be it 

Resolved hy Cashmere Post, No. 64, of the American Legion, That the national 
executive committee. State commander and adjutant, and our State department 
of the Legion be hereby urged to use its best efforts to the end that a plan be 
adopted at the earliest possible date and be put into effect in the United States 
removing all enemy alien and all Japanese from the Pacific coast area to inland 
points into concentration camps, or otherwise there placed under effective super- 
vision for the duration of the present war. 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of the 
Cashmere Post, No. 64, the American Legion, Cashmere, Wash., this 18th day of 
February 1942. 

Dr. a. Magary, 

Post Commander. 

Attest: 

James M. Greene, 

Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas a large number of enemy aliens and American-born Japanese are now 
residing in the Pacific coast and central Washington areas of the United States 
of America; and 

Whereas it is necessary for the preservation of the lives and property of loyal 
Americans to segregate dangerous individuals in order to insure the lives and 
property of loyal Americans against sabotage and fifth column activities: Now, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the proper governmental authorities of these United States take 
prompt and efficient measures for the internment of all Japanese aliens and of all 
other enemy aliens suspected of being disloyal to the United States of America; 
and be it further 

Resolved, That the proper governmental authorities of these United States 
immediately take the necessary steps which will permit the internment of all 
American-born Japanese now residing in the Pacific coast and central Washington 
areas of the United States of America; and be it further 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11443 

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to the Anierican Legion, Depart- 
ment of Washington, and to all Representatives and Senators from the State of 
Washington. .• t 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meetmg of 
Auburn Post, No. 78, the American Legion, Department of Washington, Auburn, 
Wash., February 18, 1942. 

George W. Petersen, 

Post Commander. 

Attest: ^ HT -rrr 

Ceil M. Ward, 

Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas our country is at war with nations which have shown themselves to 
be ruthless to the last degree; and 

Whereas many of our citizens have been, and others undoubtedly will be, 
captured, taken prisoner or wounded in conflict; and 

Whereas there is a steadily growing feeling against the enemies of our country; 
and 

Whereas the treatment afforded our nationals by the enemy will be reflected 
in the attitude taken by this country toward their citizens and their descendants; 
and 

Whereas other sections of our country, particularly on the West Coast, are 
evacuating from their midst all aliens and their families lest overt acts be com- 
mitted against them which could be used as a basis for reprisals; and _ _ 

Whereas it has long been the custom of our country to look to our patriotic 
organizations, particularly to those composed of men who have offered their 
lives in the defense of their country on other occasions, for leadership in times of 
stress ' fincl 

Whereas Robert W. Ely Post No. 33, the American Legion, is such an organ- 
ization in this communitv: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That Robert"'W. Ely Post No. 33, the American Legion, does hereby 
petition the proper authorities to take such steps as may be required to have, 
by due and legal process of law, all Japanese residents of the valley removed to 
such a place as will prevent any possible outbreak of racial feeling against them 
which could be used as a basis for reprisals against those brave men who may 
happen to fall into the hands of the said enemy forces; and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be forwarded, not only to the proper 
authorities, but also to our congressional delegation, to all civic and patriotic 
organizations in our community and also be spread upon the minutes of this post. 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of 
the Robert W. Ely Post, No. 33, the American Legion, at Kennewick, Wash., 

this Februarv 19, 1942. _ ^ ^,^^ 

W. G. O'Neil, 
Post Covimander. 

Attest: ^ ^ -r^ 

E. S. Dickinson, 

Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

We, Ernest Marion Clark and S. N. Greenleaf, the commander and adjutant, 
respectively, of Magnolia Post, No. 123, the American Legion, Department ot 
Washington, do hereby certify that the following is a full, true, and correct 
copy of certain resolutions unanimously adopted by the members of this post 
at its regular meeting duly held in the city of Seattle on the 18th day of February 
1942, to wit: 

We hold these truths to be self-evident: 

We, the people of the United Nations, are engaged in a total war to preserve 
the common rights of man from extinction. We are being ruthlessly attacked 



11444 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

by the barbaric, gangster governments of Japan, Germany, and their puppet 
regimes in conquered lands. The first line of defense of the United States of 
America on the Pacific Ocean is the Territory of Hawaii, the Territory of Alaska, 
the States of Washington, Oregon, and California, and the Panama Canal zone. 
Under the laws of the United States of America all persons born in the Territory 
of Hawaii, the Territory of Alaska or in any of the States of the United States of 
America are citizens of the United States of America no matter what may be 
their race or religion. Under the laws of Japan all members of the Japanese 
race, no matter where they may be born, are held to owe their first allegiance 
to Japan. Divided in allegiance and unhappy is the lot of those Japanese who, 
by accident of birthplace, are citizens of the United States of America: Now, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That, first, the Territory of Hawaii, the Territory of • Alaska, the 
States of Washington, Oregon, and California, and the Panama Canal Zone 
be declared to be vital defense areas and zones of military operation. 

Second, all members of the Japanese race, whether or not they be citizens of 
the United States of America, be immediately removed from said defense areas 
to suitable locations east of the Rocky Mountains, there to be properly housed, 
fed, clothed, and supervised by the military authorities of the United States of 
America. 

Third, there be immediately removed from said defense areas such enemy 
aliens as the duly constituted authorities deem advisable. That all subversive 
enemy aliens be immediately placed in concentration camps at hard labor. 

Fourth, all citizens of the United States, or aliens residing in the United States, 
who levy war against the United States, adhere to its enemies or give them aid 
and comfort, be immediately prosecuted, convicted of the crime of treason, and 
sentenced to death. 

Fifth, certified copies of these resolutions be forwarded to the national execu- 
tive committee of the American Legion and the commander and adjutant of 
the Department of Washington, the American Legion, urging them to use their 
best efforts to see to it that the foregoing resolutions are put into effect by the 
duly constituted authorities, Congress, and the President of the United States 
of America. 

In witness whereof, we have signed this instrument and caused the seal of 
this post to be hereunto affixed this 20th day of February 1942. 

Ehnest Marion Clark, 

Post Commander. 
S. N. Greenleaf, 

Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 

* 

resolution 

At a regular meeting of West Seattle Post, No. 160, the American Legion, it 
was moved, seconded, and carried that W^est Seattle Post, No. 160, go on record 
as heartily endorsing resolutions by several Legion posts in this department urg- 
ing removal of all Japanese as well as other aliens native of the countries now 
waging war on the United States, including those who now may hold dual citizen- 
ship, from the coastal defense areas. 

J. E. RiCKARD, Post Commander. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas in times of the national emergency it is necessary and proper that 
the interests of the individual citizens and residents of our Nation be subordinated 
to the interest of the Nation as a whole; 

Whereas by reason of the fact that Japan and her allies have declared war on 
the United States it has become necessary that our western coastal areas be 
treated as a part of the combat zone and that the location of its military installa- 
tions, troop movements, and all other activities connected with the successful 
waging of the war be kept from our enemies ; and 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11445 

Whereas there are a large number of alien citizens of the enemy countries and 
also a large number of American citizens of alien enemy descent and more or less 
sympathetic and by blood relationship connected with our enemies; and 

Whereas we believe that in this emergency it is for the best interest of such 
citizens of the United States and their patriotic duty is to serve their country 
in such capacity and in such way as may be for the best interest of the Nation 
as a whole; and 

Whereas it is imperative that all alien citizens of Germany, Japan, and Italy, 
resident of the west coast, be immediately evacuated to such place as it may be 
deemed proper by the military authorities; and 

Whereas it may be deemed necessary, prudent, and expedient, in the opinion 
of the military authorities, to also evacuate citizens of the United States or the 
said nations or other nations in the interest of national safety and welfare even 
though it may result in individual hardships, and in some instances injustice: 
Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, by the Rainier Valley Post, No. 139, of the American Legion: That the 
proper military authorities be authorized to, and do, immediately evacuate all 
citizens of Germany, Japan, and Italy, and all citizens of the United States whom 
they deem it necessary and proper, to such places and areas and under such 
conditions as the proper mihtary authorities may in their discretion deem proper, 
prudent, or necessary. 

And further that a copy of this resolution be transmitted to the State Depart- 
ment of the American Legion of the State of Washington for transmittal to such 
organizations, individuals, and officials as may be proper. 

Unanimously adopted by the members of Rainier Valley Post, No. 139, of 
the American Legion at its regular meeting on February 21, 1942, at Seattle, 
Wash. 

Ben Borley, Post Commander. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

The Bothell Post, No. 127, the American Legion, Bothell, Wash., hereby 
endorses, in effect, the various resolutions as presented and adopted by the 
several posts of the Department of Washington to the effect that all enemy aliens 
and all Japanese now residing in the area of the Pacific coast be removed to inland 
points under supervision of the Government for the duration of the war. 

Endorsed by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of 
February 25, 1942. 

Frank W. Morrison, 

Post Commander. 

S. Walker Griffin, 

Post Adjutant. 



The American Legion, Department of Washington 
resolution 

Whereas a large number of enemy aliens and American-born Japanese are now 
residing in the Pacific coast and Central Washington areas of the United States 
of America; and 

Whereas it is necessary for the preservation of the lives and property of loyal 
Americans to segregate dangerous individuals in order to insure the lives and 
property of loyal Americans against sabotage and fifth-column activities: 
Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the proper governmental authorities of these United States take 
prompt and efficient measures for the internment of all Japanese aliens and of all 
other enemy aliens suspected of being disloyal to the United States of America; and 
be it further 

Resolved, That the proper governmental authorities of these United States 
immediately take the necessary steps which will permit the internment of all 
American-born Japanese now residing in the Pacific coast and central Washington 
areas of the United States of America ; and be it further 



11446 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be sent to the American Legion, Depart- 
ment of Washington, and to all members of the United States House of Repre- 
sentatives and Senate from the State of Washington. 

Adopted by the unanimous vote of those present at the regular meeting of the 
James H. Schooley Post, No. 130, the American Legion, ZiUah, Wash., this 18th 
day of February 1942. 

B. W. KOENEKAMP, 

Post Commander. 
Attest: 

G. A. Rayl, 
Post Adjutant. 



KESOLUTION 

Be it resolved by Guy Rathbun Post, No. 25, of the American Legion, Department 
of Washington, in regular session at Kelso, Cowlitz County, Wash., Wednesday, 
the 4th day of February 1942, that — 

I 

Whereas southwest Washington comprises a defense area and is potentially 
vulnerable to enemy attack, and the presence of alien enemies in said territory is 
a menace to the civilian populace in their industrial pursuits, and also a menace 
to the strategic war industries located in said area; 

II 

And whereas the alien enemies, as fostered by their respective governments, have 
engaged generally in espionage and sabotage in all countries with which their 
respective governments are at war; now therefore be it 

Resolved, That all alien enemies on the Pacific coast be required forthwith to 
move and remain away from all territory embraced between the Pacific coast and 
the Cascade Range in the three Western States, consisting of Washington, Oregon, 
and California; and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of this resolution be forthwith transmitted to the proper 
officials of the American Legion, Department of Washington, and copies also be 
forwarded, by the adjutant of this post, to the United States Senators and Con- 
gressmen from the State of Washington. 

Certificate 

I, Everett Lyon, the elected, qualified, and acting adjutant of Guy Rathbun 
Post, No. 25, of the Department of Washington, of the American Legion, hereby 
certify that the above and foregoing resolution was duly and regularly adopted by 
a majority of the votes in said post in regular session, the 4th day of February 1942. 

Witness my hand and seal of said post, 

Everett Lyon, Adjutant. 

TESTIMONY OF FLOYD FUEKER— Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. They will all be incorporated in the hearing. What 
is the essence of all of those resolutions? 

Mr. FuEKER. They all request that enemy aliens be evacuated, 
and they also request, on account of the security of the State in which 
we are interested, that where there may be citizens, that is, the chil- 
dren of aliens, who, on account of not breaking up the families, would 
like to stay with them, or on account of not being able to know which 
among those may cause a subversive act, they request that they all 
be evacuated. 

The stand of the State Department is that we ask for the evacuation 
of all enemy aliens, on account of the national security, and that we, 
of course, grant that those who are citizens have the right of citizen- 
ship; but they will have to prove themselves citizens. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11447 

The Chairman. Do you personally make any recommendations or 
do any of those resolutions there provide for where these evacuees 
shall go to? 

Mr. FuEKER. We don't make any recommendations as to where an 
evacuee should go. We figure that that is the duty of the Govern- 
ment, and it is not our prerogative to suggest anything like that. 

WOULD NOT EVACUATE LOYAL CITIZEN JAPANESE 

Mr. Curtis. As I understand it, your State Department of the 
American Legion takes the view that in regard to the citizen Japanese 
instead of a mass evacuation, that at once there be an attempt to 
sort out the loyal from the dangerous? 

Mr. FuEKER. That is right. We have had a number of connections 
with the young citizens of Japanese origin. We know that among 
those younger citizens, that any number of them are real Americans, 
but we also know, or at least suppose, that included among that 
same class, there are a number that aren't, and that those will have 
to be weeded out. 

Now, I don't Imow how you are going to tell them apart. We 
figure that there will have to be some sort of supervision or investi- 
gation by the F. B. I., or some Government agency, to take those 
who are citizens and not loyal citizens, and evacuate them along 
with the enemy aliens. 

Mr. Curtis. From your knowledge of the situation, and of the 
people that are being dealt with, it is your belief that they can be 
separated; that it is possible to carry on an investigation that will 
bring about a safe conclusion? 

Mr. FuEKER. That is problematical on account of the dual citizen- 
ship that a number of them hold on account of the Japanese schools, 
which have been held for the children and to which they would go 
to after our schools closed, and to their home environrnent. That 
may be quite a thing to work out, and it is very doubtful, in a number 
of cases, whether it could be done or not. 

EVACUATION AS PROTECTION TO JAPANESE 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think there is any danger of any mob violence 
in the event that there would be a Japanese invasion of this area? 

Mr. FuEKER. I do. It would seem to me that these people would 
welcome an evacuation, in case there should be any token air raids 
or shellings of this coast, which in all probability, there will be, from 
what has gone before. We feel that those people will be endangered 
in being here, and it is for their own public safety because of similar 
instances that have arisen. 

Mr. Curtis. By those people, you are referring to citizen and 
alien Japanese? 

Mr. FuEKER. That is right, because the average person cannot 
distinguish them. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, coming back to a prior question, you, perhaps, 
would lean toward an evacuation of all Japanese? 

Mr. FuEKER. We would, unless they could be segregated and those 
who were loyal citizens could be picked out. 



11448 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. What problems will arise from the point of view of 
the economic life of the city and State in case of an evacuation? 

JAPANESE EVACUATION WILL HAVE NO EFFECT ON ECONOMIC LIFE OF 

CITY 

Mr. FuEKER. That has been taken into consideration. We have 
been informed that on account of the housing situation here in 
Seattle, on account of various national defense contracts and workers 
in here, that there would be a number of hotels and apartment houses 
and such that, possibly, would have to be closed. Well, that is just 
not reasonable, because any alien who owns property, owns it as a 
subterfuge, because the law provides against it, and he holds it 
through some agency or through the second generation. 

And so we hold no brief for those who do have control of property 
because they hold it unlawfully ; and we also feel that under the prop- 
erty custodian, as the Govermnent is usually set up with the offices 
very well administered, those hotels and other places ought to house 
these people that are here. 

As to the other economic angles, I spent considerable time out 
through the valley, through Sumner, Kent, and these other places, 
whereby a number of these Japanese aliens and others raise products, 
and from the mformation that I have obtained from the people that 
live in those communities and from the farmers out there, them- 
selves, I have no fear that we are not going to be able to eat if those 
people, those Japanese aliens, should be moved out. I am sure that 
we would have sufficient food. 

Furthermore, we have also taken into consideration the fact that 
during the last war the Government instituted what was known as 
the Spruce Division to do certain things. We have had the C. C. C, 
and we have a number of people that are on relief, and we feel that 
when it comes to where it would be impossible for these people to 
get food, that with the number of Filipinos, and others that are here 
that would be willing to go into the produce business with the organ- 
ization of a similar agricultural institution as could be carried on 
through a similar set-up such as the C C. C, that those things could 
be very well taken care of. 

Mr. Curtis. In other words, it will be an inconvenience, but you 
feel that it must be decided on the basis of public safety first? 

Mr. FuEKER. The public safety is the entire thing, and that is 
what the American Legion has, for years, and undoubtedly always 
will, base any of their policies on. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have any suggestions? Wliile we realize that 
it is a task for the Government; after all, the Government consists 
of individuals, with the ordinary limitations of human beings. Do 
you have any suggestions, either of your own or that of the organ- 
ization which you represent, as to where evacuees might be sent and 
what they might be employed in, if anything? 

Mr. FuEKER. There have been various suggestions made by mem- 
bers of our organization. I have nothing official from our organiza- 
tion, and consequently I have no mandate or any policy to offer, but 
a number of suggestions have been offered as to having certain areas 
for these aliens to be placed in, call them anything you want to but 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11449 

concentratfion camps, and have certain things for them to do, and 
make provisions to take care of them. But everyone has a different 
idea. As I say, we offer no official plan and I wouldn't venture my 
own personal opmion. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, sir, 

James Y. Sakamoto? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes; Mr. Chairman. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES Y. SAKAMOTO, GENERAL CHAIRMAN 
EMERGENCY DEFENSE COUNCIL, JAPANESE-AMERICAN CITI- 
ZENS LEAGUE, AND EDITOR, JAPANESE- AMERICAN COURIER 

The Chairman. Mr. Sakamoto, how many members does your 
organization have in Seattle, and in the rest of the State? 

Mr. Sakamoto. In the Seattle chapter right now, we have better 
than 320 paid-up members, and it is increasing daily. For the entire 
State, I haven't an accurate count yet, but the national organization 
today numbers more than 20,000, with 60 chapters throughout the 
entire Pacific coast. 

The Chairman. How many Japanese have you in the State of 
Washington? 

Mr. Sakamoto. We have approximately 14,000. 

The Chairman. I understand there are about 120,000 in the three 
Pacific Coast States? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes. I would say about 135,000 throughout the 
mainland of the United States. 

The Chairman. Yes; that is correct. You have 14,000 here, did 
you say? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes. 

The Chairman. What proportion of those are native-born American 
citizens? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, about 8,000— between 8,400 to 8,800— would 
be the American-born Japanese, and the rest would be the parent 
generation, or the alien Japanese. 

The Chairman. What occupation do these American-born Japanese 
citizens become engaged in, generally speaking? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, there are a number of them farming — truck 
gardening — and they are in the shipping business- — in rural produce 
shipping. That is, in the rural districts. It is rather general, but I 
believe you gentlemen can understand what I mean by that. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Mr. Sakamoto. In the cities, some of them are beginning to operate 
groceries, hotels, drugstores, dye works, and a number of other types 
of businesses; but there are also a great number of them being em- 
ployed as house workers. Those are mostly women, and there is a 
very big demand for them right now, even though the war keeps on. 

The Chairman. Are you an American-born Japanese? 

Mr. Sakamoto. I am American born. I was born right here in 
the city of Seattle, better than 38 years ago. 

The Chairman. Mr. Sakamoto, have you any statement that you 
wish to make? If you do, the committee will be glad to hear you. 



11450 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

(The following statement was submitted by the witness and ac- 
cepted for the record:) 

STATEMENT BY EMERGENCY DEFENSE COUNCIL, SEATTLE 
CHAPTER, JAPANESE-AMERICAN CITIZENS LEAGUE, SEATTLE, 

WASH. 

Foreword 

The Emergency Defense Council of the Seattle Chapter, Japanese-American 
Citizens' League, has prepared this report on the position of the Japanese in the 
State of Washington in the belief that a factual and objective presentation of the 
true picture is the best way to bring about a fair solution of a difficult problem. 

We realize it is an issue which cannot be settled lightly, an issue possessing 
many sides, and one which must be judged by reason rather than the emotions. 

We present this report in the hopes that the facts and figures contained in it 
may assist the congressional committee to make its decision on the issue of 
evacuation of Japanese nationals and their citizen children in a manner most 
advantageous to the war effort of the United States, and in keeping with the 
traditions of fairness and justice that all Americans hold dear. 

May we also draw the committee's attention to two comprehensive reports 
of the Japanese situation in this area. They are: "'Types of Adjustment of 
American-born Japanese", a doctor's thesis submitted to the University of 
Chicago by Dr. Forrest La Violette, and "The Ecological Position of the Japanese 
Farmers in the State of Washington", a doctor's thesis submitted to the Uni- 
versity of Washington by Dr. John Adrian Rademaker. 

Report Presented to Tolan Congressional Committee, February 28, 1942 

table of contents 

1. Foreword. 

2. Introduction. 

3. Physical picture of the Japanese situation. 

4. The Japanese in American Economic Life. 

5. Agricultural tables: 

Western Washington totals. 
Vegetable shipping industry. 
Greenhouses. 
Break-down by districts. 
Eastern Washington report. 

6. Other economic tables: 

Hotels operated by Japanese. 

Restaurants operated by Japanese. 

Grocery stores. 

Dye Works and cleaners. 

Lumber industry. 

Salmon canning industry. 

Oyster industry. 

7. Public opinion. 

8. Selfish interests. 

9. Problems of evacuation: 

Location. 
Resettlement. 
Return. 
Humanitarian. 
Wishes of the Japanese. 
Model city. 
Alternatives. 
10. Conclusion. 

Introduction 

Circumstances brought about by Japan's treacherous attack on the United 
States on December 7, 1941, have created a situation in the Western States 
affecting directly a considerable and not unimportant portion of the population. 
Indirectly, but equally as vitally, an even larger section of the United States and 
its national defense effort as a whole is affected^by this problem. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11451 

The issue concerns the position of aliens and American citizens of Japanese 
extraction. It is a problem aggravated by racial differences, and made more 
urgent because total warfare recognizes no geographical boundaries or other 
restrictions. Because of these, and various other reasons to be brought out later 
in this report, it is a matter which must be decided quickly. It was a problem 
that existed from the very day of the war, if such a problem ever did exist, but 
it has been only recently that public feeling has come to the point of making it a 
serious issue. 

We believe that not all of the facts of the situation are known. We are also 
convinced that many misconceptions exist regarding the nature and magnitude 
of the problem. We, therefore, grateful for the congressional committee's sincere 
interest in determining all the facts, respectfully submit this report compiled 
from information gathered by the Emergency Defense Council of the Seattle 
Chapter, Japanese-American Citizens' League, with the co-operation of various 
Japanese-American Citizens' League chapters throughout the State of Wash- 
ington. 

For some time now there has been agitation for the evacuation of Japanese 
nationals as well as Americgn citizens of Japanese descent from Pacific Coast 
States. Such evacuation has been proposed in a variety of forms. 

We wish to go on record now that the safety and welfare of the United States 
is, has been, and will continue to be foremost in our minds. We, as American 
citizens, have a duty to this, our country, and the first tenet of that duty is com- 
plete and unshakable loyalty. 

For this very reason, we are opposed to the idea of indiscriminate, en masse 
evacuation of all citizens and loyal aliens of Japanese extraction. We are whole- 
heartedly in favor of complete cooperation with the military and other authorities 
on withdrawal of civilians from the immediate vicinity of defense projects and 
establishments. But we do not believe that mass evacuation is either desirable 
or feasible. We believe that the best interests of the United States -Rill be served 
by other solutions to the problem. 

We also desire the privilege of remaining here to fight shoulder to shoulder, 
and shed our blood, if necessary, in the defense of our coimtry and our homes 
together with patriotic Americans of other national extractions if that time 
should ever come. It is repugnant to us that we be given a place of safety when 
our friends and neighbors remain behind to defend the things that we together 
created and developed. 

It is our belief after extensive and exhaustive investigation and considered judg- 
ment, that Americans and aliens of Japanese extraction can contribute more for 
the defense and welfare of the United States by being permitted to carry on in 
their present positions than by any other means. We have complete confidence 
in the ability of the Federal Bureau of Investigation to uncover and apprehend 
those dangerous to the safety of our Nation. Despite press reports to the con- 
trary, there have been no cases of attempted sabotage or fifth-column work among 
Japanese aliens in the United States according to a recent statement by Mr. J. 
Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. It is to our own 
interests that the record shall be kept clean. 

In Seattle proper as well as in other Washington districts, American citizens of 
Japanese extraction, mainly through the Japanese American Citizens League 
chapters, have been working in active cooperation with the various national de- 
fense agencies. One of the committees of the Emergency Defense Council of the 
Seattle chapter, Japanese American Citizens League, is an intelligence unit which 
is rendering every assistance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. It is our 
conviction that in cooperation with the authorities, we will be able to see that alien 
Japanese not only do nothing to jeopardize the safety of the United States, but 
contribute actively to the welfare of their adopted homeland. 

If, finally, the decision is that Japanese must go, the committee is assured of the 
Japanese American Citizens League's complete cooperation in the evacuation 
movement. Loyalty demands that orders, no matter what, be obeyed willingly 
and efficiently. 

Physical Pictuee 

In the State of Washington, there are approximately 14,000 individuals of 
Japanese extraction. About 63 percent, or 8,800 are American-born, therefore 
American citizens. The remainder, approximately 5,400, is foreign-born and 
alien. A large number of these foreign-born would be American citizens today if 
they had been permitted the privilege of naturalization, denied them by law. 

60396: — 12 — pt. 30 11 



lX4o2 POETLAXD AXD SEATTLE HEAKCS'G? 

Th^?^ are, in the c:rv c« Searcle proper, approximatelv 6,000 person? of Japanese 
eitracdon. sbc-:t 3.-50»? eiiirer^ aad 2,500 aUens. The reniair.cer. approximately 
S.0CO is ii: ^-e :rl';"^i'? areas, meet erf viu^ are rural: the White River Vallev. 
souih of >ra"le: 'he Pu^rallup Valley, oorthea^t of Tacoma: the \ak:ma Vaiiej, 
easi: ec the v.*!" .f Yaiizia: the o-t^klrB of the Greater Seatt'e a-ea: aroxnd Belle- 
vtie :~ the ra^tem 5h:re o: Lake Washington: Vashon and Bairbridge Islands in 
p^x^et S:.i::i; a::ii "he citi^ of Spokane and Tanxna. Theft? are abo scattered, 
f y:""- ^ ir. ether se-.Tti-r^ :t the State, primarily in the iresteni half. 

An e^ r— -^ -.^ cf rc-Miariv- distributioa fcdk»ws: 



2. 5X 


c. -XO 


33: 


^V' 


tfc 


a5o 


jrs: 


1 5» 


*>. 


i-COJ 


;~= 


?:5 


1» 


3C4 


4" 


:^ 



Oaos. 



TaSaL 



Of the alien groop, the average age <rf males is 59 year? : : the fe -r^ . iT es. 51 years. 
Many of th^e aliens hare beoi in the TTiirted States for 4 : :i_ i >J years : all have 
been'hae stnee 1924 irhen the Exdoaon Act went into ef-;: i.:.i their averaee 
tenare <rf residaKe in tius coantzy may be apprc'xiinated a: -30 years. Thus, the 
majority have ^tent from half to rsro-tiirds of their lives in the Unitei States. 

Moet <rf these aJiiais immigrated to the United States in their early youth, and 
many have not roomed to the c4d coantry since their first arrivaL Large num- 
boshave kiet all contact irith relatives and friends in the old country. In other 
vtirdb, thCT have been in ctmtaet »ritli American ideals and principles for the 
greater poiian of their Kves, and their ties to the old o.'unrry have grown pr»- 
gresavdy more tenooos. Considerable number have expressed, time and again, 
their deare fcs- Amoican otizoi&hip so that they might enjoy in fuU measure the 
benefits d Amaiean life which they amxeciate so deeply. 

These aUene irere given an o|^xirtanity to return to their native land last 
Xovember wbea. the Japanese Govemmoit seit evacuation ships to the United 
States. The motorshq> Hikamm HarUy the last J^ianese ship to call at this port 
came prepazed to h^"Hk» at least a thousand passengers . Emergency quarters 
vere r^ged tip in the bcMs and all prepanuioDS had been made to evacuate as 
many as the ^lip vook! bo!d. That ship made its return trip only one-ttird fxilL 
The alien Japanese. Toy y - c-hildren who are Americans. ^^^ elected to take 

tiieir chances wtth the 1 - :.tes in the war which was then only impending. 

This attirade is unceri-iniacle. Many of the i»Iw>ng are pioneers of the 
Pacific Northwest. They came here at the turn of the century when the State 
of Washington was eom^paratively & raw frontia-, and they grew up with the 
eoontzy, akfiz^ in its developniezit. They have a pride in their achievements. 
They helped to dear the f exists aztd {dant the fields that now yield such a rich 
harvest fnxn land that was oiice wikkmess. They hd^ied produce the lumber 
that was built into cities, and they he^Kd lay the ruhoads that penetrate into 
Ae hinterland. 

'Saw that the fives of the ahoa immigrants are drawing to a dose, it is only 
nataral that they wish to see their Amarican-bom diikirea reap some of the fruit 
of their labors. ' Both the livdihood and the fotore of the immigrant and the 
Ameiican-btKii groops are rooted stddy in this country. 

The av^ige age of the American-bom geooation "is 20 years, although there 
are a few iufividaals in thdr Ws. They are, for the most part, thoroughly 
Americ»aiaed becaase ai their edaextion, their contacts with Caucasian Amoieans, 
and American society in gowraL Atthoa^ nsost of these American-bcHii can 
speak. Japanese to seme ertent, extronetr few can be considered flu0it as was 
diseovered in efforts to find c^mUe tran^t<KS and intarixet^s. The language 
atuatioii among the Japanese is stmfZir -- --:- z— tnr all -jnm-rrant groups in 
this eoimtry. 



I'EFE>"r5 ^H'^BJXnCfS 



lUSS 



Genendfy. fbe vefaK 
cifltee baTe been ftv^ 
bmdfens as cituieoe in ~ 
ns intenriews villi pc 
American-boni harer-. 
of lumber leamnD^ H:^ 
apfxeoatire titan evc-T 
ffptw^wV^r these txqiB tc 
leans of vHSkx radal - 
edncatian and aeqaB<r 

bi the pidific sdioc 
aUe reecvd of sc^fri&r 
afidetae fieid&. WitiL. 
taOier vafeAcfeanane : 
aame penod, 3t Jaqwr^s—Aii- 
Ci mtmj ty of Warfiingfa'P- T- 
we c tat i of Wa^]!i2i^tan «^ abc . 
9.500.' 

Jmronle coort and poGee xer: 
if ev^er, are in difiiraitty vitii tt 
frona Seattle's ©ttJaJSHEfas!!^ i~ 



tiieir Ganeaaan aoBO- 
- &a«« dMnddered ttear 
^ States «iB be neneafed 
laadgatfJe — d i rfy rf the 

'~-'' Uwted 8tote»aMKe 

\ rgpei^ w befietv^ to 



muDd ovtt a Hw'inl 



v^'^ othfiy 



Ova- tbe 

:--: at. lOe 

. . -,_. _, : . —laatdy 

__ - ^ " rsragnsae lawdjy, 

;:i>e <■ uoe iaf& u^~ — 

i^scsjE Ecoaraaac Ijve 

^se iitas laot vSIKailtjr se^es>SiBd] 
I dfiwHiift'iLdU JmMWPWP 

CB tiae WMMH i mHj Tlae 
J&T' if not aoaafflt;-, vfldb t&e 

-sear Mat m -mbeiesa^ mmabas fros^ 

~ ' ^ ^J l V^ ^t i ttaC ^mtbmJI y^aim^n* flf life «£ 

'- ' 5eid cf ciriiBn imwralr- aie 

-^sd as ■■«■**> as paodblcL 

.... — . . ite etemamx e£ &e local 



-. - ^■■■-'T. ^jBSe after Siate Iss iqaorsed 
ed ' In*" ! *' cf aoEffl infto tiK 
LT^s idaj o tirnwrniifirwiiilly 
ipsAtii^ at tcfij LiS Lknr jf 

ABQBracao. cilizess <tf 



' z= ziM peaetieal 

~ lafliii teoHi^B and 









.£naptiQB £1 



11454 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

and that disruption is sure to come, for the country does not have the skilled 
labor to take over should Japanese farmers be removed. The Filipinos, the only- 
possible source of replacement, are being taken by the armed forces in increasing 
numbers; they will be required in the Alaska salmon canneries; and they are not 
available in sufficient numbers to alleviate the situation to an appreciable extent. 

In the cities as well as the rural areas, mass removal of Japanese would create 
unexpected hardships on the community as a whole. Whether at war or peace, 
hotels must be operated, beds made, dishes washed, floors swept. In normal 
times, it would not be difficult to replace Japanese labor for this work. But now 
with the competition of the armed forces and defense industries, these menial 
occupations would not appeal to labor. Housing difficulties, bad enough at best 
in the crowded defense centers of Seattle, would become infinitely more difficult 
if the more than 200 hotels operated by Japanese had to be closed down. For the 
most part, these hotels are operated as a family enterprise, by a man and wife 
assisted in some cases by adult children. With hired help, such hotels could not 
be operated on a profitable basis at the price levels now prevalent. The possi- 
bility of getting help at all is also remote. 

Other than the two main occupations, farming in the rural areas and hotel 
operation in the cities, the Japanese are serving their communities in a number of 
other ways. For instance, in the city of Seattle, there are 140 grocery stores, 
90 cleaning establishments, 53 restaurants, and other enterprises, the vast major- 
ity of which are located outside of the so-called Japanese districts and serving the 
needs of Caucasian-American patrons in these areas. 

The following tables were compiled from information obtained from exhaustive 
canvasses made by members of Japanese- American Citizens League chapters in the 
various districts. Individuals who have grown up in the communities, who are 
actively engaged in business in those communities, reliable individuals with 
judgment and access to the facts made door-to-door surveys, and we submit them 
with every confidence as to their accuracy. 

Each table is accompanied by explanatory statements. It should be men- 
tioned in passing that the Japanese are not in the fishing industry and do not 
possess fishing boats. 

Agricultural Tables 

The agricultural situation deserves an entire section in itself, but the story 
is better told by tables of figures. In western Washington alone more than 
$3,000,000 worth of produce was marketed by Japanese farmers, about one-third 
of this amoimt being sent to eastern markets. 

A produce shortage would be especially acute now because of the great increase 
in the local population caused by defense workers migrating here. 

A decision on the evacuation issue must be made quickly for planting time is 
already here. The majority of farmers have already planted, risking their 
savings on the possibility of being able to harvest. Others must decide soon, 
and those who have planted must begin the task of cultivating and fertilizing. 

Many have been unable to get bank credits to finance planting. In the past 
the credit of Japanese farmers was good enough to get substantial loans without 
collateral, but this year things are diff'erent. 

These, however, are minor considerations beside the greater problem of an 
impending produce shortage should the skilled workers who produced last year's 
great harvest be suddenly withdrawn with no prospects of substitutes for them. 

FARM REPORT 

Total of western Washington districts 

Total acreage farmed acres_ _ 9, 052 

People involved: 

Aliens 849 

Citizens 1,432 

Total 2,281 

Commodities raised: Lettuce, cauliflower, peas, beans, corn, cabbage, spinach, 
squash, celery, tomatoes, carrots, strawberries, other berries, turnips, cucum- 
bers, radishes, green onions, beets, asparagus, dry onions, potatoes, and mis- 
cellaneous. 

Total valuation $3, 069, 805 

Note: Acreage is based on total number of acres cultivated during 1 year. In other words, the actual 
number of acres is 6,353 but since 2 and 3 crops are grown on some farms, the total acreage is increased by 
approximately one-third. Abqut 5,000 workers find direct employment on the farms and countless 
thousands in allied lines. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



11455 



Local cannery and interstate sales — •summary of commodities 
(Western Washington district) 



Lettuce $613, 133 

Cauliflower 213, 843 

Peas 347, 630 

Beans 169, 433 

Corn 37,067 

Cabbage 95,391 

Spinach 79,667 

Squash 22,610 

Celery 249, 947 

Tomatoes 66,630 

Rhubarb 218,050 

Carrots 13, 325 

Strawberries 382, 960 



Other berries $155, 523 

Turnips 

Cucumbers 

Radishes 

Green onions 

Beets 

Asparagus 

Dry onion 

Potatoes 

Miscellaneous 



44, 


000 


68, 


150 


39, 


098 


74, 


288 


17, 


475 


3, 


500 


1, 


900 


1, 


560 


154, 


625 



Total 3,069,805 



Report of vegetable shipping industry 
(Western Washington district) 



Shippers 


Cars 
shipped 


Paid for 
supplies 


Wages 


Employed 




76 
315 
555 

83 
257 

77 
124 


$6. 198 

124. 846 

132, 356 

7,800 

45, 000 

7,000 

9,644 


$4, 389 

22, 191 

39, 927 

5,400 

25, 000 

6,866 

7,178 


35 




90 




195 




40 




95 




50 




28 






Total 


1,487 


332, 884 


110.951 


633 







The principal commodities shipped from the western Washington district are 
lettuce, peas, and cauliflower during May, June, and July and celery in October 
and November. 

The official total of carlots shipped from this district as reported by the Wash- 
ington Produce Shippers Association for 1941 is 1,843 of which the Japanese 
organizations shipped 1,487 or 80 percent plus. 

The smaller communities in the rural districts will be affected to the extent of 
the loss of this pay roll as well as the loss of business from the Japanese farmers. 

Report on greenhouses operated by Japanese, city of Seattle, February 1942 

Number of Japanese-operated greenhouses in this district 50 

Total number of greenhouses in this district 80 

Estimated number of workers in Japanese-operated greenhouses 200 

Total value of crop in Japanese-operated greenhouses $398, 000 

Ninety percent of the Japanese-operated greenhouses are owned and 10 percent 
are leased. 

Greenhouse labor is generally furnished by the families themselves. Practi- 
cally no outside help is required. 

The total value of the crop is broken down as follows: Tomatoes, $66,000; 
cucumbers, $32,000; flowers, $100,000; bedding plants, pot plants, etc., $200,000. 



11456 



PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 



Farm report 
BAINBRIDGE ISLAND 



Number of farms: 

Leased 16 

Owned 27 



Total 43 



People involved: 

Aliens 83 

Citizens 187 



Total 270 



Commodity 



Strawberries 

Rhubarb 

Peas 

Truck vegetables - 
Other berries 



Total. 



Acreage 



574 

5 
14 

8K 
18 



619H 



Local sales 



$46, 644 
1,500 
2,040 
1,200 
7,500 



58, 884 



Interstate 



$186, 576 



186, 576 



Note.— Approximately 80 percent of the agricultural products in this area are controlled by Japanese. 

BELLEVUE DISTRICT 



Number of farms: 

Leased 35 

Owned 19 



Total 54 



People involved: 

Aliens 88 

Citizens 160 



Total 248 



Commodity 


Acreage 


Local 
sales 


Interstate 


Commodity 


Acreage 


Local 
sales 


Interstate 




130 
50 
50 

100 
20 
50 
15 


$7. 200 
17.200 
18. 750 
45, 200 


$24. 000 
8,300 


Celery .. 


20 
30 
20 

(') 
(2) 


$12,000 

6,000 

4.000 

25, 000 

3,000 






Cabbage. 






Turnips 






4,800 
6,000 


Cucumbers 




Rhubarb 


Tomatoes.-- - 






25,000 
12,000 


Total 


485 


175, 350 








$43, 100 






1 





1 5 hothouses. 
• 2 hothouses. 

Note.— 20 percent of the farmers in this locality raise 2 crops per year. 

BOTHELL AREA 



Number of farms: 

Leased 

Part owned- _ 



Total. 



People involved: 

Aliens 15 

Citizens 32 



Total 47 



Commodity 


Acreage 


Local 
sales 


Interstate 


Commodity 


Acreage 


Local 
sales 


Interstate 




209 
45 
10 
45 
6 
4 
25 
28 
12 


$38, 000 
5,000 
1,000 
2,350 
1,900 


$16, 950 

5,450 

480 




26 
14 
12 
14 
U 
13 


$7,350 






























Brussel sprouts 








400 
2,870 








500 
4,250 




1,500 






Total 








414 


61,850 








$26. 150 













1 Approximately 50 percent of the track farming in this area is controlled by Japanese. 
Note.— 58 percent of the acreage in this district raise from 2 to 3 crops per year. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



11457 



Farm report — Continued 
KINGSTON DISTRICT 



People involved: 

Alien -- 14 

Citizen 20 



Number of acres: 

Leased 15 

Owned 100 

Total 115 Total 34 

Commodity: 

Strawberries i n' nnn 

Trucli vegetables ^0' "00 

Total 32,000 

PORT ORCHARD AND POULSBO DISTRICT 

Number of acres: Total, 64. 

People involved: 

Aliens ^ 

Citizens ^^ 

Total 22 

Commodity: 

Strawberries *|^' ;^^" 

Truck vegetables ^5, UUU 

Total 26.220 

PUYALLUP VALLEY 



Number of farms: 

Leased 89 

Owned 25 



Total 114 



People involved: 

Alien 181 

Citizens 367 



Total 548 



Commodities 



Lettuce 

Peas. 

Cauliflower-. 

Spinach 

Celery 

Endive 

Potatoes 

Cabbage 

Cucumbers.. 

Radishes 

Green onions 
Beans 



Acres 



500 

612 

145 

100 

223 

2 

65 

106 

70 

45 

42 

135 



Local 



$78, 750 
31,756 
45, 900 
15, 360 
49. 275 
1,200 
1, .560 
21, 200 
42, 000 
23, 625 
42, 000 
64, 800 



Interstate 



$104, 319 
99, 409 
25, 468 
10, 877 
72, 520 



Commodities 



Asparagus 

Corn 

Beets 

Carrots 

Tomatoes 

Strawberries.. 
Raspberries... 
Blackberries.. 

Squash 

Miscellaneous 

Total... 



Acres 



16 
130 

40 
140 

11 
156 

80 
110 

45 

10 



2,783 



Local 



$3,500 
27,300 
12, 000 
70,000 

8,250 

105, 300 

57, 600 

88, 000 

13, 500 

5,725 



808, 601 



Interstate 



$312, 593 



NOTE.-Approximately 95 percent of the agricultural products in this area are controlled by Japanese. 
4S percent of acreage of this district raises 2 to 3 crops making an actual acreage of 3,980 acres cultivatea. 



11458 



PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 



Farm report — Continued 

SOUTH PARK, RIVERTON, AND WEST SEATTLE DISTRICTS 



Number of farms : 

Leased 34 

Owned H 

Total 45 



People involved: 

Aliens 68 

Citizens 125 



Total 193 



Commodity 


Acre- 
age 


Local 

sales 


. Inter- 
state 


Commodity 


Acre- 
age 


Local 
sales 


Inter- 
state 




56 
19 
38 
45 
107 
88 
38 
40 
68 


$35, 200 
5,250 
27,600 
13. 035 
9,500 
10,800 
15, 3C0 
9,200 
4,600 




Peas 


28 
2 

10 
3 

5 
4 


850 
435 
2,750 
1,150 
3,100 
2,050 


6,400 






Corn - -- - 




Green onions _ _ 










Cucumbers 

Tomatoes . --- 






$22, 000 
10, 150 
5,900 
2,000 
15, 000 




Celery 


Miscellaneous 

Total 






551 


140, 820 




Cabbage. 

Cauliflower 


61,450 



Note,— 85 percent of the farmers in this locality raise from 2 to 3 crops per year. 
Approximately 50 percent of truck farming in this area controlled by Japanese. 

SUNNYDALE DISTRICT 



Number of farms: 

Leased 

Owned 



Total 10 



People involved: 

Alien 18 

Citizens 30 



Total 48 



Commodity 


Acreage 


Local and 

interstate 
sales 


Commodity 


Acreage 


Local and 

interstate 

sales 




12 
10 
10 
1 
2 
4 


$4, 500 . 

2,540 

4,613 

300 

378 

1,350 


Spinach .. 


7 
5 
28 


900 


Peas 

Cauliflower 


Celery 


3,375 


Mescellaneous 

Total 


16, 269 




79 






34, 225 


Cabbage 











WHITE RIVER VALLEY 



Number of farms: 

Leased 

Owned 



257 

28 



Total. 



285 



People involved: 

Aliens 456 

Citizens *685 



Total. 



1, 141 



Commodity 


Acres 


Local 


Inter- 
state 


Commodity 


Acres 


Local 


Inter- 
state 




726 
198 
443 
206 

284 
287 


$179, 258 
33, 607 
24, 685 
89, 583 
6,225 
49,039 


$141, 106 
48, 142 
148, 590 




203 

59 

170 

225 


$28, 980 

9,110 

18, 000 

117,950 














$104, 220 




Miscellaneous 

Total... 




Corn . 


2.329 
252 




2,801 


556, 437 






444, 639 









Note.— Approximately 95 percent of the agricultural products in this area controlled by Japanese. 

YAKIMA DISTRICT 



Total acreage farmed 9, 000 

People involved: 

Families 125 



People involved' — Continued 

Aliens 

Citizens 



275 
650 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11459 

Commodities raised: Onions, potatoes, tomatoes, carrots, peas, beans, water- 
melons, sweet corn, rutabagas, cantaloupes, squash, turnips, lettuce, cucumbers 
and other truck vegetables; also hay and grain. 
Total valuation: $750,000 to $1,000,000. 

Xqte — -70 percent of the above-named commodities and 10 percent of the 
potatoes grown in this district are raised by Japanese. Six thousand seven 
hundred acres on the Indian reservation are leased with a yearly rental of approxi- 
mately $25,000 to the United States Government. 

Figures of estimated acreage and yield of produce in the Yakima Valley 

1,000 acres tomatoes tons-_ 15, 000 to 20,000 

800 acres onions do 16, 000 

400 acres peas and beans do 800 

300 acres lettuce crates__ 90, 000 

150 acres carrots tons.. 3, 000 

100 acres rutabagas do 1, 000 

1,000 acres cantaloups crates.. 225, 000 

2,200 acres hay tons.. 7, 500 

750 acres watermelons do 60, 000 

750 acres grain bushels.. 26, 250 

450 acres miscellaneous. 

Financial data 

Normal loans from banks are $50,000. 

Estimated returns from crops are $750,000 to $1,000,000. 

5. If a licensing svstem for individuals in vital and necessary occupations could 
be worked out under the supervision of either the military or the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, unwanted mass evacuation can be avoided. 

SPOKANE DISTRICT 

Number of farms: Total 16 

Commodity : Truck vegetables (local sales) $140, 000 

Other Economic Tables 

report on hotels operated by japanese, city of seattle, february 1942 

Number of Japanese-operated hotels 206 

Total number of all hotels in Seattle 325 

Number of rooms in Japanese-operated hotels 13, 759 

Number of Japanese-operated apartment houses 56 

Number of apartments in Japanese-operated houses 1, 300 

These figures show that almost two-thirds of the hotels in Seattle are being 
operated bv resident Japanese. These include, for the most part, hotels in the 
cheaper-price scales patronized mainly by the laboring class. The hotels average 
66 rooms per hotel. From this it can be seen the majority are comparatively 
small places, profitable only if operated by the manager and his wife, with the aid 
of the tan ily and a minimum of outside help. 

Practically all these hotels are now filled to capacity, due to the great influx 
of labor to local defense industries. It is essential that these hotels keep operat- 
ing, and it will be impossible to keep them in operation at the present price levels 
if the Japanese are removed in wholesale numbers; simply because no one will 
work like the Japanese have been working at the remuneration which Japanese 
accepted. 

REPORT ON RESTAURANTS OPERATED BY JAPANESE, CITY OF SEATTLE, FEBRUARY 

1942 

Number of restaurants operated by Japanese (10 percent of city total).. 53 

Total nun ber of restaurants in Seattle 500 

Nun ber of employees in Japanese-operated restaurants 225 

Weekly pay roll in Japanese-operated restaurants $5, 100 

Number of meals served daily in Japanese restaurants: Mealsdaily 

10 class I restaurants '^' ^00 

25 class II restaurants 12, 500 

18 class III restaurants 6. OOP 

Total . 26,000 



11460 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

The majority of meals in the class I and II restaurants are served to defense 
workers These restaurants are located mainly in the southern section of the 
downtown area near the water front, not distant from defense industries and on 
the route from the industrial area to residential districts. By mass turn-over these 
Japanese restaurants can serve a good meal at reasonable prices. 

Lunches are also put up by these restaurants for defense workers but are not 
included in the above figures. ,. . , , ,r -j j i- r 

Class III restaurants cater mostly to mdividuals on welfare aid and relief. 

Restaurant operators declare that if they were forced out of operation, restau- 
rant prices would climb immediately for defense workers. 

REPORT ON GROCERY STORES OPERATED BY JAPANESE, CITY OF SEATTLE, FEBRUARY 

1942 

Number of Japanese-operated stores 140 

Total number of grocery stores in Seattle 840 

Percentage of Japanese-operated stores I6/3 

Average investment per store q-cnn nnn 

Aggregate investment * 99' 999 

Average monthly gross income per store $2, 100 

Average total gross income per month $294, 000 

Average number of employees (mostly family members) 3 

Estimated total employment . 420 

Average number of years in business 15 

More than 95 percent of the stores are in localities outside the Japanese com- 
munity. Stores located within the Japanese community and those bordering on 
it now" average between 30 and 40 percent of their sales to the Caucasian trade. 
This abnormally high percentage is due to the fact that many defense workers 
now live in Japanese-operated hotels and rooming houses which are either in or 
close to the Japanese community. Japanese stores located definitely in Cauca- 
sian residential and business districts are practically 100 percent dependent on 
Caucasian trade. 

The range of investment in these stores is from $700 to $18,000. 

The smaller stores are operated by families while the medium-sized ones em- 
ploy extra help for delivery and general work in the store. The larger stores 
employ as many as five or six clerks and are in most cases located in shopping 
centers. 

REPORT ON DYE WORKS AND CLEANERS OPERATED BY JAPANESE, CITY OF SEATTLE, 

FEBRUARY 1942 

Number of Japanese-operated dye works and cleaners 90 

Total number of dye works and cleaners in Seattle 390 

Average total number of customers per month 12, 169 

About 22 percent of all dye works and cleaning establishments in the city are 
operated by Japanese. The 90 establishments average a total of 12,169 customers 
each month, or about 140 per month per shop. 

Most of these shops are located in low-income areas of the city. None of them 
is on a scale to rival the large white American firms. They are, with few excep- 
tions, purely family enterprises with small capital investments. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



11461 



JAPANESE IN THE LUMBER INDUSTRY 



Total 

number 

employed 



Number 
of Jap- 
anese 



Union 



Longview, Wash.: 

Long Bell Lumber Co 

Weyerhauser Lumber Co.. - 

Enumelaw, Wash.: White River Lumber Co 

Snoqualmie, Wash.: Snoqualmie Falls Lumber Co.. 

National, Wash.: National Lumber Co 

EatonviUe, Wash.: Eatonville Lumber Co 

Onalaska, Wash.: Carlisle Lumber Co 

Callam Bay, Wash.: Bodell-Donovan Lumber Mill. 

Forks, Wash.: Forks Lumber Co 

Tacoma, Wash.: 

St. Paul Lumber Co 

Defiance Lumber Co.. 



Dickman Lumber Co 

Tacoma Harbor Lumber Co 

Seattle, Wash.: 

Nettleton Lumber Co.. 

Hartung & Hansen Lumber Yards. 

Total 



1,300 

1,000 
700 
500 

450 
85 
375 
400 

100 

500 
150 

110 
100 

200 



Congress of Industrial 
Organizations. 
Do. 
Do. 
American Federation of 
Labor. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Congress of Industria 
Organizations. 
Do. 

Do. 

American Federation of 

Labor. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 



5,970 



483 



1 Discharged. 

Note. — Percentage of Japanese workers as compared to total number of workers employed: 9 percent. 

DATA, JAPANESE IN THE ALASKA SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY 

A. Estimated number of American-born 350 

Estimated number of noncitizens 150 

Total -- 500 

B. Approximate total of cannerj' labor supply dispatched from Seattle 

(ratio, 1/6 Japanese) 3, 000 

C. Estimated number of Japanese employed in key positions (foremen, 

timekeepers, plant delegates, department heads) 45 to 50 

D. Estimated avei^age individual gross income $400 

Estimated total gross seasonal income $200, 000 

E. Type of work: Processing, canning, labeHng, longshoring, and the 

supervision thereof. 

F. Areas and canneries where Japanese employed: 



Area 


Cannery 


Company 


Bristol Bay 




Libby, McNeil & Libby. 




False Pass 


P. E. Harris & Co. 


Kodiak 


Port Bailey 


Kodiak Fisheries. 






Do. 


Southeastern . . .. 




Libby. McNeU & Libby. 




Taku 


Do. 




Gecrge Inlet . 


Do. 




Hawk Inlet 


P. E.Harris & Co. 






New England Fish Co. 




Noyes Island... 


Do. 




Ketchikan . 


Do. 




Chatham 


Do. 






Astoria-Puget Sound Canning Co. 






Snug Harbor Packing Co. 




Waterfall 


Nakat Packing Corporation. 




Hidden Inlet 


Do. 






Do. 









11462 



PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 



Floating cannery, S. S. "Ogontz." Total number of canneries employing Japanese, 18 

(Note —The above data is based upon the 1941 season. The estimate on the 
number of Japanese employed in the industry is reasonably accurate. The total 
fluctuates annually according to the number of canneries operatmg. The figures 
on the gross seasonal income of these workers are rough estimates, the difficulty 
in obtaining accurate figures being that income varies according to the cannery, 
type of work, amount of fish packed, length of season, etc. The usual length 
of the season and period of employment is 2 months. _ 

All Japanese cannery workers embarking from Seattle are either regular or 
permit members of the Cannery Workers' and Farm Laborers' Union, Local No. 
7 of the United Cannery, Agricultural, Packing and Allied Workers of America 
(Congress of Industrial Organizations), 221 Second Avenue, Seattle. Either the 
union or the canning companies may be consulted for additional facts or for 
corroboration of the data presented above. . - 

The immediate concern of the Japanese cannery w^orkers is the question ot 
whether or not the American-born majority will be employed in the Alaska can- 
neries during the approaching season. The union has not been able thus far to 
obtain an official Government verdict on this question. Since the industry has 
long been a consistent source of income for large numbers of Japanese workers 
and a major factor in the economic life of the community, the importance of 
securing Government definition of the status of Japanese cannery labor under 
the conditions of war cannot be overemphasized. , • j 

The following tentative recommendations and proposals are submitted with 
the above question in mind: ^r xi, -.n^o 

1. That, in the event the American-born are granted employment for the 1942 
canning season, they be assigned to specially designated and segregated plants 
which are farthest removed from the arena of conflict. They shall work under 
military surveillance. The normal practice of placing Filipino and Japanese 
workers in the same plant must be abandoned for obvious reasons. 

2. That, in the event all Japanese (including the American-born) are barred 
from employment in the industry for the duration of the war, their exclusion shall 
strictly be construed as temporary and the result of military emergency and neces- 
sity. "Special provisions should be made to guarantee their right to return to 
their former jobs upon termination of the war or when it is deemed advisable for 
them to be reemployed. . » , , 

3. Should these Japanese workers be barred from employment m Alaska, the 
Government shall consider and adopt all possible steps to effect their rehabilitation 
and utility as an asset to the national war effort. 

OYSTER INDUSTRY REPORT 

Number of acres owned and leased by Japanese acres. . 910 

Total output gallons.. 177, 000 

Sales amount to $218, 000 

Number of Japanese employed cooq nn 

Total wages earned by Japanese $223, 500 

Note —Six out of eight main oyster houses in the State employ Japanese almost exclusively in the fresh- 
and cold-pacVed oyster industry. Approximately 50 percent of the fresh-packed oysters opened in the 
Willapa Uarbor district are done by Japanese-American concerns. Japanese have been in the oyster busi- 
ness for the past 10 to 15 years, both in the native and pacific oyster industry. It will be hard to replace 
these skilled men. Since there will be no more oyster seeds coming in from Japan due to the war, local seeds 
must be caught; and Japanese concerns play a large part in this seed trade. 

Oyster industry 



Name 


Address 


Acreage 


Output 


Sales 


Earned 
amount 


Eagle Oyster Packing Co - 


Nahcotta 

South Bend 

Bay Center 

Nahcotta 

Poulsbo -- 


200 

325 
50 

150 
20 
25 
20 

120 


Gallons 
80, 000 
60, 000 
5,000 
15, 000 
4,000 
5,000 
3,000 
5,000 


$78, 000 
80, 000 
20, 000 
3,000 
2,000 
4,000 
4,000 
27, 000 


$18, 000 




55, 000 




3,000 




2,000 




1,500 




Silverdale 

Blanchard 

Shelton 


3,000 


Western Oyster Co 


3,000 


West Coast Oyster Co. Yoshihara 


8,000 








Total 


910 


177. 000 


218, 000 


93, 500 









NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



11463 



Japanese employed in American concerns 



Willapa Harbor 

Olympia and Puget Sound.-. 

Bellingham, Saniish Bay 

Seattle opening houses 

Tacoma opening houses 

Total 

Employed by Japanese firms 

Grand total 



People 
employed 


Approximate 
earnings 


10 
50 
25 
16 
20 


$9, 000 
47, 000 
35, 000 
19, 000 
20. 000 


121 
63 


130. 000 




184 





Public Opinion 

For many weeks after the attack on Pearl Harbor, public opinion regarding 
resident Japanese was considering everything extremely favorable. The news- 
papers, civic officials, and prominent figures in public life were responsible for 
editorials and statements stressing the necessity of fairness to individuals of 
Japanese extraction, and urging that no untoward action be taken to alter the 
friendlv pre-war relationship. 

So far as we know, there was no sudden public reaction against Japanese aliens 
or their citizen children, although there were a number of cases where employers 
anticipating public disfavor discharged Japanese help. School authorities, church 
leaders and others, who knew the Japanese or were interested in preventing 
hysteria from rising against them joined in these appeals. 

Newspaper letter columns showed about as many communications favorable to 
resident Japanese as unfavorable, and generally the situation was well in hand 
until the agitation growing in California spread to this district. 

Investigation will substantiate our contention that the relations _ between 
Americans of Japanese descent and Japanese aliens with the Caucasian com- 
munity of the Pacific Northwest have, on the whole, been extremely good. The 
Japanese have a high reputation as to honesty, integrity, industry, and are con- 
sidered by those most closely in contact with them as law-abiding and useful 
citizens. 

Our investigation has shown that there are a great many individuals who would 
not like to see wholesale evacuation of Japanese, but who dare not jeopardize their 
own positions by speaking up at this time. Understandably, they do not care to 
lay themselves open to the charges of the vociferous minority that they are 
un-American and "Jap-lovers." 

Except for the most rabid critics who make baseless and blanket charges 
attacking the loyalty of Japanese and stress their danger as potential saboteurs 
and fifth columnists, most persons who express themselves on the subject seem to 
believe that onlv one out of 10 or perhaps one out of 100 Japanese may be disloyal. 
Many contend that because of the presence of this questionable element, the whole 
group must suffer. 

While there is no general agreement on just what portion of the Japanese are 
dangerous to the safetv of the United States, it should be stressed that the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation has already detained some 300 alien Japanese in the Seattle 
area. Analysis of the total population figures shows that at least half of the 
Japanese in "the State are women, and thus safely to be ruled out of consideration 
generally as saboteurs and fifth-columnists. This would leave at the very most, 
2,700 alien Japanese males in Washington. From these must be subtracted the 
aged and infirm, no small consideration because the average age of this group is 
69 vears. 

From these figures, it can be seen that considerably more than one in every 10 
alien Japanese males is under detention by Federal authorities. Many others are 
doubtless still under surveillance by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Here is 
the reply, then, to those who urge "mass evacutaion so that the 1 in 10, or the 1 in 
100 dangerous characters may be removed from the coastal States. 

We believe that if the proper action and leadership could be initiated by 
responsible individuals with access to the facts, it would lead the way for the now 
silent groups to speak up. Once the hysteria is controlled by a statement of 
the facts of the case, it would seem self-evident that the problem would take care 
of itself. It seems evident also that those individuals and organizations who 



11464 PORTLAND AXD SEATTLE HEARINGS 

spoke in behalf of loyal Japanese aliens and American citizens of Japanese descent 
before the hysteria began would speak out again when the facts to substantiate 
their contentions became generally known. 

It should also be remembered that one of the favorite Nazi techniques for 
creating internal disorders is to create an atmosphere of fear and mistrust in the 
civiHan population. The creation of an attitude that holds that everyone with 
Oriental features is a sp}- or a saboteur would delight the master minds of Nazi 
psychological warfare. Hysteria has no place in a nation that is resolved to 
fight the war against the Axis through to a victorious conclusion. 

Selfish Interests 

From the speed and organization with which the agitation for removal of 
Japanese aliens and American citizens of Japanese parentage grew, there is 
reason to believe that it was not only the result of hysteria or genuine fear of 
dangers, actual, potential, or imagined. We have discovered that there is at 
least some agitation being conducted by interests which would profit from removal 
of Japanese. Facts and figures of the economic position the Japanese have built 
up are a fairly good index to the sort of behind-the-scenes pressure one might 
find. 

First, however, the political angle must be mentioned. This is more prevalent 
in California than in Washington. None the less, the Japanese issue has become 
one that apparently is without the "other side," and politicians find it a most 
convenient football to be kicked around without fearing any sort of counter- 
reaction developing from the opposition. In other words, the Japanese issue is 
an ideal punching bag which politicians can pummel in the limelight of public 
approval without experiencing any sort of political retaliation. Such irrespon- 
sible tactics have done much to inflame public opinion. It might also be pointed 
out that any officeholder, who remained silent on this issue, could expect to be 
attacked by those who covet his office. 

In Seattle proper considerable pressure has been applied by owners of hotel 
properties as well as real-estate agencies, both powerful and influential groups, 
for the removal of Japanese. Most Japanese-operated hotels are operated on 
leases of from 3 to 5 years. Hotels have not been profitable for the past few 
years, and it was only in the latter half of 1941, when defense workers rushed to 
Seattle, that hotels began to make money. 

Now that these hotels are experiencing a boom, many of the owners are anxious 
to break present leases and increase the rental for the next lessee. Others, seeing 
the profitable nature of the hotel business are anxious to become operators and 
are hurrying the day when they may be able to step into hotels left vacant by 
departing Japanese. 

Real-estate agencies have approached at least 50 Japanese-operated hotels 
with propositions that they take over operation of the hotels for the duration, in 
return for a percentage of the gross income, usually 5 percent. In some of the 
larger hotels, where gross income for the month is SIO.OOO and more, 5 percent 
amounts to $500 monthly and up. A holding company which could operate 4 or 
5 of these hotels would find it a most profitable venture, especially when there is 
every possibility of cheating the original operator on practically every item of 
operation. It must be emphasized that this is not a baseless charge. There are 
at least 50 large Japanese-operated hotels which have had this proposition put 
up to them. 

A somewhat similar but not quite so severe situation exists in the rural areas 
where other farmers have showed that the^' desire rich lands leased by Japanese 
farmers. However, it is extremely doubtful if outside farmers can turn out any- 
where near the volume or the quality of produce that the present tenants are able 
to do with their infinite patience. 

There also appear to be groups which are trying to discredit the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, Just who or what thej^ are is beyond the scope of this report, 
but it must be remembered that the Japanese issue is only one of the many 
duties of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The internment of large numbers 
of enemy aliens within 24 hours of the attack on Pearl Harbor; the unflagging 
zeal with which the Federal Bureau of Investigation has since rounded them up; 
and the absence of any serious sabotage on the Pacific coast all eloquently attest 
the fact that the Federal Bureau of Investigation has not been slumbering. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11465 

Problems of Evacuation 

So far we have reviewed at some length the various reasons why we beheve 
that, provided the Federal Bureau of Investigation can continue to hold the 
the situation well in hand, as it certainly has done, it serves the best interests of 
the community of Seattle and the United States as a whole to keep the Japanese 
right where they are. A tremendous burden falls upon those still in civil life to 
keep the daily routine from being entirely disrupted by the new war economy. 
It is fundamental to keep the home front secure against shortage of foods, shortage 
of housing, and shortage of domestic labor, for unless these needs are first met, 
the production of the war industries is bound to suffer. 

Thus, we believe that from every angle the problem is approached, the benefits 
derived by moving the Japanese out en masse are overbalanced by the advantage 
of keeping them here where they are already concentrated under proper supervi- 
sion. It must be pointed out that if the Japanese are a problem here, they will 
continue to be a problem wherever they are sent, for war industries and vital 
centers are spread out over the length and breadth of the land. 

In the case, however, that in the face of these arguments the authorities deem 
it to be the best interests of the United States to order evacuation, certain prob- 
lems arise. We present them, not only with the intention of helping the authori- 
ties get a complete picture of the issue but also in the hopes that assurances can 
be given a naturally anxious Japanese public. 

LOCATION 

A large number of people have remarked that they will go where the Govern- 
ment orders them to go, willingly, if it will help the national defense effort. But 
the biggest problem in their minds is where to go. The first unofficial evacuation 
announcement pointed out that the Government did not concern itself with 
where evacuees went, just so they left prohibited areas. Obviously, this was no 
solution to the question, for immediately, from Yakima, Idaho, Montana, Col- 
orado and elsewhere authoritative voices shouted: "No Japs wanted here!" 

The Japanese feared with reason that, forced to vacate their homes, unable to 
find a place to stay, they would be kicked from town to town in the interior like 
the "Okies" of John Steinbeck's novel. Others went further, and envisioned 
the day when inhabitants of inland States, aroused by the steady influx of Japanese, 
would refuse to sell gasoline and food to them. They saw too, the possibility of 
mob action against them as exhausted, impoverished and unable to travel further, 
they stopped in some town or village where they were not wanted. 

The matter of location is an extremely realistic one. Exceedingly few Wash- 
ington Japanese have friends or relatives elsewhere to whom they might be able 
to go. The others, in the overwhelming majority, would have to depend on 
sheer guess work or on Government guidance in relocating themselves. 

Naturally, farmers desire relocation on farm lands, but it must be pointed out 
that the large scale farming of the Midwest presents problems entirely foreign 
to the experience of the truck gardeners of the coast. It has also been suggested 
that all Japanese be organized as farm laborers in the Midwest, but here again, 
it must be emphasized that the average age of the alien Japanese male is 59 
years, and that due to the rigorous life he has been forced to lead, he is not so 
rugged as his Caucasian counterpart of the same age. True, truck farming calls 
for unremitting labor, but the actual physical strain is much less than that 
imposed on the individual in harvesttime in the Midwest. 

RESETTLEMENT 

What will the Government's policy be? Will communities be shifted as units 
to other sections? Will the Japanese be resettled as family units? Will men 
and women be segregated and families split up? Will Japanese be scattered at 
random in the interior? These are questions that are arising in the Japanese 
communities in this area. 

It would seem hardly feasible to place thousands of Japanese into inland com- 
munities without extensive preparation because of the natural repercussion from 
outraged citizens who understandably would not want the "backwash" from the 
coast dumped in their cities. On the other hand, concentration camps are not 
a permanent solution, especially if this turns out to be a long war as the Govern- 
ment seems to believe it will. 



11466 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

We are also vitally interested in learning to what extent we can rely on Federal 
financial assistance, not only in the matter of transportation, but also in the 
numerous prolDlems of resettlement. Our financial reserves are not great as a 
glance at the statistics on Japanese businesses will reveal, and a long pilgrimage 
followed by a difficult period of adjustment would be too much for the savings of 
the average evacuated family. 

Another problem is that of how far to go. Is it sufficient to go east of the 
Cascade Mountains to the Yakima and Okanagan Valleys? Or would it be 
more sensible to travel as far inland as possible, to the Mississippi Valley, for 
instance, to obviate the possibility of a second evacuation? Would the sparsely 
populated areas along the Canadian border be feasible, or is this likely to be con- 
sidered a danger zone? Should the migration cross the Rockies? 



It is necessary to think of the future, of the day when this war will be over. 
Could the Japanese people, once evacuated, return to their homes? There is the 
great possibility that once the Jap haters and outspoken opponents of the resident 
Japanese were successful in driving the Japanese out of this area, they would never 
permit them to return. A post-war campaign of hate and villification when resi- 
'dent Japanese tried to get back to their homes and investments here, is a definite 
possibility should these elements score an initial victory. 

There is a huge but indeterminable investment here in furniture, personal be- 
longings, businesses, land and property by the Japanese. Certainly the matter of 
personal possessions is dwarfed by the issue of the national good, but this is an 
humanitarian problem that strikes close to the hearts and pockets of old people 
who have lived here close to a half century, of young people just starting out in life. 

Who will take care of investments and personal belongings which cannot be 
taken by the evacuees? Is it better for evacuees to try to liquidate their posses- 
sions at the best possible price so they will have funds when they find a place to 
relocate? Would it not be better to do so if the chances of returning to this 
section of the country are remote? These are other questions that should be 
answered. 

HUMANITARIAN 

A problem of this magnitude involves certain far-reaching humanitarian con- 
siderations. Evacuation means the uprooting of ties established since birth for 
the citizen group, ties of 30, 40, and 50 years standing for the resident aliens. 

We have noted with gratitude that the authorities have decided that aliens too 
ill to move, occupants of hospitals or other such institutions, and those more than 
75 years of age will be permitted to remain in certain California prohibited areas. 
While this is a humanitarian move, it does not go far enough, for it does not pro- 
vide for persons to care for the incapacitated and helpless. 

Other related problems include women m pregnancy, the education of children, 
individuals less than 75 years of age not ill enough to be considered invalids but 
useless in the estal)lishment of new homes in a distant area. 

What assurance have evacuees that they will find security, a chance to make a 
livelihood, or even to uphold their pride and dignity as individuals in their new 
homes? What reaction can evacuees expect from their new neighbors in the 
matter of welcome, cooperation, assistance, and neighborliness? Or must they 
live fearful and apprehensive under armed guard wherever they are taken, to 
protect them from sullen natives outraged that their precincts have been invaded 
by the west coast's unwanted? 

A matter of 14,000 Japanese from the State of Washington might be com- 
paratively easily taken care of, but this issue affects more than 130,000 individuals 
in the Western States. 

It must also be remembered that the Axis propaganda machines would imme- 
diately seize upon an unhumanitarian mass evacuation to discredit the war aims 
of all the United Nations as set forth in the Atlantic Charter, for example. Un- 
fortunately, such propaganda might prove to be a serious psychological blow to 
the cause of the democracies. 

WISHES OF THE JAPANESE 

The Japanese do not want to be evacuated. They desire to stay in their home 
cities and districts, away, of course, from vital defense areas such as factories, 
airports, military establishments, hydroelectric projects, water-supply systems, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11467 

and the like to avoid all unnecessary suspicion. In this way they believe they 
can serve the United States best. But, we repeat, the Japanese will abide faith- 
fully by any decision that the Government reaches. 

Assuming, however, that mass evacuation is decreed, they have several ideas 
which the committee may like to consider. 

MODEL CITY 

This is an ambitious plan entailing the creation of an all-Japanese city some- 
where in the interior of the country, able to sustain itself as a self-sufficient unit. 
It would be financed originally partially by the Japanese themselves, partially 
by the Government. Some important defense industry would be set up to give 
employment to Japanese labor, preferably one calling for skill and efficiency which 
Japanese workmen possess. The city would be governed by American citizens, 
who would elect a mayor and council, just as other American cities, and the 
Japanese, both American citizens and aliens, would be given an opportunity to 
practice the American ideals of democratic government which they have learned. 

After the initial investment, the city could be expected to become self-sufficient 
and a center for the hinterland. It is altogether likely that such a city, as an 
experiment in democracy, would be so progressive and would provide such ad- 
vantages that friends of the Japanese would desire to share its benefits. 

This would be a long-range project, to be continued in perpetuity. The 
objection of the time required to set it up would be overbalanced by the per- 
manent nature of the project. 

ALTERNATIVE TO EVACUATION 

If a licensing system for individuals in vital and necessary occupations could 
be worked out under the supervision of either the military or the Federal Bureau 
of Investigation, unwanted mass evacuation can be avoided. It is our belief 
that onlv those considered not dangerous are being allowed to be at liberty today, 
but this' might be carried further by thorough investigation of each individual. 

Those permitted to remain at their jobs should have to pass two tests: Prove 
their necessity to the national defense effort and be approved by the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation. 

Thus, the general public would be assured that only the unquestionably loyal 
individuals remain, and that their importance to the defense effort justifies their 
remaining in this area. 

Covering the problem generally, these are the important points: 

1. The Japanese do not know where to go in case of general evacuation. 

2. They wish to be directed by the Government as to where to go. 

3. They wish to be sent together, with families intact, and in sufficient numbers 
to be able to help each other over the difficult period of adjustment. 

4. They wish to be settled near large urban centers. 

Conclusion 

We believe the so-called Japanese problem is not so serious as certain vocal 
exponents of m^ss evacuation profess to be'ieve. We are sure that the benefits 
to be derived from large-scale evacuation of Japanese from the Staje of Washing- 
ton are overwhelmingly overbalanced by the benefits to be derived by keeping 
them here under the proper supervision. 

The Japanese pro)3lem is not going to be solved by evacuation. If they are a 
problem here, they will be a problem wherever they are sent. Since this is so, it 
is logical that they can be kept under better surveillance where they are now, 
concentrated as they are in well-defined areas, and where they can continue to 
do their bit for the national defense. 

The argument that the Japanese must be placed in safety because of danger to 
themselves in case of invasion or parachute attack is not entirely valid. It is 




Filipir.„.., . 

pinos are so difficult to detect that even members of those races cannot make 
infallible identification of each other. 

Among Axis enemies, the Japanese are the worst possible people to select as 
saboteurs, spies, and fifth columnists. A Japanese can be distinguished from a 
considerable distance because of oriental facial characteristics which set him apart 

60396— 42— pt. 30—12 



11468 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

from the general mass of people. Enemies with Caucasian faces can mix with 
crowds anywhere and carry out their nefarious missions. 

Japanese are already barred from vital war industries such as aircraft plants, 
shipyards, and other such places where saboteurs are amost likely to strike. His 
contribution is in other fields where the matter of sabotage is not involved, where 
there is ample opportunity for Government supervision. 

Espionage is a highlv specialized business which cannot be engaged in by just 
anyone. The vast majority of alien Japanese ar)d American citizens of Japanese 
descent" have not training whatever in espionage, sabotage, or fifth-column work. 
Their age distribution precludes this possibility. The Federal Bureau of Inves- 
tigation has already detained, or is keeping under surveillance, those considered 

suspicious. . ., X i-xi_- X jx 

Distinction must be made between long-time residents of this country and tem- 
porary visitors or treaty merchants. The first have made their homes here, and 
have made up their minds to remain here until they die. The great majority has 
resolved never to return to Japan. The others are here on a temporary basis; 
their homes are in Japan and their interests are Japanese. The two groups have 
never had anything in common other than race. The first group came here as 
immigrants, just as immigrants from various parts of Europe, in search of the life, 
liberty, and freedom to pursue happiness which this country has granted p11 
oppressed and unhappy people. They have found it here, and they are appreci- 
ative. It is against their principles to turn against the country that has sheltered 
them, given them a livelihood, security, prosperity, and happiness for all these 

This is not a war of races. To consider it so is to be taken in by Tokyo propa- 
gandists who have used the "Asia for Asiatics" theme in their conquests to create 
internal turmoil. To succumb to badly informed public opinion and carefully 
organized mass hysteria by pressing undue hardships on the Japanese is to emu- 
late the Nazi tactic of racial persecution which proved so successful in Hitler's 
climb to power. 

If the loyalty of citizens as a group is to be questioned, in what may the Amer- 
ican people have faith and confidence? 

Internecine warfare is not new. It has precedents in the United States where 
first the Thirteen Colonies turned on the mother country in the American Revo- 
lution. Brother fought brother in that war, and cousin fought cousin. The 
issue was the ideal of liberty. Another such war was fought in the Civil War, 
and here again it was brother against brother, cousin against cousin, over an ideal. 

In Asia, the Japanese are pitted against other Asiatics. The Japanese are 
allied with Germany and Italy, Caucasian nations. The Allied Nations include 
Caucasian nations as well as the Chinese and Filipinos. The Japanese also 
claim allies among the Chinese of the Nanking regime. Thus, it is a war that 
transcends racial barriers, a war in which ideals stand as the JDanner around 
which various peoples of many nations and many colors have rallied. 

For the Japanese, this is in fact a civil war. The Japanese in the old country 
are fighting for one thing. The Japanese here are fighting for the American way 
of life. If any substantial number of the Japanese in this country, either those 
with or without American citizenship, sided with the bloody and ruthless aims 
of the Axis Powers, then it is poor testimony indeed for the principles of democracy 
and freedom tp which these people have been exposed for so long. 

We have, in extensive personal contacts, heard time and again from alien 
Japanese the desire to do something concrete to assist the United States to 
victory. These people believe such victory to be a double triumph — for the 
principles of democracy upheld by the Allied Nations, and for their cousins and 
brothers laack in the old country who will be liberated from the mad Fascist war 
lords, who have misled and exploited them. 

As for the vounger generation, they are already playing an active part, serving 
in United States forces by the thousands. Many hundreds volunteered after 
the attack on Pearl Harbor, and all of them are serving willingly and loyally. 

To shun and disavow this patriotic feeling expressed spontaneously by the vast 
majority of the Japanese in the United States is to throw an offering rising from 
the heart back into the faces of those who have made it. 

If it is for the greater good that evacuation be decreed, we shall obey to the 
best of our ability. But we are convinced that here in our homes and in our 
community is where we belong, where we can lend every ounce of our strength, 
and every cent of our resources, in creating the sinews of war so necessary to total 
victory. We are Americans. We want to do our duty where we can serve best. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11469 

We make these statements, not because we fear evacuation, but because we 
believe, to the bottom of our hearts, that the best interests of the United States, 
our Nation, are to be served by being permitted to stay, work, fight, and die for 
our country if necessary here where we belong. 



Report Submitted by the Emergency Defense Council, Seattle Chapter, 
Japanese-American Citizens' League, 517 Main Street, Seattle, 
Wash. 

1. We wish to go on record now that the safety and welfare of the United 
States is, has been, and will continue to be foremost in our minds. We, as 
American citizens, have a duty to this, our country, and the first tenet of that 
duty is complete and unshakable loyalty. 

We are wholeheartedly in favor of complete cooperation with the military and 
other authorities on withdrawal of civilians from the immediate vicinity of de- 
fense projects and establishments. But we do not believe that mass evacuation 
is either desirable or feasible. 

We also desire the privilege of remaining to fight shoulder to shoulder and shed 
our blood, if necessary, in the defense of our country and our homes together with 
patriotic Americans of other national extractions if that time should ever come. 
It is repugnant to us that we be given a place of safety when our friends and neigh- 
bors remnin behind to defend the things that we together created and developed. 

If, finally, the decision is that the Japanese must go, the committee is assured 
of the Japanese-American Citizens' League's complete cooperation in the evacu- 
ation movement. Loyalty demands that orders, no matter what, be obeyed 
willingly and efficientlv. 

2. In the State of Washington there are approximately 14,000 individuals of 
Japanese extraction. About 63 percent, or 8,800 are American-born, therefore 
American citizens. The remainder, approximately 5,400, is foreign-born and 
alien. 

•Of the alien group the average age of males is 59 years; 9f the females, 51 
years. Manv of these aliens have been in the United States for 45 and 50 years, 
all have been here since 1924 when the Exclusion Act went into effect, and their 
average tenure of residence in this country may be approximated at 30 years. 

The love of the alien Japanese for America is understandable. Many of the 
aliens are pioneers of«the Pacific Northwest. They came here at the turn of the 
century when the State of Washington was comparatively a raw frontier, and 
thev grew up with the country, aiding in its development. 

The average age of the American-born generation is 20 years, although there 
are a few individuals in their 40's. 

Juvenile court and police records show that the American-born Japanese rarely 
if ever are in difficulty with the law in spite of the fact that most of them come 
from Seattle's economicallv depressed areas. 

3. Contrary to popular "belief, the Japanese has not willfully segregated himself 
in his own little communities where he moves only in completely Japanese circles. 

The Japanese resident in the United States has made his greatest contribution 
in the field of agriculture and it is here that he can make a great contribution to the 
war effort of the United States. 

Japanese farmers in Washington cultivate 15,353 acres, some for two or three 
crops, or a total of about 18,000 acres of production. The total number of farms 
is 666, actuallv nivolving 1,166 ahen and 2,206 citizen workers. 

The total value of produce handled by Japanese farmers in 1941 was roughly 
four million of which $3,069,760 was in western Washington alone. Interstate 
shipments from western Washington were valued at $1,089,209 in 1941 while 
$2,815,051 was sent to local markets. 

In Seattle there are 140 Japanese-operated grocery stores representing an 
investment of $500,000; 90 Japanese-operated dye works and cleaning establish- 
ments; 53 Japanese-operated restaurants, serving an estimated 25,000 meals per 
day; 206 Japanese-operated hotels with a total of 13,759 rooms; and 56 Japanese- 
operated apartment houses with a total of 1,300 apartments. 

4. Investigation will substantiate our contention that the relations between 
Americans of Japanese descent and Japanese aliens with the Caucasian com- 
munity of the Pacific Northwest have, on the whole, been extremely good. 



11470 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Considerably more than 1 in every 10 alien Japanese males is under detention 
by Federal authorities. Many others are doubtless still under surveillance by 
the Federal Bureau of Investigation. 

From the speed and organization with which the agitation for removal of 
Japanese aliens and American citizens of Japanese parentage grew, there is reason 
to believe that it was not only the result of hysteria or genuine fear of dangers, 
actual, potential, or imagined. We have discovered that there is at least some 
agitation being conducted by interests which would profit from the removal of 
Japanese. 

Covering the problem of mass evacuation generally these are the important 
points : 

1. The Japanese do not know where to go in case of general evacuation. 

2. They wish to be directed by the Government as to where to go. 

3. They wish to be sent together, with families intact and in sufficient numbers 
to be able to help each other over the difficult period of adjustment. 

4. They wish to be settled near large urban settlements. 

TESTIMONY OF JAMES Y. SAKAMOTO— Resumed 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, I have been in this work of mine for better 
than 14 years. In fact, my paper was published due to the reason 
that we felt the need of an organization such as the Japanese-American 
Citizens' League. So we started, or rather, revived a defunct organi- 
zation called the Seattle Progressive Citizens' League in Seattle back 
in 1928. You can note that my paper, the Japanese-American 
Courier, published entirely in English for the American-born Japanese, 
first came out on January 1, 1928. Now, through the revival of that 
organization in January of 1928, a movement was started up and down 
the coast that resulted in the organization of a national body here in 
Seattle in 1930. During the latter part of August and September of 
that year, we organized the Japanese-American Citizens' League as a 
national body with 9 chartering groups, Seattle, Portland, Newcastle — 
that is in Placer County — Stockton, San Francisco^ San Jose, Fresno, 
Los Angeles, and Brawley were represented, with a total membership 
of less than 1,000. Today, we have 60 chapters with an approximate 
membership of 20,000, which I believe will be increased to a larger 
number very, very soon. 

PROGRAM TO AMERICANIZE JAPANESE 

Now, this organization has been working on a program to make the 
American-born Japanese realize their duties as American citizens, 
based on the principles of Americanism. We are a nonpartisan organi- 
zation; we have Democrats and Republicans; we have Buddhists and 
Christians; we do not stress religion, although we will say this — 
lately, we feel that some faith in some kind of religion is necessary 
to individual members. We have a program that calls for the 
development of the character of our young people as good citizens 
along economic, social, and civic lines. In other words, in the social 
realm of activities, we want them to be real factors who are going to 
uphold the morals of the community and strengthen the structure of 
society and contribute toward the national social welfare. Then, 
along economic lines, we want to develop industrious, diligent, and 
persevering young American citizens of Japanese ancestry who can 
become contributing factors to the betterment of our national economic 
welfare. We want our Americans of Japanese ancestry to become 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11471 

wide-awake public-spirited citizens, who will participate in civic 
activities for the benefit of the city's interests. We also stress that 
our members must go to the polls during election times, but to vote 
in accordance with their consciences and convictions. 

Now, that is the program that we have been following, based on the 
principle of Americanism. Our national constitution states, in 
article 4, that the members of this organization shall be American 
citizens of Japanese ancestry, 18 years of age and over. That is the 
type of organization that we have, and through that organization, it 
has been our purpose to really stabilize the homes of our Japanese 
people in this country so that they can be a real integral part of the 
national life, contributing toward national economic, social, and civic 
welfare, and not just marginal people but people who are really inside 
of that picture. 

We feel this way: That no particular racial group in America has a 
corner on the spirit of Americanism. We feel that we have just as 
much of that spirit as, we will say, an English-stock American or any 
other stock American. Therefore, we feel that each and every one 
of us are necessary and vital elements in the national life stream of 
thoroughbred Americanism, if I may put it that way, in order to bring 
about a national culture to which all of us can make proper contribu- 
tions. The program of our league has been working in that way. 

EVACUATION MIGHT RETARD PROGRAM 15 YEARS 

Now, if we are to be evacuated, it seems to me that all this 
work that we have been doing, to truly make Americans of these 
people, and to make the alien Japanese also understand the Ameri- 
can way of life, is going to be retarded by, if not 15 years, then 
at least, by 10 years. If we are evacuated, we certainly would not 
like to be evacuated because of public hysteria. We will be only too 
happy to be evacuated if the Government orders us, because we feel 
that the basic loyalty at a time such as this is to obey the order of the 
Government to which we owe true allegiance. However, facing the 
problem realistically, if we are to be evacuated and are evacuated, 
you can see that our work is going to be retarded. Our chapters will 
have to be reorganized in different parts of the country. Communica- 
tions will have to be reset. We will have to get in touch with differ- 
ent people from whom we might have been separated, and the 
reorganization work is going to be very difficult. Therefore, of 
course, we feel that the best thing under the circumstances, the Gov- 
ernment permitting- — if we can remain here — we would like to do that 
and contribute our utmost to the national defense effort. That, for 
the moment, is all I can say. 

The Chairman. Of course, you realize that it is quite a difficult 
problem. You take Japan, for instance, she doesn't fuss around about 
the problem at all; she just interns American citizens. 

Mr. Sakamoto. I beg your pardon? 

The Chairman. I say, Japan interns American citizens. She doesn't 
fuss around or hold hearings or anything of the kind. If you arc not 
evacuated, what suggestion have you to make as to how to handle 
the situation? 



11472 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Sakamoto. Let me say, incidentally, that this public hysteria, 
if we do not watch out, is going to cause disunity, and that is what 
Hitler is looking for, and I believe that is what Japan is looking for, 
too. Now, if it is going to help to curb public hysteria, and if it will 
help the end of national unity, why not put all of us under protective 
custody? Or, better still, if you care to, why not place the alien 
Japanese parents of ours under our custody? For instance, I can 
give you one concrete plan. We can have a registration system where 
every alien must report, let us say, twice a week, to our Japanese- 
American Citizens League headquarters, and if they do not come in 
to register twice a week, we wUl report those persons to the Federal 
Bureau of Livestigation, and a check-up will be made. They can be 
investigated. 

INTELLIGENCE UNIT WORKING WITH F. B. I. 

May I also state, right here, that we have, under this emergency 
defense council, a civilian protection corps, a Red Cross corps, a 
general welfare corps, national Defense stamp campaign corps, and 
an intelligence unit. This intelligence unit is cooperating directly 
with the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The only man that I 
know who is in that unit is the chairman, and that is only because I 
appointed him chairman. 

I do not know the members of this unit. That is the way we are 
working right today, they are working directly with the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation. Now, that is why I say, if we could have some 
such system, or, perhaps a permit system whereby the Army or the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation can investigate the alien population 
here and give them permits, even to citizens, perhaps, I think that 
the plan will work out in satisfactory style. 

Personally, I cannot see any danger from our source. 

Mr. Curtis. I have a question or two that I would like to ask you. 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes, sir. 

SELECTION OF MEMBERS FOR J. A. C. L. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat investigation do you make of the applicants for 
membership in your organization? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, as I stated, our national constitution states 
that they must be American citizens of Japanese ancestry, 18 years 
and above. Heretofore, we have not exactly made any kind of an 
investigation, because right here in the city of Seattle, for example, 
those who would make application for m.embership are known to all 
of us. They were born here and raised with us, and most of us know 
that they are American citizens, and at any time we can find some- 
body to vouch for the fact that they are American citizens. So, of 
course, we make no special investigation as to their background. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have any members — I am speaking of your 
national organization — do you have any members who have what is 
called dual citizenship? 

registration of children for JAPANESE CITIZENSHIP 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes; I believe we have some who are still called 
dual citizens, although I will have to say this much for them. The 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11473 

majority of cases, perhaps 100 percent of them, never knew that they 
were registered with the Japanese Government on birth. At least, 
they did not know it until they grew to a certain age. Then, due to 
the law at that time, which was repealed or revised later, around 
1924 or 1925 — when Premier Wakatsuki was in office — but that law 
forced Japanese aliens, no matter where they went, when a child was 
born to the family, that that child must be reported to the Japanese 
Government, otherwise the parent was violating a Japanese law. You 
understand that our Japanese parents could not become American 
citizens, so they had to be made Japanese citizens, and feeling as 
such, they thought they would be violating the law of their country, 
so they registered their children. 

EXPATRIATION PROCEDURES 

But, arcund tlie date that I mentioned, 1924, or at least the time 
when Premier Wakatsuki was in office in Japan, that law was revised, 
permitting expatriation, and also no one had to be registered any 
more. So, from that date on, you will find a great number of our 
American-born Japanese unregistered, and you will also find a great 
number who have expatriated themselves. If you will pardon a per- 
sonal note, I lived back East for about 7 years, and when I came 
back here in November of 1927, I learned from my father that I was 
a dual citizen. He told me I was considered a dual citizen. "Now," 
he told me, "T don't think it is right in principle, but I had to keep 
you a dual citizen until that revision of the law. Now, since you are 
ipermitted to expatriate, I think that you should do it." 

I said, "By all means. Dad, I will." Now I am an expatriated 
American citizen of Japanese ancestry. I believe that you will find 
quite a number of cases of persons like myself. 

Mr. Curtis. For tiie purpose of the record, explain that just a 
little bit ; that is 

Mr. Sakamoto. Expatriated? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 

Mr. Sakamoto. I can't recall the exact procedure, but I remember 
my father got for me two copies of the family registry. They were 
insort of a book form, you see — and an application blank, which is 
more or less a petition to the Japanese Consulate, and turned them 
in, and I think that the Japanese Consulate then sent it back to the 
village where my father's family registry is kept, and there is where 
they took action on it. Upon approval of the Home Ministry, either 
the Home Ministry or the Foreign Office, but I think it is the Home 
Ministry — the name is struck off the family register. 

Now, that is rather a long and tedious procedure. The national 
organization has been for some time — this was in normal times, of 
course, — trying to negotiate with the Japanese Government to make 
the matter easier. We even have a letter on record, I believe, w^hich 
we sent to Secretary of State Hull requesting his good office toward 
making this procedure a little easier, so that the Americans of Japa- 
nese ancestry could expatriate more quickly, and without so much 
red tape. 

Mr. Curtis. But at present it calls for two definite steps, a decision 
or declaration on the part of the individual to renounce Japanese 



11474 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

citizenship, and then that must be acted upon by the Japanese 

Government? . . , . . , . 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, I don't know whether it is a decision, but it 
is a petition, anyway. So I suppose that would be a decision, wouldn't 

it? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes; I would think so. You have nothing m your 
rules or bylaws of your organization requiring your members to 
renounce their citizenship to Japan? 

LEAGUE OPPOSES DUAL CITIZENSHIP 

Mr. Sakamoto. We have nothing like that in the constitution. 
However, the national organization is on record as being against dual 
citizenship. We have passed resolutions to that effect, and also 
carried on campaigns requesting all chapters to tell their membership 
to renounce their Japanese citizenship. 

Mr. Curtis. Of the total number of Japanese in the United States, 
do you have an estimate of how many would fall under this dual 
citizenship class? 

Mr. Sakamoto. I don't have the exact figures, but the percentage 
was quite small. If that information is necessary, I think that I can 
look it up and report to this committee. 

Mr. Curtis. It is not absolutely necessary, because I presume the 
Government records show it. Can a non-Japanese join your organ- 
ization? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, the national constitution stated Americans 
of Japanese ancestry; so, technically, perhaps, he may not be able to; 
but we have accepted non-Japanese citizens. In several chapters, we 
have had non-Japanese citizens who were Americans — in other words, 
Caucasian Americans. And I believe that in many chapters they 
would welcome it. 

Mr. Curtis. Does your organization collect dues? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes. Each chapter has the right to set its own 
dues for the membership. 

Mr. Curtis. Does it send dues to the national organization? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes; each chapter sends $10 to the national as its 
annual dues. 

LEAGUE sends NO MONEY TO JAPAN 

Mr. Curtis. In the past, have any contributions been sent to 
Japan? 

Mr. Sakamoto. By the Japanese American Citizens League? 

Mr. Curtis. That is right. 

Mr. Sakamoto. Not 1 cent, and we are opposed to the idea and 
policy. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you know of any of your individual members who 
have sent money to Japan, either to the Japanese Government or to 
individuals there? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, my intimate friends are all American-born 
Japanese who have resided m this country practically all their lives, 
and who haven't very many friends over there, so I can't say that I 
know of any Japanese who sent money to Japan; that is, any Ameri- 
can-born Japanese among my acquaintanceship, who did. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11475 

Mr. Curtis. You have something over 300 members in the Seattle 
community? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes. The last count I had, there was about 313 
or 320, but I think that it is larger than that by now. Those are just 
the paid-up. Now, if those that are not paid up are considered, why 
we have got about 800 to 1,000. 

Mr. Curtis. That might indicate that you are good Americans. 
You don't keep your dues paid. 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, I wouldn't say that exactly, but due to this 
economic stress, a good many of them have not been able to live up 
to their obligations in that way; and we have not been pressing them 
too much, either. 

REPORTS ON disloyal JAPANESE 

Mr. Curtis. How many, if any, disloyal Japanese, and by that, I 
mean disloyal to the Government of the United States, has your or- 
ganization reported to the F. B. I. or to any other Government agen- 
cies in the last 2 years? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, we have had this emergency defense council 
and intelligence unit, as I mentioned, that was working in direct co- 
operation with the F. B. I., and the only member on it whom I know 
is its chairman, whom I appointed. I do not know who all the mem- 
bers are in that unit. So it would be difficult for me to tell you what 
its operations have been. I can't give you an exact count— but I 
know definitely that our organization, both locally and nationally, 
has, let us say, "turned in" people whom we thought shoidd be checked 
into. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, by saying that you "turned in" people that ought 
to be checked into, by that do you mean Japanese? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Japanese. Of course, we will turn in Germans and 
Italians, too, and even good English American citizens, if we know 
that they are subversive. We have been working chiefly among the 
Japanese, and we have repeatedly stated at our meetings that it is our 
loyal duty to ferret out those among us who are disloyal, because our 
interests 'must be first for America, and, secondly, for ourselves. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, in the event of a Japanese invasion in this area, 
or in any other area where you have large numbers of Japanese people, 
and accompanied with that there was disloyal and dangerous acts on 
the part of some Japanese, although maybe only a few in number — 
do you think that the rest of them would be in danger? 

Mr. Sakamoto. I didn't quite get that question. 

Mr. Curtis. I will restate it. In the event of an invasion by the 
Japanese armies into, say, the Seattle area • 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis (resuming). And at the time of that invasion, there were 
acts committed by Japanese in this country, dangerous and disloyal 
Japanese, to aid the enemy 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes. 

Air. Curtis (resuming). Even though it be committed by a few 
Japanese, a few in number, do you think that all the rest of you would 
be endangered because of that? 



11476 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

BELIEVES AUTHOEITIES CAN PREVENT MOB VIOLENCE 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well- 



Mr. Curtis (interposing). By "endangered," I mean from any acts 
of public violence. 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, I believe that there might be some mob 
violence, but my personal opinion is that our Army — that is, our mili- 
tary and our police system — and, of course, the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation — are quite competent authorities to take care of us. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The trouble with that, though, is that the attack 
and any sabotage would come on at the same time. 

Mr. Sakamoto. But if the attack were occurring, I doubt if there 
would be mob violence. I think that the mob violence is going to be 
after the attack, because certainly no civilian is going to be out on 
the streets looking for a Jap when there is an attack. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arnold? 

JAPANESE ORGANIZATIONS 

Mr. Arnold. You mentioned, Mr. Sakamoto, that all Japanese 
should register with your league. Aren't there some other Japanese 
organizations in the United States? 

Mr. Sakamoto. I meant that as a plan to take alien Japanese into 
protective custody. Did I make myself clear? 

Mr. Arnold. Yes; but aren't there some other organizations? 

Air. Sakamoto. Oh, yes, there are other organizations, perhaps, 
but what was the parent generation organization here, I don't think 
will exist any more. All its officers were taken into detention. 

Mr. Arnold. In San Francisco, we had two witnesses whom we 
asked to appear, and they did not feel that their organization was 
properly represented by the president of your national organization. 
They thought that their group was not represented at all by you. 

Mr. Sakamoto. Was that an alien Japanese organization? 

Mr. Arnold. No, it was American, and there was a magazine 
published in connection with it. 

Mr. Sakamoto. I see. Well, we have organizations here, like the 
W. W. G. and the Girls' Service Guild, and a lot of these church 
organizations, and we have athletic organizations, but these organiza- 
tions cannot handle this problem, and their members are eventually 
going to be our members. 

Mr. Arnold. That is what I was trying to get at. 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. You think they would all be receptive to registering 
in your league? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Yes; I believe so. Eight now, they are depending 
on our organization; from a realistic viewpoint, they are depending on 
our organization. 

JAPANESE ORGA^NIZATION IN HAWAII 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know whether there was any such Loyal 
American League of Japanese Citizens functioning in Hawaii? 
Mr. Sakamoto. Do you mean something somewhat like ours? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11477 

Mr. Arnold. Yes. 

Mr. Sakamoto. I think there was — well, there is yet, I thinly, the 
Hawaiian Civic Association, with headquarters in Honolulu. 

Mr. Arnold. Did they have something the same constitution as 
you have? 

Mr. Sakamoto. I believe their program is somewhat like ours. 
Of course, their organization is a little older than ours. 

Mr. Arnold. Did they have a small percentage or a large per- 
centage of Japanese within their membership? 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, I think their organization is made up of 
members who are all American citizens, too. Now, that is just what 
I think, I cannot state that as a fact. 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, you probably recognize that if the Jap- 
anese in Honolulu and Hawaii had not conducted themselves as they 
did on December 7, that perhaps such drastic action would not be 
thought of in this area of the United States at this time. 

Mr. Sakamoto. Do I understand from that, that the Americans 
of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii did not contribute loyally toward 
the defense effort on that day, at the time of the attack? 

Mr. Arnold. Well, there is a good deal of evidence to that effect, 
yes. 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, in that case, I am very sorry to hear about 
that, because here, if any such thing ever happened, you will find the 
Americans of Japanese ancestry, I am certain, 100 percent behind 
our defense efforts. We are willing to even sacrifice our lives. 

JAPANESE DO NOT WANT TO BE SENT TO SAFE PLACE 

The suggestion of evacuation is repugnant to us from this view- 
point: You wish to send us to a place of safety. What we want to 
do is to remain here and shed our blood, together with other Ameri- 
cans, to save our country and our homes. We don't want to be sent 
to a safe place and let other Americans save our homes, and possibly 
die in the effort. We don't like that idea. We would rather remain 
here and fight it out with them, shoulder to shoulder, and I believe 
that all of us will do it. I have confidence in them that they will do 
it, and I beheve that our aUen parents are not going to let them 
come in here so easily, either, not after building their homes, rearing 
their families here over an average of 30 years. Most of these alien 
Japanese parents — take the male. The male is about 59 years of age; 
the female is about 51 or 52. They have lived here on an average of 
30 years, which has been between half to two-thirds of their lives, 
right here in this country. They are not going to give up their homes 
so easily to any Japanese Army, if they ever did come here. They 
are going to fight too. They remained here because they love their 
children. Their ties were too deeply rooted. If they were going to 
return to Japan or had any idea that they would wish to return to 
Japan, they would have taken that last boat in November of last 
year, which, we understand, could have taken care of some 1,000 
persons, but it only carried away about 300, and of that 300, many 
of them were not local residents. They were people who had been 
here on a visit or for business. 



11478 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

SHOULD BE ABLE TO DETECT JAPANESE SPIES 

Now, if we were evacuated, we still have the problem of how to 
distinguish between the Chinese and Filipinos and the Japanese. I 
know many Americans have come to me and asked my nationality, 
and I think that you are going to have some difficulty there. And 
talking about fifth-columnist activities, I think that you will find that 
if we have any spies or subversive ones amongst us, those persons can 
be very easily detected compared to other enemy-alien groups. Your 
difficulty is going to be in detecting the spies and the subversive agents 
among the other enemy aliens, not among the Japanese. We, our- 
selves, are quite a distinct group, and I think most of the American 
people can distinguish us easily enough. If I could pass for an English- 
man at times, I think that I would be doing pretty good, and I would 
like to do it, sometimes; but it is a difficult proposition. 

Mr. Arnold. Yes; but who is going to report your subversive 
activities? The evidence we get on the coast here is that the Japanese 
will not talk much about another Japanese. 

Mr. Sakamoto. Well, I don't know where or when you received 
that information, but perhaps the information may have changed 
now in regard to it. Since this war has come upon us in the way 
that it did, that treacherous attack on Pearl Harbor is the thing that 
has made our American-born Japanese realize more and more that 
this is their country, and that if anybody is going to do anything to 
jeopardize their security and the safety of the country, they are going 
to turn them in. That is the attitude the American-born Japanese 
have today, and that is the realization that has come upon them very 
suddenly. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Sakamoto. 

Mr. Sakamoto. Thank you. 

The Chairman. We wanted to give you the opportunity to be 
heard. 

Mr. Sakamoto. May I submit this report? 

The Chairman. Yes; you may. 

Mr. Sakamoto. And in this report, there is supplementary infor- 
mation regarding the Yakima Valley. It is with reference to the 
Yakima Valley, which came in rather late. 

The Chairman. It may be offered as an exhibit.^ 

The Chairman. Our next witness is John W. Grant, who is farm 
placement supervisor for the United States Employment Service. 
Mr. Grant has already submitted a statement, which we have accepted 
for the record and which will be permitted at this point in our record. 

(The statement mentioned is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY JOHN W. GRANT, FARM PLACEMENT SUPERVISOR 
UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE, OLYMPIA, WASH. 

Report on Aliens (Japanese, German, and Italian) Engaged in Crop 
Production in Western Washington 

Attached is tabulated data, which I have used to make estimates concerning the 
effect the evacuation of enemy ahens might have on the farm labor market in 
the State of Washington. I have estimated that approximately one-third of the 

1 See pp. 11456 and 11457. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11479 

Japanese farm workers are aliens. This estimate is based on the following in- 
formation. 

According to United States Indian Service in Yakima and the Yakima County 
Board of Commissioners, there are 750 Japanese farm workers in the Yakima 
Valley. Of this number, 252 are aliens, or approximately SS^-i percent. The same 
percentage exists in the Puyallup Valley, according to the Puyallup Valley's Vege- 
table Growers Association. This percentage is also borne out by information 
procured from Jimmie Sakamoto, of the Japanese American Courier at Seattle. 

According to statistics for 1941 maintained by the Agricultural Marketing 
Service at Seattle, there are 12,890 acres of land operated by Japanese in western 
Washington. According to actual surveys conducted by the United States 
Employment Service at Seattle and Tacoma, the number of year-around Japanese 
farm workers in relationship to the acres operated is one Japanese worker for 
each 2 acres (this does not include seasonal workers). This information is verified 
by the Puyallup Valley Vegetable Growers Association and Jimmie Sakamoto, 
of the Japanese American Courier; therefore it is estimated that there are approxi- 
mately 5,600 Japanese (aliens and citizens of Japanese descent) farm workers who 
live on the farms in western Washington. 

It is also estimated that an additional 3,000 Japanese seasonal workers may be 
emploved during the peak season of operation. The number of 3,000 Japanese 
seasonal workers is a broad estimate and I have not been able to verify or validate 
this number. As vet, I have not been able to locate a source of information 
relative to the number of German or Italian aliens that are engaged in agricul- 
tural operations. It is estimated that the number of German and Italian agri- 
cultural operators would be small in comparison with the number of Japanese 
agricultural operators. 

POSSIBILITY OF AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT FOR ENEMY ALIENS IN EASTERN 

WASHINGTON 

It is the general consensus of opinion among employers of farm workers in 
eastern Washington that enemy alien workers would be desirable only under the 
following conditions: 

1. Enemy aliens would be employed only after all local available labor is 
emploved. . 

2. Enemy aliens would be employed in only those crop activities which would 
permit close supervision, such as thinning sugar beets. 

3. Enemy aliens are not desired as workers unless strict supervision is main- 
tained by some branch of the military service, which supervision would include 
establishment of curfews and military guards to such an extent that employers 
would not be responsible for acts of sabotage. 

4. Enemy aliens would not be expected to be employed in canneries or other 
plants processing food for consumption. 

5. Housing facilities would be furnished by some Government agency, except 
in those cases where the size of the employers operations are of sufficient magni- 
tude that it is customarv for him to furnish housing for seasonal workers. 

Employers are generally willing to pay going wages to alien workers. Mr. 
R. L. Howard, general manager for the Utah-Idaho Sugar Co. in the \akima 
Valley stated that in his opinion they would be able to employ as high as 500 
alien workers during the sugar-beet thinning season (April 25 to June 10). Mr. 
L. L. Hughes, hop grower at Yakima, has stated that he would be able to employ 
between 50 and 100 alien workers, beginning about April 1. The total number 
of alien workers that could be employed in the agricultural district in eastern 
Washington of course depends on the extent of agricultural labor stringencies 
and the extent of areas that may be defined as restricted areas. (There is some 
concern in the Yakima Valley relative to the advisability in permitting enemy 
aliens to be employed in the vicinity of irrigation dams and canals.) 

Emplovment of enemy aliens in the agricultural industry in eastern Washington, 
at the best, would be seasonal; however, during peak seasons of operations there 
is no doubt but that all of the qualified enemy aliens in the State of Washington 
could be emploved in eastern Washington. The peak demand for agricultural 
labor in eastern Wasliington is reached between September 1 and September 10. 
The greatest demand for agricultural labor in eastern Washington is in the 
Yakima Valley. 



11480 



PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 



SURVEY OF WESTERN WASHINGTON JAPANESE FARM WORKERS 

Total acreage of specialty crops operated in western Washington ' 242^ 962 

Percentage of total acres operated by Japanese operators percent.- ^ 30 

Number of acres operated by Japanese operators in western Washington 212, 890 

Number of Japanese workers (alien and citizen) who live on the farm_- 5, 600 

Percentage of Japanese farm workers who are aliens percent- _ 33 

Approximate number of Japanese year-around farm workers who are 

aliens and who live on the farm 1, 866 

1 Includes fruits, vegetaMes, potatoes, and berry crops. 

2 Data by A. M. S., Seattle, Feb. 7, 1942. 

To date it has not been possible to obtain information relative to the number of 
German and Italian aliens who are engaged in crop production work. It is esti- 
mated that less than 15 percent of the German aliens and less than 20 percent of 
the Italian aliens in western Washington are engaged in crop production work. 

Berry and truck crop acreages, Pierce and King Counties 



1941, King 
County 



Number 
acres oper- 
ated by 
Japanese 



Acres oper- 
ated by 
Japanese 



1941, Pierce 
County 



Number 
acres oper- 
ated by 
Japanese 



Acres oper- 
ated by 
Japanese 



Asparagus 

Early cabbage 

Late cabbage 

Carrots 

Cauliflower 

Celery. 

Early lettuce 

Late lettuce 

Late onions 

Green peas 

Potatoes 

Early spinach 

Late spinach. 

Strawberries 

Snap beans (processed) 

Beets . , . 

Sweet corn (processed). 

Cucumbers. .. 

Oreen peas (processed). 
Cranberries' 

Total 



Acres 

35 
235 
490 
250 
585 
500 
1,240 
305 

25 
1.785 
440 
200 
215 
400 
425 

50 
400 

75 

950 

1,134 



28 
164 
245 
225 
468 
350 
930 
183 

20 
1. 428 
132 
140 
129 
240 
298 

45 
160 

45 

95 
113 



Percent 

80 
70 
50 
90 
80 
70 
75 
60 



Acres 
100 

75 
105 

90 
125 
200 
175 

75 

15 
600 
420 

60 

80 
280 
200 

50 

1.50 

100 

380 

3.129 



63 

81 

100 

190 

158 

68 

6 

540 

84 

48 

64 

168 

140 

45 

75 

70 

38 

469 



9,739 



5,438 



56 



6,409 



2, 515 



Percent 



' Black, red, Logan, etc. 

Note.— Data by A. M. S., Seattle, Feb. 7, 1942. 



VEGETABLE GROWERS' ASSOCIATION 

Puyallup Valley 

Japanese workers engaged in specialty-crop production in 1941: ' 

Number of farm units J 160 

Average families per unit 2 

Total families 320 

Average number of workers per family 4 

Total number of workers (Japanese) 2 1, 280 

> Includes fruits, vegetables, potatoes, and barry crops. 

' Data secured from Vegetable Grower's Association, Puyallup Valley. 

No information on Germans and Italians available, but it is estimated that very 
few Germans and Italians (noncitizens) are engaged in crop production. 

Percentage of Japanese who are citizens, 667^ percent; aliens, 33^^ percent. 

Number of Japanese who are citizens, 853; aliens, 427. 

Japanese in the Puyallup Valley fear discrimination and are afraid they will not 
be able to^hire workers. Plantings are being reduced. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



11481 



King County 

1. Total acres of special crops operated in King County 9, 739 

2. Percentage of total acres operated by Japanese percent-. 56 

3. Total acres of special crops operated in King County by Japanese 5, 438 

4. Number of Japanese workers who live on farms (citizens and aliens) __._ 2, 500 

According to Jimmie Sakamoto, editor, Japanese-American Courier (February 
9, 1942): 

Number of Japanese farm workers who live on farms who are aliens 830 

Number of Japanese farm workers who live on farms who are citizens 1. 670 

Approximately SdVz percent of Japanese farm workers are aliens; approximately 
80 percent of Japanese farm workers are 18 years or older; approximately 20 per- 
cent of Japanese farm workers are between 10 and 18 years of age. 

The following data were secured from Mr. Bonham, of the United States Immi- 
gration and Naturalization Service at Seattle, Wash., on February 10, 1942, and 
is according to the alien registration taken in 1941: 

Aliens (Japanese, German, Italians) in State of Washington: 

Japanese 5, 557 

German 2, 629 

Italian 3,444 

Total 11,630 

Aliens (Japanese, German, Italian) in eastern Washington: 

Japanese 510 

German 375 

Italian 432 

Total 1,317 

Aliens (Japanese, German, Italian) in western Washington: 

Japanese 5, 047 

German 2, 254 

Italian 3,012 

Total 10,313 

The following tabulation shows alien (Japanese, German, Italian) population 
by counties for western Washington: 

Alien {Japanese, German, Italian) population by counties for western Washington ^ 





Japanese 


Germans 


Italians 


Total 


Clallam 


6 

38 
47 

3 



12 

3,851 

108 

17 

6 

28 

823 

3 

26 
25 
41 


12 

1 


28 

82 

26 

83 

11 

16 

1,215 

38 

88 

12 

18 

346 

4 

63 

104 

44 

2 

68 

6 


32 
18 

9 
109 

1 

4 

1,832 

13 

24 

2 

11 

778 

1 
59 
67 
23 

2 
26 

1 


66 


Clark - 


138 




82 




195 




12 




32 


King - 


6,898 




159 




129 




20 


Pacific 


57 




1,947 




8 


Skagit 


148 




196 


Thurston 


108 




4 




106 


Skamania-.- 


8 


Total - 


5,047 


2,254 


3,012 


10, 313 







1 Data by United States Immigration and NaturalizationJService, Seattle, Feb. 10, 1941 (1941 alien regis- 
tration) . 



11482 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Japanese engaged in farm work in Yakima Valley according to survey made 
by the Yakima Board of County Commissioners and data procured from 
the United States Indian Service: 

Total number of Japanese (citizens and aliens) engaged in crop 

production work 750 

Number of citizens of Japanese descent engaged in crop production 

work 498 

Number of alien Japanese engaged in crop production work 252 

Citizens percent. _ 66. 27 

Aliens do 33. 73 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN W. GRANT, UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT 
SERVICE, FARM PLACEMENT, OLYMPIA, WASH. 

The Chairman. Mr. Arnold will interrogate you, Mr. Grant. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Grant, will you tell us how much of the farming 
in Wasliington is done by Japanese, and in what crops they are most 
important? 

Mr. Grant. I cannot tell you for the State of Washington. I can 
tell you for the western part of the State. That is, west of the Cas- 
cade Mountains, particularly in King and Pierce Counties. Approxi- 
mately 56 percent of the truck gardening, including berries and fruits 
and vegetables — that is, 56 percent of the acreage — is operated by 
Japanese people. That is, both alien and Japanese descent citizens, 
in King County. 

In Pierce County, the percentage is approximately 39 percent, and 
the best estimate that I can get on it for the entire w^estern half of the 
State of Washington is approximately 30 percent. 

Mr. Arnold. There aren't many Japanese beyond the mountains? 

Mr. Grant. Of the 13,000 aliens, I tliink, that we have in the State, 
3,000 of them are east of the mountains. 

Mr. Arnold. Are they mostly engaged in farm activities? 

Mr. Grant. The greatest number of aliens engaged in farming — 
maybe I had better say Japanese^ — engaged in farming, is in the 
Yakima Valley. There are 750 — a total of 750, and 252 of those 
people are aliens. 

Mr. Arnold. Speaking of tliis area west of the mountains, how 
much labor do these Japanese farmers employ? 

JAPANESE EMPLOYED IN AGRICULTURE 

Mr. Grant. The total in western Washington is approximately 
5,600 Japanese, both citizens and aliens, who are employed in agri- 
culture. About one-tliird of those are aliens — Japanese aliens. I 
think the figure would run around 1,800. 

Mr. Arnold. Those are the ones who are engaged in agriculture? 

Mr. Grant. That is the people who are operating and living on the 
farms, following agricultural pursuits and living on the farm. 

Mr. Arnold. Do they do all their work except in harvest time? 

Mr. Grant. Practically all of it. 

Mr. Arnold. And then in harvest time and during harvest, addi- 
tional employees are necessary. Are they Japanese? 

Mr. Grant. The Japanese operators in tiie past have employed 
some Filipinos — they have employed the same type of people as any 
other farmers in the picking of the berries and agricultural work. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11483 

They employ quite a number of other people during the peak require- 
ments of agricultural labor. 

Mr. Arnold. Could you give us an estimate of how many of those 
are Japanese? I see your statement here mentions 3,000 seasonal 
Japanese workers. 

Mr. Grant. The nearest estimate that I could get was approxi- 
matel}^ 3,000 seasonal Japanese workers. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know what those workers do during the off- 
season? 

Mr. Grant. I have no knowledge of what they do. 

MAINTENANCE OF PRODUCTION LEVELS 

Mr. Arnold. In case of evacuation, could production levels be 
maintained on farms now operated by aliens? 

Mr. Grant. It is my opinion that an answer to that question de- 
pends upon when some decision is made. If there was a decision made 
to immediately evacuate the Japanese from western Washington, I 
think that a very large percentage of tlie Japanese acreage could be 
operated by other people. If we v/ait quite awhile, it is going to be 
more difficult. 

Mr. Arnold. If the Japanese were evacuated from only the coastal 
area, what are the possibilities of employing them on farms in eastern 
Washington? 

Mr. Grant. From the information that I liave been able to gather 
through my own personal observation and investigation, Japanese 
people would be employed in eastern Washington under certain con- 
ditions. It seems to be the general consensus among employers of 
agricultural labor in eastern Washington, that there are only certain 
types of work that they would be willing to employ Japanese ahens 
on, such as work in the fields where they could be supervised, where 
they could see the entire group tnat was working, and not in such 
operations as pickmg apples, where it is hard to watch them. They 
don't want to employ them until such time as the local available labor 
is absorbed. They seem to be willing to pay going wages, the same 
wages to an alien as to anyone else; but in almost every case, the 
people to whom I have talked seem to think that some responsible 
Government agency siiould have very strict supervision over the ali.^.ns, 
even to the point of protecting employers against any subversive acts 
or any acts of sabotage. 

TYPES OF SEASONAL FARM LABOR USED 

Mr. Arnold. What types of seasonal labor have been used on the 
sugar beet and the hops farms in the Yakima Valley? 

Mr. Grant. The seasonal labor in the sugar-beet field is composed, 
to some degree, of Mexican labor, depending upon the stringency. I 
think that the majority of the sugar-beet-field work in the Yakima 
VaUey is done by loca^ residents of the vaUey. However, in shortages, 
there has been some Mexican labor brought in. 

The hop labor is composed of all kinds and aU types of workers. 
They use local residents; they use transient workers who conie mto 
the vafiey on their own initiative; they recruit workers by sending out 

60396— 42— pt. 30 13 



11484 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

recruiting people; they recruit Indians — use Indians in groups, and 
in some cases, they use a few FiKpinos. 

It takes a lot of labor for the hops, and it is, you might say, a broad 
type of people. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have any information as to whether there wiU 
be sufficient supply in that region this year? Will there be more of a 
shortage than usual? 

Mr. Grant. We anticipate a considerable shortage of labor; that 
is, in the seasonal operations of the agricultural industry in the 
State of Washington, this year. 

Mr. Arnold. Then that would furnish some employment for 
aliens if they were sent to that area? 

Mr. Grant. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. In your statement, which will be made a part of 
the record, of course, you mention the fact that there are 3,000 
Japanese seasonal workers in the State, in addition to the 5,600 workers 
regularly living on farms. Do these come out of the cities and work? 
In other words, I am trying to find out whether the Japanese in the 
cities are also capable of doing farm work? 

Mr. Grant. I think to some extent they do come from the cities. 
In fact, in a survey made in the Pierce County area, it was quite 
evident that a good portion of those people did come from the city 
of Tacoma. 

Mr. Arnold. Therefore, in the case of evacuation, if all city 
aliens couldn't be employed in occupations within a town or city 
east of here, then some of them could be employed as farm hands? 

Mr. Grant. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't know what percentage? 

Mr. Grant. No, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Is there much land available that would be suitable 
for cultivation, east of the mountains? 

Mr. Grant. I am not prepared to make an estimate on the amount 
of land. I have had several farm operators over there express to 
me that they could increase their acreage with very little trouble. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Grant. The commit- 
tee will take a 5-minute recess at this time. 

(Wliereupon, at this time a short recess was taken, after which 
proceedings were resumed as follows:) 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. Mr. 
Robertson will be the first witness. He has submitted a statement, 
which will be placed in the record at this point. 

(The statement mentioned is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY ORVILLE E. ROBERTSON, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 
FAMILY SOCIETY OF SEATTLE, SEATTLE, WASH. 

This statement is prepared in response to your request for such a statement 
from the Family Society, giving such information as we can with reference to 
the extent and nature of the present problems and needs among local Japanese 
aliens and Japanese-American citizens, and for our impressions and opinions as 
to the social problems that would arise in connection with large-scale evacuations. 

Our factual information with reference to the first question is necessarily very 
limited for the reason that we are just now in process of extending our services 
to this group in accordance with the request of the community fund, through 
which the major part of our financial support is received. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11485 

We do know that it ^vill be necessary for the Family Society to begin assisting 
immediately some 25 or 30 families previously helped through the Jajjanese 
Community Service, most of whose needs have come about as a result of the war 
situation. The information that we have leads us to believe that this number 
will rapidly and substantially increase as we get further into the situation. Un- 
doubtedly* some of the Japanese- American girls who were forced into a position 
a few days ago where they felt it necessary to resign in order "to prove our loyalty 
to the schools and to the United States by not becoming a contributing factor 
to dissension and disunity when national unity in spirit and deed is vitally neces- 
sary to the defense of and complete victory for America" were contributing to 
the support of families who will now have to seek assistance as a result of lost 
income. The same holds true for other Japanese, both aliens and American 
citizens, who already are being forced from their employment in considerable 
numbers and thus deprived of their means of livelihood. A further problem in 
this connection arises from the great natural reluctance of Japanese people to 
accept assistance. This, coupled with the fear and embarrassment which many 
of them feel as a consequence of the war situation, will cause many to suffer 
acutely rather than seek help. 

As to the social and economic problems which would result from large scale 
evacuations, there are several of major importance which are self-evident. In a 
great many of these families, parents would be separated from children. 

This would leave children, from the very young to those in early manhood and 
womanhood, to get along as best they may without the guidance and care of 
parents. Dependency would be greatly increased as a result of the inability of 
many of these children to support themselves and their brothers and sisters. 
Many of them would also face the necessity of trying to contribute to the support 
of their evacuated parents. This problem would be further complicated by the 
attitude which some individual and organizations are promoting that all Japanese, 
whether aliens or citizens, should be discharged from their present employment. 
The local newspapers of the current week contain a number of items which strik- 
ingly illustrate the extent and seriousness of this tendency. 

Many of our Japanese are gardeners and it is obvious that their businesses would 
either be completely lost or seriously impaired as a result of mass evacuations. 
This again would further increase the dependency problem. Another obvious 
result would be a serious reduction in our supply of fresh vegetables and berries. 

A further very serious social problem would be created in connection with the 
reestablishment elsewhere of those evacuated. Labor unions, farmers' organiza- 
tions. State Governors and others in localities where it has been suggested that 
the evacuees might be sent have made statements protesting against such a move. 
Rioting and violent disorders probably would take place and in any event the 
responsibility of the Government in connection with resettlement of evacuees 
would be exceedingly difficult to discharge. While many of the Japanese are 
gardeners, a substantial number operate stores, hotels and other kinds of busi- 
nesses. They could not fit into a resettlement plan which provided only for 
gardeners. And many of the gardeners who are familiar with the type of garden- 
ing carried on in this vicinity would be under serious handicap in a different 
sort of locality where the climate, soil, crops, and methods were entirely different. 

As an agency which is interested in the upbuilding of sound family life we are 
naturally much concerned about the attitudes of the communities to which 
evacuees might be sent. It would seem to us that our Japanese residents might 
be better understood and accepted in communities where thej' are well known 
and generally taken for granted than in localities where they are strange and 
would be objects of greater suspicion. 

Finally, because in America we believe that the individual is important, and this 
is a fundamental part of our philosophy as a case work agency, we would urge 
that the problem of evacuation be individualized so far as possible. If it cannot 
be on a completely individual basis because of the number involved, then at least 
some breaking down into groups or classes, distinguishing between citizens and 
noncitizens, refugees and other aliens, aged and infirm, etc., would seem to be 
desirable as a minimum. We assume that where there is evidence or suspicion of 
disloyalty that the individuals concerned will be interned, and that in consider- 
ing evacuation we are dealing with those against whom there is no such evidence 
or definite suspicion. 

The interest of your committee in seeing this difficult matter dealt with as wisely 
as possible is much appreciated and you may be assured of our full cooperation 
toward that end. 

Sincerely yours, 

Family Society of Seattle, 
Orville Robertson. 



11486 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Seattle, Wash., February 27, 1942. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, House Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, Seattle, 
Wash. 

My Dear Mr. Tolan : I have sent you separately today, in accordance with the 
request of your field representative, Miss Joan Pascal, a statement from the 
agency of which I am the executive. I should like to give you herein certain 
additional opinions and impressions with the clear understanding that this is 
entirely a personal and individual expression and is not to be regarded as the 
official or authorized statement of any agency or organization. 

During the more than 11 years which I have held my present position I have 
had the opportunity for considerable observation and acquaintance with our 
Japanese, both citizens and aliens. I live on Bainbridge Island, where there are 
many Japanese strawberry growers. Some of them are my neighbors. Their 
children attend the same grade and high schools with my children. In my 
experience with these people I have never seen or heard a single action or utterance 
by them which could be regarded as disloyal or in any way contrary to the best 
interests of the tlnited States. On the other hand, I have seen and heard many 
evidences and expressions of respect, loyalty, and friendship for this country. 

My experience and observation also leads me to believe that a study of criminal 
statistics would show that the percentage of convictions for crime is lower for this 
group than for the population as a whole. They have proven unusually law- 
abiding residents. The children have made for themselves an enviable place in 
our schools, both scholastically and in constructive school activities. The 
Japanese residents have been good neighbors — friendly, courteous, considerate. 

In view of these facts and others which would require too much space to include 
here, it is my considered judgment that the interests of the United States can be 
best served by leaving our Japanese residents in their homes except in instances 
where there is evidence or suspicion of disloyal conduct. I have confidence in the 
ability of our Federal Bureau of Investigation, our Army and Navy Intelligence 
Service, and other public officials charged with such responsibility to locate and 
deal properly with suspicious or questionable characters. And by leaving the 
others watched but undisturbed in their homes (except in instances where aU 
residents of a given area may be required to move because of proximity to military 
establishments or defense operations) much expense can be saved the Govern- 
ment, many problems of dependency and broken families can be avoided, crops 
can be saved and harvested for the benefit of the Nation's food supply, and these 
people can be given the opportunity, which I am convinced nearly all of them 
earnestly desire, of doing their part to help America wdn the war. 



TESTIMONY OF ORVILLE E. ROBERTSON, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, 
FAMILY SOCIETY OF SEATTLE 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold will ask you the questions, 
Mr. Robertson. 

Mr. Arnold. Will you give your name and title to the reporter, 
Mr. Robertson? 

Mr. Robertson. Orville Robertson, executive secretary. Family 
Society of Seattle. 

Mr. Arnold. As I understand it, the Family Society is a welfare 
organization which has in the past month been given the adminis- 
tration of community fund money as assigned for Japanese welfare 
work? 

Mr. Robertson. During the current month. 

Mr. Arnold. What welfare work is your society doing for the 
Japanese? 

Mr. Robertson. We are just getting into the problem now. It 
has been started within the current month, as I indicated, and it will 
involve financial assistance with the necessities of life, where that is 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11487 

needed, and where it is not otherwise available. It will also involve 
assistance with a great variety of personal problems. In other words, 
it will involve the same sort of thing that we do for any other indi- 
vidual or group in the community. 

Mr. Arnold. Wliat effect is the proposed evacuation havmg on 
Japanese families up to the present time, if any? 

Mr. Robertson. No evacuation has taken place, of course, and no 
time for evacuation has been set. The effect, up to now, insofar as 
we have had a chance to observe it, has been the creation of much 
fear and much imcertainty, and holding back from planting and that 
sort of thing. 

Mr. Arnold. Just marking time? 

Mr. Robertson. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. What sort of welfare problems would arise in case ol 
an evacuation? 

WELFARE PROBLEMS OF EVACUATION 

Mr. Robertson. Well, first of all, if only the aUens are evacuated 
and the American-citizen Japanese remained, we would have many 
separated families, and that immediately creates a problem of how the 
remaining members are going to function without their parents, par- 
ticularly if some children are quite young. It is not only the question 
of support which would immediately arise, but it is also a question of 
parental care and that sort of thmg. 

Mr. Arnold. And if all were evacuated — citizens and aliens— that 
problem would be eliminated, provided they were allowed to remain 
together as family groups? 

Mr. Robertson. That would depend on the resettlement plan for 
them. I think, assuming such a general evacuation, the hard end is 
the resettlement end, the planning for them at the place to which 

they go. • • 1 • u 

Mr. Arnold. To what extent could your agency give aid m prob- 
lems that would arise in the event of evacuation of the entire group? 

Mr. Robertson. We would be pretty limited because of both 
finances and personnel. We certainly would go the limit, but it 
would be a drop in the bucket, if the whole group were evacuated. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you any recommendations for the handling of 
the social and economic problems of evacuation by the Government 
agencies that might take part in it? 

Mr. Robertson. We would emphasize individuaUzing just as 
far as that is possible, distinguishing between citizens and non- 
citizens, allowing room for exceptions in cases where there would 
be undue hardship, due to old age, serious illness, and that sort of 
thing. In other words, just as much individualizing as you can pos- 
sibly bring mto it, I tliuik, will reduce our future comphcations 
accordingly. . , 

Mr. Arnold. If all aliens are evacuated and Japanese citizens 
should be evacuated, then would you recommend that there be a civil 
council of some kind to permit the return of those whom it is deter- 
mined are loyal to this Government? 

Mr. Robertson. I most certamly would; yes. I think that they 
should be given an opportunity in each mstance to prove their loyalty, 
to estabhsh their loyalty through proper local machinery, and that 



11488 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

having been accomplished, that they should be given the privilege of 
returning or remaining. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you think that we have time to do that now, or 
should the evacuation take place and then have the return of them? 

OPPOSITION TO WHOLESALE EVACUATION 

Mr. Robertson. No. My own opinion is that wholesale evacua- 
tion is not necessary nor desirable. If I may elaborate on that a 
little bit? 

Mr. Arnold. Go ahead. 

Mr. Robertson. Unquestionably there are suspicious characters in 
all groups of our population, alien Japanese, American Japanese, 
third, fourth, fifth-generation native white Americans. I think, 
however, that it is a good deal easier to spot and pick up, if need be, 
the questionable character m the Japanese group in a location where 
he is known, where liis place of residence and his place of employment 
are well known. It is much easier to handle than if you scattered 
them in a large-scale evacuation program. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have. 

SEPARATION OF LOYAL AND DANGEROUS JAPANESE 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think that it is possible to separate the dis- 
loyal and dangerous Japanese from the loj-al and do it before any 
tragedy would happen? 

Mr. "Robertson. You are asking me what I think? 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. I am asldng you for your personal opinion on 
that. 

Mr. Robertson. I have a good deal of confidence in and respect 
for the F. B. I. and the Intelligence Service of the Army and Navy. 
I don't Imow when something is gouig to happen. My o^\^l opinion 
is that I would be walling to risk that, and I have four yomigsters 
growing up here, and even if I had no broader interests than that 
I wouldn't want to see any imdue chances taken for them. 

Mr. Curtis. Your work is such that you have been in contact with 
the Japanese for some time, have you? 

Mr. Robertson. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think they are in any danger of mob violence 
in the event that the actual fighting comes to these shores? 

Mr. Robertson. Unquestionably there would be some danger; yes. 
You Jaave heard one of their representatives say that they preferred 
to face that danger here rather than being moved to a place of safety. 
I can understand why they feel that way about it. 

Mr. Arnold. Well, of course, if somethmg should happen and mob 
violence would break out here, and the Japanese would be discrimi- 
nated against, perhaps that would have the ofi'ect of having our na- 
tionals mistreated in Japan. You wouldn't want that to happen, 
would you? 

Mr. Robertson. Certainly not. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have. 

The Chairman. Mr. Robertson, your society, or any other social 
agency in the State of Washington would not be able to finance, of 
course, the wholesale evacuation? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11489 

Mr. Robertson. No, sir. 

The Chairman. It might run as high as 200,000 people before we 
get through with it. So far as I have been able to learn, no Federal 
agency has so far received the money to handle it, but in the Presi- 
dential order of the President providing for the Army to set forth 
combat areas, and evacuate all citizens in that order, it was stated 
that the expenses of the evacuation would be taken care of by the 
Federal Government; so I don't think that you would have anything 
to fear from that end of it. 

EVACUATION REQUIRES ADVANCE PLANNING 

Mr. Robertson. No; I appreciate that fact. The thing that I 
would stress here is the extreme importance of careful advance 
planning. 

The Chairman. That is the trouble with war. We cannot plan 
too far ahead. 

Mr. Robertson. Well, but you will greatly complicate your prob- 
lem if you simply shove them out ; that is obvious ; there is no question 
about that. 

The Chairman. Are you convinced, Mr. Robertson, though, that 
the civilian end of the problem is a part of tho Army and Navy 
problem; in other words, you cannot separate civilian morale from 
Army and Navy morale? 

Mr. Robertson. That is right. 

The Chairman. And we have got a big job ahead of us, so far as 
that is concerned, and, after all, about all we can do here is to give 
you people an opportunity to be neard and state your suggestions. 

Mr. Robertson. That is right. 

The Chairman. And the Army will make the final decision. 

Mr. Robertson. I appreciate that. 

The Chairman. And so far, every witness that we have heard 
testify said they certainly want to work in cooperation with the 
Army. 

JAPANESE WANT OPPORTUNITY TO HELP 

Mr. Robertson. That is true to the last degree of the organization 
which I represent, and also for myself, personally. I should like the 
committee to have in its consideration of it, this thought, however: 
That in my opinion — this would only be my opinion based on some 
considerable experience and observation with the group— that these 
people can be, and want to be, an asset rather than a liability. I 
would like to see them given the opportunity — certainly under a 
watchful eye. I am not any Pollyanna. I think I am a pretty 
hard-boiled realist, but I have had a good deal of contact with them, 
and by and large they want the opportunity to help ; they can be an 
asset rather than a liability, and I would like to see them be. 

The Chairman. You see, according to modern war, though, 
nations which we are fighting don't fuss around with American 
aliens; they intern them all. 

Mr. Robertson. I appreciate that. 

The Chairman. While we have got to keep an eye on the civilian 
morale, we have also got to keep our eye on the proposition that this 
is war. 



11490 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Robertson. I am keenly aware of that. I served about 2 years 
in the last one. I am trying to think in terms of what is best for this 
country. 

The Chairman. Yes, and we are trying to think with you, too. 
We are not telling you. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have anything to do with welfare work 
among Italians and Germans? 

Mr. Robertson. Our facilities are open to any person in the 
community; it is a nonsectarian agency, and draws no lines of race 
or creed. 

Mr. Arnold. The testimony before this committee has been that 
Italians and Germans are engaged in most every occupation and are 
interspersed among our citizenry, much more than the Japanese — 
much more than the Japanese population. 

Mr. Robertson. I think that probably is so. 

Mr. Arnold. And that it would present its problems, too, if there 
was evacuation? 

Mr. Robertson. Unquestionably. I could illustrate that with 
specific instances, if you want me to. 

Mr. Arnold. Go ahead and make any statement you wish to. 

HARDSHIP cases 

Mr. Robertson. Well, let me draw two or three illustrations. One 
comes to mind. An elderly Japanese alien, a resident of this com- 
munity for over 45 years, a very highly respected member of the 
community. I have personally seen his declaration of allegiance to 
America and his intention to become a citizen before the present 
legislation was enacted. He has an old-established business here. If 
he is evacuated, that will certainly be lost, and he cannot be absorbed 
into any program of gardening or any similar occupation that you 
might think of for him. 

A second one, a German refugee who lost all of his fortune in 
Germany and came to this country to escape from Hitlerism. 

Mr. Arnold. When did he come? 

Mr. Robertson. About 2 or 3 years ago, to escape from Hitlerism, 
and managed to get enough together to make a first payment on an 
apartment house. He has been operating it quite successfully up to 
now, although there is a mortgage on it; but if he is evacuated, he 
certainly will lose it, there isn't any question about that. The ques- 
tion is how to reestablish him. He isn't fit, and neither is his wife, 
for a gardening project, or for anything that I have heard proposed 
in any resettlement plan. 

Take quite a different type of problem: I know a young man born 
in Japan, therefore, technically an enemy alien, but brought to this 
country as a baby, reared here, educated here, a professional man 
practicing his profession in Seattle at the present time ; a young wife 
born here; therefore, an American citizen; two young children. 
Well, if the aliens are evacuated, the father goes, and you know what 
happens to a professional man's practice when he leaves it. The 
mother and children stay. If all are evacuated, you have a family 
who, again, know nothing of gardening and are not physically or 
otherwise equipped. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11491 

Those are just three illustrations that could be multiplied indefi- 
nitely, of the various phases of the concrete problems which we pre- 
cipitate upon ourselves when we take away the means of livelihood 
from this group of people. 

Mr. Arnold. Then you would say that some provision would have 
to be made in case of evacuation, for those in professions to have 
employment, perhaps, in towns and cities? 

Mr. Robertson. In professions and in a variety of businesses. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all. 

Mr. Curtis. Isn't it true, though, that the cruelties of war will 
reach down and touch everyone, including the non- Japanese? 

Mr. Robertson. I am sure that it will. 

Mr. Curtis. There wUl be many people who, through necessary 
curtailment, priorities curtailment and otherwise, of the product that 
they sell or make, they may lose all earthly possessions, but it is just 
one of the cruelties of war that they must face. 

Mr. Robertson. There is no question about that. I am just trying 
to approach it in a way that will hold the thing down to a minimum, 
and in that, I am thinking quite selfishly of our United States' own 
burdens, in the last analysis. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Robertson. 

Mr. Allen? 

Mr. Allen. Yes. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWARD W. ALIEN, CHAIRMAN, INTERNATIONAL 
nSHERIES COMMISSION, NORTHERN LIFE TOWER, SEATTLE, 
WASH. 

The Chairman. Congressman Curtis will ask the questions. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Allen, do you live here in Seattle? 

Mr. Allen. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. For the purpose of the record, tell us what the Inter- 
national Fisheries Commission is. 

Mr. Allen. That is a commission created by a treaty between 
Canada and the United States for the rehabilitation of the halibut 
industry of the Pacific coast, which is engaged in by the fishermen of 
the two countries. It is an international commission. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have to do with the fishing that is going on m 
the American-Canadian waters in the Pacific? 

Mr. Allen. Yes. The fishing takes place on the Pacific coast 
here from California north to the Bering Sea. 

Mr. Curtis. About how many people are engaged in that fishing 
in normal times, say before the war? 

Mr. Allen. Well, that particular fishery is not a very large fishery; 
but it brings us in contact with the entire fishing situation of the 
Pacific coast, with which I am also famihar. 

I am also on another commission that deals with salmon—an 
international commission — and I am connected with fishing generally. 
In Alaska alone there are approximately 30,000 people connected with 
the Alaska fishing industry, many of them being from California, 
Oregon, and Washington. 



11492 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. What nationality are they? 

Mr. Allen. Various nationalities. In the past, there have been 
Chinese, Japanese, Fihpinos, Mexicans, as well as Indians and white 
people, of course. 

Mr. Curtis. How far out from the coast do these fishing operations 
extend? 

OPERATION OF FISHERIES 

Mr. Allen. The greatest fishery on this coast is the salmon fisheiy, 
and that is primarily in the coastal waters. The canneries are 
mostly situated on shore, and salmon are caught within a reasonable 
range'^from the canneries. There are a few floating caimerics, but 
they are operated similarly. 

The halibut fishery extends out as much as 100 miles from shore, 
although that is unusual. The Gulf of Alaska is about the only place 
where it extends that far. To the south, of course, the California 
fisheries are quite different. The salmon fishery is the principal one 
in the north, and then there arc some minor fisheries, like the cod and 
the herring, besides halibut. The herring is primarily close to shore. 
The cod fishing is a little bit farther out, at times. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat is the situation in regard to that whole business, 
in connection with the war? 

Mr. Allen. It is greatly imperiled. The entire fishing industry 
is much upset over the war situation. The extent to which it will be 
permitted to operate is one question. The extent to which it can get 
the facilities for operation — that is to say, the vessels that are necessary 
to carry men and freight — is another. The genuine war danger is 
still a third element, all of them casting uncertainty upon this coming 
year's operations. 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat is your attitude, or that of the people for whom 
you speak, toward the problem of Japanese evacuation? 

Mr. Allen. Well, it is a little diflacult to separate the question of 
evacuation from the entire Japanese problem. The fishing industiy 
is one of the industries that for years past has had, perhaps, a keener 
appreciation of the danger of war on the Pacific than other industries, 
or people generally in the United States. The salmon industry, 
particularly, for many years past, has had its representatives appealing 
to our Government to take steps in advance to preclude any clash 
between Japan and the United States, feeling that there was great 
danger on that score. 

JAPANESE FISHERS 

The Japanese are probably the greatest fishing people in the world. 
I say probably; I believe they are the greatest fishing people in the 
world, and they have been paying a great deal of attention to our 
industry on this side, and have made definite threats of invading it. 
In fact, they did invade our salmon industry of Bristol Bay; so that 
the industry has been for many years fearful of conflict between the 
two countries, and have been anxious that steps be taken to arrive at 
some agreements which would preclude the difficulty. 

There has been the feeling for years in the industry that efforts 
have been directed by the Japanese Government to plan for, not only 
an invasion of the fishery, but if fishery problems are not settled, for 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11493 

the invasion of this country. And wc have known that there have 
been, or we have been certain that there have been representatives 
of Japanese mihtary agencies up and down the coast planning for 
any eventual war. And we look at it this way; that it is not a matter 
for sentiment or prejudice. Personally, I have a very warm friend- 
ship for many Japanese. I have had a great deal of personal contact 
with them and like the people personally. I have been in Japan and 
I have a very profound dislike for the Japanese military government. 
I do not think that we can afford to take any chances as to our own 
safety. It seems to me personally that the question is primarily one 
of safety and protection for ourselves, and that when the Army and 
the F. B. I. reach a conclusion, whether it is as to evacuation or 
anything else, where we are dealing with the Japanese, that we should 
abide by that conclusion and cooperate with those Government 
agencies which are charged with looking after our defense. If they 
conclude that evacuation of a particular territory is necessary, then 
I think that we should put up with whatever inconvenience is involved. 
I feel sure that they would not wish to go any further in that respect 
than necessity justifies. 

EFFECT OF PLACE OF BIRTH ON LOYALTY 

Mr. Curtis. Do you feel that a line can be drawn between alien 
Japanese and the citizen Japanese as a basis of action? 

Mr. Allen. To this extent: That there is a much greater risk from 
the average alien Japanese than from the average American citizen 
Japanese. Or, to put it in a different way, the percentage of Japanese 
among the alien Japanese, of whom we might be apprehensive, I 
think would be much higher than of the American-born Japanese. 

Mr. Arnold. Even though the age is so much greater among the 
aliens than among the American-born? 

Mr. Allen. Yes. I think that the alien Japanese would have 
much greater difficulty in throwing off any inherent loyalty to his 
own country than a Japanese who has been born and raised in this 
country. I beheve that if I were an American white man born in 
Japan I would have a natural predilection for the white race. I 
don't think it is a matter of criticism. I think it is just a matter of 
nature, and I think it is very natural that a Japanese born in this 
country, even though born and raised here, should have somewhat 
of a predilection for the Japanese race. Many of them are fine, 
high-type people that would not let anything interfere with their 
loyalty to the countiy to which they belong; but there are probably 
some that would let it interfere. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think that it is possible to separate the disloyal 
and dangerous Japanese citizens from the loyal Japanese citizens, or 
will they have to be treated as a group? 

Mr. Allen. I think the separation would be very difficult; but I 
think in that respect that there might well be a demarcation between 
the ahen and the native-born, because I thuik that the likelihood of 
disloyalty among the American-born Japanese is so much less than 
among the aliens. • • i 

Mr. Curtis. As you see it, what will be some of the principal prob- 
lems that will arise for your city and State in case there is an evacuation 
of Japanese? 



11494 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Allen. Well, of course, two subjects have already been brought 
up — apartment houses, hotels, and the agricultural situation, looking 
at it from our own standpoint first, and I think that it has been very 
thoroughly covered in this hearing. There would be inconveniences; 
if the military authorities found that those inconveniences were neces- 
sary, I think that we would have to put up with them and make the 
best of it. ^ , . . - . , 

Mr. Curtis. Will the curtailment of the fishmg mdustry provide 
any new sources of labor for agriculture? 

Mr. Allen. Well, we do not laiow as yet just the extent of the 
curtailment. There are quite a few Filipinos employed in the Alaska 
fishmg mdustry. They are employed in all districts, like what we call 
the western, and the central and' the southeastern Alaska districts. 
In all those districts, there are many Filipmos employed. The present 
indications are that there will not be operations in the Bristol Bay 
district. That would leave a certam number of those Filipinos, but 
whether they would be available for agricultural purposes, I don't 
know; but I would think that many of them would be. 

Mr. Curtis. Are many of the American Japanese engaged in fishing? 

Mr. Allen. Not in Oregon, Washmgton, or Alaska. In California, 
the Japanese have engaged in fishing extensively. 

Mr. Curtis. What suggestions would you have, if any, for resettlmg 
evacuated aliens? 

Mr. Allen. Well, I don't think that I am competent to speak on 
that. What the agricultural agent here said somided reasonable to 
me, from my knowledge of our State. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Allen. 

Mr. MacDonald? 

Mr. MacDonald. Yes, sir. 

TESTIMONY OF D. K. MacDONALD, PRESIDENT, SEATTLE CHAMBER 

OF COMMERCE 

The Chairman. Mr. MacDonald, what is the attitude of the 
chamber of commerce toward the question of alien evacuation? 

Mr. MacDonald. Well, the official position of the chamber— when 
I say "official position," I mean that which is arrived at after a good 
deal of discussion by various committees and various individuals — is 
that we would like to have a decision of this body or whatever body 
there is that will render the decision, as to the disposition of the 
Japanese, so that we can proceed from that decision. That is the 
official position. 

Likewise, we would like to have a determination of agricultural 
policy; but that will have to come after the decision is made. Now, 
that is the official position. 

There were so many divergent opinions that we had_ to put it 
together in one brief resolution, which is a four -line affair. If you 
don't mind, I will read it. 

The Chairman. Go right ahead. 

Mr. MacDonald (reading): 

The Seattle Chamber of Commerce urges upon the War Department and the 
Department of Justice and others, who are to decide the fate of the Japanese and 
German and Itahan enemy ahens in the State of Washington, that this decision 
be made and announced without delay. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11495 

Now, that is the result of many resolutions that were finally dis- 
carded. 

The Chairman. What effect do you believe the evacuation of the 
Japanese would have on production in the eastern Washington area? 

Mr. MacDonald. The eastern area? 

The Chairman. Yes. Do you know anything about that? 

Mr. MacDonald. No. 

The Chairman. How will Seattle business groups, produce ship- 
pers, supply houses, farm credit sources, and so forth, be affected by 
this probable curtailment of crop production? 

Mr. MacDonald. Well, I can tell you my opinion. I think that 
their business would be greatly reduced, and there would be some 
shortage of the necessary produce. 

JAPANESE interests IN REAL ESTATE 

The Chairman. I understand, Mt. MacDonald, that you have 
some little knowledge of real estate in Seattle. Could you give us 
any idea as to the extent of Japanese ownership in real estate? 

Mr. MacDonald. Well, there again, true, we do have what we 
call a property-management division in our business, and part of the 
business that we look after for some of our clients has to do with 
some of the properties in the south end of the city. They are occu- 
pied by Japanese tenants running lodging houses and lower-class 
hotels, and in some instances, there are kinds of stores. 

Well, the substance of the situation down there as I see it is that 
the Japanese tenants are standing by and waiting to get the decision 
as to whether or not they are going to be evacuated. 

Now, it is a little bit difficult for us in our business, to understand 
what to do. For example, yesterday I asked one of our men to go 
down and see one of the tenants in one of our buildings, a Japanese 
that we have always looked upon as a very wholesome, good type of 
Japanese. Unfortunately, we couldn't see him, because he had been 
picked up by the F. B. I. So, until a decision is rendered relative to 
these Japanese tenants, we are in a state of fliLx; we don't know what 
do to about it. 

The Chairman. Have you heard of any cases of Japanese, in 
anticipation of this evacuation, sacrificing their property? 

Mr. MacDonald. I understand there has been some of that, but 
it has not come to my personal first-hand knowledge; I don't know. 

The Chairman. I will say to you, Mr. MacDonald, that as soon as 
this committee arrived in CaUfornia and we got in line at all, we 
recommended to the President the appointment of a property alien 
custodian, that is, a custodian of ahen property, and regional offices 
for them. We haven't had a very satisfactory reply as yet; but we 
had one from Secretary Morgenthau, that the Secretary of the 
Treasury had jurisdiction of that; and we are still pressing on that 
proposition, because of this race evacuation, which may happen at 
any time. . 

It will not be long now; I am sure of that. Why, it will be just a 
whirlpool of confusion, won't it? 

Mr. MacDonald. That is right. 



11496 



PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 



The Chairman. And after all is said and done, many of the residents 
of our country are aliens, and we will have to live with a lot of these 
people after this war is over, won't we? 

Mr. MacDonald. I presume so; yes. 

The Chairman. Well, I guess the answer to the whole thing is 
that "War is hell," isn't it? 

Mr. MacDonald. It appears to be. 

The Chairman. Would you have any recommendations for the 
handhng of property of any aUens who had been evacuated? 

Mr. MacDonald. Except a custodian. 

The Chairman. Do you, or the chamber of commerce, have any 
recommendations, or suggestions, as to where these evacuees should 

be sent to? -, ■ ^ ■, • 

Mr. MacDonald. We have come to the conclusion that that is a 

matter for the Federal Government; that it is a httle bit beyond our 

ken. 

The Chairman. In other words, we cannot do very much about it, 

can we? 

Mr. MacDonald. No; the Federal Government will have to do it. 

The Chairman. Well, Mr. MacDonald, we thank you very much. 
I wdll say that if there is anything that occurs to you as the result of 
these hearings, or as the result of the evacuation order, we will have 
our records open for 10 days, and you may forward it to Washington, 
D. C., if you desire to supplement your statement of today. 

Mr. MacDonald. Thank you very much, sir. 

(The following statement from the Seattle Chamber of Commerce 
was submitted by request of the committee and accepted for the 
record:) 

STATEMENT BY THE SEATTLE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, 
SEATTLE, WASH. 

You requested from us information along the following lines: 

(1) The volume of our foreign tro-dc v.ith Japan before the war: Exhibit A 
hereto attached will give you the figures on the imports and exports for the 
last 5 years of record. 

(2) The Japanesec-ontroUed businesses in Seattle and effects of evacuation on 
Seattle business: It is the concensus that very little difficulty will be encountered 
on this score. There may be some inconvenience suffei-ed by clubs and homes 
using Japanese servants, but they are not occupying vital positions in any im- 
portant business lines in the city. Most of their activity has been limited to 
flower shops, commission houses and small groceries, and in all these fields they 
have a plentiful supply of competitors to take care of the business. 

(3) Problems related to farm products and marketing: The official attitude 
of the chamber of commerce is reflected in attached exhibits B and C. 



Exhibit A. — Trade with Japan by the Washington Customs District 
Seattle is the principal port) 


{of which 




Imports 


Exports 




Imports 


Exports 


1939 


$8, 329, 191 
6, 815, 172 
9, 613, 127 


$22, 674, 924 
18, 210, 163 
25,062,925 


1936 --- 


8, 220, 661 
7, 298, 366 


14,564,443 


1938'1I 


1935 


13, 941, 656 


1937 


Total 


40,276,517 








94, 454, 111 









Note.— For the last 5 years of which we have records, foreign trade with Japan amounted, on the average, 
close to $27,000,000 per year. 
On the average, exports exceeded imports by nearly $11,000,000 per year. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11497 

Lumber to Japan from Washington and Oregon Fed, board meamrf 

1939 174,000,000 

1938 40,000,000 

1937 163,000, 000 

1936 163,000,000 

1935 194,000,000 

Note. — Lumber is especially mentioned as in pre-war times lumber and lumber products account for 
about 65 percent of our manufacturing pay roll. 
Source: From Foreign Trade Department, Seattle Chamber of Commerce. 



Exhibit B.- — Resolution approved by the board of trustees, Seattle Chamber of 
Commerce, February 24, 1942 

The Seattle Chamber of Commerce urges upon the War Department, the De- 
partment of Justice, and others who are to decide the fate of the Japanese and 
German and Italian aliens in the State of Washington, that this decision be made 
and announced without delay. 

Exhibit C. — Resolution approved by board of trustees, Seattle Chamber of Com- 
merce, February 24, 1942, re farm production in Japanese operated areas 

The Seattle Chamber of Commerce urges the United States Department of 
Agriculture War Board, or other organizations interested in increased farm pro- 
duction, to recognize the production problem in the areas in the State of Wash- 
ington that have normally been operated by Japanese, and to take steps to bring 
this land under the fullest possible production. 

In the fresh-vegetable-producing areas of King and Pierce Counties and in 
certain areas in the Yakima Valley, a large percentage of the farm production 
has been under the operation of Japanese farmers and Japanese distributors, 
many of whom are now enemy aliens. Because of this removal of many alien 
Japanese, and likewise the uncertainty of the disposition of Japanese citizens, it 
is apparent that the production is going to be materially curtailed unless steps 
are taken to remedy the situation. 

As part of the war program the United States Department of Agriculture War 
Board is given the responsibility of seeing that the production of certain types 
of agricultural products are materially increased. Vegetables are among the 
crops that are scheduled for an increase. Those who have studied the vegetable 
areas near Seattle have concluded that as the situation now stands there is every 
indication of substantial reduction in both quantity and quality of production. 

This recommendation is in no way to be construed as suggesting any policy to 
be followed as to our enemy aliens, but is merely to call attention to the fact that 
farm production in certain areas will be far below normal unless steps are taken 
to facilitate it. 



The Chairman. The committee will stand adjom-ned until 9:30 
Monday morning, in this room. 

(Whereupon, at 3:55 p. m., February 28, 1942, the hearmg was 
adjourned until Monday, 9:30 a. m., March 2, 1942, in the fifth 
floor courtroom of the Federal Courthouse, Fifth and Spring, Seattle, 
Wash.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGEATION 



MONDAY, MARCH 2, 1942 

morning session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 

The committee met at 9:30 a. m. in the fifth floor courtroom of the 
United States Courthouse, Fifth Avenue and Spring Street, Seattle, 
Wash., pursuant to adjournment. Representative John H. Tolan 
(chairman) presiding. 

Present were: Representatives John H. Tolan, of California; Carl 
T. Curtis, of Nebraska; Laurence F. Arnold, of Illinois; and George H. 
Bender, of Ohio. 

Also present: Dr. Robert K. Lamb, staff du-ector; Harold G. Tipton 
and Joan Pascal, field investigators. 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. We 
have been waiting for two of the Representatives, Congressman 
Curtis and Congressman Bender. They have gone down to the 
Immigration Department, and probably have been delayed, but we 
must get started. 

We would like to have the attorney general of the State of Wash- 
ington take the seat, please. 

Mr. Troy. Thank you. 

TESTIMONY OF SMITH TROY, ATTORNEY GENERAL, STATE OF 

WASHINGTON 

The Chairman. Mr. Troy, we appreciate your coming here this 
morning, very much. 

Mr. Troy. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Any questions that we ask you are from the fact- 
finding standpoint. We have been all over the United States. We 
never attempt to cross-examine any witness, but we are here to listen. 
So, in that attitude, we meet you this morning. 

I want to say to you this: The committee expects to hear very 
soon, perhaps within the next day or two, that the commanding 
general of this western command. General DeWitt, has announced 
his new evacuation order under the present Executive order. Having 
that amiouncement, we propose to continue the line of questioning 
begun on Saturday. In yesterday's paper, I observed a press wire 
story from Los Angeles, quoting the national secretary of the Japanese- 
American Citizens' League to the effect that circulars had been sent 
to key places telling all Japanese to get ready for a movement to 
some inland location under Government supervision, and to abandon 

60396— 42— pt. 30 14 11499 



11500 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

property in California, Oregon, and Washington. In view of the 
developments, it is difficult to tell witnesses to proceed in their own 
way to state their preferences as to how the Japanese problem should 
be handled. 

We want, however, to have their views for the record, and they 
should feel free to state their opinions. As far as protection of 
property is concerned, this committee has done its best to bring to 
the attention of the President and Congress the need for action to 
safeguard the possessions of all evacuees. Today, we have also invited 
several witnesses to testify on the problems of Italian and German 
aliens, who are also expected to be ordered to evacuate. In other 
words, we are in daily contact with the President and the Army and 
the Navy and the Attorney General. 

As soon as we got into California, the pressing problem of the 
appointment of a property custodian appeared very compelling to us, 
and we so recommended it. It is in the jurisdiction of the Treasury 
Department, and Secretary Morgenthau's answer seemed to indicate 
the social agencies would take care of the resettlement problem. 
Now, the evidence so far discloses that the Justice Department and 
police departments are banked high with cameras and radios alone. 
What we have in rriind is the protection of their property so that they 
won't be gouged in forced sales; so that the livestock will be taken care 
of. At least, if they have to go, their interests would be cared for. 
The next thing we recommended to the President was not to supersede 
anybody, but to appoint a coordinator. We have the Army and we 
have the Navy and we have the Department of Agriculture, and the 
Social Security, but no funds are available to care for the situation, 
as yet. 

We thought that a coordinator, to see that all the agencies work to- 
gether on the Pacific coast, might be helpful. Congressman Arnold, 
from Illinois, will ask you the specific questions. 

Mr. Arnold. We are glad to have you here this morning. Last 
week, we had Attorney General Warren, of California, and he gave us 
a great deal of valuable information about the legal and administrative 
problems in connection with evacuation. We understand that you 
have been surveying the State facilities with a view toward the 
utilization of these facilities in case the evacuation orders were issued. 
In your opinion, what contribution would the various departments of 
your State make if there is to be an evacuation? 

STATE AGENCIES WHICH COULD ASSIST IN EVACUATION 

Mr. Troy. I am very weU satisfied that the various State agencies 
can make a very substantial contribution to the evacuation, with a 
minimum of wasted time. In other words, if an evacuation is ordered, 
I understand it will have to be done quite rapidly. I know that those 
various agencies can be utilized almost overnight. Some of the data 
along that line I have already turned over to the military authorities 
and to Mr. Clark's representative, and I have been requested not to 
give that detailed break-down any publicity, for obvious reasons. 

The Chairman. Don't say anything you don't want to. 

Mr. Troy. We have many agencies, in addition to the State patrol — • 
the State patrol, of course, is the chief police organization of the 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11501 

State — which is supplemented by the sheriffs in the various counties, 
and is also supplemented by the various police departments of our 
cities and towns. The State patrol is the chief police agency of the 
State; that is, it has State-wide jurisdiction. It extends over county 
and city lines where county and city officials cannot go. But there 
are other State agencies, however, that, speaking generally — I sa;^ I 
cannot give the detailed break-down — do have policing authority 
which can be utilized, some of which I will enumerate here for your 
information. 

There is the State patrol, of course, which has already been men- 
tioned. There is the State parks committee, which has a park police, 
and I want to call your attention to its importance. If a mass 
evacuation is had, probably many of our State parks can be and 
should be used, setting up temporary camps there to take care of 
those persons who are taken into custody. 

FOREST PATROLS 

Then, there is the department of conservation and development, 
which has to do with the conservation of all our mineral and other 
resources, as well as our timber. It maintains a forest patrol for the 
protection of aU timber areas. That, of course, is a matter of very, 
very great concern to the people of the State of Washington. We are 
primarily a timber State. That is our chief industry and 

The Chairman. Isn't that also of great concern to the Federal 
Government? 

Mr. Troy. Oh, indeed. It is beyond description. I am very 
fearful of the State or the Government being able to patrol adequately 
our forest areas. We have thousands and thousands of acres of 
timber. People could go in there in small numbers and lose them- 
selves, as far as civilization is concerned, and all the military patrols 
would have difficulty in finding them, if they did not want to be 
found. I do hope that serious consideration will be given on the part 
of whoever takes this thing in charge, to the protection of our forests, 
because it would just be a simple thing to create great havoc there. 
It is a very, very difficult thing for us to patrol it and supervise it, 
even in peacetimes when we just have to look out for ordinary fire 
hazards. But with sabotage being a possibility, it presents tre- 
mendous difficulties. 

Mr. Arnold. It would be a national calamity? 

Mr. Troy. Yes, it would. 

The Chairman. What part does the timber play in the construc- 
tion of ships? It plays a great part, doesn't it? 

Mr. Troy. Oh, yes. Practically all our mills and our lumber yards 
are going day and night supplying the necessities for building ships, 
for the construction of buildings and camps and forts. They cannot 
meet this demand for our timber and our lumber. Of course, this 
State and the State of Oregon are the last great sources of that asset. 

Mr. Arnold. Then we could sum it up by saying that the State 
of Washington stands ready to aid in this evacuation, should it come, 
and they have facilities of the State patrol and the State park com- 
mittees and the department of conservation and whatever else is at 
your disposal? 



11502 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

ADDITIONAL POLICING GROUPS 

Mr. Troy. There are also the department of game and the de- 
partment of fisheries wliich maintain rather large policing groups, 
which probably could be utilized along with the forest patrols, 
because they are closely related. The services of our people who are 
out in the forests and up and down the rivers and the lakes protecting 
the game could be utilized. I Ivnow that they would be available. 

Then, we also have further policing personnel, such as the officers of 
the State liquor board who could be turned over to one of the other 
groups to make it larger and more effective. 

The department of agriculture maintains a force of inspectors to 
uphold the food and drugs laws, and, of course, with evacuation, 
or without evacuation, that is quite important. 

The insurance commissioner, and the State fire marshal, maintain 
a force of fire inspectors to investigate all fires. It is a rather small 
staff, but that could also be utilized. 

Then, there is the department of public service which maintains a 
staff of inspectors who enforce certain laws pertaining to licensed 
carriers trucking over our State highways; then, other public control 
agencies are the department of highways, the department of licenses, 
the department of agriculture, the department of health, all of which 
have control of various activities in which aliens may be engaged. 

In other words, I wish to point out that the State patrol isn't just 
alone, together with the sheriffs and the police of the State. They are 
not the only bodies that can be utilized, because if we come down to 
the situation of evacuation or some like emergency, these other forces 
can all be utilized in one unit. 

Mr. Arnold. Have you received any reports indicating that the 
State or county officials are fearful of the outbreak of anti- Japanese 
alien demonstrations? 

concern over THREAT OF MOB VIOLENCE 

Mr. Troy. Yes. And that is the subject that has given me the 
most concern, and which I would like to relate for what it is worth to 
this board of inquiry. 

The prosecuting attorneys of this State — there are some 39 counties, 
each having a prosecuting attorney — keep in somewhat close contact 
with the Office of the Attorney General. I am in constant com- 
munication with most of them or with their offices. There is a prose- 
cuting attorney's association, and I am at least weekly in communica- 
tion with the president of that association. 

During the past several weeks, there has been a growing concern 
among all prosecutors about the possibilities of mob violence. I have 
information from some of the prosecuting attorneys that in some of 
their localities there is talk of creating vigilante committees. Various 
organizations have passed resolutions requesting, m fact, demanding, 
evacuation of not only alien Japanese, but of citizen Japanese, as well. 

While those things are in their inception now, these prosecutors — 
this isn't too widespread, but some of them, you know, in certain 
localities — have informed me that they have real cause to believe that 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11503 

while this is hi an embryonic state at this time, it might hkely increase 
if, for instance, there is some tremendous disaster or loss to our armed 
forces on the part of the Japanese or on the part of some of the other 
alien enemy countries ; or if casualty lists were to be published reveal- 
ing that quite a few of the sons of people of our States have been 
wounded or kUled. Feeling might run higher than it is now, and it 
might result in an outbreak of violence. That is something, of course, 
that we don't want. 

Mr. Arnold. In other words, you think that there is something 
there that might be fanned into a flame, rather rapidly? 

Mr. Troy. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Maybe as a result of what might happen on the island 
of Java? 

WOULD EVACUATE BOTH CITIZENS AND ALIENS 

Mr. Troy, That is right. In my opinion, evacuation of both alien 
and Japanese citizens, as well, is highly desirable and it should be 
done as quickly as possible, because those things can happen and may 
happen. By that, I don't mean total internment of all citizen Japanese 
for the duration of the war, but at least, moving them out of here for 
their own protection. I am in favor of moving the aliens out for 
our protection from sabotage. Then after close scrutiny and investi- 
gation, those useful and loyal citizen Japanese could be, through some 
licensing form, or some other method, brought back into the territory 
here where we could use them. 

First, however, let's protect them and protect ourselves. 

Mr. Arnold. The chances are, too, that some American citizens 
not of German or Italian or Japanese ancestry will have to be taken 
into custody? 

Mr. Troy. Yes; I think that the subject of alien control is im- 
portant enough to call for citizen control. 

Mr. Arnold. What attitude are the people in eastern Washington 
taking with regard to relocating aliens in that region? 

Mr. Troy. WeU, I am afraid that there might be some portions of 
eastern Washington that wouldn't be too receptive to having the aliens 
moved there ; but I am also of the opinion that such considerations have 
to be secondary in these times. 

Mr. Arnold. Eastern Washington is more of a developed country 
than eastern California and Oregon, is it not? 

Mr. Troy. That is correct. 

Mr. Arnold. It is not so mountainous and there are more cities 
there? 

Mr. Troy. Of course, parts of eastern Washington might be con- 
sidered — I am not a military expert — but it might be considered of 
strategic value, from the standpoint of the military. Around Spokane 
and in that area, there is a large military cantonment, with a large 
concentration of troops, and there is an air force of some size. Then, 
of course, around Coulee Dam, we have the source of our power supply, 
which is essential to the military over here. 

I think that any evacuation, be it mass or otherwise, be it of the 
alien Japanese only, or of the citizen Japanese and alien Japanese and 
the alien citizens of other countries with whom we are at war, should 



11504 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

be left in the hands of the military, because they will know what 
strategic areas they wish to protect. 

(At this point, Representatives George H. Bender and Carl T. 
Curtis entered the hearing room.) 

Mr. Arnold. We have the other two members here, Congressman 
Curtis and Congressman Bender. 

The Chairman. Congressman Bender is a Republican of Ohio. 
He has just recently been appointed to fill the vacancy caused by 
Congressman Osmers having joined the Army. The committee 
welcomes the appearance of Congressman Bender. We know him 
very well, and have very great respect for him. I know he will be a 
very valuable member of this committee. 

REVIEW OF HARDSHIP CASES 

Mr. Arnold. Do you think that there should be some sort of a 
tribunal set up to review hardship cases and perhaps give permits or 
licenses to reenter to those about whose loyalty there is no question? 

Mr. Troy. That is correct. If they are loyal, useful citizens, we 
need them; but we certainly want to give them the closest scrutiny 
and investigation to determine that that is the case. 

Mr. Arnold. And in those decisions, local citizens are, perhaps, 
best qualified to aid; that is, those officials who have known each 
individual case for a number of years? 

Mr. Troy. Yes; I think that they would at least give the most 
valuable testimony, as to the question of loyalty and usefulness of 
the particular individual in question. 

Mr. Arnold. If evacuation orders should come, what is your 
feeling with regard to the best way to carry it out? Do you think 
simply orders given to get out will be sufficient? 

Mr. Troy. No; I don't. I think that the evacuation, when and if it 
comes, should be handled exclusively by the military, and that these 
tribunals you referred to a moment ago should determine what useful 
loyal citizens should be returned. The evacuation, at least, should 
be conducted by the military, of course, bringing in the local people 
to testify who are familiar with the individuals being questioned. 
But, if I might digress, although I think it is related to what you have 
just asked 

Mr. Arnold. Go ahead. 

duplication of effort 

Mr. Troy. One of the things I think that gives rise to the greatest 
concern— at least, it does with me — is the fact that we have so many 
different agencies, both State and Federal, all working with a proper 
motive, of course, and working vigilantly, as a matter of fact, to 
protect the public interest, but working in many instances at cross 
purposes. 

I have had experience in that respect, working mth two or three 
agencies in related problems of this kind, and I find there are con- 
flicts. One group asks you to do a certain thing, or follow a given 
line of endeavor, and we go all out to be cooperative and do it. Then 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11505 

we get jumped on by another agency of equal importance saying that 
we shouldn't have done that; that it is just throwing everything into a 
turmoil. They will say, "What we are trying to do is being defeated 
by what you are doing." 

There are too many conflicts. In other words, there are too many 
cooks. And I would like to see the thing put under one head of single 
control, and I think probably, being at war, it should be military con- 
trol. I would even go so far as to advocate martial law. I don't 
think that complete martial law is necessary at this time, but probably 
complete martial law might have to be given first, and then military 
authorities could redelegate certain civil duties back to local offices. 
But I think that there should be a single military control; and I think 
also the man on the street and the average citizen here would feel a lot 
more comfortable if they knew that there was a single coordinated 
command. And I mean no reflection or disparagement on any of the 
various agencies, because, as I say, and I wish to reiterate, they are 
all doing their best, I am sure, to sincerely defend the public interest. 

Mr. Arnold. But there has been a conflict of purpose and we 
should have coordination as this committee recommended when it 
first reached the coast? 

Mr. Troy. That is right. 

Mr. Arnold. What distinction, if any, would you make in the way 
in which Japanese aliens should be handled, and the way in which 
alien Italians and Germans should bo handled? 

JAPANESE THE FIRST PROBLEM 

Mr. Trot. Well, speaking frankly, out here we feel that we know 
the Italian and the German people better. We have been able to 
come closer to those races than we have with the Japanese. I mean, 
again, no disparagement of races. I don't wish to be misconstrued 
on that score, but we have to face facts, and for years out here there 
has always been a distrust of the Japanese. Whether it is justified or 
not, I don't wish to say, but, nevertheless, that feeling has existed. 
I think that it has been less in recent years than it used to be, but, 
nevertheless, there has been that distrust. However, I don't think 
that you can distinguish too far. We have got to treat groups as a 
whole. You can't take people with blue eyes and say, "You have got 
to get out of here," and people with brown eyes can stay. But I do 
think that our first problem is the Japanese. Then we can turn to 
other problems and handle them as they come. 

Mr. Arnold. Perhaps you have answered part of it. What provi- 
sions should be made for handling the property of ahens who may be 
forced to leave? 

Mr. Troy. Well, there should be some custodian appointed who 
would have that in charge. It would be quite a big job, but it rnust 
be done. After all, in time of war, we have to give up certain things 
to maintain that which we have. By that, I mean we may have to 
give up, for some time, some civil rights, but, on the other hand, we 
should maintain those civil rights as far as possible and maintain the 
property rights of these people, so that when this thing is over, that 
to which they are entitled can be restored to them. 



11506 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Arnold. And that should be done in this country, regardless 
of what happens to our nationals in Japan, Germany, or Italy or any 
other place? 

Mr. Troy. I think so. I think that the American democratic 
philosophy and intelligence is such that we should carry on with that 
sort of detail, regardless of what may be done in other countries. 

Mr Arnold. That is something that this committee is very much 
concerned about. We laiow that it is a tremendous job, but we want 
to see protection given to the property rights of these aliens and others 
who may be evacuated. 

CONDITIONS IN YAKIMA COUNTY 

Mr. Troy. I would like to call your attention, if I may, to a condi- 
tion over in Yakima. Yakima is in eastern Washington, You asked 
a question awhile ago about whether they would be receptive; that is, 
the people in eastern Washington, would be receptive to a proposition 
to take these Japanese. 

Mr. Arnold. Yes. 

Mr. Troy. I don't think that anyone is anxious to have alien ene- 
mies of any nationality thrust upon them; but, on the other hand, I 
know that people in eastern Washington are loyal American citizens 
and are interested in the welfare of our country, first. I am sure that 
they would be willing to make that sacrifice if it was done under proper 
control and supervision; particularly, if it were done by the military. 

Yakima County — I don't know whether any of you gentlemen have 
been over in that part of the country or not — which embraces the town 
or city of Yakima, is tne third largest gricultural county in the 
United States. Its agricultural production is principally fruit, but 
other things, too, and diversified farming. There are some 8,000 
acres in the Yakima Indian Reservation which are leased to Japanese. 
Inquiry into this reveals that 92 percent of the leaseholders are 
citizen Japanese. Now, 8,000 acres of farmland in eastern Washing- 
ton, and particularly in the Yakima Valley, might sound very small 
and very meager. On the other hand, those 8,000 acres embrace the 
substantial part, at least, of the truck gardening of the Yakima 
Valley, and the people over there eat the produce, such as lettuce and 
the ordinary truck produce. That is their chief source of supply. 

uncertainty delaying farming operations 

Well, I am directly informed that these leaseholders are sitting idly 
by, when they should now be plowing their fields and getting them 
planted — they are sitting by, not because they wish to be a deterrent 
to the war effort, or to the production of food, but because they don't 
know wnat their status is to be. After all, why should they put in 
crops and till the soil if it is going to be taken away from them 
immediately? I do think that there should be some action soon so 
that situations of that kind will be taken care of. 

Now, I am informed by the — I think they call it the Farm War 
Board, or Farm Board, or some such name as that — that the white 
farmers say, "Well, if the Japanese don't take this over, there will be 
no serious handicap because there are plenty of white farmers that 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11507 

will do it, and do it as well." I thought you might be interested in 
knowing that. That, of course, is just an isolated case. 

I understand there are only 125 Japanese involved, covering this 
particular 8,000 acres; but the prosecutor also called my attention to 
another thing wJiicn perhaps I should have mentioned when you 
were talking about the possibiUties of mob violence. The sugar beet 
industry over there is about ready to start a season. They employ, 
I am informed, about 250 Filipino people. And with the Japanese in 
the same community, the prosecuting attorney over there informed 
me that he was a little worried about trouble. However, I wouldn't 
think that eastern Washington is in what would be considered a stra- 
tegic area, and my testimony in requesting and urging evacuation, 
has to do with what I considered the vital area, and that is here in 
western Washington on the coast. 

Mr, Arnold. And you don't consider that a strategic military 
area? Is there anything there that could be sabotaged? 

Mr. Troy. Only crops. Of course, that is vital. 

Mr. Arnold. Is there any timber? 

Mr. Troy. Well, not in any great quantity — there is white pine 
over there, I think. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know whether these 8,000 acres farmed by 
Japanese are concentrated in one area? 

Mr. Troy. Yes; it is on the Yakima Indian Reservation. The 
Indians lease these properties to the Japanese. 

THREATENED VIOLENCE AMONG LUMBER MILL WORKERS 

There is also another situation that you might be interested in. In 
this particular lumber mill, it is rather acute. It is acute to a lesser 
degree in some of our other mills. I think it is the Carlisle Lumber 
Co. — which has its plant and operation in Lewis County. In Lewis 
County, many years ago when they first started their operation, a 
shortage of labor occurred and they brought in Japanese labor. I 
don't know just the number employed; it is not a large number. I 
think, perhaps, there are 15 or 20. They were employed there in the 
mill. Some of them are citizens, and some of them are not citizens. 
The white employees have been agitating their removal; in fact, they 
are agitating it to the extent that there was talk of doing it by force 
I know the Federal authorities have been called down there, and 
various State authorities have been called down there. The difficulty 
was obviated for a short time, by calling a mass meeting of the em- 
ployees, at which the prosecutor of the county and the sheriff, I 
believe, and other officials addressed them. A vote was taken. 
Finally, through the persuasion and at the instance of these gentle- 
men who discussed the matter with them, the majority voted to take 
no action to do this by force knmediately, hoping that the proper 
agencies would take care of it before long. ^ 

However, I might point out that there was a vote— not a majority 
vote— but there was a substantial vote to move them out immediately 
by force. . 

Mr. Arnold. Do they all belong to the same labor union? 

Mr. Troy. Yes. However, that was not due to any union activity 
and that had no part in it. I might say that there was not the fear 



11508 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

of sabotage there; it was more a fear of protecting the Japanese. I 
consider that acute, and I know the officials of the Cariisle Lumber 
Co. consider it acute, and the officials do, too. 

In one of our other large operations, down in the Long-Bell Timber 
Co. operation, in Cowlitz County, there is a semblance of that sort 
of difficulty, but of a lesser degree. 

Mr. Arnold. Is there any of it that might be fanned into a flame 
by sometliing that might happen any day? 

Mr. Troy. Yes; such as the publishing of a casualty list where 
local people have been killed in action, or some terrible disaster, with 
the war going on. 

DISPOSITION OF PROPERTY OF EVACUEES 

Mr. Arnold. Can you tell me what is going to happen to perish- 
able goods that are owned by aliens who may be forced to leave? 
For example, crops that may be growing in the field, or livestock? 

Mr. Troy. That would present a problem for a short time, in my 
opinion. I think that we have plenty of competent farmers, white 
people who can take that over, and they would do so as a matter of 
patriotic effort. Surely, there will be a curtailment for a brief period 
of time, but I am satisfied that our American citizens here could take 
care of that, and would do so in short order. 

Mr. Arnold. However, would you agree with this committee that 
an mimediate appointment of an alien custodian is necessary? 

Mr. Troy. Oh, absolutely. 

Mr. Arnold. Were you informed of the boundaries of the areas 
which were ordered evacuated on February 24? 

Mr. Troy. I beg your pardon? 

Mr. Arnold. Were you informed of the boundaries of the areas 
which were ordered evacuated on February 24? There were certain 
areas here? 

Mr. Troy. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Were you informed of those areas? 

Mr. Troy. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. In advance? 

Mr. Troy. No. At the time of the order. 

RECEIVED NO ADVANCE NOTICE OF EVACUATION ORDERS 

Mr. Arnold. At the time of the order, you were given information? 

Mr. Troy. Or shortly thereafter; it was shortly subsequent. 

Mr. Arnold. As to what areas were to be evacuated? 

Mr. Troy. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. The papers amiounccd this morning that evacuation 
orders will soon be issued. Can you teU us, without revealing any 
military information, when your office was notffied of the contents of 
this order? 

Mr. Troy. Do you mean of evacuation? 

Mr. Arnold. Yes. Or have you received that? 

Mr. Troy. I have received no such notice. I read about it in this 
morning's paper, too. 

Mr. Arnold. That is the only information you have? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11509 

Mr. Troy. Oli, I think that there was something in yesterday's 
paper, likewise. I think someone said it was inland. I have for- 
gotten. 

Mr. Arnold. You don't know any details yet as to just what is 
going to be ordered? 

Mr. Troy. No, I don't. I am satisfied, though, that the military 
probably has a plan and can carry it out effectively, and that should 
be the vehicle by which it is done. Naturally, we will all cooperate 
in any way that the military authorities direct or request. 

Mr. Arnold. Here is a question which you have answered in part. 
In your opinion, are present plans, so far as you know them, for carry- 
ing out an evacuation satisfactory? You know what you have to 
offer to aid in that. 

Mr. Troy. Yes. We are standing by ready and willing to be of 
such assistance as may be requested or directed. I am satisfied the 
military has a plan at this time and can carry it out eft'ectively, should 
it be the agency that has charge of the evacuation. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Curtis. I will not take but a moment, Mr. Troy. As a lawyer, 
have you prepared any brief as to the situation dealing with citizen 
Japanese, what lawfully could be done, both under partial martial 
law, and the ordinary police power? 

MARTIAL LAW 

Mr. Troy. Yes; I have given it considerable research. Of course, 
the Congress and the President, particularly the Congress, have very 
wide and broad war powers under the Constitution itself. I feel that 
martial law could be invoked, although there might be some contro- 
versy as to whether it could or not. Being in a theater of war and 
having been attacked — a submarine shelling one of om- California 
cities, and submarines off the Atlantic coast sinking our ships— I feel 
that we are not only in a theater of war, but it amounts to a partial 
invasion at this time. I thmk martial law could be invoked. I don't 
think that the military would want to be bothered with ordinary civil 
controversies or the enforcement of ordinary civil processes and the 
various civil problems. To that end, I think if martial law were 
invoked, that the military command, or whoever would have charge 
of it, should then redelegate to the various State, county and city 
officials those powers which they now have and tell them to carry on. 
The military command should keep unto itself only that m which 
they have some vital mterest. I thmk that it would be highly 
desirable. 

Mr. Curtis. In any plan that is developed, there is going to be 
certain hardships and cruelties that we cannot escape? 

Mr. Troy. There has to be, unfortunately; yes. We should keep 
them at a minimum. 

Mr. Curtis. There is nothing gained by undue excitement or 
agitation, is there? 

Mr. Troy. No; that is just the wrong thmg to do. 

Mr. Curtis. And we must also keep in mind that there is nothing 
to be gained by doing anything that would turn against us people 
whose welfare is involved. 



11510 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Troy. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. That is all I have, Mr. Chairman. 

EVACUATION ORDERS IN CANADA 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Troy, I have in my hand a notice that was 
posted, directed to enemy aliens by the Royal Canadian Mounted 
Police, Commissioner S. T. Wood, in which he set the 1st day of April 
1942, for the male enemy aliens between the ages of 18 and 45, to leave 
this particular area. In fact, this notice does not apply to women 
and children. What is your reaction to that kind of an action on the 
part of the United States Government? 

Mr. Troy. I don't believe that that action goes far enough. I 
think that, in considering the entire public interest and the public 
good, there should be a mass evacuation first, and then careful scru- 
tiny and investigation enabling retm'n to the area of those persons or 
aliens, perhaps aliens, whom we can absolutely determine beyond any 
question of doubt are loyal and are also useful. But I feel that they 
should be moved. Of course, people who are ill or whose lives would 
be endangered should not be moved, but there would be only a very 
small number. 

Mr. Bender. There has been a suggestion made that possibly 
enemy aliens between the ages of 18 — male enemy aliens between the 
ages of 18 and 60, be included, raising this 45-year limit to 60. Do 
you have anything to say regarding that? 

WOULD MAKE FIRST EVACUATION ALL-INCLUSIVE 

Mr. Troy. No; I really haven't given that any thought, except 
that I do think the evacuation should be all-embracing to commence 
with, and then we could bring the loyal ones back. It might be a 
little awkward and more expensive to do it in that fashion, but I 
think it is the safest way, not only from the standpoint of protecting 
ourselves from sabotage, but also protecting these people from mob 
violence and harm in case unprecedented conditions occur which might 
cause a flare-up. I shouldn't say unprecedented, either, because in 
war those conditions can arise and should be expected. 

Mr. Bender. The next question I am going to ask you is wholly 
unrelated to this Japanese question. Of course, there has been an 
increase in the number of service men and soldiers in this area. Has 
there been a marked increase in the number of prostitutes coming into 
the State of Washington in recent months? 

Mr. Troy. I think not. It has been my observation that prostitu- 
tion has decreased. 

Mr. Bender. In recent months? 

Mr. Troy. In recent months. As a matter of fact, I think that the 
military authority and the F. B. I. and the other Federal agencies 
have done a masterful piece of work on cleaning up that situation. 

Mr. Bender. In the vicinity of San Francisco, there has been some 
complaint made of a tremendous increase in that condition. That 
does not affect your State here? 

Mr. Troy. No; I don't think so. I don't have facts or figures on 
it, but the reports that I have had — and I haven't had any connection 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11511 

with the regulation of that sort of thing — in conferences with prosecut- 
ing attorneys whom I have seen from time to time, and poHce officials, 
generally, I have been told that it has been on the decrease. 

Mr. Bender. In any event, you feel that this condition does not 
call for any congressional action at this time? 

Mr. Troy. No; I don't think so. I might say, too, that with the 
large increase of service men, that other types of crime have been kept, 
I think, miraculously at a minimum. The military and the F. B. I. 
and the other agencies have really performed a fine piece of work in 
that connection. 

Mr. Bender. Thank you. 

The Chairman. From your testimony, I think that your recom- 
mendation that if there should be a property custodian appointed, 
with regional officers at San Francisco, Los Angeles, Portland, and 
Seattle, they could very well take care of that? 

Mr. Troy. I think so, yes. 

The Chairman. I don't react very well myself — I am just speaking 
for myself alone — to the term "enemy alien." In other words, in the 
United States today we have millions of aliens. 

Mr. Troy. Who are not enemies. 

The Chairman. Who helped build this country here, as far as that 
is concerned, but they are all designated enemy aliens. I don't know 
whoever coined that expression, but it always jars me very much, 
because I know plenty of people who are just as loyal as any citizens 
in the United States. 

Now, we have got that clear, then, about the custodian. What this 
committee has had in mind is not divorcing any agencies from their 
present duties, but it does seem to me that there should be some 
central body or agency to correlate the activities of the Army and 
other Federal, State, and local agencies. Now, in speaking of the 
Army, it has its hands full? 

Mr. Troy. That is right. 

The Chairman. From the defense standpoint. Of necessity, it 
cannot undertake the resettlement of these aliens. The Justice 
Department has its hands full. Both of them are doing a wonderful 
job, but they are going to be overloaded. You will probably have in 
the next few days evacuation orders, that may involve hundreds of 
thousands of people. In other words, we should have some sort of a 
clearinghouse, for your office, the Army, the Navy, the Department of 
Agriculture, the Social Security Board, because, as you indicate, 
there has been some sort of a conflict, and I think that you agree with 
us on that. We thank you very much and appreciate your coming 
here. 

Mr. Troy. Thank you, gentlemen. 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Chairman, for the purpose of the record, I 
would like to offer this notice. 

The Chairman. It may be inserted in the record. 

(The paper referred to, entitled "To Male Enemy Aliens — Notice," 
reads as follows:) 

TO MALE ENEMY ALIENS 
NOTICE 

Under date of February 2, 1942, the Honourable the Minister of National 
Defence with the concurrence of the Minister of Justice, gave public notice 



11512 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARESTGS 

defining an area of British Columbia, as described below, to be a protected area 
after the 31st day of January 1942; that is to say, that area of the Province of 
British Columbia, including all islands, west of a line described hereunder: 

Commencing at boundary point No. 7 on the international boundary between 
the Dominion of Canada and Alaska, thence following the line of the "Cascade 
Mountains" as defined by paragraph 2 of section 24 of the Interpretation Act of 
British Columbia, being chapter 1 of the Revised Statutes of 1936, to the north- 
west corner of lot 13-10, range 5, coast land districts, thence due east to a point 
due north of the northwest corner of lot 373, range 5, coast land district, thence 
due south to said northwest corner of lot 373 being a point on the aforementioned 
line of the "Cascade Mountains" (being the area surrounding the village munici- 
pality of Terrace); thence following said line of the "Cascade Mountains" to the 
western boundary of township 5, range 26, west of the 6th meridian, thence follow- 
ing the northerly, easterly, and southerly boundaries of said township 5, to the 
southwest corner thereof, being a point on the line of the "Cascade Mountains" 
(being the area surrounding the village municipalit}' of Hope) ; thence following 
the "Cascade Mountains" to the southerly boundary of the province. 

Pursuant to the provisions of regulation 4 of the Defence of Canada Regulations, 
the Minister of Justice has, on the 5th day of February 1942, ordered that — 

1. All male enemy aliens of the ages of 18 years to 45 years, inclusive, shall leave 
the protected area hereinbefore referred to on or before the 1st day of April 1942; 

2. That, subject to the provisions of paragraph No. 1 of this order, no enemy 
alien shall, after the date of this order, enter, leave, or return to such protected 
area except with the permission of the Commissioner of the Royal Canadian 
Mounted Police Force, or an officer of that force designated by the Commissioner 
to act for him in this respect; 

3. That no enemy alien shall have in his possession or use, while in such pro- 
tected area, any camera, radio transmitter, radio shortwave receiving set, firearm, 
ammunition, or explosive. 

S. T. Wood, 
Commissioner, Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 
Ottawa, February 7, 194£. 

TO BE POSTED IN A CONSPICUOUS PLACE 



TESTIMONY OF MRS. MARY FARQUHARSON, STATE SENATOR, 
AND DR. DOIF SIMONS 

The Chairman. Congressman Curtis will interrogate both of you. 

Mr. Curtis. Mrs. Farquharson, for the purpose of the record, will 
you give the reporter your full name and your address? 

Mrs. Farquharson. Mary Farquharson, 2126 East Forty-seventh 
Street, Seattle. 

Mr. Curtis. And you are a member of the Washington State 
Senate? 

Mrs. Farquharson. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. Representing what district? 

Mrs. Farquharson. The forty-sixth. 

Mr. Curtis. In addition to your pohtical activities, you have made 
some study and given time and attention to the matter of refugees 
and other questions along that line? 

Mrs. Farquharson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Are you active in social welfare work? 

Mrs. Farquharson. In an unofficial way; yes. 

Mr. Curtis. And what is your address. Dr. Simons? 

Mr. Simons. 714 Thirty-third Avenue South. 

Mr. Curtis. And what is your business or profession? 

Mr. Simons. I am a physician. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11513 

Mr. Curtis. How long have you lived in the Seattle area? 

Mr. Simons. Four years and three months. 

Mr. Curtis. Where were you born? 

Mr. Simons. In Germany. 

Mr. Curtis. How long have you lived in this country? 

Mr. Simons. Four years and a quarter. 

Mr. Curtis. Are you a citizen at this time? 

Mr. Simons. No; I am not, yet. 

represents alien refugees 

Mr. Curtis. Mrs. Farquharson, we understand that a group of 
alien refugees in the State have requested you to speak for their 
group. Will you outUne for us the general nature of the problems of 
these refugees? 

Mrs. Farquharson. Well, in the first place, may I say, Congress- 
men, that they have asked me to speak for them because they have 
no official organization of their own. 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 

Mrs. Farquharson. They have felt that they wanted to become an 
integral part of the community as quickly as possible, and they have 
felt that to organize into a separate group would hinder the purpose 
of becoming closely associated with the rest of the community, rather 
than to further that purpose, and that is the reason that there is no 
official representative that can speak for them. But I have worked, 
as you suggested earfier, in rather close connection with them, while 
it was yet possible, trying to help them to get their friends and relatives 
over here, and trying to help them become estabfished when they did 
get here. 

Now, their problem, I think, hmges around the very thing that 
Congressman Tolan spoke of a few moments ago, this being called 
"enemy aliens." In a very peculiar sense, it does not apply to them. 
In the first place, may I say that only in a very restricted narrow 
sense does the term ''aUen" even apply to them. In a real sense, 
in a deep spiritual sense, they were aliens in Germany, and it is only 
since they have been here that they have had a feeling of being at 
home. That is because they were completely at odds with the 
Hitler Government. As you know, that is the reason that they are 
here. I have heard more than one of them say that since 1914, 
they— and they say it with very deep feeling and emotion — since 
1914 they have never known a feeling of security or peace or belonging 
until they had come to this country and until they had become 
established in this community. 

loyalty of refugees 

So, from that standpoint, th^tt is their peculiar problem. As far 
as being enemies is concerned, of course, they have a very deep 
attachment. There is no group that I know of that is so devoted, 
as a group, to the things that America stands for. It is understand- 
able because they have been so terribly persecuted and have suffered. 

Mr. Curtis. How many are in this group for which you speak? 

Mrs. Farquharson. About 600, Congressman. 



11514 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. How many of them do you know rather intimately? 

Mrs. Farquharson. Well, I couldn't say that I know more than 
a dozen or so intimately. 

Mr. Curtis. Those are the leaders? 

Mrs. Farquharson. Yes. I know quite a number more than 
that. And may I say at this point that this group is known to each 
other very well. Sometimes a question is asked, "Well, could you 
guarantee that all of them are loyal?" And, of course, the obvious 
answer to that — I am speaking of the refugees of the whole country 
— the obvious answer is that it is not humanly possible to guarantee 
the loyalty of any group. But in this group of 600, they are very 
well and intimately known to their leaders. Their backgrounds in 
Germany are known, and we can guarantee so far as anything is 
humanly possible, that not a single one of this group but would be 
willing to give everything he has for the protection of the United 
States of America. 

The Chairman. You see. Senator, when the proclamation of the 
President was issued in his Executive order, we had in the United 
States, thousands and thousands of cases where first papers were 
issued, and the final papers were unsigned by the court, and the 
hearings were all over with and everything of the kind, and yet 
they are frozen by the thousands throughout the United States, 
as enemy aliens. 

Now, there was nothing to do about it. The Army has no dis- 
cretion. The Naturalization Department has no discretion, but we 
had pending before my judiciary committee before I left, a war 
bill to give some discretion in matters of that kind. That is the 
situation. 

Mrs. Farquharson. Yes. 

refugees expatriated by GERMAN GOVERNMENT 

Mr. Curtis. Wliat portion of these refugees were expatriated by 
the German Government? 

Mrs. Farquharson. Almost 100 percent of them. I believe of this 
600, only about 10 do not come in that classification. 

Mr. Curtis. Is it your opinion that in some small numbers, the 
present Nazi Government of Germany might have sent their agents 
to this country and paraded them as refugees? 

Mrs. Farquharson. It is my opinion that that has undoubtedly 
happened in a very few cases. 

Mr. Curtis. You cannot X-ray a per?:on's heart and find out 
what his sentiment is, 

Mrs. Farquharson. No, but it is true, as you know, that they 
were investigated very thoroughly before they came here, arid some 
of them have told me of instances — I just heard one last night, where 
a person who had been a Nazi official did have stamped on a passport 
*'J" — trying to pass as a Jew and trying to get by that way — but some 
of the others recognized him and reported him. It is a little difficult 
for any of the rest of them to get by with it, because they are pretty 
well known. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11515 

JEWISH REFUGEES 

Mr. Curtis. Are these 600, whom you referred to, Jewish? 

Mrs. Farquharson. Almost entirely, with the exception of about 

10- 

Mr. Curtis. Dr. Simons, do noncitizens have difficulty obtaining 

professional licenses in Washington and other States? 

Dr. Simons. They have to pass examinations, and they have to 
pass interneship at hospitals, in the case of doctors ; and they have to 
study law 4 years in order to become a lawyer. The regulations of 
the different States are different. In the Sta-te of Washington here, 
for medical people, it is required that they serve 1 year of interneship, 
1 year of medical school and an examination; while in New York, 
they only pass an examination. In the State of Washington, after 
passing all of these regulations, there is no difficulty. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you have a family, Doctor? 

Dr. Simon. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. You brought your family from Germany with you, 
did you? 

Dr. Simons. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. How large a family do you have? 

Dr. Simons. Wife and daughter and mother. 

Mr. Curtis. You left Europe in 1937? 

Dr. Simons. 1937; yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Did you flee Germany, or were you able to get a 
passport that was legal on its face? 

Dr. Simons. Legally. Only the very last moment after 1 had 
prepared everything, I had to flee because of a kind of blackmail. 

Mr. Curtis. Because of what? 

Dr. Simons. Because of blackmailing. 

Mr. Curtis. Did you know in Germany many of the 600 people 
who are in this area now? 



Dr. Simons. Not many. 



ESPIONAGE 



Mr. Curtis. From your experience, Dr. Simons, do you think 
that it would be possible for Nazi agents to be parading as refugees 
in this country? 

Dr. Simons. Not in this group. 

Mr. Curtis. I mean any place in this country? 

Dr. Simons. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you w^nt to elaborate on that and give us any 
suggestions as to how that could be done? Would there be very 
many? 

Dr. Simons. Before the war, in '39, there might have been an 
effort on the part of the Hitler regime to send out agents or spies 
disguised as Jews. But since the Army has occupied so many coun- 
tries, I cannot see any reason why they should take out a Jewish- 
German passport in order to come over to this country. They have 
so many possibilities to take a Dutch or a Czechoslovakian, or even a 
Polish passport, and thus not be classed as enemy aliens. So I 
don't see any reason why there should be any man coming as a Jewish 
refugee who is a spy or an agent from Germany. 



60396— 42— pt. 30 15 



11516 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis, Do either one of you have any further suggestions? 
Have you any further suggestions that you would Hke to give this 
committee on this whole related proposition? Is there anything that 
I haven't touched in the questioning? 

REFUGEES ARE ENEMIES OF HITLER 

Dr. Simons. About the grouping of refugees as enemy aliens. We 
have been branded and marked over there as enemies of the Nazis. 
They were our deadly enemies, and we were theirs. Coming to this 
country, we thought and hoped that this country would give us that 
security that, as Mrs. Farquharson said before, we never had since 
the last war ended. Now, in spite of being the deadliest enemies of 
nazi-ism, we are branded here as enemies. 

That is what hurts us. We are not enemies of this country by 
any means. We are democrats of this country, and we are the earliest 
victims of nazi-ism. 

Mr. Arnold. As I understand it, this term of "enemy aliens" 
means that you are an alien in that you are not yet a citizen of this 
country, and you are a citizen of a countiy at war with the United 
States, therefore, the abbreviated term "enemy aliens" is used to 
describe that, not meaning particularly that you are an enemy of 
this country; but that you are an alien and a citizen of a country at 
war with the United States. 

Mrs. Farquharson. May I say, that of course, that is not true at 
the present time. 

Dr. Simons. Correct. 

REFUGEES ARE MEN WITHOUT A COUNTRY 

Mrs. Farquharson. Since November 1941, even their status as 
German subjects has been taken away from them, you see, by a 
decree of Hitler. Their registration cards in this country are now 
marked "stateless." They have no state. They are not citizens of 
an enemy country, or even subjects. Since 1935 they have not been 
citizens, and now they are no longer subjects. 

Mr. Arnold. In other words, they are men without a country at all? 

Dr. Simons. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. And want to be loyal to this country. 

Mrs. Farquharson. Very much so. 

May I say one further word? I think that I can speak for a very 
large percentage of native-born citizens of this community, that feel 
that the life of the community has been very much enriched by the 
presence of this group of refugees here. They have brought great 
talent in the arts, in professional business and in science; and with the 
tremendously big problems facing the Government that must be 
solved, it seems an entirely unnecessary burden for them to assume 
the added problem of trying to remove this group who are so loyal 
to this country and who will aid in every way possible to further its 
interests. 

Mr. Bender. Senator, you recognize, of course, the need for this 
country's taking action, and even though sometimes there is no lack 
of sympathetic understanding, yet being at war as we are, it is essential 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11517 

that we do something in order to eliminate the forces that are 
un-American. 

Mrs Farquharson. That is true. 

Mr. Bender. Even some who are citizens of this country who are 
un-American? 

Mrs. Farquharson. That is true. 

Mr. Bender. And you reaUze that there will be some injustice to 
some people as a result of that. Do you know something of the con- 
ditions in Europe and something of the treatment of aliens — even of 
their own citizens? 

Mrs. Farquharson. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Bender. We are rather a benevolent people here; we have no 
desire to take anybody's territory; we have no desire to expand; we 
have no thoughts of empire; and we want to spread a gospel that is 
the gospel of Americanism. That is only true of this country but 
even then under the circumstances there will be some injustice, and 
people here who have relatives who are aliens must appreciate that we 
have got to take some action quickly, and that maybe there will be 
some injustice as a result of that. So in connection with the problem 
you speak of, because of action being essential immediately — I can 
say that, as I left Washington on Thursday evening. Congress was 
in session until about an hour before I left. The issue that was gaining 
momentum there was the need for speedy action regarding this whole 
alien problem. No Member of Congress wants to see any injustice 
done anyone, but, of course, we have got to do something in order to 
eliminate these internal problems, so that we are not fighting a war 
on two fronts, from, within as well as from without. 

We just came over from this building where enemy aliens are kept 
in custody, for the time being. Naturally, our hearts go out to these 
people. All of us are members of various Christian churches or 
members of various organizations that want to be fair and want to be 
considerate. We have that kind of a background. We are at war, 
and, of necessity, we have to act quickly, and as much as our hearts 
go out to some of these poor unfortunate people who are innocent, 
sometimes we do things that we wish we did not have to do. The 
reason this committee is here is because the speaker and the leadership 
of the House felt the need for this committee to get all the information 
it could^ — along with the F. B. I. and the Department of Justice — 
that we may act wisely. 

Mrs. Farquharson. May I say that this group, that Dr. Simons 
and I represent, appreciates very much the opportunity of being able 
to get into the record of the committee some of the facts regarding 
this particular group here in Seattle — this group of so-called enemy 
aliens, this group of refugees who are not enemy aliens at all. 

Mr. Curtis. I might say to both of you that should there occur to 
you any facts or particulars or anything that we have not touched 
upon, that the record will be open for a few days, and you may send 
it to us. We have to take so much time in traveling to get out to this 
country, that we have to move faster than we like; but any further 
suggestions you may have, we will be glad to have them. 

Mrs. Farquharson. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Thank you, Senator, and thank you, very much, 
Dr. Simons, for coming here. 



11518 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

(The following letters and statement, bearing on this subject, were 
offered and accepted for the record:) 

Mr. John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, Congressional Committee, Seattle, Wash. 

Dear Sir: As Hitler exiles who are now American citizens we feel qualified to 
express the sentiment of those of our group who, because of their shorter residence 
in this country, have not yet been admitted to citizenship. 

These people have one pathetic experience in common. They have been 
victims of the most cruel persecution that recent history knows of. They have 
been humiliated and dispossessed; they have been deprived of what they built 
up and loved. Hundreds of them, too old or too weak to emigrate, committed 
suicide. Others, determined to start a new life, came to the United States, as it 
seemed to them the safest place to escape from the Nazi regime. 

They all have taken out their first papers. Many among the younger men have 
enlisted in the Army. Everyone is willing to cooperate in defense work whenever 
and wherever called, no matter at what sacrifice for himself. He feels his own 
future inseparably tied up with the American cause. He is doomed if the Nazis 
win. 

As far as these people are Jewish by "race," they have ceased to be German 
nationals and lost all property they were forced to leave behind in Germany 
under a decree of the Hitler government of November 25, 194L Many of the 
non-Jews were treated in the same way by individual orders. They all, Jews and 
non-Jews alike, feel only one allegiance, legally and emotionally, the allegiance to 
the Tnited States. 

Are such peotile likely to help establish the Nazi regime in this country? Have 
they done anything to justify so paradoxical a suspicion? 

There may be some Fascists among such natural-born Americans as do not 
really know what it means to live under a dictator. There may be some Nazis 
among those citizens of German extraction, or their parents, who left Germany in 
earlier times, some of them because they disliked political or economic conditions 
in democratic Germany after the first World War. 

The Hitler exiles, however, cannot, in justice and fairness, be grouped together 
with such persons whom they believe deadly foes of American democracy as well 
as themselves. They wish to be considered as what they are, and that means as 
the most reliable associates in this war against Hitler. They wish to be relieved 
from the ignominous and untrue stigma which labels them as "enemy aliens." 
The Austrian refugees have been exempted. The German refugees are by no 
means less loyal than they. 

It is respectfully submitted that individual investigations be arranged and 
hearings be held in different States and among difi"erent classes of Hitler exiles. 
Such hearings will, as we are certain, fully confirm the foregoing statements. If, 
as it is possible in an}' group of people, some sporadic outsider should be found, the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation would easily take care of him. We ourselves 
will be most anxious to help the Federal Bureau of Investigation, with our know- 
ledge of background and personality of such a person. 

May we take the opportunity to express our fullest confidence in the work of 
your committee. 

Respectfully yours, 

Ernest Levy, Professor at the University of Washington; Marie Levy, 
Otto David Ries, Carl Kreisenheimer, Arthur Klein, Hanna 
Kosterlitz, M. D., Kurt Jack Ries, Walter Lowen, Paul Barnass, 
M. D., FeUx Berliner. 



March 2, 1942. 

Personal Statement op Herman Schocken, Vice President of Wash- 
ington Emigre Bureau, Inc. 

House Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, 

Seattle, Wash. 
Gentlemen: As active chairman of the employment committee of our society 
I have devoted all my time and energy to help the Jewish refugees to fit into the 
American economic life during the past 2% years. I feel that I know these refugees 
as well and intimately as it is humanly possible. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11519 

I feel quite certain that there is little, probably no probability, of any of these 
people committing any action unfriendly to our Government, and I feel just as 
certain that they are the natural, strongest haters of Hitler and his regime, and 
that they are willing and anxious to fight on our side. In fact, a number of them 
have volunteered for Army services already. I feel that there is less danger of 
disloyalty to our country then there is in any other group of their numbers. 

My reasons for this opinion are the following: 

1. My personal acquaintance with these refugees and our close surveillance of 
their everyday life here and their record in Germany, which we have in our office 
files. 

2. They have suffered the most inhuman treatment by the Nazi Government 
and are therefore the natural enemies of Hitler and his regime. 

3. They have come here under the strict immigration laws and have been 
carefully investigated by our American consuls in Germany and by our immigra- 
tion officers on their arrival here. 

4. They have affidavits (guarantees of every possible nature) from substantial 
American citizens, in most cases these are relatives. 

5. They had been deprived of their most elementary human rights since the 
passage of the Nuremberg laws 7 years ago. 

6. They all have made application for first papers immediately on their arrival 
here. 

7. They have been deprived of German citizenship completely by a Hitler law 
of November 1941. All their property and rights have been confiscated and 
virtually all their relatives have been deported from Germany into Polish ghettos 
there to perish by starvation, cold, or contagious diseases. 

CONCLUSION 

Immigrants from Germany who have ceased to be citizens of Germany by decree 
of that countrv because they were considered enemies of that country are cer- 
tainly not enemy aliens to our country and I would therefore beg our beloved 
Government to change their classification to "friendly aliens" expatriated from 
enemy countries. 

Respectfully yours, 

Herman Schocken, 



Statement by Mrs. Clara S. Neider, Washington Emigre Bureau 

At the request of the Tolan congressional committee, in my capacity as secre- 
tary of the Washington Emigre Bureau, Inc., I would like to submit some facts 
which I believe the Tolan committee is seeking. t ■ t. i<- 

The Washington Emigre Bureau, Inc., is a duly constituted Jewish welfare 
organization, organized for the express purpose of helping refugees persecuted by 
European dictators to settle in this community and to become good American 
citizens. It is supported entirely by private Jewish philanthropy and operates 
in affiliation with the National Refugee Service, Inc., in New York. Their pro- 
gram has been to take refugees from the crowded eastern areas into the btate ol 
Washington, and this program has been approved by the United States Govern- 
ment and by President Roosevelt. i. r au o* + 

There are approximately 600 German refugees in the western part of the btate 
of Washington, who are classified as enemy aliens. They came to this country 
because of racial, religious, and political persecution by the Nazi regime. Ail 
migrated to America through the regular immigration channels and came to 
America as a country of refuge under the immigration laws. _ 

These persecuted people have every reason to be the greatest enemies of Hitler 
and the Axis Powers, having suffered the loss of all their liberties, most of their 
possessions, and in many instances, the lives of members of their famihes. i hey 
have been "at war with Hitlerism since 1933" and this group can well appreciate 
and love America and can truly understand what Americanism means Ihey 
have taken out their first papers immediately after their arrival, and there is a 
large group who lack but a few months of the required length of residence to gain 
American citizenship. These people lost all their full rights as German citizens 
by the Nuremberg laws of 1935. They lost their status as German nationals by 
special decree of the Hitler government in November 1941. They are, therefore, 
now stateless, but are still classified as enemy aliens. 



11520 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Many of these refugees have begun small business enterprises since their arrival 
in this country and have become well established in the community. Several 
have bought homes here, and they constitute a fair cross section of the general 
population. None employable is" unemployed. All have taken advantage of 
classes available in English or citizenship. 

Fifteen young men whom we know of are serving in the armed forces of the 
United States. There are nine doctors and dentists who, if forced to leave this 
State, would have great difficulty in reestablishing themselves in practice, because 
there are many States that require citizenship for permission to practice. Many 
have married American citizens, and an evacuation order would thus break up 

families. . j^ ^^ . .■, ^ t ^.x. ■ 

The German refugees in this area fully appreciate that the country ot their 
adoption faces serious times and can readily understand the need of the contem- 
plated safety measures taken by the Government. They have complied with the 
regulations already promulgated regarding the conduct of enemy aliens and, 
recoenizing the need for this, have done so gladly. Their main desire and request 
at this time is to be given an opportunity to prove their loyalty to America by 
individual investigations by proper authorities. As a group, they are very 
willing to help these authorities with any type of information and cooperation 
that may be suggested. They reaffirm "their status as being vitally interested 
in the defense of the United States against the aggression of the Axis Powers. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT BRIDGES, REPRESENTATIVE, VALLEY 
PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION, AUBURN, WASH. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bridges. 

The Chairmen. Congressman Arnold will ask you some questions, 
Mr. Bridges. 

Mr. Arnold. Your name is Robert Bridges? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. And you represent the Valley Protective Association 
of Auburn, Wash.? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. That area is south of Seattle? 

Mr. Bridges. It is midway between Seattle and Tacoma in the 
valley district. 

Mr. Arnold. "We have received a copy of the resolution passed by 
your association, recommending immediate evacuation of all Japanese 
from the area. 

Would you tell us how many members there are in the Valley Pro- 
tective Association? 

Mr. Bridges. This group was organized on February 27, 1942, just 
a few days ago, to get action on this one way or another. They do 
not belong to the civilian defense organization as it is set up here, but 
they are a group organized to take care of the interests of the citizens 
in that district. 

I don't know whether we want to call them vigilantes or the starting 
of a vigilantes' organization, but we in our district, have many, many 
Japanese. 

Mr. Arnold. How many farmers operate in that area? 

Mr. Bridges. I was president of the Pea Growers Association a few 
years ago, and I had a list of all of them. At that time there were 531 
pea growers and lettuce gro\\ ers in that district; that is, in the valley 
district between Seattle and Tacoma. Wliether they have increased 
or decreased in the last year or two, I am not in a position to say. 

Mr. Arnold. The Japanese farmers, as we understand it, are prin- 
cipally engaged in truck farming. What type of farming is done by 
the white farmers in the valley area? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11521 

Mr. Bridges. Some dairying, poultry raising, and truck gardening. 
It is right along the same line as the Japanese — peas, lettuce, and 
cauliflower are the main crops. 

Mr. Arnold. You gave a figure of 531. For the record, is that 
Japanese, or is that all? 

SEVENTY-FIVE PERCENT OF GROWERS WERE JAPANESE 

Mr. Bridges. That is all. That is the Japanese and all who belong 
to the pea gi-owers' organization which I was president of at that time. 

Mr. Lamb. How many of those were Japanese? 

Mr. Bridges. I would say that there was at least 75 percent of 
them who were Japanese. 

Mr. Lamb. 75 percent were Japanese? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Could you tell us approximately how many aliens, 
Italians and Germans, are farming in the valley, and what crops they 

gl"OW? 

Mr. Bridges. There are very few that I know of. There are very 
few Germans who grow crops; and a few Italians, but most of them are 
citizens. I loiow of only one Itahan who is not a citizen, and who has 
lived here for 30 years, but he has never taken out his papers. 

Mr. Arnold. What is the attitude of your association with regard 
to his evacuation? 

Mr. Bridges. Well, they want to evacuate all the aliens. May I 
elaborate on this crop question just a little bit? 

Mr. Arnold. On what? 

Mr. Bridges. On the pea crop and the lettuce crops? 

Mr. Arnold. Yes. 

losses in pea and lettuce crops 

Mr. Bridges. There has been considerable said before this com- 
mittee in regard to a shortage of foodstuffs. Now, I have been a 
grower m the valley out there myself for 20 years. At the present 
time, I am workuig for the State of Wasliuigton in the department of 
agriculture. Manv, many seasons, in fact, every season since 1933, 
the farmers have been compelled to plow m many, many acres of 
lettuce and let the peas go to waste because there was no demand for 
those goods. I would say that approximately 30 percent of the crops 
raised in this area have been either plowed in or left on the vines since 
1933. Tliis last season, I had peas of my own— not a great deal of 
acreage, but I received 2}i cents a pound for my peas, and it cost 3 
cents to grow them. You see there wasn't any profit in that. The 
reason we received only 2}i cents a pound for our peas was because the 
buyers of this commodity told us that Idaho and Colorado were fiir- 
nisliing all the peas that the Nation could consume, and the differential 
on the freight rates between western Wasliington and Idaho and Colo- 
rado made it possible for those other States to sell their crop at a 
profit, where we were taking a loss. I will give myself as an example, 
because I Imow exactly what I am talking about— all the others were 
in the same condition that I was in. I did not know what I was going 
to receive for my peas until 2 weeks after I had harvested my crop. 



11522 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

It was strictly on a consignment basis. And the reason that they 
tokl us we couldn't get paid, or they couldn't give us the amount that 
we were going to be paid, was that Idaho was furnishing all the peas 
that the country needed. 

Although I haven't been a grower of lettuce to a great extent in the 
last few years, the lettuce has been in practically the same condition. 
There have been many, many acres plowed in every season, because 
they said that California could furnish all the lettuce, cooperating 
w^itii the Buffalo district around York, which produced great quantities 
of head lettuce, at the present time. This district here was practically 
going out of the lettuce and the peas on that score. 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. Bridges, do you have any information on other 
crops that the Japanese grow, whether there is an oversupply in the- 
country of those also? 

OVERSUPPLY OF CELERY 

Mr. Bridges. The main crops here are peas and lettuce and cauli- 
flower and celery. As an inspector for the State of Washington, I 
called on many of the lettuce sheds, and the shippers didn't know 
whether they had better take the celery out and dump it, after it had 
been delivered on their doorsteps, or to send it and try to get the- 
freight out of it. Those were the conditions right here in our dis- 
trict, in 1941. 

So our people out there don't think that it is any serious handicap 
to have these people removed; we believe that it is for their benefit, 
themselves. 

DUPLICATE CIVILIAN DEFENSE UNITS 

Now, then, I am head of the civilian defense in an area where there 
are more Japanese aliens than citizens per capita, I believe, than m 
any other district in the State of Waslnngton. I am lieutienant in 
charge of that district, and in order to keep harmony and peace there, 
it was necessary to set up two units — a white unit and a Japanese unit. 
The Japanese meet only under my orders. The wdiites meet every 2 
weeks. The Japanese agreed to cooperate with me as their lieutenant 
100 percent and report any activities that might be out of line. 

Up to date, they have not reported any activities that were out of 
line. 

We have also, in our district and the Wliite River Valley, some Fili- 
pinos who have threatened to clean up on the Japanese, and that is a 
problem we have also to look after, to keep those fellows in line. 

I might give you a few figures on the school children in the Thomas 
district, given to me by the school authorities. SLxty percent of the 
school children in the Thomas schools are Japanese, and in the town 
of Auburn, which has a population of in the neighborhood of 4,000 
20 percent of the children are Japanese. In the Kent area, there being 
a population of 2,500 all told, there are 17 percent Japanese. I have 
prepared a map ^ here with my resolution, giving you the strategic 
pomts that we believe should be protected, and I will file that with 
your committee before I leave. 

Mr. Arnold. Very good. 

' Map is held in committee files. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11523 

(Resolution mentioned is given below:) 

IIesolutions Adopted by Valley Protective Association at Meeting 
Held in Auburn, Washington, February 28, 1942 

Whereas we have a large percentage of Japanese in our population, and a 
considerable number of industries and timber resources necessary for the successful 
conduct of the war; and 

Whereas we believe these Japanese are a menace to the continuous operation 
of our factories and the conservation of our timber resources; and 

Whereas we believe these Japanese are all of the same race and physical charac- 
teristics so that no line can be drawn between citizen and alien, or between loyal 
and disloyal; and 

Whereas we believe that the rising tide of feeling among our people will make it 
unsafe to leave the Japanese here and in view of the fact that any action on our 
part would only invite reprisal against Americans in Japan: therefore be it 

Resolved, That it would serve the best interests of all concerned to remove, at the 
earliest possible moment, all members of the Japanese race to a place distant 
enough to insure the safety of our war industries. 

And we recommend that a decision be made at once, in order that no delay may 
be made in placing white tenant farmers in the valley. 

Two of the main crops, lettuce and peas, were a surplus last year and did not 
bring a profitable return to the grower. California, Idaho, and Colorado can, and 
does, supply the market for these commodities. Utah supplies the celery, and 
white tenant farmers brought in from the outside can do general farming and truck 
gardening on a profitable basis, if brought in soon. 

We have through the valley, both Bonneville and Grand Coulee high-tension 
lines arid substations, costing millions of dollars. Both the water supplies of 
Tacoma and Seattle pass through the valley and would be easy targets for sabo- 
tage, as well as our four main-line transcontinental railroads and terminals, with 
their seventy trains per day through the valley. 

Thos. G. Sutherland, President. 

TESTIMONY OF ROBERT BRIDGES— Resumed 

EASY TARGETS FOR SABOTAGE 

Mr. Bridges. It gives the whole thing. I might call your attention 
to it. We have here the Bonneville and the Grand Coulee Dam 
tension line going through the valley. We have the Bonneville sub- 
station light on the hill above our valley. We have the Darringer 
Power Plant, which has a tie-up with the Seattle and Tacoma power 
plants, going through the vaUey. We have the Shuffleton plant at 
Renton, which feeds Seattle and ah this area, with high-powered 
electricity. We have the Skagit City power lines coming in through 
our district. We have the Tacoma city water pipe line going through 
the valley. We have the city of Seattle water main coming through 
our valley. We have the Boeing seaplane plant, which is under 
construction at Renton, right in our midst. We have four trans- 
continental railroads, coming through the valley, which have 70 
trains a day going through the area. We have many, many coal mines 
all along the hill, and for that reason we ask you, or recommend to 
you, that the department responsible for this, either to have those 
people taken care of in one way or another, or removed. 

Now, yesterday, I had a meeting with the Japanese who is in charge 
of the civilian defense in our territory. He came to my house, and he 
is very much perturbed about the idea that if something happens in 
our district, they will blame it onto the Japanese and they will im- 
mediately pick on those people. He wasn't so sure but what evacua- 



11524 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

tion would be a good thing for them, as well as for all of us. Those 
are some of the things that I have in mind. 

WHITE GROWERS WOULD TAKE OVER VEGETABLE PRODUCTION 

Mr. Arnold. I gather from what you say about the crops that 
are raised there, that if the Japanese are evacuated as well as the 
alien Italians and Germans, from these farming areas, the present 
farmers will be able to supply this area with the vegetables, and if the 
markets of the entire country would open so that they could be profit- 
ably shipped, the white farmers could take over this ground now 
operated by the Japanese, and perhaps the ground would be farmed 
in the crops that it is best suited to? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Is that a correct statement? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. There is quite a httle concern around here among 
the people in a city like Seattle that there will be a shortage of vege- 
tables and high prices will prevail; very high prices. What is your 
comment on that? 

Mr. Bridges. From my experience in growing vegetables in this 
county for many years, I don't think that there would be a shortage, 
because we have had to plow under so much of it in the past. There 
are many white growers who would take hold- — some of whom own 
the land now — and operate the farms if the Japanese were not there. 

Mr. Arnold. From where would they get the help? 

Mr. Bridges. Well, most of these farms at the present time are 
small acreages, and they would just have to operate them themselves. 
That is what is going on now in the valleys here. 

Mr. Curtis. Whatever plan is worked out is going to take a httle 
time to be carried out in detail? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, sir. 

]VIr. Curtis. Why wouldn't it be practical for the individuals now 
on the land to go ahead and prepare the ground and put in a crop, 
even though they are moved before that crop is harvested. If a 
property custodian is appointed to look after the personal property 
there and their interest in the lease or in the land, it would not be a 
great deal more work to estimate the value of tliis planted crop. That 
would eliminate the necessity of waiting to see what is going to 
happen. Couldn't that be worked out? 

Mr. Bridges. Well, I am not farming on the place, so I couldn't 
say for sure ; but it looks to me like it should be worked out. However, 
this Nation is at war, and everybody has got to cooperate. 

Mr. Curtis. And until people are told to move, they should go 
ahead and plow and prepare the ground, and do their part? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes, sir; but they have slowed down in the valley. 
They have slowed down because of the uncertainty of things. 

Mr. Arnold. A Japanese farmer wouldn't feel much like going to 
a banker — if he could go there and borrow money — or to the canner 
or processor and borrow money to start a crop when he felt reasonably 
sure that he would not be able to harvest it? 

Mr. Bridges. I wouldn't think so; I wouldn't want to do it myself. 

Mr. Arnold. The resolution which you have submitted to the 
committee states: 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11525 

Two of the main crops, lettuce and peas, were a surplus last year and did not 
bring a profitable return to the grower. 

It also states that white tenant farmers could farm this area on a 
profitable basis. 

What crops would be profitable for these white farmers? 

Mr. Bridges. Dairying would be the main crop, and also poultry 
raising. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you know any reason why it would not be desir- 
able to bring Japanese back to the valley farms after the war danger 
is past? 

Mr. Bridges. I can see no objection to it. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you recommend, then, that they be brought 
back? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes; they are citizens, and they are entitled to that. 

Mr. Arnold. That is all I have. 

The Chairman. Mr. Bender? 

Mr. Bender. Your name is Robert Bridges? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

LACK OF equipment FOR CIVILIAN DEFENSE 

Mr. Bender. You say that you are in the civilian defense work, 
an officer in that? 

Mr. Bridges. I am the lieutenant in charge of it in that particular 
district. 

Mr. Bender. Do you have any equipment as an officer? What 
equipment do you have with which to work? 

Mr. Bridges. We don't have any equipment at all. We are just 
appointed by the district. 

Mr. Bender. Do you have any gas masks or guns or anything of 
that kind? 

Mr. Bridges. Nothing whatever. We don't even have an arm 
band yet. 

Mr. Bender, No badges? 

Mr. Bridges. No badges or anything. We just know our neigh- 
bors, and they know us. 

Mr. Bender. Your organization, which you have described, is sort 
of a vigilante organization, is it? 

Mr. Bridges. Well, it is not in the civilian defense, and 

Mr. Bender. I mean this Protective Association. 

Mr. Bridges. It is not in the civilian defense. I wouldn't want to 
call them vigilantes, but that is the way vigilante committees are 
organized. 

Mr. Bender. You know that vigilantes, as a rule, take the law into 
their own hands? 

Mr. Bridges. Yes. 

Mr. Bender. You would not be willing to subscribe to that, would 
you? 

Mr. Bridges. No, sir. 

Mr. Bender. Considerable has been said about there being a short- 
age on the Los Angeles market of about 90 percent of greens the week 
after the Pearl Harbor incident. Do you have anything to say about 
that? Is that condition true of this market, as well? 



1152f5 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Bridges. No; not that I know of. In my work as inspector 
for the Department of Agriculture, I cover all those markets, and I 
have never noticed any shortage of any greens of any kind. 

Mr. Bender. You would not under any conditions advocate any 
organization here in the west coast taking the law into their own hands 
at any time? 

Mr. Bridges. No, sir; certainly not. 

Mr. Bender. That is all. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Bridges. 

The committee will take a 5-minute recess. 

(Whereupon, at this time a short recess was taken, after which pro- 
ceedings were resumed as follows:) 

The Chairman. The committee will please come to order. May I 
request the audience to refrain from smoking? 

The next witnesses will be Mr. Schmoe and Mr. Waring. Will you 
please come forward? 

TESTIMONY OF FLOYD W. SCHMOE AND BERNARD G. WARING, 
AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE 

The Chairman. Congressman Bender will interrogate you two 
witnesses. 

Mr. Bender. Will you identify yourselves, gentlemen, for the pur- 
pose of the record? 

Mr. Waring. My name is Bernard G. Waring, of Philadelphia. 
I am a member of the board of directors of the American Friends 
Service Committee of that city. 

Mr. Bender. Is that the Quakers? 

Mr. Waring. That is the Quakers; yes. 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Schmoe, will you identify yourself? 

Mr. Schmoe. I am Floyd Schmoe, member of the faculty of the 
University of Washington, at the moment on leave of absence, working 
with the American Friends Service Committee of the local area. 

(The following statement was accepted for the record:) 

STATEMENT BY FLOYD W. SCHMOE, LOCAL REPRESENTATIVE 
OF THE AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE, SEATTLE, 
WASH. 

President Roosevelt on Monday evening (February 23, 1942) extended the 
"Atlantic Charter" to the Pacific Ocean. That includes us who live on the 
Pacific coast and some 300,000 (including Hawaii) of our Japanese-An erican 
neighbors. At the very heart of this "two-ocean charter" are the four basic and 
fundamental "freedoms" — 

Freedom of speech. 
Freedom of religion. 
Freedom from want. 
Freedom from fear. 

Seventy years ago the first Japanese came to America. They came at our in- 
vitation to help us carve a new empire from the rugged West. They found oppor- 
tunity in America. They brought wives and established homes. These were the 
Issei, the first generation Japanese-Americans. We denied them much. By the 
Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924, we branded them undesirable. They cannot be- 
come citizens. They cannot own land. Most serious of all we denied them the 
ordinary neighborliness due any decent law-abiding people. We were unable to 
deny them children. Now this second generation, the Nisei, make up more than 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11527 

60 percent of the Japanese-American population. They are American citizens by- 
virtue of birth and training. They are the product of our own schools. They 
have grown up with our own children. As with each of the immigrant groups 
that have made America what it is today, they have contributed their share to 
America's prosperity and well-being. They have taken active part in the busi- 
ness and commercial expansion of the west coast. As skilled agriculturists, they 
have perhaps made their greatest single contribution. At present the Japanese 
farmers are producing approximately 80 percent of all the vegetables used on the 
west coast plus a surplus which reaches eastern markets. In Washington, the 
value of this produce is above $4,000,000 annually. By their skill and industry 
they are able to place land into production which would otherwise be unproduc- 
tive. In this time of national emergency, it would be disastrous to deprive our- 
selves of the skill and productive ability of these Japanese farmers. Between 
December 16, 1941, and January 13, 1942, according to the United States Bureau 
of Labor Statistics, the price of fruit and vegetables in Seattle rose 14.7 percent, 
much more than in any other major American city. 

Those of us who have known them well have confidence in them. We have 
come to value them as neighbors, as friends, and as business associates. We agree 
that anyone, whether Japanese, German, or American, who is proven dangerous 
to the community should be removed, but justice cannot be done by branding 
all men, who by accident of birth come from countries now at war with America, 
as enemy aliens. Tolerance of minorities has been a source of America's 
greatness. The American way has been to consider all men innocent until proven 
guilty. There is no better formula for the creation of a dangerous fifth column 
than to mistrust and abuse people who would otherwise have every reason to be 
loyal Americans. 

There is no better way in which we could help the Japanese Government than 
to give them cause to make this a "Holy War" of race. Abuse of people of 
Oriental origin in this country would be of advantage to the militarists in Japan. 

In the crisis which faces the Japanese-Americans the first two of President 
Roosevelt's four cornerstones of human rights are not in question. They have 
freedom of speech — -their appearance before this committee testifies to that; 
their newspapers are still printed freely, even in the Japanese language. No one 
has questioned their freedom of religion. Buddhist temples that have been 
closed have been closed by the Treasury Department as business institutions, not 
as houses of worship — but what about "the other two? 

Japanese families already suffer real physical want. Local relief agencies have 
been somewhat slow to meet this need although they are now being organized to 
more effective service. 

It is regrettable there has not been freedom from fear. Admittedly when 
there is cause for fear, fear can hardly be avoided, but among the Japanese of this 
community, there has been little cause and much fear. Precipitous and recurring 
Federal Bureau of Investigation action, premature or unfounded announcements 
by public officials, often distorted by local newspapers, uncertainty and mis- 
understanding, have brought about a virtual "reign of terror" among the Japanese. 
This should be alleviated in the future by giving greater consideration to the 
manner in which orders or information are released, by greater care in the accuracy 
of information, and by careful statements designed specifically to ally fear and to 
stop rumor. 

ALLEVIATING THE HARDSHIPS OF EVACUATION 

In this crisis, it appears that four things must be guarded against if human 
values are not to be trampled underfoot and America's tradition of freedom and 
fair play violated: 

First. Those who are the innocent bystanders of war, the families of men now in 
detention, the small children, the aged and the ill, must be assured of the necessities 
of life. Food is abundant in America and Americans are too big to allow anyone 
to suffer from want. We are generous to our prisoners of war; we give them the 
same food and the same medical care that we give our own soldiers even though 
a moment before they were their mortal foes; why should we allow children to 
suffer, children who have spent their entire lives in this country, who have grown 
up with our own children, and who through no fault of their own are the victims of 
war? We have obligations to these people if only the obligations of human 
decency. 

Second. Among the people who will be torn from their homes if and when evac- 
uation from critical areas becomes necessary, there are many who are very old, 



11528 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

some who are ill, a few so ill that to move them would undoubtedly result in their 
death, and among the non-Japanese aliens there are people who have already been 
driven from country to country, and who sought shelter in America for the express 
purpose of release from such inhuman abuse. These people, incapable of doing 
harm, should be left unmolested and secure. We are grateful that General 
DeWitt has seen fit to set a precedent for such exemptions in the California area. 

Third. Mass movements of people fleeing the storm of war or political upheaval 
have been typical of the recent European scene. Americans have viewed with 
distaste this technique of social adjustment. If large numbers of people must 
be moved in the interests of national defense, can we not ask that the job be done 
with the least possible violation of the rights of individuals? Our country is not 
in the habit of "pushing citizens around." It is to be hoped it will not resort to 
"pushing anvbody around." If the problem can only be solved by moving people 
out of designated areas it should be done on a personalized individual basis, 
keeping families together and guarding against the possibility of creating another 
migrant problem. Any plan for resettlement of populations must consider the 
best interests of the people as a whole, and that includes our foreign born. 

Fourth. It must be realized that the problems of evacuation, painful as they 
may be, are slight compared with those of resettlement and successful re-adjust- 
ment. Evacuation is a "sweep of the broom"; it takes time for the "dust to 
settle " It was comparatively simple for the harassed Mormons of 1847 to colo- 
nize the valleys of Utah. They faced only the physical barriers of a virgin wilder- 
ness. Great as were these hazards, they were slight compared to the social 
barriers which must be faced by the Japanese who attempt unaided to establish 
themselves in numbers within any present American community. Racial dis- 
crimination and economic competition coupled with the hysteria of war create 
barriers far more formidable than those of the most inhospitable desert. In almost 
every area which has been suggested as a possible haven, it has already been 
stated publicly and emphatically that "we don't want the dust to settle here." 
Without governmental protection, the Japanese would face actual violence, and 
without skillful planning, there can be little hope of success. 

If certain people are potentially dangerous, there are two things which might 
be done. Take into custody those known to be dangerous, leaving within the 
area, and in productive life, but under strict surveillance, those not so proven. 
Identification cards could be issued to all people allowed within the area. The 
alternative is resettlement outside the area. Civilian hearing boards could be 
entrusted with the task of determining who should go and who might remain. 

SUGGESTED METHODS FOR HANDLING RESETTLEMENT 

If resettlement is deemed necessary — and we are convinced that any wholesale 
movement of peoples, with its consequent dislocation of economic and social life, 
should be- considered only as a last resort — any of the following methods may be 

employed: . ,. . , , . ... ^. rr>,- • xi, 

(a) Dispersal with resettlement left to individual initiative. Ihis is the 
method used by countries who simply "kick people out" and have no concern as 
to where they shall go. ,. . , , ,. , . x 

(5) Some sort of camp life "for the duration" with public works projects as a 
means of support. Canada is following this plan. It means separation of 
families, and what amounts to enforced labor at subsistence wages. This would 
be unworthy of the American people although some are advocating it. 

(c) Eemoval to an area of labor shortage as seasonal field workers. This would 
result in migrant problems and virtual peonage. Our problems of long standing 
Involving white migrant and Mexican and Filipino field workers should furnish 
ample warning in this direction. 

{d) Temporarv camps with congregate care coupled with some plan for perma- 
nent resettlement, either on the basis of individual initiative or with the help of 
governmental, quasi-governmental, or private agencies. 

(e) Enforced settlement under Government direction and surveillance, lor 
example, all of the Japanese of the danger area might bo concentrated within one 
easilv controlled section of that area such as the Puyallup Valley where they 
could be self-supporting and productive but where they could be closely watched. 
It must be said that most of the Japanese now resident there would prefer if 
given choice, to remain on their lands for the "duration of the war," and suffer 
any necessary restrictions of movement rather than be removed to other areas. 
However, this moving all the other Japanese in on top of those now resident there 
would simply mean a glorified ghetto, a huge outdoor prison camp comprising an 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11529 

entire self-contained community. Although this would not remove them from 
the vicinity of airports and shipyards, and would create serious inconvenience 
for other residents of the area, it might still be the easiest plan. 

(/) Voluntary settlement on marginal and submarginal lands placing these 
lands into production. This would require Government subsidy. 

ig) Voluntary colonization in an area sufficiently removed from the coast to 
meet defense requirements, already in production by resident Japanese, but 
capable, under more intensive methods of agriculture of supporting a tempo- 
rarily increased population. 

Either of the last two named plans would require careful study and planning, 
but properly directed by Government approved agencies and with public money, 
offer possible solutions. 

Given the opportunit}' of free movement in the face of evacuation orders, it may 
be assumed that the natural inclination of the Japanese would lead them to take 
the following steps: First, removal to the nearest permissible area, where because 
of relatives or acquaintances, contacts are already established. Second, to seek 
within that area, the available occupations most like those in which they had 
previously engaged. This natural tendency has been borne out by recent resettle- 
ments in the California area. The result of such action would be a voluntary 
colonization with adjustment by individual initiative. 

From the sociological standpoint or from the standpoint of the country as a 
whole this would not necessarily be the best thing. It would, however, be the 
natural thing, and considering the limited time likely available for resettlement, it 
may be the only possible plan. A greater dispersal and resettlement on an 
individual family basis would of necessity require much time. When peace is 
restored, opportunity, and desire to better existing conditions will bring about 
this wider dispersal. 

Following this clue it may be advisable for the Government to consider some 
such resettlement plan. To be objective and offer a concrete suggestion indicative 
of the type of thing which might be possible; assume that areas exist which meet 
defense requirements, which are already in production, which have established 
Japanese communities, and which under intensified management, are capable of 
supporting a larger population. Assume also that the resident Japanese have a 
moral responsibility to aid in the resettlement of their own people. 

SUGGESTED RESETTLEMENT AREAS 

To be more specific still, that irrigated portion of the Yakima Indian Reserva- 
tion extending from near the city of Yakima to the city of Mabton is a community 
in point. At present this area is cultivated by some 300 families, 100 of whom are 
Japanese. These Japanese families at present hold 6,400 acres of land under 
lease from the Yakima Indian Agency in 110 separate leases. For this, they pay 
$25,000 rental per year.i These figures would indicate that the average holding 
of the Japanese farmers is approximately 60 acres. 

In Japan the average farmer supports his family on less than three acres of 
frequently inferior land. It should be safe to assume that an average Japanese 
family could, taking into account higher standards of living and greater cost of 
living, at least subsist on approximately 10 acres of Yakima Valley land. 

This would indicate that the area under consideration might conceivably 
support five or six times its present populations, or 400 to 500 additional families, 
at least temporarily. With subsidiary businesses such as stores, commission 
houses, barber shops, trucking companies, garages, etc., it may be possible for 
such an area to absorb on a subsistence basis, a sizable proportion of the families 
who might conceival:)ly be removed from, say, the Seattle area. 

Other somewhat similar areas in the Wenatchee Valley, the Okanogan country, 
and throughout the State could absorb other groups of families in a like manner. 
We feel that the problem would be greatly simplified if resettlement is effected 
within the State of present residence. Movement of Japanese families into any 
conceivable area will develop strong local opposition. Resettlement in any large 
numbers therefore cannot be effected without Government authority. It is 
reasonable to assume that resistence would be less in areas in which Japanese 
families are alreadv successfully established. 

A possible alternative or supplementary scheme would be that indicated under 
/ above. It must be assumed however, that considerable time and money would 

1 Public statement authority, L. R. Hiekey, lease clerk of Yakima Indian Agency at Toppenish. The 
above figures are of June 30, 1941, but approximately true today. (Yakima Mornmg Herald, February 12, 
1942.) 



11530 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

be required in order to put marginal lands into production. On the other hand, 
it is probable that no people could do the job more successfully than the Japanese 
farmers Therefore, in view of the fact that increased production of vital food- 
stuffs is essential at this time, it might be highly advisable for governmental 
agencies to assist in resettling Japanese farmers in such areas. 

\lthough it is important that land unsuited to farming should not be put m 
production, there were according to the Washington State Planning Council, 
3 000 000 acres of land in the State that was suitable for farming, but not in 
production in 1938. According to the same source, there were in 1941 almost 
1 000 000 acres of irrigable land not under ditch in existing irrigation projects in 
the State, and not in production. This is almost twice as much as is under pro-. 
duction and does not include such potential projects as Grand Coulee. These 
projects are largelv in Yakima, Chelan, Walla Walla, and Okanogan Counties. 
Benton Frankfin." and Grant Counties have large areas that can be farmed 
intensively when the Grand Coulee project is completed. Careful studies would 
have to be made by agricultural experts before resettlement of such undeveloped 
land could be undertaken. . 

The local representatives of the American Friends Service Committee, which 
is concerned for the innocent sufferers of war regardless of race, religion, or political 
aflniiation. appreciate this opportunitv for a full expression before your committee 
of the principles which we believe should guide the Government in any action it 
deems necessary to take. In closing, we would emphasize the fact that human 
values are at stake, with the consequent danger that mistakes may be made 
which would have disastrous results, not only to the individuals involved, but to 
the Nation as a whole. Therefore, we urge upon you that no move be made 
without careful study, and that the principles of democracy, fair play, and 
human decency be kept clear throughout this emergency. 

TESTIMONY OF FLOYD B. SCHMOE— Resumed 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Sclimoe, will you outline for us the position of 
the American Friends Service Committee on the question of the 
evacuation of the Japanese in this area? 

Mr. ScHMOE. I am afraid that I cannot say that the American 
Friends Service Committee has taken a position on the matter of the 
evacuation of the Japanese from this area. We are very much con- 
cerned for human beings — whoever they are, wherever they are — who 
may be suffering, especially the imiocent victims of war, innocent 
bystanders of war conditions. So, from that standpoint, we are very 
much concerned with these people. We have not ofRcially taken a 
position, I should say, except to have a humanitarian interest in any- 
one who is suffering for conditions beyond their control. 

Mr. Bender. Your organization, however, appreciates the fact 
that we are at war, and your organization joins in the war effort to 
the extent of being for the successful prosecution of the war; am I 
correct in that statement? 

Mr. ScHMOE. I am not certain that you are. We are a pacifist 
organization. We join with the countiy so far as we can conscien- 
tiously join in the effort. 

Mr. Bender. I am going to ask you a question which you may not 
be in a position to answer verv fully. There are about 3,000 German 
ahens and about 4,000 Itahan ahens in the State of Washington. We 
would like for you to comment on this evacuation problem as it affects 
the Itahan and German ahen groups. Do you have any comment to 
make on that matter? 

Mr. ScHMOE. I am not inclined to separate one people from another, 
I think that they should be treated as human beings, as individuals, on 
their merits. I think that might apply also to all other people, not. 
only aliens, but the rest of us, as well. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11531 

Mr. Bender. What recommendation would you make, if any, for 
resettling Japanese in case of evacuation orders? 

WOULD RESETTLE ALIENS IN SAME STATE 

Mr. ScHMOE. I would consider resettlement only as an alternative, 
only as a last resort; but as you state the question, if there is an evacua- 
tion what would I recommend? My suggestion would be that these 
people be allowed to settle in the nearest area available to them, and 
in the nearest area which would provide them w^ith occupations similar 
to those in which they have been engaged. I am certain that these 
people are anxious to remain in constructive work; that they are 
anxious to remain in production, and I feel that they should be given 
that opportunity; I feel that the State will make a great mistake in 
denying itself of their productive capacity. I think to move them 
completely out of the State would be a great loss to the State, es- 
pecially in the reconstruction period which will follow this war, when 
such areas as the Grand Coulee open up in the next few years, when 
we are going to be begging for people to develop this land, to resettle 
this land. I think perhaps our Japanese and Italian farmers could 
do it perhaps better than any other people available. I think, also, 
that to send them out of the State is shifting the problem, is side- 
stepping our responsibility. I would say, in more direct answer to 
your question, that if they must be moved — and I think that is only 
as a last resort — they should be placed in the nearest suitable area, in 
an area in which they can contribute to the productive welfare of the 
entire country. 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Schmoe, is Herbert Hoover in good standing in 
the Quaker Church? 

Mr. Schmoe. He is in good standing and paid up. 

Mr. Bender. He is advocating a very strong effort in connection 
with the war. Would you say that conflicts in any way with the 
teachings or tenets of the church? 

Mr. Schmoe. Our emphasis is put upon the individual conscience 
of the person, and we do not tell people what to believe or what to 
think. However, the church has, contrary to Mr. Hoover's convic- 
tion at the moment, taken a somewhat different stand throughout its. 
history. 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Waring, will you explain the nature of your 
organization and make any statement you wish regarding the evacua- 
tion problem? 

PURPOSES OF AMERICAN FRIENDS SERVICE COMMITTEE 

Mr. Waring. I might sav that this organization represents the 
Friends— Quakers— throughout the country. Its purpose is to alle- 
viate suffering of needy people, as Mr. Schmoe has said, regardless 
of political or racial lines. Our facilities are available for those who 
may be in need in the present emergency, so far as may be practicable. 
We hope that the many loyal citizens and aliens about whom this 
committee inquires may have the generous treatment which will con- 
tinue their faith in our country and its institutions, and which would 
enable them to continue their important contribution to our national 
life. 

60396 — 42— pt. 30 16 



11532 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

We have a record of having helped in many oases of needy people 
throughout the country, and in order that we may be understood and 
anv help that we can render may be available. I might say that we 
haVe in the past rebuilt homes destroyed in France during the firet 
war and have cultivated the fields of the absent Frenchmen who were 
away at the war. We fed something like a million German children 
a dtiy after the war. when they were undernourished. We fed daily 
about 30.000 children a day in the 7 bituminous coal States in the 
early 30's. when they were undernourished and greatly distressed. 
We helped the persecuted Jewish refugees fivm Germany and Austria, 
and assisted them in finding permanent homes, including the setting 
up of hospitals and centers in this country where they could learn 
our language and our ways. We fed children in Spain during and 
after the Spanish civil war. We rebuilt homes in Me:xico destroyed 
by earthquakes. We are now feeding daily about 80,000 under- 
nourished children in France, every day. 

Mr. Bender. Are you for this war effort now? 

Mr. Waring. The 'American Friends Service Committee? 

Mr. Bender. Yes. 

Mr. Waring. The American Friends Service Committee, being a 
Quaker organization, confines itself in its acti\-ities to helping the 
needy people that they can reach, wherever they may be, no matter 
what kind of people that they may be. 

Mr. Bender. Don't you beheve our people in Honolulu are needy 
people? 

Mr. Waring. We would be glad to help them if possible ; yes. 

Mr. Bender. How about the people of Germany and the people 
that are held down by naziism? 

Mr. Waring. We would be very glad to help them. 

Mr. Bender. Do you think we are helping them by following a 
declaration of war oii them when they declare war on us. and when 
they attack us? Do you think that "we are taking the right step? 

POSITION OF FRIENDS SOCIETY ON WAR 

Mr. Waring. I think there is a better way than by following the 
war method. 

Mr. Bender. ^Vhat would you suggest? 

Mr. Waring. I would suggest that the poUcy of international 
cooperation should be followed and good N\ill between nations estab- 
hshed by methods of helpfulness. 

Mr. Bender. Don't you think the United States of America has 
done that consistently? 

Mr. Waring. I think it might have done more than it has. 

Mr. Arnold. Don't you think Norway did all they could toward 
maintaining their peace? 

Mr. Waring. I am not well acquainted with that situation, 
Congressman. 

Mr. Arnold. They were at peace for 150 yeai-s. which is as long as 
we have been a Nation, and they thought they could htive peace 
forever, and they disbanded their army and all their protective forces, 
and. as I understand it. relied on much the same view as that on 
which you and your society rely, and you know the position that 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11533 

they »i'<! in today. Do you lliiiik llu; United States is tlu; j^i-eatest 
Nation on (^artli and can afl'ord to a(Jo[)t llios(' ni(;tli()ds? 

Mr. Waring. I think that th(;y would win out in the long run; 
yes, Congressman, I do. 

The Chairman. How long a run do you think that would he? 
That would he quite a long run, wouldn't it? 

Mr. Waring. It would he a long run; yes. Jesus sacrificed His 
life, you know, 2,000 years ygo; it has been a long run for Him to get 
his policies across, and He liasn't quite succeeded yet. Maybe He 
was right and He will win in the end. 

The Chairman. W^ell, Christ even drove the money changers out 
of the t(^m})le, didn't He? 

Mr. W'aring. He really drove something out of the temple. I 
don't know whether it was the animals or the money changers, and 
whether He hit them or not, I don't know. His policies, however, are 
quite contrary to the idea of driving people, as was sliown by His 
words, and His acts, the way He spent and gave up His life. 

Mr. Bender. Do you have a wife? 

Mr. Waring. Yes. 

Mr. Bender. If she were attacked, would you permit that attack 
to take place without doing something about it? 

Mr. W^ARiNG. I would surely try to do something about it; yes. 

Mr. Bender. Don't you think that is pretty much our position 
today? 

Mr. Waring. No; I don't think it is a parallel, Congressman; 
I do not. 

Mr. Bender. Do you have any relatives or friends that were at 
Pearl Harbor that were attacked on that Sunday morning? 

Mr. Waring. No; I do not. 

Mr. Bender. Do you believe that the Sabbath Day is a good day 
to make war? 

Mr. Waring. No; I don't think any day is a good day to make 
war. 

Mr. Bender. You don't feel, then, that we arc approaching this 
problem properly at all? 

Mr. Waring. No; I don't. Congressman. 

Mr. Bender. Under the circumstances, I don't know what ques- 
tions I could ask this gentleman. 

Mr. Curtis. May I ask a question or two? As I understand it, 
you gentlemen are anxious to do your part to relieve the accompanying 
cruelties and hardship, as far as you can, in whatever action the 
Government of the United States takes; is that correct? 

Mr. Waring. That is correct. 

Mr. Curtis. And you are willing to abide by the decisions of the 
Government and do the best you can in regard to that, are you? 

Mr. Waring. Yes, sir. 

"WOULD give aid TO EVACUEES 

Mr. Curtis. I think that we are all very, very grateful for a group 
that are wilHng to do acts of mercy and kindness and charity, be- 
cause the cruelties of war fall on many people who are not guilty at 
all. In case an evacuation is carried out, do you have funds and 



11534 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

social workers and so on, so that you could assist with some of these 
family problems and that sort of thing? 

Mr. Waring. We have in the past been able to secure funds to 
carry on large pieces of work. As to how much funds we would have 
for this work, and how much help we could render, we are unable to 
say until we see the problem. We will, however, do whatever we 
can, that seems to be needed, along the lines that we have done in 
the past, or any other lines in which we can see where we can help in 
this emergency. 

Mr. Curtis. And that would be true as to any place we move 
these people? Or, as I understand it, you are willing to do all you 
can in the human side of the care of those people? 

Mr. Waring. That is right. 

Mr. Bender. Ever since I was a young fellow, or a little boy, I 
went to Sunday school, and we had a missionary we sent to Hainan 
Island, an island off of China, a missionary by the name of Alice 
Skinner, who was murdered by the Japanese. She was in her 70's, 
How do you suppose I feel about that? 

Mr. Waring. You must feel very badly about it. 

Mr. Bender. You wouldn't do anything about it, would you? 

Mr. Waring. Yes; I would. 

Mr. Bender. What would you do? 

Mr. Waring. I would try to pour so much love and kindness into 
the national life of Japan that they wouldn't do that kind of thing. 

Mr. Bender. You tliink in the face of a machine gun you can talk 
love and kindness? 

Mr. Waring. Yes, I do. I have known a Quaker to do it, right 
in the face of a wild-eyed gunman. One of our representatives has 
gone out and greeted him with a smile and a handshake, and he has 
completely melted down and given up his bellicose attitude, in the 
Balkans. 

Mr. Bender. Don't you think we smiled and shook hands enough 
before Pearl Harbor? 

Mr. Waring. I don't know how much we did of that, Congressman. 

Mr. Bender. Herbert Hoover is in good standing, you say, in the 
church? 

Mr. Waring. I think he is; yes. 

Mr. Bender. I think so, too. I know a lot of Quakers in my own 
community who are very strong for this war effort, and I commend 
them for it. 

The Chairman. Gentlemen, we appreciate very much your bemg 
here. We are running behind in our schedule; but nothing we have 
said here, or any questions asked indicate that we are giving you our 
own opinions. We are just here to listen, whether it comes from you 
gentlemen or where it comes from. We thank you very much, sirs. 

Mr. ScHMOE. May I make an additional statement, Congressman? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

THE HUMANITARIAN PROBLEMS RAISED BY EVACUATION 

Mr. ScHMOE. It seems to me we were not called here to defend our 
religious position, but to make some constructive contribution toward 
this problem which is facing so many people. We want to place it on 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11535 

a humanitarian basis, that these people be not considered as sheep to 
be driven about; that is not the American way. That is the European 
picture today, pushing people about. We don't think that America 
wants to treat anyone that way, aliens or citizens. We think that if 
this evacuation must come about, that there should be certain funda- 
mental principles which are taken into consideration — into very care- 
ful consideration; that these people are human beings; that there 
are human values at stake, and because of that, there might be great 
danger, serious damage being done not only to them but to the country 
as a whole. We think that there should be very careful care for the 
material needs of these people, that they be not allowed to suffer 
actual want, as some of them are now; that they be not subjected to 
terror and fear, as some of them are now subjected to it; that families 
be kept together; that these people be not forced to become migrants; 
as you know, we have a serious migrant problem. They are not that 
kind of people; they don't want to be migrant people; they are not 
seasonal workers; they want to establish themselves on the land and 
be self-supporting and independent and free people; they want to 
contribute, and they will contribute if we give them an opportunity. 

We want to stress the fact that this is a very serious problem. I 
worked with refugees in France and in Poland for 2 years, approxi- 
mately, during the World War. I know what some of these problems 
are from first-hand observation. 

Evacuation, as we have been talking about it here, for the Army, 
is simply a sweep of the broom. It is going to take a long time for 
the dust to settle. It is going to settle over a very large area for a 
long time to come. This is going to affect an entire generation of 
people, people who are American people; people who are going to 
stay here. We are going to live with them the rest of our lives; their 
children are going to go to school with our children, and they are our 
neighbors. We know them as neighbors, and we value them as 
neighbors . 

We want to urge that whatever is done is done only after very 
serious consideration as to the total problem, and that it be done only 
after very careful study of what is involved, because I want to insist 
again that evacuation is not the big problem; it is the resettlement, 
the readjustment which follows. 

Thank you very much for this opportunity. 

The Chairman. We feel as keenly about that as you do. We feel 
that you are speaking our language on that. Thank you very much, 
gentlemen. 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Chairman, just a moment before these gentle- 
men leave. I take no issue at all with their views or with their re- 
hgious beliefs. However, I did feel that I should have their honest 
views regarding this whole war question so that we might lend or 
detract from their testimony as to its value. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, gentlemen. 

Mr. Waring. Thank you. 

Mr. ScHMOE. Thank you. 

The Chairman. Mr. Freeman? 



11536 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF MILLER FREEMAN, PUBLISHER, SEATTLE, WASH. 

Mr. Curtis. You are Mr. Miller Freeman? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. You are a publisher? Of what paper? 

Mr. Freeman. I publish a number of industrial journals devoted 
to maritime, lumber, fisheries; I have been operating in Seattle since 
1897. 

Mr. Curtis. How old are you? 

Mr. Freeman. Sixty-seven. 

Mr. Curtis. And you have spent most of your time in the publish- 
ing business? 

Mr. Freeman. That is right. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Freeman, we have been mformed about your 
previous interests and activities along the line of the problem that is 
now confronting our country. We realize that you have been a 
leader in the Japanese exclusion movement for many years — about 30, 
isn't that true? 

Mr. Freeman. Nearer 40. 

Mr. Curtis.. Nearer 40? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. Any paper or written statement that you would care 
to prepare touching on some of those things, and giving us the back- 
ground as to the questions that we might ask, will be gladly received 
by the committee. 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. 

(The following statement was later received from the witness and 
accepted for the record:) 

STATEMENT BY MILLER FREEMAN, SEATTLE, WASH. 

It is my recommendation that all Japanese, both alien and LTnited States born, 
be evacuated from the Pacific Coast States, and other defense areas, and kept in 
the interior under strict control for the duration of the war. 

While it may be argued that many American-born Japanese are loyal to the 
United States there are sufficient numbers who are proven to be assisting Japan's 
war effort to warrant such action, not only in the Nation's interest, but for pro- 
tection of the Japanese themselves. 

Two-thirds of the Japanese in this country are now American born, largely of 
mature years. Those who are genuinely loyal find themselves in their present 
difficult position through the treacherous attack by Japan on this nation, and 
because of their own sins of omission. 

Although the American born are strongly organized for proclaimed patriotic 
purposes, why have they taken no stand against the aggressions of Japan in the 
Orient over the past 10 years? Why have they not denounced the depredations 
and enslavement by Japan of the Chinese, the Koreans and other Asiatics? 

Why have the loyal American-born Japanese not forced the closing of the 
hundreds of Japanese-language schools that have been operated continuously 
right up to December 7 for nearly a half-century in the United States and Hawaii, 
the sole function of these schools being to train the children up to owe their 
allegiance to Japan? 

Why also have they continued Japanese-language newspapers? Practically 
all, aliens and American-born alike, read English. Only after the attack by 
Japan on this country were the Japanese-language newspapers converted into 
English. 

Study of the historical record of Japanese colonization in the United States 
and its possessions should be made by your committee. The bound volumes 
containing hearings held by the House Committee on Immigration and Naturali- 
zation on the Pacific coast in 1919 and 1920 will supply you with much authori- 
tative information. Such study will show that the Japanese Government as a 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



11537 



part of its ambitious program of colonization of North and South America, and 
as a preliminary to conquest, planted its immigrants in the United States by the 
combined use of fraud,- collusion, political and military force, and over the most 
intense and sustained opposition of the various States of the Pacific coast, and the 
Territory of Hawaii. 

The first Japanese immigrants were brought into Hawaii in 1868, numbering 
350, as peons, for a period of 3 years service at $4 per month under contract to 
sugar planters. Then years later the business had become systematized and 
grown to alarming proportions in the hands of Japanese emigration syndicates. 
Prof. W. D. Alexander, in his book The History of the [Hawaiian People, said: 

"Having ascertained that extensive frauds were being practiced on these people, 
and that the immigration laws were being evaded, the Hawaiian Government 
caused a strict examination to be made, and on the 23d of March 1897, forbade 
the landing of several hundred Japanese immigrants. In all, about 1,100 immi- 
grants on different occasions were obliged to return to Japan, where this severe 
action excited intense feeling. The Japanese Government sent the cruiser Naniwa 
in May, with a special commissioner, to investigate the matter. After a lenghthy 
correspondence, the difficulty was amicably compromised the next year by the 
payment of an indemnity of $75,000 to Japan. This was done at the instance of 
the United States Government, to remove a possible hindrance to annexation." 

It is thus seen that as early as 1896 the attempt was made by the Hawaiian 
government to avert being inundated by the Japanese hordes, but they were 
compelled to yield to force, combined with pressure by the United States Govern- 
ment, and Hawaii was required to pay a considerable sum by way of damages 
for its resistance. 

In 1907 the rising tide of public sentiment on the Pacific coast against the 
unrestricted immigration by Japanese syndicates crystallized in a demand for 
exclusion. In his biography Theodore Roosevelt relates how he was told by 
Japan that if Congress passed such an act she would declare war; that he was 
genuinely alarmed because Japan had a great army of veterans trained in wars 
with China and Russia, and that he therefore accepted Japan's proposal to enter 
into the so-called gentlemen's agreement, by which Japan agreed on her honor 
to keep her nationals out of the country. That agreement was generally accepted 
as a happy solution of the problem. 

The Seattle office of the United States Department of Commerce has just 
furnished me with the following figures covering the Japanese population in 
continental United States and Hawaii: 





1900 


1910 


1920 


1930 


1940 


United States 


24,326 


72, 157 
79, 675 


111,010 
109, 274 


138, 834 
139, 631 


126, 947 




157, 905 






Total 




151,832 


220, 284 


278, 465 


284, 852: 









> No figures. 

In the decade between 1910 and 1920 the Japanese population in the United 
States and Hawaii increased by 68.452. 

Between 1920 and 1930 the Japanese population increased by 58,181. 

In the 1930-40 decade it increased by 6,387. However, the Japanese popula- 
tion in the United States during this period decreased by 1 1,887. When the births 
in the continental United States are figured in for this decade this would mean a 
total decrease of at least 25,000. Where did those people go? How many 
additional have left since 1940? If to Japan to enter the service of that country 
against the United States, will they be welcomed back with open arms at the end 
of the war? 

In the same decade Japanese population in Hawaii increased by 18,274. W here 
did this increase come from? The increase in Hawaii would have been nearer 
30,000 for the 1930-40 decade except for emigration to Japan or the mainland. 

Your committee should obtain the answers to these questions for the future 
guidance of the Federal Government. 

Japan has accomplished the miraculous feat of permanently planting 300,000 
of her people in this country, quadrupling it since the gentlemen's agreement was 
entered into in 1907. Compound this population's birth rate over the next 50' 
years and it becomes clear that we are handing on to future generations a problem 



11538 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

of an insoluble race that will continue to become increasingly grave. This could 
only have been accomplished by the weakness of the National Government in 
failing to resist Japan's colonization efforts and enforce the principles and the 
spirit of the exclusion measures that had been adopted. We were deceived twice 
into thinking Japanese immigration stopped — once in 1907 and again in 1942. 

Japan's designs in colonizing the Pacific Coast States and Hawaii and her 
ambitious plans for conquest have been abetted by pro-Japanese elements in this 
country, including such organizations as the Japan Society, which is national in 
character with local chapters in various parts of the country. The membership 
■of the Japan Society is made up of persons employed by Japanese interests, such 
as lawyers and other agents, representatives of transportation companies, import 
and export concerns, ministers, educators, peace advocates, and represents a 
cross-section of public men in the communities where it operates. Some have 
been decorated by the Japanese Emperor for services rendered. It has had promi- 
nent officials of the United States Government as directors and members. 

By economic and political pressure these people have been of powerful help to 
Japan. Only 2 years ago Japan undertook a drive to prevent abrogation of our 
trade treaty, which automatically stopped shipments of war materials to that 
country. This campaign was conducted through the Japanese Embassy and the 
local Japanese consuls. They lined up the people with whom they had business 
or other connections and got them to oppose such abrogation. 

If, as Vjelieved, this is a fifth-column organization, it should be disbanded, even 
though the majority of the members of such organization are not consciously 
disloyal to America. They have simply been made suckers out of 

The day of subjugation and exploitation of defenseless millions throughout the 
world is about over. 

The Japanese in this country now find themselves victims of an obsolete 
system that Japan's militarj' government is belatedly attempting to enforce 
on the world. 

American-born Japanese have a very real opportunity to participate in the 
establishment of an era that is now dawning, of equal rights, freedom and justice 
to all, regardless of race. They should utilize the education they have gained 
in this democracy and openly adopt a program dedicating themselves to the 
accomplishment of this purpose, thus contributing materially to the permanent 
peace and security of the peoples of all the world. 

TESTIMONY OF MILLER FREEMAN -Resumed 

Mr. Curtis. Now, as I mentioned a bit ago, we will have to move 
right along, and I am just going to ask you concerning one or two 
things which I consider to be highlights of the situation. What 
recommendations w^ould you make as to where aliens should be 
moved, if they are moved? 

Mr. Freeman. Into the interior. 

Mr. Curtis. What do you mean by the interior? 

Mr. Freeman. Off the coast, or away from any defense areas. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you mean the center of the United States, or do 
you mean just back from the coast? 

Mr. Freeman. I would say anywhere where they would be away 
from military activities or any danger of harming the defense activ- 
ities or industries in this country. There are plenty of areas it seems 
to me in which you could put them. I think the offer of Governor 
Carr, foi- instance, is well worth considering. 

I Mr. Curtis. What distinction, if any, would you make between 
alien Japanese and citizen Japanese? 

Mr. Freeman. None. 

Mr. Curtis. You would move everybody? 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. I would like to elaborate on that, and 
briefly give my reasons why. 

Mr. Curtis. Yes. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11539' 

JAPANESE INFILTRATION 

Mr, Freeman. I will try to brief this down. To begin with, immi- 
gration started in this comitry in the very early days, first in Hawaii. 
The Kingdom of Hawaii objected strenuously to the infiltration of 
Japanese. It finally refused to permit them to land, and in 1879, the 
Government of Hawaii, having rejected the Japanese, the Govern- 
ment of Japan sent a warship to Hawaii and made them take them, 
and also made them pay indemnity of $75,000. And, by the way, 
that was done on the urgent requests of the United States Govern- 
ment, which was at that time preparing to annex this country. Immi- 
gration began in the United States proper, in the early 1900's. By 
1906 and 1907 it became alarming. Theodore Roosevelt undertook 
negotiations with Japan. The sentiment on the Pacific coast was 
rising. They finally entered into what was known as a gentleman's 
agreement. That was in 1907. Between the time that that deal 
was entered into and the negotiations 

Mr. Curtis. Well, now, Mr. Freeman, in your written statement 
we will be very happy to have this historical background, but I wish 
you would tell me briefly why you feel that any evacuation order 
should cover citizen Japanese as well as alien Japanese. 

Mr. Freeman. Well, I will tell you right now that I will not be but 
a minute. 

Mr. Curtis. All right. 

Mr. Freeman. Theodore Roosevelt agreed to enter into a gentle- 
man's agreement on the proposal offered by Japan. That agreement 
was negotiated in 1907; but between the time it was negotiated and 
before the act was put into effect, 30,000 more Japanese were put into 
this country by the Japanese Government. All this infiltration was 
by syndicates, semiofficial, and financed and operated out of Japan, 
and for one purpose only, and that was colonizing the Pacific coast. 

I claim that they are here by fraud, deception, and collusion, and 
with the assistance of what we might call fifth-column organizations, 
such as the Japan Society. By the way, I want to suggest that you 
gentlemen take a little longer view than merely coming here and 
holding 'these hearings, but get at some of the underlying factors as to 
why this condition exists today. 

indoctrination in JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOLS 

All this time the Japanese who are here have been trained in Jap- 
anese language schools. Their doctrine has been controlled through 
the Japanese Government, and by teachers who are assigned for one 
purpose only, and that is to teach and train these people up in loyalty 
to Japan, and that is the reason you have them indoctrinated today, 
and that is the reason why they are dangerous. 

It is a very remarkable fact that these language schools have been 
conducted by the hundreds in this country and in Hawaii, and that 
the United States Government has allowed it, and the State govern- 
ments have permitted it to be done without supervision. 

The fact is, however, that they are here, and that they have been 
trained up, not in the ways of Americans, but that their education 
has been primarily to maintain their loyalty to Japan. 



11540 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

I don't say at all that a lot of these Japanese are not loyal citizens; 
but I say that there is a high percentage who are not loyal, and that 
you will have the evidence to show that that is true. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, at that point, let me draw a distinction between, 
perhaps, the method of handhng the Italians and Germans and the 
Japanese. 

Mr. Freeman. Well, I am not qualified to say what should be done 
about the Germans and Italians. I would say that any alien who has 
been here for any length of time and who has not taken advantage of 
the very generous and hberal opportunity to become a citizen, is at 
least a suspect. 

prewar position of JAPANESE-AMERICANS 

I just want to add one point more, and that is that the Japanese 
who have been in this country for many years and have enjoyed these 
benefits — I have never seen, and I don't think that there has been 
any evidence to show, that they have objected individually or in an 
organized way to the aggressions by the Japanese Government in 
China or in Asia. They arc educated here, and certainly if they have 
tlie ideals of a democracy, of the United States, what they could do 
would be of tremendous value. 

One instance only I will give you. It happened only the last 2 
years of the drive by the Japanese Government to prevent the abroga- 
tion of the trade treaty. That trade treaty was permitting large 
amounts of scrap iron and war materials to go into Japan. The drive 
was undertaken here, and it was through the office of the Japanese 
-consul and Mitsubishi & Co., and supported by some of our more 
representative citizens who have business relations wnth them. 
The Japanese are able to apply organized pressure and are very success- 
ful in their efforts, and have been from the very earliest date. They 
have been highly organized, and the white man hasn't. It has in- 
cluded the employment of men who are high in public office, including 
such men as former Attorney General Wickcrsham, who was the 
Attorney General in the Taft Administration, and who afterward 
became the attorney for large Japanese interests ; and he was the man 
that defended Mitsui & Co., who had operated two airplane plants in 
the United States, and as show^n by the Committee of Investigation 
after the war, got millions of dollars from the United States Govern- 
Tnent. They were indicted, but nothing ever happened about it. 

Mr. Curtis. I want to ask you one more question. 

IVlr. Freeman. All right. 

Mr. Curtis. What w^ork, if any, could these people be put to that 
would help to contribute to our war production and our civilian needs, 
in the event they are moved? 

Mr. Freeman. First of all, they ought to be taken out of this coast 
country. Wliat should be done w-ith them after we get them back 
there, whether they are put into employment — if it is possible to find 
it, certainly I would do it. If it isn't, however, I certainly would still 
remove them from this area. 

Mr. Curtis. I w^ant to thank you for your coming in, and any 
further statement that you wish to make 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11541 

Mr. Freeman (interposing). I have made a written statement, but 
I would be glad to have you ask any further questions. However, 1 
will say this, just once more, and that is that we have year after year 
these investigations, including the congressional committees that come 
■out here, and the trouble is that the}'^ deal with our problems only in 
a superficial way. I would like to see you extend jour investigations 
to the underlying factors. You have spoken of Pearl Harbor. Now, 
I would suggest that you look into influences, such as the fifth-column 
organizations, and whether you do it yourselves or whether you 
recommend it be undertaken by other Federal agencies I think that 
it should be done. 

Mr. Curtis. We agree with you. 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Freeman, let me ask you just one question. 

Mr. Freeman. Yes. 

Mr. Bender. You stated that you thought the Japanese should 
"become better citizens, and at the same time you said that for years 
you have advocated exclusion. How can they become better citizens 
when this country won't let them become better citizens? 

Mr. Freeman. No; I don't think that question is correct. I think 
that every opportunity has been given, most generously, in education 
and opportunities. These people have had the utmost freedom and 
•opportunities to engage in business activities of every sort. As a 
matter of fact, the whole trend of this thing in immigration and in 
the ways in which they are tied up with Japan show that their interests 
have been much more with Japan than with this country. 

JAPANESE immigration 

Between 1910 and 1920, Japan entered mto this so-called gentleman's 
agreement by which Japan agreed on her honor to stay out of this 
country. SLxty-eight thousand more of them came in. Between 
1920 and 1930, we had nearly 60,000 more, and they came in under the 
so-called Exclusion Act. 

You have other factors about the immigration question that I 
think should be looked into. During the last 10 years, there has 
been withdrawn from this country some thousands of Japanese. 
Where did they go? If they went back to Japan to enter the armed 
forces of the country, after the war is over, are we going to welcome 
them back with open arms? 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Mr. Freeman. 

Reverend Gill? 

TESTIMONY OF REV. THOMAS GILL, REPRESENTING PUGET SOUND 
CHAPTER, AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS 

The Chairman. Congressman Arnold will ask the questions. 

Mr. Arnold. Father Gill, we are very happy to have you here 
today. We hope that you will give us your own opmions and sug- 
gestions, as well as those of the social workers of the Seattle area, on 
this problem of treatment of enemy aliens. Although the major part 
of the discussion of evacuation has related to the Japanese, we must 
also concern ourselves with the citizens of other countries with whom 



11542 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

we are at war, with the number of German and ItaUan citizens in 
this country, which is much larger than the total Japanese and Jap- 
anese-Americans, and these aliens must also be given serious 
consideration. 

We have received the letter and statement of principles of the 
Puget Sound chapter of the American Association of Social Workers, 
and it will appear in our record at this point. 
(The letter and statement are as follows:) 

Seattle, Wash., February 27, 1943. 
Chairman John H. Tolan, 

Tola7i Congressional Committee, Seattle, Wash. 
Dear Sir: The American Association of Social Workers respectfully requests 
your committee to grant it the privilege of presenting the point of view of the 
association on the subject of the removal of aliens from this district. The subjects 
which the association would offer for your consideration are embodied in the 
accompanving statement of principles. 

I should appreciate it if you will notify me of the time and place when a repre- 
sentative of the association may present the statement for your consideration. 
Yours very truly, 

June Purcell Guild, 
Chairman, Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights and 
Minority Groups, Wartime Social Services, Puget Sound 

Chapter, American Association of Social Workers. 



STATEMENT OF PRINCIPLES RELATIVE TO POSSIBLE EVACUATION 
FROM THIS AREA, OF THE PUGET SOUND CHAPTER, AMERICAN 
ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS 

The American Association of Social Workers, a national organization of pro- 
fessional social workers who meet high and certain specifically defined qualifica- 
tions of academic and professional education, who have had experience in social 
planning, case work with individuals and group work, and who are bound by well 
recognized standards of personal performance has for more than 3 months care- 
fully considered the responsibility of its members during this time of critical 
national emergencv. 

At a meeting held on Thursday, February 26, 1942, in the city of Seattle, a 
committee to present the point of view of the American Association of Social 
Workers was authorized and instructed, respectfully, to submit to the Tolan 
congressional committee the following statement of principles which it is believed 
should be followed so far as possible and practicable in the possible evacuation 
of persons of alien birth or extraction from this area. 

I. The American Association of Social Workers is not in favor of the indis- 
criminate evacuation of citizens or noncitizens from this area for the sole reason 
of nationality or race. The only warranty for accepting the procedure of general 
evacuation would be the certification by qualified military or police authority 
that such evacuation is a military necessity or is required for public safety. 
In this eventuality persons of alien birth or extraction should be evacuated only 
on an individual "basis which would give consideration to the special needs of 
aged persons, sick and handicapped persons, young children, and such other 
persons as may be able on investigation to establish their loyalty to the Govern- 
ment of the United States beyond any reasonable doubt. 

II. The American Association of Social Workers urges that any plan which 
may be made for evacuation shall be so drawn that the constitutional and legal 
rights of 6vacues shall be safeguarded. 

III. The American Association of Social Workers expresses the hope that in 
the event of evacuation careful plans shall first be made for the resettlement of 
the persons affected. 

IV. The American Association of Social Workers expresses unwavering confi- 
dence in the ability of the regularly appointed governmental authorities to plan 
and carry out any necessary evacuation with a minimum of hardship to the persons 
concerned. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11543 

However, the association also realizes that the problems in this area may be 
great and complex and that heavy pressure may be exerted by individuals and 
groups who are inclined to become hysterical because they are not in a position 
to evaluate the realities of local danger or the social problems involved. 

In the long run it is believed by the association that our war effort and the pro- 
tection of aliens and persons of alien extraction will be best served through sound 
social planning, individualization of treatment, and coordination of effort between 
the area of evacuation and possible resettlement areas. 

Therefore, the American Association of Social Workers herewith respectfully 
offers to assist in every possible way the legally constituted authorities which may 
be charged with the responsibility of evacuating persons from this area. 
Respectfully submitted. 

PuGET Sound Chapter, 
American Association of Social Workers. 
J. R. Adams, 
Chairman, Paget Sound Chapter. 
Ernest F. Witte, 
Chairman, Committee on Wartime Social Services. 
June Purcell Guild, 
Chairman, Subcommittee on Constitutional 

Rights and Minority Group Relations. 
Anne Denton, 
Chairman, Subcommittee on Areas of Function. 
Rev. Thomas Gill, 
Chairman, Subcommittee on Basic Principles. 

(The following documents were received later and accepted for 
the record, in supplement to the statement of principles above:) 

A SUGGESTED PLAN AND PROCEDURE FOR THE EVACUATION OF 
ALIENS RECOMMENDED BY THE PUGET SOUND CHAPTER, 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF SOCIAL WORKERS, IN COOPERA- 
TION WITH THE WESTERN GUILD OF SOCIAL WORKERS, OF 
THE STATE, COUNTY, AND MUNICIPAL WORKERS OF AMERICA, 
LOCAL NO. 109, CIO SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION, UNITED OFFICE 
AND PROFESSIONAL WORKERS OF AMERICA, LOCAL NO. 35, 

CIO 

Contents 
I. Introduction, 
II. Central Federal evacuation authority recommended. 

III. Voluntary advisory board recommended. 

IV. Humane, individualized, comprehensive service needed. 
V. Adequate staff of trained social workers needed. 

VI. Expenses should be borne entirely by the Federal Government. 
VII. Procedure at point of evacuation: 

1. Registration necessary. 

2. Records necessary. 

3. Family should be kept together. 

4. Voluntary evacuation encouraged. 

5. Evacuees given individual treatment and some choice as to place of 

resettlement. 

6. Exemption recommended for certain persons. 

7. Social workers should aid, encourage, plan, etc. 
VIII, Procedure at place of resettlement: 

1. Social case work follow-up. 

2. Plans for care in reception or resettlement areas should precede 

evacuation. 
IX. Additional provisions to safeguard evacuees and the public: 

1. Legal residences should not be lost. 

2. Evacuees should not be classed as paupers or dependent aliens. 

3. Public assistance or insurance rights not to be lost. 

4. United States Constitution should be respected. 



11544 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

X. Information and publicity service: 

1. Information service recommended. 

2. Educational publicity service recommended. 

3. Racial prejudices controlled if possible. 

XI. Signatures of chairmen and com.mittee chairmen, American Association of 
Social Workers, and cooperating agencies. 

I. Introduction 

The Puget Sound Chapter of the American Association of Social Workers in, 
cooperation with the Western Guild of Social Workers, the State, County, and 
Municipal Workers of America, Local 109, Congress of Industrial Organizations, 
and the social service division, United Office and Professional Workers of America, 
Local 35, Congress of Industrial Organizations, has studied the probable social 
and legal problems which may arise through the evacuation of aliens ar. ' .-tain 
persons of alien extraction from the Puget Sound area for reasons oi ..litary 
necessity. The chapter is informed that in the Puget Sound area mere are- 
approximately 13,000 Japanese, of whom perhaps 60 percent are American born. 
In King County there are approximately 1,890 alien Italians and 1,200 alien 
Germans of whom, it is estimated, 500 are German refugees. 

The chapter has heretofore filed with the Tolan Congressional Committee a 
general statement of principles relative to the approaching evacuation. A copy 
of this statement is attached. 

The chapter hereby asks leave to file a bill of particulars in support of the 
said statement of principles and at the same time respectfully urges the Federal 
Government and the agency or agencies charged with planning and conducting 
the evacuation to consider the following recommended procedures and suggestions. 

II. Central Federal Evacuation Authority Recommended 

To reduce human hardship, decrease ill-will in post war days, and avoid waste 
of public funds, a single central Federal authority should be charged with evacu- 
ation from this area and have coordinating branches in all the resettlement or 
reception areas. No neiv ,'-r duplicating machinery should be necessary. The 
Federal evacuation agency should serve persons voluntarily leaving because of 
forthcoming evacuation orders as well as those compulsorily evacuated. The 
agency should have continuous jurisdiction during the entire war period. It 
should be charged with full responsibility for the family and individual welfare of 
all evacuees. Comprehensive measures for the protection of all property under 
the control of the custodian should be carried out at the suggestion of the evacu- 
ation agency as may be necessary. 

III. Voluntary Advisory Board Recommended 

A voluntary advisory board of lay and professional men and women should be 
organized to aid and advise the evacuation authority in planning and carrying 
out its work in the areas evacuated and resettled. Persons with experience in 
European evacuations and similar mass movements of people should be asked to 
serve on this advisory board. 

IV. Humane, Individualized, Comprehensive Service Needed 

Evacuees will be less confused concerning their problems and rights at the time 
of evacuation and during the period of evacuation if they are assisted by one 
centralized Federal authority with such coordinated branches as may be necessary 
in the place of evacuation and the reception or resettlement areas. 

Among the evacuees, there will be individuals with personal, legal, and financial 
problems requiring the services of sympathetic, socially trained, skillful personnel; 
now and during the period of evacuation. 

Evacuees own real or personal movable property, also intangible evidences of 
claims, debts, and credits; some owe money on mortgages or deferred payments on 
personal property; a certain percentage will inherit property, lose property, or 
bequeath property by will while evacuated; others may be entitled to equities, 
rents, and interest; not a few will need legal aid of a kind which cannot now be 
foreseen in detail; still others will need relief, transportation, employment re- 
currently. They will need advice on vocational training and placement and other 
educational problems; they should be aided in solving domestic difficulties and; 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11545 

meeting the problems of maladjusted or delinquent children; many will require- 
housing and rehousing as time goes on; also medical care; old people, handicapped 
and paralyzed persons, blind people, sick people, pregnant women, babies, the 
mentally ill or defective should be given special medical attention and, in necessary 
cases institutional or hospital care, if such persons are not generally excepted 
from general evacuation orders. 

V. Adequate Staff of Trained Social Workers Needed 

The chapter is of the opinion that whereas the Federal Reserve Board maybe- 
charged with the general protection of alien property, the Fartn Security Ad- 
ministration, the United States Employment Service, etc., be a.ssigned other 
duties, there will be many other social and legal problems which can only be 
properly treated by trained social workers familiar with community welfare re- 
source^ ^'^^ , the areas of evacuation and resettlement and capable of making co- 
ordinaliti ; , \ i^ans for solving complex family problems. The Federal Social Se- 
curity Bocu^l has provision for selecting qualified social- work personnel. 

VI. Expenses 

All expenses connected with the evacuation and the continuing care of evacuees 
should be borne by the Federal Government. 

VII. Procedure at Point of Departure 

Briefly the procedure for protecting the individuals evacuated should cover — 

1. Registration. — An individual, permanent record of every evacuee should be 
made including all identifying inforiiiation, place to which evacuated, names and 
addresses of kin and friends, etc., so that no one shall be lost. 

2. A family record of all evacuees should be made containing the type of in- 
formation usually recorded after a first interview in social case work, special 
problems of the family, disposition or location of property, etc. 

3. All the members of a fandly should be evacuated together and kept to- 
gether, unless they voluntarily separate. ' -,j 

4. Voluntary evacuation by those able to make sati factory plans for them- 
selves should be encouraged at once. This would help individual families and 
reduce the number later to be evacuated. 

5. Families and individuals should be aided on a one-by-one basis as far as 
time permits, permitting them to select their own places of resettlement if not in 
conflict with military orders. 

6. Exemption from compulsory evacuation should be offered aged, sick peoj^le, 
the few children of mixed race under care of nonevacuable families or institutions, 
and such other persons as may be able to establish their loyalty to the Govern- 
ment of the United States beyond any reasonable doubt. 

7. Aliens still remaining iii this area when evacuation orders come through 
should be interviewed by persons experienced in gaining information tactfully, 
recording social facts, evaluating many factors, sympathetically advising and 
assisting in making speedy plans for persons in critical need or distress. 

The advice of social workers and others familiar with the educational standards 
and programs, housing, work opportunities, climate, social welfare resources in 
the resettlement areas and so on should be speedily and regularly available to 
all evacuees. 

VIII. Procedure at Place of Resettlement 

1. The same general type of social case work interview, advice, and treatment 
should be given and record made in the resettlement centers as in the evacuation 
area, with emphasis on maintaining normal family life, opportunity for work, 
education, recreation, religious life, etc. 

2. Detailed plans for the reception of evacuees in the resettlement areas should 
be carefully worked out in advance of any mass evacuation. The plans should 
include provision for adequate shelter and food; recreation; education; religious 
services; opportunities for employment according to vocational training, experience 
skill, physical condition; medical care; a system of licensing for work to other 
nonmilitary areas; social and legal advice; relief when necessary, etc. 



11546 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

IX. Additional Provisions to Safeguard Evacuees and the Public 

1. The legal residences of evacuees should not be lost in the evacuation area 
unless or until they gain a legal residence there or elsewhere. 

2. The acceptance of transportation or relief bj' evacuees should not be made 
the basis for classifying them as paupers in the future, or as dependent aliens 
subject to deportation under immigration laws. 

3. When evacuees may have acquired rights under public assistance or social 
insurance provisions, these rights should not be lost because of absence from the 
State where the rights may have accrued. 

4. Such provisions as the following in the United States Constitution should be 
respected: 

"No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of 
law." — Amendments V and XIV. 

"The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects 
:against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated." — Amendment 
IV. 

X. Information and Educational Publicity Services 

In the Federal authority on alien evacuation, there should be a division on 
information and educational publicity charged, in the first instance, with answer- 
ing all inquiries from relatives and friends as to the whereabouts and condition of 
evacuees and serving evacuees in the same manner in reference to their own 
worries and inquiries; and, in the second instance, charged with the responsibility 
of keeping the public in the evacuated area and the reception or resettlement areas 
informed regarding the special needs and problems of evactiees and of attempting 
to build up tolerance, and, if possible, sympathetic understanding of their plight 
as human beings, their rights to education, work, and protection during the war 
and their right to be restored after the war to their original status in the place 
from which they are evacuated, if such be their desire. 

Through a continuing program of individualizing human needs and constant 
efforts to promote a Christian attitude toward aliens and persons of alien extrac- 
tion, the problems of the post-war era may even now be partly solved. 

Statement of Principles Relative to Possible Evacuation from This Area 

From: Puget Sound Chapter, American Association of Social Workers. 

To: Tolan Congressional Committee. 

Subject: Possible evacuation of persons from this area. 

The American Association of Social Workers, a national organization of pro- 
fessional social workers who meet high and certain specifically defined qualifica- 
tions of academic and professional education, who have had experience in social 
planning, case work with individuals and group work, and who are bound by 
well-recognized standards of personal performance has for more than 3 months 
carefully considered the responsibility of its members during this time of critical 
national emergency. 

At a meeting held on Thursday, February 26, 1942, in the city of Seattle, a 
committee to present the point of view of the American Association of Social 
Workers was authorized and instructed, respectfully to submit to the Tolan 
congressional committee the following statement of i)rinciples which it is believed 
should be followed as far as possible and practicable in the possible evacuation 
of persons of alien birth or extraction from this area. 

I. The American Association of Social Workers is not in favor of the indis- 
criminate evacuation of citizens or noncitizens from this area for the sole reason 
of nationality or race. The only warranty for accepting the procedure of general 
evacuation would be the certification by qualified military or police authority 
that such evacuation is a military necessity or is required for public safety. In 
this eventuality persons of alien birth or extraction should be evacuated only on 
an individual basis which gives consideration to the special needs of aged persons, 
sick and handicapped persons, young children, and such other persons as may be 
able on investigation to establish their loyalty to the Government of the United 
States beyond any reasonable doubt. 

II. The American Association of Social Workers urges that any plan which 
may be made for evacuation be so drawn that the constitutional and legal rights 
of evacuees shall be safeguarded. 

III. The American Association of Social Workers expresses the hope that in 
the event of evacuation careful plans shall first be made for the resettlement of 
the persons affected. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11547 

IV. The American Association of Social Workers expresses unwavering confi- 
dence in the abihty of the regularly appointed governmental authorities to plan 
and carry out any necessary evacuation with a minimum of hardship to the persons 
concerned. 

However, the association also realizes that the problems in this area may be 
great and complex and that heavy pressure may be exerted by individuals and 
groups who are inclined to become hysterical because they are not in a position 
to evaluate the realities of local danger or the social problems involved. 

In the long run it is believed by tke association that our war effort and the 
protection of aliens and persons of alien extraction will be best served through 
sound social planning, individualization of treatment and coordination of effort 
between the area of evacuation and possible resettlement areas. 

Therefore, the American Association of Social Workers herewith respectfully 
offers to assist in every possible way the legally constituted authorities which may 
be charged with the responsibility of evacuating persons from this area. 

Respect full V submitted. 

PuGET Sound Chapter, 
American Association of Social Workers 

TESTIMONY OF REV. THOMAS GILL— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. Would you tell us what position your chapter of the 
association has taken in regard to alien evacuation? 

Father Gill. The chapter has said that the American Association of 
Social Workers is not in favor of the indiscriminate evacuation of 
citizens or noncitizens from this area for the sole reason of nationality 
or race. The only warranty for accepting the procediu-e of general 
evacuation woidd "be certihcation by competent intelligence and police 
agencies — governmental agencies and military authority — that such 
evacuation is a mihtary necessity, or a requirement for public safety. 
In this eventuality, we woidd have some recommendations to submit 
about the treatment of the people involved in the evacuation; but as 
to your first question, I think that is quite clearly the expression of the 
Piiget Soinid chapter of the American Association of Social Workers. 
I think there are some very obvious reasons for their making that 
statement in the face of this surge of popidar opinion now. 

EVACUATION NOT A MATTER OF CIVILL\N DECISION 

The judgment as to the reality of need of evacuation at this time 
is a jud2:ment that calls for ability and opportunity accurately to esti- 
mate, iu)t the possibility, but the probability, of danger from this group 
of aliens and racials. So it becomes not a civilian tlecision, we feel, so 
much as a police and military decision about the dangers involved. 

1 (lon't believe civilian opinion is reliable; it is likely to be impres- 
sionable. I think a prettv fair illustration ol how impressionable it 
may become is the statement that those aliens who have lived in this 
community for several years beyond the minimum period possible to 
avail themselves of naturalization may therefore be suspected of 
tendencies against the Government and against our welfare. 

I know so many cases — I am sure you yourself could cite cases as 
readily in which that is not true -in which it does not constitute an 
ipso facto suspicion against such persons. 

If you want our civilian opinion, or want my civilian opinion <ibout 
the necessity for such a mass evacuation, it would still be "no '' 
Nevertheless, we feel that we should reiterate that it is not primarily 
a matter for civilian opinion, except that some particular civilian or 
group of civilians would have information which was not known to the 
governmental police and military agencies. They haven't told us 

60396— 42— pt. 30 17 



11548 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

that they feel mcompetent, and we have unwavering confidence in 
their ability to make those judgments. , 

Mr, Arnold. You submitted a statement to the committee. In 
that statement, your association recommends individualization of 
treatment in handling evacuation problems. Does this mean that 
you recommend individual consideration of each evacuation case on 
its own merits? If this is the case, what factors do you believe should 
be given weight in deciding what persons should be moved? 

WOULD INDIVIDUALIZE EVACUATION 

Father Gill. Well, beginning with the premise that we would not 
Hke to see mass evacuation, except as an extreme necessity by virtue of 
having no time to do a discriminating job, we would in that instance 
like to see individuahzation on the basis of those who must go. 

I think that it is possible right now to secure from our agencies- 
military and civilian police agencies— information that would clearly 
and adequately indicate those who are in the least suspect in our coni- 
munity. But beyond that, we have a real feeling of a need to indi- 
viduahze people in evacuation, aside from those who are obviously 
not dangerous in our community, but who are nevertheless in the 
category of people who would be evacuated by a general order, and 
I say that rather advisedly, for there are some on whose fidehty I 
would risk my hfe and the lives of everybody dear to me. Besides 
those, we must give consideration in the evacuation process, it 
seems to me, to the sick, the infirm, the aged, the children. Family 
cohesion will be an important factor of reestablishment; so then, co- 
hesion should be observed in plans for evacuating. 

Also, like groups should be kept together. I mean, as has been 
indicated previously this morning, the resettlement phase is the major 
phase of the problem, and utilization of all positive assets in those 
groups, I should think would be of importance to everybody con- 
cerned — to themselves and to the communities in which they live, 
and to the communities to which they will be restored. May I say 
that when we consider the problem of evacuation, we see it as first 
necessity that no evacuation be ordered until there has been authori- 
zation and appropriation made to the Federal Security Agency or 
some other indicated agency, to enable them to assist with the problem. 

CRUELTY IN UNDIRECTED EVACUATION 

Certainly, we don't want to see a situation where, if we are to rely 
upon the reports we see coming through the press as happening in the 
Southwest section of the country today, we should have highways 
clogged with people running around looking for a place to light and 
finding only signs, "No Japanese wanted," and patent hostility. I 
think that that is not only cruelty; it is also highly adverse to the 
ultimate solution of the problem. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you mean that is happenmg in the Los Angeles 
area? 

Father Gill. I saw a newspaper item that indicated that that is 
happening now as far back as mid-New Mexico. There are some who 
have started east and 

Mr. Arnold. Of their own volition? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11549 

Father Gill. Oh, yes; but not altogether of their own vohtion; it is 
rather an anticipated evacation. 

Mr. Arnold. Authorities are not doing that; it is just the individual 
action? 

Father Gill. Another requh-ed preliminary is the protection of 
their property from forced sales. I think that we have had some 
indication that that is actually a current problem. We shouldn't 
want to stain our reputation, even for the sake of safety, with so 
sordid a thing as allowing that to happen in America today. 

Mr. Arnold. I think that you are correct. Your statement says 
that any plan which may be made for evacuation shall be so drawn that 
the constitutional and legal rights of evacuees should be safeguarded. 
What rights do you believe are most seriously endangered? 

PROTECTION OF RIGHTS OF EVACUEES 

Father Gill. Well, of course, the right to life itself. I mean, we 
would have to protect them against not only moral violence, but 
physical violence, which might be a greater danger in an area where 
they are a bit of a curiosity than right here in the Puget Sound 
country. I think there has been reference several times in the testi- 
mony to the possibility of race riots if war tension were to grow. But 
I feel that the Japanese community itself faces the question of a whole 
mass resettlement, with about as much apprehension over the feeling 
they will find in the new communities as that which they would find 
here in tliis community in a crisis. 

Then, of course, we would want to protect their right to work, to 
be self-supporting as far as possible, their right to choose their own 
work. That would apply to others than Japanese racials who are 
aliens. They have come from all walks of life, have already worked 
hard to put down economic roots in this area and can't be expected 
to transform themselves tlii-ough a metamorphosis in 2 weeks or 2 
years, for that matter. We will have to have some machinery made 
available to help those people. 

Mr. Arnold. Do you have any knowledge as to where and how 
the Japanese could best be resettled, and also, do you have any 
recommendations that you would make for the resettlement of 
Germans and Italians in the case of an order of evacuation? 

SOCIAL PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN RESETTLEMENT 

Father Gill. No; I haven't any opinion. As I said before, I 
wouldn't offer my civilian opinion about the military judgment of 
danger involved; so I don't know which parts of the United States 
would be considered most favorable. I suppose, oft'hand, it would 
be the remote ones; but certainly we would have to have transporta- 
tion provided for a great number of them. We would have to have 
that transportation preceded by some preparation for their reception 
in the communities to which they would be going; I mean, such prepa- 
ration that the community would not be in a truly hostile mood 
toward them. They would have to have some reception facilities. 
We couldn't just dump them off" the trains at the railway stations and 
expect them to scatter around like mice and find homes. We would 
have to have real reception facilities, and by that I mean adequate 



11550 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

social work services for the studying of the individuals and the fami- 
Hes, so that we would know what we were resettling, and have a 
chance to look at the problem of where these individuals should be 
placed. That should be coupled, it seems to me, with eniployment 
services giving consideration to the aptitudes and experience and 
training of the people to be resettled. There should be special care 
for any ill, infirm, or the children transported. Normal medical and 
nursing care should be provided, of course. We cannot expect that 
they would need that less than any equivalent group would. Also, 
it seems to me highly important to observe the factor of time. You 
cannot do a job like that in 24 hours; you can't begin it in 24 hours. 
We shall witness, perhaps, as great a tragedy as we have seen in 
America, if we try to handle this particular problem in too great a 
hurry. We should begin to do it in stages and in phases, allowing 
as much time as is available under consideration of minimum safety. 

Mr. Arnold. Thank you, Father. I think that you have ex- 
pressed many views that are entertained by the members of this 
committee, that we want a thorough and humanitarian job done — 
if it is decided that it must be done — and with as little suffering as 
possible and looking ahead and planning to have it done in the 
American way. 

Father Gill. May I add that when our group of the American 
Association offered their services if an evacuation were to be neces- 
sary, it was with the hope, of course, that it would not be necessary, 
and, secondly, with the feeling that while wo would give every iota 
of our strength and resources to the problem, even our maximum 
resources would be taxed to the limit. Yet we hope that nothing less 
than adequate social service will be provided to a group of people 
which obviously includes many persons against whom we haven't 
even a suspicion, much less a slu-ed of evidence. 

AFTER-WAR EFFECT OF INDISCREET ACTION 

The Chairman. In other words, Father, you are not only thinking 
about the present America in this war problem, but are asking for 
humane treatment of at least a great part of the so-called enemy 
aliens whom you know are absolutely loyal to the United States, and 
you also have in mind the future of America after this war is over, 
haven't you. Father? 

Father Gill. Yes, very much so. Congressman. I feel that we can 
wind up with as much of a problem in our society as a result of indis- 
creet action now, almost, as we could by having an adverse result 
in the war itself. I mean, what good is going to come to an America 
torn within itself by internal hostilities, which we will never be able 
to get rid of, even if we do succeed in winning the war? 

Mr. Bender. Father, do you think that the country is unduly 
apprehensive about this whole Japanese problem? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11551 

OVEREMPHASIS OF DANGER FROM ALIENS 

Father Gill. Thank you for asking that, Congressman. I would 
Hke to say that we have heard a great deal of vocalization from 
people who, I believe, are not in circumstances to evaluate the danger. 
We haven't experienced very much pressure from the agencies we 
would expect to have pressed evacuation. I think that there is overly 
much apprehension at this point. Certainly, there isn't within our 
hands enough information to warrant that order. I mean by "our 
hands," the civihan population. I think that it is being stuTed by 
some loudly vocalized expression. Perhaps we are not hearing from 
the mass of the solid citizenry. 

Mr. Bender. Father, would you care to venture an opinion as to 
what percentage of the so-called enemy aliens of Japanese origin 
are really enemy aliens in the true sense of the word? 

Father Gill. No. I should be merely guessing if I were even to 
hazard such a statement; but I would say that I have no more reason, 
from theu- conduct, as known to me, no niore reason to suspect that 
group than the best group in the community. 

Mr. Bender. What is your impression. Father, of the Canadian plan 
of placing in protective custody men between the ages of 18 and 45, 
and not women and children? 

Father Gill. Well, of course, then you are facing the problem of 
separation of families, which is a great social hardship and hazard 
in itself. 

I should not want to see that attempted until the competent 
agencies felt there were absolutely no other ways of handling it, and 
had decided that we were in imminent danger. In fact, I think to 
divide them would be, in some senses, harder than to undertake the 
transportation of the entire families. 

Mr. Bender. We appreciate your opinion as we do the opinion of 
others, because we are looking for light. We have got to take some 
action; that it why we are here. And we are trying to solve this 
problem as best we can, thinking of our American way of hfe— that 
American way of life we hope for in the future, as we have known it 
in the past. You understand that we come here with certain fixed 
ideas of our own, and yet we were interested in knowing exactly how 
you feel here, so that we may act wisely, and so that others in official 
capacity may act wisely, in coimection with this problem. We 
appreciate especially you clergymen giving your views and opinions 
of all phases, but we have a very practical problem, as you know. We 
are at war. It is a different condition than being at peace. Would 
you care to add anything further? 

Father Gill. No; except that I believe the association has taken 
quite a realistic attitude toward the problem. We would just like to 
submit that there is a good part of this community, and a rather 
cautious, thinking part of the community, that still questions the 
necessity of evacuation, and would like it to be withheld until people 
more competent to judge of it than the general civilian populace 
have decided on a course of action. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Father. We appreciate 
you coming here. 



11552 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

(The followino; letter was later received from the witness and 
accepted for the record:) 

Catholic Charities, Diocese of Seattle, 

Seattle, Wash., March 16, 194^. 
The Honorable John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, House Committee Investigating National Defense Migration, 
San Francisco, Calij. 

My Dear Mr. Tolan: Your letter of March 9 last regarding my statement on 
the forced sales problem was received only Saturday, March 14, by reason of 
erroneous address. I am availing myself of the first opportunity to give you the 
information requested and trust that it is not delayed by that unfortunate cir- 
cumstance beyond the date of its usefulness. 

As you have noticed in the wording of my testimony, the statement was made 
rather generally because the information was largely by report. However, I have 
a few specific cases which might be of interest to you. 

The Columbia Grocery Co. and the Marion Grocery Co., owned by the same 
Japanese individual, are valued at about $4,000. The owner was offered $1,500 for 
them. Six hundred dollars was the sale price offered to the owner of the Pacific 
Cafe, which is valued approximately at $2,500. The owner of the Orpheum 
Hotel, who paid $12,000 when his lease was. purchased, offered to sell it for $7,500 
and received in turn an offer of $4,000. A beer parlor, the name of which I do 
not know, valued at $3,500, brought an offer of $2,000. 

A Japanese farmer bv the name of M. Jio of Wapato, Wash., was subleasmg 
some land from a Mr. 'John. He had already paid $800. Recently, I am in- 
formed, Mr. John told Jio to leave. Mr. Jio protested that he had paid $800 to 
Mr. John and ought to have most of it back. Mr. John said that he (John) had 
spent nearly all of it and did not have it to return. He paid Jio $100. There is 
some impression in the Japanese community here that this episode was precipi- 
tated by pressure from a farmers' group in that area. 

I have been told bv another Japanese who is very active in the community at 
the moment that he has heard of about 15 other hotels than the Orpheum being 
approached bv persons seeking to purchase at abnormally low exchange. 

Also, I was told that the Togo Realty Co. has had half a hundred persons 
looking for bargains. Some have said quite frankly that they were waiting in 
the belief that the Japanese would eventually be forced to sell at any price. Their 
confidence, or at least the seriousness of their attitude is indicated by the fact 
that they have usually made very low offers. Most of them are said to have 
twelve to fifteen hundred dollars in cash and are looking for four or five thousand 
dollar business enterprises. 

The report was also made to me that some small dealers have been going around 
to individual homes offering to buy movable goods and chattels, such as refrigera- 
tors, at very low prices. 

Since receipt of your letter, I have spoken to one or two people who are familiar 
with the current situation in the Japanese community and have requested any 
further information they may have about such negotiations. They have promised 
to look into the matter for me and advise me soon. If any further illustrations 
of this most unpatriotic greed come to my attention, I shall send them on to you 
at once. 

Doubtlessly, you have noted the reference to this same subject in the extended 
remarks of ]\Ir. Floyd Oles' testimony. 

With deepest apijreciation for the opportunity of a hearing before your dis- 
tinguished committee and with sincerest appreciation for the privilege of having 
met yourself, I am. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Rev. Thomas Gill, 
Member, Committee 07i War Time Social Services, 
Puget Sound Chapter, American Association of Social Workers. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11553 

TESTIMONY OF JOHN E. CARROLL, CHAIRMAN OF EXECUTIVE 
COMMITTEE OF ASSOCIATION OF WASHINGTON CITIES; AND 
SEATTLE CITY COUNCILMAN 

The Chairman. Congressman Bender will ask you the questions. 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Carroll, what is your connection? 

Mr. Carroll. I am chairman of the executive committee of the 
Association of Washington Cities. 

Mr. Bender. Are you a public official here? 

Mr. Carroll. Yes; I am a member of the city council of Seattle, 
and have been for many years, and was formerly mayor. 

The executive committee of the Association of Washington Cities 
consists of myself as chairman; Mr. Barton, a member of the city 
council of Longview, a city of 12,000 population; Otto Dirkes, a com- 
missioner of the city of Spokane, a city of 122,000; Mr. Martin, a 
commissioner of Walla Walla, a city of 18,000; Harry Cain, the mayor 
of Tacoma, a city of 109,000; Mr. Washburn, a commissioner of 
Yakima, a city of 27,000 population; Mr. Wooden, mayor of Kent, a 
city of 2,500 population — I am giving you these populations in round 
figures — Mr. Gahrmger, a commissioner of Wenatchee, a city of 
11,000 population; Mayor Riley of Yakima, a city of 27,000 popula- 
tion; Mr. J. D. Williams of Everett, a city of 30,000; Mr. A. H. 
Howard, mayor of Bellingham, a city of 29,000; and Mr. Schiffner, 
assistant corporation counsel of Spokane, a city of 122,000. 

In this organization there are 170 member cities, represented by 
their elected city officials, which represent 96 percent of the urban 
population of the State of Washington. 

These men that I have mentioned were present at the organization 
meeting. The meeting was held last week and was called by myself 
to discuss this question, as affectuig particularly the Japanese. And 
after discussing it, the executive committee passed a resolution, and 
a copy, I think, was furnished your committee. In this resolution 
it said that this executive committee expressed confidence in and 
approval of the manner in which the Department of Justice and the 
F. B. I. are handling the situation with respect to ahen enemies 
and all subversive elements. It also urges that officials of the member 
cities of the association cooperate with and aid in carrying out any 
program of these agencies. In other words, we as city officials 
felt that it was our duty to maintain public morale in our communities 
and uphold the hands of our duly constituted authorities. We felt 
that that was the proper procedure for us to take; that we should 
express confidence, and we have that confidence in our officials. 

Resolution Adopted by the Executive Committee of the Association op 
Washington Cities at a Meeting in Seattle, February 19, 1942 

The executive committee of the Association of Washington Cities expresses 
confidence in and approval of the manner in which the Department of Justice 
and the Federal Bureau of Investigation are handling the situation with respect 
to alien enemies and all subversive elements; and urges that officials of the mem- 
ber cities of the association cooperate with and aid in carrying out any program 
of these agencies. 

However, for the benefit of the committee, may I state this: that 
since I found I was requested to come and discuss this matter with 



11554 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

the committee, and within the last 2 or 3 days, I have made it a point 
to discuss with our people in Seattle, as far as possible, their reaction 
to this Japanese question. I have talked to people in as many walks 
of life as I could, and I would say that 9 out of 10 people that I have 
talked with, both men and women, were of the impression that the 
Japanese should be removed from the coast. 

Mr. Bender. You read Mayor Cain's testimony or did you hear it 
last Saturday? 

Mr. Carroll. No; I was not present. I have been sick a good 
deal, and I have not been able to be here. 

Mr. Bender. I read his testimony as it was given here last Satur- 
day, and I wondered if you concurred in his views. Pretty generally, 
I think you do. 

Mr. Carroll. He was at this meeting and expressed his views 
here. We unanimously concurred in this resolution, which I think 
was along these lines that he spoke at our meeting. 

OFFICL^LS would NOT OPPOSE RESETTLEMENT OF ALIENS 

Mr. Bender. How do the officials of eastern Washington feel re- 
garding the removal of these alien enemies to their areas in the event 
of such a removal? 

Mr. Carroll. Well, I think that they feel that if it is a part of 
the war effort, part of the national defense, that it woidd seem advisa- 
ble to put Japanese in their area, they would receive them without 
opposition. 

Mr. Bender. Under what circumstances would you say they would 
receive them? 

Mr. Carroll. If oui' authorities decide that they are to be moved, 
and that is the proper place for settlement. 

Mr. Bender. Wliat sort of policing or supervision would you say 
would be necessary. 

Mr. Carroll. In case of a removal? 

Mr. Bender. Yes. 

Mr. Carroll. Well, it all depends, of course, on the locality and 
the nmnbers in which they were placed after their removal, if they 
were removed. 

Mr. Bender. You appreciate that in the event of evacuation, that 
the evacuation might as well apply to alien enemies of German and 
Italian origin? 

Mr. Carroll, Yes. 

Mr. Bender. Would you say that eastern Washington would be 
more willing to accept those of German and Italian than they would 
those of Japanese origin? 

Mr. Carroll. I don't know. I haven't any way of knowing. 

Mr. Bender. Do you believe that eastern Washington would be in 
a position to provide some kind of useful employment? 

Mr. Carroll. Within certain numbers. Of course, there are 
limits beyond which they could not go. As I view this, if there should 
be an evacuation, they should be kept, as far as possible, in colonies 
away from the localities from which they come and put upon land that 
could be utilized by them. There may be some in eastern Oregon, 
and some in eastern Washington, and some in Idaho, Montana, Iowa, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11555 

wherever it would seem- — it seems to me it would not be much of a 
problem, to absorb these people if properly placed throughout the 
States out of the coast cities. 

Mr. Bender. This may not be a question that you are in a position 
to answer. Many Members of Congress in other parts of the country 
are wondering why it is that the Japanese aliens go in for agriculture 
here to the extent that they do, and they seem not to go into other 
lines. Have you any idea as to that? 

Mr. Carroll. No, I haven't. I don't know. 

Mr. Bender. I see. 

Mr. Carroll. Of course, here in Seattle, they go into the restaurant 
business, the lodging houses, hotel business, and various businesses of 
that kind. There are a great many of them engaged in different lines. 
Many of them, as you know, are florists. Most of our florists are 
Japanese. They are great growers of flowers. We are great people, 
out here, for the open spaces, for fishing and hunting. Most of those 
supplies are supplied through Japanese sporting goods stores. 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Chairman, that is all I have to ask. 

Mr. Arnold. We thank you very much, Mr. Carroll, for coming 
here and giving us this information. If you have anything further, 
the record will be open for 10 days, and we should be glad to have you 
submit it. 

Mr. Carroll. No; that is all I have. I am just here by invita- 
tion; thank you. 

Mr. Arnold. The committee will stand adjourned until a quarter 
of 2. 

(Whereupon, at 12:15 p. m. a noon recess was taken until 1:45 p. m.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



MONDAY, MARCH 2, 1942 

afternoon session 

House of Representatives, 
Select Committee Investigating 

National Defense Migration, 

Washington, D. C. 
(Whereupon, at 1:45 p. m. the hearmg was resumed, pursuant to 
the taking of noon recess, as follows:) 

Mr. Arnold. The committee will please come to order. Prof. 
J. F. Steiner. 

TESTIMONY OF J. F. STEINER, PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF 
SOCIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE, WASH. 

Mr. Arnold. Professor, will you state your name and capacity? 

Dr. Steiner. J. F. Steiner, chau-man, department of sociology, 
University of Washington. 

Mr. Arnold. The committee has received your written statement, 
and it will go into the record at this point. Then I shall have a few 
questions that I want to ask you. 

STATEMENT BY J. F. STEINER, PH.D., DEPARTMENT OF SOCI- 
OLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON, SEATTLE, WASH. 

Proposed Evacuation of the Japanese From Western Washington 

According to the 1940 census, the [total number of Japanese in the State of 
Washington is 14,565. Of these, 8,882 are American-born and 5,683 foreign- 
born. Nearly nine-tenths of our Japanese population live west of the Cascades. 
Only a few more than 1,500 live in the eastern part of the State, and three-fourths 
of these are concentrated in 2 counties, Yakima and Spokane. In the 5 
counties in the general vicinity of the Grand Coulee and Bonneville Dams, there are 
less than 50 Japanese. Obviously the protection of these dams from sabotage by 
Japanese residing in that region should not be a difficult matter. 

It is in the Puget Sound region that our Japanese population is chiefly found. 
In the 18 counties west of the Cascades, there are, according to the latest census 
reports, 12,983 Japanese, 7,907 American-born and 5,076 foreign-born. More 
than 90 percent of these are concentrated in 2 counties, King and Pierce. In 
the 5 Washington counties bordering the Pacific Ocean, there are only 150 
Japanese, nearly two-thirds of whom are American-born. If it is thought unde- 
sirable for Japanese to be living in places where they could signal ships at sea, the 
removal of the small number residing in these Pacific coast counties would not be 
an extensive undertaking. 

In the 6 counties north of King bordering both sides of the sound, there is no 
great concentration of Japanese; the total numbering slightly more than 500. 
The Japanese problem of the Puget Sound region is confined chiefly to King and 
Pierce Counties. King County alone is the home of 9,863 Japanese or three- 
fourths of all those living west of the Cascades. In Pierce County there are 2,050 

11557 



11558 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Japanese. Moreover, two-thirds of the Japanese population in these 2 coun ties 
are residents of Seattle and Tacoma. This high degree of concentration of the 
Japanese in these 2 counties and 2 cities simplifies the problem of their 
surveillance and is a factor to be kept in mind when consideration is being given 
to plans for their removal to other places. 

Another factor to be kept in mind is the part these Japanese are playing in the 
economy of the region. One of their important contributions is in such specialized 
types of agriculture as the growing of vegetables, small fruits, and greenhouse 
products. Abotrt one-third, or 4,000, of the Japanese population of King and 
Pierce Counties are living outside Seattle and Tacoma and are presumably 
occupied for the most part in agriculture. According to the 1940 Census, there are 
706 Japanese farm operators in Washington raising crops on farms which total 
more than 20,000 acres. On the assumption that 85 percent of these farms are in 
the Puget Sound region, there are in this vicinity approximately 600 farms cover- 
ing 17,000 acres which provide gainful employment for a Japanese population of 
between three and four thousand. Since these farmers specialize in the production 
of small fruits and vegetables, a type of intensive agriculture in which our white 
population has not to any great extent engaged, their removal from these farms 
would create a serious labor problem and might result in a heavy financial loss to 
this region. 

Because of race prejudice which has prevented the Japanese, both first and 
second generation, from having free access to all occupations, the urban Japanese 
do not play a highly important role in the economic life of our large cities. Data 
secured by the Northwest American Japanese Association in 1938 shows that the 
occupations which rank highest in importance among the Japanese in this city 
are retailing, clerking, unskilled labor, operating cleaning and laundry establish- 
ments, running hotels and restaurants, domestic service, operating bath houses 
and barber shops, and a comparatively small number engaged in the professions. 
But however limited their opportunities for employment, they have been self 
supporting and are sufficiently successful to send many of their children to colleges 
and universities. No doubt the sudden removal of 7,000 Japanese from Seattle 
would necessitate manj^ adjustments in business and industry, but apart from the 
financial loss to the city, their places could be filled far more easily than would be 
possible in the case of the fruit and vegetable farmers. 

^ While these economic factors are important, they must not be the sole considera- 
tion at a time when our country is at war. If our Japanese popultion in this area 
weakens our war effort and menaces our safety, then steps should be taken to bring 
about their evacuation. There is no doubt that during recent weeks there has 
been an increasingly widespread feeling that the Japanese should be removed 
from our Pacific coast region. Insofar as this is a demand that enemy aliens should 
be removed from areas adjacent to defense plants and military and naval estab- 
lishments and required to live in regions where no sabotage is possible, all are 
agreed that this is advisable. But when this plan of evacuation is enlarged to 
include citizens as well as aliens on the ground that American-born Japanese 
are inherently disloyal to this country, we are starting in motion a dangerous 
mass movement growing out of war hysteria and differing little from the treatment 
of minorities by the totalitarian governments in Europe and Asia. 

In my judgment, the policy to adopt in this emergency is that already carried 
on by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, viz, the investigation of those suspected 
of disloyalty and their internment when evidence indicates that their liberty 
should be restricted. Up to the present time, many of the most dangerous aliens 
have been taken into custody and sent out of this region. Others are still under 
close surveillance and if there is evidence of widespread anti-American activities, 
it would perhaps be wise to evacuate from this region all Japanese aliens except 
possibly those well advanced in^ years who live only for their American-born 
children and would do nothing to bring them into disrepute. 

The position of the second generation Japanese is admittedly a difficult one, 
for in physical features they resemble their alien parents and have fallen heir to 
the old prejudice against Japanese immigrants. But they are American citizens 
and a way should be found to safeguard their rights and treat them with justice 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11559 

insofar as this is possible in a war emergency. The fact that some of them have 
been disloyal indicates the inappropriateness of accepting their citizenship status 
alone as satisfactory evidence of their attacliment to America. On the other 
hand, the disloyalty of a few American-born Japanese should not brand with 
infamy all Americans of Japanese ancestry. 

In our efforts to deal with this problem, progress can be made by dividing the 
second generation Japanese into two classes; first, those who are thoroughly 
Americanized and who identify themselves completely with American life; and 
second, those who through dual citizenship and long visits to Japan have tended 
to identify themselves with the Japanese Nation. Among the members of this 
latter class are found frequently the.so-called "kibei," those who were born in this 
country but were sent to Japan in early childhood to be brought up by their grand- 
parents and educated in Japanese schools and then returned to this country in 
later adolescence to get an American education. Since they have a good reading 
as well as speaking knowledge of the Japanese language, they were the ones who 
often found employment in Japanese exporting and importing firms in American 
cities and thus remained to a large extent under Japanese alien influence. It is 
not assumed, of course, that all "kibei" are more closely attached to Japan than 
to America, but it is this group that is hkely to be most responsible for the widely 
prevalent feeling on the Pacific coast that all American-born Japanese are lacking 
in loyalty to America. 

If in the judgemnt of those who are responsible for the defense of the Pacific 
coast, it becomes essential to remove enemy aliens from this region, it may be 
best to include in this evacuation order those of the second generation who have 
retained their dual citizenship and whose past associations indicate a sympathetic 
attitude toward the Japanese Nation. But in restricting the liberties of American 
citizens, each case should be judged upon its merits after proper investigation. 
The present emergency is not so immediate that we have no time to act justly. 
Through an orderly and systematic process of investigation, those whose presence 
in this region is undesirable can be determined and plans made for their removal 
to the interior. 

If time permits, and there is no reason to expect the Japanese Navy to attack 
our Pacific coast in full force in the near future, the evacuation of enemy aliens 
should be carried out gradually as proper provision is made for them to be placed 
on a self-supporting basis elsewhere. A more careful investigation of the Japanese 
farmers in this region may reveal that they do not constitute a real danger to our 
defenses, and that under certain restrictions they may continue to produce the 
vegetable and fruit crops that are so much needed. Above all, whatever action 
may be taken, it should not spring either from race prejudice or war hysteria. ' 

The ill-advised efforts on the part of certain people and organizations to bring 
about the dismissal of young second-generation Japanese from the jobs they have 
held are an untimely resurgence of race prejudice camouflaged under the guise of 
hatred of an enemy nation. At this critical time when everything should be done 
to keep up the morale of Americans of Japanese ancestry, there is being adopted 
a policy of discrimination that promotes the growth of resentment and despair. 
We need the help of the loyal second-generation citizens in dealing with those of 
their race who may be disloyal and dangerous. They stand ready to do their 
part, but they cannot act effectively in an atmosphere of suspicion and hostility. 
However difficult it may be to protect the rights of American citizens in solving 
this problem that now "^faces us, this is a duty from which we dare not shrink. 
The ultimate victory over our enemies will be hollow indeed if, in winning it, we 
have trampled under foot the principles of fair play and justice for which we have 
fought. 

TESTIMONY OF J. F. STEINER— Resumed 

Mr. Arnold. How many Japanese students are in attendance at 
the University of Washington, approximately? 

Dr. Steiner. I do not know the exact number, but considerably 
over 100 at any one time. 

Mr. Arnold. Do thev tend to specialize in certain fields? 



11560 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Dr. Steiner. I think that they do, because of the discrimination 
against them in employment. They, perhaps, might tend to go into 
business. They attend business colleges, and they hope they might 
prepare to go into some kind of business later. They have tended to 
go into engineering to a certain degree, but there the problem of 
employment later is too great. 

EFFECT OF EVACUATION ON STUDENTS 

Mr. Arnold. What remarks would you care to make concerning 
the effect of evacuation on the students? 

Dr. Steiner. Well, I thmk if that were carried out, at this present 
time, it would work a great hardship upon them. If they could re- 
main until the end of the present quarter, which closes the latter 
part of this month, then they would not lose the credits for this 
winter quarter. Some of them, of course, are plaiming to graduate 
in June. Some of them are seniors. If they cannot finish this last 
quarter and they must go elsewhere, and would enter another uni- 
versity, they would be required to spend 1 year's residence before they 
could get their degree. So, from that point of view, it would mean a 
hardship. 

Mr. Arnold. But if they could finish the quarter by the last of 
March, it would 

Dr. Steiner (interposing). That would be some help, of course. 

Mr. Arnold. I notice in your statement this remark, and I quote: 

The disloyalty of a few American-born Japanese should not brand with infamy 
aU Americans of Japanese ancestry. 

From your experience, can you suggest any test by which the 
authorities could be sure that all disloyal American-Japanese were 
apprehended before they committed disloyal acts? 

Dr. Steiner. I would think that that same question would need 
to be asked concernmg all of us. That is, how do we know that I am 
loyal or that anyone else is loyal? How would we know that the 
Germans, the first generation of Germans or the second generation of 
Germans, are loyal? We must know it by their actions, by the 
company they keep, the organizations to which they belong. As far 
as the Japanese are concerned, I would think it would be less difficult, 
for they are more segregated, they are more visible, they cannot hide 
away or have secret meetings as easily as could Germans or Italians. 
I see no great difficulty. It would mean a great deal of work, of 
course, to examine all these people and try to put them m two classes — 
those who are loyal and those who are not. 

Mr. Arnold. It has been suggested to this committee that the older 
Japanese ahens are not as dangerous to our security as are the Ameri- 
can-born Japanese. The thought seems to be that the American-born 
have never experienced the low living standards of Japan, and yet 
have never been fully accepted in this country. Consequently, they 
are more apt to harbor resentment. What is your reaction to that 
line of thought? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE RaGRATION 11561 

TWO CLASSES OF SECOND-GENERATION JAPANESE 

Dr. Steiner. I think that as far as the second generation are con- 
cerned, the American-born Japanese, we must put them into two 
classes: Those who are born here, educated in our schools, have had 
white American playmates, have never visited Japan. Even though 
they have attended Japanese-language schools here, they, perhaps, 
have an inadequate knowledge of the language— certainly, know 
English far better. Now, those persons are essentially Americans. 
There are others who, early in life, maybe 2 or 3 years of age, were 
sent back to Japan and there lived with their grandparents, went 
through elementary school, perhaps through middle school, and then 
at later adolescence returned to America, here went to high school, 
perhaps to college. 

Now, I would think that Japanese of that class might feel strongly 
disposed to sympathize with the Japanese Nation in its present 
crisis — not all of them, necessarily. I know some I am quite sure do 
not feel that way, but if I were in an office where I could investigate 
the second generation Japanese, I certainly would begin with those 
who had spent considerable time in Japan and who knew the lan- 
guage well. We forget that a majority of the American-born Japa- 
nese do not know the language well enough to live acceptably and 
without prejudice in the country of their ancestors. 

Mr. Arnold. Perhaps you are in a better position to tell us about 
these Japanese schools than anyone we have had before our com- 
mittee. Were they just schools for learning the Japanese language, 
or were they also taught loyalty to the Emperor of Japan? Do you 
know of your own knowledge? 

Dr. Steiner. Well, I have seen some of the books, the readers 
that they use in these schools. They use essentially the same text- 
books that would be used in Japan. It is much easier to get as 
teacher a person who has been educated in Japan, a person who is 
thoroughly conversant with the language and the traditions of the 
people, and I fear that in some instances the schools have been under 
the direction of teachers who, perhaps were not as loyal to America 
as to Japan. 

Mr. Arnold. They were sent over from Japan, weren't they? 

Dr. Steiner. I don't know whether they were sent over. They, 
perhaps, came over here because they learned that they could get a 
position of this kind. I would not know whether they were agents 
of Japan. 

Mr. Arnold. You would not know. 

Dr. Steiner. I would not know that. But I do know that the 
American-born children have not attended these schools in a very 
happy frame of mind, as a rule. After all, it has been just one more 
school period, following the regular day school that they had to attend. 

Mr. Arnold. It took away their opportunity for play? 

Dr. Steiner. Yes; and from my association with the younger 
Japanese in this city, I am quite confident that they don't learn 
Japanese very well. If they are in a Japanese home where the parents 
insist that they keep up their Japanese, they may become very con- 
versant with the language; other\\ise, not. 

Mr. Arnold. In your statement, you mentioned placing evacuated 
ahens on a self-supporting basis elsewhere. What suggestions have 
you as to where and how this could be done? 



11562 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Dr. Steiner. I think that we must set up an authority which will 
have the full power to make whatever arrangements may be necessary 
to accomplish this. But I would think that, even though we had a 
very capable person or bureau responsible for this, it could not be 
done if there were a mass evacuation, thousands compelled to leave 
at about the same time. I would think that, since there is no great 
need for haste, as far as invasion of this coast on a large scale is con- 
cerned, we might go at it a little more slowly. 

Mr. Arnold. Right at that point, let me say that we had a witness 
here this morning. I didn't read it in the papers, but he said he did, 
where the highways in southern California were clogged with Japanese 
leaving that area, and I suppose that is because of that attack and 
the planes overhead and the black-outs that resulted in the death 
of four American citizens. You say there is no need for haste. 
Don't you think there might be need for haste? 

NO NEED FOR HASTY ACTION 

Dr. Steiner. There might be need for haste — there might be a 
need for going at it more rapidly in Los Angeles, a great center of 
population; but here where we have our Japanese, five or six thousand 
aliens, mostly in these two counties. King and Pierce, I think that we 
could go at this more slowly and accomplish this over a period of a 
couple of months. If that were done, I can see how these persons 
might be placed in industiy or in remunerative employment elsewhere. 
Mr. Arnold. Suppose an airplane carrier would come within 200 
miles from this shore, and their planes would come over the Boeing 
Plant here and bomb the plant and pretty much put it out of com- 
mission. Do you think that would have any efi'ect on the population? 
Dr. Steiner. It certainly would; but it would be a sporadic raid, 

it couldn't be 

Mr. Arnold. You mean a sporadic raid like Pearl Harbor? 
Dr. Steiner. I would hope we would be prepared for it, and I 
think that we are. There would be some confusion, there is no doubt ; 
but I cannot see how our situation would be materially improved if 
we simply went ahead and got rid of all of our Japanese, first and 
second generation, unless we took care of the Germans and Italians, 
also. Unless we did that, we still would have enemies, or potential 
enemies, in our midst. As to the second-generation Germans, we 
don't doubt their loyalty. Wliy should we doubt the loyalty of 
second-generation Japanese and those who have lived here ii» this 
country oi\\j and have not had any connection with Japan? Do we 
suppose that there is something in Japanese family life that prevents, 
to a great extent, persons from taking over the customs and traditions 
of the country? 

Mr. Arnold. Of course, I was going to say that we understand from 
your statement that your interest and experience has been mainly 
with the Japanese? 
Dr. Steiner. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. We realize that this is not wholly a Japanese problem. 
Would you care to make any further statement concerning the prob- 
lem from the point of view of alien Germans and Italians? 

Dr. Steiner. Well, as long as I hear of no emphasis upon the 
removal of German, aliens and Italian aliens from the Atlantic coast, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11563 

I do not see why we should try to remove them from the Pacific 
coast. 

Mr. Arnold. Your statement reads, in part, as follows, and I 

quote: 

We need the help of the loyal second-generation citizens in dealing with those 
of their race who may be disloyal and dangerous. 

Do you Imow how much help has been given by this group to date? 

Dr. Steiner. As to the actual number, I do not know. And I 
suppose that JACL, the Japanese American Citizens League, would 
not be in a position to divulge this information. But I have confidence 
in them, that they are willing to work with the Federal Bureau of 
Investigation in order to determine those who are disloyal. I think 
that we have a mistaken idea of the cohesion of the Japanese, as I 
have heard it said that in Hawaii, that since the Japanese voters out- 
numbered all the rest, they will always be able to vote into posi- 
tions of power their own people. As a matter of fact, studies have 
shown that they tend to divide their votes just like other Americans 
do, and just because a person is of Japanese ancestry, would that mean 
that he would not be willing to inform against them? I certainly 
would be willing to inform against a native American whom I found to 
be disloyal. 

Mr. Arnold. Would you be surprised if I would tell you that the 
head of the F. B. I. here has said that only one or two cases were re- 
ported to them of disloyalty by the Japanese? Would you be sur- 
prised? 

Dr. Steiner. Yes; I would be surprised. 

Mr. Arnold. To what extent do you think the second-generation 
citizen could and would give information on dangerous ahens? 

Dr. Steiner. They are in a position, I think, to know the facts. 
After all, they are a pretty closely knit community; they live not far 
apart; they are acquainted with one another. It is just a matter of 
whether they would be willing to do so. That, of course, is a matter 
of opinion. All I have to go on is that they state that they would. 
When a man like Mr. Sakamoto assures me that they are working on 
this, I would feel that we have a right to believe him. 

Mr. Arnold. But you would believe the head of the F. B. I., 
perhaps, over and above any others? 

Dr. Steiner. Yes; if that is a fact, certainly, I would accept it. 
Mr. Bender. Doctor, just one question: ;Vliat percentage of the 
population here in the State of Washington shares your views; that is, 
have the same attitude that you have in connection with this problem? 
Dr. Steiner. That, of course, cannot be answered specifically. 
Mr. Bender. Have you any idea, just a rough guess? 
Dr. Steiner. I feel quite strongly that the prejudice against the 
Japanese is much less in the State of Washington than it is in Cali- 
fornia; and that prior to this trouble that has arisen, the general leelmg 
here was that our Japanese population were an asset to these States, 
and that there was no feeling that we should get rid -of them. Now 
I think that those who insist upon mass migration— evacuation ot 
Japanese, entirely, first and second generations, would comprise, per- 
haps, half of our population; maybe not half. I think they are more 
inclined to speak out and make themselves heard than those who 
perhaps would be willing to take a chance on the Japanese. But, ot 
course, that is just a mere matter of judgment. 

60396— 42— pt. 30 18 



11564 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Bender. You mentioned mass evacuation. What would be 
the attitude of the Japanese here in the event that such an order as 
you suggest woukl be issued? 

Dr. Steiner. I think that the Japanese, both first and second gen- 
erations, would accept it as they would accept any other orders that 
would come from the Federal Government. I think it would embitter 
them to a certain degree; they couldn't help but have some feeling of 
resentment. If I were a loyal member of this Nation and would like 
to do something for it, and would not be permitted to do so, I would 
feel very badly about it, and I think those that are loyal would feel 
the same way. 

But I am quite sure that they are not going to resist any such 
order, however it might be carried out. 

Mr. Arnold. Thank you very much. Professor Steiner. We ap- 
preciate your testimony. 

Rev. Harold V. Jensen? 

TESTIMONY OF REV. HAROLD V. JENSEN, REPRESENTING 
SEATTLE COUNCIL OF CHURCHES 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Jensen, the conmiittee has received a statement 
prepared for the Seattle Council of Churches, and we would like to 
ask you a few questions in connection with that. 

STATEMENT BY THE COUNCIL OF CHURCHES EMERGENCY COM- 
MITTEE ON ALIENS PRESENTED BY DR. HAROLD V. JENSEN, 
PASTOR OF THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, SEATTLE, WASH. 

The emergency committee on aliens of the Council of Churches was appointed 
shortly after the United States became involved in the war. The committee itself 
is representative of the most thoughtful religious convictions of the Protestant 
community. Doubtlessly these convictions are .shared by other faiths. In such 
a representative capacity' we have met with local and State social agencies charged 
with welfare responsibilities. This led to efficient handling of critical Japanese 
relief problems which arose shortly after December 7. 

At the present time the committee is engaged upon a study of the question of 
the proposed evacuation of ahens from enemy countries. The committee is 
disturbed by the isolation of the question of evacuation to the Japanese, with 
little or no comment regarding aliens of Germany or Italy. This seems to indicate 
definite race prejudice on the part of the groups who are most conspicuous for their 
endorsement of evacuation. We are quite certain that the people at large, regard- 
less of their fears, do not bear the same feeling of race discrimination. The 
continued patronage of the Japanese people, the friendly demonstrations which 
have taken place during the last 2 months between Japanese aliens and citizen 
groups in various churches and other civic organizations, and the absence of 
disorder and outbreaks are, we think, conclusive proof that pubhc opinion at 
large is not represented by statements from the protesting groups. 

For the same reason we feel there is no definite conclusive opinion favoring 
evacuation of either Germans or Italians. This is probably due to the fact that 
the public feels that the Department of Justice has the situation well in hand with 
reference to aliens of enemy countries who are most suspicious. 

If and when evacuation becomes seriously considered the problem is so enormous 
in all its phases that the Federal Government should assume complete control 
and direction. In -addition the Federal Government is free from all petty partisan 
local politics. Local and State officials, being politically fearful of ofl'ending 
public opinion will lack the courage to assume a humane and decent attitude 
toward these aliens. This committee has definitely been disappointed at the 
failure of comprehension on the part of local and State political officials. They 
have taken unto themselves what they consider to be the view of the majority, 
and have been conspicuously free from expressions of sympathy and assurance to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11565 

aliens that they would be handled in a humane and decent American traditional 
way. Such assurances would have been of inestimable value. 

We believe the nonpolitical organizations of the State and local communities 
such as welfare and social agencies and community funds have expert experience 
which should be utilized in dealing with any needs which may arise. 

Specifically this committee suggests — 

1. That the Federal Government issue frank statements of assurance to aliens 
that they will be given plenty of time and not just 24 hours to prepare for evacua- 
tion, except in case of extreme emergency. 

2. That a staff of well trained investigators be set to work to analyze all phases 
of the problem. 

3. That consideration be given to possible alternatives to mass evacuation 

such as — . . , .,. , 

(a) The continuation of the present situation, that is, leaving famihos here, 
and removal under the Department of Justice control of the suspicious aliens, 
thus enabling others to continue their production which we greatly need, 

(6) The exemption of those who secure satisfactory sponsors. 

(c) The plan suggested by Senator Wallgren and Senators from several other 
Western States for a technical evacuation of all Japanese aliens. Those who are 
able satisfactorily to prove their loyalty to be given proper identification and 
permitted to remain. 

{d) The establishment of areas prohibited to all Japanese adjacent to primary 
defense plants. These to be under military control. 

4. That immediate steps be taken to appoint a Federal officer charged with the 
care of Japanese property and interests which may suffer either from evacuation, 
or, as is happening now, from cancelation of leases, cancelation of insurance 
policies on personal property mortgaged as security for contracted indebtedness 
which thus automaticallv becomes in default. This responsibihty should also 
include the power to prosecute economic "vultures" who may induce grossly 
inequitable sales by causing fear among aliens and by other devious tricks. 

5. That an analysis of Japanese family opinion be taken of each family to find 
out whether the family would like to stay even if the husband left for a year, 
expecting his return at the conclusion of a short war, or if a long war, with the 
realization that the husband will be preparing resettlement. 

6. That the Federal Government should take the responsibility of preparing 
the areas to be resettled and take the responsibility of protecting the aliens against 
threatening communities which do not want them. 

7. That extreme care should and undoubtedly will be taken regarding the aged, 
infirm, bed-ridden, and other sick people. 

8. This committee sees no reason why American citizens of enemy alien lineage 
should be involved in the discussion of evacuation. 

9. This committee urges again that public officials be instructed to refrain from 
issuing orders that such and such aliens will be moved in 24 hours causing great 
fear and panic which the religious communities find themselves increasingly 

unable to calm. . . . u i i 

The committee calls attention to the fact that statements against the local 
Japanese seem to have increased in severity as far eastern defeats have taken 
place. At the outbreak of war on December 7 with Japan the papers were full 
of assurances from public and private officials of good feeling toward the Japanese. 
The situation is so different now that one must take note and ask why the change 
of opinion. , , 

This committee expects to hand in a supplementary statement composed ot a 
summary of answers to questions by Japanese families, a fair sampling of which 
has been and is now being contacted under the direction of the committee. 

SUPPLEMENTAL STATEMENT OF THE EMERGENCY COMMITTEE 
ON ALIENS, OF THE COUNCIL OF CHURCHES, BY MR. HAROLD V. 

JENSEN 

This statement consists of an analysis of the answers of approximately 327 
alien Japanese families to questions put to them by interviewers. Attached 
hereto is a sample copy of the questionnaire. Four Caucasian ministers witti 
Japanese pastoral responsibilities supervised the interviews with the assistance, 
in some cases, of Japanese-American citizens. Each interviewer has numbered 
his questionnaire and is in a position to go back to the address of everybody 
interviewed. 



11566 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Only February 26 and 27 were given to obtain the answers and, therefore, the 
analysis is not put forward as a scientific and expert job. It is our hope, rather, 
that it will reveal the need for a further and more expert analysis with many 
of the questions revised. These 327 families might be a fair sample of the total 
number of families in the city of Seattle, but not of King County outside Seattle 
where the Agricultural Belt lies. 

Before going into the analysis, attention is called to question 8. subdivisions 
A and B; subdivision A asks whether the family will risk staying and facing race 
riots; subdivision B asks if the family would prefer to go if a place for them is 
well prepared at Government expense. Unfortunately, it looked like it was a 
question with an alternative. 

The interviewers were convinced that the families would prefer to stay and risk 
race riots rather than to be broken up as family units or sent as families to places 
on 24-hour notice. However, 152 answered they would prefer risking staying 
and facing race riots; and 196 preferred going to a place prepared at Government 
expense. Several families answered both questions. In this connection, one of 
the interviewers, who is an American-born Japanese, reported that the "first 
generation Japanese or alien Japanese, because of their long residence in this area 
were definitely for staying here as long as was possible." Together with this fact 
he felt that "the Japanese did not fear removal, if this is necessary, so much as the 
fact that they would be made to shift for themselves when they were moved. The 
greatest mental conflict confronting the alien Japanese is that of fear of being told 
to move out of the Puget Sound area with no provisions for assistance in resettle- 
ment or moving. Especially acute was this fear where the aliens were over 50 
and 60, about average age for the first generation Japanese. These men and 
women would be unable to perform hard physical labor and viewed any attempt 
at resettlement with fear because of a feeling of inability to do a man's work. 
Thus, age seriously conflicts with any resettlement project." 

Out of 327 families there were 596 children, making the total number of persons 
as follows: Three hundred and twenty-seven families, counting for husband and 
wife, a total of 654 plus 596 children, making a total of 1,250. 

The children were classed as dependent children with no break-down as to ages. 
The majority of the husbands were over 50 but under 60 years of age. The 
majority of the women were over 40 but under 50 years of age. 

Occupation. — Sixty-two families were in the Agricultural Belt around Kent 
and the majority of these were farmers — 35 farmers, 13 businessmen, 6 laborers. 

Out of the grand total of 327 families, practically all of whom live in the city, 
their occupations were brol^en down as follows: 

Businessmen, which include apartment houses, dye workers, grocers, etc 156 

Farmers 35 

Laborers 58 

Professional men, including doctors and dentists 6 

Unemployed 24 

Retired 8 

Due to the fact that a good many of the husbands were in detention some inter- 
viewers did not include occupations and so-me did of those detained. 

Out of the total of 327 only 71 had had previous agricultural experience indi- 
cating that agricultural resettlement for city dwellers will be a very difficult, if 
not an impossible, task. It may be that the majority of the Japanese aliens are 
agricultural workers, but this fact would have to be confirmed by an expert 
survey. This 71 does not include the 35 farmers from the Kent Valley area. 
Including this 35 would mean a total of 106 with agricultural experience out of the 
total of 327 families, or less than one-third. 

Education. — An effort was made to ascertain whether or not they had grade- 
school, high-school, or college education either in Japan or America. The ma- 
jority of husbands and wives had had high-school education, although there were 
almost as many who had had grade-school education. A small number were 
college graduates. 

Health. — Out of the total of 327 families 32 husbands were in poor health and 
28 wives were in poor health and, in addition, there were others in the family 
composed of aged, infirm, or bedridden in a total of 19 persons. 

English language. — Two hundred and twenty-four indicated they had a working 
knowledge of the English language; 81 indicated they did not. 

Preferences. — We have already commented on the question of personal prefer- 
ence as to staying and facing race riot or to go to some place well prepared. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11567 

Subdivision C under question 8 was marked "resettlement" which was hardly- 
enough to describe what resettlement involved. Only 4 families indicated they 
were in favor of resettlement; 196 indicated they would prefer to go to a place well 
prepared; only 1 favored internment for entire families. 

Disposition of affairs. — One hundred and two families indicated arrangements 
had been made through sons, daughters, relatives, or friends to take over business 
interests ; 203 indicated no arrangements had been made. 

Two hundred and fifty-six indicated desire to have a Government custodian in 
charge of the disposal of their property ; only 45 indicated they had private storage 
available; only 4 had their own plans; and 26 favored sale under Government 
auspices. 

The last two paragraphs indicate a great need for Government custodian to 
take immediate charge of Japanese interests to avoid hardship. 

Conclusion. — The Japanese appear willing to do whatever is rqeuested of them 
by the Government. The big hazard is fear of cruel treatment resulting from 
their age and lack of funds arising from forced sales and inability to take assets 
with them. It appears that resettlement will not be possible for a great number 
of Japanese families. Special treatment of the very aged, and there were 64 
husbands over 60 years of age and 14 wives over 60 years of age, should be arranged. 

It would seem that some Federal agency trained in social welfare technique 
should be authorized to work with the United States Army on this problem and 
should be granted a substantial appropriation to enable them to move forward 
immediately with plans which undoubtedly will take almost a year to carry out 
fully even though some evacuations might take place within a few weeks. Such 
a move by the Government would have an instant influence in calming the fears 
of people who must be assumed to be innocent victims of fear. 

Out of the 62 families in the Farm Belt, more than one-half were farmers. 
Resettlement for farmers appears possible. Resettlement for city dwellers will 
be difficult, and other plans should be worked upon as an alternative. 

Practically all families were classed as alien although either wife or husband 
might be citizen. Our committee has been advised that there are approximately 
700 alien Japanese families in the city of Seattle. Our 327 families less 62 in 
Kent leaves 265 Seattle families interviewed or a little less than 40 percent. 

JAPANESE FAMILY SURVEY 

1. Age: 

(a) Husband. 

(b) Wife. 

(c) Dependent children. 

2. Occupation: 

(a) Husband. 

(b) Wife. 

3. If at any time have had agricultural experience. 

4. Education: 

(a) Husband. 
(6) Wife. 

5. Health: 

(a) Husband. 
(6) Wife. 

(c) Others (aged, injarm, bedridden, pregnant mothers, etc.). 

6. Disposition of property preferred: 

(a) Government custodian. 

(b) Sale under Government auspices. 

(c) If any private storage available. 

7. Has husband or wife working knowledge of English language: 

Yes. 
No. 

8. Personal preference: 

(a) Would take risk of staying and facing race riot. 

(6) Would prefer to go if a place for them were well prepared at Govern- 
ment expense. 

(c) Resettlement. 

(d) Internment for entire families. 

(e) Husbands going ahead of family to help prepare resettlement for a year 

or more, with possibility of husband returning if war is short. 

9. If^it is necessary to go, what plans are now made for sons, daughters, relatives, 

or friends to take over the business. 



11568 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

TESTIMONY OF REV. HAROLD V. JENSEN— Resumed 

Mr. Bender. Will you tell us what contact you have with the 
Japanese, Italian, and German groups in Seattle? 

Mr. Jensen. The Council of Churches, which is the representative 
Protestant fellowship, the organization through which the Protestant 
churches cooperate and think in community terms, has had for as 
long as I have been in the city, a representative of the Japanese people 
on the executive board. Their churches themselves are members of 
our fellowship. There has been a very friendly relationship. There 
is also within the Council of Churches program what is known as an 
interracial committee, which I have had the privilege of being a part 
of, where we seek definitely and deliberately to become acquainted 
with one another in the interests of interracial friendship and under- 
standing. As far as I personally am concerned, there are a number 
of Japanese families in my church — four, to be exact — and the Japanese 
Baptist Church in this vicinity is a child of our church. 

Most of the workers there who are supported by our missionary 
denomination are members of our church. 

Mr. Bender. In this view that you have expressed in your state- 
ment, and I quote the statement: 

The committee is disturbed by the isolation of the question of evacuation of the 
Japanese, with little or no comment regarding aliens of Germany or Italy. This 
seems to indicate definite race prejudice on the part of the groups who are most 
conspicuous for their endorsement of evacuation. 

Would you care to elaborate on that statement? Does that repre- 
sent the view of the clergy, or does that represent the view, pretty 
generally, of the lay membership of your churches? 

Mr. Jensen. I should say that it was a fairly accurate representa- 
tion, insofar as we can speak for our fellow ministers, for, after all, 
we are a committee trying to represent the rest of the group. I 
believe it is a fairly accurate statement of the attitude of the majority 
of the Protestant ministers. In my own church, it would, I think, be 
a fairly accurate statement of the point of view of the majority of the 
participating membership of my church. We feel that the question 
of which Dr. Steiner spoke, that of the second generation of Germans 
and Italians, has not been raised at all. This seems to indicate 
specifically that there is a greater feeling against the Japanese. We 
feel that that is not only prejudice; we feel that it is partly fear and 
hysteria, augmented by the unfortunate turn of events in the Pacific. 
We do believe that the continued good fellowship, participation 
between groups here in the city, and continued support of Japanese 
business, is an indication of the fact that there is much more good 
will toward the Japanese in the general community than is indicated 
by many of the reports. 

Mr. Bender. The statement of your emergency committee on 
aliens also says — I quote: 

This committee sees no reason why American citizens of enemy alien lineage 
should be involved in the discussion of evacuation. 

I would like to ask this question in connection with that observation: 
In view of the close ties which many Japanese families have main- 
tained with their homes, sending their children to school in Japan, 
retaining dual citizenship, and so "on, why do you believe that the 
Japanese- American group can be considered as loyal as any other group 
of Americans? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11569 

Mr. Jensen. As a group, I would say that the}^ could be, because 
tliey have demonstrated theu' cooperation by their acts and by 
their attitude in this community. I think there is great need for 
individual consideration. The group of which Dr. Steiner spoke, I 
believe, are known as the Kibei, those who have had most of their 
education in Japan. They might perhaps be a distinct exception, for 
their major associations have been back there. 

I see no reason, as a whole, to question the loyalty of the Japanese- 
American citizens any more than any other second-generation citizen, 
of whom I happen to be one. My parents were born in Demnark. 

Mr. Bender. Let me ask you this: You believe that Italian- 
Americans and German-Americans can be considered as loyal as other 
American groups; do you? 

Mr. Jensen. There would undoubtedly be a somewhat greater 
tendency, certainly, toward an emotional sympathy with their home- 
land. We all have those ties; though I have never been in Denmark, 
when I heard of Demnark giving in to Germany's demands, I felt a 
greater personal interest than I had in other countries. It was the 
land of my forefathers. Aside from that, I think there is no reason 
to believe that they would not be as loyal as anyone else. 

Mr. Bender. Is it your impression that the German and Italian 
and Japanese aliens have pretty much the same feeling as you have 
evidenced regarding your views as to Deimiark? 

Mr. Jensen. I should think so. I don't see how anyone could help 
but have that natural interest in the place from which their people 
come. 

Mr. Bender. In addition to your statement, I have seen a report, 
and I believe the other members of the conmiittee have, on a recent 
survey of 327 alien Japanese families, made by the emergency com- 
mittee on aliens. Will you tell us how that survey was made? Will 
you describe the method by which that was taken? 

Mr. Jensen. It was made very hurriedly for the particular purpose 
of endeavoring to have, not merely opinions, but some real facts to 
present to this committee because we believe that too much is being 
said these days which is merely opinion not substantiated by facts. 
The survey was taken under the direction of our committee with the 
help of the Caucasian pastors of Japanese Baptist churches. 

Mr. Bender. You mentioned the Japanese Baptist Churches, 

Mr. Jensen. The Japanese Protestant Churches. Exxuse me, 

JAPANESE CHRISTIAN GROUPS 

Mr. Bender, Are the Japanese pretty much affiliated with the vari- 
ous religious groups, as other groups are in this part of the country; 
that is, do they jom up with various groups, or are they pretty much 
by themselves as a religious group? 

Mr. Jensen, They are mostly in their own churches, but those 
churches are a definite part of the total fellowship. For instance, 
the Japanese Baptist Church is a part of our Baptist fellowship here 
in the city, but they have their own church. On the other hand, 
most of the — I suppose you might say — white churches, or pre- 
dominately white churches, also have oriental membership; and there 
are quite strong Protestant churches almost entirely Japanese, from 



11570 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

most of the denominations. Each of these churches has, I think, 
without exception, an associate pastor who is a Caucasian, who 
ministers largely to the second generation, for they do not even under- 
stand, many of them, the Japanese language. 

We asked these ministers to cooperate with us, and they went out 
and visited families, and put to those families a set of nine questions 
which I have here, tiymg to make it as general as possible, not con- 
fining it exclusively to their own membership. That was done within 
2 days, and, of course, cannot be considered an expert survey, but it 
is, we believe, a fair sampling of opinion, for it includes, altogether 
something over 1,200 individuals, counting the children. 

Mr. Bender. Will you just summarize the findings? 

Mr. Jensen. Yes; I can summarize the findings. The general 
impression was this: That the Japanese people, on the whole, were 
found to prefer to remain and take their chances — the chances of ill- 
will, race riots, or whatever you may have. They feel that if evacua- 
tion proved necessary, they would do their best to cooperate with it. 
In that case, there is the greatest need for property custodians and 
plans for resettlement, and especially, for adequate notice so that 
they will not be hurriedly required to leave. 

They can make provision for those remaining. I have the summary 
here, and I think those are the significant facts. For instance, 102 
families indicated that arrangements have been made tentatively- 
through sons, daughters, relatives or friends, to take care of the busi- 
ness interests; so they are already trying to face this problem openly 
and cooperatively, it seems to us. 

We were also impressed by the lack of farm experience. The prob- 
lem of resettlement, it would seem, to resettle people on farms is 
thought by some to be the most feasible thing. 

Mr. Bender. What percentage of those interviewed had any agri- 
cultural experience? 

Mr. Jensen. Of the total of 327 families interviewed, only 71 has 
had any previous agricultural experience, which certainly indicates 
that agricultural resettlement for the city dwellers would be very 
difficult, if not impossible. 

Mr. Bender. Congressman Tolan has sent telegrams to the Gover- 
nors of 15 Western States, asking how these States feel about evacua- 
tion of aliens to these localities, and replies have been received from a 
majority, and all were opposed to the settlement of enemy aliens in 
their States, with the possible exception, I think, from Governor Carr, 
of Colorado, who indicated that he would welcome these aliens in his 
State. 

Have you any suggestions, in view of that suggestion that so many 
of the Governors have indicated a desire that they are not keen about 
having them come to their States, as to where these aliens might be 
settled? 

Mr. Jensen. Of course, it is not surprising that they do not welcome 
them, when we are so anxious, apparently, to get rid of them. I think 
that it emphasizes the importance of giving careful consideration and 
having definite plans for adequate care of these families before any 
evacuation order is made. That is one of our strongest convictions, 
that if it becomes a military necessity — we underline military, for we 
are afraid that much of the desire is a more or less hysterical feeling 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11571 

on the part of people, rather than the demand of the military. But 
if it becomes a military necessity, we surely must first make plans for 
their resettlement. 

And may I add there that I do not see any reason why we in 
Washington should send our Japanese people out of Washington 
when we have this great area the other side of the mountains which 
would seem to be far enough away from the coast. 

Mr. Bender. Dr. Steiner — and I am sure you were listening — 
commented on mass evacuations in the event that such an order should 
be issued. Do you share Dr. Steiner's view that it would be received 
rather sadly, but that there would be cooperation on the part of the 
people? 

Mr. Jensen. Yes; that is true, definitely. 

Mr. Bender. There would be no need of any drastic military 
action in the event of such mass evacuation? 

Mr. Jensen. I am quite siu-e that there would not, but there would 
be need of some control. The greater need, it seems to me, would be 
for planned expressions of consideration and friendliness, for, after all, 
these are men and women and families like ourselves. I believe in 
the long run it is far more important to the interests of our country 
that, if it becomes necessary to evacuate, we be careful to have 
friendly relationships and that it be done in a kindly way, rather 
than that they be guarded with guns. 

Mr. Bender. You realize, of course, that there is an emergency, 
and we have got to act accordingly? 

Mr. Jensen. Yes; but to act accoMingly does not, in my judgment, 
mean that we act with undue haste or lack of due consideration. 

America, we believe and know, is known for its consideration of 
the human elements. We believe in people; we believe that the last 
man is worthy of consideration, and I think that it is very important 
in these days if the things which we are supposed to be fighting for, 
and which we do believe we are fighting for, are not to be lost in the 
process. 

Mr. Bender. Are you familiar with the treatment of American 
citizens over in Japan who are now in the custody of the Japanese 
Government? 

Mr. Jensen. No; I have had no reports as to how they are being 
treated. 

Mr. Bender. You are familiar, however, with the manner in which 
American citizens are being treated in Germany? 

Mr. Jensen. Very. 

Mr. Bender. And Italy? 

Mr. Jensen. Very. 

Mr. Bender. It isn't so good, is it? 

Mr. Jensen. No. 

Mr. Bender. And you are familiar, of course, with the fact that we 
are fighting an enemy that does not share the view that you just 
expressed regarding the United States of America; that is, that fine 
charitable attitude that we have toward the least of our brethren here? 

You recognize that we are fighting, on all three fronts, those who 
don't share that view at all? 

Mr. Jensen. Insofar as the military leaders are concerned, I would 
agree with you; beyond that, I couldn't accept it. There are many 
people in Japan who do share this view of humanity. 



11572 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Bender. But they are not running the show. 

Mr. Jensen. No; that is true. 

Mr. Bender. The miUtary leaders are running it and others haven't 
a thing to say about it. Is that not con-ect? 

Mr, Jensen. Probably. I think they have very little to say. Yes; 
that is approximately correct. 

Mr. Bender. Thank you very much. 

Mr. Arnold, Mr. Jensen, I am sure you express the views of this 
committee with respect to humanitarian treatment to the greatest 
degi-ee the situation permits of. And we thank you for coming here. 

Mr. Jensen. May I add just one or two sentences? 

Mr, Arnold. Yes. 

definitely opposed to mass evacuation 

Mr. Jensen. What I would like to bring to your attention is that 
our committee does feel very definitely opposed to mass evacuation, 
unless it is a military necessity. We would strongly urge that if it is 
necessary, the services of professional social workers, people trained 
to deal with human problems, be enlisted; that consideration of 
individuals be given, for there are those who are obviously not dan- 
gerous and we would like to suggest the possibility of the consideration 
of alternative plans. It does not seem to us that it is either this, or 
that; but that there are other plans that might be considered. 

And if I might, in regard to the German aliens, say simply this — 
the German-Jewish aliens, I h^ve come to know a few of them 
quite intimately— this is personal, not requested on the part of the 
committee, though I am sure they concur with me— and I believe 
there are no people in our country of whom the probability of help to 
the Axis Powers is so small as from that group. I feel that our tra- 
ditional emphasis upon justice almost demands that that group, at 
least, be eliminated from consideration, as far as evacuation is con- 
cerned. 

Mr, Arnold, Would you agree with this telegram I have just 
received, and which I here insert in the record, that is, the telegram 
from Irene Fallis, Seattle: 

In my capacitj- as naturalization and English teacher I have had opportunity of 
knowing about 50 Jewish refugees who are no longer subjects of Germany. In my 
opinion these people are loyal to our democratic ideals of government. Almost all 
took out their first papers' immediately after arrival. They attend classes regu- 
larly, eager to learn our history and government, and keenly await the end of the 
5-year period when they can become citizens. I suggest that these refugees not be 
considered as enemy aliens. 

Would you agree with that? 

Mr. Jensen. I would entirely agree; yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Just this one observation. Doctor. Should military 
necessity or precaution demand certain action that is quite drastic, it 
occurs to me that the churches of America have a golden opportunity 
to render a great deal of service. There are missionary programs 
through many months to come, dealing with these people, and it may 
be a field whereto they can direct their activities, because the avenues 
of foreign service are shut off to a great extent, and it occurs to me 
there is going to be a need for all the work that they can do with these 
people, both in the movement of them and after they are moved. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11573 

Mr. Jensen. I sincerely hope that the churches will not be found 
wanting in that instance, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. Is Terry Pettus here? 

(There was no response). 

Mr. Arnold. Is Mr. Vedova here? 

Mr. VedoVa. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Is Mrs. Louise LaSalle here? 

Mrs. LaSalle. Yes; I am here. 

Mr. Curtis. Very well. 

TESTIMONY OF P. 0. D. VEDOVA, LAWYER, AND MRS. LOUISE rl 

LASALLE 

Mr. Curtis. Mrs. LaSalle, will you give your full name to the 
reporter, please? 

Mrs. LaSalle. Mrs. Louise LaSalle. 

Mr. Curtis. And what is yom- address? 

Mrs. LaSalle. 1332 Twenty-third Avenue South, Seattle, Wash. 

Mr. Curtis. How long have you lived in Seattle? 

Mrs. LaSalle. All my life. 

Mr. Curtis. You w^ere born here in Washington? . 

Mrs. LaSalle. I came from the old country when I was a year }i 

old, and I have been here since. 

Mr. Curtis. You were bom in Italy? 

Mrs. LaSalle. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. You nave become a naturalized citizen? 

Mrs. LaSalle. Yes; I nave. My father was naturalized when he 
got here. He came here 2 years before. 

Mr. Curtis. Are you engaged in any particular vocation or work? 

Mrs. LaSalle. I am working with my brother in a grocery store. 
And I have been there for 20 years, and it is quite a center, wJiere 
there are quite a few ItaUan people, and I have been with them and 
know an awful lot of them. 

Mr. Curtis. You have spent your life associating in both business d 

and socially with Italian Americans? i.' 

Mrs. LaSalle. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Vedova, will you give the reporter your full 
name, please? t] 

Mr. Vedova. P. O. D. Vedova. 

Mr. Curtis. And your address? 

Mr. Vedova. 554 Central Building is my business address, and 
1738 Boyer Avenue, Seattle, Wash., is my home address. 

Mr. Curtis. What is your business? 

Mr. Vedova. I am an attorney, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. How long have you lived in Seattle? 

Mr. Vedova. For 17 years. 

Mr. Curtis. Where were you born? 

Mr. Vedova. I was born in Italy. 

Mr. Curtis. At what age did you come here? 

Mr. Vedova. I was 11. * 

Mr. Curtis. And when were you naturalized? 

Mr. Vedova. My father was naturalized in 1908, a year after I came 
to America. 



11574 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Mr. Curtis. Have you been in close touch with the Italian people 
throughout your business career? 

Mr. Vedova. Yes; since I came to Seattle. Not prior thereto, 
but since I came to Seattle. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you transact legal business for many of the Ital- 
ians? 

Mr. Vedova. For a great many of them; yes, sir. 

Mr. Curtis. Mr. Vedova, what occupations do most of the local 
alien Italians follow? 

Mr. Vedova. Most of them are laborers. A great many of them 
are in the truck-gardening business; some are in the contracting 
business. I would say a large proportion are laborers. 

Mr. Curtis. Those that are aliens, are they of recent immigTation 
or have they been here for some time? 

Mr. Vedova. No; they have been here for a good many years. 1 
would saj, roughly guessing, the average would be at least from 15 
to 20 years. 

illiteracy as bar to citizenship 

Mr. Curtis. Is there any particular reason wh}^ they have not 
become naturalized? 

Mr. Vedova. Yes; there is. 

Mr. Curtis. Briefly, what is it? 

Mr. Vedova. Primarily, the fact that most who have come here, 
migrated from Italy, are of an uneducated class; a great many of them 
can't read or write; can't write their names, and the few that have 
had a little schooling, the third grade is about the highest that any of 
them have ever attended. As a consequence, it is almost impossible 
for many to acquire citizenship, because of their lack of ability to 
learn about our Goverimient. That has been the principal reason. 

Mr. Curtis. As a lawyer, what suggestions would you have to 
make for the handling of the property of these aliens, m case evacua- 
tion orders were issued and became effective? 

Mr. Vedova. Certauily a custodian should be appointed with 
sufficient assistants to take care of the property. Many of the aliens, 
especially among the Italians, are homeowners and have substantial 
properties. That would be the one thing that should be done. 

Mr. Curtis. The most of your Italian aliens are old people, are 
they? 

Mr. Vedova. A great number of them are very old. 

Mr. Curtis. Do you think that many of them are disloyal to this 
country? 

Mr. Vedova. Most emphatically not. I do not believe that there 
is anyone here, as far as I loiow, in Seattle, of whom it can be definitely 
said, this one is disloyal, or this is one not in accord with our Gov- 
ermnent. 

Mr, Curtis. Their ties and sympathies with the old country are 
pretty much broken? 

Mr. Vedova. Well, they may not be entirely broken; I wouldn't go 
to that extent. They have a friendly feeling toward Italy I believe; 
I think that is the general feeling among the older Italians, but nothing 
that is inconsistent with absolute loyalty to this country. 

Mr. Curtis. Do they uphold the Italian Government? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11575 

Mr. Vedova. No; they do not. I don't believe that any of them 
are in sympathy with the unholy alliance that has been perpetrated 
upon Italy by the rulers in existence at this time. It is an unnatural 
alliance as far as the Italians go, because they have never been 
friendly with the Germans. 

Mr. Curtis. There is no Fascist element among them? 

Mr. Vedova. No ; there is not. 

Mr. Curtis. Are they given to radicalisms of any kind very much? 

Mr. Vedova. No; I don't believe that they are. They" are very 
conservative and very stable, as a rule. 

Mr. Curtis. Mrs. LaSalle, we understand that you know a large 
number of people who will be affected by evacuation orders. Can 
you give us a brief description of a few of these cases? 

Mrs. LaSalle. Yes; I can. 

Mr. Curtis. All right; will you do so? 

HARDSHIP CASES 

Mrs. LaSalle. There are several that are old people, very old 
people. There is a couple, and he is 84 and she is 87. They have got 
a little home. They have no children. And as I am in the store 
there, they came in, both crying about that article that came out of 
the paper. They can't read. "Did you read? Are they going to 
make us lose our home? Where are we going?" 

The poor souls, you know, it is pitiful. 

There is another one, and she is 84, and she is blind; she is living 
with her daughter. The daughter has children of her own. They are 
American-born. The daughter says, "What am I going to do? Shall 
I let my mother go alone? Shall I leave my mother with the family?" 
And there is another big problem there. The old lady is blind; they 
have got to lead her around. 

There is another man, 87 years old. He is a lone man. He is a 
single man. And he shakes — he is just a nervous wreck. He just 
shakes. Sometimes he can't pick up the nickel from the counter that 
he has coming. He hears these things, and I asked Mr. Danney, 
I said, "What are you going to do?" "Well," he says, "I don't know, 
but Lake Washington, is awful close. That is the best I can do. 
I can't go any other where or any other place." 

So that isn't all. There are several, but mostly in the old people. 
The young folks are mostly all American citizens. It is pitiful for 
the very old people. 

Mr. Curtis. And you feel that in working out the details, some- 
thing should be done? 

Mrs. LaSalle. I think 

Mr. Curtis. That is, to be a bit more lenient with the aged and 
the infirm? 

Mrs. LaSalle. Yes. 

Mr. Curtis. And the invalids? 

Mrs. LaSalle. The old, they have no place to go; they can't earn 
anything, and they can't do no harm, because they don't get out of 
the house. 

I went to see a lady yesterday and she hasn't been out of the house 
for 6 months— from the bathroom to the kitchen and then back to 



11576 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

bed. Now, she can't read, she can't write, and she can't use the tele- 
phone. She doesn't understand a radio. So what harm could she 
give, even if she was left? She couldn't do no harm to anybody. To 
evacuate anybody like that would be, I think sometimes— well, it is 
pitiful; that is all. 

Mr. Curtis. Are any of these people making plans, of disposing 
of their property or the management of their business in case of 
evacuation? 

Mrs. LaSalle. Not yet; but of course, if they have got to do it, 
they will. They are going to do the best they can, I am sure. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, among those that are not real aged, or invahds, 
will they go willingly? 

Mrs. LaSalle. Yes; they will. 

There is also another example. Now, there is a lady, she has two 
boys in the Army, already there, and her husband and her — of course, 
they are not too old. They are people of about 56; something like 
that; well, they both got to go. Now, when the boys come back 
and they leave for home, and they don't find mother and father 
there, well, that don't look so good, either. You see, those boys, it 
kinds of breaks their morale, too. They are going out to fight to 
save them, and they come back and don't find them there. That is 
just something that I think you should think about. 

Mr. Curtis. I think you can be assured that anyone and everyone 
who has anything to do with this is in sympathy with the various 
things that you have said. War in itself is cruelty from beginning to 
end, and innocent people suffer and there is no way of escaping that; 
but I think that everyone will agree that if we have to undergo 
cruelty, that American cruelty is not as bad as that of the rest of the 
world. 

Mrs. LaSalle. No, and they never have been. 

Mr. Curtis. We thank you for your appearance here. 

Mr. Bender. Mr. Vedova, how do these people feel about Musso- 
lini? 

Mr. Vedova. Mussolini? 

Mr. Bender. Do they think that he is a real statesman? Or do 
they think he is a ham actor? 

Mr. Vedova. No; they think that he is a ham actor that has sold 
them do^\^l the river; that is about the consensus of opinion. 

BYLAWS AND RITUALS OF ITALIAN SOCIETIES 

I wonder if I may — you spoke about loyalty of the Italians. I 
have, since Mr. Tipton called me yesterday, gathered together the 
bylaws and the rituals of all of the various societies that exist in Seattle. 
There are about five of them, and I should be very grateful if the 
committee would permit me to give these to you, as they show just 
what their feelings toward this country are. 

Mr. Benjamin. Have you copies for us? 

Mr. Vedova. Yes; I have copies; that is, originals, of ah. There 
are five different societies. Four of them are local organizations, and 
one is a national organization.. 

Mr. Bender. We will be very glad to have them as exhibits for 
our record.^ 

' The rituals, etc., described by the witness, are held in committee files. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11577 

Mr. Vedova. Yes; I would appreciate that. May I call attention 
to the one that is probably the most important, because it is national. 
I have the constitution and general bylaws of that organization, which 
were printed in 1935. Among the principles they set forth, is — 

To sponsor the civic and social education of its own members in harmony with 
their duties as citizens of this great Nation and promote the fundamental con- 
ception of Americanism, based upon the respect for the Constitution, obedience 
to the laws, devotion to the Government of the Republic, and the defense of its 
institutions. 

That is found on page 37 of the constitution and bylaws. Again, 
quoting from page 38, with reference to the qualifications of members, 
under article h — 
to be of good moral reputation. 

Article m — 

to believe in the Government of the United States, and to obey and defend its 
laws and Constitution. 

And article n — 

to believe in the fundamental idea of country and nation, and not to profess any 
doctrines whose postulates strive to overthrow the social orders. 

Now, that is the constitution of the parent organization, which 
exists throughout the United States, and it is composed of, oh, I 
guess, 100,000, at least, and possibly more. 

And I also have the bylaws of the local organization, which^carry 
out more or less the same idea. 

Mr. Bender. Is that the Sons of Italy? 

Mr. Vedova. Yes. This is the parent organization, and the one 
that I have in my hand now is the local organization. There are two 
copies; one is written in Italian, and the other one is in Enghsh, and 
they can be compared. 

Now, the local organization, when they initiate a member, this is 
what their president, or whatever he is called, states to them — referring 
to the canchdate: I am quoting now from page 12 of this ritual: 

He is welcome among us, provided he learns and remembers that the existence 
of our beloved order is based upon the devotion and the loyalty of its members 
for this great American country and its institutions. 

Now, unfortunately, I do not have the printing date of this, but it 
antedates the 1935 edition of the parent organization, and is the one 
that is in existence now. 

Then, there is what is called the Independent Society, which con- 
sists of approximately — oh, I will say 200 or 300 members. That is a 
local organization, and has no branches anywhere. It is a mutual 
benefit organization. In case someone gets sick, they try to take care 
of him. This is their object, to a large extent, and I quote from page 
19: 

Raise your right hand and repeat after me. 

This is the oath that they take: 

I, [So-and-so], of my own free will, do sincerely promise and declare that I 
faithfullv accept the rules and regulations of the Italian Independent Society No. 1 
of Seattle. I hereby solemnly swear to keep secret and never to reveal any- 
thing — 

and so on, the usual secret stuff of these organizations like the Elks 
and the Eagles. 



11578 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

I shall endeavor if possible to help a member in need, and to cooperate with the 
officers and members of this society, and do whatever possible for its betterment. 
I make this promise on my honor as a man, and as I respect the valor of truth. 

That seems to be about the only thmg that touches the situation 
in that society. 

The next one that I have here is the M. S. S. A. Society. That is 
entirely a religious organization, and the qualifications for their mem- 
bers is that they must be of Catholic faith, and if they are married, 
their marriage must be solemnized in accordance with the rules of the 
Roman Catholic Church. Then, we have an Italian workers' society. 
That, too, is a mutual-benefit organization and nothing more. The 
only scope is to help any of them that arc in need. It has no political 
significance of any kind. 

The Independent Society No. 1, which I spoke of a little while 
ago, also has a junior organization, composed of the young boys and 
girls that, of course, were all born here. And the}" also have rules 
and regulations, and bylaws, and I quote from page 24 of their bylaws, 
which is this: 

The purpose of the Junior Order of the Italian Independent Society No. 1 
of Seattle is to unite all young male people of the Caucasian race, able to speak 
the Italian language, and who are of Italian descent. The parent organization, 
the Italian Independent Society No. 1 of Seattle, will give to its junior order, 
all the moral and financial support possible to the end that the members of this 
ordeF will become better citizens of this country and to learn to respect the laws 
of the United States of America and of the State of Washington. 

Now, there is also still another organization known as the Italian 
Club of Seattle. That is not a mutual-benefit organization. It is 
simply a group of individuals organized for a good time, mostly, and 
that is about all. They have the Italian Club on Seventh and Union; 
but their meetings used to be held on 1520 Seventeenth Avenue. 
There is an Italian Hall there, which has now been donated for the 
duration of the war to the American Red Cross. 

Mr. Bender. Yes. Will you leave those with the reporter? 

Mr. Vedova. Yes; I will leave those with the reporter. They 
carry out the same idea. 

(In addition to the rituals, etc., of Italian societies, mentioned 
previously, the witness introduced the following material for the 
record and same was accepted:) 

Resolution 

Whereas on the 10th day of June 1940 the Kingdom of Italy has declared war 
upon the British Isles and the Republic of France; and 

Whereas the President of our United States has formally stated and announced 
that the Government of Italy had refused his good offices tendered for the pur- 
pose of peacefully settling legitimate aspirations claimed by said kingdom; and 

Whereas said war was declared without justifiable cause: Now, therefore, be it 
hereby 

Resolved, That the action of the Government of Italy in declaring said war be 
and the same is hereby condemned and disapproved; and be it hereby further 

Resolved, That this organization approves the criticism of our Government against 
the acts of the Government of Italy and each and all of the members of this 
organization do hereby affirm their patriotism for this our country of birth and/or 
adoption and do hereby state without equivocation or mental reservation that 
each and all are ready to take up arms in defense of the United States of America 
against any and all enemies whether they be within or without the boundaries 
of the United States. 

The above resolution was approved by the unanimous vote of the membership 
of the Italian Club, Inc., on this 12th day of June 1940. 

, President, 

, Secretary. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11579 

Seattle, AVash., December 15, 1941. 

Pursuant to call a special joint meeting of the board of governors and board of 
directors of the Italian Community Hall, a nonprofit corporation, was held at the 
Casa Itahana, on the 15th day of December 1941. The meeting was called to 
order at 8:30 p. m. by Joe jMangini, pre^^ident of the board of directors. Mr. 
Mangini then called upon George Faltico, president of the board of governors, to 
conduct the joint meeting. 

The following members were present: 

Joe Mangini, president of board of directors. 

Gino Chiappa, secretary of board of directors. 

George Faltico, president of board of governor. 

P. O. D. Vedova, secretary of board of governor. 

Peter Nelli, treasurer, board of directors. 

James Scavotto, member of board of governor. 

Ottavio Ferrari, member of board of governor. 

Alfonso LaSalle, member of board of directors. 

Domenic Vitulli, member of board of directors. 

Joe Rizutto, member of board of directors. 

Mrs. Domenica Bosi, member of board of directors. 

Ambrose Chiappa, accountant, board of governor and board of directors. 

Mr. Faltico announced that the purpose of the meeting was to discuss the sug- 
gestion made by Miss Maryann Coluccio and inunerous other members of the 
Italian American Community of the city of Seattle that the Casa Italiana Building 
be offered to the Seattle CJhapter of the American Red Cross for the duration of the 
present emergency and for the duration of the war. to be used by them for what- 
ever purpose they may deem necessary, without charge or conditions of any kind, 
except that the building be returned to the corporation at the encj of the war, in 
its present state and condition. 

The following resolution was thereupon offered by president George Faltico 
and James Scavotto: 

"Whereas our country, the United States of America, is now in a state of war 
with the Empire of Japan, the German Reich, and the Kingdom of Italy; and 

Whereas it is the paramount duty and privilege of every individual and organ- 
ization to do its utiTiost for the preservation of the fundamental rights of humanity, 
and for the defeat of the forces of aggression that would destroy us: Now, there- 
fore, be it hereby 

Resolved, That the Italian Community Hall, a nonprofit corporation, offer its 
building, known as the Casa Italiana, located at 1520 Seventeenth Avenue, Seattle, 
Wash., togetlier with its furniture, fixtures and equipment, to the Seattle Chapter 
of the American Red Cross, to be used by said organization for whatsoever'purpose 
they deem necessary, for the duration of the present emergency and for the dura- 
tion of the war. The offer shall have no qualifications or conditions save and 
excepting that the building he returned to its present owner at the expiration of 
the existing war in as near the same state and condition as the premises now are." 

A motion was duly made and seconded that the resolution be adopted and by 
the unanimous vote of all present said resolution was passed and affirmed as the 
official act of the corporation, and in compliance thereto, P. O. D. Vedova was 
instructed to submit the offer to the Seattle Chapter of the American Red Cross 
and to execute any and all necessary legal documents for the purpose of effectuating 
said resolution. 

There being no further business to come before the board, the meeting was 
adjourned at 9 p. m. 

Signed and sealed at Seattle, Wash., this 15th day of December 1941. 

Joe Mangini, 
President of Board of Directors. ^ 

George Faltico, 
President of Board of Governors. 

Gixo Chiappa, 
Secretary of Board of Directors. 

P. O. D. Vedova, 
Secretary of Board of Governors. 



60396— 42— pt. 30 19 



11580 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

P. O. D. Vedova, 
Seattle, Wash., December 17, 1941. 

Seattle Chapter American Red Cross, 

Disaster and Relief Department, Seattle, Wash. 
Attention Mr. Weidmer. 

Dear Mr. Weidmer: In pursuance to our conversation we are pleased to 
enclose herewith copy of minutes and resolution passed and adopted by the 
Italian Community Hall, placing the Casa Italiana located at 1520 Seventeenth 
Avenue, Seattle, Wash., at the disposal of the American Red Cross. 

The building consists of two stories and a basement, and is constructed of brick 
and concrete; its dimensions are approximately 50 by 100 feet. The basement is 
equipped with a large modern range, dishes, cooking utensils, chairs and tables 
for the accommodation of about 200 people. The first floor is divided into three 
lodge rooms, a reception hall, cloak room, and toilets, and on the second story 
there is a large ballroom and cloak room. 

The building was erected by the Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Co. and was 
purchased and renovated by the Italian-Americans of Seattle in 1930, at a cost 
of more than $50,000. 

Transfer of the building can be made forthwith. Please contact us at your 
early convenience. 

We thank you very kindly for your courtesy and kindness. 
Yours truly, 



July 7, 1938. 
Mr. Max Silver, 

President, B'nai B'rith Seattle Lodge No. 503, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Dear Sir: It has recently been called to the attention of the board of g^overnors 
of the Italian Community Hall that a Nazi Association — the German-American 
Bund — has been permitted to meet at the Casa Italiana. 

May we please be permitted to advise you that the board, who is in charge and 
control of this building, was not informed of the meeting and knew nothing con- 
cerning the matter. Upon learning of this fact, we immediately made an investi- 
gation and found that permission was granted by the caretaker without consulting 
any of the officers of the organization. We have now issued positive instructions 
that the use of the building is to be denied to any organization of that type. You 
may rest assured that such an occurrence will not again be permitted. 

We are extremely sorry for this unfortunate event, and desire to extend to you 
and to your members our sincere apologies. 

Please be assured that the Italian- Americans of Seattle value your friendship, 
and that we are unalterably opposed to all movements of this type. 
Very truly yours, 

Board of Governors of Italian Community Hall. 
By George Faltico, Chairman. 
By P. O. D. Vedova, Secretary. 



Constitution and Bylaws of the Italian-American Council 

preamble 

For the purpose of stiinulating and encouraging a more active participation and 
interest among the Italian-Americans of the State of Washington, in the local, 
State, and national affairs of the United States of America, there is hereby formed 
a social, civil, and political welfare council. 

ARTICLE I. NAME 

The name of this organization shall be the Italian-American Council. 

ARTICLE II. OBJECTS 

The objects of this council shall be to strengthen the union of interests and 
responsibilities among the Italian-Americans of the State of Washington, by pro- 
moting good citizenship in all fields of endeavor through unified action. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11581 

ARTICLE III. MEMBERSHIP 

(a) Qualifications. — Only persons of high moral standing who profess undivided 
loyalty to the United States of America shall ever be proposed or elected to mem- 
bership in this council. All members must be of Italian extraction. 

(6) Method of election. — All candidates for membership shall be voted upon by 
the council, at any regular or special meeting, upon proposal in writing, endorsed 
by a member in good standing. 

(c) Oath of members. — All members of this council shall subscribe in open meeting 
to the following oath: 

"I do hereby solemnly promise and swear without equivocation or mental 
reservation, that I will under all circumstances, support the Constitution of the 
United States, and of the State of Washington, its institutions and established 
authority, and I do hereby further solemnly promise and swear, that I will aid 
and assist in the objects of this council as herein set forth; that I will always cheer- 
fully abide by all legal decisions made, and that I will never use its influence or 
power for my personal benefit, without first receiving the endorsement and ap- 
proval of the council." 

{d) Expulsion. — The power of expulsion shall be vested in the executive board. 
Upon proposal in writing to said board a member may be expelled for good cause 
shown. No vote, however, shall be taken, until after reasonable opportunity to 
be heard has been given. 

(e) Dues. — The dues for members of this Council shall be $1 per year or fraction 
thereof, payable in advance at the first meeting in September in each year. 

ARTICLE IV. OFFICERS AND THEIR DUTIES 

The officers of this council shall consist of a president, vice president, secretary, 
treasurer, and 15 trustees. These officers shall compose the -executive board of 
the council. 

(a) The president shall preside at all meetings of the council, and shall conduct 
the samp in accordance with parlimentary rules of order. He shall not take part 
in the discussions while presiding, and shall countersign all authorized checks. 

(6) The vice president shall assist the president, and shall preside in his ab- 
sence, or when called upon to do so. 

(c) The secretary shall carry on the correspondence of the council. 

(d) The treasurer shall take care of the finances of the council, and shall sign 
all checks in the disbursement of funds upon motion passed by the council in open 
meeting. 

(e) The board of trustees shall see that the purposes of the council are carrie(/ 
out, and that the interests of its members are maintained. 

(/) The president, vice president, secretary, and treasurer shall be elected 
annually at the first meeting of the council in September of each year, and shall be 
nominated by the board of trustees. 

{g) The members of the board of trustees shall be nominated and elected by the 
council at a regular election in September. The five receiving the largest number 
of votes shall be elected for a term of 3 years, the five trustees receiving the next 
to the largest vote shall be elected for 2 years, and the remaining five shall be 
elected for 1 year. The trustee who receives the largest number of votes shall be 
considered the chairman and shall preside at all meetings of the executive board. 

{h) All vacancies in the executive board shall be filled by majoritj^ vote of the 
remaining members thereof. 

{i) Any officer may be recalled at any time by a vote of the council, upon 
proposal in writing. No vote, however, shall be taken thereon, until after due 
notice by mail has been sent to the membership. 

ARTICLE V. PUBLIC RELATIONS COMMITTEE 

The executive board shall appoint a public relations committee to be composed 
of three members whose duty shall be to make reports and recommendations to the 
council in the conduct of its social, civil, and political activities. 

The executive board shall appoint such other and further committees as it 
may deem advisable. 

ARTICLE VI. QUORUM AND VOTING 

A quorum shall consist of nine members of the council, and a quorum of the 
executive board and permanent standing committees shall consist of a majority 
thereof. The council shall take no action of any kind, except on a two-thirds vote 
of those present. 



11582 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

ARTICLE VII. MEETINGS 

This council shall meet any time upon call issued by a majority of the executive 
board or by the president. 

ARTICLE VIII. DISSOLUTION 

This council cannot be dissolved as long as seven members object thereto. 

ARTICLE IX. AMENDMENTS 

Amendments to these bylaws may be proposed in writing, at any meeting 
of the council, but no vote shall be taken thereon, until after due notice by mail 
has been sent to the members thereof. 

AMENDMENT TO ARTICLE III. MEMBERSHIP 

Sec. VIII. Honorary vxemhershiip. — Honorary membership may be conferred 
upon anyone especially deserving of such honor. The proposal of honorary 
membersip may be made at any regular or special meeting but no such proposal 
shall be voted upon until a notice to that eflfect shall have been sent to the mem- 
bers. A unanimous vote shall be required to elect one to such membership and 
he shall not be required to pay dues or admission fee. 

Mr. Curtis. We thank you very much. 
Mr. Vedova. Thank you, sir. 
Mr. Arnold. Is Mr. Terry Pettus here yet? 
(No response.) 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. ESTHER S. BOYD AND DAN McDONALD, 

OF WAPATO, WASH. 

Mr. Arnold. If not, then, we have two residents of the Yakima 
Valley^ — Mrs. Esther S. Boyd and Mr. Dan McDonald, who has 
asked to appear for about 5 minutes. 

We are through our regidar program, and, if you will, Mrs. Boyd, 
say what you wish to the committee. However, before you proceed, 
will you please give your names and addresses to the reporter, and also 
state what you are engaged in? 

Mrs. Boyd. Mrs. Esther S. Boyd. I am engaged in the hardware 
business, Wapato, Wash. 

Mr. McDonald. Dan McDonald, Wapato, Wash. 

Mr. Bender. Where is Wapato, Wash.? 

Mr. McDonald. That is in the Yakima Valle3^ 

Mrs. Boyd. It is on the Indian reservation, east of the mountains. 

Mr. Bender. And what is your occupation, Mr. McDonald? 

Mr. McDonald. A farmer. 

(The following statements were introduced by the witnesses and 
accepted for the record: 

Seattle, Wash., March 1, 1943. 
To the Tolan Committee: 

I am a farmer in the Yakima Valley. IVIy mother came to the valley in 1875 
with other early pioneers; my father came in 1882 from Canada. Both were of 
Scotch descent. They were farmers, and since my father's death in 1928 I have 
been executor and manager of his estate and of my mother's property, which, 
combined, totals 500 acres of farm land. 

I graduated from Washington State College in 1923. I was a member of the 
school board in my district for 12 years. I worked with the Boy Scout organiza- 
tion for 12 years "as a member of the troop committee. I have been secretary 
of the Kanewock Ditch Co. for 14 years. In all these activities I have come in 
close association with many Japanese. For the past 30 years my parents' land 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11583 

has been partly tilled by Japanese families, who raised truck crops principally. 
I have found that due to their long experience in this work, Japanese farmers are 
the most skilled truck farmers in the valley. If these Japanese are evacuated, it 
would take, I should judge, at least four white farmers to raise the same amount 
of truck crop as one Japanese farmer, due to their lack of knowledge and skilled 
training in this line. 

Records show that the Japanese students are very bright and industrious. 
Almost all Japanese children in the valley finish high school and many attend 
universities and colleges. There is almost no juvenile delinquency among them. 

My contact with the Japanese has proved to me that they are good citizens of 
the United States. They have very good morals; they are hard working, thrifty, 
law abiding, anxious to contribute to national and community enterprises and to 
charitable work. 

Most of the Japanese aliens in the Yakima Valley have been there for at least 
25 years. They are not citizens because they are not allowed to become citizens. 
They came here for the same reason that all of our ancestors came — to live where 
they might have freedom and pursue a richer, fuller life. Their children were 
born here; they were taught that they were Americans, and as such were entitled 
to all the privileges which Americans enjoy as free people. I believe that they 
also feel that their duty to our country is to defend it. I know a good many young 
Japanese born here, and I know that they feel that this is their country ; they have no 
other; and they wish to do what they can to defend it. They are naturally very 
worried over the present situation and they are deeply hurt because their loyalty 
is doubted. I have never known one young Japanese who wished to go to Japan 
to live. I know one girl who was sent back to live with her grandmother, who was 
all alone. She did not like it there; she felt that she was out of place and was 
very happy when she was able to return to the United States. 

I think it is a mistake and unnecessary to evacuate the Japanese. It would 
create a big economic problem. We know farm labor is going to be scarce this 
season. Who would replace the Japanese laborers? The Filipinos cannot 
because they are totally inexperienced in truck farming. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Dan McDonald, 

Wapato, Wash. 



Seattle, Wash., March 1, 1942. 
To the Tolan Committee: 

I am a university graduate, of pure English descent. I have been president of 
the Yakima McKinley Parent Teachers Association, the largest in the city; I 
have been program chairman of the largest woman's organization in Yakima — 
the Woman's Century Club; I have been treasurer of that same organization, 
handling thousands of dollars for them; I have been secretary of the Yakima Asso- 
ciation of University Women; I declined the nomination for president of that 
organization. For the past 6 vears I have owned and operated a large hardware 
store in Wapato, doing an annual business of from $35,000 to $40,000. However, 
I am not dependent upon that business for my livelihood so that I can dare to 
express my convictions, convictions which are held by many other people in my 
communitV who dare not express them for fear of economic loss or for fear of 
social censure. 

I have lived in the Yakima Valley for 17 years. I have come to know the 
Japanese there very well. I have visited them in their homes. Some of them 
have been in mv home as welcome guests. Each year in my business I charge 
off several hundred dollars in bad accounts. Never in all this time have I charged 
off a bad Japanese account, although about one-third of my business is with the 
Japanese. I trust them, and they trust me. I have one Japanese customer who 
simply hands me his checkbook and I write out the check for the amount of his 
account, which sometimes amounts to $100. 

We have in our communitv a good many Japanese truck farmers — people who 
came to our land to establish their homes 25 and 35 years ago, whose children 
were born here and have been educated with our children in our public .schools. 
They have been brilliant students and we have perhaps envied them their capa- 
bilities or their perseverance in developing them. The parents were never per- 
mitted to become citizens, and now we call them aliens, but their children are 
American citizens even as we are. ^Nlany of them are in the Army. The parents 
have given their children willingly and proudly for the service of our country. 



11584 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Those at home want to do whatever they can to best help our country. The funds 
of the Red Cross in our section have been greatly augmented by the voluntary 
contributions of the Japanese. They would increase these donations still more if 
they were allowed to give a benefit dance, but they dare not have group meetings. 

Since the war began our local Japanese have done everything in their power to 
cooperate with our Government. They have willingly turned in whatever the 
Government has asked for. Now all they ask is the privilege of getting into their 
fields and producing as only they can, the crops which this country needs to feed 
its Army and its civilian population. These people are farmers, they are not 
saboteurs. If you knew them personally as I do, you would realize that. Since 
you do not, I can only ask you to use your intelligence. Will a man who is ex- 
hausted from long, hard labor in the fields — labor begun at 4 in the morning and 
continued until dark — will such a man have any energy left for espionage work? 
No. As I say, these people are farmers; they know it is time to plant their crops — 
the earth is calling to them, and in spite of the dreadful uncertainty, in spite of 
the fact that the banks will give them no crop loans as they have in the past, 
these people are bravely beginning their plantings. 

But there now develops on the part of some white people the desire to get rid 
of these Japanese who have worked diligently, educated their children well, and 
achieved some measure of financial security. The great cry of "Kick the Japa- 
nese out of the Yakima Valley" is not due to fear of sabotage, it is due to eco- 
nomic reasons. As one person naively explained to me, "The white farmer would 
have more land and more water if he could get rid of the Japanese, and he could 
demand a higher price for his farm produce." Is this a more patriotic attitude 
than that of the Japanese man who said to me, "I don't want to make a profit 
this year, Mrs. Boyd; all I want is to raise a crop and have enough to feed my 
wife and myself." 

From a purely economic standpoint it seems very foolish to evacuate these 
people from the Yakima Valley. They are willing to submit to whatever super- 
vision the military deems necessary. They are preeminently truck farmers. 
They have been doing this work for years. As one excellent white farmer assured 
me, they can, individually, produce three or four times the amount that one good 
white farmer can. We are going to have a big labor shortage in our valley. 
While our other citizens have been flocking to the coast to go into defense 
industries and command higher wages our Japanese farmers have stayed on the 
land and hoped to help this country in the best way they knew how. If we evac- 
uate them, they become, through no fault of theirs, a financial burden to our 
country and we lose the food they would have produced. 

Respectfully submitted. 

Esther S. Boyd, 

Wapato, Wash. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. ESTHER S. BOYD— Resumed 

Mrs. Boyd. I wish to appear before this committee because I feel 
that much of the agitation which has come from east of the mountains 
for the evacuation of the Japanese, both citizens and ahens, has come 
from an economic rather than from a patriotic motive. 

It has been said in my presence by white citizens, that if we could 
remove the Japanese, that the white growers would have more land, 
more irrigation water, and also would be able to command a better 
price for their farm produce. Now, this is not particularly a patriotic 
attitude at this time. The Japanese farmer, on the other hand, says 
that he wishes to go ahead and raise crops for the Government. He 
realizes that the Government needs produce this year. Many of the 
people of our valley have come over to the coast to go into the defense 
industries. 

Mr. Bender. Do you mean Japanese? 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11585 

JAPANESE PROCEEDING WITH FARMING OPERATIONS 

Mrs. Boyd. No; more white people. And this is creating; a veiy 
definite labor shortage. It was said this morning that our Japanese 
growers were not doing anything to cultivate the soil. Now, I live in 
that community and I see these people, and I know that they have 
done everything that is within their power to go ahead and prepare the 
soil. It is true that we have had a late spring, and that the fields have 
been covered with snow and have been frozen time and again. It is also 
true that they must have the money in order to start their work. 
They have gone to the banks, and the banks which have always given 
them crop loans until this year, have said, "No. We cannot give 
you any loans unless you have very adequate collateral." And in 
spite of that, and in spite of the attitude which has been taken by 
some of the white people, these people have gone ahead and have 
bought hot beds to plant their seedlings in, so that they can get early 
vegetables. I saw one boy who had a truckload of peas, and he said, 
"I know I am taking a risk in putting these in, but the crops has to be 
put in early, and I am going ahead and do it just the best I can." 

Mr. Arnold. How far east of here are you? 

Mrs. Boyd. About 175 miles. 

Mr. Aronld. Do you think it is probable or possible that the 
Japanese there think they will not be evacuated from the territory 
they are in? 

Mrs. Boyd. They are hoping that they will not be. 

Mr. Arnold. As I understand it, you both live in that 8,000-acre 
area in the Indian reservation that is farm leased by the Japanese? 

Mrs. Boyd. Yes. 

Mr. Arnold. Go ahead now. 

Mrs. Boyd. It was also said this morning that we produced enough 
for our own use. We ship carload after carload of produce from the 
Yakima VaUey. We couldn't begin to consume the amount of 
produce that is raised there. Probably the Japanese growers raise 
from 15,000 to 20,000 tons of tomatoes every year, and this year, 
they realize that the Government needs tomatoes. It is asking for 
tomato juice and it is asking for carrots, and the men have said to 
me, ''Well, that is what we want to plant. That is what our country 
wants, and we want to cooperate with it." 

ULTERIOR MOTIVES IN URGING EVACUATION OF JAPANESE 

Mr. Bender. You are under the impression that they are using 
this war, some of the natives are using this war effort for the purpose 
of hornswoggling the Japanese out of their property? 

Mrs. Boyd. I am positive that many of them feel that it is a 
golden opportunity for that. I had one may say, "Well, we will kick 
the Japanese off the reservation, and we will give the white man a 
chance." 

Mr. Bender. Do you think that the United States Government 
will permit that? 

Mrs. Boyd. I hope that it will not. 

Mr. Curtis. I think that it is well that you placed your statement 
in the record, because, unfortunately, there are people who would 



11586 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

take advantage of the situation that, so far as the people who are 
making the decision are concerned, is dominated only by military 
necessity. However, at the same time, there are others who might 
be agitating and taking advantage of the situation, whose motives 
were un-American. 

Mrs. Boyd. I think that all the Japanese in that section are more 
than willing to do anything that is required of them by the military 
or by their Government. Because they have said to me time and 
again, "If the military thinks that it is necessary, or if it wants it. we 
will do it." 

Mr. Arnold. Mr. McDonald, are you a farmer in that area? 

TESTIMONY OF DAN McDONALD— Resumed 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Arnold. On this 8,000-acre reservation? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes, I am on that. 

Mr. Arnold. You may proceed with what you have to say. 

Mr. McDonald. Well, as a farmer, we were short of labor last 
year. Now, with the great influx of our boys and our help into the 
defense factories and into the military service, we are going to be far 
short of what we had last year. From the farming angle, today the 
farmer has to be a specialist. He has to be skilled in certain lines. 
If he is a fruit grower, he has to know the angles of that. If he is a 
truck-garden grower, he has to know all about that. If our Japanese 
were evacuated there — they produce 70 percent of the tomatoes and 
such ot our truck crops which will be vitally needed in this war 
effort — that would leave 30 percent of our farmers, white farmers, 
who are skilled in that trade. For me and the others to step in and 
try to fill that gap, would take years of experience to try to produce 
what the Japanese boys are doing. 

Mr. Arnold. Don't you produce tomatoes now? 

Mr. McDonald. I have some, but the farmers that could fill the 
gap in that would have to have experience and be skilled. It is just 
like a physician. He spends 10 years studying before he can go out 
and practice. Well, that is the position the truck grower is in. 

MIGRATORY FARM LABOR 

Then, on the farm-labor shortage angle, we depend on migratory 
help. In the fall, we have not less than 40,000 to 50,000 migratory 
help in that valley; another angle that is going to affect that this year 
is the tire problem. As a rule, those people come in in cars on which 
the tires are shot, and they just about have enough to get there. 
This year, that is going to enter into it. 

There are just so many problems that if those boys are evacuated 
from that area, it is certainly going to affect the amount of produce 
produced in the Yakima Valley. 

Mr. Arnold. WTiere do those 50,000 persons come from? 

Mr. AlcDoNALD. Everywhere. 

Mr. Arnold. Are they Mexicans, or are they largely American 
transients? 

Mr. McDonald. They are largely Americans. For the fall harvest 
of the hops and apples, we go into Canada, clear back to Montana, 
and truck them in and bring them in in trainloads. We go up into 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11587 

Vancouver Island for the Indians. They are just brought in from 
all over. 

LOYALTY OF JAPANESE CHILDREN 

Now, as to these Japanese, I have had pretty close contact with 
them for the past 30 years, and I consider that they are loyal. If I 
and my son have to go across the water to fight — he is in his teens — • 
I am not afraid of those boys failing to produce back on the soil, at 
the home place. As to students in our schools — I have been on the 
school board for years and have handled boys and worked in the 
Boy Scout group, and the Japanese boys in the Scout group have been 
excellent citizens. The girls and boys in the school have ranked above 
my child and most of her race, so far as scholarships went. I think 
that it would be safe to say that 75 percent on the honor roll are 
Japanese. Morally, the Japanese children rank — ^even outrank our 
white children. We have around 925 or something like that, in our 
valley, and the big share of them there are farmers. 

Mr. Curtis. Your valley is across the Cascades, is it? 

Mr. McDonald. Yes; that is across the Cascades, about 175 miles. 

Mr. Curtis. You don't know at this time whether or not you will 
be affected by any order that is made? 

Mr. McDonald. No, we don't. Everything is just up in the air. 
The boys are going ahead, as Mrs. Boyd said, with the land, hoping 
that they are going to stay, but this will have to be settled quicldy. 
They can prepare the land up to that time, but if they cannot get 
money to plant the seed. Tomatoes and the like of that have to be in 
right soon. 

Mr. Bender. What percentage of the Japanese in your ar^a are 
natives, and what percentage are aliens? 

Mr. McDonald. I think that that nine hundred and sornething 
runs that about 600 who are natives and three hundred something are 
aliens, I think. 

Mr. Bender. That is all I have. 

Mr. Arnold. Thank you very much. We are glad to have your 
testimony. 

As I say, we are through our regular program. Here is Mr. Fred 
H. Lysons, attorney at law, Seattle, who has sent up a statement in the 
form of a letter, which will be incorporated, and if you have anything 
to say, Mr. Lysons, you are at liberty to say it now, 

Mr. Lysons. Thank you. 

Mr. Bender. I wish to introduce a short statement by Hon. Fred 
H. Lysons, an attorney of Seattle. 

(The statement is as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY FRED H. LYSONS, SEATTLE 
As a contribution to your inquiry, I submit the following statement: 
By Way of Self-Identification 

1. Law partnership with former Congressman from this district (1917-31), 
John F. Miller; law office associate with former Senator (1935-40) Lewis B. 
Schwellenbach. 

Opportunity for Knowledge of Far East 

2. Commercial connections took me to the Orient in 1913, 1919, 1921-22, on 
the last of which trips I participated in conferences on the Nine Power Treaty 
then under negotiation, particularly China's surrender of her trade boycott 
against Japan as a consideration for that treaty. 



11588 PORTL.\XD .\XD SEATTLE HEARINGS 

3. Observation and study on these trips were convincing of the military -and- 
aggression-mindedness of the Japanese; a conviction confirmed by the memorial 
of the Japanese Black Dragon Society of 1914. Japan's Twenty-one Demands of 
1915, the Tanaka memorial of 1927, and subsequent events down to the present 
hour. 

FRtTTAGE OF JaPAX's PROGRAM 

4. Japan's demonstrated purpose of world conquest, both military and eco- 
nomic, as fast as her preparedness permitted, prompted my appeals to the adminis- 
tration, beginning in i93S, to utilize the Xine Power Treaty as a means of pre- 
venting Japan's rapidly progressing preparation for this conquest. 

5. This led to the drafting of the proposed act of Congress:, bashed on the treaty, 
which resulted in the Sehwellenbach Senate Joint Resolution 143 and the Walgren 
House Joint Resolution 31S. introduced in the respective branches of Congress, 
June 1939, which bills met with the approval of informed persons on the subject 
generally, including present Secretary Stinison. 

Coxcltjsions AS Applied to Present Emergexcy 

6. Our safety cannot be assured without complete removal of the Japanese 
from any opportunity for fifth-column activities. 

7. The greatest danger in this respect is the native-born, because of their 
knowledge of our language, habits, and practices, and consequent advantages in 
the employment, to our damage, of their eyes, ears, and tongues. 

8. Abundantly confirming the disloyalty of the native-born Japanese is that 
neither at Pearl Harbor nor at any place within the mainland have they disclosed 
information (necessarily within their knowledge! of such activities. Similarly, 
equally with their nationals, they have responded to their country's continuing 
war assessments on Japanese abroad. 

9. More inconceivable than that American children born in Japan (in mis- 
sionary families, etc.'* should embrace Japanese citizenship and loyalty is that 
Japanese born here should renounce Japanese citizenship; since (o) Japanese law 
imposes that status upon them. (M They are schooled and trained to the con- 
viction that their government is of divinity. For example, in 1914. the memorial 
of the, Black Dragon Society, a program for the conquest of the Chinese (since 
scrupulously followed) opens with the statement that it is Japan's "divine 
mission" to solve the Chinese question in a heroic manner. 

10. Xo greater contribution to the finality of Japan's war success can be made 
than to handle the question before this committee on the basis of preventing 
financial loss and pergonal inconvenience and hardship. If we get out of this 
war withotit widely spread inconvenience and hardship, and even stiffering, we 
will emerge from it at the losing end. 

11. As to the shortage of truck gardeners through internment of Japanese: 
We had such gardeners before the Japanese came, which Japanese standards of 

living and workins; conditions — long day and night hours by families and women 
and children — eliminated this competition. 

This has brought an luihealthy economic condition. Xo greater service can be 
rendered the coimtry than to restore this former condition. 

12. This truck gardening condition is one wedge of Japan's program of conquest 
— her nationals aboard to acquire monopoly control of essential industries and 
occupations. 

With the accomplishment of this program. American industry will be crippled 
beyond recovery and our labor, including agriculture, will be reduced to choice 
betwe?n unemployment and degradation to Asiatic standards of living and 
working conditions. 

13. In this grave emergency, no competent service, aid or advice in forestalling 
Japan should be ignored or overlooked by the Government. 

May I suggest the United States Senate address of Senator Sehwellenbach, on 
August 2. 1939. stamps him as a source of comprehensive knowledge on the 
subject of which the Government might well avail itself. 

14. Attached is a draft in principle of a proposed congressional measure, which 
covers control of American-born Japanese. 

Also copy of Senator Schwellenbach's address, referred to. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11589 

Suggested Bill for Controlling Japanese, Submitted for Record by Fred 

H. Lysons 

Be it enacted, etc., That throughout the duration of the war in which the United 
States is now engaged there shall be and are hereby designated and classified as 
enemy aliens all residents of or persons within the United States, including those 
claiming citizenship therein, who (1) are ineligible to citizenship through naturali- 
zation, (2) are of a race and blood of a nation with which we are at war, (3) the 
laws of which nation require of such persons, wherever born, the obligations of 
citizenship to itself, (4) and which war was launched by such nation in betrayal 
of the good faith of the United States while participating in peace conferences 
with such nation, (5) the success of the initial movements of which war was 
assured to such nation by the advance and concurrent aid, cooperation and con- 
nivance of its racial descendants residing or present in the United States, including 
those claiming citizenship in the United States. 

TESTIMONY OF FRED H. LYSONS, LAWYER, SEATTLE, WASH. 

Air. Bender. Have you anything to add to the material in your 
statement which we have already placed in the record? 

Mr. Lysoxs. I have an observation or two on the economic feature 
of this situation. Those Japanese are here engaged in farming for 
two reasons. In the first place, their Government sent them abroad 
with instructions to engage in and get a monopoly in the basic and 
essential industries that they themselves think indispensable. 

In the second place, they are 

Mr. Bender. You say the government. Which government? 

Mr. Lysons. The Japanese Government. 

That is part of their plan and program for world domination. In 
the second place, their standards of living don't cost them much, and 
they work by families, and they work both children and the women 
all hours of the day and night, so that other people are not able to 
compete with them. That gives them a monopoly on that. While 
the Americans don't take to that business very extensively, formerly 
the gardens here in this section were run largely by Italians and I 
should think — well, I don't know w^hether that is within the purview 
of this committee or not. 

Mr. Bender. You say the other citizens do not take to gardening. 
The best gardeners in my territory are natives. 

Mr. Lysons. Americans? 

Mr. Bender. Yes. 

Mr. Lysons. Well, that is not so here. Of course, this is a little 
newer country than yours; but the gardens have drifted largely 
into Italian hands and people of that kind. I suppose at home 
they garden in small tracts — the Americans don't. But they can't 
compete with the Japanese, and the orientals' low standards of 
living, and it seems to me that we would be quite fortunate if that 
could be changed. 

Mr. Arnold. Thank you very much. We are glad to have your 
testimony. 

We have two students from the University of Washington who 
wish to testify briefly. At this point, I shall introduce their state- 
ments. 



11590 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

(The statements are as follows:) 

STATEMENT BY CURTIS ALLER. SENIOR IN ECONOMICS AND 
BUSINESS, UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON. SEATTLE, WASH. 

Alien Evacuation* From the Seattle Area 

I wish to testify to this committee in an unofficial capacity and merely as an 
individual student speaking for an informal group of students who feel that Japan- 
ese students should be allowed to continue their studies at the University of 
Washington and not be evacuated from the area. There are over 250 Japanese- 
Americans. 70 of them girls, who are at present studying at the univei-sity so as 
to prepare themselves to become useful American citizens. I know many of 
these students personally, am pleased to count some of them as my intimate 
friends, have gone to school with them, studied with them, participated in student 
activities with them, gone to the same parties, and visited their homes and so I 
feel at least partially quallified to speak iii their behalf. 

What are the Nisei students like? I am convinced that the majority of univer- 
sity students will agree with me when I say that the answer can be given in just 
one word — American. Aside from superficial differences of skin color, you 
would be imable to tell them from the average .\merican college student. They 
dress the same, talk the same, and most importantly they think and believe the 
same. Most of the girls are members of Fuyo Kai and the boys are members 
of the Japanese Students Club and at the start of the war both of these organiza- 
tions pledged their unqualified support of American war effort. They are loyal 
and intend to remain loyal and also intend to do everything in their power to 
prevent subversive activities in Japanese communities. This I think is a valuable 
contribution that we must not overlook because these students, the young Ameri- 
can leaders of their communities, can quite possibly do more than perhaps some 
governmental secret service agencies in weeding out Japanese spies and saboteurs. 
Many others like Frank Sussuki of Brooklyn Coop, have been drafted and have 
gone willingly to serve their country. Those that remain have been torn as have 
other college students by the internal conflict of whether to enlist or. whether 
they could serve their country better by finishing their education. These that 
remain at their studies are loyal and are willing to prove their loyalty by com- 
bating subversive activities and cooperating with the war effort as the Fuyo Kai 
girls are doing now in connection with Red Cross work. They are willing to do 
tliis because in growing up with us. going to our schools they have become thor- 
oughly Americanized. We have taught them and they have believed us that 
-American democracy is worth living luider and fighting for. We have told them 
that we are tolerant of minority races and peoples and that every individual has 
an equal opportunity and they have believed us. 

But I urge this committee to consider if we can even remotely demand or 
expect that these American citizens will remain loyal if instead of tolerance, we 
give them intolerance, mass hysteria and blanket condemnation? Can we ask 
them to believe in democracy if democracy does not believe in them? Our 
institutions, beliefs and platitudes are being tested today and the harvest that we 
reap will be of our own sowing. Do we want to continue to graduate from the 
tuiiversity each year young Japanese- Americans who. I remind you. as the future 
leaders of Japanese communities will love and respect American democracy? 
Or, do we want to destroy their confidence and respect in us by forcing them to 
evaciuite to areas where they are not known, have no friends, and are likely to be 
misunderstood? I earnestly urge that Japanese students be allowed to contiiuie 
their education here at the university where they are known and have many 
friends, that they be allowed to prove their loyalty by being given the opportunity 
to participate in the war effort and above all that their belief in America and 
democracy shall not be destroyed at a time when this belief is being put to its 
first real test. 



STATEMENT BY MISS HILDUR COON, SENIOR. UNIVERSITY OF 
WASHINGTON. SEATTLE, WASH. 

Alien Evacuation From the Seattle Area 

As a student of the University of Washington I wish to say a few words on the 
behalf of the alien students on our campus. Through the International Club, 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11591 

campus committfe work, and classes I have come to know many of them very 
well, and wish to point out how pro-American they are. It has been said that 
these people are as dangerous to our country as if they had grown up in Japan. 
I do not believe this to be tru?, for thej- have learned our way of life and have 
grown up thinking of Am<!rica as their country. They have learned our mores, 
often teaching their parents our traditions and customs. Even those who have 
visited Japan, just as many of us have visited the homes of our ancestors in Eng- 
land or Norway, have returned saying they could not agree with the Jajjanese 
philosophy of life, and were proud that America was their country. 

These students who have grown up loving America, unless ruthlessly treated, 
so that their ideals and faiths are considera,bly shaken, are not likely to change 
a life-time philosophy in the course of a few months. They are the first genera- 
tion of Japanese- Americans born in this area, and the first really to learn our cus- 
toms and language. They have learned more in school than book knowledge: 
they have learned the American way of doing things, and have taken it back to 
their parents. This assimilation process has been taking yjlace for 20 years, and 
the new generation— ^the third-generation Japanese-Americans — is just beginning 
in the Seattle area. Must we spoil that long process now by prejudice and isola- 
tion? If they are not among us, and do not feel that we want them with us and 
trust them, are they not being put to a sorer task than ever? 

The intellectuals and the educated are the ones who will lead the rest of their 
people: help rehabilitate them if they must move; help them keep to the American 
way of life wherever they are. They are the ones who must be prepared to help 
us plan a just world when this war is over. Thus we students hope that we can 
allow those who believe in Americanism and its traditions, and w^ho have proved 
themselves loyal, to continue their education. 

TESTIMONY OF MISS HIIDUR COON, 4706 TWENTIETH AVENUE, 
NORTHEAST SEATTLE, AND CURTIS ALLER, 5012 TWENTY- 
SECOND AVENUE, NORTHEAST SEATTLE 

Mr. Arnold. Now, speak up, if you will, for about 5 minutes. 

Miss Coon. I would like to speak up for the Japanese students on 
the campus, and also the German students on the campus. For the 
last 4 years, and also in high school, I have known them and worked 
with them. I think they are as loyal and certainly as good a part of 
our student body as any of the first generation from other countries. 

The Fuyo Kai, which is a Japanese sorority on the campus, sent a 
telegram to the President immediately on the outbreak of the war, 
stating their wish to be loyal to tliis country. Other campus organi- 
zations, such as the Japanese Student Club, the Japanese men's club, 
did a similar thing. And in each case, they not only told the organi- 
zations on the campus, but they sent back to the officials in Washing- 
ton, their statement of loyalty. 

JAPANESE CHILDREN AMERICANIZE PARENTS 

Also, it has been brought up that they have gone to the Japanese 
schools after their school here. They were asked to learn the language, 
but as Professor Steiner could have testified, very few of them, I think, 
can speak Japanese. No students that I know can speak Japanese. 
They have done a great deal in Americanizing their families, as to our 
customs. They are really the first generation here. Their parents, 
many of them were Japanese citizens and were considered such. They 
have been the ones who have brought the customs and language to 
their parents and have helped to Americanize them. If we now isolate 
them again, they are going to lose, in that they will not have the 
continual contact with us. I feel that we would lose more that way 



11592 PORTL.\:S'D AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

than we would by keeping them \\ith us. The majority of them are 
verv loyal. 

Then, also, it has been said that many of them have gone abroad to 
Japan. Many of us have returned to the homes of our ancestors in 
Norway and England and France. Certainly I don't feel that we 
would be indoctrinated by such a visit, and I don't think that they 
have been. 

Then, as to the German students, all of them have left Germany 
because thev were persecuted by Hitler. We have seen terrible things 
happen there. Certainly they would be the best enemies of Hitler, 
and to evacuate them would be unfah when they have traveled as 
far as thev could from Hitler and his methods. 

Also, niany of them are very much older, and they would have to 
start again. ^ This becomes very discouraging when again and agam 
and asain. as vou get older, you have to begin your business over. 
The young Germans are anxious to do what they can to cooperate; 
but they feel that with their parents, many of whom are 55 or 60 or 
even 8C, it would be too great a hai'dship on them, and a hardship 
which isn't reallv necessary. 

Mr. Bexder. 'You are talking about the Germans here, are you?- 

Miss Coon. Yes. I am talking about the German aliens here. 
Many of them are students on the campus. I know eight or nine of 

them. 1 1 Ti 

Mr. Aller. If I may say just a few words here, I would like to 
break into Hildur's conversation. I want to testify, as Hildur has 
done, for the Japanese students, the Nisei at the University of Wash- 
ington. There are about 250 of them going to school there this quar- 
ter, and I feel that I am at least partially qualified to speak for them, 
because I have grown up with them. I came from the Yakima Valley 
where there are quite a few Japanese. I have gone to school with 
them. I have gone to the same parties with them. I have lived with 
them at tlie university in my own organization, the Student Coopera- 
tive, and I have visited their homes, so I feel that I am at least par- 
tiallj- qualified to speak for them. 

AMERICANISM OF JAPANESE STUDENTS 

And I suppose that this committee is primarily interested in finding 
out what these voung Japanese-American students are like. I am 
convmced that the majority of the miiversity students will agi'ee with 
me when I say that they are Americans. That one word gives the 
answer to the question of what these young Japanese- Americans are 
like. They are American. Aside from superficial skin differences, 
color differences, thev dress the same as we do ; talk the same as we do; 
have the same standards of hving as we do, despite what has been said 
in previous testimony; and, more important than that, they think 
and beheve the same as we do. In other words, throughout the years, 
in gomg to the same schools with us and gi'owing up with us and 
hving with us, they have become thoroughly Americanized, until 
they think and believe the same way that we do. At the beginning, 
the outbreak of this war, both of these organizations, the Fuyo Kai, 
which the Japanese ghls belong to, and the Japanese Student Club, 
composed of the Japanese boys, pledged their unqualified support to 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11593 

the United States' war effort, and I would like to read for this com- 
mittee a pledge that the Japanese Students' Club has in their house. 
Now, this is not the actual wording of the pledge, but it is as close 
as I can remember it. 

Be it resolved, That the pohcy of the J. S. C. is as follows: We, the members of 
this Japanese Student Club, pledge full support to the President and the Nation, 
toward the defense of our country and toward a successful prosecution of this 
war. We are in full support and in accordance with the resolution passed by 
the National Japanese- American Citizens League and' presented to the President. 

Now, I would like to testify that these Japanese-American students 
are willing to take this attitude because they are thoroughly Ameri- 
canized. Through the years, we have told them that our country is 
based upon a policy of tolerance for minority races of givmg every 
individual his opportunity on the basis of his ability, and they have 
believed us. 

We have told them, and they have believed us, that the American 
democracy is worth living under, and worth fighting for, and for that 
reason they have pledged their unqualified support to the United 
States, and I would like to urge this committee to allow the Japanese- 
American students to remain at the University of Washington to 
allow this process of Americanization to go on. I question whether 
we can even remotely expect or ask these Japanese-Americans to 
remain loyal to this country, if, instead of tolerance, we give them 
intolerance and mass hysteria. 

And I feel that if you are going to have this policy of Americaniza- 
tion, that we have been working on for the past 20 or 25 years, con- 
tinue and bear fruit, you are going to have to allow it to go through its 
first real test of allowing the Japanese-Americans the full equality of 
participation in American defense and war effort. 

Mr. Bender. Do you think that it is fair to take a young man out 
of the home when his country is at war? Do you think it is fair to 
him to suspend all these benefits that we Americans have enjoyed 
because our country is at war with 

Mr. Aller (interposing). I suppose you are referrmg to the draft 

there? 

Mr. Bender. Yes; I am referring to the draft. 

DRAFTING OF JAPANESE-AMERICAN YOUTH 

Mr. Aller. Well, I think that regardless of considerations of 
fairness or not, that is the only way that you can fight a war, by 
drafting your Army. I would suggest here that you have taken about 
7,500 young Japanese-Americans into the Army. Most of them have 
gone, I think, to Camp Roberts in California, and they have gone 
willingly. Many of them, like Frank Suzuki, from Brooklyn Co-op 
out at 'the university, have gone to fight for this country. They 
have gone willingly, just as willingly as any of the rest of the college 
students have gone; and those that remain have been torn by more 
or less of an internal conflict of whether to enlist in the armed forces 
of this country, or whether they could best serve their country by 
remaining and finishing their education so that they could go out and 
be real American leaders in their Japanese communities. 

Miss Coon. I would also like to add that some of them have tried 
to enlist, and have been rejected. I would also like to say that regard- 



11594 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

less of what is done, they are going to cooperate. Many of them have 
said to us that, regardless of what happens, they want to help our 
Government, because they feel a loyalty toward it. 

Mr. Bender. Irrespective of what action is taken? 

Miss Coon. Irrespective of what action is taken. 

Mr. Bender. They realize, of course, that it isn't done with the 
idea of hurting anyone; but because that in a war effort, in an emer- 
gency, these things of necessity occur. 

Miss Coon. They feel two things: (1) That the older people prob- 
ably cannot do anything harmful — here I am speaking of the aged, 
and they should be allowed to remain, and, (2) the people that study 
at the university and those of them that are better educated will be 
the better leaders and will be the ones that will help rehabilitate them 
after the war, and they should be allowed to continue their learning 
for that reason. 

Mr. Curtis. Do j^ou think these people are, for the most part, very 
loyal? 

Miss Coon. Yes, I do. 

Mr. Aller. Unqualifiedly so. 

Mr. Curtis. Now, suppose the Government of the United States 
comes to the conclusion that for military purposes and for the public 
safety, they should be moved. These people then that are loyal will 
receive it in a cooperative attitude and will comply with the request 
to move, will they? 

Miss CooN. For military actions I can state "Yes," but for public 
safety, I cannot see why we should be safe from them any more than 
the people inland; that is, I feel that if they are to be dangerous, they" 
would be no more dangerous to us than they would to those people. 

Mr. Curtis. You think, then, that they will question the decision? 

Miss CooN. No, I don't think, the people will. 

Mr. Curtis. I am talking about the Japanese. Will they question 
the wisdom of the decision, or will they comply with it? 

Miss CooN. They will comply with it. 

Mr. Aller. They will comply with it, but I think that you can 
conclude that, personally at least, they will feel that that is an erro- 
neous conclusion, because tlu'oughout the years they have tried to 
remain loyal to this country. They have done eveiything possible, 
and they are just as much Americans as anybody — as any students 
that we will find out there. 

Of course, they will comply, because, after all, that is a part of their 
being American citizens. 

Mr. Curtis. But many things will have to be done in war that 
cannot be construed as an individual indictment of every person 
involved. 

Mr. Aller. That is true. 

Mr. Curtis. And that they will try to grasp that viewpoint? 

Mr. Aller. That is right. 

Mr. Bender. You have heard the testimony of these good people 
from Yakima? 

Mr. Aller. Yes, I am from Yakima, too. 

Miss CooN. Yes. 

Mr. Bender. I happen to come from an industrial community that 
recently had orders that many of the plants had to close down, which 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11595 

tlirew thousands of people out of work, because the Government 
ordered the automotive mdustry stopped, and they are waiting to be 
reemployed in some defense activity. You can appreciate that during 
wartime these inconveniences will occur and reoccur? 

Mr. Allek. That is true. 

Mr. Bender. And this committee is here, along with other Gov- 
ernment agencies, endeavoring to handle this matter as best we can, 
without discommoding or without creating a situation that will cause 
great hardship. 

Miss Coon. We understand that, and we were urging that w e have 
no evacuation unless it is necessary militarily. If it is necessary, we 
wanted to back up Dr. Jensen's statement that social workers and 
people that are qualified to know how to handle it be the ones that 
do it, and that it may be done as humanely as possible. That we 
want it done in an American way, and not in Hitler's way. 

Mr. Aller. I also want to personally say that I am very happy 
that the United States Governm.ent has taken such a far-sighted 
policy in trying to make this evacuation, if it comes, as easy as possible, 
and not hurt so many people in an unnecessary way. 

Mr. Arnold. Tliank you very much for your appearance. 
[Applause.] 

Now, before this committee closes its hearings, I want to say that 
we appreciate the attitude of ah the people of Seattle, and of this 
area. Your conduct has been splendid. 

There has been no disturbance of any kind, and many other in- 
terested persons have requested that they be heard in these proceed- 
ings. Unfortunately, the committee is unable to hear all people 
wishing to testify. However, we are anxious to have all points of 
vieM' expressed. Our records will be open for a few days, and material 
for consideration may be submitted to our Seattle office, I should say 
by mail, addressed to the Tolan Committee, Henry Building, Seattle, 
and after they leave, mail will be forwarded on to Washington, and 
our records will be open for at least 10 days. 

Of course, your statements should be as concise as is possible. Give 
us the meat of the situation. 

Again we wish to express our consideration of the courtesy and the 
treatment we have received here, and I believe you will agree that in 
no other countrv, perhaps, that is at war, would a committee from the 
legislative bodv come out to the people and receive their ideas and 
make them a- part of the record— which will be a permanent record 
of the Congress. We wish to thank all those who participated and 
helped out with this record. 

(Whereupon, at 3:20 p. m., March 2, 1942, hearing closed.) 

60396— 42— pt. 30 20 



EXHIBITS 



Exhibit 1. — Statement by Thomas Robel, Chairman, Defense 
Committee, State, County, and Municipal Workers op 
America, Local No. 109 

The State, County, and Municipal Workers of America, Local No. 109, which 
is composed of the employees of the King County welfare department, wish to 
submit the following statement in regard to the question of mass evacuation. 

We recognize that preventive action is necessary in case of military necessity, 
for the protection of lives and property on the west coast. However, we feel 
that any action taken should be carefully planned to achieve a maximum of 
efficiency and justice and that any plan carried out should include the following 
points: 

1. Ample protection against mob violence should be given to the evacuees 
both in transit and the new communities. 

2. Measures should be taken in advance to provide for the health and welfare 
of both the evacuees and the communities receiving them. 

3. The 6vacuees should be allowed to continue drawing unemployment com- 
pensation and social security benefits. 

4. Bonded property custodians should be appointed and made available to all 
whose business and property interests are affected. 

5. Measures should be taken insofar as possible to preserve family unity and 
to give individualized treatment to the cases involved. 

6. Effort should be made to provide suitable and productive work for all 
evacuees. 

We feel that the above provisions would insure a minimum of disruption in 
the normal routine of both the evacuees and the communities which receive 
them. 



Exhibit 2.— Statement by Rev. U. G. Murphy, Supt. (Methodist 

Church) 

Northwest Oriental Evangelization Society, 

Seattle, Wash. 

There are 206 hotels in Seattle conducted by the Japanese, with 13,000 rooms. 
Most of the customers are workingmen. Many live 2 in a room, which means 
that there are at least 15,000 persons staying in these hotels. 

There is absolutely no one to take over if these Japanese are evacuated. 

It will be impossible for anvone to take over the farms now run by Japanese 
should they be evacuated. It'is too late in the season to have the farms attended 
to this year. Filipinos make good farm laborers, but are not successes as farmers 
in this section. 

The hearings being conducted by boards composed of civilians, I refer to those 
arrested by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, represent a decided departure 
from all previous methods of handling aliens in time of war. Many of the Japa- 
nese presented letters from their American (white) friends, vouchsafing for their 
characters. Whv not carrv out this plan of civilian participation in alien control 
by placing all aliens under surveillance, a modified form of martial law, and 
arrange for American friends of Japanese to act as "best friends," as is done in the 
case of paroled prisoners? The expense of such a plan would be but a fraction 
of the cost of wholesale removal, and there would be no serious disruption of 
normal production and activities. . 

We, here on the coast, must live with the Japanese after this war is over, and 
we are anxious that nothing be done that would make us ashamed of the manner 
in which they are treated now. We must live with ourselves and are anxious 

11597 



11598 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

that as little harm as possible be done to our national tradition sense of fair play. 
The manner in which minority groups are handled is a final criterion of the 
standard of national civilization. , , t 

But for section 2169, United States Revised Statutes, very few of the Japanese 
would be aliens. They are aliens simply because they cannot be anything else. 



Exhibit 3. — Statement by Robert W. O'Brien, Assistant to the 
Dean, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Wash- 
ington 

(This report is made as an individual at the request of those interested in the 
problem as it relates to the college Nisei) 

Introduction 

To testify before the Tolan committee on the problem of the college Nisei is 
both a responsibility and an obligation, as a number of important issues in national 
morale are involved in making decisions regarding evacuation. 

Although my training in the last 12 years has been in the area of sociology 
concerned with minorities and their assimilation and usefulness to the total 
American pattern (1), my knowledge of the local Japanese-American community 
is limited to 3 years. During this time I have come in contact with second gener- 
ation Nisei at the University of Washington as assistant to the dean and as advisor 
to the Japanese Students' Club. 

In coming to the Pacific Northwest from California, I have noticed a marked 
difference as to the role of the Japanese in the total American community. On 
three aspects of this new idea I would like to comment. 

Integration of the Nisei Into the American Pattern 

The second generation Japanese have made a good adjustment to the educa- 
tional institutions in this area. At the University of Washington alone there are 
over 400 students from this group, and there are some 20 Nisei in the employ of 
the university. One, a veteran of the first World War, is an assistant professor; 
another is an instructor in nursing; one each are associates in Far Eastern studies 
and sociology; five others are teaching fellows; and the rest hold research and 
clerical positions. Students of Japanese ancestry hold offices in .student organiza- 
tions, and represent the universitv in athletic and nonathletic competition. 

This opportunitv to participate fully in campus life has resulted in the develop- 
ment of close ties between students of Japanese parentage and other undergradu- 
ates. When the Seattle public schools recently considered accepting the resigna- 
tions of their Nisei emplovees, over a thousand university students of white 
parentage petitioned the board on behalf of the Americans of Japanese ancestry. 

So integrated are manv of the campus Nisei that they refuse to celebrate the 
Japanese victories over China, and in a few cases American-Japanese even joined 
the bovcott against shipping war supplies to Japan 2 years ago. There have been 
some iiicidents reported of Nisei turning in the names of their parents because they 
weren't activelv loval to the United States. American standards and the Ameri- 
can way of life is so strong that a number of Nisei who have visited Japan were 
unwilling to stay there long. 

Occupational Variability of the Nisei 

Although manv Nisei live on farms, and are well adapted to truck gardening, 
the large bodv of" Japanese in Seattle are more experienced in other types of work. 
I believe that there would be a great loss in production if they were forced into farm 
labor. Details as to the occupational characteristics of the group will appear in 
later releases of the United States Census Bureau. At the University of Wash- 
ington the Nisei major in a wide variety of subjects.^ This past year the Japanese 
Students Club was 1 of 6 out of a total of 40 men's groups to be awarded a scholar- 

' Preference by numbers applying for specific courses are as follows: Economics and business, 71; engi- 
neering 57- pharmacy, 24; chemistry, 22; premedical, 21; home economics, 20; premajors, 16; nursmg, 14; 
sociology, U; general studies, 11; oriental studies, 9; Law and prelaw, 8; English, 7; political science, 7; 
architecture, 6; music, 5; bacteriology, 5; fisheries, 4; adyertising, 4; mining, 4; language, 4; physics, 4; pre- 
education, 4; art, 3; journalism, 2; botany, 2; library, 2; forestry, 2; history, 1; mathematics, 1. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



11599 



ship prize by the dean of men's office by high scholastic achievement. These 
students are "both able and versatile in their interests. 

There is real merit in the suggestion that this ability be channelized for the 
greatest production for defense. 

Patriotism and Loyalty of the Nisei 

Objective standards for measuring loyality are virtually impossible to set up. 
However, there are a number of overt reactions of the Nisei at the University of 
Washington which can be recorded. As the official in charge of recommending 
draft deferment in the college of arts and sciences, I have had the opportunity to 
interview hundreds of men regarding Selective Service. Last spring (before Pearl 
Harbor) I had noticed that practically none of the Americans of Japanese ancestry 
asked either for deferment or "special" jobs. After the treacherous attack on 
Hawaii, over a dozen Nisei called in my office to find out how to volunteer to fight 
for the United States. In checking over the recent members of the Japanese 
Students Club, I find 83 who have either volunteered or are serving under Selective 
Service in the American Army. (See list below.) 

Other evidence that would tend to point to the loyality of the Nisei are: The 
purchase of $125 worth of Defense Bonds by the men, and the contract by the 
women to buy $150 worth of Defense Stamps per college year; the fact that 1 
Nisei girl in 5 in the university is in first aid classes with the Red Cross. 

I feel that the educationaf institutions have done a good job in building the 
loyality of Americans of Japanese ancestry by giving them a chance to participate 
in school and college life. 

Recommendations 

1. That we do not have mass evacuation of American-born Japanese, but that 
we trust our security to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Military 
Intelligence. Any evacuation of citizen-^ should be selective. 

2. That we favorably consider the Steiner plan for evacuation of the enemy 
aliens from only selected defense areas and selected coast counties. 

3. That if general evacuation is ordered by the Army, we carry out an intelli- 
gent plan of resettlement so as to use all the productive ability of the Nisei as an 
asset in the defense of their country and ours. 

4. That the United States Employment Service and the Federal Security 
Administration organization be used to assist in working out a program. 

5. That should evacuation take place, Federal funds for college student reloca- 
tion in other areas be provided. 

Partial List of Japanese Students Club Members and Alumni Who Have 
Either Volunteered or Have Joined the Army Under Selective Service, 
March 1, 1942 



Haruso Ashida 
Eugene Eguchi 
Dave Hirahars^ 
David Hara 
Sam Hara 
Tosh Higashi 
Seige Hanada 
Henry Imori 
Haruo Ishida 
Rukuro Ito 
Dick Kimura 
Nobi Kanao 
Iwao Kawakami 
Fred Kosaka 
Akira Kawa 
Akira Kato 
Donald Kazama 
Mich Kimura 
Tsutomu Kumagai 
Jiro Kanetouir 
Sam Kawamura 



George Matsuno 
Shigeru Moncodi 
Jack Mayeda 
Howard Minato 
Goichi Morimatsu 
George Mihara 
Ayao Mochizuki 
Takechi Mizuhata 
Seichi Motoki 
Hiromi Nishiinura 
Yuji Nishimoto 
Henry Nakamura 
Sekio Norao 
Eira Nagaoka 
Hiro Nishimure 
Hirochi Nakashima 
Jerry Numato 
Sexi Noro 
Takeo Nakawatase 
Tom Nishitani 
Woody Nishitani 



Tak Okazaki 
Hisaka Okamoto 
Tetsuya Oye 
Shig Oziuna 
Shigeo Sumioka 
Kenneth Shimbo 
John Suzaka 
Paul Seto 
Eyi Suyama 
Yutana Semba 
Hirochi Sawda 
Paid Sakai 
Tokuo Shimizu 
Noboru Sekiya 
Nobi Takahashi 
Koichi Takahashi 
George Tsutakawf 
Kaz Tada 
Hideo Tsuyuki 
Jerry Tatsuda 
Charles Tatsuda 



11600 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

George Tanaka Bud Uyeda Hirshi Yoshimoto 

Harry Takagi Paul Uno Harry Yabu 

Joe Tsujimoto Kim Uchida Hayao Yoda 

Chuji Tsunehara Masayoshi Uchimura Hiram Yakagi 

Jack Urati Shigeo Wakamatsu Shiro Yanaguchi 

Robert Uyeda Matt Waraboyashi 



Exhibit 4.— Statement by R. T. Shannon, Sales Manager, R. D. 
BoDLE Co., Seattle, Wash, 

Upon learning that the committee wished to learn something about the quan- 
tities of fruits and vegetables produced in the States of Washington and Oregon 
by Japanese farmers, I have attempted, in the last 2 days, to reach by telephone 
all Northwest processors, and requested they furnish me with the total tonnage of 
frui^ts and vegetables purchased by them from Japanese farmers, during the 
past year. 

There are approximately 52 important processors in these 2 States and, so far, 
I have reports from 21 firms. In each instance the information has been furnished 
by authorized, or qualified persons, and the figures from each company are taken 
from records of 1941 purchases. 

It has been necessary to combine figures of the two States because a substantial 
number of the processors purchase supplies from growers in both States, and 
time did not allow for segregation. Purchasers of the processed products con- 
sider the two States as one district. 

During the year 1941, the 21 firms reporting, purchased from Japanese growers 
the following "tonnage: 16,487,262 pounds of fruit and 19,426,084 pounds of 
vegetables. 

Not included in these quantities are the 14,000,000 pounds recently reported 
to your committee by B. E. Maling Co. Further, it is my belief that the proc- 
essors not reporting will purchase from Japanese growers about one-half the 
quantities of those reported by the 21 firms. 

The aforementioned figures represent a very substantial quantity of packed 
food. 

The fruit tonnage consists mainly of berries, a major portion of which is frozen; 
and the largest user is the preserving industry, for the manufacture of preserves, 
jams, and jellies. 

It may be pertinent to state here that, during January, the United States 
Army informed the preservers it would ask for bids on 32,000,000 pounds of 
preserves for delivery during the ne.xt period. A few weeks later. Army officials 
asked for bids on 15,000,000 pounds of jelly. This requires approximately 
24,000,000 pounds of fruit. Inasmuch as preserve manufacturers have always 
operated at capacity when fresh fruit is available, the tremendous requirements 
of our Army, Navy, and lend-lease program can come from only three sources, 
1. e., dried, canned, or frozen-pack. Dried fruit has not proven too satisfactory. 
In line with the tin conservation program, our Goverimient strongly discourages 
the use of canned foods in the manufacture of another canned product. This 
leaves frozen fruit and berries, packed economically in barrels, as the most 
logical source of supply for the requirements of our armed forces, and for lend- 
lease. 

The vegetable tonnage consists principally of cabbage, cauliflower, cucumbers, 
string beans, lima beans, peas, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and spinach. 

The production of berries and the above-mentioned garden crops require 
special skill and experience, and the production of each kind generally is concen- 
trated in small areas. It is evident that Japanese-produced tonnage cannot be 
replaced immediately, because of a lack of experienced farmers, and because 
farmers located in the areas suitable for producing crops for processing have 
planned 1942 production of other farm products, in line with the production request 
of the United States Department of Agriculture. 

Without fear of contradiction, I can state that the fruit and vegetable processors 
of Washington and Oregon are as much concerned over the safety of our Nation 
as anyone else, and they will abide fully and cheerfully by the Government's 
decision. However, with the importance of food in the present emergency, I feel 
that a method can be worked out whereby the safety of our country can be assured 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11601 

and still obtain the large tonnage of fruits and vegetables produced by the Japanese 
farmers, which otherwise will be lost for several years. 

It has been suggested that it would be possible to place all Japanese farmers, 
and their families, in limited custody in districts wherein they are farming at the 
present time. 

This can be done by placing them in camps at night, and permitting them to 
work their farms in prescribed daylight hours. They could be bound to the 
limits of their farms, camps, and roads between. 

Thus, proper surveillance could be maintained, and food production could be 
increased to meet the present-day demands of the United States armed forces, 
the lend-lease program, and civilian needs. 

I shall be pleased to furnish further details or information, upon request. 

Respectfully submitted. 

R. T. Shannon. 



Exhibit 5. — ^Statement by Rudolph W. Cassirer, 2407 Warren 
Avenue, Seattle, Wash. 

As an individual, not as an appointed representative of at least 500 Jewish 
refugees from Germany and other central European countries, now residing in 
this city, I would like to offer a few comments on the position of this minority 
group in connection with the problems relating to the removal of enemy aliens 
from the west coast. Being one of them I know, out of own experience and my 
day by day contact with them, how they feel and what they think and am familiar 
with their background and their problems. 

1. The present immigration of Jewish refugees from Germany and other Central 
European countries represents an entirely different type than any previous group en- 
try into the United States. The usual immigrant who came to the United States 
before 1933 came, as a ruie, because he was unable to earn a living in the country of 
his birth or because he was not sufficiently prepared to meet the economic competi- 
tion at home. The so-called refugee group, on the other hand, is composed of 
people who were successful in the country of their origin, who represented the 
upper middle classes and the professional people. They are, therefore, people who 
maintained a rather high standard of living, and in this respect find themselves 
very much at home in the United States. 

2. These refugees have all been legally admitted. To enter the United States 
today is not an easy task, but sufficient proof must be given to the Government 
that these people are loyal, respectable, industrious, physically fit, and that they 
will not become dependent upon the public charities. It is -uith a great deal of 
pride that we point out that since 1933 no refugee has been deported because he 
was dependent on public charity. Given a fair chance, these people have made a 
place for themselves in the social and economic life of the country. 

3. Furthermore, differing frcm many of the immigrants of the past, this group 
is especially desirous of becoming American cicizens as soon as possible. They 
have all applied for their first papers, and a few have already become American 
citizens. Thev all attend Americanization classes, and since they represent a 
rather high level of intelligence, thev have made a great deal of progress along 
these lines. They have affiliated themselves with various types of American 
institutions and have proven that thev are capable of membership. 

4. This group should not be discriminated against because they have not or 
will not adjust themselves to the American standards of hving and doing business: 
they were people of means in Europe, they number among them doctors, lawyers, 
university professors, etc. Thev have come to make their permanent home in 
the United States and are making every effort to fit into the American picture 
as quick as possible; and anvone who had a chance and the opportunity to work 
with them can test if v how rapid their progress has been. They are not a separate 
group dwelling in tlie country, but they intend to become full-fledged Americans 
and — in the normal course of events — within a few years will have all the rights 
of citizenship. As Americans thev want to protect not only themselves and their 
families, but also the country that has been kind enough to offer them refuge. 

5. All of them had to leave the country of their origin because of racial and 
religious persecution and restrictions. They all hate the Nazis and everything 
thev stand for, and are deeply grateful to the country that has offered them and 
their children a new chance in life. They are ready and only too anxious to fight 
for the common cause against the mortal enemies of the Jewish people. Since 



11602 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

many years, they have promoted by all possible means of propaganda and boy- 
cott," the fight against nazi-ism and "fascism, and — right here on the west coast — 
they have supported the boycott of shipments of scrap iron and other implements 
of war to Japan, in full support of the Government. 

6. So far as they came from Germany, they are not considered by the German 
Government to be citizens or subjects of that country, nor consider they them- 
selves to hold any allegiance to Hitler's Germany. Since the publication of the 
''Law governing the right of citizenship in the Reich" on September 15, 1935, 
all German citizens who belonged to the Jewish race lost their German citizen- 
ship and became merely German subjects. Unless they had already lost their 
German citizenship or their character as German subjects by individunl expatria- 
tion, those who left Germany and made their permanent hon;e abroad ceased to 
be German subjects following an executive order of the German Government 
that went into effect on November 27, 1941 (11th executive order to the "Law 
governing the right of citizenship in the Reich," published in the Reich's Law 
Journal, part 1, No. 133, on November 26, 1941, and dated November 25, 
1941). By the same executive order all their property in Gerinany and other 
countries under Nazi domination had been confiscated, a familiar procedure that 
had been followed in previous cases of expatriation of "enemies of the Hitler 
regime." They lost their German citizenship and their German nationality 
previous to the outbreak of the war; they are, therefore, neither de lege nor de 
facto citizens or nationals of Germany, and for this very reason alone should not 
be considered to be enemy aliens nor should they be called aliens of enemy 
nationality. On the contrary, they feel discriminated against and humiliated 
for being called enemy aliens or aliens of enemy nationality. They, the 
natural enemies of the aggressor nations and loyal to this country where they 
sought and found refuge from Nazi persecution, seem now to be suspected of 
sympathizing with the same Government that forced them to leave their homes 
and their country. What inconsistency of thought and what a tragic error. 

7. Among all people of this earth no people has better reasons to fight Hitler 
and his fellow criminals than the Jewish people. No one on earth could hate 
the enemies of this country and of its allies more than the Jew. No one on earth 
had possibly more to lose by a victory of the forces of evil as the Jewish refugee 
from central Evn'ope and no one could be more anxious to cooperate actively in 
the civilian and military defense of this country. 

8. An evacuation from the west coast would mean heartbreaking tragedy and 
destruction of economic existence for a minority group loyal to the United States, 
anxious and willing to comply with all requirements of the law, believing deeply 
in the democratic way of living and thinking, and only asking for the privilege 
of being permitted to actively join the fighting effort of the country that now has 
become their home. 

May I, in conclusion, put the following question before you? Is the evacuation 
of a loyal minority group, meaning its limitation to restricted areas or its intern- 
ment in "enemy aliens" camps, in the interest of the United States? Or, will the 
country gain more by enlisting the active cooperation of this minority group in 
the military and civilian defense against the common enemy? 

My contention is — and here I am satisfied to talk in the name of all of us — 
that through our active cooperation in the defense of the country, whether we 
serve the common cause in the Army or in civilian defense, or, by doing our share 
in the purchase of Defense bonds or by the payment of taxes, depending on our 
ability, age, sex, and physical fitness, we can do much better than by unwillingly 
watching your efforts and your sacrifices behind wired fences or in the security 
of restricted areas. Give us a chance to cooperate and to serve the common 
cause. Let's prove our loyalty instead of arguing about it. 



Exhibit 6. — Letter From Seattle Glove Co., Manufacturers of 
Cotton Gloves, Seattle, March 2, 1942 

The Honorable John H. Tolan, 

Chairman, Committee to Investigate Defense Migration, 

' Federal Courthouse, Seattle, Wash. 
Dear Sir: Not having had an opportunity to testify before the special con- 
gressional committee, and in view of my attendance at both hearings, on Satur- 
day the 28th of February, I believe I am well aware of the consensus from those 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11603 

who did testify on the question and the problem of evacuation of the Japanese 
population. 

Unfortunately, for this organization, from all the testimonj^ I heard I did not 
gather any favorable comment. In the most part, "safety first," without the 
personal association or the personal contact with the Jai)anese people. On the 
contrary, there was prejudice without definite reasons, maybe political, were the 
influencing factors. 

I have been in Seattle since 1909. For the past 33 years I have been in the 
work-glove business, and during that time I have employed several hundred 
women, and down through the years I have yet to experience the slightest suspi- 
cion with respect to the Japanese integrity, sincerity, loyalty, and above all the 
highest class of American citizenship without exception. 

Our register now represents 109 Japanese, mostly women, and about 44 percent 
are Japanese aliens, the remainder American citizens. Their pay roll is approxi- 
mately $1,750 weekly with a production of work gloves, the greater percentage 
now being consumed" by indirect and direct war defense requirement. 

This production and this industry is the largest of its kind on the Pacific coast. 
Doubt if any other employer of labor has developed the same number of Japanese 
trained and skilled in one unit in any other manufacturing enterprise in the Great 
Pacific Northwest area. 

During the past several years there has accumulated several thousand dollars 
as a benefit in the form of Federal and State compensation old-age pension 
reserves. This company and the employees have contributed. Each of these 
employees represents a value in the industry from $750 to $850 to teach and 
develop efficiency to reach the minimum state of production. 

It is almost an impossibility to begin again with American white labor in this 
defense city. We, therefore, will be compelled to discontinue manufacturing, 
unless some provisions can be made if the total evacuation of all aliens is man- 
datory. 

It has been suggested, in the event of total evacuation, and then not too far 
distant from Seattle, that there could be arranged the transfer of certain equip- 
ment to a place where our present employees are located, and in this manner 
reestablisli employment and be a service to the Nation with the production of 
work gloves. 

It has also been suggested, perhaps these skilled operators might be registered 
with Federal or State agencies reporting to a central agency at certain close 
intervals for observation, with the intent to carry on with an industry that is 
somewhat a part of the national defense. Otherwise, it will be necessary to cease 
operation, as there cannot be found in this area the experienced labor to continue 
the manufacture of work gloves on a volume basis. 

With due appreciation for your consideration and interest. 
Ver}' truly vours, 

Seattle Glove Co., 
R. B. Davis, 

President. 



Exhibit 7. — Letter and Enclosure From Lemolo Greenhouses, 
T. M. Nakamura, Poulsbo, Wash., March 4, 1942 

John H. Tolan Committee, 

Henry Building, Seattle, Wash. 

Dear Sirs: I am one of the Japanese-Americans being eventually evacuated 
from this area and desire information as to the disposition of property we own. 
Would your committee kindly help me or refer me to the proper authorities who 
mav be able to help? 

Our faniilv have a greenhouse business here, owned by myself, in which we 
have planted the tomato and cucumber crops and have tended and cared for 
these crops right up to the i^resent time. We did so in the hope that Japanese, 
if citizens of the United States, would be permitted to remain if approved by 
the authorities to be loyal to this country. However, we find we may be 
evacuated also. , ■ .u + 

These crops will be ready to harvest beginning next month, and m the event 
I have to leave, I want very much that someone handle it rather than lose the 
crops. 



11604 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

I liavo tricfl to contact parties who might be interested and able to take over 
tills busiiics.s and the crops on a rental or purchase basis. My contacts are 
liniilcd Ko I would vorv much ai)preciate some help in finding a trustworthy man 
who is canublo of handling this business and also the proper procedure to safe- 
guard my interests here in my absence. I have attached a copy of the descrip- 
tion of the property and condition of the business. 
Thanking you for the favor, I am 
Yours very sincerely, 

T. Nakamura. 

For Sale or Rent 

At Poulsbo, Wash., Kitsap County: „ , . , 

Three greenhouses, 15,000 square feet under glass. Packinghouse and garage 
for two cars or trucks. Acre and half land on water front, on mam highway only 
3 miles from ferry to Seattle, Wash. -n • ■ , 

Truck and all" eciuipmcnt for operation of this business. Principal crops, 
tomalcK's and cucumbers in sjjring and summer; and chrysanthemums in fall and 
winter. Po11(!d plants. Tomatoes and cucumbers are now planted and cared 
for and everything ready for some experienced and responsible party to carry on. 
Estlimated income from this crop coming on, $5,000. From chrysanthemums, 

$2,000. , ^ ^. •„ u « • 1 1 ^ 

A new residence, seven rooms, now under construction, will be tinisliea ana 

ready to move into this month. Also small four-room residence on this property. 
No encumbrances. 

Sell, $22,000, terms. , . , 

Rent, $3,000 cash for crop now planted and $100 month for duration. 



Exhibit 8.— Statement by Welfare Department, King County, 
Seattle, Wash., February 26, 1942. 

Housi': Committee on National Defense Migration, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Gentlemen: In compliance with your request, we are giving you herewith a 
summary of the alien case load of this department. As of the month of January, 
we provided assistance to 384 cases. This was made up of 310 smgle persons 
and 74 families. In the latter group of 74 families there were 249 persons. 

Attached hereto is a schedule showing the ca.se loads by nationality with the 
furth(!r information as indicated on the schedule. You will also note that in the 
extreme right-hand columns of the schedule we give a break-down according to 
the age groups. It is interesting to note that the preponderance of these cases 
are cases located in urban areas. The total of 332 are urban while only 52 cases 
are rural. 

Should there be any further information that you might desire that we have 
not included in this schedule, please let me know. 
Yours very truly. 

King County Welfare Department, 
L. L. Hegland, Administrator. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 



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11606 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Exhibit 9. Statement by Henry B. Ramsey, Chairman, United 

States Department of Agriculture War Board (State of 

Washington) 

February 28, 1942. 

Our attention has been directed to the problem of removing Japanese aliens 
and Japanese-American citizens from western Washington coastal points to 
interior States. A similar situation, but less critical, has been presented, which 
suggests removal of Japanese from Yakima Valley in eastern Washington. Since 
a considerable number of Japanese operate farms, especially in vegetable- and 
berry-producing areas, removal of these people from their farm units will tend to 
somewhat disrupt program planning for 1942 agricultural production in this State. 

The United States Department of Agriculture State War Board has the respon- 
sibilitv of administering plans for 1942 production goals. After surveying the 
situation regarding Japanese, the Board is of the opinion that the "Food For 
Victory" program can operate successfully without operational or labor services of 
any alien or questionable hyphenated citizen. The Board desires to point out,, 
however, that the situation "is critical. Weeks and months have passed without 
definite action being taken concerning the removal of Japanese — and it is time 
now to begin planting many of the important vegetable crops. It is time this 
coming week to fertilize the' soil and cultivate strawberry fields if this crop is to 
be saved. If the Japanese are moved now, acreage and production losses will be 
very small. If the action is delayed a month, the loss of acreage and potential 
production will be much greater. 

Applications are being made to various agricultural agencies by bona fide 
American farmers who desire an opportunity to farm land which has previously 
been operated by Japanese. The War Board believes it will not be difficult to 
obtain operators to grow vegetable and berry crops on farms vacated by Japanese 
providing agricultural financing agencies cooperate fully. 

To summarize, the Board desires it recorded that most crops in the State of 
Washington are produced by white citizens. The production of vital food items 
will not be disrupted by the removal of Japanese. The production will be 
disrupted, of certain specialty crops, fresh vegetable crops and some berry pro- 
duction, but if quick action is taken by the Government in this situation, crop 
losses will be held at a minimum. The United States Department of Agriculture 
War Board and agricultural agencies in this State stand ready to assist in meeting 
the enK'r<j;ency if the Japanese are moved to interior points. 



Exhibit 10. — Statement by Cheng Kun Cheng, Seattle, Wash. 

FEBRrARY 28, 1942. 

The National Defense Migration Committer, 
The Federal Courthouse, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Gentlemen: I am a citizen of the Republic of China. I was born and brought 
up there. I was formerly assistant professor at the University of Amoy in South 
China and now I am teaching at the University of Washington. I am deeply 
interested in the war in my country in particular and in the Pacific in general. 
I am convinced that the causes at the root of the present world-wide conflagration 
lie not in the responsibility of any one nation or one combination of nations alone. 
I am also convinced that", in order to prevent similar calamities from wreaking 
havoc among the people of the world in the future, one of the most effective steps 
to be taken by the Allied Nations, besides relentless prosecution of the war, is 
to establish in their respective territories an example of magnanimity in their 
treatment of the enemies and their descendants. 

During my travels in Free China between 1939-41, I found that the leaders 
in Chungking were very far-sighted in having adopted the policy of inculcating 
in the minds of the Chinese masses discrimination between the Japanese warlords 
and the Japanese people. Since the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, I have been 
watching closely the general policy of the Government of the United States 
toward the Japanese aliens and the American-born Japanese. That was why 
I went to the public hearings on alien evacuation at the county-city building 
this morning. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11607 

Judging from what I saw and heard in this Pacific Northwest, tlie consensus of 
opinion here seems to favor a wholesale removal of the alien and American-born 
Japanese. This, so far as I could see, is essentially the result of deep-rooted racial 
prejudice on the part of the average American who either could not or would not 
allow himself to be convinced that biologically the Japanese are not much differ- 
ent from himself. And it is this prejudice which has manifested itself in news- 
paper editorials and over the radio in this part of the country during the past 
2 months. 

Personally, I think the state of nervousness on the Pacific coast, on the whole, 
is unwarranted. If the people here are not afraid of the thousands of German 
and Italian aliens in their midst, there is no reason Avhy they should be afraid of 
the Japanese now that all the suspicious characters have been interned. As a 
matter of common sense, the physical traits of the Japanese are more easily identi- 
fiable than those of the Germans and the Italians, and, therefore, more f ffective 
precautionary measures can be adopted to keep the Japanese from undertaking 
activities inimical to the interests of this country. 

By virtue of their acceptability in American society, the German and the Italian 
aliens have greater direct or indirect access to all the vital war industries than the 
Japanese. According to reports made by the Federal Bureau of Investigation, 
the quantity of contraband of war seized in one single raid on the German aliens 
was much greater than the ciuantity captured in all the raids on the Japanese put 
together. This fact appears to indicate that if the American people on the Pacific 
coast have the vital interests of the Nation at heart, they should agitate against 
the German and the Italian aliens more than against the Japanese. 

Of course, the American people out here may be concerned over the possibility 
of a Japanese invasion on the Pacific coast. But the removal of the Japanese alone 
will by no means eliminate all the fifth-column activities from this area. Here 
again a few Germans or Italians, with the advantage of their unidentifiability, 
may give greater assistance to the invaders than the entire Japanese population 
who, under the present circumstances, will find it extremely difficult to gain access 
to any militarized zone or war plant, and who, in time of emergency, can easily 
be rounded up at a moment's notice. 

I cjuite agree that in order to keep them from possible mob violence in time of 
air raid, the Japanese should be removed from the coastal area. But mere re- 
moval inland would not accomplish this desired objective because native inhabi- 
tants in the Middle West are already voicing their strong objection to such 
removal. Unless proper and effective measures for protecting the Jajjanese are 
adopted, it is very likely that they will be subject to exploitations and abuses by 
unruly elements wherever they go. And, if allowed to take place, this unfortu- 
nate state of affairs will not only destroy the spirit of the Constitution of the 
United States but also provide justifiable grounds for the Japanese military 
authorities to "tighten the screw" on the thousands of Americans in their custody. 

In the light of the above statements, I, as a citizen of one of the Allies of the 
United States, sincerely hope that the Government authorities of this great bul- 
wark of democracy will in no way allow race prejudice to influence the formulation 
of their policy for evacuation of enemy aliens from the Pacific area. 



Exhibit 11. — Statement by E. W. Thompson, Pastor Japanese 
Methodist Church, Seattle, Wash. 

On behalf of our Nation you are weighing facts relative to the considerable 
number of Japanese nationals residing in Pacific Coast States, now that we are 
at war with Japan. 

I take the liberty of presenting a few facts because I am one of the pastors of a 
Japanese church in Seattle (Methodist) and am in daily contact, not only with the 
young people who are Americans but with their parents who are technically 
Japanese. I have genuine contacts with these latter because I have some knowl- 
edge of the Japanese language and can talk directly with them. 

ALIENS BY NECESSITY 

I am convinced that the number of Japanese aliens in this country would shrink 
amazingly if these people had been permitted by United States laws to become 
American citizens. The immigration laws in recent years have prevented almost 



11608 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

all movement of Japanese nationals into this country. Those who came 15, 20, 
30, or 40 years ago have become strangers to the land of their birth. They have 
become warmly appreciative of the land of their adoption; they recognize the 
superiority of our democratic ideals and customs. They have raised their chil- 
dren here.' Nearly all of them would be citizens if they were permitted. When 
some of these have taken trips to Japan, even in peacetimes, they have been under 
suspicion and strict surveillance in Japan because of their obvious American 
sympathies and interests. They belong to us. 

THEIR BASIC LOYALTY 

These Japanese "enemy aliens" are often considered clannish, slow to adopt 
American waj^s, and therefore presumablv dangerous in wartime. In their 
struggle to become a genuine part of American life they have faced two serious 
obstacles — the unusual difficulties of the English language for Japanese-speaking 
people, and the racial antipathy of many of their Caucasian neighbors. This 
prejudice has prevented their mingling freely with English-speaking people and 
has lessened their opportunities to learn to speak freely in English. Hence their 
tendency to Japanese-language newspapers, church services, and home conversa- 
tion. When they are not freely welcome to English-speaking groups, they natu- 
rally tend to form groups of their own, but this does not change their basic desire 
to become a genuine part of American life. This desire has been greatly increased 
through the influence of their American-born, American-educated children. 

OUR ECONOMIC NEED OF THEM 

In Seattle and vicinity, where I am acquainted, a significantly large proportion 
of these Japan-born Americans have a major part of their business dealings with 
their English-speaking neighbors, so that they have built themselves into the 
economic structure of the city and the State. As various authorities have 
pointed out, the removal of these farmers and businessmen would have a serious 
effect on the daily life of the remaining citizens. 

INJUSTICE OF MASS EVACUATION 

Any large-scale removal of these economically well-rooted Japanese-Americans 
would have a disastnous effect upon them. You can move a family several 
hundred miles quite eaailv, but you cannot move a grocery or farm or hotel, much 
less the business goodA'ill which is its mainstay. These people have struggled 
for from 15 to 35 years to make themselves a part of the American community. 
Mass evacuation would destroy the painstaking achievements of these years. 
Mass evacuation would mean snatching from them what they cannot regain save 
by another long period of struggle in a new community. 

DEFEATING DEMOCRACY 

In mass evacuation we should be repeating the deed that Hitler perpetrated 
against the Jews. Though our policy would be gentler than Hitler's in many 
ways, the basic injustice would be the same. Thus we should be conquered by 
Hitler's spirit and methods even though not by his military machine. We can- 
not fight for democracy by such methods. 

AIDING JAPANESE STRATEGY 

On the other hand, if we allow race prejudice to lead us into this basic injustice 
on a large scale, we play right into the hands of Japan's propaganda. They are 
saying "Asia for the Asiatics. You cannot trust the white man for a fair deal." 
We shall surely do serious damage to our military cause in the Far East by making 
plausible the false appeals of Japan for a race war of the tinted peoples against 
the whites. 

NO NECESSITY FOR MASS EVACUATION 

After checking various wild rumors, I have yet to hear of a single act of sabotage 
which can be laid to our fellow countrymen of Japanese origin. I am not sur- 
prised that this is so, for I find scores of Japanese aliens whom I have come to 
know in Seattle basically loyal to the spirit and institutions of this country. 
For instance, many have said to me "If it is for the good of the country, we are 
perfectly willing to be evacuated." But they do not attempt to hide the fact 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11609 

that such a contingency would spell tragedy for them in capital letters. Of the 
total Japanese- American population of Seattle roughly 5 percent have been placed 
in detention by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. From my acquaintance 
with many who are thus held and with many others, I am confident that the 
percentage of sympathizers with Japan is much less than the 5 percent now being 
held. Most if not all the Japanese-Americans who constitute a danger to this 
country are now behind bars. And we can count on the efficiency of our Federal 
Bureau of Investigation to continue to round up such individuals as are subject 
to suspicion. Strict curfew laws and constant Federal Bureau of Investigation 
surveillance, if these are necessary, would be far less destructive of economic and 
community life of Americans and Japanese alike than mass evacuation. 

So it is my earnest hope that you will feel justified in recommending evacuation 
only in sucli strictly limited areas as military needs may require. 

Everett W. Thompson. 



Exhibit 12. — Statement by Japanese Members of the Indus- 
trial Woodworkers of America, Congress of Industrial 
Organizations, Local 157, Enumclaw, Wash. 

The Japanese members of the Industrial Woodworkers of America, Sawmill 
and Timber Workers, Local 157, herewith wish to go on record as recommending 
the evacuation of all Japanese — both citizens and aliens — from the Pacific coast. 

We realize deeply the personal sacrifices we all have to make in this war against 
the Axis forces, now threatening the existence of democratic ideals throughout the 
world. The Japanese members of Local 157 are willing to do their share in what- 
ever manner may be deemed fit by the Government, to insure a victory for the 
democratic forces. 

The presence of Japanese on the Pacific coast has already been stirred up into 
a highly controversial issue. As the war prolongs, feelings are bound to run higher, 
resentment against the Japanese increased, and the Nation's war efforts hampered 
by petty dissensions among the citizenry. 

We do not wish to be the cause of disunity and disruption, weakening the 
Nation's will to victory. We, the Japanese members of Local 157, do not wish to 
be an issue in this war. For the preservation of democratic ideals, we are willing 
to abide by anv decision handed down by the Governme it. We feel that many 
Japanese on the coast — both aliens and citizens — hold tne same view regarding 
the present Japanese problem on the Pacific coast. 

However great the extent of our personal sacrifices, however great the denial 
of our civil liberties for the duration, we, aliens and citizens alike, are willing to 
evacuate if the Government feels that this is the best possible solution of the 
Japanese problem. 

The evacuation, if it takes place, will entail hardships and sufferings — especially 
on part of the loyal Japanese-Americans, among which group subversive activity 
against the United States is negligible. But we realize that this is war and the 
Government cannot take the slightest chance. 

In case the mass evacuation of Japanese does take place, we recommend that 
specific provisions be made as to destination, shelter, and security against want 
and violence. We also recommend that definite plans be laid for disposal or 
guardianship of properties held by Japanese. 

(Signed) Tom Marutani, 

Official Representative. 

Exhibit 13. — Resolution by Disabled American Veterans of the 
World War, Seattle Chapter No. 2 

February 26, 1942. 
Hon. John H. Tolan, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Dear Mr. Tolan: Following is a resolution that was formulated and passed 
at our regular meeting last Wednesday evening and ordered sent to your office 
for your careful consideration. 

Whereas the Disabled American Veterans of the World War is an organization 
composed of men w^ho, by their past sacrifices, have proven loyal and patriotic to 
their Government and local community; and 



11610 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

Whereas Seattle Chapter No. 2, Disabled American Veterans of the World War, 
believe that the j^resence of enemy aliens in this community is causing grave 
anxiety to American citizens in their endeavor to win the present war; and 

Whereas no apparent effort is being made to evacuate these enemy aliens and 
their families from this large war effort center: Therefore be it 

Resolved, That Seattle Chapter No. 2, Disabled American Veterans of the World 
War, request of you and 30ur committee the immediate removal of all enemy 
aliens and American-born Japanese from this community. 

Hoping this will meet the approval of your committee, our entire membership 
wishes to thank you for any consideration you may deem possible. 
Sincerely yours, 

D. M. Be.\rd, Adjutant. 



Exhibit 14. — Resolution by Olympia Chamber of Commerce, 

Olympia, Wash. 

Whereas bitter experience has already taught us that subversive fifth-column 
activity and sabotage by aliens residing in United States territories and posses- 
sions has been of material assistance to our enemies and considerable damage 
to our country and its welfare; and 

Whereas, it is believed that the Pacific coast area of the United States, with its 
many vital war industries is ever in danger of attack by our enemies; and 

Whereas enemy aliens and enemy sympathizers now residing in this area are 
in such large numbers as to make impractical, if not impossible, the task of ade- 
quate supervision, as a result of which fact such aliens are now largely unrestricted 
in their movements and actions and constitute a grave menace to our welfare 
and prosperity, particularly so in case of attack: Now, therefore, be it 

Resolved, That the Olympia Chamber of Connnerce recommends a plan be 
adopted at once removing all Japanese and all enemy aliens and all known enemy 
sympathizers from the Pacific coast area to inland points and placing them under 
effective supervision for the duration of the war. With a full realization of the 
many problems that are involved and a hope that this may be done in a humane 
manner, we urge that action be taken without uiuiecessary delay. 

Passed bv unanimous vote of Olvmpia Chamber of Commerce at their meeting 
Februarv 26,1942. 



Exhibit 15.— Statement by Asahel Curtis, Jr., Executive Sec- 
retary, Seattle Retail Florists' Association, Inc. 

March 2, 1942. 

The membership of the Seattle Retail Florists' Association, Inc., comprised of 
Occidental and Nipponese, represent api)roximately 75 percent of the purchases 
of flowers for sale at retail within greater Seattle. Membership has always been 
open to Japanese, American or alien born, and every right extended to any other 
member has been granted those who have joined. 

For the past 3 years we have had extensive negotiations with Japanese retail- 
ers, wholesalers, and growers, and spasmodic negotiations extending over the 
past 30 years. 

The following remarks are predicated entirel.y upon these negotiations. We 
find ourselves entirely out of sympathy with this "holier than thou" attitude 
suddenly assumed since "Pearl Harbor." 

We have not forgotten the remarks of Francis X. Chiujo, for the past 2 years 
president of the Japanese Retail Florists' Association and now participating as 
the directing head in the activities of the Japanese American Civic League, when 
he said "We big now, we fight." Again we have not forgotten the remarks of 
the general chairman of the league, Mr. James Y. Sakamoto, when he said "the 
Japanese do not understand your American ways; half of them don't even speak 
English; it will take time, at least 2 years, for them to understand." Are we to 
assume that they have suddenly learned "overnight" since "Pearl Harbor?" 

Mr. Thomas Matsuda and principally Mr. Kenji Itn, who spoke so eloquently 
in past negotiations in behalf of the Japanese and their American standards, even 
trying on one occasion to make us believe they introduced our methods of opera- 
tion, need no comment; they are both under $25,000 bond pending trial. 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11611 

The Japanese infiltration into the floral industry is one of economic penetra- 
tion with all its many ramifications, and indiff'erence to all laws — Federal, State 
and city. This is accomplished with the bland expression "Me, no understand." 
Policing them becomes a problem of personally policing each and every individual. 

We sincerely believe that leaving the Japanese, both American and alien 
born, on the coast during the present emergency would necessitate individual 
policing of every last one of them. Their leaders will tell you, as they told us 
2 years ago, "We will police the Japanese for you." Unfortunately, we admit, 
we were chumps enough to believe that 2 years ago. Today we know better; 
we even have to police the ones who were going to do the policing, and that 
still holds true since Pearl Harbor when, of all times, you would expect them 
to avoid any possibility of difficulties. 

There are a few Japanese who are truly loyal Americans and they have been 
our source of information regarding Japanese activity and sincerity before and 
since Pearl Harbor. We are quoting them when we make the following 
statements, and proof of their expressions may be had if so desired. "Many of 
the Japanese occupying greenhouses have expressed the loyalty of themselves 
and their American-born children to Japan, and the resistance of many others 
to being fifth columnists is being severely strained because of their unsettled 
status and severe drop in business, which is getting worse every day." 

Right in the face of it all we wish to call your attention to the formation of 
the Japanese- American Civic League; it is the same old Japanese trait.. It was 
formed for only one purpose — to protect the Japanese, the same as every other 
Japanese society. The Japanese in this case formed their own group, but did 
anyljody else do it? Is there a German or Italian Civic League? No! If there 
were we would run them out of the country. Our experience has shown us that 
the majority of Japanese, American or alien born, are not American citizens in 
the true sense of the word and we wholeheartedly endorse any program of evacu- 
ation. 

Following the declaration of war we secured from the Federal Reserve Bank 
of San Francisco Bulletin No. 168 and immediately called an emergency meeting 
of the association to explain to the members of the basis upon which they could 
do business with Japanese. 

After careful consideration of the hardships we might expect from the lack 
of certain flowers, the members, as individuals, stated that the future of the 
industry did not depend upon Japanese-grown flowers and many of the members 
have already put this position into practice. Subsequent meetings have brought 
forth these same statements. 

This letter is sent you with the full approval of the entire membership of the 
board of directors, and its entire contents have been carefully considered by them. 



Exhibit 16.— Resolution by Building Service Employees' In- 
ternational Union, Local 6, American Federation of Labor, 
Merwin L. Cole, Business Agent, Relating to Evacuation 
Problems Affecting Enemy Aliens and Citizens of Japanese 
Extraction and Refugees from Axis Countries 

Whereas Local 6 has in its membership approximately 125 persons of Japanese 
extraction, including citizens and noncitizens; and 

Whereas there now exists a serious shortage of service help in hotels and apart- 
ment houses; and ' . ■,, ^ , . 

Whereas this area is distinguished by the large number of small farms operated 
by persons of Japanese extraction, which supply a considerable proportion of 
vegetables and other necessary food for this community; and 

Whereas a great proportion of our local alien and national problem is of our 
own making, because of race prejudice, occupational discrimination, and failure 
to apply in practice the kind of policies which would assimilate people of certain 
nationalities into our economic and social life; and _ . , ., 

Whereas it is mutually the desire of our organization m conjunction with the 
local and national authorities that any measures taken for our protection be done 
wisely and with the aim not to aggravate the problem and not to further agitate 
racial antagonisms; Now, therefore, be it 

60396— 42— pt. 30 21 - 



11612 PORTL.\XD .\XD SEATTLE HEARIXGS 

Resolred, That we make the following suggestions to the Tolan committee now 
conducting hearings in Seattle: 

1. That refugees from Axis countries should be eliminated from the class 
of "enemy" aliens: 

2. That any evacuation should be based on Government responsibility as far 
as possible, to place the evacuees in the tyjje of work now performed, so that their 
families will not be destroyed and those who are innocent victims not embittered; 

3. That any evacuation should be based on immediate use of farm lands, if 
necessary, under Government direction and oi)eration, so that the community will 
not be victimized: and be it further 

Resolved, That we request time for our representative to appear before the 
Tolan committee in order more fully to explain the foregoing. 
Adopted by executive board, February 27. 1942. 



Exhibit 17. — Resolution by Building Service Employees Inter- 
national Union, Local 6, O. J. Falkenberg. Secretary, 
Relating to So-called "Enemy Aliens" Who Are Actually 
Refugees From Hitler Germany and Other Nazi-dominated 
Countries 

Whereas thousands of refugees from Germany and other Xazi-dominated 
countries have been driven from their homeland as declared enemies of Hirer's 
new order; and 

Whereas these refugees have in fact been officially declared as enemies of the 
various Nazi governments and their citizenship canceled: and 

Whereas no people in America today have a greater hatred for the Xazi policies 
and conquest than those exUed from their belief in democratic ideals: Now, 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we ask our delegation in Congress, President Roosevelt, and the 
Attorney General to take the necessary action to designate such refugees in fact 
and by law, who have been deprived of citizenship in their country of origin and 
who have already applied for citizenship here, as "friendly aliens" and therefore 
not subject to evacuation procedure which threatens once more to uproot their 
normal lives and useful occupations. 

Adopted unanimously Februarj' 20, 1942, executive board. 



Exhibit IS. — Resolution by Seattle (Downtown) Kiwanis Club, 

Seattle, Wash. 

Whereas internment of enemy aliens in large numbers for the duration of the war 
has been found necessary as a war measure: and 

Whereas already native-born Japanese in substantial numbers are under arrest 
for crimes committed before December 7 in connection with the nationaJ defense; 
and 

Whereas danger from fifth-column activities is now imminent on the entire 
Pacific slope, a danger which can be eliminated only by removal of all enemy 
aliens and aU Japanese from that area: Xow. therefore, be it 

Resolved by the Seattle {Doivnioicn) Kiicanis Club, That 

1. All enemy aliens and aU Japanese ought forthwith be removed from the 
Pacific slope. 

2. The War Department and aU Representatives and Senators from Wash- 
ington be memorialized to accomplish such removal forthwith. 

3. A copy of this resulution be forwarded to each Kiwanis Club and every other 
service club on the Pacific slope, including British Columbia, with recommenda- 
tion to join immediately in similar action. 

4. The cooperation of the public press be solicited in accomplishing such 
removal at once. 

5. In view of the imminence of attack we believe immediate action is essential. 

6. As innocent American-born Japanese would in many instances be separated 
from their families, it would appear to be best for such Japanese themselves, as 
weU as in the interest of our national defense, that such family units be kept 
intact in said removal. 

(Adopted in regular meeting on Tuesday-, February 24, 1942.) 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11613 

Exhibit 19. — Statement by Mrs. Claude H. Eckart, President, 
Young Women's Christian Association, Seattle, Wash. 

February 27, 1942. 

Understanding the tremendous pressure which you are under at this time, we, 
the board of directors of the Seattle Young Women's Christian Association, would 
like to express our appreciation and confidence in the way in which our Govern- 
ment is handling the whole alien situation. 

Since our constituency is made up of different racial and nationality groups, 
we are concerned with minority members of our membership. In this problem of 
evacuation facing the Government, we hope it maj' be possible to carry it out on 
an individual basis considering each case on its own merit. 

Feeling that the very thing our country is fighting for is the worth and rights of 
the individual, we hope it may be possible to administer the evacuation so as not 
to violate these principles. 



Exhibit 20. — Statement by Terry Pettus, Executive Secretary 
OF the Washington Commonwealth Federation, to the House 
Committee on Interstate Migration, Seattle, Wash. 

The Washington Commonwealth Federation, on behalf of its affiliated labor, 
farm, pension, and political organizations, thanks the House Committee on 
Interstate Migration for this opportunity to present a statement. 

The Washington Commonwealth Federation has long been interested in this and 
related problems. The recent Federal grand jury indictments against Thomas 
Masuda and Kenji Ito, Japanese attorneys of Seattle, reveal that the Japanese 
Imperial Government has, over a long period, regarded the Washington Com- 
monwealth Federation as the center of organized opposition in this State toward 
appeasement of Japan, full support for China, and for a united world front against 
Fascist aggression. 

The Federal indictment charges the defendants with, among other things, the 
Japanese Government's apparent interest in the Washington Commonwealth 
Federation's Februarv 1940 State convention which unanimously protested the 
shipment of scrap iron and oil to Japan — called for an embargo of Japanese 
products, and urged Congress to use whatever means necessary to halt Japanese 
encroachment on the American fishing industry. 

The Government also charges the defendants with acting as Japanese agents 
in reporting the actions of public meetings in Seattle and Tacoma called by the 
Washington Commonwealth Federation, with the support of many public figures, 
to mobilize support for Senator Schwellenbach's resolution calling for an embargo 
on Japan. The defendants are also accused of acting as Japanese agents in 
lobbying at Olympia where the Washington Commonwealth Federation tried 
unsuccessfully, in 1939 and 1941, to obtain the passage of a resolution calling for 
the stopping of shipments of scrap iron and other war materials to Japan. 

The question before vour committee is, "Shall the Japanese, United States as 
well as foreign born, be evacuated from certain restricted areas in the zone of 
military operations on the Pacific coast?" 

Our answer is "yes." 

The steps to be taken, however, must be in accordance with the nature of the 
war. They must be precautionary and not punitive in any degree. ^^ 

This is not, as Axis propagandists allege, a war for "white supremacy. ihis 
is not a "racial" war but rather a struggle of peoples of every color against the 
false theories of "racism" which the slave masters of Berlin, Rome, and lokyo 
have successfully used to divide and confuse their intended victims. 

Unfortunately, there are individuals and groups in this country, associated 
with or following what is called the fifth column and the Cliveden set, who are 
covertly, or openly, opposing our country's war program. Such groups will 
eagerlv seize upon aspects of the Japanese problem to plant in our country seeds 
of division and disunity among us in the hopes of stirring up civil commotion 
among America's millions of native- and foreign-born peoples. Hysterical and 
demagogic demands for punitive action against an entire people will lead us 
directlv into the carefully baited Axis propaganda trap. 

The' Washington Commonwealth Federation respectfully suggests that the 
Japanese people be evacuated as quickly as possible in a humane and orderly 



11614 PORTLAND AND SEATTLE HEARINGS 

manner. The Government should protect them, as far as is possible, from 
economic loss. Certainly, no one should be allowed to take pecuniary advantage 
of this emergency action. 

The Japanese should be resettled in communities where they would be safe 
from vigilante action, and where they could make their livings and continue their 
contribution to our country's war effort. 

The Japanese in the United States are an economic asset. As thousands of 
them are skilled in agriculture, the Washington Commonwealth Federation 
believes that they can and should be involved in the Farm Security Administra- 
tion's Food-for-Victory program. That agency should be asked to settle and 
assist all Japanese wishing to work the land. 

Our treatment of the Japanese, native- and foreign-born— our treatment of 
all of the so-called enemy aliens must be of a nature to give the lie to the 
poisonous "racial" propaganda which the Axis is using to prevent the world 
unity against Fascist aggression and world enslavement. We must show by our 
actions that American democracy, while it takes all necessary precautionary 
steps, treasures the lives and liberties of all its people. 

Toward this task, your honorable committee can make an invaluable con- 
tribution. 

Respectfully, 

Terry Pettus, 
Exemtive Secretary, Washington Commonwealth Federation. 



Exhibit 21. — Information Kelative to the Control of Alien 
Enemies During the World War 

(including the text of the presidential PROCLAMATIONS ISSUED 
pursuant TO THE PROVISION OF THE ALIEN ENEMY ACT (50 STAT. 
21-24) FROM APRIL 6, 1917, THROUGH DECEMBER 23, 1918) 

Prepared by the Special Defense Unit, Department of Justice 

PROCLAMATIONS ISSUED DURING THE WORLD WAR AFFECTING 

ALIEN ENEiMIES 

During the early years of the European War, and prior to the period of the 
United States' participation in the war, our various branches of the Secret Service 
were closely watching the activities of Germans in this country who were seeking 
to interfere with any aid to the British or French. A file of information was built 
up regarding friendly and unfriendly aliens, their contacts and with whom they 
were cooperating, so that in the light of these facts the Attorney General was able 
to recommend to the President that certain restrictions of movement and employ- 
ment be placed u}>on German aliens generally. He recommended, however, that 
onl\' those be interned who were found to be dangerous or a menace to the safety 
of the country. As a result of this preliminary investigation, 63 aliens known to 
be dangerous were put under restraint within 24 hours after the declaration of 
war by virtue of the President's proclamation of April 6, 1917, issued pursuant to 
section 4067 of the Revised Statutes. The text of that proclamation and the 
regulations established thereby for alien enemies follows: 

Proclamation of April 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 1650) 

Whereas the Congress of the LTnited States in the exercise of the constitutional 
authority vested in them have resolved, by joint resolution of the Senate and 
House of Representatives bearing date this day, "That the state of war between 
the United States and the Imperial German Government which has * * * 
been thrust upon the United States is hereby formally declared"; 

Whereas it is provided by section 4067 of the Revised Statutes, as follows: 
"Whenever there is declared a war between the United States and any foreign 
nation or government, or any- invasion or predatory incursion is perpetrated, 
attempted, or threatened against the territory of the United States by any foreign 
nation or government, and the President makes public proclamation of the event, 
all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of the hostile nation or government, 
being males of the age of 14 years and upward, who shall be within the United 



NATIONAL DEFENSE MIGRATION 11615 

States, and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, 
secured, and removed as alien enemies. The President is authorized, in any such 
event, by his proclamation thereof, or other public act, to direct the conduct to be 
observed, on the part of the United States, toward the aliens who become so 
liable; the manner and degree of the restraint to which they shall be subject, and 
in what cases, and upon what security their residence shall be permitted, and to 
provide for the removal of those who, not being permitted to reside within the 
United States, refuse or neglect to depart therefrom; and to establish any other 
regulations which are found necessary in the premises and for the public safety;" 

Whereas, by sections 4068, 4069, and 4070, of the Revised Statutes, further 
provision is made relative to alien enemies; 

Now, therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of the United States of America, 
do hereby proclaim to all whom it may concern that a state of war exists between 
the United States and the Imperial German Government; and I do specially 
direct all officers, civil or military, of the United States that they exercise vigilance 
and zeal in the discharge of the duties incident to such a state of war; and I do, 
moreover, earnestl}^ appeal to all American citizens that they, in loyal devotion to 
their country, dedicated from its foundation to the principles of liberty and 
justice, uphold the laws of the land, and give undivided and willing support to 
those measures which may be adopted by the constitutional authorities in prose- 
cuting the war to a successful issue and in obtaining a secure and just peace; 

And, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitu- 
tion of the United States and the said sections of the Revised Statutes, I do hereby 
further proclaim and direct that the conduct to be observed on the part of the 
United States toward all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of Germany, being 
males of the age of 14 years and upward, who shall be within the United States 
and not actually naturalized, who for the purpose of this proclamation and under 
such sections of the Revised Statutes are termed ''alien enemies," shall be a.s! 
follows: 

All alien enemies are enjoined to preserve the peace toward the United State.? 
and to refrain from actual hostility or giving information, aid, or comfort to the 
enemies of the United States, and to comply strictly with the regulations which are 
hereby or which may be from time to time promulgated by the President; and so 
long as they shall conduct themselves in accordance with law, they shall be undis- 
turbed in the peaceful pursuit of their lives and occupations and be accorded the 
consideration due all peaceful and law-abiding persons, except so far as restric- 
tions may be necessary for their own protection and for the safety of the United 
States; and toward such alien enemies as conduct themselves in accordance with 
law, all citizens of the United States are enjoined to preserve the peace and treat 
them with all such friendliness as may be compatible with loyalty and allegiance 
to the United States. 

And all alien enemies who fail to conduct themselves as so enjoined, in addition 
to all other penalties prescribed by law, shall be liable to restraint, or to give 
security, or to remove and depart from the United States in the manner prescribed 
by sections 4069 and 4070 of the Revised Statutes, and as prescribed in the regula- 
tions duly promulgated by the President. 

And pursuant to the authority vested in me, I hereby declare and establish the 
following regulations, which I find necessary in the premises and for the public 
safety : 

(1) An alien enemy shall not have in his possession, at any time or place, any 
firearm, weapon, or implement of war, or component part thereof, ammuni